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Urbis Genio : the classicizing of the Venetian palace facade in the pre-Sansovino period, 1480-1510 Burgess, Allyson Jane 1989

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URBIS GENIQ; THE CLASSICIZING OF THE VENETIAN PALACE FACADE IN THE PRE-SANSOVINO PERIOD, 1480-1510 By ALLYSON JANE BURGESS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of F i n e A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © A l l y s o n Jane Burgess, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of g i n e A r t s The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date October, 1989 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s study focuses on the facades of eleven p a l a c e s b u i l t i n Venice between 1480 and 1510. I t s purpose i s to d e f i n e the nature of Venetian Renaissance palace s t y l e p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of Sansovino and the Roman Renaissance s t y l e i n the c i t y , and to show how t h i s e a r l i e r s t y l e met the needs of the p a t r i c i a n p a tron. Although these p a l a c e s were p r a i s e d by Francesco Sansovino i n 1581, they have r e c e i v e d s h o r t s h r i f t by s c h o l a r s s i n c e . T h i s i s p a r t l y due to la c k of s u f f i c i e n t documentation, but the main reason s c h o l a r s d i s m i s s the p a l a c e s i s that the a r c h i t e c t s d i d not use the F l o r e n t i n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of antique d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s . The r e s u l t of t h i s a t t i t u d e has been that the b u i l d i n g s have never before been analyzed i n d e t a i l as a group. The aim of t h i s study i s to show that while use of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms of Roman c l a s s i c i s m was a component of the Venetian Renaissance palace s t y l e , other t r a d i t i o n s , such as the Byzantine, were e q u a l l y important. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e of these palace facades i s t r u l y i n v e n t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e . I t i s an i n t e l l i g e n t s y n t h e s i s of both s t y l e s , g r a f t e d onto a pre-e x i s t i n g l a t e G othic format, r e s u l t i n g i n facades that were i i i e v o c a t i v e and m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e V e n e t i a n s . I n C h a p t e r One, t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on t h e p a l a c e s i s r e v i e w e d , and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i n p r o v i d i n g a v i a b l e means o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m p l e x i m a g e r y o f t h e new s t y l e i s d i s c u s s e d . C h a p t e r Two s e t s up a c o m p a r a t i v e c o n t e x t f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e i n F l o r e n c e , d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p e d V e n e t i a n G o t h i c p a l a c e s t y l e , and a d i s c u s s i o n o f i n f l u e n t i a l e x a m p l e s o f e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e i n V e n i c e s u c h as t h e C a ' d e l D uca and t h e D u c a l P a l a c e . C h a p t e r T h r e e w i l l a n a l y z e t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e f a c a d e s , t h o s e b u i l t f r o m 1480 t o 1495. H e r e , a new a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n a s e r i e s o f d i v e r s e and c r e a t i v e l y w o r k e d f a c a d e s . C h a p t e r F o u r d i s c u s s e s how t h o s e p a l a c e s b u i l t f r o m 1495 t o 1510 u s e a new f a c a d e f o r m e v o l v e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r g r o u p and i n c r e a s e i t s s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l w i t h s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s . I n C h a p t e r F i v e t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e , t h e b e s t known o f t h e g r o u p , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . I t has most o f t e n been h e r a l d e d as t h e f i r s t " r e a l " R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e i n V e n i c e ; i t s f a c a d e w i l l be c ompared and c o n t r a s t e d t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r p a l a c e s i n o r d e r t o r e - i n s e r t i t i n t o t h e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e b u i l d i n g c o n t e x t . C h a p t e r S i x w i l l l a y o u t t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t p a l a c e b u i l d e r s were i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e new i v s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i m p o r t a n t c i v i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t o t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a h a r m o n i o u s p u b l i c image, r e f l e c t i n g t h e c o n s o n a n t g o a l s o f s t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y f o c u s s i n g on d e f i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e as i t e v o l v e s f r o m 1480 t o 1510 as a s y n t h e s i s o f a n t i q u e Roman, B y z a n t i n e , and V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s g r a f t e d o n t o a f r a m e w o r k p e r f e c t e d i n t h e l a t e G o t h i c p e r i o d . As i n many a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments o f t h e t i m e , t h e t o n e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s c u l p t u r a l i m a g e r y i s g e n e r a l l y t r i u m p h a l ; w i t h i n t h i s theme t h e r e a r e a l l u s i o n s t o t h e v i r t u o u s n a t u r e o f t h e V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n . I t w i l l be s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g Roman and B y z a n t i n e i m a g e r y i n t o p a l a c e f a c a d e s , t h e p a t r o n s may have been r e f l e c t i n g a c u r r e n t t r e n d i n V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t p r o p a g a n d a i n w h i c h i t s Roman and t h e B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e was b e i n g c a l l e d upon t o p r o j e c t a s t a t e image o f s t r e n g t h and power. T h i s u s e o f i m p e r i a l i m a g e r y , w h i c h t o o k on many f o r m s i n V e n i c e , b o t h v i s u a l and l i t e r a r y , may have been a r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h V e n e t i a n s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF THE LITERATURE 1 2. PALACES IN FIFTEENTH CENTURY FLORENCE AND VENICE 37 The D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F l o r e n t i n e R e n a i s s a n c e P a l a c e The V e n e t i a n G o t h i c P a l a c e Type t o 1480 The f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e i n V e n i c e 3. THE F I R S T RENAISSANCE PALACES IN VENICE: C. 1480-1495 65 4. PALACE FACADES FROM 1495 TO 1510: THE CODIFICATION OF THE VENETIAN RENAISSANCE FACADE 95 5. THE VENDRAMIN-CALERGI PALACE AND I T S RELATIONSHIP TO THE VENETIAN RENAISSANCE PALACE TYPE 128 6. VENICE IN THE LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY: HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT 142 The P o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n T o w a r d s t h e T u r n o f t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y V e n e t i a n R e s p o n s e s t o P o l i t i c a l D i f f i c u l t i e s V e n i c e and t h e I m p e r i a l T r a d i t i o n s , B y z a n t i u m and Rome P a t r i c i a n V a l u e s i n V e n i c e V e n e t i a n P a l a c e D e c o r a t i o n as a R e f l e c t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l and C u l t u r a l I s s u e s C o n c l u s i o n ILLUSTRATIONS 160 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 191 APPENDIX 197 P a r t A: C h e c k l i s t o f P a l a c e s P a r t B: V e n e t i a n P a l a c e s f r o m 1480-1510 Not I n c l u d e d i n t h e S t u d y v i L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1. G e n t i l e B e l l i n i , M i r a c l e a t San L o r e n z o , V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a , c. 1500 160 2. G e n t i l e B e l l i n i , D e t a i l o f M i r a c l e a t San L o r e n z o , V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a , c. 1500 160 3. J a c o p o d e ' B a r b a r i , B i r d s Eye V i e w o f V e n i c e , D e t a i l , V e n i c e , C o r r e r Museum, c. 1500 161 4. P a l a z z o D a v a n z a t i , F l o r e n c e , f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y 161 5. P a l a z z o M e d i c i , F l o r e n c e , begun 1444 162 6. P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i , F l o r e n c e , 1449 162 7. F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , V e n i c e , f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y 163 8. P a l a z z o L o r e d a n , V e n i c e , f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y 164 9. V e s t i b u l e o f D i o c l e t i a n ' s P a l a c e , S p a l a t o , 300 164 10. D u c a l P a l a c e , V e n i c e , 1345-1438 165 11. P l a n s , C a ' F o s c a r i and G i u s t i n i a n i , V e n i c e 165 12. C r o s s S e c t i o n o f C a ' d'Oro, V e n i c e 166 13. P a l a z z o d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e , V e n i c e , c. 1455 166 14. C a ' F o s c a r i , V e n i c e , c. 1425 167 15. C a ' d'Oro, V e n i c e , begun 1421 167 16. D e t a i l , D u c a l P a l a c e T r a c e r y , V e n i c e 168 17. C a ' d e l D u c a , V e n i c e , s t a r t e d 1457 168 18. D e t a i l , C a ' d e l D u c a , 169 19. F i l a r e t e , P a l a c e i n a M a r s h y P l a c e , f r o m t h e T r e a t i s e on A r c h i t e c t u r e 169 v i i 20. A r c o F o s c a r i , D u c a l P a l a c e , V e n i c e , 1450-85 170 2 1 . S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i , D u c a l P a l a c e V e n i c e , c. 1485 171 22. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , V e n i c e , c. 1485 171 23. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o 1 i g n a c , d e t a i l 172 24. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , d i a g r a m o f window ( A n g e l i n i ) 172 25. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , d i a g r a m o f b a l c o n y -d e c o r a t i o n s ( A n g e l i n i ) 173 26. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , d i a g r a m o f p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y , ( A n g e l i n i ) 173 27. P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i , V e n i c e , c. 1485 174 28. T u s c a n and V e n e t i a n window t y p e s ( A n g e l i n i ) .174 29. P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , V e n i c e c. 1480 175 30. Moro and K i e r , P a l a z z o Z o r z i , c. 1845 175 31. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , d i a g r a m ( A n g e l i n i ) 176 32. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , s i d e d o o r 177 33. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y d e t a i l 177 34. P a l a z z o G u s s o n i , V e n i c e , c. 1485 178 35. P a l a z z o G u s s o n i 178 36. P a l a z z o G u s s o n i , d e t a i l 179 37. Ca d'Oro, d e t a i l 179 38. C a ' D a r i o , V e n i c e , c. 1485 180 39. P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , V e n i c e , 1499 180 40. P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a 181 4 1 . P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , d o o r 181 4 2 . P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , d e t a i l o f d o o r 182 4 3 . P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n a S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a V e n i c e , c. 1500 183 v i i i 44. P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n , D i a g r a m , ( C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ) 183 45 . A r c h o f C o n s t a n t i n e , Rome, 312 184 46. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , V e n i c e , c. 1500 184 47. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , d i a g r a m 185 48. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , d e c o r a t i v e p a n e l , ( R u s k i n ) 185 49. San M a r c o , V e n i c e , S o u t h T e s o r o W a l l , t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y 186 50. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , W a r r i o r r e l i e f 187 51. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , d e t a i l o f W a r r i o r r e l i e f . . . 1 8 7 52. M a r b l e r o u n d e l s f r o m P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o and C a ' D a r i o , ( R u s k i n ) 188 53. P a l a z z o G r i m a n i a San P o l o , V e n i c e , c. 1500 188 54. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e , s t a r t e d c.1504 189 55. P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i , V e n i c e , 1500-1508 190 56. P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i , d e t a i l 190 i x •i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k my p a r e n t s , A r t h u r and M a r g a r e t B u r g e s s f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my a d v i s o r D r . D e b r a P i n c u s f o r h e r i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e , c r i t i c a l i n s i g h t , k i n d n e s s and p a t i e n c e . I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k o w l e d g e D r . G e o r g e Knox, P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s , who has been e s p e c i a l l y g e n e r o u s w i t h h i s t i m e and w i t h h i s v a s t k n o w l e d g e o f V e n i c e . F i n a l l y , t h a n k s t o my f r i e n d K a r e n J e n s e n f o r a s s i s t i n g w i t h t h e m a n u s c r i p t . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The e n t i r e c i t y i s c o n s t r u c t e d of b r i c k , but i f t h e i r empire continues to f l o u r i s h , i t w i l l soon be of marble, and indeed at the present time p a l a c e s of the nobles are veneered with marble and g l i t t e r with g o l d . ( P i u s I I , Commentarii) Pope Pius II P i c c o l o m i n i , w r i t i n g i n 1460, was e x p r e s s i n g concern over the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of Venice's i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n s e c u r i n g s t r o n g t e r r i t o r i a l and m e r c a n t i l e bases on the I t a l i a n mainland, i n order to r e p l a c e those which i t was l o s i n g to the Turks i n the Levant. As an a r c h i t e c t u r a l patron of no s m a l l measure h i m s e l f , he knew t h a t palace b u i l d i n g and d e c o r a t i o n was an important means by which the wealth and power of a s t a t e and i t s n o b i l i t y was expressed. P i u s was f a m i l i a r w ith the grandiose p a l a c e s begun i n the 1450's and 60's i n F l o r e n c e by the M e d i c i , P i t t i and R u c e l l a i f a m i l i e s , and was aware of the p r e s t i g e they c o n f e r r e d on t h e i r owners. P i u s ' words, as w e l l as d i s p l a y i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l a s t u teness, were oddly p r o p h e t i c , f o r twenty years a f t e r h i s death, Venetian p a t r i c i a n s began to commission p a l a c e s e n t i r e l y f a ced i n expensive m u l t i c o l o r e d stone m o t i f s , r e m i n i s c e n t of the Byzantine t r a d i t i o n . The impact of the r i c h l y c o l o r e d 2 s u r f a c e s was heightened by the f a c t t h a t these b u i l d i n g s were the f i r B t Venetian p a l a c e s i n which the o g i v a l arches and q u a t r e f o i l t r a c e r y popular throughout the f i f t e e n t h century were r e p l a c e d by round arches and f l u t e d p i l a s t e r s i n s p i r e d by an c i e n t Rome. The r e s u l t was a group of p a l a c e s , b u i l t between 1480 and 1510, on which a new d e c o r a t i v e vocabulary was being c r e a t e d and employed. T h i s was a very s p e c i a l moment i n the h i s t o r y of Venice, as the appearance of the c i t y was being changed d r a m a t i c a l l y by the reno v a t i o n of so many p a l a c e s . However, these b u i l d i n g s have never been s t u d i e d as a group, thus, the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c r e a t i o n of the Venetian Renaissance s t y l e has yet to be brought to l i g h t . The aim of t h i s study i s to provide an e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s important phase of Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y . To t h i s end, s e v e r a l steps w i l l be i n v o l v e d . An a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the palac e s w i l l show that t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i c a l methodology, with i t s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the A l b e r t i a n / V i t r u v i a n forms of c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary, cannot be p r o f i t a b l y a p p l i e d to the Venetian context. With t h i s i n mind, the formal q u a l i t i e s of the palace s w i l l be examined, and the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s t y l i s t i c components d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , reasons f o r the development of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type of Venetian palace d e c o r a t i o n can be suggested i n the l i g h t of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l context of l a t e f i f t e e n t h century Venice, p r o v i d i n g a 3 more s y m p a t h e t i c r e a d i n g o f t h e b u i l d i n g s , and a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i n V e n i c e . F o r many r e a s o n s , t h e p a l a c e s o f t h e l a t e Q u a t t r o c e n t o and e a r l y C i n q u e c e n t o have n o t b e e n p r o p e r l y s t u d i e d . P a r t l y t o b l ame i s t h e l a c k o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n . U n l i k e F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e s , f o r w h i c h c o n s t r u c t i o n r e c o r d s and c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a c t i o n s have s u r v i v e d , most o f t h e p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l s p e r t a i n i n g t o V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s were d e s t r o y e d i n f i r e s i n t h e D u c a l p a l a c e , i n 1480 and 1577. What r e m a i n s t h e n , a r e t h e b u i l d i n g s t h e m s e l v e s , most o f w h i c h have f o r t u n a t e l y s u r v i v e d , and a r a t h e r s c a t t e r e d l e g a c y o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . 1 The a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l i s o f two m a j o r t y p e s , g u i d e b o o k s and more s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s , e a c h o f w h i c h , a l t h o u g h t h e y c a n n o t r e a l l y be s e p a r a t e d , had a d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e and a g e n d a . S u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l e x i s t s i n t h e f o r m o f v i s u a l r e n d i t i o n s o f t h e c i t y and t h e p a l a c e s . An a c c u r a t e i d e a o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a l a c e s b e i n g b u i l t i n t h e new s t y l e c a n be r e a c h e d by c a r e f u l l y s i f t i n g t h r o u g h a w i d e v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l . The J a c o p o de B a r b a r i map, d a t e d c i r c a 1500, i s an 1 I t i s f o r t u n a t e , and a c r e d i t t o t h e e s t e e m i n w h i c h t h e s e b u i l d i n g s have been h e l d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s , t h a t a l m o s t a l l t h e m a r b l e f a c e d p a l a c e s have s u r v i v e d , and t h e i r e x t e r i o r s have n o t been s u b s t a n t i a l l y c h a n g e d . What i s c e r t a i n l y m i s s i n g f r o m t h e p i c t u r e o f V e n i c e a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h o s e p a l a c e s w h i c h had p a i n t e d f a c a d e s ( s e e f i g s . 1 & 2 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f a c a d e f r e s c o e s c a n be f o u n d i n L o d o v i c o F o s c a r i , A f f r e s c h e s t e r n i a V e n e a i a ( M i l a n : U l r i c h H o e p l i , 1 9 3 6 ) . 4 important a i d i n t h i s endeavour ( F i g . 3 ) . 2 T h i s amazing b i r d ' s eye view, the best of many which f o l l o w e d , d e p i c t s v i r t u a l l y every b u i l d i n g i n the c i t y . The map appears to be q u i t e ac c u r a t e , q u i t e a f e a t given the high b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y which e x i s t e d even then. By c a r e f u l l y examining t h i s map we can a s c e r t a i n which pal a c e s were i n e x i s t e n c e and canin many cases can i d e n t i f y whether i t was a Go t h i c or a new b u i l d i n g , h e l p i n g to date the p a l a c e s . In essence i t i s a v i s u a l r e c o r d of Venice produced towards the end of the p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s study, without which much of the work on Venetian Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e would be u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d . 3 T h i s very important v i s u a l guide to Venice was supplemented by many w r i t t e n ones. T h e i r importance i s not to be underestimated. Guidebooks were w r i t t e n to serve v i s i t o r s to Venice, and though t r a v e l was d i f f i c u l t i n the f i f t e e n t h century, Venice had many t o u r i s t s . The c i t y ' s p o s i t i o n as a 2 Juergen Schulz, "The P r i n t e d Plans and Panoramic Views of Venice (1486-1797)," Saggi e Memorie d i S t o r i a d e l l ' A rte 7 (1970). 3 I n t e r e s t i n Venice's p a l a c e s has a l s o been supported through the c e n t u r i e s by a c e r t a i n amount of v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . As w e l l as a s c e r t a i n i n g continued the p o p u l a r i t y of the b u i l d i n g s , i t a l s o l e t s us know that they have not changed s u b s t a n t i a l l y . In the e i g h t e e n t h century, r e p r o d u c t i o n s of some of the pa l a c e s appear i n c o l l e c t i o n s of drawings and p r i n t s which were commissioned or p u b l i s h e d , such as those of Vincenzo C o r o n e l l i who a l s o wrote guidebooks, C a r l e v a r i s , or V i s e n t i n i i n the Admiranda U r b i s Venetae (commissioned by B r i t i s h Consul Joseph Smith). Many p a i n t i n g s or r e p r o d u c t i o n s of Venice ( i n c l u d i n g the p a l a c e s ) were meant to be s o l d to f o r e i g n e r s on the Grand Tour of Europe. While none are p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y ac c u r a t e , they are nonetheless important documents. 5 major trade l i n k from the Middle East and Northern Europe meant that there were always merchants present. M e r c a n t i l e s t r e n g t h a l s o meant t h a t Venice was an important p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e , a t t r a c t i n g d i p l o m a t i c missions from around the world. Since p a t r i c i a n f a m i l i e s c o n t r o l l e d the commerce and p o l i t i c s i n the c i t y , both merchants or diplomats would have needed to know who or what was l o c a t e d where. Guidebooks served to educate people as to the l o c a t i o n and nature of the remarkable t h i n g s i n Venice. In doing so they became an instrument of the s t a t e ' s most important p r o p a g a n d i s t i c c o n s t r u c t : the ideas and legends which h i s t o r i a n s have termed the myth of Venice. The myth, or s t a t e c o n s t r u c t , as i t developed had many components, two of these being i t s s t a b i l i t y and independence, as i t had never been i n v a d e d . 4 T h i s l e d Venetians to c a l l t h e i r home the V i r g i n s t a t e . As w e l l as l i k e n i n g the s t a t e to a v i r g i n , they a l s o claimed that the s t a t e had been founded on Annunciation Day, and was under the p r o t e c t i o n of the V i r g i n Mary. Venice became known f o r i t s l i b e r a l and j u s t government, run by wise p a t r i c i a n s . The s t a t e was f u r t h e r b l e s s e d by i t s patron s a i n t , the e v a n g e l i s t St. Mark, whose remains l a y i n the s t a t e church, having, a c c o r d i n g to the Venetians been d e s t i n e d by God to r e s t i n t h e i r c i t y . Over many c e n t u r i e s , t r u t h and 4 For a more comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n of the myth of Venice see Chapter One of Edwin Muir's C i v i c R i t u a l i n Renaissance Venice ( P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y of P r i n c e t o n Press, 1981). 6 f i c t i o n were c l e v e r l y i n t e r t w i n e d i n the myth which, as we know from t h e i r comments, had a profound e f f e c t on f o r e i g n e r s . 5 As w e l l as the p o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l nature of the c i t y , the Venetian s t a t e c o n s t r u c t a l s o d e a l t with i t s p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s . Edwin Muir e x p l a i n s that the beauty of the c i t y was one of the most important aspects of the myth, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Renaissance, when P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y was used to a l i n k the B e a u t i f u l to the Good. 6 Guidebooks, by promoting knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the beautieB (and by a s s o c i a t i o n the goodness) of t h i s b l e s s e d and very s p e c i a l c i t y were thus important as m a t e r i a l i n support of the myth. The guidebooks should be understood as an important means by which i n f o r m a t i o n on and i n t e r e s t i n the palace has been kept a l i v e throughout the c e n t u r i e s . Palaces were always i n c l u d e d i n the books because they were an important component of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty of the c i t y ; thus the b u i l d i n g s have a r o l e i n s u p p o r t i n g the s t a t e . Palace facades provided p a r t of the c i v i c backdrop f o r the r i t u a l p r o c e s s i o n s which a f f i r m e d other aspects of the myth to both n a t i v e and f o r e i g n audiences. Thus the guidebooks, not only kept i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a l a c e s i n t a c t , but gave the b u i l d i n g s a p a r t to p l a y i n the promulgation and c o n t i n u a t i o n of the Venetian s t a t e c o n s t r u c t , on which the c i t y ' s s u r v i v a l i n c r e a s i n g l y grew to depend. One of the f i r s t , and c e r t a i n l y the most important s I b i d . , 44-55. e I b i d . , 15. 7 guidebooks i s that of Francesco Sansovino. He was the son of the w e l l known s c u l p t o r and a r c h i t e c t Jacopo Sansovino, a F l o r e n t i n e who worked i n Rome, but who came to Venice a f t e r the Sack i n 1527. Jacopo i s best known f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the Roman High Renaissance s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t o Venice with s t a t e commissions such as the B i b l i o t e c a Marciana and the Zecca or Mint, as w e l l as many p r i v a t e commissions. 7 His son's guidebook, e n t i t l e d V e n e t i a . C i t t a N o b i l i s s i m a et S i n g o l a r e was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1581, with many subsequent e d i t i o n s . 8 I t i s comprehensive, d e a l i n g with each s e s t i e r e of Venice, and has s e c t i o n s on the h i s t o r y and customs of Venice. Churches, s c u o l e and p a l a c e s have t h e i r own separate "books" or c h a p t e r s . Palaces are considered i n the n i n t h book, i n which Sansovino argues that the Venetians have the best, and the most pa l a c e s of any c i t y i n Europe. Sansovino s e t s up an odd d i a l e c t i c by s a y i n g that the modest Venetians c a l l t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s case and only c a l l the Ducal r e s i d e n c e a p a l a c e , as Norbert Huse and Wolfgang Wolters p o i n t out i n the s e c t i o n t h e i r recent book on Venetian a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e . 8 However, 7 For more in f o r m a t i o n on Jacopo Sansovino see Deborah Howard, Jacopo Sansovino: A r c h i t e c t u r e and Patronage i n  Renaissance Venice (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975). 6 The e d i t i o n c i t e d here i s that of G i u s t i n i a n o M a r t i n i o n i p u b l i s h e d i n 1663. Of the many e d i t i o n s of the guidebook, i t i s one of the best because M a r t i n i o n i updated the book but kept h i s a d d i t i o n s separate from Sansovino's o r i g i n a l t e x t . 3 Norbert Huse and Wolfgang Wolters, Venedig: Die Kunsfc der Renaissance (Munich: C.H. Beck, 1986), 24. 8 a f t e r s t a t i n g t h i s , Sansovino proceeds to use the term "palaces" throughout, so that there i s no mistake about the type of r e s i d e n c e under d i s c u s s i o n . He goes on to e x p l a i n how the b u i l d i n g s are c o n s t r u c t e d , by what m a t e r i a l s and means, as w e l l as how they are made he a l t h y to l i v e i n . Here i t i s almost as though he was answering to A l b e r t i ' s c r i t e r i a f o r healthy p a l a c e s and c i t i e s as l a i d out i n De re a e d i f i c a t o r i a . He dwells on the uniqueness and the comforts of these r e s i d e n c e s , such as the use of g l a s s windows, and on the r i c h n e s s of the d e c o r a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i n g the g i l d i n g used, and the s i l k banners which were hung from the windows. He a l l u d e s to the wealth of the p a t r i c i a n s , c r e a t i n g the impression that there i s no poverty i n the c i t y . Sansovino then proceeds to l i s t , by l o c a t i o n and f a m i l y , the p a l a c e s which he c o n s i d e r s the most n o t a b l e . Most are l a t e f i f t e e n t h century or s i x t e e n t h century b u i l d i n g s , with only the very e x c e p t i o n a l p o i n t e d arch b u i l d i n g s being i n c l u d e d ; those with s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r i o r s or e x t e r n a l p a i n t e d facades. Almost a l l of the e a r l y Renaissance b u i l d i n g s important to t h i s study are i n c l u d e d , and they are f o r the most p a r t d e s c r i b e d i n terms of glowing p r a i s e . For example, Sansovino s t a t e s t h a t the Palazzo C a p p e l l o i n Canonica i s " t u t t o i n c r o s t a t o d i f i n i s s i m i marmi, e magnifico, & b e l l o a f f a t t o . " 1 0 The t a s t e s of h i s time come through c l e a r l y when he names the f o u r best p a l a c e s i n Venice. Though three of the 8 Sansovino, V e n e t i a , 385. 9 b u i l d i n g s were from l a t e r i n the s i x t e e n t h century, the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi, was s t a r t e d around 1500 and i s thus s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . His c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n are c l e a r l y s t a t e d : the a r c h i t e c t must f o l l o w V i t r u v i a n r u l e s , and the palace must have a p p r o p r i a t e stonework d e c o r a t i o n s , be m a j e s t i c , and of the r i g h t s i z e and c o s t . 1 1 The Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi r e c e i v e s the most d e t a i l e d p r a i s e of i t s C o r i n t h i a n columns, white marble and b e a u t i f u l f e n e s t r a t i o n . 1 2 To Sansovino i t belongs to a very s p e c i a l c l a s s of b u i l d i n g s , ones which s t i l l stand out i n Venice. Even though two of h i s c h o i c e s are p a l a c e s by h i s f a t h e r , they were e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e s e l e c t i o n s , showing mainstream a t t i t u d e s . His i n t e r e s t i n b u i l d i n g s which use the a r c h i t e c t u r a l language of c l a s s i c i s m i s c l e a r . He mentions but does not rave over G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s , which he c a l l s " l o s t i l e tedesco." They are a n c i e n t as opposed to the modern ones of the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e . What i s 1 1 P. 387 "E per tanto d i sapere che i p r i n c i p a l i s s i m i d i t u t t i i P a l a z z i d e l Canal grande, sono q u a t t r o . ( p a r l o per a r c h i t e t t u r a , per a r t i f i c i o d i p i e t r e v i v e , per magistero, per grandezza d i corpo, e d i spesa, p e r c i o c h e q u e s t i s o l i costano o l t r e a 200. m i l a d u c a t i , ) c i o e i l Loredano a San Marcuola [the Vendramin-Calergi], i l Grimano a San Luca, i l D e l f i n o a San Salvadore, e i l Cornaro a San M a u r i t i o . Q u e s t i l a r g h i per c i r c u i t o , per a l t e z z a , e per ogni a l t r a q u a l i t a che s i r i c h i e d e a bene i n t e s i e d i f i c i , furono f a t t i ne tempi n o s t r i , e secondo l a d o t t r i n a d e l l ' a n t i c o V i t r u v i o , d a l l e c u i r e g o l e a g l i o t t i m i A r c h i t e t t o r i , non e l e c i t o d i p a r t i r s i . " 1 2 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that l e s s than a century a f t e r the e a r l y Cinquecento p a l a c e s were b u i l t , t h e i r a r c h i t e c t s are unknown to Sansovino; i f he had known that Mauro Codussi was the a r c h i t e c t of the Vendramin-Calergi p a l a c e , he would c e r t a i n l y have s a i d so. Information about a r c h i t e c t s working before Jacopo Sansovino seems to have been l o s t very q u i c k l y a f t e r t h e i r deaths. 10 i m p o r t a n t t o s t r e s s h e r e h o w e v e r , i s t h a t i n h i s c h o i c e o f t h e f o u r b e s t p a l a c e s , s h e e r o s t e n t a t i o n i s a s m u c h a f a c t o r a s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . S a n s o v i n o p r a i s e s t h e e a r l i e r R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e p a l a c e s ( t h o s e w h i c h a p p e a r e d b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r ' s a r r i v a l i n V e n i c e ) i n t h e s a m e t o n e s a s h e d o e s l a t e r o n e s . H e d o e s n o t s t r e s s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r R o m a n o r F l o r e n t i n e a d a p t a t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e n a t i v e V e n e t i a n t y p e ( e v e n t h o u g h h e l i k e s b u i l d i n g s t o f o l l o w V i t r u v i a n r u l e s ) , a s l a t e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l w r i t e r s d o . E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s w e r e q u i t e r e l e v a n t a n d " m o d e r n " t o S a n s o v i n o , e v e n t h o u g h h e w a s w r i t i n g e i g h t y t o o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s a f t e r t h e p a l a c e s w e r e b u i l t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p S a n s o v i n o ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n i n m i n d w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e w r i t e r s w h o f o l l o w i n t h e n e x t c e n t u r i e s , b e c a u s e t h o u g h h e s t a r t s t h e t r e n d o f j u d g i n g b u i l d i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y f o l l o w V i t r u v i a n r u l e s , h e d o e s n o t c r i t i c i z e t h e e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t h a t d o n o t f o l l o w t h e c a n o n e x a c t l y . T h e o p i n i o n s o f l a t e r s c h o l a r s o n t h i s i s s u e c h a n g e c o n s i d e r a b l y ; t h e y u s u a l l y m a r k t h e a r r i v a l o f J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o i n V e n i c e a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e " r e a l " R e n a i s s a n c e i n V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . F r a n c e s c o S a n s o v i n o ' s w o r k i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y a s a r a r e c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a c t i o n t o V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t s t a n d s a s a p a t t e r n f o r g u i d e b o o k s . O t h e r w r i t e r s r e p e a t t h e e n t h u s i a s m a n d p a t r i o t i s m 11 f o r V e n i c e t h a t comes t h r o u g h c l e a r l y i n h i s w r i t i n g . 1 3 They c a r r y down s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p a l a c e s w h i c h i s c o l l a t e d t o d a y i n t h e most u s e f u l g u i d e w r i t t e n by G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , c a l l e d V e n e z i a e i l suo e s t u a r i o . f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1926, and s i n c e u p d a t e d . A c o m b i n a t i o n g u i d e t o t h e a r t g a l l e r i e s a s w e l l as t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e , as a l m o s t e v e r y b u i l d i n g has some m e n t i o n and d o c u m e n t a t i o n , e v e n i f i t s i s o n l y a d a t e o r a s t y l e . 1 4 A n o t h e r t y p e o f g u i d e b o o k , one w h i c h d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p a l a c e s , became p o p u l a r i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s t y p e shows t h e c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t by b o t h r e s i d e n t s and t o u r i s t s i n t h e b u i l d i n g s . The two b e s t e x a m p l e s a r e G i a n G i a c o p o F o n t a n a ' s C e n t o P a l a z z i o f 1865, and G i u s e p p e T a s s i n i ' s A l c u n i P a l a a a i o f 1 8 7 9 . 1 5 T h e s e b o o k s a r e t h e b e s t s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g b o t h t h e b u i l d i n g h i s t o r y and t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p a t r o n f a m i l i e s and s u b s e q u e n t o w n e r s . They a r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y u s e f u l f o r i d e n t i f y i n g f a c a d e i n s c r i p t i o n s o r 1 3 Some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t g u i d e b o o k s a r e : V i n c e n z o C o r o n e l l i G u i d a s a c r a e p r o f a n a 1 7 0 9 ? , G.A. M o s c h i n i G u i d a p e r l a c i t t a d i V e n e z i a 2 v o l s . , 1815; F. Z a n o t t o N u o v i s s i m a g u i d a d i V e n e c i a , 1856; H.A. D o u g l a s , V e n i c e on F o o t 19Q4; G. L o r e n z e t t i V e n e z i a e i l suo e s t u a r i o 1956; E. H u b a l a V e n e d i g i n Q b e r i t a l i e n 1965; M. M u r a r o A New G u i d e t o V e n i c e and Her  I s l a n d s 1969, T. P i g n a t t i V e n i c e 1971. A l s o u s e f u l i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s G. T a s s i n i C u r i o s i t a Veneziane 1887 w h i c h d i s c u s s e s t h e h i s t o r y o f V e n e t i a n s t r e e t names and d i s t r i c t s . 1 4 L o r e n z e t t i a l s o c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s t h e g u i d e w i t h a l l t h e p r e v i o u s names o f p a l a c e o w n e r s , s o one c a n a c t u a l l y l o c a t e t h e b u i l d i n g s m e n t i o n e d i n e a r l i e r s o u r c e s s u c h as S a n s o v i n o . i s See a l s o T. Okey, The O l d V e n e t i a n P a l a c e s and t h e O l d  V e n e t i a n F o l k ( L o n d o n : 1 9 0 7 ) . 12 other elements now d i f f i c u l t to read. Fontana begins each e n t r y of Cento P a l a z z i with a d i s c u s s i o n of the p h y s i c a l appearance of the p a l a c e . He appears to have s t u d i e d the b u i l d i n g s c a r e f u l l y , d e s c r i b i n g the nature and s t y l e of t h e i r e a r l i e s t foundations, as w e l l as the facade d e t a i l s . He c a l l s the p a l a c e s of the l a t e Quattrocento and e a r l y Cinquecento by the usual term, lombardesque, a f t e r the f a m i l i e s and d e r i v a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t s and stonemasons to whom they are a t t r i b u t e d . As Fontana says i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Ca' D a r i o , these b u i l d i n g s have a type of " l e g g i a d r i a e d i eleganza a r c h i t e t t o n i c a " which belongs to the b e g i n n i n g of the time of the " r i s o r g i m e n t o d e l l a buona a r c h i t e t t u r a . " 1 6 As was most common i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, he p r e f e r r e d the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e d e r i v e d from the Greco-Roman t r a d i t i o n s to the Gothic s t y l e , but what i s very i n t e r e s t i n g i s the d e l i g h t he takes i n the nature and v a r i e t y of the c o l o r e d marbles and s c u l p t u r e d d e c o r a t i o n s of the f a c a d e s . 1 7 Fontana a l s o i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about b u i l d i n g 1 6 Gian Giacopo Fontana, Cento P a l a z z i (Venice: n.p., 1865) Chapter 23: 1. 1 7 For example, he continues on about the Ca' D a r i o : Marmi f i n i s s i m i ne r i v e s t o n o i l p r o s p e t t o ; n e l primo ordine i medaglione ornamentali appariscono q u a s i cammei i n c a s t o n a t i i n g r a n i t o , i n p o r f i d o , i n verde a n t i c o , e sono r i p e t u t i n e l l ' i n t e r m e z z o d'ogni ordine con v a r i e t a e r i c c h e z z a maggiore d i o r n a t i . N o b i l e e i l disegno d e i c e r c h i congengnati a mosaico, con r i t o n d i a f o g g i a d i p i c c o l e n i c c h i e . Nel t e r z o ordine spiccano p o i q u a d r i l a t e r i come i n t a g l i o o smalto f i o r i t o , e s o t t o i d a v a n z a l i n e g l i a n g o l i d e l primo ordine r i s a l t a l ' o p e r a d e l l e i n c a s s a t u r e d i medaglione d i s t i l e lombardesco a t r a f o r i , che a v v i c i n a s i a l disegno d e i l a v o r i e t r u s c h i . Peccato che i l poggiuolo con b a l a u s t r a t a d i f e r r o 13 r e n o v a t i o n s and i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s as they are a v a i l a b l e to him. He c i t e s w e l l known sources such as C o r o n e l l i and Temanza; however the amount of d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s of a l l the p a l a c e owners suggests that he d i d a d d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l work. T a s s i n i , on the other hand, attempts to be much more s c h o l a r l y than Fontana, as he f o o t n o t e s and quotes from a huge v a r i e t y of sources ranging from Sanudo's d i a r i e s and the Venetian f a m i l y chronache to the w r i t i n g s of the more c u r r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c h o l a r s . T h i s sometimes works to h i s detriment however, as he never d e s c r i b e s or comments on the b u i l d i n g s i n h i s own words. Apart from n o t i n g whether they are lombardesque or a r c h i a c u t o ( G o t h i c ) , he always quotes d e s c r i p t i o n s from another source. For example, where Fontana d e s c r i b e s the Ca' Dario i n great d e t a i l , T a s s i n i simply s t a t e s that i t i s " . . . r i c c o n e l p r o s p e t t o d i e l e t t i marmi o r i e n t a l i , ma, secondo l ' i l l u s t r e c r i t i c o P i e t r o S e l v a t i c o , alquanto d i f e t t u o s o n e l l a forma d e l l e sagome. . . " .* e To h i s c r e d i t , h i s e n t r i e s span a g r e a t e r range of b u i l d i n g s than do Fontana's, and though sometimes very s h o r t , are p r e c i s e , even i n c l u d i n g addresses. The l a r g e amount of space devoted to the f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s of the v a r i o u s r e s i d e n t s of the p a l a c e s through the ages, suggests that the p a l a c e s were o f t e n i n c l u d e d f o r t h e i r n o t o r i e t y or s c o n c i alquanto i l p r o s p e t t o e manchino ora i l a p i s l a z z o l i che v i erano s p a r s i , e complevano l a decorazione d e i marmi! Giuseppe T a s s i n i , A l o u n i P a l a z a i (Venice: n.p., 1879), 184. 14 c u r r e n t relevance to Venice, r a t h e r than f o r t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r e s t . Despite t h i s , the works are i n v a l u a b l e sources, and t h i s type of work continues to be w r i t t e n today, e x e m p l i f i e d by works such as Peter L a u r i t z e n ' s Palaces of  Venice which i n c l u d e s some e x c e l l e n t photographs with the e n t r i e s . S c h o l a r l y and guidebook l i t e r a t u r e cannot be completely separated from one another, indeed the two are interdependent i n many ways, s i n c e a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y d i d not become a formal d i s c i p l i n e u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h century. In both, the a t t i t u d e s of the w r i t e r s are bound to l a r g e r concepts of a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h e o r i e s , the seeds of which were being p l a n t e d very s h o r t l y a f t e r these p a l a c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d . Juergen Schulz, i n a review of John McAndrew's survey of Venetian Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, argues that methodological i s s u e s that have long a f f e c t e d the study of European a r t h i s t o r y have made Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e a v i r t u a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e s u b j e c t . 1 9 Schulz e x p l a i n s t h a t two t r a d i t i o n a l approaches have been employed. One approach was introduced by G i o r g i o V a s a r i , whose L i v e s of the A r t i s t s was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1550. He p r i m a r i l y wrote about a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s and he was so s u c c e s s f u l that h i s method, which i n v o l v e d a t t a c h i n g the r i g h t corpus of works of a r t to the r i g h t person, o f t e n u s i n g a b i o g r a p h i c a l 1 9 Juergen Schulz, review of John McAndrew A r c h i t e c t u r e of  the E a r l y Renaissance i n Venice i n J o u r n a l c f Modern H i s t o r y 53 (1981) 694-698. 15 s t y l e , has been the g o a l of c e r t a i n a r t h i s t o r i a n s ever s i n c e . Although an i n d i s p e n s a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n about f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h century a r t i s t s , V a s a r i was a F l o r e n t i n e who g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t a r t i s t s from h i s own r e g i o n were the best. He r e f l e c t e d common mi d - s i x t e e n t h century sentiments i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t the a r t s had developed and peaked under the Greeks and Romans, then had f a l l e n m i s e r a b l y i n q u a l i t y d u r i n g the Gothic era, only to be r e v i v e d i n h i s own time and lead to new heights by h i s f a v o r i t e a r t i s t M ichelangelo. T h i s reverence f o r the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , with a l l i t s problems, would dominate a r t h i s t o r y f o r c e n t u r i e s . The second method, c l e a r l y d e r i v e d from the same b e l i e f system held by V a s a r i and i n p a r t promulgated by him, has been a mode of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n a l y s i s used by those t r a i n e d i n the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , such as the I t a l i a n and B r i t i s h Neo-c l a s s i c i s t s and the t h e o r i s t s of the French Beaux A r t s s c h o o l . The standard of judgement f o r the Renaissance p e r i o d has been how " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t " an a r c h i t e c t was i n h i s use of c l a s s i c a l form, the standard being the monuments of Augustan Rome, as canonized by w r i t e r s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t i s e s l i k e V i t r u v i u s , A l b e r t i or P a l l a d i o . Both approaches to a r t h i s t o r y have been employed i n Venetian h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . Venice d i d not r e c e i v e i t s " V a s a r i " u n t i l the e i g h t e e n t h century, when Tommaso Temanza, an a r c h i t e c t and teacher at the Venetian Academy p u b l i s h e d h i s V i t e d e i p i u c e l e b r i a r c h i t e t t i e s c u l t o r e V e n e z i a n i che f i o r i r o n o n e l s e c o l o decimosesto i n 16 1778. 2 0 He belonged to a prominent c i r c l e of I t a l i a n neo-c l a s s i c i s t s . H is e a r l y Renaissance s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s l i v e s of the Lombardo f a m i l y , as w e l l as the l i f e of the w r i t e r F r a Francesco Colonna, whose Hypnerotonomachia c o n t a i n s many important c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings. However, j u s t as V a s a r i championed Michelangelo, Temanza does P a l l a d i o , and we see that the l i v e s are s e t up to i n d i c a t e a p r o g r e s s i o n of knowledge about the use of Augustan c l a s s i c i s m ( j u s t as V a s a r i ' s L i v e s were set up i n terms of copying antique s c u l p t u r e and a c h i e v i n g r e a l i s m i n p a i n t i n g ) . H is work i s v a l u a b l e because i t i s the f i r s t attempt to c r e a t e authors f o r works of e a r l y Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e . He i s one of the f i r s t sources to base h i s m a t e r i a l on a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h . The extent to which i n f o r m a t i o n was l o s t i n the pre c e d i n g two c e n t u r i e s i s only too c l e a r , as the a r c h i t e c t we know as Mauro Codussi i s only h i n t e d at i n the f i g u r e of Moro Lombardo, a r e l a t i v e of P i e t r o . As a s p e c i f i c source of in f o r m a t i o n about p a l a c e s , the work i s not as u s e f u l , as only a few palac e s are mentioned. But, Temanza does d i s c u s s the facade of the Vendramin C a l e r g i palace at len g t h as he sees i t as one of the most important b u i l d i n g s i n Venice, f o r i t s majesty, symmetry, and elegance of o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s compared f a v o r a b l y to the c e l e b r a t e d F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e s of the Med i c i and the S t r o z z i f a m i l i e s , thus l e t t i n g the world know when Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e reaches the 2 0 Reprinted i n Mi l a n , 1966, with a c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n and b i b l i o g r a p h y by L i l i a n a G r a s s i . 17 standards set i n other c e n t r e s of I t a l y . He f i n i s h e s by s a y i n g : C i sono d e l l ' a l t r e f a c c i a t e de p a l a z z i i n Venezia d i maggior mole d i questa, e se vogliamo anche, d i p i u c o r r e t t a a r c h i t e t t u r a ; ma questa l e supera t u t t e , per una c e r t a gustosa, e s a p o r i t a , per d i r c o s i , composizione, che ben s i conosce, ma non s i puo con p a r o l e adeguamente e s p r i m e r e . 2 1 Temanza has to make sure the reader knows that he can see the c l a s s i c a l l y " i n c o r r e c t " s e c t i o n s of the facade o r g a n i z a t i o n , even though he i s w i l l i n g to overlook t h i s d e f e c t . He l i t e r a l l y cannot f i n d words to d e s c r i b e the beauty of the facade; h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary, adequate to d e s c r i b e the workings of a b u i l d i n g done i n "proper" c l a s s i c a l form, i s l a c k i n g when i t comes to works i n which the a r c h i t e c t was not i n t e n d i n g to f o l l o w those r u l e s p r e c i s e l y . One of the most i n f l u e n t i a l works on Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e was w r i t t e n by Temanza's su c c e s s o r s i n the Academy, Cicognara and Diedo, along with Temanza's student, the a r c h i t e c t S e l v a . I t i s c a l l e d Le f a b b r i c h e p i u cospicue d i  Venezia and was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1815. The work i s broad i n scope, c o v e r i n g a l l p e r i o d s of Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e , but i t concentrates on the a r c h i t e c t s of the mid s i x t e e n t h to seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . These s c h o l a r s hold ideas s i m i l a r to 2 1 Tommaso Temanza V i t e d e i p i u c e l e b r i a r c h i t e t t i e s c u l t o r i V e n e z i a n i (Venice: 1778; r e p r . M i l a n : E d i z i o n i Labor: 1966, ed. L i l i a n a G r a s s i ) , 124. As w e l l as the Vendramin C a l e r g i , Temanza mentions (p.125) the P a l a z z i Gradenigo, the C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i , the T r e v i s a n (Bembo) i n the Campo of Santa Maria Formosa. 