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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Revelstoke Dam : a case study of the selection, licensing and implementation of a large scale hydroelectric… Missler, Heidi Erika 1988

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THE REVELSTOKE DAM: A CASE STUDY OF THE SELECTION, LICENSING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A LARGE SCALE HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By HEIDI ERIKA MISSLER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Geography) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 Q H e i d i E r i k a M i s s l e r , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6G/81) ABSTRACT P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n , l i c e n s i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of l a r g e s c a l e e nergy p r o j e c t s must e v o l v e w i t h t h e e s c a l a t i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f s u c h p r o j e c t s and. t h e c h a n g i n g p u b l i c v a l u e s y s t e m . Government appeared u n r e s p o n s i v e t o r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e 1960s and 1970s. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p p r o v a l of major h y d r o e l e c t r i c development p r o j e c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a under t h e Water A c t became i n c r e a s i n g l y more c o n t e n t i o u s . T h i s l e d , i n 1980, t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of new p r o c e d u r e s — t h e Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s ( E P R P ) — under t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission A c t . T h i s s t u d y documents and e v a l u a t e s t h e s e l e c t i o n , l i c e n s i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e R e v e l s t o k e H y d r o e l e c t r i c Dam under t h e Water A c t and a s s e s s e s t o what e x t e n t t h e c u r r e n t EPRP s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e overcame t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e R e v e l s t o k e e x p e r i e n c e . The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h used i s t h a t of a p o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t a n a l y s i s . The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t case s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e Water A c t o n l y a d d r e s s e d p r o j e c t d e s i g n , s a f e t y , and i m p a c t s , but n o t s e l e c t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n . P r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e e d e d under a c o n d i t i o n a l w a t e r l i c e n c e . The t w o - p a r t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework, e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e l i c e n c e and by B.C. Hydro, l a c k e d i n t e g r a t i o n and f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e management. A s t r o n g commitment t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y was l a c k i n g . The l i c e n s e e ' s m o n i t o r i n g of c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n g e n e r a l and of c o m p l i a n c e w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , a s e t of n o n s p e c i f i c commonly a c c e p t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , were i n a d e q u a t e . Governmental s u r v e i l l a n c e and enforcement were r e n d e r e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y by s t a f f s h o r t a g e s and a l a i s s e z f a i r e a t t i t u d e . The c a s e s t u d y c o n c l u d e d w i t h a post-development e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n a l y s i s , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement i n p r e d i c t i n g i m p a c t s t o be o n l y t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e EPRP and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e S i t e C Dam p r o p o s a l d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement o v e r i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . I f a p p l i e d e f f i c i e n t l y and i n i t s e n t i r e t y , i t w o u l d p r o v i d e an adequate s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e d u r a l sequence f o r p r o j e c t s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g . However, some of t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s n o t e d i n t h e R e v e l s t o k e c a s e s t u d y , s u c h t h e l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n s f o r e a r l y p u b l i c and government p a r t i c i p a t i o n , an adequate d a t a b a s e , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , and a p o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t a n a l y s i s , have not been o r o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t e d . To c o n c l u d e , t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s some recommendations t o f u r t h e r improve t h i s c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i i i GLOSSARY i x CHAPTER 1. THE SELECTION AND LICENSING OF LARGE SCALE ENERGY PROJECTS 1 1.1 H y d r o e l e c t r i c Development i n B.C. 4 1.1.1 B.C. Hydro's R o l e and O p e r a t i o n s 4 1.1.2 The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t 8 1.2 O b j e c t i v e s and Methodology of t h e Study 11 1.3 O u t l i n e of t h e Study 12 CHAPTER 2. SELECTION AND LICENSING OF THE REVELSTOKE PROJECT 17 2.1 P r e v a i l i n g P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s 17 2.2 P r o j e c t J u s t i f i c a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n 21 2.3 The Water L i c e n c e A p p l i c a t i o n 23 2.3.1 C r i t i c i s m s o f t h e Water L i c e n c e A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e s s 27 2.3.1.1 The H e a r i n g P r o c e s s 27 2.3.1.2 Mandate and E x p e r t i s e of t h e Water Management B r a n c h 29 2.3.1.3 P r o j e c t J u s t i f i c a t i o n 30 2.4 The Water L i c e n c e 31 2.4.1 The Water L i c e n c e A p p e a l 36 2.4.2 The Amended Water L i c e n c e 38 CHAPTER 3. THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK 42 3.1 The U n o f f i c i a l Program 43 3.1.1 The Components of t h e Program 44 3.1.2 The O p e r a t i o n of t h e Program 47 3.1.3 I n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e Components 50 3.2 The O f f i c i a l Program 51 3.2.1 The Components of t h e Program 51 3.2.2 The O p e r a t i o n of t h e Program 58 3.2.2.1 The Community Impact Committee 59 3.2.2.2 The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee 67 3.2.2.3 The C l a i m s O f f i c e r 78 3.2.2.4 The S i t e B i o l o g i s t s 80 3.2.3 I n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e Components 83 3.3 The R e l a t i o n s between t h e Two Programs 83 3.4 M a j o r S h o r t c o m i n g s of the. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework 87 V CHAPTER 4. THE ENVIRONMENT - GUIDELINES AND CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS 94 4.1 Contractual Requirements and Environmental Guidelines 95 4.1.1 Compliance Monitoring of Requirements and Guidelines 100 4.2 Construction Activities and Environmental Impacts 102 CHAPTER 5. ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTIONS AND OUTCOMES 121 5.1 The Aquatic Environment and Fish Resource 122 5.1.1 Physical Limnological System 122 5.1.1.1 Reservoir 125 5.1.1.2 Downstream of the Dam 127 5.1.2 Chemical and Biological Systems 128 5.1.2.1 Reservoir 130 5.1.2.2 Downstream of the Dam 132 5.2 The Terrestrial Environment and Wildlife Resource 134 5.2.1 The Land Surface 134 5.2.2 The Wildlife Resource 135 5.3 The Atmospheric Environment 143 5.4 Conclusion 144 CHAPTER 6. THE CURRENT ENERGY PROJECT REVIEW PROCESS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA..148 6.1 The Energy Project Review Process 150 6.2 The Site C Experience 157 6.2.1 The Hearing Process 158 6.2.2 Mandate and Expertise of the BCUC Review Panel 160 6.2.3 Project Selection 161 6.2.3 Project Justification 162 6.2.5 The Proposed Monitoring Program ; 164 CHAPTER 7. THE REVELSTOKE EXPERIENCE AND THE CURRENT ENERGY PROJECT REVIEW PROCESS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 168 7.1 Review of the Revelstoke Experience... 168 7.1.1 Pre-Application .168 7.1.2 Application 169 7.1.3 Licence 170 7.1.4 Environmental Guidelines 174 7.1.5 Compliance Monitoring 175 7.1.6 Post-Development Environmental Analysis 176 7.2 Assessment of the Energy Project Review Process in Light of the Revelstoke Exper ience 177 7.3 Further Development of the Energy Project Review Process 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 188 APPENDIX 199 v i L I ST OF TABLES 1.1 O p e r a t i n g S c h e d u l e of t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam 10 2.1 B.C. L e g i s l a t i o n , A g e n c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e L i c e n s i n g o f S e l e c t e d H y d r o e l e c t r i c P r o j e c t s 19 2.2 S t u d i e s f o r P r o j e c t S e l e c t i o n 22 2.3 I n t e r v e n o r s a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e P u b l i c H e a r i n g 26 2.4 Summary of C o n t e n t o f S e l e c t e d C l a u s e s i n Water L i c e n c e 33 3.1 Water L i c e n c e C l a u s e s A d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e RPCC 55 3.2 Suss e x Study - Assessment of O u t s t a n d i n g I s s u e s 64 3.3 B.C. Hydro F u n d i n g o f Some of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t 88 4.1 Summary of S e l e c t e d C o n t r a c t R e quirements and G u i d e l i n e s 97 4.2 C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s M o n i t o r e d and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts R e p o r t e d by S i t e B i o l o g i s t s ..104 4.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s M o n i t o r e d by S i t e F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t i n 1978 106 5.1 Comparison o f P r e d i c t e d and A c t u a l Impacts on t h e A q u a t i c E n v i r o n m e n t and F i s h R e s o u r c e • ..123 5.2 Comparison of P r e d i c t e d and A c t u a l Impacts on t h e W i l d l i f e R e s o u r c e ....137 5.3 Post-Development E n v i r o n m e n t a l A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s 146 v i i L IST OF FIGURES 1.1 The C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y Dams and Ot h e r Dams of t h e A r e a 5 2.1 B.C. Hydro's P e r c e p t i o n of the P r o c e d u r e and Sc h e d u l e f o r P r o j e c t L i c e n s i n g 24 3.1 The U n o f f i c i a l Program 45 3.2 The O f f i c i a l Program 52 3.3 The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Columbia-Shuswap - L o c a l Communities A f f e c t e d by t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t 61 3.4 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t : R e l a t i o n s h i p t o P u b l i c , I n d u s t r i a l and Governmental S e c t o r s . . .....85 6.1 The B.C. Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s : C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 151 6.2 The Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s : P r e - A p p l i c a t i o n and A p p l i c a t i o n Phases 152 6.3 The Energy P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee and i t s Three W o r k i n g Committees.. 154 6.4 G e n e r a l Framework f o r Managing E n v i r o n m e n t a l and So c i o - E c o n o m i c Impacts 156 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS V e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s go t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . J . D. Chapman, f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t , a n d t o M r s . M. E. N o r t h f o r h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e a d v i c e and r e v i e w o f t h i s s t u d y . I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s ray a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the many p e o p l e a t t h e v a r i o u s B r a n c h e s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Enviro n m e n t i n V i c t o r i a and N e l s o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o D r . J . O' R i o r d a n , Mr. G. F. Cox, Mr. R. Round, Mr. J . H. W a l k e r , D r . R. N o r d i n , and Mr. G. Woods. F o r t h e i r k i n d h e l p I thank a l s o D r . R. B r a d l e y , Mr. H. S m i t h , Mr. R. R o d d i c k , and many o t h e r employees o f B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . F i n a l l y , t h a n k s t o my f a m i l y who nev e r l o s t f a i t h i n my a b i l i t y t o f i n i s h t h i s t h e s i s . i x GLOSSARY a d j u n c t committees - p a r t o f t h e u n o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - a s e t of f i v e committees c o n c e r n e d w i t h problems a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t . BCUC - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U t i l i t i e s Commission - r e g u l a t o r y body f o r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n B.C. C I C - R e v e l s t o k e Community I m p a c t C o m m i t t e e - p a r t o f t h e o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . C l a i m s O f f i c e r - p a r t o f t h e o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o g r a m f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c l a i m s <$10,000 a r i s i n g f r o m the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . EARP - E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review P r o c e s s - r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e assessment of f e d e r a l development p r o j e c t s . e f f e c t s m o n i t o r i n g - the r e p e a t e d measurement o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s t o d e t e r m i n e what e n v i r o n m e n t a l change has r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of a development p r o j e c t . E I A - e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact assessment - p r o c e s s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y , p r e d i c t and a s s e s s t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s o f p r o p o s e d development p r o j e c t s , and t o recommend m i t i g a t i v e measures f o r a d v e r s e i m p a c t s . EIS - e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t - r e p o r t t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e p r e -d e v e l o p m e n t s t a t e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic) of a development on t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . ELUC - E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e - a B.C. C a b i n e t committee e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e Environment and Land Use A c t ( 1 9 7 1 ) . EPCC - E n e r g y P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee - c o o r d i n a t e s t h e r e v i e w o f r e g u l a t e d p r o j e c t s and a d v i s e s t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , M i n e s , and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s and t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n v i r o n m e n t a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n t h e Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s . Members a r e : D i r e c t o r o f P r o j e c t A n a l y s i s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s , and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , D i r e c t o r o f Assessment B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f Environment and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission s t a f f . E P R P - E n e r g y P r o j e c t R e v i e w P r o c e s s - p r o c e s s f o r t h e r e v i e w and c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f energy p r o j e c t s of 20 MW o r more, e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s A c t ( 1 9 8 0 ) . FEARO - F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review O f f i c e - r e s p o n s i b l e t o the M i n i s t e r o f t h e Environment f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of EARP. FWB - F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h - an a g e n c y o f t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , whose m a n d a t e i s t h e management o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s . X Impact M o n i t o r - p a r t o f t h e u n o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o g r a m o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o n i t o r i n g s o c i a l and economic i m p a c t s on t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e and n e i g h b o r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . IMC - Impact M o n i t o r i n g Committee - s e t up by R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f C o l u r a b i a -Shuswap t o s u p e r v i s e and g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e Impact M o n i t o r . L o c a l Impact Committee - p a r t o f t h e u n o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework-r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o c e s s i n g c l a i m s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n R e v e l s t o k e . M i n i s t e r o f EMPR - M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , M i n e s , and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . M i n i s t r y o f EMPR - M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s , and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . o f f i c i a l program - t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t s e t up under t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . I t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e Community I m p a c t Committee, t h e R e v e l s t o k e C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee, t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r , and two s i t e b i o l o g i s t s , a l l under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s . RPCC - R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee - p a r t of t h e o f f i c i a l p rogram. s t u d y a r e a - t h e a r e a t h a t was m o n i t o r e d f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . I t i s t h e Columbia R i v e r d r a i n a g e b a s i n between M i c a Dam and t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e (5400 km^, see F i g u r e 1.1.). u n o f f i c i a l program - t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t s e t up by B.C. H y d r o . I t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee, t h e Impact M o n i t o r and t h e A d j u n c t Committees. 1 CHAPTER 1 THE SELECTION AND LICENSING OF LARGE SCALE ENERGY PROJECTS The s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g ( a p p r o v a l ) of l a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e b a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s has become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex, t i m e consuming, and c o n t e n t i o u s . I n Canada, t h e l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s saw t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s as a major a p p r o a c h t o the e v a l u a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t s ( S e w e l l e t a l . , 1 962). L a t e r I n t h e 1960s and i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , c o n c e r n s about e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact l e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a n d , q u i c k l y t h e r e a f t e r , t o s o c i a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t . T h e s e p r o c e d u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d t h e i n c r e a s e d pace and s c a l e o f r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t s , c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and, i n t u r n , e v o l v i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y e x p r e s s e d i n a g r o w i n g body of l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s , a t b o t h t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f government. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e 1970s p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and t h e r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e s o u r c e development had grown l a r g e l y out of phase w i t h t h e p u b l i c ' s q u i c k l y c h a n g i n g v a l u e s y s t e m . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement caused a r a p i d change i n t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e toward t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s ( H e b e r l e i n , 1976). The environment i t s e l f was p e r c e i v e d as a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , f u n d a m e n t a l i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r human s u r v i v a l . Concerns about e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e were accompanied by t h e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n i n g of t h e growth e t h i c . However, l e g i s l a t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l changes were slow t o d e v e l o p and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s l e d t o numerous c o n f l i c t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , p r o j e c t s were approved w i t h o u t t h e i r need h a v i n g been j u s t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e b r o a d p o l i c y c o n t e x t . P r o j e c t r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e s were l i m i t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l i m p a c t assessment of the s p e c i f i c s i n g l e , p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t , t h e i s s u e of p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n b e i n g o u t s i d e t h e narrow mandate of t h e a p p r o v i n g 2 agency. The need t o i d e n t i f y t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e t h r e e major p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p s — t h e d e v e l o p e r , t h e government, and s o c i e t y a t l a r g e — a n d t o f i n d ways of accommodating t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s was not a d d r e s s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , d i r e c t p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o r e s o u r c e development was g e n e r a l l y o n l y a p e r f u n c t o r y e x e r c i s e w i t h l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on t h e a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s made ( G r i m a , 1 9 8 5 ) . L a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s were i m p l i c i t l y s a n c t i o n e d by government, r a t h e r t h a n e x p l i c i t l y a pproved w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c f orum. F rom t h e s e c o n f l i c t s a r o s e t h e p u b l i c ' s demand f o r a change i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f : f r o m a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. A s t r o n g e r and more m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e p o l i c y -m a k ing, program o r p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l e v e l was p e r c e i v e d t o r e n d e r the s e l e c t i o n and a p p r o v a l of l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s f a i r e r and more c r e d i b l e (Case e t a l . , 1983) by l e a d i n g t o government a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and t o b e t t e r i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s t h a t w o u l d be i n t h e p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t ( B u r c h , 1976; L u c a s , 1976; Gr i m a , 1985). A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact assessment ( E I A ) t o d a t e had c l e a r l y shown t h a t i t , t o o , must be improved i n o r d e r t o become an e f f e c t i v e and i n t e g r a t i v e assessment t o o l o f development p r o j e c t s ( B e a n l a n d s and D u i n k e r , 1983; Henshaw, 1984; L a r k i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . I n the f a c e of t h e s e p e r s i s t e n t demands f o r change, government c o u l d not h e l p but re s p o n d and the 1980s saw t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new s e l e c t i o n , a p p r o v a l , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s . The g e o g r a p h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n r e s o u r c e development has grown up w i t h i n t h e m a n - l a n d t r a d i t i o n of t h e d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s g r o w t h has been e n r i c h e d by i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h o s e i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , b e h a v i o r a l , management, and p o l i c y s c i e n c e s and t e s t e d by g e o g r a p h e r s who a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y engaged i n r e s o u r c e management ( O ' R i o r d a n , J . , 1981). I n t h e 1960s C a n a d i a n g e o g r a p h e r s were a l r e a d y w r i t i n g about t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o j e c t assessment ( S e w e l l e t a l . , 3 1962) and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements r e q u i r e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n s (Chapman, 1963). By t h e e a r l y 1970s major g e n e r a l w orks on r e s o u r c e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l management had been p u b l i s h e d ( B u r t o n and K a t e s , 1965; W h i t e , 1971; O ' R i o r d a n , T., 1971; M a c N e i l , 1971) and by the end of t h a t decade t h e emphasis on t h e g e n e r a l theme was g i v i n g way t o more f o c u s s e d l i n e s of e n q u i r y o f t e n i n t h e c o n t e x t of w a t e r r e s o u r c e s . As e a r l y as 1971, and r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l a p p r o a c h , t h e r o l e o f p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s i n r e s o u r c e management was documented ( S e w e l l and B u r t o n , 1 9 71). T h i s was q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d by some of t h e f i r s t w r i t i n g s by g e o g r a p h e r s on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e management d e c i s i o n s ( D r a p e r , 1975), a sub-theme w h i c h has e v o l v e d r a p i d l y e v e r s i n c e (Owen, 1985; G r i m a , 1985). A l s o i n t h e mid-1970s g e o g r a p h e r s began t o f o c u s upon e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1974) and t h e c h a r a c t e r and r o l e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact assessment t e c h n i q u e s ( M i t c h e l l , 1976; M i t c h e l l and T u r k h e i m , 1977), a n o t h e r sub-theme w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d i n t o a major a r e a of g e o g r a p h i c a l e n q u i r y ( M a c l a r e n and W h i t n e y , 1985). W r i t i n g on t h e p o l i c y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s of r e s o u r c e management a l s o s t a r t e d i n t h e mid-1970s ( M i t c h e l l , 1975; J a c k s o n , 1976; M i t c h e l l , 1977), matured i n t h e e a r l y 1980s ( O ' R i o r d a n , T. and S e w e l l , 1981b; M i t c h e l l and S e w e l l , 1981) and now c o n s t i t u t e s a n o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d sub-theme f o r g e o g r a p h e r s i n t h e more g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f r e s o u r c e management. I n t h i s t h e s i s s e v e r a l o f t h e sub-themes n o t e d above have been combined i n a s t u d y of one major p r o j e c t , t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam, t h e p l a n n i n g , l i c e n s i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of w h i c h e x t e n d e d o v e r t h i r t e e n y e a r s ( 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 8 3 ) . T h i s h i n d s i g h t o r p o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t t y p e of a n a l y s i s r e f l e c t s t h e work of M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , draws upon t h e methodology more r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d by Munro e t a l . (1986) and b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework d e v e l o p e d by O ' R i o r d a n , T, and S e w e l l (1981a) and S a d l e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . 4 1.1 HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT IN B.C. H y d r o e l e c t r i c development i n B.C. s t a r t e d a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , when two s m a l l g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s were b u i l t t o s e r v e V i c t o r i a on Vancouver I s l a n d (1898) and Vancouver on t h e M a i n l a n d (1903) (B.C. Hydro, 1963-1987). Development proceeded s l o w l y and on a s m a l l s c a l e up u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1960s, when t h e p r o v i n c i a l government embarked on a p o l i c y o f h y d r o - i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( S e w e l l , 1987), w h i c h l e d t o t h e m e g a p r o j e c t s b u i l t on t h e Col u m b i a and Peace R i v e r s . A l s o i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s p o l i c y i n 1962, t h e Government formed B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y (B.C. Hydro) by amalgamating two p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , t h e B.C. E l e c t r i c Company ( f o r m e r l y a p r i v a t e u t i l i t y e x p r o p r i a t e d i n 1961) and t h e B.C. Power Commission. 1.1.1 B.C. HYDRO'S ROLE AND OPERATION The mandate o f B.C. Hydro i s t y p i c a l f o r a p u b l i c u t i l i t y : t o produce and market energy as needed and s u b j e c t t o government p o l i c i e s . But t h e c o r p o r a t e economic g o a l " t o a c h i e v e f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y w h i l e s u p p l y i n g power t o consumers a t l o w e s t p o s s i b l e c o s t s " (B.C. Hydro, 1 9 7 5 , p. 16) a l s o g o v e r n s B.C. H y d r o ' s o p e r a t i o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p r i o r i t i e s t h e n a r e t o meet a l l e x p e c t e d energy demands as t h e y f o r e c a s t them and t o e s t a b l i s h a h e a l t h y c r e d i t r a t i n g i n o r d e r t o rem a i n a f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t c o r p o r a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , and f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e government's h y d r o - i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y , t h e P u b l i c U t i l i t y h a s c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e r p l a n n e d s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1970's. B.C. H y d r o b u i l t t h e f i r s t t h r e e m e g a p r o j e c t s i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r w a t e r s h e d i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. ( F i g u r e 1.1) as c a l l e d f o r by t h e Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y , s i g n e d by Canada and t h e U.S.A. i n 1964.1 The Duncan Dam, f i n i s h e d i n 1967, t h e K e e n l e y s i d e Dam, com p l e t e d a y e a r l a t e r , and t h e M i c a Dam, o p e r a t i o n a l i n 1973, p r o v i d e d f l o o d c o n t r o l s t o r a g e . The l a t t e r was a l s o 5 F i g u r e 1.1 The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y Dams and Other Dams o f the Area (B.C. Hydro, undated) 6 a power dam w i t h 1736 megawatt (MW) of i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y by 1976. The h y d r o e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e C o l u m b i a w a t e r s h e d was f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d by B.C. Hydro w i t h Kootenay C a n a l i n 1976 (592.7 MW), Seven M i l e i n 1980 (607.5 MW) and t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t (1800 MW) i n 1984. S t u d i e s were i n i t i a t e d i n 1980 f o r t h e development o f Murphy Creek (300 MW), t h e d i v e r s i o n o f t h e Kootenay R i v e r i n t o the C o l u m b i a R i v e r a t C a n a l F l a t s ( p o s s i b l e i n 1984 under t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y ) and t h e use o f t h e K e e n l e y s i d e Dam (210 MW) f o r e l e c t r i c e n ergy g e n e r a t i o n (B.C. Hydro, 1963-1987). Even p r i o r t o t h e development of t h e C o l u m b i a s y s t e m , B.C. Hydro had embarked on a program on t h e Peace R i v e r i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. The G.M. Shrum h y d r o e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t ( S i t e One) became o p e r a t i o n a l i n 1968, r e a c h i n g i t s u l t i m a t e g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f 2416 MW i n 1979, and t h e Peace Canyon f a c i l i t y came i n t o s e r v i c e i n 1981 w i t h 700 MW. I n t h e mid-1970s, s t u d i e s were commenced f o r a n o t h e r g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i o n on t h e Peace R i v e r , t h e S i t e C p r o j e c t (900 MW). A p p r o v a l was sought f o r t h i s p r o j e c t i n 1980 but r e f u s e d by t h e government i n 1983. A d d i t i o n a l developments p l a n n e d f o r t h e Peace R i v e r b a s i n were t h e S i t e E g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t (750 MW) and t h e d i v e r s i o n o f t h e McGregor R i v e r . Over t h e l a s t two d e cades, B.C. Hydro had a l s o e v a l u a t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f o t h e r major r i v e r b a s i n s , s u c h as t h e S t i k i n e - I s k u t (3025 MW)2 and t h e Skeena (1080 MW) i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B.C., t h e L i a r d (3800 MW) a t t h e B.C./Yukon b o r d e r , t h e Homathko ( 1 4 1 0 MW) i n t h e s o u t h e r n C o a s t M o u n t a i n s , and v a r i o u s developments on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r (8200 MW) (B.C. Hydro, 1975). F u r t h e r m o r e , p l a n s were underway f o r a major t h e r m a l - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t a t Hat Creek (5000 MW) i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f s o u t h e r n B.C. and t h e p o s s i b l e use of E a s t Kootenay c o a l d e p o s i t s (1800 MW). D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e g r i d had been s t r e n g t h e n e d o v e r a l l and e s p e c i a l l y by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a l i n e c o n n e c t i n g t h e Peace and C o l u m b i a R i v e r g e n e r a t i n g s y s t e m s , a l i n e t o t h e 7 A l b e r t a b o r d e r , and a n o t h e r t o t r a n s m i t e l e c t r i c power f r o m t h e M a i n l a n d t o Vancouver I s l a n d (B.C. Hydro, 1963-1987). C o n d i t i o n s g o v e r n i n g B.C. Hydro's o p e r a t i o n have changed c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ' s f o r m a t i o n i n 1 9 6 2 . P u b l i c c o n c e r n s a b o u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s of B.C. Hydro's p r o j e c t s e s c a l a t e d and o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t groups became b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d . Though r e s p o n s e by B.C. Hydro and government l a g g e d p u b l i c c o n c e r n s , changes i n p r o j e c t a s s e s s m e n t , and a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e s have been s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . Whereas t h e l e a d t i m e f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a m e g a p r o j e c t was a m a t t e r of a few y e a r s f o r t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y Dams i n t h e 1960s, by t h e t i m e of the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t i n t h e mid-1970s, B.C. Hydro c a l l e d i t " d i s t r e s s i n g l y l o n g — a p p r o a c h i n g t e n y e a r s " (B.C. Hydro, 1975, p. 6 of i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r ) . More t i m e was needed f o r t h e assessment of i m p a c t s of p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s . The Seven M i l e Dam was t h e f i r s t dam f o r w h i c h an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) had been p r e p a r e d . F o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t h e EIS i n c l u d e d an assessment o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s and of i m p a c t s a r i s i n g f r o m a n c i l l a r y w o r k s , a s w e l l a more e x t e n s i v e c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s had been c o n d u c t e d ( O ' R i o r d a n , J . , 1981). A l s o t h e p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e became more t i m e consuming. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new r e g u l a t o r y body, t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission (BCUC), under t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s A c t i n 1980, p l a c e d B.C. Hydro's o p e r a t i o n under s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n and i n t r o d u c e d t h e Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s ( E P R P ) . Whereas a p p r o v a l f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t under t h e Water A c t (1960) t o o k l e s s t h a n a y e a r and c o n s t r u c t i o n was a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d w h i l e an a p p e a l was c o n s i d e r e d , t h e S i t e C Dam was r e j e c t e d i n 1983 f o l l o w i n g a t h r e e y e a r r e v i e w under t h e EPRP. The government's r e j e c t i o n o f the S i t e C p r o j e c t was based on t h e much re d u c e d e l e c t r i c e n ergy g r o w t h demands r e s u l t i n g f r o m an economic r e c e s s i o n . 8 The d e c i s i o n a l s o s i g n i f i e d a change i n h y d r o e l e c t r i c development p o l i c y . I n f u t u r e , i f w a r r a n t e d by l o a d g r o w t h f o r e c a s t s , medium s i z e d p r o j e c t s , s u c h as t h e p r o p o s e d g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s a t Murphy Creek and K e e n l e y s i d e Dam, were t o be b u i l t . The government p l a n n e d t o encourage the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s m a l l p r i v a t e p r o j e c t s needed f o r i n d u s t r i a l development i n remote a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e B.C. Hydro g r i d s y s t e m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e l e c t r i c e n ergy e x p o r t p o l i c y was no l o n g e r l i m i t e d t o t h e s a l e of i n t e r r u p t i b l e , s h o r t term s u r p l u s power but a l s o i n c l u d e d t h a t of f i r m , l o n g term s u r p l u s e l e c t r i c energy ( M i n i s t r y of E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , 1 9 8 3 b ) . H o w e v e r , e x p o r t s t o t h e U.S.A. depended on a c c e s s t o t h e U.S. t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . T h i s was r e s t r i c t e d by t h e B o n n e v i l l e Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e mid-1980s. The e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n a l s o a f f e c t e d B.C. Hydro's p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . H i g h e r i n t e r e s t r a t e s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e s e r v i c i n g o f t h e l a r g e d e b t a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o f r e c e n t l y b u i l t m e g a p r o j e c t s . Emphasis on p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n was r e d u c e d and t h e H a t C r e e k t h e r m a l -e l e c t r i c d e v e l o p m e n t was i n d e f i n i t e l y p o stponed (B.C. Hydro, 1963-1987). However, t h e f o r m e r was s h o r t - l i v e d . From 1986 on, a c t u a l e l e c t r i c e n e r g y demand exceeded t h a t f o r e c a s t by B.C. Hydro and n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h B o n n e v i l l e Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were reopened i n 1987. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n mid-1988 B.C. Hydro p r e d i c t e d t h a t S i t e C w o u l d be needed by t h e y e a r 2001 and K e e n l e y s i d e by 2004 (Vancouver Sun, 1987, 1988). However, as of 1988, the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t remains t h e l a s t h y d r o e l e c t r i c m e g a p r o j e c t b u i l t i n B.C. 1.1.2 THE REVELSTOKE PROJECT Based on t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h a n n u a l e l e c t r i c e n ergy demand i n c r e a s e i n t h e 1960s ( a v e r a g e >14%), B.C. Hydro p e r c e i v e d t h e need f o r a n o t h e r major p r o j e c t l a t e i n t h e 1960s and by mid-1970 s t a t e d t h a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam was t h e o n l y p r o j e c t f a r enough advanced i n i t s p l a n n i n g s t a g e t o meet t h e i r e n ergy demand 9 f o r e c a s t (B.C. Hydro, 1976a, 1976b). The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was p l a n n e d t o have a c a p a c i t y o f 2700 MW w h i c h w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e more t h a n h a l f o f B.C. H ydro's t o t a l e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 5080 MW, and 300 MW more t h a n t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e G.M. Shrum p l a n t on t h e Peace R i v e r . ^ B o t h t h e p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n phases o f t h e P r o j e c t were a n t i c i p a t e d t o t a k e s i x y e a r s each (1971 t o 1 9 8 2 ) . A p p r o v a l f o r t h e P r o j e c t was b e i n g sought by September 1976, w i t h a p r o j e c t e d e a r l i e s t i n - s e r v i c e d a t e of September 1982. T o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t s were t o be $1.2 b i l l i o n ( Vancouver Sun, 1976b). The R e v e l s t o k e dam s i t e i s 5 km n o r t h o f t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e ( F i g u r e 1.1). The P r o j e c t was t o c o n s i s t of a c o n c r e t e dam, an e a r t h f i l l dam and a s p i l l w a y w i t h a power house d e s i g n e d t o h o l d s i x e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t o r s of 405 MW e a c h . The r e s e r v o i r w o u l d s t r e t c h 130 km n o r t h i n a n a r r o w , f o r e s t e d v a l l e y t o t h e M i c a Dam w i t h a s u r f a c e a r e a of 11,534 h e c t a r e s . Two t h i r d s o f t h e r e s e r v o i r w a t e r w o u l d come f r o m t h e M i c a Dam and t h e o t h e r t h i r d f r o m t r i b u t a r i e s s o u t h of M i c a Dam. The P r o j e c t a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f Highway 23 N o r t h between th e R e v e l s t o k e Dam and M i c a Dam. A u x i l i a r y developments i n c l u d e d borrow p i t s f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l , work a r e a s , a c o n s t r u c t i o n camp f o r up t o 3000 s i n g l e w o r k e r s and a t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e t o t h e s u b s t a t i o n i n R e v e l s t o k e (B.C. Hydro, 1976b). The p r o p o s e d o p e r a t i n g s c h e d u l e of t h e P r o j e c t i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 1.1. Water r e l e a s e c r i t e r i a were dependent on t h e o b l i g a t i o n s f o r d i s c h a r g e f r o m M i c a Dam and s t o r a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e Arrow L a k e s under t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y . I n t h e s h o r t term,, however, t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t c o u l d be r u n i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e o t h e r two dams. The P r o j e c t was t o be a p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u n - o f - t h e - r i v e r p l a n t , i n s o f a r as i t w o u l d o n l y be used f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l i n t i m e s of extreme f l o o d d a n g e r . Thus r e s e r v o i r peak w a t e r l e v e l (573 m) and use o f t h e s p i l l w a y w o u l d be r a r e . By t h e f a l l of 1988 f o u r t u r b i n e s had been 10 T a b l e 1.1 O p e r a t i n g S c h e d u l e f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam RELEASE CRITERIA Because the R e v e l s t o k e Dam i s l o c a t e d between two C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y Dams, i t s o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n must r e f l e c t T r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s f o r r e l e a s e s f r o m M i c a Dam and any s t o r a g e t r a n s f e r s between K i n b a s k e t Lake and t h e Arrow L a k e s . However, i n t h e s h o r t t e r m t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam may be o p e r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e o t h e r two dams, p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t i n f l o w and s t o r a g e a r e a v a i l a b l e . OPERATING SCHEDULE f u l l s u p p l y l e v e l Drawdown: - o p t i o n r e g u l a t i o n - w i n t e r peak l o a d c o n d i t i o n s - s y s t e m emergency c o n d i t i o n s - s u r c h a r g e t o t a l f l o o d e d a r e a t o t a l volume of impoundment 573 m e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . I . 5 m < 4.6 m t o E l . 568.4 m 15.2 m maximum up t o 1.5 m I I , 534 ha 5.3 x 109 m3 S p i l l w a y and O u t l e t G a t e s : - combined d i s c h a r g e volume a t e l e v a t i o n 574.6 m a t e l e v a t i o n 573 m - d i s c h a r g e of _>6503 m-Vs - e l e v a t i o n a t w h i c h o p e r a t i o n p o s s i b l e s p i l l w a y o u t l e t g a t e s 7108 m3/ s 6503 m 3/s e x t r e m e l y r a r e event 556.3-574.6 m 518.2-574.6 m T u r b i n e D i s c h a r g e : - 4 t u r b i n e s combined about 1700 m^/s - when r e q u i r e d r e l e a s e f r o m P r o j e c t exceeds t h a t volume o r t h e r e i s l a c k of l o a d , t h e e x c e s s w a t e r w i l l be r e l e a s e d t h r o u g h t h e o u t l e t g a t e s o r s p i l l w a y S o u r c e : B.C. Hydro, 1976b, 1983 11 i n s t a l l e d w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1800 MW. 1.2 OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , t he s t u d y i s t o s e r v e as a documented cas e h i s t o r y o f the R e v e l s t o k e H y d r o e l e c t r i c Dam r e q u i r i n g t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a f r o m a number o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . The second a i m i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The t h i r d g o a l i s t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c u r r e n t s e l e c t i o n a nd l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r l a r g e s c a l e e nergy p r o j e c t s overcome t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e e x p e r i e n c e . The m a i n body o f t h e t h e s i s i s i n t h e f o r m o f a pos t - d e v e l o p m e n t a n a l y s i s . The term i s used h e r e as a c o l l e c t i v e one; i t s i g n i f i e s any t y p e o f a n a l y s i s of any p a r t s ( s e l e c t i o n , l i c e n s i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) o f a p r o j e c t c o n d u c t e d a t some t i m e a f t e r p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n has been c o m p l e t e d . T h i s f o r m a t was chosen as most s u i t a b l e f o r m e e t i n g t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and d e s p i t e t h e many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems n o t e d t o be common t o p o s t -d e v e l o p m e n t a n a l y s e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r p r o j e c t s t h a t have undergone e a r l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l i mpact assessment ( B i s s e t t , 1980, 1984; Hecky e t a l . , 1984; PADC, 1983; Munro e t a l . , 1986; S a d l e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . M i t c h e l l (1977, p. 180) sees t h e v a l u e o f such s t u d i e s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e programs o r p r o c e d u r e s b e i n g s t u d i e d and i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e recommendations f o r t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g an a c c e p t e d methodology f o r p o s t -development a n a l y s e s , t h a t p r o p o s e d by Munro e t a l . (1986) p r o v e d a u s e f u l g u i d e . F i v e s t e p s were f o l l o w e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l i n g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c a l l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l 12 i m p a c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o h y d r o e l e c t r i c dams and post-development a n a l y s i s was r e v i e w e d . Second, an assessment of t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o n d u c t i n g a p o s t -development a n a l y s i s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was c a r r i e d o u t . P r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s e s t a b l i s h e d l i a i s o n and d a t a a v a i l a b i l i t y a t government o f f i c e s and at B.C. H y d r o . A r e v i e w o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact p r e d i c t i o n s and pro p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r t h e P r o j e c t . T h i r d , d a t a n e e d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of t h e f e a s i b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t . Data were t h e n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h r e e main i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s : t h e W a t e r Management B r a n c h and t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB) of t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , and B.C. Hydro, t h e p r o j e c t p r o p o n e n t . I n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h s t a f f o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s and w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s , who had been w o r k i n g on t h e p r o j e c t s i t e o r l i v e d I n R e v e l s t o k e , p r o v i d e d t h e w r i t e r w i t h a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a and c o n c e r n s o f t h e main p a r t i c i p a n t s . The two f i n a l s t e p s i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y w e r e t h e a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a , and t h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e post-development a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e c a s e s t u d y were t h e n a p p l i e d t o a r e v i e w o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r l a r g e s c a l e energy development p r o j e c t s i n B.C. i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e improvements i n t h e more r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and th e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s . 1.3 OUTLINE OF THE STUDY The s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s : t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t c a s e s t u d y and th e assessment of t h e c u r r e n t s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r l a r g e s c a l e e n e r g y developments i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e e x p e r i e n c e . The case s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r s e c t i o n s : ( 1 ) t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g o f the P r o j e c t ; ( 2 ) t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t management; 13 ( 3 ) t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n i m p a c t s ; a n d ( 4 ) e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e d i c t i o n s and t h e i r outcomes. C h a p t e r 2 d e a l s w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . I t opens w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p o l i c i e s and. p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g of l a r g e s c a l e e l e c t r i c e n ergy developments p r e v a i l i n g i n B.C. a t t h e time of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . T h i s f u r n i s h e s the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e s e two phases of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o o k p l a c e . Then f o l l o w s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t by B.C. H y d r o . The l i c e n s i n g o f t h e P r o j e c t p r oceeded under t h e Water A c t . I t s t a r t e d w i t h B.C. Hydro's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a w a t e r l i c e n c e , f o l l o w e d by a p u b l i c h e a r i n g and t h e i s s u a n c e of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . These s t e p s a r e d e s c r i b e d and c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d , The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an assessment of t h e a p p e a l t o t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e and t h e r e s u l t i n g amended l i c e n c e . The l a t t e r p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . I n C h a p t e r 3 t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t i s d e s c r i b e d and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s e v a l u a t e d . