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Sources of educational philosophy implemented in western Canadian art galleries : an analysis of the… Campbell, Nancy 1989

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SOURCES OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IMPLEMENTED IN WESTERN CANADIAN ART GALLERIES An analysis of the educational, curatorial and institutional educative philosophy of seven western Canadian art galleries and its effect on the organizational structure of art institutions in the 1980 s by NANCY CAMPBELL A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Visual and Performing Arts in Education We accept this as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1988 9> Nancy 6. Campbell, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of $-&.T £~Z>UcUlTt OfiJ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The problem of this study was to explicate both the curatorial and art educational philosophies that underlie educative programming in seven western Canadian art galleries. The underlying premise of the study, reflecting the literature of the field, was that curatorial and art educational philosophies within trie art institution were not congruent. This perceived incongruency was believed to be the cause of art institutions to fall short of their task to interpret art and exhibition to the public successfully. As a result of this premise information regarding the nature of this incongruency needed to be collected. Related information regarding the possibility of a cooperative inter-departmental networking of objectives, educational goals and philosophy between curators and educators, as well as an exploration of the organizational structures of the gallery, also needed to be collected. The study employed survey research procedures. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which was administered by personal and telephone interview to seven curators and seven art educators in seven western Canadian art galleries. The results of the study show that it is not solely the differing philosophical and ideological beliefs of the educators and curators functioning within the art institution which make the development of strong educational gallery programming difficult. It was found that, in general, curators and educators support the educational mission of galleries today, despite differing personal or departmental goals. The larger problem revealed in the study regarding the establishment of a strong educative programme in the art gallery is a problem of tradition, hierarchy in job position, and the basic organizational structure of the gallery itself. The findings show that it is the organization of galleries which has to adapt in order to support the growing educational mission. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for further research are outlined. ( i i ; ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my advisors , Dr. Ron MacGregor, Dr. Marjorie Halpin, and Dr. Laurie Baxter in supporting this project which was, at its conception, not of the mainstream. Their guidance, interest, and encouragement throughout the preparation of this thesis helped to instill in me an attitude towards timely research and demanded scholarship, t would also like to express my appreciation to Willard Holmes for his influence and guidance which became the basis of this research. Thanks are also extended to the curators and educators who participated in this study, for their interest in the thesis and the provision of information on the present staus of art education in Canadian art institutions. Special thanks are extended to my family in Winnipeg for their continued support, belief in the work and in me. Additional thanks is given to Mrs. Jean Campbell for her encouragement and interest. (Lil) TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract - * Acknowiegements , i i i I. The Problem •. ' A. introduction,,.,, I B. Purpose of the Study 2 C. Statement of the Problem 4 D. Research Questions 4 E. Definition of Terms 6 F. Design of the Study , 7 II. Review of the Literature 6 A. The Purpose of the Art Museum 6 B. The Educator 9 C. The Curator 10 D. Problems Arising out of the Growth of the Educational Mission in Art institutions 11 E. Summary 12 III. Conduct of the Study 14 A. Research Questions .. 14 B. Procedures 15 C. Data Analysis , 16 D. Case Studies 17 1. Case Study One 17 2. Case Study Two 21 3. Case Study Three 26 4. Case Study Four 30 5. Case Studv Five 34 6. Case Study Six 39 7. Case Study Seven 44 ( i v ) IV. Findings 48 A. Research Question One 48 B. Research Question Two ••-49 C. Research Question Three 51 D. Research Question Four 53 E. Research Question Five 56 1. Historical Tradition and Hierarchy 57 2. Mutual Understanding of Goals 58 3. Inter-departmental Communication 59 4. Progressive Exhibition Planning 59 F. Summary • °0 V. Summary, Restatement of Propositions, Conclusions and Discussion of the Findings 61 A. Summary of the Study • 61 B. Restating the Propositions 62 C. Conclusions and Discussion 68 1. The Art Gallery as Educator 68 2. Role of the Curator..... 70 3. Role of the Educator...; -71 4. Role of the Director 71 D. Recommendations 74 VI. References 76 VII. Appendix 1 79 VIII. Appendix II 53 IX. Appendix III 85 page I. THE PROBLEM A. INTRODUCTION The Art Gallery was historically dedicated to the acquisition, preservation and exhibition of art objects with education playing a minor role. However, beginning in the United States in the 1960s, the gallery's role as interpreter of visual phenomena to the mass population has been emphasized, utilized and explored. Art Education devoted its entire January, 1980 issue to museum education. One article reports that: ..throughout the world museum education is on an upward spiral of exciting, stimulting and thought-provoking discovery-based art education . (Ott. 1980, p7.) By 1972, Canadian galleries had begun to develop similar educational services to increase their audience. This educative exuberance was the result of attempts py the Canadian government to build and promote the dissemination of Canadian culture and provide venues for this exchange of culture between the various regions. This was formalized through the announcement of the New National Museum Policy implemented on 28 March, 1972. This cultural policy, Initiated by the Honorable Gerard Pelletier, popularized the "democratization and decentralization" procees in museums ensuring that services were composed of pedagogical as well as so-called animation activities: films, concerts, performances, and video. This objective initiated the development of a new dimension in the departmental structure of the Canadian gallery: ...to change the gallery's image (a static exhibition space, an attic or cemetery for dusty artifacts), to transform it into a living, talking, didactic gallery, a gallery open to all social classes. (Gosselin, 1986 p. 31) With this transformation of formal objectives, the traditional function of the art museum was challenged. The approach to this new model of the didactic gallery demanded a new educational orientation, along with a relevant interpretation of the page visual material. With the increase of educational outreach to the community, the position of the art educator within the art gallery became increasingly important. The result was the development of a separate profession and a separate department within the art gallery Despite the present commitment of museums and galleries to learning in the 1980s, there is still confusion within the museum world as to the role of education within this institutional structure. When the Commission on Museums for a New Century offered its recommendations in 1984 , it stated, "If learning is to remain at the philosophical core of museums , we believe its place in the internal structure of museums must be examined. Placing all education efforts under the director of a separate department may not be the best organizational structure for achieving the museum's educational goals" (Leavitt, 1985, p.26). It is the "spin off" of this rethinking of the educational structure of museums and galleries in light of the strengthened educational mission in today's art institutions which instigated this analysis of the educational philosophies and responsibilities of curators and educators in Canadian art galleries. Curators, educators, researchers, exhibit designers—together they are responsible for the museum's fundamental mission, which is to educate. But if these several groups struggle for dominance, for turf, rather than striving to find ways to work together, no museum can fulfill its purpose. (O'Toole, 1985. p.29) B. PURPOSE Of THE STUDY Within the gallery structure curators and art educators are the interpreters of art to the general public. In understanding that both the curator and educator interpret art by means of the same vehicle (the exhibition), in the same institution (the art gallery), it might be assumed that their objectives and philosophies regarding the interpretation of this art would be similar. At the outset of this study an analysis of the positions of curator and educator within the art institution was drawn based on a review of related literature and hearsay from the field. As a result of my pre-conceived notions regarding curators page and educators, the following analysis of the position of curator and educator within the art institution was made: The curator is the academic mind behind the exhibitions installed at an art gallery. The curator's presentation of the visual material ultimately has a specific or directed ideological orientation, a specific approach or message about the work chosen or issue explored through the art. The "curator as educator" is an implicit role within the curatorial realm. Thus, the academic contribution to the educative function should be explored. The art educator's approach to education is different. Rather than developing an exhibition of art to present a specific lesson or message to the public and implicitly applying an educative function to the presentation of this message, the educator takes the experience of teaching, socialization and art theory and plugs them into the exhibition. His/her contribution is to present and supply the public with an understanding of the curatorial objective. Curatorial: [development of exhibition] + [ implicit message of this visual world] = education Art Educator: [educational, social orientation] + [interpretation of the visual world] = exhibition It was the initial purpose of this study to examine the extent to which these differences in ideology and educational philosophy between educators and curators affect educative programming in Canadian art institutions. If it was found that educative programming in art institutions fell short of its task to successfully interpret the art and exhibition to the public because of the above conflicting orientations between curators and educators, a further purpose was: 1. to explore the possibility of a cooperative inter-departmental networiong of objectives, educational goals and philosophy. page A 2. to explore the organizational structures of art institutions which direct the above mentioned departments. C. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM From the several possible topics dealing with the educational orientation and implemetation of educative programmes in art galleries, I chose to investigate the source and philosophy from which educative programming arises. Both the curator and educator operate in an educative (either academic or socially communicative) capacity within the art institution and each department has the responsibility of delivering information pertaining to art to the public. As galleries have expanded their objectives of exhibition, preservation and conservation, to include the conscious effort of educating the public on the arts and related issues, the educative function has become increasingly crucial to the future of the art institution. The problem for this study was to explicate both curatorial and art educational philosphies that underlie educative programming in selected western Canadian art galleries. Inquiry into each of these educative philosophies and the departmental objectives held by the respondents was the basis for determining the sources and motivations for gallery programming. The effects of these responses, as they were apparent in our discussions were analysed and conclusions drawn. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The investigator's priorites may be more clearly understood if they are expressed in research questions. The study was developed from these five. 1. What is the primary function of each of seven western Canadian art galleries as reported by curators and educators: a. the curatorial function (exhibition, collection, and research) b. the educative function (programming and community involvement)? 2. What are the formal orientations and objectives that characterize each of page the educative programmes of eeven western Canadian art galleries? 3. What are the inherent problems involving educative programming, as revealed in seven western Canadian art galleries? 4. To what extent is the orientation of the educative programmes implemented in seven western Canadian galleries a product of a communicative network of ideas and philosophies of the curators and educators within each institution? 5. How do curators and educators foresee improvement occurring in the interdepartmental communication of philosophies and objectives between curators and educators that might subsequently improve educative programming and professional relationships between departments within the art museum? These research questions were derived from initial assumptions about the nature of the departments under study and the priorities and philosophies which they held. They led to the formation of propositions which , in their initial form, reflect the investigator's state of knowlege when the study began. 1. The primary function of the art institution will be the curatorial function, implying collection, research, and exhibition. (reflectingResearch Question J.) 2. The philosophical and ideological orientation of educative programming implemented in the galleries surveyed will be solely the design of the education department. (reflecting Research Question 2.) 3. The educative philosophies and goals of the curatorial department will not be congruent with educative philosophies and goals of the educative department within the art institution. (reflecting Research Questions 3 and 4 ) 4. Because of conflicting historical roles and academic orientations embedded page 6 in the ideology of Doth the curatorial and educative professions within the art gallery, interdepartmental communication will be non-existent or ineffective. (reflectingResearch Questions 4ano'S.J E DEFINITION OF TERMS For the purposes of this study the following terms are defined and used as indicated here: Art Gallery or Art Museum, - An institution devoted to the acquisition, care and display of art objects, which may also have an educative function. It should be noted that these two terms are used inter-changeably; I also use "gallery" or "museum" for sake of brevity. Docent - Trained, tour guides, usually volunteers, who conduct tours througn the art collection. "Docent" is derived form the Latin word "docere", meaning to teach. Gallery Educator - Individual responsible for educational programming within the art institution. Sometimes called the Art Educator, Head of Art Education or Director of the Docent Programme. Referred to as "educator" for sake of brevity. Curator - Individual responsible for the conception, assemblage, and design of exhibitions. Other responsibilities Include purchasing of artworks, cataloging of the collection, and documentation and explanation of exhibitions Curatorial thesis- The Intent or Idea from which the show arises. The thesis is the premise from which the art works or artifacts are selected for an exhibition to represent the intent of the curator. page F DES/GN OF THE STUDY Seven western Canadian art galleries comprised the setting for this study of the sources of educational programming within the art institution. Data were collected through personal interview (or arranged telephone interview where deemed necessary) with the chief curator and art educator at each institution. Also, materials were solicited from the galleries. The setting and background of each art gallery were studied before interviewing the respondents so as to identify initial differences in the relationships between the gallery and community as well as between the curatorial and educational staff. Personal interviews were used to explicate the source of educational philosophy and approach to education within each gallery. Interviewing enables the investigator to probe the respondent to reveal more information than supplied by a questionnaire survey. The nature of the collaboration between curators and educators in terms of designing and implementing educational programmes within the gallery was primari ly constructed on the basis of interviews. During the interview, the interviewer attempted to discover patterns of behavior, ideological orientation, and the prominent educational philosophy of the participant. Gestures, interpretation of the atmosphere inwhich the interview was conducted, and probing aided in uncovering participant beliefs. Notetaking was supplemented by the use of a taperecorder. The interviews were immediately transcribed to retain clarity. page 8 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In the review of the literature, information was collected regarding the purpose of the art gallery, the changing "role of the curator, the relatively new profession of gallery educator, the changing funding structures, and the changing organizational structure of Canadian art institutions as a result of the educational mission in galleries today. An attempt is made to synthesize the important elements of this research as it relates to the purpose of the study. The presentation of this information has been divided into four sections. They are The Purpose of the Art Museum, The Educator, The Curator, and Problems Arising from the Growth of the Educational Mission in the Public Art Institution. A. THE PURPOSE OF THE ART MUSEUM Education is a primary purpose of museums. To assure that the educational function is integrated into all museum activities, mus-eums need to look carefully at their internal operational structures. Collaborative approaches to public programs that include educational as well as scholarly and exhibition components facilitate achieving the full educational mission of museums. (Will iams, 1985 p.105) Canadian art museums have changed their public image. With the security of federal support as a result of Pelletier's Democratization and Decentralization Policy for Museums, implemented in 1972, Canadian galleries began to develop educational services within the gallery to increase clientele and promote a renewed interest in the arts. Educational services were developed to attract a new public audience. They began initially in the form of didactic tours through the gallery and over the years expanded to include a vast array of interpretative services such as films, concerts, conferences, performances, and video. Audience became and remains a prime concern in the survival of the public institution. Audience means membership, revenue, prestige and regional support for the museum, if the Canadian government (indirectly the Canadian citizen, through taxation) is to maintain its generous funding support system for public institutions, page 9 which amounts to approximately 60% of institutional revenue (Teitlebaum, 1 9 8 5 , p. 20), the Canadian public must be addressed and satisfied by those who are employed as museum personnel. In order to attract public interest and support, it is assumed that educational programmes must be effective and successfully executed. B. THE EDUCATOR The profession of gallery educator within the art museum is a relatively new one, centrally involving the creative interpretation of the presented visual world to the public. The burst of educational growth in the art institution in Canada, particularly since 1972, has made the position of art educator within the gallery increasingly important. The result has been the development of a separate department within the gallery, as well as the development of a separate profession in which the educator functions as public communicator about the art. The profession of art education was formalized in 1955 with the recognition of the Canadian Society for Education Through Art. The sub-group of this organization, specializing exclusively in gallery education, was not officially recognized until 1980. This is not to imply that educators were not operating in Canadian galleries prior to the formalization of the society, but does shed light onto the relative youth