18 Temanza's about the h i s t o r y of a r c h i t e c t u r e , and f e e l t h a t the mature Renaissance s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s the best. The book i s made up of d e t a i l e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings of the major monuments of the c i t y , accompanied by a s h o r t commentary. The b i a s of the authors becomes c l e a r not only when the lengths of the e n t r i e s are compared (Ca' F o s c a r i r e c e i v e s a paragraph and P a l l a d i o ' s b u i l d i n g s a l l have two pages of d e t a i l e d commentary), but a l s o when the types of d i s c u s s i o n are compared. To t h e i r c r e d i t , even though they f e e l t h a t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e i s b a s i c a l l y b a r b a r i a n , having been h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the a r a b - o r i e n t a l t r a d i t i o n , they do i n c l u d e the G othic b u i l d i n g s , s i n c e , as they note i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the Ca' F o s c a r i , these were the f o r e r u n n e r s of the Venetian Renaissance s t y l e which produced such gr e a t a r c h i t e c t s as P a l l a d i o ; however the coverage of t h i s p e r i o d i s b r i e f and extremely g e n e r a l . When d i s c u s s i n g the lombardesque p a l a c e s of the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s the authors go i n t o more d e t a i l . In g e n e r a l they f i n d the facades g r a c e f u l and e l e g a n t , though some, l i k e the T r e v i s a n a Santa Maria Formosa have too much ornament, or l i k e the C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e are a l i t t l e d r y . 2 2 They are quick to p i c k up on any of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s which appear i n the b u i l d i n g s , but they f e e l they should use "indulgenza" and not be too hard 2 2 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the very h e a v i l y decorated pa l a c e s such as the Ca' Dario are not i n c l u d e d i n the survey, as they f i t n e i t h e r the Gothic nor the Renaissance p a t t e r n . 19 on the a r c h i t e c t s . For example, they conclude the d i s c u s s i o n of the Palazzo T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n Canonica with the f o l l o w i n g : . . i l passaggio d a l pessimo a l p e r f e t t o non p u o e f f e t t u a r s i che a g r a d i , scusar ne dobbiamo i l suo autore, che' esser deve uno d e i Lombardi o Guglielmo Bergamasco, ed a n z i essere a t a l i a u t o r i o b b l i g a t i d i avere i p r i m i scosso i l giogo d e l l a b a r b a r i e , n e l l a quale s t a v a s i i n v o l t a l a b e l l ' a r t e d e l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r a . 2 3 To Cicognara, Diedo and S e l v a , the e a r l y Renaissance b u i l d i n g s are worth d i s c u s s i n g not as a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y mature works which s a t i s f i e d the needs of t h e i r patrons, but as s o r t s of s t e p p i n g stones between the Gothic and the High Renaissance; they save t h e i r s u p e r l a t i v e s f o r the l a t t e r type. A t h e m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , but not q u i t e so l a r g e and comprehensive study was produced i n 1847 by another Academy i n s t r u c t o r , P i e t r o S e l v a t i c o , though he was more of a r i v a l than a f o l l o w e r or c o l l e a g u e of the e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . Even though he wrote h i s survey of Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e as an a e s t h e t i c guide, S e l v a t i c o i s no more sympathetic a viewer of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n a l l i t s f a c e t s than were Cic o g n a r a and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . For example, works of the medieval p e r i o d i n h i s o p i n i o n , cannot r e a l l y be c a l l e d a r t . He o f t e n r e f e r s to Temanza and Sansovino as h i s a u t h o r i t i e s , and a l s o f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e s the m e r i t s of the o p i n i o n s of Cicognara, Diedo and S e l v a . S e l v a t i c o s e t s up h i s s e c t i o n on the e a r l y Renaissance up d i f f e r e n t l y than the l a t t e r authors. 2 3 L. Cicognara, A. Diedo, and G.A. Selva, Le f a b b r i c h e p i u  cospicue d i Venezia 2 v o l s , (Venice: 1815 and 1820), 123. 20 He a d o p t s t h e s t y l e s e t by V a s a r i and Temanza, and d i s c u s s e s t h e w o r k s i n t e r m s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t s and s c u l p t o r s t o whom t h e y a r e a t t r i b u t e d . I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a l a c e s he i s v e r y l i k e h i s f o r e r u n n e r s i n f i n d i n g them e l e g a n t , l i g h t , y e t s u m p t u o u s . However, he c o n s t a n t l y a t t a c k s t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s t o s m a l l a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s , 2 4 b u t i s j u s t as f r e e w i t h h i s own o p i n i o n s , w h i c h a r e f a r more s c a t h i n g a t t i m e s , as t h o u g h he f i n d s many o f t h e p a l a c e s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e o f f e n s i v e . One e x a m p l e , q u o t e d by T a s s i n i , e x i s t s i n t h e segment on t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c ( M a n z o n i ) . S e l v a t i c o shows a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l f a c a d e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e s t o n e w o r k , b u t c o n t i n u e s on i n a v e r y f r a n k v e i n : C i o c h e a p p a r i s c e b r u t t o v e r a m e n t e e i l c o r n i c i o n e i n f e r i o r e c o n q u e l l ' a q u i l e e q u e ' g o f f i v a s i . S i v e d e l ' i n t e n z i o n e d i i m i t a r e l ' a n t i c o , ma q u a n t o s i a s i r a g g i u n t o l o s c o p o , l a s c i o d i r e a c h i s a . M i s e r a c o s a p u r s o n o i c a p i t e l l i c o m p o s i t i de b a s a m e n t o e p e s a n o t r o p p o a n c h e i s u p e r i o r i : ma q u e l l e g e n t i l i l o g g e d e l p r i m o e s e c o n d o p i a n o compensano c o n u s u r a c o d e s t i s c o n c i . 2 5 The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s i s t h a t S e l v a t i c o i s o f t e n c i t e d as an a u t h o r i t y on t h e s e b u i l d i n g s , and many o f t h e w o r k s s u f f e r b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e r a t h e r a r t i f i c i a l s e t o f s t a n d a r d s t h a t S e l v a t i c o ' s ( a n d h i s c o p n t e m p o r a r i e s ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r u l e s o f c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i m p o s e d upon them. A l t h o u g h some o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l 2 4 F o r e x a m p l e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e S e l v a t i c o s a y s : " I I D i e d o , uomo che b a d a v a , t a l v o l t a d i s o v e r c h i o , a l l e m i n u z i e p i u t t o s t o c h a l l ' e f f e t t o d e l l e g r a n d i masse...", 249. 2 5 I b i d . , 252. 21 data given i n the book i s extremely u s e f u l , the book i s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i t i s p r i m a r i l y an a e s t h e t i c guide of a s o r t common to the n i n e t e e n t h century, i n which the viewer i s taught to look i n a very narrow and judgmental s o r t of manner. Related a t t i t u d e s appear i n 1867 i n the Swiss s c h o l a r Jacob Burckhardt's h i s t o r y of I t a l i a n Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e . He was one of the e a r l i e s t a r t h i s t o r i a n s and h i s o p i n i o n s shaped much of the i n f l u e n t i a l German s c h o o l . Burckhardt f i n d s the Venetian use of ornament i n c o r r e c t and too weighty, p r e f e r r i n g F l o r e n t i n e r u s t i c a t i o n : I n c r u s t a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y favours the d e c o r a t i v e at the expense of the a r c h i t e c t o n i c . The e a r l y Renaissance i n Venice indeed s c a r c e l y deserves the name of a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . The p a l a c e s are saved by the beauty of f e a t u r e s i n h e r i t e d from the Gothic p e r i o d . When these are absent, e.g. i n the court of theDoge's Palace,the o s t e n t a t i o n i s re v e a l e d i n i t s f u l l i r r a t i o n a l i t y . The only p a l a z z o with a more scrupulous approach to the antique o r d e r s , p a r t l y i n the form of h a l f - c o l u m n s - - f o r a l l i t s t a s t e f u l l u x u r y - - s i m p l y makes one long f o r the F l o r e n t i n e s c h o o l ; t h i s i s the Palazzo Vendramin C a l e r g i , 1481, by P i e t r o Lombardo. 2 6 He has a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e to say about e a r l y Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e . To him, the Venetian mind s e t , with i t s s e r e n i t y and s e c u r i t y (read s t a g n a t i o n ) was the root of t h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l e a r l y Renaissance s t y l e . He concludes h i s d i s c u s s i o n by asking: Where would modern a r c h i t e c t u r e have ended up, i f i t had f a l l e n f o r any len g t h of time i n t o the hands of the Venetian exponents of a fretwork and j e w e l r y a e s t h e t i c ? 2 6 T h i s quote, and the one which immediately f o l l o w s , are from Jacob Burckhardt The A r c h i t e c t u r e of the I t a l i a n Renaissance. t r a n s . James Palmes, rev & ed. Peter Murray (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1985), 49f. 22 How g r e a t l y even i n Venice would the b u i l d i n g s of the F l o r e n t i n e Jacopo Sansovino and h i s School have been missed, through whom the d i s c i p l i n e of the High Renaissance was pioneered there. T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t example of the a t t i t u d e that has dominated much of the w r i t i n g on Venetian a r c h i t e c t u r e , that the r e a l Renaissance d i d not occur u n t i l someone from Rome and Fl o r e n c e showed the Venetians how a r c h i t e c t u r e ought to be p r a c t i c e d . From 1851 to 1858, a few years before Burckhardt's work appeared, the Englishman John Ruskin, i n d i s t i n c t o p p o s i t i o n to the N e o - c l a s s i c i s t s , was p u b l i s h i n g the Stones of Venice which championed the cause of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . The i n t e r e s t i n the G o t h i c , both a e s t h e t i c a l l y , and as a phi l o s o p h y of b u i l d i n g which gave a new a p p r e c i a t i o n to the craftsman, was growing i n both England and France (where i t was taken up by V i o l l e t l e Due). Ruskin, who spent many years i n Venice s t u d y i n g the a r c h i t e c t u r e , has i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s to say about the s h i f t from G o t h i c to Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s i n Venice, and which phase of Venetian Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e he p r e f e r s : There having been three p r i n c i p a l s t y l e s of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Venice,--the Greek or Byzantine, the Go t h i c , and the Renaissance, i t w i l l be shown...that the Renaissance i t s e l f i s d i v i d e d up i n t o three correspondent f a m i l i e s ; Renaissance e n g r a f t e d on Byzantine, which i s e a r l i e s t and best; Renaissance e n g r a f t e d on Gothic which i s second, and second best; Renaissance on Renaissance, which i s double darkness, and worst of a l l . 2 7 Ruskin, q u i t e u n l i k e most other a r c h i t e c t u r a l w r i t e r s , a c t u a l l y p r e f e r s the Venetian e a r l y Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e to that of 2 7 John Ruskin The Stones of Venice 4 v o l s . (London: Dent, 1904) i v , 327. 23 the high Renaissance, which he c o n s i d e r s f r o z e n and s o u l l e s s . Ruskin e x p l a i n s that i n the "Renaissance engrafted onto Byzantine" phase, m u l t i c o l o r e d marble w a l l v e i l d e c o r a t i o n s , borrowed from Byzantine churches appear on the p a l a c e s . As examples he uses l a t e Quattrocento and e a r l y Cinquecento facades such as the Ca' Dario and the T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n Canonica. He i s one of the f i r s t s c h o l a r s to take i n t e r e s t i n the Byzantine aspect of Venetian Renaissance p a l a c e s , and i t i s an important component of these works, one which w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h i s study. The f i r s t study to concentrate s p e c i f i c a l l y on the Renaissance i n Venice was P i e t r o P a o l e t t i ' s magnum opus, p u b l i s h e d i n 1893. He takes the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century i n t e r e s t i n documentation to the a i d of Venetian s c h o l a r s h i p and p u l l s out from the a r c h i v e s a l l the documents he can f i n d on the Renaissance b u i l d i n g s , and p u b l i s h e s them as p a r t of h i s study. He r e c r e a t e s the i d e n t i t y of the a r c h i t e c t Mauro Codussi, a t t r i b u t i n g to him the Vendramin-Calergi and the C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i p a l a c e s , and to the Lombardo f a m i l y the other turn of the s i x t e e n t h century p a l a c e s . However, i n comparison to churches and s c u o l e r the documentary evidence f o r p a l a c e s i s meager; P a o l e t t i ' s c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d are f o r the most p a r t a t t r i b u t i o n s based on s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s to b u i l d i n g s f o r which he has documentary evidence. A f f e c t e d by S e l v a t i c o , he d i s c u s s e s the t r a n s i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s of the f i r s t h a l f of 24 the f i f t e e n t h century, showing how the facades become more r e g u l a r i z e d , c r e a t i n g a path f o r the Renaissance b u i l d i n g s . Although t h i s work i s of utmost importance f o r the documentary re s o u r c e s examined, and the a r t i s t i c a t t r i b u t i o n made, he o f t e n r e l i e s on the c r i t i c a l judgements of Cicognara et a l , when d e s c r i b i n g b u i l d i n g s . T h i s , however i s a s m a l l f a c t o r c o n s i d e r i n g that P a o l e t t i ' s documentary d i s c o v e r i e s made a v a i l a b l e the i n f o r m a t i o n on the patrons and a r c h i t e c t (Mauro Codussi) of some of the most important p a l a c e s of the e a r l y Renaissance. Twentieth century s c h o l a r s h i p has taken some i n t e r e s t i n g t w i s t s and t u r n s . I t i s as d i s j o i n t e d as the sources which precede i t . Much of the work on p a l a c e s i s a t t r i b u t i o n a l , stemming from P a o l e t t i ' s r e s e a r c h . They are d i s c u s s e d i n s t u d i e s such as that of L u i g i A n g e l i n i which attempt to i d e n t i f y which works belong to the oeuvre of Mauro C o d u s s i . 2 8 One very important source i s E l e n a B a s s i ' s P a l a z z i d i  Venezia, which attempts to document and catalogue the c o l l e c t i o n of drawings commissioned from V i s e n t i n i by Consul Joseph Smith and f i n i s h e d c. 1733, c a l l e d the Admiranda U r b i s  V e n e t a e . 2 8 Since Smith's main i n t e r e s t was i n the b u i l d i n g s that were both a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t h i s c h o i c e p o s s i b l y determined by Academy i n s t r u c t o r V i s e n t i n i ) , and 2 8 L u i g i A n g e l e i n i , Le opere i n Venezia d i Mauro Codussi ( M i l a n : E m i l i o B e s t e t t i , 1945). 2 8 E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i Venezia> (Venice: Stamperia d i Venezia, 1976). 25 important i n h i s own day, B a s s i ' s work cannot be expected to be comprehensive. However, as Consul Smith and V i s e n t i n i found many of the p a l a c e s from the 1480 to 1510 p e r i o d r e l e v a n t , i t becomes an e s s e n t i a l work. B a s s i ' s analyses present i n f o r m a t i o n on b u i l d i n g h i s t o r y l i s t i n g complete b i b l i o g r a p h i c sources and r e p r o d u c t i o n s from many sources. Rather than making c r i t i c a l comments about the q u a l i t y of the a r c h i t e c t u r e , B a s s i quotes i n t e r e s t i n g comments from s c h o l a r s such as Sansovino and Cicognara. Her own c o n t r i b u t i o n s u s u a l l y takes the form of s p e c u l a t i o n about o r i g i n a l patrons and d a t i n g of d e c o r a t i o n s based on the a v a i l a b l e sources, and f o r the most p a r t are i n t e l l i g e n t attempts at coming to terms with d i s p a r a t e and d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l . Ralph Lieberman's book, Renaissance Architecture in Venice 1450-1540 a l s o takes the form of a s o r t of c a t a l o g u e . 3 0 A b r i e f i n t r o d u c t o r y essay o u t l i n e s the b a s i c b u i l d i n g trends, and then major monuments of a l l types, (with many of the pala c e s i n c l u d e d ) from 1450-1515 are d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . Lieberman's aim i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , however, from that of B a s s i . Lieberman's type of e n t r y c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of an a n a l y s i s of the formal elements of the b u i l d i n g . The aim of the d i s c u s s i o n i s to show what types of a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary are used and how these elements are manipulated i n a way which c h a r a c t e r i z e s them as "Renaissance." In h i s choice so (New York: A b b e v i l l e Press, 1982). 26 of time span and s u b j e c t matter f o r the book, he has drawn much from P a o l e t t i . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y evident i n the s e l e c t i o n of p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d , and i n the way i n which he s t a r t s out with l a t e r G o thic b u i l d i n g s and e x p l a i n s the "new" elements which are appearing on them, and then d i s c u s s e s , i n the b u i l d i n g s which f o l l o w , how more and more c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements are i n c l u d e d , and are used i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner, u n t i l the Vendramin-Calergi i s reached, which to Lieberman i s the apogee of p a l a c e b u i l d i n g i n I t a l y at the time. His most impressive c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a s e n s i t i v i t y to Venetian b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n s and d e c o r a t i v e i n t e r e s t s , and the way i n which these are combined i n the development of Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e . In both t h i s book, and i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e Lieberman d i s c u s s e s the Byzantine r e v i v a l apparent i n c e r t a i n Venetian c h u r c h e s . 3 1 . He does not, however, choose to explore t h i s i n terms of the p a l a c e s , i n which he sees no r e v i v a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . John McAndrew has a l s o d i s c u s s e d Byzantine q u a l i t i e s of churches, and does not i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s p o s s i b l i l i t y i n p a l a c e s . 3 2 L i k e Lieberman, i n the posthumously p u b l i s h e d book c a l l e d A r c h i t e c t u r e of the E a r l y Renaissance i n Venice. McAndrew co n c e n t r a t e s on formal aspects of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l 3 1 Ralph Lieberman, "Venetian Church A r c h i t e c t u r e around 1500", i n B o l l e t i n o d e l c e n t r e i n t e r n a a i o n a l e d i s t u d i d ' a r c h i t e t t u r a Andrea P a l l a d i o 19 (1977): 35-48. 3 2 John McAndrew, "Sant' Andrea d e l l a C e r t o s a " i n Art  B u l l e t i n 51 (1969): 15-28. 27 works d i s c u s s e d . 3 3 Although McAndrew understands and e x p l a i n s i n good d e t a i l Venetian b u i l d i n g t r a i t s and customs, he s t i l l wants the b u i l d i n g s to conform to the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . McAndrew was unable to d i s c u s s p a l a c e s as a group because they seem too e c l e c t i c to him, so the d i s c u s s i o n i s separated i n t o two p a r t s , e n t i t l e d " E a r l y Renaissance P a l a c e s " and " E x c e p t i o n a l P a l a c e s . " Facades are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y r a t h e r than as a common group, and very o f t e n , p i e c e s of p a l a c e s such as windows or s t a i r c a s e s are held up as examples. I t i s only when McAndrew gets to Mauro Codussi, the a r c h i t e c t who i s thought to have understood A l b e r t i a n p r i n c i p l e s b e t t e r than any other a r c h i t e c t working i n Venice, that whole b u i l d i n g s are analyzed with any sympathy. His a n a l y s i s i s deep, s e n s i t i v e and s k i l l f u l , but s i n c e i t i s clouded with the author's hidden agenda, to show how advanced the a r c h i t e c t ' s t h i n k i n g was i n terms of h i s a b s o r p t i o n of the r u l e s of Roman c l a s s i c i s m , many other aspects of the b u i l d i n g s are not d i s c u s s e d . McAndrew's book was the s u b j e c t of a s e r i e s of fundamentally important reviews which addressed the problems a s s o c i a t e d with h i s arguments and methodology, and suggested t h a t more a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l context, and thus provided an a l t e r n a t i v e means by which the p a l a c e s could be analysed. There are some works which address 3 3 (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 1980). Since the book reviews d i s c u s s e d the mistakes which r e s u l t e d from the posthumous p u b l i s h i n g of the work, which have s i n c e been c o r r e c t e d i n the second e d i t i o n , i n I t a l i a n , t h i s i s s u e need not be r a i s e d here. 28 t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n and do t r y t o keep h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n m i n d . However, b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e t u r n b r i e f l y t o t h e p r o b l e m o f V a s a r i and h i s l e g a c y . The V a s a r i a n t r a d i t i o n , when e x a m i n e d i n c o n t e x t , r e v e a l s t h a t i n F l o r e n c e , V a s a r i ' s method has b e e n a v i a b l e and s e n s i b l e way t o b e g i n t h e s t u d y o f R e n a i s s a n c e a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e F l o r e n t i n e s k e p t c o p i o u s r e c o r d s o f e v e r y k i n d o f a c t i v i t y , a r t i s t i c o r o t h e r w i s e . I n V e n i c e , h o w e v e r , t h i s i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t i n t e r m s o f p a i n t e r s and a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r a r c h i t e c t s , s i n c e r e c o r d s o f c o m m i s s i o n s were n o t k e p t i n t h e same way a s i n F l o r e n c e . A l s o , as D e b o r a h Howard p o i n t s o u t , V e n e t i a n s t o n e m a s o n s and a r c h i t e c t s were n o t a c c o r d e d t h e same k i n d o f s t a t u s t h e y managed t o r e c e i v e i n F l o r e n c e , V e n i c e a t t h i s t i m e s t i l l a d h e r e d t o t h e m e d i e v a l s y s t e m o f a n o n y m i t y . 3 4 A l s o , a s has been s e e n , t h e r e were no c h r o n i c l e r s o f a r t i s t s ' l i v e s o f V a s a r i ' s s o r t u n t i l t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and much i n f o r m a t i o n was d i s p l a c e d . As J u e r g e n S c h u l z d i s c u s s e s , t h i s l a c k o f n e a t l y d e f i n e d c h r o n o l o g i e s and s c h o o l s w i t h i n w h i c h t o p l a c e t h e w o r k s , has made s c h o l a r s u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . 3 5 I n o r d e r t o move b e y o n d t h i s p r o b l e m , s c h o l a r s have t o a c c e p t t h a t t h e r e a r e d o c u m e n t a r y l i m i t a t i o n s , and t h a t t h i s i s a p r o b l e m t h e y c a n n o t c o r r e c t ; i t w i l l a l w a y s be 3 4 D e b o r a h Howard, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , 115. 3 5 S c h u l z , R e v i e w . 697. 29 d i f f i c u l t to put works of a r t i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order and to a t t r i b u t e them c o r r e c t l y . A l s o , there were d i f f e r e n t working c o n d i t i o n s i n Venice i n comparison to other f i f t e e n t h century c e n t r e s . Thus s c h o l a r s must o f t e n step aside from the customary c o n s t r u c t s of a r c h i t e c t s , t h e i r works and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . B u i l d i n g s could be analyzed as a group, r a t h e r than by d i f f e r e n t u n i d e n t i f i a b l e people, and a s s c o c i a t e d with the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l circumstances which produced them, i n order that they be b e t t e r understood. The other methodological i s s u e with which we have been concerned was that the standard of judgement f o r the Renaissance p e r i o d has been how " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t " an a r c h i t e c t was i n h i s use of c l a s s i c a l form as i t appeared i n the monuments of Augustan Rome, and canonized by w r i t e r s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t i s e s l i k e V i t r u v i u s , A l b e r t i or P a l l a d i o . These ideas have provided the b a s i s f o r the way a l l Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e has been judged, yet they are c r i t e r i a to which the b u i l d i n g s were not o r i g i n a l l y meant to conform. Such a r c h i t e c t u r a l standards are d i f f i c u l t to apply to the f i f t e e n t h century, because, as Howard Burns has poi n t e d out, at that time o n l y a few a r c h i t e c t s , such as A l b e r t i (whose De re  a e d i f i c a t o r i a was not even p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1485), r e a l l y understood such t h i n g s as the c o r r e c t use of the orde r s , and even to him i t was not i m p o r t a n t . 3 6 In the f i f t e e n t h century, 3 6 Howard Burns "Quattrocento A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Antique: Some Problems" i n C l a s s i c a l I n f l u e n c e s on European C u l t u r e A.D. 500-1500. ed. R.R. Bolgar (London, 1969): 269-287. 30 c a p t u r i n g t h e s p i r i t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e t t e r o f a n t i q u i t y was t h e a i m o f t h e a r c h i t e c t . B r u n e l l e s c h i , a s has been shown, was a l s o o f t e n i n s p i r e d by b u i l d i n g s o f t h e T u s c a n Romanesque, s u c h as t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y B a p t i s t e r y i n F l o r e n c e , w h i c h was t h o u g h t t o be a Roman s t r u c t u r e . Howard B u r n s and Howard S a a l m a n e v e n c o n t e n d t h a t he had a l s o l o o k e d t o some V e n e t o -B y z a n t i n e s t r u c t u r e s l i k e t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y San M a r c o . 3 7 I t i s n o t u n t i l t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t B r a m a n t e and R a p h a e l i n Rome s t a r t t o u s e t h e " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t " c l a s s i c i s m t h a t h a s been s e e n as d e s i r a b l e . 3 3 T h u s , g i v e n t h a t i n t h e Q u a t t r o c e n t o , F l o r e n t i n e a r c h i t e c t s u s e d c l a s s i c a l f o r m s g r a f t e d o n t o i n d i g e n o u s t y p e s , i t i s e x p e c t i n g t o o much t o want t h e V e n e t i a n s , who had t h e i r own i n d i g e n o u s f o r m s , t o c o p y t h i s m ethod. J u s t as a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y c o r r e c t o r " H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e " c l a s s i c i s m was n o t u s e d i n V e n i c e i n t h e l a t e r p a r t o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y n e i t h e r were i t s f o r m s u s e d a n y w h e r e e l s e . Howard B u r n s ' work l a y s o u t some b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , b u t work has a l s o b een done t o p r o v i d e a f u l l e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f V e n e t i a n Q u a t t r o c e n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . H e l m u t L o r e n z ' a r t i c l e on V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e s some o f t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e 3 7 i b i d . , 277. 3 3 As i n t h e s o - c a l l e d House o f R a p h a e l i n Rome, c i r c a 1510. Even, t h o u g h t h e p i a n o n o b i l e i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n c o r r e c t D o r i c f o r m , i n i t s h e a v i l y r u s t i c a t e d l o w e r f l o o r w i t h s h o p s t h e p a l a c e s t i l l d e r i v e s f r o m a t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l . t y p e . 31 f a c a d e s . 3 9 The a r t i c l e o n l y b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s and moves on t o c o n c e n t r a t e on l a t e r s t r u c t u r e s , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s , when c o m b i n e d w i t h R u s k i n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s , he p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l t r a c k o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h w i l l be e x p l o r e d t o g r e a t e r d e p t h s i n t h i s s t u d y . Work has a l s o begun t o p u t t h e w o r k s i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l a m b i e n t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y were c r e a t e d . T h i s i s t h e a i m o f t h e 1977 book on Mauro C o d u s s i w r i t t e n b y L o r e d a n a O l i v a t o and L i o n e l l o P u p p i . 4 0 I m p o r t a n t work i s done on t h e p a t t e r n s o f p a t r o n a g e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t , t r a c i n g h i s r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r w o r k s t o t h e same g r o u p o f p a t r i c i a n s , who were h u m a n i s t s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e C a m a l d o l e s e m o n a s t e r y . The a u t h o r s a l s o c r e a t e a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e p a t r i c i a n s who have a d e s i r e t o p o r t r a y V e n i c e a s a new w o r l d , a new E d e n , a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . C l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e a s s e t down by A l b e r t i and r e a l i z e d i n t h e w o r k s o f Mauro C o d u s s i was t h e i r means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i d e a l . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n , when r e v i e w i n g t h i s book s e n s i b l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r s go t o o f a r i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p a t r o n s t a u g h t t h e a r c h i t e c t a b o u t A l b e r t i a n i d e a s . He a l s o b r i n g s up t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t a b o u t t h e book i n t h a t t h e c a t a l o g u e , w h i c h d i s c u s s e s t h a t a v a i l a b l e f a c t s a b o u t e v e r y b u i l d i n g w h i c h a t some t i m e has 3 9 H e l m u t L o r e n z , " U b e r l e g u n g e n zum v e n e z i a n i s c h e n P a l a s t b a u d e r R e n a i s s a n c e , i n Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e 13 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 3 -53. 4 0 ( M i l a n : E l e c t r a , 1 9 7 7 ) . 32 been a t t r i b u t e d to Codussi ( i n c l u d i n g most of the palac e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n here), i s i n no way r e l a t e d to the t e x t . 4 1 Thus, these most i n t e r e s t i n g and p r o v o c a t i v e ideas have not been put to the t e s t through a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the a r c h i t e c t u r e . Since there i s a chapter on p a t r i c i a n p a l a c e s designed by Codussi, c l e a r l y there i s some work to be done to make the connections between the new a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary that emerged i n the l a t e Quattrocento and e a r l y Cinquecento and the changing s o c i o - c u l t u r a l ambient. T h i s concept has some very important p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and indeed another I t a l i a n s c h o l a r , Manfredo T a f u r i has a l s o h i n t e d at the conn e c t i o n . Although h i s book, Venezia e i l  R i n a s c i m e n t o 4 2 d e a l s mostly with the l a t t e r p a r t of the s i x t e e n t h century, i n the opening chapter he t r a c e s the appearance of a c e r t a i n type of imagery connected to humanist ideas and i d e a l s which appears on one some of the palac e s beginning i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h century Venice. T h i s c r e a t e s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a l l the imagery on the pa l a c e s . In the l a s t p a r t of the t h e s i s , the v i a b i l i t y of these author's v i s i o n s of the aims of the Renaissance Venetian p a t r i c i a n as i t may have been expressed i n palace d e c o r a t i o n w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Before the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l 4 1 Ralph Lieberman, review of Mauro Codussi, by Loredana O l i v a t o Puppi and L i o n e l l o Puppi, In J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of  A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s 38 (1979): 387-90. 4 2 ( T o r i n o : G i u l i o E i n a u d i , 1985). 33 changes i n Renaissance Venice and changes i n palace s t y l e can be examined, i t i s necessary to c a r e f u l l y examine and d e f i n e the formal elements of t h i s group of palac e s as a whole. E a r l i e r s c h o l a r s have, f o r the most p a r t , looked at the b u i l d i n g s i n terms of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l g o a l s of the mid s i x t e e n t h century a r c h i t e c t , and not those of the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century a r c h i t e c t . To avoid t h i s problem, we have to assume that the a r c h i t e c t knew what he was doing, and had c e r t a i n other g o a l s of ex p r e s s i o n i n mind, and through the formal a n a l y s i s t r y to d i s c o v e r those g o a l s . In order to provide the proper context f o r the d e f i n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the new palace s t y l e as i t emerged i n the l a t e r Quattrocento and e a r l y Cinquecento i n Venice, the nature of the mainland G o t h i c and the Renaissance palace type must f i r s t be d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by t h a t of the Gothic palace i n Venice. An understanding of the l a t e G othic palace type i n i t s most devloped form i s e s s e n t i a l to t h i s study f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , the l a t e G o t h i c type forms the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r the Renaissance type, and secondly, i t can be c o n t r a s t e d to the new type. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the a r c h i t e c t u r a l v ocabulary and the conceptual o r g a n i z a t i o n between the o l d and new types w i l l thus become much c l e a r e r . Then, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e a r l i e s t examples of Renaissance s t y l e , such as the fragmentary Ca' d e l Duca and the second phase of the Arco F o s c a r i w i l l be d i s c u s s e d with r e f e r e n c e to the use of Roman c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary, as w e l l as the 34 appearance of new, more s u b s t a n t i a l forms. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the completed Arco F o s c a r i and the S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , s i n c e the comprehensive use of Roman c l a s s i c i z i n g s t y l e and the sugg e s t i v e iconography of these works was an important c a t a l y s t f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new d e c o r a t i v e s t y l e i n p a t r i c i a n p a l a c e s . Chapter Three w i l l analyze the f i r s t group of Renaissance p a l a c e s , those b u i l t from c i r c a 1480 to 1495, and w i l l s t a r t the process of d e f i n i n g the e a r l y Venetian Renaissance palace s t y l e . These years are ones of great freedom and experimentation i n palace b u i l d i n g , r e s u l t i n g i n the d i s c o v e r y of a s u i t a b l e new s t y l e . In f a c t , d i v e r s i t y i s one of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group. There are common d e c o r a t i v e trends, however. The pa l a c e s are a l l r e v e t t e d i n I s t r i a n stone and p r e c i o u s marbles, which were very expensive. They use the a r c h i t e c t u r a l language of Roman c l a s s i c i s m , such as round arches and Roman-like c a p i t a l s and f r i e z e s , though not i n an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t manner. The broad expanses of superimposed l a y e r s of round arched windows make the p a l a c e s appear l i k e t h e i r Trecento Veneto-Byzantine f o r e r u n n e r s . P r e c i o u s stone ornaments, of a type d e r i v e d from Byzantine p a l a c e s and churches, add to the Byzantine r e v i v a l e f f e c t , making t h i s one of the major themes of the new s t y l e . There i s a l s o a new s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the way the s p a t i a l elements of the facade are manipulated, c r e a t i n g facades i n which every element helps to d e f i n e the whole. 35 In Chapter Four, which analyzes the p a l a c e s b u i l t from 1495 to 1510, we s t a r t with a b a s i c model which evolved out of the experimentations of the f i r s t group. The type i s now much e a s i e r to d e f i n e , having s o l i d i f i e d somewhat. The model r e t a i n s the l a t e G othic t r i p a r t i t e form, the Veneto-Byzantine window p l a n , and has Roman c l a s s i c a l d i v i d i n g and s u p p o r t i n g elements such as p i l a s t e r s , columns and mouldings. These are beginning to h i n t at s u p p o r t i n g the facade. T h i s l a t e r group of palace s i s not as d i v e r s e as the e a r l i e r group. T h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y appears i n the s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s , which are, l i k e the b a s i c facade p l a n , a mixture and s y n t h e s i s of Roman and Byzantine m o t i f s . The m o t i f s o f t e n have triumphal or f e s t i v e themes, and sometimes h i n t at e x p r e s s i n g c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the p a t r i c a i n owners, such as p i e t y or prudence. ' The f i n a l chapter w i l l i n c l u d e an a n a l y t i c a l comparison between the Vendramin-Calergi p a l a c e , the l a r g e s t and most famous pa l a c e of the p e r i o d , and the b u i l d i n g s of the new type d e s c r i b e d i n the pre v i o u s c h a p t e r s . U s u a l l y the Vendramin-C a l e r g i palace i s admired f o r i t s c a n o n i c a l V i t r u v i a n c l a s s i c a l vocabulary, my a n a l y s i s w i l l seek to r e l o c a t e i t w i t h i n the context from which i t grew. In the c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s , the p o l i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l c ontexts which made the choice of dua l Byzantine and Roman c l a s s i c a l imagery r e l e v a n t f o r Venetian p a t r i c i a n palace b u i l d e r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . In doing so, I aim to b r i n g out the i n t e l l i n g e n c e 36 and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the Venetian a r c h i t e c t s and patrons of the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i n Venice, so that the palace a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h i s p e r i o d w i l l no longer be seen as a s e r i e s of u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts to i m i t a t e the V i t r u v i a n model. 37 CHAPTER TWO PALACES IN FIFTEENTH CENTURY FLORENCE AND VENICE The Development of the F l o r e n t i n e Palace Type. Most s c h o l a r s agree that the I t a l i a n Renaissance palace type developed i n the mid f i f t e e n t h century i n F l o r e n c e and spread from there to other c e n t r e s of the m a i n l a n d . 1 The medieval p a l a c e type developed from the o l d Roman i n s u l a , a group of b u i l d i n g s with shops on the bottom and r e s i d e n t i a l space above. T h i s was the b a s i c r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t of the c i t y , and r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v e d c l o s e together i n groups of these homes. T h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t was i d e n t i f i e d not by the d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s , which f o r the most p a r t resembled the others of the c i t y , but by t h e i r l o g g i a s , under which they met each other i n peace time, and by t h e i r towers i n t o which they crowded themselves i n times of 1 For the development of the F l o r e n t i n e Renaissance palace type from i t s medieval predecessors see Richard A. Goldthwaite, The B u i l d i n g of Renaissance F l o r e n c e . ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980); and, by the same author "The F l o r e n t i n e Palace as Domestic A r c h i t e c t u r e " American H i s t o r i c a l Review 77 (1972): 977-1012; I s a b e l l e I. Hyman's important d i s s e r t a t i o n e n t i t l e d F i f t e e n t h Century F l o r e n t i n e S t u d i e s : The Palazzo Medici and a Ledger f o r the Church of San Lorenzo. (New York: Garland P u b l i s h i n g Inc., 1977); the chapter on p a l a c e s i n Peter Murray's survey, The A r c h i t e c t u r e of the I t a l i a n Renaissance. (London: Thames and Hudson L t d . , 1969). 38 c i v i l u n rest or f o r e i g n a t t a c k . 2 With the development of a g u i l d commune type of government i n the l a t e t h i r t e e n t h and e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the towers were ordered cut down i n an attempt to c o n t r o l c i v i l u nrest caused by f a c t i o n a l f i g h t i n g . While there are no examples of f u l l y extant medieval towers l e f t i n F l o r e n c e , a good example of a medieval palace e x i s t s i n the Trecento Palazzo Davanzati ( F i g 4 ) . I t i s a four s t o r e y b u i l d i n g with a l o g g i a on top where the f a m i l y would have taken a i r d u r i n g the hot summers. T h i s s t r u c t u r e , c a l l e d a palcho. had an overhanging roof to c a s t shade down,; onto the r e s t of the b u i l d i n g . The palace i s on a s m a l l s i t e which only had room f o r a s t a i r c a s e c o u r t r a t h e r than a f u l l s i z e d e n c l o s u r e . I t has a stone e x t e r i o r with deep c h a n n e l l i n g between the b r i c k s . The s i g h t l y p o i n t e d arched v o u s s o i r s surrounding the windows and doors are the only d e c o r a t i o n i n the brickwork, which g i v e s the o v e r a l l impression of an impregnable b u i l d i n g . The lower s t o r e y , with i t s l a r g e arched openings, would at one time have contained shops. The f i r s t f l o o r , or piano n o b i l e contained the p r i n c i p l e l i v i n g rooms of the f a m i l y . The upper s t o r e y s would have contained the l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r the s e r v a n t s , as they were l e s s comfortable i n mid winter or mid summer than the s t o r e y s below. With the r i s e of a wealthy and powerful group of merchants toward the middle of the f i f t e e n t h century, the 2 Goldethwaite, Renaissance F l o r e n c e , 14. 39 u n i f o r m i t y w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e c i t y b e g a n t o d i s a p p e a r , a l t e r e d f o r e v e r b y t h e m a s s i v e and d i s t i n c t i v e p a l a c e s w h i c h were b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . A l t h o u g h s u p p o s e d l y a commune, r u n by t h e g u i l d s , F l o r e n c e was now i n f a c t p r i n c i p a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e M e d i c i f a m i l y and t h e i r r i v a l s s u c h a s t h e S t r o z z i , t h e P i t t i and t h e R u c c e l l a i . T h e s e f a m i l i e s c h a l l e n g e d t h e norm and c o m m i s s i o n e d v e r y l a r g e homes. By u s i n g t h e a r g u m e n t s o f t h e h u m a n i s t s , who u s e d A r i s t o t e l i a n c o n c e p t s o f m a g n i f i c e n c e t o show t h a t i t was n o t o n l y f i t t i n g , b u t t h a t i t was r i g h t f o r g r e a t men t o b u i l d i n s u c h a way, t h e y c o u n t e r e d t h e a r g u m e n t s o f t h e j e a l o u s , who c l a i m e d p u b l i c d i s p l a y o f w e a l t h i n t h e f o r m o f p r i v a t e p a l a c e s was s i n f u l . 3 The s i z e and o s t e n t a t i o n o f a p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e became synonymous w i t h t h e g r e a t n e s s and v i r t u e o f t h e p e r s o n who c o m m i s s i o n e d i t . The s p e e d w i t h w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e p t s o f v i r t u o u s m a g n i f i c e n c e s p r e a d t o o t h e r c e n t r e s o f I t a l y p o i n t s t o t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s f o r p a t r o n s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , J.R. S p e n c e r c i t e s a l e t t e r d a t e d 1461 f r o m B e n e d e t t o F e r r i n i , a r c h i t e c t , t o h i s e m p l o y e r F r a n c e s c o S f o r z a , Duke o f M i l a n , on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p a r t i a l l y b u i l t V e n e t i a n p a l a c e w h i c h t h e l a t t e r had j u s t p u r c h a s e d f r o m t h e C o r n a r o f a m i l y : ...a me p a r e che m i s s e r A n d r e a c o r n a r o h a v e s s e uno animo magnanimo p e r c h e ha p r i n c i p i a t o un m a g n i f i c o & 3 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n T r e c e n t o and Q u a t t r o c e n t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w e a l t h as t h e y a p p e a r i n c o n t e m p o r a r y o p i n i o n s o f M e d i c i a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a t r o n a g e , s e e A.D. F r a s e r J e n k i n s , "Cosimo d e ' M e d i c i ' s P a t r o n a g e o f A r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e T h e o r y o f M a g n i f i c e n c e " , i n J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s 33 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 162-70. 40 s t u p e n t i s s i m o L a v o r o q u a n t o p e r L u y non g l i manchava e t v o l e r e f a r e un b e l l i s i m o e d i f i c i o . . . " 4 H e r e , C o r n a r o has been c r e d i t e d w i t h a g e n e r o u s s p i r i t f o r w a n t i n g t o c r e a t e a b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g . B o t h I s a b e l l e Hyman and R i c h a r d G o l d t h w a i t e p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e new F l o r e n t i n e d o m e s t i c p a l a c e t y p e was d e r i v e d f r o m t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t f o r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s s u c h as t h e B i s h o p , t h e P o d e s t a " o r t h e P r i o r s . The P a l a z z o V e c c h i o , w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e c o u n c i l h a l l s and t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e c i t y P r i o r s i s l a r g e and s q u a r i s h , w i t h a s p a c i o u s i n t e r n a l c o u r t y a r d and l o g g i a , w i t h a w e l l i n c a s e t h e o f f i c i a l s had t o l o c k t h e m s e l v e s i n s i d e d u r i n g t i m e s o f c i v i l s t r i f e o r f o r e i g n a t t a c k . I t s f a c a d e i s r u s t i c a t e d t o g i v e a f o r b i d d i n g a p p e a r a n c e . The s t r i n g c o u r s e s mark t h e s t o r e y d i v i s i o n s . The s t o n e w o r k w a l l s a r e p u n c t u a t e d by l o n g rows o f b i f u r c a t e d p o i n t e d a r c h w indows. The b u i l d i n g i s c r o w n e d by a m a s s i v e p r o j e c t i n g c r e n e l a t e d a r c a d e , o u t o f w h i c h r i s e s t h e b e l l t o w e r . The t o p p o r t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a d d s t o t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f an i m p e n e t r a b l e f o r t i f i e d c a s t l e , w h i c h , a s t h e s e a t o f t h e R e p u b l i c ' s g o v e r n m e n t , i t s o m e t i m e s n e e d e d t o be. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new p a l a c e t y p e a l s o s i g n a l l e d a c h a n g e i n t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w e a l t h i e s t f a m i l i e s . 5 They s t a r t e d t o i s o l a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i v e s w i t h 4 P a s s a g e c i t e d f r o m J.R. S p e n c e r , "The Ca' d e l Duca i n V e n i c e and B e n e d e t t o F e r r i n i , " J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s 29 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 5, n. 21. 5 R i c h a r d G o l d t h w a i t e , " F l o r e n t i n e P a l a c e , " p a s s i m . 41 whom they had f o r m e r l y shared t h e i r l i v e s . The new r e s i d e n c e s were p r i m a r i l y s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , and were organized f o r the p r i v a c y and luxury of the r e s i d e n t . J u s t as the government of the g u i l d commune was g i v i n g way to one of i n d i v i d u a l power p o l i t i c s , the extended f a m i l y as a t i g h t l y bound group was g i v i n g way to the i n d i v i d u a l dynasty. One of the most important examples of the new palace type was begun i n 1444 by the a r c h i t e c t Michelozzo, f o r the M e d i c i f a m i l y ( F i g . 