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework c o n s i s t e d of two p a r t s : t h e " u n o f f i c i a l " program s e t up by B.C. Hydro and t h e " o f f i c i a l " program c a l l e d f o r under t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . An o v e r v i e w of t h e components, o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n each of t h e s e programs i s p r o v i d e d . Then f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e u n o f f i c i a l and o f f i c i a l p rograms. I n t h e f i n a l p a r t of t h e c h a p t e r t h e major s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework a r e examined. The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4. C h a p t e r 4 f o c u s e s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . As a r e q u i r e m e n t of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e B.C. Hydro d e v e l o p e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e P r o j e c t . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r f o r m a t and c o n t e n t i s f o l l o w e d by an assessment of t h e 14 manner i n w h i c h t h e y were a d m i n i s t e r e d . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s a r i s i n g f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e n documented and r e v i e w e d . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s a r e f u r t h e r examined i n C h a p t e r 5, w h i c h d e a l s w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact p r e d i c t i o n s and outcomes. The i m p a c t s p r e d i c t e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact s t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) a r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t s t h a t o c c u r r e d . They a r e grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t s of t h e e c o s y s t e m a f f e c t e d : a q u a t i c e nvironment and f i s h r e s o u r c e , t e r r e s t r i a l e n v ironment and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e , and a t m o s p h e r i c e n v i r o n m e n t . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e EIS i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s . I n C h a p t e r 6 t h e f o c u s changes f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o t h e Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s , w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1980 and s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g o f energy p r o j e c t s i n B.C. T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s b o t h t h e p r o c e s s and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . F i r s t , t h e p r o c e d u r e s and o p t i o n s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h an energy p r o j e c t a p p l i c a t i o n and a p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of s u c h a p r o j e c t a r e r e v i e w e d . Then f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e energy p r o j e c t r e v i e w p r o c e s s was a p p l i e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e S i t e C H y d r o e l e c t r i c P r o j e c t . The t o p i c s a d d r e s s e d a r e : t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , mandate and e x p e r t i s e o f t h e r e v i e w p a n e l , p r o j e c t s e l e c t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and t h e p r o p o s e d m o n i t o r i n g program. These a r e c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . The s e v e n t h and f i n a l c h a p t e r u n d e r t a k e s a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e c a s e s t u d y and t h e S i t e C e x p e r i e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t the Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s i s an improvement o v e r t h e s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g p r o c e s s i t r e p l a c e d . F o r t h i s purpose t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t a r e summarized u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : p r e - a p p i i c a t i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n , l i c e n c e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g , and p o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n a l y s i s . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f 15 t h e R e v e l s t o k e e x p e r i e n c e t h e p r o c e s s i n g of t h e S i t e C Dam a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e v i e w e d . T h i s e v a l u a t i o n l e a d s t o some recommendations f o r t h e f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s . 16 Notes 1 The C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y p r o v i d e d f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l s t o r a g e and e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . B.C. r e c e i v e d a t o t a l o f $341.8 m i l l i o n ( C a n a d i a n ) f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l and the s a l e o f I t s s h a r e (50%) of t h e a d d i t i o n a l power g e n e r a t e d i n t h e U.S.A. f o r t h e f i r s t 30 y e a r s o f t h e 60-year T r e a t y ( S e w e l l , 1 9 6 4 ) . 2 These f i g u r e s a r e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y as quoted by B.C. Hydro i n a 1975 Task F o r c e R e p o r t w h i c h e v a l u a t e d s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e development p l a n s (B.C. Hydro, 1975). 3 I n 1974 t h e e l e c t r i c power c o n s u m p t i o n i n B.C. was 18% of t h e t o t a l e n ergy used i n t h e P r o v i n c e . B.C. Hydro, t h e major p u b l i c u t i l i t y , s u p p l i e d 66%, 78% o f w h i c h was h y d r o e l e c t r i c and 2 2 % was t h e r m a l - e l e c t r i c p o w e r . The C o r p o r a t i o n ' s t o t a l g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y was 5080 m e g a w a t t s (MW). The i n t e g r a t e d g r i d s y s t e m a c c o u n t e d f o r 97% (4916 MW). Of t h i s n e a r l y 50% came f r o m t h e l a r g e G.M Shrum p l a n t on t h e Peace R i v e r and 31% (1531 MW) f r o m 21 s m a l l e r h y d r o e l e c t r i c p l a n t s , t h e r e s t b e i n g t h e r m a l - e l e c t r i c power. O n l y 3% (155.4 MW) were g e n e r a t e d by t h e i s o l a t e d p l a n t s . 17 CHAPTER 2 SELECTION AND LICENSING OF THE REVELSTOKE PROJECT The s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o o k about seven and a h a l f y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e . The p r o j e c t s e l e c t i o n phase s t a r t e d i n 1971 w i t h B.C. Hydro c o n d u c t i n g f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s on two p r o p o s a l s , w h i c h by e a r l y 1976 had been ex t e n d e d t o c o v e r f o u r a d d i t i o n a l p r o p o s a l s . However, by t h i s t i m e , d e s i g n and p l a n s f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t had been f i n a l i z e d and B.C. Hydro a p p l i e d t o the Water Management B r a n c h f o r the a p p r o v a l o f the P r o j e c t i n the form o f a w a t e r l i c e n c e . F o l l o w i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n the f a l l of 1976, the Water Management B r a n c h i s s u e d t he w a t e r l i c e n c e I n December o f t h a t y e a r , whereupon c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the dam was s t a r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y i n J a n u a r y 1977. I n i t i a l p r o j e c t l i c e n s i n g by the Water Management B r a n c h t o o k l e s s t h a n a y e a r . However, t h e p r o c e s s was ext e n d e d by an a p p e a l t o C a b i n e t t o r e v o k e t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . The a p p o i n t e d a p p e a l t r i b u n a l made two recommendations (September 1977, June 1978) t o amend the c o n d i t i o n s of the l i c e n c e and a c o n s o l i d a t e d w a t e r l i c e n c e was i s s u e d by the Water Management B r a n c h i n August 1978, t h u s c o m p l e t i n g the l i c e n s i n g phase o f the P r o j e c t . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e and e v a l u a t e t h e s e two phases of the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . A d i s c u s s i o n o f the p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r the s e l e c t i o n and l i c e n s i n g of l a r g e s c a l e h y d r o e l e c t r i c energy p r o j e c t s p r e v a i l i n g i n B.C. a t t h a t time p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g . 2.1 PREVAILING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES The 1960s were n o t a b l e i n B.C. f o r the l a r g e s t d a m - b u i l d i n g program i n i t s h i s t o r y (Duncan, K e e n l e y s i d e , P e a c e R i v e r 1 and M i c a ) and f o r t h e emergence of s t r o n g p u b l i c c o n c e r n about b o t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l consequences of such l a r g e r e s o u r c e development p r o p o s a l s and d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . These and o t h e r p u b l i c c o n c e r n s l e d , i n t h e 1970s, t o a change of 18 government f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a j o r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h more government c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e development. The R e v e l s t o k e p r o p o s a l t o o k shape d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n between t h e s e two decades and was l i c e n c e d under an " o l d " p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n ( t h e Water A c t , 1960) even though new l e g i s l a t i o n ( E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use A c t , 1971; B.C. Energy A c t , 1973) was i n p l a c e ( T a b l e 2 . 1 ) . The Water A c t ( 1 9 6 0 ) , a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Water Management B r a n c h , had been used t o l i c e n c e t h e dams b u i l t i n t h e 1960s. Under t h i s A c t t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e was c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g and s a f e t y i s s u e s , and o n l y s i t e - s p e c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s were c o n s i d e r e d . R e g u l a t i o n s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t f u r n i s h s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l a n d , the w a t e r t o be d i v e r t e d , t h e purpose and t h e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n . The A c t d i d n o t r e q u i r e a r e v i e w o f t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of an e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact s t a t e m e n t but gave t h e C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s the a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u e s t s u c h o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n as he c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t . I n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s c o u l d f i l e o b j e c t i o n s t o d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s and t h e A c t p r o v i d e d f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o be h e l d a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e C o m p t r o l l e r (Bankes and Thompson, 1981). At s u c h a p u b l i c h e a r i n g t h e C o m p t r o l l e r c o u l d a d j u d i c a t e any m a t t e r b rought b e f o r e him t h a t was r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t , as w e l l as b e i n g w i t h i n h i s mandate as o u t l i n e d i n t h e Water A c t . Upon a p p r o v a l of a development t h e C o m p t r o l l e r c o u l d i n c l u d e any c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t . Of n o t e , however, i s t h a t though B.C. Hydro had always c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e C o m p t r o l l e r ' s o r d e r s , by law ( S e c t i o n 53A of t h e B.C. Hydro A c t ( 1 9 6 4 ) ) t h e C o r p o r a t i o n was exempt f r o m h a v i n g t o c o m p l y w i t h any p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e o r s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n . The p u b l i c had the r i g h t t o a p p e a l t h e i s s u a n c e o f the w a t e r l i c e n c e under t h e Water A c t . I f t h e a p p e a l was a c c e p t e d , C a b i n e t w o u l d pass 19 T a b l e 2.1 B.C. L e g i s l a t i o n , A g e n c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e L i c e n s i n g o f S e l e c t e d H y d r o e l e c t r i c P r o j e c t s B .C . L EG I SLAT ION , AGENCIES , PROCEDURES B .C . HYDRO DAMS WATER ACT B .C . HYDRO COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY B .C . HYDRO ACT FOREST ACT POLLUTION CONTROL ACT COAL MINES REGULATION ACT LAND ACT ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE ACT ELUC SECRETARIAT B .C . ENERGY ACT B .C . ENERGY COMMISSION DEPT. OF ENERGY, TRANSPOR-TATION AND COMMUNICATION .GU IDEL INES FOR COAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS 'GU IDEL INES FOR LINEAR DEVELOPMENT MINISTRY OF ENERGY, MINES, PETROLEUM RESOURCES ^ENVIRON, t SOCIAL IMPACT COMPENSATION/ 'M IT IGAT ION GUIDELINES ^ BCUC A C T 2 - BCUC COMMISSION DISBANDED 3 ELUC 1 COMMITTEE ENERGY PROJECT REVIEW PROCESS ^ DISBANDED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACT WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT I960 1961 1962 1963 196A 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 197*1 1975 1976 1977 1973 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 \S8k 1985 LICENSING CONSTRUCTION [ DUNCAN COMPLETED ] - I KEENLEYSIDE - [ PEACE RIVER I COMPLETED : £ FEAS IB I L ITY STUDIES OPERATION P r e l i m i n a r y EIS I 2 F e b : WATER LICENCE APPLICATION 9 1 May: E I S ; BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS 7 * S e p t : PUBLIC HEARINGS 6 J Dec : WATER LICENCE ISSUED  1 i J a n : START OF CONSTRUCTION 9 2 F e b : CABINET APPEAL COMMITTEE 7 2 S e p t : AMENDED WATER LICENCE + ENERGY PROJECT CERT IF ICATE APPL ICATION + S I T E + S ITE C COMMISSION + PUBLIC t HEARINGS + COMMISSION'S REPORT TO CABINET C J CABINET REJECTS S ITE C APPLICATION + +++++++ £ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ J OPERATION 1. Env i ronment £ Land Use . 2. B .C . U t i l i t i e s A c t . 3. Some f u n c t i o n s t o B .C . U t i l i t i e s C o m m i s s i o n and to M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M ines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . U. R e p l a c e d P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Ac t (1967). 20 th e f i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r u p h o l d i n g , amending o r r e v o k i n g t h e l i c e n c e . I n 1 9 7 1 t h e B.C. government i n t r o d u c e d t h e Environment and Land Use A c t under w h i c h an E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e ( E L U C , c o n s i s t i n g o f s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s ) and a s e c r e t a r i a t where e s t a b l i s h e d . The Committee's mandate was: " t o e n s u r e t h a t . . . t h e . . . p r e s e r v a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l a n d use and r e s o u r c e development . . . [ f o r ] . . . a maximum b e n e f i c i a l l a n d u s e , a n d [ t o ] m i n i m i s e and p r e v e n t w a s t e o f s u c h r e s o u r c e s , and d e s p o l i a t i o n o f t h e environment o c c a s i o n e d t h e r e b y . " ( M a r r , 1976, p. 41) F u r t h e r m o r e , an o r d e r by C a b i n e t under t h e Environment and Land Use A c t c o u l d o v e r r i d e any o t h e r power i n t h e P r o v i n c e . ELUC u n d e r t o o k t o d e v i s e t h e framework needed f o r t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e o f c e r t a i n t y p e s of l a r g e s c a l e developments and g u i d e l i n e s f o r w r i t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact s t a t e m e n t s . I n 1976 t h e Committee p u b l i s h e d t h e G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l Development, f o l l o w e d i n 1977 by t h o s e f o r L i n e a r Developments and f o r B e n e f i t - C o s t A n a l y s i s and i n 1980, f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l Impact Compensation and M i t i g a t i o n . I n 1973, t h e B.C. Energy A c t was p a s s e d w i t h t h e I n t e n t i o n t h a t i t s h o u l d be used t o r e g u l a t e e nergy u t i l i t i e s . The A c t was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a new agency, t h e B.C. Energy Commission, whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were b o t h a d v i s o r y and r e g u l a t o r y : ( 1 ) t o a d v i s e the government on energy r e s o u r c e management p e r t a i n i n g t o s u c h m a t t e r s as energy s u p p l y , demand, l o a d g r o w t h f o r e c a s t s , d i s c o v e r y , c o n s e r v a t i o n , e x p o r t , and r e v e n u e s t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; ( 2 ) t o r e g u l a t e t h e p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y ; and ( 3 ) t o r e g u l a t e e nergy u t i l i t i e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l a t t e r , t h e Commission was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i s s u a n c e o f c e r t i f i c a t e s o f p u b l i c c o n v e n i e n c e and n e c e s s i t y , t h e r e g u l a t i o n of energy r a t e s , t a r i f f s and s e c u r i t i e s as w e l l as w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of major f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h e Commission's mandate d i d not e x t e n d t o B.C. H y d r o — t h e major p r o d u c e r of e l e c t r i c e n ergy i n t h e P r o v i n c e . 21 I n 1976, B.C. Hydro s u p p l i e d 93.6% o f t h e t o t a l e l e c t r i c energy produced by p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , so t h a t t h e e x c l u s i o n o f B.C. Hydro l e f t v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y i n d u s t r y t o be r e g u l a t e d (B.C. Energy Commission, 1976b; P u b l i c S e r v i c e Commission, 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 2.2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION AND SELECTION I n November 1973, t h e newly c r e a t e d B.C. Energy Commission was d i r e c t e d t o p r e p a r e an a n n u a l r e v i e w o f energy r e s o u r c e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e f i r s t o f w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n 1974 (B.C. Energy Commission, 1974). P r i o r t o t h i s , B.C. Hydro (and i t s f o r e r u n n e r , B.C. E l e c t r i c Company) had p l a y e d t h e l e a d r o l e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l e nergy demand f o r e c a s t s , l i m i t i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e demand f o r e l e c t r i c i t y . The C o r p o r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o see i t s e l f i n t h i s r o l e even a f t e r t h e Energy Commission p r e p a r e d a n n u a l f o r e c a s t s o f t o t a l e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r i c i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y i n 1975, B.C. Hydro produced a t h r e e - s c e n a r i o e l e c t r i c i t y l o a d f o r e c a s t w h i c h b u i l t on t h o s e t h a t had been p r e p a r e d p r e v i o u s l y (B.C. Hydro, 1975). B.C. Hydro's 1975 f o r e c a s t i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e l o a d g r o w t h c u r v e s o f 7%, 8.6%, and 10.2% a n n u a l i n c r e a s e t o t h e y e a r 1990, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n s p i t e o f t h e Energy Commission's f o r e c a s t o f o n l y 5.5% a n n u a l i n c r e a s e f r o m 1974-1982, B.C. Hydro j u s t i f i e d i t s need f o r a l a r g e i n c r e m e n t i n sy s t e m c a p a c i t y on the b a s i s o f i t s own f o r e c a s t . Hydro had been c o n v i n c e d o f t h i s need s i n c e t h e l a t e 1960s and, by 1971 appeared t o be f a v o u r i n g t h e R e v e l s t o k e s i t e ( T a b l e 2 . 2 ) . P r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n f o r R e v e l s t o k e was a u t h o r i z e d i n 1974 even b e f o r e c o s t - b e n e f i t c o mparisons o f s i x o t h e r p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g t h r e e v a r i a n t s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e p r o p o s a l ) were co m p l e t e d ( R e i d , 1976; ELUC, 1977). By l a t e 1975 and a f t e r e n g i n e e r i n g , f i n a n c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l ( p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l dangers of t h e Downie S l i d e a r e a ) f a c t o r s had been w e i g h e d , B.C. T a b l e 2.2 S t u d i e s f o r P r o j e c t S e l e c t i o n STUDIES CONTENT RESULTS F e a s i b i 1 i t y S t u d i e s 1971 - January 1973 Two a l t e r n a t i v e s examined: j (1) h i g h R e v e l s t o k e dam at 573 m (2) c o m b i n a t i o n o f two dams: R e v e l s t o k e Dam a t 51 *• m Downie Creek Dam at 573 m A l t e r n a t i v e (1) more e c o n o m i c a l : lower c a p i t a l c o s t s h i g h e r I n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y h i g h e r e l e c t r i c p r o d u c t i o n Downie S1ide Study J u l y 1973 " A p r i l 197^ Panel o f e x p e r t s examined s a f e t y c o n c e r n o v e r Oownie S l i d e - m a s s i v e bedrock s l i d e , 10,000 y e a r s ago, 65 km n o r t h o f R e v e l s t o k e S l i d e does not impose any l i m i t a t i o n s on e i t h e r o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s (1) and (2) Pre 1imi nary E1S J a n . 1973 " Oct. 197A P r e l i m i n a r y EIS on a l t e r n a t i v e s ( I ) and (2) conducted by p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t f i r m E s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts on f i s h , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e 6 m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r the two a l t e r n a t i v e s P r e l i m i n a r y P r o j e c t D esign June 197^ » - e a r l y 1976 B.C. Hydro chose a l t e r n a t i v e ( I ) and proceeded w i t h I t s p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s 1976 S i x a l t e r n a t i v e s a s s e s s e d : (1) and (2) as above, (3) low R e v e l s t o k e Dam at 51 *• m, CO Downie Creek Dam at 51 m, (5) Peace-McGregor h y d r o e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t (6) Hat Creek t h e r m a 1 - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t On b a s i s o f p r o v i n c i a l income, the e n v i r o n m e n t and e f f e c t on r e g i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e (1) most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e but some u n d e t e r m i n e d m i t i g a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s not i n c l u d e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact P r e v i e w F e b r u a r y 1976 B.C. Hydro i s s u e d a v e r y s h o r t p r e v i e w on a l t e r n a t i v e (1) F i n a l EIS Aug. 1975 - May 1976 B.C. Hydro rewrote 2 r e p o r t s by p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t f i r m s , c o m b i n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l s o c i a l and economic impacts i n one EIS^ P r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s ' v i e w : B.C. Hydro EIS not I n c o r r e c t , but they would have d e s c r i b e d the s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y ^ I'. E l e v a t i o n f i g u r e s s i g n i f y the f u l l r e s e r v o i r water o p e r a t i n g l e v e l above sea l e v e l . 2. B.C. Hydro, 1976b 3. Anthony, 1979 K> ;> 23 Hydro was committed t o b u i l d i n g t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e need f o r a l a r g e a d d i t i o n t o sys t e m c a p a c i t y and th e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t had been made w i t h o u t any p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g c r i t i c i s m o f t h e need from the B.C. Energy Commission. B.C. Hydro had d e t e r m i n e d and e v a l u a t e d t h e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and chosen the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . 2.3 THE WATER LICENCE APPLICATION The a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t he w a t e r l i c e n c e was f i l e d w i t h t h e Water Management B r a n c h i n F e b r u a r y 1976. An e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m pact s t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) was not a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t t i m e . Though t h e Water A c t d i d not r e q u i r e an E I S , B.C. Hydro had commissioned two e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m pact s t u d i e s t o meet t h e i r i n - h o u s e terras of r e f e r e n c e . These two documents were t h e n combined i n t o one EIS by B.C. Hydro (B.C. Hydro, 1976b) and made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n May 1976. However, i n F e b r u a r y 1976 o n l y an E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact P r e v i e w R e p o r t (B.C. Hydro, 1976a) was p u b l i s h e d . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , B.C. Hydro i n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e p u b l i c . R e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u b l i c i n F i g u r e 2.1 s u g g e s t s t h a t B.C. Hydro i n t e n d e d t o r u n a p r e - p l a n n e d p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n program. I n f a c t , i t was " . . . r a t h e r an ad hoc r e s p o n s e t o p u b l i c e n q u i r y and i n t e r e s t w h i c h may r e s u l t i n a s e r i e s of m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s as need d i c t a t e s " (B.C. Hydro 1976b, p. V ) . T h i s i s s u r p r i s i n g as t h e proponent a l s o w r o t e i n t h e EIS t h a t " l o c a l p e o p l e want as much i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r o j e c t as soon as p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t o t h i s community" (B.C. Hydro, 1976b, p. 15- 2 9 ) . B.C. Hydro s t a t e d t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e EIS was t o i n f o r m d e c i s i o n makers and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c (B.C. Hydro, 1976b). But n e i t h e r B.C. Hydro nor the Water Management B r a n c h saw t h e need f o r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e government a g e n c i e s o r t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . The 2k F i g u r e 2.1 B.C. Hydro's P e r c e p t i o n o f P r o c e d u r e and Sc h e d u l e f o r P r o j e c t L i c e n s i n g (B.C. Hydro, 1976b) GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR PROJECT APPROVAL E n g i n e e r i n g D e s i g n E n v i r o n m e n t a l , S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s Water L i c e n c e A p p l i c a t I o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e v i e w APPROXIMATE SCHEDULE P r e v i e w R e p o r t I s s u e d t o t h e P u b l i c , F e b r u a r y 1976 Water L i c e n c e A p p l i c a t i o n P o s t e d F e b r u a r y 1976 B.C. Hydro P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n P rogram and D i a l o g u e w i t h t h e Community D i s c u s s i o n s F e b r u a r y - May 1976 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) Made A v a i l a b l e t o Government A g e n c i e s and P u b l i c , May 1976 R e v i e w by Government A g e n c i e s and P u b l i c W ater L i c e n c e H e a r i n g L a t e June 1976 [ r e s c h e d u l e d f o r S e p t . 13] B.C. Hydro R e c e i p t o f Water L i c e n c e ( i f i s s u e d ) B.C. H y d r o R e c e i p t o f O t h e r N e c e s s a r y A p p r o v a l s [ w a t e r 1 i c e n c e i s s u e d Dec. 1 ] B.C. Hydro D e c i s i o n t o C o n s t r u c t P r o j e c t and Commencement o f M a j o r Work September 1976 [ s t a r t e d J a n . 1977] 25 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s o n l y a r o s e a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t a g e . On t h e b a s i s of t h e many o b j e c t o r s ' b r i e f s , t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r d e c i d e d t o h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . I t was s c h e d u l e d t o s t a r t on June 21, 1976, the d a t e r e q u e s t e d by B.C. Hydr o . However, t h e p u b l i c had n o t been c o n s u l t e d about t h e d a t e and i n t h e f a c e of a p u b l i c o u t c r y i t was postponed u n t i l S e p t e m b e r 1 3 t h . Even t h i s l o n g e r t i m e span was s t i l l p e r c e i v e d by many i n t e r v e n o r s t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a t h o r o u g h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e EIS (made a v a i l a b l e o n l y i n May 1976) and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s w h i c h were n o t a l l r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m B.C. Hydro (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). The C o m p t r o l l e r o f W a t e r R i g h t s c o n d u c t e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n R e v e l s t o k e o v e r 21 d a y s , September 13 t o O c t o b e r 8, 1976. Most s e s s i o n s were h e l d d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e ; however a few pr o c e e d e d i n t h e e v e n i n g t o accommodate i n t e r v e n o r s . I t was a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l h e a r i n g a l l o w i n g f o r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n e x c e p t o f t h e a d v i s o r s t o t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . A B.C. Hydro commentator f e l t t h e h e a r i n g d i d not i n t i m i d a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s as i t was c o n d u c t e d i n an " u n i m p o s i n g r e l a x e d manner" ( W a i t e , 1979, p. 5 5 ) . The 44 i n t e r v e n o r s who f i l e d and p r e s e n t e d b r i e f s a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n T a b l e 2.3. A l l but t h r e e o b j e c t e d t o o r r a i s e d c o n c e r n s about t h e P r o j e c t . The P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h d i d not o b j e c t because i t was n e g o t i a t i n g a $1 m i l l i o n c o m p e n s a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t w i t h B.C. Hydr o . Two l a b o u r g r o u p s a l s o h a d no o b j e c t i o n s as the P r o j e c t w o u l d r e q u i r e a v e r y l a r g e l a b o u r f o r c e . Of t h e 41 o b j e c t o r s o n l y n i n e were i n d i v i d u a l s . However, many o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s were r e p r e s e n t e d by the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups w h i c h i n t e r v e n e d . The main i s s u e s r a i s e d were a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l a nd e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s ; l a c k o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a s e l i n e d a t a r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i n a b i l i t y t o d e v i s e m i t i g a t i o n and co m p e n s a t i o n measures; p u b l i c s a f e t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the Downie S l i d e ; and p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). t a b l e 2.3 I n t e r v e n o r s a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e P u b l i c H e a r i n g INTERVENOR TOTAL OBJECTORS C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t groups 11 11 M u n i c i p a l groups 8 8 Commercial groups 9 9 P r o v i n c i a l government 4 3 l a g e n c i e s L abour groups 2 0 L o c a l p r e s s 1 1 I n d i v i d u a l s 9 9 T o t a l 44 41 P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h d i d not o b j e c t . S o u r c e : Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988 27 B.C. Hydro p r e s e n t e d i t s t e s t i m o n y i n f o u r s e c t i o n s : ( 1 ) t h e t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n ; ( 2 ) t h e Downie S l i d e ; ( 3 ) e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s ; and (4) s o c i o -economic i m p a c t s on t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e and t h e r e g i o n , and e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s on t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . T e s t i m o n y and c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n of B.C. Hydro l a s t e d 13 d a y s . Of the 32 B.C. Hydro w i t n e s s e s , 22 were s p e c i a l i s t c o n s u l t a n t s t o t h e p r o p o n e n t . Q u e s t i o n i n g of a l l t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d p o s s i b l y t o o k up t o two t h i r d s of t h e h e a r i n g (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1 9 8 8 ) . The p r o c e e d i n g s of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g were p u b l i s h e d i n 28 volumes (Water C o m p t r o l l e r , 1976b). 2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE WATER LICENCE APPLICATION PROCESS C r i t i c i s m s of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s c e n t r e d around t h r e e major t o p i c s : t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , t h e mandate and e x p e r t i s e of t h e Water Management B r a n c h and p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . 2.3.1.1 The H e a r i n g P r o c e s s Some a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e p u b l i c h e a r i n g have been c r i t i c i s e d by Anthony ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The t i m e and f o r m a t of t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was d e t e r m i n e d w i t h o u t c o n f e r r i n g w i t h the i n t e r v e n o r s . I n g e n e r a l t h e proponent seemed t o c o n t r o l the t i m e s c h e d u l e . A c c o r d i n g t o F i g u r e 2.1, B.C. Hydro had a l l o t t e d l e s s t h a n two months f o r the government and p u b l i c t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g and j u s t o v e r two months f o r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g and t h e d e c i s i o n by the Water C o m p t r o l l e r , b e f o r e t h e p l a n n e d s t a r t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n I n September 1976. The Water C o m p t r o l l e r r e q u i r e d a l l r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l t o be s u b m i t t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p r i o r t o t h e h e a r i n g . W h i l e a l l o b j e c t o r s c o m p l i e d by f i l i n g t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n s , B.C. Hydro d i d n o t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t e r v e n o r s were a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e compared t o B.C. Hydro, because they l a c k e d f u n d i n g f o r e f f i c i e n t 28 p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The c o u n s e l t o t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r d i d n o t a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n o b t a i n i n g o r q u e s t i o n i n g e v i d e n c e a t t h e h e a r i n g . The most s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t h a t i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n t u r n e d o u t t o be t h e g a t h e r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e assessment of i n f o r m a t i o n ( A n thony, 1 9 7 9 ) . The major s o u r c e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a p r i o r t o the h e a r i n g was t h e EIS p r e p a r e d by B.C. Hydro (B.C. Hydro, 1976b). D e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e a v a i l a b l e b a s e l i n e d a t a were b l a t a n t w h i c h was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e t h e EIS had o n l y been commissioned i n August o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . Thus e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n measures, as w e l l as c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e l o s s e s , c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d and had t o be d e f e r r e d and d e a l t w i t h under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . A n o t h e r s h o r t c o m i n g a r o s e f r o m t h e p u b l i c ' s view o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . From B.C. Hydro's p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n "program" t h e p u b l i c p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e major d e c i s i o n s had a l r e a d y been made. I n t h e eyes o f many, B.C. Hydro had e s t a b l i s h e d b o t h t h a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d e l e c t r i c e n e r g y s h o r t a g e s by 1982, and t h a t t h e P r o j e c t had been a d e q u a t e l y a s s e s s e d so " t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was r e a l l y a m a t t e r o f f i n e t u n i n g " ( A n thony, 1979, p. 6 1 ) . The E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r e v i e w R e p o r t (B.C. Hydro, 1976a) l e f t no doubt t h a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , and t h e EIS s t a t e d t h a t " . . . d e c i s i o n makers . . . t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e f i n a l f o r m and e x t e n t of t h e development" (B.C. Hydro, 1976b, p. V ) . I f t h i s were not enough, B.C. Hydro d e c l a r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g t h a t i t had a l r e a d y awarded c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s f o r the dam, s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l o f t h e P r o j e c t . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e i s s u e s i t i s no wonder t h a t t h e p u b l i c saw t h e h e a r i n g as a f u t i l e e x e r c i s e t h a t d i s c o u r a g e d r a t h e r t h a n encouraged t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B.C. Hydro was seen t o be f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u r s e o f 29 e v e n t s and t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s r o l e was t o r u b b e r stamp the d e c i s i o n t h a t had been made l o n g b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g . Not o n l y d i d t h e p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f B.C. Hydro's i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s r a i s e d o u b t s about t h e i n t e g r i t y o f the f o r t h c o m i n g a p p r o v a l , but t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e under t h e Water A c t was a l s o q u e s t i o n e d . 2.3.1.2 Mandate and E x p e r t i s e of t h e Water Management B r a n c h A f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h a r o s e a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g c e n t r e d on w h e t h e r t h e C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s had t h e mandate and e x p e r t i s e t o a s s e s s a p r o j e c t of s u c h c o m p l e x i t y ( A nthony, 1979; W a i t e , 1979; Bank.es and Thompson, 1981). The Water A c t a u t h o r i z e d t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r t o r u l e on t h e use and w i t h d r a w a l of w a t e r f r o m t h e P r o v i n c e ' s w a t e r b o d i e s . Thus he c o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and some e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r a p r o j e c t a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . O ' R i o r d a n , J . (1981) w r i t e s t h a t the C o m p t r o l l e r cannot d e c i d e on m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o e n e r g y a n d r e s o u r c e p o l i c i e s o r t o p r o j e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e h e a r i n g , t h e C o m p t r o l l e r a l l o w e d d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e s e i s s u e s t o t a k e p l a c e as much as he p o s s i b l y c o u l d . Anthony (1979) s t a t e s t h a t w i l d l i f e management schemes and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s o c i a l i m p a c t s were n o t w i t h i n the C o m p t r o l l e r ' s mandate as p r o v i d e d by t h e Water A c t . I n f a c t , he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e o n l y r e a s o n why t h e proponent d i d not c h a l l e n g e t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s mandate i n t h e s e m a t t e r s was t h a t t h e y needed the w a t e r l i c e n c e t o p r o c e e d . Hence i t seems t h a t p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n and t h e assessment of b r o a d e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s were o u t s i d e t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Whereas t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r n e i t h e r examined n o r passed any d e c i s i o n on p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n , though he a l l o w e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s m a t t e r , he d i d r u l e on e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l i s s u e s . 30 The C o m p t r o l l e r ' s e x p e r t i s e and t h a t o f h i s s t a f f were q u e s t i o n e d i n such a r e a s as t h e s o c i a l and br o a d range o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s o f the P r o j e c t and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e terms o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s u p o n p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l . The Water Management B r a n c h s t a f f c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f e n g i n e e r s , who l a c k e d t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o a s s e s s s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s . ^ A l t h o u g h t h i s d e f i c i e n c y was t o have been remedied by a number of e x p e r t s who a d v i s e d t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r d u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g , i t was an i n a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n . The a d v i s o r s d i d not ask many q u e s t i o n s and were i n a c c e s s i b l e t o q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e f l o o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y were p e r c e i v e d as b i a s e d by t h e p u b l i c because t h e y were employees of government a g e n c i e s . I n t h i s c a p a c i t y t h e y had d e a l t w i t h B.C. Hydro i n t h e p a s t - p r o b a b l y even w i t h r e s p e c t t o the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - and w o u l d c o n t i n u e i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l . T h e i r a d v i c e t o t h e C o m p t r o l l e r s h o u l d have been made p u b l i c , s o t h a t i n t e r v e n o r s c o u l d have q u e s t i o n e d o r c h a l l e n g e d i t (Anthony, 1979). 2.3.1.3 P r o j e c t J u s t i f i c a t i o n P r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n was however n o t a l l o w e d t o r e s t j u s t because i t was o u t s i d e t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s mandate. I t was a most c o n t e n t i o u s m a t t e r and of major c o n c e r n t o numerous i n t e r v e n o r s who r a i s e d i t ti m e and t i m e a g a i n a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . An e s s e n t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s s u e was t h a t the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was not r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t . The B.C. Energy Commission and o t h e r i n t e r v e n o r s d i s a p p r o v e d o f a s s e s s i n g e a c h o f B.C. H y d r o ' s p r o j e c t s i n i s o l a t i o n . They c a l l e d f o r a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e need f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y i n t h e w i d e r , o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t o f t o t a l energy g r o w t h , a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y , c o n s e r v a t i o n o f e n e r g y , p r i c e s c h e d u l e s , e x p o r t p o l i c y , and p r e s e n t and f u t u r e h y d r o - and t h e r m a l - e l e c t r i c 31 d e v e l o p m e n t s . Most c o n t r o v e r s i a l was t h e assessment of v a r i o u s e l e c t r i c e n ergy demand f o r e c a s t s . Some d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s d i d t a k e p l a c e a t t h e h e a r i n g d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e B.C. Energy Commission c l a i m e d i t was t h e i r mandate.3 A l t h o u g h B.C. Hydro conceded a t t h e h e a r i n g t o u s i n g t h e i r medium f o r e c a s t a n n u a l g r o w t h r a t e of 8.6%, i t was s t i l l w e l l above t h e i r low p r e d i c t i o n ( 7 % ) and t h a t o f t h e B.C. Energy C o m m i s s i o n ( 5 . 5 % ) . The l a t t e r commented t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth r a t e were p o s s i b l e , but t h a t t h i s one was r e m a r k a b l e . 4 B.C. Hydro gave t h e f o l l o w i n g as t h e main r e a s o n s f o r t h e l a r g e d i v e r g e n c e i n ene r g y f o r e c a s t s : " t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e g r o w t h o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n and economy, t h e methodology o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y I n t h e assumed s h a r e o f t o t a l e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n t o be p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o r m o f e l e c t r i c i t y . " (B.C. Hydro, 1976b, pp. 2-10) I n s h o r t , n ot o n l y were t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s d i f f e r e n t , but a l s o t h e methodology. Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e f o r e c a s t s c o n f l i c t e d . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g e l e c t r i c e n ergy g r owth f o r e c a s t s , t o t h e i n t e r v e n o r s o f q u i n t e s s e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t , was n e i t h e r a n a l y z e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y nor r e s o l v e d a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . N e i t h e r was i t p o s s i b l e f o r the a p p r o v i n g agency t o g r a n t the o b j e c t o r s ' demands f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . B o t h m a t t e r s w e r e b e y o n d t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r ' s m a n d a t e . B.C. Hydro had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e need f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government had i m p l i c i t l y a pproved i t , and t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r d u t i f u l l y i s s u e d t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e on December 1, 1976. 