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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Recreation planning for mountain resort communities Melville, Lauren Marianne 1988

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RECREATION PLANNING FOR MOUNTAIN RESORT COMMUNITIES by LAUREN MARIANNE MELVILLE B.R.E. , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT -OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1988 (c) Lauren M e l v i l l e , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. S c h o o l o f Community & Department of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT RECREATION PLANNING FOR MOUNTAIN RESORT COMMUNITIES Recreation planners at mountain resort communities must decide what types of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s to provide in order to meet the diverse needs of the community.This thesis attempts to answer th i s question s p e c i f i c a l l y for the Resort Municipality of Whistler. Determinants of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreation are highly psychological. Thus, description of potential c l i e n t groups must rely heavily upon attitudes, perceptions, and behavior. Theories of recreation serve as a useful planning tool helping planners understand peoples' recreation desires. A clear understanding of what people want recreation to accomplish for them i s c r u c i a l when deciding what type of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s to provide. However, as discovered when examining resort communities, i t i s not enough for planners just to take into account functional considerations when planning recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Planners must be aware of the resort's image. People t y p i c a l l y v i s i t a resort community because they id e n t i f y with i t s image. Images are based upon peoples' impressions of the entire resort community, including the f a c i l i t i e s offered and both the natural and b u i l t environment. The challenge for the planner i s to translate peoples' i i i recreation desires into f a c i l t i e s that serve as concrete expressions of the resort's image. This thesis develops as framework to consider such a challenge. This i s achieved by: a review of recreation theory and resort planning l i t e r a t u r e ; review of resort communities similar to Whistler; informal interviews, and by a survey of Whistler property owners administered by the author. There are three main findings. F i r s t , recreation theory i s an invaluable planning tool in helping planners decide what type of recreation f a c i l i t i e s to provide. Second, recreation planners can help create a p a r t i c u l a r type of resort by providing f a c i l i t i e s ; however, the market eventually determines the resort's status. Third, more substantial market research i s required to determine what type of resort the Municipality of Whistler should s t r i v e to become. •iy TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract . i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures . v i i i PART I: THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING 1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction & Background 2 1 . Background 2 1. 1 Scope 5 CHAPTER 2 Recreation Theories 6 1. Origins of Current Recreation Theory 6 2. Behavioural Theory 7 3. Humanistic Theory 14 4. Pragmatist Theory 18 5. Social Psychology Theory 20 6. Recreation Theory 21 7. Economic Theory 26 8. Summary 28 CHAPTER 3 Recreation F a c i l i t i e s in Destination Mountain Resorts 34 1. Resort Communities 35 2. Factors Influencing Recreation 37 2.1 Demographics 37 2.2 Pa r t i c i p a t i o n Trends 40 V 2,3 Four Seasons V i a b i l i t y 43 3. Types of Recreation A c t i v i t i e s 46 4. Basic Recreation F a c i l i t i e s at Mountain Resorts 47 4.1 Ski F a c i l i t i e s 48 4.1.1 Ski Run Characteristics 48 4.1.2 Snow Engineering 53 4.1.3 Lodges 54 4 1.4 Ski L i f t s 54 5. Supplementary Recreation F a c i l i t i e s 55 5.1 Tra d i t i o n a l Winter Sports 55 5.1.1 Importance of Apres Ski 57 5 2 Year Round F a c i l i t i e s 59 5.2.1 Swimming Pool 59 5.2 .2 Beach Access, Playgrounds, T r a i l s and Equestrian 60 6. Summer F a c i l i t i e s 61 6 .1 Golf 61 6.2 Tennis 62 6.3 Grouping of A c t i v i t i e s 63 7 . Summary 63 > CHAPTER 4 Recreation & Tourist Image 64 1. Resort Community 65 2. Natural Resources 66 3. F a c i l i t i e s & A c t i v i t i e s 66 4. Factors Influencing Recreation 67 4.1 Resort Image 68 4 .2 Marketing Mix 74 v i 5. Summary 75 PART I I : CASE STUDY 77 CHAPTER 5 Resort Municipality of Whistler 80 1 . Background 80 2. Resort Community 81 3. Natural Resources 83 3.1 Climate & Snow Conditions 83 3.2 Terrain 83 3.3 Vegetation & Grading 85 4. Factors Influencing Recretion 85 4 1 State of Technology 85 4.2 Ski Programs 86 4 3 Apres Ski A c t i v i t i e s 87 5. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s & A c t i v i t i e s 89 6. Whistler's Image 90 6.1 Perceived Image 92 6.2 Whistler Property Owners' Perceptions 96 7. Summary 100 CHAPTER 6 Implications for Recreation at Whistler 102 1. Types of Resorts 103 1.1 Mountain Resort Attributes 110 1 .2 Whistler's Strengths & Weaknesses 114 1 .3 Opportunities 114 APPENDIX A: Whistler Property Owners' Survey 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY .120 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table I: Summary of Recreation Theories Table I I : Average Standards for Skiers by Category 5 0 Table I I I : R a i n f a l l Levels 9 7 Table IV: Exclusive Resort 1 0 5 Table V: Economy Resort 1 0 7 Table VI: Mixed Resort . 1 0 8 Table VII: Whistler's Attributes H 3 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page a Figure 1: Ski T r a i l Layout Concepts 4-9 Figure 2: Whistler Regional Location 79 Figure 3: Desired Recreational F a c i l i t i e s 95 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Stanley Schibler for a l l his support, help and patience, and to my two supervisors, Brahm Wiesman and Michael Seelig for their assistance and constructive c r i t i c i s m during the preparation of this thesis. X PART I THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING 1 Chapter 1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction and Background 1. Background The Resort Municipality of Whistler is situated 111 km North of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Whistler i s a new resort community with one major resource—recreation. Unlike other B r i t i s h Columbian municipalities, Whistler has the unique status as both a mountain resort and as a community. In most other munic i p a l i t i e s , the provision of recreation f a c i l i t i e s are j u s t i f i e d on the basis of providing direct benefits to the permanent residents. A major problem faced by recreation planners at Whistler i s the confusion between the objectives of t r a d i t i o n a l municipality sponsored l e i s u r e services and the objectives of a destination resort's l e i s u r e services. Whistler's small permanent population's recreational needs are dwarfed by weekend residents, day t o u r i s t s and destination t o u r i s t s . Needs of these four groups are often d i f f e r e n t in nature, require a 2 d i f f e r e n t delivery system. As Whistler grows to maturity, the population w i l l continue to d i v e r s i f y and the need w i l l grow for a more complete and planned recreational infrastructure (Apra, 1975). Presently the Resort Municipality of Whistler i s attempting to develop a high q u a l i t y , exclusive, world class image for Whistler as a four seasons destination resort. The extent to which Whistler can achieve this image i s questionable. In order to determine what type of recreation opportunities to provide in mountain resort communities, as well as to understand the integral role images play in recreation planning for these communities, th i s thesis is organized in the following way: PART ONE: Recreation Theory (1) A review of current recreation planning l i t e r a t u r e in order to determine what recreation i s expected to accomplish. 3 (2) A review of current resort planning l i t e r a t u r e as well as experiences in communities similar to Whistler, in order to determine what factors influence recreation, and what types of recreation opportunities should be developed in destination mountain resort communities. (3) A discussion of the i n t e r r e l a t e d factors that help create a resort's image and influence recreation. PART TWO: Case Study: Resort Muncipality of Whistler (1) A brief h i s t o r i c a l review of the Resort Municipality of Whistler. (2) Description of Whistler's recreation opportunities and image. (3) A discussion of the types of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and associated image, Whistler property owners and v i s i t o r s believe the Resort Municipality of Whistler should have, comparing what i s desired and actually exists at Whistler. 4 (4) Based on recreation theory, recreation proposals are provided on what the Resort Municipality of Whistler needs to accomplish in order to create a p a r t i c u l a r type of resort. 1.1 Scope Due to the size and complexity of the recreation planning f i e l d , this work i s limited to mountain resorts. The discussion does not include f e a s i b i l i t y and financing considerations. In the next chapter, current recreation theories are examined in order to understand what recreation i s expected to accomplish. 5 Chapter 2 CHAPTER TWO Recreation Theories This chapter examines current recreation theory in order to determine why a municipality should provide recreation f a c i l i t i e s . r1 . Origins of Current Recreation Theory Everyone knows the meaning of recreation, but few agree on a d e f i n i t i o n . When people define recreation precisely, the results are l i k e l y to be contradictory and confused. The deceptively simple question of what recreation i s has a variety of c o n f l i c t i n g answers because scholars of d i f f e r e n t orientations have attached psychological, s o c i o l o g i c a l and physiological q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to the word. Most of recreation theory has come from the f i e l d s of psychology and sociology rather than from recreation. With this in mind, Pelegrino (1974) believes the d i f f i c u l t y in developing recreation theory stems from the fact that d i s c i p l i n e s other than recreation are conducting the research. 6 On the other hand, the lack of recreation s p e c i a l i s t s developing theory may be due to the fact that the f i e l d of recreation i s s t i l l in i t s infancy (Bregha, 1980; Shivers, 1981; Hendon, 1981). The views of the following current theorists are examined: behavioral, humanistic, pragmatist, s o c i a l psychology, recreationist and economist. 2. Behavioral Theories The behaviorist approach to studying recreation arose when psychologists began to study individuals' recreation behavior. This approach assumes that human behavior influences the choice of where, how and when people enjoy recreation (Gold, 1980). Behaviorists conceptualize recreation in three basic contexts: time, a c t i v i t y or a state of the mind (Meyersohn, 1958). Although the meanings of the words used to identif y these three contexts overlap, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s useful in determining which aspect of the word i s emphasized in various d e f i n i t i o n s of recreation. 2.1 Time Recreation defined as time, according to Paul Weiss (1965), is the portion of the day not used for exigencies of existence. In other words, Weiss and other theorists prescribing to the discretionary time viewpoint regard recreation in quanitative terms as the antithesis of work. Si m i l a r l y , Degrazia (1961) defines recreation as being interchangeable with the word free time. Recreation becomes an adjective to modify free time. 7 Also, perscribing to the notion that recreation can be defined in terms of time are Eric Larrabee and Rolf Meyersohn (1958) who define recreation as: "the state of having time at one's own disposal; time which he can spend as he pleases; free or unoccupied time." Thus, recreation defined as time, can be understood as the time where people have the opportunity to engage in what they desire. Recreation i s a person's discretionary time. Bucher and Shivers (1984) a r t i c u l a t e their d e f i n i t i o n of recreation by c a r e f u l l y q u a l i f y i n g what "free time" includes. These authors point out how free time can be accummulated. F i r s t l y , free time can be accummulated by economic ownership. Recreation i s available to those whose economic resources can ensure freedom from an obligatory time-consuming occupation. Secondly, technological advances such as labour saving devices in the work place and home, have enabled people to have more recreational time at their disposal ( F r i e d r i c h , 1980). Another accummulation of time results from u n f i l l e d obligations. For example, i f one avoids work obligations or procrastinates, that person w i l l have temporary increased levels of l e i s u r e time. Another source of free time described by Bucher (1984), i s when individuals' a c t i v i t i e s are r e s t r i c t e d through enforced idleness. Retirement also generates recreational time. Recreation defined in terms of time is further developed by Dumazedier (1974) who l i k e Bucher includes an economic element in his d e f i n i t i o n . Dumazedier defines recreation as the time free from productive work as a result of technical progress and 8 s o c i a l action. According to Durnazedier, recreation i s man's pursuit of non-productive a c t i v i t y during or after the period of his productive occupation. 2.2 State of Being Other representatives of the behavioral approach are Neumeyer and Neumeyer (1958). They have d i f f i c u l t y conceptualizing recreation solely as free time. They believe that the l i n e of demarcation between necessities and free time is not r i g i d . There could be disagreements as to whether certain s o c i a l conditions can be considered l e i s u r e . For example, an unemployed person usually has a great deal of leis u r e time. This unobligated time may be spent looking for a job. Time spent this way w i l l most l i k e l y not be considered recreation by most people. S i m i l a r l y , prisoners have considerable amounts of free time at their disposal, which they probably do not consider lei s u r e time. Thus, the personal nature of recreation behavior must be considered in addition to the a v a i l a b l i t y of free time. 9 Berger and Berger (1962), further develop the arguement against recreation being conceptualized s t r i c t l y in terms of time. They believe that recreation defined solely in terms of time belongs in a presociological age, they state: "If sociology has taught us anything , i t has taught us that no time i s free of normative constraints; what work i s for some i s leisure for others" Authors such as Berger and Berger dismiss the notion that recreation should be defined in relationship to time. Rather they define recreation as a state of consciousness or as a state of being as experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l . Recreation i s a state of existence d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from time, for i t can occur regardless of the type of a c t i v i t y in which an individual p a r t i c i p a t e s . Recreation a r t i c u l a t e d by these writers, i s viewed as the epitome of self a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Furthermore, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreation, allows individuals to achieve their own p o t e n t i a l . (Bucher, 1984) Authors such as F i t z g e r a l d (1948) and Nakhooda (1961) define recreation in terms of time while taking into consideration the personal nature of recreation to each in d i v i d u a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , F i t z g e r a l d defines recreation as a state of opportunity which represents time. Furthermore, he adds that recreation represents freedom of choice. 10 Nakhooda offers a d e f i n i t i o n of recreation in layman's terms as: "that part of an individual's d a i l y l i f e in which he finds himself free from the demands of his regular c a l l i n g and able to enter upon any l i n e of a c t i v i t y he may choose within his own interests—whether i t be work, play or meditation." When recreation i s considered as a state of existence, i t serves to provide individuals with personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and se l f f u l f i l l m e n t . Recreation can be epitomized in the concept of the whole person, since p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreational a c t i v i t i e s i s believed to help individuals surmount the s t r e s s f u l obligations of the work place and renew their own uniqueness. F u r t h e r m o r e r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits, provide not only a perspective of what one i s , but also of the person one might become. 2.3 A c t i v i t y In contrast to the theorists explaining recreation behavior in terms of time or as an individuals' state of existence, are those who explain recreation as an a c t i v i t y . These theorists examine the role a c t i v i t y plays in human development. For example, Kaplan (1975) defines recreation as a c t i v i t y which acts as a means to recreate one's self in order to prepare for better work and s o c i a l control. Recreation a c t i v i t y provides the individual with an opportunity to balance the obligations of the work place with a c t i v i t i e s which help create a well-rounded personality. Morever, since the demands of the work place r e s t r i c t and l i m i t the type of l i f e one l i v e s , supplementary a c t i v i t i e s are 11 necessary in order for the individual to develop complimentary modes of behavior which lead to the development of a complete person. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the recreation experience provides individuals with their own sense of uniqueness and i d e n t i t y depending on the a c t i v i t i e s they engage i n . Also, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreation a c t i v i t i e s allows individuals to develop their own meaning of l i f e because during recreation there is time to r e f l e c t upon l i f e without being distracted by the occupations of d a i l y existence. This type of human s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l only occur when some capacity for o b j e c t i v i t y i s present. Individuals must be free to enter or depart from recreation a c t i v i t i e s . As a result, individuals w i l l learn to free themselves from s t r e s s f u l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Recreation becomes the key to keeping l i f e ' s t r i a l s in perspective. To t h i s end recreation provides individuals with an opportunity to have "fun". Although this objective may at f i r s t observation seem quite s i m p l i s t i c , i t is an essential ingredient in stress management. "Fun" a c t i v i t i e s are d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to define, because of individual's personal interpretations of the word. However, there are two essential elements in fun or frivolous a c t i v i t i e s : spontaneity and the a b i l i t y to r e a l i z e that not everything in l i f e i s serious. Thus, some a c t i v i t i e s should be planned s t r i c t l y because of their whimsical nature in order to help people not take themselves too seriously. The International Group of Social S c i e n t i s t s (1960), adopted a defintion of recreation close to Kaplan. They believe that recreation consists of: 12 "A number of occupations in which the individual may indulge on his own free w i l l either to rest; to amuse himself, to add to his knowledge; or improve his s k i l l s or to increase his voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the l i f e of the community, after discharging his professional, family and s o c i a l duties." The behavioralist authors, Driver and Toucher (1974) developed theory based on the individuals' recreation behavior. The purpose of their theory i s to help planners understand people's recreation behavior in order to plan the most desirable recreation f a c i l i t i e s . According to Driver and Toucher there are certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recreation which planners should recognize when planning f a c i l i t i e s . These are: - non-work a c t i v i t y - rejuvenation of s p i r i t s - change from routine - freedom of choice Once planners recognize these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , recreation can be regarded as an experience for the individual which s a t i s f i e s some personal motivation. Also, recreation engagements should be self-rewarding and ends in themselves. Evidence shows that a large proportion of our l i v e s are spent either planning or pursuing or reminising about recreation experiences. Moreover, recreation engagements require the recreationist to make personal and free choices. It i s assumed, however, that individuals are able to par t i c i p a t e in any a c t i v i t y they choose. F i n a l l y , according to Driver and Toucher 1 3 (1979), recreation engagements occur during non-obligated time. On the contary, obligated time i s a block of time during which we are bound by a sense of urgency or importance to continue a given course of action such as work. 3. Humanistic Theory Recreation for the humanist is viewed as an opportune time for developing one's potential and learning about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for human perfection (Bucher, 1984; Nash, 1953). Thus, recreation i s explained by humanists from the viewpoint of the i n d i v i d u a l . For example, Gans (1968) believes that p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreation is necessary for the achievement of good mental health. Furthermore, recreation i s viewed as part of the good l i f e . Humanist philosophy does not prescribe to the concept that l e i s u r e is free and wasteful time and thus can pass without gaining insight or providing opportunity to self actualize. Rather, recreation to the humanist i s a time when people can both maximize and develop their a b i l i t i e s . Therefore, recreation i s the means for both i n t e l l e c t u a l and physical growth which helps an individual move towards a higher degree of self expression and a better understanding of l i f e . 14 The desired e f f e c t of recreation on the individual i s c l e a r l y postulated by Nash (1953): "The aim of recreational experience i s an autonomous and well-rounded person who i s not only an appreciator of the fine and performing ar t s , but a person who has the s k i l l and physical capacity to p a r t i c i p a t e in whatever a c t i v i t i e s are available or designed to invigorate and enhance the person's e f f o r t s in sustaining his l i f e and overcoming the v i s c i s s i t u d e s of circumstances." In the Third US Nationwide Outdoor Recreation Plan (1979), recreation i s also defined in humanistic terms. It i s believed that regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreational a c t i v i t i e s contributes to good mental and physical health. Evidence i s provided in the plan, that there i s a link between physical f i t n e s s , recreation a c t i v i t y and good health. For example, in 1979, cardio-vascular diease decreased one m i l l i o n for the f i r s t time. Furthermore, i t was found that regular exercise p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t s family s t a b i l i t y and helps reduce anxiety. Recognition of t h i s fact provides substantial j u s t i f i c a t i o n for expanding public interest and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in recreation. The humanistic notion of recreation providing personal well-being i s further developed by Gray and Greben (1979): "Recreation-an emotional condition within an individual human being that flows from a feeling of well-being and s a t i s f a c t i o n . It i s characterized by feelings of master, achievement, exhilaration, acceptance, success, personal worth, and pleasure. It reinforces a p o s i t i v e self-image... 