5 ) . Since, i n the f i f t e e n t h century, the name of the patron was synonymous with the designer of a b u i l d i n g , Cosimo de' Me d i c i had to make sure that h i s palace made e x a c t l y the r i g h t kind of p e r s o n a l statement, e x p r e s s i n g h i s g r e a t wealth and powerful p o s i t i o n i n the c i t y , without being too o s t e n t a t i o u s . In order to accomplish t h i s , Michelozzo used a combination of three b a s i c design elements: t r a d i t i o n a l F l o r e n t i n e palace and c i v i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , elements of c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , and B r u n e l l e s c h i a n idiom i n the design of the co u r t y a r d . The most n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and the e a r l i e r p a l a c e s i s i t s immense s i z e . I t t r u l y dominated the neighborhood i n a way that only governmental b u i l d i n g s had p r e v i o u s l y done. I t has many of the same f e a t u r e s of the medieval r e s i d e n c e s : l i k e the Palazzo Davanzati the f l o o r s d i m i n i s h i n height from ground l e v e l to c o r n i c e . A l s o the most important rooms were on the piano n o b i l e , with l e s s e r f a m i l y members being r e l e g a t e d to the upper f l o o r s . However, there 42 were no shops i n the M e d i c i p a l a c e , only a l o g g i a at the corner where Medici banking business was once conducted. I t was e v e n t u a l l y c l o s e d up completely i n the s i x t e e n t h century by Michelangelo. As i n the Palazzo Vecchio, s t r i n g courses mark the d i v i s i o n s between the s t o r e y s . Here too, the immense s i z e of the b u i l d i n g i s due to the l a r g e c o u r t y a r d . The windows on the facade are i n the same t w o - l i g h t s t y l e as those on the Palazzo Vecchio and the Podesta", but Michelozzo a r t i c u l a t e s them a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . He uses c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d round arches r a t h e r than p o i n t e d Gothic ones, and a l t e r n a t e s M e d i c i roses and p a l l e i n the spandrels above the c o r i n t h i a n - l i k e c o l o n e t t e s d i v i d i n g the twin window arches. These d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the seat of F l o r e n t i n e government, capped with M e d i c i symbols would have been n o t i c e d by everyone and the connection between M e d i c i power and the F l o r e n t i n e government made. The use of r u s t i c a t i o n i n the masonry i s newly i n t e r p r e t e d by Michelozzo i n the Palazzo M e d i c i . The rough heavy stone b l o c k s s u r f a c i n g the e x t e r i o r of the f i r s t f l o o r l o g g i a are used f o r the f i r s t time here. They are an e f f e c t i v e metaphor f o r power and s t r e n g t h i n t h e i r resemblance to impenetrable f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , as seen i n Tuscan government p a l a z z i ; they may a l s o be read as i m i t a t i o n s of Roman w a l l s and g a t e s . 6 The more t y p i c a l , smoother b l o c k s are used on the piano n o b i l e . and again the M e d i c i p a l l e can be seen wrapped e Hyman, Palazzo M e d i c i . 154-155. 43 around the co r n e r s . The top f l o o r i s a s h l a r , so there i s an e f f e c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n from rough to smooth s u r f a c e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the d i m i n i s h i n g height of the upper s t o r e y s . L i k e the windows, the stonework would have been recognized as an expensive and extravagant form of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The smoothness of the top f l o o r i s c o n t r a s t e d to the j u t t i n g a l l ' a n t i c a c o r n i c e , complete with egg and d a r t mouldings and m o d i l l i o n s , another Michelozzo i n n o v a t i o n . The purpose of the r a k i n g c o r n i c e i s to s h i e l d the f l o o r from sun l i k e the overhanging l o g g i a r o o f s of e a r l i e r p a l a c e s , but the c l a s s i c a l e n t a b l a t u r e m o t i f s which are used to key i t g r a c e f u l l y back i n t o the plane of the facade, make a s t r o n g statement l i n k i n g the power and g l o r y of anc i e n t Rome to the Medi c i f a m i l y . T h i s would have been impressive to those s e e i n g the b u i l d i n g i n the Quattrocento, and i t i s u n l i k e l y that they would have known th a t i n Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , a c o r n i c e such as t h i s should r e a l l y be capping a f r i e z e and e n t a b l a t u r e supported by columns. 7 Another h i g h l y i n n o v a t i v e F l o r e n t i n e palace was the Palazzo R u c e l l a i , designed by A l b e r t i and b u i l t by R o s s e l l i n o i n 1449 ( F i g . 6). I t i s s i m i l a r to the Med i c i palace i n that there are three s t o r e y s topped by a heavy p r o j e c t i n g r o o f . The windows are a l s o an a l l ' a n t i c a v e r s i o n of the t w i n - l i g h t Palazzo Vecchio type. Instead of s t r i n g courses between the s t o r e y s , A l b e r t i i n s e r t s a f r i e z e of the R u c c e l l a i emblem--the Murray, Renaissance A r c h i t e c t u r e . 69. 44 wind f i l l e d s a i l to complement the coats of arms on the piano  n o b i l e and the stemmae over the windows. U n l i k e the M e d i c i p a l a c e , i n t h i s p alace the facade r u s t i c a t i o n i s uniform on a l l three f l o o r s , c o n s i s t i n g of smooth stone b l o c k s with grooved c h a n n e l l i n g between them. The main d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e of the palace i s the use of p i l a s t e r s a p p l i e d on a l l three s t o r e y s to c r e a t e v e r t i c a l as w e l l as h o r i z o n t a l u n i t s of space. A l b e r t i took the p a t t e r n f o r t h i s from the Colosseum i n Rome, and although a l l three s t o r i e s are a r t i c u l a t e d i n a c l a s s i c a l mode with a change of c a p i t a l s on each l e v e l , they do not copy those of the coliseum. A l b e r t i uses the Tuscan on the lower s t o r e y , a composite of h i s own i n v e n t i o n on the piano n o b i l e i n s t e a d of the u s u a l I o n i c , and r e t u r n s to the C o r i n t h i a n f o r the top f l o o r . T h i s screen of p i l a s t e r s would have had an e f f e c t d i f f e r e n t from the e f f e c t of the M e d i c i p a l a c e , much more c l a s s i c a l and l e s s o p p r e s s i v e , though c e r t a i n l y not l e s s amazing. Another a l l ' a n t i c a q u o t a t i o n occurs i n he diamond p a t t e r n on the base of the facade. I t i s a d e c o r a t i v e v e r s i o n of the Roman technique of opus r e t i c u l a t u m . i n which pyramids of stone were i n s e r t e d i n t o wet concrete i n order to strengthen i t . Here A l b e r t i uses h i s study of Roman r u i n s f o r d e c o r a t i v e , but not s t r u c t u r a l purposes. There i s some disagreement among s c h o l a r s as to whether A l b e r t i was making v a r i a t i o n s on a system he understood f u l l y , or whether he was j u s t doing h i s best to i m i t a t e i t . Whichever the case, i t seems that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r facade design was perhaps too f a r 45 removed from F l o r e n t i n e t r a d i t i o n as i t was not repeated i n F l o r e n c e . There, v e r s i o n s of the Medici palace r u s t i c a t i o n combined with intonaco became more popular. I t was however i n f l u e n t i a l i n other p a r t s of I t a l y , such as Pienza, where the design appears i n the p a l a c e s of P i u s I I ' s i d e a l town. In the f i f t e e n t h century i n F l o r e n c e , the c o u r t y a r d of the f a m i l y palace took on a new importance. I t was a haven or escape from the o u t s i d e word f o r the patron, a l l o w i n g him the luxury of l i g h t and f r e s h a i r i f the palace had to be locked up. A c o u r t y a r d t h i s s i z e was f o r m e r l y o n l y the p r i v i l e g e of e l e c t e d government o f f i c i a l s . The c o u r t y a r d of A l b e r t i ' s Palazzo R u c c e l l a i was never p r o p e r l y f i n i s h e d , but the one i n the M e d i c i palace was, i n the f i f t e e n t h century, one of the most famous aspects of the b u i l d i n g . Because i t was a more p r i v a t e space, Michelozzo d i d not r e s t r i c t h i m s e l f to t r a d i t i o n as he d i d on the facade. Here he uses B r u n e l l e s c h i a n means to c r e a t e an elegant atmosphere. He has l i t e r a l l y taken the facade of the F l o r e n t i n e F o u n d l i n g H o s p i t a l , with i t s round arched arcade supported by s l e n d e r columns, and wrapped i t , a l b e i t a l i t t l e awkwardly, around i n a square, and topped i t with windows s i m i l a r to those on the outer facade. The l i g h t n e s s and grace of the r e s u l t i n g i n t e r i o r c o u r t s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s with the f o r c e f u l and f o r b i d d i n g e x t e r i o r . The top s t o r e y i s f i n i s h e d with an open l o g g i a , but u n l i k e the Palazzo Davanzati and other p a l a c e s , t h i s one only overlooks the i n t e r i o r world of the p a l a c e . 46 Although the M e d i c i palace c o u r t y a r d was o f t e n used f o r important ceremonies, Richard Goldthwaite a s s e r t s t h a t the c r e a t i o n of a p r i v a t e space f o r the owner and h i s f a m i l y i s the o v e r r i d i n g theme of the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Renaissance F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e . Although there were many windows i n these new r e s i d e n c e s t h e i r purpose was to admit l i g h t , not the o u t s i d e world. Indeed, they would have been covered by o i l e d c l o t h or paper, and are r e a l l y too high up to see out of e a s i l y . So, although the new palace type i n t r o d u c e d some new l i v i n g arrangements i n t o the Renaissance p a l a c e , i t r e t a i n e d much of the i s o l a t i o n of the e a r l i e r type. The owner decorated h i s palace at g r e a t expense to make i t a l u x u r i o u s p r i v a t e haven on the i n t e r i o r . The e x t e r i o r of the palace used a combination of m o t i f s from the F l o r e n t i n e r e p u b l i c a n government b u i l d i n g s and c l a s s i c a l Rome to make a p u b l i c statement about the power and wealth of the patron. The Venetian Gothic Palace Type to 1480. U n l i k e F l o r e n c e , whose communal government gave r i s e to a merchant p a t r i c i a t e i n the f i f t e e n t h century, Venice had a very s t a b l e kind of s o c i e t y . In 1297 the a r i s t o c r a c y was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , with the s e r r a t a or c l o s i n g of the l i s t of a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s . Only those f a m i l i e s whose names were w r i t t e n i n the so c a l l e d L i b r o d'Qro. or r e g i s t e r of a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s who were e n t i t l e d to a seat i n the Maggior C o n s i g l i o , the main government c o u n c i l . Venice, u n l i k e 47 F l o r e n c e had a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y , r u l e d by the n o b i l i t y . The r e s u l t i n g s o c i e t y was w e l l ordered and s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d ; there was l i t t l e c i v i l u n r e s t . T h i s , combined with the d i f f i c u l t y of i n v a d i n g the c i t y , made Venice a r e l a t i v e l y s a f e and calm p l a c e i n which to l i v e . The open and u n f o r t i f i e d appearance of the c i t y ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e , and e s p e c i a l l y the p a l a c e s , i s evidence of t,his s e c u r i t y . The p a t r i c i a n c l a s s developed a mode of b u i l d i n g p a l a c e s which r e f l e c t e d the Venetian love of d e c o r a t i o n . P o s s i b l y due to the e x i s t e n c e of a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d wealthy p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , p a l a c e s were more openly opulent much e a r l i e r than those of F l o r e n c e , though good t a s t e and sumptuary laws kept them w i t h i n reasonable bounds. A l s o , the p a t r i c i a n c l a s s c o nsidered themselves equal to t h e i r e l e c t e d Doge, who was no more than primus i n t e r pares, or " f i r s t among equals". T h i s concept of the u n i f i e d p a t r i c i a n group made Venetians uncomfortable when any one f a m i l y attempted to b u i l d i n too o s t e n t a t i o u s a manner, even though many d i d . A f t e r a l l , as Sansovino p o i n t e d out, i n theory, the Doge's r e s i d e n c e was the only one c a l l e d a p a l a c e - - t h e r e s t of the houses were simply case. Due to the c i t y ' s marshy environment, the palace type that developed i n F l o r e n c e and which spread throughout the mainland was u n s u i t a b l e f o r use i n Venice. U n l i k e F l o r e n c e and the other I t a l i a n mainland c i t i e s , Venice had not been a Roman town, with the i n s u l a as the base f o r i t s r e s i d e n c e s . Nor had i t been a f o r t i f i e d medieval c i t y with towers and h e a v i l y 48 r u s t i c a t e d b u i l d i n g s ; t h e l a g o o n a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c i t y was t r e a c h e r o u s enough t o make a t t a c k u n s a f e and u n l i k e l y . U n l i k e t h e m a i n l a n d , where s e c u r i t y c o n c e r n s o v e r c i v i l s t r i f e were a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e n o b l e s , V e n i c e , w i t h i t s s t a b l e o l i g a r c h y and n a t u r a l f o r t i f i c a t i o n s was r e l a t i v e l y s a f e f r o m b o t h i n t e r n a l i n s u r r e c t i o n and f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n . The t e r r a f i r m a n e e d f o r h e a v i l y r u s t i c a t e d p a l a c e s as s y m b o l s o f s t r e n g t h and a u t h o r i t y was u n n e c e s s a r y , a l l o w i n g f o r t h e u s e o f windows a s t h e m a i n v e h i c l e f o r d e c o r a t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e i m a g e r y i n t h e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e . • t I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e c i t y was begun b y p e o p l e s e s c a p i n g t h e b a r b a r i a n i n v a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e Roman E m p i r e . O v e r t h e n e x t few h u n d r e d y e a r s t h e s e p e o p l e , f i r s t f i s h e r m e n , t h e n t r a d e r s w i t h C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and o t h e r c e n t r e s o f t h e L e v a n t , d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own methods o f c r e a t i n g s t a b l e a r e a s f o r r e s i d e n c e s i n t h e wet l a n d , by d r i v i n g p i l e s i n t o t h e mud and c r e a t i n g f o u n d a t i o n s o u t o f g r a v e l . I n s t e a d o f r o a d s , t h e y e x t e n d e d t h e c a n a l s y s t e m t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y and u s e d i t as t h e m a i n f o r m o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The e a r l i e s t f o r m o f p a l a c e s t h a t we a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h b e l o n g t o t h e V e n e t o B y z a n t i n e t y p e . The b e s t known e x a m p l e i s t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , o n c e a P e s a r o f a m i l y p a l a c e , b u i l t i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e s t o r e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h ( F i g . 7). I t i s a l o n g , two s t o r e y b u i l d i n g w i t h t o w e r s on e a c h e nd. The l o w e r s t o r e y h a s a w a t e r g a t e , b e h i n d w h i c h were s t o r e r o o m s f o r g o o d s . The u p p e r s t o r e y had a l o n g h a l l o r s a l a r u n n i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e 49 w i n d o w s . One n o t i c e s i m m e d i a t e l y i t s o p e n n e s s and u n f o r t i f i e d a p p e a r a n c e compared t o t h e T u s c a n m e d i e v a l h o u s e t y p e . W h i l e some s c h o l a r s , s u c h a s D e b o r a h Howard, a r g u e t h a t t h e t y p e , c a l l e d a c a s a f o n d a c o was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e A r a b f o n d o u k o r t r a d i n g h o u s e , o t h e r s , s u c h as James Ac k e r m a n and O t t o Demus b e l i e v e t h a t t h e l a t e Roman v i l l a s o f t h e m a i n l a n d a r e a more l i k e l y s o u r c e . 6 Demus i n f a c t a r g u e s t h a t t h e c o l o n n a d e r u n n i n g a c r o s s t h e f r o n t o f t h e f a c a d e o f t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , and o t h e r p a l a c e s s u c h as t h e C a ' L o r e d a n and F a r s e t t i ( f i g . 8) was a c o n s c i o u s d e r i v a t i o n f r o m f i f t h and s i x t h c e n t u r y p a l a c e s w i t h c o l o n n a d e d p o r t i c o s and a t r i a , s u c h as t h a t o f t h e p a l a c e o f D i o c l e t i a n a t S p a l a t o ( F i g 9 ) . s T h i s i s an e a r l y e x a m p l e o f V e n e t i a n v i s u a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and t h e a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t b y c o o p t i n g i m a g e r y f r o m w h i c h e v e r s o u r c e was s u i t a b l e . J u s t a s F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e b u i l d e r s i n c o r p o r a t e d 6 D e b o r a h Howard, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e . (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , 4 1 - 4 2 . James A c k e r m a n , " S o u r c e s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e V i l l a " , i n S t u d i e s i n W e s t e r n A r t . I I ( A c t s o f t h e X X t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t ) , P r i n c e t o n : 1963, 6-18. O t t o Demus, "A R e n a s c e n c e o f E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t i n T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y V e n i c e " i n K u r t W e i t z m a n n e d . , L a t e C l a s s i c a l and M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s i n Honor of A l b e r t M a t t h i a s F r i e n d J r . ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , 3 4 8 - 3 6 1 . 9 O t t o Demus, " R e n a s c e n c e " , 353. Demus a r g u e s t h a t t h i s i s p a r t o f a t r e n d i n t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e i n w h i c h t h e d e c o r a t i v e l a n g u a g e o f t h e l a t e R o m a n / e a r l y C h r i s t i a n e m p i r e was c l e v e r l y c o p i e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e a s e n s e o f h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r y t o V e n i c e t o w h i c h s he was n o t e n t i r e l y e n t i t l e d . The V e n e t i a n s w e r e t r y i n g t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y were t h e h e i r s t o t h e e m p i r e o f J u s t i n i a n and C o n s t a n t i n e i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an " a p o s t o l i c e m p i r e o f t h e E a s t " b a s e d on t h e i r r i g h t s t o S t M a r k ' s r e l i c s . 50 a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of t h e i r government b u i l d i n g s i n t o t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s to confer a sense of power to t h e i r owners, so too d i d the Venetians look to the Ducal Palace, t h e i r seat of government and r e s i d e n c e of t h e i r e l e c t e d Doge as the most potent symbol of power i n the s t a t e . The Ducal Palace was begun i n 1340, and was almost f i n i s h e d by 1424, although i t was c o n s t a n t l y worked on through the next two c e n t u r i e s ( f i g . 10). Thus the Ducal Palace, newly completed i n a f l o r i e n t G othic s t y l e and i n f l u e n c e d by Arab and other a r c h i t e c t u r e , was s t i l l a new and potent power symbol f o r the Venetians at a time when the F l o r e n t i n e s were beginning to r e t h i n k t h e i r form of domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e . The most n o t i c e a b l e f e a t u r e of the palace i s the p o i n t e d arch arcade decorated with q u a t r e f o i l s i n c i r c l e t s , and, as w i l l become apparent i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the nature of the Venetian Gothic p a l a c e , most re s i d e n c e s b u i l t or renovated from the 1420's to the 1470's bear t h i s m otif. Palaces of the l a t e r G o t h i c p e r i o d (roughly from the 1440's to the 1470's) were three or four s t o r e y s high, with l a r g e c e n t r a l b a l c o n i e s and windows. The water gates, column screens and towers of the Veneto-Byzantine p a l a c e type were no longer used. Since canals were the p r i n c i p a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n thoroughfares of Venice, the main facades of most p a l a c e s were on c a n a l s . The c a n a l facade door was always the l a r g e s t and 1 0 T h i s can be compared to the F l o r e n t i n e and Sienese P a l a z z i Communali, which were s t a r t e d around the same time but were f i n i s h e d i n only a few decades. 51 best decorated door of the palace because i t was the entrance and e x i t always used by the p a t r i c i a n r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r guests who g e n e r a l l y t r a v e l l e d by gondola on can a l r o u t e s . 1 1 Due to the n a t u r a l l y imposed area l i m i t a t i o n s of the c i t y , space was always a problem and land c o s t s always high, e s p e c i a l l y on p r e f e r r e d b u i l d i n g s i t e s such as the Grand C a n a l . 1 2 Consequently, Venetian p a l a c e s tend to be longer than they are wide, with L or s i g h t l y C shaped plans i n order to accommodate a w e l l and s m a l l c o u r t y a r d i n the r e a r or s i d e of the p a l a c e . T h i s arrangement can be seen i n the plans of the Ca F o s c a r i and G i u s t i n i a n i ( F i g . 11). The b u i l d i n g s were g e n e r a l l y not wide enough to accommodate the l a r g e c e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d that was such a common f e a t u r e of mainland p a l a c e s . T h i s , and the f a c t that there were g e n e r a l l y b u i l d i n g s on both s i d e s of a pa l a c e , meant that the windows on the can a l facade had to be as l a r g e and numerous as p o s s i b l e to l e t i n s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t . These p a l a c e s , u n l i k e the Renaissance p a l a c e s of F l o r e n c e , o f t e n held many branches of the same f a m i l y , and sometimes were d i v i d e d up i n t o separate apartments. People d i d 1 1 There was u s u a l l y a land entrance at the rear of the palace, but t h i s was g e n e r a l l y a s e r v i c e entrance. 1 2 T h i s i s probably why the Trecento palace type, with i t s g i a n t s a l a running p a r a l l e l to the water and long row of columns disappeared. I t was probably only economically f e a s i b l e f o r most p a t r i c i a n f a m i l i e s to b u i l d the pa l a c e s with s m a l l c a n a l frontage and to extend the palace back lengthwise from the water. S e v e r a l rooms were now p l a c e d i n the space were the main s a l a had once been, f o r more p r i v a c y . 52 not l i v e on the damp ground f l o o r , u s u a l l y reserved f o r storage and o f f i c e s , as Venetian p a t r i c i a n s o f t e n ran l a r g e t r a d i n g companies. I t had a long h a l l or androne running from the f r o n t door to the back of the s t r u c t u r e , with rooms on e i t h e r s i d e , and (by the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c entury) an i n t e r i o r s t a i r w a y ( f i g . 12). The r e l a t i v e l y p l a i n e x t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n and the s m a l l windows r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n a l nature of t h i s s t o r e y . The main d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e i s the carved stone moulding surrounding the p o r t a l . The next s t o r e y was g e n e r a l l y the piano nobile), or main l i v i n g f l o o r . 1 3 I t too had a long h a l l running the l e n g t h of the b u i l d i n g , c a l l e d the portego or s a l a , with s m a l l e r rooms on e i t h e r s i d e . The s a l a was the main formal r e c e p t i o n and l i v i n g room of the p a l a c e , and o f t e n widened toward the facade so t h a t i t could be centred i n f r o n t of the main group of windows. The heavy e x t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the stonework of the main s a l a windows r e f l e c t e d the importance of t h i s s t o r e y . The top s t o r e y was used f o r s l e e p i n g and s e r v a n t s q u a r t e r s , and i t s p o r t i o n of the facade i s not q u i t e as ornate as that of the piano n o b i l e . Palace facades r e f l e c t t h e i r i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n that there tend to be l a r g e b l o c k s of windows ( a l i g n e d to the main s&la.) , f l a n k e d on one or both s i d e s by s i n g l e window groups, depending on the s i z e of the b u i l d i n g . The b i p a r t i t e Ca' D'Oro, s t a r t e d i n 1425 1 3 In a three s t o r e y palace such as the Palazzo d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e ( F i g . 13) the piano n o b i l e i s above the ground f l o o r , but i n a f o u r s t o r e y palace l i k e the Ca F o s c a r i ( f i g . 14) the most important f l o o r i s the t h i r d s t o r e y . 53 ( F i g . 15) and the t r i p a r t i t e Palazzo P i s a n i Moretta, c i r c a 1455 are good examples of these two types of facade arrangement. T h i s r e g u l a r i z e d b i or t r i p a r t i t e facade arrangement became a standard f e a t u r e of Venetian p a l a c e s , and continued i n use long a f t e r Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary ceased to be employed. A l a t e G o t h i c b u i l d i n g which bears c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n i s the Palazzo d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e , b u i l t around 1455 ( f i g . 13). Because i t s facade i s organized and a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e many pal a c e s of the time, i t makes a good example f o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary. The u n i t y and coherence of the facade i s d e r i v e d from the c a r e f u l placement and d e c o r a t i o n of the windows and mouldings, t h e i r white I s t r i a n stone c o n t r a s t i n g s h a r p l y with the b r i c k and stucco i n t o which they are s e t . The facade has a g r i d - l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . I t i s c r e a t e d by p o s i t i o n i n g the three groups of windows above one another on each s t o r e y , g i v i n g a p r i m a r i l y v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Moreover, a l e s s emphatic h o r i z o n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s c r e a t e d on the facade by the s t r i n g courses s e p a r a t i n g the s t o r e y s . The main d e c o r a t i v e focus of the facade i s always i t s c e n t r e , with much simpler window groups framing or f l a n k i n g the main core. V e r t i c a l i t y i s a r t i c u l a t e d by the elongated shape of the windows. They have t a p e r i n g p o i n t e d arches, topped by f l a m i n g vases or f l e u r de l i s and are surrounded by elongated r e c t a n g u l a r stucco f i l l e d panels o u t l i n e d i n b i l l e t moulding, a l l of which g i v e s them long elegant p r o p o r t i o n s , c o n t r i b u t i n g 54 to the sense of v e r t i c a l i t y . Even i n the lower s t o r e y , the sm a l l s q u a r i s h windows used are a l i g n e d one atop the other, a l l o w i n g them to be read as another v e r t i c a l u n i t the same height as the piano n o b i l e windows. V e r t i c a l emphasis i s a l s o p r o v i d e d by the white q u o i n i n g of I s t r i a n stone that demarcates the edges of the facades i n one continuous s t r e t c h from water to c o r n i c e l i n e . Thin t w i s t e d p i l a s t e r s , with p l a i n bases and f o l i a t e d c a p i t a l s are l o c a t e d at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the quoined corners; these d e l i n e a t e the h o r i z o n t a l u n i t s of the facade. T h i s t w i s t e d p i l a s t e r motif i s echoed i n the rope moulding used as a d i v i d i n g l i n e between each s t o r e y , and again as a window framing d e v i c e . Along with b i l l e t moulding and f l e u r de l i s arch p o i n t s , i t i s one of the m o t i f s whose repeated use lends an o v e r a l l sense of u n i t y to the facade. Each s t o r e y makes a complete h o r i z o n t a l thematic e n t i t y , yet, through r e p e t i t i o n of moulding m o t i f s and window placement and design, each s t o r e y i s a l s o v i s u a l l y p a r t of the whole. The lower s t o r e y has very simple windows framed simply i n the b i l l e t and rope moulding m o t i f s that are used more b o l d l y on the windows of the upper s t o r e y s . On t h i s s t o r e y , the mouldings are condensed i n t o the immediate area of the a c t u a l window frame, r a t h e r than spread out i n the double framing d e v i c e s that are used i n the upper s t o r e y s . As i n the r e s t of the facade, the focus i s on the c e n t r e . Here, the door i s made prominent by a huge carved po i n t e d arch tympanum topped by a f l e u r de l i s . The I s t r i a n stone moulding m o t i f s , as would be 55 expected, match those of the windows. The lower s t o r e y i s much simple r than the upper s t o r e y s , but i t i s s t i l l l i n k e d to the whole by the use of d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s , which appear i n l a r g e r form i n the f l o o r s above. The lower s t o r e y thus f u n c t i o n s as a kind of prelude or i n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e s t of the facade. The top s t o r e y i s more e l a b o r a t e than the basement, but l e s s so than the piano n o b i l e . as i t has s m a l l e r windows, without t r a c e r y . They are v i s u a l l y l i n k e d to the main s t o r e y below by the use of a cusped i n t r a d o s p i c k e d up from the balcony s e c t i o n arch, and have s i m i l a r mouldings and c a p i t a l s . The arches of the f o u r - l i g h t c e n t r a l s e c t i o n have s l e n d e r columns surrounded by p l a i n s tucco, and a "frame" of b i l l e t mouldings. Even i f the top s t o r e y windows had t r a c e r y , as they o c c a s i o n a l l y d i d , the t r a c e r y was g e n e r a l l y l e s s flamboyant that of the windows of the piano n o b i l e . In the Palazzo d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e the piano n o b i l e windows are much l a r g e r , making the f l o r i a t e d c a p i t a l s and the b i l l e t and rope mouldings surrounding the windows much more v i s i b l e . The two s e t s of f l a n k i n g s i n g l e l i g h t windows are not cusped on the i n t r a d o s as are the ones u p s t a i r s : thus there i s n o t h i n g to d e t r a c t from the main d e c o r a t i v e focus of the s t o r e y and indeed of the whole facade, the piano n o b i l e . 1 4 1 4 A c c o r d i n g to Ralph Lieberman the s t a t u a r y seems to have been added i n the 1480's, (perhaps to add a modern touch) and thus i s not r e a l l y r e l e v a n t to the l a t e Gothic p a l a c e s . Lieberman notes that s c u l p t u r e was not o f t e n used on palace facades. In the two examples that come to mind i n t h i s p e r i o d , the p u t t i f r i e z e on the Ca F o s c a r i , and the l i t t l e s h i e l d bearers on the Palazzo Bernardo, both f u n c t i o n to d i s p l a y f a m i l y arms. 56 I n t h i s b a l c o n y , t h e c o l u m n s o f g r e y s t o n e s u p p o r t c u s p e d p o i n t e d a r c h e s . O c u l i e n c l o s i n g q u a t r e f o i l m o t i f s a r e f i t t e d i n t o t h e s p a n d r e l s o f t h e a r c h e d window o p e n i n g s s o t h a t v i s u a l l y , t h e y a p p e a r t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e c o l u m n s o f t h e wi n d o w s . T h i s p o p u l a r f o r m o f t r a c e r y i s t h e one d e r i v e d f r o m t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , and makes i t s d e b u t on p r i v a t e p a l a c e s i n t h e Ca'd ' O r o . The m o t i f o f r o s e t t e s and l i o n s , s y m b o l s o f V e n i c e as s e e n on t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e f i t t e d i n t o t h e s p a c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o c u l i ( F i g . 1 6 ) , a r e r e p e a t e d h e r e . S i n c e t h e D u c a l P a l a c e was t h e s e a t o f g o v e r n m e n t , and t h e most i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l o f power i n t h e s t a t e , t h e p a t r i c i a n r e s i d e n t s a r e c l e a r l y c o n n e c t i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o t h i s p o wer, i n f o r m i n g t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e y a r e a p a r t o f t h e V e n e t i a n r u l i n g c l a s s . I f f a m i l y arms a p p e a r e d on t h e f a c a d e , as t h e y do i n t h e P a l a z z o B e r n a r d o and t h e C a ' F o s c a r i , t h e n t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e name o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e g o v e r n m e n t i t was p a r t o f i s made ev e n s t r o n g e r . Thus i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e p e a t e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s c o n t r a s t e d t o a s t r o n g c e n t r a l t r a c e r y , t h e l a t e o r d e v e l o p e d G o t h i c p a l a c e f a c a d e p r e s e n t e d a c l e a r , and c o h e r e n t u n i t , c o m b i n i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c w i t h p o l i t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m o t i f s . T h i s t y p e o f f a c a d e seems t o have been r e l e v a n t u n t i l t h e l a t e 1 4 7 0 ' s ; a r o u n d 1480 e v e r y t h i n g c h a n g e s . Though some c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s had i n t r u d e d i n t o t h e G o t h i c f a c a d e T h e y a r e e a r l y e x a m p l e s o f t h e u s e o f c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d d e v i c e s . 57 v o c a b u l a r y , s u c h t h e p u t t i f r i e z e on t h e Ca F o s c a r i and t h e s t a t u a r y on t h e P a l a z z o B e r n a r d o , t h e p a l a c e s t h a t s t a r t e d t o a p p e a r i n t h e 1480's must have been q u i t e s t a r t l i n g t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n a u d i e n c e . The a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s r e t a i n e d t h e same b a s i c room and f a c a d e a r r a n g e m e n t , a s t h i s was s t i l l v i a b l e and f u n c t i o n a l , b u t i t i s t h e d e c o r a t i v e l a n g u a g e u s e d t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e f a c a d e s w h i c h shows i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s f r o m t h a t o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c . The R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e i n V e n i c e A l t h o u g h R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e was n o t a f e a t u r e o f V e n e t i a n p a l a c e f a c a d e s u n t i l t h e 1 4 8 0 ' s , b u t new a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s s t a r t t o a p p e a r on o t h e r b u i l d i n g s i n t h e c i t y a l r e a d y b y t h e 1 4 5 0 ' s . R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e r e v i v a l and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f a n t i q u e f o r m s ; a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m i t a t i o n was n o t t h e a i m . A means was s o u g h t t o g i v e a f r e s h new l o o k and h e i g h t e n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r b u i l d i n g s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t V e n e t i a n s had a m u l t i f a c e t e d a p p r o a c h t o a n t i q u i t y and c l a s s i c a l o r n a m e n t . To them t h e Roman e m p i r e and i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e was more t h a n j u s t Rome w i t h i t s g r o u p o f monuments s u c h as t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s , t e m p l e s , a m p h i t h e a t e r s . T h i s was t h e W e s t e r n Roman e m p i r e . As v a l i d t o them were t h e f o r m s o f t h e E a s t e r n Roman E m p i r e , t h o s e o f t h e f i f t h and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s w h i c h we t h i n k o f as e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e . A f t e r a l l , t h e Roman e m p i r e had c o n t i n u e d i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e 58 u n t i l i t s f a l l t o t h e T u r k s i n 1453, and f o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e V e n e t i a n s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e y were t h e n a t u r a l h e i r s t o t h i s e m p i r e ; i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s were t r e m e n d o u s l y e v o c a t i v e t o V e n e t i a n s . As d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e y had l o n g ago a d o p t e d t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e a s t h e i r own i n s u c h b u i l d i n g s a s San M a r c o j and t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a ' s L o r e d a n , F a r s e t t i , and t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n n i c e l y : A r o u n d t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y s o m e t h i n g b e g a n t o c h a n g e i n V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e : we f i n d a new a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a r i e t y o f t r a d i t i o n s t h a t c o u l d a c t i v e l y be d rawn u p o n , and an u n p r e c e d e n t e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a l o c a l V e n e t i a n s t y l e t h a t w o u l d be an amalgam o f t h e many e l e m e n t s o f t h e c i t y ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l h e r i t a g e . 1 5 A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e c i s e f o r m s o f R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r a l i m a g e r y a s t h e y were m a n i f e s t e d i n V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r s T h r e e and F o u r . T h e r e i s one p a l a c e , o r r a t h e r p a l a c e f r a g m e n t , d a t i n g f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t p h a s e o f R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t c l e a r l y . I t i s t h e so c a l l e d C a ' d e l Duca, n e a r San S a m u e l e , o r i g i n a l l y a p a l a c e f o r A n d r e a C o r n e r ( F i g s . 17 & 1 8 ) . 1 8 S t a r t e d i n 1457, t h i s p a l a c e w o u l d have been a m a s s i v e b u i l d i n g ; i t s f o u n d a t i o n s now c a r r y two good s i z e d p a l a c e s . The v i s i b l e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e G r a n d C a n a l and r i o f a c a d e a r e a l l t h a t was b u i l t o f t h e p a l a c e b e f o r e i t was 1 5 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e , 10. 1 8 One o f t h e f i r s t s t u d i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g was t h a t o f L u c a B e l t r a m i , " L a "Ca' d e l D u c a ' s u l C a n a l G r a n d e ed a l t r e r e m i n i s c e n z e s f o r z e s c h e i n V e n e z i a " , M i l a n 1900 and 1906. 59 s o l d t o t h e Duke o f M i l a n , F r a n c e s c o S f o r z a i n 1461. T h e r e i s an e x t e n s i v e b a s e , a r t i c u l a t e d i n l o n g and s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r b l o c k s . The b a s e p r o j e c t e d a t t h e c o r n e r , and i t i s b e l i e v e d t h e r e were t o be t o w e r s on e a c h end o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . The r i g h t hand c o r n e r o f t h e b a s ement l e v e l i s a b o v e t h e p r o t r u d e d s e c t i o n . I t i s d e c o r a t e d i n d i a m a n t e s t y l e s t o n e w o r k , t h e l o n g and s h o r t p a t t e r n o f w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g l e n g t h o f t h e b r i c k s on t h e b a s e . The r e l i e f i s s o h i g h on t h e s h a r p l y c u t s t o n e w o r k t h a t i t i s v i s i b l e f r o m q u i t e a d i s t a n c e . Two t h i c k c o l u m n s a t t h e c o r n e r o f t h i s b a s e ment s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s u p p o r t f o r a r a t h e r t a l l s t r u c t u r e . A s e m i c i r c u l a r s p a c e f o r a n o t h e r c o l u m n on t h e l e f t o f t h e b a s ement s e g m e n t , w o u l d have marked o f f t h e t o w e r s f r o m t h e m a i n f a c a d e . A l l t h e f r a g m e n t s a r e w o r k e d i n I s t r i a n s t o n e , and i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s w o u l d have been t h e f i r s t p a l a c e f a c a d e t o be c o m p l e t e l y f a c e d i n s u c h a manner. R a l p h L i e b e r m a n p o i n t s o u t t h a t b o t h t h e d e c o r a t e d s t o n e w o r k on t h e b a s e and t h e r u s t i c a t i o n o f t h e b a s e m e n t l e v e l a r e i n n o v a t i o n s , n e v e r b e f o r e u s e d i n V e n i c e . 1 7 The a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e d i a m a n t e r u s t i c a t i o n , r e m i n i s c e n t o f f o r t i f i e d c a s t l e s on t h e m a i n l a n d s u c h as t h e M i l a n e s e C a s t e l l o S f o r z e s e , was s o u n u s u a l t h a t many s c h o l a r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e work was c a r r i e d on a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e s i g n w o r k e d o u t by t h e Duke o f M i l a n ' s a r c h i t e c t s , e i t h e r B e n e d e t t o F e r r i n i o r 1 7 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e , p l a t e 57. 60 F i l a r e t e . 1 8 They c i t e the design f o r a "Palazzo n e l Palude" which appears i n F i l a r e t e ' s T r e a t i s e on A r c h i t e c t u r e as the probable plan f o r the p r o j e c t ( f i g . 19). The r u s t i c a t e d base i n d i c a t e d i n the drawing, combined with the two towers, marked o f f by prominent columns, corresponds to v i s i b l e elements of the Ca' d e l Duca. A l s o , the water gate and the h e a v i l y decorated piano n o b i l e balcony arcade are elements common to the Venetian palace type, which both a r c h i t e c t s would have known from v i s i t s to Venice. A l l these f a c t o r s have caused s c h o l a r s to cent r e a u thorship f o r the b u i l d i n g i n M i l a n . I m p l i c i t i n the c o n c l u s i o n s s c h o l a r s have drawn about the design f o r the Ca' d e l Duca i s the a t t i t u d e t hat Venetians were not capable of such i n n o v a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h i n k i n g at t h i s time. However, the documents p e r t a i n i n g to the s a l e of the p r o p e r t y by the Cornaro f a m i l y to the S f o r z a , d e s c r i b e the same s t r u c t u r e s t i l l v i s i b l e t o d a y . 1 9 I t does not seem that Francesco S f o r z a had much done to the b u i l d i n g b efore he d i e d i n 1466. The s e c t i o n of the b i l l of s a l e d e s c r i b i n g the b u i l d i n g as i t appeared at the time of the s a l e i s quoted by 1 8 Heydenriech and L o t z , i n A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y 14QQ-1600. (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1974), 86f, argue that F i l a r e t e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design of the p a l a c e , and Benedetto F e r r i n i was working under h i s d i r e c t i o n "on s i t e " i n Venice. John R. Spencer, i n h i s a r t i c l e of 1970 ( c i t e d above, t h i s chapter, n. 4) c i t e s evidence that Benedetto F e r r i n i developed the design f o r the Duke's p a l a c e , and sent the Duke a model of h i s p l a n . 1 8 I have not been able to c o n s u l t the Luca B e l t r a m i study i n which t h i s document i s p u b l i s h e d , but the m a t e r i a l i s w e l l summarized, and the r e l e v a n t p o r t i o n s quoted i n Debra Pincus, The  Arco F o s c a r i . (New York: Garland, 1976), 138-141. 61 Debra Pincus i n her d i s s e r t a t i o n ; i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t enough to bear r e p e a t i n g here: Item l a d i c t a fazada a do t o r r e da lado, como a l a caxa d e l Marchixo da F a r a r a , l e q u a l l e t o r r e sone de marmoro a diamante, e l a r i v a f r a l e do t o r r e con colone g r o s s i s s i m e de marmoro. 2 0 The r e f e r e n c e to the towers, the columns and the r u s t i c a t i o n makes i t c l e a r t h a t the b u i l d i n g i s of Venetian and not Milanese d e s i g n . The a r c h i t e c t i s most l i k e l y Bartolomeo Buon, who had drawn up the plans f o r Andrea Cornaro's p r o j e c t . Heydenriech and L o t z quote a document that says the Duke of Milan wanted to b u i l d the palace a c c o r d i n g to the s t y l e of h i s own area, but that the facade would be i n the Venetian manner. 2 1 I t h i n k S f o r z a intended to keep b u i l d i n g the facade along the l i n e s l a i d out i n the Cornaro p r o j e c t , and, as Wolters and Huse a l s o suggest, there might be much more of Bartolomeo Buon's l o s t p lans i n F i l a r e t e ' s "Palace i n a Marshy P l a c e ' than has h i t h e r t o been s u g g e s t e d . 2 2 Buon's design i s i n n o v a t i v e i n more ways than j u s t u s i n g f o r t r e s s - l i k e r u s t i c a t i o n on i t s base. Pincus l i k e n s t h i s r u s t i c a t i o n to a type of reverse Roman opus r e t i c u l a t u m . used not too many years a f t e r A l b e r t i p l a c e d h i s v e r s i o n of i t on the base of the Palazzo R u c c e l l a i . 2 3 John McAndrew p o i n t s out 2 0 I b i d . , 140. 2 1 Heydenreich and L o t z , A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y . 86. 2 2 Wolters and Huse, Venedig. 38. 2 3 D. Pincus, 1974, p. 145. 62 a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a n t i q u e i n t h e c o l u m n b a s e s , w h i c h he s a y s f o l l o w t h e c o r r e c t c l a s s i c a l s c o t i a - t o r u s - s c o t i a p a t t e r n . 2 4 The m a s s i v e n e s s o f t h e c o l u m n s t h e m s e l v e s i s u n l i k e a n y t h i n g on a l a t e G o t h i c f a c a d e ; t h e r e i s a r e a l s e n s e o f f u n c t i o n a l i t y and s u b s t a n c e h e r e , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h L i e b e r m a n p o i n t s t o as one o f t h e k e y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n G o t h i c and R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h i n k i n g . 2 5 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e two t o w e r s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e p r o j e c t i n g ends o f t h e b a s e o f t h e f a c a d e a r e l i k e n e d i n t h e b i l l o f s a l e t o t h o s e o f t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e M a r c h e s e o f F e r r a r a , now known a s t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i . Huse and W o l t e r s have s u g g e s t e d , q u i t e c o r r e c t l y I t h i n k , t h a t t h i s i s a f i r s t a t t e m p t t o r e v i v e t h e V e n e t o B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e f o r m . 2 6 I n t h e l i t t l e we c a n s e e o f t h e C a ' d e l D uca, i n n o v a t i o n s , s u c h as t h e u s e o f m a i n l a n d t y p e r u s t i c a t i o n and c l a s s i c a l c o l u m n s have been c o m b i n e d w i t h a l o c a l f o r m , t h e t w i n t o w e r p a l a c e , t o g i v e t h e s t r u c t u r e a s e n s e o f * V e n e t i a n n e s s ' , b u t w i t h a new l o o k . T h i s i s a theme w h i c h w i l l be p i c k e d up a g a i n and d e v e l o p e d more f u l l y by t h e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e more m a t u r e R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e o f t h e 1 4 8 0 ' s . The Ca d e l Duca d o e s n o t seem t o have a f f e c t e d p a l a c e s d i r e c t l y , a t l e a s t n o t i m m e d i a t e l y . However, t h e m o n u m e n t a l i t y and c o n c e r n f o r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h a r e f e a t u r e s o f t h e b a s e o f t h e 2 4 J o h n McAndrew, E a r l v R e n a i s s a n c e . 14. 2 5 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e , p l a t e 2. 2 6 W o l t e r s and Huse, V e n e d i g , 38. ( O t h e r ways i n w h i c h V e n i c e ' s B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e i s r e v i v e d i n l a t e r p a l a c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . 63 s t r u c t u r e are a l s o v i s i b l e on monuments which do a f f e c t the p a l a c e s . J u s t as the a r c h i t e c t s of the l a t e G othic p a l a c e s used the q u a t r e f o i l motif from the l o g g i a arcade f o r t h e i r piano n o b i l e b a l c o n i e s , they seem to have looked again to the Ducal Palace f o r t h e i r cue to s t a r t i n c o r p o r a t i n g new d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s i n t o t h e i r own palace facades. Pincus, i n her d i s s e r t a t i o n on the Arco F o s c a r i l a y s out how, from the 1420's onwards, the entrance system i n t o the Palace was being changed by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a and the Arco F o s c a r i . The l a t t e r s t r u c t u r e had a more independent q u a l i t y than i t does today, and c e r t a i n l y had a more c l a s s i c i z i n g look than i s u s u a l l y n o t i c e d because of the Gothic s t y l e c r o c k e t i n g on top with the crowning s c u l p t u r e . Dr Pincus l a y s out how, i n the 1460's, i n the Moro phase of the Arco, the monument took on the appearance of a Roman twin tower gateway ( f i g . 20). Bartolomeo Buon, who was working at the Ducal palace uses a s i m i l a r double column motif, though reduced i n s c a l e to the one he used on the Ca d e l Duca. T h i s phase of the Arco F o s c a r i , with i t s Roman triumphal monument f l a v o u r , could w e l l have been one of the "cues" that s t a r t e d Venetians t h i n k i n g about new m o t i f s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s f o r t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s . The most important t r i g g e r f o r the change i n domestic a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e was the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i , p r e c i p i t a t e d by a f i r e i n the n o r t h wing of the Ducal Palace i n 1482. T h i s s t a i r c a s e , with i t s monumental marble r e l i e f s i n a h i g h l y c l a s s i c i z i n g s t y l e , and triumphal 64 m o t i f s about the s t a t e and the o f f i c e of the Doge, i s thought to have been p a r t l y i n p l a c e by 1485 ( f i g . 21). C o i n c i d i n g with the completion of the S c a l a was the a d d i t i o n of the crowning s c u l p t u r e of the Arco F o s c a r i , which Pincus i n t e r p r e t s as an e n c a p s u l a t i o n of the v i r t u e s the Venetians wanted t h e i r Doge to e x h i b i t , and the r o l e he was to p l a y i n l e a d i n g a C h r i s t i a n c i t y . 2 7 At t h i s p o i n t , i n the 1480's, the f i r s t Renaissance s t y l e p a l a c e s appear. Venetian p a t r i c i a n s seemed very s e n s i t i v e to a p p r o p r i a t e p alace imagery, and even i f they were aware of F l o r e n t i n e trends i n the use of c l a s s i c i s m , u n t i l antique forms had become i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a r c h i t e c t u r a l v ocabulary used to express Venetian s t a t e l e a d e r s h i p , i t was n e i t h e r r e l e v a n t nor c o r r e c t f o r p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s to use these forms on a grand s c a l e i n t h e i r own p a l a c e s . 2 7 Pincus, Ar_cjQ_, Chapter S i x . 