of this profession. This educational growth In galleries was necessary for a number of reasons. In conjunction with the growth of the educational mission in galleries in the late 60s specialized personnel were needed to provide specialized educational programmes and accomodate the visitor. Curators now shared their once exclusive function of presenting art to the public. The struggle for recognition on behalf on gallery educators has repeatedly caused conflict between educators and curators in the art gallery. Curators and educators were presumed to embody completely different ideas about art and its interpretation, which made sharing the task of presentor with in the art gallery a difficult one. Curator Riva Castleman stated in 1978, We never knew that there was education going on. It was always a world entirely apart..The people involved in education were usually educators [who] seemed to have learned about what....to convey to people in an page 10 entirely different way. They saw things [differently] than curatorial departments did, which is one of the reasons I guess, that we have always been so hostile to that sort of education. (Newsom & Silver, 1978, p. 69) Ten years later more is understood about this new department in Canadian galleries and there is a growing respect for the field and its function within the gallery. Gallery educators today are recognized for their efforts in the interpretation of exhibitions. C. THE CURATOR The role of the curator within the institutional structure is changing as a result of the growth of the educational mission. Indication of this change in the gallery system can be seen in the growth of a new entity within the gallery over the last twenty years in Canada: the independent curator. In 1986 there was an established group of independent curators working full time in Canada. (Crean, 1986, p.84) To these mild-mannered revolutionaries (independent curators) it all seemed like a natural evolution; a case of interest seeking its own outlet. None of them exactly intended to establish a new genre of activity, but the idea caught on. Art galleries soon discovered independents constituted too good an offer to refuse, however nervous these free agents might make them feel. So more people began trying it out. And now a younger generation is growing active in the field, some without ever passing through the public gallery system or collecting a degree. Apart from anything else, the independent phenomenon has been quietly changing the face of curatorship in Canada and perhaps even the way we see art history. (Crean, 1986, p.84) The rise of this new type of curator was partially a revolt against the constraints facing the curator within the public institution. It is argued by Town (1986) that as recently as five years ago public exhibitions were, due to increased page 1 1 demand for education and increased bureaucracy within institutions, simply "organized" or "produced" or "co-ordinated" by the curators. The desire to curate has led to the growth of the independent, whose primary goal is to realize true curatorial scholarship. This development is also, in part, a result of tightening budgets in the public art system which may prohibit hiring assistant curators which, in turn, increases the responsibilities of the institutional curator. Although the independent curator can improve the integrity of the individual exhibition, they might also weaken the public institution by depriving it of the manpower necessary for institutional programming. With the weakening of the role of the institutional curator long term educational and exhibition programming would be difficult to achieve. D. PROBLEMS ARISING OUT OF THE GROWTH OF THE EDUCATIONAL MISSION IN ART INSTITUTIONS The 'boom' of the art museum after the implementation of Pelletier's Democratization and Decentralization Policy cannot be maintained. The Report and Recommendations of the Task Force charged with examining federal policy concerning museums states: The granting programmes have been broadly constructive and are strongly supported in principle throughout the museum community. However, there is also broad agreement that to meet the changing needs of museums and the public, these programmes should now be reformulated and strengthened, (p. v i l i ) Both the museum and the art institution (which is categorized in this policy under "Associate Museums") must change for "their survival as viable institutions designed to maintain standards of excellence, scholarship, and high public service is more in doubt now than at any time in their development" (Wallace, 1986, p.25). The position that the educative function of the gallery is widely perceived as essential has been reviewed in this chapter. However, in establishing that museum education is a necessary and important mission of the public art institution it is page 12 essential to outline the related problem's which arise from the growth of the educational mission in the art institution in the 1970s and 80s. The most acute problem facing museums today is escalating costs. In the quest for a solution to mounting deficits, galleries have developed educational programming in order to appeal to the public for support. It' is with this increased demand for education that one recognizes that the priorities of the gallery of the 1980s are beginning to change. Traditional values are eroding. Basic museum work (conservation, research, cataloguing, scholarly publications) is starting to give way to the efforts of the educators to reach the public and the director to generate money. DeMontebello (1985) predicts that the day will come when a primary effort of the museum will be the realization of special events and profit; not the development of curatorial theses. This is only a prediction; however, if galleries do not review the changes caused by the growth of the educational mission and develop organizational structures within the museum which can support this growth, something of this extreme nature could occur. Montebello states that the economic crisis facing galleries filters through the entire staff of the gallery, affecting its modus operandi, attitudes and traditional organizational structure. Educational programmes and the special event, designed to attract a larger audience, has become an important function of the gallery system. People flock to see such spectacular shows as the retrospective of Degas, the works of Picasso or the splendours of the Vatican. Art museums, in an effort to entice the public draw on the spectacle provided by the larger, and they hope, money making exhibitions. Curatorial standards and scholarship are also threatened in times of financial distress. To lend and borrow exhibitions 1s easier than Initiating a curatorial thesis which may, or may not, be developed into an actual show. Gallery administration, curators, and educators need to explore the possibilities of finding a balance between providing excitement for the public and maintaining scholarly research. £. SUMMARY It was proposed at the beginning of this review of related literature that the page educative function in Canadian galleries was seen as essential, for reasons of attracting audience, public interest, and funding. The review has brought to light the changing nature of both the curatorial and educational departments within the art. institution. An understanding of the dynamics of these two groups is essential when analysing the educational philosophy of the gallery. As a result of the growth of the educational mission in the public art institution problems relating to the organizational structure of the gallery have inevitably arisen. The organizational structure of the public art institution which contains the curatorial and educative functions must alter to successfully house both functions. The changing of traditional organizational structures within the gallery is not an easy task. In altering one dimension of the system all positions are affected. Focusing on increasing the educative function is seen as threatening the integrity of the curatorial thesis. In ignoring the educative mission, revenue sources, outside of the Canada Council, are threatened. In focusing on the business or administrative function of the gallery, the traditional purpose for which the gallery exists, as a vehicle or setting for the encouragement of critical response to art, is obscured. The art gallery scene in the late 1980s is not bright. The growth and expansion of education within the museum in the 1970s is having to be re-evaluated and re-analyzed in the 1980s. The crisis in museums involves more than working out the conflicts between curators and educators and determining the ultimate function of the art museum. The entire modus operandi of our art institutions must be re-evaluated. The message seems to call for wholesale profession-wide changes in the institutional organizational structure of art museums. Curators, educators, researchers, exhibit designers—together they are responsible for the museum's fundamental mission, which is to educate. But if these several groups struggle for dominance, for turf, rather than striving to find ways to work together, no museum can fulfill its purpose. (O'Toole, 1985,p.29) page 14 III. CONDUCT OF THE STUDY This chapter attempts, through case studies, to give insight into the particular educational programmes, philosophical orientation, and the collaborative nature and relationship between the educational department and curatorial department in each of seven western Canadian art galleries. The educational orientation of the educational programmes implemented at each gallery is inferred from the literature of each programme (where it exists) and from verba1, response from the participants of the study. The extent to which communication between educators and curators is occurring in each gallery is inferred directly from the verbal responses of the participants. This chapter will restate the research questions, outline the procedures adopted in data collection and analysis and present the seven case studies. A. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the primary function of each of seven western Canadian art galleries as reported by curators and educators: a. the curatorial function (exhibition, collection, and research) b. the educative function (programming and community involvement)? (addressed in the case studies under the sub-heading 'PR/MARYFUNCTION') 2. What are the formal orientations and objectives that characterize each of the educative programmes of seven western Canadian art galleries? (addressed in the case studies under the sub-heading 'ORiENTAT/ONSAND OBJECTIVES') 3. What are the inherent problems involving educative programming, as revealed in seven western Canadian art galleries? (inherent problems affecting gallery programming are referred to separately in accordance with the individual sub-headings of the case studies. These problems are further analysed in chapters four and five of this document) 4. To what extent is the orientation of the educative programmes implemented in seven western Canadian galleries a product of the communicative network, of ideas and philosophies of the curators and educators within each institution? page 15 (addressed in the case studies under the suh-heading 'COMMUNICATIVE NETWORKS') 5. How do curators and educators foresee improvement occurring in the interdepartmental communication of philosophies and objectives between curators and educators that might subsequently improve educative programming and professional relationships between departments within the art gallery? (addressed in the case studies under the sub-heading 'STRATEG/ESFOR IMPROVEMENT) B. PROCEDURES The research covered a four month period from December 1987 to March 1988. The selection procedure used in obtaining a sample of galleries for the study was chosen by establishing a set of credentials. Each gallery had to be located in western Canada and each gallery had to have separate education and curatorial departments with separate staff managing each function. The many smaller galleries that have a curator who also functions as an educator were eliminated. A selection of galleries was made from these stipulations, with at least one Institution from each western province being represented. Over four months, fourteen respondents were interviewed from seven western Canadian art institutions. Seven held the position of art educator and seven held the position of curator at these institutions. The interviews were conducted in person where possible, and by telephone when time or travel restraints made face-to-face interviews impractical. The names of the selected galleries and the respondents were changed, to conform with the outlines of the Ethics Committee at the University of British Columbia. Steps taken to preserve anonymity were the adoption of random pseudonyms for both the respondents and the galleries. Due to the small sample and nature of the research it is impossible to secure total anonymity. The same questionnaire [see Appendix I] was employed in each interview to ensure commonality of response. The questionnaire was designed to encompass and address the five research questions formulated by this study. Twenty-two questions were asked in order to obtain answers and trends related to these research questions. page 1 6 C. DATA ANAL YSIS Qualitative methodologies include research procedures which produce descriptive data: people's own written or spoken words and observable behavior (Bogdan & Taylor, 1975). A type of qualitative research was employed in this study using structured personal and telephone interviews in conjunction with document analysis. Interviews varied between twenty and th iny minutes in length. Interviews were tape recorded and directly transcribed so to as retain clarity and accuracy. These interviews form the basis of case studies, extracted from the transcribed data. Each case study may have been subject to the researcher's bias. However, they are as accurate a record as transcription allowed of both the curator's and educator's responses to the questionnaire at each of the galleries under study. The data were categorized in four sections, in accordance with the research questions which instigated this research. Responses were grouped under the following headings: primary function, orientations and objectives, communicative networks, and strategies for improvement. This is a controlled survey in which the participants' direct responses to the questionnaire during the interview form the basis from which trends, problems and conclusions are drawn. page 1 -7 D. CASE STUDIES \. Case Study One: Art Gallery One Educator: Adams Curator: Bradley Art Gallery One is a small gallery in a suburban community. The immediate community population and school groups largely comprise a viewing audience. "As large urban centres tend to have a larger circle of gallery going public, learned in the arts, their education and exhibition can cater to that level of knowlege. Here, that's not so, although we would like to develop that part of programming". (Bradley) Art Gallery One is also administratively set up to be a municipal responsibility along with the Parks and Recreation Department, a department which insists on community programming. In Art Gallery One, community must play an active and explicit role to maintain support of the Parks and Recreation department. The mandate of the gallery is focused on "the promotion of younger local artists and mature contemporary artists. The focus is on contemporary art which is challenging. The foyer of the gallery is committed to showing community art and children's art" (Bradley). The staff at Gallery One is small consisting of one curator, one educator and volunteers and support staff. The curator has a background in education, previously functioning as both a professor and gallery educator. The educator has a degree in Fine Arts / Art History and has worked primari ly within the gallery system. This combination of personalities supports a mutual understanding of the two functions within the gallery and their relative demands. Staffing is a problem, however. The loss of a Director in December 1987 has caused both the curator and educator to absorb the administrative responsibilities along with their respective tasks. Primary function The focus of the gallery in terms of educational or curatorial importance Is at a crossroads at Art Gallery One. "The curatorial function has throughout the history of the gallery played an important role, with the academic exhibition function being the crucial element, from which education may or may not arise. I feel we're at the crossroads in that over the last ten years, the polarized fields of education (public) page 1 8 and academics (curatorial) are having to meet halfway "(Adams). The primary function of the art institution is seen to be primarily educative here. An amalgamation of effective curating and programming is the key. It is noted that it is essential for the "curator to acknowlege the educational function of the exhibition itself with the curator 'educating' through methods of installation, didactic panelling, large labels and relevant contemporary information" (Bradley) Orientations and objectives The programmes at Gallery One are aligned closely with the curriculum and the schools, which compose a large portion of their audience. The tours are a combination of the academic or traditional approach with an interpretive focus. The educational objective is to promote personal interpretation, but it is important to note that their belief is that interpretation can only be pushed so far without some sort of a knowlege base. The combination of both the academic and interpretive orientations is considered most effective, "We must break down the barriers and approach things in new and intriguing ways. The academic base has to be there though, or why even have galleries or art for that matter, If the learning component is gone?" (Adams). At Gallery One " community involvement in the museum experience is the thrust of the programming. It is one way to get people in the door. We have exhibitions and concerts which coincide and work off each other. It's very effective and gives the viewer a real high, a sense of what the show is about" (Adams). The school programmes remain the most effective in that they bring the majority of the viewers to the gallery. More emphasis on 17-25 year olds is desired, as well an appeal for a more academic public, which could, perhaps be obtained through an intriguing lecture series or similar events designed to challenge the mature intellect. Communicative network The Interdepartmental exchange of educational goals between the curatorial and education departments within the gallery is more prevalent than it had been in the past. The present curator's strong educational background is an obvious asset in terms of education, in that both the educator and curator think along the same educational lines concerning educational objectives and philosophy. They agree on educative and curatorial goals . Personal compatibility and equality in terms of job page 19 status are seen by the educator as important factors to conside if effective communication is to occur. Gallery One is fortunate in that its small size is conducive to open and often unavoidable communication. It is noted however, that the belief remains here that "communication must occur, because whether we like it or not education is going to play a critical role in the future of the gallery system" (Bradley). It is the consensus at Gallery One that interdepartmental communication must be ongoing to be beneficial if an increased effort towards education and effective and intelligent interpretation of exhibition material is to occur. Strategies for improvement The belief on the part of both respondents was that communication was successfully being achieved between the curator and educator at Art Gallery One. In determining a successful strategy for interdepartmental communication both the curator and educator spoke to the larger problems and perhaps the more difficult situations perceived by them in the larger, more bureaucratic art institutions. Two points were made regarding the achievement of this end in the gallery structure: One focused on the necessity of positive direction taken by administrative offices, in particular the director. If direction from the administrative end is not taken curators and educators will go on doing what they've been doing for years. You have to not only communicate between departments on education but with docents , the public, the artists, getting everyone doing, thinking and saying art. The curatorial objective has to be interpreted on many levels, for many peer groups, and that is where communication lies. If educators continue to cater to the kids and curators to academia we're not going to get very far in presenting the ideas. (Bradley) The other point focused on initiative being