2.4 THE HATER LICENCE The Water l i c e n c e a l l o w e d B.C. Hydro t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t u n d e r t w e n t y t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s ( s e e 32 A p p e n d i x ) . The f o r m of t w e l v e of t h e c o n d i t i o n s ( a t o j , n, w) was common t o w a t e r l i c e n s e s i n g e n e r a l , t h e o t h e r e l e v e n were s p e c i f i c t o t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The l a t t e r c o v e r e d f o u r b r o a d t o p i c s as shown i n T a b l e 2.4 ( c l a u s e s d a t e d December 1976): ( 1 ) s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , c l a u s e s ( k ) , ( 1 ) , (m), and ( o ) ; ( 2 ) e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , c l a u s e s ( p ) , ( q ) , and ( r ) ; (3) m i t i g a t i o n of i m p a c t s on t h e l o c a l community, c l a u s e ( s ) ; and ( 4 ) c l a i m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e P r o j e c t , c l a u s e s ( t ) , ( u ) , and ( v ) . C l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o j e c t - s p e c i f i c c l a u s e s r e v e a l s s e v e r a l s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . Whereas t h e enforcement of t h e c l a u s e s was of c o u r s e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r o f W a t e r R i g h t s , t h e r e were no p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e d e l e g a t i o n of t a s k s and few f o r the i n p u t f r o m m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d . The d i r e c t i o n o r a p p r o v a l of n i n e of t h e e l e v e n c o n d i t i o n s ( e x c e p t c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t c l a u s e s ( t ) a n d ( u ) ) w a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . Of t h e s e , a l l but c l a u s e ( 1 ) r e q u i r e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r t i s e and c l a u s e s ( s ) and ( v ) a l s o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c knowledge, b o t h w e l l beyond t h a t of t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r and h i s s t a f f . However, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s l a c k of e x p e r t i s e , o n l y f o u r c l a u s e s (m, o, p, r ) c a l l e d f o r t h e C o m p t r o l l e r t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r (DM) of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n and a l s o w i t h o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s f o r c l a u s e ( r ) . B.C. Hydro o n l y had t o l i a i s e w i t h government a g e n c i e s under c l a u s e ( q ) and l o c a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s under c l a u s e ( s ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t , o t h e r t h a n t h e s e t t l e m e n t of c l a i m s , was c l o s e d t o t h e p u b l i c . L i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n seems t o have been g i v e n t o t h e manner i n w h i c h ( p ) , ( r ) , ( s ) , and ( t ) were t o have been i m p l e m e n t e d . C l a u s e s ( p ) a n d ( s ) c o n t a i n e d no d i r e c t i v e s as t o who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n i n g and c a r r y i n g out t h e programs. A d d i t i o n a l l y , c l a u s e ( s ) seemed t o r e f e r o n l y t o t h e m i t i g a t i o n of the i m p a c t s on one community, presumably R e v e l s t o k e , and not t o T a b l e l.k Summary of Content o f S e l e c t e d C l a u s e s i n Water L i c e n c e TOPIC WATER LICENCE CLAUSE - DATE B.C. HYDRO REQUIREMENTS ROLE OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS (CWR) CONSULTATION AND LIAISON PERSONNEL AND COMMITTEES RESPONSIBILITIES MEMBERS SITE PREPARATION AND F A C I L I T I E S - l a n d c l e a r a n c e - r e m e d i a l work Downie S I i d e - r e l e a s e w a t e r r e c r e a t i onaI Fac i ) i t l e s l o g t r a n s f e r (k) Dec. 1976 (1) Dec. 1976 (m) Dec. 1976 (o) Dec. 1976 (o) Sept. 1977 (z) June 1978 c l e a r r e s e r v o i r a r e a l i m i t l e v e l o f w a t e r b e h i n d dam u n t i l r e m e d i a l work c o m p l e t e r e l e a s e w a t e r a t t i m e s 6 i n q u a n t i t i e s s p e c i f i e d c o n s t r u c t f a c i l i t i e s i n v i c i n i t y o f r e s e r v o i r as above p r o v i d e 6 o p e r a t e ( o r as s i s t wi t h ) f a c i I i t i e s f o r l o g t r a n s f e r a r o u n d dam d i r e c t e x t e n t and manner d i r e c t l e v e l o f w a t e r d l r e c t d i r e c t d i r e c t d i r e c t CWR w i t h H y d r o £ DM o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n CWR w i t h Hydro 6 DM o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - programs 6 s t u d i e s t o (p) Dec. 1976 p r o t e c t , enhance and m i t i g a t e l o s s o f f i s h £ w l l d l i f e h a b i t a t f i sh and w i 1 d I i f e a s p e c t s o f P r o j e c t e n v i r o n m e n t a i gu i d e 1 i nes (p) Sept. 1977 (q) Dec. 1976 (q) Dec. 1976 ( r ) Dec. 1976 not s p e c i f i e d i n w a t e r I i c e n c e ' c a r r y o u t programs and s t u d i e s employ a f i s h e r i e s £ a w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t ( s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ) as above p r e p a r e g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t d i r e c t d e t e r m i n e p e r i o d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g as above a p p r o v e CWR w i t h H y d r o 6 DM o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n b i o l o g i s t s w i t h H y d r o m o n l t o r 6 g a t h e r s t a f f , c o n t r a c t o r s 6 government a g e n c i e s as r e q u i r e d as above CWR w i t h DM o f R e c r e a -t i o n 6 C o n s e r v a t i o n , D i r e c t o r o f P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l £ o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s i n f o r m a t I o n d u r -i n g £ a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a s s i s t 1 n d r a f t -i n g g u i d e l i n e s ( r ) Sept.1977 as above and a d h e r e t o g u i d e l i n e s d i r e c t T a b l e l.h C o n t i n u e d TOPIC WATER LICENCE CLAUSE - DATE B.C. HYDRO REQUIREMENTS ROLE OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS (CWR) CONSULTATION AND LIAISON PERSONNEL AND COMMITTEES RES P O N S I B I L I T I E S MEMBERS MITIGATION - i m p a c t s on l o c a l commun i t y (s) Dec. 1976 (s) Sept. 1977 p r e p a r e b u d g e t s f o r mi t i g a t i o n c a r r y o u t programs o f m i t i g a t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a p p r o v e d b u d g e t s a p p r o v e d i r e c t H y d r o wi t h l o c a l p u b l I c a g e n c i e s as above CLAIMS - a r i s i n g f r o m c o n - ( t ) Dec. 1976 s t r u c t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , use o r o p e r a t i o n o f L i c e n s e e ' s works ( t ) June 1978 (u) Dec. I976 (u) June 1978 (v) Dec. 1976 f u n d e n g i n e e r as C l a i m s O f f i c e r (CO) pay any c l a i m s £$10,000 a c c e p t e d by CO and fu n d CO pay any sum d e t e r m i n e d by CO pay c l a i m s o v e r $10,000 d e t e r m i n e d i n c o u r t , s u b m i t t o a r b i t r a t i o n upon c l a i m a n t ' s c h o i c e p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y t o meet c o s t s o f c o m p l y i n g w i t h c l a u s e s o, p, s, u a p p o i n t CO, s u b m i t c l a i m s *$10,000 t o CO, e s t a b l i s h p r o c e d u r e s f o r m a k i n g and h e a r i n g c l a i m s s p e c i f y c o n d i t i o n s o f a r b l t r a t i o n d i r e c t amounts £ terms COMMITTEES - R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (RPCC) Community Impact Committee (CIC) (x) Sept. 1977 (y) Sept. 1977 pay f o r RPCC's e x p e n s e s a t t e n d on i n v i t a t i o n , r e p o r t and c o n s u l t w i t h RPCC pay f o r CIC's e x p e n s e s , a t t e n d on i n v i t a t i o n , r e p o r t and c o n s u l t w i t h CIC a p p o i n t members S c h a i r m a n , g i v e p u b l i c n o t i c e o f RPCC's recommendations 6 o f CWR's o r d e r s £ a p p r o v a l s a p p o i n t members £ c h a i r m a n , g i v e p u b l i c n o t i c e o f CIC's recommendations £ o f CWR's o r d e r s £ a p p r o v a l s H y d r o £ s i t e b i o l o -g i s t s w i t h RPCC r e m a t t e r s o f c l a u s e s 1, n, o, p, r , s, v Hydro w i t h CIC r e m a t t e r s o f c l a u s e s recommend t o CWR re o r d e r s £ a p p r o -v a l s f o r c l a u s e s 1 , n, o, p, r , s, v r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s o f M i n i s t r i e s £ A g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d m o n i t o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n -i n c l a u s e s, a s s i s t t a t i v e s o f Hydro on m a t t e r s M i n i s t r i e s a r i s i n g , recommend t o £ A g e n c i e s CWR r e o r d e r s 6 ap- c o n c e r n e d p r o v a l s f o r c l a u s e s I. E x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s (CWR, 1976e) accompanying the w a t e r l i c e n c e c a l l f o r t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB) t o p r e p a r e and c o s t p r o g r a m s f o r s t u d i e s and w o r k s , and t o implement them w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e B.C. Hydro s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ( c l a u s e q) i f a v a i l a b l e . The payment f o r t h e p r o g r a m s was t o be a p p r o v e d by B.C. Hydro, f o l l o w i n g t h e programs approval/amendment by t h e CWR. 35 s e v e r a l o t h e r c l o s e by c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e r e w e r e no p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e s u r v e i l l a n c e of c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s ( c l a u s e ( r ) ) , n o r f o r t h e m o n i t o r i n g of i m p a c t s i n g e n e r a l . The l a t t e r c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d i n one of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e s ( p , q, r ) f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s and i n c l a u s e ( s ) f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s . The p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e making and s e t t l i n g o f c l a i m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e P r o j e c t ( c l a u s e ( t ) ) and t h e amount and terms of t h e s e c u r i t i e s t o be g i v e n by B.C. Hydro ( c l a u s e ( v ) ) were n o t s p e c i f i e d . T h o u g h t h e C o m p t r o l l e r p r o v i d e d some e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1976e) w i t h t h e l i c e n c e ( s e e f o o t n o t e 1, T a b l e 2 . 4 ) , most of t h e s e m a t t e r s remained i l l d e f i n e d and a l l , e x c e p t t h e s e t t l i n g o f c l a i m s , were dependent on t h e d i r e c t i v e s o r a p p r o v a l o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . Of i n t e r e s t i s t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i s s u a n c e o f the w a t e r l i c e n c e ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1976d). He s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e main c o n c e r n s a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g : " ( 1 ) The s a f e t y o f t h e p r o j e c t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view o f the v e r y l a r g e s l i d e a r e a on t h e v a l l e y s l o p e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Downie C r e e k . (2) The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and p r o d u c t i v i t y and on t h e environment i n g e n e r a l . (3) T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o n t h e community and t h e economy i n t h e a r e a i n b o t h t h e s h o r t and l o n g t e r m s . " ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1976d) The C o m p t r o l l e r was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e Downie S l i d e c o u l d be s t a b i l i z e d by r e m e d i a l work and t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e e a r t h f i l l dam by 1.5 m ( c l a u s e ( 1 ) ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o t h e r two c o n c e r n s , t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r d i d not come t o any c o n c l u s i o n s and d e f e r r e d t h e s e t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e o f t h e P r o j e c t \ under l i c e n c e c l a u s e s (m), ( p ) , ( q ) , and ( r ) f o r the second c o n c e r n , and c o n d i t i o n s ( s ) , ( t ) , and (u) f o r t h e t h i r d one. The C o m p t r o l l e r d i d not i n c l u d e p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e l i s t of major c o n c e r n s . He o n l y commented t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n d i d not depend on B.C. 36 H ydro's l o a d g r o w t h f o r e c a s t , because i d e a l l y t h e proponent s h o u l d o b t a i n t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e w e l l i n advance of t h e i n t e n d e d s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The l i c e n c e d i d not b i n d t h e proponent t o a s c h e d u l e f o r p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , o t h e r t h a n t h e i n - s e r v i c e d a t e o f 31 December 1990 ( c l a u s e ( i ) ) . The Water C o m p t r o l l e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e e v i d e n c e i s c o n v i n c i n g t h a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r B.C. Hydro and t h e P r o v i n c e w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d i n - s e r v i c e d a t e " ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1976d). 2.4.1 THE WATER LICENCE APPEAL The c o n d i t i o n a l w a t e r l i c e n c e was a p p e a l e d under t h e Water A c t (1960) by f o u r i n t e r v e n o r s : t h e S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y ( S P E C ) , t h e B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , t h e West K o o t e n a y O u t d o o r s m e n ( c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t g r o u p s ) , and t h e C a n a d i a n C e l l u l o s e Company (CANCEL). The a p p e a l s were based on s e v e r a l o b j e c t i o n s . A l l a p p e l l a n t s , e x c e p t t h e West Kootenay Outdoorsmen, o b j e c t e d because B.C. Hydro had not e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was needed n o r t h a t i t was i n t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e p u b l i c . CANCEL ' S o b j e c t i o n was t h a t t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r was r e n d e r e d u n n a v i g a b l e by t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam and l o g s c o u l d no l o n g e r be f l o a t e d d o w n r i v e r . The c o n d i t i o n s of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e d i d not a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r t h e s e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . The t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t groups r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s t o the h a n d l i n g o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s . Of major c o n c e r n were t h e l a c k of adequate p r o v i s i o n s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and f o r f i r m m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n programs and t h e i r s e c u r e f i n a n c i n g by B.C. H y d r o . The w a t e r l i c e n c e ( c l a u s e s ( n , p, q, r ) ) gave B.C. Hydro t o o much c o n t r o l o v e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s , w h i l e o t h e r government a g e n c i e s , l i k e t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB), had t o o l i t t l e . Whereas the Water C o m p t r o l l e r r e t a i n e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s e m a t t e r s , t h e r e were no p r o v i s i o n s f o r n o t i f y i n g o b j e c t o r s of h i s d e c i s i o n s and f o r r i g h t s of a p p e a l . SPEC o b j e c t e d t o the p roposed C l a i m s O f f i c e r b e i n g an 37 e n g i n e e r ( c l a u s e ( t ) ) r a t h e r t h a n a p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o -economic t r a i n i n g . The B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n thought t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r t o be beyond t h e mandate o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . The e s s e n c e o f t h e a p p e a l s was t h e demand f o r a t l e a s t a d e l a y i n and p r e f e r a b l y the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f the w a t e r l i c e n c e . A f i v e member C a b i n e t A p p e a l Committee^ was s e t up by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n F e b r u a r y 1977 t o h e a r t h e a p p e a l and make recommendations t o C a b i n e t . They had t h r e e o p t i o n s : ( 1 ) t o a c c e p t a l l a p p e a l s and c a n c e l t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e ; ( 2 ) t o deny a l l a p p e a l s and c o n f i r m i t ; and ( 3) t o a l l o w some a p p e a l s e n t i r e l y o r i n p a r t , and amend t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e a c c o r d i n g l y ( C a b i n e t A p p e a l Committee, 1977). The Committee chose t h e l a t t e r . I n t h e i r r e p o r t t o C a b i n e t t h e Committee n o t e d t h a t t h e r e were no a p p e a l s on t h e b a s i s o f two of t h e major c o n c e r n s r a i s e d a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , namely t h e s a f e t y o f t h e Downie S l i d e and a d v e r s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e must have c o v e r e d t h e s e a s p e c t s a d e q u a t e l y . Whereas the Committee c o n c u r r e d t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was needed a t some t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e , t h e y d i d not d e t e r m i n e when because o f two r e a s o n s : the d e c i s i o n was " p e r h a p s " o u t s i d e t h e i r terms o f r e f e r e n c e and the e v i d e n c e was not a t a l l c o m p l e t e . However, t h e r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t some Committee members th o u g h t a l a t e r i n - s e r v i c e d a t e w o u l d a l l o w f o r a d d i t i o n a l t i m e t o s t u d y t h e f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and t h e consequences of the b o r r o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e R e v e l s t o k e l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s . The C o m m i t t e e a s k e d C a b i n e t t o make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t a r t i n g and i n - s e r v i c e d a t e s o f t h e P r o j e c t , but i n so d o i n g t o c o n s i d e r the Committee's r e p o r t . The A p p e a l Committee came t o t h r e e c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i s s u e s not s p e c i f i c t o t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . F i r s t , t h e Committee c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e 38 Water C o m p t r o l l e r was r e q u i r e d t o d e c i d e on m a t t e r s w e l l o u t s i d e t h e s p h e r e o f t h e Water A c t when a p p r o v i n g s u c h p r o j e c t s as B.C. H y d r o ' s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , an o r g a n i z a t i o n not c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e proponent s h o u l d f o r e c a s t t h e e l e c t r i c i t y demand g r o w t h r a t e i n f u t u r e . Second, t h e Committee r e c o g n i z e d t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the Water A c t i n r e g a r d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic a s p e c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was o n l y a l i m i t e d s t a f f a v a i l a b l e i n t h e W a t e r Management B r a n c h f o r the enforcement o f w a t e r l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . The l a t t e r was seen as p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l when d e a l i n g w i t h the l o n g - t e r r a commitments and v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was recommended t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n v i r o n m e n t and member M i n i s t r i e s o f ELUC s h o u l d d e v e l o p new l e g i s l a t i o n beyond t h e Water A c t t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y framework f o r l i c e n s i n g s u c h p r o j e c t s as R e v e l s t o k e . The t h i r d c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t B.C. Hydro's r i g h t n ot t o have t o comply w i t h t h e W a t e r A c t s h o u l d be revoked.6 T h i s e x e m p t i o n c o r r o b o r a t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t B.C. Hydro was l a r g e l y beyond t h e government's c o n t r o l and t h a t t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r might have been u n a b l e t o e n f o r c e t h e o r d e r s he i s s u e d t o B.C. H y d r o . 2.4.2 THE AMENDED WATER LICENCE Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a p p e a l , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t had been a l l o w e d t o s t a r t i n J a n u a r y 1977. I t was i n f u l l s w i n g by September o f t h a t y e a r when C a b i n e t d e c i d e d n o t t o d e l a y o r c a n c e l t h e P r o j e c t — a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t had been f a v o u r e d by some members o f t h e A p p e a l Committee. On t h e recommendations o f t h e A p p e a l Committee, C a b i n e t amended t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e t w i c e ( T a b l e 2.4, A p p e n d i x ) . The f i r s t amendment, i n September 1977, changed l i c e n c e c l a u s e s ( o ) , ( p ) , ( r ) , and ( s ) and added c l a u s e s ( x ) and ( y ) . I n June 1978, t h e a p p e a l by CANCEL was s e t t l e d by changes t o c o n d i t i o n s ( t ) 39 and (u) and t h e a d d i t i o n of c l a u s e ( z ) . These amendments answered some of t h e o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h e a p p e a l and i n t h i s s t u d y ( S e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 1 ) . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t change was t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . C l a u s e s ( x ) and ( y ) c a l l e d f o r two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s , t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (RPCC) and t h e Community Impact Committee ( C I C ) , and c l a u s e s ( t ) and (u) p r o v i d e d a much improved c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e . The two Committees p r o v i d e d f o r l i a i s o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n between t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s . T h i s not o n l y made up f o r t h e d e l e t i o n of t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n i n c l a u s e s ( p ) , ( o ) , and ( r ) , but a l s o s h o u l d have p r o v i d e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e x p e r t i s e n e e d e d f o r e n s u r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n and f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n of i m p a c t s . The d i r e c t i o n and a p p r o v a l f u n c t i o n o f the Water C o m p t r o l l e r was e x t e n d e d t o embrace a l l p r o j e c t - s p e c i f i c c l a u s e s . However, d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h a l f of t h e s e c l a u s e s ( 1 , o, p, r , s, v) were now based on t h e recommendations o f t h e two Committees J The C o m p t r o l l e r was r e q u i r e d t o g i v e r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c n o t i c e of t h e Committees" recommendations f o r c l a u s e s ( 1 ) , ( n ) , ( o ) , ( p ) , ( r ) , ( s ) , and ( v ) as w e l l as f o r h i s o r d e r s and a p p r o v a l s f o r t h e s e . T h i s p r o v i s i o n a l l o w e d f o r some l i m i t e d p u b l i c i n p u t . F o r the s i x c l a u s e s o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m of t h e two Committees ( k , m, q, t , u, z ) , t h e C o m p t r o l l e r was r e q u i r e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h a government m i n i s t r y o n l y f o r one ( c l a u s e ( m ) ) . Added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were t h e g i v i n g of d i r e c t i v e s f o r t h e c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e ( c l a u s e s ( t ) , ( u ) ) and f o r t h e t r a n s f e r of l o g s around t h e dam ( c l a u s e ( z ) ) . The amended w a t e r l i c e n c e gave some more e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i v e s f o r c l a u s e s ( p ) , ( r ) , and ( s ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t c a l l e d f o r B.C. Hydro t o c a r r y out t h e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l a u s e ( p ) and ( s ) and t o a d h e r e t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s t o be d e v e l o p e d under c l a u s e ( r ) . But t h e amendments f e l l s h o r t i n 40 r e s p e c t t o two m a t t e r s : t h e y d i d n o t a s s i g n anyone t o t h e t a s k of d e s i g n i n g t h e p r o g r a m s f o r c l a u s e s ( p ) and ( s ) a n d , r a t h e r t h a n a d d r e s s i n g t h e o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d i n t h e a p p e a l t h a t B.C. Hydro was g i v e n e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l o v e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s , the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s c o n t r o l was i n c r e a s e d ( c l a u s e ( p ) ) . B.C. Hydro a l s o remained r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e m p l o y i n g t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ( c l a u s e ( q ) ) and w r i t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s ( c l a u s e ( r ) ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f some of t h e s e amendments w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 41 NOTES 1 P u b l i c u t i l i t y systems w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s were a l s o e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e mandate of t h e E n e rgy Commission. 2 S e w e l l (1971) s t a t e s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n c l i n e s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of complex i s s u e s . An example i s an e n g i n e e r b e i n g f a c e d w i t h problems of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y management. See a l s o Netboy (1986) f o r a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n i n r e f e r e n c e t o dams. 3 The B.C. Energy Commission announced t h a t t h e y w o u l d h o l d a h e a r i n g I n t h i s r e g a r d , but i t had not y e t t a k e n p l a c e i n 1979 when t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e dam had been underway f o r n e a r l y two y e a r s ( A nthony, 1979). ^ The B.C. E n e rgy Commission i n 1975 recommended t h a t B.C. Hydro use a 7% a n n u a l g r o wth r a t e f o r t h e 20 y e a r p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . The ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , h o w e v e r , ha d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t e v a l u a t e t h e two c o n f l i c t i n g f o r e c a s t s of t h e B.C. Energy Commission and B.C. H y d r o . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t a 7% r a t e was t h e most l i k e l y demand i n c r e a s e f o r t h e p e r i o d 1974/75-1985/86, but t h a t f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s i t might be n e c e s s a r y t o a l l o w f o r the u n c e r t a i n t y i n f o r e c a s t i n g and c o s t s of o v e r - o r u n d e r p l a n n i n g (B.C. H ydro, 1976b). -> The members of t h e C a b i n e t A p p e a l Committee were t h e f o l l o w i n g M i n i s t e r s : A. V. F r a s e r , Highways and P u b l i c Works; K. H. M a i r , Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s ; H. M c C l e l l a n d , H e a l t h ; E. M. W o l f e , F i n a n c e and t h e c h a i r m a n ; L. A. W i l l i a m s , L a b o u r . C a b i n e t d i d not a c t on t h i s recommendation. The Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y A c t 1979, RSBC, c 188, s 52(1) r e a d s " N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s i n any A c t t o the c o n t r a r y e x c e p t as o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e d by o r under t h i s A c t , t h e a u t h o r i t y i s not bound by any s t a t u t e o r s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " The A c t i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t , t h u s t o d a t e B.C. Hydro has r e t a i n e d t h e same power. ^ A l s o c l a u s e ( n ) , but i t i s not i n c l u d e d h e r e because i t i s not a p r o j e c t -s p e c i f i c c l a u s e . 42 CHAPTER 3 THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK L a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e p r o j e c t s c o n s i s t of many s p e c i a l i z e d segments ( e . g . e n g i n e e r i n g , f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l ) t h e c h a r a c t e r and i m p o r t a n c e o f w h i c h change as each s t a g e o f t h e p r o j e c t i s r e a c h e d . They a l s o i n v o l v e t h r e e m ajor p a r t i c i p a n t s : ( 1 ) t h e government i n i t s r o l e as l i c e n s o r and r e g u l a t o r ; (2) t h e proponent w h i c h may be a p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c s e c t o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and (3) t h e p u b l i c b o t h i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t and i n t h e w i d e r c o n s t i t u e n c y o f t h e p r o v i n c e o r c o u n t r y . I n o r d e r t o c a r r y out a l a r g e u n d e r t a k i n g s u c h as the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t many s k i l l e d i n d i v i d u a l s have t o be assembled i n d e s i g n teams, c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n s o r t i a and p l a n n i n g work groups i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h t h e s p e c i a l segments of t h e p r o j e c t as i t p r o g r e s s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t a s k - s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s t h e r e must a l s o be a b r o a d e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y , t o i n t e g r a t e t he a c t i v i t i e s o f the t h r e e major p a r t i c i p a t o r y groups and t h e s p e c i a l i s t s , t o c o o r d i n a t e the r o l e o f t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f a g e n c i e s w i t h i n e a c h , t o m o n i t o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t and t o b o t h i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c as w e l l as p r o v i d e f o r i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making. The a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t d i d not appear t o r e c o g n i z e t h e need f o r an h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program. As a r e s u l t , two s e t s o f arrangements emerged, r e f e r r e d t o h e r e as the " u n o f f i c i a l " and " o f f i c i a l programs". The f o r m e r was s e t up - and a l r e a d y p a r t i a l l y implemented - b e f o r e t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e h e a r i n g and c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d . The o f f i c i a l p r o g r a m emerged i n t h r e e p h a s e s r e p r e s e n t e d by c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e December 1976, September 1977, and June 1978 v e r s i o n s o f the w a t e r l i c e n c e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e and a s s e s s t h e s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n s o f each program and t h e r e l a t i o n s between them. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l management u n d e r t a k e n by t h e o f f i c i a l program i s d e a l t w i t h i n 43 g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h a n o t h e r f a c e t s of t h e two programs. An o v e r v i e w assessment c o n c l u d e s t h i s c h a p t e r . 3.1 THE UNOFFICIAL PROGRAM I n t e r n a l l y B.C. Hydro had d e v e l o p e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p e r m i t t e d i t t o p l a n , d e s i g n , l i c e n c e , b u i l d , and o p e r a t e t h e D u n c a n , K e e n l e y s i d e , M i c a and Peace R i v e r dams and i n s o - d o i n g e s t a b l i s h a r e p u t a t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y w i t h a comprehensive range o f c a p a b i l i t i e s . D e s p i t e b e i n g a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n , i t a l s o d e v e l o p e d t h e r e p u t a t i o n of b e i n g r e m a r k a b l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f government and appeared t o r e g a r d i t s e l f as t h e l e a d and e x p e r t a g e n c y o f e l e c t r i c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s r e p u t a t i o n , on t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t , B.C. Hydro p r e c e d e d apace w i t h p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n a nd s e l e c t i o n ( C h a p t e r 2) and even l e t some c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s b e f o r e t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e h e a r i n g . However, t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was t a k i n g p l a c e a t a time when government r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t and f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l i c e n s i n g p r o c e s s was i n c r e a s i n g and becoming f o r m a l i z e d . B.C. Hydro r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d , b e f o r e t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e h e a r i n g commenced, s t a r t e d t o put t o g e t h e r an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program t o a d d r e s s t h e s e new c o n d i t i o n s . A p p a r e n t l y s t a r t i n g i n J a n u a r y 1976, B.C. Hydro h e l d m e e t i n g s " . . . w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government t o a d d r e s s and r e s o l v e a w i d e range o f p r o j e c t i m p a c t s " ( W a i t e , 1979, p. 5 3 ) . An outcome of t h e s e m e e t i n g s was t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s e v e r a l c o m m i t t e e s ". . . t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e m i t i g a t i o n a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n m e a s u r e s f o r p r o j e c t i m p a c t s " ( W a i t e , 1 9 7 9 , p . 5 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , on t h e b a s i s o f some EIS recommendations t h a t B.C. Hydro had p l e d g e d t o implement a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t h e C o r p o r a t i o n s e t up an impact m o n i t o r i n g o f f i c e and a p r o j e c t i m p a ct committee (B.C. Hydro, 1976b).1 44 3.1.1 THE COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAM The t o t a l i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program t h a t B.C. Hydro d e v e l o p e d , b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e l i c e n c e h e a r i n g , c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e e l e m e n t s shown i n F i g u r e 3.1. The v a r i o u s p a r t s were: The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t Impact Committee, " L o c a l Impact Committee" f o r s h o r t , t h e Impact M o n i t o r and t h e f i v e A d j u n c t Committees, w h i c h were t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e Committee, t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #19 N e g o t i a t i n g Team, t h e R e v e l s t o k e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , t h e R e v e l s t o k e F o r e s t r y C o m m i t t e e and t h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The Impact M o n i t o r was a p p o i n t e d i n August 1977 by t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Columbia-Shuswap i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h B.C. Hydro. The l a t t e r a l s o funded t h e M o n i t o r and h i s t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s , but p r o v i d e d no s u p p o r t s t a f f . The M o n i t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e s o c i a l - and economic i m p a c t s of t h e P r o j e c t on t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e and the n e i g h b o u r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not o n l y t o p r o v i d e a r e c o r d o f t h e i m p a c t s but was a l s o t o be t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s e t t l i n g o f c l a i m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e P r o j e c t . A d d i t i o n a l l y i f t i m e p e r m i t t e d , he was t o r e s e a r c h c l a i m s f o r the L o c a l Impact Committee. Terms of r e f e r e n c e were d e v e l o p e d by B.C. Hydro and approved by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t o whom t h e M o n i t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e terras o f r e f e r e n c e ( n o t a v a i l a b l e t o a u t h o r ) i s somewhat c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Whereas i n a c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t t o t h e o f f i c i a l program, t h e y were d e s c r i b e d as " v e r y d e t a i l e d , s p e c i f y i n g t h e i n d i c a t o r s and methods t o be u s e d " (DPA Group, 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e M o n i t o r c a l l e d them "an i m p r e c i s e , r a m b l i n g s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s " f r o m w h i c h he c o u l d b e s t i n f e r what t o do (Kopas, 1988). The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee was c a l l e d f o r i n t h e E I S , w h i c h c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e Committee s h o u l d be w e l l p l a n n e d ". . . i f p o t e n t i a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and c h a r g e s o f t o k e n i s m a r e t o be a v o i d e d and t h e maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e committee i s t o be r e a c h e d " (B.C. H y d ro, 1976b, p. 19-Figure 3-1 The Uno f f i c i a l Program fund i ng various levels-of in teract ion fundi ng/member LOCAL IMPACT COMMITTEE v a n ous -levels of -in te rac t ion ADJUNCT COMMITTEES REGIONAL DISTRICT TECHNICAL PLANNING COMMITTEE CITY OF REVELSTOKE COMMITTEE SCHOOL DISTRICT #19 NEGOTIATING TEAM REVELSTOKE SOCIAL SERVICES COUNCIL REVELSTOKE FORESTRY COMMITTEE O 'IMPACT MONITORING COMMITTEE < > DECISION MAKER I I COMPONENT OF UNOFFICIAL PROGRAM ^ 46 5 3 ) , however, how t h i s was t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d was not s t a t e d . The L o c a l Impact Committee was s e t up e a r l y i n 1977 by a s t e e r i n g committee c o n s i s t i n g of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m each o f B.C. Hydro, t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). B.C. Hydro funded t h e Committee and i t s s e c r e t a r i a l h e l p . I t c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d when th e Committee was r e s o l v e d . A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e were f i v e A d j u n c t Committees w h i c h e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . 2 Two o f t h e s e , t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e Committee and t h e R e v e l s t o k e F o r e s t r y Committee, were s e t up e a r l y i n 1976, p r i o r t o the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . Whereas a t t h a t t i m e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e was t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems (Banks and Thompson, 1980, 1981), d u r i n g p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i t changed t o t h e m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n of i m p a c t s . The C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e Committee c o n s i s t e d of members of t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t o r , and B.C. Hydro p e r s o n n e l , i n c l u d i n g t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e l o c a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . I t s o b j e c t i v e was t o m i t i g a t e and compensate t h e i m p a c t s on t h e l o c a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r y 3 (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). The f o r m a t i o n of t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #19 N e g o t i a t i n g Team a r o s e f r o m a recommendation i n t h e EIS (B.C. Hydro, 1976b). I t c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d who b e l o n g e d t o t h i s Committee. I t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g t h e s c h o o l t a x e s i n t h e same p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e p r e - p r o j e c t p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e , by h a v i n g B.C. Hydro r e i m b u r s e the P r o v i n c e f o r t h e c o s t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i n f l u x o f f a m i l i e s (B.C. Hydro, 1978a). The R e v e l s t o k e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , composed of l o c a l c i t i z e n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , s u c h as t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h and J u s t i c e C o u n c i l , a c t e d as a forum f o r s o l v i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , d e v i s i n g a program f o r community improvements, and l i a i s i n g between a g e n c i e s , as w e l l as b e t w e e n i t s e l f and B.C. H y d r o . Two s e n i o r B.C. Hydro s t a f f members p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t 47 t o t h e C o u n c i l f o r r e s o l v i n g problems o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e needs a r i s i n g f r o m t h e P r o j e c t (B.C. Hydro, 1978a). The T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t o o k on t h e t a s k of d e a l i n g w i t h p r o j e c t i m p a c t s , s u c h as h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . B.C. H y d r o was r e p r e s e n t e d by e i t h e r the C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager o r t h e o n - s i t e manager f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a f f a i r s (B.C. H y d ro, 1978a). 3.1.2 THE OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM The u n o f f i c i a l p r o g r a m was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e m o n i t o r i n g , m i t i g a t i o n , and c o m p e n s a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t s of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The m o n i t o r i n g f u n c t i o n was t o be f u l f i l l e d by t h e Impact M o n i t o r . H i s s t u d i e s were t o i n f o r m t h e l o c a l c ommunities of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s , h e l p t h e C I C t o d e s i g n m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n measures, t e s t t h e p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t , p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the wind-down of t h e l o c a l economy f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t c o m p l e t i o n and s e r v e as a l e a r n - b y -d o i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r f u t u r e l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s (Kopas, 1980). I n v i e w o f t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s and m a g n i t u d e o f t h e t a s k , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t B.C. Hydro d i d not p r o v i d e t h e M o n i t o r ' w i t h s u p p o r t s t a f f . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and t h e I m p a c t M o n i t o r were q u e s t i o n i n g t h e a p p a r e n t d u p l i c a t i o n i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n t h e I m p a c t M o n i t o r ' s O f f i c e t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and the Community Impact Committee (C I C ) o f t h e o f f i c i a l program, when t h e l a t t e r was a p p o i n t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1977. However, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r a n t i c i p a t e d l i t t l e d u p l i c a t i o n as t h e L o c a l Impact Committee c o u l d a d d r e s s problems and r e p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s n o t d i r e c t l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f any government agency; and t h a t t h e Impact M o n i t o r c o u l d p r o v i d e c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a l problems as w e l l as b e i n g a "most v a l u a b l e l i a i s o n " between t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and the CIC (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). 48 I n e f f e c t , t h e O f f i c e of t h e Impact M o n i t o r was an i n e f f e c t i v e p a r t of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . I n i t i a l l y , t h e M o n i t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d , but l a t e r t h e B o a r d s e t up a s u b c o m m i t t e e , t h e I m p a c t M o n i t o r i n g Committee (IMC, see F i g u r e 3.1) c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e B oard members, who were t o s u p e r v i s e and s u p p o r t t h e M o n i t o r (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) . However, t h e IMC c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r s as t h e y met i r r e g u l a r l y and had l i t t l e o r no b ackground i n t h e i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e m o n i t o r i n g of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s (Kopas, 1988). W i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s a r y d i r e c t i v e s and g u i d a n c e , t h e work u n d e r t a k e n was on an ad hoc b a s i s (DPA Group, 1986). T h i s and t h e l a c k of e x p l i c i t terms of r e f e r e n c e and u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y l e d t o a c r u c i a l p r o b l e m (Kopas, 1988; D a v i d s o n , 1984; Banks and Thompson, 1980, 1 9 8 1 ) . The v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the O f f i c e by t h e two s u c c e s s i v e Impact M o n i t o r s b r o u g h t about b o t h t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n s . ^ W h i l e t h e f i r s t Impact M o n i t o r l e f t because o f c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e P r o j e c t C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager o v e r t h e c o n t e n t of h i s r e p o r t s and c l a i m e d t h a t B.C. Hydro was e m a s c u l a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1979), t h e second M o n i t o r , though e n j o y i n g a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B.C. H y d r o , e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r s , t h e Impact M o n i t o r i n g Committee. A f t e r h a v i n g r u n f o r o n l y two and a h a l f y e a r s , f r o m August 1977 t o A p r i l 1980, B.C. Hydro d e c i d e d t o t e r m i n a t e t h e p o s i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e not c l e a r . There i s no doubt t h a t a d e f i n i t e need e x i s t e d f o r t h e k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d have been g e n e r a t e d by t h e O f f i c e o f t h e Impact M o n i t o r i n t h e l o n g t e r r a . The d a t a c o u l d have been u s e f u l t o t h e CIC, the L o c a l Impact Committee, t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e and B.C. Hydro, but l e a s t u s e f u l t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , who as a w h ole was l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by t h e P r o j e c t , b ut employed t h e M o n i t o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s thought the O f f i c e v a l u a b l e , though i t was o u t s i d e h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Whereas B.C. Hydro i n t e n d e d t o r u n t h e O f f i c e f o r o n l y t h r e e y e a r s and t h e n on 49 a r e t a i n e r b a s i s , the C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e and t h e M o n i t o r w e r e u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t w o u l d e x t e n d i n t o t he wind-down phase of t h e P r o j e c t . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e O f f i c e needed t o be r e d e s i g n e d w i t h c l e a r terms o f r e f e r e n c e , a d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e and adequate s u p p o r t s t a f f . S u b s e q u e n t l y some of t h e work was c a r r i e d o ut by B.C. Hydro^ and, i n t h e end, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r under the w a t e r l i c e n c e c o m m i s s i o n e d two s t u d i e s i n 1984 t o be done by c o n s u l t a n t f i r m s ( S u s s e x , 1985; DPA Group, 1986) ( s e e S e c t i o n 3.2.2.1). The s e t t l i n g o f c l a i m s a r i s i n g f r o m the P r o j e c t was h a n d l e d by the L o c a l Impact Committee. I t e v a l u a t e d t h e c l a i m s b r o u g h t b e f o r e i t and, t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s recommendations, f o r w a r d e d them t o B.C. Hydro f o r s e t t l e m e n t . I f c l a i m s remained u n r e s o l v e d a t t h i s l e v e l , t h e y were passed t o t h e Community I m p a c t C o m m i t t e e ( C I C ) o f t h e o f f i c i a l p r o g r a m , who a d v i s e d t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r . He i n t u r n c o u l d impose a b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s r e n d e r e d t h i s c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e b o t h i n a d e q u a t e and f r u s t r a t i n g . The Committee was u n a b l e t o e v a l u a t e c l a i m s e f f e c t i v e l y as i t was s e v e r e l y hampered by u n d e r f u n d i n g and u n d e r s t a f f i n g . B.C. Hydro o n l y p a i d f o r i t s s e c r e t a r i a l h e l p and t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s . U n t i l 1980, t h e Committee depended on the Impact M o n i t o r as a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . However, he e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same s h o r t a g e s and t h u s c o u l d o f f e r l i t t l e d i r e c t h e l p . F i n a n c i a l and s t a f f l i m i t a t i o n s a l s o p r e v e n t e d the L o c a l Impact Committee f r o m u n d e r t a k i n g t h e M o n i t o r ' s work as c a l l e d f o r i n i t s second terms o f r e f e r e n c e . The m o n i t o r i n g o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n u s e f u l f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s i n t h e community and c o n s e q u e n t l y f o r t h e s e t t l i n g o f c l a i m s . The c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e was f r u s t r a t i n g f o r the c l a i m a n t s because t h e y c o u l d o n l y argue t h e i r case i n f r o n t o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee as the p u b l i c was v i r t u a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m the CIC. Most i m p o r t a n t l y t h o ugh, t h e Committee had no a u t h o r i t a t i v e power, i t was o n l y a d v i s o r y t o b o t h B.C. Hydro 50 and t h e C I C . The L o c a l I m p a c t Committee was however n o t t h e o n l y avenue f o r the r e s o l u t i o n o f c l a i m s . C l a i m a n t s w i t h more c l o u t , l i k e t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y o r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , c o u l d bypass t h e L o c a l Impact Committee by d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e management of B.C. Hydro, t h u s g e t t i n g f a s t r e m e d i a l a c t i o n (Banks and Thompson, 1980, 1981). C o n f l i c t s c o u l d a l s o be s e t t l e d t h r o u g h some of t h e A d j u n c t C o m m i t t e e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e R e v e l s t o k e F o r e s t r y Committee and t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e Committee. Not much c o u l d be f o u n d o u t a b o u t t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d , h e n c e , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the A d j u n c t Committees. I t appears t h a t t h e y were a means f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and, i f p o s s i b l e , t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f i m p a c t s and p r o v i d e d a forum f o r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n measures. Many of t h e i s s u e s t h a t the L o c a l Impact Committee and t h e CIC d e a l t w i t h ( s e e T a b l e 3.2, S e c t i o n 3.2.2.1) appear t o be t h e k i n d o f c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e A d j u n c t Committees c o u l d have a d d r e s s e d and, i f t h e y d i d , must have been u n a b l e t o r e s o l v e , and r e f e r r e d them t o the L o c a l Impact Committee. 3.1.3 INTERACTION OF THE COMPONENTS The l i m i t e d d a t a a v a i l a b l e on t h e u n o f f i c i a l program r e v e a l e d t h a t B.C. Hydro had not p r e s c r i b e d any l i n e s o f communication o r r e p o r t i n g between t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e . Any i n t e r a c t i o n seems t o have been on an ad hoc b a s i s . A l t h o u g h the Water C o m p t r o l l e r had e n v i s a g e d one of t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the Impact M o n i t o r t o be t h a t o f t h e "most v a l u a b l e l i a i s o n " , t h i s was not s o . B e c a u s e t h e M o n i t o r worked under t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , he was a r a t h e r d e t a c h e d p a r t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and appeared not t o have become t h e v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n t h a t he might have been t o t h e L o c a l Impact Committee (DPA Group, 1 9 8 6 ) . 51 I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t can be s a i d t h a t B.C. Hydro, i n d e v i s i n g t h e u n o f f i c i a l program, appears t o have g i v e n l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the adequate s t a f f i n g , c l e a r d i r e c t i v e s , and enforcement powers needed f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f e a c h p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m and t h e l i a i s o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i n t e g r a t e d f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e program as a w h o l e . 3.2 THE OFFICIAL PROGRAM The o f f i c i a l program was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h r e e s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e p r o c e e d e d under t h e o r i g i n a l w a t e r l i c e n c e , i s s u e d by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r on t h e b a s i s of t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . D e s p i t e t h e d e f e r r a l of major c o n c e r n s , t h i s l i c e n c e made l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o t h e r t h a n t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i e d g o v e r n m e n t a l b o d i e s and B.C. Hydro and t h e appointment o f a c l a i m s o f f i c e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x and T a b l e 2 . 4 ) . Hence t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was i n i t i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by an ad hoc committee, t h a t was c h a i r e d by a s e n i o r member of t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s s t a f f . I t brought t o g e t h e r t h e government a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d and B.C. Hydro i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e s o f t h e v a r i o u s w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s , s u c h as the development of r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g s t a n d a r d s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and m i t i g a t i o n and co m p e n s a t i o n measures. From J a n u a r y t o August 1977, s e v e n m e e t i n g s were h e l d , s i x i n V i c t o r i a and one i n R e v e l s t o k e . The second s t a g e o f t h e o f f i c i a l program u s h e r e d i n by t h e amended w a t e r l i c e n c e , e s t a b l i s h e d two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s . L a t e r i n June 1978, upon a second amendment t o the w a t e r l i c e n c e , s t a g e t h r e e p r o v i d e d a much improved c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e . 