11 i s independent of a c t i v i t y , l e i s u r e or s o c i a l acceptance." 15 Similar d e f i n i t i o n s and desirable personal e f f e c t s of recreation to Gray's and Greben's d e f i n i t i o n are used to market the programs of fitness and weight loss centres. The focus i s s t r i c t l y on the physical, s p i r i t u a l and emotional improvement of the i n d i v i d u a l . Pieper (1973) stresses that recreation cannot under any circumstances be defined solely as an a c t i v i t y ; a period of time or a means to an end. Although recreation i s almost always defined in terms of a c t i v i t y , i t would be misleading to over stress physical a c t i v i t y . Recreation can also involve p a s s i v i t y . Thus, recreation should be defined as: "a mental and s p i r i t u a l a t t i t u d e — i t i s not simply the result of spare time, a holiday, a weekend, a vacation. It is an attitude of the mind, a condition of the soul." Pieper's views of what the recreation experience should accomplish are considerably broader than other humanists. The a c t i v i t y must help move a person i n t e l l e c t u a l l y to a state of self a c t u a l i z a t i o n . It is whatever a c t i v i t y an individual becomes s p i r i t u a l l y absorbed i n . A similar d e f i n i t i o n i s provided by Romney (1945) who believes recreation should be defined as a state of existence. "recreation - not a matter of motions—but emotions. It i s a personal response, a psychological reaction, an attitude, an approach, a way of l i f e . " Recreation as an approach and as a way of l i f e was further developed by recreation theorists as the "Leisure Concept" which w i l l be discussed later in this chapter. 16 From the views of the d i f f e r e n t authors i t i s clear that humanistic theory stresses the personal nature of recreation. Furthermore, humanists view recreational a c t i v i t y under the auspices of government, as an instrumentality that i s increasingly concerned with the values for l i f e , producing s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l well-being and implementing action to promote the public good. According to Humanistic theory, public recreation i s t a i l o r e d to encourage an individual's personal growth and help individuals develop their knowledge and s k i l l s directed towards physical and c u l t u r a l experience (Bucher, 1984). The Humanist d e f i n i t i o n of recreation appears to be the same as the Behavioralist state of being d e f i n i t i o n . Both explain recreation not in terms of time, but rather as a state of existence leading to individuals' self a c t u a l i z a t i o n . These theories, however, are not the same. Rather, humanists incorporate state-of-mind theory, along with other more developed ideas into their d e f i n i t i o n of recreation. To the humanist, recreation i s a state-of-the-mind, but i t i s also much more. In addition to rejuvenating people, recreation helps people grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y by moving them to a higher degree of self expression and awareness. It i s the b e l i e f of the Humanist, that recreation serves to help people understand and appreciate l i f e rather than just feeling that they are s p i r t u a l l y involved in an a c t i v i t y . 17 4. Pragmatist Theory This approach to defining recreation orginates in part from the f i e l d of Sociology. Recreation conceptualized in terms of free time, i s the position held by the pragmatists. The pragmatist views the human condition as s o c i a l . Theorists of this approach look at a l l major human a c t i v i t i e s as constructs which have overlapping elements. A l l elements of recreation are found in the work place, family and educational settings (Kaplan, 1975; Dumazedier, 1974). From the view of the pragmatist recreation provides individuals with the opportunity to develop their maximum potential without i n f r i n g i n g upon the rights of others. Recreation i s seen as a time for recuperation. Recreation provides individuals with the opportunity for gathering strength to enhance personal, mental and physical health. As a res u l t , of the constructive use of recreation, benefits accure to the individual and to society as a whole. There i s a therapeutic element which i s an integral component of the pragmatist approach. Recreational a c t i v i t i e s serve as an instrument of control. Inherent in this approach, for example, is the notion that constructive recreation programs help reduce juvenile delinquency. When such a viewpoint i s held, recreation f a c i l i t i e s are considered as a component of so c i a l welfare services. In addition, f a c i l i t i e s are designed that are family-oriented in order to help keep families cohesive. Equally important, recreation should provide compensation for the essential mental and physical elements not 18 found in the workplace. Moreover, the f a c i l i t i e s and programs planned should create opportunities for i n d i v i d u a l s ' personality development and self-expression (Crompton & Howard, 1980). The pragmatists believe that part of the purpose of recreation i s to restore an individual for work; whereas, the humanists believe that the purpose of recreation i s not to recreate individuals but rather to help individuals reach their f u l l p o t e n t i a l . To the humanist, receation i s a state of being detached or isolated from time, a period to be used for contemplation rather than for pragmatic a c t i v i t y . In essence, to the humanist recreation i s an end in i t s e l f and to the pragmatist, recreation i s in some respects a means to an end. Moreover, to the pragmatist, recreation creates benefits not only for the individual as prescribed by the humanists, but also for society as a whole (Bucher, 1984). Part of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the provision of recreation f a c i l i t i e s using t h i s approach, i s the s a t i s f a c t i o n of individuals' desires and the preservation of the long term interests of the community (Crompton & Howard, 1980). For example, should a group want to p a r t i c i p a t e in snow mobiling in an e c o l o g i c a l l y f r a g i l e area then before providing or allowing a service to s a t i s f y these short term desires, recreation planners must decide whether the long term desires of society are l i k e l y to require that such an area should be protected. In order for an a c t i v i t y to be t r u l l y recreation, i t must be engaged in v o l u n t a r i l y , in a democratic environment where each person has an opportunity for self-expression. Pragmatists believe that recreation i s a necessary service which should be 19 provide varied opportunities for individuals' growth in a democratic environment. Individual growth to the pragmatist i s the basic ingredient for public support for recreation. Thus, the public provision of f a c i l i t i e s should provide varied opportunities for a l l c i t i z e n s to parti c i p a t e and develop themselves regardless of their f i n a n c i a l status (Lutzin, 1979). In addition, to the personal growth aspects of recreational experiences, recreation provides individuals with the s o c i a l interaction which they require as s o c i a l beings. As stated by Bucher (1984): "There i s no more democratic structure e x i s t i n g than that of public recreational service with emphasis upon free choice, popular support, and responsiveness to personal needs, interests and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of patrons." 5. Social Psychology Theory Social psychologists examine individuals without considering s o c i a l factors. Rather than studying the effects of recreation on the individual as member of a larger group, the so c i a l psychologist analyzes an individual's recreation behaviour as the individual i s influenced by the prescence of others. Inherent in the s o c i a l psychology approach, the focus is on the individual whose behavior i s influenced by other individuals and the environment during leisure time. The individual's thoughts, attitudes and behavior are examined. 20 Social psychologists believe that individuals choose a c t i v i t i e s based on their personality and past s o c i a l experiences. Such a view of recreation helps recreation planners, understand how people are influenced by their own experiences and others' l e i s u r e behavior. The main objective for recreation according to authors of the s o c i a l psychology approach i s the improvement of human psychological well-being and the q u a l i t y of l i f e which i s the rationale for public provision. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the s o c i a l psychologist argues that recreation should be provided to: a ) s o c i a l i z e the young into mainstream society through play. B) enhance one's work performance by improving work related s k i l l s during l e i s u r e . C) provide s o c i a l entertainment and relaxation. D) help develop and maintain s k i l l s for interpersonal behavior and s o c i a l interaction e)enhance character and personality. F) prevent idleness and a n t i s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . G) develop a sense of community (Iso-Ahola, 1980). To the Social Psychologist, recreation i s viewed as an invaluable way to improve an individual's behavior to the benefit of society. 21 6. Recreation Theory Early recreation theory includes limited d e f i n i t i o n s of recreation confined to a c t i v i t i e s which are considered morally sound or non-debilitating. For example, Hutchinson (1949) defines recreation both as a worthwhile and a s o c i a l l y acceptable experience which provides immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l . As time passed, recreation theorists began to expand their d e f i n i t i o n , and not confine i t to .presumably morally sound a c t i v i t y . These later theorists also did not view recreation in opposition to work. Avedon (1974) statement c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the advancement in r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t theory: "RECREATION-There i s a personal sensation of well-being experienced in the process of a n t i c i p a t i n g , r e c a l l i n g , or engaging in any a c t i v i t y . This sensation of well-being i s a phenomenon in which physical, b i o l o g i c a l and psychological and s o c i a l components are integrated to form a functional unit. This functional unit has properties which are not derivable from i t s component parts." Like other later recreation authors, Avedon blends the works of the psychological, and s o c i o l o g i c a l theories in order to create one a l l encompassing theory. The d e f i n i t i o n s of recreation prescribed by recreation s p e c i a l i s t s incorporates a l l notions of recreation as free time, as an a c t i v i t y and as a state of being. Gold's (1980) d e f i n i t i o n of recreation c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the integration of time, a c t i v i t y and state of being into one d e f i n i t i o n : 22 "Recreation- any lei s u r e time a c t i v i t y which i s pursued for i t s own sake, or what happens to a person as a result of a recreational experience. (It) i s what happens to people in terms of image, achievement or s a t i s f a c t i o n and can occur at any time and in many places." Based on his broad d e f i n i t i o n , Gold attempts to j u s t i f y the provision of recreation f a c i l i t i e s as a way to beautify or renew c i t i e s in order to make them a more desirable place to l i v e . A more sophisticated and informative d e f i n i t i o n of recreation i s developed by Chikzent (1975). He also defines recreation in terms of a c t i v i t y , period of time, and a state of being. However, he more c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e s the state of being concept of the d e f i n i t i o n . Chikzent adds to the d e f i n i t i o n the notion of the "peak experience". The peak experience i s what happens when one's s k i l l s are challenged while p a r t i c i p a t i n g in an a c t i v i t y . The individual concentrates only on the a c t i v i t y at hand, and as a result enters into a dream state. It is held by Chikzent that true recreation only occurs when a person is in a peak state. The individual must feel t o t a l l y consumed in an a c t i v i t y . When the situation i s no longer challenging or exceeds the s k i l l l e v e l of the in d i v i d u a l , the individual i s no longer enjoying recreation. A serious drawback of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s that people can experience strong feelings of involvement in unpleasant situations which they would undoubtly not c a l l recreation. Also, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n does not take into account a c t i v i t i e s that people may engage in while they are thinking about work rather than the a c t i v i t i e s at hand. For example, the corporate jogger may be thinking about the o f f i c e 23 while jogging. The jogger and a great deal of other people would s t i l l consider t h i s a c t i v i t y to be recreational in spite of what the jogger i s thinking about. A s l i g h t l y more comprehensive and popular d e f i n i t i o n of recreation i s the "Leisure Concept." This concept i s the product of synthesizing psychological and s o c i o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of recreation. It can be viewed as both an attitude and as a way of l i v i n g . Authors holding to the Leisure Concept believe that individuals should enjoy l i f e . People should work hard, but they should also provide themselves with a healthy balance between work and recreation. Thus, time should be allocated for enjoying a c t i v i t i e s . The underlying philosophy of the Leisure Concept is not necessarily freedom from work, but rather for individuals to balance their work time with leisure time (Shivers, 1981). The theorists of the Leisure Concept approach, also known as the H o l i s t i c Approach, hold that the elements of l e i s u r e are pervasive in a l l l i f e ' s a c t i v i t i e s . This suggests that work and leisure are inextricably i n t e r r e l a t e d . According to Howard and Crompton (1980) when one plans for recreational f a c i l i t i e s , while adopting the h o l i s t i c viewpoint the following provision philosophy would be adopted: "Integrated le i s u r e delivery services with other l i f e sectors. The quest should be to f i n d ways of enriching each and every area of l i f e experience rather than creating separate times, places and a c t i v i t i e s in which to enjoy them. In t h i s context, the recreation and park agency becomes a broker of ways and means to enrich the qua l i t y of l i f e by i n j e c t i n g provision of park and recreation services into separate areas of l i v i n g , moving away from the t r a d i t i o n a l come and get i t r o l e . " 24 The provision of recreation can be j u s t i f i e d as a means to help people r e a l i z e their f u l l potential and self actualize (Kraus, 1977; Welskopf, 1975; Kraus, 1982). The idea of improving the quality of l i f e and helping people develop more balanced l i f e styles as the l e i s u r e concept suggests i s the d e f i n i t i o n adopted for dealing with stress management. Recreation is described as a means for people to supplement and balance the hours of stress and extensive labour of their l i v e s with a c t i v i t i e s that bring relaxation and rejuvenation (Shivers, 1981). The Leisure Concept i s the rationale adopted at several Canadian swimming pool complexes. At some public pools, water sl i d e s have been i n s t a l l e d in order to add more enjoyment for swimmers. The underlying assumption i s that the pool should be a place for exercise as well as a place to have fun. The Royal L i f e Saving Society of Canada teachs l i f e guards the Leisure Concept philosophy in their t r a i n i n g programs. They are trained to help patrons enjoy a safe environment as well as enjoy themselves (Moon, 1988). Other theorists from the f i e l d of recreation attempt to j u s t i f y public funding for recreation based on e t h i c a l rationales. For example, Johnston and Rooney (1964) argue that recreation can only be j u s t i f i e d on the basis of some indire c t type of benefits for those who do not d i r e c t l y subscribe to the service. They j u s t i f y the provision of f a c i l i t i e s , similar to the Pragmatist, on the basis of recreation providing indi r e c t benefits which help achieve s o c i a l goals. Community recreation authors frequently express the 25 importance of regarding recreation as a service rather than as a physical entity (Rooney, 1964; Johnston, 1969; Shivers, 1981; Jubenville, 1976; Kraus, 1977; Gans, 1968). Thus, recreation is thought of as a s o c i a l service, in which programs are designed to meet human growth needs and also help foster s o c i a l well being in communities. At the community l e v e l , recreation i s frequently held to be any form of a c t i v i t y or experience that an individual engages in freely for the sake of personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and enjoyment. As A re s u l t , of individual's s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t i s held that the quality of l i f e increases and society i s improved (Rooney, 1964). 7. Economic Theory Up to th i s point, a l l the theories examined describe recreation in terms of the s o c i a l benefits directed towards the in d i v i d u a l . To the economist, recreation i s treated as a product on the market. Development of f a c i l i t i e s occurs when potential revenues exceeds potential costs. Social goals for recreation are either not considered or are translated into monetary terms. The purpose of recreation becomes two f o l d : at the individual l e v e l , to provide income for the developer; and at the community l e v e l to increase wealth. The r e a l i z a t i o n of the monetary value of recreation has been enhanced by increased national wealth. Many le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s require materials and services that cannot be had without • spending money. 26 Expenditures on recreation by private business and non-profit organizations indicate the importance of recreation as an investment, creating employment and stimulating economic growth. There are a m u l t i p l i c t y of linkages in the economy caused by recreation (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977; Kelly, 1985). For example, a d i r e c t effect of the recreation a c t i v i t y of horse back riding is the purchase of equipment, clothing and lessons. An indir e c t e f f e c t i s the purchase of a horse t r a i l e r to transport the horse. A spin-off e f f e c t would be the purchase of asphalt used to bu i l d the highways (Smart, 1981). V i r t u a l l y every industry and service that contributes to the GNP, also contributes in some way to le i s u r e and to leis u r e expeditures (Bucher, 1984). Employment opportunities, in the North American recreation service sector have grown at a rate faster than jobs in a l l industries (Third US Nationwide Outdoor Recreation Plan, 1979). Another economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n for spending on recreation i s tourism. Recreation f a c i l i t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y in resort communities cause an influx of external money into l o c a l economies that has a s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t . For example, a t o u r i s t may purchase tennis equipment, hotel accommodation or court fees. The tennis manager w i l l retain some of the earnings and spend some of the earnings on wages, inventory and imports. Money spent on imports is considered a leakage, because i t leaves the l o c a l economy (Hawkins, 1987). Tourist expeditures on goods and services generates new incomes which produce more expeditures in the l o c a l economy. An estimated $250 B i l l i o n was spent in North America in 1982 on 27 d i r e c t l e i s u r e expeditures; not including i n d i r e c t or s p i l l o v e r amounts. The boundaries between tourism and l o c a l recreation are somewhat i n d i s t i n c t . There i s both sharing and competition for the same f a c i l i t i e s and open space. Tourism l i k e recreation i s not an essential a c t i v i t y . Both recreation and tourism are dependent on changing economic situations, fashions, t r a d i t i o n s , education, government p o l i c i e s and promotional a c t i v i t i e s . Many f a c i l i t i e s related to tourism and recreation are interchangeable. Thus, the development of recreation f a c i l i t i e s for t o u r i s t s has the potential to create employment opportunities, increase incomes, and encourage foreign exchange ( P h i l l i p s , 1986). A f i n a l economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the provision of recreation f a c i l i t i e s i s the benefits both t o u r i s t s and l o c a l residents receive from the accompanying development of infrastructure and services. Social and recreational services provided for t o u r i s t s could possibly be used by the l o c a l population who would not otherwise be able to j u s t i f y the provision of higher order f a c i l i t i e s . 28 8. Summary Humanistic theory i s focused s t r i c t l y on the effects of recreation upon the i n d i v i d u a l . Recreation i s seen as an end in i t s e l f , i s necessary for the achievement of good mental and physical health which leads to self a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The humanists provide a s p i r i t u a l and e l i t i s t d e f i n i t i o n . They j u s t i f y the provision of recreation on the basis that recreation opportunities should be provided in order to enable individuals to grow and develop their knowledge and s k i l l s . It is held by the humanist that s a t i s f y i n g l e i s u r e behavior i s part of a good l i f e and that good recreation f a c i l i t i e s makes leis u r e more sa t i s f y i n g leading to superior mental and physical health. Although the humanist d e f i n i t i o n of recreation i s s i m p l i s t i c , and focused on the i n d i v i d u a l , as opposed to the community, i t i s c r u c i a l for recreation planners to understand what recreation can accomplish for the i n d i v i d u a l . Humanists prescribe that planners should provide individuals with an environment conducive to self a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The works of the b e h a v i o r i a l i s t s on the other hand help recreation planners understand aspects of recreational behavior. Behavioral theories are e s p e c i a l l y useful for planners when planning s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s . Behavioral theories help planners understand the recreational needs of people as stated by Jubenville (1976): " The d i f f i c u l t y with past planning e f f o r t s has been ... The lack of understanding of leisure needs, or the lack of professional preparation to develop services to meet these needs." 