UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The priest hunters Buvyer, Julie 1989

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THE PRIEST HUNTERS Ry J U L I E BUVYER B.A. ho n s . . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1989 J u l i e B u v y e r , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s p a p e r i s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i v e s o f men e m p l o y e d by t h e E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s . They h a v e r e c e i v e d o n l y f l e e t i n g a t t e n t i o n i n T u d o r h i s t o r i o -g r a p h y , a n d t h a t h a s b e e n o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s p a p e r was w r i t t e n i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a d e t a i l e d s t u d y w o u l d y i e l d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' a c t i o n s , a n d c o n t r i b u t e s o m e t h i n g t o w a r d o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . When I r e s e a r c h e d t h i s p a p e r , I p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' own c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d p u b l i c a t i o n s , c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c a l e n d a r s o f s t a t e p a p e r s f o r t h e r e i g n a n d t h e m i c r o f i l m s e r i e s o f E n g l i s h b o o k s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1640. I was a l s o a b l e t o e x a m i n e a number o f t h e o r i g i n a l d o c u m e n t s h e l d i n t h e P u b l i c R e c o r d O f f i c e , L o n d o n . As w e l l , I e x a m i n e d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f o t h e r p u b l i c f i g u r e s , some J e s u i t m e m o i r s , and t h e s t a n d a r d s e c o n d a r y w o r k s . I r e a c h e d s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The f i r s t a n d e a r l i e s t was t h a t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e p a r t o f a n e x t e n s i v e n e t w o r k , t h e t h e l e v e l s o f w h i c h w ere i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . H e nce, I made t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t u d y e x a m p l e s a t e a c h l e v e l i n o r d e r t o h a v e a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e . The s e c o n d c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s h a d c l e a r r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , r a n g i n g f r o m c o e r c i o n i i i t o d e e p l y h e l d r e l i g i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s . The t h i r d was t h a t a s u r p r i s i n g number o f p r i e s t h u n t e r s had Roman C a t h o l i c b a c k g r o u n d s . And t h e f o u r t h was t h a t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s , t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s s p a r k e d a b l a z e o f r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h h a s n o t y e t a b a t e d i n T u d o r h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e , t h e y a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t v P r o l o g u e 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n : The P r i e s t H u n t e r s 4 C h a p t e r One: The M a k i n g o f a P r i e s t H u n t e r 11 C h a p t e r Two: A Day i n t h e L i f e 26 C h a p t e r T h r e e : The R e a s o n Why 43 C h a p t e r F o u r : P r o p a g a n d a -- The L e g a c y 62 C o n c l u s i o n 74 B i b l i o g r a p h y 77 Acknowledgement. 1 w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r M u r r a y T o l m i e , who s u p e r v i s e d my w o r k on t h i s t h e s i s . As a l w a y s , he h a s g i v e n g e n e r o u s l y o f h i s t i m e , h i s k n o w l e d g e and h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r l o v e and t h e i r i n t e r e s t -- e s p e c i a l l y my m o t h e r , who was t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o make me t h i n k a b o u t what i t meant t o be b o t h E n g l i s h and C a t h o l i c . 1 The P r i e s t Hunters . . . They have suborned such a number of secret spies who, under colour of the Catholic religion, do insinuate themselves into our company and familiarity, and that with the pretence of such zeal, sincerity and friendship, that it seemeth a thing almost impossible either to decipher or to avoid them. These men to give intelligence, and inform our adversaries continually of all our actions, sayings and many times our secret intents. . . . - Father Richard Holtby, Catholic priest, referring to the priest 1 hunters, 1582. i\iotwithstanding, I determined with myself (for certain causes which I omit) to sound the depth of their devilish drifts (if 1 might) and the rather therefore used and frequented their company, whereby appeared unto me not a few of their ungracious and villainous hearts' faith, and disloyal minds, slanderous words, and most vile treasons. 2 - George Elliott, priest hunter, referring to the Catholics, 1581. 1 Richard Holtby. Father Richard Holtby on Persecution in the  North, printed in The Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 3rd Series, J. Morris ed. (London: Burns 4 Dates. 1877) 121-22. 2 George Elliott, A Very True Report of the Apprehension of  Edmund Campion (London, 1581) Sig. A3 . 2 P r o l o g u e A f t e r crossing the sea we sailed up the English coast. On the third day my captain and I saw what seemed to be a good place to put ashore. ... A t the f i r s t watch of the night we were taken ashore in the boat and dropped there. The ship spread i t s canvas and 3 sailed on. - Father John Gerard, SJ., of his s e c r e t landing in England, 1588. F a t h e r G e r a r d a r r i v e d i n E n g l a n d i n s e c r e c y b e c a u s e i t was i l l e g a l f o r h i m t o be t h e r e a t a l l . B e t w e e n 1573 a n d 1590, t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f Queen E l i z a b e t h I p a s s e d a s e r i e s o f s t a t u t e s d e s i g n e d t o make Roman C a t h o l i c l i f e i n E n g l a n d i m p o s s i b l e . The r e l i g i o u s A c t o f U n i f o r m i t y was e n f o r c e d , e s t a b l i s h i n g p e n a l t i e s f o r r e c u s a n t s . C a t h o l i c s whose c h i l d r e n w e r e b e i n g e d u c a t e d a b r o a d w e r e o r d e r e d t o r e t u r n them w i t h o u t d e l a y . J e s u i t s a n d s e m i n a r y p r i e s t s w e r e b a r r e d f r o m t h e k i n g d o m , a n d t h o s e who h a r b o u r e d them w e r e c o n s i d e r e d g u i l t y o f h i g h t r e a s o n . " S e d i t i o u s " b o o k s w e r e o u t l a w e d , a s w e r e a n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e S e e o f Rome. B u t t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n e d ; who was g o i n g t o e n f o r c e t h e s e l a w s ? 3 John Gerard, John Gerard: The Autobiography of an Elizabethan transl. Philip Caraman (London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., 1951) 9. u A Bibliography of Proclamations of the Tudor and Stuart Sovereigns  U85-1714, Robert Steele ed., Bibliographical and Reference Series #128, (Mew York: Burt Franklin, 1967) 3 vols. V. 1 73-91. 3 I n a q u i e t o f f i c e i n L o n d o n , t h e Queen's s e c r e t a r y S i r F r a n c i s W a l s i n g h a m was p r e p a r i n g p a r t o f t h e a n s w e r . I n O c t o b e r 1584, he was i s s u e d f i v e h u n d r e d c r o w n s " f o r t h e S e c r e t S e r v i c e " . T h i s q u i c k l y became a q u a r t e r l y a l l o w a n c e . 5 By S e p t e m b e r 1590, i t h a d q u i n t u p l e d . I n a n o t h e r o f f i c e n e a r b y , W a l s i n g h a m ' s a s s i s t a n t , Thomas P h e l i p p e s , was d e c o d i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w h i c h p o u r e d i n d a i l y f r o m a l l o v e r E n g l a n d , f r o m F r a n c e , S p a i n , I t a l y , S c o t l a n d a n d t h e Low C o u n t r i e s . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was f r o m W a l s i n g h a m ' s a g e n t s , a n d i t c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n p r i e s t s . I n o f f i c e s a n d p r i s o n s a l l o v e r L o n d o n , and i n t o w n s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o u n t r y , o t h e r men w e r e a t work. They w e r e e x a m i n i n g C a t h o l i c p r i s o n e r s a n d p r e s i d i n g a t C a t h o l i c t r i a l s . They w e r e w r i t i n g s p e e c h e s , s e r m o n s a n d b o o k s d e n o u n c i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e See o f Rome. T h e y w e r e w a i t i n g a n d w a t c h i n g f o r d a y s a t a t i m e i n r e m o t e c o u n t r y v i l l a g e s . They w e r e b u r s t i n g i n t o g r e a t h o u s e s w i t h w a r r a n t s , s e a r c h i n g e v e r y c o r n e r f o r p r i e s t s i n h i d i n g . T h e s e men were t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s , a n d t h e i r w o r k h a d j u s t b e g u n . 5 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reigns of Edward, Mary, Elizabeth and James I 1547-1625 (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, 1856-72) Hereafter referred to as C.S.P.D. Eliz. Vol. 173 #97; V. 229 #49; V. 232 #27. 4 The P r i e s t H u n t e r s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n D u r i n q t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h I . 189 C a t h o l i c s w e r e e x e c u t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s h a s n e v e r been c o n s i d e r e d a n o v e r w h e l m i n g number, e s p e c i a l l y c o m p a r e d t o Mary T u d o r ' s r e i g n w h i c h saw 1 282 P r o t e s t a n t m a r t y r s o v e r a much s h o r t e r p e r i o d . However, t h e 189 who d i e d a t t h e h a n d s o f E l i z a b e t h ' s o f f i c i a l s h a v e a h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t n o t p o s s e s s e d by t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . F i r s t l y , t h e y w e r e o n l y t h e t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g . F o r e v e r y C a t h o l i c who was e x e c u t e d , t h e r e w e r e many more who s p e n t t h e r e s t o f t h e i r i i v e s i n p r i s o n o r i n e x i l e . The E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t j a i l e d s o many p r i e s t s t h a t i t h a d t o i n s t i t u t e a p r i s o n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r them -- W i s b e c h C a s t l e , w h i c h was f u l l t o o v e r f l o w i n g f o r most o f t h e r e i g n . A n d E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c r e f u g e e s a b o u n d e d on 2 t h e C o n t i n e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e was t h e q u e s t i o n o f why t h e 189 w e r e e x e c u t e d . I n M a r y ' s r e i g n , t h e r e a s o n h a d b e e n s i m p l e --r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . P r o t e s t a n t m a r t y r d o m s h a d b e e n j u s t i f i e d by h e r e s y l a w s . B u t i n E l i z a b e t h ' s , i t was more c o m p l i c a t e d . 1 A.R. Dickens, The English Reformation (196*.; London: Fontana Press, 1967) 2 Although 1 have relied somewhat on the Calendar of State Papers,  Domestic Series, 1 have also been able to examine a number of the original documents held in the Public Record Office. London. This reference from the original unpublished State Papers, Domestic Series, Elizabeth I, Public Record Office, Series SP 12/--. Hereafter P.R.O. SP/12/—. For this reference, P.R.O. SP 12/195/21. 5 The g o v e r n m e n t i n s i s t e d t h a t C a t h o l i c s d i e d , n o t f o r t h e i r 3 f a i t h , b u t f o r t r e a s o n a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e . The t r u t h o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t h a s p r e o c c u p i e d h i s t o r i a n s e v e r s i n c e . P r o t e s t a n t h i s t o r i o g r a p h y h a s c r e a t e d t h e i l l u s i o n o f a b e n e v o l e n t Queen, s u r r o u n d e d b y w i s e c o u n c i l l o r s , who e x e c u t e d o n l y .the most d a n g e r o u s o f t r a i t o r s . B e f o r e a C a t h o l i c was p r o s e c u t e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d [ s o t h e s t o r y w e n t ] , he o r s h e had t o be g u i l t y o f t h e m o s t h e i n o u s c r i m e s a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e . Owning a r o s a r y , a t t e n d i n g Mass, e v e n b e i n g a p r i e s t , was n o t a g r a v e e n o u g h o f f e n c e t o d i e . T h i s i s t h e g r e a t l i e o f E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n , s u s t a i n e d by a l l t h o s e i n power a n d n u r t u r e d b y c l e v e r l y o r c h e s t r a t e d p r o p a g a n d a . I n f a c t , s i m p l y b e i n g a Roman C a t h o l i c was e nough f o r many t o be a r r e s t e d , i m p r i s o n e d and p u t t o d e a t h . The g o v e r n m e n t ' s g o a l was n o t s i m p l y t o r e p e l f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n a n d p r o t e c t t h e s o v e r e i g n , a s was s o v o c i f e r o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d ; i t was t o e r a d i c a t e C a t h o l i c i s m i n any f o r m . F i n a l l y , t h e C a t h o l i c s w e r e h u n t e d down an d c a u g h t i n a way w h i c h was n o t l i k e l y t o h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d i n M a r y T u d o r ' s t i m e . M a r y ' s m a r t y r s w e r e e i t h e r w e l l known P r o t e s t a n t t h e o -l o g i a n s who h a d made t h e i r v i e w s e m i n e n t l y c l e a r , o r l o w l y b e i n g s who d i d n o t r e m a i n q u i e t a b o u t t h e i r d i s s e n t . By t h e 3 William Cecil, The Execution of Justice in England (London, 1584). Reprinted under the same title. Robert M. Kingdon ed. (New York: Cornell University Press, 1965) 7. 6 t i m e E l i z a b e t h a n r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n b e gan, t h e r u l e s h a d c h a n g e d on b o t h s i d e s . The C a t h o l i c v i c t i m s h ad gone u n d e r -g r o u n d . The g o v e r n m e n t s e n t p r e d a t o r s a f t e r them who w e r e p a r t o f a n e x t e n s i v e a n d s u c c e s s f u l e s p i o n a g e s y s t e m . Of t h e 471 C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s i d e n t i f i e d a s " a c t i v e ' * d u r i n g t h e r e i g n , o n l y 171 h a d f i v e y e a r s o r l o n g e r a t l a r g e b e f o r e t h e y w e r e c a u g h t : ". . . n o l e s s t h a n 294 w e r e a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d s , t h a t i s o v e r 62%. I t i s n o t a l w a y s r e a l i z e d how s u c c e s s f u l t h e g o v e r n m e n t was i n t r a c k i n g down h t h e p r i e s t who came t o E n g l a n d . . . . " T h i s g r i m s u c c e s s r a t e was e n g i n e e r e d by t h e men who 5 t h e C a t h o l i c s c a l l e d " t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . " The c o n t e m p o r a r y t e r m g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o u n d e r c o v e r s p i e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p a p e r , t h e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h o s e p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s who t o o k a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n p e r s e c u t i n g C a t h o l i c s a n d d e d i c a t e d t h e i r c a r e e r s t o d o i n g s o . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s e x t e n s i o n a r e t w o f o l d : f i r s t l y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s w e r e , i f a n y t h i n g , more a n t i - C a t h o l i c t h a n t h e s p i e s and e q u a l l y a c t i v e i n t h e i r own s p h e r e . S e c o n d l y , t h e two l e v e l s o f p r i e s t h u n t i n g w e re i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i f e o f t h e s p y w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h o s e who c o n t r o l l e d h i m , and v i c e v e r s a . U Patrick McGrath and Joy Rowe, "Anstruther Analysed: The Elizabethan Seminary Priests", Recusant History V. 18 #1 (1986) : 1-13. 5 John Gerard, Autobiography <41. 