4 5 CHAPTER THREE THE FI R S T RENAISSANCE PALACES IN VENICE: c. 1480-1495 F i v e p a l a c e s , b u i l t f r o m 1480 t o 1495 i n V e n i c e , a r e s t i l l i n good c o n d i t i o n , and i l l u s t r a t e t h e e a r l i e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a new s t y l e u s e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner. They a r e t h e p a l a z z i C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i , Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , G u s s o n i a San L i o , and t h e C a ' D a r i o . A m a z i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e f i e l d o f d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s e p a l a c e s were made. A w h o l e new s e t o f d e c o r a t i v e f a c a d e m o t i f s , b a s e d on f o r m s d e r i v e d f r o m Roman c l a s s i c a l , B y z a n t i n e , and t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e was b e i n g w o r k e d o u t . W h i l e t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e new " l a n g u a g e " a p p e a r i n a l l t h e s e p a l a c e s , t h e y n e v e r seem t o be u s e d t o t h e same e f f e c t t w i c e , e v e n i n w o r k s b y t h e same a r c h i t e c t . The r e s u l t i n g g r o u p o f f a c a d e s have a f a s c i n a t i n g d i v e r s i t y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e e v e n t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f a new t y p e . What were t h e common e l e m e n t s o f t h e s e new p a l a c e s ? F i r s t l y , t h e y k e e p t h e same b a s i c f a c a d e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e G o t h i c p a l a c e , w h i c h s u i t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . T h u s , t h e f a c a d e s t i l l h as a s t r o n g c e n t r a l f o c u s , w i t h t h e b a l c o n i e s and d o o r s i n v e r t i c a l a l i g n m e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h e l o w e r s t o r e y i s d e c o r a t e d more s i m p l y t h a n t h e s t o r e y s 6 6 a b o v e , and has a l a r g e d o o r w a y o p e n i n g on t o t h e c a n a l . T h i r d l y , t h e p i a n o n o b i l e i s t h e most h e a v i l y d e c o r a t e d , w i t h a l a r g e c e n t r a l b a l c o n y and s m a l l e r f l a n k i n g w i n d o w s . F i n a l l y , t h e t o p s t o r e y i s a more s u b d u e d v e r s i o n o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b e l o w . The p o i n t e d a r c h windows and q u a t r e f o i l t r a c e r y , t h e t r a d e m a r k s o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c p e r i o d , d i s a p p e a r e n t i r e l y , and a r e r e p l a c e d by r o u n d a r c h e s s e t on c a p i t a l s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s . The d e c o r a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e d o o r s , w i n d o w s , s u p p o r t i n g and s e p a r a t i n g e l e m e n t s a l s o become i n s p i r e d b y t h e i m a g e r y o f a n c i e n t Rome. The t w i s t e d c o l u m n , G o t h i c q u o i n i n g , f l e u r de l i s t o p k n o t s , and r o p e and b i l l e t m o u l d i n g s a r e no l o n g e r s e e n . They make way f o r g a r l a n d e d f r i e z e s , f l a m i n g v a s e s , f l u t e d p i l a s t e r s and m o u l d i n g s . The t h i c k , b u s h y v e g e t a b l e r e l i e f p a t t e r n s o f t h e G o t h i c p e r i o d a r e r e p l a c e d b y g r a c e f u l v i n e s , t e n d r i l s , u r n s , l e a v e s and f l o w e r s d e r i v e d f r o m a n t i q u i t y , w h i c h o f t e n a p p e a r on b a l c o n i e s and a r o u n d d o o r s . 1 A n o t h e r m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l a t e G o t h i c and f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e b u i l d i n g s i s t h e u s e o f s t o n e w o r k . The G o t h i c p a l a c e t y p i c a l l y u s e s s t u c c o on b r i c k , w i t h windows and d o o r f r a m e s i n c o n t r a s t i n g w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e , w h i l e t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e f e a t u r e s a f a c a d e w i t h a f u l l r e v e t m e n t i n v a r i o u s c o l o r e d m a r b l e s , a f a r more e x p e n s i v e p r o c e d u r e , b u t 1 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e , p l a t e 25. T h i s t y p e o f d e c o r a t i o n was b r o u g h t i n t o V e n i c e by t h e Lombardo f a m i l y o f s c u l p t o r s and s t o n e m a s o n s and i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as Lombard s t y l e v e g e t a t i o n . 67 v e r y l u x u r i o u s . The u s e o f p o r p h y r y and s e r p e n t i n e r o u n d e l s s e t a b o v e and a r o u n d window a r c h e s i s r e v i v e d . T h e s e m o t i f s , common t o V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s o f t h e B y z a n t i n e and e a r l y G o t h i c y e a r s ( f o u r t e e n t h and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ) , were r a r e l y u s e d i n l a t e G o t h i c . I n t h e new f a c a d e t y p e w indows and b a l c o n y o p e n i n g s become l e s s t h e f o c u s o f a l l t h e d e c o r a t i v e a t t e n t i o n , as s t o n e p a t e r e and s q u a r e s ( o f t e n i n s p i r e d b y B y z a n t i n e pavement p a t t e r n s ) a r e a p p l i e d t o p i a n o n o b i l e and u p p e r s t o r e y s b e t w e e n t h e w i n d o w s , s e r v i n g t o keep t h e d e c o r a t i v e f o c u s l o s t b y t h e r e m o v a l o f t r a c e r y . A l s o , w i t h t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f p o i n t e d a r c h e s b y s u p e r i m p o s e d s t o r e y s o f p a t e r e t o p p e d r o u n d a r c h e s , many o f t h e s e p a l a c e s r e s e m b l e t h e two s t o r e y V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e t y p e s o s t r o n g l y t h a t i n V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s , u n l i k e t h o s e o f F l o r e n c e , B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l , a s w e l l a s t h e u s e o f c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s must be i d e n t i f i e d as a m a j o r e l e m e n t o f t h e new s t y l e . Many s c h o l a r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g s were g i v e n a new r a t i o n a l i t y and b a l a n c e by t h e g e o m e t r i c i t y o f t h e r o u n d a r c h e s , s q u a r e d o f f p i l a s t e r d i v i s i o n s , and a p p l i e d r o u n d e l s and s q u a r e s . However, one o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c p a l a c e f a c a d e s i s t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t v o c a b u l a r y , t h e y t o o a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d and s y m m e t r i c a l l y a r r a n g e d , a s was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e P a l a z z o d e l l A m b a s c i a t o r e i n C h a p t e r Two. The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e G o t h i c and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e s i s t w o f o l d ; i t i s p h y s i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l . The G o t h i c 68 f a c a d e s , w i t h t h e i r s p i d e r y t w i s t e d c o l o n e t t e s , t h i n b i l l e t m o u l d i n g s and e l o n g a t e d p o i n t e d a r c h e s a l l a r r a n g e d i n rows one a b o v e t h e o t h e r g i v e t h e f a c a d e s a p r i m a r i l y v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n . R e p e a t e d m o u l d i n g t y p e s and a r c h s h a p e s p r o v i d e a s e n s e o f t h e m a t i c u n i t y . I n t h e new f a c a d e s , s i m p l e r r o u n d e d and s q u a r e s h a p e s a r e u s e d , w i t h more s u b s t a n t i a l p i l a s t e r s , f r i e z e s and f r a m i n g d e v i c e s a r r a n g e d t o c o n v e y an i m p r e s s i o n o f h o r i z o n t a l i t y . I n s t e a d o f a s p i r i n g u p w a r d , t h e new f a c a d e s , w i t h t h e i r w e i g h t i e r f o r m s , a p p e a r f i r m l y r o o t e d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . The new f a c a d e s have a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and c o m p l e x s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o them, a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e new l a n g u a g e . The s e n s e o f b a l a n c e and f a c a d e u n i t y comes n o t o n l y f r o m r e p e a t i n g d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s , b u t a l s o f r o m o p t i c a l r e f i n e m e n t s u s e d t o make t h e b u i l d i n g s a p p e a r p r o p o r t i o n a l l y p e r f e c t e v e n i f t h e y were n o t o r i g i n a l l y s o . 2 T h u s , a l t h o u g h one a s p e c t o f t h e c h a n g e f r o m G o t h i c t o R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e f a c a d e s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a p p l y i n g new d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s t o t h e o l d f a c a d e a r r a n g e m e n t , a n o t h e r e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new c o n c e p t o f t h e f a c a d e w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g , s p a t i a l p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h . A p a l a c e w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s r i c h m a r b l e s and new 2 A l t h o u g h G o t h i c f a c a d e s , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e a r e b a l a n c e d and o r d e r l y i n window and d o o r p l a c e m e n t , i t d o e s n o t seem t o have been c o n s i d e r e d odd i f some e l e m e n t s were o u t o f a l i g n m e n t , a s i n t h e P a l a z z o B e r n a r d o b a l c o n i e s . T h i s d o e s n o t seem t o o c c u r i n t h e l a t e r p a l a z z i , where s u c h d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e c o v e r e d up. 69 a r c h i t e c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y o n t o a f a c a d e w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y l a t e G o t h i c d o o r and window p l a c e m e n t i s t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i -P o l i g n a c ( F i g . 2 2 ) . B u i l t a r o u n d 1485 and l o c a t e d on t h e most i m p o r t a n t V e n e t i a n w a t e r w a y , t h e G r a n d C a n a l , t h e f a c a d e i s much more c o l o r f u l t h a n a G o t h i c p a l a c e . 3 I t i s r e v e t t e d i n g r a y and y e l l o w v e i n e d m a r b l e s , a c c e n t e d by I s t r i a n s t o n e p i l a s t e r s and f r a m i n g d e v i c e s . However, t h e m u l t i - l i g h t c e n t r a l b a l c o n y and d o o r z o n e s f l a n k e d by s i n g l e w i ndows a r e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e f r o m t h e l a t e G o t h i c t y p e . The w indows c r e a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n by t h e i r p l a c e m e n t one a t o p t h e o t h e r b u t now t h e c e n t r a l z o n e i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e w i n g s by s e t s o f f l u t e d w h i t e c o m p o s i t e p i l a s t e r s , w h i c h a r e r e p e a t e d on t h e e d g e s i n l i e u o f q u o i n i n g , g i v i n g t h r e e c l e a r l y d e m a r k e d a r e a s on e a c h s t o r e y , and f r a m i n g t h e e d g e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . T h e s e p i l a s t e r s a l s o c o n v e y t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t e a c h s t o r e y has w e i g h t and i s s u p p o r t e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e s t o r e y b e l o w ; t h e c o n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n a l d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s , an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , i s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d h e r e . A l t h o u g h t h e f a c a d e i s b r o k e n i n t o t h r e e v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s by t h e p i l a s t e r s , t h e s e n s e o f h o r i z o n t a l i t y i s v e r y s t r o n g i n t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , and i s t h e u n i f y i n g theme t o w h i c h most o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e . The i m m e d i a t e l y n o t i c e a b l e h o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t s a r e t h e e n t a b l a t u r e s o r f r i e z e - l i k e b a n d s r u n n i n g u n d e r e a c h s t o r e y . T h e s e c o u n t e r 3 I s s u e s s u c h a s t h e p a t r o n and a r c h i t e c t , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y o f e a c h p a l a c e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c h e c k l i s t o f p a l a c e s i n t h e a p p e n d i x . 7 0 t h e v e r t i c a l p i l a s t e r s , and a r e , l i k e t h e p i l a s t e r s , a r t i c u l a t e d i n an a l l ' a n t i c a v o c a b u l a r y , c r e a t i n g s o r t o f a c l a s s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l " g r i d . " The b a s e has a l a y e r o f r i n c e a u m o u l d i n g r u n n i n g j u s t u n d e r t h e window f r a m e s . The p i a n o n o b i l e f r i e z e has g a r l a n d s and e a g l e s , w h i c h s t r i k e a t r i u m p h a l n o t e . 4 The e n t a b l a t u r e a b o v e i s b o r d e r e d i n f l u t e d c i m a r e c t a m o u l d i n g and c o n t a i n s c o n s o l e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t t h e t o p s t o r e y w i ndows. T h e s e t h i c k , w e l l d e f i n e d h o r i z o n t a l d i v i s i o n s a r e i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e o f G o t h i c p a l a c e s s u c h as t h e A m b a s c i a t o r e w h i c h u s e s o n l y a t h i n r o p e m o u l d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n s t o r e y s . S i m i l a r t o G o t h i c p a l a c e s , h o w e v e r , i s t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e l o w e r and u p p e r f l o o r s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . H e r e , b o t h s t o r e y s a r e made t o a p p e a r t h e same h e i g h t t o p r o v i d e an e q u a l s i z e d h o r i z o n t a l f r a m e f o r t h e t a l l e r c e n t r a l s t o r e y . The a r c h i t e c t has p l a n n e d t h e w i d t h o f t h e f r i e z e s o t h a t t h e p i a n o  n o b i l e . w h i l e d e f i n i t e l y t a l l e r , has t h e same s i z e f l a n k i n g w i n dows as t h e o t h e r two s t o r e y s , t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f u n i t y on a l l f l o o r s o f t h e p a l a c e . T h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f o r m a l e l e m e n t s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n y t h i n g s e e n on a G o t h i c f a c a d e . The b a s e m e n t l e v e l i s t h e l e a s t d e c o r a t e d ; t h e p i l a s t e r s on t h i s l e v e l a r e u n f l u t e d , and i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l 4 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e . p l a t e 65, m i s t a k e n l y c a l l s t h e e a g l e s p u t t i . The e a g l e s and f e s t o o n s a r e i n t h e same a l l ' a n t i c a v e i n i n g as t h e a n t h e m i o n / p a l m e t t e d e v i c e s and t h e f l a m i n g u r n s w h i c h t o p t h e a r c h e s o f t h e t o p s t o r e y and p i a n o n o b i l e a r c a d e s , r e p l a c i n g t h e t o p k n o t s and f l e u r de l i s o f G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s . 71 s p i r i t o f a s i m p l e o r d e r f o r l o w e r f l o o r s , have c a p i t a l s composed o f I o n i c v o l u t e s j o i n e d by s i n g l e f e s t o o n s . The windows a r e p l a i n e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e t o p s t o r e y and have no p o r p h y r y p a t e r e a b o v e t h e a r c h e s . A l l t h e d e c o r a t i v e a c c e n t i n t h i s s t o r e y i s s a v e d f o r t h e d o o r o r w a t e r g a t e . T h i s d o o r has a s e m i c i r c u l a r a r c h a l m o s t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s t o r e y , s p r i n g i n g f r o m two d o r i c c o l u m n s . I t i s f l a n k e d by f l u t e d p i l a s t e r s , c o l o r e d s t o n e p a t e r e and i s t o p p e d by a row o f e l e g a n t egg and d a r t m o u l d i n g . The d o o r i s g r a n d e nough t o h i n t o f a t r i u m p h a l e n t r a n c e w a y , y e t d o e s n o t o v e r p o w e r t h e more i m p o r t a n t u p p e r s t o r e y s . The d i a g r a m s and d e t a i l ( f i g s . 2 3 - 2 5 ) o f t h e p a l a c e show t h a t t h e r e i s much b e a u t i f u l d e t a i l i n g n o t v i s i b l e u n l e s s one i s a c t u a l l y i n , o r e n t e r i n g t h e p a l a c e . T h e s e a r e g ood e x a m p l e s o f t h e new a l l ' a n t i c a s t o n e w o r k m o t i f s u s e d t o s a t i s f y t h e n a t i v e V e n e t i a n a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i g h l y d e c o r a t e d s u r f a c e s . B e c a u s e t h e r e i s no t r a c e r y on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . t h e t o p s t o r e y , t h o u g h n o t as h i g h as t h e m a i n s t o r e y , i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , b e c a u s e i t a l l o w s a s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l r h y t h m t o d e v e l o p and r e s o n a t e i n t h e d o u b l e rows o f h i g h r o u n d a r c h e d windows w h i c h s t r e t c h a c r o s s t h e f a c a d e . The d o u b l e h o r i z o n t a l t h r e a d i s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e rows o f p o r p h y r y and g o l d e n m a r b l e p a t e r e r u n n i n g a c r o s s t h e t o p s o f t h e a r c h e s . The e f f e c t d o e s n o t seem t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u p p e r s t o r e y b a l c o n y r e s t s above t h e s u p p o r t i n g e n t a b l a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o 72 . i t as i n t h e p i a n o n o b i l e f r i e z e . T h i s u s e o f t h e w i d e s p a n o f s i m p l e a r c h e s t o p p e d b y p a t e r e on t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c i s n o t s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e new h o r i z o n t a l e m p h a s i s , t h o u g h i t s e r v e s t h a t end a d m i r a b l y ( f i g . 2 6 ) . I t i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e T R e c e n t o V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s s u c h a s t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , i n w h i c h l o n g a r c a d e s d e c o r a t e d w i t h p a t e r e were t h e p r i n c i p l e i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e t y p e . T h e s e a r e n o t o f t e n u s e d on l a t e G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s . The mai n d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e - - t h e q u i n c u n x p a t t e r n o f s e r p e n t i n e and p o r p h y r y m a r b l e s — i s a l s o f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e d e c o r a t i v e r e p e r t o i r e , p o s s i b l y a pavement p a t t e r n . 5 B e s i d e s t h e r e v i v a l o f Roman c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s , B y z a n t i n e and V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s were an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e . The a r c h i t e c t o f t h i s p a l a c e m a n i p u l a t e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g r i d o f p i l a s t e r s and f r i e z e s t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a b a l a n c e d , c o h e r e n t l y o r g a n i z e d f a c a d e . S t o n e c a r v i n g , and p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s a r e w o r k e d i n b o t h Roman and B y z a n t i n e m o t i f s t o u n i t e two t y p e s o f c l a s s i c i s m . R e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e e a r l y p a l a c e t y p e , w h i l e t h e G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e f a c a d e was n o t f o r g o t t e n . The P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , has a f a c a d e w h i c h m e l d s many d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s , b o t h n a t i v e and f o r e i g n , and d o e s s o i n a 5 The s o u r c e s and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f B y z a n t i n e pavement p a t t e r n s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r i n c h a p t e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Ca D a r i o . 73 s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner, never before seen i n Venice. The C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i palace of c.1485 to 1490, i s a l s o p l a c e d on an expensive s i t e , f r o n t i n g on the Grand Canal ( F i g . 27). T h i s p alace i s s i m i l a r to the C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c i n the a r c h i t e c t ' s manipulation of the s p a t i a l elements of the facade elements and i n the use of a t r a d i t i o n a l G othic t r i p a r t i t e facade format. Added to these f e a t u r e s i s the use of Tuscan i n s p i r e d m o t i f s to cr e a t e a completely d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t than was achieved on the Palazzo C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c . T h i s b u i l d i n g c r e a t e d an a r c h i t e c t u r a l problem because i t had a l a r g e lower s t o r e y c o n s i s t i n g of a basement and a mezzanine. I t was a s i n g l e d e c o r a t i v e u n i t comprising a l i t t l e under h a l f the b u i l d i n g h e i g h t ; 6 the piano n o b i l e and top st o r e y were much s m a l l e r . I f Codussi had made each f l o o r of the C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i p alace s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , as was u s u a l l y done on Gothic p a l a c e s , i t would have seemed u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , out of balance, and v i s u a l l y c o n f u s i n g , as the bottom s t o r e y would have dwarfed the top two. Instead, he chose to submerge the l a t e G othic facade s t r u c t u r e i n a s t r o n g system of c o n t r a s t s . The palace has a r u s t i c a t e d basement, above which are two almost i d e n t i c a l upper f l o o r s , with l a r g e t r a c e r i e d windows. The l i g h t and almost l a c y a r t i c u l a t i o n of the upper s t o r e y s i s p e r f e c t l y balanced by the l a r g e r u s t i c a t e d basement. The two p a r t s are u n i f i e d by the f a c t that the e n t i r e facade i s 6 In the Got h i c t r a d i t i o n , a basement and a mezzanine are u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e u n i t , as i n the Palazzo d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e . 74 w o r k e d i n s t u n n i n g w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e . S c h o l a r s have o f t e n commented t h a t t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i f a c a d e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a F l o r e n t i n e e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e . T hey do n o t e x p l a i n how t h e F l o r e n t i n e t y p e h a s been c l e v e r l y r e w o r k e d f o r t h e V e n e t i a n e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i m e a r u s t i c a t e d b a s e m e n t had been c o m p l e t e d on a p a l a c e f a c a d e i n V e n i c e , as t h e C a d e l D u c a r e m a i n e d a t a n t a l i z i n g f r a g m e n t . C o d u s s i had u s e d s i m i l a r s t o n e w o r k v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e f a c a d e o f t h e c h u r c h o f San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a , b u t i n t h a t c o m m i s s i o n he d i d n o t have t o c o m b i n e t h e r u s t i c a t i o n w i t h l a r g e b a n k s o f win d o w s . U n l i k e t h e r u s t i c a t i o n o f many F l o r e n t i n e r e s i d e n c e s s u c h a s t h e P a l a z z o M e d i c i ( d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two), t h a t o f t h e P a l a z z o C o r n e r S p i n e l l i i s n o t r o u g h and b l o c k y . I t i s more s u i t e d t o V e n e t i a n d e c o r a t i v e t a s t e s i n t h a t i t h a s a d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n made up o f l o n g and s h o r t s t o n e s , d e e p l y c h a n n e l l e d b e t w e e n s o t h a t t h e y w o u l d be v i s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e w a t e r on t h e f a c a d e . C o d u s s i may have been i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e l o n g and s h o r t s t o n e s u s e d on t h e b a s e o f t h e Ca d e l D u c a , and w o n d e r e d i f t h e y c o u l d be a d a p t e d f o r u s e on a g r e a t e r s c a l e . The r u s t i c a t i o n , h o wever f o r e i g n t o V e n e t i a n d e c o r a t i v e c u s t o m , i s s t i l l i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n o f s i m p l y d e c o r a t e d l o w e r s t o r e y s . The f e n e s t r a t i o n has been d e r i v e d f r o m F l o r e n t i n e m o d e l s s u c h as t h e P a l a z z o R u c c e l l a i and t h e P a l a z z o M e d i c i ( f i g . 2 8 ) . The t y p e , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , c o n s i s t s o f t w i n r o u n d a r c h e s s u r r o u n d e d b y a s i n g l e r o u n d a r c h , w i t h an 75 i m p r e s a , o r f a m i l y emblem, i n s e r t e d i n t h e s o l i d s p a n d r e l a r e a . C o d u s s i t u r n s i t i n t o a V e n e t i a n t y p e r a t h e r t h a n l e t t i n g i t r e m a i n T u s c a n . He d o e s so by r e m o v i n g t h e s o l i d s p a n d r e l s p a c e and i n s e r t i n g an i n v e r t e d t e a r d r o p . T h i s g i v e s a t r i l o b e d t r a c e r y e f f e c t , and c r e a t e s a window w h i c h i s an u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e t r a c e r y s o d e a r t o t h e V e n e t i a n G o t h i c t r a d i t i o n . The t e a r d r o p a t t h e t o p o f t h e window i s e v e n r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e o c u l u s on a c o l u m n w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e q u a t r e f o i l t r a c e r y on t h e D u c a l and o t h e r G o t h i c p a l a c e s , e x c e p t on t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i f a c a d e t h e r e a r e r o u n d r a t h e r t h a n p o i n t e d a r c h e s c o m p l e t i n g t h e d e c o r a t i v e u n i t . C o d u s s i r e t a i n s t h e C o r i n t h i a n c o l u m n s i n t h e window u n i t t h a t were a p a r t o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e G o t h i c t o t h e R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e i n T u s c a n y , a s w e l l as i n V e n i c e . Thus t h e window has b o t h r e c o g n i z a b l e G o t h i c f e a t u r e s and a modern T u s c a n a p p e a r a n c e . On a F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e , t h e t w i n - l i g h t windows a r e e v e n l y s p a c e d a c r o s s t h e p a l a c e f a c a d e , w h i l e t h e V e n e t i a n G o t h i c , and t h e newer C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c p a l a c e s h a v e , t h r o u g h n e c e s s i t y s t r o n g m u l t i o p e n i n g b a l c o n y g r o u p s t o l e t l i g h t i n t o t h e m a i n s a l o n s , and one o r two f l a n k i n g windows f o r t h e s u b s i d i a r y rooms on e a c h s i d e . F o r t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e T u s c a n t w i n -l i g h t s t y l e t o work on t h e V e n e t i a n f a c a d e t y p e , C o d u s s i had t o p l a c e t h e c e n t r a l two windows t o g e t h e r , j o i n e d by a p i e r , and h ave one t w i n - l i g h t window on e i t h e r s i d e . T h i s o n l y w o r k s b e c a u s e t h e p a l a c e i s s m a l l , and two w e l l s p a c e d s i n g l e windows 76 on e i t h e r s i d e a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y . I n t h i s way, C o d u s s i i s a b l e t o keep t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t r i p a r t i t e f a c a d e a r r a n g e m e n t and s t i l l u s e h i s t w i n - l i g h t T u s c a n - V e n e t i a n window. The t r i l o b a t e c l o v e r l e a f o u t l i n e o f t h e window t r a c e r y u n d e r i t s f r a m i n g a r c h i s a u n i f y i n g m o t i f o f t h e f a c a d e . I t i s w o r k e d i n t o t h e f l a n k i n g b a l c o n i e s , w h i c h a r e t r i l o b e d , a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e window s h a p e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o i t . 7 T h i s s h a p e has a l s o b een i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e l o w e r s t o r e y . D e p e n d i n g upon i n t o w h i c h v i s u a l g r o u p i n g one p l a c e s t h e windows ( t h e s h a p e o f w h i c h i s a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h o s e a b o v e , w i t h t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e s u r r o u n d i n g a p l a i n r o u n d a r c h ) t h e s h a p e a p p e a r s t w i c e . I f one t a k e s t h e t h r e e windows p l a c e d i n a t r i a n g u l a r f a s h i o n t o t h e l e f t and r i g h t o f t h e d o o r a s a g r o u p , i t a p p e a r s t h e r e , and a g a i n i f one l o o k s a t t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h s h a p e o f t h e d o o r and f l a n k i n g windows as a g r o u p . The window p l a c e m e n t on t h i s l o w e r s e c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c e i s an i n v e n t i v e means o f i n c l u d i n g t h e m e z z a n i n e and t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y windows i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e scheme o f t h e f a c a d e ; i n o t h e r b u i l d i n g s t h e y a r e s i m p l y s t a c k e d one a t o p t h e o t h e r . As i n t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , t h e h o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e f a c a d e a r e s t r e s s e d . T h e r e a r e a l l ' a n t i c a g a r l a n d f r i e z e s u n d e r t h e c o r n i c e and on t h e b a s e o f t h e 7 P i e t r o P a o l e t t i f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d t h e d i s t i n c t i v e b a l c o n y s h a p e as b e i n g f r o m t h e C a s a P i g a f e t t a , a G o t h i c p a l a c e i n V e r o n a . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e . p l a t e 6 3 , p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t i s a good e x a m p l e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o n o t i c e and t a k e i n t e r e s t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s f r o m any e r a and t r a n s f o r m i t t o h i s own p u r p o s e s . 77 f a c a d e . They a r e j o i n e d t o t h e c o m p o s i t e p i l a s t e r s w h i c h r u n up t h e e d g e s o f t h e p a l a c e , t o p r o v i d e a f r a m e f o r t h e f a c a d e i n a n t i q u e m o t i f s . 8 The r e a l h o r i z o n t a l f o c u s i s p r o v i d e d by C o d u s s i ' s i n n o v a t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e b a l c o n i e s , a f e a t u r e c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n t o t h e c l o s e d i n F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e f a c a d e , b u t e s s e n t i a l t o a V e n e t i a n b u i l d i n g . The a r c h i t e c t has c h a n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b a l c o n y p l a c e m e n t s o t h a t e v e r y window has a b a l c o n y , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h o c c u r s o n l y r a r e l y i n G o t h i c p a l a c e s , s u c h as t h e P i s a n i - M o r e t t a o f c. 1455. E v e n more i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e b a l c o n y u n i t s i n t o t h e s t o r e y d e m a r k a t i o n s y s t e m , w h i c h i s n o t done i n t h e l a t e G o t h i c p a l a c e , n o r i s i t c a r r i e d o u t c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e C o n t a r i n i -P o l i g n a c w h i c h a t t a c h e s o n l y t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y t o t h e f r i e z e on e i t h e r s i d e o f i t . The C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i c r e a t e s much more c o m p l e t e h o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t s by l i n k i n g e a c h s e p a r a t e b a l c o n y u n i t t o t h e o t h e r s w i t h m o u l d i n g s t r i p s t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e b a l u s t e r s . The h o r i z o n t a l u n i t i s f i r m l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e b a s e s o f t h e p i l a s t e r s a t t h e edge o f t h e f a c a d e , u n i t i n g b o t h s i d e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g w i t h two s t r o n g v i s u a l s e c t i o n s . I n t h e r h y t h m i c a l t e r n a t i o n o f l a c y b a l u s t e r and 8 As i n t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c p a l a c e , t h e o r d e r s a r e c o m p o s i t e s , i n s p i r e d by a n t i q u i t y , b u t n o t s l a v i s h t o V i t r u v i a n r u l e s . The l o w e r s t o r e y , f o r e x a m p l e u s e s a s i m p l e f l u t e and v o l u t e c a p i t a l , i n s t e a d o f a D o r i c o r T u s c a n , w h i l e t h e u p p e r s t o r e y s have more o r n a t e c o m p o s i t e c a p i t a l s . A g a i n , t h e c o n c e p t o f m a t c h i n g d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s t o e a c h s t o r e y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s a n t i q u e , t h o u g h t h e way i t i s w o r k e d o u t h e r e i s more i m a g i n a t i v e . T h i s v a r i a t i o n w o u l d have been p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i e w e r . 78 s o l i d m o u l d i n g u n i t s , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s w e l l t o t h e t r a c e r y l e v e l o f t h e t o p s o f t h e w i n d o w s , C o d u s s i has c r e a t e d a v e r y p l a s t i c s o r t o f f r i e z e . The P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i d o e s n o t have a s s t r o n g a B y z a n t i n e e l e m e n t as t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c p a l a c e . C o d u s s i c o n c e n t r a t e s on r e w o r k i n g t h e F l o r e n t i n e t y p e , and m a i n l y makes r e f e r e n c e ( a l b e i t l o o s e l y ) t o t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e f o r h i s p i l a s t e r s , c a p i t a l s , m o u l d i n g s and f r i e z e s . However, t h e p r e s e n c e o f p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l s and p l a q u e s , w h i c h s t a n d i n s t r o n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e w h i t e n e s s o f t h e I s t r i a n s t o n e i s enough t o s u g g e s t V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s . As w e l l a s p l a c i n g t h e r o u n d e l s a r o u n d t h e window a r c h e s a s i n T r e c e n t o p a l a c e s and t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , C o d u s s i p u t s g r o u p s o f m a r b l e d e c o r a t i o n s a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e window c a p i t a l s , t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r l e v e l o f h o r i z o n t a l f o c u s . T h i s l i n k s t h e s i d e s o f t h e p a l a c e t o t h e c e n t r e , f i r m l y " r o o t i n g " t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y open u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e . I n t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i p a l a c e a new s t y l e i s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e t h o u g h t f u l and c o h e r e n t i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e t y p e w i t h t h e l a t e G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e m o d e l . The a r c h i t e c t t r a n s f o r m s F l o r e n t i n e f o r m i n t o a s u i t a b l e V e n e t i a n i d i o m b y h i s t r e a t m e n t o f r u s t i c a t i o n and w i n d o w s , a r t i c u l a t i n g most o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s i n a s t y l e i n s p i r e d by t h e a n t i q u e . He r e f e r s t o t h e i m p o r t a n t B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e o f V e n i c e i n h i s u s e o f p r e c i o u s m a r b l e i n s e t s , y e t i s n o t c l o s e d t o f o r e i g n G o t h i c m o d e l s i n h i s c h o i c e o f an u n u s u a l 79 b a l c o n y s h a p e . C o d u s s i i s ab o v e a l l t h o r o u g h l y modern and i n n o v a t i v e i n h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e e l e m e n t s t o p r o d u c e a p a l a c e e x h i b i t i n g a new c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t e d c o n t r a s t s . The P a l a z z o Z o r z i , b u i l t a r o u n d 1480 i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a l a c e o f t h i s p e r i o d , a n d , l i k e t h e P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i i t i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Mauro C o d u s s i . I n d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d up t o t h i s p o i n t , t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i i s n o t on t h e G r a n d C a n a l , b u t i s l o c a t e d n e a r t h e Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , one o f t h e m a j o r c a m p i o f t h e c i t y , where many o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a t r i c i a n f a m i l i e s , s u c h as t h e G r i m a n i , had t h e i r p a l a c e s . T h i s a r e a o f V e n i c e i s on t h e p a t h f r o m San M a r c o t o t h e C h u r c h o f SS G i o v a n n i e P a o l o and t h e S c u o l a d i San M a r c o , two k e y s i t e s o f p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n a g e . C o d u s s i ' s p r o b l e m i n t h e p a l a z z o Z o r z i was t o u n i t e t h e f a c a d e s o f two a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p a l a c e s i n a c o h e r e n t manner ( F i g s . 2 9 - 3 1 ) . The f o u r s t o r e y p a l a c e has t h e t r a d i t i o n a l V e n e t i a n G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e , b u t t h e b r o a d e x p a n s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a l l o w e d C o d u s s i t o c r e a t e a p a l a c e t h a t i s more s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e h e a v i l y a r c a d e d V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s t h a n any o t h e r b u i l d i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . Though B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l i s t h e o v e r r i d i n g theme i n f o r m i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e , C o d u s s i u s e s c r i s p , s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s d rawn f r o m t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e a r c h e s , c a p i t a l s and m o u l d i n g s . T h i s h i g h l y g e o m e t r i c v o c a b u l a r y i s c o m b i n e d i n 80 c o m p l e x r h y t h m s t o m a n i p u l a t e and o r g a n i z e a l l t h e s t o r e y s and t h e windows so t h a t i n s t e a d o f b e i n g l o s t i n t h e v a s t l e n g t h o f t h e p a l a c e , e a c h e l e m e n t becomes an i n t e g r a l component i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e w h o l e . The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y f o r C o d u s s i i n u n i t i n g t h e two p a l a c e s w i t h one c o h e r e n t f a c a d e was t h e f a c t t h a t room p l a c e m e n t was n o t a l w a y s g o i n g t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e b e s t window p l a c e m e n t . T h i s d o e s n o t seem t o have w o r r i e d t h e a r c h i t e c t , who was i n t e n t on p r o v i d i n g a w e l l o r g a n i z e d f a c a d e a p p e a r a n c e , r a t h e r t h a n e x p r e s s i n g room f u n c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , some o f t h e windows i n t h e p i a n o n o b i l e c e n t r a l a r c a d e a r e b l i n d , and have s u p p o r t i n g w a l l s r a t h e r t h a n rooms b e h i n d them. T h i s shows a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n t h a n e x i s t e d i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . H e r e , f o r m h e r e i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n f u n c t i o n . C o d u s s i a l s o had t o t h i n k a b o u t g i v i n g t h i s f a c a d e e x t r a d e f i n i t i o n , s o t h a t i t w o u l d n o t f l o w i n t o t h e l o n g G o t h i c p a l a c e n e x t t o i t on t h e r_io_. He d o e s t h i s by f a c i n g t h e b u i l d i n g i n w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e , w h i c h i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b r o w n i s h b u i l d i n g n e x t d o o r . The g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s u s e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e f a c a d e g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f s e v e r i t y , b u t a c l o s e l o o k a t t h e b u i l d i n g r e v e a l s t h a t as much c a r e was t a k e n i n t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d m o u l d i n g s and t h e c a r v i n g o f t h e c a p i t a l s as i n t h e t r a c e r y o f t h e G o t h i c p a l a c e s . The f a c a d e i s i n f a c t o r n a t e , b u t has c l e a n e r l i n e s t h a n t h e G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s , a r e s u l t o f s t u d y i n g Roman 81 s t r u c t u r e s . The w h i t e s t o n e a l l o w s C o d u s s i t o g e t away w i t h a f a i r amount o f v i s u a l t r i c k e r y , b e c a u s e t h e v i e w e r c a n n o t r e l y on t h e s t r o n g s y s t e m o f c o n t r a s t s p r o v i d e d b y t h e f o r m e r l y u s e d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f b r i c k and m a r b l e . One has t o l o o k v e r y c a r e f u l l y a t t h e b u i l d i n g t o s o r t o u t t h e r e a l i t y f r o m t h e e f f e c t . C o d u s s i e m p l o y s a v i s u a l g r i d i n o r d e r t o make t h e v i e w e r s s e e o n l y what he w a n t s them t o s e e . The h o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t s a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r b y a s t r o n g s y s t e m o f c r i s p l y c u t m o u l d i n g s , j o i n e d f i r m l y t o t h e p i l a s t e r - l i k e e d g i n g s o f t h e p a l a c e . The v e r t i c a l e l e m e n t s , t h e e m p h a s i s o f w h i c h was v i t a l t o b a l a n c e t h e s t r u c t u r e a s w e l l a s t o e x p r e s s theme, a r e e q u a l l y w e l l d e f i n e d . They a r e l i n e d up e x a c t l y one ab o v e t h e o t h e r on a l l s t o r e y s . W i t h o u t t h i s r h y t h m i c v i s u a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e f a c a d e w o u l d seem an e n d l e s s s t r e t c h o f windows and w h i t e s t o n e . The b o t t o m s t o r e y i s c r u c i a l i n d e f i n i n g and b a l a n c i n g t h e f a c a d e . The t h r e e w a t e r d o o r s mark t h e ends and t h e c e n t r e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , and t h e y a r e l i n k e d by two s e t s o f m o u l d i n g s , one r u n n i n g a t t h e c e n t r e l e v e l o f t h e d o o r s , and one t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e way down, n e a r t h e w a t e r . The c o m p l e t e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e s e d o o r s i s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e mai n e n t r a n c e t o t h e p a l a c e , a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , i s on t h e s a l i z z a d a f a c a d e a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r , and n o t on t h e c a n a l . On t h e mai n f a c a d e a g a i n , t h e s m a l l s q u a r e windows b e t w e e n t h e d o o r s a r e " t i e d " i n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e s t o r e y e l e m e n t s b y b e i n g made t o r e s t on t h e c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d m o u l d i n g . They a r e s u r r o u n d e d by 82 enough w h i t e s t o n e o r b l a n k w a l l s p a c e t o g i v e t h i s s t o r e y t h e s e n s e o f s t a b i l i t y and s o l i d i t y n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t t h e r e s t o f t h e b u i l d i n g , w h i c h seems a mass o f w i n d o w s . The p l a c e m e n t o f t h e ma i n f r o n t d o o r i s on t h e l a n d s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . T h i s s i d e d o o r has w e l l w o r k e d c l a s s i c i z i n g m o u l d i n g s , l u x u r i o u s m a r b l e i n s e t s and f l u t e d c o l u m n s ( f i g . 3 2 ) , compared t o t h e s i m p l e p l i n t h t o p p e d r o u n d a r c h e s o f t h e r i o f a c a d e . The c h o i c e o f t h e l a n d d o o r f o r t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e makes s e n s e b e c a u s e t h e l a r g e s i t e o f t h e b u i l d i n g g i v e s i t a f a i r l y l o n g l a n d f a c a d e f r o n t i n g on t h e s a l i z z a d a Z o r z i , w h i c h g i v e s d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , t h e p a l a c e s o f w h i c h a l l f r o n t e d on t h e p i a z z a . P e o p l e w o u l d have been j u s t a s l i k e l y t o a p p r o a c h t h e b u i l d i n g f r o m t h i s d i r e c t i o n as f r o m t h e c a n a l . A p a r t f r o m t h i s g r o u n d s t o r e y , t h e o n l y o t h e r f l o o r t o r e c e i v e f u l l t r e a t m e n t i s t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . c l e a r l y t h e more e l a b o r a t e o f t h e two. I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e Z o r z i p a l a c e r e s e m b l e s l a r g e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s s u c h as t h e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e r e i s s u c h a l o n g c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f w i n d o w s . H a v i n g two s m a l l e r s t o r i e s f r a m i n g t h e mai n f l o o r , s u i t e d C o d u s s i ' s n e e d s w e l l , a s t h e y add t o f a c a d e u n i t y by r e f l e c t i n g r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t i n g w i t h t h e r h y t h m s o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . The m e z z a n i n e f l o o r i s c o n c e i v e d as a l e n g t h o f s q u a r i s h w i ndows f r a m e d i n f l u t e d p i l a s t e r s t r i p s and i s l i n k e d on t h e t o p and b o t t o m b y s t r i p s o f h o r i z o n t a l m o u l d i n g s . V i s u a l l y i t 83 a p p e a r s t o be a p a r t o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e , and i s e s s e n t i a l f o r w o r k i n g o u t t h e B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l theme. The windows o f t h i s l e v e l a r e p l a c e d d i r e c t l y b e l o w e a c h o p e n i n g on t h e p i a n o  n o b i l e , m a t c h i n g them i n b o t h w i d t h and p l a c e m e n t . U n d e r t h e b a l c o n y t h e two s t o r i e s a r e a l m o s t j o i n e d , a s t h e s u p p o r t i n g b r a c k e t s o f t h e b a l c o n y v i r t u a l l y r u n i n t o t h e p i l a s t e r s . T h i s c l o s e , one t o one p l a c e m e n t o f windows on t h e two s t o r e y s t e n d s t o c o n f u s e t h e e y e , m a k i n g them l o o k ( e x c e p t f o r t h e b a l c o n y ) e l o n g a t e d , l i k e l a t e c l a s s i c a l o r B y z a n t i n e c o l u m n s c r e e n s . T h i s i s i n m arked c o n t r a s t t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l sweep o f t h e r e s t o f t h e f a c a d e , and p r o v i d e s a n e c e s s a r y c e n t r a l v i s u a l f o c a l p o i n t , a l s o t h e t h e m a t i c c o r e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . The l e n g t h o f t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i i s f u r t h e r o f f s e t , and t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s i s a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e r h y t h m i c manner i n w h i c h t h e p i a n o n o b i l e i s o r g a n i z e d and d e c o r a t e d . T h i s i s managed i n t e r m s o f a p r o g r e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and f o c u s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s t o w a r d t h e c e n t r e o f t h e f a c a d e , a l r e a d y marked o f f by t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r d o o r . The l e a s t i n t e n s e p a r t o f t h e r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d t h e f a c a d e c e n t r e i s p r o v i d e d by t h e t h r e e r e c t a n g u l a r s i n g l e f l a n k i n g w i n d o w s . T h e s e a r e c o m p l e t e l y u n l i k e most l a t e G o t h i c and e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e p i a n o n o b i l e w i n d o w s , a s t h e y l a c k a r c h e s . The windows seem a l m o s t s t a r k i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b u t t h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y s o t h a t t h e y do n o t d e t r a c t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s . C o d u s s i adds t o t h e B y z a n t i n e f l a v o u r o f t h e p a l a c e by p l a c i n g 84 a p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l above t h e c e n t r e o f e a c h window. S i n c e t h e s e f l a n k i n g windows o r i g i n a l l y had no b a l c o n i e s , and o n l y s m a l l c o n s o l e s o r b r a c k e t s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e s e c o n d window f r o m t h e e d g e s , t h e eye w o u l d have b e e n drawn e a s i l y t o t h e t a l l e r and more o r n a t e c e n t r a l z o n e . The o u t e r e d g e s o f t h e c e n t r a l a r c a d e have a much more i n t e n s e r h y t h m t h a n t h e f l a n k i n g w i n d o w s , a s t h e y a r e a r t i c u l a t e d by two s e t s o f t w i n a r c h e s , s e p a r a t e d by s m a l l compound p i e r s . T h e s e s e t s o f d o u b l e d a r c h e s f r a m e t h e s t r o n g c e n t r a l c o r e , an a r e a a l r e a d y d e m a r k e d b e l o w b y t h e m i d d l e w a t e r d o o r and t h e t w i n s e t s o f p i l a s t e r s o f t h e m e z z a n i n e . The c e n t r a l s i n g l e a r c h i s s e t up a l m o s t l i k e a t r i u m p h a l a r c h , f l a n k e d b y two t h i c k compound p i e r s , t h e d e m a r c a t i o n s o f w h i c h c u t i n t o t h e m o u l d i n g s a b o v e t h e a r c h , f r a m i n g i t . The b a l c o n y p r o j e c t s a t t h i s p o i n t , t o make s o m e t h i n g a k i n t o a s m a l l b e n e d i c t i o n o r a p p e a r a n c e l o g g i a f o r t h e p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n . T h i s i s a new t w i s t t o c e n t r a l p i a n o n o b i l e f e n e s t r a t i o n , u s i n g c l a s s i c a l l a n g u a g e t o c r e a t e a v i t a l c e n t r a l i z e d f o c u s , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t a r e p e t i t i v e l o g g i a . The a p p e a r a n c e o f h e i g h t i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n , a s t h i s i s how t h e i l l u s i o n o f t h e B y z a n t i n e d o u b l e a r c a d e f a c a d e i s c r e a t e d , b u t i t t o o i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n a Roman v o c a b u l a r y . T h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n i s ! i made t o seem t a l l e r by t h e u s e o f c a p i t a l s w i t h c r i s p l y c a r v e d d e t a i l s . T h e y a r e s e t u n d e r i m p o s t b l o c k s o u t o f w h i c h s p r i n g t h e a r c h e s ( F i g . 3 3 ) . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s o f t e n s e e n on a n t i q u e t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s , and i s u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y h e r e f o r 85 v i s u a l e m p h a s i s w i t h o u t t r a c e r y . T h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n t h e n , i s an e f f e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e a r c a d e and Roman t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y , and i s a t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n i n V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s t y l e . T h e r e i s a p l a i n b l a n k w a l l s p a c e above t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . e c h o i n g t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o u n d f l o o r windows and t h o s e o f t h e m e z z a n i n e , and t h e n t h e w h o l e b u i l d i n g i s c a p p e d b y a s m a l l t o p f l o o r , w i t h s q u a r e windows w h i c h r e p e a t t h e s p a c i n g r h y t h m o f t h e windows b e l o w , b u t i n no way d e t r a c t f r o m t h e i r e m p h a s i s . The d e c o r a t i v e p u r p o s e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h i s s t o r e y i s t o c r e a t e a s u i t a b l e f r a m i n g d e v i c e f o r t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . T h u s , w h i l e t h e b a s i c t r i p a r t i t e a r r a n g e m e n t h a s b e e n r e t a i n e d i n t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k r e m a i n s . C o d u s s i has t u r n e d a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n t o an a d v a n t a g e b y h i s c l e v e r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f a c a d e e l e m e n t s . I n s t e a d o f e a c h f l o o r b e i n g s e p a r a t e l y d e f i n e d and a r t i c u l a t e d , t h e f o c u s i s p u t e n t i r e l y on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . w i t h i t s V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e a r c a d e a r t i c u l a t e d i n a Roman c l a s s i c i z i n g manner. The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e f a c a d e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o f f s e t b y t h e s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c f o r m s and s h a r p , b e a u t i f u l l y w o r k e d m o u l d i n g s i n s p i r e d by a n t i q u i t y . L i k e t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i , t h e C a ' G u s s o n i a San L i o i s n o t on t h e G r a n d C a n a l , n o r i s i t t h o u g h t t o have b e e n b u i l t f r o m t h e g r o u n d up, b e i n g a r e f a c i n g o f a p r e e x i s t i n g f a c a d e ( f i g s . 34 & 3 5 ) . U n l i k e t h e C a ' Z o r z i , t h i s b u i l d i n g i s v e r y n a r r o w and was o n l y two s t o r i e s h i g h i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u i l t 86 a r o u n d 1480, and t h o u g h t t o be by P i e t r o Lombardo i t i s l o c a t e d on a s i d e c a n a l on t h e w e l l t r a v e l l e d r o u t e b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t c e n t r e a t San M a r c o and t h e c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e o f V e n i c e a t t h e R i a l t o . When comp a r e d t o t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i , t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f d e c o r a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t r i e d o u t by t h e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e s e d e c a d e s becomes e v i d e n t . The a r c h i t e c t o f t h e G u s s o n i p a l a c e had t o work w i t h some d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f a c a d e i r r e g u l a r i t y , b u t u n l i k e t h e Z o r z i , where t h e y a r e subsumed i n t o t h e o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l scheme, t h o s e o f t h e G u s s o n i a r e n o t h i d d e n , and a d e c o r a t i v e scheme i s a p p l i e d t o them. I t i s a b u i l d i n g l i k e t h e o t h e r s o f i t s t i m e , e n t i r e l y f a c e d i n I s t r i a n s t o n e and c o l o r e d m a r b l e s , b u t h e r e , s m a l l t y p e s o f d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s , u s u a l l y s e e n i n d e t a i l s o f b a l c o n i e s and windows o r i n u s e i n c h u r c h e s , a r e t h e m a i n f o r m o f d e c o r a t i o n . T h e s e f o r m s , w o r k e d o u t by t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y Lombard s t o n e m a s o n s c a r r y e l e m e n t s o f c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s and i m a g e s . The C a ' G u s s o n i p a t r o n seems t o have w a n t e d t o u p d a t e and r e d e c o r a t e h i s o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g , w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g t h e window a r r a n g e m e n t o r p l a c e m e n t . The f a c a d e i s b a s i c a l l y a s y m m e t r i c a l , l i k e t h e C a ' d'Oro, w i t h two v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s . The l a r g e r g r o u p i n g i s on t h e r i g h t , c o n s i s t i n g o f a f o u r - l i g h t p i a n o n o b i l e and a t h r e e o p e n i n g d o o r and f l a n k i n g window u n i t . The s u b s i d i a r y g r o u p i n g on t h e l e f t c o n s i s t s o f two s i n g l e -l i g h t w indows on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . and two s m a l l , s q u a r e h a l f windows on t h e g r o u n d f l o o r . T h i s i s a t y p i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t f o r an a s y m m e t r i c a l p a l a c e . However, due 87 t o t h e n a r r o w n e s s o f t h e f a c a d e , t h e r e i s no room t o s e p a r a t e t h e two g r o u p s , t h u s t h e h a l f windows o f t h e l o w e r f l o o r and t h e r i g h t hand s i n g l e l i g h t a r e f l u s h w i t h t h e m a i n window g r o u p i n g s , c r e a t i n g a r a t h e r cramped e f f e c t . T h e r e i s a l s o n o t e v e n e n o u g h room f o r a b a l c o n y . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e f a c a d e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s how t h e c a n a l a c c e s s p a s s a g e u n d e r t h e f a r l e f t hand p i a n o n o b i l e window has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f a c a d e d e s i g n . I t becomes a d e c o r a t e d a r c h w a y , c o m p l e t e w i t h c a r v e d p i l a s t e r and v o l u t e s . The C a ' G u s s o n i i s more i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t s d e c o r a t i o n t h a n f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i t s f a c a d e . As on o t h e r p a l a c e s o f t h i s new t y p e , o p u l e n c e i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e u s e o f p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s f o r t h e r e v e t m e n t , and an e l e g a n t "modern" t o u c h i s g i v e n by t h e r o u n d e d a r c h e s o f t h e f e n e s t r a t i o n . However, t h e a r c h i t e c t had t o keep i n mind t h e f a c t t h a t he was d e c o r a t i n g a v e r y s m a l l f a c a d e , one t h a t w o u l d n e v e r be s e e n f r o m g r e a t d i s t a n c e s , a s a r e t h o s e on t h e G r a n d C a n a l . T h e r e was c l e a r l y no room h e r e f o r t h e s t a t e l y c e n t r a l a r c a d e s o f c o r i n t h i a n c o l u m n s , o r f o r f l u t e d p i l a s t e r d i v i d e r s . The d e s i g n i s k e p t t o one t h e m a t i c e l e m e n t ; t h e r e a r e n o t e v e n any o f t h e u b i q u i t o u s r o u n d e l s on t h i s f a c a d e . I n s t e a d , t h e s m a l l e r L ombard f o l i a g e p a t t e r n s and c l a s s i c a l r e l i e f m o t i f s w h i c h f r a m e t h e windows and f o r m t h e b a l c o n y d e c o r a t i o n on a l a r g e p a l a c e s u c h as t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , and w h i c h a r e o n l y v i s i b l e upon c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n o f t h a t f a c a d e , a r e u s e d as t h e m a i n f o r m o f d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e C a ' G u s s o n i . 88 T h e s e d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y -R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e b e c a u s e t h e y were u s e d i n t h e l a t e r d e c a d e s o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y by t h e a r c h i t e c t s and s t o n e m a s o n s o f t h e Lombard s c h o o l w o r k i n g i n V e n i c e . T h i s t y p e o f s c u l p t u r a l r e l i e f i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m G o t h i c d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s b y t h e u s e o f d i f f e r e n t f o l i a g e s t y l e s , and t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e r e l i e f s t y l e o f t h e C a ' G u s s o n i and t h a t o f C a ' d'Oro w i l l make t h e c h a n g e s c l e a r e r ( f i g s . 36 & 3 7 ) . The c a r v e d s t r i p s o f t h e C a ' d'Oro a r e w o r k e d i n much r e l i e f , a r e more d e n s e , and u s e an i n h a b i t e d v i n e m o t i f common t o t h e G o t h i c e r a . E v e n t h e window c a p i t a l s and t h e b a l c o n y b a l u s t e r s have b u s h y f u l l c a r v e d f o l i a g e . R e l i e f m a t e r i a l i s n o t t h e same a s i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e , n o r i s i t a l w a y s u s e d i n t h e same manner. As s e e n on t h e C a ' G u s s o n i , t h e r e l i e f work i s u s e d i n t h e p i l a s t e r s f r a m i n g t h e windows and d o o r s and i n t h e f r i e z e and b a s e a r e a s . The f o l i a g e s t r i p s a r e much f l a t t e r and more o p e n . T h e y b e a r more c l a s s i c a l l y d e r i v e d f o l i a g e m o t i f s , s u c h as p a l m e t t e s o r a c a n t h u s l e a v e s and u r n s , and end i n c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d c a p i t a l s w i t h v o l u t e s as w e l l a s l e a v e s . The a r c h e s a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h d o u b l e rows o f f l u t i n g , and a r e t o p p e d by f l a m i n g v a s e s on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . and p a l m e t t e s on t h e l o w e r s t o r e y i n s t e a d o f t h e f l e u r de l i s o r k n o t m o t i f s u s e d i n G o t h i c f a c a d e s . The two f l o o r s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r by a f r i e z e l i k e d e v i c e made up o f two c o n t i n u o u s s t r i p s o f m o u l d i n g l i n k e d b y s m a l l p i l a s t e r s t r i p s b r o u g h t down f r o m t h e 89 windows o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . The b a s e o f r o s e c o l o r e d V e r o n a m a r b l e i s r i c h l y f i n i s h e d i n t h r e e rows o f c a r v i n g , r o s e t t e s , g u i l l o c h e and f l u t i n g . The P a l a z z o G u s s o n i b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e new s t y l e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h i t s d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s . The c o m p l e x f a c a d e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t a i l s and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c o n c e r n e d C o d u s s i i n t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i o r t h e P a l a z z o C o r n e r -S p i n e l l i a r e n o t c a l l e d i n t o p l a y i n t h i s s m a l l b u t v e r y b e a u t i f u l p a l a c e f a c a d e . R a t h e r , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l l y d e r i v e d m o t i f s s u c h a s t h e f l u t i n g , p i l a s t e r c a p i t a l s , f l a m i n g v a s e s and r o u n d a r c h e s , w i t h t h e s u b d u e d b u t r i c h f o l i a g e o f t h e Lombard s t y l e , g i v e t h i s f a c a d e i t s new l o o k . T h e r e a r e many e l e m e n t s common t o t h e l a r g e r p a l a c e s s u c h as r o u n d a r c h e s , and s i m i l a r s t o n e w o r k and f r a m e m o t i f s , b u t , b e c a u s e o f i t s s i z e and s i t e , t h e e f f e c t r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i v e schemes u s e d f o r tombs and c h a p e l s . The a r c h i t e c t h a s i n g e n i o u s l y a d a p t e d a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s t o c r e a t e a s u i t a b l e f a c a d e f o r h i s p a t r o n , and has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e new s t y l e . The C a ' D a r i o , b u i l t by G i o v a n n i D a r i o a r o u n d 1485 w i t h f u n d s g i v e n t o him by t h e s t a t e f o r d i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e . ( F i g 3 8 ) . L i k e t h e C a ' G u s s o n i i t i s an a s y m m e t r i c a l p a l a c e , and i t may even s h a r e t h e same a r c h i t e c t , P i e t r o L o mbardo. However, t h e C a ' D a r i o i s l o c a t e d on t h e G r a n d C a n a l , and i n k e e p i n g w i t h i t s p r e s t i g i o u s s i t e , i s much l a r g e r and more o r n a t e l y d e c o r a t e d t h a n t h e C a ' G u s s o n i . D e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s drawn f r o m 90 b o t h t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l and t h e B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t on t h i s f a c a d e , b u t G o t h i c m o d e l s , and t h e c o n t i n u i n g V e n e t i a n i n t e r e s t i n c o l o r i s t i c and s c u l p t u r a l e f f e c t s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t t h e b u i l d i n g . I f one w a n t e d t o f i n d a G o t h i c " s o u r c e " f o r t h e b a s i c f o r m o f t h i s w o r k, t h e Ca d' Oro w o u l d be t h e m o d e l . B o t h f a c a d e s a r e o r g a n i z e d s o t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e b a l c o n y o r window g r o u p s a r e m a s s e d , one a b o v e t h e o t h e r , on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . The r i g h t s i d e o f b o t h f a c a d e s have a s o l i d p o r t i o n o f d e c o r a t e d w a l l s p a c e , w i t h a s i n g l e window on t h e f a r r i g h t . E v e n t h o u g h t h e window and w a l l p l a c e m e n t i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n t h e two p a l a c e f a c a d e s , t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e C a ' D a r i o i s a new c o n c e p t i o n . B o t h b u i l d i n g s a r e e v i d e n c e o f t h e V e n e t i a n d e l i g h t i n what has b e e n t e r m e d " p i c t o r i a l " e f f e c t s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . The C a ' D'Oro a c h i e v e s t h i s by means o f v a r i e d and o r n a t e t r a c e r y p a t t e r n s i n t h e w i n d o w s , by t h e s t r i p s o f r i c h s c u l p t e d f o l i a g e and by t h e u s e o f h e a v i l y w o r k e d G o t h i c m o u l d i n g s . The C a ' D a r i o , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d o e s so by c o m b i n i n g m u l t i c o l o r e d s t o n e w o r k , V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e r o u n d e l p a t t e r n s , w i t h t h e s i m p l e r , more c l a s s i c i z i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e new s t y l e , a l l w o r k e d o n t o a much n a r r o w e r and h i g h e r s p a c e t h a n i s o c c u p i e d by t h e C a ' D'Oro. The r e s u l t i s a s h i f t i n f o c u s away f r o m t h e windows and o n t o t h e w a l l s p a c e , now a l s o a c a r r i e r o f m e a n i n g f u l d e c o r a t i v e i m a g e r y . The b u i l d i n g a p p e a r s h e a v i l y d e c o r a t e d , b u t t h e a r c h i t e c t 91 h a s managed t o work e v e r y t h i n g o n t o t h e f a c a d e i n a b a l a n c e d and c o h e r e n t manner. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h r e e : r o u n d a r c h e s f o r t h e window and d o o r s h a p e s , a b a c k g r o u n d f i e l d o f y e l l o w v e i n e d m a r b l e w i t h t h e w i ndows and s e p a r a t i n g e l e m e n t s i n w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e , and p o r p h y r y and s e r p e n t i n e m a r b l e r o u n d e l s f o r t h e d e c o r a t i o n . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be o n l y one m o u l d i n g t y p e , f l u t i n g , w h i c h i s u s e d on t h e h o r i z o n t a l f r i e z e s , t h e a r c h i v o l t s , and t o s u r r o u n d t h e r o u n d e l s . Some o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s have a l r e a d y b een o b s e r v e d i n s i m i l a r u s e on o t h e r p a l a c e f a c a d e s . The C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , f o r e x a m p l e a l s o u s e s t h e c o n t r a s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f y e l l o w v e i n e d m a r b l e and w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e f o r t h e r e v e t m e n t , a s w e l l as some o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e d e v i c e s u s i n g r o u n d e l s . I n t h e C a ' G u s s o n i , f l u t i n g was a l s o u s e d on t h e a r c h i v o l t s and i n h o r i z o n t a l m o u l d i n g s . T h e s e e l e m e n t s , o f c o u r s e w ork t o g e t h e r i n a u n i q u e way on t h e C a ' D a r i o . The a s y m m e t r y o f t h e u p p e r s t o r e y s i s i n p a r t o f f s e t by t h e s o l i d i t y o f t h e w h i t e s t o n e g r o u n d f l o o r ; t h e s y m m e t r i c a l p l a c e m e n t o f t h e d o o r and f l a n k i n g windows and l a r g e r o u n d e l s g i v e s t h e s t r u c t u r e a f i r m b a s e . I s t r i a n s t o n e i s a l s o u s e d i n t h i c k p i l a s t e r s t o g i v e d e f i n i t i o n t o t h e s i d e s on t h e u p p e r s t o r i e s . The e f f e c t o f t h e t h r e e s t o r e y s o f i d e n t i c a l windows i s u n l i k e t h a t o f G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s , where t h e f e n e s t r a t i o n d i f f e r s f r o m f l o o r t o f l o o r . T h i s s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a l m o s t r e s e m b l e s a Roman a m p h i t h e a t r e w i t h i t s t i e r s o f a r c h e s . The 92 r a t h e r d e l i c a t e columns, with t h e i r t i n y c a p i t a l s are lengthened and strengthened by being c a r r i e d down i n t o the s t o r e y - s e p a r a t i n g f r i e z e s (as on the Ca' Gussoni), where they a l t e r n a t e with l a r g e roundels, l i n k i n g h o r i z o n t a l with v e r t i c a l elements. The r i g h t h a l f of the facade holds the main p a r t of the d e c o r a t i v e stonework, i t s r i c h c o l o r p r o v i d e s a balanced c o n t r a s t to the simple c l a s s i c i s m of the opposite s i d e . Along with the l a r g e roundels i n the f r i e z e s , t h i s stonework completely overpowers the more t r a d i t i o n a l use of roundels around the window arches on a l l f o u r s t o r i e s . The three d e v i c e s , one a simple quincunx design, the others more complex m o t i f s are f a s h i o n e d from porphyry and s e r p e n t i n e marbles framed i n i n t e r t w i n i n g f l u t e d mouldings. T h i s type of d e v i c e , as w e l l as the p l a i n porphyry roundels s i m i l a r to those on the f r i e z e s , o r i g i n a t e i n Byzantine stone pavements and mosaics used i n p a l a c e s and churches to mark important p r o c e s s i o n a l routes and p l a c e s where i m p e r i a l ceremonies took p l a c e . Emperors stood on such spots i n t h e i r audience h a l l s , or d u r i n g c o r o n a t i o n s . These m o t i f s were r e v i v e d i n t w e l f t h century Rome f o r s i m i l a r use i n churches, where they were worked by the Cosmati s c h o o l . 6 In t h i s i n s t a n c e the i n s p i r a t i o n may have come from San Marco, or one of the other Veneto-Byzantine e Dorothy G l a s s , "Papal Patronage i n the E a r l y T w e l f t h Century: Notes on The Iconography of Cosmatesque Pavements" J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s 32 (1969): 386-90. 93 c h u r c h e s i n t h e i s l a n d s o f V e n i c e . Used on t h e C a ' D a r i o , t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a p e r s o n o f n o t e o c c u p i e s t h e b u i l d i n g . T h us t h e r e a r e e l e m e n t s o f W e s t e r n c l a s s i c a l and B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e same f a c a d e , and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an e x c e p t i o n a l l y r i c h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d e c o r a t i o n on a s m a l l s u r f a c e a r e a , i t i s t h o u g h t f u l l y w o r k e d o u t . The a b u n d a n c e o f e x p e n s i v e s t o n e w o r k may have b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i m p r o p e r , so t h e p a t r o n i n c l u d e d an i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e l o w e r s t o r e y w h i c h r e a d s "URBIS GEN10 I0ANNES DARIUS." I n d e d i c a t i n g t h e p a l a c e t o t h e c i t y , he was p e r h a p s h o p i n g t o a v o i d a c c u s a t i o n s o f t r y i n g t o a t t a i n more p e r s o n a l g l o r y t h a n was f i t t i n g f o r a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n i n t h e V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c . The i n c r e d i b l e d i v e r s i t y o f new a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n g u a g e and o r n a m e n t i n t h e s e f i v e p a l a c e s makes i t c l e a r t h a t p a t r o n s and a r c h i t e c t s were t r y i n g h a r d t o b r e a k t h e l a t e G o t h i c m o l d , and come up w i t h some new s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n . W h i l e f a c a d e s r e t a i n e d t h e b a s i c t r i p a r t i t e f o r m o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c p a l a c e s , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n g u a g e u s e d t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e new s t y l e f a c a d e s c h a n g e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The most n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was t h e s h i f t t o r o u n d a r c h e s and c l a s s i c a l v o c a b u l a r y . A l s o , t h e f a c a d e s were r e v e t t e d e n t i r e l y i n I s t r i a n s t o n e o r p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s , a d d i n g e n o r m o u s l y t o t h e c o s t o f a new p a l a c e . F u r t h e r , V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e t r a i t s s u c h as l o n g , s u p e r i m p o s e d rows o f r o u n d a r c h e s , more p e r v a s i v e u s e o f c o l o r e d r o u n d e l s , and c o m p l e x p a v e m e n t s m o t i f s were b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d o n t o f a c a d e s and were a s i g n i f i c a n t component o f 94 t h e new s t y l e . R e m o v i n g t h e t r a c e r y f r o m t h e windows and a p p l y i n g m a r b l e d e c o r a t i o n s t o t h e w a l l s u r f a c e s c h a n g e d t h e e m p h a s i s , w h i c h u s e d t o be a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y c e n t r e d on t h e w i n d o w s , t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e f a c a d e . T h i s s h i f t i s s e e n i n t h e f a c a d e c o h e r e n c e w h i c h i s now b a s e d on more c o m p l e x i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e v i c e s s u c h as f r i e z e s , m o u l d i n g s , p i l a s t e r s and c o l o r e d s t o n e w o r k t h a n b e f o r e . Though t h e new f a c a d e s a p p e a r d i v e r s e , t h e y a r e u n i t e d b y a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s . The g r o u p w h i c h f o l l o w s ; t h o s e p a l a c e s b u i l t f r o m 1495 t o 1510, u s e d as t h e i r b a s i s t h e c o n c e p t s and l a n g u a g e u s e d i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l way by t h e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p . W i t h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s l a i d o u t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y were r e f i n e d and c o d i f i e d i n l a t e r p a l a c e s t o f o r m a new t r a d i t i o n a s s t r o n g as t h e G o t h i c had b e e n b e f o r e . 95 CHAPTER FOUR PALACE FACADES FROM 1495 TO 1510: THE CODIFICATION OF THE VENETIAN RENAISSANCE FACADE The f r e e d o m and c r e a t i v i t y s e e n i n p a l a c e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n f r o m 1480 t o 1495, As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e made a new f u n d o f d e c o r a t i v e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o p a t r o n s and b u i l d e r s . T h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r o u p o f p a l a c e s d e s i g n e d f r o m c. 1495 t o 1510 r e t a i n e d d e c o r a t i v e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h p r e s e n t e d t h e c l e a r e s t s y n t h e s i s o f V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e and Roman e l e m e n t s . T h i s p r e f e r e n c e r e s u l t s i n f a c a d e s i n w h i c h t h e m a i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s a r e a r r a n g e d s i m i l a r l y , t h o u g h t h e d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s a r e o f t e n v a r i e d . P a t r o n s t e n d e d t o r e j e c t a s y m m e t r i c a l o r d e n s e l y p o l y c h r o m e d f a c a d e s s u c h a s t h a t o f t h e C a ' D a r i o and t o s e l e c t s q u a r e , b a l a n c e d t r i p a r t i t e f a c a d e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l a t e G o t h i c , as s e e n i n t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i -P o l i g n a c . The f o c u s o f t h e f a c a d e s t a y s on t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n , and t h e most e m p h a t i c d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s s t i l l a p p e a r on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . The d e c o r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s t o r i e s do a p p e a r l e s s d i s t i n c t i n t h i s l a t e r g r o u p o f b u i l d i n g s , p a r t l y b e c a u s e most o f them c o n t i n u e t h e c o s t l y new t r e n d o f c o m p l e t e s t o n e r e v e t m e n t s f o r t h e f a c a d e s . I n some c a s e s , h o w e v e r , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y u n d e r p l a y e d b a s e m e n t l e v e l i s 96 a c t u a l l y a l l o w e d t o have g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s t h a n b e f o r e as a t y p e o f g r a n d e n t r a n c e w a y . The i n c l u s i o n o f b o t h Roman c l a s s i c a l and V e n e t o B y z a n t i n e e l e m e n t s i s managed t h r o u g h t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l members o f t h e f a c a d e r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t h e t r i p a r t i t e f a c a d e p l a n . T h e s e a s p e c t s o f f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n w h i c h were w o r k e d o u t i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f p a l a c e s , a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t h i s s e c o n d g r o u p . The r o u n d a r c h e s o f t h e w i n d o w / b a l c o n y o p e n i n g s , t h e c o l u m n s s u p p o r t i n g them, and t h e p i l a s t e r s d i v i d i n g t h e f a c a d e s i n t o s e c t i o n s and m a r k i n g t h e e d g e s a l l t e n d e d t o be i n s p i r e d b y t h e Rome o f a n t i q u i t y . The m o u l d i n g s a r e a l s o b a s e d on a n t i q u e m o d e l s , a s was a l r e a d y t h e c a s e , as we have s e e n , i n t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , a p a l a c e w h i c h seems t o have had a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on b u i l d e r s i n t h e 1 4 9 0 ' s . I n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e s e m o u l d i n g s a r e u s e d t o g r e a t e f f e c t i n i n l a i d m a r b l e and s t o n e p a n e l s a s a t e x t u r e - c r e a t i n g d e v i c e , a means o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e V e n e t i a n l o v e f o r h i g h l y d e c o r a t e d s u r f a c e s w i t h o u t d i s t r a c t i n g t h e v i e w e r f r o m t h e main s c u l p t u r a l a d d i t i o n s . D e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s o f t e n have a f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t ; a theme w h i c h a l s o has been drawn f r o m a n c i e n t Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e . The p i l a s t e r s b e g i n t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e f a c a d e i s i n some way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p p o r t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e . The f r i e z e s b e t w e e n s t o r i e s a r e c l e v e r l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o make e a c h f l o o r a p p e a r t o be o f e q u a l h e i g h t . T h e y r u n i n c o n t i n o u s b a n d s f r o m edge t o edge c r e a t i n g s t r o n g 97 h o r i z o n t a l a c c e n t s , s o t h e p a l a c e s seem more s u b s t a n t i a l , and l e s s l i k e l y t o v i s u a l l y f l o a t away. The V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e a s p e c t o f t h e f a c a d e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e l o n g rows o f m u l t i - a r c h e d c e n t r a l b a l c o n i e s , s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e two o r t h r e e u p p e r s t o r i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . One s e t o f t h e f l a n k i n g windows i s p l a c e d v e r y c l o s e t o t h e b a l c o n y t o f u r t h e r e x t e n d t h e open s e c t i o n . T h e s e l o n g b a l c o n i e s r e c a l l t h e f a c a d e s o f T r e c e n t o V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s i n w h i c h much o f t h e two s t o r y f a c a d e was d i s s o l v e d b y c o l u m n s c r e e n s w i t h s t i l t e d a r c h e s . S m a l l p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l s a r o u n d t h e o p e n i n g s a r e a l s o a d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t o f t h i s o l d n a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e r e v i v e d b y R e n a i s s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t s . The s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s i n p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s w h i c h began t o be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e e a r l i e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s a r e l o c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e f l a n k i n g w indows and o c c a s i o n a l l y on t h e d o o r s . The s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m e i t h e r t h e B y z a n t i n e o r t h e Roman r e p e r t o i r e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a t r o n . V e r y o f t e n , t h e s c u l p t u r e seems t o have been s e l e c t e d f o r i t s s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l , i n o r d e r s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s have c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s . T h u s , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e c o n d g r o u p o f R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mi n d t h a t t h e b a s i c f o r m and d e c o r a t i v e l a n g u a g e common t o e a c h f a c a d e i s an i n t e l l i g e n t s y n t h e s i s o f V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e and Roman c l a s s i c i z i n g e l e m e n t s , w o r k e d on a G o t h i c p a l a c e f r a m e . T h e s e r e f e r e n c e s , t h e f i r s t s u i t e d t o t h e V e n e t i a n e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e 98 s e c o n d an i n d i g e n o u s f o r m u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d f r o m e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c l a s s i c i z i n g s o u r c e s , and t h e l a s t d rawn f r o m p a gan a n t i q u i t y i s i n h e r e n t t o e v e r y f a c a d e a n a l y z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A f u r t h e r l a y e r o f m e a n i n g i s added t o t h i s a l r e a d y h i g h l y c h a r g e d b a s i c f o r m by t h e a d d i t i o n o f s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , and i n l a y s o f e x p e n s i v e and p r e c i o u s c o l o r e d m a r b l e s . The f i v e b e s t known s u r v i v i n g p a l a c e s i n t h e 1495 t o 1510 g r o u p a r e t h e P a l a z z i V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , t h e M a l i p i e r o -T r e v i s a n i n Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , t h e T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , t h e G r i m a n i a San P o l o and t h e C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e . The V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e e n t i r e 1480 t o 1510 g r o u p , i t i s t h e o n l y one t o have a p a r t i a l r e v e t m e n t i n m a r b l e o r s t o n e , and has no p o r p h y r y o r p r e c i o u s m a r b l e r o u n d e l s ( F i g s . 3 9 - 4 1 ) . P a r t s o f t h e b a s e , t h e d o o r s , w i n d o w s , b a l c o n i e s and m o u l d i n g s o f t h e p a l a c e f a c a d e a r e o f I s t r i a n s t o n e , and t h e r e s t w o u l d have b e e n s t u c c o on b r i c k , t h o u g h much o f t h e s t u c c o has f a l l e n o f f . I t was t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n c e o f a p o w e r f u l p a t r i c i a n f a m i l y w e l l known f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n a r t s and l e t t e r s , and f o r p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e ; i t s somewhat s h a b b y a p p e a r a n c e t o d a y b e l i e s t h e f a c t t h a t when new i t w o u l d have been a v e r y b e a u t i f u l p a l a c e . The V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m p a t r i c i a n p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i n t h a t t h e f a c a d e g i v e s o n t o a f o n d a m e n t a o r s t r e e t r u n n i n g a l o n g s i d e a c a n a l i n s t e a d o f d i r e c t l y o n t o t h e w a t e r . As was c u s t o m a r y f o r t h i s t y p e o f R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e ( e . g . t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San 99 S e v e r o ) , t h e d o o r s a r e t o p p e d by f l a t l i n t e l s r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h e r o u n d a r c h e s u s e d f o r w a t e r d o o r s . The p i a n o n o b i l e window and b a l c o n y o p e n i n g s have r o u n d a r c h e s , t o g i v e t h e s t o r e y d i s t i n c t i o n , b u t u n l i k e most o t h e r p a l a c e s , t h i s i s n o t r e p e a t e d i n t h e u p p e r and l o w e r f l o o r s , w h i c h have s q u a r e o p e n i n g s . I n t h i s f a c a d e , t h e a r c h i t e c t has t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t t o u s e a s a m o t i f f o r a u n i f i e d a p p e a r a n c e . The s q u a r e s h a p e s t h a t a r e f o r m e d a s p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d o o r s and windows o f t h e g r o u n d f l o o r a r e t r a n s p o s e d t o t h e p i a n o  n o b i l e t o c r e a t e v i s u a l l i n k a g e b e t w e e n t h e two s t o r i e s . T hey a r e edged i n o v o l o / a s t r a g a l / f a s c i a m o u l d i n g s , b a s e d on a n t i q u e t y p e s , s e e n e a r l i e r i n V e n i c e i n t h e f l a n k i n g p i l a s t e r p a n e l s and t h e l o w e r s e t o f windows o f C o d u s s i ' s P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r e 1 However, t h e d e s i g n e r o f t h e V e n d r a m i n p a l a c e t a k e s t h i s d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f , s o m e t h i n g t h a t was a m i n o r component o f t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i , and makes i t i n t o an i m p o r t a n t u n i f y i n g d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e , a l m o s t l i k e t h e r o p e and b i l l e t m o u l d i n g u s e d a r o u n d a l l t h e windows o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c f a c a d e s . Not P a o l e t t i , P u p p i and P u p p i and o t h e r s have p o i n t e d o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h i s p a l a c e and C o d u s s i ' s Z o r z i a San S e v e r o . A l t h o u g h t h e V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s much s m a l l e r , and i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l , t h e two a r e c e r t a i n l y a l i k e i n many ways. F i r s t l y , i n t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t h e two main s t o r i e s and t h e m e z z a n i n e t o p f l o o r , t h e y a r e s i m i l a r . S e c o n d l y , t h e y a r e a l i k e i n t h e r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e s y s t e m s , l a c k i n g ( a p a r t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p o r t a l o f t h e V e n d r a m i n ) v e g e t a l d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s on t h e window m o u l d i n g s , c o l o r e d m a r b l e w a l l v e i l d e c o r a t i o n s , and g a r l a n d e d f r i e z e s b e t w e e n s t o r i e s . F i n a l l y , t h e c e n t r a l p i a n o n o b i l e windows o f t h e V e n d r a m i n a r e v e r y c l o s e l y t o p p e d by a f l a t p l i n t h , as t h e y a r e on t h e Z o r z i . 100 o n l y a r e t h e windows and s q u a r e d o o r s s u r r o u n d e d by t h i s m o u l d i n g , t h e s q u a r e s p a c e s b e t w e e n them a r e d e f i n e d by i t t o o , c r e a t i n g a v e r y r i c h z o n e o f s t o n e p a n e l l i n g on t h e l o w e r s t o r e y . On t h e p i a n o n o b i l e t h e s e p a n e l s a r e u s e d i n a more a r t i f i c i a l manner, s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e d by s p a c e s b e t w e e n windows and d o o r s . The p a n e l s l i n k t h e l o w e r w i t h t h e u p p e r s t o r i e s , s i n c e t h e window s h a p e s a r e n o t r e p e a t e d a s was more common. T h e r e a r e t h r e e s e t s o f p a n e l s , e c h o i n g s e t s on t h e l o w e r f l o o r . The t o p p a n e l e x t e n d s t o j u s t a b ove t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s p o t where t h e f l a n k i n g p i l a s t e r c a p i t a l b e g i n s , and m e e t s t h e f i r s t p a n e l p r e c i s e l y a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e window and b a l c o n y c a p i t a l s . I f t h e s m a l l z o n e b e t w e e n t h e s e t s o f b a l u s t e r s i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e t o f s q u a r e s , a u n i t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e d o o r and w a l l p a n e l u n i t b e l o w i s c r e a t e d , an e x t r e m e l y c l e v e r u n i f y i n g t r i c k . The two s t o r e y s a r e f u r t h e r u n i f i e d b y t h e f l a n k i n g p i l a s t e r s , w h i c h a r e i d e n t i c a l on b o t h f l o o r s , and have d e t a i l e d c a p i t a l s , c o n t r a s t i n g t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e p a n e l s and p r o v i d i n g a good f r a m e f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e . The p i a n o n o b i l e m o u l d i n g s a r e w e l l p l a c e d t o c r e a t e r e p e a t e d u n i t s on two s t o r e y s , b u t l o o k a l i t t l e odd i n t h e i r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p a n e l s o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . t h e m o u l d i n g s o f w h i c h a r e n o t a s d i s t i n c t as t h o s e o f t h e g r o u n d f l o o r , p e r h a p s were n o t meant t o s t a n d a l o n e . T hey may have f u n c t i o n e d a s f r a m e s f o r f r e s c o e s a t one 101 t i m e . P a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s were common on t h e e x t e r i o r o f V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s , e v e n on G o t h i c p a l a c e s , a l t h o u g h o n l y o f t h i s d e c o r a t i o n have s u r v i v e d ( f i g . 1 ) . W h i l e t h e f a s h i o n d u r i n g t h i s t i m e seems t o have been f o r m a r b l e r e v e t m e n t s , p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s must be k e p t i n mind a s an a d d i t i o n a l o p t i o n . 2 I n d e e d , t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p a n e l s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e on a d r a w i n g w h i c h d e p i c t s P o r d e n o n e ' s s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e P a l a z z o D 'Anna. 3 T o d a y , t h e p i a n o n o b i l e o f t h i s p a l a c e seems t o o p l a i n t o have b e l o n g e d t o s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p a t r i c i a n f a m i l y . A n o t h e r f a c t p o i n t i n g t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s on t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s t h a t t h e most o r n a t e s e c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c e as i t s t a n d s t o d a y i s t h e g r o u n d f l o o r p o r t a l . T hough A l b e r t i c o n s i d e r e d p o r t a l s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a b u i l d i n g , i t was u n u s u a l f o r a V e n e t i a n p a l a c e t o have t h e d o o r as i t s most d e c o r a t e d p a r t . The d o o r i s t h e same s i z e as t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y a b o v e , and w h i l e e n t r a n c e s do become an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t component o f f a c a d e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e y n e v e r o v e r p o w e r t h e p i a n o n o b i l e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h i s one d o e s . The eye i s drawn t o i t i m m e d i a t e l y b e c a u s e i t i s s u r r o u n d e d by p a n e l s i n s e t w i t h r o s e t t e p a t e r e and l a r g e o c u l i , w i t h t h e t o p and 2 I n f a c t an i m p o r t a n t p a l a c e n o t f a r f r o m t h i s one, c a l l e d t h e G r i m a n i a i S e r v i had e x t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s by T i t i a n o r G i o r g i o n e . 3 See E r i c a T i e t z e - C o n r a t , " D e c o r a t i v e P a i n t i n g s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e R e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m D r a w i n g s , " A r t Q u a r t e r l y 3 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , 31. 102 o u t e r m o s t p i l a s t e r s t r i p s c a r v e d i n r i c h r e l i e f i n a v e g e t a b l e m o t i f i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h b u c r a n i a and u r n s . T h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n h e r e ; many o f t h e e a r l y B y z a n t i n e and G o t h i c p a l a c e s had d e c o r a t i v e p l a q u e s w i t h b i r d s o r s t r a n g e a n i m a l s on them i n s e t i n t o t h e f a c a d e s o f t h e i r p a l a c e s o r on s m a l l tympanum r e l i e f s o v e r d o o r s , o f t e n d e c o r a t e d w i t h i n h a b i t e d v i n e m o t i f s . However t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s t y p e o f d o o r d e c o r a t i o n i s new t o d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e ; s u c h a l a r g e and e m p h a t i c a l l y c a r v e d p o r t a l had o n l y b e e n s e e n on c h u r c h e s b e f o r e . W i t h i n t h e c h a n g i n g c l i m a t e o f V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h a t w h i c h c o u l d have b e e n s e e n a s a g r a n d i o s e p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t , s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r a p u b l i c monument, now seems t o have b e e n a c c e p t a b l e f o r a p r i v a t e p a t r i c i a n r e s i d e n c e . Many have a d m i r e d t h e r e l i e f c a r v i n g on t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , b u t M a n f r e d o T a f u r i has s i n g l e d o u t some i n t e r e s t i n g i m a g e s t h a t a p p e a r n e a r t h e t o p o f e a c h o f t h e s i d e p i l a s t e r s : a t r i p l e - h e a d m o t i f and above i t on t h e l e f t , a p e l i c a n f e e d i n g h e r y o u n g , ( F i g . 4 2 ) and on t h e r i g h t , t h e same t r i p l e - h e a d m o t i f w i t h a p h o e n i x above i t . 4 The t r i c i p i t i u m i s made up o f t h r e e m a l e h e a d s a t d i f f e r e n t a g e s o f l i f e , one y o u n g on t h e r i g h t , one more m a t u r e i n t h e c e n t r e , and one b e a r d e d and much o l d e r on t h e l e f t . The o r i g i n s o f t h i s m o t i f a r e a n c i e n t . E l i z a b e t h S e a r s has n o t e d t h a t A r i s t o t l e r e f e r r e d t o l i f e i n t e r m s o f t h e T h r e e Ages o f 4 T a f u r i , V e n e z i a e i l R i n a s c i m e n t o , 1 9 f . 103 Man, a t r i a d i c c y c l e . I n m e d i e v a l t i m e s , t h e B i b l i c a l T h r e e M a g i , o r T h r e e W i s e Men were o f t e n d e p i c t e d as h a v i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a g e s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o C e l t i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t s , t h o s e s e e k i n g God l e a r n t h a t t h e s o b e r n e s s o f o l d age and t h e e a g e r n e s s o f y o u t h f i n d p e r f e c t b a l a n c e i n t h e t h i r d m a t u r e p e r s o n . 5 I t seems t h a t t h e d e p i c t i o n o f Man i n t h r e e d i s t i n c t p h a s e s o f l i f e h as l o n g b een a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f o r m o f wisdom. R e l a t e d t o t h i s i s T a f u r i ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r i c i p i t i u m f o r m as a s y m b o l o f P r u d e n c e . T h i s f o l l o w s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o r k e d o u t b y E r w i n P a n o f s k y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t o p p o r t i o n o f T i t i a n ' s 1565 A l l e g o r y o f P r u d e n c e , w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e s a t r i p l e f a c e d man. 6 P a n o f s k y a r g u e s t h a t i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e - h e a d e d f i g u r e o f O l d Age, M a t u r i t y and Y o u t h , T i t i a n was d r a w i n g on a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n t h a t a s s o c i a t e s t h e T h r e e A ges o f Man w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t , w i t h o u t f o r g e t t i n g a b o u t t h e f u t u r e ; a d e f i n i t i o n o f P r u d e n c e . He c i t e s many e x a m p l e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c a r d i n a l v i r t u e P r u d e n c e p e r s o n i f i e d as a t h r e e -f a c e d , t h r e e aged f i g u r e , s u c h a s i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y n i e l l o p avement d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e C a t h e d r a l o f S i e n a , and a r e l i e f f r o m t h e s c h o o l o f A n t o n i o R o s s e l l i n o . As w e l l a s 5 E l i z a b e t h S e a r s , The Ages o f Man, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 6 ) , 90-94. 6 M a n f r e d o T a f u r i , V e n e a i a e i l R i n a s c i m e n t o , 18-23; E r w i n P a n o f s k y , P r o b l e m s i n T i t i a n , m o s t l y I c o n o g r a p h i c . ( L o n d o n : 1969, pp. 102-8. 104 a p p e a r i n g on t h e p o r t a l s o f t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , t h e t h r e e - f a c e d a l l e g o r y o f P r u d e n c e a s i d e n t i f i e d by P a n o f s k y a p p e a r s on t h e C a ' C a p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , and c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n V e n i c e , on P a o l o D i e d o ' s m e d a l c. 1507 and v a r i o u s c o i n s . The p e l i c a n was a s i g n i f i c a n t image o f d e v o t i o n a l P i e t y and C h a r i t y , as she p l u c k e d a t h e r b r e a s t t o f e e d h e r y o u n g w i t h h e r own d r o p s o f b l o o d . As a s a c r i f i c i a l i m a g e , i t was o f t e n u s e d as a s y m b o l f o r C h r i s t . H e r e , i t i s p r o b a b l y a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p i e t y and c h a r i t y o f t h e V e n d r a m i n f a m i l y . By t h e m i d q u a t t r o c e n t o t h e p e l i c a n was a p o p u l a r emblem among h u m a n i s t s and c l e r i c s i n V e n i c e as w e l l as i n o t h e r p a r t s o f I t a l y . T h i s image o f t e n a p p e a r s on m e d a l s , s u c h a s t h o s e o f V i t t o r i n o d a F e l t r e , c. 1466, P i u s I I , c. 1462, and F r a n c e s c o M a l i p i e r o , c. 1523. The p e l i c a n a l s o a c c o m p a n i e s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f C h a r i t y on some e n g r a v e d p l a y i n g c a r d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c i r c l e o f M a n t e g n a , w h i c h u s e t h e p e l i c a n t o accompany an image o f C h a r i t y . The p h o e n i x i s c a r v e d on t h e r i g h t s i d e p i l a s t e r o f t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a . The M a n t e g n a - c i r c l e T a r o c c h i c a r d s a l s o d e p i c t t h e p h o e n i x a c c o m p a n y i n g an image o f H o p e . 7 The p h o e n i x , w h i c h , when i t d i e s , b u r s t s i n t o f l a m e s and i s r e b o r n i s a l s o s e e n as a C h r i s t o l o g i c a l s y m b o l o f r e s u r r e c t i o n and e n d u r a n c e , h e n c e i t s a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e 7 See A.M. H i n d , E a r l y I t a l i a n E n g r a v i n g s . ( L o n d o n : M. K n o e d l e r , 1 9 3 8 - 4 8 ) , V o l . 4 , s e r B, no. 38, p i . 357 and p i . 358. 105 V i r t u e o f Hope i n t h e c a r d s . The t h r e e i m a g e s c h o s e n t o d e c o r a t e t h e e n t r a n c e - w a y t o t h e p a l a c e , where t h e y w o u l d be v i s i b l e by p a s s e r s - b y as w e l l as t h o s e e n t e r i n g t h e p a l a c e , a r e o f t h e V i r t u e s o f P r u d e n c e , C h a r i t y and Hope, w i t h P r u d e n c e , as i t a p p e a r s t w i c e , b e i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e two. The f o r m c h o s e n f o r t h e a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was n o t o b s c u r e and known o n l y t o V e n e t i a n s , b u t came f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m Q u a t t r o c e n t o h u m a n i s t f i g u r a l v o c a b u l a r y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t w h o e v e r r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e s e be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a l l ' a n t i c a p i l a s t e r d e c o r a t i o n was i n t o u c h w i t h h u m a n i s t t r a d i t i o n s , g i v i n g us a c l u e a s t o t h e t y p e o f p a t r o n who a d o p t e d s u c h an i n n o v a t i v e d o o r w a y d e c o r a t i o n f o r h i s p a l a c e . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n w a n t e d t o be p u b l i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n V i r t u e s o f Hope, C h a r i t y and P r u d e n c e . The P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s a d i f f i c u l t p a l a c e t o sum up, s i n c e I b e l i e v e we a r e m i s s i n g some o f i t s d e c o r a t i o n s , w h i c h may have been p a i n t e d i n t o t h e m o u l d e d p a n e l s on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . From t h e v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e , t h i s p a l a c e c a n be s e e n t o f o l l o w t h e b a s i c p l a n o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e t r i p a r t i t e m o d e l , and i t i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o i n i t s u s e o f m o u l d i n g s and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t o p m e z z a n i n e a s a f r a m i n g d e v i e f o r t h e p i a n o  n o b i l e . e v e n t h o u g h , u n l i k e t h e Z o r z i i t i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e v e t t e d . One i n n o v a t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e f a c a d e d e s i g n i s t h a t Roman i n s p i r e d m o u l d i n g p a n e l s a r e u s e d a s u n i f y i n g d e c o r a t i v e 106 m o t i f s c r e a t i n g t e x t u r a l i n t e r e s t on t h e g r o u n d and f i r s t s t o r e y s o f t h e p a l a c e . A n o t h e r u n u s u a l f e a t u r e i s t h e g r a n d i o s e s q u a r e p o r t a l w i t h i t s b r o a d p i l a s t e r s and l i n t e l c a r v e d i n a l l ' a n t i c a r e l i e f . The f i g u r a l g r o u p s o f t h e t r i p l e f a c e d h e a d , t h e p e l i c a n and t h e p h o e n i x were p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d as a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e V i r t u e s o f P r u d e n c e , C h a r i t y and Hope, w i t h t h e i n t e n t t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e V e n d r a m i n f a m i l y , and p o s s i b l y o f f s e t t h e g r a n d i o s e t h e p o r t a l . U n l i k e t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , t h e M a l i p i e r o -T r e v i s a n P a l a c e , w e l l s i t u a t e d on a c a n a l r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e S o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e i m p o r t a n t Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a i s c o m p l e t e l y r e v e t t e d i n I s t r i a n s t o n e and p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s ( F i g s . 