taken from the education department. "We'll be waiting for a very long time for curators to ask about education, It's like a marriage where one party isn't too interested in the other, and the other has to do all the work" (Adams). Educators have to educate from the inside pogn out, starting within the art institution and the staff themselves. Changing the hierarchy (within the institution) established and strengthened throughout history is a place to start. We must make curators aware of their function as educator, not in the programming sense but the curatorial sense. It's all very political and will take time, but has to be done. It also must be noted that the educators must know the language, and understand the curatorial function. That's just as essential. (Adams) Programmes can be implemented without curatorial guidance and input, The educator believes it is feasible but foolish, for the curator is a valuable information resource in this respect. Although strict adherence to the curatorial objective is not the major goal, it is important to know the driving forces behind an exhibition. The curator trusts the educator to interpret the exhibition as he/she sees fit for respective audiences. "As long as it's a good piece of pedagogy, who am I to argue?" (Bradley). It remains that curatorial imput is important at the conception of a programme. However, it is the educator's responsibility to implement the programmes, "Yet to take programming one step further, the curators have to be interested and concerned in the educational function of an exhibition from the very beginning, It makes everyone's job easier" (Bradley). page 2 . Case Study Two: Art Gallery Two Educator. Cameron Curator. Dawson Art Gallery Two is a large gallery centrally located in a medium sized city. It It has a large "street traffic" audience as well as a strong school programme. The staff is large, with five curators and three educators and a large number of volunteers. The exhibition mandate at Art Gallery Two focuses on contemporary art (about 75£ of exhibitions), particularity local and regional art. There is also a strong focus on Inuit and Indian art and sculpture. The educator interviewed specializes in school programming and is an art educator by training. The head curator, who has a Master's degree in cultural history, has as a major responsibility the contemporary art collection and photography. She also teaches art history part-time. Primary function The relative views on the focus of an art gallery, in terms of educational or curatorial importance, differed between departments. The educator believed education and community involvement had to take priority, but that one function of the gallery could not exist without the other. Conversely, the curator promoted the importance of the collection and research as being the focus of an art gallery. This statement was substantiated by the fact that the funding structures of galleries support this historical structure. "The focus of gallery funding tends to be Canada Council , which historically focuses on the curatorial thesis" (Dawson). At Art Gallery Two there was an acknowlegement of the pending change in these pre-conceived roles of curators and educators. It used to be that you (the curator) would go through the whole procedure of an exhibition, telling the educators what you were doing, and then they taught to provide the interpretive material around it. Usually a lot later, after the fact, when it was too late. The way we work it now is in project terms, so that the educators and the curators are somewhat side by side from the onset of the project. When the initial concept of the exhibition is derived by the curators we go through the interpretation of the exhibition page and try to put the curatorial layout into terms that the public will understand. (Dawson) Both departments believe education is essential in public galleries. " From the point of view of an art gallery, It 1s our future. From the point of view of the public, we are probably the only institution that deals with all the concepts around seeing things and all the cultural/visual stuff" (Cameron). The educational goals of the gallery are met at Art Gallery Two, according to both participants' response. There were the obvious problems of time and staffing which both haunt and hinder the success of most gallery programmes. Although this was seen as a problem, the larger problem noted was bad planning and organization of exhibitions and programmes. It was believed that exhibitions and programmes can work together successfully, especially if they work off each other in some sort of sequence of theme or event. It is important that the viewer gains a sense of cohesiveness from a gallery visit, rather than bits and pieces from vastly different exhibitions. Orientation and objectives The educational programmes at Art Gallery Two relate closely to the curriculum and the schools, as the curriculum is seen "as part of the learning process of any child as well as part of the cultural matrix of society" (Cameron). Programming leans toward an amalgamation of both the didactic material of the exhibition and the aesthetic experience from the exhibition. "I think they go more or less hand in hand" (Cameron). The "general attitude that pervades the gallery does not regard this institution as a mechanism for social cultural activity" (Cameron). Outreach, or interpretive services, communicates with the larger population, but Art Gallery Two does not operate in the capacity of a "people place". It does, however, attempt to bring different arts groups together, for example theatre and painting, or dance and sculpture. The belief is that galleries must become "interdisciplinary" now, especially considering the presence of mass media, technology and film. Galleries realize "you can't just put art on the wall and say 'Here it is.' " (Dawson). page 23 Communicative network Art Gallery Two is unionized and internal union problems create some tension Detween curators and educators, It was noted that "prior to our unionization, educators were always paid at a lower level than associate curators" (Cameron), but once the gallery was unionized the associate curator's and educator's Job descriptions were evaluated equally. This reveals some sort of change in the adminstrative mentality of the union, however, the head curator is still paid a higher wage than the head of the education department. Although there has been some review of the situation the educator believes that equality in job status has not been reached. However, interdepartmental communication between the curatorial and education departments has improved over the last five years. "We do use a team planning approach to exhibitions. So there is o collaborative thing in piece here, even to the point of evaluation afterwards. That's about as collaborative as we get. (It is now) standard operating procedure that we do it (communicate) for every show" (Cameron). This sort of communication is understood and has proven itself successful. There is, however, no meeting of the minds, or philosophical discourse, regarding educative goals and orientations. There are no "meetings of curators and educators to discuss where we are going or whether or not we can meet on a common ground or what the purpose of certain exhibitions i s . This would be beneficial if we could get it together" (Cameron). In terms of how interdepartmental communication could be achieved, the team planning approach to exhibitions is one method, although it still has its problems. To be more efficient there must be an exhibition coordinator who could be the liaison between the two departments, "an educational-curator" (Dawson). Both the educator's and curator's jobs are very time intensive and usually the departments don't have time or desire to stop and consult. A liaison could operate in this capacity and provide a closer link beween departments than monthly meetings. Meetings of philosophy and goals would be beneficial, especially 1f they were on a bi-monthly basis; however, agendas sometimes don't allow for this. Another consideration would concern the people hired to work in public galleries. The roles of curator and educator are becoming increasingly reciprocal and each department, although maintaining a focus in their respective areas, must understand the functions of the other. "The best skil ls that I could recommend for a page position in both parts (of the gallery) would be very strong and keen, with the ability to communicate in a very straight-forward manner" (Dawson). As for implementation of educational programmes outside of curatorial jurisdiction, the response differed between departments. The educator maintained that programmes could and should be implemented outside of curatorial control. "I simply use the curators as information givers and to give me clarity on what the exhibition is about and then I work from there, and sometimes it's like putting a round peg in a square hole" (Cameron). The curator on the other hand maintained that consultation on the inception of an educational programme was essential. ....assuming the educator to do an interpretation of a contemporary art show without doing the research outside the primary sources and having to organize and find out what's happened during the thought procedure doesn't work. There are too many entities at stake the artist, period, political overtones. (Dawson) Educators are described as the specialists in interpreting the art to the public, thus programming does remain the responsibllty of the educator. Art educators are the trained experts to be the liaison between the art when necessary on a variety of levels. Whereas curators are not public-oriented and they are not liaisoning. They are the liaisons between the artist and the lnstitution"(Cameron). The nature of the conflict between educators and curators basically stems from this differing focus. " the nature of the conflict is that educators are driven by the public and curators are driven by the art. There Is nothing Instructional^ that brings us together. (Cameron) Strategies for improvement Discussion with the curator reveals that "a lot of times the curator may feel that all the analysis that was done on an exhibition was sacrificed and brought to a level that was very simplistic. It is important for curators to realize that the majority of the people coming in here can be easily intimidated, and the easier it is for them to access the exhibition, the better. Curators have to develop an page understanding that they are not dealing with their peer group, but a whole other entity. You are dealing with someone you really don't know" (Dawson). On an optimistic note, the belief is "that you can't have one without the other, so there needs to be something that directs us collaboratively to developing the programmes implemented at the gallery. I would like to see that kind of directive happen" (Cameron). page 3. Case Study Three: Art Gallery Three Educator: Kovacs Curator: Farmer Art Gallery Three is a medium sized gallery located in the inner core of a small city. The gallery is open twelve hours a day, 363 days of the year, with people continually dropping by. The audience is varied, including school tours, and is touted as "not a place j ust for rich people with nice suits" (Kovacs). There is one curator, one educator and a director as well as support staff and volunteers. The educator is currently completing her Master's degree in Art History, with an interest in education as well as the curatorial function of the gallery. The curator has a Master's degree in Contemporary European Art History and his interest is primari ly in the contemporary arts. Primary function The objective of the gallery is to "show a range of contemporary and historical art from different countries and cultures, with emphasis, however, on the work of the contemporary artist, the contemporary Canadian artists, particularly the contemporary provincial artist" (Farmer). The attitude regarding art education at Art Gallery Three is changing. "As in any institution, the focus in the past has been on the curatorial aspect. We're working very hard here to change that. One of the positive things that is happening is there are people with art history backgrounds, which is a background that a curator traditionally has, working in the position of educator, so that there is a mutual understanding of objectives" (Kovacs). Nevertheless, the exhibition or curatorial function maintains importance in the gallery structure. "Funding structures are set up that way. It's easier to get money for an exhibition programme than for a wonderful, new interpretive programme " (Kovacs). The importance of exhibition Is stated Indirectly by the curator," I think the education programme is part of an educational goal, but I would say at the same time that the educational or animation programme takes its lead from the exhibition" (Farmer). The roles of "educator" and "curator" at Art Gallery Three are seen as "collaborative" (Kovacs) and "reciprocal" (Farmer). There seems to be a "growing page general awareness in the museum community that we've been showing art for the educated for too long" (Kovacs). Education must take a higher priority than it has right now, to break these historical barriers. ....many of the projects are conceived of as a curatorial thing and then education comes after the fact. I see that as a negative thing. There has to be much more communication right from the very beginning. The curator and educator have to sit down and talk about what he's trying to do, what he hopes that this exhibition will achieve in a general way, and what it can do for specific age groups. (Kovacs) Orientations and objectives The educational goals of the gallery are stated at Art Gallery Three in terms of the participants' objectives. " The programme succeeds from the point of view that it targets its audience very carefully and provides services for those carefully selected audiences, rather than a blanket set of theoretically good programmes" (Farmer). The programmes at Gallery Three closely follow the curriculum , although that is only a portion of the programming. Other programmes focus on the didactic approach to exhibition. There has been an attempt to make these methods, such as pamphlets, and didactic panels more palatable, exciting, shorter, and academically accessible to the public. There is also the realization that art has to be presented in "such a context that an idea or a structure or a theme or something that is graspable outside of the museum should be stated so that when people go out of the institution they go out with the same sense as when they've read a good essay that has a clear focus" (Farmer). The combination of solid didactic material with a focus or concept relavent to the outside world is most effective for Art Gallery Three's educational purposes. Communication networks Communication between curatorial and education departments has improved greatly over the last few years at Art Gallery Three. The position of educator was made full time only four years ago; prior to that it was half time. Now that the position of educator has a higher profile, there is more collaboration between the education and curatorial departments. "When it (education) only affected thirty to page forty people in the course of a year it didn't have much political clout. Now that we bring in large quantities of the audience, particularly children, we have to focus more strongly on programming. The curator and the director both agree that this (the young people) is going to be our future audience and that time and energy should be expended on this function" (Kovacs). Also, from an administrative point of view, the educator used to report to the curator, implying a hierarchy of position. "How can you have any sort of relationship in this case, I mean if he's the 'boss'? There's a whole tradition and a whole philosophy that somehow education isn't quite as important as making curatorial breakthroughs" (Kovacs). This has changed somewhat at Art Gallery Three recently, in that now the educator reports directly to the director. Although this solution equals the position of the educator and curator in terms of hierarchy it has " a flipside, being that the day to day contact between the curator and educator has.lessened" (Farmer), To compensate for that an exhibition commitee was formed at Art Galley Three inwhich the educator is involved, thus increasing the involvement of the educator in the curatorial function of the gallery. These "exhibition meetings" are organized by the curator and occur about every two weeks; however, this varies. It is not a "formal" meeting, but rather serves as a forum where ideas and philosophies can be exchanged, The educator's imput is primari ly made in scheduling or juxtaposition of exhibitions. The educator at Art Gallery Three, does, however, curate a didactic exhibition once a year, Kovacs says that this curatorial experience is beneficial in terms of the understanding of the curatorial responsibility and communication of objectives. Although these meetings are beneficial in terms of interdepartmental communication, they are not perfect. "I think there are still an awful lot of problems and a lot of it has to do with tradition. There are problems in communication within galleries because it means really butting up against all hierarchies of power that exist in a Gallery. In our case we have been lucky, in that there is only one educator and one curator, and we get along. Personality has a lot to do with it. Also because of my Art History background I'm more in tune with the curatorial objective or philosophy" (Kovacs). page Strategies for improvement Kovacs suggested that one way to achieve a better attitude towards interdepartmental communication would be in the hiring of educators who are educated in the arts, who have familiarilty with academic rigor, who know history and are visually literate. Vice versa for curators. "Curators must be communicators also, they have to step down from their ivory towers " (Kovacs). In terms of the implemetation of educational programmes outside of curatorial control, both departments agree this is feasible and often happens due to time restrictions and obligations. If something seems problematic the departments consult with each other but otherwise, the educator's interpretation is approved. Each audience determines the focus of the programming, and the curatorial.objective may not be relevant to a particular age group. The educator curates exhibitions at Art Gallery Three, which gives her license and experience in interpreting works of art on an academic level and in the interpretation of curatorial objectives. Programmes implemented at Art Gallery Three are the sole responsibility of the educator. "It should be the educator's responsibility, however, consultation with the curatorial department should be encouraged. Curators generally know nothing about education so why should I have to take my tour outlines to the curator and say, 'what do you think ?' " (Kovacs). page 4. Case Study Four: Art Gallery Four Educator: Grant Curator: Harris Art Gallery Four is a large institution located in a medium sized city. The exhibition schedule incorporates the five diverse areas of collection: Ethnology, History, Military History, Archives Library and Art. The curator interviewed was educated in Fine Arts. Her responsibility is the art collection of over 25,000 objects and their respective exhibitions. She serves as well in an advisory capacity for Public Programming of the Fine Art portion of the museum. The educator interviewed is the head of the Interpretation Department which involves the educative programming for all divisions of the museum. She has nine persons on staff, all of whom participate in some capacity in the production of art education programmes as well as historical and ethnographic programmes. None are strictly "art educators". The exhibition mandate of the museum is to "document the history and the development of the West, meaning primari ly Western Canada, but also the Western United States" (Harris). Primary function Both the curator and educator at Art Gallery Four believe that the curatorial and educative functions of an art institution should be balanced. They do not see one having priority over the other, but rather as working successfully with each other. "I think there should be equality. Not just to exhibit art objects and preserve them. The public has to learn something from them, and about them" (Grant). Yet at Art Gallery Four there remains a favoritism towards the curatorial function of the museum. This is represented in terms of staffing. "When you imagine the education department has about the same staff as the art department but the education department is required to serve the whole museum programme, I'm not sure how one can call that balanced? They have two whole other-floors to deal with" (Harris). page 31 