29 Social psychologists study the effects of recreation on the individual based on their personality and past s o c i a l experiences. Such theories help planners learn how people are affected by the i r own experiences and others' behavior. Their main interest i s in the improvement of human psychological well-being and quality of l i f e . Recreation i s viewed as an invaluable way to improve individual's behavior which w i l l then benefit society. The pragmatist studies the effects of recreation on the individual in re l a t i o n to the larger group. Recreation i s j u s t i f i e d as a s o c i a l service wich should be made available to a l l people regardless of their f i n a n c i a l status in order to provide opportunities for personal development. Constructive recreation is f e l t to benefit society as a whole. The r e c r e a t i o n i s t s tend to synthesize the psychological, s o c i o l o g i c a l and humanist theories. The le i s u r e concept is one of the theories originated by the recreation s p e c i a l i s t s . It i s held by the authors of the leisure concept that work and leis u r e are inextricably i n t e r r e l a t e d . Moreover, individuals should p a r t i c i p a t e in recreational a c t i v i t i e s frequently in order to manage stress. For the economists, recreation f a c i l i t i e s are j u s t i f i e d in terms of tourism and increasing the GNP; providing employment opportunities; f a c i l i t a t i n g l o c a l economic growth; and increasing l o c a l incomes by the mu l t i p l i e r e f f e c t . The theories examined in t h i s chapter provide several complementary and frequently contradicting d e f i n i t i o n s of recreation. Recreation has been viewed as the antithesis of work (discretionary time); a healthy condition of the body and 30 soul (state of the mind); a means for c r e a t i v i t y and personality development ( a c t i v i t y ) ; a way to strengthen communities, and as a means to pursue enjoyment and s p i r i t u a l happiness. Inherent in a l l of these d e f i n i t i o n s are the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recreation: - involves a c t i v i t y (physical,mental,emotional) - has many forms - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary - i s an enjoyable experience (Sessons, 1984). One of the major problems of j u s t i f y i n g the public provision of recreation based on these theories are the broad d e f i n i t i o n s that do not state precisely what recreation i s . There i s a confusion in the d e f i n i t i o n s as to whether recreation i s primarily determined by the participants' attitudes towards the a c t i v i t y ; the nature of the a c t i v i t y , or the participants' psychological state during the a c t i v i t y . As a result of t h i s confusion, recreation, has been advanced as everything from an universal panacea to mere sports and games or physical education and art (Welskopt, 1975). Taken as a whole, the theories of recreation examined in t h i s chapter provide useful information concerning peoples' perceptions of recreation. It is c r u c i a l for planners to understand what a p a r t i c u l a r group wants recreation to accomplish for them. People pa r t i c i p a t e in recreational a c t i v i t i e s for a variety of reasons. For example, one person may consider recreation as a means to meet people. Such a person w i l l want to p a r t i c i p a t e in a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l enable 31 s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Social psychology theory, can help planners create spaces which are conducive to s o c i a l i z i n g . On the other hand, an individual may desire i n d i v i d u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g a c t i v i t i e s . An understanding of humanistic theory, would help planners provide f a c i l i t i e s for such a person. An awareness of the d i f f e r e n t purposes of recreation can help planners accurately develop f a c i l i t i e s that match peoples' desires, rather than creating f a c i l i t i e s that are underutilized. Table I includes a summary of what the various theorists postulate the purpose of recreation. It also s p e c i f i e s whether a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n of recreation i s intended to benefit the individual or the community. Such a table i s useful, in helping planners develop goals for f a c i l i t i e s . 32 TABLE I Theory Humanistic end in i t s e l f (psychology orgin) Summary of Recreation Theories  Level Purpose individual Required for individuals to help them grow and develop their knowledge & S k i l l s ( i n t e l l e c t u a l & physical) Creates positive self images and self expression Promotes good Physical & mental health Helps people appreciate and understand l i f e Provides a means for self a c t u a l i z a t i o n and human perfection Pragmatist means to an (soc iology orgin) end individual as a community member * Necessary s o c i a l service which should be provided in order to provide individuals, regardless of f i n a n c i a l status with the opportunity to democratic environment * Develops individual potential * Provides necessary s o c i a l interaction * Theurapetic s o c i a l control function * Provides recuperation Soc i a l Psychology individual recreation behavior as a function of relations with other individuals (psychology) individual Recreation i s an invaluable way to improve individuals' behavior which w i l l help benefit society. Improves psychological well being and the quality of l i f e for the community. 33 Theory Level Purpose Behavioralist time,activity & state of being (psychology) individual To help individuals develop their f u l l e s t potentials & lead well rounded l i v e s in the community Socializes the young Provides enjoyment Strengthens community Recreationi st (psychology, sociology, philosophy) Economist p r o f i t oriented (economics) Individual and to a lessor degree the community individual and community community * To help individuals develop their f u l l e s t potentials and lead well rounded l i v e s * Recreation should should be funded l i k e other s o c i a l programs even though not everyone uses the f a c i l i t i e s . * Promotes good mental & physical health * Good for stress management. * Increase employment opportunities * Provides higher quality f a c i l i t i e s to areas which could otherwise not j u s t i f y their development * increase GNP * increase l o c a l incomes * increase l o c a l development * increase real estate values 34 Chapter 3 CHAPTER THREE Recreation F a c i l i t i e s in Mountain Resort Communities The purpose of thi s chapter i s to discuss the factors that influence recreation p a r t i c i p a t i o n as well as to determine what types of recreation f a c i l i t i e s are most frequently found at mountain resorts. The chapter begins with a d e f i n i t i o n of resort communities, followed by a discussion of mountain resort v i s i t o r s ' demographics and p a r t i c i p a t i o n trends. Since Whistler is attempting to become a four seasons destination resort, a description of the types of seasonal recreation opportunities offered at the various mountain resorts i s included. The last part of the chapter contains a description of the state-of-the-art ski f a c i l i t i e s and recreation opportunities that are found at mountain resorts. 35 1. RESORT COMMUNITIES Recreation or resort communities can be v i s u a l i z e d as anything from romantic hideaways in deserted destinations to rec r e a t i o n a l vehicle parks with a r t i f i c i a l and p l a s t i c flamingos in Los Vegas. Resorts can be further c l a s s i f i e d based on elements such as recreation opportunities, scale, amenities provided, intended user groups and ownership. (ASPO, 1976; Barclay, 1979; Smart, 1981). For the purposes of t h i s thesis, resorts and recreation communities defined as those places where destination lodging i s av a i l a b l e for purchase or rental and on-s i t e recreation a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t as a major component of the community's economic base. Resorts are l o c a l i t i e s where tourism plays a major role and where the percentage of t o u r i s t beds to inhabitants of the l o c a l i t y i s very high (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). Although a resort i s e s s e n t i a l l y a place developed for the sojourn of t o u r i s t s (destination, day, weekend) providing them with multiple f a c i l i t i e s for accommodation and f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e needs, a resort community i s also t y p i c a l l y the home for permanent residents and transient workers. The concentration of f a c i l i t i e s , gives the resort i t s i d e n t i t y and character. As a r e s u l t , recreation communities and resorts become a place to go and enjoy in t h e i r own r i g h t . Although most of the recently developed mountain resorts are ski resorts, the term mountain resort i s preferred to ski or winter resort because i t does not minimize the importance of the summer season. Mountain resort communities have enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, r e s u l t i n g in an increased 36 demand for recreation f a c i l i t i e s (Herrington, 1967; Smart, 1981; USDA Forest Services, 1979). In order to meet demand, recreation planners must decide exactly what f a c i l i t i e s to provide based on the purpose of recreation. Moreover, i t i s the q u a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y of the s p e c i f i c recreation f a c i l i t i e s provided which help e s t a b l i s h a resort community's image ( L i t t l e , 1967). If the f a c i l i t i e s in the resort community are not well planned, the resort can become overdeveloped and experience the accompanying urban problems of t r a f f i c congestion, noise, p o l l u t i o n , and crowding. Without c a r e f u l planning, the natural resources of the area become eroded, and the o r i g i n a l concept changes to focus on short-term gains and p r o f i t a b i l i t y . Most of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in resort areas a r i s e from inadequate organization and d e f i c i e n c i e s in planning. A misunderstanding of the re a l motivations underlying development and maladministration in the planning process are the leading causes of resort f a i l u r e s . Since an element of speculation i s in most cases unadvoidable in resort communities, recreation planners must concentrate on the long-term objectives of the community in order to create a well planned, integrated resort (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). In order to achieve t h i s , s t r i c t standards and controls must be enforced. 37 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING RECREATION Recreation planners must decide who they are trying to serve. Demographics can help planners divide people into c l i e n t groups. C l i e n t groups can be defined as groups of people who have similar demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and share similar recreation preferences. The following section provides a description of v i s i t o r s ' demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at several mountain resorts. 2f1 Demographics Not everyone who v i s i t s or resides in a mountain resort community i s a skier. However, 80 per cent of the v i s i t o r s to a resort community have at least one member in their family or group that s k i s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Tourism & Recreation, 1986) Skiers tend to be young and originate from an urban background. Nearly 70 per cent of United State's 20 m i l l i o n skiers are under age 30. ( P h i l l i p s , Patrick, 1986) In a survey conducted of skiers at V a i l in 1976, 9.7 per cent were under 19 years old; 38.7 per cent were between the ages of 19 to 29, and 28.8 per cent were between 30-39 years of age. In sum, 77.2 per cent of the respondents were under 40 years old, and only 6.5 per cent were over 50 years of age. (Goeldner & Fellhauer & Kates, 1976) 38 S i m i l a r l y , in a survey conducted for Belleayre Mountain in New York State, the majority of the skiers were between 25 and 49 years of age. In a survey conducted at Breckenridge resort, 58.8 per cent of the skiers were under 30 years of age. (Marchi & Stanford, 1983) Based on these data, the ski industry depends heavily on the teenage and young adult populations. (Jubenville, 1976; Goeldner & Fellhauer & Kates, 1976; Marchi t Stanford, 1983) Since most of the skiers are young, a great deal of them are unmarried. In addition to the fact that skiers are young, most skiers are also male. At V a i l , male skiers out-numbered female skiers two to one. Sim i l a r l y , at Breckenridge 67.9 per cent of the skiers are male (Jubenville, 1976; BC Ministry of Tourism, 1986; Marchi & Stanford, 1983). As would be expected, skiers are more affluent than the population as a whole ( P h i l l i p s , Patrick, 1986). In the V a i l Survey, over 60 per cent of the respondents were college graduates and 84 per cent have completed some college. Also, 12.5 per cent of the respondents have advanced degrees. In a study conducted which compared the education l e v e l s of the Aspen, V a i l and Breckenridge skiers, the Aspen skier was the most educated, since 22.8 per cent indicated that they had advanced degrees. (Goeldner & Fellhauer & Kates, 1976 ) In terms of income, skiers tend to f a l l in the middle to higher'income ranges. In 1980, s k i i e r s were twice as l i k e l y as the average American to report incomes over $25,000. ( P h i l l i p s , 1986 & Smart, 1981). In a survey at Aspen, almost half of the skiers had incomes over $25,000. 39 In regard to occupation, skiers either tend to be professionals with higher l e v e l s of education (Goeldner, Fellhauer, Kates, 1976) or they tend to be the children of professional families. Generally, blue c o l l a r workers do not s k i . This tendency often does not s t r i c t l y r e f l e c t cost, but i s due to the v a r i a t i o n in le i s u r e preferences of blue and white c o l l a r workers (Jubenville, 1976). The V a i l skier tends to come from the executive/manager and buyer/sales categories. Whereas, Aspen skiers tend to be professionals (Goeldner & Fellhauer & Kates, 1976). As opposed to alpine skiers, cross-country skiers to be s l i g h t l y older. The average age for a cross-country skier i s 32.6 years. Also, on average there is equal representation of males and females participants in cross-country skiing (Ski Industries America (SIA), 1984). Over the l a s t ten years, the popularity of cross country skiing has grown rapidly. The sport's rapid growth may in part be due to North America's aging population, since the cross country participants are usually s l i g h t l y older than alpine skiers, i t follows that with an aging population, more people are going to cross country s k i . Also, cross country skiing does not require skiers to purchase expensive l i f t t i c k e t s as does alpine skiing (Anderson, V i r g i l , 1988). Another important demographic consideration in planning recreation f a c i l i t i e s are the skiers' a b i l i t i e s . Skiers are usually c l a s s i f i e d into three categories: beginner, intermediate and advanced. Some recreation planners add low intermediate or novice and expert to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The categories are not 40 r i g i d . An intermediate skier in one country may be c l a s s i f i e d as a beginner in other countries. Also, a person who was c l a s s i f i e d as an advanced skier 15 years ago, may be now considered as an intermediate skier due to the state-of-the-art t r a i n i n g methods and equipment. Most of the mountain resorts provide d i v e r s i f i e d f a c i l i t i e s for a l l categories of skiers depending upon the image they want to create. For example, resorts which want to cater to families w i l l offer mainly beginner and intermediate runs (Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, 1987; Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). Whereas, at V a i l 32.5 per cent of the skiers are in the expert or advanced categories. S i m i l a r l y , at Belleayre, 60 per cent of the skiers are advanced. Both of these mountains provide a large proportion of their runs for advanced skiers (Marchi & Stanford, 1983; Goeldner & Fellhauer & Kates, 1976). In general, however, the beginner and intermediate skiers out number the expert and advanced skiers (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). 2.2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Trends Over the l a s t 25 years, there has been considerable changes in p a r t i c i p a t i o n trends in destination resort areas. There has been a change from passive sight seeing a c t i v i t i e s to those which provide personal experiences to individuals. V i s i t o r s want more contact with nature. A c t i v i t i e s are desired where t o u r i s t s can actually experience their surroundings. It i s not enough for t o u r i s t s just to look at a lake. Today's destination 41 t o u r i s t s want to swim in i t . There has also been a s h i f t from t r a d i t i o n a l general packages to packaging for specialized i n t e r e s t s . V i s i t o r s are interested in learning about the c u l t u r a l setting of an area, rather than just skiing. Resort v i s i t o r s of today, want to enjoy their vacation not only as a ski t r i p , but as a t o t a l experience which o f f e r s a change of environment. V i s i t o r s want resorts that have their own special ambiance and sense of place. Thus, the success of the whole ski experience depends on the presence or absence of restaurants, shops, recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , and night l i f e . Skiing i s not the only factor, rather the apres ski aspect and character of the resort play an important role in the p a r t i c i p a t i o n decision. Today's skiers w i l l pay more than skiers of the past, but they want quality and personalized services. Resort v i s i t o r s today, are making more short, frequent t r i p s as opposed to long infrequent t r i p s of the past. A destination resort must have i t s own special character and charm which i s reflected in i t s entire b u i l t environment (Smart, 1981; Kent, 1986; P h i l l i p s , 1986; ULI, 1985; Berstein, 1988). There i s also considerable interest expressed in fitness and health-related a c t i v i t i e s as part of the wellness movement. As a result of this trend, there i s a desire for increasingly sophisticated indoor and outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s at resorts. As a rule individuals with higher education and socio-economic status w i l l engage in more recreational pursuits. It is important to keep th i s trend in mind when planning f a c i l i t i e s (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). It i s not enough to provide 42 standard f a c i l i t i e s in such a competitive market, since skiers want quality and personal services. Equally important, there i s a trend towards in d i v i d u a l , non-competitive a c t i v i t i e s . There also appears to be a trend towards recreation consumers wanting to improve themselves through s o c i a l and personal recreation experiences. For example, at Snowbird in Colorado, a hotel-spa has been developed where skiers can enjoy highly specialized services. The spa i s equiped with exercise equipment, saunas, whirl pools, diet menus and complete esthetics services. The spa overlooks the tram. Snowbird has d i v e r s i f i e d their product, in order to enable v i s i t o r s to enjoy a ski vacation but also improve themselves physically and mentally (Marshall, 1987). Another example of the desire for highly personalized products that emphasizes quality and service, i s re f l e c t e d at Mammoth Mountain, C a l i f o r n i a where the goal of the ski programs is for the v i s i t o r s to achieve personal excellence. A l l ski classes are filmed, and coaching i s provided only on an individual basis (Berstein, 1987). This trend based on humanistic theory, has lead people to seek their own personally desirable experiences which e n t a i l s a c t i v i t y that enhances personal s k i l l s and provides educational benefits. Thus, ski programs are both taught and' marketed as a way for individuals to s e l f a c t u a l i z e . Not a l l resort community v i s i t o r s want to self actualize by improving their skiing a b i l i t y or physical health at spas, rather some people want to improve themselves i n t e l l e c t u a l l y in a resort s e t t i n g . It i s for t h i s reason that Aspen offers computer courses and hosts conferences. According to Smart 43 (1981), there w i l l need to be more educational opportunities available for v i s i t o r s in the future at mountain resorts. 