43 & 4 4 ) . T h i s p a l a c e has an e s p e c i a l l y r i c h v a r i e t y o f d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l , more s u b t l e t h a n t h a t o f t h e C a ' D a r i o and C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c o f t h e p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s , b u t p e r h a p s c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s y m b o l i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The g r o u n d f l o o r o f t h e M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n p a l a c e g i v e s e a s y a c c e s s t o b o t h l a n d and w a t e r t h r o u g h t h r e e f a c a d e e n t r a n c e s , and t h e d o o r s a r e g r o u p e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n t h e c e n t r e so a s n o t t o u p s e t t h e s y mmetry and f o c u s s e t by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . T h i s e n l a r g e d and e m p h a t i c p o r t a l a r e a i s s i m i l a r i n c o n c e p t t o t h e m a s s i v e e n t r a n c e t o t h e V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a B u t , i n t h i s p a l a c e t h e t r i p l e d o o r i s u s e d t o g r e a t e f f e c t b y d e c o r a t i n g i t a s a t r i u m p h a l a r c h . The s q u a r e l a n d d o o r w i t h i t s b r i d g e o v e r t o t h e p i a z z a i s 107 p l a c e d b e t w e e n t h e two r o u n d a r c h e d w a t e r d o o r s . As on many t r i p l e - a r c h Roman t r i u m p h a l monuments l i k e t h e A r c h o f C o n s t a n t i n e , t h e f o c u s i s on t h e c e n t r e o p e n i n g , t h o u g h t h e w h o l e p o r t a l s e c t i o n i s w e l l d e c o r a t e d ( f i g . 4 5 ) . V e n e t o -B y z a n t i n e s t y l e g r e e n m a r b l e r o u n d e l s a r e p l a c e d on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e a r c h e s o f t h e s e d o o r s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f B y z a n t i n e and Roman s y n t h e s i s , t h e r e a r e e a g l e s p l a c e d on t h e c a r v e d s t r a p s w h i c h p a s s o v e r t h e k e y s t o n e s o f t h e a r c h e s ( o r l i n t e l o f t h e s q u a r e d o o r ) . The a r c h e s o f C o n s t a n t i n e and T r a j a n have s i m i l a r d e v i c e s o v e r t h e c e n t r e s o f t h e i r a r c h e s . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l o n g u s e d V e n e t o -B y z a n t i n e m o t i f w i t h Roman m o t i f s t o h i n t a t a V e n e t i a n t r i u m p h a l a r c h e n t r a n c e . The s t r o n g l y t r a d i t i o n a l s q u a r e l a n d d o o r p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t r a s t t h a t i s u s u a l l y s e e n i n a r a i s e d c e n t r a l a r c h o f a t r i u m p h a l monument. The d o o r u n i t i s f l a n k e d b y s q u a r e h a l f s i z e windows w h i c h a r e p l a c e d r a t h e r h i g h up on t h e f a c a d e , p e r h a p s a s a s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e . They a r e t o p p e d by s e m i c i r c u l a r p e d i m e n t s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e theme o f r o u n d a r c h e d windows p r e v a l e n t on t h i s b u i l d i n g . S i n c e t h i s t y p e o f p e d i m e n t was o f t e n a l t e r n a t e d w i t h t r i a n g u l a r o n e s on Roman s t r u c t u r e s , i t c a n be s e e n as a c o n s c i o u s " u p d a t i n g " o f l a t e G o t h i c f a c a d e s s u c h as t h e P a l a z z o d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e ; a new v a r i a t i o n upon an o l d theme. B e t w e e n t h e s e windows a new t y p e o f d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f common t o s e c o n d g r o u p p a l a c e s , i s u s e d . The m o t i f c o n s i s t s o f 108 c o l o r e d m a r b l e p l a q u e s , r o u n d e l s o r s m a l l s c u l p t u r a l d e v i c e s s u s p e n d e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r b y r i b b o n s and bows, a s a r e o f t e n s e e n on a n c i e n t Roman s a r c o p h a g i . I n t h e e x a m p l e i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e , a r o u n d e l i s s u s p e n d e d b e l o w a f r a m e d r e c t a n g l e o f a t y p e s e e n on l a t e E a s t e r n E m p i r e g a r l a n d s a r c o p h a g i , f r o m w h i c h t h e m o t i f was p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d . S i n c e V e n i c e ' s t i e s t o t h e Roman e m p i r e had been m a i n l y t o t h e E a s t e r n , C h r i s t i a n e m p i r e r u l e d f r o m C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s o many o f d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s r e j u v e n a t e d i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y were o f an E a r l y C h r i s t i a n o r B y z a n t i n e n a t u r e . The V e n e t i a n s a d a p t e d them t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r own l o v e o f r i c h c o l o r i s t i c e f f e c t s b y e n c r u s t i n g t h e s e w i t h p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s . The themes i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e g r o u n d f l o o r a r e c o n t i n u e d i n t h e e m p h a t i c p i a n o n o b i l e . The h e i g h t o f t h e window and b a l c o n y o p e n i n g s i s e x t e n d e d b y t h e u s e o f i m p o s t b l o c k s b e t w e e n t h e c a p i t a l and t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e a r c h . T h e r e i s enough s p a c e f o r t h e s e o p e n i n g s t o be t o p p e d w i t h a c a p p i n g p l i n t h i n t h e mode o f t h e P a l a z z i Z o r z i and V e n d r a m i n , w i t h o u t c r o w d i n g t h e s t o r e y . The s i m p l e y e t e f f e c t i v e s c o r i n g o f t h e a r c h e s above t h e c o m p o s i t e c o l u m n s i s c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e d e l i c a t e l a c i n e s s o f t h e p i e r c e d b a l u s t e r s . The i m p o r t a n t b a l c o n y s e c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e s i d e windows by a r o s e t t e m o t i f s e t w i t h j e w e l l i k e p i e c e s o f c o l o r e d m a r b l e ; t h e windows have a s m a l l e r , p l a i n e r v a r i a t i o n on t h i s theme. P i e r c e d b a l c o n i e s , when u s e d i n o t h e r p a l a c e s , have been i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g I s l a m i c o r B y z a n t i n e i n o r i g i n , m a k i n g a n o t h e r c o a l i t i o n 109 b e t w e e n i m a g e r y o f E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n Roman E m p i r e s i n one a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n t h e s p o t w h e r e , i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f p a l a c e s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s was l o c a t e d , we have an i n c o m p l e t e image. The e v o c a t i v e t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t t o p p e d s t a t u e n i c h e s , t o w h i c h a t t e n t i o n i s d rawn by t h e o v e r s i z e r o u n d e l s a b o v e and b e l o w , a r e empty. A l t h o u g h we have no r e c o r d o f what t h e y were meant t o h o l d , i t may have been s h i e l d b e a r i n g w a r r i o r s , s i n c e t h e r e were p r e c e d e n t s f o r t h i s i n b o t h l a t e G o t h i c and e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e f a c a d e s s u c h as t h e P a l a z z o d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e and t h e C a ' C a p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a . The a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o d e t a i l must c e r t a i n l y have been one o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h has k e p t t h e p a l a c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f r o m t h e t i m e o f S a n s o v i n o . F o r e x a m p l e , someone a b o u t t o e n t e r t h e p a l a c e , o r s t a n d i n g on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y w o u l d n o t i c e t h a t t h e s u p p o r t i n g c o n s o l e s o f t h e t o p s t o r e y b a l c o n y have a g r e e n and p o r p h y r y l o z e n g e p a t t e r n on them w h i c h i s a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e b a l u s t e r d e c o r a t i o n a b o v e . The d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e f l o o r s i s marked by a s i m p l e f r i e z e o f f o u r l a r g e r o u n d e l s w i t h an e l l i p s e i n t h e c e n t r e . T h i s e l l i p s e e c h o e s t h e s h a p e o f t h e window p e d i m e n t on t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y , h e l p i n g t o g i v e t h e f a c a d e u n i t y . The windows o f t h i s s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r s t o r e y do n o t have a c a p p i n g p l i n t h , b u t t h e same h e a v i l y i n c i s e d m o u l d i n g as u s e d b e l o w d e f i n e s them a d e q u a t e l y . A s m a l l e r and more s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e C o s m a t i t y p e d e v i c e s f r o m t h e Ca ' s C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c and D a r i o 110 i s p l a c e d b e t w e e n t h e f l a n k i n g w i n d o w s , m a r k i n g t h e p a l a c e a s a r e s i d e n c e o f i m p o r t a n t p e o p l e , a s t h e y marked t h e p l a c e s where t h e B y z a n t i n e E m p e r o r s w o u l d s t a n d d u r i n g c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s . The most i n t e r e s t i n g d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f o f t h e w h o l e p a l a c e , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r s i n t h e f r i e z e u n d e r t h e c o r n i c e , and c o n s i s t s o f a row o f p r o f i l e h e a d s i n m e d a l l i o n s , r e s e m b l i n g Roman c o i n s , w i t h a S y m b o l o f C h r i s t , t h e IHS i n i t i a l s i n t h e c e n t r a l m e d a l l i o n . The c e n t r e two h e a d s l o o k i n a t t h e Monogram, t h e n e x t two l o o k o u t w a r d , as t h o u g h c o n n e c t i n g w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d and t h e v i e w e r . I t i s an u n u s u a l and somewhat c o n f u s i n g c o m b i n a t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e h e a d s l o o k l i k e t h e Roman p r o f i l e h e a d s t h a t a p p e a r on c o i n s , a r e f e r e n c e t o Roman a n t i q u i t y , b u t t h e y a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h t h i s s y m b o l o f C h r i s t . J o h n O n i a n s , i n an a r t i c l e w h i c h a r g u e s t h a t i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t h e u s e o f p a g a n a r t i s t i c m o t i f s had t o be t e m p e r e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n i m a g e r y t o make i t a c c e p t a b l e , o f f e r s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s c e n e . He t h i n k s t h a t t h e monogram i s u s e d t o o f f s e t t h e c l a s s i c i z i n g r i c h n e s s o f t h e f a c a d e , and t o o f f e r t h e p a l a c e t o g l o r i f y God, r a t h e r t h a n t h e p a t r o n . 8 However, s i n c e t h e i m a g e r y i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f B y z a n t i n e , o r C h r i s t i a n c l a s s i c i s m w i t h p a gan Roman m o t i f s , t h e b u i l d e r o f t h e p a l a c e r e a l l y n e e d n o t be a p o l o g i z i n g f o r a n y t h i n g . The m e a n i n g may be more e s o t e r i c , and t h e heads may e v e n be meant t o r e p r e s e n t s c h o l a r s o r p h i l o s o p h e r s , b o t h C h r i s t i a n and 8 J o h n O n i a n s , "The l a s t J u d g e m e n t o f R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , " R o v a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s J o u r n a l 128 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 708-9. 111 p a g a n , t o r e f l e c t an i n t e r e s t i n C h r i s t i a n humanism. Wendy Stedman S h e a r d has n o t e d t h a t p r o f i l e e m p e r o r h e a d s were p o p u l a r d e c o r a t i o n s f o r b o t h s a c r e d and s e c u l a r t e x t s a t t h i s t i m e . 9 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f a m i l y may i n d e e d n o t have w a n t e d t h e e x t r e m e l y p o t e n t i m p e r i a l i m a g e r y t o have been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , and d e c i d e d t o a s s e r t t h e i r p i e t y , j u s t as t h e V e n d r a m i n may have been d o i n g when t h e y i n c l u d e d a l l e g o r i c a l V i r t u e s i n t h e i r a l l ' a n t i c a p o r t a l . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f B y z a n t i n e and Roman m o t i f s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n a l l o w s t h e p a t r o n t o e m p h a s i z e f u r t h e r t h e s y n t h e s i s o f two p o w e r f u l I m p e r i a l t r a d i t i o n s i n p a l a c e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n . T h e r e a r e r i c h l y w o r k e d E a s t e r n E m p i r e s a r c o p h a g u s r e l i e f s s e t a g a i n s t a t r i u m p h a l a r c h t y p e e n t r a n c e w a y . The a n t i q u e - s t y l e p i a n o  n o b i l e b a l c o n y c o l u m n s on i m p o s t b l o c k s a r e o f f s e t by t h e B y z a n t i n e s c r e e n b a l c o n y . A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s e t up on t h e t o p s t o r e y w i t h t h e r o u n d a r c h e s and t h e C o s m a t i - s t y l e d e c o r a t i v e r o u n d e l s . The e n i g m a t i c c o i n - l i k e h e a d s i n p r o f i l e a r e c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e s y m b o l o f C h r i s t t o a s s e r t t h e t r u e b e l i e f s o f t h e p a t r o n . T h i s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e new and o l d V e n e t i a n i m a g e r y on t h i s p a l a c e makes a v e r y f o r m i d a b l e , and c l e a r l y w e l l t h o u g h t o u t f a c a d e . The f o u r s t o r e y P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , l o c a t e d b e h i n d t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , i s one o f t h e l a r g e s t p a l a c e s 9 Wendy W.S. S h e a r d , The Tomb o f Doge A n d r e a V e n d r a m i n i n  V e n i c e by T u l l i o L ombardo. PhD. d i s s e r t a t i o n , ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r f i l m s , 1 9 7 1 ) , 23. 112 o f t h e p e r i o d ( F i g s . 46 & 4 7 ) . W i t h i t s t h r e e w i d e l a y e r s o f t a l l , c l o s e l y s e t b a l c o n y and window o p e n i n g s i t t r u l y r e s e m b l e s i t s V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e f o r e r u n n e r s . L i k e t h e o t h e r two p a l a c e s , i t has b o t h l a n d and w a t e r e n t r a n c e s on t h e m a i n f a c a d e , w i t h a p r i v a t e b r i d g e . A l s o l i k e them, i t has f e a t u r e s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o : s i m p l e w e l l d e f i n e d m o u l d i n g s , d e e p l y s e t p o r p h y r y o r v e r d e f i l l e d r o u n d e l s b e t w e e n t h e windows o f t h e t h r e e u p p e r f l o o r s , and a r e t u r n t o more t r a d i t i o n a l r o u n d e l s s u r r o u n d i n g a l l t h e a r c h e s . The Z o r z i i s f u r t h e r q u o t e d i n t h a t t h e t o p p a r t o f e a c h s t o r e y i s d i v i d e d i n two a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e a r c h e s by a l i n e o f m o u l d i n g . A v a r i a t i o n o f a theme h i n t e d a t i n t h e Z o r z i and d e v e l o p e d i n t h e V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a i s t h e u s e o f s t o n e p a n e l s . I n t h e T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o t h i s d e v i c e s u b t l y adds a r i c h e f f e c t t o t h e I s t r i a n s t o n e f a c a d e . I t o c c u r s i n t h e n a r r o w p i l a s t e r p a n e l s and i n t h e d e f i n e d p a n e l s b e t w e e n t h e w indows on t h e two p i a n i n o b i l i a bove and b e l o w t h e v a r i o u s p i e c e s o f i n l a y o r c a r v e d work. T h i s i s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e way i n w h i c h p a l a c e s o f t h e l a t e r g r o u p a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e s u b t l e d e t a i l and l e s s s p l a s h y c o l o r i n g o r r e l i e f c a r v i n g f r o m t h e i r e a r l i e r n e i g h b o r s . The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s p a l a c e i s t h e v a r i e d u s e o f d e c o r a t i v e s c u l p t u r e and s t o n e w o r k , a d i f f e r e n t p i e c e f o r e a c h f l o o r . On t h e g r o u n d f l o o r , on t h e i n s i d e edge o f t h e two o u t e r m o s t w a t e r d o o r s a r e s t o n e p a n e l s s e t w i t h f e r n o r p a l m -l i k e v e g e t a t i o n b e a r i n g t h e w o r d s " S o l i Deo" on t h e l e f t p a n e l 113 and "Honor et G l o r i a " on the r i g h t . A somewhat s i m i l a r i n s c r i p t i o n has a l r e a d y been noted on the Ca D a r i o , but i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i n s t e a d of d e d i c a t i n g the r i c h facade to the g l o r y of the c i t y , t h i s one i s d e d i c a t e d to the g l o r y of G o d . 1 0 L i k e Giovanni Dario, the T r e v i s a n f a m i l y d i d not want to be accused of f l a u n t i n g i t s wealth and p o s i t i o n i n an unacceptable way. On the f i r s t piano n o b i l e . i n h o r i z o n t a l panels between the windows, the p i e t y and perhaps a l s o the p a t r i o t i s m of the f a m i l y i s f u r t h e r demonstrated. These panels, which so s t r u c k John Ruskin that he i n c l u d e d them i n the Stones of Venice, are i n l a i d with c o l o r e d stones, b i r d s and animals i n a manner which he says i s common to d e c o r a t i o n s i n both the Church of the Theotokos (Holy Mother of God) i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and San Marco i n Venice ( F i g . 4 8 ) . 1 1 T h i s type of imagery appears f r e q u e n t l y i n the mosaic d e c o r a t i o n of Byzantine churches, o f t e n i n t e r s p e r s e d with v i n e s and t e n d r i l s . I t i s o f t e n thought to be r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r a d i s e , gained through f o l l o w i n g 1 0 T h i s i n s c r i p t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d by Onians i n "Last Judgement," 208; i s Timothy 1.17 "Now unto the King e t e r n a l , immortal, i n v i s i b l e , the only wise god, be honour and g l o r y f o r ever and ever, amen." As with a l l such i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h i s one i s p l a c ed at the base of the p a l a c e , c l e a r l y v i s i b l e to a l l p assers by. 1 1 John Ruskin, The Stones of Venice. (London: Dent, 1907), v o l . 1, 327. Ruskin says: "There i s a l s o much Byzantine f e e l i n g i n the treatment of the animals, e s p e c i a l l y i n the two b i r d s of the lower compartment, while the p e c u l i a r curves of the cinque cento l e a f a g e are v i s i b l e i n the leaves above. The dove, a l i g h t e d , with the o l i v e branch plucked o f f , i s opposed to the raven with r e s t l e s s expanded wings. Beneath are e v i d e n t l y the two s a c r i f i c e s of 'every c l e a n fowl and of every c l e a n beast.' The c o l o u r i s given with green and white marbles, the dove r e l i e v e d on a ground of g r e y i s h green, and a l l i s e x q u i s i t e l y f i n i s h e d 114 t h e t e n a n t s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h . I n t h e t o p p o r t i o n o f t h i s p l a q u e a p p e a r t h e d o v e h o l d i n g an o l i v e b r a n c h i n i t s b e a k , and t h e c r o w s e n t o u t by Noah a f t e r t h e f l o o d . The c a l f and two b i r d s b e l o w , a r e e x a m p l e s ( a s R u s k i n n o t e s ) o f t h e c r e a t u r e s s a v e d by Noah. Read i n t h i s way, t h e f i g u r e s seem t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s t o r y o f Noah w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t a new b e g i n n i n g f o r M a n k i n d i n an u n i n h a b i t e d a l m o s t E d e n i c w o r l d , and a new c o v e n a n t b e t w e e n God and Man. The Noah s t o r y was o f t e n u s e d a s an O l d T e s t a m e n t p r e f i g u r a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e . The C h r i s t i a n s a c r i f i c e i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e g r o u p o f t h e two b i r d s b e t w e e n t h e v a s e i n t o w h i c h w a t e r a p p e a r s t o be f l o w i n g , l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r l e f t s e c t i o n o f t h e p a n e l . I n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e a r t , t h e m o t i f o f b i r d s o r a n i m a l s s i t u a t e d b e t w e e n a v e s s e l , i n t o w h i c h w a t e r i s o f t e n f l o w i n g , o r a t r e e i s g r o w i n g , comes f r o m an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e t r e e o r w a t e r s o f l i f e b e i n g a d o r e d by n a t u r e . I n C h r i s t i a n a r t i t was u s e d t o s y m b o l i z e t h e E u c h a r i s t . 1 2 T h i s p a n e l i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y i n s c r i p t i o n s , b u t i t i s an odd c h o i c e f o r a p a l a c e . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n s b e i n g p u t i n p l a c e on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e n e a r b y D u c a l P a l a c e i n t h e same y e a r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e A r c o F o s c a r i s c u l p t u r e s w i t h t h e i r c o m p l e x a l l u s i o n s t o t h e Doge's r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e d e m p t i o n i t 1 2 D a v i d T a l b o t R i c e , The B e g i n n i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n A r t . ( L o n d o n : H odder and S t o u g h t o n ) , 1957, p. 26. See a l s o R o b e r t M i l b u r n , E a r l v C h r i s t i a n A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e . ( A l d e r s h o t t , E n g l a n d : S c o l a r P r e s s ) , 1988, pp 33-34. 115 may j u s t be p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p l a q u e , w i t h i t s p a r a d i s i a l o v e r t o n e s , c o u l d be a l l u d i n g t o t h e c i t y o f V e n i c e as a t y p e o f p a r a d i s e , t o w h i c h t h i s b e a u t i f u l l y d e c o r a t e d p a l a c e i s c o n t r i b u t i n g . W i l l i a m Bouwsma has d i s c u s s e d how p a t r o n s had b o t h a p u b l i c and a p r i v a t e m o t i v e s i n b u i l d i n g p a l a c e s . T h e i r r e s i d e n c e s g l o r i f i e d t h e f a m i l y , b u t t h e y were a l s o i n t e n d e d t o e n h a n c e t h e c i t y , a s V e n e t i a n s t o o k g r e a t p r i d e i n i t s magn i f i c e n c e . 1 3 T h e r e i s a n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g p l a q u e on t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C a ' T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o . W h i l e R u s k i n i d e n t i f i e s t h e p i e c e as b e i n g c o p i e d f r o m a B y z a n t i n e c h u r c h no l o n g e r e x t a n t , he a l s o l i k e n s i t t o some o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n s i n t h e s t a t e c h u r c h o f San M a r c o . R u s k i n may w e l l have been r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g r o u p o f r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e s i n s e t i n t o t h e S o u t h T e s o r o W a l l on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h ( f i g . 4 9 ) . T h e r e a r e p i e c e s r e s e m b l i n g b o t h t h e a b s t r a c t f r a m i n g m o t i f s and t h e m o t i f o f t h e two b i r d s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . O t t o Demus has r e m a r k e d upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s w a l l . I t was t h e s p o t where t h e most i m p o r t a n t p i e c e s o f s c u l p t u r e w h i c h had been t a k e n as s p o i l s o f w a r s w i t h t h e T u r k s and t h e Genoese i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y were d i s p l a y e d . T h e s e p i e c e s were i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l s o f V e n i c e ' s power a s a m a r i t i m e e m p i r e , and were l o c a t e d on t h e S o u t h f a c a d e o f t h e c h u r c h b e c a u s e i t was c l e a r l y v i s i b l e on t h e a p p r o a c h i n t o V e n i c e f r o m t h e s e a . As * 3 W i l l i a m Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e D e f e n s e o f R e p u b l i c a n  L i b e r t y . ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , 133. 116 Demus s t a t e s , t h i s w a l l t o o k on an " o f f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r . " 1 4 I n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h t o t h e new s o u t h - w e s t w i n g o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e by t h e P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a , t h i s p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h t o o k on added s i g n i f i c a n c e , b e c o m i n g p a r t o f t h e t r i u m p h a l e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e D u c a l p a l a c e . P e r h a p s a B y z a n t i n e p l a q u e was c h o s e n a s a d e c o r a t i o n f o r t h e P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a t o r e f e r t o V e n i c e ' s l o n g s t a n d i n g s u c c e s s e s i n h e r m a r i t i m e e m p i r e , a B y z a n t i n e s t y l e t r i u m p h as i t we r e . The s c u l p t e d r e l i e f p a n e l o f t h e n e x t f l o o r , o r s e c o n d p i a n o n o b i l e i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e image o f t h e f l o o r b e l o w . I t c o n s i s t s o f a w i n g e d w a r r i o r o r v i c t o r y f i g u r e h o l d i n g a s h i e l d and a p i k e on w h i c h r e s t s a f e a t h e r e d h e l m e t t o p p e d by a t r i c i p i t i u m . t h e same image o f P r u d e n c e w h i c h a p p e a r s on t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a ( F i g . 50 & 5 1 ) . 1 5 A l s o i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e s m a l l b a l a n c e t h a t i s s u s p e n d e d h a l f way down t h e p i k e , a common s y m b o l f o r J u s t i c e . The q u a l i t i e s o f J u s t i c e and P r u d e n c e a r e ones w i t h 1 4 O t t o Demus, The C h u r c h o f San M a r c o i n V e n i c e . ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : Dumbarton O a k s , 1 9 6 0 ) , 113. 1 5 E l e n a B a s s i , i n P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a , 2 4 2 f , t h i n k s t h a t t h i s image was p r o b a b l y added l a t e r i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y when t h e M a l i p i e r o b o u g h t t h e p a l a c e . I d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , t h e w a r r i o r f i g u r e on t h e P a l a z z o . d e l l ' A m b a s c i a t o r e i s d a t e d t o t h e 1480's a c c o r d i n g t o R a l p h L i e b e r m a n and was a p o p u l a r image on tombs, so t h i s t y p e o f f i g u r e a c t u a l l y was u s e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e image o f t h e t r i c i p i t i u m a p p e a r s on t h e V e n d r a m i n San F o s c a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same d a t e , and t h i r d l y , T a f u r i V e n e z i a e i l R i n a s o i m e n t o , 19 n o t e s t h a t t h i s image was u s e d as an emblem o f T r e v i s o ( t r e v i s i ) so i t i s more l i k e l y t o have b e e n p u t on t h e p a l a c e when i t was b u i l t b y t h e T r e v i s a n f a m i l y t h a n t h e C a p p e l l i , t h e n e x t o w n e r s . 117 w h i c h t h e p a t r i c i a n , as a member o f t h e e l i t e g r o u p o f V e n e t i a n s who were e l i g i b l e t o p a r t a k e i n V e n i c e ' s g o v e r n m e n t p r o c e s s e s , w o u l d want t o a s s o c i a t e . A g a i n , t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e s e q u a l i t e s may have come f r o m t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , s i n c e t h e C a ' T r e v i s a n was l o c a t e d a l m o s t b e h i n d i t . I n f a c t , p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h e same p u b l i c e n t r a n c e a r e a o f t h e D u c a l P a l a c e n e x t t o t h e S o u t h T e s o r o f a c a d e m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e image on t h e f l o o r b e l o w , a r e two a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r a l g r o u p s e x p r e s s i n g s i m i l a r c o n c e p t s . On t h e t o p o f t h e P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e new p a l a c e e n t r a n c e s y s t e m , i s a f e m a l e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f J u s t i c e , h o l d i n g a b a l a n c e and a s w o r d . She i s s i t u a t e d a bove t h e Doge and L i o n g r o u p , an e v o c a t i v e s y m b o l o f t h e V e n e t i a n s t a t e p o w e r , i m p l y i n g t h a t J u s t i c e i s one o f t h e c h i e f a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s t a t e . D a v i d Rosand has shown t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e D u c a l P a l a c e w i t h a p a l a c e o f j u s t i c e i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d by t h e g r o u p o f t h e J u d g e m e n t o f S o l o m o n , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d a t t h e c o r n e r o f t h e w e s t w i n g o f t h e p a l a c e f l a n k i n g t h e P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a . 1 6 S i n c e S o l o m o n ' s p a l a c e i s t h e a r c h e t y p a l s e a t o f j u s t i c e , h i s p r e s e n c e i m p l i e s t h a t V e n i c e ' s D u c a l P a l a c e i s a p a l a c e o f j u s t i c e . R o sand g o e s on t o d i s c u s s how t h e famous t h r o n e o f S o l o m o n t h e w i s e j u d g e i s c a l l e d t h e s e d e s  s a p i e n t i a e . o r s e a t o f wisdom. The V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t i s 1 6 D a v i d R o s a n d , " V e n e t i a F i g u r a t a : The I c o n o g r a p h y o f a M y t h " , i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n e V e n e z i a n e . ( V e n i c e : 1 9 8 4 ) , 27. See a l s o S. S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n t h e C o u n c i l H a l l . (Rome: 1974) f o r a n a l y s e s o f t h e D u c a l P a l a c e f i g u r e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o s t a t e i c o n o g r a p h y as a l l e g o r i e s o f good g o v e r n m e n t . 118 b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f wisdom, and w i s e j u s t i c e . B e c a u s e t h i s i m a g e r y i s so p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h e D u c a l p a l a c e , t h o s e w a l k i n g a r o u n d t h e b a c k o f t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e and San M a r c o c o m p l e x t o r e a c h t h e r i o on w h i c h t h e T r e v i s a n P a l a c e i s l o c a t e d w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i m a g e r y on t h e s e c o n d p i a n o n o b i l e r e l i e f o f t h e C a ' T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o . The i m a g e s on t h e w a r r i o r f i g u r e ' s p i k e c a n be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P r u d e n c e and J u s t i c e , and t h e y a r e d i s p l a y e d i n a k i n d o f t r i u m p h a l mode. S i n c e P r u d e n c e i s a synonym f o r wisdom, t h e c o n n e c t i o n c a n be made b e t w e e n q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t a t e and t h o s e w i t h w h i c h t h e T r e v i s a n f a m i l y , (whose c o a t o f arms w o u l d p r o b a b l y have been d i s p l a y e d on t h e w a r r i o r ' s s h i e l d ) may have w i s h e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h . The f i n a l i m p o r t a n t d e c o r a t i o n i s on t h e t o p s t o r e y , a t w e l v e r o u n d e l C o s m a t i t y p e d e s i g n s i m i l a r t o many s e e n i n t h i s s t u d y , c o n n e c t e d t o B y z a n t i n e and C h r i s t i a n i m p e r i a l power, and i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e u s e d t o d e n o t e t h e r e s i d e n c e s o f i m p o r t a n t f a m i l i e s ( F i g . 5 2 ) . The P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a i s one o f t h e l a r g e s t p a l a c e s o f t h e p e r i o d . S i t u a t e d on a n a r r o w c a n a l , and s u r r o u n d e d by b u i l d i n g s , i t a l w a y s d o m i n a t e s v i e w e r s , l o o m i n g a bove them. The i m a g e r y o f t h i s p a l a c e , i n s p i r e d by d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e s t a t e c h u r c h o f San M a r c o and i m i t a t i n g some on t h e D u c a l P a l a c e i s t h e most c o m p l e x so f a r . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , w i t h i t s 119 f a s c i n a t i n g c o r p u s o f s u g g e s t i v e i m a g e r y . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n s on t h e P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a may h ave b e e n t o p o r t r a y t h e p a t r i c i a n s who owned t h e p a l a c e as a p i o u s f a m i l y who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f V e n i c e : a s t a t e d e c l a r e d , by t h e d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e D u c a l P a l a c e t o be synonymous w i t h good g o v e r n m e n t . The P a l a z z i G r i m a n i a San P o l o and C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e w o r k s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e l o c a t e d on t h e G r a n d C a n a l ( F i g s . 53 & 5 4 ) . They h o l d more s t r o n g l y t o t h e t y p o l o g y s e t up i n f a c a d e s s u c h as t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i and t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , w h i l e t h e o t h e r p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r have t e n d e d t o r e l y on t h e Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , as i t was a l a r g e p a l a c e n o t on t h e G r a n d C a n a l . T h e s e two p a l a c e s , have no l a n d a c c e s s f r o m t h e f r o n t , and have o n l y one e n t r a n c e i n s t e a d o f t h r e e o r f o u r . E a c h has t h r e e s t o r i e s , and u s e s p i l a s t e r s t o c l e a r l y d emark t h e window and b a l c o n y a r e a s i n t o e q u i d i s t a n t z o n e s . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n comments on t h e s u b d u e d r e l i e f and t h e g r i d - l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e G r i m a n i a San P o l o . 1 7 B e c a u s e o f t h i s s i m p l i c i t y , t h e u s e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i s more e m p h a t i c h e r e t h a n on o t h e r f a c a d e s . The p a l a c e i s n o t a b l e f o r i t s r a t h e r s i m p l e s e n s e o f b a l a n c e p r o v i d e d by t h e r e g u l a r i z e d p l a c e m e n t o f window and d o o r o p e n i n g s . I t s s t u c c o f a c a d e i n c o r p o r a t e s c o l o r e d m a r b l e o n l y i n t h e few s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d r o u n d e l s and p l a q u e s . T h i s may have s o m e t h i n g t o do 1 7 R a l p h L i e b e r m a n A r c h i t e c t u r e , p l a t e 169. 120 w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f r i e z e s a r e r e p o r t e d t o have been p a i n t e d i n g o l d , t h o u g h w h e t h e r t h i s was so d u r i n g t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i s n o t c e r t a i n . 1 8 I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e f a c a d e w o u l d have had a v e r y r i c h and s u m p t u o u s a p p e a r a n c e , q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e s t r a i n e d v e r s i o n v i s i b l e t o d a y . The number o f d i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s i n t h i s f a c a d e i s m i n i m a l , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c l a r i t y and c o h e s i o n . U n u s u a l f e a t u r e s a r e t h e p e d i m e n t s o v e r t h e l o w e r s t o r e y w i n d o w s , p e r h a p s added l a t e r , and t h e o v a l w indows b e s i d e t h e m a i n p o r t a l . The p o r p h y r y p l a q u e s and r o u n d e l s , t a k e n f r o m t h e Roman d e c o r a t i v e r e p e r t o i r e , f i r s t u s e d i n d e c o r a t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s on t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i p a l a c e , and a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e M a i i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n f a c a d e , add a f e s t i v e o r t r i u m p h a n t n o t e . O t h e r t o u c h e s o f c l a s s i c a l t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e l i t t l e f l a m e w h i c h t o p s t h e a r c h e s o f t h e b a l c o n i e s and windows o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . and t h e a l m o s t i n v i s i b l e p u t t i h e a d s and c r o s s e d s h i e l d s a b o v e and b e l o w t h e r e c t a n g u l a r p o r p h y r y p l a q u e s . A l l seems p e r f e c t and o r d e r l y i n P a l a z z o G r i m a n i a San P o l o , b u t a c l o s e r l o o k shows t h a t t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e f l a n k i n g p i l a s t e r s on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e and t h e g r o u n d f l o o r do n o t m a t c h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s on t h e o t h e r s i d e . The f o r m e r s p o r t s a S p h i n x head and t h e l a t t e r an e a g l e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know w h e t h e r t h e s e i m a g e s were u s e d i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s y m b o l i s m o r b e c a u s e i t was f a s h i o n a b l e t o do s o . C o u l d t h e 1 6 E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a . 418. 121 e a g l e , o f t e n a s y m b o l o f I m p e r i a l a p o t h e o s i s and i m m o r t a l i t y , h ave been u s e d t o s u g g e s t t h e power o f t h e G r i m a n i ; t h a t t h e y a r e a f a m i l y whose l i n e w i l l n e v e r e x t i n g u i s h ? The same c o u l d be t r u e o f t h e S p h i n x . As an E g y p t i a n s y m b o l o f power and w i s dom, i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o I t a l i a n s y m b o l i c r e p e r t o i r e by a f a s h i o n f o r t h i n g s E g y p t i a n , v i s i b l e i n t h e H y p n e r o t o n o m a c h i a  P o l i p h i l i o f F r a n c e s c o C o l o n n a . Was i t j u s t added b e c a u s e t h e image was i n v o g u e a t t h e t i m e , o r a r e d e e p e r q u a l i t i e s b e i n g i n f e r r e d b y t h e image? A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know. A l t h o u g h t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e p a l a c e i s o r g a n i z e d l i k e t h a t o f t h e G r i m a n i a San P o l o , i t i s more o r n a t e l y d e c o r a t e d w i t h s c u l p t u r e and r i c h l y c o l o r e d v e i n e d m a r b l e s , t h a n any o t h e r p a l a c e d i s c u s s e d so f a r i n t h i s g r o u p . I t i s a l s o q u i t e c o m p l e x , n o t o n l y i n t h e v e r t i c a l rows o f s c u l p t u r a l a p p l i q u e b e t w e e n t h e w i n d o w s , b u t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t and s h a p e o f t h e window and b a l c o n y o p e n i n g s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t on e a c h f l o o r . The w a t e r l e v e l s t o r e y i s v e r y l a r g e i n t h i s p a l a c e . I t h a s t e r m f i g u r e s ( a f t e r w h i c h t h e p a l a c e i s named) h o l d i n g up t h e b a l c o n y f r o m u n d e r n e a t h above t h e s i m p l e m a i n p o r t a l . The s i d e w indows a r e s p l i t i n t o an u p p e r a r c h e d and l o w e r s q u a r e one, w i t h a l o z e n g e s h a p e d c o l o r e d m a r b l e p l a q u e i n t h e c e n t r e . The t o p f l o o r has t a l l s i n g l e a r c h e d w i n d o w s , w h o l e v e r s i o n s o f t h e s p l i t o n e s on t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y . T h e s e , t o p s t o r e y windows a r e u n u s u a l i n t h a t t h e y a r e p l a c e d b e t w e e n f l a t p i l a s t e r s w h i c h r u n f r o m t h e f r i e z e t o t h e c o r n i c e . The windows on t h e 122 p i a n o n o b i l e a r e a l s o r o u n d , b u t have no f l o o r - t o - c e i l i n g p i l a s t e r s , i n s t e a d t h e y have p e d i m e n t a l c a p s s u p p o r t e d b y h a l f r o u n d p i l a s t e r s . T hey i n t r o d u c e t h e s u p e r b c e n t r a l b a l c o n y w i t h i t s t e m p l e f r o n t t y p e p e d i m e n t and f l u t e d c o l u m n s . T h e s e e s s e n t i a l l y r o u n d a r c h e d windows s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p e d i m e n t s were added a t a l a t e r d a t e , t h o u g h t h e r e i s no s o l i d e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s p e d i m e n t i s a p o t e n t a l l u s i o n t o a n t i q u i t y ; t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e P a n t h e o n o r D i o c l e t i a n ' s p a l a c e a t S p a l a t o c a n n o t be r u l e d o u t . I f i t i s t h e l a t t e r , t h e n t h e e a s t e r n Roman e m p i r e theme i s a g a i n b e i n g drawn upon. The b a l c o n i e s i n t e r e s t i n g l y have no b a l u s t e r s , b u t have c u t s t o n e s c r e e n s o f o r i e n t a l o r B y z a n t i n e e x t r a c t i o n a l r e a d y n o t e d on o t h e r w o r k s i n t h i s g r o u p ; t h e y c o n t r a s t s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e c l a s s i c i s m o f t h e p e d i m e n t and c o l u m n s o f t h e t o p p o r t i o n o f t h e b a l c o n y . M ost f a s c i n a t i n g a r e t h e " l i s t s " o f s c u l p t e d b i t s , p e r h a p s i n s p i r e d by t h e r e l i e f p a n e l s on t h e s i d e s o f t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i . On t h e t o p f l o o r i s a m i x t u r e o f c l a s s i c a l and V e n e t o B y z a n t i n e i m a g e r y , some q u i t e f a m i l i a r b y now. P u t t i h e a d s , i n e a r l i e r p a l a c e s o n l y i n f r i e z e s , a r e a t o p b e r i b b o n e d r o u n d e l s , as l i t t l e V i c t o r i e s , on t h e t o p s t o r e y . The l o w e r f l o o r a l s o u s e s t h e s e h e a d s , b u t i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a l a r g e p o r p h y r y " c o m m e m o r a t i v e " p l a q u e and a w i n g e d p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l , an a n t i q u e s y m b o l o f e t e r n i t y w h i c h has a l s o a p p e a r e d on tombs o f t h e p e r i o d . The p i a n o n o b i l e has no r o u n d e l s , b u t has an i n t e r e s t i n g , a l m o s t h e r a l d i c d e v i c e (commented on by R u s k i n ) o f 123 a s h i e l d , and c r o s s e d t o r c h e s a t o p a t r e e w h i c h has been s t r i p p e d o f i t s b r a n c h e s , l i k e a t r o p h y f r o m a Roman t r i u m p h a l a r c h . I t i s s i m i l a r t o d e v i c e s s e e n i n p o p u l a r t r i u m p h s e r i e s ' o f p a i n t i n g s s u c h as M a n t e g n a ' s T r i u m p h o f C a e s a r , d a t i n g f r o m r o u g h l y t h e same p e r i o d . The i m p e r i a l s y m b o l o f t h e e a g l e a g a i n a p p e a r s above t h e s h i e l d , l e s t a n y one n o t c a t c h t h e a l l u s i o n t o power and g r a n d e u r . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f c l a s s i c a l i m a g e r y , t h e P a l a z z i G r i m a n i a San P o l o and C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e , make a much l e s s r e l i g i o u s , and more b l a t a n t s t a t e m e n t o f power t h a n t h e o t h e r p a l a c e s i n t h e g r o u p . The s t y l e o f t h e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s b u i l t i n V e n i c e f r o m 1495 t o 1510, w h i c h i s i n e s s e n c e t h e d e v e l o p e d V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e , has two c o m p o n e n t s , a s i m i l a r b a s i c f o r m , d e c o r a t i v e a d d i t i o n s i n what c a n be c a l l e d a t r i u m p h a n t theme, some o f w h i c h a l l u d e t o p a t r i c i a n v a l u e s . The f i r s t c o m p onent, t h e b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e p a l a c e s was a n a l y z e d t h o r o u g h l y i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f s u c h p a l a c e s as t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c . T h i s b a s i c f o r m i s an i n f u s i o n o f V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e and Roman c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s o n t o a t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e l a t e G o t h i c s t y l e . A l l f i v e o f t h e p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a d h e r e t o t h i s b a s i c f o r m a t . The s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e p a l a c e s c o n c e r n s t h e d e c o r a t i v e a d d i t i o n s made t o t h e p a l a c e s . T h e s e d e c o r a t i o n s a r e c u l l e d f r o m b o t h B y z a n t i n e and Roman s o u r c e s , o f t e n b o t h on 124 t h e same p a l a c e , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e B y z a n t i n e Roman s y n t h e s i s e f f e c t e d i n t h e b a s i c f o r m . T h e y have as a common theme f e s t i v e , t r i u m p h a n t o r c e r e m o n i a l t y p e s o f i m a g e s . T h e s e o r i g i n a t e i n t h e e a r l y g r o u p o f p a l a c e s i n s u c h m o t i f s a s t h e g a r l a n d and e a g l e f r i e z e on t h e P a l a z z o C o n t i a r i n - P o l i g n a c and i n t h e " a p p e a r a n c e l o g g i a " f o c u s o f t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y o f t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o . They r u n r a m p a n t i n t h e l a t e r g r o u p o f p a l a c e s . I n t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p o r t a l becomes a k i n d o f c e r e m o n i a l e n t r a n c e - w a y , marked o f f by w i d e p i l a s t e r s and l i n t e l , c a r v e d i n an a l l ' a n t i c a r e l i e f s t y l e , i n c l u d i n g b u c r a n i a and u r n s . I n t h e M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n P a l a c e n e a r S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a t h e e n t r a n c e - s y s t e m i s t u r n e d i n t o a v e r i t a b l e t r i u m p h a l a r c h , and e v e n h a s t h e i m p e r i a l e a g l e s c a r v e d on t h e v o l u t e s c o v e r i n g t h e k e y s t o n e s a s t h e y do on many Roman t r i u m p h a l monuments. The c o r n i c e f r i e z e o f t h i s same p a l a c e has a row o f "Emperor" t y p e h e a d s i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o f i l e r e m i n i s c e n t o f Roman c o i n a g e ; t h i s has been n o t e d as a p o p u l a r f o r m o f t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y i n c o n t e m p o r a r y V e n e t i a n b o o k s and m a n u s c r i p t s . The same M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n p a l a c e a l s o h a s a m o t i f w h i c h has s u r v i v e d f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e I m p e r i a l c e r e m o n i a l r e p e r t o i r e i n t h e v a r i a t i o n on t h e C o s m a t i - t y p e d e v i c e on i t s u p p e r s t o r e y . The C a ' T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s a f a n c i e r v e r s i o n o f t h e same d e v i c e i n t o t h e f a c a d e o f i t s u p p e r f l o o r , t o i n f e r t h a t i t s r e s i d e n t s have 125 s p e c i a l s t a t u s . V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e t r i u m p h i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d i n t h e T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o P a l a c e i n t h e p l a q u e on t h e f i r s t p i a n o  n o b i l e . w h i c h r e s e m b l e s t h e s p o i l s o f war d i s p l a y e d on t h e s o u t h f a c a d e o f San M a r c o , and c o u l d be an a l l u s i o n t o V e n i c e ' s l o n g and i l l u s t r i o u s p a s t . The w a r r i o r f i g u r e o f t h e s e c o n d p i a n o n o b i l e o f t h i s p a l a c e , h o l d i n g h i s p i k e and s h i e l d , p r o t e c t s t h e p a l a c e i n a v i s u a l r e n d i t i o n more common t o t h e Roman t r a d i t i o n . The P a l a z z i G r i m a n i a San P o l o and C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h f e s t i v e and t r i u m p h a n t i m a g e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e s e e n on Roman c a r v e d t r o p h i e s and t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s , T hey a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h c o m m e m o r a t i v e p l a q u e - t y p e d e v i c e s , w h i c h i n s t e a d o f b e a r i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s as t h e y w o u l d have done on tombs and monuments, a r e f i l l e d w i t h p o r p h y r y o r v e r d e  a n t i c o m a r b l e t o a l l u d e t o b o t h Roman and B y z a n t i n e I m p e r i a l t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e same image. Wendy Stedman S h e a r d , i n h e r d i s s e r t a t i o n on t h e tomb o f A n d r e a V e n d r a m i n , d i s c u s s e s t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y as p a r t o f a p a n -I t a l i a n f a s h i o n i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e Q u a t t r o c e n t o . 1 9 She n o t e s t h e t r e m e n d o u s p o p u l a r i t y s u c h i m a g e r y had e s p e c i a l l y i n V e n i c e . S h e a r d m e n t i o n s t h e d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e - - a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two as i m p o r t a n t c a t a l y s t s o f s t y l i s t i c c h a n g e i n V e n e t i a n d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e - - a s a " v a s t t r i u m p h a l c o m p l e x . " 2 0 The 1 9 W.S. S h e a r d , 1971, pp 21-27. 2 0 S h e a r d , V e n d r a m i n Tomb, 24. 