Orientations and objectives At Art Gallery Four there is a of change in educative programming as it relates to art. "We're working towards a common goal with the art department and it should be beneficial for both departments on the whole" (Grant). The present programmes tend to follow a didactic approach. The docent at Art Gallery Four is seen to have a helping role in the interpretation of the art. "We are here to help interpret the collection for the public, combining different strategies to get different results" (Grant). The primary focus or orientations used are the academic and curriculum based approach: "What is being done at Art Gallery Four I think is primari ly curriculum based, primari ly for children. There isn't a good interpretive programme for adults. The other thing we have incorporated is the academic route. Lectures provided, or talks curators give tend to be more academic than interpretive" (Harris). One problem facing the Art Gallery Four in terms of programming capabilities is staff change and cutbacks in funding. "We've had a lot of trouble with funding and a dramatic staff change. We've had three curators in four years which means it is very difficult to have any sort of continuity or progress in terms of education and exhibition. Because of cutbacks in the last three years we haven't been able to put as much into our programmes as we have in the past" (Harris). Communicative networks There is evidence of a growing concern for the promotion of interdepartmental communication between educators and curators. At present the curator believes that there is relatively little communication between departments. "I can't honestly say that there is. I think that certain curators are more interested in education, hence, get more Involved. I tend to get more involved with exhibitions. It's a question of time and what you see as your priorities. I see what we need to do is research on the collection and documentation so I don't get as involved in the educative process" (Harris). Art Gallery Four does not have one "art educator" to work with the curator of fine art. Rather, there are "educators who are responsible for the entire museum and thus are expected to have a broad area of expertise which they feasibly can't have" (Harris), This demand for staffing only emphasizes the conflict between the educational and curatorial departments at the museum. With such a division in page interest neither party can successfully interpret educational objectives of each exhibition. The educator on the other hand, is more optimistic, "there is communication happening now that is going to work better and better and didn't happen before" (Grant). There is no established strategy to promote the exchange of philosphical ideas or objectives between educators and curators presently at Art Gallery Four. Both the curatorial and education departments do believe that this type of exchange could be feasible. The educator states that they are beginning to establish some sort of exchange with the art department. "We've had several meetings with the art department about the exhibitions that we'll be given this summer and the coming year and a half. We've had maybe three meetings regarding upcoming exhibitions and what they'd like us to do" (Grant). Achieving interdepartmental communication " depends on the personalities involved and how flexible and willing they are to exchange ideas" (Harris). Strategies for improvement The general consensus seemed to be that regular meetings and regular contact between departments would be a start. "There needs to be a bit of direction because we're pretty set in our ways in terms of working independently. (Working)together is more difficult. It is very awkward for the curatorial department to say to the educators, 'You have to come and sit down, we want you to communicate....'. Communication is difficult without direction from administration" (Harris). The educator believes that the field of gallery education has made great strides so far. What has to be realized is that "things can change but we just can't leap into everything at once. It's a learning experience for everyone. There has to be communication, meetings, and a lot of time for the dust to settle and the new ideas to take hold" (Grant). Both departments at Art Gallery Four believe that the curatorial input in the conception of new educative programmes is essential and necessary. "It is their exhibition and you want to interpret it the way that they (curators) want you to interpret it. We do plan the programmes for the exhibition but certainly with consultation" (Grant). The Qurator states that the previously mentioned staff problem is a crucial page determinant in her answer, "I think if we had more educators, or rather more specialized educators, it would be a little different. I would like to work with an education department that had a lot of exciting ideas. I do know of some education departments in Canada that have wonderful ideas about interpreting exhibitions but I think, give the range our educators have to cover that hasn't been the case and curatorial input is essential if the ideas are to be conveyed" (Harris). page 5. Case Study Five: Art Gallery Five Educator: Johns Curator: Lawrence Art Gallery Five is a large gallery located downtown in a large urban city. The gallery is easily accessible to all walks of people, and serves as a meeting place for the downtown public as it is situated in the heart of the shopping and business district of the city. The audience is varied, comprised of the general public, students, and tourists. The mandate of the institution is to "exhibit a balance of regional, national, and international art, contemporary art and video" (Lawrence). At the time of interviewing the gallery was in a transition stage. The whole administrative structure was being reworked with accompanying staff changes. There is a history of union problems and mismanagement at Art Gallery Five. At present the situation stands as follows: the head of Public Programmes has only been at Art Gallery Five for two months. Her training includes a PhD. in Adult Education, with a background in theatre and fine arts. There will be no "head curators" at the Art Gallery Five until May of 1988, therefore one of the senior curators was interviewed. She has been involved in gallery work for thirteen years, commencing at Art Gallery Five in 1979. There is a "five year plan" which has been implemented at Art Gallery Five, which will determine the success and future of the gallery. "There are insititutional goals set up by the director which we're working on together. We communicate goals but not on a deep level yet. This will develop over the next five years" (Johns). Pr imary function The attitude towards education at the Art Gallery Five is also 1n a state of flux. This is largely a result of the previous administrative unrest at the gallery and the relatively low profile of the education department prior to the hiring of Johns. The curator believes that the "curatorial function will always take priority. '* in the art institution. This statement is clarified, however: "That's not to say one is more important that the other. I see the two 'camps' of the gallery, being the curatorial and educational functions, together. The educative function works off the exhibitions, and public relations or public programming is geared to education in the arts on a broader scale, resulting in an increased audience. P.R. is the new shift here" page (Lawrence). The educator, on the other hand, believes that the attitude to education at Art Gallery Five has changed. Presently the educator and senior curators have the same status at the gallery in that they both report to the director. Also the "educators are working in a curatorial capacity (developing exhibitions), there's no 'policy' on who does that. That does not include acquisition or maintenance of the collection though" (Johns). This structural change promotes and verifies the department's value and worth within the hierarchical system of the gallery. Both the educator and curator believe that education is essential, especially in public galleries. The educator however, maintained that ultimately the curatorial function is the most important. "It is the major function of the gallery, without that there's nothing. Yet, without education there is minimal public. There are implications with the absence of either function" (Johns). The education function is seen by both departments as a tool to attract an audience and promote the gallery. The attitude towards education is tending to be more encompassing than before. "The traditional didactic approach satisfies the viewer for a short time in terms of immediate knowlege of the artist but long term scope and education has to be the primary goal" (Lawrence). Orientations and objectives The educator has positive feelings about the future of the programming at Art Gallery Five. She says her ideals of educational programming will be met 10051, as a result of "the director setting up a communicative structure that is conducive to successful programming. That is essential" (Johns). Another direction the gallery is taking is a renewed focus on children's education, as that is believed to hold the future of the gallery. "So many adults are set In 'they don't understand" or 'I could do it myself attitude. You have to start from the kids so maybe they'll go to galleries more than once a year" (Lawrence). The programmes at Art Gallery Five are all under revision. In the past the programmes were primari ly interpretative with little academic input. One staff member worked closely with the City School Board, maintaining a solid curricular approach. Although no definite comments on the future educational orientation of programming could be obtained, due to the revision process, it was made clear that the "department is interested in my 'intents' (curatorial intent) as far as exhibtion, page so that's a good sign"( Lawrence). Also, "there will definately be a push for the Gallery to become a 'people place' because that sure hasn't been happening in the past" (Johns). The curator's attitude towards educational programming challenges the approach typically taken by galleries. In her opinion, the traditionally didactic approach , "walk and talk", does not work. She believes that in gallery education you have to deal with universal concepts rather than the "artist is .he lived here ". An example referred to a hypothetical exhibition on women artists: "The intent of these artists was "feminism and art in the 80's" . An educational programme dealing with tn&se concepts, rather than color and form, would be a lot more relevant and apply to more than those ten canvases on the wall. Draw on life, on people, on concepts. Information is essential but only if there's a reason for communcating that information particularity. My philosophy is that nothing Is done without a purpose or target of information. Education within the gallery means reading the intent of the artist and curator through the intended theory" (Lawrence). The Educator claimed that "My philosophy is anything that works to get the idea across, no matter how or who does it" (Johns)., Communicative networks In the past there had been relatively little interdepartmental exchange of ideas and philosphy between curators and educators. "We talked informally about intents on individual exhibitions. I think more of this will be happening in the future though, it has to" (Lawrence). The director "1s emphatic about this sort of communication happening" (Johns) so change should occur adminstratively. Once the new communcative structure is set up within Art Gallery Five the future of communcative networking between departments will be made clear. The intents of both departments seem optimistic regarding this sort of communication of goals and philosophy in the future. "Presently there is no exchange of philosophies so to speak. That's what the gallery has to come to terms with, a phllosphical objective which applies not only to education but across the board. It is in the future though" (Lawrence). Both departments agree that an interdepartmental exchange of ideas would oe beneficial and feasible, but difficult to obtain as a result of problems and expectations carried over from the past gallery structure. page The educator is positive change will occur in the future. The gallery has to make it (interdepartmental communication) a priority. I feel it will be. Our mandate includes collection, exhibition, and programming, all on the same level so from the outset there is a mutual respect and concern for both functions within the gallery. People [currently] don't talk and they have to start. If curators, educators and P. R. (persons) take the initiative there will be a realization of these objectives (hopefully mutual or shared objectives) within the gallery. (Johns) The curator also believes that the division between departments has to stop. " Educators are jealous of our function in general. Not to sound elitist but they see us installing and publishing and meeting with artists and don't want to question the integrity of the curatorial statement so go ahead and approach things their way. That can backfire. That sort of division has to stop. It will take time" (Lawrence). Strategies for improvement "It's all in communication lines, people have to talk. Right now all of my time is spent in educating or re-educating the staff. Making the people within the institution think of the institution is different ways is the best starting point" (Johns). You also "have to formalize communication. You have to meet regularly, let's say once a month for an hour, so that you know on that day you'll talk for that period of time, about philosophy and objectives. If you leave it at, "Come by my desk and we'll talk," it doesn't happen." (Lawrence). Another facet to consider is the staff hired. "Educators can't be teachers because galleries aren't schools. What you're looking for is an attitude, a knowlege of art, and exciting ideas. I'd hire someone with no educational experience if they were up on what's going on artwise with the right people (artists, scholars) and could provide challenging programmes. With that happening from both the curatorial and educative end, communication would be easier. It's easier to talk about exciting ideas than color wheels" (Lawrence). Both departments agree that educational programmes should not be implemented without initial consultation with the curator. "The educator has to page interpret the intent of the artist. That is the objective. It's also the curatorial objective. The intent of the artist is hopefully embodied in the show. They can have opinions as everyone does but curating and educating can't compromise the intent of the artist. If an educator doesn't build on that intent there is a cross-purpose. Information is essential, as are informed decisions and interpretation. Even if they won't talk to us there is a lot of documentation they have to consider." (Lawrence) In terms of implementation of programmes after consultation with the curator, the curator believes that the educator has the run of the show. The educator, on the other hand, believes that education remains the responsibility of everyone operating within the institution. "I give my blessings to anyone who wants to tackle an educational project. If curators aren't educative you have a problem. It's all in the reception of knowlege, in any form. I don't have to deliver it. I don't work in a vacuum. If the audio-visual department wants to document a show for example, that's great. We need all the support and encouragement we can get" (Johns). page 3 9 6. Case Study Six: Art Gefiery Sfx Educator: Martin Curator: Norton Art Gallery Six is a small gallery situated in a mid-sized city. It's mandate reflects its location on the city's university campus, in that it is "partially premised on the fact that it is a University academic department, therefore, within the gallery one component is responding to the needs, desires and aspirations of the general University and more particular the Fine Arts department. Another component of the mandate in a regional responsibility, one to reflect the arts produced in this region. The third component would be premised around our permanent collection which is sort of a hybrid collection for a western Canadian museum" (Norton). The gallery also shows the University M.F.A. graduating exhibition, and bi-annual student exhibitions. The audience at Art Gallery'Six is varied, but is primari ly students from school age to University. The staff at Art Gallery Six is small, presently composed of one curator, one educator, a director, support staff and volunteers. The curator interviewed had been at the gallery for eight months and has since left to curate at another gallery. The assistant curator position remains open, although a tentative replacement has been chosen. The educator has been at the gallery since 1981, and has a background in Fine Arts as well as a Teacher's Certificate. There is also an 'outreach' worker who been at the gallery since 1979 and works independently, though following the advice of both the educator and curator. Primary function The function of the gallery and subsequently the role of education at Art Gallery Six is changing. "I would like to think that in the last ten years the emphasis has been community involvement. There has been a reason for that. Over the last ten years they have been trying to shift responsibility , rather financial responsibility for the gallery from a University base to a community base, so the emphasis of development has been premised on engaging other partners in financing the gallery" (Norton). The educator maintains that "the curatorial function is the most important" although she has" no bones with that". " The curatorial function comes first because page you set the exhibitions up first. The education function is held in high regard by this gallery but in the long run it is the curatorial (function that counts)" (Martin). The education department is "more respected and considered by the curatorial staff than in other institutions" (Martin). It has a positive self image and is confident in its future. "The curatorial voice is still listened to a bit more. It is that which comes first. Until the day that you see a director come out ot the education ranks as opposed to the curatorial ranks it is always going to be that way. That day isn't too far off, for the fight within the museum seems to be bent on advocacy, and for education" (Martin). The primary role of an art institution, being either curatorial or educative, was a debatable point at Art Gallery Six. The curator believes that in Science and Technology or Ethnographic museums the educative goal is the most important. However, in Fine Art museums he see the "danger of galleries losing sight of their goal of developing some sort of thesis which articulates itself visually" (Norton). He maintains "that in addition to the catalogue and the label, you can argue a tangible point visually. I think there is a danger of letting go of that level of communication to over-interpretation and that you can reach a situation where you no longer need to have art either" (Norton). The educator maintains that "education could not be the primary function for what we are here to do is facilitate an understanding of original works of art. If they (curators) don't have solid exhibition material for us to educate the people, we have nothing to go on so you can't do something primari ly for education" (Martin). Depite the curatorial function taking precedence, neither department could imagine a public institution without an educative function. "In this day and age it is self evident there will be one (education department). What kind of character they have and to whom they address their attention largely determines the character of the gallery" (Norton). Orientations and objectives The educative programmes implemented at Art Gallery Six are progressive. The educational programmes deal with every art experience in terms of three different categories: creative/productive (the child's personal experience); historical/cultural (context of the work); response/critical (confront the work itself). They also incorporate what they refer to as the "curriculum web", which page A 1 helps the teacher fit art into the curriculum, rather than the curriculum to the exhibition. The bottom line of all educative programming, however, "is to facilitate an understanding about an original work of art. Art has a great ability to teach about itself, about the culture that it comes from, its historical context and the human process" (Martin). Another major emphasis in Art Gallery Six is the gallery as a people place. "There are zillions of activities going on that are only tangentially associated with art" (Norton). This is largely a result of the size of the city and the fact that there are few "cultural outlets" or spaces for community activities. A specific problem seen with the educative programmes implemented at Art Gallery Six is the lack of emphasis on the young adult population (ages 17-25). Adolescent education holds a unique set of problems inherent within this age group. The curator reveals that most young adults "have come through a school system that, in most cases, has taken them to the galleries and has engendered them to have certain expectations. Once out of school, there are no art appreciation programmes to structure their art learning. You have to reacquaint this new audience and redirect them to a new method of learning" (Norton). Presently 9 0 $ of the programmes at Art Gallery Six are directed to school age children, although only 4 0 $ of the total population are school aged people. This seems disproportionate although the problem is not unique to Art Gallery Six. Communicative networks The educators and curators meet in Art Gallery Six, although this is not a formally structured meeting. "Its just such a small place , there has to be some exchange of ideas about what we should be doing, it's unavoidable" (Norton). There is the problem "that education often sees itself as the last element drawn Into the exhibition planning. On the other side of that, curatorial departments have a fear of capitulation. The answer is you have to engage in an educational strategy early on in the concept. I don't think it's a big deal unless you are super-sensitive to having your ideas manipulated" (Norton). One way of resolving this problem is the introduction of a "management team" who meet about once a week to talk about concerns. There is "not a philospmcal exchange of educational goals between the two departments at these meetings" (Norton). page Both departments believe the communication of philosophical objectives would be beneficial for both departments. "I believe the earlier you engage people who are going to work with the material, meaning the exhibition ( working with it includes those who install, make, or interpret the exhibition) the better. That would be beneficial" (Norton). Communication would also make each exhibition a "gallery project", so "you don't end up with one department doing one thing completely on their own with nobody else knowing anything about it" (Martin). The educator stated the way to achieve this interdepartmental communication would be to continue the in the way it is being done at Art Gallery Six, with meetings and a management team approach to exhibition planning. The curator had more specific ideas. Strategies for improvement Norton states: Meetings don't work. What would work would be a mangement concept called the 'matrix concept' (see appendix II). I think every exhibition should have a coordinator and the coordinator need not be from the curatorial staff. You'll have several people, either the registrar, educator, assistant curator, administrator; all of whom have a specific function for the exhibition to happen. All of these people must be able to be the project coordinator therefore everyone would have to be aware of the whole exhibition process. (Norton) This boils down to an analysis of the traditional structure that galleries have set up to organize exhibitions. This traditional structure seems to verify the heirarchy present within the gallery and between departments, in that it allocates responsibilty and importance to certain functions while it excludes others for the success of the project as a whole. I don't think galleries manage their projects correctly. They all seem to funnel, with the director having ultimate say, and are then subcontracted out to department heads who have some input. I'm not convinced this is the best way to manage projects. What you want in a manager is someone who has a familiarily with the project and the materials Involved. It should be page someone who understands the goals of the project, but often times not someone who is directly involved in the project with time restraints and demands. (Norton) The educator believes that educational programmes can and should be implemented outside of curatorial jurisdiction. "Curators are not educators and educators are not curators and they have to be respected for that difference" (Martin). She states that the "goal of their programming is to deliver the artwork, not the curatorial objective. We have to decide, in each case, what is going to appeal to the viewer and that may not be the curatorial objective" (Martin). The curator still "would like to know about programmes primari ly because I feel, since I know the material better, that I can pick better objects to suit their programmes" (Norton). The curator had no problem with the educative programmes being implemented, after consultation, without his consent. "I'm quite happy with the programmes so far. I don't have a problem with interpretation. I can see how this could be a problem, but it isn't one yet. It would only become a problem if they really blew the interpretation, for example, if they ignored the political Intent of an exhibition in favor of explaining the photographic process, or something equally irrelevant to the exhibition" (Norton). page 7. Case Study Seven: Art Gallery Seven Educator: Patrick Curator: Klassen Art. Gallery Seven Is a medium steed gallery in a small city. The audience is largely composed of the residents of the city where it is housed and the many tourists who visit throughout the year. Its collection is varied, covering European Historical and Contemporary art, as well as Canadian Historical and Contemporary arts, I n addition, there is a focus on Oriental Art and the Decorative Arts. At present there is a chief curator whose primary focus is the European and Canadian historical and contemporary arts. The chief curator has a background in Art History as well as some teaching experience. His interests lie in both fields, as represented in his research and philosophy. He has been involved in museum work for fifteen years, being at Art Gallery Seven for five. The educator interviewed has a background in Fine Arts, and has been at Art Gallery Seven for seven and a half years. She supervises two full-time educators as well as a number of part-time staff and docents, who are responsible for interpreting the entire museum collection. Primary function The mission statement of Art Gallery Seven is to "create an understanding and awareness of fine arts and crafts...therefore both the educative and curatorial function are seen as equally important. The mission is achieved through the mandate of the gallery which is to preserve, exhibit, and interpret the collection, it does Include both" (Patrick). The curator verifies this split allegiance to both disciplines within the gallery. He states that there is no black and white answer to the question of importance of the departments. He maintains that without the collection and academic premise of the curatorial function, there can be no education. Therefore, the curatorial function is essential but the functions must co-exist within a public institution. There has been a historical favoritism towards the curatorial function. "At Art Gallery Seven there has been a historical precedence. There is a much stronger and larger curatorial department than education. Education has slipped since the early '70s and is just starting to push back. This push is partially due to funding and a page new director" (Patrick). Both departments at Art Gallery Seven believe education within a public institution is essential. "It is of paramount importance because without diligent, effective and rich programming you risk the loss of your audience. Also, education programmes bring in the youth which are the gallery's future" (Klassen). Orientations and objectives The education programmes at the gallery are a product of four components. First there is the educative function, being interpretation, presentation of didactic material, presentation of information and docent training, and "Gallery in Schools" programming and research. This is used in conjunction with the Discovery aspect of the programming which includes 'hands-on', tactile workshops and art classes. There is also outreach, which works closely with the schools with kits and teacher training as well as within the Senior Citizen Homes. The community is involved through the Special Events aspect of the programming which includes such educational ploys as lectures, fi lms, concerts and family days. The programming incorporates the didactic, interpretive, curricular and community aspects of gallery education. The curator is most impressed with the focus the gallery places on school programming. Education occurs within the gallery <sra/within the schools which the curator believes is essential. Kits distributed to the schools and teachers provide a basis for a more long-term, "hands-on" learning. This type of broad based learning "provides the most fruit in terms of art education" (Klassen). The educator does have a problem with the gallery as a activity centre. She claims too often galleries are called upon to provide services that all too often aren't art related and the educator is usually responsible for these activities. "The educative role Is not a P.R. function" (Patrick). Programme change is seen in the future. First of all "change will be inevitable as we're moving into a new space with studio facilities so our hands-on programmes can and will be Implemented more readily" (Patrick). The curator hopes to see a push towards technology and education within the gallery. With a contemporary technological interpretive centre.using laser/disc technology, information will be more available, easier to access and more interesting. Children are coming out of this background in the schools and their homes, so the gallery has to keep up. page Communicative networks There is no formal communicative structure set up at Art Gallery Seven between curators and educators. Communication does occur however. " The gallery is small and the staff gets along. Personality has a lot to do with it. If we didn't get along it would be like pulling teeth. We have a mutual understanding of problems and are relatively accessible" (Klassen). The gallery has "not reached a stage of formal communication ye t" (Klassen). The educator agrees that informal communication does occur, but" it always takes pushing from the educational end. We've tried meetings, talking about what we're doing with P.R., education, and curatorial, but it's a lot of work for myself. Education from within is sometimes the hardest" (Patrick). Strategies for improvement Both departments believe a structured method of communicating departmental philosphies would be beneficial. Although the statement was made that they were, in line with the bureaucratic nature of institutions, "meeting to death", it would be one way to communicate. The educator states "It (communication) is feasible, not easy, but if we keep on pushing maybe we'll function on the same philosophical level. There's a need within a gallery for departments to share the same philosophical goals. It takes time to reach these goals and develop them. We also have to work cooperatively which takes time. Clarity is essential. Education has to advise curators and vice-versa....lots of talk , lots of clear talk" (Patrick). The curator agrees that it would be difficult "to adjust to the new methodology but in the long run it would be healthier" (Klassen). The curator also believes that the staff within an institution must have a broader scope in terms of art. "Traditionally there are few people who have cross-discipline experience. There are administrators who come out of an Arts Adminstration programme and have no, or little, art historical knowlege and manage art galleries. Same with educators and curators. I'm not saying you have to be an expert in both areas but be aware, read, be informed. The next generation will may change that" (Klassen). Programmes at Art Gallery Seven are not implemented outside of curatorial guidance. The educator believes "It would be foolish. Why not? They have a lot to offer in terms of the exhibition. Maybe the programmes implemented won't have to page do with the curatorial objective for a specific age group but I rely very heavily on the information they provide us with " (Patrick). The curator, on the other hand, has no problem with programmes being implemented without his input. He has no difficulty with the educator's interpretation of his exhibitions, as he acknowleges the plurality of audiences at Art Gallery Seven. As for the responsibility of implementation of programmes within the gallery, both the educator and curator believe that it is the education department's sole responsibility. "Yes, if there is integrity. The sole objective of the institution is to communicate the exhibitions or art to the public. We should be able to do that without interference from the curator but that's not to say we don't rely on their imput at the conception stage" (Patrick). page IY. FINDINGS Data were drawn directly from the curators' and educators' responses obtained and transcribed from the interviews given between December 1987 and March 19S8. Data were analysed in five sections directly reflecting the five research questions which instigated this research. The data emerging from the previous seven case studies are presented in the order of the research questions of this study. A. RESEARCH QUESTION / What is the primary function ofeach of seven western Canadian art galleries, as reported by curators and educators: a) Curatorial function (exhibition, collection, and research) or ; b) Educative function (programming and community involvement)? In reviewing the data the general consensus of the seven western Canadian art galleries was that lately there was evidence of change in the primary function of the art institution. The traditional function of the gallery, as purely a collecting and exhibition space, with an emphasis on the curatorial function, is being challenged. The curatorial function has throughout the history of the gallery played an important role, with the academic exhibition function being the crucial element from which education may, or may not, arise. I feel we're at the crossroads in that over the last ten years, the polarized fields of education (public) and academic (curatorial) are having to meet halfway. (Adams) In all seven institutions, those interviewed acknowleged this change in the traditional role of the curator in the adminstrative structure of the gallery. in many galleries the educative function is admired, respected and valued. This new sense of value within the education profession is reflected in the reorganization of administrative structures of galleries which now place the educator in an equal position of authority with the curator. In six of the seven galleries the educator reports to the director. The traditional structure, where the educator reported to page AO the curator, has dissolved. This adminstrative change allows the both departments to function, if only in terms of job description, on the same administrative level. in part, this change is due to increase of professionalism and status of the art educator as well as the changing needs of the gallery itself. Today, many art educators within the art gallery have backgrounds in Art History and Fine Arts and, more crucially, they understand the curatorial function. The educator now, "must be more than teachers because galleries aren't schools" (Lawrence). Declining memberships, and general increases in maintenance costs and budgetary requirements, have resulted in Canadian galleries and museums actively seeking a new and larger audience, increased membership, and new financial support systems. As a result galleries are becoming increasingly dependent on educative programming. Educative programming is the chief public drawing factor in the museum. This new need within galleries places a new emphasis on the once secondary educative function of the gal lery. The co-existence of the curatorial and educative functions within the gallery, although emerging in a majority of the galleries interviewed, remains inhibited by the historical and traditional funding structures of the art institution. It remains that "the focus of gallery funding tends to be the Canada Council, which historically focuses on the curatorial thesis" (Dawson). One educator reported that to her knowlege, in Canada " it is easier to get money for an exhibition programme than for a wonderful, new interpretive programme" (Kovacs). The curators and educators within the public art institutions under study acknowlege a change in the functions and role of the public art gallery. It is their belief that the administrative and funding structures which organize these institutions do not currently reflect this change in the functions of the art gallery. B. RESEARCH QUESTION 2 What are the forma/ orientations and objectives that characterize each of the educative programmes of seven western Canadian art galleries? The educational orientation and objectives of gallery programming have not changed radically in the last ten years according to the literature outlining gallery programming and educational orientation. (Newsom & Silver, 1978) Outside of the page evidence of the growing importance and expansion of educational programmes within the galleries themselves, educative programmes still primarily involve the education of children. The seven educators interviewed all emphasized the importance of their programming involving children. There was evidence that this was intentional, as the belief was that the future of the art institution lies in the effective education of children. Children will be the art institution's future audience. When education only affected thirty to forty people in the course of a year it didn't have much political clout. Now that we bring in large quantities of the audience, particularly children, we have to focus more strongly on programming. (Kovacs) The programmes for children in all seven galleries acknowleged the school curriculum , following, in varying degrees, the guidelines of their provincial art curriculum. Two galleries specified the use of art to enhance other areas of the curriculum through the incorporation of other disciplines within the curriculum such as social studies. This work, involving a close alliance with the curriculum and the schools was seen as Important "as part of the learning process of any child, as the curriculum is seen as part of the cultural matrix of society" (Cameron). All programmes implemented in the seven galleries under study were of an academic nature. The viewer's resultant interpretation of the artwork was not only a product of the viewer's immediate response but a combination of this response and the applied Information given by the docent. A sound academic approach to the artwork was seen as a necessary catalyst in providing valuable and effective interpretation of that art for the viewer. It was stated that "personal interpretation of the artwork can only be pushed so far without a sound knowlege base" (Adams). In addition, supplying that academic knowledge base was regarded by curators and educators as the mandate of each respective gallery. There is evidence of an attempt on the part of curators and educators to make this didactic learning more interesting and comprehensible to the student in the expressed desire to implement shorter didactic or information panels positioned in the exhibition space, clearer curatorial statements, and labelling directed at the page reading level of a child. Gallery One, Six and Seven addressed this issue specifically. One curator challenged the traditional didactic orientation that many galleries employ. In her opinion the traditionally didactic approach, "walk and talk", doesn't work. Her belief is that gallery education should deal with universal concepts rather than the "artist is...he lived in ". She advocates an educational programme which deals with concepts such as feminism, media, or sexuality, not elements such as color or form, and apply those to the work. This approach was believed to be more applicable to everyday life, society, and people. Information is essential but only if there is a particular reason for communicating. Her philosphy was "that nothing is bone wltnout a purpose or'targei oYirfTormdfion. "tbucdtion wltmn'tne gdliery means reading the intent of the artist and curator through the intended theory" (Lawrence). Two of the seven galleries had organized and comprehensive adult programmes coordinated by an "adult" art educator. This ratio is largely a result of the si2e each gallery and the repective number of art educators employed by each Institution. Those galleries which were larger in size had an educator whose major focus was the education of adults, however, in five of seven cases, one educator was responsible for all programmes, of which 90% are geared towards child