7 The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e t h e n a s t y s e c r e t o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n r e l i g i o u s s e t t l e m e n t . They moved b e t w e e n e v e r y l i n e o f i t s h i s t o r y , now i n h i d i n g , now i n t h e Queen's u n i f o r m . They w e r e t o be f o u n d i n e v e r y c l a s s o f s o c i e t y , w i t h v a r y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s , and on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s d i v i d e . A c o m p l e t e h i e r a r c h y e x i s t e d . I t b e g a n w i t h t h e l o w l y h i r e d s p y who may been j u s t l i t e r a t e e n o u g h t o compose a r o u g h l e t t e r . One s t a g e up w e r e t h e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d " p o u r s u i v a n t s " -- a t y p e o f s e r g e a n t - a t - l a w who were o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Crown and who a r r e s t e d C a t h o l i c s a n d e x a m i n e d them on o r d e r . Many p r o m i n e n t p r i e s t h u n t e r s b e g a n t h e i r c a r e e r s t h i s way. Then t h e r e w e re t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n e a c h s h i r e -- t h e s h e r i f f s a n d j u s t i c e s o f t h e p e a c e who a u t h o r i z e d a r r e s t s a n d p r e s i d e d a t e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h e s e w e r e o f t e n composed o f t h e l o c a l g e n t r y . A t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n L o n d o n w e r e t h e men who n o t o n l y made d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e more n o t o r i o u s C a t h o l i c s , b u t who a l s o t o o k a n a c t i v e r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c y . T h e s e men were j u s t i c e s o f t h e K i n g ' s B e n c h , Members o f P a r l i a m e n t , l e a d i n g A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m e n , and a p p o i n t e d p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . They w e r e w e l l e d u c a t e d , a r t i c u l a t e , a n d u s u a l l y f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d i f n o t b r i l l i a n t s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The men f r o m t h i s c a t e g o r y who a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s p a p e r h a v e b e e n s i n g l e d o u t b e c a u s e t h e y d i s p l a y e d a s i n g u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s o v e r o t h e r c o n c e r n s , a n d b e c a u s e 8 t h e y t o o k e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d u l g e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e w e r e t h e men who v o l u n t a r i l y s e r v e d on s p e c i a l commis-s i o n s , who made s p e e c h e s i n p u b l i c a g a i n s t t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s , and who h i r e d numerous u n d e r l i n g s t o a s s i s t them i n t h e i r c a m p a i g n s . They a r e o f more i n t e r e s t t h a n t h e v e r y h i g h e s t l e v e l o f p r i e s t h u n t e r -- t h e g r e a t s t a t e s m a n w i t h d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e m o n a r c h -- b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e a b l e t o d e v o t e 6 a l m o s t a l l t h e i r t i m e t o one o b j e c t i v e . T h i s h i e r a r c h y was n o t f i x e d . I t was p o s s i b l e f o r a man t o move f r o m t h e l o w e s t r u n g t o n e a r t h e t o p w i t h i n t h e s p a c e o f h i s c a r e e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s o f t e n w o r k e d i n d u a l r o l e s : s p y and p o u r s u i v a n t ; j u d g e a n d e x a m i n e r ; p r o p a g a n d i s t a n d s t a t e s m a n . And t h e r e w e r e c o u n t l e s s " l i t t l e p e o p l e " b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s -- p r i n t e r s , p a m p h l e t e e r s , c a s u a l i n f o r m a n t s -- who s u p p o r t e d t h e p r i e s t h u n t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e i r d i v e r g e n t b a c k g r o u n d s a n d p o s i t i o n s , t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s h a d c e r t a i n v i e w s i n common. And c h i e f among them was t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f a n i d e a l s o c i e t y w i t h no p a p i s t s i n i t . 6 For preliminary details see Dictionary of National Biography eds. Stephen & Lee, 21 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1917): Sidney Lee, "Nicholas Bacon", V. 1 838-43; UJalter Baker Clode, "William Fleetwood", V. 7 268-9; John Knox Laughton, "Sir Richard Grenville", V. 8 565-67; Sidney Lee, "Thomas Norton", V. 14 666-70; Thompson Cooper, "Richard Topcliffe", V. 19 979-80; Thomas Seccombe, "Anthony Munday", V. 13 1187-94. See also A Short Title Catalogue of Books Printed in  England, Scotland, and Ireland 1475-1640 A.W. Pollard & G.R. Redgrave eds. 2nd ed. 2 vols. (London: Jackson & Ferguson, 1986) 9 B u t who were t h e s e men? Where d i d t h e y come f r o m , a n d why d i d t h e y become s u c h e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u m e n t s o f r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n ? And why d o e s no one t a l k a b o u t them now? P a r t o f t h e a n s w e r l i e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r work -- s e c r e t i v e , d o u b l e - d e a l i n g , u n w i l l i n g t o co m m i t a n y t h i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e t o p a p e r . The o t h e r p a r t l i e s i n t h e p r o p a g a n d a w h i t e w a s h t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s t h e m s e l v e s h e l p e d t o c r e a t e -- t h e i n -p r i n t p o s i t i o n t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c s u n d e r E l i z a b e t h d i e d f o r t r e a s o n , n o t f o r t h e i r f a i t h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s a r e m e n t i o n e d a t a l l i n s t a n d a r d h i s t o r i e s , i t i s b r i e f l y a n d o f t e n r e l u c t a n t l y . T h e y a r e "Government a g e n t s " , " l o y a l E n g l i s h m e n " o r " P u r i t a n s " . T h e y a r e s u b o r n e d i n t o t h e l a r g e r a n d b e t t e r known phenomenon o f "Mr. S e c r e t a r y W a l s i n g h a m ' s S e c r e t S e r v i c e " a n d made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v e r y -t h i n g f r o m m o n i t o r i n g C o u r t s c a n d a l t o t h e u n r a v e l l i n g o f t h e 7 B a b i n g t o n P l o t . They a r e p a i d s p i e s , no more, w i t h no a l l o w a n c e s made f o r p e r s o n a l i t y o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n v i c t i o n s . The o n l y h i s t o r i o g r a p h y w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s them a t l e n g t h i s t h e C a t h o l i c m a r t y r o l o g y ; h e r e , t h e y a r e t h e v i l l a i n s o f t h e p i e c e . The men who h u n t e d down Edmund Cam p i o n a n d h i s 7 Cony ers Read, Mr. Secretary Walsingham and the Policy of Queen  Elizabeth (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925) 318-338; A.O. Meyer, England  and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth (London: Kegan, Paul, Tierich, Trubren & Co. Ltd., 1916) 154-55. 10 f e l l o w s a r e p o r t r a y e d a s m o n s t e r s w i t h o u t m o t i v a t i o n o r 8 b e l i e f s . I t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r t o l e a r n more a b o u t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s -- t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s , c a r e e r s , l o y a l t i e s a n d g o a l s . S u c h an e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d l e a d u s t o some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e i r t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , a n d on t h e a t t i t u d e s h e l d t o w a r d s C a t h o l i c i s m i n E l i z a b e t h a n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . I f we c a n u n d e r s t a n d why s o many p e o p l e w e r e w i l l i n g t o s p y , p e r s e c u t e , e v e n t o b e t r a y t h e i r own f a m i l i e s ; t h e n we s h a l l be f u r t h e r a l o n g t h e r o a d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e E n g l i s h p r o b l e m w i t h r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a n c e w h i c h p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n s h o u l d be g a i n e d a s w e l l o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n p r o p a g a n d a m a c h i n e w h i c h was r u n b y p r i e s t h u n t e r s o r t h o s e c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o them. T h i s m a c h i n e e f f e c t i v e l y c o v e r e d up a r e l i g i o u s t e r r o r w i t h t h e v e n e e r o f p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y ; a s s u c h , i t i s d e s e r v i n g o f s c r u t i n y . A.O. Meyer, England and the Catholic Church 155; Morris, Troubles 121-22; J.A. Lingard, History of England 10 vols. (London: Nimmo & Bain, 1883) V. 6 328-40. 11 C h a p t e r One: The M a k i n g o f a P r i e s t H u n t e r P r i e s t h u n t i n g was n o t d e s i r a b l e e m p l o y m e n t , e v e n i n T u d o r E n g l a n d . I t was d a n g e r o u s , d e m a n d i n g , f r u s t r a t i n g and i l l - p a i d . What s o r t o f p e o p l e , t h e n , w e r e a t t r a c t e d t o i t , and why? An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' f a m i l y , r e l i g i o u s a n d s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t w h i l e t h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s e men, t h e r e w e r e a l s o r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s . M o s t o f them h a d e i t h e r a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s quo, o r a C a t h o l i c b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h made them u s e f u l t o t h e E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t a n d i d e a l t a r g e t s f o r c o e r c i o n . R e l i g i o u s v i e w s , one way o r a n o t h e r , w e r e p e r h a p s t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a p r i e s t h u n t e r . O f t h e t h i r t e e n a c t i v e s p i e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s p a p e r , n i n e h a d C a t h o l i c t i e s w h i c h h a d b e e n f o r m e d p r i o r t o t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r i e s t h u n t i n g . S i x h a d b e e n b o r n , r a i s e d and e d u c a t e d a s C a t h o l i c s ; t h e o t h e r t h r e e w e r e e i t h e r d o u b l e a g e n t s o r a d m i t t e d t o a p e r i o d o f C a t h o l i c i s m a t some p o i n t i n t h e i r l i f e . Two w e r e a p o s t a t e p r i e s t s . T h i s i s r e v e a l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s hows t h e s e men l i t e r a l l y i n f o r m i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r own f a m i l i e s a n d f r i e n d s . To t h e E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t , h i r i n g them made s e n s e . C a t h o l i c s ( o r e x - C a t h o l i c s ) made t h e b e s t s p i e s , b e c a u s e o n l y t h e y h a d t h e r e q u i s i t e c o n t a c t s t o g e t g o o d i n f o r m a t i o n . 12 They moved e a s i l y among t h e P a p i s t s , w e r e a c c e p t e d by them, and g a i n e d t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n a way t h a t a s t r a n g e r n e v e r c o u l d . They were l e s s l i k e l y t o s l i p up i f t e s t e d . T h e s e 1 " w o l v e s i n s h e e p ' s c l o t h i n g " , a s t h e C a t h o l i c s c a l l e d them, were common. Some, l i k e W a l s i n g h a m ' s a g e n t Ben B e a r d , w e r e t h e s c i o n s o f p r o m i n e n t Roman C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s . B e a r d was b o r n B e n j a m i n T i c h b o u r n e , a name w h i c h f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y 2 i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n r e c u s a n c y i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H i s l e t t e r s r o u t i n e l y r e f e r r e d t o h i s " P a p i s t " r e l a t i v e s , a n d t o t h e f a c t t h a t h i s g r a n d m o t h e r s h e l t e r e d p r i e s t s . ^ G e o r g e E l l i o t t , a r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d p r i e s t h u n t e r , a c c o m p l i s h e d i n 1581 a g r e a t c o u p ; he t r a c k e d down an d a r r e s t e d Edmund Ca m p i o n , t h e J e s u i t p r i e s t who became E l i z a b e t h I ' s m o s t famous m a r t y r . E l l i o t t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e t r a i l w h i c h l e d h i m t o C a m p i o n b e g a n w i t h h i s own b r i e f c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o l i c i s m w h i l e he was i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e R o p e r f a m i l y , r e l a t i v e s 4 o f S i r Thomas More. I r o n i c a l l y , t h e c o n t a c t s he made w i t h one g r e a t C a t h o l i c ' s d e s c e n d a n t s a s s i s t e d h i m i n t h e p e r s e -c u t i o n o f a n o t h e r . 1 John Gerard, Autobiography 41. 2 C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 183 #45; 184 #17; 165 #18. 3 Ben Beard to Lord Keeper Puckering, 28 February 1594. q P.R.O. SP 12/247/104. 4 r George Elliott, A Very True Report Sig. A3 . See also Robert Persons, Memoirs, reprinted in Catholic Record Society Miscellanea II (London: Carleton, 1906) 182. 13 Then t h e r e w e r e t h e a p o s t a t e C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s . A n t h o n y T y r r e l l was, by h i s own a d m i s s i o n , " s o m e t i m e a s e m i n a r i e 5 p r i e s t " o n t h e E u r o p e a n C o n t i n e n t , b u t he r a n i n t o d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n t h e Roman C a t h o l i c f o l d . He a p p r o a c h e d E n g l i s h a g e n t s o v e r s e a s a n d p e r s u a d e d them t o u s e h i m a s a m e s s e n g e r . He t h e n r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d a n d t h r e w h i m s e l f o n W a l s i n g h a m ' s m e r c y . T y r r e l l w e n t on t o s p y on t h e J e s u i t s f o r L o r d B u r g h -6 l e y b o t h i n E n g l a n d a n d a b r o a d . He c o n v e r t e d t o t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , e v e n t u a l l y e n t e r e d t h e c l e r g y , a n d by 1589 was 7 p r e a c h i n g a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t sermon a t S t . P a u l ' s C r o s s . J o h n C e c i l , a l i a s Snowden, a l s o b e g a n a s a s e m i n a r y p r i e s t . He t u r n e d p r i e s t h u n t e r a f t e r b e i n g a p p r e h e n d e d by t h e E n g l i s h 8 a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1591 w h i l e r e t u r n i n g f r o m S p a i n . He d i d e s p i o n a g e w o r k f o r L o r d B u r g h l e y i n I t a l y a n d S p a i n f o r t h e n e x t few y e a r s , b u t u n l i k e T y r r e l l was n o t a b l e t o r e s o l v e h i s r e l i g i o u s d i l e m m a . By 1599 C e c i l h a d r e t u r n e d 5 Anthony Tyrrell, A Fruitful Sermon Preached in Christchurch the 13 of  Julie 1589, Containing an admonition unto virtue, and a dehortation from  vice (London: 1588) 6 Saltonstall & Fletcher to Walsingham, 1 August 1587. Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, of the Reign of Elizabeth (London: Longman & Co. 1870--) p. 348. See also C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 199 #41; 201 #40) 7 Tyrrell, A Fruitful Sermon 8 Interrogation of John Snowden, 22 & 23 May 1591. C.S.P.D. Eliz. v. 238 #167-68. 14 t o C a t h o l i c i s m -- b u t n o t b e f o r e he h a d p r o v i d e d t h e E n g L i s h 9 w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T h a t a n y o f t h e s e men s h o u l d h a v e b e t r a y e d t h e i r e r s t -w h i l e c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s on s u c h a s c a l e i s h a r d t o b e l i e v e , u n t i l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . Why w o u l d C a t h o l i c s d e f e c t a n d s p y on t h e i r own? I f we a r e t o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t d i s m i s s i n g them a s a m o r a l v u l t u r e s , t h e n we m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h e p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on them. Many C a t h o l i c s became p r i e s t h u n t e r s o n l y a f t e r t h e y w e re c a u g h t and c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e r e c u s a n c y l a w s . Ben B e a r d was a p r i m e e x a m p l e . A s B e n j a m i n T i c h b o u r n e , he was a c c u s e d o f p a p i s t r y i n 1 5 81, b u t "was shown f a v o u r " -- p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f h i s h i g h b i r t h a n d p o w e r f u l c o n n e c t i o n s . 