2_.3 Four Seasons V i a b i l i t y The summer season i s of c r i t i c a l importance in determining the f e a s i b i l i t y of a mountain resort. When planning for a ski resort, one should consider as many summer recreation a c t i v i t i e s as winter recreation a c t i v i t i e s (Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). Increasingly exorbitant development costs are making i t essential to create four seasons resorts as opposed to single season resorts. The length of the t o u r i s t season is a c r u c i a l factor which in part determines the economic v i a b i l i t y of a mountain resort. The resort dependent on a single season experiences d i f f i c u l t i e s in serving the debt burden stemming from the construction of to u r i s t accommodation, infrastructure and recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Furthermore, high capacity sewage treatment, water supply and recreational f a c i l i t i e s designed to meet peak season demand remain an under u t i l i z e d burden for the rest of the year (Barker, 1982). Many new f a c i l i t i e s are not b u i l t unless they can be used a l l year round or have dual seasonal uses. Seasonal effects can be reduced by providing a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s which in turn draws on di f f e r e n t market segments and thus expands f a c i l i t y use. The development of diverse recreational opportunities in an variety of settings i s , therefore essential to the success of a four seasons resort 44 (Smart, 1981). Resort communities once planned around a s p e c i f i c seasonal recreational a c t i v i t y such as skiing and other winter-related a c t i v i t i e s are today more l i k e l y to supplement these recreation opportunities by providing off-season a t t r a c t i o n s such as walking, hiking, equestrian and cy c l i n g t r a i l s , summer arts and music i n s t i t u t e s , tennis, golf, swimming pools and beach access, and specialty shopping opportunities (Strain, 1985). Snowbird, Utah, o r g i n a l l y planned as a winter resort has now added a summer arts i n s t i t u t e and an outdoor concert series. While Aspen, Colorado a place synonymous with sk i i n g , now offers summer music and dance programs and also hosts a design conference. Sun Valley, Idaho has added go l f , tennis and equestrian opportunities to i t s recreation base. S i m i l a r l y V a i l , Colorado has added jeep r i d i n g over barren ski runs; hot a i r ballooning; equestrian a c t i v i t i e s ; boating and fi s h i n g ; 40 public tennis courts and 5 major golf courses in order to increase i t s seasonal usage (Butler & Roberts, 1982). While Canadian Mountain Holidays, a winter helicopter skiing resort now offers summer h e l i - h i k i n g where v i s i t o r s are flown to mountain tops to hike and enjoy otherwise inaccessible alpine environments (Zeuhlke, 1987-88). The challenge faced by recreation planners and marketing s p e c i a l i s t s to develop t r a d i t i o n a l winter mountain resorts into four seasons resorts remains. The popularity of the summer recreation opportunities at mountain resorts i s increasing. In fact, mountain resorts located at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, experience 60 per cent of their v i s i t o r s during the summer season. The 45 picturesque surroundings and diverse range of aquatic related recreation opportunities at Lake Tahoe, cause an influx of t o u r i s t s to the region. However, the l o c a l job picture at Lake Tahoe shows a strong pattern of seasonality. Tahoe i s fortunate in being a two season location, with a strong summer season complemented by a winter ski season. The gaps between these two peaks are substantial. The cost i s evident by the increase in unemployment payments in the out~of-season periods (Urban Land Institute, 1985). Presently, recreation planners are investigating ways to attract t o u r i s t s to the Spring season at Lake Tahoe (Tahoe Regional Planning agency, 1986). The staging of annual community events, i s one method to encourage people to v i s i t mountain resort communities in shoulder seasons. For example, at Lake Tahoe, a triatholon i s staged every F a l l . During t h i s time, the weather i s r e l a t i v e l y warm, and the area i s not too crowded to accommodate the t r i a t h l e t e s and their spectators. According to Andrew Strain, planner at Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, a t h l e t i c events must be held annually to act as a drawing card for v i s i t o r s in the shoulder seasons. (Strain, 1988). A t h l e t i c c l i n i c s , such as those held at Aspen, Colorado and Squaw Valley, C a l i f o r n i a also attract people in the shoulder seasons. Moreover, sporting events or f a c i l i t i e s with c e l e b r i t y or corporate sponsors add additional market appeal. Events or f a c i l i t i e s with corporate or c e l e b r i t y sponsers create a certain amount of prestige and c r e d i b i l i t y for the resort. 46 3. Types of Recreation A c t i v i t i e s According to Gold (1980), the diverse range of recreation opportunities can be categorized in a way that acknowledges the concepts of q u a l i t y and can be used for the planning and management of recreation f a c i l i t i e s . To t h i s end, recreation a c t i v i t i e s are separated into categories based on peoples' expected experiences; perceived s a t i s f a c t i o n s and on the basis of available resources. The relationships between the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s (multiple uses), environmental impacts (carrying c a p a c i t i e s ) , space requirements (standards), and support elements (management) should be i d e n t i f i e d as part of the categorization process. Generally, a c t i v i t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d into four categories of recreation experience which are: (1) Physical recreation whereby physical a c t i v i t y i s required for the major experience of the a c t i v i t y . (2) Social recreation, which requires s o c i a l interaction as the major experience of the a c t i v i t y . (3) Cognitive recreation consists of c u l t u r a l , educational, and creative or aesthetic a c t i v i t i e s . (4) Environment-related recreation which uses natural resources (lakes and mountains) as a setting or focus of a c t i v i t y . Each of these categories consists of a c t i v i t y clusters which represent similar types of a c t i v i t i e s . The broad relationships between categories can be used as a behavioral basis for planning or managing recreation f a c i l i t i e s . These four categories can help recreation planners determine what 47 types of recreation f a c i l i t i e s to provide, and also how much recreation to provide. For example i f i t i s intended in humanistic terms that the purpose of recreation i s to maintain a healthy body, then a c t i v i t i e s f a l l i n g into the physical a c t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be developed. However, i t i s important to note that just as there are overlaps of theory, there are overlaps in the four categories. 4. Basic Recreation F a c i l i t i e s at Mountain Resorts The s p e c i f i c provisions for recreation f a c i l i t i e s depend upon the location of the resort and the resources available. It is mainly the s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s , their setting and range of provision which helps to e s t a b l i s h the image of the resort. According to Phi 11ips(1986), although skiing i s the primary drawing card at mountain resorts, there i s a large portion of v i s i t o r s who are not skiers. Thus, a resort community must offer a stimulating d i v e r s i t y of recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Recreation a c t i v i t i e s which are subordinate to the primary function of the resort are i d e n t i f i e d as supplementary a c t i v i t i e s . The key to a successful resort community, i s that planners i d e n t i f y and select f a c i l i t i e s which complement primary uses. Furthermore, i t i s c r u c i a l that the recreation attractions do not contradict the primary use. (Smart, 1 9 8 1 ) . The supplementary a c t i v i t i e s developed at mountain resorts are generally those that have dual uses. For example, golf courses become cross-country ski courses and ski-doo runs in the 48 winter (Anderson, 1988). There are s p e c i f i c standards and features for each basic f a c i l i t y which the recreation planner must be familiar with. In the next section, state-of-the-art ski f a c i l i t i e s and equipment are described. The importance of these f a c i l i t i e s and equipment to the resort's image i s discussed in la t e r chapters. 4.1 Ski F a c i l i t i e s 4.1.1 Ski Run Characteristics In an informal survey of skiers conducted by Ski Magazine, concerning the quality and variety of ski f a c i l i t i e s offered at successful operations, i t was found that the two most important factors that make skiers travel long distances are: long slopes and fast l i f t service (Berstein,1987). Moreover, i t was found that the longest ski run must be over one mile long and there should be a variety of slopes suitable for both beginners and experts. In fact, i t i s important to have well-groomed, a t t r a c t i v e beginner runs, because in terms of sheer numbers, beginners out number the experts. ( P h i l l i p s , 1986). With th i s in mind, i t i s also c r u c i a l to develop a good ski school to attract the beginners. Designing ski runs is an art that requires s e n s i t i v i t y to a mountain's natural features and skiers' perceptions. When designing ski runs, function i s the f i r s t p r i o r i t y . Runs, however, can be made v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e as long as the 49 following factors are considered: (1) F a l l Line The topographic configuration of the slopes t y p i c a l l y dictates the most suitable locations for the runs. Thus, ski runs should be located p a r a l l e l to the natural f a l l l i n e (perpendicular to contour) in order to ensure the best skiing and most a t t r a c t i v e appearance. If t r a i l s are not located p a r a l l e l to the f a l l l i n e , the t r a i l s become narrow and rutted. (2) Grading S o i l , water and vegetation conditions must be analyzed before modifying the topography to f i t a run into a s p e c i f i c area. In gereral, cut and f i l l operations should be held to a minimum when ski runs are graded, they should retain the natural configuration of the topography as much as possible. (3) Vegetation Invariably, scrubs and trees must be removed from ski runs. In order to avoid icing on turns, a l l water courses should be i d e n t i f i e d . Runs should not be located over these areas. A natural appearing edge on the ski run, is the key to maintaining character. Thus, i f possible, trees and scrub islands should be l e f t on ski runs (Mittmann, 1984). Figure two i l l u s t r a t e s the possible ski t r a i l layouts. 49'' Open Parks 100% open 500 ft. wide Semi-gladed 70% open 300 ft. i Large islands 40% cleared 180 ft. wide i* • • / • • • \ • Y ' ( • \ • • j \ 0 , / ° \ 00 » 1 • • v ) 1) i * 0 / • • 0 OO 0 >*0 •2-° 0 Gladed 90% open 300 ft. wide Interconnected 50% cleared 500 It wide Tree Islands 30% cleared 150 ft. wide Traditional Figure 1: Ski T r a i l Concepts Source: National Forest Landscape Management Volume 2, Chapter 7, 1984. Forested Natural Openings 50 Regardless ot the ski t r a i l layout, variation should be offered in slope gradient (Jubenville, 1976). This makes the run more interesting and challenging for the skiers. Monotonous t e r r a i n , however, may be suitable for beginners. There are s p e c i f i c standards for d i f f e r e n t categories of ski runs as shown in Table I I . Table II Average Standards for Skiers By Category Beginners V e r t i c a l Drop 100-300 m Skier per hr. (350-1000) Ave. Slope Gradient 10% (6°) Intermediate 500-700 m (1600-2300) 25% (15°) Advanced 1000-1500 m (3500-5000) 35% (2(P) Source: Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977. The v e r t i c a l drop should be s u f f i c i e n t for the c l i e n t e l e . In Europe, the v e r t i c a l drop should be between 1000m to 1500m for international resorts, and in the United States the v e r t i c a l drop should be 700 m for international resorts. ( P h i l l i p s , 1986). The steeper gradients should not be continious, and the orientation should be to the North or East where powder snow stays longer. The slopes for the beginners should be located in the areas with the most sunshine. Northern facing ski slopes are too cold for beginners to practice on. 51 Ski t r a i l s should have adequate shelter from excessive wind and fog. The steeper portions of the runs should be widened p a r t i c u l a r l y on intermediate runs for skiers not used to the steeper gradient. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t r a i l s should be widened 80 to 250 feet as they become steeper. The planner should s t r i v e to provide t r a i l s which enable the skier to experience a variety of speeds, views and perceptions. Skiers entering the t r a i l at the top should be able to see enough of the t r a i l to determine i t s character, but should also face the surprizes and discoveries on the way down. Moreover, advanced runs should not be terminated into beginner areas (Architectural Record, 1974). Beginner, intermediate and advanced runs should a l l have their own l i f t system and not cross over. It i s inadequate to have a beginner t r a i l zig-zagging down the face of a mountain, cutting across other t r a i l s . Ideally, each t r a i l should drop down the f a l l l i n e without a single i n t e r s e c t i o n . T r a i l s should not look l i k e converging strands of a spider web. That i s , a black diamond run should never empty into the top of a novice run (Branch, 1988). It i s acceptable, however, to have a l l r.uns| f i n i s h i n g in the same area. For example, at Squaw Valley, almost a l l of the runs f i n i s h at the same base where the lodge is situated (Langstaff, 1988). Part of the purpose of thi s central f i n i s h i n g point i s to encourage the s o c i a l i z i n g of a l l leve l s of sk i e r s . 52 4.1.2 Snow Engineering A l l beginner and intermediate ski runs should be well groomed. Grooming involves the removal of natural obstacles on ski runs. A groomed run i s skiable with 4 to 6 inches of packed snow as opposed to an ungroomed run which requires 18 inches of snow to cover the ground. Within the la s t decade, snow making systems have become one of the most important elements in ski area management. According to Jim Branch, President of Sno-Engineering Resort Consultants, resorts today must gurantee snow. A t r a i l designed to be upper intermediate can be made easy enough so a low intermediate can handle i t . Cable winching machines can groom even the steepiest t r a i l s now. Adequate snowmaking today means 50 per cent minimum coverage of the ski slopes (Branch, 1988). Squaw Valley, C a l i f o r n i a , has the most ambitious slope grooming program of any ski area in North America. The Resort Association owns 21 snow making machines which can create 2 to 3 inches of powder snow over night (Squaw Valley, 1987). Snow making technology i s one of the best ways to reduce risk in a ski operation (Smart, 1981: Branch, 1988). Snow making occurs at an appropriate temperature when water and chemicals can be atomized and forced in the atmosphere to create snow ( P h i l l i p s , 1986). One of the most important parts of a snow making system is the reservoir. Some ski areas have turned their reservoirs into amenities. 53 4.1.3 Lodges Altitud e s of resort lodges vary considerably. Most t r a d i t i o n a l resorts were developed from orginal mountain v i l l a g e s 1000 to 1500 metres high in the Alps. More state-of-the-art resorts have been planned at higher a l t i t u d e s (1800-2000 m). Lodges b u i l t at higher atitudes can be enjoyed longer in the season (Langstaff, 1988; Baud-Bovy, 1977). 4.1.4 Ski L i f t s Next to the topography and the amount of snow, the most important element of a ski resort i s the l i f t system. In fact, improvements in ski l i f t technology have accounted for the sport's rapid growth ( P h i l l i p s , 1986; Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977). Management of both Squaw Valley, C a l i f o r n i a and Deer Valley, Utah market the resorts based on l i t t l e or no waits for ski l i f t s . Squaw Valley is one of the few mountains in North America with a tram, gondola and state-of-the-art covered chairs (Squaw Valley, 1987). If skiers need to wait more than ten minutes for a l i f t their money is refunded. S i m i l a r l y , at Deer Valley, l i f t t i c k e t sales are purposely controlled to minimize l i f t l i n e waits in order to create an unspoiled and uncrowed image (Deer Valley, 1987). Four basic l i f t s are used today: tows, surface cable l i f t s , gondolas or tramways. Tows, p u l l skiers up h i l l s . T r a d i t i o n a l rope tows are uncomfortable and do not work well in either steep 54 or windy conditions. The modified version of the rope tow used at some European resorts consists of a running cable with handles. Chair l i f t s have evolved from singl e to double, t r i p l e , and to quadruple capacity. The state-of-the-art chair l i f t at some of the larger resorts, c o n s i s t s of a high speed detachable quad. These l i f t s operate quickly on moving cable, which enables them to t r a v e l over winding t e r r a i n , and d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n which skiers could not otherwise t r a v e l over with ease. One problem of the high capacity l i f t s , according to James Chaff in of the Snowmass company i s that the top of the mountain can become over crowded (Chaffin, 1985; Branch, 1988). Trams and gondolas o f f e r comfortable rides over long distances, and are excellent modes of t o u r i s t transportation in the summer. They are, however, very expensive. In Europe, tunnels and mountain railways are used to transport the s k i i e r . In Zermatt, Switzerland, an underground funicular c a r r i e s 5000 skiers per hour ( P h i l l i p s , 1986). 5. Supplementary Recreation F a c i l i t i e s At most mountain resorts, s k i i n g i s the primary drawing card. However, a large proportion of the market w i l l be found among those who have skiers in the family, but are interested in other a c t i v i t i e s (Smart, 1981). Most large mountain resorts include "supplementary" or a d d i t i o n a l recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s that complement s k i i n g . The d i v e r s i f i e d supplementary a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s create a wider market 55 appeal, as well as help ensure year round use of the resort. As a rule only limited f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are developed unless they form a prominent feature for the image of the resort (Baud-Bovy, Lawson, 1977). The most frequently developed supplementary recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s at mountain resorts are considered in the following sections. 5„1. T r a d i t i o n a l Winter Sports (Nordic Skiing, Skating, Curling) Curling, Skating and nordic skiing are t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered winter sports a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t i s important to note that nordic ski t r a i l s can have dual summer uses as golf courses and ice rinks can be covered enabling year round use. Since nordic skiing i s increasing in popularity, nordic ski t r a i l s are now provided in most resorts and usually extend 3 to 15 km. Like nordic skiing, skating i s also a popular a c t i v i t y at mountain resorts. Outdoor rinks are generally developed more often at mountain resorts than indoor rinks are for reasons of cost and ambiance. Outdoor rinks are considerably less expensive and have an old fashioned charm. However, indoor rinks can be used a l l year by hockey leagues. (Anderson, 1988). The provison of curling depends on the character of the resort. In the next section the importance of providing apres ski a c t i v i t i e s i s discussed. 56 5*1.1 Apres Ski A c t i v i t i e s The attractiveness of a mountain resort r e l i e s upon the d i v e r s i t y and quality of i t s recreational and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . Since the evening f a l l s early in the winter, and poor weather i s frequent, there are many potential hours for enjoying apres ski a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, i t i s essential to consider the needs of the non-skiers who represent anywhere from 20 to 50 per cent of the c l i e n t e l e at many resorts. It i s for these reasons that recreation and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s must be well-developed at mountain resorts. At Flaine which i s a resort nestled in the French Alps, the nucleus of the resort includes lodging, shopping services and ski l i f t s s i t e d on the valley f l o o r in a design which excludes automobiles. Flaine o f f e r s a broad range of a c t i v i t i e s in the ar t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , there i s an art gallery which exhibits the work of contemporary a r t i s t s , cinema f e s t i v a l s , theatre and dance productions and regular concerts. Creative a c t i v i t i e s are becoming increasingly popular at mountain resorts. These c u l t u r a l events and productions aid in four seasons v i a b i l i t y and contribute to the image of the resort. The point of departure or as the French planners c a l l "La Grenouillere" should be the focal point of most apres ski a c t i v i t i e s . This i s the area where skiers and non-skiers meet. This area f u l f i l l s the same role as a port in a marina v i l l a g e . La Grenouillere should be planned as the heart or star t i n g point of a l l apres ski a c t i v i t i e s . Since people v i s i t resorts in part for the co l o u r f u l people, exciting a c t i v i t i e s and favourable 57 weather conditions, the planner i s responsible for designing a setting which creates excitement and f a c i l i t a t e s a c t i v i t y (Gordon, 1979). For example, at Zermatt, Switzerland, both skiers and non-skiers are served grand marnier pancakes and warm alcoholic beverages in La Grenouillere. Skiers and non-skiers also have the opportunity to ride on a horse drawn sleigh driven by a singing driver, to enjoy a midnight fondue dinner. At Flaine, the centralized location of the plaza enables i t to function as a focal point for transportation to and from the v i l l a g e services and other recreation a c t i v i t i e s . When La Grenouillere i s cr e a t i v e l y used as in Zermatt, skiers have a t o t a l experience rather than just skiing (Smart, 1981). The ambiance created as part of the apres ski a c t i v i t i e s i s extremely important to the success of the resort. According to Er i c Smart of the urban Land I n s t i t u t e , in order to be competitive, ski resorts need to market a high affluent l i f e style rather than just s k i i n g . Moreover, i t i s also important to provide a host of apres ski a c t i v i t i e s which cater to a l l v i s i t o r s . A serious problem at many resorts, i s the inadequate provision of apres ski a c t i v i t i e s for youths. At Squaw Valley, C a l i f o r n i a , however, a teen discotheque has been developed close to the adult's pub (Squaw Valley, 1987). The d i v e r s i t y and quality of the apres ski a c t i v i t i e s depends largely upon the image which the resort wants to create. For example, at Squaw Valley, the target group are destination, young urban professionals and families. In order to meet these peoples' needs, shopping f a c i l i t i e s and 13 restaurants and pubs are provided. The ambiance of the resort is that of an Olympic 58 v i l l a g e . Whereas, Kirkland, Lake Tahoe Resort caters to the l o c a l or unpretenious sk i e r . The apres ski a c t i v i t i e s include one c a f e t e r i a style restaurant which holds the occasional barbacue. According to Crawford who has skied 100 of the world's greatest mountain resorts, the best apres ski a c t i v i t i e s are in Switzerland and Austria. He ranks these two countries', apres ski a c t i v i t i e s as the best because of the ambiance. At these resorts the l i f e i s uncomparable to any other experience since luxury is blended into a wilderness setting. These resorts have a unique and unparelleled character and history. The f a c i l i t i e s are modest, but enable people to s o c i a l i z e 24 hours a day and enjoy unique c u l t u r a l experiences. (Crawford, 1988). 5.2 Year Round F a c i l i t i e s  5.2.1 Swimming Pool Swimming pools are considered indispensible in a l l resorts. Swimming pools are t y p i c a l l y integrated into Aquatic Centres with massage, fitness and sauna f a c i l i t i e s . In most cases, separate shallow pools are provided for small children. S p e c i f i c a l l y , at mountain resorts, larger swimming pools should be indoors to conserve heat and enable longer seasonal use. Whereas, smaller pools should be located outside as an alternative f a c i l i t y and additional a t t r a c t i o n . The swimming pool i s not just a sports f a c i l i t y . It is a 59 focus for many a c t i v i t i e s such as relaxation, sunbathing, and entertainment. Equally important, a swimming pool may also provide a background setting for dining terraces. At mountain resorts that host a t h l e t i c events such as triatholons swimming pools are imperative. 