learning. a RESEARCH QUESTION 3 What are the inherent problems involving educative programming, asrevealeo in seven western Canadian art galleries? Gallery programming suffers from problems inherent within the gallery structure itself. All seven galleries acknowleged a need for increased staffing, time and money, which are all seen as standard and continuing problems facing Canadian art institutions (Wallace, 1986). With the increased desire and need for educative programmes within galleries to interpret art to the public and attract a larger audience, increased demands are being placed on the staff of this once secondary function. The increased output of this department is dependent, more than ever, on increased support from the governing bodies of the institution. A problem stated in four of the seven galleries was the need for exhibition to be more accessible to the public. It is the belief of educators and curators alike that curators must also acknowlege that a majority of the people coming to the gallery can page be easily intimidated. The role of the "curator as educator" was seen as important if the educative task set out by the galleries is to be met. Six of the seven curators under study are confronting this task within the art institution. Historical exhibition standards are beginning to be re-analysed and re-structured by curators in western Canadian art galleries. In some cases progressive educational tactics are being employed: didactic panels are becoming shorter and catalogues are being summarized into pamphlets for the casual visitor. The language used in presenting exhibition material is to be understandable to those outside the field. Art Gallery Six appealed for a new method of labelling artwork. Norton believes that labels which contain more verbal information about the artwork, ie. not just describing it in terms of date, artist, title and size, would provide the viewer with more valuable insight into the why of the painting. Two curators Introduced the idea of incorporating technology into exhibitions, using methods such as laser/disc programming and video to enhance an understanding of the exhibition material. The belief is that galleries must become interdisciplinary now, especially considering he presence of mass media, technology and film. Galleries realize "you can't just put art on the wall and say "Here it is." (Dawson) Three educators appealed for a new organizational structure in terms of exhibition planning. Presently exhibitions are planned primari ly by curators, with educative programming a result of the often haphazard exhibition schedule conceived by the curator. The appeal on the part of educators was for a comprehensive network or strategy between exhibition and educative programming, so that ideas and concepts relevant to the art could be successfully presented to the public in some sort of sequence which would lead to a comprehensible understanding of the art. This appeal could be taken one step further in that with the establishment of a set of mutually understood goals regarding exhibition and education on the part of curators and educators, exhibition and programming could function together to interpret the goals of the institution, the curator and the educator. A specific problem cited in three of the seven galleries was concern for the lack of focus on programming for adults and young adults. This age group is page neglected in galleries in the attempt to provide services for the younger population from the schools. The problem of adolescent and adult education is largely a product of the population itself. This population has little recreation time to visit galleries , unlike the child population who may have opportunities for school field trips to visit the gallery, as well as optional free time to do so. A problem in educating the adult population is that a majority of adults have had little experience with art galleries and as a result have no interest, or are apprehensive about visiting. Many adults have already come to the conclusion that"! could have done that", and as a result are difficult to engage. A problem seen with the adolescent population was quite the opposite. A curator at Gallery Six interpreted the problem in this way: many adolescents, in particular adolescents living in large urban centres, have come through a school system that has taken them to galleries and has engendered within them certain expectations for a gallery visit. Once out of school they are forced to look at art without a structured programme and as a result are incapable of interpreting the art on their own. Norton implies that either children's programming must change its primarily academic orientation or adolescent programming must focus its teaching on the acquisition of this skill. The curatorial objective has to be interpreted on many levels, for many peer groups, and that is where the communication lies. If educators continue to cater to kids and curators to academia we're not going to get very far in presenting the ideas. (Bradley) D. RESEARCH QUESTION 4 To what extent is the orientation of the educative programmes implemented in seven western Canadian galleries a product of a communicative network of ideas and philosophies of the curators and educators within each institution? In galleries, educative programming is primarily a result of the efforts of the educator. Educational programmes are established under the premise that they are a page product of the philosophies held by the educators as well as in the consideration of the educative goals set out by the gallery in general. In this study, the curator was found to play an active role in educational programming in three of the seven galleries. In these galleries, it was noted that the curator's collaborative involvement with the educator was voluntary; they did not participate under a formal obligation established by the director or through a mandate set up by the institution. It also must be noted that the curator's involvement in educative programming in some cases was minimal or strictly in an advisory capacity. Where programming was a result of collaborative effort between curators and educators the galleries were of a small size. In small institutions the staff is generally composed of one educator and one curator. In situations like this, it was noted that communication between departments and staff was open and often hard to avoid. The proximity of the departments and minimal manpower were conducive to collaborative programming in that ideas could be easily generated and problems could be easily vented. When there are only two entities at work the curatorial and educative functions overlap, whether intentionally or not. This was evident in the smaller galleries, Art Gallery One and Art Gallery Six. Another factor important in collaborative programming between the educators and curators is personality. In four galleries where it was reported that the two departments simply "got along", there existed a strong degree of communication of ideas regarding educational programming. This "getting along" was largely a result of the educator and curator having similar philosophies and goals regarding exhibition and subsequent educational programming. It was the belief that when the curator and the educator think along the same educational lines concerning educational objectives and philosophy and agree on educative and curatorial goals, effective communication is much easier to achieve. Understanding the respective functions of both the educator and the curator was also deemed important In the three galleries where programming was collaborative to a certain extent. An educator stated, "....because of my art history background I'm more in tune with the curatorial objective and philosophy" (Kovacs), while conversely it was noted that "the present curator's strong educational background was an obvious asset in terms of education" (Adams). page 55 I'd hire someone with no educational experience if they were up on what was going on artwise and could provide challenging programmes. With that happening from the curatorial and educative end, communication would be easier. It's easier to talk about exciting ideas than color wheels. (Lawrence) In the remaining four institutions, programming was not a result of any collaborative effort by the curators and educators. All of these galleries revealed an awareness of the benefits of this type of collaborative effort regarding educative programming on the part of the curators and educators although it was not practiced. These institutions did acknowlege an improvement in the curator's concern about programming, however, programming was seen as exclusively the educator's function. Conditions were constant in the four galleries where there was no collaborative effort concerning educative programming between educators and curators: 1. These institutions were larger than those exhibiting evidence of collaboration between departments. The assumption is that in the larger institution there are more staff involved, more bureaucracy, a larger number of exhibitions, thus a larger number of programmes to coordinate with these exhibitions. Increased bureaucratic demands, more formality in meetings , and more distinct roles in curatorial and educational departments found within the larger institution all tend to inhibit communication. The curatorial and educative functions are more distinctly structured and those involved tend to meet less on a day to day basis with each other. 2. Personality conflicts or departmental conflicts were also credited with inhibiting communication, and thus collaborative programming between departments. " ... a lot depends on the personalities Involved and how flexible and willing they are to exchange ideas" (Harris). 3. Understanding and agreeing on educational goals and philosophy was seen as an important factor in determining the level and effectiveness of communication between the curatorial and educational departments within the art institution. page I would like to work with an education department that had a lot of exciting ideas. I do know of some education departments in Canada who have wonderful ideas about interpreting exhibitions but I think, given the range our educators have to cover that that hasn't been the case and curatorial input is essential if the ideas are going to be conveyed. (Harris) The debate regarding the implementation of programmes was unresolved among the individuals who made up this study. Fifty percent of all respondants supported the implementation of programmes by educators, outside of curatorial consultation, while the remaining respondents insisted curatorial input was essential. Two examples of these differing attitudes are reflected in these statements: 1. The educator has to interpret the intent of the artist. That is the objective.. It's also the curatorial objective. The intent of the artist is hopefully embodied in the show. They can have their opinions as everyone does, but curating and educating can't compromise the intent of the artist. If an educator doesn't build on the artist's and curator's intent there is a cross-purpose. (Lawrence) 2. Art Educators are the trained experts to be the liaison between the art, when necessary, (and the public) on a variety of levels. Whereas curators are not public-oriented and they are not liaisoning, they are the liaisons between the artist and the institution. (Cameron) It was established, however, that most of the educators interviewed believed that communicating with the curator before implementing educational programmes was essential. Conversely, a majority of curators were content to leave educative programming to the education department. E RESEARCH QUESTION 5 How do curators and educators foresee improvement occurring in the interdepartmental communication of philosophies and objectives between curators page 57 and educators, that might subsequent)y improve educative programming and professional relationships between departments within the art museum ? The inter-departmental communication of educational philosophies and objectives between educators and curators was seen as feasible in all seven western Canadian art galleries in this study. Although all respondents believed communication was feasible, they all insisted it would not be easy. In suggesting how this type of communication could be achieved within the art institution a number of responses were given. No single solution could be established from the many suggestions made. The different strategies are outlined in four categories; historical tradition and hierarchy, mutual understanding of goals, and interdepartmental communication, and progressive exhibition planning. 1. Historical Tradition and Hierarchy I think there are an awful lot of problems and a lot has to do with tradition. There are problems in communication within galleries because it means really butting up against all the hierarchies of power that exist in a gallery. (Kovacs) With historical tradition and hierarchies still operating to an extent within galleries, attention was drawn to the necessity of direction and support to be taken from the senior gallery administration. If positive direction was taken by the administration, specifically by the director, it was believed that communication" between the departments would inevitably improve. If direction from the administrative end is not taken, curators and educators will go on doing what they've been doing for years. If educators continue to cater to kids and curators to academia, we're not going to get very far. (Bradley) If directors are concerned with breaking down the traditional hierarchies existing in galleries they could promote the occurrence of this type of communicative page networking of philosphy and objectives between educators and curators. If "...the director is emphatic about this sort of communication happening, change would occur, beginning administratively" (Johns). It was also understood that if the educational and curatorial functions were to operate on equal footing then educators and curators must become increasingly aware of each other's function within the gallery. Changing the hierarchies established through time in galleries, though not an easy task , is cited as a place to start this ' change. 2. Mutual Understanding of Goals We must make curators aware of their function as an educator, not in the programming sense but the curatorial sense. It's all very political and will take time, but has to be done. It must also be noted that the educators must know the language and understand the curatorial function. (Adams) This increased awareness of the operations involved with both the educational and curatorial functions within the gallery may serve to increase an understanding of each department's goals and objectives, as well as their personal and departmental philosophies. Increased understanding and concern for each department's needs, may result in more effective communication between departments and bring departments to a common philosphical understanding of their educational function. The roles of curator and educator are becoming increasingly reciprocal and each department, although maintaining a f x u s in their respective areas, must understand the functions of the other. The best skil ls that I could recommend for a position in -both departments of the gallery would be very strong and keen, with the ability to communicate in a very straight forward manner. (Dawson) page 3. Inter-departmental Communication Communication is feasible, not easy, but if we keep on pushing rnsybG we'll function on the same philosophical level. There's a need within a gallery for departments to share the same philosophical goals. It takes time to reach these goals and develop them. We also have to work cooperatively, which takes time. Clarity is essential. Education has to advise curators and vice-versa...lots of talk, lots of clear talk. (Patrick) In determining that communication between curators and educators is necessary and essential in the establishment of similar philosophical goals and effective educative programming, different strategies were suggested for the attainment of this type of inter-departmental communication: Talking was seen as the starting point by all seven galleries "People don't talk and they have to start...if curators, educators and public relations take the initiative there will be a realization of the educational objectives (hopefully mutual or shared objectives) within the gallery" (Johns). In understanding the need for "talk", the organization of regular, formal meetings was the most popular response from five of seven galleries. You have to formalize communication. You have to meet regularly, let's say once a month for an hour, so that you know on that day you'll talk for that period of time about philosophy and objectives. If you leave it at,"Come by my desk and we'll talk"...it doesn't happen. (Lawrence) 4. Progressive Exhibition Planning Four galleries had structured an exhibition committee, or management team, within which the educators and curators would meet at the initial stages of exhibition planning. However, in all cases this commitee did not discuss philosophical goals or long range objectives. Exhibition commitees helped to familiarize the education department with the curatorial function, but this committee was less successful in clairfying the educational agenda of each exhibition for the curatorial department. A concept suggested by one curator combined the "exhibition committee" approach to exhibition planning with the necessity to familiarize the persons page involved with the exhbition with the many functions at work within the institution . The "matrix concept" (see Appendix II) was cited as an effective approach by which to manage exhibitions and increase awareness and communication between departments within the gallery. This management concept has 3n "exhibition coordinator", elected from any part of the art institution: either the curator, assistant curator, educator, or registrar. This person's responsibility is to organize the exhibition and assign individuals to their respective tasks in order to make the exhibition happen. This strategy results in every individual functioning within the gallery understanding the exhibition process and all the subsidiary activities involved in the exhibition process. In addition to understanding the exhibition process, both the curatorial and educational goals of the exhibition would be set out from the onset of the project. Everyone involved in the project would'be working to achieve the same goals. Norton maintains that this sort of approach to exhibition planning would solve many of problems regarding the communication between departments but would involve a re-structuring of the traditional appproach to exhibition planning. At present, the director traditionally subcontracts independent projects out to the various department heads in order for the exhibition to eventually occur. The curator is not certain this is the best way to manage projects. F. SUMMARY There was evidence on the part of both curators and educators in this stud/ of an increased awareness of the possibilities and potential, as well as the problems facing art education in the art institution today. Faced with this increasingly important educational mission and obligation on the part of both the curatorial and education departments, both departments acknowlege the necessity for inter-departmental communication and the establishment of similar goals and philosophies. Many differences between individuals and departments, and inherent problems involving the institution's organization and management itself, cause communication to be difficult between departments. What is important is that both educators and curators in this study believe communication would be beneficial not only in terms of improving educational programming in the gallery but improving the relationship between the departments. page - 6 1 V . S U M M A R Y , R E S T A T I N G T H E P R O P O S I T I O N S . C O N C L U S I O N S A N D D I S C U S S I O N O F T H E F I N D I N G S This chapter presents an overview of chapters 1 to 4. There 12 a sumrcary Of the study, restatement of the initial propositions followed by a discussion of the findings and conclusions drawn from these findings. This chapter concludes with recommendations for further research. A. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY This study initially was an attempt to establish and investigate the sources of the philosophy from which educative programming arose in seven selected western Canadian art galleries. The study attempted to show how, in each instance, both the art educator and curator adapted to, or reconciled differences existing between tneir. own personal and departmental philosphies and the proposed goals of the art gallery's educative programming. This proposed difference in philosophy and purpose held by the educative and curatorial departments, in each of the seven western Canadian art galleries under study, led to the subsequent exploration of a body of literature about the organizational structure of the art institution which was found to be relevant to the debate surrounding the relationship between educator and curator in the art institution. Personal and telephone interviews conducted over a four month period, provided first hand data from which to draw relevant conclusions. The personal and telephone interviews used in the data collection, were conducted along lines outlined by Spradley (1980). The researcher attempted to establish each of the participants' positions in five areas regarding education and the future of the art museum. The questioning addressed five areas of concern, outlined by the research questions of this study. 1) the primary function of the art institution. 2) the orientation and goals of educational programming implemented at each institution under study. 3) the problems inherent in educational programming. page 4) the extent of inter-departmental communication between curators and educators in the art institution. 5) how educators and curators believe inter-departmental communication could be improved. B. RESTATING THE PROPOSITIONS Four initial propositions were stated concerning the relationship and dynamics between the art education and curatorial departments within the art institution. In light of the investigation carried out in this study, these may now be re-examined and, if necessary, modified. Proposition One, in its initial form, read: The primary function of the art institution will be the curatorial function, implying collection, research and exhibition. In light of what was discovered in the course of this study, Proposition One might more accurately be restated as follows: The educational function and curatorial function are complementary functions. The mission statements of the seven art galleries under study all included the educational function within the mandate or goals of the institution. Changing attitudes toward education from the adminstrative end of gallery planning is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, for the gallery's existence. Gallery organizational structure is beginning to be reorganized. Many institutions now include the educative function in an equal status with the curatorial function. This change in the traditional hierarchy of the curatorial function within the art institution is being challenged as a result of the changing conditions within which galleries must function in Canadian society. The growing audience in Canada's galleries tends to be large, uninformed groups who want to learn, rather than individual, contemplative, informed viewers. (Coffman, 1988) This new audience, in conjunction with decreasing membership in a majority of institutions and increased operation and exhibition costs, naturally places a new emphasis and importance on the once secondary educational function of the gallery. This new emphasis is beginning to be recognized by the administrative bodies of art galleries. Curators and educators are quite aware of this new situation facing Canada's cultural institutions and acknowlege the inclusion and contribution of the educative aspect of gallery programming as important. The function of curator and educator was even described as "reciprocal" and "collaborative" in Art Gallery Seven The curatorial function is still seen in a position of priority by the educators and curators interviewed. It's (curatorial) the major function of the gallery, without that there's nothing. Yet, without education there is a minimal public. There are implications with the absence of either function. (Johns) The fact that exhibition is the body of work from which education arises will not change. In that regard the curatorial staff will always be of prime importance. What is of concern is the degree to which, and the expertise from which, the educative programmmes within the art institution are conceived and implemented. The curatorial function must employ an educative thesis within the exhibition itself in a manner that engages both their peer group and the general audience. Educators must target all of their audiences effectively, children, adolescents, and adults alike, while not sacrificing the intent of the artist or curator. In the future art institutions seem likely to operate under both curatorial and educational missions. This research exhibits evidence of the beginnings of a trend towards this new educational orientation and emphasis within the art gallery structure. In its initial form, Proposition Two read: Thephilosophical'ana'ideological'orientation of educative programming implemented in the galleries surveyed will be solely the design of the Education Department. in light of what was discovered in the course of this study, this propcstion, to < large degree remains true. In galleries, educative programming is primarily a page result of the effort of the educator. Educational programmes are established under the premise that they are a product of the philosphies held by the educators, as well as in consideration of the educative goals set out by the gallery in general. This conclusion, however, is in fact more complex than initally perceived. Stating that the bulk of the educative programming occurring in western Canadian galleries is the sole product of educators is not to imply that the curator is not concerned or aware of the problems which the educative task entails. It is also fair to state that more and more curators are currently aware of the increased educative capacity in which the art gallery, and themselves, are having to function. This increased awareness and concern on the part of curators is only the first step in developing educational programmes which marry the aesthetics of the show and accessibility of the visitor. The acknowlegement of the educational function in itself is not enough to create educational programmes which interpret the gallery's and curator's and artist's intent clearly and rationally. Many factors contribute to maintenance of the art educator's position as one of sole responsibilty for the educative programming which occurs within the gallery. Although curators may acknowlege their implicit role as educators, gallery politics, bureaucracy and gallery mis-management can undermine the issue of education within the gallery. Curators and educators alike reported being increasingly barraged with departmental obligations, increased time restrictions, and bureaucratic paper work. Even if curators desired to function more productively in an educational capacity this would be difficult in the gallery structure as it stands today. This study revealed that collaborative educational programming was more likely to occur in smaller institutions where the degrees of gallery politics, bureaucracy and management problems were relatively diminished. Increased responsibility, time demands, established status hierarchies and power structures, all common to the larger institution, inhibit the curator's and educator's attempts to meet, discuss, and establish uniform goals and philosophies regarding education. Curators to a large extent are willing to involve themselves in educative work. Often they are simply not able to do so, given the restrictions under which they work. in its initial form, Proposition Three read: page The educative philosophy and goals of the curatorial department will net be congruent with the philosophy and goals of the education department within the art institution. The educative philosophy and goals within the art institution were not necessarily congruent with the philosophy and goals of the curatorial department in each institution. As revealed in this research, educative philosophy is primarily a product developed by each respective education department, with the goals of the director of each institution in mind. It must be noted that in all seven art galleries under study the specific orientation of the education department's philosophy and programming was not directly aligned with the institution's mandate outlined by the curators or promotional literature of the institution. An example of this attitude on the part of educators can be illustrated by a statement from the Art Gallery Four interview. The educator at Art Gallery Four does not follow a specific orientation or "institutional philosophy" when outlining educational programmes. "We are here ot interpret the collection to the public, combining different strategies to get different results where necessary" (Grant). In this case the educators see their responsibility as getting the job done as they see fit for the task. Seldom did the philosophy of the curator affect educative programming. Often the curator had a personal philosophy regarding exhibition and gallery goals or objectives which was not congruent with the educational philosophy behind the practiced educational programmes. Investigation revealed that it may be more accurately reflect actual situations-if Proposition Three is rephrased as follows. Educative philosophy and goals within the art institution will be the product of the particular educative orientations of the education department and the gallery director. The educative philosophy and goals of the education department are developed within the education department by educators who believe themselves to be aware of the needs and goals of gallery education. page DO The exhibition philosophy is developed by the curatorial department by curators who are concerned, primari ly, with the objectives of a challenging exhibition schedule. Individual philosophies regarding education are held by individual curators; however, within the institution itself, developing educative philosophy is largely the responsibility of the education department. Although curators are concerned with the educative function, their beliefs regarding this function are usually superseded by the dominant educative philosphy of the programmes designed by the education department. Neither department's philosopny necessarily incorporates or is congruent with that of the other, which often results in cross purposes between the objectives of education and exhibition. In a majority of cases one department's philosophy is only remotely similar to that of the other department. The Director ideally plays an important part in the establishment of the dominant philosophy and policy of the institution itself. A dominant gallery philosophy is in theory to be interpreted and developed by both the education and curatorial departments of the institution, with regard to the Director's set of objectives and goals. Although this seems an obvious conclusion to maintaining uniform philosophy within the gallery this is seldom the practice In most institutions. Gallery philosophy and goals are initially established by the Director; however, this same philosophical base is then adjusted to fuel the individual departmental philosophies held within the gallery. Proposition Four originally read: Because of conflicting historical roles and academic orientations inbedded in the ideology of both the curatorial and educative professions within the art gallery, interdepartmental communication will be non-existent or ineffective. It is now rephrased as follows: Because of conflicting historical roles and academic orientations inbedded in the ideology of both the curatorial and educative professions within the art gallery, interdepartmental communication will be difficult to sustain. page Interviews with both educators and curators confirm that interdepartmental communication will be difficult to sustain on a regular and effective basis. The departments, however, were more responsive to the possibility of this communication happening than expected. Interdepartmental communication between educators and curators is, in fact, occurring to a minimal degree in some western Canadian art galleries. Much of this communication is a result of the growing demand for educational resources in Canada's gallery system, in conjunction with the desire, on the part of both educators and curators, to reach a new level of understanding and expertise in presenting exhibition material to the public. The degree of interdepartmental communication was relatively small despite the verbally expressed desire for this type of communication to occur. All respondents acknowleged the difficulty of employing such a network within the gallery structure as it stands today. Communication between departments is difficult to attain as a result of historical, academic and social barriers strengthened by the structure of the Institution itself. Traditional power structures and occupational hierarchies continue to emphasize the once secondary position held by educators within the gallery structure. Each department has traditionally functioned independently, under independent philosophies. Were this traditional division between departments to be broken, interdepartmental communication would not only improve exhibition and education but should be instrumental in reorganizing the age-old power structures within galleries. Academic orientations also prove to be a barrier preventing effective communication within the gallery structure. Curators have, historically, been art historians, concerned with the "purposeful creation of 'meanings' through the systematic collection, documentation, and exhibition of objects" (Lord, 1936). Educators have traditionally been simply that: persons who are trained in communicating ideas to the public. In the past the seeming lack of professionalism on the part of educators, particularly in the arts and arts education, has led to the establishment of deep philosophical and academic conflicts between departments. This study, however, reveals a growing change in attitudes towards these pre-conceived stereotypes of curator and educator, on the part of educators and curators within the galleries chosen for this study. Curators are becoming increasingly aware of their function as communicatoror page presenter, as outlined by Lord ( 1986). Educators are being educated in art, thus now are beginning to combine communication skills with a sound academic base in the arts and in history. The roles of curator and educator, as well as the interests and intents of each department, are growing increasingly congruent. The development of a similar philosophy or ideology regarding the arts must now be established to be cohesive with the objectives of educators and curators, and to aid in breaking down the established attitudes regarding each profession within the gallery. The conclusion reached as a result of this research is that curators and educators are aware of the advantages that increased inter-departmental communication would provide and are open to the prospect of this type of communication occurring. All respondents agreed that communication would be difficult to effect and data reveal that the difficulty lies primarily in the restructuring of established personnel hierarchies and organizational structures within the gallery system. Re-structuring of the departmental character of the gallery would be necessary in order to achieve, effective communication between educators and curators within the art institution. C. CONCLUSIONS AND D/SCUSS/ON 1 . The Art Gallery as Educator The curators and educators of the seven western Canadian art galleries in this study all support the development of the art gallery as an educational institution. The literature in the field points to the increasing importance of the educational mission in Canada's gallery system. The Canadian public and the Canadian government will demand educational programming In return for their continued support. Our fight is about audiences, about the search to communicate with our public. Our fight is to make the contemporary visual arts seem relevant to our public, and this cannot be nurtured without strategy and rationale in institutional programming. (Teitlebaum, 1 9 8 6 , p.23) Although all respondents in this study supported the development and improvement of the educational function within the art institution, many agree that page the transition from the gallery being primarily a collecting institution to consideration of the gallery as an educational institution will be a slow and difficult one. The primary conclusion supported by this research is that it is not solely the pre-conceived, differing philosophical and ideological beliefs of the educators and curators functioning within the art institution which make this "educational mission" a difficult one to establish and successfully achieve. It was found that, in general, curators and educators support the educational mission of galleries today, despite differing personal or departmental philosophy or goals. Why then is the attainment of this educational mission such a difficult one? The major problem revealed in this research regarding the establishment of a strong and effective educative programme in the gallery, a programme strategy which is congruent with the aims of the artist, the curator, the educator and the institution itself, is a problem of traditional positions of hierarchy in job positions and the organizational structure of the gallery itself. It 1s not solely the problem of the differing departmental philosophies and ideologies of the educators and curators. The galleries themselves must change. Ideally, if gallery personnel were to re-analyze their deep rooted organizational structures and hierarchies which focus primarily on the curatorial thesis and secondly on the educative content applied to this thesis, then it would be inevitable that the dynamics of the gallery system would change. If the traditional structures and hierarchies established in Canadian art institutions were broken down, reviewed, and rebuilt with a renewed focus on the increasingly important educational mission, now prominent in museum literature, the relationships between not only the educator and curator would be strengthened, but the relationship of all functions of the gallery would be improved. If the organizational structures of the art institution were to be successfully analysed and re-structured inter-departmental communication between curators and educators would increase. Increased interaction between these two entities would be mandatory. This could be achieved as simply as making allowances for communication, exchange and professional discourse to occur on a regular basis, if departmental structures were altered so that the education and curatorial departments did not exist so entirely separately within the institution ( in many cases now these department page -7 A occupy offices on different floors of the institution and rarely interact) communication would naturally increase. If staff was hired which understood both the curatorial and educative function within the gallery and maintained similar philosophies regarding exhibtion 3nd education, then the institutional and departmental goals would be more clearly understood, agreed upon, and implemented by educators and curators. The benefits of staff of different departments within the same institution maintaining similar philosophies regarding art, exhibition, and education were particularly evident in Art Gallery One and Art Gallery Three. In these two galleries there was a respect and an understanding of departmental philosophy and goals which resulted not only in a stronger educational programme, but an exhibition programme which would serve to be more relevant and interesting to the public. It is not that galleries do not want to educate. It is not that curators refuse to educate. To educate the growing and changing audiences of Canadian galleries, the life line of the gallery system itself, the whole notion of educative programming must be re-analysed. Having educators continue to put an interpretive programme to an existing exhibit will not cater to the needs and expectations of the audience, or reflect advances in the culture Industry and technology of this decade. 