1 Q [ n 1591 he was i n t r o u b l e a g a i n , a n d t h i s t i m e t h e g o v e r n m e n t was u n w i l l i n g t o l e t h i m o f f l i g h t l y . He was i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e F l e e t , a n d f i r s t shows h i s c o l o u r s e a r l y i n 1594, when he o f f e r s h i s s e r v i c e s t o t h e L o r d K e e p e r o f t h e j a i l , G e o r g e P u c k e r i n g , a s a p r i e s t h u n t e r . A t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t T i c h b o u r n e ' s s o l e a i m i s t o be r e l e a s e d f r o m p r i s o n . He "begs a t r i a l . 9 Interrogation of Snowden by Burghley, 25 & 26 May 1591. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 238 #178-9, #181. 10 C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. H7 #74 15 and i f he does n o t d i s c o v e r some o f t h o s e a b o u t t h e C o u r t by S u n d ay n i g h t , w i l l c o m m i t b o t h h i s l i f e and l i b e r t y t o 11 d i s c r e t i o n . . . " I n t h e m e a n t i m e , he does h i s b e s t t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p r i s o n , m i s s i n g no c h a n c e t o p l e a d h i s c a s e : The priests named are so infinite and their harbours so straitlie kept, that for my life I can never discover them unless I were amongst them at liberty . . . my good lord if it pleaseth you to make tryall of me, if I do not so apply myself as I deserve (if I gayne liberty) I will renege my life and liberty to your Lordship's good disposal, and will in the mean 12 time do my best during my imprisonment to understand of them. . . . B e a r d i n f o r m e d r e g u l a r l y on h i s p r i s o n m a t e s . H i s f a v o u r i t e t a r g e t was P h i l i p T r e g i o n , member o f a w e l l known C a t h o l i c a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y . B e a r d u s e d h i s c o n n e c t i o n s t o e n t e r T r e g i o n ' s s o c i a l c i r c l e i n s i d e t h e p r i s o n -- s o m e t h i n g a humbly b o r n P r o t e s t a n t s p y c o u l d n e v e r h a v e managed. From T r e g i o n ' s d i n n e r t a b l e o ne e v e n i n g , he r e p o r t s : They . . . having also some speech of the dangerousness of the time, and how rigorously Catholics were sifted, yet for all that saith Tregion's wife and Mrs. Soames who supped there also, that new priests came daily into this land and were reconciling to the catholic faith. As also how 11 Ben Beard to George Puckering, 5 May 15%. P.R.O. SP 12/248/95 & 96. 12 The same to the same, 5 May 1594. P.R.O. SP 12/248/96. 16 those good men, making no account of losing t h e i r lives, did hazard themselves to save men's souls, affirming that they thought in their conscience, that (as dangerous as the time was) yet within the town there was now daily as many masses said, as commonly in any country 13 abode. . . . B e a r d a l s o i n f o r m e d on p o s s i b l e h i d i n g p l a c e s f o r p r i e s t s i n t h e g r e a t c o u n t r y h o u s e s w i t h w h i c h he was f a m i l i a r , a n d e v e n o f f e r e d t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m h i s own u n c l e . 17As a r e w a r d , i n May 1594 he was r e l e a s e d f r o m j a i l . He w r o t e a f ew more l e t t e r s t o P u c k e r i n g ; t h e s e c e a s e d by summer. S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , a n o t h e r s p y w r o t e t o P u c k e r i n g , s a y i n g he " r e g r e t s i n c u r r i n g h i s d i s p l e a s u r e f o r a n o t h e r man's c a u s e " and he " w o u l d n o t s p a r e h i m t h a t s o a b u s e d h i s L o r d s h i p . " I t i s u n c l e a r , b u t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u g g e s t he was r e f e r r i n g 15 t o Ben B e a r d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t B e a r d s l i p p e d b a c k i n t o t h e C a t h o l i c f o l d o r f l e d t h e c o u n t r y ; b u t , l i k e J o h n C e c i l , he i n c r i m i n a t e d many o f h i s own p e o p l e f i r s t . Beard and C e c i l are two examples of men who were apparently unable to s u s t a i n t h e i r c a r e e r s a s i n f o r m a n t s . B u t d u r i n g t h e i r t i m e a s p r i e s t h u n t e r s , t h e y a n d o t h e r s d i s p l a y e d a n i n o r d i n a t e 13 Beard to Morgan Jones, April 1594. SP 12/248/83. 14 The same to the same, 16 March 1594. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 248 #30. 1 5 Morgan Jones to George Puckering, 13 July 1594. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 249 #27. 17 p r i d e i n t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s a n d w e r e q u i t e w e l l a w a r e o f t h e i r v a l u e t o t h e s t a t e . Ben B e a r d a t one p o i n t p r o p o s e d a p r i e s t h u n t i n I r e l a n d b e c a u s e " . . . b e i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h d i v e r s 16 P a p i s t s , [ h e ] c a n d i s c o v e r them." A t t h e same t i m e , he was a t t e m p t i n g t o l o c a t e p r i e s t s a t C o u r t t h r o u g h h i s c o n n e c -t i o n s t h e r e . S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , he b o a s t e d t h a t he h a d h e a r d " . . . a g o o d many m a t t e r s a s among t h e s e l f o f o n e s t i l l a P a p i s t . " 1 7 B u t t h e d a n g e r o f h i s p o s i t i o n shows when he b e g s t h e a u t h o r i t i e s f o r a n o n y m i t y : " a s i t w o u l d be a g r e a t d i s g r a c e t o h i m , h i s m o t h e r a n d a l l h i s k i n d r e d b e i n g P a p i s t s a n d r e c u s a n t s . " 1^Thomas D o d w e l l , a n o t h e r o f W a l s i n g -ham's a g e n t s , went i n t o F r a n c e t o C a r d i n a l W i l l i a m A l l e n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e J e s u i t c o l l e g e a t R h e i m s , ". . . b y whom he s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t h e i r a g e n t a n d know t h e i r c h i e f s e c r e t s . 19 Hopes t o do w o n d e r f u l g r e a t s e r v i c e . " G e o r g e E l l i o t t u s e d h i s l a p s e i n t o C a t h o l i c i s m a s a n a s s e t , s a y i n g he " . . . weaned h i m s e l f away . . . n e v e r t h e l e s s u s i n g t h e i r c o m p a n y ' s s k i l l , f o r t h a t i t g a v e me t h e b e t t e r o c c a s i o n , t o s e e i n t o 20 t h e d e p t h s o f t h e i r h o r r i b l e i n t e n t i o n s . " R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h l e d t h e s e men t o i n f o r m on f e l l o w C a t h o l i c s , t h e y u l t i m a t e l y p l a y e d t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s f o r a l l t h e y w e r e w o r t h . 16 Beard to Puckering, 5 May 1594. SP 12/248/95. 17 Beard to Jones, undated. P.R.O. SP 12/248/118. 18 Beard to Puckering. 28 Feb. 1594. P.R.O. SP 12/248/104 1 9 P.R.O. SP/12/168/29 2 0 E l l i o t t , A Very True Report On t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s c o i n w e r e t h o s e p r i e s t h u n t e r s who were a n d a l w a y s had b e e n c o m m i t t e d P r o t e s t a n t s . As a r u l e , t h e c l o s e r a p r i e s t h u n t e r was t o power, t h e more l i k e l y he was t o be a h i d e b o u n d member o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T h e s e w e r e men l i k e S i r N i c h o l a s B a c o n , K e e p e r o f t h e G r e a t S e a l ; W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , R e c o r d e r o f London; S i r R i c h a r d G r e n v i l l e , o f n a v a l fame; J u s t i c e s T o p c l y f f e a n d Y o u n g ; a n d Thomas N o r t o n , MP, p r e s s o f f i c e r , a n d p r o p a g a n d i s t . A l l t h e s e men u s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t o t r y t o r i d E n g l a n d o f C a t h o l i c s , a n d a l l o f them w e r e p i l l a r s o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . S i r N i c h o l a s B a c o n , f o r e x a m p l e , was a l i f e l o n g f r i e n d o f M a t t h e w P a r k e r , E l i z a b e t h ' s f i r s t A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r -b u r y a n d a c o m m i t t e d P r o t e s t a n t . I n h i s y o u t h . B a c o n was a f a v o u r i t e o f A r c h b i s h o p Thomas C r a n m e r ' s ; a s a y o u n g man he was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n , a n d p r o f i t e d f r o m , t h e d i s s o l u t i o n 21 o f t h e m o n a s t e r i e s . He was h e l d u n d e r s u s p i c i o n i n M a r y T u d o r ' s r e i g n -- a s u r e p r o m i s e o f f a v o u r i n E l i z a b e t h ' s . T h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e , he was an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f t h e r e l i g i o u s s e t t l e m e n t o f 1559. B a c o n was a l s o a v o c a l a d v o c a t e o f a P r o t e s t a n t p o l i t i c a l n e t w o r k , a n d e n d o r s e d a l l i a n c e s 21 D.M.B., "Sir Nicholas Bacon"; Edward Foss, Biograhia J u r i d i c a : A  Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England from the Conquest to  the present time 1066-1870 (London: 1870) 32-35. 19 w i t h S c o t l a n d a n d t h e N e t h e r l a n d s t o t h i s e n d . A f t e r t h e m a s s a c r e o f S t . B a r t h o l o m e w ' s Eve, he p u b l i c l y s u g g e s t e d 22 t h a t F r e n c h C a t h o l i c s be e x p e l l e d f r o m E n g l a n d i n r e t a l i a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l l y a n d i n a r e l i g i o u s s e n s e . B a c o n d i d h i s u t m o s t t o make t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d t h e o n l y l e g a l r e l i g i o n . Upon h i s d e a t h , he was e u l o g i z e d : "No p a t c h o f p o p i s h m i n d e was e v e r i n h i m f o u n d e / B u t f a v o u r e d t h o s e a n d h e l p e d them t o , who d i d t h e t r u t h e x p o u n d . " W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , who was a p p o i n t e d R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n i n 1571, was o f L a n c a s h i r e o r i g i n s . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t he was a c o m m i t t e d P r o t e s t a n t by M a r y ' s r e i g n , i f n o t e a r l i e r , and o ne o f h i s b e s t f r i e n d s became a M a r i a n m a r t y r . F l e e t w o o d was e d u c a t e d a t E t o n , O x f o r d and t h e M i d d l e T e m p l e . He u s e d h i s l e g a l b a c k g r o u n d t o g r a d u a l l y a d v a n c e i n a c a r e e r o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e . He s a t i n e v e r y P a r l i a m e n t f r o m 1558 t o 1588, and was v o c a l l y a n t i - C a t h o l i c t h r o u g h o u t . H i s f i r s t a p p o i n t e d o f f i c e was C h i e f S e r j e a n t - a t - L a w f o r C h e s t e r , t h e n Queen's S e r j e a n t f o r L a n c a s t e r . He was a p p o i n t e d a V i s i t o r f o r t h e 22 J.P. Collier, "On Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper" Archaeologia 36 (1856) 340-41. 23 L. Ramsey, A Short Discourse of Man's fatall end [sic] (London:1579) 20 U n i f o r m i t y o f W o r s h i p i n 1559, a n d i n 1561 began e x a m i n i n g C a t h o l i c p r i s o n e r s i n t h e M a r s h a l s e a . F l e e t w o o d v i e w e d h i s a p p o i n t m e n t a s R e c o r d e r a s t a n t a m o u n t t o b e i n g made p o l i c e c o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e c i t y o f L o n d o n , a n d he p o l i c e d m o s t l y t h e C a t h o l i c s . From 1571 u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n t h e e a r l y 1 5 9 0 ' s , m o s t o f h i s work was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e C a t h o l i c 2k p r e s e n c e i n t h e C i t y . S i r R i c h a r d G r e n v i l i e ' s f a m i l y was a n o t h e r t h a t p r o f i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e s a l e o f m o n a s t i c l a n d s . He made h i s m i l i t a r y r e p u t a t i o n p u t t i n g down C a t h o l i c r e b e l l i o n s i n I r e l a n d a n d he s w o r e t h e A c t o f U n i f o r m i t y a t a t i m e when many o f h i s C o r n w a l l n e i g h b o u r s w e r e r e f u s i n g . G r e n v i l i e was p e r i o d i c a l l y r e t u r n e d t o P a r l i a m e n t , b u t i t was on t h e l o c a l s c e n e i n C o r n w a l l t h a t h i s P r o t e s t a n t l o y a l t i e s w e r e t h e most o b v i o u s . When h i s p r o p o s a l t o e x p l o r e t h e S o u t h S e a s f o u n d e r e d i n 1573, he r e t i r e d t o h i s c o u n t r y s e a t a s a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e a n d s h e r i f f . H i s m o s t famous c a s e was t h e d i s -c o v e r y o f t h e p r i e s t C u t h b e r t Mayne i n 1577, b u t G r e n v i l i e h a d many i n t e r e s t s . He was a s i g n a t o r y t o t h e Bond o f A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o r n w a l l i n 1584 -- t h e document w h i c h p l e d g e d t o d e f e n d E n g l a n d f r o m i n v a s i o n a n d t o p r o t e c t t h e Queen f r o m a s s a s s i n a t i o n . He was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n m a r i t i m e d e f e n c e 2k P.R. Harris, "William Fleetwood, Recorder of the City, and Catholicism in Elizabethan England" Recusant History 7 #3 (1963) 109-118. 21 25 and m u s t e r i n g l o c a l m i l i t i a a t t h e t i m e o f t h e Armada. B e s i d e s h i s o b v i o u s commitment t o t h e A n g l i c a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , G r e n v i l l e seems t o have h a d some p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d him t o h u n t p r i e s t s . He was n o t ab o v e t r y i n g t o a g g r a n d i z e h i s s t a t u s among t h e l o c a ] g e n t r y t h i s way. D u r i n g h i s w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d p e r s e c u t i o n o f C u t h b e r t Mayne, G r e n v i l l e d i d h i s b e s t t o i n c u l p a t e S i r F r a n c i s T r e g i o n , i n whose h o u s e 26 Mayne h ad f o u n d s h e l t e r . T r e g i o n h a ppened t o be c o n n e c t e d t o t h e A r u n d e l I s o f Devon, a p o w e r f u l C a t h o l i c f a m i l y who h e l d sway o v e r P r o t e s t a n t s q u i r e s l i k e G r e n v i l l e . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , G r e n v i l l e d e n o u n c e d t h e k e e p e r o f T i n t a g e l C a s t l e t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a s "an e v i l a n d p a p i s t i c a l p e r s o n " , l a i d t h i s f a u l t a t t h e A r u n d e l I s ' d o o r , and recommended h i s 27 own c o u s i n f o r t h e p o s t . G r e n v i l l e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y e n g a g e d i n p i r a c y o f f t h e c o a s t o f Devon, a p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e i n t h o s e t i m e s . H i s s h i p s a c c u m u l a t e d a number o f c h a r g e s , 25 C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 174 #5; V. 118 #46-7: 173 #76. See also A.L. Rowse, Sir Richard Grenville (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937) and A.L. Rowse, Raleigh and the Throckmortons (London: McMillan & Co. 1962). 26 Richard Grenville to the Privy Council, C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 174 #5. 27 As above. 