126 c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a and t h e A r c o F o s c a r i a r e d i s c u s s e d as an e l o n g a t e d t r i u m p h a l a r c h . The S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i has i t s t r i u m p h a l a r c h p o r t i c o a t t h e t o p , g r a c e f u l v i c t o r y f i g u r e s and c a r v e d l e s e n e s r i f e w i t h t r o p h y t y p e s o f o r n a m e n t s , a l l o f w h i c h g l o r i f y t h e o f f i c e o f t h e Doge. W i t h s u c h an a r r a y o f t r i u m p h a l t y p e s o f d e c o r a t i o n n e w l y c o m p l e t e on t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e s e m o t i f s w o u l d e n t e r and d o m i n a t e t h e d e c o r a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e b u i l d e r s . The c o m p l e x a l l e g o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f d u c a l power w h i c h s c h o l a r s s u c h as D e b r a P i n c u s and M i c h e l a n g e l o M u r a r o have i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e A r c o F o s c a r i and t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i may a l s o have had s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t r i g g e r i n g t h e t h i r d component o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a l l u s i v e i m a g e r y , p o s s i b l y r e f e r r i n g t o p a t r i c i a n v a l u e s and p u b l i c image. V a l u e s s u c h a s p i e t y a r e e x p r e s s e d i n s u c h t h i n g s as t h e p e l i c a n and p h o e n i x i n t h e p o r t a l o f t h e V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , i n t h e d e d i c a t o r y i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , and e v e n p o s s i b l y i n t h e e n i g m a t i c s y m b o l o f C h r i s t i n t h e c o r n i c e o f t h e M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n n e a r S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a . Q u a l i t i e s o f good r u l e r s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e t r i p l e - h e a d e d f i g u r e t h a t a p p e a r s on t h e P a l a z z i V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a and t h e T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a . The l a t t e r a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e themes o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n s i n t h e D u c a l p a l a c e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s c a l e s o f J u s t i c e . T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s f o r t h e 127 p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e B y z a n t i n e and Roman c l a s s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e a t t h i s t i m e , and f o r t h e t u r n t o an e x p l i c i t t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y . The l a r g e r V e n e t i a n c o n t e x t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r S i x . - CHAPTER F I V E THE VENDRAMIN-CALERGI PALACE AND I T S RELATIONSHIP TO THE VENETIAN RENAISSANCE PALACE TYPE One p a l a c e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i , d a t e d 1500 t o 1508 and a t t r i b u t e d t o Mauro C o d u s s i ( f i g . 5 5 ) . I t i s t h e l a r g e s t and most famous o f t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a t r i c i a n r e s i d e n c e s . E v e n t o d a y i t s t a n d s o u t among V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s , h o l d i n g i t s own among t h e m o n s t e r e d i f i c e s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y on t h e G r a n d C a n a l . We c a n o n l y i m a g i n e t h e a s t o u n d i n g i m p a c t t h a t t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e made i n i t s own t i m e , and how p r o u d i t s o r i g i n a l p a t r o n , A n d r e a L o r e d a n must have been o f h i s home. B e c a u s e o f i t s g r a n d e u r and famous r e s i d e n t s , i t has t h e most c o m p l e t e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f any p a l a c e o f t h e p e r i o d , b e i n g m e n t i o n e d i n a l m o s t e v e r y g u i d e b o o k and d i s c o u r s e on V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . 1 Most s c h o l a r s have a r g u e d t h a t t h e f a c a d e i s t h e e a r l i e s t e x a m p l e o f a c l a s s i c a l l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e w ork, and l e a d s V e n e t i a n p a l a c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t o t h e h i g h R e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e S a n s o v i n o , t r a i n e d i n F l o r e n c e and Rome. D e b o r a h Howard sums up c e n t u r i e s o f commentary a b o u t t h e b u i l d i n g i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e as t h e f i r s t V e n e t i a n 1 See C h a p t e r One. 129 d i s c u s s i n g t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e as t h e f i r s t V e n e t i a n f a c a d e i n w h i c h t h e c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s e x p r e s s t h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r e . T h e s e o r d e r s make t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h s t o r e y c l e a r . The most o r n a t e f l u t e d c o r i n t h i a n c o l u m n s a r e u s e d f o r t h e p i a n o n o b i l e a r t i c u l a t i o n , p l a i n s h a f t s f o r t h e t o p s t o r e y , and f l a t p i l a s t e r s t r i p s on t h e w a t e r l e v e l . I n o t h e r V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s t h e windows and w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d f u n c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o l u m n s seem t o s u p p o r t t h e b u i l d i n g w i t h o u t t h e n e e d o f t h e w a l l s . 2 Howard c i t e s t h e A l b e r t i ' a F l o r e n t i n e P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i a s t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s , b u t t h e c o n c e o p t i s c a r r i e d o u t i n a much more p l a s t i c mode i n t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i . C o d u s s i i s t r u l y i n n o v a t i v e i n t h e way he a d a p t s b o t h t h e c o n c e p t s and f o r m s o f a n t i q u i t y t o p a l a c e f a c a d e d e s i g n . S c h o l a r s have l i k e d t h e way i n w h i c h he i n c o r p o r a t e s e l e m e n t s o f t h e F l o r e n t i n e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e t r a d i t i o n i n t o t h e f a c a d e . H o w e v e r , F l o r e n t i n e f l a v o r e d c l a s s i c i s m i s n o t t h e o n l y a r c h i t e c t e c t u r a l theme a t work i n t h i s p a l a c e . The o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h have been s y n t h e s i z e d i n t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s T h r e e and F o u r , s u c h a s t h e B y z a n t i n e and t h e G o t h i c a r e a l s o b r i l l i a n t l y w o r k e d i n t o t h i s f a c a d e . S c h o l a r s t e n d t o i g n o r e t h e V e n e t i a n a s p e c t o f t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e . I t was n o t c r e a t e d i n a vacuum; and n e e d s r e l a t i n g t o t h i s c o n t e x t i n o r d e r f o r t h e f a c a d e t o be u n d e r s t o o d . 2 D e b o r a h Howard, A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e . 1 2 2 f . 130 The i d e a o f t h e f a c a d e ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l members a p p e a r i n g t o p r o v i d e m a s s i v e and s u b s t a n t i a l f o r m s o f s u p p o r t i s n o t new i n t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e . I t has p r e v i o u s l y b e e n d i s c u s s e d as one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e b u i l d i n g s , s u c h a s t h e C a ' d e l D u c a . 3 The b a s e m e n t l e v e l o f t h e h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e b u t f r a g m e n t a r y C a ' d e l Duca has h e a v y d o u b l e d c o l u m n s a t t h e c o r n e r s w h i c h may have b e e n i n t e n d e d t o have a s u p p o r t i n g f u n c t i o n . C o d u s s i was p e r h a p s l o o k i n g a t t h e r u s t i c a t i o n o f t h e Ca d e l Duca when he d e s i g n e d t h e b o t t o m s t o r e y o f t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i p a l a c e ; t h e l e n g t h and s o l i d f e a t u r e s o f t h e same f r a g m e n t may have been on h i s mind when he was d e s i g n i n g t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e . The c o n c e p t o f t h e w h o l e f a c a d e s u p p o r t i n g i t s e l f i s n o t e n t i r e l y new t o V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s e i t h e r , as p i l a s t e r s a r e u s e d b e t w e e n t h e c e n t r a l and f l a n k i n g s e c t i o n s o f w i n d o w s , and a l o n g t h e e d g e s o f t h e f a c a d e s , on many o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e i s t h a t t h e v o l u m e o f t h e s e a l m o s t f r e e s t a n d i n g c o l u m n s i s s u c h t h a t t h e i l l u s i o n o f s u p p o r t ( e s p e c i a l l y on t h e two u p p e r s t o r e y s ) i s c o n v i n c i n g ; on e a r l i e r f a c a d e s i t i s a l w a y s a s u g g e s t i o n . The s t r u c t u r a l s k e l e t o n p r o v i d e d b y t h e c o l u m n s i s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e , w h i c h c o n t r a s t s n i c e l y w i t h t h e e x p e n s i v e b l u e - g r e y and y e l l o w m a r b l e s o f t h e r e v e t m e n t . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n a r g u e s f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s s k i l l a s 3 See C h a p t e r Two. 131 t h i n k e r and p r o b l e m s o l v e r i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e f a c a d e e l e m e n t s a r e m a n i p u l a t e d t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f e q u a l h e i g h t s t o r e y s and c o m p l e t e b a l a n c e . 4 T h i s i s done by m a k i n g t h e w i ndows o f t h e t o p two s t o r e y s seem i d e n t i c a l b y h a v i n g t h e p i a n o n o b i l e e n t a b l a t u r e c u t t h e t o p s t o r e y windows o f f a t t h e same l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e p i a n o n o b i l e windows s i n k b e h i n d t h e b a l c o n y b a l u s t e r s . The b o t t o m s t o r e y i s made t o a p p e a r e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e u p p e r two b e c a u s e t h e p i l a s t e r s r e s t on a b a s e w i t h t h i c k m o u l d i n g s , i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e i r h e i g h t . S p a t i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s s u c h as t h e s e , a l t h o u g h e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i e x a m p l e , have been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many o f t h e p a l a c e s d i s c u s s e d : t h e C o n t a r i n i -P o l i g n a c and t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i a r e j u s t two e x a m p l e s . U n l i k e t h e f a c a d e s o f t h e 1495 t o 1510 g r o u p o f p a l a c e s , w h i c h have b a s e m e n t s t h a t a r e o n l y s u b t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e u p p e r s t o r e y s , C o d u s s i f l a t t e n s t h e r e l i e f o f t h e l o w e r s t o r e y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e u p p e r two seem t o be r e s t i n g on a b l a n d s u p p o r t , p l a c i n g t h e v i s u a l e m p h a s i s on t h e two u p p e r s t o r e y s . T hough t h e b a s ement may n o t have t h e p r o m i n e n c e i t has i n some o f t h e e a r l i e r p a l a c e s , t h e d e c o r a t i v e i m a g e r y u s e d i s t h a t w h i c h a p p e a r s c o n s i s t e n t l y on f a c a d e s o f t h e l a t e r 1490's and e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The f l a n k i n g p o r t i o n s o f t h e b a s ement a r e t h e s i m p l e s t , c o n t a i n i n g o n l y s m a l l , s q u a r e h a l f w i ndows. T h i s l e a v e s room f o r t h e L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s "Non N o b i s , " w h i c h r u n a c r o s s t h e b l a n k p a n e l on 4 L i e b e r m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e . p l a t e 64. 132 e i t h e r s i d e . T h e s e a r e t h e f i r s t w o r d s o f P s a l m CXV, w h i c h r e a d s "Not t o us 0 L o r d , n o t t o u s , b u t t o t h y name be t h e g l o r y g i v e n . " 5 The w o r d s "Domus P a c e " , o r "House o f P e a c e " a r e i n s c r i b e d on t h e d o o r j a m b s . As on t h e P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n -C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , t h e p a l a c e i s d e d i c a t e d t o God, s o t h a t i t s s u m p t u o u s n e s s w i l l n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o a d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l g l o r y . The p l a i n n e s s o f t h e f l a n k i n g s i d e s s e r v e s two v i s u a l p u r p o s e s . T hey a p p e a r t o p r o v i d e two s o l i d s u p p o r t z o n e s , one on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e p a l a c e , t o b e a r up t h e h e a v y l o o k i n g p i a n o n o b i l e . A l s o , t h e s e z o n e s p r o v i d e a good f r a m i n g d e v i c e f o r t h e t r i p l e a r c h e d window and d o o r c o m b i n a t i o n , w h i c h i s d e c o r a t e d , as i n many o t h e r p a l a c e s o f t h e t i m e , a s a t r i u m p h a l a r c h . The c e n t r a l d o o r has t h e same e a g l e m o d i l l i o n c o v e r i n g t h e k e y s t o n e t h a t i s on t h e P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o i n t h e Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a . The d o o r j a m b s a r e c a r v e d w i t h t r o p h i e s and a r m o u r , s i m i l a r b u t s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e l e s e n e s o f t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i , and i n s t e a d o f t h e c u s t o m a r y p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l s t h e r e a r e p r o f i l e h e a d s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e "Emperor" h e a d s w h i c h a d o r n t h e c o r n i c e o f t h e S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a p a l a c e f a c a d e . T h u s , as i n t h e s e c o n d g r o u p p a l a c e s , t h e e n t r a n c e - w a y i s g i v e n an i m p o r t a n t f o c u s w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h theme, t h o u g h t h e s t o r e y as a w h o l e i s l e s s f o r c e f u l when c o m p a r e d t o t h e f l o o r s a b o v e . The two t o p s t o r e y s a p p e a r t o be a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , as t h e i r windows l o o k t o be t h e same h e i g h t . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h t h e 5 I b i d . , p l a t e 64. 133 e n t a b l a t u r e s and f r i e z e s w h i c h r u n v i r t u a l l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d a c r o s s t h e f a c a d e , g i v e i t a s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l e m p h a s i s common t o R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e . The t r a d i t i o n a l t r i p a r t i t e f o r m a t i s s t i l l o p e r a t i o n a l , b u t i s a m i n o r component h e r e , as t h e window u n i t s a r e e n l a r g e d and a r e s p r e a d much more e v e n l y a c r o s s t h e f a c a d e t h a n i n any o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i P a l a c e l o s e s t h e l a t e G o t h i c m o d e l w h i c h i s a l w a y s a f e a t u r e o f t h e o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s . H e r e , t h e windows a r e a f a i r l y c l o s e l y s e t s e r i e s o f n a r r o w r o u n d a r c h e s , o r g a n i z e d t o r e s e m b l e t h e t w i n l a y e r s o f t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s s u c h as t h e l a r g e F o n d a c o d e i T u r c h i , w h i c h h a p p e n s t o be s i t u a t e d n e a r b y , on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e G r a n d C a n a l . T h i s p a l a c e was c e r t a i n l y v i s i b l e t o C o d u s s i and A n d r e a L o r e d a n as t h e y s t o o d on t h e s i t e o f t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e . 6 I n t e r m s o f t h e window s i z e and p l a c e m e n t on t h e two u p p e r s t o r e y s o f t h e p a l a c e , t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i f a c a d e l o o k s e v e n more l i k e t h e two s t o r e y T r e c e n t o t y p e t h a n t h e e a r l i e r b u i l d i n g s d o. The a n t i q u e s e v e n - e i g h t h c o l u m n s do n o t d e t r a c t f r o m t h i s e f f e c t . The V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e theme i s a l s o c a r r i e d on i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f p o r p h y r y o r g r e e n m a r b l e r o u n d e l s a t t h e t o p o f e a c h window u n i t . 6 A n o t h e r l i k e n e s s t o a V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e i s t h a t t h e a n d r o n e i s o r i e n t e d i n a s i m i l a r way, i e p a r a l l e l t o t h e f a c a d e w a l l i n s t e a d o f r u n n i n g b a c k f r o m i t as i n G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s . McAndrew s u r m i s e s t h a t p e r h a p s t h e L o r e d a n l i k e d t h e a r r a n g e m e n t as i t a p p e a r e d i n t h e i r t r e c e n t o p a l a c e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e R i a l t o , and d e c i d e d t o r e p e a t i t h e r e . 134 The V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e f e n e s t r a t i o n i s one o f i t s most u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s ( f i g . 5 6 ) . C o d u s s i knew t h a t t h i s was t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e most e x p r e s s i v e p a r t o f a p a l a c e , and u s e s i t t o h i s a d v a n t a g e h e r e . As w i t h t h e P a l a z z o Z o r z i a San S e v e r o , t h e b r o a d e x p a n s e s o f window a r e k e p t i n c h e c k by t h e r h y t h m i c f a c a d e s t r u c t u r e . H e r e , e a c h g r o u p o f two windows i s h e l d i n c h e c k by a r o u n d a r c h w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s them, and t h e w h o l e i s f r a m e d by a p a i r o f c o l u m n s . A s t o n e c i r c l e t r e s t s i n t h e s p a n d r e l o f t h e b i f u r c a t i o n s ; i t i s f i r m l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e e n t a b l a t u r e a b o v e by a v o l u t e . S c h o l a r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d upon t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e windows as a m a g n i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h o s e o f t h e R u c e l l a i and P i c c o l o m i n i p a l a c e s , b u i l t i n F l o r e n c e and P i e n z a r e s p e c t i v e l y ( f i g . 2 8 ) . They u s u a l l y do so i n o r d e r t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o a b s o r b F l o r e n t i n e t r a d i t i o n . What s h o u l d be a dded t o t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s u c h b o r r o w i n g s . The i n c l u s i o n o f a m o t i f w h i c h had been c o n n e c t e d w i t h n o b i l i t y i n o t h e r c e n t r e s may have i m p r e s s e d upon f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t h a t t h i s was a n o b l e m a n ' s p a l a c e . U n l i k e t h e i r T u s c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e no s o l i d s t o n e a r e a s t o t h e window. I n s t e a d , t h e r o u n d e l i n t h e s p a n d r e l s i s t r e a t e d l i k e t r a c e r y , and p r o v i d e s more l i g h t . Made p o s s i b l e b y t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f V e n e t i a n g l a s s , t h i s i s a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n on t h e theme o f u p d a t i n g t h e G o t h i c q u a t r e f o i l t r a c e r y w i t h w h i c h C o d u s s i had e x p e r i m e n t e d i n t h e e a r l i e r C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i f a c a d e . I n t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i C o d u s s i " c l a s s i c i z e s " t r a c e r y , 135 by o m i t t i n g any r e f e r e n c e t o p o i n t e d a r c h e s o r t o t h e e l o n g a t e d t e a r d r o p s h a p e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i w i n d o w s . He has e f f e c t e d a t r e m e n d o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e G o t h i c t r a c e r y t r a d i t i o n w i t h t h e new R e n a i s s a n c e i d i o m . T h i s window t y p e was n o t o f t e n r e p e a t e d , B u t i t was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n . T h r e e t r a d i t i o n s a r e c a l l e d t o mind i n t h e f e n e s t r a t i o n o f t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i : t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e , t h e F l o r e n t i n e , and t h e V e n e t i a n G o t h i c . T h e s e f o r m s a r e a l l s y n t h e s i z e d s o c l e v e r l y t h a t t h e y c o n t i n u e t o a l l o w what h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e en t h e most e x p r e s s i v e p a r t o f t h e V e n e t i a n p a l a c e t o f u n c t i o n i n m u l t i p l e l a y e r s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f a c a d e i s t o p p e d b y a huge o v e r h a n g i n g c o r n i c e w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d f l u t i n g , d e n t i l s and egg and d a r t m o u l d i n g f r o m t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y a n o t h e r e l e m e n t b o r r o w e d f r o m F l o r e n t i n e p a l a c e s , as i t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e M e d i c i p a l a c e c o r n i c e . I t i s a n e c e s s a r y a d d i t i o n t o t h i s p a l a c e , a s a f i n a l , s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l f r a m i n g e l e m e n t t o a n c h o r t h e f a c a d e , l e s t t h e p l a y o f l i g h t and r e f l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e w a t e r d i s s o l v e t h e f o r m s o f t h e basement and make t h e p a l a c e a p p e a r t o f l o a t . J u s t a s t h e t r i u m p h a l m o t i f shows up i n t h e e n t r a n c e - w a y a r t i c u l a t i o n and d e c o r a t i o n s , i t a l s o a p p e a r s as a theme i n t h e s c u l p t u r a l m o t i f s o f t h e w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s and i n t h e c o r n i c e f r i e z e . The V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h e u s u a l 136 p a t t e r n o f a p p l y i n g t h e most p r o m i n e n t d e c o r a t i v e o r n a m e n t s t o t h e p i a n o n o b i l e . H e r e , C o d u s s i l e f t p l a i n p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l s on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e i n o r d e r n o t t o d e t r a c t f r o m t h e e l e g a n c e o f t h e f l u t e d c o l u m n s , and i t i s t h e s e w h i c h s t a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t o r e y . The t o p s t o r e y h o w e v e r , has s i g n i f i c a n t s c u l p t u r a l g r o u p s a p p l i e d t o i t . On e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e f l a n k i n g windows t h e r e a r e p e n d a n t g r o u p s o f p o r p h y r y r o u n d e l s , c u i r a s s e s , l i o n s and masks, V e n e t i a n v a r i a t i o n s on t h e Roman t r o p h y and tomb m o t i f s a l r e a d y s e e n on t h e C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e and t h e G r i m a n i a San P o l o . A d d i t i o n a l f e s t i v e i m a g e r y a p p e a r s i n t h e g a r l a n d f r i e z e s t h a t r u n b e h i n d t h e c a p i t a l s on a l l t h r e e s t o r i e s , a u n i f y i n g theme, u s e d i n a more s u b t l e manner t h a n on t h e C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c and t h e C o r n e r -S p i n e l l i p a l a c e s , on w h i c h t h e m o t i f a p p e a r s e a r l i e r . The t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t i m a g e r y i s on t h e c o r n i c e . I t i s h e r a l d i c , and l i k e t h o s e o f t h e P a l a z z i V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a and T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , t h e images seem t o be p r o c l a i m i n g c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s f o r t h e f a m i l y . E a g l e s , o f t e n s e e n on t h e o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s as p o p u l a r t r i u m p h a l m o t i f s o f a p o t h e o s i s , a r e a l t e r n a t e d w i t h o t h e r s y m b o l s , s u c h as u n i c o r n s and f l a m i n g v a s e s . Guy de T e r v a r e n t s a y s t h a t o f t e n t h e h e r a l d i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i c o r n i s t o r e p r e s e n t h o n e s t y and p u r i t y . I t c a n a l s o r e p r e s e n t i n t e g r i t y i n a p u b l i c o f f i c e . He i n t e r p r e t s t h e f l a m i n g v a s e as a common s y m b o l o f 137 t h e l o v e o f G o d . 7 T h e s e a r e a l l q u a l i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a t r o n A n d r e a L o r e d a n , who was i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e C a m a l d o l e s e m o n a s t e r y , and s p e n t many y e a r s i n g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e . He e v e n d i e d w h i l e s e r v i n g t h e s t a t e as an o f f i c e r d u r i n g t h e C a m b r a i w a r s . 8 The s y m b o l i c n a t u r e o f t h e i m a g es i s s u p p o r t e d by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , t h e p i e t y i s a t t e s t e d t o i n t h e l o w e r s t o r e y i n s c r i p t i o n s d e d i c a t i n g t h e p a l a c e t o God and e n t i t l i n g i t a h o u s e o f p e a c e . S e c o n d l y , Z a n e t t i , i n 1760 e n g r a v e d an image w h i c h d e c o r a t e d t h e w a l l s o f t h e a t r i u m o f t h e p a l a c e . The f i g u r e was i d e n t i f i e d as D i l i g e n c e , and a t t r i b u t e d t o G i o r g i o n e . A c c o r d i n g t o B o s c h i n i , who d e s c r i b e d t h e a r e a i n 1674, i t was a c c o m p a n i e d by c o a t s o f arms, h e a d s o f l i o n s , o t h e r nude f i g u r e s , and a f i g u r e o f P r u d e n c e a c r o s s f r o m t h a t o f D i l i g e n c e . 9 We have a l r e a d y s e e n how t h e a t t r i b u t e o f p r u d e n c e was s u g g e s t e d by t h e t h r e e - h e a d e d f i g u r e on t h e P a l a z z i V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a and T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , a c c o m p a n i e d s y m b o l s o f p i e t y and j u s t i c e . H e r e , d i l i g e n c e and h o n e s t y o r i n t e g r i t y i n p u b l i c o f f i c e a r e p o s s i b l y b e i n g s u g g e s t e d as o t h e r q u a l i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e r u l i n g f a m i l i e s . R e t u r n i n g t o t h e f r i e z e , t h e two c o a t s o f arms, e a c h w i t h s i x r o s e s , l i n k a l l t h e f i g u r e s and t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s o f t o 7 Guy de T e r v a r e n t , A t t r i b u t s e t s v m b o l e s d a n s I ' a r t p r o f a n e , , 1450-16QQ ( G e n e v a : E. D r o z , 1 9 5 8 ) , 240,196. 8 S e e a p p e n d i x . 9 A.M. Z a n e t t i , V a r i e p i t t u r e a f r e s c o d e i p r i n c i p l a i  m a e s t r i v e n e z i a n i . ( V e n i c e : 1 7 6 0 ) , f i g . 4.: M. B o s c h i n i , L a r i c c h e m i n e r e d e l l a p i t t u r a v e n e z i a n a . ( V e n i c e : 1 6 7 4 ) ; t h i s i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a . 200, & f i g . 243. 138 t h e L o r e d a n f a m i l y , and c l e a r l y s t a t e p a l a c e o w n e r s h i p . The e a g l e s i n t h e i r r o l e as s y m b o l s o f a p o t h e o s i s , c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f a m i l y w i l l have a l o n g and g l o r i o u s h i s t o r y . The l i o n s h e a d s , w h i c h a p p e a r on t h e t o p s t o r e y o f t h e f a c a d e , and w h i c h may have been p a i n t e d i n t h e a t r i u m , have n o t b e e n s e e n on a p r i v a t e p a l a c e s i n c e t h e e a r l y Q u a t t r o c e n t o . T h ey d e c o r a t e p a l a c e s s u c h as t h e C a ' F o s c a r i and t h e Ca d'Oro, as a s y m b o l o f t h e s t a t e p a t r o n , S a i n t Mark. The l i o n s on t h o s e p a l a c e s were p a r t o f t h e t r a c e r y t h a t was c o p i e d f r o m t h e D u c a l P a l a c e , o r were p l a c e d on t h e b a l c o n i e s , and were v e r y s m a l l . H e r e , t h e y a r e l a r g e and p r o m i n e n t . Some s c h o l a r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y were p l a c e d on t h e f a c a d e t o show t h a t A n d r e a L o r e d a n was r e l a t e d t o t h e r e i g n i n g Doge, L e o n a r d o L o r e d a n . 1 0 T h i s i s p o s s i b l e , b u t A n d r e a L o r e d a n was a w e a l t h y and p o w e r f u l man i n h i s own r i g h t , who d i d n o t nee d t o c o n f e r s t a t u s upon h i m s e l f by c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e Doge." The l i o n s may be a way o f c o n n e c t i n g t h e p a l a c e t o t h e s t a t e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e m a g n i f i c e n t p a l a c e i s t o t h e g l o r y o f V e n i c e , as w e l l as t o God. The P a l a z z o D a r i o i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e c i t y , h ence t h e r e i s a p r e c e d e n c e f o r t h e i d e a . A s i m p l e r o u n d e l w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s o f C h r i s t s e r v e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e M a l i p e r o -T r e v i s a n p a l a c e i n t h e Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a was f o r t h e g l o r y o f God, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e l i o n - h e a d s a r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p a l a c e b e n e f i t s t h e c i t y . The V e n d r a m i n -10 B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a . 197. 139 C a l e r g i p a l a c e i s so l a r g e , and i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l i m a g e r y so e v o c a t i v e , t h a t a d o u b l e d e d i c a t i o n w o u l d a l m o s t be n e c e s s a r y t o o f f s e t t h e comments a b o u t p e r s o n a l g l o r i f i c a t i o n t h a t may have b e e n r a i s e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s p a l a c e w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n s w o r k e d o u t i n e a r l i e r f a c a d e s , t h e p a l a c e d i f f e r s f r o m t h e o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s i n some d i s t i n c t i v e ways. C o d u s s i r e i n t r o d u c e s c e r t a i n G o t h i c e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e m i s s i n g f r o m t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s , s u c h as t h e l i o n m o t i f , and window t r a c e r y . A t t h e same t i m e h o w e v e r , he moves away f r o m t h a t t r a d i t i o n by n o t a d h e r i n g t o t h e l a t e G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e f o r m t h a t i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s . W h i l e t h e d e c o r a t i v e members o f t h e V e n d r a m i n -C a l e r g i 's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s s u g g e s t f a c a d e s u p p o r t , t h o s e o f t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i a c t u a l l y a p p e a r t o do s o , and a r e a i d e d by t h e u s e o f a n t i q u e m o d e l s . R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , s u c h as t h e u s e o f o r d e r s and t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h d o o r w a y a r e r e n d e r e d more p o w e r f u l l y h e r e t h a n on o t h e r p a l a c e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e and i t s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a r e o f f s e t by i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s t o them. The c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s o f t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e f a c a d e may e x p r e s s t h e s t r u c t u r a l n a t u r e o f t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f l o o r s , b u t t h e e f f e c t i s r i c h l y t e x t u r a l , w i t h a r h y t h m i c f l o w b e i n g a c h i e v e d b y t h e a l t e r n a t i o n o f r e c e s s e d and p r o j e c t i n g e l e m e n t s . I n o t h e r p a l a c e s o f t h i s p e r i o d , p a n e l s 140 f r a m e d by m o u l d i n g s , and l a r g e s c u l p t u r a l a d d i t i o n s a r e a i m e d a t a s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t means. The V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e theme a l s o common t o V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e d e s i g n i s managed i n a new way i n t h i s p a l a c e . The e x p a n s i o n and r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e windows a c r o s s t h e two t o p s t o r e y s , u n d e r p l a y s t h e more t y p i c a l t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n s . F l o r e n t i n e e l e m e n t s , s u c h as t h e b i p a r t i t e window d e s i g n , c o m b i n e b o r r o w e d w i t h n a t i v e p a t r i c i a n p a l a c e a s s o c i a t i o n s , so t h a t a l l w i l l know t h a t t h i s i s t h e r e s i d e n c e o f a n o b l e f a m i l y . The c o l o r e d m a r b l e r o u n d e l s , t h e t r o p h y s c u l p t u r e s , t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h d o o r t y p e , and t h e r e l i e f p a t t e r n s , a l l t y p e s o f t r i u m p h a l i m a g e r y , a r e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s l i n k i n g t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e t o i t s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . P e r h a p s t o o f f s e t t h e i m p e r i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l f r a m e w o r k , t h e p a l a c e , l i k e many o t h e r s o f i t s t i m e i s d e d i c a t e d t o God, and p o s s i b l y t o t h e c i t y , b y t h e u s e o f i n s c r i p t i o n s and l i o n m o t i f s . F u r t h e r m o r e , q u a l i t i e s s u c h as p i e t y , o r l o v e o f God, h o n e s t y and d i l i g e n c e i n p u b l i c o f f i c e a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e s y m b o l s o f t h e c o r n i c e f r i e z e , w h i c h a r e a l t e r n a t e d w i t h L o r e d a n c o a t s o f arms t o c o n n e c t t h e c o n c e p t s w i t h t h e f a m i l y . I n t h i s way, t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i i m a g e r y d i s p l a y s t h e same c o n c e r n f o r t h e p a t r i c i a n p u b l i c image t h a t i s o p e r a n t i n o t h e r p a l a c e s o f t h e p e r i o d . B e c a u s e o f i t s s i z e and monumental e x p r e s s i v e f o r m s , t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e i s t h e c l o s e s t f a c a d e t o t h a t m y s t e r i o u s C a ' d e l Duca f r a g m e n t f r o m e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , 141 w h i c h no one c o u l d b e a r t o t e a r down. W h i l e a f a s c i n a t i n g b u i l d i n g , t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i r e m a i n s a b i t o f an a n o m a l y , j u s t as t h e i n n o v a t i v e P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i was t o be i n t h e c i t y o f F l o r e n c e . M o st p a l a c e s b u i l t l a t e r i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e more s u b d u e d f a c a d e t y p e a s i t d e v e l o p e d f r o m 1480 t o 1500, i n w h i c h Roman and B y z a n t i n e f o r m s a r e g r a f t e d o n t o t h e l a t e G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e b a s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i n n o v a t o r y e x a m p l e s p r o v i d e d by t h e o t h e r V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s . 142. CHAPTER S I X VENICE IN THE LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY: A HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VENETIAN RENAISSANCE PALACE STYLE A b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s s u g g e s t s a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t o p l a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e . The P o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n T oward t h e T u r n o f t h e S i x t e e n t h  C e n t u r y • O v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s s i n c e V e n i c e s h o o k o f f t h e r u l e o f t h e B y z a n t i n e e m p i r e , t h e c i t y b u i l t up i t s own m a r i t i m e e m p i r e , b a s e d on t r a d e w i t h t h e L e v a n t and d o m i n a t i o n o f k e y a r e a s a l o n g t h e t r a d e r o u t e s . D u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e V e n e t i a n e m p i r e was b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by two f a c t o r s . The f i r s t was t h e l o s s o f t r a d e income t o o t h e r t r a d i n g n a t i o n s s u c h as t h e P o r t u g u e s e . 1 The s e c o n d was t h e i n c u r s i o n s o f t h e T u r k s , who managed t o t a k e o v e r C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n 1453, e f f e c t i v e l y p u t t i n g an end t o t h e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f t h e Roman e m p i r e . T h i s 1 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e , 96. 143 was a d e v a s t a t i n g b l o w t o t h e w e s t , b u t e s p e c i a l l y t o V e n i c e , f o r now t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o d e t r a c t t h e T u r k s f r o m s w a l l o w i n g V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r i e s . The V e n e t i a n s s u f f e r e d h e a v y l o s s e s i n t h e w a r s f r o m 1463 t o 1479, and a g a i n f r o m 1499 t o 1 5 0 3 . 2 T h i s war was n o t a l w a y s f o u g h t i n d i s t a n t l a n d s ; i n 1477, i n t h e i r c a m p a i g n s on t h e D a l m a t i a n c o a s t , t h e T u r k s o v e r r a n F r i u l i and came w i t h i n s e v e n t y k i l o m e t e r s o f V e n i c e i t s e l f . 3 The p r e s s u r e s o f t h e s e w a r s were o n l y r e l i e v e d by t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f p e a c e t r e a t i e s w h i c h were n o t a l w a y s f a v o r a b l e t o V e n i c e . The I t a l i a n p o w e r s were n o t a t a l l s y m p a t h e t i c t o V e n i c e ' s p l i g h t . I n f a c t , F l o r e n c e and M i l a n a c t u a l l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e T u r k s t o a t t a c k t h e c i t y . 4 B e c a u s e t h e V e n e t i a n s had b e e n t r y i n g t o o f f s e t t h e i r l o s s e s i n t h e e a s t b y g a i n i n g t e r r i t o r i e s on t h e I t a l i a n m a i n l a n d , t h e y were a c c u s e d o f a l w a y s b e i n g on t h e l o o k o u t f o r new t e r r i t o r y , 5 They i n c u r r e d t h e w r a t h o f t h e Pope i n 1484 o v e r F e r r a r a , t o t h e p o i n t where a p a p a l i n t e r d i c t was i s s u e d . V e n i c e was n o t above h e l p i n g f o r e i g n p o w e r s , s u c h as t h e F r e n c h , i n v a d e M i l a n i n 1499, on t h e p r o m i s e o f r e c e i v i n g Cremona as p a y m e n t . 6 T h e s e 2 I b i d . , 97. 3 S h e a r d , V e n d r a m i n Tomb. 11. 4 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e , 97. 5 F o r I t a l i a n a t t i t u d e s t o V e n e t i a n c o n q u e s t s on t h e m a i n l a n d s e e N i c o l a i R u b i n s t e i n , " I t a l i a n R e a c t i o n s t o T e r r a f i r m a E x p a n s i o n i n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y " , i n J.R. H a l e , e d . , R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , 197-217. 6 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e . 97. 144 a c t i o n s , as w e l l as h e r i n c u r s i o n s i n t o t h e P a p a l t e r r i t o r i e s o f Romagna, c a u s e d t h e I t a l i a n s t a t e s t o f o r m t h e L e a g u e o f C a m b r a i , and t o l e a d a c o n c e r t e d a t t a c k on V e n i c e i n 1 5 0 9 ; 7 V e n i c e s u r v i v e d , b u t n o t w i t h o u t some e x t r e m e l y t e n s e moments. V e n e t i a n R e s p o n s e s t o P o l i t i c a l D i f f i c u l t i e s . The y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h t h e f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s were b e i n g b u i l t must have been e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t o n e s . Not o n l y were t h e r e v a s t p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s , i n w h i c h t h e p r i z e d V e n e t i a n l i b e r t y was a t s t a k e f r o m b o t h t h e T u r k s i n t h e e a s t and t h e I t a l i a n s i n t h e w e s t , b u t t h e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n o f c o n s t a n t war was d e v a s t a t i n g e v e n t o t h e w e a l t h y V e n e t i a n s . V e n i c e was i n a s t a t e o f c r i s i s , b u t a p u b l i c a p p e a r a n c e o f s t r e n g t h and w e a l t h was e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e c i t y ' s image as a s e r e n e and i n v i o l a b l e r e p u b l i c . A r e s u l t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n seems t o have been i n c r e a s e d p r o p a g a n d i z a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e . W. S h e a r d and E. M u i r have p o i n t e d o u t t h e r i s e i n t y p e s o f p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s and c e r e m o n i e s t o keep p u b l i c m o r a l e h i g h . T h e r e w ere t h e a n n u a l c e r e m o n i e s t o mark t h e i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s w h i c h g a v e l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e s t a t e , as w e l l as i m p r o m p t u o n e s c e l e b r a t i n g b a t t l e v i c t o r i e s . 8 W. Bouwsma d i s c u s s e s how t h e f i r s t o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s o f V e n i c e , s t r e s s i n g t h e v i r t u e s o f t h e s t a t e , b e g i n t o a p p e a r i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f 7 N. R u b i n s t e i n , " I t a l i a n R e a c t i o n s , " 197. 8 S h e a r d , V e n d r a m i n Tomb. 13-15; M u i r , C i v i c R i t u a l , C h a p t e r s 3-6 p a s s i m . 145 t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 9 The p u b l i c p a g e a n t r y i n v o l v e s t h e theme o f t r i u m p h d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , and t h i s c a n p e r h a p s be c o n n e c t e d t o a d e s i r e t o d o w n p l a y V e n e t i a n t r o u b l e s . V e n i c e and t h e I m p e r i a l T r a d i t i o n s : B y z a n t i u m and Rome I n t h e l a t t e r d e c a d e s o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t o t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , V e n i c e was p r e s e n t e d b o t h as an h e i r t o t h e B y z a n t i n e e m p i r e and as a t y p e o f "new" Rome. I t was t h e same e m p i r e t o p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o n l y t h e Roman e m p i r e had been pagan f o r p a r t o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , and t h e B y z a n t i n e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f i t was C h r i s t i a n . As O t t o Demus has p o i n t e d o u t , V e n e t i a n s had been l i n k i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o B y z a n t i u m e v e r s i n c e t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y when t h e y managed t o d i v e r t t h e F o u r t h C r u s a d e and c a p t u r e C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . They e v e n t r i e d t o a p p e a r a s s u c c e s s o r s o f J u s t i n i a n , f a b r i c a t i n g h i s t o r i e s t o a n t e d a t e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e c i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e s t a t e c h u r c h o f San M a r c o was b u i l t i n t h e f o r m o f t h e J u s t i n i a n c h u r c h o f t h e H o l y A p o s t l e s , and d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h e s p o i l s o f t h e i n v a s i o n o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; i t was a p o w e r f u l monument t o V e n i c e ' s B y z a n t i n e c o n n e c t i o n . 1 0 V e n i c e e v e n r u l e d R a v e n n a f o r a t i m e . T i e s w i t h B y z a n t i u m r e m a i n e d s t r o n g t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s , and when C o n s t a n t i n o p l e f e l l , many G r e e k s f l o o d e d i n t o V e n i c e as r e f u g e e s . V e n i c e became t h e c e n t r e f o r G r e e k s t u d i e s i n t h e West, and C a r d i n a l B e s s a r i o n 9 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e , 8 9 - 9 3 . 1 0 Demus, " R e n a s c e n c e , " 357. 146 l i k e n e d i t t o a n o t h e r B y z a n t i u m . 1 1 Rona G o f f e n has p o i n t e d o u t t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f B y z a n t i n e a r t i n V e n i c e i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e s o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . G r e e k i c o n s were v e n e r a t e d , and G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i p a i n t e d h i s Madonnas i n a B y z a n t i n e s t y l e s e t a g a i n s t m o s a i c d o m e s . 1 2 R a l p h L i e b e r m a n and J o h n McAndrew have b o t h d i s c u s s e d t h e r e v i v a l o f B y z a n t i n e s t y l e s o f c h u r c h e s u s i n g t h e G r e e k c r o s s w i t h i n a s q u a r e and domes on p e n d e n t i v e s i n t h e work o f Mauro C o d u s s i . 1 3 The B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l s t y l e s o f t h e 1490's may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f a n e e d t o a s s e r t V e n i c e as an h e i r t o t h e B y z a n t i n e e m p i r e . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n m a i n l a n d I t a l y , V e n i c e a l s o c o n n e c t e d h e r s e l f t o t h e more Roman a s p e c t o f t h e i m p e r i a l t r a d i t i o n . D a v i d Chambers has o u t l i n e d how V e n e t i a n s p r o c l a i m e d t h e m s e l v e s i n o r a t i o n s , h i s t o r i e s , a r t and v e r s e , as s u c c e s s o r s t o t h e R o m a n s . 1 4 They were q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . When t h e h u m a n i s t s , b o t h F l o r e n t i n e and V e n e t i a n , s t a r t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e , V e n i c e 1 1 Rona G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f -L e n g t h Madonnas, A r t B u l l e t i n 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 4 8 8 . 1 2 I b i d . , 4 8 8 . 1 3 McAndrew, S a n t ' A n d r e a d e l l a C e r t o s a . and L i e b e r m a n , V e n e t i a n C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e a r o u n d 1500. 1 4 D a v i d C h a m b ers, The I m p e r i a l Age of Venice, ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , 12. 147 came t o be s e e n a s t h e i d e a l o f t h e f r e e r e p u b l i c . 1 5 C o n v e r s e l y , F r a n c e s c o S f o r z a , i n 1451 c o m p l a i n e d : . . . t h e y a r e c o n s t a n t l y g r e e d y f o r power and f o r t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f a l l t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i r a m b i t i o n t o d o m i n a t e I t a l y , and t h e n t o e x t e n d t h e i r r u l e b e y o n d I t a l y , as t h e Romans had done; f o r t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y c a n compare t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e Romans o f t h e d a y s when t h e y were p o w e r f u l . 1 6 P r o m i n e n t V e n e t i a n f a m i l i e s i n v e n t e d f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s t h a t l i n k e d them t o g r e a t Roman f a m i l i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e L o r e d a n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r name d e r i v e d f r o m L a u r e a t i , t h e i l l u s t r i o u s d e s c e n d a n t s o f M u c i u s S c a e v o l a 1 7 , and t h e C o r n a r o b e l i e v e d t h e y were o f t h e g e n s C o r n e l i a , r e l a t e d t o S c i p i u s A f r i c a n u s . 1 6 Roman a r c h i t e c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e i m a g e r y was an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f t h e d e p i c t i o n o f V e n i c e as a "new Rome." I t f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e e x t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e , w h i c h was an e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d a r e a o f b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h e 1480's and 1 4 9 0 ' s . 1 9 The A r c o F o s c a r i was 1 5 F e l i x G i l b e r t , "The V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n i n F l o r e n t i n e P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t , " i n F l o r e n t i n e S t u d i e s , e d . N i c o l a i R u b i n s t e i n , ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . 1 6 L e t t e r o f F r a n c e s c o S f o r z a t o Nicodemo T r a n c h e d i n i q u o t e d i n N. R u b i n s t e i n , " I t a l i a n R e a c t i o n s " , 205. 1 7 D a v i d M c T a v i s h "Roman S u b j e c t M a t t e r and S t y l e i n V e n e t i a n F a c a d e F r e s c o e s , " BACAR X I I ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 195. 1 6 G e o r g e Knox, "The C a m e r i n o o f F r a n c e s c o C o r n e r , " A r t e  V e n e t a 32 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 80. 1 9 The r a t h e r d i l a p i d a t e d f r e s c o e s i n t h e M a g g i o r C o n s i g l i o o r m a i n c o u n c i l h a l l were o r d e r e d r e p a i n t e d i n t h e 1 4 7 0 ' s , so t h a t V e n i c e ' s h i s t o r i c a l t r i u m p h s c o u l d be p r o p e r l y d i s p l a y e d , and t o remove t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f v i s i t o r s l i k e n i n g t h e c r u m b l i n g n a t u r e o f t h e f r e s c o e s t o t h e V e n e t i a n s t a t e . 148 c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i was begun a f t e r t h e 1483 f i r e , f o r t h e new D u c a l c o r o n a t i o n c e r e m o n y . S i n c e t h e I t a l i a n p o w e r s were a l l u s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o f Roman c l a s s i c i s m i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c o r r e c t message o f power be c o n v e y e d , i t was a p p r o p r i a t e , and e v e n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e V e n e t i a n s t o do s o . T h u s , t h e mai n b o d y o f t h e A r c o F o s c a r i , and t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i a r e a l l w o r k e d i n a c l a s s i c i z i n g s t y l e . E d w i n M u i r , f o l l o w i n g t h e r e s e a r c h o f M i c h e l a n g e l o M u r a r o d i s c u s s e s t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i and i t s d e c o r a t i o n s as p a r t o f a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r e n d i n w h i c h t h e Doges were i n c r e a s i n g l y a l l o w e d t o e x a l t t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y were o n l y s t a t e f i g u r e h e a d s . The Doge A g o s t i n o B a r b a r i g o , u n d e r whom t h e S c a l a was c o m p l e t e d , c a r r i e d t h i s t r e n d t o i t s l i m i t , by c o v e r i n g t h e r e l i e f s on t h e s i d e s o f t h e s t a i r c a s e w i t h i m a g es o f p e r s o n a l t r i u m p h w h i c h " . . . m a g n i f i e d t h e h e r o i c A g o s t i n o a s t h e l e a d e r o f t h e New Rome." 2 0 The I m p e r i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e S c a l a a r e o f f s e t by t h e more C h r i s t i a n message o f t h e D u c a l r o l e as i n t e r p r e t e d by D e b r a P i n c u s . I t seems t h a t t h e V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t w a n t e d t o a p p e a r t o have a s t r o n g e m p e r o r - l i k e r u l e r who e m b o d i e d t h e i d e a l s o f t h e s t a t e , i n o r d e r t o c o n v e y t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f u n i t y and power t o o t h e r s t a t e s . P a t r i c i a n V a l u e s i n V e n i c e . 2 0 M u i r , C i v i c R i t u a l . 265. 