5.2.2 Beach Access, Playgrounds, T r a i l s , Equestrian The development of beach access where the opportunity exists at mountain resorts i s extremely important to seasonal use. L i f e guards should always be on duty at public beaches for public relations purposes and also for safety, since drowning i s the t h i r d leading cause of accidental death in Canada (Moon, 1988). In the winter season, frozen waterways can be used for ice skating, and in the early F a l l , waterways are a perfect setting for a t h l e t i c events. The perimetre of waterways i s ideal for cycle, equestrian and hiking t r a i l s . Horse back riding at mountain resorts i s becoming an i n c r e a s i l y popular a c t i v i t y in the winter and summer seasons. At Squaw Valley, C a l i f o r n i a ; Aspen, Colorado; Banff, Canada, and Zermatt, Switzerland, sleigh rides are offered in the winter, and t r a i l r i d i n g in the summer. Moreover, in the summer, beaches are desirable locations for campgrounds; playgrounds; sunbathing; swimming; boating; f i s h i n g and wind surfing. In the next two sections, the two most popular secondary amenities, golf and tennis are considered. 60 6. Summer F a c i l i t i e s 6.1 Golf Golf has become the most popular secondary amenity in mountain resorts. Many large ski resorts use golf as a means to become a year round destination. Since golf i s not physically demanding, i t i s a perfect sport for older people. Golf i s primarily a summer sport and makes uses of the gently r o l l i n g valleys at the base of slopes. Furthermore, a golf course often enhances the image of the resort to the extent that i t increases the value of surrounding land and contributes to the long term establishment of the community (Smart, 1981; Hoyden H i l l Golf Course, 1970). Resort golf should offer challenging, spacious and beautif u l , well-maintained courses. The most appropriate layout for a resort golf course i s a double fairway. This type course is suitable for long narrow s i t e s as t y p i c a l l y found on mountain bases. Since resort courses may be played intensively by an individual player over a short period of time, the course should offer v a r i e t y . ( P h i l l i p s , 1986; Hoyden H i l l Golf Course, 1970). 61 6 .2 Tennis The sport of tennis has experienced an era of unprecedented growth. As a recreational amenity according to P h i l l i p s , tennis holds tremendous appeal as: "land requirements, development costs, and maintenance needs are low r e l a t i v e to the f a c i l i t y needs for comparable a c t i v i t i e s ; regulatory and permitting issues are v i r t u a l l y non-existent; the game can be played almost year round in many regions and enjoys a strong complementary market with golf; and the court i t s e l f i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple unit, around which a developer can b u i l d a host of supporting f a c i l i t i e s . . . . In Short, tennis i s r e l a t i v e l y economical and tremendously f l e x i b l e . " ( P h i l l i p s , 1986) A trend most l i k e l y to continue i s the development of tennis courts as part of formerly single-season resorts. Recently a $11 m i l l i o n , 76 room hotel that includes tennis as part of a comprehensive health and fitness package was developed at Snowmass Ski resort. (Goeldner & Standley, 1980). The state-of-the-art in tennis court surfaces combines the slow bounce of porous courts with the easy maintenance of hard courts. These porous concrete courts consist of precast concrete sections, with small holes in the surface to allow for quick drainage. These courts are almost maintenance-free. (United States Tennis Association, 1986; Gerardi, 1974). 62 6.3 Grouping of A c t i v i t i e s The segregation of recreation f a c i l i t i e s into isolated areas should be avoided. R a t h e r , f a c i l i t i e s must be grouped to f a c i l i t a t e s p i l l - o v e r from one a c t i v i t y area to another while avoiding c o n f l i c t between noisy a c t i v i t i e s and quiet a c t i v i t i e s . When a c t i v i t y areas become spread out over a large area, the ambiance of the resort is l i k e l y to become impersonal. When f a c i l i t i e s are grouped c l o s e l y together, interest i s heightened and spectators are invited to p a r t i c i p a t e . Also f a c i l i t i e s that are grouped clo s e l y together can share infrastructure and maintenance costs (Smart, 1981; Baud-Bovy & Lawson, 1977; Patrick, 1977). 7. Summary Based on the l i t e r a t u r e and findings from similar communities, the majority of skiers are young, affluent urban professionals who are w i l l i n g to pay more to v i s i t a resort community with high qu a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s and personalized services. Skiing i s only considered one part of the ski experience. Today's skiers want to enjoy a t o t a l experience. They want to be provided with the opportunity of dining in fine restaurants; skiing on long well groomed slopes covered with powder snow; s o c i a l i z i n g in bistros and nightclubs; having personalized services; using high qu a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s ; and enjoying the unique character and special ambiance of an 6 3 a t t r a c t i v e setting. Four seasons considerations are c r u c i a l to determining the f e a s i b i l i t y of a resort. Mountain resorts are no longer planned for one season, rather a d i v e r s i t y of recreation opportunties are developed. Beaches, swimming pools, equestrian a c t i v i t i e s , tennis and golf are the main f a c i l i t i e s prescribed in the l i t e r a t u r e and developed at the mountain resorts examined. In the next chapter, I w i l l discuss how a resort's image affe c t s the community, and the type of f a c i l i t i e s developed. Spec i f i c examples are given from other resort communities similar to Whistler, in an attempt to demonstrate how recreation f a c i l i t i e s are developed for s p e c i f i c c l i e n t groups at resorts with p a r t i c u l a r images. 64 Chapter 4 CHAPTER FOUR Recreation and Tourist Image This chapter discusses some of the in t e r r e l a t e d factors that the author believes help create a resort's image and influence recreation. For the purposes of th i s thesis, images are defined as expressions of a l l objective knowledge, impressions, prejudices, imaginations, and emotional thoughts by which a person or group judge's a place. Images are conjured up par t l y from information, word-of-mouth and p u b l i c i t y . A choice of destination i s not usually made objectively, but rather by the resort's image (Baud-Bovy, 1977). As part of th i s image, v i s i t o r s expect certain recreation amenities to be provided. Thus, a resort's image has a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the type and degree of sophistication of the recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s provided. A planner can influence the image of the resort to some extent by providing certain f a c i l i t i e s . However, to a larger extent the market dictates what the image of the resort i s . This chapter begins with a description of the three in t e r r e l a t e d components that help create the resort's image: (1) the resort community and i t s perspective on recreation; (2) the natural resources of the area, and (3) recreation a c t i v i t i e s and 65 f a c i l i t i e s . 1. Resort Community Ty p i c a l l y , the population of a resort community is diverse since i t i s usually comprised of permanent residents, destination t o u r i s t s , weekend v i s i t o r s , non-resident property owners and transient workers. Thus, the type and range of f a c i l i t i e s provided in a pa r t i c u l a r community i s subject to the influence of many parties each having a voice d i r e c t i n g development based on their own recreation perspective. Recreation theory can help planners understand human needs. A clear understanding of what people want recreation to accomplish for them i s c r u c i a l when deciding what types of opportunities to provide. As discovered in Chapter 2, recreation i s expected to accomplish many di f f e r e n t things for d i f f e r e n t people. The perspective of recreation that people adopt depends upon their values. For example a single mother who is a permanent resident in a community, w i l l most l i k e l y want recreation to help s o c i a l i z e her children. (Sociology theory). On the other hand, the young and high achieving v i s i t o r w i l l probably consider recreation as an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c means to s e l f actualize (Humanist & Recreationist theories). In addition to the general population, municipalities and private developers can have similar or opposing values towards recreation. What f a c i l i t i e s are actually provided depends upon whose values are used in the decision making process. Different target groups w i l l be 66 attracted to resorts with d i f f e r e n t images. 2. Natural Resources The type of image and f a c i l i t i e s planners want to create for a resort is dependent to a large extent on several natural factors such as climate; topography; vegetation, and geology. An important factor underlying the image of any mountain resort is the qu a l i t y of the downhill ski experience which in turn i s dependent on snow conditions, t e r r a i n , climate and vegetation. (Branch, 1988; Mittmann, 1984). There are several q u a l i t i e s that most people share when judging resorts and the natural amenities of the area. Since winter sports areas are developed for public enjoyment, i t i s important to make these areas both v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and useful, while at the same time retaining as much of the natural character and charm as possible. 3. F a c i l i t i e s & A c t i v i t i e s It i s one's own subjective evaluation of an a c t i v i t y which determines whether that a c t i v i t y i s recreational or not. Thus, i t i s important for recreational developments to project and maintain a par t i c u l a r image. Recreational developments deal with fantasy and image to a much greater degree than other types of development. Certain recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s have a more affluent image than others. For example, tennis, although a popular sport among many sectors of society continues 67 to a t t r a c t some people as a sport of glamour and status. Country clubs have generally retained an exclusive, e l i t i s t image and many resorts attempt to capture t h i s image to at t r a c t the s o c i a l l y concious. The type of f a c i l i t i e s provided r e f l e c t s the recreation perspectives of the resort community, the natural resources and the image of the resort. The degree of sophistication a recreation f a c i l i t y or a c t i v i t y presents depends upon the image of the resort. For example, a regional resort with an unpretenious image and a destination resort with a world class image may both stage folk f e s t i v a l s . However, the destination resort undoubtly w i l l hire musicians of international c a l i b r e ; whereas, the regional mountain w i l l most l i k e l y hire l o c a l musicians. 4. Factors Influencing Recreation In addition to the influences of the resort community, the natural resources and the actual f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , there are several other i n t e r r e l a t e d factors contributing to the resort's image such as: the v i s u a l quality of the architecture and landscaping; the state of technology; l e v e l of service; the prescence of "colourful people"; and p a r t i c i p a t i o n trends. Each of these factors is discussed more in the next section. 68 4.1 Resort Image In the remainder of thi s chapter, the resort community, the natural resources and the f a c i l i t i e s / a c t i v i t i e s are discussed as a t o t a l i t y in order to demonstrate how images are created. Examples are provided from several resort mountain communities to help the reader v i s u a l i z e the importance and significance that images have on recreation. The creation of a resort's image i s a multifauceted process. The entire process must be considered as a t o t a l i t y . It i s not enough .to conclude that the type of f a c i l i t i e s the community desires provides a concrete expression of the resort's image. There are many other factors i n t e r a c t i n g simultaneously. For example, a development of an exclusive recreation theme park could change the image of the entire resort. The resort's image i s dynamic because i t dependents heavily on ever-changing market trends. Planners must begin by id e n t i f y i n g the target group. Different target groups w i l l be attracted to resorts with d i f f e r e n t images and recreation f a c i l i t i e s , and services. For example, the t y p i c a l Squaw Valley and V a i l v i s i t o r s want to enjoy q u a l i t y , personalized service and a wide variety of challenging skiing. Squaw Valley builds on the 1960 Winter Olympics held there to create i t s image. The v i l l a g e was recently renovated to include pedestrian walks, outdoor plazas and patios. The new pedestrian spaces are oriented to capture views of the nearby ski slopes and mountain c l i f f s (Langstaff, 1988). Skiers' cars are valet parked and equipment i s unloaded by mountain s t a f f (Squaw Valley, 1988). 69 Valley, 1988). Refreshments and homemade cookies at the mountain base are a l l complementary. A l l the equipment i s state-of-the-art. There are covered chair l i f t s , a tram and a cable car at Squaw. The resort prides i t s s e l f on fast, e f f i c i e n t , quality service. Mountain hosts and hostesses are situated a l l over the mountain to answer questions and make people f e e l welcome. Skiers at Squaw Valley are also guaranteed no l i f t line-ups. In fact, i f a skier waits longer than 10 minutes, the skier's money i s refunded (Squaw Valley Media Guide, 1988). Presently, Squaw Valley i s trying to a l t e r i t s image somewhat. As a result of the Olympics and Warren M i l l e r ski films, Squaw Valley has the reputation of being an advanced skiers' mountain. In order to change th i s image and attract a larger market, the management i s offering children's recreation f a c i l i t i e s and free l i f t t i c k e t s for children under 5 years of age. Also, f i r s t time beginners are provided with equipment and lessons free of charge. In summary, Squaw Valley i s dedicated to att r a c t i n g middle to upper middle class skiers who enjoy a wide range of slopes and q u a l i t y and specia l i z e d services. The ambiance of Squaw Valley undoubtly adds to i t s image. A l l of the ski runs are wide open bowls enabling a l l levels of skiers to ski to the lodge. Even the beginner skiers are able to ski on the top of the mountain rather than at the base. The thirteen bars and restaurants provide a unique apres ski opportunity. Management believes that recreation a c t i v i t i e s should be provided to challenge the individual and serves as an opportunity to s o c i a l i z e (Langstaff, 1988). To an even greater extent than 70 Squaw Valley, Aspen conjures an image of "hobnobbing" with the r i c h and famous. As stated by Diane Tegmeyer: "Aspen resembles a v i c t o r i a n Klondike of g l i t t e r y n i g h t l i f e and deep powder. Aspen resembles a Fairy tale in which no one r e a l l y grows old-or fat-or eats sandwiches made of wonderbread...The singles l i f e in Aspen inspires movie pl o t s " (Tegmeyer, 1988). The wealth and g l i t t e r y image of Aspen i s stengthened every year. Rental prices for short-term housing ranges from $250 to $3000 a day. In spite of the expense, people s t i l l flock to Aspen. The reason c i t e d in surveys, i s the "one-of-a-kind s t y l e " and the excellent powder snow conditions. Like Aspen, Deer Valley in Utah r e l i e s heavily on an image of luxury. Elegance, comfort and personal service are at the heart of Deer Valley. A professional staff i s on hand to cater to v i s i t o r s ' needs the minute they a r r i v e . However, unlike Aspen, Deer V a l l y creates a quality image s p e c i f i c a l l y for beginners and intermediate skiers. A l l ski runs are well groomed and state of the art snow making equipment i s used to create powder conditions. Deer Valley's accommodation and restaurants are very exclusive and expensive which adds to the image of q u a l i t y . V i s i t o r s at Deer Valley can pay as much as $1400 US per night to stay in the chalet that the rock musician, Bruce Springstein and his wife frequently v i s i t . The brochures for Deer Valley r e f l e c t i t s elegance by showing the owner serving champagne to a group of a t t r a c t i v e people while on skis wearing a tuxedo. Skiing i s only one part of the vacation experience at some of the exclusive mountain resorts. Another part of the market 71 appeal i s the prescence of c o l o u r f u l people. These people are the trendsetters who attr a c t other people to destinations. They are usually a f f l u e n t , a t t r a c t i v e people who are well known in certain c i r c l e s . They are the " j e t setters". To a lessor degree, c o l o u r f u l people at resorts can also be people who dress well and l i v e luxurious l i f e s t y l e s frequently above their f i n a n c i a l means. V i s i t o r s at these resorts are not necessarily attracted by the quality and d i v e r s i t y of the recreation f a c i l i t i e s or the qual i t y of the downhill experience. Rather, they want to be seen and i d e n t i f i e d with colourful people. Deer Valley provides ample opportunities for v i s i t o r s to s o c i a l i z e , be seen and people watch. Other than skiing beginner and intermediate runs and relaxing in private Jacuzzis, there are no b u i l t recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Apres ski a c t i v i t i e s include relaxing in the day lodges, dining in gourmet restaurants or sipping wine in apres ski lodges. At Sugarbush, Northern Vermont in the 1960s, e l i t e fashion models l i k e Betsy Pikering appearing in fashion magazines gave the mountain i t s appeal. Later, models l i k e Cindy Hillingsworth put skiing and Sugarbush on the covers of mi l l i o n s of magazines. It was hard to know what came f i r s t : skiing or dressing well. Sugarbush was known as the place where the "je t set" skied (Cassini, 1987). In t h i s l i g h t skiing becomes more of a s o c i a l experience than a physical sport. Current ski per i o d i c a l s include a r t i c l e s advising people on what types of ski and apres ski clothing are fashionable in certain resorts. People are even advised on the 72 types of food to order. For example, at Taos, i t i s recommended that v i s i t o r s should order nachos in order to become part of the Mexican culture. Thus, people want to be part of the t o t a l c u l t u r a l experience when they go on a ski vacation. Not a l l resorts, however, want to create as exclusive and service-oriented image as Squaw Valley, Deer Valley or Aspen. Kirkland mountain resort at the opposite end of Lake Tahoe, prides i t s s e l f on being a unpretenious mountain with intermediate and expert runs for the serious sk i e r . There are no apres ski a c t i v i t i e s other than one restaurant which offers barbacues on sunny days (Strain, 1988). S i m i l a r l y , management at Crested Butte, Colorado, markets the mountain as being " l a i d back" and f r i e n d l y unlike Aspen. The marketing e f f o r t s are targetted at the skier who does not want the s l i c k image of Aspen and V a i l . Marketing s p e c i a l i s t s have created an image of Crested Butte as having unmatched powder sk i i n g ; a friendly l o c a l community, and old fashioned charm with a romantic se t t i n g . Like Crested Butte, Steam Boat Springs, Colorado i s marketed as being unpretenious in comparison to Aspen and V a i l . Steam Boat Springs i s not marketed for ski lodges and amenities but rather on the skiing conditions and the town's character and s t y l e . The town's l o c a l community i s marketed as being the l i f e blood of the resort as stated by Jeannie Patton: "The people of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, many of them anyway, want you to know about their v a l l e y . Their economic survival depends on your finding out about and l i k i n g them." (Patton, 1988) Recreation a c t i v i t i e s ranging from skiing to boat racing are 73 believed to be an integral part of the town's s p i r i t u a l and c u l t u r a l well-being. Several other mountain resorts in the Lake Tahoe region, are currently trying to upgrade and improve their v i s u a l q u a l i t y . The object here i s not to draw more v i s i t o r s , more cars or more p o l l u t i o n , but rather to ensure an o f f e r i n g of services that i s within the present l e v e l of development that i s more f r u i t f u l and productive (Strain, 1988). This r e f l e c t s the view that other than Squaw Valley, the ski resorts at Lake Tahoe are known as "poor man resorts." At the request of the Tahoe Basin Association of Governments in January 1985, a nine member panel, organized by the Urban Land Institute conducted an evaluation of recreation planning in the basin. The panel found that Tahoe has both the charm and drawbacks of being an early entrant into the resort world. Although leisure markets have expanded both in scale and in s ophistication, Tahoe's recreation f a c i l i t i e s have not been updated. The t o u r i s t cabins of former times at Tahoe have long since passed into obsolescence, having lost their e f f e c t i v e p u l l i n g power and a b i l i t y to provide reasonable accommodation for the tastes of today's upper income v i s i t o r s (Urban Land Institute, 1985). When the Lake Tahoe resorts were rated in terms of destination q u a l i t i e s , they f e l l short due to their "poor man resort images." These images result from the lack of quality services; obsolete recreation opportunities; poor v i s u a l image, and i n s u f f i c i e n t apres ski a c t i v i t i e s (Urban Land Institute, 1985 & Strain, Andrew, 1988). From personal observation at Lake Tahoe, although the 74 t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s are outdated, there i s considerable amount of f a c i l i t i e s for the permanent resident such as swimming pools, community centres and playing f i e l d s . Presently, the Lake Tahoe Regional Planning department is improving the signage on the mountains, and developing plans to widen the ski runs. The various resort marketing association in the area are now marketing the region (Newhart,1988; Langstaff, 1988; Strain, 1988; Anderson, 1988). 4.2 Marketing Mix A resort's image in part determines: the type of f a c i l i t i e s developed (product); the user fee ( p r i c e ) ; where f a c i l i t i e s are developed (place); and the most appropriate way to promote the resort (promotion). These four marketing ingredients together comprise what i s commonly known as the marketing mix. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t groups and the marketing mix, represents the combination of variables which planners can control and manipulate to receive desired outcomes. The dynamic nature of the external environment i s comprised of a host of variables such as p o l i t i c a l and legal forces, economic considerations, technology and competition. Planners cannot control these variables. Therefore they must adapt to them. 75 5. Summary In t h i s chapter, several i n t e r r e l a t e d factors that the author believes contribute to a resort's image are examined. These components must be considered as a t o t a l i t y since they interact simultaneously to create a p a r t i c u l a r image. They include: - the area's natural resources - recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s - the resort community and i t s perspective on recreation - apres ski a c t i v i t i e s - l e v e l of service - asthetics - ambiance - participants - p a r t i c i p a t i o n trends The l a s t part of the chapter included an examination of mountain resort communities in an attempt to determine what type of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and services, have been provided as part of the resorts' images. Resorts attempting to have high quality destination images provided state-of-the-art ski runs and equipment, personalized services and a strong apres ski focus. Whereas, mountain resorts with unpretenious images provided few services, no apres ski focus, just excellent skiing 76 opportunities. A l l of the resorts created their image by ei t h e r : (1) Introducing s p e c i f i c features which create ambiance and i d e n t i t y (recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , c o l o u r f u l people, technology, personal s e r v i c e s ) . (2) Providing opportunities for contact with the l o c a l people and their culture. (3) Building to r e f l e c t the character of the area. Resorts attempting to have high quality destination images, provided f a c i l i t i e s primarily for the affluent v i s i t o r , rather than for the regional v i s i t o r or l o c a l community. Whereas, resorts with unpretenious images, developed recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s primarily for the regional v i s i t o r and l o c a l community. Thus, the resort's image in part determines the type and user charge of f a c i l i t i e s and services provided for a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t group. PART II CASE STUDY: THE RESORT MUNICIPALITY OF WHISTLER 78 PART II Case Study; Resort Municipality of Whistler This section begins with Chapter 5, which includes a brief h i s t o r i c a l overview of Whistler, followed by a description of the area's recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s . At the end of the chapter, the author's viewpoint on Whistler's current image i s discussed. This viewpoint i s based on personal impressions, the l i t e r a t u r e and a survey of Whistler property owners. The l a s t chapter provides a discussion of potential recreation f a c i l i t i e s for Whistler and their planning implications. FIGURE X WHISTLER'S REGIONAL LOCATION Source: Southwestern B.C. Tourism Association, 'The Nugget Route", 1985. 80 Chapter 5 CHAPTER FIVE The Resort Municipality of Whistler 1. Background Whistler is a "new town" with one unique economic base--recreation. Whistler has not always been a destination mountain resort drawing skiers from a l l over the world (BC Tourism, 1 987-1988). In fact, i t was or g i n a l l y known as Alta Lake. During t h i s time (1910), the area was only accessible by t r a i n . The economy consisted of summer tourism, logging and mining a c t i v i t i e s (Barker, 1972). During the 1960s, a combined gondola and chair l i f t system was erected, which car r i e d skiers up the west flank of Whistler mountain. Although the mountain ski te r r a i n was excellent, i t was s t i l l a long way from being c l a s s i f i e d as a destination resort. Rather, during this time Whistler appealed to the wilderness buffs rather than the jet set. As stated by Al Raine, Canadian Ski Team Coach: 81 "Whistler was hardly on the map of prime ski destinations with few accommodations and a reputation for a t t r a c t i n g unsavory ski bums, Whistler's sense of place was in the the middle of the parking l o t " (Mohler, 1988). However, in 1974-1975, a development t r a n s i t i o n began when Whistler was incorporated as a Resort Municipality with special p r o v i n c i a l powers (RMOW, 1986). Later in 1978, the objectives for the Municipality changed from those of a regional ski area to those of a destination resort (Webster, 1987). In order to accomplish these objectives, Whistler needed a new image. The building of Whistler's v i l l a g e helped change the town's image. Suddenly, there were gourmet restaurants, exclusive g i f t shops and quality t o u r i s t hotels (Balcom, 1987). Image building recreation f a c i l i t i e s were developed such as an 18 hole professional golf course designed by Arnold Palmer. Accompanying t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , some former regional f a c i l i t i e s were converted into destination f a c i l i t i e s in order to accommodate the t o u r i s t s needs. For example, a once planned community centre was converted into a convention centre. Presently, the Resort Municipality of Whistler i s s t i l l attempting to become a world-class and four seasons destination resort. In order to achieve t h i s ambitious status, the image of Whistler as a high quality resort must be continously strengthened. E a r l i e r t h i s year, amendments to Whistler's O f f i c i a l Community Plan, made the enhancement of recreational a c t i v i t i e s a high p r i o r i t y (Vance, 1988). 2. The Resort Community 82 The type and range of f a c i l i t i e s provided i s subject to the influence of many interests each having a voice d i r e c t i n g development based on their own perspective of recreation. Whistler is in a unique position as a resort municipality. The size of the permanent population i s r e l a t i v e l y small. However, during peak seasons, the population can increase to many thousands. The recreational f a c i l i t i e s provided must meet the needs of the permanent residents, but must be primarily aimed at meeting the requirements of t o u r i s t s and non-resident property owners. According to the O f f i c i a l Community Plan, the purpose of recreation at Whistler i s : "to create a destination resort area that provides a stable year round economy; protects the sense of community; enhances the recreational resources and preserves the natural environment." (RMOW, 1982) In order to accomplish t h i s objective, the Master Recreation Draft Plan, states that a l l f a c i l i t i e s must be available for v i s i t o r s and residents in a l l seasons. For example, both residents and v i s i t o r s can use the golf course in the summer, for go l f i n g , and in the winter for skiing. Clearly, from the Municipality's stated purpose, i t can be inferred that recreation i s j u s t i f i e d as a means to provide enjoyment for residents and v i s i t o r s as well as increase l o c a l incomes. Drew Meredith, Mayor of Whistler, also a r t i c u l a t e s the Municipality's economic purpose in his statement: "We are a l l focused on the same enterprize: tourism. Its as i f the whole town was one big company providing one product." (Hamilton, 1988) 83 3. Natural Resources The natural resources of an area determine to a large extent the quality of the downhill ski experience. The qu a l i t y of these resources also dictate what f a c i l i t i e s can be developed. In t h i s section, the natural resources that contribute to the downhill ski experience at the resort are described. 3.1 Climate and Snow Conditions The Resort Municipality of Whistler, i s the warmest ski area in Canada (Zuehlke, 1987) . Temperatures range from a low of -6 ^ C to a high of 11° C during the ski season (November -June). Frequent rain i s a problem at Whistler. However, to reduce discomfort a c h a i r l i f t with a water-proof bubble cover i s now in operation (Vance, 1988). Whistler i s famous for i t s large quanities of snow. The average annual snowfall is approximately 12 metres. On Blackcombe's newly opened, Horstman's gl a c i e r , there are several powder chutes for skier's enjoyment. 3 .2 Terrain The Resort Municipality's two mountains, Whistler and Blackcombe Mountains offer an unparelleled challenge for skiers of a l l a b i l i t i e s on a variety of t e r r a i n . At Whistler, 20 per cent of the t o t a l skiable area i s for beginners; 55 per cent for 84 intermediates and 25 per cent for experts. By the year 2000, planners forsee the development of more intermediate runs, such as the opening of the 1000 acre Burnt Stew Basin (Whistler Question, 1987). At Blackcombe, 25 per cent of the runs are c l a s s i f e d as beginner in order to meet the needs of families. Blackcombe's runs range from a large beginner area to an extremely d i f f i c u l t expert area. Unlike t y p i c a l advanced runs which have slope gradients of 35°, Blackcombe's Saudan Couloir run i s 42°. Whistler boasts North America's second longest l i f t serviced v e r t i c a l drop at 1305 m. Blackcombe, also known as the "mile high mountain," offers the greatest l i f t serviced v e r t i c a l r i s e in North America at 1609 m. Blackcombe offers the longest continual f a l l l i n e which enables skiers to enjoy a smogasbord of continous runs. Both Whistler and Blackcombe ea s i l y surpass the 700 m recommended American v e r t i c a l drop standards for international mountains. These mountains also e a s i l y meet European standards for international mountains of between 1000-1500 m v e r t i c a l drop. The long v e r t i c a l drops at both mountains produce long continious ski runs. According to the l i t e r a t u r e , skiers surveyed, desire at least one run over a mile long at destination resorts. The longest runs on both Whistler and Blackcombe are 5 miles long. 85 Both Whistler and Blackcombe offe r a wide variety of ski runs which have been f i t t e d c l o s e l y to the t e r r a i n . The runs located above the tree l i n e towards the summit of Whistler, consist of wide open bowls. During the 1987-1988 season, ski t r a i l s at the top of the mountain were developed for beginners. The wide open bowls provide an ideal setting for learning. Both mountains also provide a mixture of semi-gladed, large island and inter-connected runs. According to the l i t e r a t u r e , ski t r a i l s should not intersect, but some of the ski t r a i l s for d i f f e r e n t levels of skiers do so at both of the mountains. However, they were planned to intersect in order to encourage skiers of d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s to s o c i a l i z e and to provide long continious runs. 4. Factors Influencing Recreation  4.1 State of Technology Blackcombe mountain recently completed the most expensive l i f t system in North American history with the purchase of three Austrian b u i l t quadruple chairs. Skiers can now travel from the base to the summit in twenty minutes. These new chairs reduce the travel time by 50 per cent. At Whistler mountain, the Peak Chair put in operation last season (1986-1987), transports skiers above the t r e e l i n e to the summit of Whistler where the open bowls and face runs are located. This area had in the past only been skiable by those w i l l i n g to climb above the l i f t s . Last season (1986-1987) t h i s 86 chair gave mountain top access only to advanced skiers. This season a ski t r a i l has been developed at the top for beginners (Emrick, 1987). The i n s t a l l a t i o n of a high speed express gondola from Whistler v i l l a g e to the Roundhouse restaurant on top of the mountain i s planned for the 1988-1989 season. The Gondola would reduce travel time to 18 minutes. Whistler mountain also owns the lat e s t in snow grooming and making technology. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the mountain has 11 snow grooming machines which upgrade skiing conditions. The recent addition of the winch cat, state of the art grooming system, enables the grooming of steeper t e r r a i n than in the past. As a res u l t , more of the mountain is skiable by a larger number of people, rather than just experts. The snow making equipment at Whistler and Blackcombe ensures a minimum coverage of 50 per cent of the mountain. In the 1988-1989 season, Whistler w i l l continue to focus on high technology grooming devices. The purchase of new and exclusive snow making equipment i s planned in order to increase the number of spring sking days. 4.2 Ski Programs V i s i t o r s and residents of the Resort Municipality of Whistler are able to improve their skiing in the summer and winter at the ski school. A l l year skiing i s now available on Blackcombe's Horstman Gl a c i e r . An additional 250 people have been hired to operate the mountain. The ski school is managed 87 by ski expert, Dave Murrary who i s a 10 year veteran of Canada's National Alpine Team. Lessons are available for skiers at a l l l e v e l s . In addition to the regular programs, Whistler and Blackcombe mountains o f f e r , "Ski E s p r i t " which i s a special program for destination v i s i t o r s . These participants are provided personalized services, for example, a l l lessons are video-taped. Whistler and Blackcombe mountains are expanding their cross country ski f a c i l i t i e s in order to meet the perceived demand. Presently, 25 kilometres of groomed cross country ski t r a i l s ; repair; instructions and rental services are a v a i l a b l e . For the more adventurous, h e l i - s k i i n g i s offered. Whistler mountain's h e l i - s k i operation i s unlike most others that cater predominately to men. At Whistler, the h e l i - s k i operation i s for families, couples, and intermediate s k i e r s . H e l i - s k i e r s stay at the 2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r Tyax Lodge which has 28 luxury suites, a convention room, fi t n e s s f a c i l i t y and a children's play area. Freshly baked bread and 3 gourment meals are served d a i l y . The Tyax Lodge i s modelled after St Moritz. The owner, Gus Abel who i s Swiss, creates a European ambiance by blending luxury into the wilderness. 4.3 Apres Ski A c t i v i t i e s The Whistler v i l l a g e is the focal point for apres ski a c t i v i t i e s . A smogasbord of a c t i v i t i e s are offered for skiers and non-skiers a l i k e such as a muiltitute of international restaurants; a host of night clubs; a video arcade; a movie 88 theatre and numerous shops. Whistler v i l l a g e i s a l i v e with street a c t i v i t y and the numerous pedestrian areas, night clubs and restaurants provide ample opportunity for people watching. Whistler has become the place to be for Vancouver residents. It i s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y labeled as " B r i t i s h Columbia's Playground" or "Yuppie Haven" as a result of i t s trendy image (Emrick, 1987). The close proximity of night clubs and restaurants in the v i l l a g e allows people to be seen. For the more phyiscally active, the resort offers a variety of recreational a c t i v i t i e s in addition to the alpine ski runs. 89 5. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s and A c t i v i t i e s . The provision of dual use f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l enable Whistler to develop a seasonally balanced economy i s considered a high development p r i o r i t y . L i s t e d below are the winter, summer and year round recreation opportunities available at Whistler: WINTER RECREATION winter ski school cross Country Skiing telemark skiing alpine skiing h e l i - s k i ing YEAR ROUND RECREATION covered water s l i d e aerobics (7 days a wk) universal gym squash courts SUMMER RECREATION windsurf ing canoeing white r i v e r r a f t i n g paddle boating h e l i - h i k i n g beach access glacier skiing summer ski school golf (18 holes) mini golf f i shing tennis (8 public courts) horse back riding playing f i e l d campgrounds cycling t r a i l s f i t n e s s c i r c u i t Although a recreation centre was planned for Whistler to house an indoor skating rink, i t was later converted into a convention centre. Recently, in March 1988, the Ice Arena Society and the Whistler Curling Society were formed. The community group's mandate i s to construct an ice arena for the community by ra i s i n g funds l o c a l l y . The rink could possibly create new opportunities for business by at t r a c t i n g hockey 90 schools, special skating events and further d i v e r s i f y i n g the attr a c t i o n of Whistler to the v i s i t o r . A major step in creating Whistlers four seasons destination resort status was the opening of the 18 hole Arnold Palmer Golf Course in 1983. Presently the golf course i s heavily used. Tourists are given the f i r s t p r i o r i t y for use over residents. On Febuary 15, 1988, Council narrowly approved the development of a second 18 hole professional golf course. It w i l l be a 31 hectare course b u i l t in a u-shape around Lost Lake. Ample opportunities exist on Whistler's 5 lakes and ri v e r s for canoeing, kayaking, rive r r a f t i n g , paddle boating, f i s h i n g , swimming and wind surfing. Presently, there are 3 public beaches at Lost Lake Park, Alpha Lake Park and Lakeside and Wayside Parks. None have l i f e guards on duty. There are future plans to expand beach access and the t r a i l system around the waterways. Currently a network of paved t r a i l s and the Dave Murray Fitness loop are available for walkers and hikers. Heli-hiking is also offered on the alpine meadows. Moreover, for people interested in the h i s t o r i c a l setting of Whistler, 2 hour and f u l l day area tours are provided. 5. 1r A c t i v i t i e s In addition to off e r i n g a d i v e r s i t y of recreation f a c i l i t i e s for v i s i t o r s , Whistler stages several annual community events to attra c t people during the shoulder seasons. Listed below are some of the a c t i v i t i e s Whistler offers ranging 91 from a t h l e t i c competitions to Children's Art F e s t i v a l s : Great Snow Earth Water Race International Bicycle Classic Motor Sport Weekend Ski Swap Summer Ski Camp BMX World Championships Triatholon Warren M i l l e r Films Juinor Racing Camp 10 K run Mr & Ms Mountain Competition C h i l i Cook-off Mountain Music F e s t i v a l F a l l Craft Fair Children's Art F e s t i v a l Nordic Midsummer Fest . Square Dance Jamboree Great Canadian Book Fair Rummage Sales Adventure Film Fest Summer Ski Camp 6. Whistler's Image Before proposals can be made concerning the possible types of recreation oppportunities that can be developed at Whistler, the current image of Whistler must be determined. In the remainder of t h i s chapter, the author's viewpoint of Whistler's current image i s discussed in l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e , the Muncipality's perceived image, popular press accounts and a Whistler Property Owners' survey. The Resort Muncipality i s attempting to develop an image of for Whistler as a world c l a s s , high q u a l i t y destination resort. Each component of the image building process i d e n t i f i e d in Chapter 4 i s discussed in order to determine what contributes or detracts from Whistler's image. In the following two sections, the Resort Muncipality, Whistler Mountain Corporation and Whistler Property Owners' desired images for Whistler are di scussed. 92 6.1 Perceived Image The staging of EXPO 86 in Vancouver created a new appeal for B r i t i s h Columbia as a tr a v e l destination. Now that EXPO i s over, the tourism industry seeks to maintain that lucrat i v e image at Whistler. To do so Whistler needed a new high quality destination image that would continue a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t o r s to B r i t i s h Columbia. The Municipality v i s u a l i z e s Whistler as a four seasons, high q u a l i t y destination resort. In fact, the objective for a l l recreation f a c i l i t i e s , according to the Draft Recreation Master Plan, i s to develop more high quality f a c i l i t i e s that have dual seasonal uses, and that w i l l contribute to Whistler's image as a destination resort. Furthermore, the v i l l a g e at Whistler is modelled aft e r the v i l l a g e at V a i l Colorado in order to achieve similar ambiance and a " g l i t t e r y image." In keeping abreast with the new developments at Blackcombe Mountain, management at Whistler mountain are proposing, a "New Look Development Plan." It i s hoped that by adding additional runs, l i f t s , state-of-the-art snow grooming and making equipment and exclusive restaurants with exceptional service, that Whistler mountain w i l l gain the reputation as one of the leading resorts in North America. 93 According to Lome Borgal, President of Whistler Mountain Ski Corporation: "Whistler mountain wants to present a new image to v i s i t o r s . . . . A s Whistler moves towards the 1990s, i t i s important that i t keeps pace with the advances in the rest of the resort. A refurbished Gondola base w i l l do much to improve public perceptions of Whistler as a world class resort community" (Whistler Question, December 1987). Thus, to the Muncipality and Whistler Mountain Ski Corporation, the desired image for Whistler i s that of a high qua l i t y destination resort. A l l f a c i l i t i e s developed are intended to r e f l e c t t h i s image. Simlarly, the popular press refer to Whistler as B r i t i s h Columbia's "yuppy playground" or "Adult Disney Land" (Archer, 1986). In the next section, Whistler property owners' attitudes concerning the resort's image and recreation f a c i l i t i e s are discussed. 6.1.1 Whistler Property Owners' Perceptions Property owners' perceptions and attitudes towards recreation development at Whistler are based upon a telephone survey administrated in November of 1987 (see appendix A). A sample of 444 property owners was drawn from Whistler's municipal tax r o l l s . 120 people were interviewed in order to obtain a confidence l e v e l of 95 per cent. The results of the survey indicated overwhelming support for developing Whistler as a four seasons destination resort. In fact, 95 per cent of the respondents indicated that the image of Whistler should be that 94 of a high quality destination resort. However, 5 per cent of the respondents disagreed. Instead these respondents f e l t that Whistler was already too " j e t set" and crowded. There was unanimous agreement on the part of the property owners that there was a need for more recreational f a c i l i t i e s to strengthen Whistler's image, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the summer season. The recreational f a c i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d as being the most important included indoor and outdoor skating; an indoor pool; a community centre, and more public tennis courts and golf courses. In addition to these f a c i l i t i e s , several other f a c i l i t i e s were desired by property owners as can be seen in Figure 95 RECREATIONAL FACILITIES AND ACTIVITIES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS -* IS) cn o ro o CO cn s cn ool r i d i n g twnh i l l K B poggan runs i d l i n g CO 09 skating king trails owling Figure 3 i Desired Recreational F a c i l i t i e s 96 According to the survey r e s u l t s , 95 per cent of the property owners desired a four seasons destination resort image for Whistler. However, the "extent" that the property owners want such an exclusive image for Whistler i s problematic. In the survey, property owners indicated a desire for recreation f a c i l i t i e s that are more oriented towards f u l f i l l i n g l o c a l residents and regional v i s i t o r s recreation desires as opposed to destination t o u r i s t s . They indicated a desire for a world class image, but desire the recreation f a c i l i t i e s that would be found in a resort with a lower-end image such as aquatic and community centres. In the next section, the q u a l i t y of Whistler's natural resources, f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are discussed. 