22 28 and y e t he r e t a i n e d h i s o f f i c e s a n d p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n . I t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t G r e n v i l i e was a n a s s i d u o u s p r i e s t h u n t e r i n o r d e r t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d o v e r l o o k h i s m i s d e m e a n o u r s . Thomas N o r t o n was a n o t h e r man whose l o y a l t i e s w e r e i r r e t r i e v a b l y P r o t e s t a n t , a n d who i n d e e d became more r a d i c a l a s he w e n t a l o n g . He m a r r i e d Thomas C r a n m e r ' s d a u g h t e r . L o r d P r o t e c t o r S o m e r s e t was h i s f i r s t s p o n s o r , a n d J o h n F o x e h i s good f r i e n d . He c o m b i n e d a P a r l i a m e n t a r y w i t h a l i t e r a r y c a r e e r i n h i s e a r l y d a y s ; i n 1561 he t r a n s l a t e d a n d p u b l i s h e d C a l v i n ' s I n s t i t u t e s i n E n g l i s h . I n 1563, N o r t o n was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e r o y a l s u c c e s s i o n , and r e m a i n e d one o f t h o s e P r o t e s t a n t s v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t E n g l a n d ' s f a t e s h o u l d t h e Queen d i e c h i l d l e s s . I n 1567, he s t e p p e d up a n t i - C a t h o l i c m e a s u r e s by b e g i n n i n g a s e r i e s o f i n f l a m m a t o r y p a m p h l e t s a g a i n s t Rome. I n 1571, he was a p p o i n t e d R e m e m brancer t o t h e L o r d M a y o r o f L o n d o n , a n d was a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o P a r l i a m e n t . I n 1579, he t r a v e l l e d t o Rome f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e C a t h o l i c s , a n d i n 1581 he r e a c h e d t h e p i n n a c l e o f h i s c a r e e r a s t h e o f f i c i a l c e n s o r o f C a t h o l i c s u b j e c t s , l i c e n s e r o f t h e L o n d o n p r e s s a n d a c o m m i s s i o n e r a t t h e t r i a l o f Edmund C a m p i o n . A f t e r t h i s , N o r t o n ' s c a r e e r 28 Rowse, Sir Richard Grenville. Also David Matthew, The Celtic Peoples  of Renaissance Europe (London: Sheed & Ward, 1933). 23 f e l l p r e y t o h i s i n c r e a s i n g a t t a c h m e n t t o r a d i c a l P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g y . He e v e n t u a l l y went t o o f a r by c r i t i c i z i n g t h e A n g l i c a n e p i s c o p a l h i e r a r c h y . He was t h r o w n i n t o t h e Tower i n 1584 a n d o n l y r e l e a s e d a f t e r W a l s i n g h a m ' s i n t e r c e s s i o n ; he d i e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . N o r t o n ' s s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l a s p e c t s o f h i s c a r e e r t o p r i e s t h u n t i n g was e x t r e m e , b u t 29 c o m p l e t e l y g u i d e d b y h i s r e l i g i o u s v i e w s . M o v i n g u n e a s i l y b e t w e e n t h e two e x t r e m e s w e r e a few unknown q u a n t i t i e s . A n t h o n y Munday, a p l a y w r i g h t who became one o f t h e c h i e f g o v e r n m e n t p r o p a g a n d i s t s i n t h e 1 5 8 0 ' s , was s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g a C a t h o l i c . He s p e n t t i m e a t t h e J e s u i t c o l l e g e i n Rome a n d had numerous C a t h o l i c f r i e n d s , b u t m a i n -t a i n e d t h a t h i s o n l y p u r p o s e was t o s p y on a n d e x p o s e t h e J e s u i t d e s i g n s . 3 ( W h i l e he c e r t a i n l y became a v o c a l g o v e r n m e n t spokesman i n l a t e r y e a r s , h i s p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e . S i m i l a r l y , s e v e r a l o f W a l s i n g h a m ' s m o s t t r u s t e d s p i e s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s f o r p o s -t e r i t y . The r e p o r t s o f N i c h o l a s B e r d e n , o ne o f t h e m o s t p r o l i f i c a n d l o n g e s t - l a s t i n g a g e n t s , w e r e l a c o n i c i n t h e 29 D.1M.B. "Sir Thomas Morton"; J.E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949) 407 ; Sir Simonds D'Ewes, A Compleat  Journal . . . of the House of Lords and House of Commons throughout the  whole reign of Queen Elizabeth (London: 1708) 284-85. 30 Anthony Munday, The English Romayne Life, Philip J. Ayres ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). 24 e x t r e m e . M a l v e r n y C a t l y n was a n o t h e r s p y who was a l l b u s i n e s s . A l t h o u g h C o n y e r s Read h a s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t C a t l y n h a d what he c a l l s " P u r i t a n t e n d e n c i e s " , C a t l y n ' s o r i g i n s a r e o b s c u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s , h o w e v e r , f a l l i n t o t h e two s h a r p l y d e f i n e d r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . As a r u l e , t h o s e p r i e s t h u n t e r s who h a d P r o t e s t a n t c o n n e c t i o n s a n d l o y a l t i e s s t a y e d w i t h them. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s was s i m p l e : t h e y h a d t h e most t o l o s e . B a c o n , N o r t o n , F l e e t w o o d a n d G r e n v i l l e a l l h a d a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e E n g l i s h R e f o r m a t i o n . W i t h o u t i t , t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e e n j o y e d w e a l t h a n d p r i v i l e g e t o t h e same e x t e n t . A d m i t t e d l y , N o r t o n e x p r e s s e d a g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n r a d i c a l t h e o l o g y , a n d was t h e r e f o r e more e l o q u e n t l y a n t i - C a t h o l i c . B u t a l l f o u r , a n d o t h e r s l i k e them, f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e l i m i n a t e C a t h o l i c i s m , i f o n l y f o r s e c u l a r r e a s o n s . The C a t h o l i c s who t u r n e d p r i e s t h u n t e r d i d s o f o r n e g a t i v e r e a s o n s : e i t h e r a g r o w i n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e o n t h e l o s i n g s i d e , o r more l i k e l y b e c a u s e t h e y h a d no c h o i c e . I f t h e y w a n t e d t o l i v e o u t o f p r i s o n , t h e y h a d t o t u r n s p y . 31 Nicholas Berrien to UJalsingham, June 1586 P.R.O. SP 12/190/62; December 1586 SP 12/195/75; SP 12/190/30. 32 Conyers Read, Mr. Secretary Ltialsingham 320. 25 I t m i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , be a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e n o t d e v o t e d t o d e s t r o y i n g C a t h o l i c i s m . B u t i t must a l w a y s be remembered t h a t t h e y w e r e o n l y t h e t o o l s o f d e d i c a t e d P r o t e s t a n t s w i t h r e a l power. As w i l l be s e e n i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , t h e a p o s t a t e C a t h o l i c s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r f r e e d o m f a r o u t w e i g h e d c r i s e s o f c o n s c i e n c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s w i t h t h e most d o u b t f u l o r i g i n s o f t e n became more a n t i - C a t h o l i c t h a n t h e P r o t e s t a n t s . P e r h a p s t h i s was b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d e d p r o t e c t i o n . G e o r g e E l l i o t t was s a i d t o h a v e f e a r e d C a t h o l i c r e p r i s a l s f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s 33 l i f e . A n t h o n y T y r r e l l may h a v e d r e a d e d t h e f a t e w h i c h a w a i t e d h i m i f he r e - c o n v e r t e d . Or p e r h a p s t h e y g e n u i n e l y a c c e p t e d t h e P r o t e s t a n t p r o p a g a n d a p a c k a g e , w h i c h was a p o w e r f u l o n e . One t h i n g was c e r t a i n . T h e i r l i v e s a s p r i e s t h u n t e r s w o u l d be more u n c e r t a i n a n d more d a n g e r o u s t h a n a n y t h i n g t h e y h a d y e t known. 33 William Allen, A Briefe History of the Glorious Martyrdom of XII  Reverende Priests (1582) 26 C h a p t e r Two: A Day i n t h e L i f e Any e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r must i n c l u d e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s d a i l y l i f e a n d t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f h i s work. O n l y by t r a c i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s c a r e e r c a n we a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o n c e r n s a t t e n d a n t u p o n t h i s v e r y u n c e r t a i n w a l k o f l i f e . And o n l y a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r i e s t h u n t i n g o p e r a t i o n . P r i e s t h u n t e r s a t t h e g r a s s - r o o t s l e v e l w e r e s p i e s . They were o p e r a t i o n a l f i e l d a g e n t s , p i c k i n g up a n d r e l a y i n g i n f o r -m a t i o n w h e n e v e r a n d w h e r e v e r t h e y c o u l d . T h e i r w o r k , t h e r e -f o r e , d e p e n d e d h e a v i l y o n b o t h s u r v e i l l a n c e a n d c o n t a c t s . I f a p r i e s t h u n t e r had C a t h o l i c c o n n e c t i o n s , s o much t h e b e t t e r . B u t w h e t h e r he d i d o r d i d n o t , a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s j o b s t i l l r e v o l v e d a r o u n d n o c t u r n a l m e e t i n g s , p a y o f f s t o anonymous s o u r c e s , c h e c k i n g known s p o t s f o r a c t i v i t y a n d , most o f a l l , p r e t e n d i n g t o be someone he was n o t i n o r d e r t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n . A common t a c t i c was t o c h a r g e a p r i e s t h u n t e r w i t h some m i s d e m e a n o u r a n d i m p r i s o n h i m a l o n g s i d e C a t h o l i c s . M a l v e r n y C a t l y n , one o f W a l s i n g h a m ' s a g e n t s , d i d t h i s more t h a n o n c e a n d f o u n d i t m o s t e f f e c t i v e . On o n e o c c a s i o n , he w r o t e t o W a l s i n g h a m f r o m P o r t s m o u t h ( w h e r e he was w o r k i n g u n d e r c o v e r ) r e g r e t t i n g t h a t he h a d n o t b e e n s e n t i n s t e a d t o t h e M a r s h a l s e a p r i s o n i n L o n d o n " . . . w h e r e he c o u l d h a v e i n s i n u a t e d h i m s e l f among t h e p r i s o n e r s t h e r e . " Ren B e a r d did most o f h i s e s p i o n a g e work w h i l e a p r i s o n e r i n t h e F l e e t . T h i s l i n e o f s u r v e i l l a n c e was o b v i o u s l y a d a n g e r o u s one; d i s c o v e r y c o u l d l e a d t o d e a t h f o r t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r . B e a r d t a l k s i n one o f h i s l e t t e r s a b o u t t r y i n g t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t f r o m h i s p r i s o n s o u r c e s " . . . b u t d a r e n o t p r e s s thorn o r any e n q u i r y b u t i s s u e s v o l u n t a r i l y i f r o m them, f o r f e a r o f d i s c o v e r y . " T h e r e w e r e o t h e r ways. P r i e s t h u n t e r s h a d c o n t a c t s e v e r y -w h e r e , a n d w o r k e d h a r d t o m a i n t a i n them. When s e a r c h i n g f o r C a t h o l i c s i n a c i t y t h e s i z e o f L o n d o n , f o r e x a m p l e , i t was v a l u a b l e t o know an a s s o r t m e n t o f h o s t e l l e r s and p u b l i c a n s . W i l l i a m S t e r r e l l , one o f W a l s i n g h a m ' s l o n g e s t l a s t i n g a n d most v e r s a t i l e s p i e s , u s e d t h e Swan t a v e r n i n B i s h o p s g a t e a s a r e p o s i t o r y f o r h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Thomas P h e l i p p e s , "A W a l s i n g h a m ' s r i g h t - h a n d man. S i m i l a r l y , B en B e a r d ' s g o -b e t w e e n was Mo r g a n J o n e s i n t h e C i t y ; he r e p o r t s on o n e o c c a s i o n "a common c o n v e y o r o f S e m i n a r i e s i n t o t h i s l a n d , 5 d w e l l i n g a t t h e G r e e n D r a g o n . . . . " On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . ' Catlyn to Walsingham, 25 June 1586. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 190 #62. 2 P.R.O. SP 12/248/30; SP 12/248/67; SP 12/248/88. 5 Beard to Nicholas Bacon, 5 May 1594. P.R.O. SP 12/248/96. 4 Sterrell 8 Robinson to Phelippes, 1 May 1592. P.R.O. SP 12/262/3 5 Beard to Morgan Jones, date unknown. P.R.O. SP 12/268/118. 28 p r i e s t h u n t e r s made u s e o f t h e l o w e r o r d e r s . G e o r g e E l l i o t t e v e n t u a l l y t r a c k e d down Edmund C a m p i o n w i t h t h e h e l p o f a coo k i n t h e h o u s e t h a t was s h e l t e r i n g him. T h e s e men t h r i v e d on i n n u e n d o , a n i n c a u t i o u s w o r d , a s h i l l i n g p a i d i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . Once i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e enemy, t h e y b l e n d e d i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d u n t i l t h e t i m e came t o a c t . G e o r g e E l l i o t t , w i t h a c o m p a n i o n , g a i n e d e n t r y i n t o t h e h o u s e w h i c h h a r b o u r e d C a m p i o n by p o s i n g a s a C a t h o l i c a n x i o u s t o h e a r M a s s . T h e y l i s t e n e d q u i e t l y t o C a m p i o n ' s s e r m o n , d i s a p p e a r e d a n d r e t u r n e d h o u r s l a t e r w i t h a s e a r c h p a r t y . 6 Ben B e a r d u s e d h i s C a t h o l i c c o n n e c t i o n s t o i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f w i t h i m p r i s o n e d r e c u s a n t s . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n knew a l l t h e f a v o u r i t e L o ndon h i d e o u t s f o r p r i e s t s , a n d s e t a w a t c h f o r them t h e m i n u t e he r e c e i v e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t o n e was on t h e r u n ; he a p p r e h e n d e d F a t h e r W i l l i a m W e ston a f t e r he saw h i m o n t h e s t r e e t h e a d i n g t o s h e l t e r . * M a l v e r n y C a t l y n h a d a n e t w o r k o f i n f o r m a n t s a l l o v e r E n g l a n d . He w a t c h e d t h e s e a p o r t s e s p e c i a l l y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , he n o t o n l y knew when a p r i e s t h a d l a n d e d a n d w h e r e , b u t wh e r e 9 he was h e a d e d , what he h a d b r o u g h t w i t h h i m a n d f o r whom. George Elliott, A Very True Report Sgg. Ba - B3. P.R.O. SP 12/248/83. C.S.P. Foreign V. 19 #4 Catlyn to Walsingham, 1581? (undated) P.R.O. SP 12/151/5. S u r v e i l l a n c e was one h a l f o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r ' s j o b ; t h e o t h e r h a l f was r e p o r t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s were v i t a l a t a l l l e v e l s o f t h e s p y n e t w o r k . O f c o u r s e , we have no way o f k n o w i n g how much i n f o r m a t i o n was t r a n s m i t t e d v e r b a l l y ; i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s f e l t some t h i n g s w e r e t o o s e n s i t i v e t o be r e c o r d e d . A s i t was, t h e y t o o k e l a b o r a t e s e c u r i t y p r e c a u t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . Ben B e a r d a n d W i l l i a m S t e r r e l l , a s m e n t i o n e d , u s e d p u b l i c h o u s e s a s g o - b e t w e e n s . When a m i s s i v e was s e n t d i r e c t , i t was common p r a c t i c e t o a s s u r e t h e r e c e i v e r o f t h e b e a r e r ' s t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . A l i a s e s w e r e common: S t e r r e l l a l o n e had f i v e i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s c a r e e r ; B e a r d , C e c i l , C a t l y n a n d B e r d e n a l l d i s g u i s e d t h e i r names a t v a r i o u s t i m e s . E v e n Thomas 10 P h e i i p p e s r e c e i v e d communiques u n d e r an a l i a s : Mr. M o r i c e . S o m e t i m e s , l e t t e r s f r o m o p e r a t i v e s w e r e w r i t t e n i n c y p h e r , t o be d e c o d e d b y P h e i i p p e s . B e r d e n u s e d o n i o n j u i c e ; S t e r r e l l f r a m e d some m i s s i v e s a s one m e r c h a n t t o a n o t h e r d i s c u s s i n g t r a d e r o u t e s , w r i t i n g c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n [". . . t h e r e a r e 11 e i g h t p r i e s t s t o come t o E n g l a n d f r o m Rome."! i n c o d e . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' l e t t e r s r e f l e c t t h e t r e a c h e r o u s n a t u r e o f t h e i r w o r k . Ulilliam Sterrell 1 Robert Robinson to Thomas Pheiippes @ Mr. Morice, 1 May 1592. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 242 #3. 11 Sterrell (a Robinson to Pheiippes @ Morice, 13 .Dune 1592. C.S.P.D. Eliz. Vol. 242 #53. 