149 What was t h e r o l e o f ' t h e p a t r i c i a n a t t h i s . t i m e i n V e n i c e ? As p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t , t h e y were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e n e t w o r k o f i d e a s o f V e n e t i a n s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h s c h o l a r s c a l l t h e myth o f V e n i c e . D o n a l d Q u e l l e r e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e myth o f t h e p a t r i c i a t e was as p e r v a s i v e a s t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e myth. He l a y s o u t how t h e V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e were v e n e r a t e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g o o d j u d g e m e n t and p r u d e n c e i n b o t h d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . 2 1 N o b l e s were q u i t e o l d when t h e y r e a c h e d t h e h i g h e s t o f f i c e s , c r e a t i n g an a t m o s p h e r e o f g r a v i t y , d e c o r u m and wisdom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o l d age. V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n s were s u p p o s e d t o have a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d u t y , s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s t o t h o s e o f t h e s t a t e . 2 2 D a v i d Chambers c i t e s an i n c i d e n t i n 1509 where A n d r e a L o r e d a n , t h e owner o f t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e , t o l d t h e n o n - p a t r i c i a n b u r e a u c r a t s t h a t t h e y were t h e p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s i n V e n i c e b e c a u s e t h e p a t r i c i a n s o n l y h e l d o f f i c e t e m p o r a r i l y , i n c u r r e d h e a v y e x p e n s e s and r i s k e d d y i n g as o f f i c e r s d u r i n g w a r t i m e . The b u r e a u c r a t s , on t h e o t h e r hand were h i r e d f o r l i f e , and were f r e e o f s u c h d u t i e s . 2 3 W h i l e b o t h Q u e l l e r and Chambers r e a l i z e t h a t t h e myth was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e a l i t y , t h e p a t r i c i a n s managed t o c o n v e y t h e 2 1 D o n a l d Q u e l l e r , The V e n e t i a n P a t r i c i a t e . ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 8 6 ) , 13. 2 2 I b i d . , 14. 2 3 Chambers I m p e r i a l Age. l O O f . 150 i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e j u s t i c e , p e a c e and l i b e r t y o f V e n i c e , and t h a t t h e y t o o k t h i s d u t y s e r i o u s l y . Humanism p l a y e d a r o l e i n d e f i n i n g t h e v a l u e s o f t h e s t a t e and t h e p a t r i c i a n s . V e n e t i a n h u m a n i s t s , who, as M a r g a r e t K i n g p o i n t s o u t , were o f t e n o f o r c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , w o r k e d t o p u t t h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m yth o f V e n i c e i n t o a b r o a d e r c o n t e x t . They c o n s t r u c t e d a s e t o f p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e u n i v e r s e , t h e s o c i e t y , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and d e m o n s t r a t e d how t h e l a t t e r two a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m e r , w h i c h was e n t i r e l y a g r e e a b l e w i t h t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f V e n i c e . 2 4 They m a r r i e d A r i s t o t e l i a n p h i l o s o p h y t o C h r i s t i a n i t y and r e i f i e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n a r i s t o c r a t s as t h e o nes i n a h i g h l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y f i t t o r u l e by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b i r t h and t h e i r w e a l t h . 2 5 K i n g i d e n t i f i e s u n a n i m i t a s , o r s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e g r o u p , as t h e most i m p o r t a n t theme o f f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y h u m a n i s t l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s c o n c e p t s e r v e d a s an i d e a l f o r a l l c i t i z e n s , and d e f i n e d t h e r o l e o f t h e p a t r i c i a n i n t e r m s o f an a c c e p t a b l e w o r l d v i e w , f o r i t c o m b i n e d t h e wisdom o f b o t h C h r i s t i a n and C l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s . I n d i f f i c u l t t i m e s , i t p r o v e d u s e f u l t o show t h e p u b l i c t h e v i r t u e and s e l f l e s s n e s s o f V e n e t i a n r u l e r s . 2 4 M a r g a r e t L. K i n g , V e n e t i a n Humanism i n an Age o f  P a t r i c i a n Dominance, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 6 ) , 175. 2 5 I b i d . , 184-185. 151 V e n e t i a n P a l a c e D e c o r a t i o n as a R e f l e c t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l and  C u l t u r a l I s s u e s . As was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , W i l l i a m Bouwsma makes an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t a b o u t how t h e V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e b e l i e v e d t h e y were m a k i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r c i t y b y b u i l d i n g b e a u t i f u l p a l a c e s . 2 6 S a n s o v i n o ' s p r i d e i n t h e p a l a c e s o f V e n i c e s p e a k s t o t h i s c o n c e p t a s w e l l . The 1480 t o 1510 p e r i o d must have been p e r s o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r V e n e t i a n s , as t h e i r own f o r t u n e s r o s e and f e l l w i t h t h o s e o f t h e s t a t e . Y e t t h e y b u i l t many p a l a c e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and d i d so u s i n g e x p e n s i v e m a r b l e s i n a new a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . I t i s a l m o s t as t h o u g h t h e p a t r i c i a n s i n t h e i r p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s were r e f l e c t i n g t h e image o f w e a l t h and s t r e n g t h p u t f o r t h b y t h e D u c a l P a l a c e . The mood o f t r i u m p h i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e i m a g e r y o f t h e p a l a c e s r e f l e c t e d t h e t r e n d c u r r e n t i n V e n i c e ; i t a p p e a r s i n a r t , l i t e r a t u r e and p u b l i c p a g e a n t r y , and c a n be c o n n e c t e d t o a n e e d t o p u t on a b r a v e f r o n t i n t h e f a c e o f d i f f i c u l t y . I n d e d i c a t i n g t h e i r p a l a c e s t o God o r t o t h e c i t y t h e p a t r i c i a n s were d i s a s s o c i a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e g l o r y o f t h e p a l a c e , a p o s s i b l e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f u n a n i m i t a s d i s c u s s e d b y K i n g . The r e v i v a l o f B y z a n t i n e s t y l e i n t h e p a l a c e s c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f V e n e t i a n d e s i r e t o r e a f f i r m t h e s t a t e ' s B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e a t t h i s t i m e . B y z a n t i n e s t y l e d o e s n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e 2 6 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e , 133. 152 d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e w h i c h were so i m p o r t a n t as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r t h e p a t r i c i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o j e c t s , b e c a u s e t h e most famous B y z a n t i n e monument o f a l l , San M a r c o , was p r e s e n t b e s i d e t h e D u c a l P a l a c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a l a c e s o f t h e P r o c u r a t o r i , l o c a t e d i n t h e P i a z z a , were s t i l l i n t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e s t y l e . B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l t a k e s on an i n t e r e s t i n g f o r m i n t h e p a l a c e s . The V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s a r e c h o s e n as a b a s i s f o r t h e new t y p e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n s c o n n e c t e d them w i t h J u s t i n i a n i c p a l a c e s , as O t t o Demus s a y s t h e T r e c e n t o V e n e t i a n s d i d . F u r t h e r , t h e d e c o r a t i v e C o s m a t i - s t y l e s t o n e w o r k seems t o have been drawn f r o m B y z a n t i n e c h u r c h w a l l s and p a v e m e n t s , m a k i n g a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h B y z a n t i n e i m p e r i a l power and V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n s . The o t h e r s i d e t o V e n e t i a n d e c o r a t i v e t r e n d was t h a t o f Roman C l a s s i c i s m . I t i s so s t r o n g l y p r e s e n t i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e e x t e r i o r t h a t i f V e n i c e was b e i n g l i k e n e d t o a New Rome, t h e n t h e V e n e t i a n s w o u l d t h i n k i t f i t t i n g t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f New Romans, and d e c o r a t e t h e i r p a l a c e s i n t h e Roman C l a s s i c a l s t y l e . T h u s , r o u n d a r c h e s and a l l ' a n t i c a f r i e z e s and c a p i t a l s mesh w i t h t h e B y z a n t i n e - t y p e m o t i f s on t h e f a c a d e t o r e c a l l two t y p e s o f I m p e r i a l t r a d i t i o n , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h no o t h e r I t a l i a n s t a t e c o u l d do. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f some o f t h e s c u l p t u r e on f a c a d e s i s a d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s . Some o f t h e p i e c e s make r e f e r e n c e t o a t t r i b u t e s s u c h a s p i e t y , 153 j u s t i c e and p r u d e n c e , q u a l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h p a t r i c i a n s , whose s t a t e was b e i n g d e n i g r a t e d as t o o i m p e r i a l i s t i c and g r e e d y , w o u l d want t o be a s s o c i a t e d . Some s c h o l a r s h o w e v e r , have t r i e d t o d e f i n e t h e s e i m a g es as p r o o f o f a m e s s i a n i c t y p e o f p a t r o n . L i o n e l l o and L o r e d a n a O l i v a t o P u p p i , i n t h e i r monograph on Mauro C o d u s s i , l i n k C o d u s s i ' s p a t r o n s t o a g r o u p o f d e v o u t h u m a n i s t p a t r o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e C a m a l d o l e s e m o n a s t e r y on San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a . T hey a r g u e t h a t t h e s e p a t r o n s l e a r n e d o f A l b e r t i ' s t h e o r i e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e and p a s s e d them on t o C o d u s s i , so t h a t h i s b u i l d i n g s w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e v i s u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a p e a c e f u l V e n i c e , t h e c i t y o f J u s t i c e and L i b e r t y , as i t was p o r t r a y e d i n h u m a n i s t l i t e r a t u r e . 2 7 W h i l e t h e s e were v a l i d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p a t r i c i a n h u m a n i s t s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o o f i s p r e s e n t e d t o s u p p o r t s u c h a t h e o r y . M a n f r e d o T a f u r i i s o l a t e s t h e i m a g e r y on t h e V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a and T r e v i s a n - C a p p e l l o p a l a c e s , and c a l l s them i m a g e s o f C h r i s t i a n humanism. He i n t e r p r e t s them as s y m b o l s u s e d b y t h e V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e t o s u g g e s t t h a t V e n i c e , w i t h i t s good and j u s t r u l e r s was a t y p e o f e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . 2 6 W h i l e t h e r e i s one image, t h e p l a q u e on t h e C a p p e l l o i n C a n o n i c a , ( w h i c h T a f u r i n e g l e c t s t o m e n t i o n ) t h a t may be r e f e r r i n g t o p a r a d i s e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a t t a c h s u c h a f a r r e a c h i n g v i s i o n t o s u c h a s m a l l number o f i m a g e s . I t i s more 2 7 P u p p i and P u p p i , Mauro Codussi , C h a p t e r F o u r , " I I p a l a z z o e l a s c e n a u r b a n a d e l p o t e r e , " p a s s i m . 2 6 T a f u r i , V e n e z i a e i l R i n a s c i m e n t o , 2 1 , " . . i l tempo d e l l a r e d e n z i o n e v i e n e u f f i c i a l m e n t e i d e n t i f i c a t o c o n i l tempo v e n e z i a n o . 154 l i k e l y t h a t p a t r i c i a n s w a n t e d t o o f f s e t t h e p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p a l a c e b u i l d i n g w i t h a f f i r m a t i o n s o f t h e i r p i e t y and d e d i c a t i o n t o good v a l u e s : t o a s s e r t t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o t h e s t a t e , o r u n a n i m i t a s , r a t h e r t h a n t o p e r s o n a l g l o r y . C o n c l u s i o n s . C h a p t e r One d e a l t w i t h how V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s have been c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e t h e i r a r c h i t e c t s d i d n o t d e v e l o p a R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e w h i c h u s e d F l o r e n t i n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s . However, t h e p a l a c e t y p e d e v e l o p e d by t h e F l o r e n t i n e s i n t h e l a t e 1440's was s u i t e d t o t h e i r c i t y ' s e n v i r o n m e n t . I t was an u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f a T u s c a n g o v e r n m e n t p a l a c e m o d e l , and c l e a r l y w o u l d have been o u t o f p l a c e i n V e n i c e . D u r i n g t h e s e same y e a r s i n V e n i c e , t h e l a t e G o t h i c p a l a c e t y p e was b e i n g p e r f e c t e d . I t was u n i q e l y s u i t e d t o t h e V e n e t i a n e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d , l i k e t h e F l o r e n t i n e t y p e a l s o b a s e d i t s window t r a c e r y on t h a t o f t h e c i t y ' s s e a t o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n e w l y c o m p l e t e d D u c a l P a l a c e . Where t h e F l o r e n t i n e m e r c h a n t p a t r o n s n e e d e d t o c o n f e r p a t r i c i a n s t a t u s upon t h e m s e l v e s , by a d d i n g t h e i m a g e r y o f a n c i e n t Rome t o t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t p a l a c e m o d e l s , t h e V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n s a l r e a d y had a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p l a c e as t h e V e n e t i a n r u l i n g c l a s s ; t h e y r e f e r r e d t o t h e V e n e t i a n D u c a l P a l a c e t o a f f i r m , r a t h e r t h a n t o c r e a t e s t a t u s . The V e n e t i a n t r i p a r t i t e G o t h i c p a l a c e h a s e l o n g a t e d 155 p o i n t e d a r c h w i n d o w s , and t h i n , e l e g a n t m o u l d i n g s , r e s u l t i n g i n a p r i m a r i l y v e r t i c a l d e c o r a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . I t has i t s own l o g i c and a e s t h e t i c g o a l s . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e way i t w o r k s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r i n p a l a c e d e c o r a t i o n i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The G o t h i c p a l a c e t y p e i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t f o r m s t h e s t r u c t u r a l s k e l e t o n upon w h i c h t h e R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n g u a g e w o u l d be a p p l i e d . The f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e was a c t u a l l y b e g u n i n t h e 1 4 6 0 ' s , n o t l o n g a f t e r t h e f i r s t F l o r e n t i n e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s were c o m p l e t e d . T h i s was t h e C a ' d e l D u c a , and a l t h o u g h i t r e m a i n e d a f r a g m e n t , i t s b a s e showed t h a t i t w o u l d have had m a s s i v e c o l u m n s t o s u p p o r t t h e f a c a d e , a c o n c e p t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n d rawn f r o m t h e a n t i q u e . I t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e G o t h i c a e s t h e t i c , i n w h i c h t h e s p i d e r y f o r m s make t h e b u i l d i n g s a p p e a r w e i g h t l e s s . I t was n o t u n t i l t h e 1480's t h a t t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e r e a l l y b e g a n i n V e n i c e . The V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n s t o o k t h e i r cue f r o m t h e c l a s s i c i z i n g s t y l e a p p a r e n t i n t h e e x t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e , w h i c h may have b e e n i n t r o d u c e d as a r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on V e n i c e a t t h i s t i m e . The p a t r i c i a n s , who o f t e n s a t on t h e c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h d e f i n e d d e c o r a t i v e s y s t e m s f o r t h e D u c a l p a l a c e , were s e n s i t i v e t o t h e r o l e a r c h i t e c t u r e , c o u l d have i n p r e s e n t i n g a s t r o n g and c o n f i d e n t s t a t e image. They w a n t e d t o e x t e n d t h i s image t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . 156 As w i t h any new s t y l e , a p h a s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p r e s s i v e f o r m . T h u s , t h e f i r s t R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s , b u i l t f r o m 1480 t o 1495, were d i v e r s e . The a r c h i t e c t s u s e d as t h e i r b a s i c f o r m t h e s h e l l o f t h e d e v e l o p e d G o t h i c p a l a c e . L a r g e b a l c o n y and d o o r g r o u p i n g s were c e n t r e d on t h e f a c a d e and f r a m e d by s m a l l window g r o u p s . The p o i n t e d a r c h e s , t r a c e r y and m o u l d i n g s o f t h e G o t h i c t y p e were s t r i p p e d away and r e p l a c e d w i t h a n t i q u e i n s p i r e d f o r m s s u c h as r o u n d a r c h e s , p i l a s t e r s , and a l l ' a n t i c a f r i e z e s . T h e s e were m a n i p u l a t e d so t h a t e a c h s t o r e y a p p e a r s t o be s u p p o r t i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t above i t . The d e c o r a t i v e f o c u s was t a k e n away f r o m t h e w i n d o w s , and t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e w a l l s , w h i c h were now r e v e t e d i n I s t r i a n s t o n e and d e c o r a t e d w i t h c o s t l y c o l o r e d m a r b l e i n s e t s i n s p i r e d by B y z a n t i n e d e c o r a t i o n s . Some f a c a d e s were t o o n a r r o w t o a r t i c u l a t e i n t h i s manner, and a b a l a n c e d b i p a r t i t e s o l u t i o n was e x p l o r e d . Wide f a c a d e s were u n i t e d w i t h c o m p l e x a r c h i t e c t u r a l r h y t h m s . I n a l l t h e s e p a l a c e s , t h e b a n k s o f r o u n d a r c h e s , s t r i p p e d o f t h e i r t r a c e r y r e s e m b l e d t h o s e o f t h e T r e c e n t o V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e t y p e , d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d when V e n i c e was a t t h e h e i g h t o f i t s i m p e r i a l power. By t h e mid 1 4 9 0 ' s , t h e p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n had p r o d u c e d a s t a n d a r d R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e t y p e . I t was a s y n t h e s i s o f t h r e e t r a d i t i o n s . A b a l a n c e d , t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e , d e r i v e d f r o m t h e V e n e t i a n l a t e G o t h i c p a l a c e was t h e b a s e . The p i l a s t e r s , c o l u m n s , c a p i t a l s , a r c h e s and m o u l d i n g s 157 were i n s p i r e d by a n t i q u e Roman m o d e l s . P r e c i o u s m a r b l e r o u n d e l s and p o l y c h o m e d r e l i e f s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e d e c o r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n . V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e p a l a c e s were e v o k e d by t h e s u p e r i m p o s e d b a n k s o f a r c h e s . T h u s , t h e G o t h i c , t h e Roman, and t h e B y z a n t i n e , were a l l t h o u g h t f u l l y c o m b i n e d i n t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e t y p e . The B y z a n t i n e m o t i f s t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f V e n i c e ' s l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e E a s t e r n Roman e m p i r e o f B y z a n t i u m , and t h e Roman s t y l e was p a r t o f a t r e n d i n w h i c h V e n i c e , l i k e o t h e r I t a l i a n c i t i e s l i k e n e d i t s e l f t o a new Rome . A f u r t h e r l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was added t o t h e s e p a l a c e s w i t h t h e p l a c e m e n t o f s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s , t r i u m p h a n t i n theme, w h i c h o f t e n a l l u d e t o t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e p a t r i c i a n o w n e r s , s u c h as t h e i r p i e t y and wisdom. The P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i has r e c e i v e d t h e most a t t e n t i o n o f a l l t h e p a l a c e s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t i s t h e l a r g e s t o f them, b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t u s e s more a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t a n t i q u e f o r m s , and r e f l e c t s t h e F l o r e n t i n e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e s t y l e . T h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e s e e n i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e o r d e r s e x p r e s s f a c a d e f u n c t i o n and i n t h e window t y p e u s e d . The f a c a d e , h o w e v e r , i s a l s o t o be s e e n a s a p r o d u c t o f i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . I t p a r t a k e s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s o f V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e i n a number o f ways a p a r t f r o m t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f a n t i q u e Roman f o r m s . F i r s t l y , t h e T u s c a n window t y p e i s a d a p t e d t o s u g g e s t t r a c e r y , a V e n e t i a n G o t h i c f o r m . S e c o n d l y , t h e l o n g b a n k s o f windows c a r r y t h e c o n c e p t o f V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e 158 r e v i v a l t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , even i f t h e G o t h i c t r i p a r t i t e s h e l l i s s u p p r e s s e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h i r d l y , t r i u m p h i s t h e theme o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n s , as i t was i n t h e o t h e r p a l a c e s s t u d i e d . F i n a l l y , i n u s i n g h e r a l d i c i m a g e r y , t h e p a t r o n may be t r y i n g t o s u g g e s t t h e q u a l i t i e s he w o u l d l i k e a t t a c h e d t o h i m s e l f , and i n d o i n g s o i s i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e c o n c e r n s o f many p a t r i c i a n p a l a c e b u i l d e r s a t t h i s t i m e . I n d e d i c a t i n g t h e p a l a c e t o God, and p o s s i b l y t o t h e c i t y , L o r e d a n i s d e n y i n g h i m s e l f t h e g l o r y o f t h e b u i l d i n g and p r e s e n t i n g i t as a g i f t t o V e n i c e and t o t h e w o r l d , j o i n i n g t h e o t h e r p a t r i c i a n b u i l d e r s who want t o d i s p l a y t h e image o f a p a t r i o t i c and s e l f l e s s r u l i n g c l a s s . W i l l i a m Bouwsma, i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c i v i c e l e m e n t i n t h e p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n a g e o f a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e sums up t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i p a l a c e , and i n d e e d a l l t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a l a c e f r o m b u i l t f r o m 1480 t o 1510 n i c l e y i n s a y i n g t h a t : t h e new b u i l d i n g s o f V e n i c e . . . s e r v e d an i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p a t r i o t i c f u n c t i o n . T hey e x p r e s s e d deep f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e d i g n i t y and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . When a V e n e t i a n f a m i l y b u i l t a p a l a z z o , i t d i d so n o t o n l y as a monument t o i t s own e m i n e n c e , b u t a l s o t o e n h a n c e t h e m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h e c i t y , i n whose g l o r i e s i t t o o k a deep p r i d e . 2 9 V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s b u i l t f r o m 1480 t o 1510 a r e n o t s i m p l y p o o r l y c o n c e i v e d e a r l y a t t e m p t s a t c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l . T h ey u s e some o f t h e m o t i f s o f a n c i e n t Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u t go f a r b e y o n d t h i s and a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e i m a g e r y f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e e m p i r e a s w e l l , w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e G o t h i c 2 9 Bouwsma, D e f e n s e , P- 133. 159 p a l a c e t y p e . T h e y a r e a c a r e f u l l y w o r k e d o u t s y n t h e s i s o f i m p e r i a l and i n d i g e n o u s t r a d i t i o n s , a l l m e a n i n g f u l t o V e n e t i a n s , and e v o k e d a t a t i m e when t h e i r l i b e r t y and s e c u r i t y was t h r e a t e n e d . F i g . 4. P a l a z z o D a v a n z a t i , F l o r e n c e , f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F i g . 3. J a c o p o d e ' B a r b a r i , B i r d s E y e V i e w o f V e n i c e , D e t a i l , V e n i c e , C o r r e r Museum, c. 1 5 0 0 . 163 Fig. 8. Palazzo Loredan, Venice, fourteenth century. Fig . 9. Vestibule of Diocletian's Palace, Spalato, 300. F i g . F i g . 10. 11. Ven i c e 166 as CO F i g . 17. C a ' d e l Duca, V e n i c e , F i g . 16. D e t a i l , D u c a l P a l a c e T r a c e r y , V e n i c e s t a r t e d 1457 170 F i g . 20. A r c o F o s c a r i , D u c a l P a l a c e , V e n i c e , 1450-85 171 F i g . 2 1. S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i , D u c a l P a l a c e V e n i c e , c. 1485 F i g . 22. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , V e n i c e , c. 1485 F i g . 25. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , d i a g r a m o f b a l c o n y d e c o r a t i o n s ( A n g e l i n i ) F i g . 26. P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , d i a g r a m o f p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y , ( A n g e l i n i ) F i g . 27. P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i , V e n i c e , c. 1485 F i g . 28. T u s c a n and V e n e t i a n w i n d o t y p e s ( A n g e l i n i ) 175 176 F i g . 3 1. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , d i a g r a m ( A n g e l i n i ) F i g . 32. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , s i d e d o o r F i g . 33. P a l a z z o Z o r z i , p i a n o n o b i l e b a l c o n y d e t a i l 182 F i g . 42. P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n a San F o s c a , d e t a i l o f d o o r 183 F i g . 4 3 . P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n a S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , V e n i c e , c. 1500 F i g . 44. P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n , D i a g r a m , ( C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ) 185 F i g . 47. P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e 1 l o , d i a g r a m F i g . 4 8 . P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , d e c o r a t i v e p a n e l , ( R u s k i n ) 186 F i g . 49. San M a r c o , V e n i c e , S o u t h T e s o r o W a l l , t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y F i g . 50 Warr i o r P a l a z z o r e l i e f T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , , GO - J F i g . 5 1 . P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o , d e t a i l o f W a r r i o r r e l i e f F i g . 52. M a r b l e r o u n d e l s f r o m P a l a z z o T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o and Ca' D a r i o , ( R u s k i n ) F i g . 53. P a l a z z o G r i m a n i a San P o l o , V e n i c e , c. 1500 189 F i g . 54. 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" U b e r l e g u n g e n zum v e n e z i a n i s c h e n P a l a s t b a u d e r R e n a i s s a n c e . " Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e 13 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 3-53. L o r e n z e t t i , G i u l i o . V e n e i c e and I t s L a g o o n . T r i e s t e : L i n t , 1975. McAndrew, J o h n , V e n e t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e E a r l v R e n a i s s a n c e . 194 C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : MIT P r e s s , 1980. McAndrew, J o h n . " S a n f A n d r e a d e l l C e r t o s a . " A r t B u l l e t i n 51 ( 1 9 6 9 ) : 15-28. M c T a v i s h , D a v i d . "Roman S u b j e c t M a t t e r and S t y l e i n V e n e t i a n F a c a d e F r e s c o e s . " RACAR 12 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 188-196. M u i r , E d w a r d , C i v i c R i t u a l i n Renaissance V e n i c e , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. M u r a r o , M i c h e l a n g e l o . " L a s c a l a s e n z a g i g a n t i . " I n E s s a y s i n Honor o f E r w i n Panofsky, ed. M i l l a r d M e i s s , 3 5 0-370. New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M u r r a y , P e t e r . The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . L o n d o n : Thames and H u dson,1969. Okey, Thomas, The Old V e n e t i a n p a l a c e s and t h e O l d Venetian F o l k - L o n d o n : n.p., 1907. O n i a n s , J o h n . "The l a s t J u d g e m e n t i n R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e . " R o v a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s J o u r n a l 128 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 701-20. P a n o f s k y , E r w i n . Problems i n T i t a n , Mostly Iconographic• New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. P i n c u s , D e b r a . The A r c o F o s c a r i . New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1976. R e v i e w o f V e n e t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e E a r l y  R e n a i s s a n c e . by J o h n McAndrew. I n The A r t B u l l e t i n , 65 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 342-346. P u p p i , L i o n e l l o , and L o r e d a n a O l i v a t o P u p p i . Mauro C o d u s s i . M i l a n : E l e c t a , 1977. Q u e l l e r , D o n a l d E. The V e n e t i a n P a t r i c i a t e : R e a l i t y V e r s u s  M v t h . U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1986. R i c e , D a v i d T a l b o t . The B e g i n n i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n A r t - L o n d o n : H o d d e r and S t o u g h t o n , 1957. R o s a n d , D a v i d . " V e n e t i a F i g u r a t a : The I c o n o g r a p h y o f a M y t h . " I n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n e V e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i n o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g l e o M u r a r o . 177-196. V e n i c e : 1984. R u s k i n , J o h n . The S t o n e s o f V e n i c e . 4 V o l s . L o n d o n : D e n t , 1904. S a n s o v i n o , F r a n c e s c o . V e n e t i a . c i t t a n o b i l i s s i m a e s i n g o l a r e . 195 ed . , G i u s t i n i a n o M a r t i n o n i . V e n i c e : n.p. 1663. S c h u l z , Anne Markham. A n t o n i o R i z z o . S c u l p t o r and A r c h i t e c t -P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. S c h u l z . J u e r g e n . "The P r i n t e d P l a n s and P a n o r a m i c V i e w s o f V e n i c e 1486-1707," S a g g i e memorie d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e 7. V e n i c e : C i n i F o u n d a t i o n , 1970. S c h u l z , J u e r g e n . R e v i e w o f V e n e t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e E a r l v R e n a i s s a n c e , by J o h n McAndrew. I n J o u r n a l o f Modern H i s t o r y 53 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 6 94-698. S e a r s , E l i z a b e t h . The Ages o f Man: M e d i e v a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  o f t h e L i f e C y c l e . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986. S e l v a t i c o , P i e t r o . S u l l a a r c h i t e t t u r a e s u l l a s c u l t u r a i n V e n e z i a d a l medioevo a i n o s t r i g i o r n i . V e n i c e : n.p., 1847. S h e a r d , Wendy Stedman. The Tomb o f A n d r e a V e n d r a m i n i n V e n i c e  by T u I I i o Lombardo. Ph.D. d i s s . , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971; r e p r i n t , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1971. S h e a r d , Wendy Stedman, "The B i r t h o f M o n u m e n t a l C l a s s i c i z i n g R e l i e f i n V e n i c e on t h e F a c a d e o f t h e S c u o l a d i San M a r c o , " i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i V e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i n o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g e l o M u r a r o . 149-174. V e n i c e : 1984. S p e n c e r , J.R. "The Ca d e l Duca i n V e n i c e and B e n e d e t t o F e r r i n i . " J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s 29 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 3-8. Summerson, J o h n . The C l a s s i c a l L a n g u a g e o f A r c h i t e c t u r e . L o n d o n : Methuen & Co., 1964. T a f u r i , M a n f r e d o . V e n e z i a e i l r i n a s c i m e n t o : r e l i g i o n e ., s c i e n z a , a r c h i t e t t u r a . T u r i n : G i u l i o E i n a u d i , 1985. T a s s i n i , G i u s e p p e . A l c u n e p a l a z z i ed a n t i c h i e d i f i c i d i V e n e z i a s t o r i c a m e n t e i l l u s t r a t i . V e n i c e : n.p., 1879. T a s s i n i , G i u s e p p e . C u r i o s i t a V e n e z i a n e . V e n i c e : n.p., 1887. Temanza, Tommaso. V i t e d e i p i u c l e l b r i a r c h i t e t t i e s c u l t o r i v e n e z i a n a i che f i o r i r o n o n e l s e c o l o d e c i m o s e s t o . V e n i c e : 1778; r e p r i n t , M i l a n : E d i z i o n i L a b o r , 1966. 196 T e r v a r e n t , Guy de. A t t r i b u t s e t s y m b o l e s d a n s l ' a r t p r ofane,.  1450-1600. G e n e v a : E . D r o z , 1958. W i l k , S a r a h , The S c u l p t u r e o f T u l l i o Lombardo: S t u d i e s i n S o u r c e s and M e a n i n g , New Y o r k , 1978. Z a n e t t i , A. M. V a r i e p i t t u r e a f r e s c o d e i p r i n c i p a l e m a e s t r i  V e n e z i a n e . V e n i c e : n.p., 1760. 197 APPENDIX A: CHECKLIST OF PALACES T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p a t r o n , d a t i n g , a r c h i t e c t s and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a l a c e s t h a t i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t . The p a l a c e s a r e l i s t e d h e r e i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c C a l l s R o t a 875, DD. O t h e r names: C o n t a r i n i d a l Z a f f o o r C o n t a r i n i San V i t o , M o n t e c u c c o l i , D e c a z e s , M a n z o n i - A n g a r a n U s u a l l y d a t e d c. 1485-90, t h e o r i g i n a l p a t r o n o f t h i s p a l a c e i s unknown. I t was b o u g h t i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y by t h e b r a n c h o f t h e C o n t a r i n i f a m i l y known as t h e d a l Z a f f o . E l e n a B a s s i , n o t i n g t h e F l o r e n t i n e d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s on t h e f a c a d e s p e c u l a t e s t h a t t h i s b u i l d i n g may have been one o f a s e r i e s t h a t t h e F l o r e n t i n e a r c h i t e c t M i c h e l o z z o was s u p p o s e d t o have d e s i g n e d f o r f r i e n d s w h i l e t h e M e d i c i f a m i l y were i n e x i l e i n V e n i c e i n 1433. S i n c e G i o v a n n i B u o r a and h i s s o n A n d r e a w o r k e d on t h e l i b r a r y M i c h e l o z z o d e s i g n e d f o r t h e C o n v e n t o f San G i o r g i o , and b e c a u s e t h e i r w o r k s h o p was l o c a t e d a c r o s s t h e c a n a l f r o m t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i - P o l i g n a c , B a s s i t e n t a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e s t h e p a l a c e t o them. S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : S e l v a t i c o ; R u s k i n ; F o n t a n a ; T a s s i n i ; P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; L a u r i t z e n ; L i e b e r m a n , 1982. C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i C a m p i e l l o d e l T e a t r o , 3877 SM. O t h e r names: L a n d o , T a g l i o n i , S a l o m D a t e d f r o m 1485-90, and u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Mauro C o d u s s i b e c a u s e t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y s t o n e w o r k i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a , and t h e t r a c e r i e d windows a r e l i k e t h o s e o f t h e c l e r e s t o r y o f San Z a c c a r i a . None o f t h e o r i g i n a l d o c u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n have s u r v i v e d , b u t t h e o r i g i n a l o w n e rs may have been t h e L ando f a m i l y , b e c a u s e t h e y s o l d i t t o Zuanne C o r n e r i n 1542, f o r 9000 d u c a t s . V a s a r i d i d some work i n t h e p a l a c e i n 1542, and 198 a l t h o u g h he m e n t i o n s t h e a r c h i t e c t S a n m i c h e l e , t o whom t h e a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e a n d r o n e a r e a t t r i b u t e d , he makes no m e n t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r c h i t e c t o f t h e p a l a c e . S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ; F o n t a n a ; S e l v a t i c o ; T a s s i n i , C u r i o s i t a : P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; L a u r i t z e n ; L i e b e r m a n ; 1982; McAndrew. Z o r z i a San S e v e r o S a l i z z a d a Z o r z i , 4930 CS. O t h e r names: G a l e o n i , B e n v e n u t i , G a z z a t o , C o n t i n , S o c i e t a Mauro C o d u s s i . I t i s u s u a l l y d a t e d a r o u n d 1480, and P a o l e t t i a t t r i b u t e d i t to Mauro C o d u s s i f o r s t y l i s t i c r e a s o n s . P u p p i and P u p p i l i n k t h e Z o r z i f a m i l y o f San S e v e r o , who c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e p a l a c e , t o C o d u s s i ' s C a m a l d o l e s e m o n a s t e r y p a t r o n s . I n 1475, when G i o v a n n i Z o r z i , owner o f t h e two p a l a c e s o r i g i n a l l y on t h e p r o p e r t y d i e d , h i s s o n M a r c o a s k e d t h e monks o f San M i c h e l e f o r t h e r i g h t a b s i d i a l c h a p e l as f a m i l y tomb. Mauro C o d u s s i i s d o c u m e n t e d as w o r k i n g a t San M i c h e l e a t t h i s t i m e , and so t h e P u p p i s u g g e s t t h a t M a r c o Z o r z i , who b u i l t t h e p a l a c e , w o u l d have known C o d u s s i . The P a l a z z o Z o r z i must have been f i n i s h e d by 1500, as i t a p p e a r s on t h e J a c o p o d e ' B a r b a r i map. S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; F o n t a n a ; T a s s i n i ; R u s k i n ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; L i e b e r m a n 1982; P u p p i & P u p p i ; McAndrew. C a l l e d e l l a F a v a , 5601 SM. O t h e r names: G u i z e t t e , R e a l i . D a t e d f r o m 1480-90, and a t t r i b u t e d t o P i e t r o Lombardo by L i e b e r m a n and McAndrew. They a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p a l a c e b e l o n g e d t o S e n a t o r J a c o p o G u s s o n i , who c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e C a p p e l l a G u s s o n i i n n e a r b y t h e C h u r c h o f San L i o , a l s o t h o u g h t t o be by P i e t r o Lombardo. L i e b e r m a n n o t e s t h a t i t i s a r a r e e x a m p l e o f a f a m i l y c h a p e l and a r e s i d e n c e b e i n g i n a s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i v e s t y l e . S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : T a s s i n i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; H e y d e n r e i c h & L o t z ; L i e b e r m a n 1982; McAndrew. D a r i o C a m p i e l l o B a r b a r o , 351 DD. O t h e r names: D a r i o a San G r e g o r i o , o r a San V i t o . U s u a l l y d a t e d a r o u n d 1488 and most o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o P i e t r o L o m b a r d o , due t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f i t s d e c o r a t i o n s t o t h o s e o f S a n t a M a r i a d e i M i r a c o l i . The p a t r o n was G i o v a n n i D a r i o , who c o n c l u d e d a p e a c e t r e a t y i n 1479 b e t w e e n V e n i c e and 199 T u r k e y . The g r a t e f u l V e n e t i a n s r e w a r d e d h i s s e r v i c e w i t h money and l a n d . A l t h o u g h he was n o t a member o f t h e p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , he was h o n o r e d b y t h e V e n e t i a n s t a t e , and he m a r r i e d h i s d a u g h t e r t o a memeber o f t h e B a r b a r o f a m i l y . A c c o r d i n g t o P. Brown, he was G u a r d i a n G r a n d e o f t h e S c u o l a d i San G i o v a n n i E v a n g e l i s t a i n 1479. P i e t r o Lombardo may have come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h D a r i o a t t h a t t i m e , as t h e a r c h i t e c t was r e p o r t e d l y w o r k i n g on t h e a t r i u m f r o m 1478 t o 1481. P e r h a p s D a r i o l i k e d P i e t r o ' s work and d e c i d e d t o h i r e him t o b u i l d h i s p a l a c e . S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : S e l v a t i c o ; F o n t a n a ; T a s s i n i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; L i e b e r m a n 1982; L a u r i t z e n ; McAndrew; P. Brown. Vendramin a San Fosca F o n d a m e n t a d e l F o r n e r , 2400 CN. P a o l e t t i c i t e s a document o f 1499 n a m i n g Simone G r u a t o d e l f u N i c c o l o d a V e n e z i a , A m b r o g i o d i G i o v a n n i d a A l b i n o , and B e r n a r d i n o d a C a l c i n a t e a s s t o n e m a s o n s h i r e d t o work on t h i s p a l a c e . The o r i g i n a l p a t r o n was L e o n a r d o V e n d r a m i n , b u t by 1530 t h e p a l a c e had p a s s e d on t o h i s s o n - i n - l a w G a b r i e l e V e n d r a m i n , b e c a u s e t h i s was where M a r c a n t o n i o M i c h i e l saw G i o r g i o n e ' s T e m p e s t a . J a c o p o B e l l i n i ' s s k e t c h b o o k s and v a r i o u s a n t i q u i t i e s i n t h e famous c a m e r a d ' a n t i c a g l i e . E s s e n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; S e l v a t i c o ; T a s s i n i ; P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; T a f u r i . M a l i p i e r o - T r e v i s a n a S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a Campo S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , 5250 S.M. O t h e r names: Bembo, D i e d o , Z e n , C e c c h i n i , S t a m p e r i a F r a c a s o . T h e r e a r e no s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n , b u t t h e p a l a c e i s u s u a l l y d a t e d c. 1500. P u p p i & P u p p i s t a t e t h a t i t was b u i l t on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a T r e c e n t o p a l a c e , by t h e M a l i p i e r o f a m i l y on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e m a r r i a g e o f one o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r s t o a member o f t h e T r e v i s a n f a m i l y , t o whom t h e p r o p e r t y p a s s e d . I t has been a t t r i b u t e d t o S a n t e L o m b a r d o , b u t he was n o t b o r n u n t i l 1504. The r o u n d e l s w i t h h e a d s i n p r o f i l e on t h e c o r n i c e f r i e z e may have been t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h o s e on t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i a San B e n e t o , f i n i s h e d l a t e r i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E s s e n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; Temanza; C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ; S e l v a t i c o ; F o n t a n a ; P a o l e t t i ; A n g e l i n i : L o r e n z e t t i ; B a s s i ; O n i a n s ; P u p p i & P u p p i . T r e v i s a n - C a p e l l o i n Canonica R i o d i P a l a z z o , 4330 CS. O t h e r names: C o l l a l t o , M o r a , S c e r i m a n , M i a r i . T h i s p a l a c e i s u s u a l l y d a t e d c. 1500, and was b u i l t f o r t h e T r e v i s a n f a m i l y . F o n t a n a s t a t e s t h a t t h i s f a m i l y were 200 p i o u s , as t h e y were t h e p a t r o n s o f t h e n e a r b y c h u r c h o f San G i o v a n n i Nuovo, and i n 1479 g a v e a r e l i c o f t h e H o l y B l o o d f r o m C o n s t a n t i n o p l e t o t h e c h u r c h o f t h e F r a r i . I t has s o m e t i m e s been a t t r i b u t e d t o G u g l i e l m o B e r g a m a s c o . B a s s i s u g g e s t s t h a t B a r t o l o m e o Bon may have been t h e a r c h i t e c t , as he was w o r k i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e D u c a l p a l a c e a t t h i s t i m e . E s s e n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ; S e l v a t i c o ; F o n t a n a ; P a o l e t t i ; T a s s i n i , C u r i o s i t a : R u s k i n ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; O n i a n s ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; T a f u r i . G r i m a n i a San P o l o Ramo G r i m a n i , 2033 SP. V e n d r a m i n , G r i m a n i , G i u s t i n i a n , M a r c e l l o , S o r l i n i . The p a l a c e d o e s n o t a p p e a r on t h e J a c o p o d e ' B a r b a r i v i e w o f 1500; L i e b e r m a n t h i n k s i t may have been d e s i g n e d and b u i l t b e t w e e n 1500 and 1520, on a t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y s k e l e t o n . P u p p i and P u p p i s t a t e t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f Doge A n d r e a V e n d r a m i n , who owned t h e p a l a c e b e f o r e t h e G r i m a n i , o r d e r e d t h e r e n o v a t i o n s . The a r c h i t e c t i s unknown; i t was o n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o Mauro C o d u s s i , b u t t h i s p a l a c e d o e s n o t r e s e m b l e any o f h i s l a t e r w o r k s . P a o l e t t i s u g g e s t s t h a t G i o v a n n i B u o r a may have been t h e a r c h i t e c t , and many s c h o l a r s c o n c u r . P a o l e t t i , S e l v a t i c o and B a s s i a l l comment on t h e s p h i n x and t h e e a g l e w h i c h r e p l a c e t h e c o r i n t h i a n c a p i t a l s on t h e l e f t edge o f t h e p a l a c e . B a s s i s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w h i c h i s now l o s t . E s s e n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y : Temanza; G.G F o n t a n a ; S e l v a t i c o ; P P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; L i e b e r m a n 1982. C o n t a r i n i d e l l e F i g u r e C a l l e M o c e n i g o , 3327 SM O t h e r names: M o c e n i g o San S a m u e l e , V e n i e r , C o c c o , G u i c c i o l i , de S a n g r o . A l t h o u g h work began on t h e p a l a c e i n 1504, i t was n o t f i n i s h e d u n t i l 1546, and L i e b e r m a n t h i n k s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t d e s i g n d a t e s f r o m 1520. However, i t d o e s c o n t a i n d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s f r o m b u i l d i n g s s t a r t e d a r o u n d 1500. The l a c y s t o n e w o r k o f t h e b a l c o n y i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e P a l a z z o M a l i p i e r o i n t h e Campo d i S a n t a M a r i a F o r m o s a , and some o f t h e s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s ( w h i c h f a s c i n a t e d R u s k i n ) a r e l i k e t h o s e o f t h e P a l a z z i G r i m a n i a San P o l o and t h e V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i . I t i s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o A n t o n i o S c a r p a g n i n o and G i o r g i o S p a v e n t o , on s t y l i s t i c g r o u n d s . The r e n o v a t i o n s were o r d e r e d by P i e t r o C o n t a r i n i , and t h e b u i l d i n g p a s s e d t o h i s son J a c o p o . A c c o r d i n g t o L a u r i t z e n , J a c o p o C o n t a r i n i was a g r e a t p a t r o n o f a r t s and l e t t e r s , c o l l e c t o r o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e f o l l o w e r s o f G i o r g i o n e , and f r i e n d t o P a l l a d i o . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know w h e t h e r h i s f a t h e r , t h e p a t r o n o f t h e p a l a c e , had s i m i l a r 201 h u m a n i s t l e a n i n g s . E s s e n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; C i c o g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ; F o n t a n a ; R u s k i n ; P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; L a u r i t z e n ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; L i e b e r m a n 1982. V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i C a m p i e l l o V e n d r a m i n 875 CN. O t h e r names: L o r e d a n , B r u n s w i c k , Duke o f M a n t u a , G r i m a n i San M a r c u o l a , d i B e r r y , V o l p i . The p a t r o n , A n d r e a L o r e d a n , a p p a r e n t l y s t a r t e d t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r t h e p a l a c e i n 1481, b u t t h e b u i l d i n g was n o t begun u n t i l a f t e r 1500, b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r on t h e J a c o p o d e ' B a r b a r i v i e w . I t was f i n i s h e d a r o u n d 1508. The p a l a c e i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Mauro C o d u s s i f o r t h e same s t y l i s t i c r e a s o n s as t h e C o r n e r - S p i n e l l i , and a l s o b e c a u s e A n d r e a L o r e d a n had t i e s t o t h e C h u r c h o f San M i c h e l e , where C o d u s s i ' s work i s d o c u m e n t e d . C o d u s s i d i e d i n 1504, so t h e p a l a c e must have been f i n i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s . McAndrew s a y s t h a t c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s , s u c h as t h e b a l c o n i e s , seem o u t o f p l a c e and were d e s i g n e d by t h e s t o n e m a s o n s who f o l l o w e d C o d u s s i . The i n t e r i o r had a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s , c o a t s o f arms and f r i e z e s by G i o r g i o n e . A n d r e a L o r e d a n was r i c h and p o w e r f u l . He h e l d many i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s i n t h e V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t s u c h as head o f t h e C o n s i g l i o d e i D i e c i , and was a l s o a h i g h - r a n k i n g m i l i t a r y o f f i c a l . He d i e d i n b a t t l e i n 1513. Doge L e o n a r d o L o r e d a n , who r u l e d f r o m 1501-1521 was a r e l a t i o n o f A n d r e a -S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y : S a n s o v i n o ; Z a n e t t i ; Temanza; C i c g n a r a , D i e d o , S e l v a ; F o n t a n a ; S e l v a t i c o ; B u r c k h a r d t ; T a s s i n i C u r i o s i t a : P a o l e t t i ; L o r e n z e t t i ; A n g e l i n i ; B a s s i ; L a u r i t z e n ; P u p p i & P u p p i ; McAndrew; L i e b e r m a n 1982; 202 B: VENETIAN PALACES FROM 1480-1510 NOT INCLUDED IN THE STUDY 1. C o n t a r i n i d e l B o v o l o , o r M i n e l l i , San P a t e r n i a n 2. M o r o l i n - M i c h i e l - O l i v o , R i o d i San P o l o 2672 3. M a s t e l l i , R i o d e l l a Madonno d e l l ' O r t o 4. M i c h e l e , R i o d e l l a S e n s a 5. G r i m a n i a i S e r v i ( d e s t r o y e d ) 6. G i u s t i n i a n i - P e r s i c o , G r a n d C a n a l , n e a r R i o d i San Toma 7. C o c c o - M o l i n , R i o d e i B a r c a r o l i 8. Cappello-Memmo, R i o d e i G r e c i 9. S o r a n z o - P i o v e n e , G r a n d C a n a l 

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