3.2.1. THE COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAM As shown i n F i g u r e 3.2, t h e o f f i c i a l program c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( 1 ) t h e Community Impact Committee ( C IC) e s t a b l i s h e d by w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( y ) ; ( 2 ) t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (RPCC) s e t up by F i g u r e 3-2 The O f f i c i a l Program SUBCOMMITTEES - R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee Components of O f f i c i a l Program 0 D e c i s i o n Maker 1 \ N o n - D e c i s i o n Maker 53 l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( x ) ; ( 3 ) t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r p r o v i d e d f o r by c l a u s e ( t ) ; t h e c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e o f c l a u s e ( u ) ; and ( 4 ) one f i s h e r i e s and one w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t ( s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ) t o be employed by B.C. Hydro, r e q u i r e d by c l a u s e ( q ) . As t h e need a r o s e , t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e committees were empowered t o s e t up s m a l l subcommittees t o a d d r e s s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The w h ole s t r u c t u r e was under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r and f u n d e d by B.C. Hyd r o . I n t h e f a l l o f 1977, t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r a p p o i n t e d t h e c h a i r m a n and members of the CIC ( w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( y ) ) c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p r o v i n c i a l government m i n i s t r i e s , who were c o n c e r n e d about t h e i m p a c t s o f the P r o j e c t on t h e ne a r b y c o m m u n i t i e s . Over the y e a r s , membership v a r i e d d e p e n d i n g on t h e I s s u e s d e a l t w i t h , but many members came fr o m t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e m i n i s t r i e s . B.C. Hydro a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s by i n v i t a t i o n . C I C m e e t i n g s w e r e o p e n t o t h e I m p a c t M o n i t o r a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the L o c a l Impact Committee. I t was the o b j e c t i v e o f t h e CIC t o m o n i t o r t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s h e l d between B.C. Hydro and l o c a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the m i t i g a t i o n o f a d v e r s e i m p a c t s on t h e l o c a l community ( w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( s ) ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e CIC was t o a s s i s t t he L i c e n s e e and t h e l o c a l a g e n c i e s i n any m a t t e r s a r i s i n g f r o m t h o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n s and making recommendations f o r a p p r o v a l s and o r d e r s t o be i s s u e d by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r under w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( s ) . As t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e n e i t h e r d e f i n e d " i m p a c t " n o r " l o c a l " i t i s assumed, on t h e b a s i s of t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a , t h a t c l a u s e ( s ) c o v e r e d a l l t h r e e k i n d s of i m p a c t s — e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , a nd e c o n o m i c , and t h a t l o c a l meant t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e and n e i g h b o u r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s , s u c h as Malakwa, A r m s t r o n g , and Sicamous, a l l w i t h i n t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The Water C o m p t r o l l e r a l s o a p p o i n t e d t h e members and ch a i r m a n o f t h e RPCC ( w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( x ) ) , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e same s e n i o r s t a f f member of t h e W a t e r Management B r a n c h who h a d c h a i r e d t h e ad hoc committee, t h e 54 f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e RPCC. The RPCC members r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e s o u r c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s a f f e c t e d by t h e P r o j e c t . 6 The m i n i s t r i e s most i n v o l v e d were t h e f o l l o w i n g : E n v i r o n m e n t , L a n d s , P a r k s and O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , Highways, F o r e s t s . B.C. Hydro and the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s had t o a t t e n d as r e q u e s t e d by t h e RPCC. The o b j e c t i v e s o f the RPCC were o u t l i n e d i n c l a u s e ( x ) of the w a t e r l i c e n c e , w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e Committee's terms o f r e f e r e n c e . The RPCC was t o c o n s i d e r and make recommendations t o the Water C o m p t r o l l e r " i n r e s p e c t o f the o r d e r s and a p p r o v a l s t o be g i v e n by him w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e m a t t e r s s e t out i n c l a u s e s ( k ) , ( 1 ) , ( n ) , ( o ) , ( p ) , ( r ) , ( s ) , and ( v ) " o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1 9 7 7 ) . As o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 3.1, t h e t a s k s o f the RPCC were v a r i e d and f a r - r e a c h i n g . C l a u s e ( s ) had been a s s i g n e d t o b o t h t h e RPCC and t h e CIC, but by m u t u a l a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e t w o , i t was d e l e g a t e d t o t h e l a t t e r . C l a u s e ( 1 ) c o n c e r n e d t h e dam's s a f e t y and c l a u s e ( v ) the s e c u r e f i n a n c i n g o f c l a u s e s ( o ) , ( p ) , ( s ) , and ( u ) . Of t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , c l a u s e ( n ) , t h e l o c a t i o n o f a u x i l i a r y f a c i l i t i e s and c l a u s e ( o ) , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w e r e r e l a t e d i n d i r e c t l y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s . However, c l a u s e ( k ) r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g , c l a u s e ( p) the p r o t e c t i o n , enhancement and c o m p e n s a t i o n ^ o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , and c l a u s e ( r ) t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and a d h e r e n c e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s p e r t a i n e d d i r e c t l y t o the e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Committee, one can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e RPCC's d u t i e s were t w o f o l d . C l a u s e ( x ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e RPCC's purpose was " c o n s i d e r i n g and making recommendations", w h i c h i s b a s i c a l l y t h e s o l v i n g o f problems p e r t a i n i n g t o the v a r i o u s l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s , and a d v i s i n g t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r a c c o r d i n g l y . B u t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e w i t h i t s numerous members a n d t h e i r o f t e n i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s l e d t o i t s second f u n c t i o n — t h a t of l i a i s o n . Table 3.1 Water L i c e n c e C l a u s e s A d m i n i s t e r e d by the RPCC Clause Purpose Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s D i r e c t i o n Approval k r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g 1 l e v e l o f water in r e s e r v o i r not t o exceed 563-9 m u n t i l remedial work to Downie S l i d e i s completed n l o c a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n camps, work areas s i t e o f f i c e s , borrow p i t s and s i m i l a r works o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n v i c i n i t y o f r e s e r v o i r p programs f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and enhancement of f i s h and w i 1 d 1 i f e h a b i t a t and f o r the m i t i g a t i o n o f l o s s e s o f h a b i t a t , s t u d i e s t h e r e t o t o be c a r r i e d out by L i c e n s e e r p r e p a r a t i o n by L i c e n s e e o f enviro n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s adherence by L i c e n s e e t o environmental gu i d e l i nes s» L i c e n s e e t o c a r r y out programs f o r the m i t i g a t i o n o f adver s e impacts on the l o c a l community in accordance w i t h annual budgets prepared in c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s v L i c e n s e e t o g i v e s e c u r i t y t o ensure c o m p l i -ance w i t h c l a u s e (o) , (p) , (s) , (u) X X X X -'•the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the CIC by an intercommi t t e e agreement Source: C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1978 56 The p a r t o f t h e o f f i c i a l program t h a t was most p o o r l y d e f i n e d was the i n i t i a l c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e , w h i c h c a l l e d f o r an e n g i n e e r t o be a p p o i n t e d as t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r p u r s u a n t t o t h e Water A c t , and f o r B.C. Hydro t o pay h i s s a l a r y and expenses ( c l a u s e ( t ) ) as w e l l as "any sum" t h a t he d e t e r m i n e d " t o be owing t o any c l a i m a n t under S e c t i o n 18 of t h e Water A c t " ( c l a u s e ( u ) ) ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1976c, 1977b). However, t h e amendments t o t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e of June 1978 were more d e t a i l e d and p r o v i d e d an improved framework. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r was t o be a p p o i n t e d by t h e W ater C o m p t r o l l e r , who a l s o was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r making c l a i m s and h e a r i n g s , and c o u l d s u b m i t c l a i m s h i m s e l f . C l a u s e ( t ) now l i m i t e d t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r t o c l a i m s not e x c e e d i n g $10,000, and h i s d e c i s i o n was t o be f i n a l and b i n d i n g . C l a i m s e x c e e d i n g $10,000 were c o v e r e d by c l a u s e ( u ) . I t a l l o w e d a c l a i m a n t a c h o i c e of a c t i o n t o e i t h e r sue B.C. Hydro o r s u b m i t h i s c l a i m f o r a r b i t r a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o t h e B.C. A r b i t r a t i o n A c t ". . . e x c e p t as may be o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r f r o m t i m e t o t i m e " ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1 9 7 8 ) . The l a s t component of the o f f i c i a l program c o n s i s t e d of the two s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . T h i s p r o v i s i o n was based on a commitment B.C. Hydro had made a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g ( B . C . H y d r o , 1 9 7 7 a ) . T h e r e h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n on who s h o u l d employ t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s — B . C . Hydro o r t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB). E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t hought t h e y w o u l d be l i t t l e more t h a n a p o l o g i s t s f o r B.C. H y d r o ' s a c t i o n s i f t h e y w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Crown C o r p o r a t i o n . However, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r b e l i e v e d t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o u l d u p h o l d t h e i r i n t e g r i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1976b). Under c l a u s e ( q ) of the w a t e r l i c e n c e , B.C. Hydro was t o h i r e a f i s h e r i e s and a w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t w i t h i n t h r e e months of t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e l i c e n c e , 57 f o r t h e l e n g t h of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d and t h e r e a f t e r f o r as l o n g as t h e C o m p t r o l l e r t hought n e c e s s a r y . T h e i r d u t i e s were o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : t o h e l p i n w r i t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t o m o n i t o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e a s p e c t s of t h e P r o j e c t , t o c o l l e c t a d d i t i o n a l d a t a as needed d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t o m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n w i t h the s t a f f o f B.C. Hydro o r i t s c o n t r a c t o r s and w i t h government a g e n c i e s as r e q u i r e d ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1976a, 1978). Terms of r e f e r e n c e and a l i s t o f d u t i e s had been w r i t t e n up by t h e B.C. Hydro head o f f i c e b i o l o g i s t s because the t a s k s were o n l y b r o a d l y o u t l i n e d i n c l a u s e ( q ) , and the f i r s t two seemed t o be d u p l i c a t e d i n c l a u s e s ( r ) and ( p ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, t h e s e terms of r e f e r e n c e c o u l d not be implemented as the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s were not p l a c e d under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l D i v i s i o n a t the head o f f i c e i n V a n c o u v e r , but r a t h e r u n d e r t h a t o f t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n a t R e v e l s t o k e , so as t o be bound by a n o n - s t r i k e u n i o n agreement ( B r a d l e y , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n August 1977 t h e r e were s t i l l p roblems w i t h t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e . The a t t i t u d e o f t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, u n d o u b t e d l y r e f l e c t i n g h i s paramount o b j e c t i v e " t o b u i l d t h e dam as q u i c k l y and e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e " , 8 <jid n o t h e l p m a t t e r s . H i s a p p r o a c h was t o d e t e r m i n e what needed d o i n g and g e t i t done, r a t h e r t h a n t o w o r r y about t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). I t a p p ears t h a t terms of r e f e r e n c e w e r e e v e n t u a l l y w r i t t e n up and i n e f f e c t f o r about a y e a r and a h a l f , a f t e r w h i c h t i m e t h e s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t d e v i s e d h i s own terms of r e f e r e n c e ( B o n a r , 1987).9 The s i t e f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t , who f i l l e d t h e p o s i t i o n f r o m 1979 t o 1983 a f t e r t h e f i r s t b i o l o g i s t had l e f t , s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no f o r m a l terms of r e f e r e n c e (Mason, 1988). B o t h s i t e b i o l o g i s t s d e t e r m i n e d what was i m p o r t a n t and, f o l l o w i n g a p p r o v a l by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s ( C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager and o n - s i t e manager of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a f f a i r s ) , i m p l e m e n t e d t h e i r 58 p rograms. 3.2.2 THE OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM The o f f i c i a l program was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of e l e v e n o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s , and f o r a d v i s i n g t h e C o m p t r o l l e r on e i g h t of t h e e l e v e n c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s t a s k c a l l e d f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l knowledge of and judgment i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic m a t t e r s as w e l l as t h e n e c e s s a r y t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t o m o n i t o r a l a r g e , complex c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t b o t h of w h i c h were a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y beyond t h e r e a l m of t h e s t a f f of t h e W a t e r Management B r a n c h . However, t h e s t a f f c o n s i s t e d o n l y of e n g i n e e r s accustomed t o d e a l i n g w i t h t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s of w a t e r r e s o u r c e management, s u c h as t h e a p p r o v a l o f e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n s , l i c e n s i n g and i n s p e c t i o n o f h y d r o e l e c t r i c and w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s , and t h e two s e n i o r c o n s u l t a n t s , r e t a i n e d t o a d v i s e the C o m p t r o l l e r , were a l s o e x p e r t s on t h e e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s of t h e P r o j e c t . Thus n e i t h e r t h e i n - h o u s e s t a f f nor the c o n s u l t a n t s were competent t o a d d r e s s e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic m a t t e r s and t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program was s e r i o u s l y h a n d i c a p p e d r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . The two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s ' m a i n f u n c t i o n s — t h e s o l v i n g of problems and t h e m a i n t a i n i n g l i a i s o n between i t s numerous m e m b e r s — r e q u i r e d a d e c i s i v e l e a d e r s h i p ; b u t t h e f i r s t e s p e c i a l l y d e p e n d e d on a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i s s u e s and t i m e l y n e g o t i a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . However, t h e two Committees had t o r e l y on t h e a d v i c e and judgment of t h e i r members and B.C. Hydro, w h i c h were g u i d e d by t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e b o d i e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d . The Water C o m p t r o l l e r f a c e d t h e same l a c k of e x p e r t i s e i n r e g a r d t o t h e two s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ( c l a u s e ( q ) ) and t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r ( c l a u s e ( t ) ) . 59 3.2.2.1 The Community Impact Committee The CIC got o f f t o a slow s t a r t , m e e t i n g i n f r e q u e n t l y u n t i l 1979, an aver a g e o f f o u r t i m e s per y e a r up t o 1985, and once i n each of 1985 and 1986. The Committee was d i s b a n d e d by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r i n 1988. I n i t i a l l y , l o c a l a g e n c i e s i g n o r e d t h e Committee. They p r e f e r r e d t o d e a l w i t h B.C. H y d r o d i r e c t l y o r t h r o u g h the A d j u n c t Committees. Only when t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h B.C. Hydro f a i l e d t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e s was t h e CIC approached (Cox 1988a). The u n d e r l y i n g causes might have been t h a t the CIC d i d not have a l i a i s o n p e r s o n i n R e v e l s t o k e , had no p r e s c r i b e d p r o c e d u r e f o r p u b l i c i n p u t , and h e l d m o s t m e e t i n g s i n V i c t o r i a w h i c h l i m i t e d t h e a t t e n d a n c e o f b o t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and t h a t o f the Impact M o n i t o r . C o m m u n i c a t i o n was o n l y w i t h t h e L o c a l Impact Committee when i t r e f e r r e d u n r e s o l v e d m a t t e r s t o t h e CIC, t h e number of w h i c h seemed t o i n c r e a s e as t h e P r o j e c t p r o g r e s s e d . One m a j o r i s s u e t h a t t h e C I C a d d r e s s e d was t h e development o f an a l t e r n a t e w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m f o r t h e B i g Eddy W a t e r D i s t r i c t , a n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d community j u s t o u t s i d e o f t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e . B i g Eddy's e x i s t i n g w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m was f e d by D o l a n C r e e k . But the q u a l i t y o f t h e w a t e r w o u l d be u n s a f e o n c e B.C. Hydro s t a r t e d t o l o g t h e a r e a f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r t o t h e I l l e c i l l e w a e t s u b s t a t i o n s o u t h o f R e v e l s t o k e . On t h e recommendation o f the CIC, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r had o r d e r e d B.C. Hydro t o f u n d an a l t e r n a t e w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m f o r B i g Eddy. There was, however, some q u e s t i o n as t o who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , w h i c h much exceeded t h o s e o f t h e D o l a n Creek s y s t e m . B i g Eddy a p p e a l e d the Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s o r d e r under t h e Water A c t (1979) and the c l a i m was s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n by t h e p r o v i n c i a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A p p e a l B o a r d , w h i c h awarded t h e community an a d d i t i o n a l $12,000. The t o t a l c o s t t o B.C. Hydro was a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1.1 m i l l i o n ( s e e a l s o S e c t i o n 4 . 2 ) . 60 O t h e r m a t t e r s h a n d l e d by t h e CIC were t h e i n c r e a s e d need f o r p o l i c e and c o u r t s e r v i c e s i n R e v e l s t o k e , a d d i t i o n a l expenses i n c u r r e d by t h e R e v e l s t o k e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 19, h i g h r a t e s c h a r g e d by a m o b i l e home p a r k i n R e v e l s t o k e , c o m p e n s a t i o n payments f o r l o s t t i m e and wages due t o r o a d c l o s u r e s c l a i m e d by t h e B.C. I n t e r i o r L o g g i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , and demands t o expand t h e Sicamous w a t e r s y s t e m . I n 1984 t h e CIC t o o k an i m p o r t a n t s t e p . Through t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t two p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n f i r m s were commissioned t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s of the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t on t h e l o c a l communities (DPA Group, 1986; S u s s e x , 1985). The s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n f o r two r e a s o n s (1) t o e n a b l e t h e CIC and t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r t o r e s o l v e o u t s t a n d i n g m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n I s s u e s ; and (2) t o t a k e advantage of an i m p o r t a n t l e a r n - b y - d o i n g o p p o r t u n i t y , as the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was the f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t i n B.C. f o r w h i c h an EIS on b o t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s had been p r e p a r e d . The DPA s t u d y (DPA Group, 1986) c o v e r e d t h e P r o j e c t ' s wind-down p h a s e — the l a s t months of c o n s t r u c t i o n f r o m May t o December 1984, and the f i r s t y e a r of o p e r a t i o n f r o m J a n u a r y t o December 1985. F i g u r e 3.3 shows the e x t e n t of t h e DPA s t u d y a r e a ; of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t was t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e a n d E l e c t o r a l A r e a E. The s t u d y e v a l u a t e d , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n measures u s i n g t h e g u i d e l i n e s d e v e l o p e d by ELUC (1977, 1980). Four i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t t o l o c a l c ommunities were examined. F i r s t , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s d i d not g e t a f a i r s h a r e of P r o j e c t j o b s . T h i s was d e t e r m i n e d t o be t r u e as more s k i l l e d n o n - r e s i d e n t w o r k e r s were p r e f e r r e d t o r e s i d e n t s w i t h f e w e r j o b s k i l l s . Second, t h e s t u d y found t h a t t h e h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s of l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s , w h i c h remained u n f u l f i l l e d , were not caused by t h e P r o j e c t but were s e l f - i n d u c e d . T h i r d , whereas t h e community F r a s e r F o r t George A Census S u b d i v i s i o n Thompsoh-N i c o l a 20 J L_ km P r i m a r y Study A r e a Communities c l o s e s t t o P r o j e c t Secondary Study Area Columbia-Shuswap R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t J I East Kootenay Salmon Arm Kootenay F i g u r e 3.3 The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Columbia-Shuswap - L o c a l Communities A f f e c t e d by the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t (DPA Group, 1986) NORTH r 62 o f Sicamous f e l t t h a t i t had not been f a i r l y compensated by B.C. Hydro, the s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t n e t n e g a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . The p e r c e i v e d u n f a i r n e s s had r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e generous c o m p e n s a t i o n g i v e n t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e , w h i c h had been p a r t of the i n i t i a l n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The CIC commented t h a t t h e r e a l cause o f t h e p r o b l e m was t h a t Sicamous, an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d community, l a c k e d o r g a n i z e d e f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( C I C , 1986). F i n a l l y , r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s c o n c e r n was t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of S i c a m o u s ' r e s i d e n t s w i t h B.C. Hydro's community r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t s . To m i t i g a t e t h i s , t h e s t u d y p r o p o s e d t h a t B.C. Hydro u n d e r t a k e a c o n s u l t a t i o n program d u r i n g t h e p r o j e c t wind-down phase. F u r t h e r f i n d i n g s were t h a t B.C. Hydro s h o u l d have m i t i g a t e d s e v e r a l o t h e r a d v e r s e i m p a c t s , s u c h as t h a t of p r i c e i n f l a t i o n on d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s , t h e l a c k o f adequate m e d i c a l and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , and t h e f e a r o f a p o s s i b l e dam f a i l u r e . I t was recommended t h a t B.C. H y d r o a d d r e s s t h e l a t t e r by d i s t r i b u t i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n about dam s a f e t y t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The s t u d y a l s o a s s e s s e d t h e m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e p r o v i s i o n s f o r m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n m a t t e r s had b e e n i n a d e q u a t e . The c r i t i c i s m s r a i s e d were t h a t t h e m o n i t o r i n g program was u n s u c c e s s f u l and i n e f f e c t i v e . The Impact M o n i t o r and L o c a l Impact Committee ( n o t p a r t of the o f f i c i a l program) had no a u t h o r i t a t i v e powers, and t h e CIC l a c k e d f u l l l o c a l s u p p o r t . As t o t h e CIC's recommendations t o the Water C o m p t r o l l e r , t h e DPA s t u d y s t a t e d t h a t "most of t h e d e c i s i o n s . . . were based on ad hoc s t u d i e s o r p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g , and not on comprehensive o n - g o i n g m o n i t o r i n g e f f o r t s " DPA Group, 1986, p. 1 5 3 ) . W i t h adequate m o n i t o r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s of a l l s e c t o r s of t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s , n o t o n l y t h e b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d a n d a r t i c u l a t e , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t e n d e d t o a n d m i t i g a t i o n / c o m p e n s a t i o n d e c i s i o n s on t h e w h ole w o u l d have been f a i r e r . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e DPA s t u d y t h e C I C made t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e 63 recommendations: (1) not t o i n s t i t u t e a c o n s u l t a t i o n program as t h i s was c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e ; (2) t o a d v i s e t h e M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n c e r n s i n Sicamous, and t o c o n s i d e r i n c o r p o r a t i o n ; and ( 3 ) p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s were t o c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t , u n i n c o r p o r a t e d r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s p r i o r t o t h e a p p r o v a l of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s ( C I C , 1986)) The s e c o n d s t u d y ( S u s s e x , 1 9 8 5 ) , u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , e v a l u a t e d t h e i m p a c t s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t on l o c a l government s e r v i c e s and f i n a n c e s . I t c o n s i s t s of t h r e e v olumes. The f i r s t d e s c r i b e s t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e i m p a c t s . A l t h o u g h based on t h e ELUC g u i d e l i n e s (1977, 1980), t h e y were a d a p t e d t o i n c l u d e more s p e c i f i c c o m p e n s a t i o n c r i t e r i a . The second volume c o v e r s t h e e n g i n e e r i n g component of the s t u d y w i t h r e s p e c t t o R e v e l s t o k e ' s r o a d s , w a t e r , s t o r m sewer and s a n i t a r y sewer. Impacts on t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e , t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a Shuswap and t h e Sicamous Waterworks D i s t r i c t ( S i camous) a r e d e t a i l e d i n t h e f i n a l volume. A b r i e f summary of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s volume f o l l o w s . The o b j e c t i v e of t h e r e p o r t was t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t s , t o p r e s e n t t h e commitments and payments made so f a r by B.C. Hydro, and t o g i v e a g e n e r a l view t h a t might be used f o r comparing t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n and i m p a c t s . The r e s u l t s of t h e Sussex s t u d y a r e b r i e f l y summarized i n T a b l e 3.2 There were t h r e e o u t s t a n d i n g c l a i m s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n f r o m t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a Shuswap. They were a l l r e j e c t e d as unfounded f o r the r e a s o n s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3.2 The Sicamous Waterworks D i s t r i c t had f i l e d two c l a i m s , w h i c h were a l s o r e j e c t e d . The Sussex s t u d y c o r r o b o r a t e d the DPA s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g t h a t Sicamous f e l t u n f a i r l y t r e a t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e . The r e l a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n t h a t community was t h e same as t h a t I n R e v e l s t o k e . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f t h e r e were a p r o b l e m Table 3-2 Sussex Study - Assessment o f Out s t a n d i n g Issues 1. C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e - Short Term Impacts A. Accepted Claims 1. G o l f course r i v e r bank e r o s i o n ^ - about 1000 m of Columbia R i v e r bank a re e r o d i n g - not c e r t a i n i f impact a t t r i b u t a b l e t o R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r o r Arrow Lakes R e s e r v o i r - r e q u i r e s a c t i o n - determine r a t e o f e r o s i o n through m o n i t o r i n g CIC: take no f u r t h e r a c t i o n 2. V i c t o r i a Road damage: - i n c r e a s e d heavy load t r u c k t r a v e l due t o R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - impact d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , e s t i m a t e d c o s t $32,000 (1985 d o l l a r s ) - up to p r o v i n c i a l government to de c i d e i f v a l i d c l a i m , and i f i t w i l l compensate. B.C. Hydro p a i d taxes f o r t r u c k i n g s e r v i c e i n general CIC: no f u r t h e r compensation t o be p a i d f o r 'use' o f V i c t o r i a Road 3. Water- system: - water supply improvements needed t o serve the i n f l u x o f people due t o the P r o j e c t , c o s t o f $2,006 m i l l i o n - compensation adequate, B.C. Hydro p a i d $3-311 m i l l i o n f o r improvements CIC: no f u r t h e r compensation w i l l be pa i d h. F i r e p r o t e c t i o n : - i n c r e a s e d c o s t s f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g c o s t s of f i r e f i g h t e r s - 1976-1985 c o s t s $29,000; B.C. Hydro p a i d $132,000 f o r f i r e t r u c k - compensation i s adequate CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 5. R e c r e a t i o n crowding: - e x t r a crowding o f community f a c i l i t i e s - c o s t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t i f y - B.C. Hydro p a i d $1,417,000 f o r new community c e n t e r and $157,000 f o r v a r i o u s s m a l l e r r e c r e a t i o n p r o j e c t s CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 6. R e l a t i v e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s : - annual o p e r a t i n g expenses by C i t y t h a t might re a s o n a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d - c o s t s d i f f i c u l t t o determine: general c o s t s , b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n , road t r a n s p o r t : $432,000 l e s s ; f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , garbage, r e c r e a t i o n : $127,000 more - more than o f f s e t by gai n s from r e l a t i v e p r o p e r t y taxes and B.C. Hydro g r a n t s in 1ieu CIC: no f u r t h e r compensation w i l l be p a i d 7. R e l a t i v e P r o p e r t y t a x e s : - e f f e c t on p r o p e r t y va1ues a f f e c t m u n i c i p a l t a x base - no a c t i o n n e c e s s a r y CIC: o u t s i d e the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f the Water C o m p t r o l l e r , r e f e r to M i n i s t r i e s o f Finance and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o r e s o l v e i s s u e o f m u n i c i p a l t a x a t i o n of B.C. Hydro f a c i l i t i e s 65 Table 3.2 Continued B. U n c l e a r C l a i m 1. 111eci11ewaet ground water: - B.C. Hydro removed 111eci11ewaet Dam based on commitment at p u b l i c h e a r i n g . T h i s caused w i n t e r basement f l o o d i n g and some ground water contaminat ion - c o s t of removal $416,000, co s t of downstream dyking and c h a n n e l i n g work $578,000 p a i d by B.C. Hydro - the i s s u e i s not c l e a r , i t i s c u r r e n t l y being reviewed CtC: a d v i s e R i v e r s S e c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Environment t o look i n t o t h i s C. R e j e c t e d Claims 1. New community c o s t s a v i n g s : - B.C. Hydro was saved c o s t of b u i l d i n g a new community because R e v e l s t o k e was nearby - economic e f f i c i e n c y grounds and e q u i t y grounds: no r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income, t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t c l a i m CIC: o u t s i d e terms of r e f e r e n c e of C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , r e f e r t o M i n i s t r i e s o f Finance and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o determine i f B.C. Hydro's f a c i l i t i e s have t o pay m u n i c i p a l taxes 2. Ski hi 11 c l i m a t e : - changed m i c r o c l i m a t e in Mt. McKenzie s k i h i l l , warmer temperatures and reduced snow f a l l , s k i l i f t f a c i l i t i e s had t o be moved u p h i l l - l i t t l e e v i d e n c e , need ye a r s of data c o l l e c t i o n not a m u n i c i p a l e n t e r p r i s e , e q u i t y grounds: o f f s e t by lower h e a t i n g c o s t s , snow removal c o s t s , e t c . , no double c o u n t i n g CIC: no s i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e of c l i m a t i c change presented - c l o s e i s s u e 3. Sewer systems: - C i t y ' s sewage p l a n t at time unable t o cope w i t h sewage f l o w s , needs s e p a r a t i o n o f storm and s a n i t a r y sewers - B.C. Hydro p a i d $171,000 compensation - no s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n by the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t on e x i s t i n g problem CIC: no f u r t h e r compensation w i l l be p a i d 4. Garbage c o l l e c t i o n : - reduced c a p a c i t y due t o B.C. Hydro's use of the dump n e c e s s i t a t e s new f a c i 1 i t y ear 1 i e r - dump i s owned by the Regional D i s t r i c t - not a c o s t to the C i t y CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 5. General a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : - c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e dam's c o n s t r u c t i o n - hard t o q u a n t i f y due t o C i t y ' s a c c o u n t i n g system (perhaps $100,000) - c o s t s are f o r a f u n c t i o n t h a t i s expected of a l o c a l government paying c o s t s f o r making c l a i m s may lead t o c o n t i n u o u s , unwarranted c l a ims C i t y has had lower a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s s i n c e 1976 - suggests e x t r a c o s t s more than o f f s e t by s a v i n g s . V i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y net c o s t i n c r e a s e s , but must be q u i t e small CIC: no f u r t h e r compensation w i l l be p a i d 66 Table 3-2 Continued I I . Impacts on Regional D i s t r i c t Columbia Shuswap A. Reje c t e d Claims 1. Garbage d i s p o s a l : - present garbage dump's l i f e shortened by B.C. Hydro's use d u r i n g c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f the dam - impact i s not c l e a r , but probably r e l a t i v e l y small - no compensation because C i t y of Re v e l s t o k e w i l l pay S0% o f c o s t o f new f a c i l i t y , c o s t to D i s t r i c t i f o f f s e t by b e n e f i t s t o D i s t r i c t , B.C. Hydro p a i d $82,000 grant f o r s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d and no taxes p a i d CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 2. Sicamous D i s t r i c t R e c r e a t i o n Centre: - B.C. Hydro p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in the b u i l d i n g , but not the f i n a n c i n g o f the r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e - the c l a i m i s r e j e c t e d - c a u s a l l i n k i s not c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 3. Loss o f t a x base: - due t o the f l o o d i n g o f the r e s e r v o i r area - t h i s i s a re s o u r c e c o s t t o the owner not t o the t a x i n g a u t h o r i t y the D i s t r i c t can s h i f t the tax r a t e on remaining p r o p e r t i e s a c c o r d i n g l y CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d I I I . Impacts on Sicamous Waterworks D i s t r i c t A. Rej e c t e d Claims 1. Water system improvements: - the need f o r improvements was advanced by p o p u l a t i o n growths due t o the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t - the problem was e s s e n t i a l l y not changed by p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e new r e s i d e n t s p a i d user fees CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d 2. Fi re p r o t e c t i o n : - a new f i r e h a l l was b u i l t in 1978, a new f i r e t r u c k a c q u i r e d in 1984 B.C. Hydro sho u l d compensate because of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e - t a x payments by new r e s i d e n t s o f f s e t f i r e p r o t e c t i o n c o s t s a new f i r e h a l l was most l i k e l y needed i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e CIC: no a c t i o n r e q u i r e d The f i r s t statement d e s c r i b e s the c l a i m , the second one u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e s magnitude of the c l a i m and compensation a l r e a d y p a i d , and the t h i r d statement g i v e s the reason e i t h e r f o r acceptance o r r e j e c t i o n o f a c l a i m by Sussex C o n s u l t a n t s . For some of the c l a i m s the second statement i s m i s s i n g . The f i n a l statement i s the CIC's recommendation t o the Water Compt r o l 1 e r Source: Sussex, 1985; CIC, 1986 67 of e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d c h o o s e t o a l l e v i a t e i t . The C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e had t h i r t e e n u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s . Of t h e s e , s e v e n were a c c e p t e d as v a l i d , one as u n c l e a r , and f i v e were found t o be i n v a l i d . Of t h e s e v e n v a l i d c l a i m s t h r e e had been a d e q u a t e l y compensated, one was more t h a n o f f s e t by o t h e r b e n e f i t s , one r e q u i r e d no f u r t h e r a c t i o n , one needed t o be m o n i t o r e d and a n o t h e r was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government r a t h e r t h a n B.C. H y d r o ' s . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t o v e r t h e l o n g t e r m , the C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e has b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The r e s p o n s e of t h e CIC t o each of t h e t h i r t e e n i s s u e s i s shown i n T a b l e 3.2. I n December 1987, a f t e r h a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e views of B.C. Hydro and t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e recommendations, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r i s s u e d an o r d e r f o r them t o t a k e e f f e c t . The o n l y i s s u e t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e f u t u r e , i f need be, was the g o l f c o u r s e e r o s i o n ; a l l o t h e r c l a i m s had been p r o p e r l y s e t t l e d . The C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e a p p e a l e d t h e o r d e r under S e c t i o n 38 of t h e Water A c t ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The grounds f o r t h e a p p e a l were t h a t B.C. Hydro's c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e C i t y was i n a d e q u a t e under c l a u s e ( s ) of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . Impacts not a d e q u a t e l y compensated were: t h e g o l f c o u r s e e r o s i o n , t h e c l i m a t i c change, t h e community c o s t s , s u c h as t h e V i c t o r i a Road damage, t h e w a t e r system and sewerage s y s t e m . The a p p e a l h e a r i n g was t o have been h e a r d i n J u l y 1988 by t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l A p p e a l B o a r d , however, t h e C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e and B.C. Hydro n e g o t i a t e d a $35,000 s e t t l e m e n t (Cox 1988b). 3.2.2.2 The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee The RPCC h e l d m e e t i n g s as t h e need a r o s e , b e i n g more f r e q u e n t a t f i r s t ( f i v e t i m e s per y e a r ) and d e c r e a s i n g a t t h e end of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d (two i n 1984), t h e l a s t m e e t i n g was e a r l y i n 1985. One m e t i n g p e r y e a r was h e l d i n R e v e l s t o k e t o t o u r t h e P r o j e c t and f a c i l i t a t e i n p u t f r o m members 68 i n v o l v e d l o c a l l y w i t h the P r o j e c t , but most m e e t i n g s t o o k p l a c e i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r . A l t h o u g h B.C. Hydro c o u l d a t t e n d by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y , i t was w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a t a l l m e e t i n g s . The m e e t i n g s were c l o s e d t o t h e p u b l i c . The q u e s t i o n t h a t n e e d s t o be a n s w e r e d i s : How a d e q u a t e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y d i d t h e RPCC f u l f i l l i t s mandate? I t i s beyond t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h i s t h e s i s t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s t h a t were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e R PCC. 1 0 However, t h e a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l a l l o w e d a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e manner i n w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l management was h a n d l e d . The a s p e c t s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o be a d d r e s s e d by the RPCC were o n l y b r o a d l y d e f i n e d i n t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s . A more d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n i n t h e f o r m of a p l a n t h a t i d e n t i f i e d and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r i o r i t y o f i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e l a t e d them t o t h e phases of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t was not d e v e l o p e d by t h e RPCC. The Committee chose t o d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s i n an a l m o s t ad hoc manner, d i c t a t e d l a r g e l y by t h e i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . As f a r as e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s were c o n c e r n e d t h e two major a c t o r s , t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB) and B.C. H y d r o, s e t a c o n t e n t i o u s scene f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t . I n i t i a l l y i n J a n u a r y 1977, t h e c o n f l i c t a r o s e o v e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e b i o l o g i s t s t o be h i r e d by B.C. Hydro under c l a u s e ( q ) . When th e c h a i r m a n of t h e ad hoc committee c o n d u c t e d a m e e t i n g between B.C. Hydro and t h e FWP t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e , i t became o b v i o u s t h a t the r o o t of the c o n t e n t i o n went much deeper: i t was the s t r u g g l e f o r the mandate t o d e s i g n , implement and manage th e programs under c l a u s e (p) f o r t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s a f f e c t e d by t h e P r o j e c t , and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e u l t i m a t e f i n a n c i a l s e t t l e m e n t f o r t h e l o s s e s of t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . Whereas i t was t h e s t a t u t o r y mandate of t h e FWB t o manage th e f i s h and w i l d l i f e 69 r e s o u r c e s of t h e P r o v i n c e , B.C. Hydro had made th e f o l l o w i n g commitments a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n r e g a r d t o the m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e l o s s e s : " C o s t s o f e x p l o r i n g a n d a s s e s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e compensatory measures, l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , works d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as m a intenance and management s h o u l d be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of B.C. Hydro." (B.C. Hydro, 1977b, p. 4-33) B.C. Hydro was u n d o u b t e d l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e FWB mandate. W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b i o l o g i s t s , c l a u s e (q) c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e l i c e n s e e s h a l l employ t h e b i o l o g i s t s , but t h e r e i s no d e c i s i v e s t a t e m e n t i n c o n d i t i o n ( p ) of t h e f i r s t w a t e r l i c e n c e as t o who s h a l l c a r r y o u t t h e programs. However i n the e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s accompanying t h e l i c e n c e , t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r a p p e a r e d t o a s s i g n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , c o s t i n g , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e programs t o t h e FWB. The B.C. Hydro s i t e b i o l o g i s t s , i f a v a i l a b l e , were t o a s s i s t t h e FWB I n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Thus i t seems t h a t B.C. Hydro was not t o p l a y a d e c i s i v e r o l e . The amended w a t e r l i c e n c e of 12 September 1977 ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1977b) changed t h i s . I t s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o B.C. Hydro t h e t a s k o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e p r o g r a m s and s t u d i e s as d i r e c t e d b y t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r H o w e v e r , t h e r e was no m e n t i o n of who was t o d e s i g n them. B.C. Hydro and t h e FWB came t o an agreement t o d i v i d e the s t u d i e s t h a t were t o be t h e b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f i s h and w i l d l i f e l o s s e s and c o m p e n s a t i o n measures. The v a l l e y w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s ( b l a c k b e a r , d e e r , b e a v e r , w a t e r f o w l ) and t h e a q u a t i c s y s t e m u p r i v e r of the dam were t o be s t u d i e d by B.C. Hydro, and t h e m o u n t a i n s p e c i e s ( c a r i b o u , g r i z z l y b e a r ) and t h e a q u a t i c s y s t e m downstream o f t h e dam by t h e FWB. Moose were t o be t h e j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the two. But d i f f e r e n c e s i n b i o l o g i c a l , compensatory, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e p t s s o o n a r o s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c l a u s e ( p ) . By March 1978, a f t e r a y e a r of i n d e c i s i o n by t h e RPCC, t h e FWB v o i c e d i t s s t r o n g c o n c e r n s t o t h e C o m p t r o l l e r 70 because B.C. Hydro d i d not d i s c l o s e t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l programs under c o n d i t i o n ( p ) . I n e f f e c t , t h i s p r a c t i c e o f B.C. Hydro not o n l y e x c l u d e d t h e FWB f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , but a l s o used up f u n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h u s j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e s c a l e o f t h e f i n a l c o m p e n s a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1979, when t h e i s s u e was no c l o s e r t o b e i n g r e s o l v e d , t h e FWB a g a i n approached t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r , r e q u e s t i n g t h a t he make B.C. Hydro d i s c l o s e t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s . H i s answer was t h a t he had not r e c e i v e d any recommendations f r o m t h e RPCC. F u r t h e r m o r e , whereas he c o u l d r e q u e s t B.C. Hydro t o pay o n l y under c o n d i t i o n ( p ) , n e i t h e r he n o r any o t h e r government agency had any a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o v e r B.C. Hydro's e x p e n d i t u r e s . The f i n a l c o m p e n s a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d be v e r y much a p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r and t h a t B.C. H y d r o c o u l d t h e n p r e s e n t i t s own e x p e n d i t u r e s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s . But t h e C o m p t r o l l e r a l s o r e q u e s t e d B.C. Hydro t o a d v i s e t h e FWB i n advance of i t s e x p e n d i t u r e s so t h a t t h e FWB mandate t o manage t h e p r o v i n c i a l f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s w o u l d be met, and t h a t t h e programs w o u l d y i e l d a maximum r e t u r n f o r t h e i r c o s t s . He a d v i s e d t h e FWB t o r a i s e t h e m a t t e r a t t h e n e x t RPCC m e e t i n g , w h i c h t h e y d i d . I n May 1979, t h e RPCC d e c i d e d t o f o r m a subcommittee t o l o o k i n t o t h e i s s u e . The m i t i g a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n s u b c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t e d o f two e c o n o m i s t s , a p a r k p l a n n e r , and a b i o l o g i s t . I t was c h a i r e d by t h e RPCC c h a i r m a n . The two p r o t a g o n i s t s , B.C. H y d r o and t h e FWB, a t t e n d e d as r e q u e s t e d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the subcommittee were t o r e v i e w t h e programs pr o p o s e d by t h e FWB and B.C. Hydro t o f u l f i l l c o n d i t i o n ( p ) , and t o make recommendations t o t h e RPCC. A l t o g e t h e r the subcommittee met o n l y t h r e e t i m e s , between June 1979 t o J a n u a r y 1980, w i t h o u t r e s o l v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t . B.C. Hydro's e x p e n d i t u r e s were s t i l l not d i s c l o s e d t o t h e FWB and the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f i s h and w i l d l i f e 71 i m p a c t s was j u s t as c o n t e n t i o u s as t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r . B.C. Hydro and t h e FWB t h e n d e c i d e d t o bypass t h e subcommittee and s t a r t d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s . An agreement seemed a t hand i n t h e f a l l of 1980 o n l y t o come t o an impasse i n December, when th e FWB wanted t o r e v i e w t h e w h ole m a t t e r . F i n a l l y i n A p r i l 1982, a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of f r u s t r a t i n g b a r g a i n i n g , a $6.2 m i l l i o n c o m p e n s a t i o n agreement f o r the f i s h and w i l d l i f e l o s s e s was c o n c l u d e d . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n payment i n i t i a l l y r e q u e s t e d by t h e FWB a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g had been $6.4 m i l l i o n (Vancouver Sun, 1976a). The c a u s e s o f t h i s p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n were t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , l o s s e s had t o be i d e n t i f i e d i n d e t a i l t h r o u g h o n g o i n g i n v e n t o r y and h a b i t a t s t u d i e s , and s e c o n d , B.C. Hydro and t h e FWB d i s a g r e e d on b i o l o g i c a l and compensatory p r i n c i p l e s , t h e v e r y b a s i s f o r q u a n t i f y i n g t h e l o s s e s . The e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n was: I s t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n t o be p a i d f o r t h e l o s s e s of t h e e x i s t i n g f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s as s u s t a i n e d under p r e s e n t management or f o r t h e maximum p o t e n t i a l v a l u e under an i n t e n s i v e management p r o g r a m i n p e r p e t u i t y ? B.C. Hydro a d v o c a t e d t h e f o r m e r p r i n c i p l e . They r e a s o n e d t h a t p r e s e n t management l e v e l s r e f l e c t e d t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on t h e r e s o u r c e by p o l i t i c i a n s and the p u b l i c a t t h e t i m e . Hence the p r e s e n t v a l u e of t h e l o s t r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d by a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . The FWB was of the o p i n i o n t h a t c o m p e n s a t i o n of h a b i t a t s h o u l d be based on t h e p r i n c i p l e t o r e p l a c e " l i k e w i t h l i k e " . 1 2 Some 21,000 h e c t a r e s of v a l l e y b ottom w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and an e s t i m a t e d t o t a l o f about 2843 h e c t a r e s of f i s h h a b i t a t on t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s were t o be l o s t . The o p p o r t u n i t y r e t u r n s of the f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s f r o m t h i s h a b i t a t were t o be f o r e g o n e i n p e r p e t u i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s h a b i t a t must be r e p l a c e d w i t h one of the same p o t e n t i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e p r e s e n t management l e v e l . The Agency p r o c r a s t i n a t e d because t h e y i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h a p r e c e d e n t 72 f o r t h e s e t t l i n g o f co m p e n s a t i o n f o r a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . Thus t h e R e v e l s t o k e s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d have t o be based on t h e p r i n c i p l e " l i k e - f o r -l i k e " . However, t h e FWB's p o s i t i o n appeared s o l i d l y e n t r e n c h e d and l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d by t h e RPCC. I n t h e end t h e FWB f a i l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r o b j e c t i v e . The t h i r d r e a s o n i s t h e l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p d i s p l a y e d by t h e RPCC and t h e co m p e n s a t i o n subcommittee. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e changed c l a u s e ( p) o f t h e r e v i s e d w a t e r l i c e n c e ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1977b) p l a c e d t h e RPCC i n a most d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n , by c a l l i n g f o r B.C. Hydro t o c a r r y out t h e programs, was i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e FWB's s t a t u t o r y mandate t o manage t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . When t h e RPCC found t h e m s e l v e s i n an unworkable s i t u a t i o n imposed by t h e C a b i n e t d e c i s i o n , why was t h i s n ot c l a r i f i e d w i t h t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ? A l s o more d e c i s i v e s t e p s s u r e l y c o u l d h a v e b e e n t a k e n i n i t i a l l y t o have B.C. Hydro d i s c l o s e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s , and r u l e on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r programs. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t h a t such an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e was r e l e g a t e d t o a subcommittee of j u n i o r - l e v e l agency s t a f f , and t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r t s were n o t r e t a i n e d . T h e RPCC h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o c h a n g e t h e c l i m a t e o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n t o a more m e a n i n g f u l p r o c e s s o f n e g o t i a t i o n . Whereas t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e RPCC had h e l p e d i n a major way t o s e t t l e t h e comp e n s a t i o n agreement, t h e FWB saw t h e committee as u n w i e l d y and i n d e c i s i v e . I n view o f the p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e p r e s s r e l e a s e f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f Enviro n m e n t i s v e r y i r o n i c : ". . . i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h B.C. Hydro, we have improved and r e f i n e d [emphasis added] t h e p r o c e d u r e by w h i c h s u c h c o m p e n s a t i o n programs can be c o n c e i v e d and implemented i n the f u t u r e . . . d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s on t h e agreement, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n between M i n i s t r y s t a f f a nd l o c a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n t h e K o o t e n a y s r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p e s of comp e n s a t i o n programs t h a t w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e . . . a l l t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s agreement, i n c l u d i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , may t a k e p r i d e i n a complex j o b w e l l done." ( M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n m e n t , 6 A p r i l 1982) 73 T h i s quote i s i n t e r e s t i n g a l s o f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n . I t i s t h e p u b l i c n o t i c e o f t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ' s a p p r o v a l o f c l a u s e ( p ) a f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n had been r e a c h e d . Because t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n agreement had been n e g o t i a t e d o u t s i d e t h e RPCC, t h e d a t e f o r s i g n i n g i t had been s e t w i t h o u t t h e Committee making a recommendation t o t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . However, he had been n o t i f i e d a month and a h a l f e a r l i e r by t h e FWB of an impending s e t t l e m e n t . On v e r y s h o r t n o t i c e , he t h u s was f a c e d w i t h t h e p r e d i c a m e n t o f e i t h e r p o s t p o n i n g t h e s i g n i n g o f the agreement i n o r d e r t o g i v e r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c n o t i c e as r e q u i r e d by t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e , o r t o s a n c t i o n t h e s i g n i n g so t h a t p r o g r a m s c o u l d commence. A f t e r h a v i n g s a t i s f i e d h i m s e l f , t h a t i n d e e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e had been aware o f t h e i s s u e s and t h a t i n t h i s way t h e i n t e n t o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n ( x ) had been met, he o p t e d f o r t h e f o r m e r a l t e r n a t i v e . I n r e a l i t y , t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e d i d n o t a t a l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y e q u i t y and r e l e v a n c e o f t h e programs t o t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t i n g e n e r a l and t o t h e C i t y ' s r e s i d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , and asked the M i n i s t e r o f t h e Environment f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . The agreement, however, was not b i n d i n g y e t . I t c a l l e d f o r t h e w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r a f f i r m i n g t h a t C l a u s e ( p ) had been s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s agreement. The C o m p t r o l l e r ' s a p p r o v a l , b a s e d on t h e recommendation of t h e RPCC, was g i v e n a l m o s t t h r e e months a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g . The view o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r was t h a t t h i s w h o le p r o b l e m c o u l d h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d w i t h b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A n o t h e r i s s u e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e RPCC h a n d l e d t h e co m p e n s a t i o n q u e s t i o n . A t a RPCC m e e t i n g i n May 1979, t h e FWB q u e s t i o n e d t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t t h e RPCC was f u l f i l l i n g : Was t h e Committee o n l y t o h e a r r e p o r t s o r t o s o l v e problems a l s o ? The ch a i r m a n ' s r e s p o n s e was g i v e n i n t h e m e e t i n g n o t e s : ". . . t h e committee's p r o b l e m s o l v i n g r o l e . . . was r e c o g n i z e d , but t h a t t h e exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n was v e r y 74 i m p o r t a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s i t f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e t h e y gave r i s e t o c o n f l i c t s . " (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985) The FWB's p e r c e p t i o n , t h a t t h e RPCC was l a r g e l y a c l e a r i n g - h o u s e f o r t h e time-consuming exchange of r e p o r t s w i t h l i t t l e a c t i o n , l e d t o a h i a t u s i n t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e RPCC mee t i n g s f r o m e a r l y 1981 t o t h e summer of 1982. L a t e i n 1981, B.C. Hydro l o d g e d a c o m p l a i n t w i t h t h e RPCC t h a t t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n p u t and g u i d a n c e f o r t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e s t u d i e s under c l a u s e (p) f r o m the b i o l o g i s t s o f t h e FWB. The RPCC c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e FWB a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e i r m e e t i n g s was i m p o r t a n t as t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r " r e l i e s on such g u i d a n c e t o e n a b l e him t o make p r o p e r and t i m e l y d i r e c t i o n s under t h e terms o f t h e l i c e n c e " (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1982, t h e C o m p t r o l l e r r e q u e s t e d t h a t a s e n i o r s t a f f member o f t h e FWB a t t e n d m e e t i n g s f r o m t h e n on. A l t h o u g h t h e FWB c o m p l i e d , i t d i d not a l t e r i t s view of t h e RPCC. Even i n 1988 t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s w i t h t h e FWB: D i d t h e RPCC n o t h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a c t , o r was t h e Committee u n a b l e t o come t o d e c i s i o n s ? I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o examine how c l a u s e ( r ) of t h e c o n d i t i o n a l l i c e n c e was a d d r e s s e d by t h e RPCC. T h i s c o n d i t i o n c a l l e d f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s t o be p r e p a r e d by B.C. Hydro f o r a p p r o v a l by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r , and the adherence t o t h e g u i d e l i n e s by t h e l i c e n s e e as d i r e c t e d by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r . C l a u s e (q) r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t h e l p i n t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s . I n r e a l i t y , t h i s was done by t h e B.C. Hydro s t a f f b i o l o g i s t s b e f o r e t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s were employed. A f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h government a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d and amending t h e g u i d e l i n e s a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e W a t e r C o m p t r o l l e r approved them i n June 1977, w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d undergo "a c o n t i n u i n g r e v i e w and u p d a t i n g i n the l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e on t h e p r o j e c t " ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1977a). As t h e g u i d e l i n e s were i n t h e fo r m o f p r o v i s i o n s t o be i n c l u d e d by B.C. 75 Hydro i n v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s , t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by B.C. Hydro's c h i e f e n g i n e e r , i t d i d not seem p o s s i b l e t o change o r update them once the c o n t r a c t s had been awarded. I n d e e d , n e i t h e r t h e m e e t i n g n o t e s o f t h e RPCC r e f e r r e d t o any u p d a t i n g , n o r c o u l d the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s r e c a l l any. The c h a i r m e n o f the RPCC s t a t e d t h a t u p d a t i n g o c c u r r e d i n f o r m a l l y as a m a t t e r o f good c o n s t r u c t i o n management. From t h e RPCC m e e t i n g n o t e s i t i s n o t c l e a r how o f t e n t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r e x e r c i s e d h i s r i g h t t o g i v e d i r e c t i v e s t o B.C. Hydro i n r e g a r d t o th e adherence t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s . One p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m t h a t was d i s c u s s e d by the RPCC, but not s o l v e d , was t h e i m p r o p e r d i s p o s a l o f garbage and the r e s u l t i n g b e a r p r o b l e m . T h i s was s p e c i f i c a l l y c o v e r e d i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s . An o r d e r f r o m t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r f o l l o w e d by s u r v e i l l a n c e s h o u l d have s o l v e d t h i s i s s u e . A n o t h e r example i s f u r n i s h e d by t h e l o g g i n g and c l e a r i n g f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y t h r o u g h t h e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d ( s e e S e c t i o n 4 . 2 ) . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r t h a t a r e a were n e v e r implemented by B.C. Hydr o . The r e s u l t i n g damage t o t h e w a t e r s h e d was n o t r e p a i r e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a l t h o u g h t h e Water Management B r a n c h had c a l l e d f o r prompt r e m e d i a l a c t i o n . Land r e c l a m a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t s i t e was a l s o d e a l t w i t h by t h e RPCC under c o n d i t i o n ( r ) o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . A l t h o u g h s i t e r e c l a m a t i o n was c o v e r e d by P r o j e c t p e r m i t s from the M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines and R e s o u r c e s , t h a t M i n i s t r y exempted B.C. Hydro, because t h e y t h o u g h t i t s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Land s , P a r k s , and H o u s i n g . However, t o en s u r e t h e i n p u t f r o m a l l c o n c e r n e d m i n i s t r i e s , t h e l a t t e r r e f e r r e d t h e m a t t e r t o the RPCC. I n F e b r u a r y 1982 t h e M i n i s t r y f o r w a r d e d t h e i r c r i t i q u e of a B.C. Hydro d r a f t r e s t o r a t i o n program and an o u t l i n e of t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s t o be c o n t a i n e d i n a r e c l a m a t i o n program t o t h e RPCC. I n 76 O c t o b e r o f t h e same y e a r , B.C. H y d ro, on i t s own a c c o r d , a p p r o a c h e d t h e Committee r e q u e s t i n g a m e e t i n g w i t h t h e c o n c e r n e d m i n i s t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of a r e c l a m a t i o n program. There was no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o s i t e r e c l a m a t i o n i n t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e , but t h e e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s t o t h e l i c e n c e c l a i m e d t h a t c l a u s e ( r ) gave t h e C o m p t r o l l e r and government a g e n c i e s t h e a u t h o r i t y o v e r the g u i d e l i n e s of f u t u r e s t u d i e s . A l s o S e c t i o n 4.05 and 4.06 o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l G u i d e l i n e s (B.C. Hydro, 1977a) p r o v i d e d f o r the r e c l a m a t i o n of borrow a r e a s and temporary r o a d s . The m a t t e r was f i r s t d i s c u s s e d a t an RPCC m e e t i n g i n November 1982, a t w h i c h t i m e B.C. Hydro was r e q u e s t e d t o s u p p l y t o the Committee c o p i e s of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o a l l m i n i s t r i e s i n v o l v e d . A d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e o f was t o f o l l o w e a r l y i n 1983. The RPCC a l s o formed a subcommittee c h a i r e d by a s t a f f member of t h e M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , P a r k s , and H o u s i n g . I t s o b j e c t i v e s were t o a s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l use of Crown Land of the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t ; t o r e s o l v e a l l o c a t i o n c o n f l i c t s ; and t o r e v i e w B.C. Hydro's r e c l a m a t i o n program t o e n s u r e t h a t i t was adequate as w e l l as c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t e d end use o f t h e l a n d and meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s . The needs of the c o n c e r n e d m i n i s t r i e s as w e l l as t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a comprehensive l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n were passed on t o B.C. Hydro, who p r o m i s e d t h e p l a n by June 1983. When i n F e b r u a r y 1984, a program had s t i l l n ot been r e c e i v e d , t h e c h a i r m a n gave B.C. . H y d r o a n u l t i m a t u m o f f o u r w e e k s and r e b u k e d them f o r t h e i r p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . The r e s u l t s were a l m o s t i n s t a n t — B . C . Hydro f u r n i s h e d a s i t e r e c l a m a t i o n program i n l e s s t h a n t h r e e weeks. The example of l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s f o u r p o i n t s . ( 1 ) A c t i o n on t h e s i t e r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n was not i n i t i a t e d by t h e RPCC. Though i t was not a s p e c i f i c l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n , i t s h o u l d have been a n t i c i p a t e d as a n e c e s s a r y 77 a c t i v i t y . ( 2 ) The l i a i s o n f u n c t i o n o f t h e RPCC was p e r c e i v e d as a n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y . I t f u l f i l l e d t h e i m p o r t a n t j o b of c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e needs of t h e v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s and t h u s a v o i d e d c o n f l i c t s o f l a n d u s e . (3) B.C. Hydro d i d re s p o n d t o the d e c i s i v e a c t i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body. ( 4 ) The RPCC's d e c i s i v e a c t i o n s h o u l d have come much s o o n e r . To c o n c l u d e , one more example of t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e RPCC h a n d l e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l management of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d . The case o f the w a t e r q u a l i t y t e s t i n g program i l l u s t r a t e s t h r e e s h o r t c o m i n g s : t h e l a c k o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p r i o r i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a t t h e s t a r t of p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t h e l a c k of i n d e p e n d e n t a d v i c e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s , and t h e l a c k o f d e c i s i v e a c t i o n by the RPCC. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a w a t e r q u a l i t y t e s t i n g program i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e pre-impoundment p e r i o d , t h e r e w e r e no p r o v i s i o n s f o r i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n f o l l o w i n g r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g . I n d e e d , t h e need f o r the c o n t i n u e d s t u d y o f w a t e r q u a l i t y , was not i d e n t i f i e d u n t i l t h e f a l l of 1980. A s t a f f member o f the E n v i r o n m e n t a l D i v i s i o n of the Water Management B r a n c h and a n o t h e r f r o m the Waste Management B r a n c h j o i n t l y r a i s e d t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n o f the RPCC, who i n t u r n s o l i c i t e d t he o p i n i o n o f t h e FWB. The l a t t e r , w h i l e n o t d i r e c t l y o p p o s i n g t h e program, d i d not s u p p o r t i t , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h i s d a t a c o u l d be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i n t h e management of t h e post-impoundment f i s h e r i e s . As t h e FWB was t h e n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e com p e n s a t i o n f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e l o s s e s w i t h B.C. Hydro, t h e B r a n c h p e r c e i v e d t h a t y e t a n o t h e r demand on B.C. Hydro w o u l d j e o p a r d i z e i t s s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n . But two y e a r s l a t e r , when t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n a g r e e m e n t was a l r e a d y i n e f f e c t , t h e FWB a d v o c a t e d t h e same v i e w . They s t a t e d a t a RPCC m e e t i n g t h a t t h e r e was no v a l u e i n c o n t i n u i n g the w a t e r q u a l i t y t e s t i n g e x c e p t f o r gas s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n . B.C. Hydro r e a d i l y a g r e e d , as d i d t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e judgment by the FWB. 78 That w a t e r q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g was c o n t i n u e d , and t h a t i n t h e end an adequate post-impoundment w a t e r q u a l i t y program was implemented, can o n l y be a c c r e d i t e d t o t h e t e n a c i o u s e f f o r t s o f t h e above mentioned two i n d i v i d u a l s . One of them had d e s i g n e d t h e program e a r l y i n 1983, but b o t h had i n i t i a t e d t he a c t i o n and had i n s i s t e d t h a t B.C. Hydro were not t o reduc e i t , e i t h e r i n co m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o r i n d u r a t i o n . The program was implemented j u s t i n t h e n i c k o f t i m e when r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g s t a r t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1983. Today B.C. Hydro p e r c e i v e s i t as an i n v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f b e n e f i t not o n l y t o the management of t h e R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r , but a l s o t o f u t u r e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t s . The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t t h e RPCC had f a c e d two s e r i o u s h a n d i c a p s i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : t h e d e c i s i o n maker's l a c k of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r t i s e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c h a c o m p l e x t a s k , and t h e i n a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n o f some o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . As a consequence of the f o r m e r , l e a d e r s h i p was m o s t l y i n d e c i s i v e and dependent on t h e judgment of i t s members, who were g u i d e d by t h e g o a l s o f t h e a g e n c i e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d . The Committee f o l l o w e d an ad hoc ap p r o a c h t o w h i c h B.C. Hydro responded w i t h s e e m i n g l y unchecked p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . The s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e n o t o n l y c a u s e d t h e RPCC g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of some of t h e c l a u s e s but f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d t h i s t a s k by t h e c o n t e n t i o u s scene i t s e t between two main p a r t i c i p a n t s . On t h e w h o l e , t h e framework e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l management o f t h e P r o j e c t was n e i t h e r adequate nor e f f e c t i v e . 3.2.2.3 The C l a i m s O f f i c e r and t h e C l a i m s P r o c e d u r e The C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s e x p e c t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c l a i m s t o be s o l v e d d i r e c t l y by B.C. H y d r o . The C l a i m s O f f i c e r was t o s e t t l e o n l y t h e u n r e s o l v e d l o c a l c l a i m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic 79 i m p a c t s of t h e P r o j e c t (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988) . W h i l e most c o n f l i c t s were a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r i n t h e l o c a l l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y , o t h e r s c o n c e r n i n g community s e r v i c e s , p r o p e r t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i s p u t e s were a l s o f o r e s e e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r was t o a c t as t h e l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e RPCC and t h e CIC, be t h e i r a d v i s o r on o n g o i n g developments and s e t t l e u n r e s o l v e d l o c a l problems a t the V i c t o r i a l e v e l (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). However, h a l f a y e a r a f t e r t h e g r a n t i n g of t h e i n i t i a l w a t e r l i c e n c e , a C l a i m s O f f i c e r had not y e t been a p p o i n t e d . The Water C o m p t r o l l e r gave two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s : t h e a p p e a l t o the w a t e r l i c e n c e s h o u l d f i r s t be a d j u d i c a t e d , and, t h e r e was no u r g e n t need f o r a C l a i m s O f f i c e r as c o n f l i c t s were r e s o l v i n g t h e m s e l v e s (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). The C a b i n e t A p p e a l Committee u p h e l d c l a u s e ( t ) and (u) i n September 1977, but t h e o f f i c e o f t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r remained v a c a n t . A l m o s t h a l f a y e a r l a t e r t h e c h a i r m a n of t h e RPCC a d v i s e d the Water C o m p t r o l l e r not t o a p p o i n t a C l a i m s O f f i c e r because t h e r e were no u n s e t t l e d c l a i m s , and t h a t t h e Government Agent i n R e v e l s t o k e s h o u l d a c t as a l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t e a d (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). The amendments t o t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e i n June 1978 i n t r o d u c e d a new c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e t h a t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between t h e way minor and major c l a i m s were t o be h a n d l e d : t h e f o r m e r by the C l a i m s O f f i c e r and t h e l a t t e r by l e g a l a c t i o n o r a r b i t r a t i o n . 1 3 r j i d t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e n e l i m i n a t e t h e s e t t l e m e n t of c l a i m s d i r e c t l y w i t h B.C. Hydro as e n v i s a g e d by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r i n 1977? A c c o r d i n g t o Banks and Thompson (1980, 1981) not e n t i r e l y . They s t a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h c l a i m a n t s a p p l y i n g t o t h e P r o j e c t C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager were n o r m a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e L o c a l Impact Committee, even i f t h e i r c l a i m was of major i m p o r t a n c e , "major i n t e r e s t s s u c h as f o r e s t companies o r a government agency w i l l t e n d t o a p p r o a c h Hydro management d i r e c t l y " (Bankes and Thompson, 1981, p. 4 6 7 ) . Of c o u r s e a s i m i l a r r o u t e open t o c l a i m a n t s was t h r o u g h some of t h e 80 A d j u n c t Committees, e s p e c i a l l y t h e F o r e s t r y Committee. F o r minor c l a i m s , h o w e v e r , t h e u n o f f i c i a l program o f f e r e d t h e o n l y i n i t i a l r e c o u r s e because c l a u s e ( t ) of the w a t e r l i c e n c e was n e v e r i m p l e m e n t e d — t h e C o m p t r o l l e r d i d not a p p o i n t a C l a i m s O f f i c e r . A l s o the s e t t l i n g of major c l a i m s by c l a u s e ( u ) seemed n e v e r t o have been used (Cox, 1988a). T h a t t h e o f f i c i a l c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e was not i n s t i t u t e d i s u n f o r t u n a t e , because i t w o u l d have p r o v i d e d more l o c a l c o n t a c t and a l s o appeared t o o f f e r a more adequate method f o r c l a i m s r e s o l u t i o n t h a n t h e one a c t u a l l y u s e d — a n d a t no c o s t t o t h e government. 3.2.2.4 The S i t e B i o l o g i s t s The R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was a f i r s t f o r B.C. Hydro because the b i o l o g i s t s w o r k i n g on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e were employees of t h e company and not t h e FWB. B.C. Hydro employed b o t h s i t e b i o l o g i s t s w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d time (March 1 9 7 7 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e y had an immediate s u p e r v i s o r , i t was the C o n s t r u c t i o n M a n a g e r who l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r work under c l a u s e ( q ) of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . Of t h e f o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c l a u s e ( q ) t h e b i o l o g i s t s were u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e f i r s t — t o h e l p d r a f t e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s . Due t o t h e u r g e n t need f o r t h e g u i d e l i n e s , t h e B.C. Hydro head o f f i c e b i o l o g i s t s had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n them when th e b i o l o g i s t s were employed. On t h e b a s i s of t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' m o n t h l y r e p o r t s one can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e i r work d i d adhere t o t h e second and t h i r d t a s k s o f c l a u s e ( q ) : t o c o l l e c t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as r e q u i r e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t o m o n i t o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e a s p e c t s of t h e P r o j e c t . However, t h i s was o n l y t r u e i n s o f a r as t h e p h r a s i n g o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e was so i n d e f i n i t e . The t a s k of c o l l e c t i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y done, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was some a m b i g u i t y o f w h e t h e r t o a l l o c a t e i t t o c l a u s e (q) o r ( p ) . A d d i t i o n a l 81 i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ( c l a u s e ( q ) ) c o u l d a l s o be needed i n "programs f o r the p r o t e c t i o n , o r enhancement of f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t " o r be " t h e s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t h e r e o f " ( c l a u s e ( p ) ) . C o n d i t i o n (p) o n l y s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e L i c e n s e e was t o c a r r y out t h e work. W i t h r e s p e c t t o the m o n i t o r i n g of f i s h and w i l d l i f e a s p e c t s o f t h e P r o j e c t , i t seems t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t was f r e e l y i n t e r p r e t e d by B.C. Hydro. Whereas i n i t i a l l y t h i s work was c a r r i e d out by t h e b i o l o g i s t s , l a t e r on i t was d i s c o n t i n u e d . The f i r s t f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t m o n i t o r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and c o n s i d e r e d i t as one o f t h e two main d u t i e s of h i s j o b (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). However, h i s s u c c e s s o r , though t r y i n g t o p e r s e v e r e w i t h t h e m o n i t o r i n g , s t a t e d t h a t t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s were r a t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d t h a n encouraged t o do t h i s t y p e o f work (Mason, 1988). T h i s was c o n f i r m e d by the w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t , who was t o l d t h a t i t was not h i s j o b ( B o n a r , 1987). A l s o t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' m o n t h l y r e p o r t s b e a r w i t n e s s t o t h i s . I n i t i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y m o n i t o r i n g was b r i e f l y m entioned but as o f 1982 a l l r e f e r e n c e t o i t s t o p p e d . The o n l y r e p o r t e d t e s t i n g , though o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , was t h e w a t e r q u a l i t y program ( s e e a l s o S e c t i o n 3.2.2.2). The f o u r t h r e q u i r e m e n t of c l a u s e (q) was t h a t the b i o l o g i s t s were t o keep up l i a i s o n w i t h t h e B.C. Hydro s t a f f o r t h e c o n t r a c t o r s and w i t h government a g e n c i e s as r e q u i r e d . A major p r o b l e m was t h e c ommunication between t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s and t h o s e i n t h e Vancouver head o f f i c e . Though b o t h viewed t h e open exchange of i d e a s and a d v i c e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l work on t h e P r o j e c t , i n p r a c t i c e i t was p r e v e n t e d by the p r e s c r i b e d l i n e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . There was a l m o s t no d i r e c t c o n t a c t because t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s were u n a b l e t o l e a v e R e v e l s t o k e . Telephone communication was f o u n d t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y due t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e work and a l l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e came t h r o u g h t h e o f f i c e o f the C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, w i t h o n l y c o p i e s b e i n g passed t o the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s 82 ( B o n a r , 1987). A n n u a l r e p o r t s w r i t t e n by t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s were h e l d up f o r months i n t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager's o f f i c e . When t h e y were f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d by t h e Vancouver b i o l o g i s t s , t h e y w e r e t o o l a t e t o l e a d t o m e a n i n g f u l d i s c u s s i o n s o r changes i n programs. U n d o u b t e d l y t h e r e was no i n - d e p t h r e v i e w of t h e work p o s s i b l e , w h i c h r e n d e r e d some work l e s s u s e f u l ( B r a d l e y , 1988). The c o m m unication between t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s and the c o n t r a c t o r s o f t h e P r o j e c t was a l s o v e r y l i m i t e d . T h i s was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' d u t i e s . As t h e y d i d not engage i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o r any c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and c l a u s e s o f t h e c o n t r a c t s , and l i t t l e I n t h e way of m o n i t o r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was not much c a l l f o r t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . The s i t e b i o l o g i s t s m a i n t a i n e d l i a i s o n w i t h t h r e e government a g e n c i e s : t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e on f o r e s t c l e a r i n g , t h e Water Management B r a n c h on w a t e r and t h e FWB on f i s h and w i l d l i f e . W i t h t h e f i r s t two co m m u n i c a t i o n was on an ad hoc b a s i s , but w i t h t h e FWB i t was more r e g u l a r . The FWB b i o l o g i s t s and t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s saw e a c h o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y a t t h e P r o j e c t and c o o p e r a t e d w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h e i r w o rk. The s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' m o n t h l y r e p o r t s were f o r w a r d e d t o the FWB. In d e e d , t h e good c o o p e r a t i o n e n j o y e d by t h e two p a r t i e s was commented on by b o t h t h e FWB and the C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager a t m e e t i n g s o f t h e RPCC (Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). As t o t h e RPCC, th e y wanted t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s t o a t t e n d t h e i r m e e t i n g s r e g u l a r l y ( c l a u s e ( x ) ) . When a f t e r about a y e a r t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e s t o p p e d , t h e Committee r e q u e s t e d i t be c o n t i n u e d . The C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, however, r e f u s e d t o comply due t o the b i o l o g i s t s ' work l o a d . The above e v a l u a t i o n l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s s e r v e d was much l e s s adequate and e f f i c i e n t t h a n i t s h o u l d have been w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and 83 k e e p i n g up l i a i s o n w i t h t h e s t a f f o f B.C. Hydro and i t s c o n t r a c t o r s . T h i s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o the vague d i r e c t i v e s of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s and t h e f r e e hand a l l o w e d B.C. Hydro i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g them. 3.2.3. INTERACTION OF COMPONENTS The CIC and the RPCC made recommendations t o the Water C o m p t r o l l e r f o r t h e o r d e r s and a p p r o v a l s t o be pas s e d by him i n r e g a r d t o t h e one and t h e seven w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s t h a t t h e y a d m i n i s t e r e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . There was, however, l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e two Committees t h e m s e l v e s because t h e CIC and t h e RPCC h a d e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e f o r m e r d e a l i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y w i t h t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c m a t t e r s , and t h e l a t t e r w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e CIC and the RPCC d e c i d e d on t h e d e l e g a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c l a u s e ( s ) and l a t e r some i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f some i s s u e s f r o m one Committee t o t h e o t h e r . However, each Committee k e p t w e l l i n f o r m e d o f the u n d e r t a k i n g s o f t h e o t h e r , because the c h a i r m a n o f each was a l s o a member of the o t h e r Committee and as s u c h a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s r e g u l a r l y (Cox, 1988b). A l t h o u g h i t was not the RPCC's t a s k t o a d m i n i s t e r c l a u s e ( q ) , i t c o u l d r e q u e s t t h e a t t e n d a n c e o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s a t i t s m e e t i n g s . The b i o l o g i s t s a t t e n d e d some mee t i n g s i n i t i a l l y , but t h e RPCC's r e q u e s t f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d a t t e n d a n c e was r e f u s e d by t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager on t h e grounds t h a t t h e i r w o r k l o a d d i d n o t a l l o w t r a v e l l i n g t o V i c t o r i a o r V a n c o u v e r , where t h e Committee g e n e r a l l y met. Ot h e r t h a n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r l e n g t h o f employment, the C o m p t r o l l e r had no d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . 3.3 THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PROGRAMS The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the u n o f f i c i a l and t h e o f f i c i a l program, as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e combined a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t o t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f t h e 84 P r o j e c t i s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3.4. The d e s i g n of t h e two programs had not been i n t e r f a c e d , e ach h a v i n g been s e t up a t v a r i o u s t i m e s and by d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s , B.C. Hydro, and t h e C o m p t r o l l e r o f W a t e r R i g h t s , and C a b i n e t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Whereas th e u n o f f i c i a l program was s e t up f i r s t , i t a p p e ars t h a t l i t t l e a t t e m p t had been made t o i n t e g r a t e t h a t program w i t h t h e one l a t e r p r o v i d e d by t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . T h e r e w e r e d u p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s b o d i e s a n d c l e a r l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n them had not been e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s i n t r o d u c e d a d i c h o t o m y i n t h e w h o l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t r e n d e r e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t h a r d t o c o o r d i n a t e and e x e c u t e r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t . T h o u g h t h e two p r o g r a m s ha d v a r i o u s s p h e r e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p between them as w e l l as w i t h i n e ach program e x i s t e d . The o f f i c i a l program a d d r e s s e d t e c h n i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic m a t t e r s as o u t l i n e d i n the r e l e v a n t c l a u s e s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . But t h e u n o f f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e d e a l t w i t h t h e same I s s u e s e x c e p t t h e t e c h n i c a l ones and t h e management of e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s of t h e P r o j e c t p e r s e . A p a r t f r o m t h e CIC, t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e groups e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e o f f i c i a l program was not d e l i m i t e d . I n c o n t r a s t , t h a t o f t h e u n o f f i c i a l p r o g r a m a p p e a r e d t o be more l o c a l , i n c l u d i n g t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e and t h e communities i n t h e v i c i n i t y of the P r o j e c t i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia-Shuswap. B o t h programs had p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e s o l v i n g c l a i m s . Under th e o f f i c i a l p rogram t h e c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e was not i n i t i a l l y s p e c i f i e d , beyond c a l l i n g f o r t h e C l a i m s o f f i c e r t o s e t t l e any c l a i m s . L a t e r i n June 1978, t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e s p e c i f i e d t h a t minor c l a i m s were t o be s e t t l e d by t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r and major ones ( e x c e e d i n g $10,000, c l a u s e ( u ) ) , by a r b i t r a t i o n o r l e g a l Re 1 a t i o n s h i p F i g u r e 3.k A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o P u b l i c , I n d u s t r i a l and Governmental S e c t o r s r — — I ADJUNCT COMMITTEES R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Commi t t e e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e Commi t t e e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #19 N e g o t i a t i n g Team R e v e l s t o k e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l R e v e l s t o k e F o r e s t r y |j C o m m i t t e e |j P u b l i c I n t e r e s t s C l a u s e ( u ) C l a i m s >$10,000 L e g a l P r o c e e d i n g s o r B.C. A r b i t r a t i o n A c t Sub-commi t t e e s C I C - Community I m p a c t C o m m i t t e e • • • • • O f f i c i a l P r o g r a m \ / D e c i s i o n M a k e r H - H i e r a r c h y IMC - Impact M o n i t o r i n g C o m m i t t e e — — U n o f f i c i a l P r o g r a m X N o t I n s t i t u t e d 0 - O r d e r RPCC - R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e — ^ C o m m u n i c a t i o n R - R e c o m m e n d a t i o n 86 p r o c e e d i n g s . The r e s o l u t i o n o f c l a i m s by t h e u n o f f i c i a l program was c a r r i e d out by t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and t h e A d j u n c t Committees, n e i t h e r o f w h i c h appeared t o have a p r e s c r i b e d p r o c e d u r e and proceeded by ad hoc n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h B.C. H y d r o . However i n p r a c t i c e , because c l a i m s were s e t t l e d by b o t h t h e u n o f f i c i a l program and c l a i m a n t s ' d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h B.C. Hydro, t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r chose n o t t o implement t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r , n o r was c l a u s e (u) u s e d . I n e f f e c t , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l slow s t a r t , as of 1979, t h e CIC f u l f i l l e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f b o t h i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e u n r e s o l v e d c l a i m s t h a t t h e L o c a l Impact Committee r e f e r r e d t o i t . T h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e C I C and t h e L o c a l I m p a c t C o m m i t t e e i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o b l e m s i n t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e programs. The DPA c o n s u l t a n t s ' s t u d y (DPA Group, 1986) s t a t e s t h a t t h e CIC n e i t h e r always, s h a r e d t h e view o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee on the s e r i o u s n e s s of r e f e r r e d i s s u e s , n o r a l w a y s responded p r o m p t l y t o problems because a p r o p e r mechanism t o do so d i d not e x i s t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e L o c a l Impact Committee's v i e w s were n o t a l t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e of t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . The s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t i s s u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , based on a t r u e g r a s s r o o t s i n p u t , p o s s i b l y c o u l d have g i v e n t h e L o c a l Impact Committee's work a more s o l i d b a c k i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s (DPA Group, 1 986). Thus i t seems t h a t b o t h Committees l a c k e d l o c a l i n p u t . The CIC h a v i n g no l i a i s o n p e r s o n i n R e v e l s t o k e a l s o c o m p l i c a t e d communication between the two and, i n d e e d , l e d t o a c o m p l a i n t by t h e L o c a l Committee w h i c h brought the Water C o m p t r o l l e r t o R e v e l s t o k e (Water Management B r a n c h , 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 8 8 ) . A l s o a f f e c t e d by the l a c k o f p r o p e r c h a n n e l s of communication was t h e Impact M o n i t o r . A d i r e c t l i n e o f communication w i t h t h e Committees o f t h e o f f i c i a l p rogram d i d not e x i s t . Hence t h e M o n i t o r d e a l t o n l y w i t h t h e CIC on an ad hoc b a s i s and h a r d l y e v e r w i t h t h e RPCC. T h e r e seemed t o be no n e e d f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e A d j u n c t Committees and t h e o f f i c i a l program and f o r 87 t h e b i o l o g i s t s and t h e u n o f f i c i a l program. Two i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t h e programs. The o f f i c i a l program was b o t h a d v i s o r y and a u t h o r i t a t i v e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e b i o l o g i s t s , who had no power o f e n f o r c e m e n t . The RPCC and t h e CIC were a d v i s o r y i n s o f a r as t h e y made recommendations c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e t o t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r , and a u t h o r i t a t i v e because i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g t h e recommendations t h e y h a d t h e power t o a c t . The u n o f f i c i a l program, however, was m e r e l y a d v i s o r y ( F i g u r e 3 . 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , even though B.C. Hydro funded t h e whole a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , t h e Impact M o n i t o r and t h e L o c a l Impact Committee s u f f e r e d from a s e r i o u s l a c k o f f u n d i n g and s u p p o r t s t a f f ( T a b l e 3 . 3 ) . Combined, t h e s e two f a c t o r s r e n d e r e d t h e u n o f f i c i a l program i n a d e q u a t e and i n e f f i c i e n t . I n c o n c l u s i o n i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e al m o s t s i d e - b y - s i d e e x i s t e n c e o f the two programs was one of t h e s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . 3.4 MAJOR SHORTCOMINGS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK T h i s c h a p t e r h a s shown t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t was f a r f r o m adequate and e f f e c t i v e . The main u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h i s were: ( 1 ) t h e framework c o n s i s t e d o f two programs, n e i t h e r of w h i c h had been w e l l t h o u g h t o u t , n o r had the y been i n t e g r a t e d w i t h each o t h e r ; ( 2 ) b o t h s t r u c t u r e s l a c k e d t h e e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such a complex development p r o j e c t , and ( 3 ) some o f t h e problems e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e o f f i c i a l program were i n h e r e n t i n t h e c l a u s e s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . The f a c t t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework was not based on one h o l i s t i c p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h , but r a t h e r on t h e s e p a r a t e and somewhat ad hoc s u c c e s s i v e e f f o r t s o f t h e l i c e n s e e and t h e r e g u l a t o r s , r e s u l t e d i n major s h o r t c o m i n g s i n b o t h t h e u n o f f i c i a l and t h e o f f i c i a l p r ograms. D u p l i c a t i o n o f 88 T a b l e 3.3 B.C. Hydro F u n d i n g o f Some of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t (DPA Group, 1986) • To March 1984 E s t i m a t e t o 30 Nov. 1984 % of T o t a l B.C. Hydro M i t i g a t i o n / Compensation E x p e n d i t u r e s t o 30 Nov. 1984 ($46.65 m i l l i o n ) U n o f f i c i a l Program L o c a l Impact Committee 15,000 15,000* 0.03 R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t * * 196,000 381,0001 0.8 O f f i c i a l Program RPCC and CIC 313,000 360,000 0.8 * Based on P r e v i o u s budgets s u b m i t t e d by t h e Committee ** As of 30 A p r i l 1980 t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t no l o n g e r d i r e c t s t h e program *An I n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e DPA Group (1988) c o u l d not e s t a b l i s h what t h e i n c r e a s e of $185,000 o v e r p r e v i o u s e x p e n d i t u r e s was. The Impact M o n i t o r ' s O f f i c e was t e r m i n a t e d i n 1980. However, t h e c o s t o f t h e two s t u d i e s commissioned by t h e Community Impact Committee (DPA Group, 1986; S u s s e x , 1985) came t o t h i s t o t a l . 