80 The p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' p r i m a r y m i s s i o n was t o h u n t down C a t h o l i c s f o r t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . However, t h e y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h e i r s u c c e s s e s t o a s s i s t them i n f u r t h e r work. I f a s p y l o c a t e d a r e c u s a n t who was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t p r e y , i t was n o t uncommon t o recommend he b e s p a r e d i n o r d e r t o l e a d t o more i m p o r t a n t a r r e s t s . T h e s e r e q u e s t s , p r o v i d i n g t h e y came f r o m r e s p e c t e d s p i e s , w e r e u s u a l l y h o n o u r e d . B o t h B e a r d and C a t l y n p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a g a i n s t p r i e s t s a n d r e c u s a n t s w h i c h was u s e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o s e t i t s p r i o r i t i e s . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d f o r t h e s e f a v o u r s f r o m W a l s i n g h a m . On one o c c a s i o n , he drew up a l i s t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r r e c u s a n t s h e l d i n v a r i o u s p r i s o n s . P h e l i p p e s f o r w a r d e d i t t o W a l s i n g h a m . O p p o s i t e e a c h , i n B e r d e n ' s h a n d w r i t i n g , i s t h e t e r s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n "mete t o be h a n g e d " , " f i t f o r W i s b e c h " ( t h e two most common s u g g e s t i o n s ) o r o t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o P h e l i p p e s ' e n d o r s e m e n t , "Such a s a r e meet t o be h a n g e d a r e o f t h e most t r a i t o r o u s m i n d e s a n d d i s -12 p o s i t i o n s . " How B e r d e n a r r i v e d a t h i s e v a l u a t i o n s we a r e n o t s u r e , b u t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t h i s o p i n i o n was v a l u e d . On n umerous o c c a s i o n s , B e r d e n a s k e d f o r c l e m e n c y f o r a C a t h o l i c t o e n h a n c e h i s image i n p a p i s t c i r c l e s . I n h i s own w o r d s f o r one s u c h c a s e : " I n w h i c h s u i t I e a r n e s t l y p r a y y o u r f u r t h e r a n c e . 12 Berden to Phelippes, December 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/190/62. See also Catholic Record Society, Miscellanea 261-2. 31 n o t o n l y f o r t h e g a i n , b u t a l s o t o make them b e h o l d e n t o me and t h e r e b y t o make them i n s t r u m e n t s t o do H e r M a j e s t y g o o d 13 s e r v i c e , t h o u g h a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . ' ' And a n o t h e r t i m e : I humbly thank your honor f o r that i t pleased you to spare Christopher Dryland's l i f e at the last sessions, at my request, assuring you that i t hath much increased my c r e d i t amongst the Papists ... I p r o t e s t I abhor the man in regard of his profession, and the only thing t h a t moved me thereunto was f o r t h a t the man is singularly well persuaded of me. L i k e m o s t p r i e s t h u n t e r s , B e r d e n was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n m e r c y , o n l y i n r e s u l t s . A p r i e s t h u n t e r ' s c a r e e r c o u l d , a n d o f t e n d i d , t a k e h i m o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y . I n d e e d , one o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y i s i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l r a n g e . W a l s i n g h a m was w e l l i n f o r m e d a b o u t p r i e s t s t r a v e l l i n g t o E n g l a n d b e c u a s e h e r e t a i n e d s p i e s i n a l m o s t e v e r y W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r y . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t he h a d p l a n t s a t v a r i o u s t i m e s i n a l l t h e J e s u i t c o l l e g e s on t h e c o n t i n e n t , t h e r o y a l c o u r t s , a n d t h e 15 m ost p o p u l a r c r o s s i n g - p l a c e s f o r C a t h o l i c s s a i l i n g t o E n g l a n d . P r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e p a r t o f a n e x t e n s i v e n e t w o r k , a n d t h e y knew i t . I n M a r c h 1586, B e r d e n w r o t e t o W a l s i n g h a m p r o p o s i n g a n e l a b o r a t e e s p i o n a g e s y s t e m w i t h o v e r s e a s c o n t a c t s , t h r o u g h 13 H 15 Berden to Walsingham, Dec. 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/190/75. Berden to Walsingham, 23 Nov. 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/195/21. William Allen. L e t t e r s and Memorials (London: 1882) 220. 32 w h i c h W a l s i n g h a m c o u l d i n t e r c e p t t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f s u c h known C a t h o l i c p l o t t e r s a s T h r o c k m o r t o n , E n g l e f i e l d , C a r d i n a l A l l e n a n d F a t h e r P e r s o n s , Mary Queen o f S c o t s a n d C a t h e r i n e de M e d i c i . He a l s o s u g g e s t e d a p o s s i b l e i n t e l l i g e n c e b a s e f o r 16 d e f e a t i n g t h e S p a n i s h Armada. T h a t B e r d e n c o u l d e v e n e n v i s i o n s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t i s a t r i b u t e t o W a l s i n g h a m ' s S e c r e t S e r v i c e c a p a b i l i t i e s . And s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s was i n d e e d i m p l e m e n t e d . G i l b e r t G i f f o r d , t h e s p y who became f a m o u s f o r h i s r o l e i n u n c o v e r i n g t h e B a b i n g t o n P l o t , was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . E a r l y i n 1587, G i f f o r d was i n F r a n c e , a s s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t i n t e l l i g e n c e on t h e E u r o p e a n r e a c t i o n t o M a r y Queen o f S c o t s ' e x e c u t i o n . By J u n e , P h e l i p p e s was s e n d i n g h i m money w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s " . . . t o p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e a g e n t s o f f o r e i g n 17 p r i n c e s . " D e s p i t e b e i n g t h r o w n i n t o a F r e n c h p r i s o n , G i f f o r d c o n t i n u e d t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e u p c o m i n g Armada a s w e l l a s o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e C a t h o l i c t h r e a t . I n O c t o b e r , 1588, he was a b l e t o w a r n W a l s i n g h a m o f " e i g h t p r i e s t s a r r i v e d f r o m Rome, o f whom J o h n G e r a r d a n d A r t h u r S h e f f i e l d w i l l be i n 18 E n g l a n d i n a few d a y s . " He a l s o a d v i s e d t h a t G r a t l e y , a known J e s u i t , h a d a r r i v e d a t Rome a n d t h a t " h i s H o l i n e s s h a t h Berden to Walsingham, March 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/187/81. Phelippes to G i f f o r d , June 1587. P.R.O. SP 12/199/96. s e n t S h i p p e s t o S p a i n . " W i l l i a m S t e r r e l l r e g u l a r l y i n f o r m e d f r o m t h e C o n t i n e n t , where he s p e n t m o s t o f h i s t i m e , on p r i e s t s bound f o r E n g l a n d . He p r o v i d e d d e t a i l s on t h e c h a n n e l s b e i n g u s e d f o r C a t h o l i c s t o g e t i n t o t h e c o u n t r y : "The o r d i n a r y ways o f s e n d i n g t o E n g l a n d a r e F l u s h i n g , C a l a i s a n d D u n k i r k ; b o t h l e t t e r s a n d p r i e s t s a r e s e t a s h o r e f r o m b o t h 19 t o w n s . " S t e r r e l l s p e n t t i m e i n t h e Low C o u n t r i e s , f o l l o w i n g 20 P h e i i p p e s ' i n s t r u c t i o n s t o " o f f e r h i s h e l p t o t h e t r a i t o r s . " He w r i t e s q u i t e c a s u a l l y s t a t i n g he h a s a f r i e n d g o i n g t o Germany who f o r t w e n t y n o b l e s w o u l d go on t o Rome i f P h e i i p p e s w a n t s news f r o m t h e s e m i n a r y . S t e r r e l l a d d s t h a t he " d e a l s w i t h 21 C a t h o l i c , w h i c h i s t h e s u r e s t way." T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n f i l t r a t i o n o f t h e J e s u i t s c h o o l s was n o t h i n g new. I n d e e d , A n t h o n y Munday had l i v e d i n t h e c o l l e g e a t Rome f o u r t e e n y e a r s p r i o r t o t h a t . Munday r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d and w r o t e a b i a s s e d a c c o u n t o f l i f e i n t h e s e m i n a r y w h i c h p l a y e d up i n t e r n a l d i s s o n a n c e and s a t i r i z e d many t e n e t s o f t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h . A l t h o u g h Munday n e v e r a d m i t t e d i t , i t was w i d e l y 22 s u s p e c t e d t h a t he h a d b e e n s e n t a s a g o v e r n m e n t p l a n t . W h e t h e r t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r was a s p y o r a y o u n g t r a v e l l e r , h i s c o n n e c t i o n s w e re f a r - f l u n g . Gifford to Walsingham, 1 Oct. 1588. P.R.O. SP 12/217/3. Sterrell to Pheiippes, 13 Jun 1592. P.R.O. SP 12/242/53. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 241 #44. Pheiippes to Sterrell. 13 Feb. 1592. Sterrell to Pheiippes, 1593. P.R.O. SP 12/246/64. Anthony Munday, The English Romayne Life 18 19 20 21 22 34 Any o p e r a t i o n a s e x t e n s i v e a s t h i s was s u s c e p t i b l e t o c e r t a i n r i s k s . And c h i e f among them was t h e p r e s e n c e o f d o u b l e a g e n t s . The E n g l i s h g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n e v e r be q u i t e s u r e o f i t s p r i e s t h u n t e r s ; t h e r e were t o o many t e m p t a t i o n s i n t h e way o f a t r a i n e d s p y , a n d he moved t o o f a r away f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l o r b i t t o be c o n t r o l l i e d . However, t h e g o v e r n m e n t d i d s o m e t i m e s manage t o u s e d o u b l e a g e n t s t o i t s own a d v a n t a g e . One o f t h e most famous was G i l b e r t G i f f o r d , who n o t o n l y p o s e d as a C a t h o l i c a d h e r e n t o f M a r y Queen o f S c o t s ; h e a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d l e t t e r s b e t w e e n M a r y and t h e E u r o p e a n C a t h o l i c p o w e r s . However, he r e r o u t e d them v i a P h e l i p p e s ' o f f i c e f o r d e c o d i n g 23 and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h a u t h o r i t i e s . By d o i n g t h i s , G i f f o r d was g o i n g one s t e p f u r t h e r t h a n m o s t p r i e s t h u n t e r s . He was n o t o n l y i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f i n a C a t h o l i c p l o t , b u t he was a c c e p t i n g p a y f r o m b o t h s i d e s . And he n e v e r q u i t e f o r g o t t h e power t h a t h a d g i v e n h i m . Two y e a r s l a t e r , he w r o t e t o W a l s i n g h a m f r o m a F r e n c h p r i s o n t h a t he " . . . h a s g r e a t 2k o f f e r s i f he w i l l c e a s e d e a l i n g w i t h E n g l a n d . " The v e i l e d t h r e a t was c l e a r . Thomas Morgan was a w e l l - k n o w n W e l s h C a t h o l i c , a n d a s e l f -p r o c l a i m e d f o l l o w e r o f t h e Queen o f S c o t s . He was s e c r e t a r y C.S.P. Pom. Eliz. V. 190. 2k Gifford to LUalsingham, 2 Feb. 1588. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 208 #20. 35 t o M a r y ' s e m i s s a r y i n F r a n c e and f a c i l i t a t e d h e r E u r o p e a n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I n 1583. he was dr a w n i n t o a p l o t t o a s s a s -s i n a t e Queen E l i z a b e t h . And y e t t h e E n g l i s h e m p l o y e d him, b e c a u s e M o r g a n ' s i n c r e a s i n g h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d t h e J e s u i t s made i t e a s y t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i m . I n t h e 1 5 9 0 ' s , he s p e n t t i m e i n b o t h S p a i n and t h e N e t h e r l a n d s . He wound up i n A n t w e r p d o i n g h i s b e s t t o impede t h e J e s u i t t r a f f i c i n t o 25 E n g l a n d . R o b e r t P e r s o n s h e l d M o r g a n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e 26 f o r d i v i s i o n s i n t h e C a t h o l i c r a n k s . B u t d o u b l e a g e n t s c u t b o t h ways, a s t h e E n g l i s h w e l l knew. W i l l i a m P a r r y was a n e x a m p l e o f a o n c e l o y a l p r i e s t h u n t e r t u r n e d b a d . He began h i s c a r e e r i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e E a r l o f Pembroke, a n d t h e n t h e Queen. I n t h e 1570 ' s he h i r e d h i m s e l f o u t a s a s p y , and we n t t o I t a l y . Unknown t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t , he c o n v e r t e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m . By t h e e a r l y 1580's he was a d o u b l e a g e n t . He was i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e p l o t t o a s s a s s i n a t e t h e Queen a l o n g w i t h Thomas M o r g a n . H i s C a t h o l i c s y m p a t h i e s became o b v i o u s t h e n , a n d a g a i n i n December 1584, when he made a p a s s i o n a t e s p e e c h i n P a r l i a m e n t o p p o s i n g t h e B i l l A g a i n s t J e s u i t s a n d S e m i n a r y P r i e s t s . P a r r y was e v e n t u -21 a l l y t r i e d f o r t r e a s o n a n d e x e c u t e d i n M a r c h 1585. The 25 Robert Persons, Memoirs, printed in Catholic Record Society Miscellanea II (London: Carleton 1906) 35. As above. 21 Q'Ewes, A Compleat Journal 285. 36 g o v e r n m e n t h a d l e a r n e d a s o b e r i n g l e s s o n i n t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s p o t e n t i a l d u p l i c i t y and t h e h a v o c i t c o u l d w r eak. S u r v e i l l a n c e , f o r e i g n c o n n e c t i o n s , d o u b l e a g e n t s -- t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s l i v e d i n a d a n g e r o u s a n d u n c e r t a i n w o r l d , and t h e y w e r e w e l l a w a r e o f i t . A b o v e a l l e l s e , t h e i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e s e men's e x i s t e n c e -- t h e d i s t r u s t , t h e u n e a s i n e s s , t h e f e a r f o r t h e i r l i v e s -- l e a p s o u t f r o m t h e p a g e s o f t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . They w e r e c o n s t a n t l y w a t c h i n g -t h e C a t h o l i c s , e a c h o t h e r , t h e i r e m p l o y e r s . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e u s e d by t h e T u d o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t a t t h e same t i m e h e l d i n s u s p i c i o n b y i t , b e c a u s e o f t h e u n d e r h a n d e d n a t u r e o f t h e i r w o r k a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r b e t r a y a l . As a r e s u l t , t h e y w e r e c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e s u p e r i o r s o f t h e i r l o y a l t y . M a l v e r n y C a t l y n h a d many u p s and downs i n h i s c a r e e r , a n d a t one t i m e w r o t e t o W a l s i n g h a m b e g g i n g t o be 28 r e s t o r e d t o f a v o u r . G i l b e r t G i f f o r d s w o r e , " A l l t h e m a l i c e o f h i s e n e m i e s c a n n o t p r e v a i l . Has s u f f e r e d much, b u t w o u l d e n d u r e a t h o u s a n d d e a t h s r a t h e r t h a n o f f e n d h i s h o n o u r . . . ." W i l l i a m S t e r r e l l w r o t e a r e v e a l i n g l e t t e r t o P h e i i p p e s i n w h i c h he s t a t e d he was s o r r y t h a t P h e i i p p e s d o u b t e d t h e t r u t h 30 o f h i s r e l a t i o n s . We do n o t h a v e P h e i i p p e s ' o r i g i n a l 28 29 30 Catlyn to Walsingham, c. 1580. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 146 #15. Gifford to Walsingham, 23 Jan. 1588. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 208 #20. Sterrell to Pheiippes, 15 Feb. 1592. V. 241 #45. 37 p r o f e s s i o n o f d o u b t , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h <J p r o l i f i c s p y w o u l d even, be q u e s t i o n e d i s i n t e r e s t i n g . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n h a s t e n e d t o a s s u r e W a l s i n g h a m o f h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y : " F o r t h a t I w o u l d n o t d e a l i n any m a t t e r w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e r s b e y o n d t h e s e a s w i t h o u t y o u r W o r s h i p ' s s p e c i a l a l l o w a n c e , t h e m a t t e r s i n t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g p a s s i n g d a n g e r o u s and t h e p r a c t i c e r s b o t h t r a i t o r o u s and e x c e e d i n g 31 s u b t l e . " The L e t t e r s o f a l l t h e s e men show a n x i e t y and a d e s i r e t o be p e r c e i v e d a s t r u s t w o r t h y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l i t t l e r e m a i n s o f t h e d i r e c t i v e s w h i c h p r o v o k e d t h i s r e s p o n s e . One w h i c h s u r v i v e s -- R o b e r t C e c i l ' s r e p l y t o a l e t t e r o f J o h n Snowden's -- i s i l l u m i n a t i n g . C e c i l e m p h a s i z e s t h a t he c a n o n l y do s o much for- Snowden. H i s s u s p i c i o n i s e v i d e n t when he e x h o r t s Snowden " . . . w h e r e -s o e v e r you r e s o r t a m o n g s t C a t h o l i c s a nd be r e c e i v e d f o r c o n -s c i e n c e o n l y by them, a n d w i t h t h i s p u r p o s e i n y o u t o do s e r v i c e a v o i d i n g a l w a y s a n y n e e d l e s s f r e q u e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e p e r s o n s " O b v i o u s l y , C e c i l f e l t h i s s p y was an e a s y t a r g e t . He t h e n g o e s on t o d i s c u s s some d o c u m e n t s w h i c h Snowden h a d t r i e d t o f o r w a r d f r o m t h e C o n t i n e n t a n d w h i c h h a v e b e e n l o s t ; i n t r a n s i t . C e c i l a p p a r e n t l y f e e l s t h e r e 31 Berden to Walsingham, 23 Nov. 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/195/21. 38 i s a more s i n i s t e r e x p l a n a t i o n : For when I consider it seeing your Papers have miscarried, the greatest part of your loyalty and your fellow's depends on your own assertions. it is to expect at your hands, this great favour shewed you, must bring forth good fruit with profitable correspondency to Her Majesty and your Ccuntrie's good which is the true end of your enlargement, and 32 cause of this extraordinary favour as many others thirst for. . . . "The g r e a t e s t p a r t o f y o u r l o y a l t y . . . d e p e n d s on y o u r own a s s e r t i o n s . " -- t h i s s t a t e m e n t s u m m a r i z e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . They w e r e c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l , b u t n o t t o be t r u s t e d . B e c a u s e many o f them w e r e r e c r u i t e d when t h e y w e r e i n t r o u b l e w i t h t h e la w , t h e y must be c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d them. And t h e i r w ork must h a v e q u i c k r e s u l t s , o r a l l t h e i r l o y a l t i e s w o u l d be h e l d s u s p e c t . The p r e s s u r e on t h e s e men was immense. I t c o l o u r e d e a c h d e c i s i o n a n d e v e r y a c t i o n . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' i n s e c u r i t y was r e f l e c t e d i n a more c o n c r e t e way: t h e i r c o n s t a n t need f o r money. M o s t o f t h e o p e r a t i v e s w e re p a i d o u t o f W a l s i n g h a m ' s S e c r e t S e r v i c e t r e a s u r y , b u t j u d g i n g f r o m t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t h e s e p a y -ments w e r e few and f a r b e t w e e n . Ben B e a r d c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n 32 Robert Cecil to John Snowden, June 1591. P.R.O. SP 12/239/3. 3 9 t o h i s f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s s e v e r a l t i m e s , and he d i d most o f 33 h i s w o r k i n p r i s o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t s p y i n g i n T u d o r E n g l a n d was an e x p e n s i v e b u s i n e s s e v e n i f one was n o t m o b i l e . F o r men l i k e G i f f o r d , B e r d e n and S t e r r e l l , who were t r a v e l -l i n g on t h e C o n t i n e n t a n d u s i n g t h e f o r e i g n n e t w o r k , t h e ne e d f o r money was a c u t e G i f f o r d , who s e t t l e d i n F r a n c e u n d e r t h e a l i a s o f J a c q u e s C o l e r d i n , q u i c k l y r a c k e d up e x p e n s e s . He was c o n t i n u a l l y b a d g e r i n g P h e l i p p e s f o r money, 34 and o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y g o t i t . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n seems t o h a v e w o r k e d on some s o r t o f c o m m i s s i o n o r b r i b e r y b a s i s . On two o c c a s i o n s , he w r o t e t o P h e l i p p e s a s k i n g f o r t h e r e l e a s e o f p r i s o n e r s . " S i r i f i t p l e a s e y o u t o p r o c u r e me t h e l i b e r t y o f R a l p h B i c k l e y , S e m i n a r y p r i e s t i n t h e G a t e h o u s e , a t h i s 3b h o n o u r s h a n d s , i t w i l l be w o r t h 201 t o me. W i l l i a m S t e r r e l l was c o n s t a n t l y a s k i n g f o r money t o s u b s i d i z e h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y . One o f h i s l e t t e r s t o t h e l o n g - s u f f e r i n g P h e l i p p e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e f r u s t r a t i o n p r i e s t h u n t e r s o f t e n f e l t i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r e m p l o y e r s . He " . . . h a s r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s , b u t no money a n d i s much h i n d e r e d f o r t h e l a c k o f i t . W i t h i t he c o u l d i n t e r c e p t t h e C a r d i n a l ' s p a c k e t s . " 3 6 Ben Beard's reports, spring 1594. P.R.O. SP 12/268/30, 67 & 88. 34 Gif f o r d to Phelippes, 3 Jan 1588. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 208 #4; 23 Jan 1588 V. 208 #20; Feb. 1588 208 #48.: V. 203 #36; V. 199 #96. 3 5 Nicholas Berden to Phelippes, c. 1586. P.R.O. SP 12/195/75; SP 12/190/30. 3 6 S t e r r e l l @ Robert Robinson to Phelippes 1 John Morice, 13 June 1592. P.R.O. SP 12/242/53. 40 G e n e r a l l y , t h e E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t was l o n g on i n s t r u c t i o n s and s h o r t on money. F o r s p i e s who w e r e i n c u r r i n g l a r g e d e b t s i n b o t h t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s and b r i b e s , t h e f i n a n c i a l b a t t l e was n e v e r - e n d i n g . T i e d i n w i t h m o n e t a r y c o n c e r n s was t h e q u e s t i o n o f what s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s , and w h a t was t o happen t o them a t t h e end o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . The E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t c o n s i d e r e d i n many c a s e s t h a t s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n h a d a l r e a d y b e e n e x t e n d e d t o them by b e i n g s p a r e d t r e a s o n p e n a l t i e s i n e x c h a n g e f o r s p y i n g . On t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' s i d e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was u n d e r s t a n d -a b l e c o n c e r n f o r t h e f u t u r e . And some, i n d e e d , w e r e r e w a r d e d . Edward T h o m e had b e e n e m p l o y e d h u n t i n g down r e c u s a n t s i n D a r b y s h i r e . I n May 1590, he was b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e C o u r t o f K i n g ' s B e n c h a n d f i n e d t w e n t y m a r k s f o r w o r d s s p o k e n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r man. The P r i v y C o u n c i l q u i c k l y i n t e r v e n e d , s t a t i n g t h a t T h o m e h a d b e e n " . . . d o i n g H e r M a j e s t y ' s i m p o r t a n t s e r -v i c e s " , a n d d e s e r v e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n " I n r e g a r d o f Mr. T h o m e ' s f o r m e r s e r v i c e s o n c e more t o s i g n i f y u n t o y o u t h a t i n no c a s e 37 y o u p r o c e e d t o j u d g e m e n t i n t h a t m a t t e r . " Ben B e a r d was r e l e a s e d f r o m p r i s o n a f t e r s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n a p p a r e n t l y e n d e d h i s d a y s a s P u r v e y o r o f t h e P o u l t r y Acts of the Privy Council of England New Series, J.R. Dasent ed., 32 vols. (London: H.M.S.O. 1890-1907) V. 19 U9. 41 38 C o u n t e r P r i s o n i n L o n d o n . G i l b e r t G i f f o r d was i w a r d e c a 39 p e n s i o n f o r h i s r o l e i n u n c o v e r i n g t h e B a b i n g t o n P l o t . And h i g h e r p r o f i l e p r i e s t h u n t e r s r e c e i v e d s t e a d y a d v a n c e m e n t t o i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s . As a r u l e , t h e p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e s g o t t h e money, t h e p r o m o t i o n s a n d t h e p r i v i l e g e s . The s p i e s b e n e f i t t e d o n l y r a r e l y . Some d i s a p p e a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d s w i t h o u t a t r a c e ; some r e t u r n e d t o t h e C a t h o l i c f o l d ; o t h e r s , l i k e B e r d e n a nd G i f f o r d w e r e r e w a r d e d b u t on a s m a l l s c a l e . Two t h i n g s become c l e a r f r o m a l l t h i s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e u n d e r c o v e r p r i e s t h u n t e r ' s c a r e e r s p a n was v e r y s h o r t , r a n g i n g i n most c a s e s f r o m one t o f i v e y e a r s . ( W i l l i a m 4G S t e r r e l l a t s e v e n y e a r s was a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n . ) A f t e r t h a t , a s p y had e i t h e r become known and was o f no f u r t h e r u s e , o r moved on v o l u n t a r i l y . The s e c o n d i s t h a t when t h e s p y had come t o t h e e n d o f h i s r u n , he c o u l d n o t e x p e c t b o u q u e t s f r o m h i s e m p l o y e r s . The g o v e r n m e n t a t t i t u d e was c l e a r : i t had r e s c u e d many o f t h e s e men f r o m t h e l a w t o b e g i n w i t h , and t h e y s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s l u c k y . E v e n i f t h a t was n o t t h e c a s e , t h e T u d o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e x a c t e d c o m p l e t e d e d i c a t i o n f r o m i t s s e r v a n t s as a n a t u r a l o b l i g a t i o n . The work was a r d u o u s , t h e p a y s p o r a d i c , a n d t h e c a r e e r n e c e s s -a r i l y s h o r t . I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t some p r i e s t h u n t e r s 38 Conyers Read, Mr. Secretary Walsingham 328. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 199 #96. A 0 Read, 327-8. 42 l e ; f t t h e s e r v i c e a s s o o n a s t h e y h a d p a i d o f f w h a t e v e r d e b t s t h e y owed. B u t t h e r e w e re t h o s e who r e m a i n e d a s l o n g a s t h e y p o s s i b l y c o u l d , and t h o s e who, w h i l e t h e y e n j o y e d g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s , p u r s u e d C a t h o l i c s a b o v e and b e y o n d t h e c a l l o f d u t y . The n e x t c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e i r e t h i c a l r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o . 43 C h a p t e r T h r e e : The R e a s o n Why The p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g w h a t t h e y d i d , and t h e i r v i s i o n o f what t h e y w e r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g , i s a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t a s how t h e y a c c o m p l i s h e d i t . How d i d t h e s e men s e e t h e i r work, why d i d t h e y p e r s i s t i n i t , a n d w h a t w e r e t h e i r g o a l s ? Some w e i g h t must be g i v e n t o t h e o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . Of c o u r s e , a number o f s p i e s w e re u n d e r d u r e s s . B u t t h i s was n o t t h e w h o l e s t o r y . A t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e s c a l e , t h e r e m i g h t be a man f o r c e d t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n s p y i n g o r h a n g i n g . B u t a t t h e t o p were men c o m p l e t e l y d e d i c a t e d t o e r a d i c a t i n g C a t h o l i c i s m i n E n g l a n d , who b e l i e v e d t h e y w e r e a c t i n g t o s a v e t h e i r c o u n t r y . And t h e r e w e r e a l l s o r t s o f m i x e d m o t i v e s i n b e t w e e n . C o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , t h e y p o i n t t o a common a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , p o l i t i c s a n d s o c i e t y w h i c h t e l l s us a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e w o r l d o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . L i k e any g r o u p , t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e s p l i n t e r e d b e t w e e n m o d e r a t e s , r a d i c a l s and ( t o u s ) unknown q u a n t i t i e s . Many o f t h e s p i e s ' r e p o r t s w e r e s o l a c o n i c i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n any p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n s . N i c h o l a s B e r d e n , f o r e x a m p l e , was n o t one f o r e x p o u n d i n g t h e o r i e s . H i s m i s s i v e s w e r e b u s i n e s s l i k e , h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d ; i f he 44 1 b e t r a y e d a n y t h i n g e l s e , i t was a c c i d e n t a l . B u t a t t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e was a man l i k e J u s t i c e R i c h a r d T o p c l y f f e . T o p c l y f f e was p a s s i o n a t e l y d e v o t e d t o t r a c k i n g down, e x a m i n i n i n g a n d p e r s e c u t i n g C a t h o l i c s . E v e n t o t h e u n v e r s e d r e a d e r , h i s v i t a l i t y a n d commitment l e a p f r o m e v e r y l i n e o f h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . He f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was a c i t i z e n ' s d u t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a s t h e s y m b o l o f p o l i t i c a l s o l i d a r i t y , a nd he d i d n o t t o l e r a t e a n y d e v i a t i o n s . T o p c l y f f e was t h e s c i o n o f a p r o s p e r o u s L i n c o l n -s h i r e f a m i l y who w e r e d e v o t e d P r o t e s t a n t s , a n d he f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s f a c t . H i s a d v a n c e m e n t u n d e r t h e E l i z a b e t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e t o p -r a n k i n g p r i e s t h u n t e r . He was r e t u r n e d a s MP f o r B e v e r l y i n 1572, a n d a g a i n f o r O l d Sarum i n 1586. He was t h e n e m p l o y e d by L o r d B u r g h l e y i n a c a p a c i t y w h i c h r e m a i n s u n c l e a r , b u t o b v i o u s l y h a d a l o t t o do w i t h p e r s e c u t i n g C a t h o l i c s , as he f u n c t i o n e d a s a p o u r s u i v a n t most o f t h e t i m e . I n t h e e a r l y 1 5 9 0 ' s , T o p c l y f f e was o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d w i t h a c o m m i s s i o n a g a i n s t t h e J e s u i t s i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s d u t i e s a s j u d g e . B e f o r e h i s c a r e e r was o v e r , he h a d i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n p r i e s t 2 h u n t i n g i n e v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e c o u n t r y . 1 P.R.O. SP 12/190/62. 2 D.M.B. "Richard Topclyffe". See C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 247 #1? for Topclyffe's involvement in Yorkshire recusant examinations; for Nottinghamshire and Darbyshire, Calendar of the Shrewsbury & Talbot Papers (London: Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1966) 12 vols. V. II Folio 215. 45 T o p c l y f f e h a d two maxims: i t was e s s e n t i a l t o do a s much a s p o s s i b l e , a n d t h e e n d was a l w a y s w o r t h t h e means. C o n s e q u e n t l y , he h a d no c o m p u n c t i o n i n a p p l y i n g f o r a l i c e n c e 3 t o t o r t u r e C a t h o l i c s i n h i s own home. A c o n t e m p o r a r y d e s -c r i p t i o n o f h i m i s s u c c i n c t : "He was o l d a n d h o a r y a n d a v e t e r a n i n e v i l . " T o p c l y f f e r o u t i n e l y p r a c t i c e d c r u e l t y and d e c e p t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e made t h e B o r g i a s r e c o i l . A f t e r t h e a r r e s t o f one f a m i l y f o r h a r b o u r i n g p r i e s t s , he d i r e c t e d t h a t t h e m o t h e r be s e p a r a t e d f r o m h e r c h i l d r e n t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s : . . . hears that Mrs. Bellamy's two daughters are committed to the Gate-house, but that the old hen that hatched those chickens, the worst that ever was, is yet at a lodging. She should be sent to the Gatehouse, and kept from her daughters . . . Let them f e e l a day or two's imprison-ment; will then play the part of a true man, with charity in the end, 5 to the honour of the State. He t h e n w r o t e a c o m p l e t e l y d e c e p t i v e l e t t e r t o Mr s . B e l l a m y , 6 e x h o r t i n g h e r t o show " l o y a l t y a n d o b e d i e n c e . " I n t h e same c a T o p c l y f f e i s s a i d t o h a v e h a d one o f h i s e m p l o y e e s s e d u c e a B e l l a m y d a u g h t e r . The d e s i r e d e f f e c t was a c h i e v e d : t h e g i r l 3 U 5 6 C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 230 #57. John Gerard, Autobiography, 68. Topclyffe to lord Keeper Puckering, Sep. 1592. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 243 #26. Topclyffe to Katherine Bellamy, Sep. 1592. Published in John Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1822--) V. U 53. /6 became p r e g n a n t , was f o r c e d t o m a r r y T o p c l y f f e ' s man a n d 7 t u r n e d w i t n e s s f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n a g a i n s t h e r own f a m i l y . One t h i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t : T o p c l y f f e was c o n s c i o u s t h a t 8 n o t e v e r y o n e s h a r e d h i s " d i l i g e n c e " , a s he d e s c r i b e d i t . I n t h e l e t t e r c o n c e r n i n g M r s . B e l l a m y , he a d m o n i s h e d t h e w a r d e n , " N e i t h e r Mr. Y o u n g n o r a n y o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n e r must 9 know t h a t t h e w r i t e r h a s had a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h i t . " R i c h a r d Young was a f e l l o w m a g i s t r a t e and c e r t a i n l y p a r t o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . A nd y e t T o p c l y f f e d i d n o t t r u s t him. N e i t h e r d i d Ben B e a r d , who i n A p r i l 1594 w r o t e t o a f e l l o w s p y w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e a r r e s t o f a a r e c u s a n t t h a t he h a d e n g i n e e r e d . B e a r d " f e a r s i f J u s t i c e Young knows he i s t a k e n 10 by t h e w r i t e r ' s means, he w i l l t e l l t h e P a p i s t s o f i t . " The f a c t t h a t a man i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a n d w i t h o s t e n s i b l y t h e same l o y a l t i e s was b e i n g c i r c u m v e n t e d i n d i c a t e s a d i v e r -g e n c e o f o p i n i o n among t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . O b v i o u s l y , some had more s c r u p l e s t h a n o t h e r s . T h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e r e f l e c t e d t o some e x t e n t i n t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . Some --a l t h o u g h n o t many -- c o n c e d e d t h a t some r e c u s a n t s w e r e more 7 Although the source of this rumour is a Catholic one, it appears to be borne out by Topclyffe's correspondence. Strype, V. 4 53. 8 Topclyffe s note to examination of priest Robert Gray, Oct. 1593. P.R.O. SP 12/245/138. "Grey . . . was taken again by my diligence." 47 d a n g e r o u s t h a n o t h e r s . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h G e o r g e E g e r t o n , W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d w r o t e f o r t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a l i s t o f a r t i c l e s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o C a t h o l i c s d u r i n g e x a m i n a t i o n . T h e i r avowed p u r p o s e was " . . . t o d i s c e r n e t h o s e t h a t c a r r y t r a i t o r o u s m a l i g n e d m i n d s a g a i n s t H e r M a j e s t y f r o m t h o s e whose s i m p l i c i t i e i s m i s l e d b y i g n o r a n t o r b l i n d e z e a l . " The a r t i c l e s recommend s e v e r i t y t o w a r d t h e s e m i n a r y p r i e s t s , b u t c o n c e d e t h a t some P a p i s t s m i g h t be " . . . u n l e a r n e d and i g n o r a n t , a n d s o n o t c a p a b l y i n f o r m e d h e r e i n . " They s u g g e s t t h a t t o l e r a n c e m i g h t be e x t e n d e d t o t h e s e p e o p l e , b u t p r o v i d e no c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g i g n o r a n c e . They make no d i s t i n c -t i o n , e i t h e r , b e t w e e n p r i e s t s who w e r e o n l y p r a c t i c i n g t h e 12 C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n a n d p r i e s t s who w e r e p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e . One s e n s e s t h a t F l e e t w o o d a n d E g e r t o n f e l t t h e p r o c e s s was f u t i l e . A Roman C a t h o l i c was a t r a i t o r ; t h e o n l y q u e s t i o n was how i m p o r t a n t he was. Thomas N o r t o n , i n an e f f o r t t o e x p r e s s t o l e r a n c e , o n l y made t h i n g s w o r s e : Although i t may be true t h a t some Papists are not t r a i t o r s , because some men are seduced of simplicity or countenance, y et i t is also t r u e that there is no enemy to our Queen but he is a Papist, i f he be of any 13 religion at a l l . 9 Topclyffe to Puckering, Sep. 1592 C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 243 #26. 10 Beard to Jones, A p r i l 1594, P.R.O. SP 12/248/83. Fleetwood & Egerton to the Council, 20 July 1588. P.R.O. SP 12/212/70. 12 Quoted by J. Payne Collier, "Account of an MS by Thomas Norton, MP" Archaeologia 36 (1856) 105-119. 48 The p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i v i t y was n o t v e r y f a r a d v a n c e d , e v e n w i t h t h o s e who c h o s e t o e x e r c i s e i t . And f o r e v e r y man who a t t e m p t e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h among C a t h o l i c s , t h e r e was a n o t h e r l i k e R i c h a r d T o p c l y f f e who d e c l a r e d "my w i s h i s n o t t o h a v e a l l p a p i s t s t o be s h u t up", o n l y b e c a u s e " t h e p r i s o n s o f 13 a l l E n g l a n d c a n n o t r e t a i n them." ! T h e r e was c o n t i n u a l t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o a l l o w f r e e d o m o f w o r s h i p and t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a l l m a n i -f e s t a t i o n s o f C a t h o l i c i s m w e r e t r e a s o n o u s . M o s t o f t h e c o n f l i c t among t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s t h e m s e l v e s was p r o d u c e d by d i v e r -g e n c e o f o p i n i o n i n t h i s a r e a . The s p i e s , e s p e c i a l l y , w e r e v e r y much a f f e c t e d by t h e i r l o n g - t e r m a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . One o f t h e most e l o q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d p r e d i c a m e n t s was t h a t o f J o h n C e c i l , a l i a s Snowden, t h e s e m i n a r y p r i e s t who was a r r e s t e d a n d t u r n e d s p y . D u r i n g h i s i n i t i a l exam-i n a t i o n , Snowden s t a t e d t h a t " h i s p r i n c i p l e o b j e c t i n c o m i n g i n t o E n g l a n d was t o l i v e i n p e a c e i n h i s own c o u n t r y , a n d i n t h e f r e e e x e r c i s e o f h i s r e l i g i o n . " He was p r e p a r e d t o i n f o r m on S p a n i s h a f f a i r s , b u t o n l y s o L o r d B u r g h l e y c o u l d s e e "how h e m i g h t g a i n o v e r t h e p r i e s t s i n E n g l a n d t h a t w e r e e n e m i e s t o t h e S p a n i s h p r a c t i c e s , by a l l o w i n g them t h e f r e e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . " Snowden's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t " i t Topclyffe to the Lord Treasurer, 1590. Strype, V. U 53. 49 i s n o t s o i m p o s s i b l e a s i s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t t o be a good s u b j e c t , a n d a t t h e same t i m e a good C a t h o l i c " a n d t h a t many p r i e s t s ''would come o f t h e m s e l v e s , i f t h e y m i g h t h o p e f o r u l i b e r t y o f c o n s c i e n c e " was n o t h i n g s h o r e o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y . T h i s i s p r o v e n by t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i t t o o k t o n e g o t i a t e h i s r e l e a s e -- o b v i o u s l y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n t s w e r e n o n -p l u s s e d by t h i s man. D e s p i t e o b v i o u s r i s k t o h i m s e l f , Snowden c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s t o c o - e x i s t a s l o y a l s u b j e c t s . He a l s o h e l d , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c o u r a g e , t h a t a man's r e l i g i o n was n o t e n o u g h t o c o n v i c t h im o f t r e a s o n . He w r o t e t o C e c i l : 1 plead with you t h a t I cannot in conscience accuse a Catholic as a Catholic, or a priest as a priest unless he stande on the other legge and be a lowe member or e v i l subject to his prince and country. If this be expected I will neither see nor guard nor come near any but of t h a t l i t t l e money 1 have I will live poorly to myself t i l l the time serve to put 15 into p r a c t i c e . . . the important business you wot of. Snowden's f a t e i s a co m m e n t a r y on t h e f a t e o f r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n i n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d . He was u n a b l e t o s u s t a i n h i s c a r e e r a s a s p y a n d r e t u r n e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h i n a few y e a r s . O b v i o u s l y , h i s v i e w s w e re n o t a c c o r d e d a warm r e c e p t i o n by h i s e m p l o y e r s . Y e a r s l a t e r , he was t o d e f e n d 14 15 John Cecil's examination, 22 & 23 May 1591. P.R.O. SP 12/238/167-8. John Cecil to Robert Cecil, 1 June 1591. P.R.O. SP 12/239/2. 50 h i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s by s a y i n g : ... i f to procure by a l l honest, lawful, humble and p r a c t i c a l means, the conversion of souls and redress of our brethrens' calamities, i f to give to Caesar that which is Caesar's and to God that which is God's ... be treason, be spyery . . . such a spy I am, and will be t i l l death a f t e r 16 death. The f a c t was t h a t v e r y few o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e re a b l e t o " g i v e t o C a e s a r t h a t w h i c h i s C a e s a r ' s a n d t o God t h a t w h i c h i s God's." Too many t h i n g s s t o o d i n t h e way o f t h e i r d o i n g s o . J o h n Snowden, a s f a r a s s t a y i n g p o w e r was c o n c e r n e d , was a f a i l u r e . The men who s u r v i v e d i n t h e b u s i n e s s w e r e t h e s i n g l e m i n d e d o n e s , who h e l d c e r t a i n b e l i e f s w h i c h e n a b l e d them t o f u n c t i o n . And t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e x t e r m i n a t e Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . I t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s w e r e n o t t h i s b e n t on t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n , t h a t t h e y t a r g e t e d o n l y t h e Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s a n d l e f t 17 t h e l a i t y a l o n e . T h i s i s n o t t r u e . Of t h e 189 C a t h o l i c s e x e c u t e d d u r i n g t h e r e i g n , s i x t y - t w o , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e -18 t h i r d , w e r e l a y m e n . T h i s f i g u r e d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e many l a y m e n who were i m p r i s o n e d f o r r e c u s a n c y a n d who f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e s p i e s ' r e p o r t s . When a p r i e s t was c a u g h t , 16 John Ceci l , A Discovery of the E r r o r s Committed by a malitious  mythologie t i t l e d an apologie, and compiled by UJilliam C r i t o n pryest and professed jesuite (Montmartre: 1599) pp. 9-12. 17 J.E. Neale, Queen Elizabeth (London: J. Cape, 1950) 265; J.A. Froude History of England 12 vols. (London: J.uJ. Parker, 1856-70) 11 7-8. 18 J. Lecler, Historie de la Tolerance 2 vols. (Paris: Aubier, 1955) II. 308. 51 i t was common p r a c t i c e t o a l s o a r r e s t t h e p e o p l e who had b e e n s h e l t e r i n g h i m - women, c h i l d r e n , s e r v a n t s and a l l . T o p c l y f f e a d v o c a t e d no m e r c y . A t one p o i n t , he u r g e d h i s s u p e r i o r s n o t t o h e s i t a t e t o i m p r i s o n g e n t l e w o m e n : " . . . a n d s e e i n g f a r g r e a t e r i s t h e f u r y o f a woman o n c e r e s o l v e d t o e v i l , t h a n t h e r a g e o f a man, I humbly b e s e e c h y o u r L o r d s h i p , t h a t 19 t h e s e x o f women be n o t o v e r l o o k e d . " And e v e n i f t h e p r i e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e v i c t i m s , o n e must c o n s i d e r why. P r i e s t s w e r e n o t k i l l e d f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l d a n g e r a l o n e . They w e r e k i l l e d b e c a u s e w i t h o u t them t h e r e w o u l d be no more Roman C a t h o l i c s . T o p c l y f f e w r o t e an e n t i r e t r e a t i s e s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e l i m i n a t i n g p r i e s t s s o t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n w o u l d 20 n o t f l o u r i s h . Thomas N o r t o n was c o n v i n c e d t h a t w i t h o u t p r i e s t s . God's w o r d w o u l d m a n i f e s t i t s e l f p l a i n l y t o t h e Queen's s u b j e c t s : " . . . and f o r t h e d e l i v e r y a n d e x p e c t a t i o n o f i t , i t b e h o v e t h y o u , b e i n g no b e t t e r c l e r k e s t h a n y o u a r e , t o c r e d i t t h e w h o l e P a r l i a m e n t , t h e l e a r n e d c l e r g y o f t h e 21 R ealme, a n d t h o s e t h a t t e a c h y o u by t h e b o ok o f God." To s a y t h a t E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s o b j e c t e d t o C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s 19 Topclyffe to the Lord Treasurer, 1590. Strype, 4 53. 20 Richard Topclyffe. P.R.O. SP 12/235/8. ^ Thomas Norton, To the Queene's Majesty's poor deceived subjects  of the Morth Country (London: 1569) Sig. Fj v 52 p r o s e l y t i z i n g b e c a u s e i t was a g a i n s t s t a t u t o r y law i s f a c i l e . They o b j e c t e d t o p r o s e l y t i s m b e c a u s e i t i m p l i e d c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n . F a t h e r J o s e p h L e c l e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e E l i z a b e t h a n r e c u s a n c y l a w s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f p r i e s t s f r o m t h e k i n g d o m . " I t s p u r p o s e was . . t o d e s t r o y C a t h o l i c i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h e k i n g d o m by d e p r i v i n g i t 22 o f p r i e s t s . " T h i s t h e o r y o f d e p r i v a t i o n e x t e n d e d t o t h e o u t w a r d t r a p -p i n g s o f C a t h o l i c i s m . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s r e a s o n e d t h a t i f t h e y g o t r i d o f a l l t h e p r i e s t s a n d a l l t h e " t r i n k e t s " , t h e o l d r e l i g i o n w o u l d have n o t h i n g l e f t t o s u c c o u r i t a n d w o u l d g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . T h e y r e a l i z e d t h e y c o u l d n o t k i l l e v e r y C a t h o l i c i n E n g l a n d , a n d t h e y d i d n o t t r y . I n s t e a d , t h e y k i l l e d e v e r y f o r m a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Roman C a t h o l i c w o r s h i p t h e y c o u l d g e t t h e i r h a n d s on. A l l s u c c e s s f u l p r i e s t h u n t e r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s 23 p a r a p h e r n a l i a f o u n d d u r i n g a n a r r e s t . The g o v e r n m e n t was e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n how many r o s a r i e s , c r u c i f i x e s a n d m e d a l s i m m i g r a t i n g p r i e s t s b r o u g h t w i t h them, a n d f o r whom 24 t h e y w e re i n t e n d e d . I n J a n u a r y 1580, t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i s s u e d a l e t t e r e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n o v e r " P o p i s h a r t i c l e s " b e i n g 25 s o l d i n t h e C i t y a n d r e q u e s t i n g t h e t r a d e be c o n t r o l l e d . Lecler, Vol. I, 362. 23 P.R.O. SP 12/158/9; SP 12/245/138; SP 12/118/46-7. P.R.O. SP 12/151/5. 25 Acts of the Privy Council 12 256. 