2 . Role of the Curator One of the main agents, no doubt, affecting the success of improving educational programming within the gallery system is the curator. This study revealed that curators today are aware of their obligations as educators as one of their curatorial functions within the gallery. The curator has also become a communicator, presenting objects and information to the public, often in a very forceful way. in this latter role as presenter, the curator (particularity of fine art collections) has been frequently described as a creator or artist. (Lord, 1986, p. 7) This definition of curatorship is applicable to beliefs expressed by the curators in the seven western Canadian galleries under study. The problem revealed in this study lies in the capacity in which curators function not only as educators, page but also as collaborators with their respective education department's goals. Also crucial is the extent to which their philosphical beliefs and goals are congruent with those of the education department. As curators acknowlege their strong educational capability through exhibition, they might strengthen this capability by involving the educational personnel within the institution in a direct, goal oriented manner. Museums, curators and educators must establish and understand their educational goals clearly and rationally to achieve desired ends. 3. Rote of the Educator Although it is self evident that the educator's primary responsibility is the education of the public, educators must also change to improve the educational programming within the gallery system. Many of the educational practices employed in the seven Galleries under study have not changed radically over the last ten years. Programmes cater mainly to children under the guidelines of the department's individual philosophy. If art galleries are to aid in the development of critical consciousness in the community; to teach people to "read" visual phenomena in their environment, then they require a solid philosophical foundation for programmes which Is congruent with the philosophy of the institution and the curator. A majority of educators acknowlege the curatorial thesis, and provide programmes relevant to that thesis. Too often, however, the educative programme is adopted from the educator's philosophy alone, without consultation from the "presenter" or curator. In an effort to increase the profession's professionalism and assert the validity and integrity of the department, many educators claim that they are the sole interpreters of the art to the public. The educator has to interpret the intent of the artist. That is the objective. It's also the curatorial objective. The intent of the artist is hopefully embodied in the show. They can have their opinions as everyone does, but curating and educating can't compromise the intent of the artist. If an educator doesn't build on the artist's and curator's intent there is a cross purpose. (Lawrence) 4. Role of the Director The problem for this study was to explicate both the "curatorial" and "art page educational" philosophies that underlie programmes in western Canadian art galleries. In determining these philosophies and the dynamics between these departments within the gallery, in regard to educative programming, another entity was revealed as pertinent to the improvement of educative programming and the establishment of educative philosophy. This essential function is performed by the Director and by administration officers. It was established through this research that education is an increasingly important function in Canadian art institutions. For this educative function to be improved, more must be altered than simply uniting the differing philosophies of curators and educators and increasing communication regarding philosophy within the institution. One informant in this study said: If direction from the administrative end is not taken, curators and educators will goon doing what they've been doing for years. If educators continue to cater to kids and curators to academia, we're not going to get very far. (Bradley) This research revealed that for the attitudes of the two primary educative departments (curatorial and education) to change there must be a re-structuring of the traditional organizational structure which they occupy under the guidance of the Director. Points raised by some respondent's under study were: 1. ) that the Director should acknowlege that the educative function is essential. 2. ) that the Director should acknowlege that inter-departmental communication is essential and is not easy to achieve in the gallery system as it is structured today. 3. ) that the Director should also acknowlege that institutional philosophy and goals must be interpreted not only on the administrative level, but must be employed in both the curatorial and educational ranks so that there is a universal purpose understood between departments. This research was not initially concerned with the reorganization of gallery page 77 structures or the role of the Director in improving educational programming within the gallery. This, however, seems to be the prevailing problem in terms of attaining increased inter-departmental communication and improving educational programming. Factors such as differing philosophies on the part of educators and curators, personality conflicts, and poor communication networks between departments is seen to be only a part of the larger problem, the re-organization of the gallery structure. Galleries are essentially being managed in the same way that they have for years, while operations such as education have virtually exploded and are demanding increasing attention, direction, and time. Gallery structures must change to successfully contain and Improve this state of affairs in Canadian galleries. The Board of Directors should be included in a discussion of the demands placed on the Director. No matter how aware the Director is of the problems facing the institution and the personnel within the institution, he/she must operate to a large degree under the demands of the Board. Board members are not necessarily art oriented individuals who understand the mission of the gallery in terms of education and exhibition. The Board members are often persons of status in the community or those who financially support the institution to a certain degree. Their needs or expectations of the gallery may not be synoymous with those of the general public or school groups, thus undermining the positive attempts of the Director to rectify or change exsisting organizational structure. The power structure within galleries involving a Board, a Director, in addition to federal and municipal support requires detailed examination outside the scope of this study. It forms the setting within which curators and educators are permitted to play their parts. It was revealed that funding structures, particularly the Canada Council in Canada, still focus primarily on the curatorial thesis, giving little heed to interpretive programming or education. This must be re-analysed by the Canadian government, inparticularly the Council, as the gallery's function Is changing to include education. There was evidence of the beginnings of this re-structuring of the gallery from the administrative end in the repositioning of educators and curators in an equal position of hierarchy in the gallery. Ideas from the respondents regarding tactics for re-organizationing gallery structures include the "matrix management" concept page articulated at Art Gallery Six or the hiring of an "educational-curator" at Art Gallery Two to bridge the gap between departments. D. RECOMMENDATIONS In discussions with curators and educators and in reading the literature of the field, I became aware that the problem of creating or re-structuring educative philosophy is not in the lack of desire to improve educational programming within the gallery. It is certain that educators and curators believe that education is important within the gallery, and should and can be improved. The larger problem is how this can be achieved within the gallery as it is organized today. This research outlined some strategies, as reported by educators and curators in seven western Canadian art galleries, on how educational programmes could be more successful in the gallery and relevant to the public. Understanding philosophical goals and objectives was seen as one way to improve communication between curatorial and education departments, which would ultimately result in the improvement of programming within the gallery. Understanding of the different functions at work within the gallery was also noted as a means to improve inter-departmental relationships. Increased communication through meetings and talking, in order to understand each other's philosophies and goals, was believed a good place to start. The larger problem affecting the relationships between personnel within the art Institution and the goals of education and exhibition was seen as that of tradition. Tradition, as it relates to the art institution, still has a powerful hold on these "edifices of culture". My belief in embarking on this research was that the traditional organizational structures, procedures and hierarchies of status of the past were not a crucial factor in the art institutions of the 1980s. The belief was that it was only the conflicting attitudes of curators and educators which resulted in the commmunicative breakdown regarding education in the gallery. The 1970s and 1980s, after al l , were decades of progress and radical and controversial art expression. How could galleries retain such age old elitist hierarchies and organizational structures in light of the explosion of culture in museums in Canada page during this time? This research proved that many of these traditional practices sre still present in galleries and do affect communication and understanding regarding education between curatorial and education departments. Traditional methodologies and power struggles still affect our art instutitions very strongly. Further research is needed in the study of the art gallery's changing clientele and recognition of the special needs of this clientele. By first establishing the specific audiences of Canadian galleries, programmes and philosophy could be rationally conceived, programmes successfully designed, and change engineered for the Gallery, in light of a new or increasd audience. Further research involving the government and management of the art institution must then be done in order to establish a suitable organizational structure, in light of the increasing responsibility the gallery has to this public. This new organizational structure must be constructed to improve the poor communication lines existent between departments. If communicative networks were established between departments, institutional goals, philosophy, education and exhibition would have a clearer focus than is currently the case. This re-structuring of gallery organization must be analysed in light of the changing audience, funding sources and role within Canadian society. It is necessary for change to happen, for if not, traditional gallery structures will bury their roots deeper into the ground, to the disadvantage of gallery professionals and the public alike. page VI. REFERENCES Andre, J .J . (1988). In Search of the Ideal Museum. Muse. 4 , 38. Burnett, D. (1986). Curatorship: Response and Responsibility. Provincial Essavs. 3. 14-18. Coffman, L.( 1988). Educators and Curators. W.C.A.A. Waoon. 13. (1 ), 2. Crean, S.( 1986). The Declaration of Independents: How freelance curators are turning Canadian galleries inside out. Canadian Art. Winter, 8 5 - 8 8 . Cuyler, F. 0. (1980) The Docent's Interpretation of Stated Gallery Philosophy: A Comparison of Docent Training Programs in Three  Canadian Art Galleries. Published Master's Thesis. University of Alberta. Fall, 1980. DeMontebello, P. (1984) . The Effects of disproportionate growth and  expenses in Museums. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the World Art Museum Conference:-15 March 1984. Eisner. E. (1986) . Uncertain Profession: Observations On the State of Museum Education in Twenty American Art Museums. American Association of Museums. (1984). Museums for a New  Century: A report of the commission on museums for a new century. Washington.. Gosselin, C. (1986). Gallery Administrator or Artistic Director? Provincial Essavs . 3., 31 - 3 3 . Johnson, W. M. (1985). Art Curatorship Today: A Spiritual Dead-end? Muse. Autumn, 18-21. page Knight, K.( 1976). Matrix Organization. A Review. Journal of  Management Studies. May. i l l . Leavitt, T.W. & O'Toole.D. (1985). Two Views on Museum Education, Museum News. December, 2 6 - 3 1 . Lord, B. & Gail Dexter (1986). Curatorship and Culture. Provincial Essavs. 3., 7-13. Newsom, B.( 1975) On Understanding Art Museums. Studies in Art £di iCj iM.16 ( 2 ) , 4 6 - 5 3 . : Newsom, B & Silver, A. (1978). The Art Museum as Educator. University of Cal i fornia Press, Berkeley. Ott, R.W. (1980) Museums and Schools as. Universal Partners in Art Education. Art Education. ( 3 3 ) . 7-9. Pelletier, G. (1971) Museums and the National Heritage: A Cultural Policy. Address given at Consultation I: Museums 70, Ottawa. 15 February, Scott, W.G. (1961). Organization Theory: An Overview and an Appraisal. Aesthetics of Management Journal. Apr i l . 7 - 2 6 . ' Teitelbaum, M, (1986) Crying from the Inside: The Institutional Curator and the Canada Council. Provincial Essavs. 3.. 19-23, Town, E. (1986). The Case of the Independent Curator. Provincial E§?ay?,3., 3 7 - 4 4 Tuele, N, (1988), Educators and Curators. W.C.A.A. Wagon,i3.( 1,), 4, Wallace, B .(1986). The Edifice Complex.Provincial Essavs. 3.. 24-30 . Washburn, W. E. (1985). Professionalizing the Muses. Museum News 6 0 , 1 8 - 2 5 . VII. APPENDIX I RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE page SOURCES OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IMPLEMENTED IN WESTERN CANADIAN ART 6ALLERIES SECTION A: BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF RESPONDENT 1. Current position and duties which position entails. 2. Specialization (if applicable ie. historical specialty, adult education) 3. Educational background. A. Length of time in current position. 5. Number of years involved in Museum activities. SECTION B: EDUCATIONAL ORIENTATIONS AND OBJECTIVES 1. Could you briefly outline your institution's objectives or mandate? (incorporates the written material supplied by the gallery and responses to the general questionnaire.) 2. As you know, the two 'primary functions' of the art institution in general are: a. exhibition and preservation of art objects b. education and community involvement At the institution inwhich you are presently employed which function do you see as more important? 3. Is there presently equal or relative "appropriate" time, interest and personnel expended on the above two functions? In other words do you view one function as having precedence over the other? 4. Personally, what do you see to be the primary function of the art institution? (either exhibition and preservation of art objects or education and community involvement.) 5. How important or necessary do feel the educative component of the art institution is? 6. Why? or why not? page 7. Do you find your attitudes and concerns regarding gallery education are met or successfully implemented at the institution in which you are employed? 8. To what extent do you believe the objective of the gallery is to promote the awareness of the heritage of contemporary art and art of the past through providing the viewer with historical points of departure? 9. To what extent do you see the gallery's objective to promote personal interpretation and exploration of the visual world through purely "aesthetic experiences"? 10. Is it the gallery's primary objective to work within the curriculum , involving and incorporating all academic disciplines.through interaction with different artwork? 11. Is the principal objective oQhe gallery to engage the student in cultural activity through the museum experience? 12. Qiven these four orientations how would you rate them in importance? 13. Is this the primary objective presently employed at the institution in which you are working? 14. Can you foresee any immediate change in the educative programming at your institution? SECTION C: INTER-DEPARTMENTAL COMMUNICATION 15. At the institution in which you are now working, is there a departmental exchange of educational goals? 16. Are the programmes restricted by a given mandate? 17. Is there an interdepartmental exchange of educational objectives between curators, educators, etc.? page 18. Do you believe an interdepartmental exchange of ideas and educative s t r a t e g i e s would prove beneficial? 19. Do you think this sort of exchange is feasible within the gallery as it stands now? 20. How could this be achieved? 21. Personally, do you think that educational materials and programmes should be implemented outside of curatorial control? 22. Personally, do you think that educational materials and programmes should be prepared without consultation with teachers and the curriculum? 23. Personally, do you think that educational programmes implemented within the museum should be solely the responsibility of the art educator? VIII. APPENDIX II MATRIX ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN page In order to more fully describe the advantages of the matrix management design, the design outlined by one curator in this study as a successful manner inwhich to govern art institutions in the future, a brief outline has been formulated from points taken from Knight's aticle, Matrix Organization: 3Review ( 1976). *The matrix organizational design achieves the desired balance by superimposing, or overlaying, a horizontal structure of authority, influence, and communication on the vertical structure. *The existence of a dual authority system is a distinguishing characteristic of the matrix organization. •Matrix structures are found in organizations (1) that require responses to rapid change in two or more environments, such as technology and markets; education and exhibition; (2) that face uncertainties generating high information-processing requirements; (3) that must deal with financial and human resources constraints. A number of advantages can be associated with the matrix design: Efficient use of resources. Matrix organization facilitates the utilization of highly specialized staff and equipment. Each project or product unit can share the specialized resource with other units, rather that duplicating it to provide i ndependent coverage for each. Flexibility in conditions of chanoe and uncertainty. Timely response to change requires information and communication channels that efficiently get the necessary information to the right people at the right time. Matrix structures encourage constant interaction among project unit and functional department members, in Technical excellence. Technical specialists interact with other specialists while assigned to a project. Such interaction encourages a cross-fertilization of ideas. Each specialist must listen to, understand, and respond to the views of the other. At the same time, specialists maintain ongoing contact with members of a functional department. Freeing top management for long-range planning. An initial stimulus for the development of matrix organizations is that top management for example the director of an art institution) becomes increasingly involved with day-to-aav operations. Matrix organization makes it possible for top management to delegate ongoing decision making, thus providing more time for long-range planning. page IX. APPENDIX III DISCUSSION OF THE CANADIAN FUNDING STRUCTURES FOR ART INSTITUTIONS page DtSCUSS/ON As regards priorities and budgets, museums to date have seldom been successful in achieving a satisfactory balance between acquisition and dissemination, conservation and use, centralization and decentralization. There as elsewhere, internal problems, administrative machinery and professional preoccupations often carry more weight than an abstract public in everyday activities. (Pelletier, 1970). It was this dilemma in Canadian museums which prompted the government to propose a new museums policy to secure funds specifically for educationarefforts. In 1972, Pelletier initiated the Democratization and Decentralization Policy for Canadian Museums Association. With this policy Canadian museums and galleries were allocated funds (in excess of 9 million in 1973) for educational efforts: catalogue assistance, training assistance, special grants, and museumobiles. The funding sources of this policy , however, were specifically for historical exhibitions which promoted Canadian heritage. Associate galleries were able to secure funds if the exhibition was historical in nature or presented a topic considered to be historical, however, contemporary exhibitions were exempt. As a result of the lack of funds for galleries presenting the contemporary arts the Canada Council was formed. The Canada Council funding for visual art exhibitions is currently directed to those non-profit incorporated Canadian galleries and artist-run centres presenting the work of contemporary artists to the public. The programme is designed to contribute to the direct costs of the research, presentation, circulation, and documentation of Canadian curated contemporary art exhibitions. The Council does acknowledge the educational function in the policy under the categories Interpretation and Animation, however, there is no distinct amount, of funds allocated specifically for educational efforts. Curators and educators compete for the same funds which are applied for through the Canada Council Application for Exhibition Assistance. 

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