89 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t e d not o n l y w i t h i n e a c h p r o g r a m , b u t a l s o b e t w e e n p r o g r a m s . As a consequence o f t h e l a t t e r t h e p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l c l a i m s p r o c e d u r e o f t h e o f f i c i a l program was not i n s t i t u t e d and t h u s t h e o f f i c i a l program had no l i a i s o n p e r s o n i n R e v e l s t o k e — a s i g n i f i c a n t s h o r t c o m i n g . There were no p r e s c r i b e d l i n e s o f communication between t h e two programs and most RPCC and CIC m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r . T h i s e s p e c i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d t h e d e a l i n g s between t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and t h e C I C , between t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s and t h e RPCC and between t h e Impact M o n i t o r and th e o f f i c i a l program. A n o t h e r major s h o r t c o m i n g was t h a t a u t h o r i t y was v e s t e d i n t h e two Committees o f t h e o f f i c i a l program w i t h t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r h a v i n g o n l y the u l t i m a t e p o w e r . B o t h t h e l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y and adequate s u p p o r t s t a f f r e n d e r e d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e L o c a l Impact Committee l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . A l s o t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s l a c k e d t h e n e c e s s a r y power t o e n f o r c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n measures. Y e t a n o t h e r s h o r t f a l l was t h e a b s e n c e o f c l e a r d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e O f f i c e o f t h e Impact M o n i t o r and h i s a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , w h i c h n o t o n l y l e d s u c c e s s i v e M o n i t o r s t o e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a s t o t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but a l s o t o the t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e O f f i c e i t s e l f a f t e r o n l y two and a h a l f y e a r s . A r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d by s u c h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k — t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c — w a s n o t a t a l l a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e d f o r a t R e v e l s t o k e . Whereas t h e u n o f f i c i a l program was open t o t h e p u b l i c , p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l was f a r f r o m s u f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e t h a t program was o n l y a d v i s o r y and not a u t h o r i t a t i v e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o f f i c i a l program, t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e p r o v i s i o n s v i r t u a l l y e x c l u d e d t h e p u b l i c f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The p u b l i c had no d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e RPCC and o n l y a v e r y l i m i t e d one t o t h e CIC; t h e main communication w i t h t h e l a t t e r was i n d i r e c t v i a t h e L o c a l Impact Committee. However, f o r t h e e i g h t w a t e r l i c e n c e 90 c l a u s e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e two c o m m i t t e e s , t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r : " p r i o r t o t h e g i v i n g of a p p r o v a l s o r the i s s u a n c e o f o r d e r s . . . [ s h a l l ] g i v e r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c n o t i c e of t h e r e c e i p t by him of recommendations f r o m the Committee, and s h a l l g i v e r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c n o t i c e o f any a p p r o v a l o r o r d e r a r i s i n g t h e r e f r o m . " ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1978) T h i s p r o v i s i o n was seen as e s s e n t i a l by the government i n o r d e r t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e P r o j e c t i n a v i s i b l e and c r e d i t a b l e way (Water Management B r a n c h , 1976-1988). I n r e a l i t y p u b l i c i n p u t i n r e s p o n s e t o the " r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c n o t i c e " by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r was a t most r e a c t i v e . I t e n t e r e d t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a t t h e v e r y end, t h u s p r e c l u d i n g any m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n as d e c i s i o n s had i n f a c t been r e a c h e d l o n g b e f o r e p u b l i c n o t i c e was g i v e n . The s e c o n d u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n f o r t h e i n e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was t h e l a c k o f t h e r e q u i s i t e e x p e r t i s e w h i c h r e s u l t e d m a i n l y f r o m the l i c e n s i n g o f t h e P r o j e c t under t h e Water A c t . Thus th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the P r o j e c t became t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e W a t e r Management B r a n c h , whose s t a f f l a c k e d t h e e s s e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and economic e x p e r t i s e f o r s u c h a m u l t i - f a c e t e d t a s k . The o p e r a t i o n o f b o t h o f f i c i a l Committees was a f f e c t e d . I n i t i a l l y , t h e RPCC and t h e CIC s h o u l d have p r e p a r e d a p l a n o f a c t i o n t h a t i d e n t i f i e d and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r i o r i t y o f the i s s u e s t o be a d d r e s s e d . W i t h o u t such a p l a n o f a c t i o n t h e Committees were f o r c e d t o f o l l o w an ad hoc a p p r o a c h . A r e s u l t was t h e i n d e c i s i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e RPCC w h i c h t o l e r a t e d B.C. Hydro's p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n and l e d t o t h e v e r y s low r e s o l u t i o n of i s s u e s , o r as i n t h e c a s e of t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e c o m p e n s a t i o n agreement, t h e s e t t l e m e n t o u t s i d e of t h e Committee. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e CIC based i t s d e c i s i o n s on ad hoc s t u d i e s o r p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g (DPA Group, 1986). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e work of t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s c o u l d have b e n e f i t t e d f r o m c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h e x p e r t s i n t h e i r f i e l d . T h e i r i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n i n R e v e l s t o k e p r e v e n t e d m e a n i n g f u l 91 c o m m u nication w i t h B.C. Hydro head o f f i c e b i o l o g i s t s and t h e k n o w l e d g e a b l e members of t h e RPCC. L a c k of e x p e r t i s e a l s o h a n d i c a p p e d t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e u n o f f i c i a l program. B.C. Hydro had not p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t s t a f f f o r t h e L o c a l Impact Committee and t h e Impact M o n i t o r . F i n a l l y , some s h o r t f a l l s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c i a l program a r o s e f r o m the i n a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s o f some of t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . The RPCC e x p e r i e n c e d problems i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c l a u s e ( p ) . W h i l e t h i s c l a u s e was t o be t h e b a s i s o f a f i s h and w i l d l i f e c o m p e n s a t i o n agreement, i t was t h e cause of t h e c o n t e n t i o u s s t a n c e t a k e n by t h e two main p a r t i e s t o t h i s s e t t l e m e n t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s under c l a u s e ( p ) and ( q ) were v e r y s i m i l a r . The RPCC had problems i n a s s i g n i n g t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' work t o t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e s e c l a u s e s , e s p e c i a l l y so because c l a u s e ( q ) w h i c h b r o a d l y o u t l i n e d the work of t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s , was not a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Committee. I n f a c t , t h e o n l y d i r e c t i v e t o be g i v e n f o r t h a t c l a u s e was the l e n g t h of t h e b i o l o g i s t s ' employment; i n p r a c t i c e B.C. Hydro was g i v e n a f r e e hand i n a l l o t h e r m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e work o f the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . Thus some o f t h e work t h a t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t , s u c h as t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , was not a t a l l p r o p e r l y a d d r e s s e d . T h i s c h a p t e r has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t , as a w h o l e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework s h o u l d have p r o v i d e d t h e e s s e n t i a l components f o r t h e p r o p e r and e f f i c i e n t management o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . H o w e v e r , t h e d e s i g n d e f i c i e n c i e s o f each s e p a r a t e component and t h e l a c k o f I n t e g r a t i o n o f the two programs d i d not a l l o w t h i s p o t e n t i a l t o be r e a l i z e d . 92 NOTES 1 B.C. Hydro, E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S t a t e m e n t , ( V a n c o u v e r : B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , 1 9 7 ^ V o l . 11^ C h a p t e r 19, R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 1, 13 and 15 a s recommended by B.C. Hydro's s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s u l t a n t s , C a n a d i a n R e s o u r c e c o n . See a l s o P u b l i c H e a r i n g , E x h i b i t No. 136: Review o f Hydro's P o s i t i o n r e  M i t i g a t i o n and Compensation - C h a p t e r 19, t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S t a t e m e n t , September 23, 1976. 2 W a i t e (1979) m e n t i o n s two more c o m m i t t e e s , however, i t seems t h a t t h e y d i d not much e x t e n d , i f a t a l l , i n t o t h e p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase. They were: (1) t h e R e v e l s t o k e Highway Committee, w h i c h was t o r e v i e w p r o p o s a l s f o r r e l o c a t i n g Highway 23 N o r t h a l o n g t h e r e s e r v o i r and t o a d d r e s s i m p a c t s on roa d s i n t h e r e g i o n and i n t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e ; and ( 2 ) t h e R e v e l s t o k e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Committee w h i c h was t o c o n s i d e r compensation o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f i s h l o s s e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e P r o j e c t . 3 The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was s e r i o u s l y i m p a c t e d by t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t ; i t i s a major employer i n t h e a r e a . ^ See Banks and Thompson (1980) f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n . B.C. Hydro c a r r i e d out s e m i - a n n u a l l a b o u r f o r c e s u r v e y s ; see a l s o B.C. Hydro Review o f R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t Impacts on S o c i a l and Community S e r v i c e s , 1981. ^ L i s t o f m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s o f t h e RPCC: M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t — a g e n c i e s : Water Management B r a n c h , A q u a t i c S t u d i e s B r a n c h , Kootenay R e g i o n , H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n , F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ; M i n i s t r y o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ; M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development; L a n d s , P a r k s and O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n ; ' M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ; M i n i s t r y o f Highways; M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ; M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s . Some of t h e M i n i s t r i e s ' names changed o v e r the y e a r s . ^ The w a t e r l i c e n c e w o r d i n g i s " m i t i g a t i o n o f l o s s e s o f h a b i t a t " . The ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t d e f i n e s m i t i g a t i o n a s t h e " m e a s u r e s t a k e n i n t h e p l a n n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r o p e r a t i o n o f a p r o j e c t w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e o f a v o i d i n g o r r e d u c i n g a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s o c i a l I m p a c t s " . Compensation i s d e f i n e d by ELUC as t h e "payments ( i n c a s h o r i n k i n d ) w h i c h a r e made by t h e d e v e l o p e r ( o r p a r t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i m p a c t s ) w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e d r e s s i n g o r o f f s e t t i n g t h e l o s s e s w h i c h o c c u r d e s p i t e o r i n l i e u o f m i t i g a t i o n e f f o r t s . . . V e r y s i m p l y , m i t i g a t i o n t r i e s t o p r e v e n t ; c o m p e n s a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o r e d r e s s " (ELUC, 1980). The terms " m i t i g a t i o n " and " c o m p e n s a t i o n " a r e used as d e f i n e d by ELUC t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s . 8 The a t t i t u d e o f t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager has been a f f i r m e d by a l l persons i n t e r v i e w e d . 9 B o t h s e t s o f terms of r e f e r e n c e were not a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r . 93 i U The RPCC m e e t i n g n o t e s make few r e f e r e n c e s t o c l a u s e ( n ) and c l a u s e ( v ) , t h u s t h e y were not e v a l u a t e d . C l a u s e (1) p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The r e l o c a t i o n of Highway 23, r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g c l a u s e ( k ) and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s c l a u s e ( o ) c o v e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y by p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s gave l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n as t o w h e t h er problems were e n c o u n t e r e d . The f o r m e r two a r e t o u c h e d upon i n S e c t i o n 4.2. N.B.: T h i s s e c t i o n i s not r e f e r e n c e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e a d i n g of i t . I t i s based on t h e m e e t i n g n o t e s of t h e RPCC and t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f i l e s a t t h e Water Management B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , B.C., as w e l l as some p e r s o n a l communications t o t h e a u t h o r . Many of t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s a r e s t i l l w o r k i n g i n the m i n i s t r i e s and p r e f e r r e d not t o be quoted d i r e c t l y . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s on f i l e w i t h t h e a u t h o r . H Of n o t e i s t h a t t h e C a b i n e t A p p e a l Committee i n t h e i r recommendations had not s p e c i f i e d whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c l a u s e (p) was t o be. They o n l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e work was t o be c a r r i e d out as d i r e c t e d by the C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s . I t was t h e r e f o r e C a b i n e t ' s d e c i s i o n t o a s s i g n t h e t a s k t o B.C. Hydro. 1 2 ELUC g u i d e l i n e s on c o m p e n s a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l i m p a c t s (1980) see t h e argument of " l i k e f o r l i k e " as i n v a l i d f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t h e d e v e l o p e r and government. I f e x c e s s i v e and i n e f f i c i e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s of f u n d s a r e t o be a v o i d e d t h e n " c o m p e n s a t i o n i n k i n d o r f u l l r e p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d o n l y be u n d e r t a k e n when t h e v a l u e of what i s produced exceeds t h e c o s t s o f p r o d u c i n g i t . " (ELUC, 1980, p. 9 ) . Thus c o m p e n s a t i o n i s t o be based on a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . 1 3 Banks and Thompson (1980) w r i t e t h a t "Hydro o f f i c i a l s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e C l a i m s O f f i c e r was n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e r u n of t h e m i l l c l a i m . . . [b u t ] f o r s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s o v e r s u c h m a t t e r s as r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s . " But t h e y c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e t h a t " t h e $10,000 l i m i t seems i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s u c h a r o l e . " The c o n f u s i o n perhaps a r i s e s f r o m t h e change i n w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e s ( t ) and ( u ) . 94 CHAPTER 4 THE ENVIRONMENT - GUIDELINES AND CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS " I t s h o u l d be noted a t the o u t s e t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement i s the f i r s t s t u d y of t h i s type t o be u n d e r t a k e n by B.C. H y d r o . The methodology and a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have been used a r e , t h e r e f o r e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y new t o b o t h the agency and the p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n some d i f f i c u l t y i n a d o p t i n g t h e f u l l scope and purpose o f the EIS as d e f i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o t h e s p e c i f i c needs of B.C. Hydro's p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . S u f f i c e t o s a y , t h a t t h e f u t u r e h o l d s a c h a l l e n g e f o r B.C. H y d r o i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f new a n d b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t t e c h n i q u e s g i v e n the e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w i t h t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . " ( B . C . H ydro, 1976b, pp. v - v i ) T h e p a s s a g e a b o v e , t a k e n f r o m t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o B.C. H y d r o ' s E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement p u b l i s h e d i n May 1976, u n d e r l i n e s the c h a n g i n g c o n t e x t w i t h w h i c h t h e Crown C o r p o r a t i o n was f a c e d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . To d e a l w i t h t h i s new s i t u a t i o n t h e c o r p o r a t i o n engaged the s e r v i c e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s u l t a n t s I n 1973 (H. P a i s h and A s s o c i a t e s ) and i n .1975 ( E n v i r o n m e n t R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s and C a n a d i a n R e s o u r c e c o n ) t o p r e p a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c Impact s t u d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB) u n d e r t o o k a f i s h t a g g i n g and r e c o v e r y program i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e more i n f o r m a t i o n on C o l u m b i a R i v e r f i s h r e s o u r c e s . B e t w e e n S e p t e m b e r 1975 and May 1976 B.C. H y d r o p r e p a r e d i t s own E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement w h i c h was " . . . i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as t h e major i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e f o r t h e p u b l i c as w e l l as a key document f o r the w a t e r l i c e n c e h e a r i n g " ( W a i t e , 1979, p. 5 2 ) . The f i r s t v e r s i o n o f the w a t e r l i c e n c e (December, 1976) r e q u i r e d B.C. Hydro t o : a. c a r r y out programmes t o p r o t e c t , enhance, and m i t i g a t e l o s s of f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t ( c l a u s e ( p ) ) b. employ a f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t ( c l a u s e ( q ) ) c. p r e p a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( c l a u s e ( r ) ) ( C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , 1976c) 95 I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s B.C. Hydro p r e p a r e d t h e " R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t : E n v i r o n m e n t a l G u i d e l i n e s " w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1977. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f i r s t r e v i e w t h e r e l e v a n t c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o n t e x t u a l g u i d e l i n e s a nd, so f a r as a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r m i t s , a s s e s s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y were a d m i n i s t e r e d . S e c o n d l y , and a g a i n so f a r as a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r m i t s , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e v i e w e d . 4.1 CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES E a r l y i n 1977, B.C. Hydro s u b m i t t e d d r a f t e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s t o t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r . I n June 1977, f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w by an ad hoc committee ( f o r e r u n n e r o f RPCC) and t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f r e q u e s t e d c h a n g e s , t h e C o m p t r o l l e r a c c e p t e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d be " s u b j e c t t o a c o n t i n u i n g r e v i e w and u p d a t i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e on the p r o j e c t " ( C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s , 1976-1988). The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s was t o i d e n t i f y and c o n t r o l t h e main a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r i m p a c t on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The g u i d e l i n e s were w r i t t e n up i n two p a r t s : ( 1 ) t h e c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e s t y p i c a l o f B.C. Hydro's R e v e l s t o k e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s , and ( 2 ) t h e a c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , w h i c h were t o c l a r i f y t h e purpose and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t u a l c l a u s e s ( B . C . H y d r o , 1 9 7 7 a ) . The c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e t h e a c t u a l c o n t r a c t c l a u s e s o f t h e f i r s t c o n t r a c t ( D i v e r s i o n T u n n e l ) awarded f o r t h e P r o j e c t and were t o be i n c l u d e d i n a l l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s . 1 The second p a r t of t h e g u i d e l i n e s added some b r i e f e x p l a n a t o r y d e t a i l s . S e l e c t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o n t r a c t s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n t e x t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4.1 u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g 96 c a t e g o r i e s : c o m p l i a n c e w i t h l a w s , p r e s e r v a t i o n , p o l l u t i o n , w a s t e d i s p o s a l , and s i t e r e s t o r a t i o n ; f o r t h e l a s t c a t e g o r y , f i s h and w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n , t h e r e were o n l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and no c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e o f a v e r y g e n e r a l n a t u r e . They r e f e r r e d c o n t r a c t o r s t o some of t h e p r o v i n c i a l A c t s and r e g u l a t i o n s and d e s c r i b e d common c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s . B.C. H y d r o d i d n o t s u p p l y a complete l i s t of A c t s (#1, 4.01), nor d e t a i l e d a l l r e g u l a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s t o w h i c h c o n t r a c t o r s had t o adhere ( e . g . #4, 7.14, 7.15). However, t h e Crown C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p l a c e d them i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e c o n t r a c t o r s t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e n i n c l u d e i t i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s , t h u s t h e y w o u l d have e n s u r e d t h e l a t t e r ' s awareness of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . A c o n t r a c t c l a u s e g i v i n g t h e c o n t r a c t o r t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s m a t t e r w o u l d have p r o t e c t e d B.C. Hydro f r o m any l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n . W i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s under (#2) p r e s e r v a t i o n , I t was B.C. Hydro's i n t e n t t o p r e s e r v e t h e n a t u r a l and b i o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n t r a c t c l a u s e 4.54 i l l u s t r a t e s one o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s : t h e use of vague, u n d e f i n e d t e r m s . The c l a u s e c a l l s f o r no " u n n e c e s s a r y " d e s t r u c t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n and f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n of " u n n e c e s s a r y " d i s f i g u r e m e n t of t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . F o r t h e f o r m e r , " u n n e c e s s a r y " i s somewhat d e f i n e d i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s by l i m i t i n g the d e s t r u c t i o n t o s p e c i f i e d a r e a s ( 4 . 0 2 ) , however, f o r t h e l a t t e r , no d e f i n i t i o n i s o f f e r e d . I l l e g a l h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g a r e t o be p r e v e n t e d by the p r o h i b i t i o n of s h o o t i n g a t t h e s i t e and t h e c o n t r o l of r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g . The c o n t r a c t u a l c l a u s e s c o v e r i n g p o l l u t i o n (#3) a r e a l s o r a t h e r vague, t h e main c o n c e r n s a r e t h e p r e v e n t i o n of w a t e r p o l l u t i o n and d u s t c o n t r o l . W i t h r e s p e c t t o c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s (4.07) c a l l f o r w a s t e w a t e r d i s c h a r g e s t o be as f r e e as " p r a c t i c a l " T a b l e 4.1 Summary o f S e l e c t e d C o n t r a c t Requirements and G u i d e l i n e s REQUIREMENT CONTRACT 2 GUIOLELINES 3 1. CompIf ance w i t h Iaws *4.27 ~ C o n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l comply w i t h a l l a p p l i c a b l e laws 2. P r e s e r v a t i o n It.5b - No u n n e c e s s a r y d e s t r u c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n - p r e v e n t i l l e g a l h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g - p r e v e n t u n n e c e s s a r y d i s f i g u r e m e n t o f c o u n t r y s i d e 7 . 0 7 ( f ) m l n l m l z e d i s t u r b a n c e o f n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e - smooth £ grade d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e s t o c o n f o r m t o the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e 7.11 - s p o i l £ r o c k f l l l p i l e s n o t t o I n t e r f e r e w i t h n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e 3. P o l l u t i o n 7-07(g)comply w l t h P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch h. Waste Di s p o s a l - p r e v e n t s o l i d m a t t e r , c o n t a m i n a n t s £ o t h e r o b j e c -t i o n a b l e p o l l u t a n t s from e n t e r i n g s u r f a c e £ ground w a t e r - c o n s t r u c t means to keep e r o d e d m a t e r i a l o u t o f w a t e r c o u r s e s 4.U - use t u r b i d i t y c o n t r o l methods b e f o r e d i s c h a r g i n g waste w a t e r s I n t o w a t e r c o u r s e s ( h ) p r e v e n t d u s t p o l l u t i o n from becoming a n u i s a n c e In work areas - do not use o i l where I t can r e a c h w a t e r c o u r s e s 7.1't - p r o h i b i t e d t o d i s c h a r g e raw sewage o r p o l l u t e d w a t e r i n t o w a t e r c o u r s e s o r near camp, work a r e a s , b u i l d i n g s - d r a i n a g e £ sewage I n s t a l l a t i o n s t o c o n f o r m w i t h p r o -v i n c i a l h e a l t h £ o t h e r s t a n d a r d s 7 1 5 - c o l l e c t r e f u s e i n m e t a l , c o v e r e d , f l y - p r o o f cans £ d i s p o s e t w i c e per week by i n c i n e r a t o r o r i n p i t £ c o v e r as s p e c i f i e d - p e r i o d i c a l l y b a c k f i l l p i t s t o m a i n t a i n s a n i t a t i o n £ m i n i m i z e a t t r a c t i n g w i l d l i f e - r e f u s e d i s p o s a l must be a c c e p t a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l £ m u n i c i p a l r e q u i r e m e n t s 't.OI - s p e c i f i c a l l y I d e n t i f i e s some p r o v i n c i a l a c t s w h i c h must be c o m p l l e d wi th - c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l £ d i r e c t i o n of C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, who e n s u r e s t h a t c o n t r a c t u a l r e -q u i r e m e n t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e met ^.02 - c l e a r i n g o n l y In s p e c i f i e d a r e a s £ s h e l t e r b e l t s l e f t 6.05/6.01 - p r o h i b i t i o n o f s h o o t i n g a t s i t e / c o n t r o l r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g ' I . O ' I / ' I . O S - s t o c k p i l e removed s o l i , use f o r s i t e r e s t o r a t i o n ^*.03 - shape s u r f a c e a r e a s t o c o n t r o l r u n o f f £ p r e v e n t e r o s i o n , r e s t o r e £ p l a n t n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n U.0U - s t o c k p i l e removed s o i l , use f o r s i t e r e s t o r a t i o n b.\2 - l o c a t e so t h a t they do not I n t e r f e r e w i t h n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e ^.07 - keep waste w a t e r d i s c h a r g e s i n t o w a t e r c o u r s e s as f r e e as p r a c t i c a b l e f r o m p o l l u t a n t s , b i o l o g i s t s t o m o n i t o r c o n s t a n t l y t o e n s u r e p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s a r e met ( A c t s : P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l , M i n e s , F i s h e r i e s , H e a l t h , e t c . ) c o n s t r u c t d e w a t e r l n g & d r a i n a g e s y s t e m s t o p r e v e n t d i s c h a r g e s of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o w a t e r c o u r s e s & i f any e r o s i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d w i L h l n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s '(.06 - keep d u s t p o l l u t i o n on r o a d s t o minimum w i t h w a t e r s p r i n k l i n g - use o f o i l £ c a l c i u m c h l o r i d e w i t h b i o l o g i s t s ' c o n s e n t 't.08 - sewage £ waste w a t e r d i s p o s a l t o c o n f o r m w i t h p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h £ o t h e r government r e q u i r e m e n t s - sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s £ s e p t i c t a n k s f o r camps £ work a r e a s t o meet P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t r e q u i r e m e n t s , d i s p o s a l o f waste from p o r t a b l e t o i l e t s t o meet Dept. o f H e a l t h recommendations .09 - d i s p o s e garbage by s a n i t a r y f i l l g a rbage p i t £ pay a t t e n t i o n t o d r a i n a g e In £ out o f p i t - Implement r e f u s e i n c i n e r a t i o n I f w i l d l i f e i s a t t r a c t e d - Hydro t o f u n d n u i s a n c e a n i m a l removal when r e q u e s t e d by FWB -^ 1 T a b l e k.1 C o n t i n u e d CONTRACT GUIDELINES S i t e 7.07 - see above under #2 R e s t o r a t i o n 7-10 - s t a b i l i z e borrow a r e a s l o p e s S reshape t o c o n f o r m t o n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e 7.11 - l e v e l waste p i l e s ( r o c k f l l l ) s shape t o conform t o n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e 6 p r e v e n t p o n d i n g & r u n o f f .03/11.01) <t.05 I|.06 V12 5.00 see above under #2 see above under #2, use n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n t o r e p l a n t r e s t o r e t e m p o r a r y roads to near n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n use d e s i g n a t e d s p o i l a r e a s & b l e n d w i t h n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e g r a d e to m i n i m i z e e r o s i o n , r e c l a i m w i t h t o p s o i I S v e g e t a t ton l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t t o d e v e l o p l a n d s c a p i n g program d u r i n g program p r e p a r a t i o n b i o l o g i s t s t o e n s u r e p r e s e n t 6 f u t u r e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t GUIDELINES 6. F i s h and w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t Ion 6.00 6.01 s i t e b i o l o g i s t s t o m o n i t o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s 6 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s t o e n s u r e p r o p e r p r o t e c t i o n o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e In P r o j e c t a r e a Hydro t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h r e a s o n a b l e r e q u e s t s by FWB p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w a t e r c o u r s e s - keep c o n s t r u c t i o n near w a t e r c o u r s e s to minimum - do not " w a l k " c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment through streams - remove temporary l o g c r o s s i n g s and c u l v e r t s t o r e s t o r e n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e s y s t e m s 6.02 * c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f spawning c y c l e s - when p o s s i b l e s c h e d u l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s In s t r e a m s o u t s i d e o f f i s h spawning c y c l e s 6.0^ * p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e t r a i l s - upon s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t ' s r e q u e s t w i l d l i f e t r a i l s c u t by c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o be r e s t o r e d t o m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l movement p a t t e r n s 6.06 * p r o t e c t i o n f r o m h a z a r d o u s a r e a s - upon s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t ' s r e q u e s t f e n c e hazardous c o n t r u c t i o n a r e a s t o keep w i I d l i f e o u t 6.07 * c o n t i n u i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n - s i t e b i o l o g i s t s t o c a r r y out f i s h and w i l d l i f e f i e l d s t u d i e s - a s s i s t In e s t a b l i s h i n g b a s i s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l management program? t o be Implemented a t d i s c r e t i o n o f FWB f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t c o m p l e t i o n 6.08 * p r o v i s i o n f o r w i l d l i f e c r o s s i n g s - at r e q u e s t o f s i t e o r FWB b i o l o g i s t s p r o v i d e l o g booms t o f a c i l i t a t e w i l d l i f e c r o s s i n g s In r e s e r v o i r a r e a 1. S i m p l i f i e d from B.C. Hydro, 1977a. 2. Numbers r e f e r t o c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s pages 2-15 In B.C. Hydro, 1977a. 3. Numbers r e f e r t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s pages 15-23 In B.C. Hydro, 1977a. 4. No c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n t r a c t c l a u s e s f o r t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s . FWB: F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch 99 f r o m p o l l u t a n t s and t o be c o n s t a n t l y m o n i t o r e d by t h e b i o l o g i s t s ( s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ? ) t o meet " p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s " . The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d i s p o s a l of w a s t e s (#4), s u c h as sewage and r e f u s e , w e r e i n t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t t h e p o l l u t i o n of w a t e r c o u r s e s and t h e a t t r a c t i o n of w i l d l i f e , and s p e c i f i e d t h a t i n c i n e r a t i o n was t o r e p l a c e d i s p o s a l i n p i t s i f a n i m a l s were a t t r a c t e d . S e v e r a l c o n t r a c t c l a u s e s mentioned the r e s t o r a t i o n of s i t e s , s u c h as b o r r o w a r e a s and s p o i l and r o c k f i l l w a s t e a r e a s . Concerns were s l o p e s t a b i l i t y , d r a i n a g e , e r o s i o n , and t h e b l e n d i n g of d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t o t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e 5.00 c a l l s f o r a l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t t o d e v e l o p a l a n d s c a p i n g program, however, i t does not s p e c i f y t h e a r e a t o w h i c h i t w i l l be a p p l i e d . Of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of f i s h and w i l d l i f e (#6) a r e not i n c l u d e d i n any c o n t r a c t c l a u s e s . T h e s e p r o t e c t i o n measures a r e somewhat more s p e c i f i c t h a n the c o n t r a c t u a l ones and a l l , e x c e p t 6.07 ( b i o l o g i s t s ' s t u d i e s ) s h o u l d h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t r a c t s . Though under r e q u i r e m e n t 6.00, t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s a r e t o m o n i t o r th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the g u i d e l i n e s , o n l y t h r e e o f t h e t h i r t e e n g u i d e l i n e s e c t i o n s , and none o f t h e c o n t r a c t u a l ones c a l l f o r t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e b i o l o g i s t s . The s i t e b i o l o g i s t s w e r e a s s i g n e d no a u t h o r i t y . Most of t h e p l a n a p p r o v a l s and s i t e - s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s c a l l e d f o r i n t h e c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n M a n a g e r (#1,. 4.01) R e q u i r e m e n t 6.00 a l s o s t a t e s t h a t B.C. Hydro w o u l d c o o p e r a t e w i t h any " r e a s o n a b l e " r e q u e s t s by t h e FWB. The g u i d e l i n e s d i d not c o v e r r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g and f i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s a p p e a r t o be a s e t o f r a t h e r common n o n s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s l a c k i n g any d e t a i l e d , s i t e - s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i c h w o u l d have e s t a b l i s h e d a s o l i d b a s i s f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n 100 and p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e environment d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d . 4.1.1 COMPLIANCE MONITORING OF REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES The w a t e r l i c e n c e , though c a l l i n g f o r B.C. Hydro t o p r e p a r e and t o adhere t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , gave no d i r e c t i v e as t o who was t o c a r r y out t h e c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g . Some of t h e members of t h e ad hoc committee, who had r e v i e w e d the d r a f t g u i d e l i n e s , r e q u e s t e d t h i s t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . However, t h e g u i d e l i n e s t h a t t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r a p p r o v e d o n l y c a l l e d f o r the b i o l o g i s t s t o " p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e environment . . . and . . . c o n t r i b u t e much t o e n s u r e t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e f o l l o w e d w h i c h cause t h e l e a s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact . . . and . . . t o m o n i t o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s as a g r e e d t o by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s " (B.C. Hydro, 1977a, pp. 16, 2 1 ) . I n s t e a d S e c t i o n 4.01 of t h e g u i d e l i n e s a s s i g n e d t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o B.C. Hydro's C h i e f E n g i n e e r , whose s i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was the C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager. Thus t h e l a t t e r was t o a d m i n i s t e r a l l c o n t r a c t s and e n s u r e t h a t c o n t r a c t o r s met the c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e environment (B.C. Hydro, 1977a, p. 1 6 ) . I n p r a c t i c e , B.C. H y d r o a s s i g n e d c o n t r a c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o t h e c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s . A l t h o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e r e m a i n l y e n g i n e e r s w i t h no t r a i n i n g i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l work, t h e y were r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e many v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n shown i n T a b l e 4.1. I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g c a r r i e d o ut by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was not a v a i l a b l e f o r an e v a l u a t i o n . But one o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e c o n c e r n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s seemed t o have been t h e c o n t r a c t o r s ' adherence t o t h e t e c h n i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s were p e r c e i v e d t o be of minor i m p o r t a n c e and t h e r e f o r e t r e a t e d s u p e r f i c i a l l y . The o b j e c t i v e was t o b u i l d 101 t h e dam e c o n o m i c a l l y and on ti m e ( B o n a r , 1 9 8 7 ) . I n i t i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i o n m o n i t o r i n g i n g e n e r a l was a l s o u n d e r t a k e n by t h e two s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . They i n s p e c t e d t h e o n g o i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n work about f o u r t o s e v e n t i m e s a month. However, e a r l y i n 1979 w i t h a change i n f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t , i t became c l e a r t h a t B.C. Hydro d i s c o u r a g e d t h i s p r a c t i c e ( s e e S e c t i o n 3.2.2.4). I t seems t h a t from t h e n on t h e amount of c o n s t r u c t i o n m o n i t o r i n g u n d e r t a k e n depended on t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' a t t i t u d e o r " t e n a c i t y " (Mason, 1988). Indeed, t h e v e r y b r i e f m e n t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n m o n i t o r i n g i n the m o n t h l y r e p o r t s o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s was d i s c o n t i n u e d as of 1980 f o r w i l d l i f e m a t t e r s and as of 1982 f o r f i s h e r i e s a s p e c t s (B.C. Hydro 1977-1984). One o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s summed up h i s a c t i v i t i e s a s t h a t o f an i n f o r m e r (Mason, 1 9 8 8 ) . I n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager and t o t h e r e l e v a n t government agency. The b i o l o g i s t had no e n f o r c e m e n t power, he t r i e d t o m i t i g a t e w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , but he was hamstrung by t h e low p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o t h e environment a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e s i t e . P h i l l i p and L a n g f o r d ( 1985, p. 778) i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l management of t w e l v e development p r o j e c t s I n B.C., c o n f i r m t h a t a t the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t management d i d n o t d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p e r v i s o r s ( b i o l o g i s t s ) . E n f o r c e m e n t was up t o t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager and t h e r e s p o n s i b l e government a g e n c i e s . The b i o l o g i s t f e l t t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e FWB w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s , s h o u l d have i n s i s t e d on adequate m o n i t o r i n g o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s (Mason, 1 9 8 8 ) . The FWB's p o s i t i o n h o w e v e r w a s , t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e a g e n c y ' s u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o g a i n s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s , c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g was out of t h e i r hands and became t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f B.C. Hydro ( L i n d s a y , 1988). F u r t h e r m o r e , once a p p r o v a l f o r a p r o j e c t had been g r a n t e d , e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g and m i t i g a t i o n a r e of a v e r y low p r i o r i t y , no m a t t e r 102 who does t h e m o n i t o r i n g . E n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g a t R e v e l s t o k e was "a j o k e " — a f a c t w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the Deadman Creek e r o s i o n ( s e e S e c t i o n 4.2) ( L i n d s a y , 1988). The amount o f c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h e g u i d e l i n e s u n d e r t a k e n by B.C. Hydro's c o n t r a c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s remains a moot p o i n t . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e and e v a l u a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n m o n i t o r i n g u n d e r t a k e n by t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . 4.2 CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS The purpose o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a nd t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s i s t o document and e v a l u a t e t h e i m p a c t s and t o g a i n some i d e a o f c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g as a wh o l e f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The a v a i l a b l e d a t a p r e c l u d e s a n i n - d e p t h s t u d y . The c a u s e s a r e s e v e r a l : e x t e n s i v e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t was n o t u n d e r t a k e n , t h e r e a r e no d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g t h a t was c a r r i e d o u t and o v e r a l l , c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e e d e d r e l a t i v e l y s m o o t h l y — m a j o r a c c i d e n t s , w h i c h c o u l d have caused l o n g t e r m e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s d i d n ot o c c u r . The d a t a s o u r c e s used f o r t h i s s t u d y were t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s ' m o n t h l y r e p o r t s (B.C. Hydro, 1977-1984), t h e i r a n n u a l r e p o r t s ( B o n a r , 1978, 1979; T e l e k i , 1979; Mason, 1982) and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them ( B o n a r , 1987; Mason, 1988). Some i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f i l e s and s t a f f o f B.C. Hydro, t h e Water Management B r a n c h , t h e Waste Management B r a n c h and f r o m B.C. C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was somewhat more d a t a f o r t h e a q u a t i c t h a n t h e w i l d l i f e e c o s y s t e m , few r e f e r e n c e s f o r e i t h e r p e r t a i n t o m o n i t o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s l a t e r t h a n 1979. I n g e n e r a l , t h e l a r g e a r e a o f t h e P r o j e c t and t h e h i g h f l u s h i n g r a t e o f w a t e r c o u r s e s r e n d e r e d m o n i t o r i n g a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . The l a t t e r l e d t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f most i m p a c t s on t h e q u a l i t y o f 103 w a t e r u n t i l 1981, when w a t e r q u a l i t y t e s t i n g was i m p r o v e d . T h e i m p a c t s o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s m o n i t o r e d by t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s and some o f t h e m i t i g a t i o n and co m p e n s a t i o n measures a r e shown i n T a b l e 4.2. The p e r i o d o v e r w h i c h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were m o n i t o r e d was fr o m May 1977 t o December 1979 f o r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s e x c e p t #7, #8 ( d i s c h a r g e o f sewage e f f l u e n t ) and #10 ( f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e ) w h i c h e x t e n d e d o v e r the whole c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d , #12 (Deadman Creek d i v e r s i o n ) f o r 1978 t o 1984 and #13 ( c l e a r i n g I n D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d ) from December 1980 t o December 1 9 8 3 . T a b l e 4.3 d e t a i l s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s m o n i t o r e d by t h e s i t e f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t i n 1978. The i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t i s t a k e n f r o m T e l e k i ( 1 9 7 9 ) and i s f o l l o w e d by a b r a c k e t e d s t a t e m e n t t h a t g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c u l l e d f r o m the b i o l o g i s t s ' m o n t h l y r e p o r t s (B.C. Hydro, 1977-1984). The major e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a r i s i n g f r o m the c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were: ( 1 ) h i g h suspended s e d i m e n t l o a d s i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s f r o m r e s e r v o i r l o g g i n g , a c c e s s r o a d s , borrow a r e a s , c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t i o n a t t h e b a t c h p l a n t , r e l o c a t i o n o f Highway 23 and t h e washout o f Deadman C r e e k ; ( 2 ) c h e m i c a l w a t e r p o l l u t i o n f r o m f u e l s p i l l s and i l l e g a l g arbage d i s p o s a l , ( 3 ) a t t r a c t i o n o f w i l d l i f e by i l l e g a l garbage d i s p o s a l ; ( 4 ) i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e on f i s h i n g by p o a c h i n g , and ( 5 ) f i s h b l o c k a g e by t h e d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l ( T a b l e 4 . 