6.2 Natural Resources The dramatic setting of Whistler nestled between two impressive mountains contributes strongly to Whistler's image. The long drive to Whistler offers a change of environment for people who l i v e in the c i t y . Although the road to Whistler for the most part i s picturesque, some parts have low density standards, logging and transmission l i n e s which are not that a t t r a c t i v e . The Gondola area w i l l most d e f i n i t e l y require upgrading in order to c a p i t a l i z e on the perceived sense of entry to the resort. Frequent large amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s one of Whistler's major weaknesses. Although the temperature i s similar to Aspen and V a i l during the ski season, the amount of r a i n f a l l i s considerably higher as can be seen in Table I I I . 97 Table III R a i n f a l l Levels Resort Amount of R a i n f a l l by Month (mm) January Febuary March Whistler 218 146 123 Aspen 7 8 15 Source: Environment Canada, 1988. The Whistler ski area i s however, the warmest ski area in Canada (Zeuhlke, 1987). Whistler and Blackcombe mountains wide variety of long, continious and well groomed slopes contribute strongly to Whistler's image as a destination mountain resort. Although Whistler is famous for i t s large amounts of snow, the quality of i t s powder snow i s only adequate compared to the mountain resorts in Colorado. West Coast powder snow consists of large, moist snow flakes. Unlike the dry powder snow found in Colorado, West Coast powder snow becomes hard packed ea s i l y and is more prone to causing slab avalanches. Thus, the visu a l quality, the skiable t e r r a i n , and the large amounts of snow contributes favourably to Whistler's image. Whereas, the frequent r a i n f a l l , and the quality of Whistler's powder snow detracts from i t s image. 98 6.3 F a c i l i t i e s and A c t i v i t i e s Like other mountain resorts, Whistler has made a concerted e f f o r t to offer diverse recreation opportunities in order to provide supplementary and dual use f a c i l i t i e s for shoulder seasons. The variety of continious slopes and the newly purchased state-of-the-art l i f t system and grooming equipment make the skiing experience at the resort extremely good. Furthermore, the fast, e f f i c i e n t l i f t s and excellent signage on the mountain contribute strongly to Whistler's image as a destination resort with high q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s and personalized services. The d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of h e l i - s k i i n g for families rather than predominately for men creates a larger market appeal. The luxurious accommodation at Tyax Lodge also contributes to the resort's image of casual elegance. As i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r in t h i s chapter, Whistler's year round f a c i l i t i e s include a covered water s l i d e , aerobics, univeral gym and squash courts. Whistler's water s l i d e provides an o r i g i n a l and unique recreation a c t i v i t y . In terms of summer recreation, Whistler is graced with beautiful lakes which i s ideal for boating a c t i v i t i e s . The lakes and r i v e r s undoubtly contribute favourably to the four seasons image of the resort. Although river r a f t i n g i s one of B r i t i s h Columbia's major recreation resources, the recent drownings in 1987 near Whistler, does l i t t l e to boast the image of the sport or Whistler. The beaches have the potential to increase the four seasons 99 v i a b i l i t y of resorts. The beaches at Whistler s t i l l require further development. More sand i s es p e c i a l l y needed. However, i t i s the opinion of the author that destination v i s i t o r s w i l l not be drawn to Whistler for the beaches. The Arnold Palmer Golf Course i s extremely successful in contributing to the four seasons image of the resort. The fact that Arnold Palmer designed the course adds to the quality image. More exclusive club house f a c i l i t i e s are required for a true high q u a l i t y image. The t r a i l system at Whistler i s of high qu a l i t y and helps connect recreation a c t i v i t i e s . According to the BC Triatholon Association, Whistler's cycling paths are of excellent q u a l i t y . The horse back ri d i n g t r a i l s on the other hand, need to be improved. Presently, the t r a i l s take riders over steep mountain t e r r a i n . Riders experience beautiful scenery, but not variety or excitement. 100 6.3 Additional Influencing Factors Whistler has made a concerted e f f o r t to provide people with a t o t a l ski experience. The resort offers more than just opportunities for s k i i n g . To the v i s i t o r , Whistler epitomizes B r i t i s h Columbia as a destination containing beautiful greenery, awe-inspiring mountains. The peak-roofed hotels and cobble stone pedestrian walks are the closest Vancouver comes to creating the alpine ambiance of European resorts. V i s i t o r s have a wide choice of restaurants and night clubs to patronize. The variety of restaurants, night clubs, stores, and pedestrian environment a l l add to Whistler's image as a people's place. 7. Summary The Resort Municipality of Whistler is attempting to develop a world-class, high q u a l i t y destination image for Whistler as a four seasons resort. It is the opinion of the author that Whistler is well on i t s way to achieving this image p a r t i c u l a r l y during the ski season. In spite of frequent rain the natural resources of the area have considerable potential to contribute favourably to the Muncipality's desired image for Whistler. The ski area i s the warmest in Canada, and is famous for i t s large amounts of powder snow. The resort's two mountains provide a variety of long, continious ski runs serviced by state-of-the-art equipment. Inaddition, a concerted 101 e f f o r t has already been made to create t h i s image by o f f e r i n g : - A d i v e r s i t y of f a c i l i t i e s - Personalized services - State of-the-art technology - Unique Architecture and European Ambiance - Pedestrian Malls to att r a c t people - A variety of Apres ski A c t i v i t i e s - An a s t h e t i c a l l y pleasing environment - A high q u a l i t y ski school In the next chapter, proposals are concerning the possible types of recreation opportunities that can be developed at Whi s t l e r . 102 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 Implications for Recreation at Whistler As discussed in chapter 5, the Resort Municipality i s well on i t s way to developing a high q u a l i t y image for Whistler as a destination resort. The extent to which Whistler can and should achieve t h i s as i t s exclusive image is questionable and to a large extent dependent on the market. In this chapter, the recreation planning implications for three alternative classes of resorts are considered. Recreation theory i s used as a planning tool to determine what type of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s should be provided with each type of resort. The chapter begins with a description of the three types of resorts followed by a discussion of the implications for recreation. 103 1. Types of Resorts In addition to creating an exclusive world class resort, Whistler has the option of adopting an economy or mixed resort status. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these resorts are as follows: (1) (Exclusive) High q u a l i t y , exclusive world class four seasons destination resort. S t r i c t q u a l i t y control regulations are enforced on a l l amenities and accommodation. Recreation opportuniites are designed primarily for the affluent destination t o u r i s t . (2) (Economy) Regional mountain with an unpretenious image. Recreation opportunities are developed primarily to meet the long term desires of the l o c a l community and P a c i f i c North West regional v i s i t o r s . (3) (Mixed) An integration of economy and exclusive resort c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Recreation f a c i l i t i e s are designed for both regional and destination v i s i t o r s . The f i r s t step in deciding what type of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s should be provided with each of these resorts is to identify potential c l i e n t groups. These " c l i e n t groups" are defined as groups of people who have r e l a t i v e l y similar demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r , Whistler's potential c l i e n t groups consist of a permanent 104 population; transient workers; non-resident property owners; destination and regional v i s i t o r s . The next step i s to translate peoples' recreation desires into f a c i l i t i e s . In-order to do t h i s , planners must r e a l i z e that people spend f i n a n c i a l resources and time with the expectations of receiving benefits. Thus, people do not purchase programs, rather they buy the expectation of benefits. The physical service i t s e l f is simply a means for the user benefit i t conveys. People may p a r t i c i p a t e in the same program, but seek d i f f e r e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n s from i t . For example, some people may participate in aerobics classes to increase their cardio-vascular fitness l e v e l s ; whereas, others may p a r t i c i p a t e because they want to reduce stress. People may also derive similar benefits from d i f f e r e n t programs. Each theorical conceptualization of recreation discussed in Chapter 2, seeks to characterize the potential recreation participant in terms of benefits. It i s the opinion of the author, that people v i s i t resorts with the a n t i c i p a t i o n of receiving certain benefits depending upon the resort's image. Thus, planners must use recreation theory as a planning tool to understand the types of benefits people seek. The desired recreation benefits and the related planning implications of each potential class of resort are shown in Tables IV, V, and VI. 105 T a b l e v EXCLUSIVE RESORT ( B e n e f i t s ) (1) H u m a n i s t i c R e c r e a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to h e l p t h e * grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p i t y s l c a i l y and emotion-a l l / . R e c r e a t i o n h e l p s p e o p l e u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e l i f e and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . R e c r e a t i o n p r o v i d e s a oteaas f o r s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n i s not j u s t p i t p s i c a l a c t i v i t y f o r i t c a n a l s o i n v o l v e p a s s i v i t y . STRATEGY P r o v i d e h i g h q u a l i t y , e x c l u s i v e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d and p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . C r e a t e e n v i r o n m e n t c o n d u c i v e t c s e l f a c t u a i i z a t i o n a.-.c f o r the enjoyment of l u x u r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s t h a t are c a s u a l l y e l e g a n t . P r o v i d e O p p o r t u n -i t i e s t h a t a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , and c u l t u r a l l y s t i m u -l a t i n g and e n a b l e p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . R S C R E A T : :*AJL. OPPC:RTUS:T:ES (EXAMPLES; P r i v a t e 18 h o l e p r o f e s s i o n a l g o l f c o u r s e w i t h f u l l s e r v i c e d e x c l u s i v e c l u b fac i I i t i e s . Stage i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e c u l t u r a l e v e n t s soc.-. as j a z z , f o l k , c l a s s i c a l c o n c e r t s , dance and t h e a t r e p r o d u c t -i o n s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s . H o l d e x c l u s i v e a r t shows. P r o v i d e r u s i c and a r t s c h o o l s w i t h h i g h i y a c c r e d i c a t e d i n s t r u c t o r s . H o l d wine t a s t i n g e v e n t s . P r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of w e l l groomed s u i r u n s s e r v i c e d by s t a t e - o f - t h e -a r t t e c h r . c l o g y . 3X P r i v a t e P r i v a t e M u n i c i p a l i t y . P r i - . P r i v a t e Pr i v a t e (2) E c o n o m i s t R e - c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d i n c r e a s e the GHP, l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , incomes a n d r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s . P r o v i d e h i g h q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s t h a t p r o v i d e the the g r e a t e s t f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s and a t t r a c t d e s t i n a t -i o n v i s i t o r s . P r o v i d e s h o u l d e r season f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e n s u r e f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . Improve sjnmer r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s such as beaches t e q u e s t r i a n a c t i v i t i e s . S t a ge i n t e r n -a t i o n a l a t h l e t i c e v e n t s . M u n i c i p a l i t y P r i v a t e M u n i c i p a l i t y P r i v a t e 106 (3) Social Psychology Recreation neips planners Provide recreation Stage a winter understand how peoples' opportunities that carnival with Private leisure behavior is wi l l attract ice sculpturing, affected by the prescence colourful pe-cple. outdoor s«ating. M u n i c i p a l i t y by others. tobagooning, parade, fondues. ( « ) R e c r e a t i o n i s t (Leisure Concept) Recreation and work are inextricably interrelated Recreation is described as a means for people to supplement and balance their work lives with recreation. Integrate Recreation delivery services with other l i fe sectors. Find ways to enrich every area of l i fe rather thaa creating separate places i times. International Conferences I Business and Self Improvement Seminars with highly reputable instructors. P r i v a t e (Peat Experience) True Recreation only occurs when people are in a peak state. The individuals must be total ly consumed in a challenging act iv i t ies but that do not exceed their abi1i t ies . Provide recreation opportunities that wil l challenge the individuals, but not exceed their a b i l i t i e s . Provide a high quality ski school P r i v a t e with highly accredidated instructors Provide a variety of slope gradients ? - ; v a t = that challenge a l l levels of skiers. Increase heli skiing (5) Behavioralist (State-of - being) Recreation provides people with perspective not only of what one i s , but also of what one might become. Individuals may choose any act iv i ty whether work,play or meditation. Act iv i ty means to recuperate in order to prepare for work Provide a variety of recreation ac t iv i t ies that people can freely choose . These act ivi t ies should help people improve themselves, Al l of the above Health spas with complete esthetics services. A l l of the above Private 107 THEORY (Benefits) (! ) Pracmat i st Recreation a necessary scciai service which should se provided in order ic provide individuals regardless c f financial status with the opportunity -~ grow in a democratic e.nv i ronmen t . T a b l e I V ECONOMY RESORT STRATEGY Ai l recreation opportunities should should protect the long term interests of the community. Efforts should focus on client groups who need help and current non-users. Reduced prices are available to a i l people as a social service. R E C R E A T I O N A L . O P P O R T ' J N T : ES (Examples) Community Centre complete with swimming pool, weight room, day care and community social • educational programs. Public tennis courts Public goif course Mur.ic i p a i - -7 (2) E c o n o m i c S e c r e a t ' . o n i n c r e a s e s l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e m p l o y m e n t . (2 ) Human i s t t e P r o v i d e s p e o p l e w i t h a m e a n s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l ar.z p h y s i c a l g r : » t ; a n d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e . (4) Behaviorslist Local development and employment wil l increase marginally when community f a c i l i t i e s are developed. . Provide moderately priced educational and physically stimulating a c t i v i t i e s . P.aying : : e i c s Beaches with sand & lifeguards Regional athlet ic competitions "ndoor ice arena Community school with adult night courses Local business • self improve-ment worxsnops M u n i c : 2 a . i t ; M u n i c i c a l i t v Activity Recreation provides people with t ie opportunity to have fun. Some f a c i l i t i e s or act iv i t ies should be planned for their whimiscal nature. Children's adventure or water park play grounds. Pr ivate Municipality Recreation ajso provides individuals with their own sense of uniqueness and identity depending on the ac t iv i t ies they engage in . Provide act iv i t ies that will strengthen the community & add to the local identity. Stage 'Whistler Days" fest ival with a parade, special sales, outdoor restaurant service, entertainment, dances, fireworks children's plays, pony rides etc . Municipality Private 108 THEORY (Benefits) <l) Pragmatist Recreation snould protect the long term interests of the community. (2) Behavioral Activity Recreation helps develop individuals and their community Table VI MIXED RESORT STRATEGY RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES (examples> Provide Recreation Tennis Courts opportunties that people want, but are not unacceptable to the community as a whole. Provide opportunities that socialize the young and strengthen the the community. ice rinks expanded weight room Beaches with sar.d and l i fe guards. ice r i p. K — -~ -PSP.ATEZ M u n i c i p a -11 y P r i o a t e Huruc i p a i i t y Social Psychology Recreation helps planners understand how peoples' leisure behavior is affected by the prescence by others. Provide Opportunities for people watching and develops a sense ;f community. Winter Carnivai ice rink (4) Economist Recreation opportunities should increase the GN?. locai development, inccae; and real estate values. Provide fac i l i t i es that have duai uses for visi tors and residents in a i l seasons. ice rink (winter) skateboarding or rollersnating (summer) . ' . • j 3 i c i c a j . i t (5) Humanistic Recreation is required for individuals to help them grow inte l lectua l ly , physically and emotion-a l l y . Recreation helps people understand and appreciate l i f e and cultural ac t iv i t i es . Recreation provides a means for self actualization. A Variety of cultural events. Provide act iv i t ies that stimulate physical and intellectual capabilit ies Wine tasting Music 4 Art Fest ivals More well groomed ski runs Business and self improvement seminars Stage intern-ational athletic events. Municipality P r i T j i s P r i v a t e M u n i c i p a l i t y M-— i-ipal i t-y Or-c"»ince Private 109 A balance pf recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s are included for each resort proposal. Each proposal contains a mix of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , cognitive and environment-related recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s . Some of the benefits and types of recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s sought are s i m i l a r at a l l three resorts regardless of t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . However, the degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and cost of the f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are considerbly d i f f e r e n t . Recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s provided at exclusive resorts are designed pr i m a r i l y for the destination t o u r i s t who i s w i l l i n g to spend a considerable amount of money for high q u a l i t y recreation f a c i l i t i e s with personalized services. For example, a jazz f e s t i v a l at an exclusive resort would most l i k e l y be expensive and include musicians of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e . Whereas, an economy resort may also stage a jazz f e s t i v a l only at a lower cost with regional musicians. At an economy resort, recreation opportunities are provided p r i m a r i l y for the l o c a l resident and regional v i s i t o r . It i s u n l i k e l y that large influx of tourism d o l l a r s would be attra c t e d to the area. Community- oriented recreation f a c i l i t i e s such as aquatic centres and playgrounds are developed that provide s o c i a l benefits to the community. Recreation a c t i v i t i e s help keep families together, and provide the communities with i d e n t i t y . In Contrast, at exclusive resorts recreation opportunities are provided s p e c i f i c a l l y for destination t o u r i s t s who are w i l l i n g to pay considerably more for high q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s and 110 and a c t i v i t i e s with personalized services. There are few provisions for l o c a l residents and regional v i s i t o r s . Community f a c i l i t i e s such as weight rooms, tennis courts or swimming pools are not necessary, because the exclusive hotels provide such f a c i l i t i e s . S t r i c t quality controls are enforced throughout the resort to ensure a high degree of sophistication. At a mixed resort f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are provided for both the destination and regional v i s i t o r . The degree of sophistication of the recreation a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s at t h i s type of resort are more d i f f i c u l t to determine. The challenge for the planner, is to decide whether the q u a l i t i e s of the exclusive or economy resorts in the composition of the mixed resort. The cost of the recreation f a c i l i t i e s , and the status of the resort has considerable influence as to whether the municipality or private interests operate f a c i l i t i e s . As would be expected, at exclusive resorts more f a c i l i t i e s are provided p r i v a t e l y . 1.1 Mountain Resort Attributes In an attempt to determine what type of resort status and associated recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are most desirable for Whistler, the area's strengths must be c a p i t a l i z e d on in order to develop a comparitive advantage over other mountain resorts, and the area's weaknesses must be i d e n t i f i e d and improved upon. To do t h i s , Whistler's strengths and weaknesses are i d e n t i f i e d using the following attributes derived from the l i t e r a t u r e , survey findings and examples from other 1 1 1 mountain resorts. (1) A d i v e r s i t y of high quality recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s in a variety of settings. (2) Specialized programs with personalized services (3) Gourmet restaurants and luxurious hotels and stores. (4) State of the art snow making, grooming and l i f t equipment. (5) Unique ambiance and charm. (6) Large quanities of quality powder snow on long ski slopes. (7) Prescence of "colourful people" (8) Excellent v i s u a l q u a l i t y (9) Ample opportunities to watch other people. (10) Friendly l o c a l community. (11) A Variety of supplementary recreation opportunities (12) Exciting Atmosphere (13) Reliable weather conditions As discussed in Chapters 3 and 4, the attributes l i s t e d above a l l form a part of a resort's image. Certain a t t r i b u t e s , however, such as the prescence of "colourful people", ample opportunities for watching people, f r i e n d l y l o c a l community, d i v e r s i t y of high quality f a c i l i t i e s , and specialized programs can either contribute or detract from a image at a p a r t i c u l a r resort. For example, Crested Butte and Steam Boat Springs base 112 their image in contrast to Aspen's g l i t t e r y image on their f r i e n d l y l o c a l community and old fashioned charm. Local residents are portrayed as simple, friendly cowboys. "Colourful people" and high quality recreation f a c i l i t i e s are not part of their image. Whereas, the images of Aspen, V a i l and Deer Valley rely heavily on the prescence of Colourful people, exclusive restaurants and personalized services. These mountain resorts c a p i t a l i z e on a p a r t i c u l a r strength in order to f i l l a market niche in a highly competitive market. Table VII outlines Whistler's strengths and weaknesses in l i g h t of the i d e n t i f i e d mountain resort a t t r i b u t e s . T a b l e V I I i s t l e r ' s Destination Resort Attributes fACTOR STRENGTHS WEAKNBSS2S 3i»«rs»ty ot higo Quality recreation opportunities sxtinq, golf aquatic related, t r a i l systea. • i t e r s l i d * , squash, aerobics. equastr'.an. Mica access, :mn:s, •eigne '.raining, iquatic centra, stating r i a a . Specialized Proqrams b Personalised Services E s p i r i t Ski Program. Summer Ski Scoool. Sffic-.ent l i f t system Requires shuttle or r a i l service Mtvc«n llackcoas i whistler fountains. Souraat Restaurants, luxurious hoteis 6 Shops Village Gondola Ares State of the art Technology snow aaking • gro equipment i l i f t systea, gondola More state-of-:ne are l i f t s at Whistler Ambiance Chara reelected in Architecture t European ambiance of vi l l a g e Apperance along highway Prescence of colourful people Growing rapidly l i e Pepsi C e l e b r i t y Ski I n v i t a t i o n a l ; 3cvnhill Ski Experience ^arge quantities of snow Long rontinious slopes powder: aoist • easily hard pacxed Visual Quality Lake systea Dramatic setting v i l l a g e b u i l t to r e f l e c t surrounding area Logging and transmission l i n e s Opportunities for People Watching Village's pedestrian env1ronaent numerous restaurants, night clubs and lounges separation of 'Sondola area Friendly and interesting local community Whistler surveys and BC wide surveys ranked friendly people as contributing highly to the resort's iaage. (Blacxcoabe. 