2 ) . As t h e p r o j e c t p r o g r e s s e d so d i d t h e s e v e r i t y o f some i m p a c t s , n o t a b l y t h a t caused by l o g g i n g i n t h e r e s e r v o i r a r e a ( a c t i v i t y #1), by t h e a c c e s s r o a d s and borrow p i t s l o c a t e d near w a t e r c o u r s e s (#3), and the b a t c h p l a n t ( # 5 ) . A l s o d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f e c o s y s t e m s t r e s s d e v e l o p e d , as f o r example the Deadman C r e e k e r o s i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a r e : the e s c a l a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t and d i f f e r e n c e s i n i m p a c t s per s e . However, one cannot e x c l u d e o t h e r p o s s i b l e c a u s e s , s u c h as T a b l e k.2 C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s M o n i t o r e d and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts Reported by S i t e B i o l o g i s t s ACTIVITY IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION/COMPENSATION MEASURES AND RESULTS 1. R e s e r v o i r l o g g i n g 2. B u r n i n g i n r e s e r v o i r 3. A c c e s s roads 6 borrow p i t s near w a t e r -c o u r s e s 1*. v e h i c l e m a i n t e n a n c e n e a r y a r d & camp 5- b a t c h p l a n t f o r d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l 6. d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l 7. sewage e f l l u e n t from man camp 6 o f f i c e s 8. sewaye e f f l u e n t f r o m C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e 9. garbage d i s p o s a l 10. Human i n g r e s s - i n c r e a s e d r u n o f f , i n i t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d suspended s e d i m e n t s - d u r i n g 1979 h i g h suspended s e d i m e n t s i n t r i b u t a r i e s - c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t r e a m bank e r o s i o n -spawning a r e a s d i s r u p t e d by m a c h i n e r y -some ups t r e a m f i s h m i g r a t i o n b l o c k e d - w i I d 1 i f e d i s p l a c e d -minor impact from i n c r e a s e d n u t r i e n t l e v e l s , minimal i n c r e a s e s a r e b e n e f i c i a l - i n i t i a l l y l i t t l e sediment i n t r o d u c t i o n i n w a t e r c o u r s e s & minimal i n t e r r u p t i o n o f f i s h movement - d u r i n g 1979 i n c r e a s e d sediment i n t r o d u c t i o n & f i s h movement i n h i b i t e d i n some c a s e s -minor s p i l l s s c r a p e d up 6 b u r i e d - s m a l l d i e s e l f u e l s p i l l s went i n t o Columbia R i v e r -most s p i l l s w e l l away from r i v e r - i n i t i a l l y ml nor seepage from sma11 s e t 11i ng pond I n t o Col umb l a RI v e r - d u r i n g 1979 h i g h suspended sediment l o a d s from b a t c h p l a n t e f f l u e n t i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r - v e l o c i t y b a r r i e r to f i s h : downstream m i g r a t i o n p o s s i b l e , u p s t r e a m n o t - l o s s o f u p s t r e a m f i s h p o p u l a t i o n -some D o l l y Varden spawn i n n o n e - n a t a l streams below d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l - p e r m i t t e d d i s c h a r g e volumes o f t e n exceeded & f e c a l c o l i f o r m f r e q u e n t l y exceeded recommended s t a n d a r d s -no a p p a r e n t n u t r i e n t i n c r e a s e s downstream o f P r o j e c t -malodours a t man camp - p e r i o d i c d i s c h a r g e s o f raw sewage i n t o Columbia R i v e r -bears a t t r a c t e d - i n c r e a s e d b i o l o g i c a l oxygen demand i n t r i b u t a r i e s - a e s t h e t i c d e g r a d a t i o n - i n c r e a s e d f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e as new l o c a t i o n s open i n r e s e r v o i r a r e a - f i s h a c c u m u l a t i n g downstream o f d i v e r s i o n tunneI eas i I y poached - d e b r i s removal i n s t r e a m s - c l e a r i n g c o n t r a c t s i n c l u d e d g u i d e l i n e s t o keep d e b r i s m a c h i n e r y out o f s t r e a m s - but not e n f o r c e d - s t e e p r e s e r v o i r a r e a s seeded i n 1979-80 - s o l v e d some pro b l e m s -keep l o g g i n g d e b r i s o u t o f r i v e r -borrow p i t s were k e p t away from w a t e r c o u r s e s - o i l & p e t r o c h e m i c a l s f r o m y a r d r e c y c l e d -most p e t r o c h e m i c a l s b u r n e d o r b u r i e d - s e t t l i n g ponds were c o n s t r u c t e d , but d i d not r e t a i n p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r , t o meet' s t a n d a r d s i n 1981 -kokanee c o m p e n s a t i o n a t Hi1 I/MacKenzie spawning c h a n n e l about 500000 i n 1981 - p o s s i b i l i t y f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r D o l l y Varden i n v e s t i g a t e d 151000 eggs c o l l e c t e d i n 1980 -15000 r a i n b o w t r o u t eggs c o l l e c t e d - a u x i l l l a r y a e r a t i o n o f sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t - s l u d g e w a s t e removal t o r e g i o n a l s a n i t a t i o n f i l l -Waste Management B r a n c h i n f o r m e d - p e r m i t s r e q u i r e d t o dump garbage - a n g l i n g c l o s u r e s i g n s p o s t e d downsteam o f d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l o u t l e t O Table k.2 Cont i nued ACTIVITY IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION/COMPENSATION MEASURES AND RESULTS I I . R e l o c a t i o n o f Highway 23 N o r t h •high c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f suspended s e d i m e n t s i n t o t r i b u t a r i e s - c o n t r a c t o r s i n f o r m e d o f danger t o f i s h i n t r i b u t a r i e s - s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t s u g g e s t e d m i t i g a t i v e d e s i g n 12. Di v e r s ion o f Deadman Creek -I4 m i l l i o n c u b i c y a r d s o f a l l u v i a l g r a v e l and sand d e p o s i t s d e p o s i t e d i n Columbia R i v e r - s h o r t t e r m i m p a c t s : i n c r e a s e d suspended s o l i d s , d e p o s i t i o n o f f i n e s on n e a r s h o r e r i v e r bottom s l i g h t f i l l i n g i n o f r i v e r p o o l s u t i l i z e d by f i s h t o 10 km d o w n r i v e r - u n d e t e r m i n e d i n c r e a s e i n kokanee m o r t a l i t y r a t e - e f f e c t on t o t a l kokanee p o p u l a t i o n p r o b a b l y not t o be d a n g e r o u s l y h i g h - r e l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n changes o f d i v e r s i o n 13. C l e a r i n g o f t r a n s -m i s s i o n I i ne r i g h t -of-way i n Do l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d - c o n s t r i c t i o n o f Dolan Creek caused by d i r t £ d e b r i s a c c u m u l a t i o n at i l l e g a l Creek c r o s s i n g - i n c r e a s e d r u n o f f from a c c e s s r o a d , l o g l a n d i n g s i t e s - b l o c k a g e o f i n t e r m i t t e n t streams - g u i d e l i n e s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r c l e a r i n g i n t h i s a r e a - n ot implemented -prompt r e m e d i a l work ( r e v e g e t a t i o n , r o a d d r a i n a g e , b l o c k a g e £ d e b r i s removal) r e q u e s t e d by Water Management B r a n c h - took 2.5 y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e S o u r c e s : T e l e k i (1978, 1979); Mason (1982, 1988); Bonar (1978, 1979, 1987); B.C. Hydro (1977"!98*0 ; G o r s l i n e ( 1 9 8 7 ) ; Gabrowski (1988) O 106 T a b l e k.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s M o n i t o r e d by S i t e F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t i n 1978 DATE ACTIVITY 1 2 Feb. B a t c h p l a n t wash pond l o c a t i o n and c o n f i g u r a t i o n . ( P l a n s were r e v i e w e d . ) Feb. D i v e r s i o n t u n n e l e f f l u e n t . (Pumped f r o m d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l back i n t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . ) M a r c h Deadman C r e e k e r o s i o n . (About 't m i l l i o n c u b i c y a r d s m a t e r i a l washed i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r . ) M a r c h D i v e r s i o n t u n n e l i n t a k e r o a d m a t e r i a l i n t o r i v e r . (No d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . ) A p r i l L o c a t i o n and s t a r t up o f a s p h a l t p l a n t . (No d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . ) May A g g r e g a t e p l a n t o p e r a t i o n . (No d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . ) May P l a c e m e n t and management o f Acrow b r i d g e . ( P o n t o o n b r i d g e a c r o s s t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r c o n n e c t i n g W e s t s i d e A c c e s s Road t o Highway 23 N o r t h . ) May Dust c o n t r o l by s a l t i n g . ( L i q u e f i e d c a l c i u m c h l o r i d e was used on W e s t s i d e A c c e s s Road f o r d u s t c o n t r o l where r u n o f f was n o t d i r e c t l y i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r . Map o f new s a l t z o n e s p r e p a r e d . S p e c i f i c a t i o n s were a d h e r e d t o . S a l t i n g was l i m i t e d t o 300 l b s p e r r o a d m i l e i n November 1978.) Jun e C o n c r e t e c u r i n g w a t e r . ( D i s c h a r g e d f r o m c o n c r e t e p l a c e m e n t d i r e c t l y i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r . A l s o w a s t e c o n c r e t e d i s c h a r g e d d i r e c t l y a t b a t c h p l a n t and h i g h l y t u r b i d w a t e r d r a i n e d d i r e c t l y i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r . In f u t u r e t o be done a t a r o c k p i l i n g s i t e . A l s o w a s h i n g o u t o f c o n c r e t e t r u c k s d i r e c t l y o n t o r o a d t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d as i t c o u l d c a u s e damage i f done c l o s e r t o the r i v e r . ) J une F u e l s p i l l f r o m t a n k e r t r u c k i n t h e r i v e r . (No d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . ) J u l y Waste d i s p o s a l by P i t t s - A t l a s . ( M a c h i n e shop and g a r a g e w a s t e s dumped i n Deadman C r e e k s p o i l f i l l a r e a . C o n t r a c t o r d i d n o t c o m p l y i m m e d i a t e l y when o r d e r e d t o c l e a n up.) A u g u s t P a v i n g p r e p a r a t i o n . (Road o i l - t a r s e a l c o a t washed i n t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r and Moses C r e e k d u r i n g h e a v y p r e c i p i t a t i o n . ) S e p t . S e d i m e n t f r o m r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g . ( N o t e d i n O c t o b e r - a g r e a t d e a l o f u n n e c e s s a r y s c a r r i n g i n many p l a c e s , h i g h s e d i m e n t l o a d i n r u n o f f t o C o l u m b i a R i v e r . S t r i c t e r i n s p e c t i o n by B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . ) S e p t . T r e e s and b r u s h i n w a t e r f r o m r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g . ( A l a r m i n g l y h i g h number o f t r e e s f e l l e d i n t o t h e r i v e r 7 t o 9 km u p s t r e a m o f p o n t o o n b r i d g e . More p r e c i s e c l e a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , more s t r i n g e n t i n s p e c t i o n s and s t r i c t e r e n f o r c e m e n t by B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f c o n t r a c t o r s recommended.) S e p t . Loram t r u c k f u e l s p i l l on s i t e . ( O c t o b e r 1978 - more t h a n 1000 g a l l o n s d i e s e l - g a s o l i n e m i x t u r e s p i l l e d , d y k e d o f f and ' f i r e d ' , no f u e l r e a c h e d t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . ) O c t o b e r Downie C r e e k highway p r o p o s a l . ( I I . ' i km a d d i t i o n a l roadway. Impacts, s u c h as s a l t r u n o f f , i n c r e a s e d f i n e s i n C r e e k and l o n g - t e r m s i t e d i s r u p t i o n as w e l l as m i t i g a t i o n m e a s u r e s t o p r e v e n t r o a d r u n o f f were d i s c u s s e d . ) A H o f 1978 Downie S l i d e b e n t o n i t e c l a y i n r i v e r . (No d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . ) 1. U n b r a c k e t e d s t a t e m e n t f r o m T e l e k i (1979) 2. B r a c k e t e d s t a t e m e n t s f r o m s i t e b i o l o g i s t ' s m o n t h l y r e p o r t s (B.C. H y d r o , 1977-1981)) 107 d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o n i t o r i n g and r e p o r t i n g by t h e s u c c e s s i v e f i s h e r i e s s i t e b i o l o g i s t s , i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the e n v ironment and i n s u r v e i l l a n c e and e n f o rcement of r e g u l a t i o n s by government a g e n c i e s and of c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t c l a u s e s by B.C. H y d r o . L o g g i n g and c l e a r i n g of t h e r e s e r v o i r a r e a ( 1 ) a t f i r s t r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d and t h e n , i n 1979, i n h i g h suspended s e d i m e n t s i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . Causes were i n c r e a s e d r u n o f f f r o m c l e a r e d s u r f a c e s , i n c r e a s e d bank e r o s i o n , and d e b r i s , f e l l e d t r e e s and m a c h i n e r y i n s t r e a m s . Some spawning a r e a s were d i s r u p t e d and u p s t r e a m f i s h m i g r a t i o n b l o c k e d . Water q u a l i t y was t e s t e d , but r e s u l t s were not i n t e r p r e t e d . A l t h o u g h r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g g u i d e l i n e s had been approved by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r ( c l a u s e ( k ) ) and i n c l u d e d i n c l e a r i n g c o n t r a c t s , t h e y were not e n f o r c e d (Mason, 1982). The B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c l e a r i n g program. C l e a r i n g s c h e d u l e s and s t a n d a r d s were r e v i e w e d by t h e s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t w i t h B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e s t a f f . Of s p e c i a l c o n c e r n was t h e d e f e r r e d c l e a r i n g of t w e l v e w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t r e s e r v e s . These were h a b i t a t a r e a s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t o moose, c a r i b o u , b e a v e r , and w a t e r f o w l . The i n t e n t of t h i s m i t i g a t i o n measure was t o d e f e r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e t h e r e m o v a l o f c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and t h e i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e i t w o u l d g e n e r a t e on a d j a c e n t a r e a s . A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e s e r v e s e n c o m p a s s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 604 h e c t a r e s o f f l a t r i p a r i a n l a n d , i n c l u d i n g some w e t l a n d . The EIS had i d e n t i f i e d s i x a r e a s . Three were moose w i n t e r i n g r a n g e s , and t h r e e w e r e c a r i b o u r i v e r c r o s s i n g s i t e s . O t h e r s i t e s w e r e a d d e d e a r l y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d on t h e recommendation of t h e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t . However, one a r e a was i n a d v e r t e n t l y c l e a r e d i n May 1978 and a n o t h e r was p a r t i a l l y c l e a r e d h a l f a y e a r l a t e r due t o a c ommunication p r o b l e m . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e two i n c i d e n t s was not r e p o r t e d . The s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t n o t e d i n 1980 t h a t h a b i t a t r e s e r v e s were v e r y s u c c e s s f u l (Water Management B r a n c h , 108 1977-1985). Moose c r o s s e d l a r g e a r e a s of c l e a r e d l a n d t o r e a c h t h e s e a r e a s of p r e f e r r e d w i n t e r r a n g e . The h a b i t a t r e s e r v e s were c l e a r e d i n 1982, about one y e a r p r i o r t o r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g . B.C. Hydro e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a f f hoped t h a t t h i s g r a d u a l a d j u s t m e n t t o c h a n g i n g h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d be l e s s s t r e s s f u l f o r t h e w i l d l i f e . The FWB commented t h a t t h i s measure o n l y d e l a y e d t h e i n e v i t a b l e . I n g e n e r a l , the r e s e r v e h a b i t a t m i t i g a t i o n measure proposed i n t h e EIS was heeded. I t s u l t i m a t e v a l u e seems d e b a t a b l e ( B o n a r , 1987; B.C. Hydro, 1977-1984; Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). The b u r n i n g of c l e a r e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e r e s e r v o i r a r e a (#2) o n l y caused minor n u t r i e n t i n c r e a s e s i n the C o l u m b i a R i v e r , w h i c h were seen as b e n e f i c i a l . A m i t i g a t i o n measure was k e e p i n g l o g g i n g d e b r i s out of t h e s t r e a m ( T e l e k i , 1978; Mason, 1982). R u n o f f f r o m a c c e s s roads and borrow p i t s l o c a t e d n e a r w a t e r c o u r s e s (#3) i n t r o d u c e d l i t t l e s e d i m e n t i n s t r e a m s i n i t i a l l y , b u t by 1979 t h i s had i n c r e a s e d . F i s h movement was somewhat i n t e r r u p t e d . Impacts f r o m v e h i c l e m aintenance (#4) seems t o have been m i n i m a l as t h e minor s p i l l s t h a t d i d o c c u r were p r o m p t l y c l e a r e d up. O i l and p e t r o c h e m i c a l s from t h e maintenance y a r d were r e c y c l e d ( T e l e k i , 1979; Mason, 1982). P o l l u t i o n o f o i l and g r e a s e c o u l d a l s o have r e s u l t e d — b u t d i d n o t — f r o m v e h i c l e wash w a t e r d i s c h a r g e d t o t h e ground (Waste Management B r a n c h P e r m i t PE 5544, f o r 9.3 m 3 per day) P e r m i t PA 4490 f r o m t h e Waste Management B r a n c h was f o r t h e d i s c h a r g e o f e x h a u s t gas f r o m t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e d i e s e l g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i o n . B.C. Hydro was a l l o w e d t o b u r n f u e l o i l o r n a t u r a l g a s . No problems were e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h i s p e r m i t (Waste Management B r a n c h , 1 9 8 8 ) . The b a t c h p l a n t (#5) and t h e a g g r e g a t e p l a n t had p e r m i t s f r o m t h e Waste Management B r a n c h f o r t h e use o f 4550 m3 p e r day c o o l i n g w a t e r and f o r 9550 m 3 p e r day a g g r e g a t e wash w a t e r ( P e r m i t PE 5 8 6 8 ) . The main e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n was suspended s o l i d s . Unexpected s i l t y c l a y seams i n t h e a g g r e g a t e borrow 109 p i t s r e s u l t e d I n an u n u s u a l l y h i g h s o l i d s c o n t e n t i n t h e wash w a t e r . The s e t t l i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e s o l i d s were e x t r e m e l y p o o r . Mason (1982) o b s e r v e d h i g h suspended s o l i d s i n t h e b a t c h p l a n t e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e i n t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , he n o t e d t h a t t h e s e t t l i n g pond was r a t h e r c l o s e t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r (Mason, 1988). A n o t h e r p e r m i t (PE 5681) was f o r 4000 m^ per day t y p i c a l g r a v e l wash w a t e r . There was no d i r e c t d i s c h a r g e ; t h e main c o n c e r n was t h e adequacy of t h e f r e e b o a r d of t h e s e t t l i n g pond (Waste Management B r a n c h , 1988). M o n t h l y i n s p e c t i o n s , m a i n l y o f t h e adequacy of t h e f r e e b o a r d o f t h e s e t t l i n g ponds and t h e r e t e n t i o n t i m e , were c o n d u c t e d by t h e Waste Management B r a n c h f o r t h e s e p e r m i t s (Waste Management B r a n c h , 1988). About 1000 g a l l o n s o f ammonia s p i l l e d f r o m t h e c o o l i n g s y s t e m of t h e b a t c h p l a n t i n t o t h e s e t t l i n g pond and f r o m t h e r e i n t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . Water s a m p l i n g t o a s s e s s t h e impact was not c a r r i e d o u t . However, i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t l o n g term e f f e c t s were p r o b a b l y m i n i m a l because o f t h e h i g h f l u s h i n g r a t e of t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r (Mason, 1 9 8 2). The d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l (#6) f o r t h e Columbia R i v e r caused major l o s s e s t o t h e u p s t r e a m f i s h p o p u l a t i o n as f i s h c o u l d t r a v e l downstream, but not u p s t r e a m . These were t o be compensated by f i s h enhancement programs under t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e c o m p e n s a t i o n agreement (Mason, 1982). Gas s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n downstream of t h e d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l g e n e r a l l y measured 105-107%, but r e a c h e d a h i g h o f 118% i n A u g u s t , 1981 ( 1 1 5 % i s c o n s i d e r e d h a r m f u l t o f i s h ) . E x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l hundred D o l l y V a r d e n i n 1980 and 1981 r e v e a l e d no d e f i n i t e s i g n s of gas b u b b l e d i s e a s e (Mason, 1982). From June, 1978 t o December, 1984 B.C. Hydro o p e r a t e d a s e c o n d a r y sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t (S.T.P.) f o r i t s camp w a s t e s ( # 7 ) . I t c o n s i s t e d of a sewage a e r a t i o n t a n k , a s e t t l i n g t a n k , and a c h l o r i n a t i o n t a n k f r o m w h i c h t h e e f f l u e n t was d i s c h a r g e d underground I n t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . The p e r m i t was 110 f o r a d i s c h a r g e o f 360 m 3 d o m e s t i c e f f l u e n t p e r day. T h i s l i m i t was c o n s i s t e n t l y exceeded d u r i n g 1982 and 1983 ( A p r i l t h r o u g h N o v e m b e r ) , t h e h i g h e s t d i s c h a r g e was 705 m 3 per day. Flows were w i t h i n l i m i t s i n 1984 w i t h t h e wind-down o f the P r o j e c t . D a t a f o r 1978-1980 were n o t a v a i l a b l e , and i n 1981 f l o w s i n t h e peak employment sea s o n ( A p r i l t h r o u g h November) were not measured due t o a b r o k e n f l o w gauge (B.C. H y d ro, v a r i o u s d a t e s ) . The e f f l u e n t was t e s t e d f o u r t i m e s a y e a r . B i o c h e m i c a l oxygen demand (B.O.D.) and t o t a l suspended s o l i d s ( T S S ) w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n s . However i m p a c t s were e x p e c t e d t o be m i n i m a l due t o t h e h i g h d i l u t i o n r a t i o . I ndeed t h e y s t a y e d w e l l w i t h i n t h e 100 mg/1 l i m i t s p e c i f i e d f o r e a c h p a r a m e t e r . T h i s l e v e l was l o w e r e d t o 45 and 60 mg/1, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the t i m e s of z e r o and r e d u c e d d i s c h a r g e f rom t h e dam d u r i n g r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g . No d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s p e r i o d , but b o t h parameters p r e v i o u s l y had n e v e r exceeded t h e s e s t a n d a r d s , b e s i d e s t h e camp p o p u l a t i o n was much r e d u c e d a t t h i s t i m e . Whereas the Waste Management B r a n c h does not m e n t i o n f e c a l c o l i f o r m of t h e e f f l u e n t , t h i s p arameter f r e q u e n t l y exceeded t h e B r a n c h ' s o b j e c t i v e f o r m u n i c i p a l t y p e w a s t e d i s c h a r g e . I t r e a c h e d a maximum r e a d i n g of 1.3 x 106 MPN/100 ml i n September 1982 (B.C. Hydro, v a r i o u s d a t e s ) . O v e r a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t was t r o u b l e s o m e . The f i r s t w i n t e r a l l t h r e e t a n k s f r o z e o v e r . To p r e v e n t a r e o c c u r r e n c e t h e p l a n t was c o m p l e t e l y c l o s e d i n . B e s i d e s many equipment m a l f u n c t i o n s and a p l u g g e d o u t f l o w p i p e , adequate a e r a t i o n o f t h e sewage ta n k was a p e r s i s t e n t and n o t i c e a b l y malodorous p r o b l e m t o t h e n e a r b y camp. As t h e p l a n t ' s c a p a c i t y was e x c e e d e d , r e m e d i a l measures were s t a r t e d i n A p r i l 1 9 8 1 . They w e r e t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f an a u x i l i a r y compressed a i r s u p p l y f o r the sewage t a n k and s l u d g e w a s t e r e m o v a l of 1600 g a l l o n s per day by t a n k e r t r u c k t o t h e r e g i o n a l s a n i t a t i o n l a n d f i l l . T h i s m i t i g a t i o n however o n l y p a r t i a l l y s o l v e d the p r o b l e m . S l u d g e w a s t e r e m o v a l was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n December 1983 w i t h a I l l r e d u c t i o n i n t h e w o r k f o r c e . The p l a n t was decommissioned i n November 1984. The r e m a i n i n g s l u d g e was l e f t t o a e r a t e and s e t t l e u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , when i t was used as f e r t i l i z e r f o r s i t e s e e d i n g (B.C. Hydro, v a r i o u s d a t e s ; G r i k i s , 1 9 8 8 ) . Sewage was a l s o somewhat o f a p r o b l e m i n t h e C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e (#8). The Waste Management B r a n c h (1988) r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d f l o w s l e d t o p e r i o d i c sewage b y - p a s s e s i n t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r due t o o v e r l o a d i n g of t h e s y s t e m . Garbage d i s p o s a l (#9) appears t o have been a p r o b l e m most of the t i m e . The EIS r e f e r s t o two i s s u e s : t h e d i s p o s a l of garbage f r o m t h e camp and t h a t f r o m t h e equipment s e r v i c e a r e a . The f o r m e r was m o n i t o r e d by t h e w i l d l i f e s i t e b i o l o g i s t , t h e l a t t e r was a c o n c e r n o f t h e f i s h e r i e s s i t e b i o l o g i s t . B.C. Hydro d e c i d e d t o use t h e R e g i o n ' s s a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l f o r t h e d i s p o s a l of t h e camp r e f u s e , some c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s t e and sewage s l u d g e f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . Concerns d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d were i n s u f f i c i e n t c o v e r a g e of garbage and r e f u s e b e i n g l e f t o u t s i d e t h e l o c k e d g a t e s . The w i l d l i f e s i t e b i o l o g i s t r e p o r t e d i n J u l y 1978 t h a t up t o 10 b l a c k b e a r s were u s i n g t h e l a n d f i l l as a r e g u l a r s o u r c e o f f o o d . T h i s was a p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o x i m i t y of t h e camp and c o u l d l e a d t o t h e u n n e c e s s a r y d e s t r u c t i o n of n u i s a n c e b e a r s (B.C. H y d r o, 1977-1984). N u i s a n c e b e a r s had a lways been a p r o b l e m a t t h e garbage dump. But t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e O f f i c e r s t a t e s t h a t b e a r s were a l s o b e i n g s p o i l e d a t t h e camp by hand f e e d i n g ( G a b r o w s k i , 1988). Under the R e g i o n a l Bear Management P l a n n u i s a n c e b l a c k b e a r s t h a t wandered i n t o R e v e l s t o k e (6.4 km f r o m t h e dump) were d e s t r o y e d and n u i s a n c e g r i z z l y b e a r s were r e l o c a t e d . W h i l e some b l a c k b e a r s were d e s t r o y e d because of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t i f y t h e i m p a ct ( G a b r o w s k i , 1988). The Waste Management B r a n c h , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o n i t o r i n g w a s t e d i s p o s a l , was a w a r e o f t h e n o n c o m p l i a n c e of the o p e r a t o r . They f e l t i t was due t o t h e amount of r e f u s e 112 b e i n g d i s p o s e d o f , as w e l l as t o t h e t i m e t h e o p e r a t o r d e v o t e d t o t h e r e c y c l i n g o f g a r b a g e . They admit t h a t t i g h t e r c o n t r o l o f h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n and t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l a l l o w e d w o u l d have a l l e v i a t e d t he s i t u a t i o n ( W a s t e Management B r a n c h , 1 9 8 8 ) . Of c o n c e r n t o t h e f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t was t h e d i s p o s a l o f wast e by c o n t r a c t o r s . I n f i l t r a t i o n and r u n o f f o f p o l l u t a n t s , s u c h as f u e l s , c h e m i c a l s , c o n c r e t e , and garbage i n g e n e r a l , i n t o w a t e r c o u r s e s posed a p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d t o t h e a q u a t i c e c o s y s t e m . Mason (1988) n o t e d t h a t garbage was i l l e g a l l y dumped u p v a l l e y f r o m t h e dam s i t e , when i t s h o u l d have been t r u c k e d o u t . The Waste Management B r a n c h was aware t h a t s e v e r a l c o n t r a c t o r s were u s i n g u n a u t h o r i z e d r e f u s e s i t e s i n t h e f a l l of 1979 and a g a i n a y e a r l a t e r (B.C. Hydro, 1977-1984; Water Management B r a n c h , 1977-1985). The agency was h o p e f u l t h a t i t s s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s i n 1981 w o u l d end t h i s p r a c t i c e . One c o n t r a c t o r d i s p o s e d o f garbage i n t h e Deadman Creek f i l l a r e a n o r t h of t h e P r o j e c t o f f i c e . The f i r s t i n f r a c t i o n was n o t i c e d i n June 1977, and c l e a n e d up f o l l o w i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n . However, a y e a r l a t e r machine shop and garage w a s t e s ( i n c l u d i n g o i l ) were dumped i n t h e same a r e a . V e r b a l r e q u e s t s by B.C. Hydro s t a f f t o remove t h e m a t e r i a l o n l y r e s u l t e d i n i t b e i n g c o v e r e d w i t h e a r t h . The c o n t r a c t o r f i n a l l y c o m p l i e d when a f o r m a l o r d e r was i s s u e d . A n o t h e r i m p a c t on t h e f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e h a s been i n c r e a s e d f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e (#10) due t o t h e l a r g e w o r k f o r c e I n v o l v e d i n the P r o j e c t . R e s e r v o i r c o n s t r u c t i o n opened up many a r e a s t o f i s h i n g w h i c h had been i n a c c e s s i b l e p r e v i o u s l y * . P o a c h i n g b e l o w t h e d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l was e a s y . The o n l y m i t i g a t i o n m e a s u r e was t h e p o s t i n g o f s i g n s (Mason, 1 9 8 2 ) . E f f e c t i v e e n f o rcement of r e g u l a t i o n s by t h e p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r S e r v i c e was not p o s s i b l e as t h e o f f i c e was u n d e r s t a f f e d and u n d e r f u n d e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a r e a was n o t s t a t i o n e d i n 113 R e v e l s t o k e but f u r t h e r s o u t h i n Nakusp ( K r a u s e , 1988). F i n e s imposed ($5.00) on p o a c h e r s were no d e t e r r e n t ( G a b r o w s k i , 1988). A n o t h e r m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n was t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f Highway 23 N o r t h (#11). The w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t recommended m i t i g a t i o n measures t o a v o i d h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n and w i l d l i f e c o n f l i c t s ( B o n a r , 1978), but t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h e m i t i g a t i o n m e a s u r e s n o r t h e i r r e s u l t s . H i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of suspended s e d i m e n t s were o b s e r v e d i n t r i b u t a r i e s and t h e c o n t r a c t o r s were made aware of t h e i m p a c t s on f i s h (Mason, 1982). The d i v e r s i o n of Deadman Creek (#12) was a c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y t h a t had not been i n c l u d e d i n t h e E I S . Deadman Creek d r a i n s a narrow m o u n t a i n v a l l e y w e st of t h e Columbia R i v e r . As t h e c r e e k ' s l o w e r r e a c h c r o s s e d t h e s i t e o f the proposed e a r t h f i l l dam, i t was t o be dammed and t h e n d i v e r t e d i n t o an e x i s t i n g d r y c r e e k bed and an e x c a v a t e d c h a n n e l , l i n e d w i t h r o c k r i p r a p , t o d i s c h a r g e i n t o t h e r e s e r v o i r n o r t h o f t h e e a r t h f i l l dam. However, t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n s were changed t o a l l o w t h e use o f a borrow a r e a f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l f o r t h e e a r t h f i l l dam. The l o w e r p a r t o f t h e d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l was r e r o u t e d t o l e a d i n t o an e x i s t i n g swamp and f r o m t h e r e w i t h o u t a c r e e k bed (67 m) t o i t s c o n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . The d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l was l i n e d w i t h r i p r a p t o w i t h i n 300 meters o f the swamp. I n March 1978 ( e x a c t d a t e not g i v e n ) a v e r y r a p i d snowmelt and h i g h r u n o f f l e d t o a m a s s i v e e r o s i o n o f u n s t a b l e a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s a l o n g s i d e t h e u n p r o t e c t e d s e c t i o n o f the d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l . About f o u r m i l l i o n c u b i c y a r d s of eroded m a t e r i a l ( 8 5 % g r a v e l and c o a r s e sands) e n t e r e d t h e Co l u m b i a R i v e r and was d e p o s i t e d about 2-3 km s o u t h o f t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f Deadman C r e e k . The r e m a i n d e r , f i n e m a t e r i a l (<78 m i c r o n s ) , was suspended i n t h e Columbia R i v e r as f a r downstream as the Upper Arrow L a k e . F o l l o w i n g t h e e r o s i o n , Deadman Cre e k below t h e d i v e r s i o n dam was d i v e r t e d f i r s t t h r o u g h a r o c k - l i n e d c h a n n e l and t h e n t h r o u g h c u l v e r t s t o t h e prop o s e d 114 r e s e r v o i r . More r e m e d i a l work was s c h e d u l e d f o r 1983, but a n o t h e r l a r g e washout i n J u l y 1983 c u t t h e s e p l a n s s h o r t and d e p o s i t e d a l a r g e f a n o f r o c k and g r a v e l i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . Emergency measures c o n t r o l l e d the f l o w f r o m the t o p o f the d i v e r s i o n dam and p r e v e n t e d even f u r t h e r e r o s i o n a l o n g t h e c r e e k below t h i s dam ( T e l e k i , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n view of t h i s second s e v e r e washout i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a g a i n r e v i s e t h e p l a n s f o r t h e d i v e r s i o n dam and t h e permanent d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l . A s t u d y m o n i t o r i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f i r s t m a s s i v e e r o s i o n on t h e b i o l o g i c a l a q u a t i c s y s t e m o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e f i s h e r i e s s i t e b i o l o g i s t f r o m March 23 t o June 11, 1978 ( T e l e k i , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s not c l e a r how soon a f t e r t h e washout impact m o n i t o r i n g was i n i t i a t e d . 2 The a n a l y s i s of t h e i m p a c t s was based on w a t e r q u a l i t y d a t a , v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of r i v e r p o o l s and an e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r o r not t h e a q u a t i c s y s t e m had e x p e r i e n c e d s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p a s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s a m p l i n g of s h o r e l i n e b ottom d w e l l e r s c o u l d not be used as t h e y were " v e r y poor and u n r e l i a b l e " due t o s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s o f f l u c t u a t i n g w a t e r l e v e l s . F i s h s a m p l i n g was u n s u c c e s s f u l as no f i s h were c a u g h t . T e l e k i ( 1 9 7 8 ) , upon e v a l u a t i n g h i s t o r i c a l s t r e a m and f i s h - r e l a t e d d a t a , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r f i s h caused by t h i s event were n o t u n u s u a l t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r p r i o r t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e M i c a Dam i n mid-1973. Data f r o m the f e d e r a l Department of Environment ( f r o m 1966 t o mid-1973) showed t h a t t o t a l suspended s o l i d s u s u a l l y peaked i n l a t e A p r i l o r e a r l y May (maximum 295 mg/1 i n 1972), but t h e Deadman Creek washout o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r (sometime b e f o r e March 23) and w i t h somewhat h i g h e r t o t a l suspended s o l i d s (320 mg/1). I n summary, T e l e k i (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t ( 1 ) p h y s i c a l i m p a c t s were a temporary i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l suspended s o l i d s , a s h o r t - t e r m d e p o s i t i o n of f i n e m a t e r i a l s on t h e n e a r - s h o r e r i v e r bottom, and a s l i g h t f i l l i n g - i n o f r i v e r 115 p o o l s ( u t i l i z e d by f i s h ) f o r about 10 km downstream of Deadman Creek; ( 2 ) b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t o t a l s u s p e n d e d s o l i d s were t o o low t o cause "abnormal b e h a v i o r a l r e s p o n s e s . . . t o a d u l t s a l r a o n i d s m i g r a t i n g i n t h e r i v e r a t t h e t i m e " ; ( 3 ) t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f a q u a t i c i n s e c t s and n e a r - s h o r e b o t t o m d w e l l e r s showed no i l l - e f f e c t s ; b u t ( 4 ) y o u n g k o k a n e e , on t h e i r s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n d o w n r i v e r s u f f e r e d an un d e t e r m i n e d i n c r e a s e i n m o r t a l i t y r a t e due t o a change f r o m normal r i v e r c o n d i t i o n s o f low f l o w and low t o t a l s u s p e n d e d s o l i d s ; T e l e k i c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e impact "on t h e t o t a l kokanee p o p u l a t i o n i s unknown but p r o b a b l y not d a n g e r o u s l y h i g h " ( T e l e k i , 1978). Three major c o n c e r n s a r i s e f r o m t h e Deadman Creek e r o s i o n . The f i r s t i s the need f o r the d i v e r s i o n o f Deadman Creek was not even mentioned i n t h e E I S . Thus i t c o u l d not be s c r u t i n i z e d by t h e p u b l i c , n o r a s s e s s e d a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . 3 The second c o n c e r n i s t h a t t h e r e r o u t i n g o f t h e d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l was not e v a l u a t e d f o r i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s . I t appears t h a t t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s w e r e n o t c o n s u l t e d . T h i r d , t h e two washouts c o u l d have been p r e v e n t e d w i t h b e t t e r i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g on t h e p a r t o f B.C. Hydr o . The Water C o m p t r o l l e r (1978) s t a t e d t h a t B.C. Hydro's e n g i n e e r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a v i n g s c h e d u l e d t h e work i m p r o p e r l y t o c o i n c i d e w i t h a d v e r s e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s t o be e x p e c t e d a t t h a t t i m e o f y e a r . Indeed one has t o a s k , i f t h e g e o l o g i c a l and h y d r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l o c a t i o n had been e v a l u a t e d a d e q u a t e l y and i f p r o j e c t d e s i g n had been p r o p e r l y a d a p t e d t o s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . A c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n i n a s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e RPCC^ c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r such an ev e n t was a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n t h e f a l l o f 1977, t h a t m i t i g a t i v e measures c o u l d have been t a k e n , and ended by c a l l i n g t h e m a t t e r a " v e r y s e r i o u s e n g i n e e r i n g misjudgment . . . by . . . B.C. Hydro" (Caywood, 1978). T h i s o p i n i o n i s c o n f i r m e d by the s i t e w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t , who warned i n O c t o b e r 1977, t h a t t h e d i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l p r e s e n t e d a p o t e n t i a l e r o s i o n p r o b l e m and w r o t e a r e p o r t d e t a i l i n g t h e h a z a r d (B.C. Hydro 1977-1984). The 116 f i n a n c i a l c o s t s o f t h i s e n g i n e e r i n g m i s t a k e must have been s i g n i f i c a n t . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m w i t h e r o s i o n r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e 230 kV t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c o n n e c t i n g t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t t o t h e I l l e c i l l e w a e t S u b s t a t i o n j u s t s o u t h o f R e v e l s t o k e ( # 1 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e EIS t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e was t o be 10.5 km l o n g and r e q u i r e d a c l e a r e d r i g h t - o f - w a y about 168 m w i d e (B.C. Hydro, 1976b, C h a p t e r s 18, 1 9 ) . As t h e power l i n e was t o c r o s s D o l a n C r e e k , the w a t e r s u p p l y f o r t h e community o f B i g Eddy, t h e EIS emphasized t h a t s p e c i a l c a r e be t a k e n d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance t o p r e v e n t s i l t a t i o n of t h e c r e e k . I n i t i a l l y i n 1976, s t r o n g c o n c e r n s were v o i c e d by t h e B i g Eddy Waterworks D i s t r i c t ( B i g Eddy) and t h e M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h . The l a t t e r b a r r e d B.C. Hydro f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d u n t i l B i g Eddy c o u l d be a s s u r e d o f a s a f e w a t e r s u p p l y . An e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s u l t a n t f i r m t o B i g Eddy, who d e s i g n e d and i n s t a l l e d t he a l t e r n a t e w a t e r s y s t e m o r d e r e d by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r , 5 i n s i s t e d t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s be f o l l o w e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s were d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r th e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d work and approved by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r i n t h e summer of 1980. L o g g i n g f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y s t a r t e d i n December 1980. A f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n by a member of each o f t h e N e l s o n Water Management B r a n c h , t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s and B i g Eddy r e v e a l e d t h a t s e v e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s c o n t r a v e n e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and t h a t t he p o t e n t i a l f o r e r o s i o n , a n d , i n t u r n , t h e s i l t a t i o n o f D o l a n C r e e k , e x i s t e d . When t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c l e a r i n g was c o m p l e t e a n o t h e r f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n on 25 F e b r u a r y 1981, c o n f i r m e d t h a t s i l t a t i o n problems a r o s e f r o m t h e a c c e s s r o a d on th e s o u t h s l o p e o f D o l a n C r e e k . E r o s i o n r e s u l t e d f r o m i n a d e q u a t e r o a d c r o s s i n g s of a number of i n t e r m i t t e n t s t r e a m s and l o g h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o o c l o s e t o i n t e r m i t t e n t s treams and D o l a n C r e e k . 117 A l t h o u g h a b r i d g e a c r o s s D o l a n Creek had not been p l a n n e d , t h e l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r had c o n s t r u c t e d a t emporary one t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e n o r t h s i d e of t h e c r e e k . T h i s caused d i r t and d e b r i s f r o m the d i s t u r b e d c r e e k banks t o f o r m a c o n s t r i c t i o n of the c r e e k c h a n n e l . The e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l f r o m t h e c l e a r i n g of t h e n o r t h s l o p e was not s e v e r e . I n o r d e r t o reduce the e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l t h e R e g i o n a l Manager of t h e Water Management B r a n c h i n N e l s o n c a l l e d f o r prompt r e m e d i a l work, such as p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o p e r r o a d d r a i n a g e , r e v e g e t a t i o n of s l o p e s and d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , r e moval of t h e b l o c k a g e of i n t e r m i t t e n t streams and t h e D o l a n Creek b r i d g e and d e b r i s . Whereas some r e m e d i a l work seems t o have been c a r r i e d o u t , much was not y e t done two and a h a l f y e a r s l a t e r . I n August 1983, t h e a p p e a l d e c i s i o n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f i n a l c o m p e n s a t i o n by B.C. Hydro t o B i g Eddy ( s e e S e c t i o n 3.2.2.1) recommended t h a t t h e r e m e d i a l work was t o be e x p e d i t e d by t h e r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i e s and a n n u a l i n s p e c t i o n s of t h e w a t e r s h e d were t o d e t e r m i n e any e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e o r damage. By December o f t h a t y e a r , r e m e d i a l work funded ($50,000) and d i r e c t e d by B.C. Hydro was c o m p l e t e d and a f e n c e a c r o s s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e , b a r r i n g p u b l i c a c c e s s , had been e r e c t e d . I t c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d when B i g Eddy s t a r t e d u s i n g t h e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s u p p l y a g a i n . Of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e d i d not seem t o be aware of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d ( G o r s l i n e , 1987). The t i m b e r s a l e s l i c e n c e a u t h o r i z i n g t h e l o g g i n g of t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y d i d not m e n t i o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d . N e i t h e r was t h e c o n t r a c t o r aware o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e Water A c t , as r e q u i r e d i n t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l G u i d e l i n e s (B.C. Hydro, 1977) and t h a t t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n tower on t h e n o r t h s i d e of D o l a n Creek was t o be s e t by h e l i c o p t e r t o p r e v e n t damage t o D o l a n C r e e k , and t h a t a b r i d g e was t h e r e f o r e not needed. A l t h o u g h t h e r e 118 seems t o have been a d e f i n i t e p r o b l e m of com m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d h e r i n g t o w a t e r l i c e n c e c l a u s e ( r ) was B.C. H y d r o ' s . The f o r e g o i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n l e a d s t o s e v e r a l major c o n c l u s i o n s . I t has c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d one of t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e : t h a t no p r o v i s i o n was made f o r a c o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g program o r f o r a program t o m o n i t o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s a r i s i n g f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A t t h e l e a s t , t h e l i c e n c e s h o u l d have g i v e n d i r e c t i v e s as t o who was t o m o n i t o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s ( c l a u s e ( r ) ) . I n s t e a d , the Water C o m p t r o l l e r approved t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s p r e p a r e d by t h e p r o p o n e n t , w h i c h a s s i g n e d t h i s t a s k t o B.C. Hydro's C o n s t r u c t i o n Manager, t h u s i g n o r i n g t h e r o l e t h a t t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s might have p l a y e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e RPCC, w h i c h was t o have a d m i n i s t e r e d c l a u s e ( r ) , appears t o have n e i t h e r m o n i t o r e d B.C. Hydro's adherence t o t h e g u i d e l i n e s n o r updated them as s t i p u l a t e d by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e how e f f e c t i v e t h e l a t t e r c o u l d have been, because o f t h e r i g i d i t i e s imposed by h a v i n g t o work w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i c s of a c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t . One can a l s o draw t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h them s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t by e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t when t h e g u i d e l i n e s a r e as n o n s p e c i f i c and c a l l f o r as many e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s as d i d t h e R e v e l s t o k e o n e s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a s s e r t i o n i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s t h a t t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s w o u l d be c o n s u l t e d i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s , I n t h e case o f the Deadman Creek d i v e r s i o n and the l o c a t i n g o f t h e b a t c h p l a n t s e t t l i n g pond t h i s was not done. The employment of s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s c a p a c i t y w o u l d a l s o h a v e l e d t o a more r e s p o n s i v e a p p roach t o b o t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l emergency and non-emergency s i t u a t i o n s . That adherence t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and t h e r e s e r v o i r and t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c l e a r a n c e g u i d e l i n e s was not s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e 119 i l l e g a l d i s p o s a l o f garbage and t h e i m p a c t s o f c l e a r i n g i n t h e r e s e r v o i r and D o l a n Creek w a t e r s h e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l a t t e r example a l s o u n d e r l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f B.C. Hydro d e v e l o p i n g a l i s t o f r e l e v a n t p r o v i n c i a l A c t s and s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o n t r a c t o r s . The a n a l y s i s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u r v e i l l a n c e and e n f o r c e m e n t by government a g e n c i e s was not adequate as a r e s u l t o f a s h o r t a g e of fu n d s and s t a f f t o d e a l w i t h s u c h a l a r g e p r o j e c t as R e v e l s t o k e and t h e somewhat l a x a t t i t u d e shown by some a g e n c i e s . O p i n i o n s about t h e adequacy o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u r v e i l l a n c e and enforcement v a r i e d between a g e n c i e s . The FWB n o t e d t h a t , once a p p r o v a l f o r s u c h a p r o j e c t was g i v e n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g and m i t i g a t i o n t o o k on a low p r i o r i t y . One o f t h e s i t e b i o l o g i s t s t h o u g h t , t h a t t h e Waste Management B r a n c h performance was l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y (Mason, 1982). The c o o p e r a t i o n o f B.C. Hydro and o t h e r p e r m i t h o l d e r s was a s s e s s e d as s u f f i c i e n t by t h e Waste Management B r a n c h , who appeared r e l i e v e d because no m a j o r s p i l l of f u e l o r c h e m i c a l o r a m a s s i v e f a i l u r e o f t h e b a t c h p l a n t s e t t l i n g pond had o c c u r r e d . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact o f t h e P r o j e c t was m i n i m a l r e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o j e c t ' s magnitude (Waste Management B r a n c h , 1988). I n summary i t can be s a i d , t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the m o n i t o r i n g o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r t he R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t p r o v i d e d f o r by the w a t e r l i c e n c e and B.C. Hydro were i n a d e q u a t e , as was enforcement by government a g e n c i e s . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n appears t o have been r e l e g a t e d t o a minor r o l e . That no major a c c i d e n t o r l o n g terra e f f e c t s had o c c u r r e d was more a m a t t e r of good f o r t u n e t h a n e f f e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. 120 NOTES 1 A check o f the c o n t r a c t f o r the e a r t h f i l l dam, awarded i n November 1978, r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e s were the same as t h o s e i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s 2 A l a r g e s l i d e a t t h e i n t a k e of t h e d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l had o c c u r r e d on March 10, 1978 and one cannot h e l p but wonder i f t h e Deadman Creek e r o s i o n t o o k p l a c e a t t h e same t i m e . 3 An a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e d i v e r s i o n had been f i l e d w i t h t h e Water R i g h t s B r a n c h s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g . However, i t was not a c t e d upon; t h e work was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n s f o r the R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t w h i c h were approved by t h e Water C o m p t r o l l e r subsequent t o t h e I s s u a n c e o f t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e . ^ The RPCC m e e t i n g s were c l o s e d t o t h e p u b l i c . The E n v i r o n m e n t a l G u i d e l i n e s (B.C. Hydro, 1977a, p. 8) exempted B.C. H y d r o f r o m b u i l d i n g m i t i g a t i v e measures " t o p r e v e n t muddy w a t e r s and e r o d e d m a t e r i a l s f r o m e n t e r i n g r i v e r s , s t reams o r w a t e r c o u r s e s o r damaging permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s " d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Deadman Creek d i v e r s i o n . ^ B i g Eddy's D o l a n Creek w a t e r s y s t e m was t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e adequate f i r e p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e community and t o accommodate t h e e x p e c t e d i n f l u x o f B.C. Hydro w o r k e r s . B.C. Hydro p r o v i d e d a c h l o r i n a t o r f o r the D o l a n Creek w a t e r s u p p l y as w e l l as an a l t e r n a t e w a t e r s y s t e m c o n s i s t i n g o f two w e l l s and a r e s e r v o i r . The c o s t t o B.C. Hydro was a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1.1 m i l l i o n . 121 CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTIONS AND OUTCOMES The c o m p l e x i t y o f e c o l o g i c a l systems has l i m i t e d o ur k n o w l e d g e o f a s y s t e m ' s r e a c t i o n t o c h a n g e w h e t h e r i n d u c e d by n a t u r a l e v e n t s o r human a c t i o n s . I n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c c o n c e r n o v e r u n e x p e c t e d and o f t e n f a r - r e a c h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s o f l a r g e s c a l e development p r o j e c t s and programs l e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of an im p a c t a s s e s s m e n t t o o l — t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t ( E I S ) . S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1970s, t h e EIS has been used f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s o f pro p o s e d development p r o j e c t s and t h e s t a t e of t h e changed " p o s t - p r o j e c t " e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . E a r l y E I S s f o l l o w e d a " c a t a l o g u e " a p p r o a c h . They d e s c r i b e d a l l components of the " p r e - p r o j e c t " s y s t e m and p r e d i c t e d a l l p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s . However, R o l l i n g (1978, p. 35) s t a t e s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n m e a s u r i n g e v e r y t h i n g , EIS has t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and dynamics of t h e e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . C e r t a i n k ey p a r a m e t e r s a r e o b s e r v e d and a s y s t e m ' s r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s and i t s t h r e s h o l d s d e t e r m i n e d . Though t h e EIS s t o p s w i t h t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f i m p a c t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t assessment s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e key p a r a m e t e r s d u r i n g p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d o c u m e n t s t h e p r o j e c t ' s e f f e c t o n t h e environment and a l l o w s a c o m p a r i s o n o f p r e d i c t e d and a c t u a l i m p a c t s ( p o s t -development e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n a l y s i s ) . The l a t t e r not o n l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e EIS i n p r e d i c t i n g i m p a c t s , but a l s o s e r v e s t o improve t h a t o f f u t u r e E I S s . I n t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s , when B.C. H y d r o u n d e r t o o k t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t assessment of t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t , t h e c a t a l o g u e a p p r o a c h t o EIS s t i l l p r e v a i l e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i m p act m o n i t o r i n g d u r i n g p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n d i d n o t f o l l o w a w e l l p l a n n e d m o n i t o r i n g program t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d on key v a r i a b l e s . P o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n a l y s e s were p r a c t i c a l l y unheard o f a t t h a t t i m e . 122 I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o u n d e r t a k e s u c h an a n a l y s i s f o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t . The f o c u s i s f i r s t on t h e a q u a t i c e n vironment and f i s h r e s o u r c e t h e n on t h e t e r r e s t r i a l e n v i ronment and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e and f i n a l l y on t h e a t m o s p h e r i c e n v i r o n m e n t . 5.1 THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT AND FISH RESOURCE The c o n v e r s i o n o f a r i v e r t o a r e s e r v o i r has f a r - r e a c h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s a s impoundment d e s t r o y s t h e r i v e r i n e e c o s y s t e m and i n i t i a t e s t h e development of a new, l a k e - l i k e a q u a t i c e c o s y s t e m . U n l i k e l a k e s , r e s e r v o i r s have c o n t r o l l e d i n f l o w s and o u t f l o w s w h i c h n o t o n l y a f f e c t t h e d e v e l o p i n g e c o s y s t e m i n t h e r e s e r v o i r , but i n t u r n a l s o i n t r o d u c e marked changes i n the r i v e r i n e e n v ironment downstream o f th e dam. The newly c r e a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t o f the r e s e r v o i r goes t h r o u g h an a g i n g p r o c e s s , o f t e n e x t e n d i n g o v e r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s, b e f o r e t h e e c o s y s t e m r e a c h e s a mature s t a g e . The common changes o f t h i s development sequence have been documented and combined i n t o a " r e s e r v o i r p a r adigm" ( R z o s k a , 1966), however, s i t e - s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s must not be i g n o r e d i n p r e d i c t i n g i m p a c t s f o r a s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t . ! T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i m p a c t s p r e d i c t e d by t h e B.C. H y d r o E IS (1976b) and t h e a c t u a l i m p a c t s on t h e R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r and downstream e n v i r o n m e n t . A summary of t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s p o s t - d e v e l o p m e n t a n a l y s i s i s shown i n T a b l e 5.1, p a r t A shows t h e i m p a c t s on t h e p h y s i c a l l i m n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m and p a r t B t h o s e on t h e c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s . The i m p a c t s a r e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d as t o t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e r e s e r v o i r o r downstream o f t h e dam. 5.1.1. PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGICAL SYSTEM The p h y s i c a l l i m n o l o g y o f r e s e r v o i r s i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t o f n a t u r a l l a k e s . R e s e r v o i r s have been c a l l e d " h a l f l a k e s " because t h e i r l o n g i t u d i n a l T a b l e 5.1 Comparison o f P r e d i c t e d and A c t u a l Impacts on the A q u a t i c Environment and F i s h Resource PARAMETER PREDICTED IMPACT ACTUAL IMPACT/VERIFICATION COMMENT A. PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGICAL SYSTEM RESERVOIR: e r o s i o n F, s l o u g h i ng 2 p o t e n t i a l e v a p o r a t i o n 3 d e n s i t y U f l o w wave a c t i o n and f l u c t u a t i n g water l e v e l to cause e r o s i o n o f s i l t y , sandy m a t e r i a l d u r i n g f i r s t few y e a r s I n c r e a s e by f a c t o r o f 3.6 d i f f e r e n c e s In d e n s i t y may Induce dens I t y c u r r e n t s mean v e l o c i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o be ex-tr e m e l y s m a l l , normal maximum f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s I n c r e a s e d by f a c t o r o f approx. 5 t i m e s ; r e s e r v o i r f l u s h i n g r a t e 5 times per y e a r DOWNSTREAM OF DAM: 5 e r o s i o n 6 water t u r b i d i t y I n c r e a s e d due t o h i g h e r sediment c a r r y -ing c a p a c i t y o f water r e l e a s e d from dam i n c r e a s e d p h o t o s y n t h e t i c a c t i v l t y due to d e c r e a s e d t u r b i d i t y 7a w a t er t e m p e r a t u r e p o s s i b l e d e c r e a s e i n summer and In c r e a s e i n wl n t e r as power d i s c h a r g e s ar e a imos t c e r t a i n I y h y p o l i m n e t l c 7b 8 f l o w regime 9 i n f l o w t o Upper Arrow Lake t a i l w a t e r t emperature I n c r e a s e by s p i l l w a y r e l e a s e s i n summer n e g l i b l e l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d o v e r 3 months d u r i n g r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g some e r o s i o n / p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t not m o n i t o r e d / n o t v e r i f i a b l e not m o n i t o r e d / p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t not m o n i t o r e d / n o t c o r r e c t not m o n i t o r e d / n o t v e r i f i a b l e not m o n i t o r e d / n o t v e r i f i a b l e m i x i n g o f h y p o l i m n e t l c and e p i -l i m n e t l c water o c c u r s / n o t c o r r e c t s u r f a c e r e s e r v o i r w a t e r d i s c h a r g e d markedly warmer In summer/correct /not v e r i f i a b l e d u r i n g 17 days no water r e l e a s e d from dam/not c o r r e c t m o n i t o r e d , but r e c o r d s not examined; s h o u l d be minimal due t o p a u c i t y o f e r o d a b l e m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r e d n e g l i g i b l e In r e l a t i o n t o mean annual f l o w at t h e dam l i k e l y o c c u r r i n g as i n f l o w from K l n b a s k e t Lake Is p r o b a b l y i n t e r f l o w below e p i l i m n i o n f l u s h i n g r a t e a p p e a r s t o be about 12 times per y e a r p h o t o s y n t h e t I c a c t i v i t y i s a l s o dependent on a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s magnitude o f impact depends on magnitude & f r e q u e n c y o f s p i l l w a y r e l e a s e s ' n e g l i g i b l e ' not d e f i n e d ; a l s o time p e r i o d s o f f l o w not s p e c i f i e d - d i u r n a l 6 s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s may d i f f e r m a r k e d l y from n a t u r a l r i v e r f l o w regime much s h o r t e r than p r e d i c t e d , l o n g i n t e r r u p t i o n would have been too d e t r i m e n t a l t o downstream e c o s y s t e m B. CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS RESERVOIR: 10 d i s s o l v e d oxygen 11 n u t r i e n t s 12 t r o p h i c l e v e l e x p e c t e d t o be h i g h due t o s h o r t r e -t e n t i o n time 6 l i t t l e o r g a n i c m a t t e r upsurge f i r s t few y e a r s o l i g o t r o p h i c l e v e l s a t o r c l o s e t o s a t u r a t i o n / c o r r e c t s l l q h t upsurge f o r 2.5 y e a r s / p a r t l a l l y c o r r e c t u l t r a - o l i g o t r o n h l c / n e e d s long term ver i f I c a t Ion r e t e n t i o n time o f water i n r e s e r v o i r i s s h o r t e r than p r e d i c t e d ; r e s e r v o i r was c l e a r e d of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l l i t t l e o r q a n i c m a t e r i a l l e f t , n u t r i e n t s l e a c h e d from s o i l ; no c o r r e s p o n d i n g upsurge i n a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d ho T a b l e 5.1 Cont inued PARAMETER PREDICTED IMPACT ACTUAL IMPACT/VERIFICATION COMMENT 1 3 a f i s h h a b i t a t 13b |l)a f i sh d I s t r I but Ion ll t b 15a f i s h c o m p o s i t i o n 15b 16a f i s h p r o d u c t i o n 16b DOWNSTREAM OF QAM: 17 n i t r o g e n 18 d i s s o l v e d oxygen 19 f i s h h a b i t a t 20 f i s h c o m p o s i t i o n 21a f i s h p r o d u c t i o n 21b Columbia R i v e r (7000 a c r e s ) l o s t t o r i v e r f i s h .lower reaches o f t r i b u t a r i e s l o s t (21) a c r e s ) r e s i d e n t f i s h i n Columbia R i v e r E t r i b u t a r i e s below 573 m l o s t c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f f r y R f i n g e r -l i n g s l o s t between r i v e r d i v e r s i o n S r e s e r v o i r f i 1 1 i n g e x p e c t e d t o support same s p e c i e s d e c r e a s e i n D o l l y Varden ( r a i n b o w t r o u t c o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e i n Columbia s g u a w f i s h I n c r e a s e d u r i n g f i r s t 5-10 y e a r s s u s t a i n e d y i e l d w i l l drop to lower l e v e l s ; f i s h e r y w i l l be q u a l i t a -t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t n i t r o g e n s u p e r s a t u r a t I on due to s p i l l -way d i s c h a r g e c o u l d l e a d t o s i g n i f i -cant f i s h l o s s e s may be a f f e c t e d w i t h temperature changes o f water d i s c h a r g e d from dam Columbia R i v e r S I t s t r i b u t a r i e s l o s t t o m i g r a t i n g f i s h from Arrow Lakes; no r e c r u l t e m e n t from up-stream p o p u l a t i o n s to remain unchanged, upstream l o s s e s of m i g r a t i n g f i s h ( D o l l y Varden, ko-kanee, rainbow t r o u t ) c o u l d r e s u l t In i n c r e a s e o f o t h e r f i s h s p e c i e s - e s t i m a t e d l o s s e s : 20-30$ kokanee, |l|l(0 Dol l y Varden - s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s o f Arrow Lake D o l l y Varden, kokanee, rainbow t r o u t ; q u a l i t y o f f i s h e r y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y rainbow t r o u t ) p r o b a b l y endangered r i v e r h a b i t a t changed t o l a k e - l i k e h a b l t a t / c o r r e c t h a b i t a t l o s s u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by 5$/ not c o r r e c t not m o n i t o r e d / n o t v e r i f i a b l e no d e f i n i t e d a t a a v a i l a b l e / c o r r e c t / c o r r e c t l o d a t e but needs l o n g term ve r i f I c a t I o n i n c r e a s e r e l a t i v e to d e c r e a s e i n mountain w h I t e f i s h / n e e d s long term ver i f i c a t i o n d i d not take p l a c e / n o t c o r r e c t /needs long term v e r i f i c a t i o n minimal f i s h l o s s e s / n o t v e r i f i a b l e not m o n i t o r e d / p r e d i c t i o n too vague, e x c l u d e d from s t u d y / c o r r e c t /needs long term v e r i f i c a t i o n /cannot be v e r i f i e d due t o l a c k o f d a t a /needs long term v e r i f i c a t i o n p r e d i c t i o n I n c l u d e d compensatory h a b i t a t development w h i c h was not u n d e r t a k e n f i s h e d appeared t o have s t a y e d In r e s e r v o i r b l o c k a g e by d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l and dam mountain w h i t e f i s h d e c r e a s e d from 963; t o 81$ of t o t a l f i s h p o p u l a t i o n upsurge In n u t r i e n t s d i d not take p l a c e cannot be v e r i f i e d because p r e d i c t i o n was based on s p e c i f i c s p i l l w a y d e s i g n w h i c h was changed ap p e a r s most u n l i k e l y as r e s e r v o i r w a t e r i s at s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l b l o c k e d by dam no e s t i m a t e s p o s s i b l e f o r mountain w h i t e f i s h , r a i n -bow t r o u t ( e s p e c i a l l y t r o p h y s p e c i e s ) , 6 w h l t e s t u r g e o n S o u r c e s : F l e m i n g , 1988 ; B.C. Hydro, 1976b; S m i t h , 1986, 1987, 1988; Watson, I985 125 p r o f i l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t , b e i n g deeper a t t h e o u t f l o w t h a n i n t h e m i d d l e . O f t e n t h e i r shape i s e l o n g a t e d r a t h e r t h a n r o u n d . S h o r e l i n e s t a b i l i z a t i o n f o l l o w i n g impoundment t a k e s p l a c e a t a r a t e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e r o d i b i l i t y o f t h e new banks and t h e f o r m a t i o n of new t r i b u t a r y d e l t a s a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s as w e l l as on t h e f l u c t u a t i n g w a t e r l e v e l s caused by t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v o i r . C i r c u l a t i o n i n r e s e r v o i r s i s more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by i n f l o w s and o u t f l o w s t h a n a r e n a t u r a l l a k e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s o f t e n a g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y o f c i r c u l a t o r y mechanisms such as d e n s i t y , backward and v e r t i c a l c u r r e n t s ( B a x t e r , 1977; B a x t e r and C l a u d e , 1 9 8 0 ) . Downstream e f f e c t s a r i s e f r o m t h e q u a l i t y , volume, d i s c h a r g e r a t e , and t i m i n g o f t h e o u t f l o w s f r o m t h e dam. These e f f e c t s a r e o f t e n t h e r e v e r s e o f t h o s e i n t h e dam, because the r e s e r v o i r a c t s as a h e a t , n u t r i e n t , and sediment s i n k . The c l e a r o u t f l o w w a t e r has a g r e a t e r sediment c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and t h u s can l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d e r o s i o n . N a t u r a l t e m p e r a t u r e and f l o w r e g i m e s a r e changed as w a t e r i s u s u a l l y d i s c h a r g e d f r o m a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e p t h o r f r o m t h e r e s e r v o i r s u r f a c e v i a t h e s p i l l w a y and t h e r a t e o f d i s c h a r g e i s d e t e r m i n e d by e l e c t r i c i t y demands and f l o o d c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r s e r v e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y . However, t h e s o u r c e of t w o - t h i r d s of i t s i n f l o w , t h e M i c a R e s e r v o i r , i s used f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l and t h i s i n f l o w d e t e r m i n e s some of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r . 5.1.1.1 R e s e r v o i r The EIS p r e d i c t e d f o u r i m p a c t s on t h e r e s e r v o i r e n v i r o n m e n t ( T a b l e 5.1 #1-4). F i r s t l y , wave a c t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s l y f l u c t u a t i n g w a t e r l e v e l s were e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n e r o s i o n o f sandy and s i l t y m a t e r i a l s and s l o u g h i n g of b a n k s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Downie Creek a r e a , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s f o l l o w i n g i n u n d a t i o n ( # 1 ) . A l t h o u g h bank e r o s i o n was m o n i t o r e d w e e k l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r of impoundment and a n n u a l l y t h e r e a f t e r , t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s of 126 t h i s s t u d y d i d not p e r m i t an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e r e c o r d s . H o w e v e r , a c o n s u l t a n t t o B.C. Hydro r e p o r t s t h a t some s l o u g h i n g has o c c u r r e d i n t h e Downie Cr e e k a r e a , but i s p a r t i a l l y caused by t h e c r e e k i t s e l f . He a l s o n o t e d t h a t e r o s i o n o f r e s e r v o i r banks s h o u l d be m i n i m a l due t o t h e p a u c i t y o f e r o d i b l e m a t e r i a l ( F l e m i n g , 1 9 8 8 ) . S e c o n d l y , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e t o t a l p o t e n t i a l e v a p o r a t i o n w o u l d i n c r e a s e by a f a c t o r o f 3.6 ( f r o m 16,500 t o 59,000 a c r e - f e e t p e r y e a r ) because t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e a r e a was t o i n c r e a s e f r o m t h e 7000 a c r e s o f t h e Co l u m b i a R i v e r t o some 28,500 a c r e s of t h e r e s e r v o i r ( # 2 ) . T h i s i m p a c t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e g l i g i b l e i n r e l a t i o n t o the mean a n n u a l f l o w a t the dam (21.9 m i l l i o n a c r e - f e e t ) ; i t was not m o n i t o r e d . T h i r d l y , t h e p r e d i c t i o n , t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s I n d e n s i t y o f i n f l o w i n g w a t e r f r o m t h e M i c a R e s e r v o i r ( K i n b a s k e t L a k e ) c o u l d i n d u c e d e n s i t y c u r r e n t s w h i c h w o u l d be superi m p o s e d on t h e t h e r m a l r e s e r v o i r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s ( # 3), i s th o u g h t l i k e l y t o be t r u e by B.C. Hydro's f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n f l o w f r o m K i n b a s k e t Lake p r o b a b l y p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e r e s e r v o i r as an i n t e r f l o w c u r r e n t below t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r l a y e r ( e p i l i m n i o n ) . L a s t l y , t h e EIS e x p e c t e d mean v e l o c i t i e s t o be e x t r e m e l y s m a l l e x c e p t a t the upper end of t h e r e s e r v o i r ( a b o u t 2 f t / s ) and t o i n c r e a s e by a f a c t o r o f about f i v e under normal maximum f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s ( # 4 ) . T h i s parameter was n o t m o n i t o r e d , b u t i t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t . Whereas the EIS f o r e s a w a r e s e r v o i r f l u s h i n g r a t e o f f i v e t i m e s p e r y e a r , t h e a c t u a l r a t e a p p ears t o be t w e l v e t i m e s t h a t ( F l e m i n g , 1988) and t h u s v e l o c i t i e s w o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y f a s t e r t h a n p r e d i c t e d . 127 5.1.1.2 Downstream of t h e Dam The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e downstream environment was p r e d i c t e d t o be a f f e c t e d i n f i v e ways ( T a b l e 5.1, #5-8). I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r , t h e o u t f l o w f r o m t h e r e s e r v o i r was e x p e c t e d t o have a h i g h e r sediment c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y w h i c h p o s s i b l y c o u l d i n c r e a s e e r o s i o n ( # 5). Downstream e r o s i o n was not m o n i t o r e d . Whereas t h i s i m p a c t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o r r e c t , i t has t o be a s s e s s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e r a t e of d i s c h a r g e f r o m the dam. I f the volume d i s c h a r g e i s l e s s t h a n t h e r i v e r c a r r i e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e n i t can accommodate t h e l e s s t u r b i d f l o w w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g e r o s i o n ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 ) . The d e c r e a s e i n sediment l o a d c a r r i e d by t h e w a t e r d i s c h a r g e f r o m t h e dam was e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n " l o c a l " ( n o t d e f i n e d ) d e c r e a s e d t u r b i d i t y ( #6), t h i s i n t u r n w o u l d a l l o w a g r e a t e r l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n and h e n c e i n c r e a s e p h o t o s y n t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . T u r b i d i t y was not m o n i t o r e d , but S m i t h b e l i e v e s t h a t a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i s p o s s i b l e as a t h i r d o f t h e r e s e r v o i r i n f l o w i s f r o m t r i b u t a r i e s w h i c h c a r r y s e d i m e n t s . The i n f l o w f r o m K i n b a s k e t Lake w o u l d not c a r r y much sediment as I t i s d e p o s i t e d i n t h a t r e s e r v o i r ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 ). The EIS p r e d i c t e d t h a t p o w e r f l o w s might d e c r e a s e the downstream w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s i n summer an d i n c r e a s e them i n w i n t e r because w a t e r t o be d i s c h a r g e d f r o m t h e dam a t 30 m w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y be f r o m a l o w e r l a y e r of t h e t h e r m a l l y s t r a t i f i e d w a t e r ( h y p o l i m n i o n ) ( # 7 a ) . Water t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h i s l a y e r were t h o u g h t t o be i n t h e r e g i o n of 12°C i n summer and f a l l , and a t l e a s t 5°C l e s s d u r i n g w i n t e r and s p r i n g . M o n i t o r i n g of w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t a weak t h e r m o c l i n e d e v e l o p s i n t h e r e s e r v o i r o u t f l o w ( f o r e b a y ) i n l a t e summer. M i x i n g of t h e h y p o l i m n e t l c and t h e upper warmer w a t e r o c c u r s i n t h e f o r e b a y . O u t f l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s ranged f r o m 5.5°C i n May and June t o 15°C i n J u l y i n 1984 ( S m i t h , 1987).2 No d a t a was a v a i l a b l e f o r f a l l and w i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s . 128 On t h e o t h e r hand, s p i l l w a y f l o w was e x p e c t e d t o r a i s e t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e r e c e i v i n g w a t e r d i r e c t l y below t h e dam ( t a i l w a t e r ) i n summer (#7b). The marked warming of t h e s u r f a c e r e s e r v o i r w a t e r r e p o r t e d i n summer (maximum 19°G i n J u l y ) w o u l d r e n d e r t h i s p r e d i c t i o n c o r r e c t . However, s p i l l w a y use was a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r o n l y once e v e r y t e n y e a r s under extreme f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s . To d a t e t h e s p i l l w a y has been used t w i c e d u r i n g r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g and f o r a t e s t r u n ( S m i t h , 1988; M a h o v i c h , 1988). A " n e g l i g i b l e " e f f e c t on t h e downstream f l o w regime was p r e d i c t e d (#8). The R e v e l s t o k e Dam was t o be o p e r a t e d f o r power g e n e r a t i o n m a i n l y and f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l o n l y i f t h a t p r o v i d e d by M i c a Dam was i n a d e q u a t e . However, t h e p r e d i c t i o n cannot be v e r i f i e d as n e i t h e r " n e g l i g i b l e " was d e f i n e d n o r were t h e t i m e p e r i o d s o f f l o w s p e c i f i e d . When a s s e s s i n g f l o w regime one has t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i f i c t i m e p e r i o d s . Depending on energy demand, i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t b o t h t h e d i u r n a l and t h e s e a s o n a l f l o w regimes c o u l d be changed. I t was t h e i n t e n t i o n t o s t o p f l o w r e l e a s e s f r o m t h e dam f o r t h r e e months d u r i n g r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l f o u r t o s i x weeks, t h i s was p r e d i c t e d t o l i k e l y a f f e c t t h e i n f l o w i n t o Upper Arrow Lake ( # 9 ) . However, i n r e s p o n s e t o the s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s of t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h (FWB), who a n t i c i p a t e d e x t e n s i v e damage t o t h e a q u a t i c e c o s y s t e m downstream of t h e dam t h e " n o - f l o w " t i m e was c u t t o 17 d a y s . 5.1.2 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS T h e s e t w o s y s t e m s h a v e b e e n g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r as t h e i r c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n s make i t h a r d t o s e p a r a t e them ( L a n g f o r d , 1 9 8 3 ) . The i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e o f b o t h systems i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e amount of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l and s o i l s f l o o d e d and t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n t h e i r d e c o m p o s i t i o n . L i t t l e o r g a n i c m a t t e r and a s h o r t r e t e n t i o n time w o u l d r e s u l t 129 i n a s m a l l e r r e l e a s e of n u t r i e n t s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s f o l l o w i n g impoundment a n u t r i e n t ( t r o p h i c ) upsurge t a k e s p l a c e as n u t r i e n t s a r e r e l e a s e d by t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f f l o o d e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l and i n o r g a n i c s u b s t a n c e s a r e l e a c h e d f r o m t h e s o i l . T h i s can l e a d t o d e o x y g e n a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v o i r w a t e r . W i t h t h e d e p l e t i o n of t h e o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l and a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s t h e r e s e r v o i r goes t h r o u g h a t r o p h i c d e p r e s s i o n t h a t can e x t e n d up t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . I n t h e f i n a l s t a g e of t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s , n u t r i e n t l e v e l s s l o w l y i n c r e a s e u n t i l t h e r e s e r v o i r r e a c h e s a s t a b l e l e v e l . S t a b i l i t y r e s u l t s from e i t h e r the e q u i l i b r a t i o n of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s o r f o r m t h e s e a l i n g of t h e d e g r a d a t i o n l a y e r by sediment d e p o s i t s . The b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y v a r i e s w i t h t h e f l u c t u a t i n g t r o p h i c l e v e l s . The i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e o f a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n ( p h y t o p l a n k t o n , l i t t o r a l a l g a e ) and s e c o n d a r y p r o d u c t i o n ( f i s h ) . Oxygen d e p l e t i o n ( a n a e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s ) i n t h e h y p o l i m n i o n can d i s p l a c e o r k i l l b o ttom d w e l l e r s ( b e n t h o s ) . The f l o o d i n g of p r e v i o u s l y d r y ground can l e a d t o t h e r e l e a s e of t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s , s u c h as m e r c u r y , w h i c h t h r o u g h b i o a c c u m u l a t i o n , can r e a c h h i g h l e v e l s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n f i s h . B i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i o n d e c r e a s e s d u r i n g t h e t r o p h i c d e p r e s s i o n and e v e n t u a l l y s t a b i l i z e s w i t h t h e n u t r i e n t l e v e l s of t h e mature r e s e r v o i r . Changes i n f i s h c o m p o s i t i o n o f t e n o c c u r o v e r t h e l o n g t e r m . Downstream of t h e dam t h e r e may be i n c r e a s e d p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n due t o t h e h i g h e r t r a n s p a r e n c y of t h e l e s s t u r b i d w a t e r and f r o m t h e l e a c h e d n u t r i e n t s i n t h e r e s e r v o i r o u t f l o w . The p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l a l s o v a r y w i t h changes of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e regime imposed by t h e w a t e r d i s c h a r g e s . N i t r o g e n s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n of power f l o w and e s p e c i a l l y s p i l l w a y f l o w can l e a d t o f i s h l o s s e s due t o gas b u b b l e d i s e a s e ( s i m i l a r t o bends i n d i v e r s ) . Of c o u r s e one o f t h e most s e r i o u s i m p a c t s i s t h e dam's b l o c k a g e of f i s h movement. S i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e r e s e r v o i r i s t h a t t h e 130 v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r f r o m the r e s e r v o i r a r e a was a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y removed and much of t h e s m a l l amount of r e m a i n i n g o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l was m o b i l i z e d d u r i n g impoundment and removed as f l o a t i n g d e b r i s . A l s o i t i s s t i l l t o o e a r l y t o v e r i f y some of t h e i m p a c t s p r e d i c t e d by t h e E I S , as t h e r e s e r v o i r i s s t i l l y oung. 5.1.2.1 R e s e r v o i r The EIS p r e d i c t e d t h a t d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s i n t h e r e s e r v o i r were t o be h i g h due t o t h e s h o r t r e t e n t i o n t i m e of each of t h e a l t e r n a t e r e s e r v o i r systems and t h e v i r t u a l absence o f o r g a n i c w a s t e d i s c h a r g e i n t o t h e r e s e r v o i r (#10). The s c a n t amount of o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e r e s e r v o i r and the s h o r t e r t h a n p r e d i c t e d r e t e n t i o n t i m e of t h e w a t e r i n t h e r e s e r v o i r l e d t o d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s t h a t were a t o r c l o s e t o s a t u r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a t e r column, even i n t h e h y p o l i m n i o n of t h e f o r e b a y ( S m i t h , 1987). I n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s f o l l o w i n g impoundment a n u t r i e n t u psurge was t o o c c u r (#1). The t r o p h i c l e v e l was t o be s m a l l ( o l i g o t r o p h i c ) and s u p p o r t a moderate number of f i s h (#12). A s l i g h t t r o p h i c upsurge d i d t a k e p l a c e , but a r o s e m a i n l y f r o m t h e l e a c h i n g of n u t r i e n t s f r o m t h e f l o o d e d s o i l s . To d a t e th e r e s e r v o i r has been found t o be u l t r a - o l i g o t r o p h i c (Watson, 1985; S m i t h , 1988). F i s h a r e s t i l l " h e a l t h y " , but i t i s t o o e a r l y t o p r e d i c t t h e l o n g t e r m outcome, w h i c h i s not o n l y dependent on r e s e r v o i r p r o d u c t i v i t y ( S m i t h , 1988). Of c o u r s e a l l of t h e 7000 a c r e s o f mainstem C o l u m b i a R i v e r was l o s t as h a b i t a t f o r r i v e r f i s h because i t was i n u n d a t e d (#13a). However, t h e n e t l o s s o f t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e t r i b u t a r i e s (24 a c r e s , o r 17% of t h e t o t a l t r i b u t a r y h a b i t a t ) 3 was u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by 5% as t h e p r e d i c t i o n i n c l u d e d compensatory h a b i t a t development w h i c h was n o t r e a l i z e d (#13b). The f i s h p o p u l a t i o n was a f f e c t e d a l r e a d y by t h e d i v e r s i o n of the C o l u m b i a R i v e r t h r o u g h t h e t u n n e l . C o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f f r y and f i n g e r l i n g s were e x p e c t e d t o be 131 l o s t t o t h e u p s t r e a m s y s t e m between t h e t i m e of d i v e r s i o n and r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g (//14b). No d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e o t h e r t h a n t h a t u p s t r e a m m i g r a t i o n was d e f i n i t e l y b l o c k e d by t h e t u n n e l . W i t h r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t most o f t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h i n t h e mainstem C o l u m b i a R i v e r and t h e t r i b u t a r y r e a c h e s below 573 m w o u l d be l o s t (#14a). R e s i d e n t f i s h w o u l d be d i s p l a c e d t o t r i b u t a r y h a b i t a t s , w h i c h w o u l d not be a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n f l u x , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of t h e l a r g e f i s h f r o m t h e R i v e r mainstem. A g a i n t h e r e were no d a t a , but S m i t h (1988) n o t e s t h a t f i s h a ppeared t o have s t a y e d i n t h e r e s e r v o i r and were not l o s t . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e Arrow Lakes r e s e r v o i r s , t h e R e v e l s t o k e r e s e r v o i r was p r e d i c t e d t o be a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e same s p e c i e s of f i s h as t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r d i d p r i o r t o impoundment (#15a). However, a d e c r e a s e i n t h e abundance of D o l l y Varden and rainbow t r o u t c o u l d r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n C o l u m b i a s q u a w f i s h (#15b). M o n i t o r i n g o f f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t a r t of t h e d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l c o n s t r u c t i o n (November 1978) t o r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g ( O c t o b e r 1983) showed no change i n r e s i d e n t f i s h : m o untain w h i t e f i s h 96%, and rainbow t r o u t , D o l l y Varden and 14 o t h e r s p e c i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e o t h e r 4%. S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r a f t e r r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g . M o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h had d e c r e a s e d t o 81% of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; rainbow t r o u t and D o l l y Varden showed a r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e and o t h e r s p e c i e s ( l o n g n o s e and l a r g e - s c a l e s u c k e r s , b u r b o t , and peamouth) made up 4.5%. Kokanees were not c a p t u r e d by g i l l n e t t i n 1985 ( S m i t h , 1986), but t h e 1987 c r e e l s t u d y and f i s h d e r b y r e s u l t (now b e i n g a n a l y z e d by B.C. Hydro) show t h a t kokanee a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e r e s e r v o i r ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 ) . The age of t h e f i s h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y were g e n e r a l l y pre-impoundment p o p u l a t i o n s ( S m i t h , 1986). N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e s e r v o i r t o d a t e has s u p p o r t e d t h e same s p e c i e s o f f i s h and t h a t t h e change i n p e r c e n t a g e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e s p e c i e s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e one p r e d i c t e d , no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn about 132 t h e l o n g term outlook, o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e h i g h e r o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d n u t r i e n t u p s u r g e , t h e f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s were a n t i c i p a t e d t o i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e f i r s t few y e a r s (5-10) a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n (#16a). But f o l l o w i n g t h i s i n i t i a l b u r s t of f i s h p r o d u c t i o n , t h e s u s t a i n e d y i e l d s were e x p e c t e d t o drop t o l o w e r l e v e l s o v e r t h e l o n g term: maximum 10,000 t o 15,000 pounds of f i s h , but c o u l d be as low as 3,600 pounds and even t h i s might not be s u s t a i n a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the f i s h e r y was t o be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t (//16b). A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a s l i g h t upsurge of n u t r i e n t s f o r two and a h a l f y e a r s , o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y d i d not i n c r e a s e , t h u s r u l i n g out an i n c r e a s e i n f i s h p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e l o n g r u n , r e s e r v o i r p r o d u c t i v i t y i n g e n e r a l was p r e d i c t e d t o be h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e Co l u m b i a R i v e r , but a t b e s t o n l y low t o moderate. The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s a r e t h e low n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t , t h e r e l a t i v e l y c o l d w a t e r s , the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f l u s h i n g r a t e , and p a u c i t y o f l i t t o r a l d e velopment. The s u s t a i n e d y i e l d has t o be v e r i f i e d i n the l o n g t e r m . 5.1.2.2 Downstream of the Dam D e s p i t e t h e f l i p b u c k e t d e s i g n o f t h e s p i l l w a y w h i c h was t o l o w e r n i t r o g e n s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n , t h e EIS p r e d i c t e d t h a t f i s h l o s s e s due t o gas bu b b l e d i s e a s e c o u l d be caused by s p i l l w a y d i s c h a r g e s (#17). T h i s parameter was m o n i t o r e d and Watson (1985) r e p o r t e d t h a t i t d i d not exceed 115% (>115% h a r m f u l t o f i s h ) , but was o b s e r v e d as f a r as 10 km downstream o f t h e dam. At a l a t e r d a t e , however, i t r e a c h e d 120% once and a d v e r s e e f f e c t s were o b s e r v e d i n l e s s t h a n a dozen f i s h ( S m i t h , 1988). The s p i l l w a y f l i p b u c k e t d e s i g n was changed and t h e pl u n g e p o o l was deepened c o n s i d e r a b l y t o p r e v e n t p o s s i b l e e r o s i o n downstream a t a p a r k and t h e R e v e l s t o k e g o l f c o u r s e w h i c h b o r d e r the Columbia R i v e r . These d e s i g n changes were u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n o f the s i t e b i o l o g i s t s . W h i l e n i t r o g e n s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n and m i n i m a l f i s h l o s s e s have been 133 o b s e r v e d , t h i s p r e d i c t i o n cannot be v e r i f i e d because of t h e p r o j e c t d e s i g n changes A l t h o u g h t h e EIS mentioned t h a t downstream d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s can be a f f e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n s o f w a t e r b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d f r o m the dam (#18), t h i s p r e d i c t i o n was e x c l u d e d . I t appears more l i k e a g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n and does not g i v e t h e e f f e c t on t h e s y s t e m . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , S m i t h (1988) o b s e r v e s t h a t d e o x y g e n a t i o n due t o i n c r e a s e d w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s f r o m dam d i s c h a r g e s appears most u n l i k e l y as the r e s e r v o i r w a t e r s a r e a t t h e oxygen s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l . Spawning h a b i t a t s u p s t r e a m of t h e dam were t o be l o s t t o m i g r a t o r y f i s h ( D o l l y V a r d e n , rainbow t r o u t , kokanee, m o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h , p o s s i b l y w h i t e s t u r g e o n ) f r o m the Arrow L a k e s w i t h t h e use of the d i v e r s i o n t u n n e l and any p o s s i b l e r e c r u i t m e n t f r o m u p s t r e a m p o p u l a t i o n s t o the Arrow L a k e s w o u l d s t o p w i t h r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g ( #19). The f i s h s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n ( p e r c e n t a g e ) of Arrow L a k e s was e x p e c t e d t o r e m a i n t h e same, but u p s t r e a m l o s s e s o f m i g r a t i n g f i s h ( D o l l y V a r d e n , kokanee, rainbow t r o u t ) c o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e s of o t h e r f i s h s p e c i e s ( p r e s u m a b l y t h o s e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t ) (#20). To d a t e t h e e v i d e n c e i s i n c o n c l u s i v e and l o n g term m o n i t o r i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . I n i t i a l f i s h l o s s e s were e s t i m a t e d f o r kokanee as 20-30%, and f o r D o l l y V a r d e n as 1440 f i s h ( p e r c e n t a g e l o s s not g i v e n ) (#21a). Kokanee l o s s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t because 20% o f t h e i r spawning h a b i t a t had been l o s t w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e Arrow L a k e s r e s e r v o i r . I n t h e l o n g t e r m , some changes i n Arrow Lakes p r o d u c t i v i t y were a n t i c i p a t e d due t o changes i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of w a t e r r e l e a s e f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam. S i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s t o the Arrow L a k e s F i s h e r y f o r D o l l y V a r d e n , rainbow t r o u t and kokanee were e x p e c t e d and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f i s h e r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t r o p h y f i s h , was thought t o be endangered (#21b). Changes i n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h e f i s h e r i e s need t o be e v a l u a t e d o v e r t h e l o n g t e r m . 134 5.2 THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND WILDLIFE RESOURCE The E I S a s s e s s e d t h e g e o l o g y , l a n d f o r m s , s o i l s , and s l o p e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s e r v o i r a r e a , b u t o t h e r t h a n f o r t h e l a t t e r r a i s e d no c o n c e r n s . A l t h o u g h t h e s l o p e s t a b i l i t y of two a r e a s was m o n i t o r e d , t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d s a f e a nd no i m p a c t s were a n t i c i p a t e d . I n i t i a l s l o u g h i n g and e r o s i o n o f r e s e r v o i r banks f o l l o w i n g impoundment was c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e E I S ( s e e s e c t i o n 5.1.1.1). However, e r o s i o n o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e g o l f c o u r s e , an u n p r e d i c t e d i m p a c t , i s e v a l u a t e d h e r e a s a t e r r e s t r i a l i m p a c t , though i t s cause o r i g i n a t e s i n changes t o the a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p r e d i c t e d i m p a c t s on w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r o u t c o m e f o r m s t h e main t o p i c o f t h i s s e c t i o n , however, i t i s l i m i t e d by the p a u c i t y o f m o n i t o r i n g d a t a . 5.2.1 THE LAND SURFACE The C i t y o f R e v e l s t o k e f i l e d a c l a i m f o r m i t i g a t i o n and com p e n s a t i o n w i t h t h e CIC because p a r t s of t h e c i t y - o w n e d g o l f c o u r s e s i t u a t e d on t h e e a s t bank of t h e Co l u m b i a R i v e r downstream o f t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam were e r o d i n g ( S u s s e x , 1 9 8 5 ) . The C i t y ' s c o n c e r n was t h a t f u l l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e dam, once a l l f o u r t u r b i n e s were i n s e r v i c e , w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e r a t e o f e r o s i o n . The R i v e r s S e c t i o n o f the Water Management B r a n c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s c l a i m i n t h e f a l l o f 1984 (Water Management B r a n c h , 1984). The f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h e g o l f c o u r s e o f a t o t a l l e n g t h of 1000 m were e r o d i n g a t a slow r a t e . Comparison o f 1977 and 1980 a i r photos showed t h a t no l a n d had been l o s t d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s . A m o n i t o r i n g program o f 2000 m of t h e r i v e r bank was prop o s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r a t e o f e r o s i o n and t h e e f f e c t o f f u l l dam o p e r a t i o n . A m e l i o r a t i v e work i n t h e for m o f b r o k e n r o c k r i p r a p e r o s i o n p r o t e c t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o c o s t $425,000. T h i s p r o b l e m and o t h e r c l a i m s by l o c a l government were f u r t h e r a s s e s s e d 135 i n a c o n s u l t a n t ' s s t u d y commissioned under t h e w a t e r l i c e n c e ( S u s s e x , 1985). However, i t c o u l d not c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r the e r o s i o n was caused by the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Arrow Lake o r t h e R e v e l s t o k e R e s e r v o i r . The g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r e r o s i o n was a low Arrow Lake l e v e l and peak power g e n e r a t i o n a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e Dam. I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e C i t y ' s c l a i m , t h e p r o p o s e d m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d , a n d , i f w a r r a n t e d , a h y d r o l o g i c a l s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e cause o f t h e e r o s i o n . The c l a i m was s e t t l e d by B.C. Hydro and t h e C i t y i n t h e summer o f 1988 w i t h o u t any m o n i t o r i n g h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e . 5.2.2 THE WILDLIFE RESOURCE The c l i m a t i c and t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e R e v e l s t o k e P r o j e c t Study a r e a a r e h a r s h f o r w i l d l i f e a nd d e t e r m i n e b o t h t h e s p e c i e s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Moose, c a r i b o u , and g r i z z l y a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n t h e a r e a , but deer a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t w i t h l e s s i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r . As p a r t o f t h e P a c i f i c F l y w a y , t h e a r e a i s u t i l i z e d by m i g r a t o r y b i r d s , but a l s o by many r e s i d e n t b i r d s . D e s p i t e t h e l o n g l i s t s c a t a l o g u i n g t h e many mammals and b i r d s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e EIS p r e d i c t i o n s r e f e r o n l y t o w a t e r f o w l , d e e r , moose, and c a r i b o u . A H p r e d i c t e d i m p a c t s a r e q u a l i t a t i v e and e x t r e m e l y vague, because l i t t l e was known a b o u t t h e s p e c i e s ' p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , h a b i t a t , h a b i t a t u t i l i z a t i o n , and s e a s o n a l movements. Seven v e r y g e n e r a l a r e a s o f w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e c o n c e r n s a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e E I S . One of t h e s e , t h e change o f w i l d l i f e u s e p a t t e r n , c o u l d n o t be a n a l y z e d b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f d a t a . E v a l u a t i o n of t h e s i x r e m a i n i n g p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s i s based on d a t a g a t h e r e d under an agreement between B.C. Hydro and t h e FWB. The fo r m e r m o n i t o r e d the v a l l e y s p e c i e s s u c h as d e e r , b e a v e r , and w a t e r f o w l , and t h e l a t t e r u p l a n d s p e c i e s s u c h as c a r i b o u and g r i z z l y b e a r . Whereas t h e FWB's work has been 136 p u b l i s h e d , B.C. Hydro's rem a i n s i n t h e f o r m of f i e l d n o t e s w h i c h a r e now b e i n g a n a l y z e d by t h e p e r m a n e n t s t a f f o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s t a s k i s most d i f f i c u l t because t h e f i e l d n o t e s r e s e m b l e " h i e r o g l y p h i c s " and some o f t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s employed l i m i t t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e m a t e r i a l . The c o m p a r i s o n of p r e d i c t e d and a c t u a l i m p a c t s , summarized i n T a b l e 5.2, d i s t i n g u i s h e s between p r e - and post-impoundment d a t a , i . e . a c t u a l i m p a c t s a r e t h o s e t h a t happened a f t e r impoundment. However, t h e impact a r i s i n g f r o m i l l e g a l garbage d i s p o s a l r e l a t e s t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d . The i m p a c t s a r e grouped under s i x main c o n c e r n s g i v e n i n t h e EIS and f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i e s as shown i n t h e t a b l e . The w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e was e x p e c t e d t o be most s e v e r e l y i m p a c t e d by the d i s t u r b a n c e and removal of h a b i t a t i n t h e a r e a s of t h e r e s e r v o i r (21,500 a