198") (MarketTrend. '9881 untrained s t a f f due to rapid expansion and turnover Strong Culture i History Sumner Square Dancing H i s t o r i c a l Tours Community Museum Toung resort community iacxs history, requires acre cu l t u r a l events. Warm i 3ry Weather Conditions Warmest ski area* in Canada frequent rain % 114 1.2 Whistler's Strengths and Weaknesses From Table VII, i t i s apparent that Whistler's strengths l i e in the area's natural resources and setting, in p a r t i c u l a r long ski h i l l s ; town centre's ambiance; people places; provision of personalized services, and high state of * technology. Whereas, Whistler's weaknesses l i e in the: unreliable weather conditions; lack of history and culture; and in some of the inadequate recreation f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y during the summer season. Inherent in a l l Whistler's strengths and weaknesses are opportunities for recreation development. 1.3 Opportunities Weather There i s l i t t l e that can be done to improve whistler's unfavourable weather conditions. Additions such as the bubble covered l i f t s make v i s i t o r s f e e l more comfortable. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s The addition and improvement of the exis t i n g recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i s required for any three of the proposed resort c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Society has become more leisure-oriented. Work i s a means to support l e i s u r e . Resort v i s i t o r s desire a variety of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Affluent persons w i l l usually expect more amenities and services than those v i s i t o r s with limited incomes. 1 15 Regardless of the type of resort developed at Whistler, the beaches need to be upgraded. If Whistler becomes an economy resort, more community f a c i l i t i e s such as a swimming pool need to be developed. Whistler and Blackcomb mountains' long ski runs, abundance of powder snow and state-of-the-art technology should continue to form an integral part of Whistler's image. Skier surveys and in p a r t i c u l a r Whistler and Blackcomb mountain surveys indicate that the long ski runs with l i t t l e to no l i f t l i n e waits, are a mountains greatest strength. These mountains undoubtly have these strengths. The degree to which recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s should be improved and added depends upon the type of resort Whistler becomes. * * * *, It i s essential for recreation planners to understand what the image of a p a r t i c u l a r resort i s . People v i s i t a resort because they identify with i t s image. As part of their perceived image of the resort, people expect cert a i n recreation f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s to be offered. They parti c i p a t e in recreation a c t i v i t i e s with the expectation of receiving s p e c i f i c benefits. Recreation theory is an invaluable planning tool that helps planners understand the various types of benefits people seek from recreation. Recreation i s an extremely personal matter. People part i c i p a t e in recreational a c t i v i t i e s for a variety of reasons. Planners must understand what people want 116 recreation to accomplish for them. By i d e n t i f y i n g the benefits which participants actually seek, planners may see their role as a supplier of recreation opportunities. Planners retain their focus on c l i e n t groups and do not become as involved with the programs of the agency. In addition, once i t i s known what recreation i s expected to accomplish, more opportunities are provided for c r e a t i v i t y and innovation. The type of resort the Resort Municipality develops whether exclusive, economy or mixed i s dependent on a host of factors beyond the scope of t h i s thesis. Although recreation planners can help create a p a r t i c u l a r type of resort by providing f a c i l i t i e s , the market eventually determines the resort's status. Thus, planners must be f l e x i b l e and responsive to changing market forces, and the types of benefits people seek from recreation. The preceding paragraphs indicate that there are a number of unanswered questions regarding the type of resort, Whistler should become. There is a need for more evidence and substantial market research to determine what market opportunities exist and how competitive Whistler is as a destination in the P a c i f i c North West and in international resort markets. There i s also more research required to determine why exclusive resorts do not supply more community-oriented recreation f a c i l i t i e s , when they receive such high tax revenues. 117 APPENDIX A: PROPERTY OWNERS SURVEY Preamble: He l l o . My name is ***, and I am a graduate student at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning. As part of a study for the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Whistler, I am doing an at t i t u d e survey of property owners at Whistler which w i l l provide input for planning Whistler both as a community and destination resort. The survey should take no more than minutes to complete. Would you be w i l l i n g to answer a few questions? Thank you! Yes - continue to question 1 No 2. Why d i d you purchase your property at Whistler? (Rank in order of most important to you: inmost important) a) permanent residence b) recreation home c) investment d) access to sk i i n g e) needed place to escape. 3. What type of property do you own at Whistler? Condo time share hotel unit apartment (strata) townhouse detached house 4. The Municipal Council of Whistler has decided that Whistler should be developed as a year round destination r e s o r t . Do you agree with t h i s objective? Yes or no 118 5 . A) What are the 3 most important elements of a community to you? B) Do you fee l that Whistler i s your community? yes or no If NO... What do you feel be necessary to make Whistler your community? 6. In the l i s t I am about to read to you: What does Whistler need more of in order to grow? (please rank according to s c a l e : 1-important, 2«no opinion, 3-not important) s i n g l e family dwellings apartments/condos expanded v i l l a g e centre summer recreational f a c i l i t i e s winter recreational f a c i l i t i e s expanded community f a c i l i t i e s commercial f a c i l i t i e s 7. From the l i s t I am about to read, what do you think are the most important community f a c i l i t i e s that Whistler needs. (1«most important) daycare centres schools l i b r a r i e s f i r s t a i d c l i n i c s service clubs churchs other no a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 8. (a) What type of a d d i t i o n a l recreational f a c i l i t i e s would you l i k e to see developed or expanded at Whistler? (Can ve s t a r t with winter please?) Winter? Summer? Year-Round? (b) What type of (winter/summer) recreation a c t i v i t y do you and/or your family do the most frequently while you are at Whistler? 9. The Municipal Council i s proposing a l o c a l sales tax which would be used towards the provision of ad d i t i o n a l community f a c i l i t i e s . Do you agree or disagree with t h i s proposal? Agree disagree 10. As an alt e r n a t i v e to a municipal tax increase, how do you f e e l about user fees to recover a l l or a part of the operating cost of f a c i l i t i e s , ( i e . Those who ac t u a l l y use the f a c i l i t y pay more than those who don't) Please indicate your preference. F u l l cost recovery p a r t i a l cost recovery nominal cost recovery no user fee 119 11. Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s an increase in property taxes. We are not applying that there w i l l be an increase but, would you be w i l l i n g to pay an extra: i ) $200 a yr i i ) $ 100 a yr i i i ) $50 a yr in property taxes to have these a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . For example, $5 m i l l i o n of new f a c i l i t i e s such as a community centre with a swimming pool and banquet rooms would cost $62 i n yearly property taxes for a property worth $100,000. 12. ( a ) How often do you go to Whistler in a t y p i c a l year? (b) What season do you normally go to Whistler and how long do you stay? (c) How many people stay at your place in a t y p i c a l v i s i t ? (d) Do you rent your place when you are not using i t ? (e) How long have you owned your property at Whistler? PERSONAL DATA a) Male/female b) What are the ages of the members of your family who use your place at Whistler? 0-6 7-15 16-20 21-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ c) What i s your occupation and what i s your spouse's? Do you have any comments which you would l i k e to add? THANK YOU FOR TIME ... IT IS MUCH APPRECIATED. Bibliography Anderson, V i r g i l Special Uses, Lake Tahoe Basin Management. Interview Febuary 18, 1988. Advanced Planning & Research For Architecture (APRA) Community F a c i l i t y Study An Assessment of Need and a Long Range Plan for Development. Prepared for the Resort Municipality of Whistler, Febuary 1985. Archer, Colleen W h i s t l e r - B r i t i s h Columbia's Playground Unpublished, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986. Armour, Don Manager of Accommodations, Blackcoombe. Telephone interview, A p r i l 9, 1988. Balcom, Susan "Whistler Wonderland." The Vancouver Sun Section D, December 24, 1987. Barasch, Stephen Recreational Planning for New Communities F i r s t E d i t i o n , New York: Exposition Press, 1974. Barclay, Gordon "International Resorts: Overseas Designs by American Architects," in Architectural Record Vol 164:4, pp 129-144. Barker, Mary (ed) Developing Summer Recreation Potential in the  Whistler Corrider. Research Report No 1. Simon Fraser University, 1972. Baud-Bovy, Manuel and Lawson, Fred Tourism and Recreation Development CBI Publishing Company Inc. Boston, Massachuetts, 1977. Berstein, Lauren "Its Mighty, Its Matchless-Its Mammath." Ski  Magazine Vol 52, No 3, 1987. Berger, Berger The Sociology of Leisure: Some Suggestions," Industrial Relations, Febuary 1962, p38. Bovaird & Tricker & Stoaker Recreation Management & Pricing Great B r i t a i n : Biddies, Ltd, 1984. Bregha, F "Philosophy of Leisure: Unanswered Questions" Recreation Research Review 8(1):15, 1980. B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Tourism, "Whistlers Summer of 1987" Supplement to the Vancouver Courier, June 25, 1987. Bucher, Charles & Bucher, Richard & Shivers, Jay Recreation for Today's Society second ed i t i o n , Prentice H i l l , New Jersey, 1984. Butler,* Rick "Vibrant V a i l Shows i t s Colours" West World Vol 13, No 4, September 1987, p 39. Branch, Jim "Where to Find the Best Snow, T r a i l s , Snow  Country March 1988, Premier Issue, p 56. Canadian Government Office of Tourism (CGOT) Overseas Market Development Plans Ottawa: Canadian Government Off i c e of Toursim, Market Research, Situation Reports and Guidelines for Marketing Objectives and Strageties, 1981/1982 and 1982/1983. Cassini, Oleg In My Own Fashion: Reminiscences of Mascara  Mountain." New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. Crawford, Jack "These are the Best" Snow Country March 1988, Premier Issue. Crompton, John & Howard, Dennis Financing, Managing, and Marketing Recreation &  Park Resources WC Brown, Duboque, Iowa, 1980. Csikzent, Mihalyi Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of  Play and Games Jossey-Bass Inc., 1975 in H Douglas Sessons, Leisure Services et a l . Deer Valley, At-Park Valley-Utah: Unspoiled. Uncrowded.  Uncommonly C i v i l i z e d . Utah, 1987. De Grazia, Sebastian Of Time, Work and Leisure New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961, p 87. Dempsey "Myth of the New Leisure Class" New York Times January 26, 1958, p 24. 1 22 Driver, BL Elements of Outdoor Recreation Planning Ann Arbor, Michgan, 1974. Dumazedier, J o f f r e Sociology of Leisure El s e v i e r S c i e n t i f i c Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1974. Emrick, Larry "Its That Time Again" Vancouver Sun Col 2, Section A, p1, November 27, 1987. F i t z g e r a l d , Gerald Community Organization for Recreation New York: AS Barnes & Company, 1948. F r i e d r i c h , Otto "The Robot Revolution" Time vol 116, no 23(Dec 8, 1980), p 77-78. Gans, HJ People & Plans Basic Books, New York, 1968. Gerarardi, Natalie "Should You Get into the Tennis Racket?" House &  Home, July 1974, p86. Goeldner, Charles & Fellhauer, Cheryl & Kates, John The V a i l Skiier Business REsearch D i v i s i o n , University of Colorado, 1976. Goeldner, Charles R & Standley, Stacey "Skiing Trends." (Paper Prepared for a National Symposium on Outdoor Recreation Trends, Weir England Centre) A p r i l 20-23, 1980, p 8 Godbey, Geoffry Recreation, Park & Leisure Services: Foundations  Organizations, Administration. Toronto: WB Saunders Co., 1978. Gold, Seymour Recreation Planning & Design McGraw H i l l , New Tork, 1980. Gray, De and Greben, S Land and Leisure 3rd e d i t i o n , Metheun and Company, Toronto, 1979. Gunn, C l a i r e "Should Function Policy Dictate Planning?" Paper presented at the 5th Recreation Management Ins t i t u t e , Grand Canyon, Arizona, A p r i l 1973 in Sessons, Douglas. Hamilton, Gordon "Going for Tourists' Wallets" Business Outlook 123 88, Vancouver Sun Winter 1988 magazine. Hawkins, Ann A Carrying Capacity Model for Resort Planning and  Management With a Preliminary Application to  Whistler Masters Thesis. Simon Fraser University, 1987. Hendon, L Williams Evaluating Urban Parks and Recreation Praeger Publishing, New York, 1981. Herrington, Roscoe Skiing Trends and Opportunities in the Western  States USDA Forest Service Research Pjaper, Int-34, 1967. Hoyden's H i l l Golf Course Committee. Hoyden's H i l l Golf Course Cost & F e a s i b i l i t y  Study National Golf Foundation, North Palm Beach, F l o r i d a , 1970. Hutchinson, John L P r i n c i p l e s of Recreation New York: AS Barnes and Co., 1949 as seen in Godby. International Group of Social S c i e n t i s t s . "Current Problems With the Sociology of Leisure." International Social Sciences Journal Vol XII, Winter 1960, p 526. Iso-Ahola, SE Social Psychology- Perspectives on Leisure and  Recreation WM CC Tomas, Spr i n g f i e l d , 111, 1980. Johnston, B A Rationale for Municipal Leisure Services Jubenville, Alan Outdoor Recreation Planning Toronto: WB Saunders Company, 1976. Kaplan, Max Leisure Theory and Policy John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, 1975. Kelly, John Recreation Business John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, 1985. Kraus, Richard, G Recreation Today Program Planning and Leadership 2 ed, Goodyear Publishing Company, Inc, 1977. Kraus, Richard, G & Curtis, Joseph, E Creative Management in Recreation and Parks The 1 24 CV Mosby Company, Toronto, 1982 Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, (TRPA) "Findings and Recommendations of the APC Recreation Subcommittee" Unpublished manuscript, October 19, 1987. Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency Regional Plan for the Lake Tahoe Basin: Goals &  P o l i c i e s September 17, 1 986. Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency "Developed Recreation Inventory," Prepared for the Advisory Planning Commission, Feb 3, 1988. Langstaff, Kerry Promotions & P u b l i c i t y Coordinator, Squaw Valley Ski Resort, C a l i f o r n i a . Interview on Febuary 20, 1988. Larrabee, E r i c & Meyersohn, Rolf (eds) Mass Leisure Glencoe: the Free Press, 1958. L i t t l e , Arthur Tourism and Recreation: A State of the Art Study. A Report to the Office of Regional Development Planning Inc, Washington, DC, 1967 Lutzin, Sidney, G Managing Municipal Leisure Services International City Management Association, Washington, 1979. Marchi, John & Sanford, Russel State Operated Ski Centres L e g i s l a t i v e Commission on Expenditure Review Program Audit, New York, September 1983. MarketTrend Marketing Research Group V i s i t o r s '87: A Travel Survey of V i s i t o r s to  B r i t i s h Columbia. Prepared for Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and Culture, 1988. M e l v i l l e , Lauren (ed) Whistler Property Owners' Attitude Survey. Unpublished. Prepared for the Resort Municipality of Whistler and the School of Community and Regional Planning, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. December 1987. Meyersohn, Rolf Americans Off Duty in Wilma Donahue et a l , eds. Free Time- Challenge to Later Maturity. Ann Arbour: University of Michigan Press, 1958, p46. Mohler, Chaco "Letting em Run at Whistler" Skiing Magazine Vol 40, No 7, Spring, 1988. Marshall, Jamie "Whats a Parafango," Ski Magazine No 3, Vol 52, New York, 1987. Mittmann, J National Forest Landscape Management Ski Areas Volume 2, Chapter 7, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook, No 617, 1985. Moon, Rose Executive Director for The Royal L i f e Saving Society, Vancouver, BC. Telephone interview March 1, 1988. Nakhooda, Zulie Leisure—Recreation in Society Allahabad, India: Kibab Mahal, 1961, p7. Nash, Jay Philosophy of Recreation and Leisures St Louis: CV Mosby Co, 1953. Neuymer, Martin and Neuymer, Esther Leisure & Recreation 3rd edition. New York: Ronald Press, 1958, p 14. Newhart, Tim Marketing Manager, Heavenly Valley Ski Area. Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Interview on Febuary 18, 1988. Nichols, Thomas A Public Recreation Planning Model Based on  Current Recreation Planning Theory MA Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. Roberts, Bob National Ski Association, Lake Tahoe, C a l i f o r n i a . Telephone interview on Febuary 20, 1988. Pelegrino, Da What Recreation Research Says to the Recreation  Practitioner American All i a n c e for Health and Physical Education, Washington, DC, 1975. Pelegrino, Donald Research Methods for Recreation and Leisure: A  Theoretical and P r a c t i c a l Guide. Wm C Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 1974. P h i l l i p s , Patrick Developing With Recreational Amenities Washington, DC, ULI-The Urban Land Ins t i t u t e , 1986. 126 Patton, Jeanie, "A L i t t l e S l i c e Paradise," Ski Magazine Vol 52, No 3, New York, November 1987. Professional Environmental Recreation Consultants Ltd (PERC) The Whistler Recreation Master Plan Study. Prepared for the Resort Municipality of Whistler, 1980. Resort Municipality of Whistler O f f i c i a l Community Plan Whistler, BC, 1985. Resort Municipality of Whistler Recreation Master Plan Draft Whistler, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988. Resort Municipality of Whistler, Whistler Economic P r o f i l e Prepared by Planning Department, January 1986. Roberts, Williams "Seeking the Right Environment F i t for a new Resort Community at Amelia Island, F l o r i d a . Landscape Architect, Vol 63, No 3, p 239-250. Romney, Ott "Off the Job Livi n g " New York: AS Barnes & Company, 1945, p14. Rooney, Lynn Administration of Public Recreation The Ronald Press Company, Washington 1964. Sapora, AV "Recreation Surveys, Studies, and Research." Proceedings of the Recreation Planning I n s t i t u t e . Great Lakes D i s t r i c t Recreation Conference. C i n c i n n a t i : Natural Recreation Association, 1957. Sesson, Douglas H Leisure Services Prentice h a l l , New Jersey, 1984. Shivers, Jay Leisure and Recreation Concepts: A C r i t i c a l  Analysis Toronto, Allyn & Bacon Inc, 1981. Ski Industries America (SKI) "White Paper on Skiing." Unpublished Report, 1984, p2. Smart, E r i c Recreation Development Handbook ULI- Urban Land Institute Washington, 1981. Smith, Ray The American Endless Weekend American Institue of Architects. New York, May 1973. Squaw, Valley, Media Package, 1987-1988. Strain, Andrew Associate Planner, Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Interview on Febuary 18, 1988. Strain, Andrew Pedestrians in Reort Communities; Investigating  Designed Levels of Pedestrian Orientation University of Washington, 1985. United States Government The Third US Nationwide Outdoor Recreation Plan Government Printing O f f i c e , Washington, DC, 1979. United States Tennis Association (USTA) Tennis Courts: 1986-1987 Lynn Mass: HO Zimman, Inc, 1986. Urban Land Insitute Lake Tahoe: A Evaluation of Governmental,  Planning, Environmental, and Infrastructure  Financing Issues. A Panel Advisory Sevice Report, January, 1985. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Land: Recreation & Leisure Abstracted from the f i r s t annual land use symposium, ULI, Washington, 1970. USDA Forest Service Growth Potential of the S k i i e r Market in the  National Forests. Research Paper No-36, Washington, DC, 1979. Vance, Mike Recreation Planner for the Resort Municipality of Whistler. Telephone interview on March 8, 1988. Van Doren,' CS & GB Priddle & Lewis, Je Land and Leisure t h i r d e d i t i o n , Methuen and Company, Toronto, 1979. Webster, Anita "Whistler Mountain High," Western Living Vol 17, No 11, November 1987, p113. Weiss, Paul "A Philosophical D e f i n i t i o n of Leisure" Quest Vol. V, December 1965, p 1. Welskopf, Donald 128 Recreation and Leisure; Improving the Quality of  L i f e (2nd e d i t i o n ) , Allyn & Bacon Inc, Toronto, 1975. Whistler Question "Whistler Mountain News: The New Look for Whistler." Vol 12, Issue 50, Special Edition, Supplement to the Whistler Question, December 17, 1987. Whistler Question "Hotel Tax Pays for Park Improvements." Vol 13, Issue 6, Febuary 11, 1988. Whistler Question "New Golf Course Okayed." Vol 14, Issue 7, Feb 18, 1988. Whistler Question "Club and Corporations Raise Rink Funds." Volume 13, Issue 10, March 10, 1988. Zuehlke, Mark Ski With Us Super Natural BC Skyward Marketing and Tourism B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987-88, p 36. 

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