53 The p r i e s t h u n t e r s became p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e s e s o - c a l l e d "shows w i t h o u t s i i b s t a n c e " a nd w e re c o n v i n c e d t h a t i f t h e t a n g i b l e p r o o f s o f C a t h o l i c i s m c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d , t h e r e l i g i o n i t s e l f w o u l d e v a p o r a t e . T i e d i n w i t h t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e l i m i n a t e s y m b o l s was a g r o w i n g d i s t a s t e f o r Roman C a t h o l i c i s m a s a k i n d o f s o r c e r y t h a t b e w i t c h e d o t h e r w i s e l o y a l s u b j e c t s . The image o f some-t h i n g s i c k , e v i l , e v e n d e m o n a i c a l , i s v e r y p r e v a l e n t i n t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' w r i t i n g . A n t h o n y Munday r e f e r s t o p r i e s t s a s " w o l v e s i n s h e e p ' s c l o t h i n g " a nd s a y s t h e y a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r g o a l s w i t h : . . . threatenings, li e s of miracles of t h e i r Church, and stynking Reliques they show; they make our Englishmen bewitched by them, so they stand in as much awe to o f f e n d him [the Pope] as they do God, who is in heaven. For through his Indulgences granted to t h e i r Agnus Deis, t h e i r Beades, Crosses, and medals, they as veri l y think t h a t they redeem so many souls 26 out of Purgatory as the Pope doth set upon them at his blessing them. I n h i s a c c o u n t o f l i f e a t t h e E n g l i s h c o l l e g e i n Rome, Munday mocks v a r i o u s p r a c t i c e s o f t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h , a n d r e f e r s w i t h r e v u l s i o n t o s u c h t h i n g s a s g r a v e n i m a g e s , b e a d s a n d 27 p e n a n c e . G e o r g e E l l i o t t r e f e r s t o " P o p i s h r e l i c s " w i t h 26 27 Anthony Munday, The English Romayne Life 32-37. As above. 54 c o n t e m p t a n d t o h i s own f l i r t a t i o n w i t h C a t h o l i c i s m a s a s i c k d ream: " I m y s e l f a b o u t t h a t t i m e by t h e s p a c e o f one q u a r t e r o f a y e a r t o g e t h e r , was d e e p l y b e w i t c h e d and d r a w n i n t o t h e i r d a r k n e s s , a s t h e b l i n d e s t b a y a r d e o f them a l l . " B u t , he s a y s , "by God's e s p e c i a l g r a c e " , he ". . . p e r c e i v e d a l l t h e i r w i t c h e r i e s , f o r g e r i e s and e n c h a n t m e n t s t o be shows 28 w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c e . " A modern h i s t o r i a n n o t e s t h a t t h e s e i m a g e s o f i n i q u i t y and d e c e i t were n o t uncommon i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y : " . . . t h e A n t i c h r i s t i a n n a t u r e o f p o p e r y , summed up i n t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e P o p e a s A n t i c h r i s t , p r o v i d e d t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r a 29 w h o l e v i e w o f t h e w o r l d . " The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e re men o f t h e i r t i m e s i n t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c i s m was t o them f a l s e , e v i l a n d d e s e r v i n g o f e l i m i n a t i o n . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e l a w was i n e x -t r i c a b l y b o u n d up i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f C a t h o l i c s . As c h i l d r e n o f t h e A c t o f S u p r e m a c y , most o f them b e l i e v e d t h a t s i m p l y t o p r a c t i c e C a t h o l i c i s m was t o b r e a k E n g l i s h l a w , and t h e y v o i c e d t h e i r b e l i e f a t e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y . The k e y s t o n e f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y o p i n i o n was a p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d The E x e c u t i o n  o f J u s t i c e i n E n g l a n d a u t h o r e d by W i l l i a m C e c i l . C e c i l w r o t e i t i n r e s p o n s e t o C a r d i n a l A l l e n ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he t o o k p a i n s t o 28 George Elliott, A Very True Report, Sgg. A3 _ v 29 Peter Lake. "The Significance of the Elizabethan Identification of the Pope as Antichrist" Journal of Ecclesiastical History 31 (1980) 161-78. j u s t i f y t h e m e a s u r e s t a k e n . He i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l t h e C a t h o l i c s who h a d b e e n e x e c u t e d w e r e t r i e d l e g a l l y and condemned f o r v i o l a t i o n s o f s t a t u t o r y l a w . The J e s u i t s , he s a i d , w e r e b r e a k i n g t h e law i n t h a t : . . . the whole scope fo their secret labours is manifestly proved to be secretly to win all people with whom they dare deal so to allow of the Pope's said bulls and of his authority without exception as, in obeying thereof, they take themselves fully discharged of their allegiance and 30 obedience to their lawful prince and country. H e r e was t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r . To be a C a t h o l i c was i l l e g a l b e c a u s e i t demanded a n a l l e g i a n c e o u t s i d e E n g l a n d , i n d i r e c t c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e s t a t u t e s . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e f o r c e d t o u p h o l d t h e s e s t a t u t e s , b e c a u s e i t was t h e y and t h e i r f a t h e r s who h a d p a s s e d them t h r o u g h P a r l i a m e n t n o t s o v e r y l o n g b e f o r e . S i r N i c h o l a s B a c o n i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e Queen d i d n o t p r o s e c u t e C a t h o l i c s s i m p l y f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o n ; h o w e v e r , he saw n o t h i n g odd a b o u t p e n a l i z i n g r e c u s a n t s ( i e . t h o s e who r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d s e r v i c e s ) b e c a u s e " . . . i f t h e y h a d n o t g i v e n t h e r e b y m a n i f e s t o c c a s i o n by t h e i r o p en a n d w i l f u l c o n -t e m p t o f H e r M a j e s t y ' s l a w s t h e y h a d n o t been i n any w i s e 31 m o l e s t e d o r d e a l t w i t h a t a l l . " The v e r y c h o i c e o f w o r s h i p was t o B a c o n , and men l i k e h i m , a t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f t h e l a w . William Cecil, The Execution of Justice in England 8. 31 Nicholas Bacon, Speech to the Star Chamber, 15 June 1570. P.R.O. SP 12/71/16. 56 A n t h o n y Munday p l a y e d upon t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f C a t h o l i c s t o be l o y a l t o t h e Pope and a r g u e d t h a t t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e d t h e a b i l i t y t o be a good s u b j e c t . He i n s i s t e d t h a t Edmund C a m p i o n and h i s f e l l o w s w e r e n o t s i m p l e p r o s e l y t i z e r s , b u t w e r e s e n t i n t o E n g l a n d t o do t h e P o p e ' s b i d d i n g a nd t h e r e f o r e t o do t r e a s o n . The f i r s t s t e p t o s e d i t i o n , m a i n -t a i n e d Munday, was c o n v e r s i o n : The people must f i r s t be reconciled from thei r religion, to embrace the laws and decrees of the Poppe, then, they must be persuaded to forsake their duty and allegiance to Her Majesty, because she is excommunicated out of the Pope's Church and he hath freed them of any obedience they 32 should use to her. . . . When Edmund C a m p i o n a n d h i s c o n f e d e r a t e s came t o t r i a l , t h e y were c h a r g e d , s i g n f i c a n t l y , w i t h c o u n t s o t h e r t h a n c o n s p i r a c y . T h e s e i n c l u d e d " o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e r e l i g i o n now p r o f e s s e d i n E n g l a n d " , " p e r s u a d i n g a n d s e d u c i n g t h e Queen's s u b j e c t s t o t h e R o m i s h r e l i g i o n , o b e d i e n c e t o t h e Pope, f r o m t h e d u t i e s a n d a l l e g i a n c e t o h e r H i g h n e s s . " Campion a r g u e d t h a t p r o s e l y t i z i n g was n o t t a n t a m o u n t t o t r e a s o n , b u t i n v a i n . H i s r e f u s a l t o s w e a r t o t h e S u p r e m a c y was h e l d a g a i n s t h i m , h i s c o n v e r s i o n s 33 v i e w e d a s a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o p e r v e r t t h e Queen's s u b j e c t s . R e l i g i o u s a n d t e m p o r a l i s s u e s were s i m p l y t o o c l o s e l y i n t e r -32 Anthony Munday, A Brief Discourse of the Taking of Edmund Campion (London: 1582) Sig. A i i i r A Complete C o l l e c t i o n of State Trials 33 vols. Thomas Bayly Howell, ed. (London: T.C. Hansard, 1816-26) V. 1 1050-87. 57 t w i n e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d . I n t h e w o r d s o f a C a t h o l i c h i s t o r i a n : "From t h e y e a r o f E l i z a b e t h ' s e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e r s e c u t i o n became s o i n e x -t r i c a b l y b o u n d up w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f C a t h o l i c i s m came t o be r e g a r d e d a s i n i t s e l f d a n g e r o u s 34 t o t h e s t a t e . " S m a l l w o n d e r t h a t p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' r e p o r t s d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h p r o v i n g a man was a p r i e s t , a n d t h a t he was p r o s e l y t i z i n g . N o t h i n g e l s e was r e q u i r e d t o p r o v e s e d i t i o n . T h e r e was a l s o t h e i s s u e o f l e g a l means t o an e n d . What were t h e b o u n d a r i e s f o r p r i e s t h u n t e r s i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e i r d u t y ? The a l l o w a n c e s w e r e u s u a l l y g e n e r o u s , b u t t h e r e w e r e l i m i t s . When W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , i n h i s z e a l , b r o k e i n t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e a m b a s s a d o r ' s c h a p e l l o o k i n g f o r E n g l i s h m e n 35 a t t e n d i n g Mass, he was i m p r i s o n e d f o r i t . R i c h a r d T o p c l y f f e a l s o s p e n t a b r i e f t i m e i n p r i s o n , o s t e n s i b l y f o r h i s c r u e l t y 36 i n t o r t u r i n g C a t h o l i c s . B u t t h e y w e r e b o t h f o r g i v e n t h e i r t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and q u i c k l y r e s t o r e d t o f a v o u r . P r i e s t h u n t e r s w o r k e d i n d i s g u i s e and i t was c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s i t y ; p r i e s t s d i d t h e same and i t was c o n s i d e r e d p r o o f o f t r e a s o n o u s i n t e n t . T o r t u r e a n d e n t r a p m e n t w e r e common. No q u e s t i o n s w e r e e v e r r a i s e d a s t o how " e v i d e n c e " a g a i n s t C a t h o l i c s was o b t a i n e d . Thomas N o r t o n , who e a r n e d t h e e p i t h e t o f " t h e R a c k -m a s t e r " , h a d s o m e t h i n g t o s a y a b o u t t h e emp l o y m e n t o f 34 Meyer, 128-9. 35 P.R. Harris, "UJilliam Fleetwood . . ." Recusant History Gerard, Autobiography 101. 58 t o r t u r e i n t h o s e t i m e s . A c c o r d i n g t o h i m , s i l e n c e was c o n -s i d e r e d a s i g n o f g u i l t a n d t o r t u r e was e m p l o y e d t o b r e a k i t . Of A l e x a n d e r B r i a n , one o f C a m p i o n ' s f e l l o w s , he s a i d : " . . . i f he w o u l d n o t f o r h i s d u t i e t o God and t h e Quene t e l l t r u t h , 37 he s h o u l d be made a f o o t l o n g e r t h a n God made h i m . " D e s p i t e R o b e r t C e c i l ' s s t i f f w a r n i n g t o Snowden t h a t he " . . . c o u l d 38 n o t d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e l e a s t l a w made", i n r e a l i t y t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s d i s p e n s e d w i t h q u i t e a few. As h a s been s e e n , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t o l e r a n c e -- o r l a c k o f i t -- was t h e k e y t o t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' a t t i t u d e . S i m p l y p u t , t h e y had a n e x a g g e r a t e d v i e w o f t h e d a n g e r s o f r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . I n t h e i r m i n d s , d i s s e n t e q u a l l e d u n r e s t w h i c h e q u a l l e d s e d i t i o n w h i c h e q u a l l e d o p e n r e b e l l i o n on a l l f r o n t s . T h i s c o m p l e t e i n a b i l i t y t o a l l o w a n y m i d d l e g r o u n d i n t h e r e l i g i o u s i s s u e i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s ' d i l i g e n c e , f e r v o u r , e v e n b r u t a l i t y . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e y w e r e w i l l i n g t o u s e a n y means t o a r r e s t w h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e d a s a c a n c e r o u s g r o w t h i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . S i r N i c h o l a s B a c o n u s e d h i s powe r t o s t a m p o u t d i v e r s i o n o f o p i n i o n . He made a s p e e c h c o n c e r n i n g " s e d i t i o u s b o o k s " i n w h i c h h e e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r 37 38 Thomas Norton to Walsingham, 27 March 1582. P.R.O. SP 12/152/72. Robert Cecil to John Snowden, P.R.O. SP 12/239/3. v i g i l a n c e : . . . the bringing in of these books and seditious libels maketh mens' mindes to be a t variance one with another . . . d i v e r s i t y of minds maketh seditions, seditions bring in tumult, tumult maketh in s u r r e c t i o n and rebellion . . . and bring in u t t e r ruin and d e s t r u c t i o n of men's bodyes, 39 goodes and landes. O b v i o u s l y , i n d i v i d u a l i s m was n o t p r i z e d i n T u d o r E n g l a n d . Thomas N o r t o n , i n h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h e r n R e b e l l i o n o f 1569, i n s i s t s t h a t : ... a l l advises to great personages to persuade n e u t r a l i t y or an enter-tainment of c o n t r a r y sides in religion with uncertainty of countenance and favor, is the surest way to supplant assured safety, to make sure 40 enemies and unsure friends, to lie open to parasites and t r a i t o r s . W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d e x p r e s s e d t h e g e n e r a l v i e w when he s h o u t e d a t a p r i e s t on t r i a l , " T h e r e i s t r e a s o n e n o u g h p r o v e d a g a i n s t 41 t h e e i n t h a t t h o u a r t a p r i e s t . " A n t h o n y Munday's f a v o u r i t e theme was t h a t by p r o s e l y t i z i n g , J e s u i t s meant " t o be r e a d y i n t h e i r h e a r t s a n d m i n d s . . . t o j o i n t h e i r f o r c e s a s w e l l w i t h s u c h a s t h e i r h e a d s a n d s u p e r i o r s who s e n t them . . . o f p u r p o s e t o d e p r i v e H e r M a j e s t y o f h e r l i f e , c r o w n and d i g n i t y . Munday, l i k e many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e o n l y Bacon, Speech to the Star Chamber, 15 June 1570. P.R.O. SP 12/44/52. Thomas Norton, To the Queene's poor deceived subjects P.R. Harris, Recusant History Anthony Munday, An Advertisement f o r Truth (London: 1581) Sig. A i i r 39 40 41 42 60 s e d i t i o n i n E n g l a n d was i m p o r t e d a n d i t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o stamp o u t t h e s m u g g l e r s : " T h i s l i t t l e l a n d , God h a v i n g s o b o u n t i f u l l y b e s t w o e d h i s b l e s s i n g s upon i t , t h a t e x c e p t i t p r o v e f a l s e w i t h i n i t s e l f , no t r e a s o n w h a t s o e v e r , 43 c a n p r e v a i l a g a i n s t i t . . . " R i c h a r d T o p c l y f f e lumped a l l J e s u i t s a n d s e m i n a r i e s i n t o o ne t r e a s o n o u s m o l d : A l l men of experience 1 think have founde and seen that the Jesuits and Seminary priests be men taken out from amonge the most traitorous, and most bloodyminded wit that have l i b e r t y . . . every one of them that have returned over have done their best to provoke the Queen's subjects 44 to disobedience, rebellion and t r a i t o r o u s bloodletting. The e q u a t i o n was a b s o l u t e : C a t h o l i c i s m s p e l l e d t r e a s o n . Z e a l o t s t h e s e men m i g h t h a v e b e e n , b u t t h e y w e re z e a l o t s i n power, a n d t h e i r b e l i e f s f i l t e r e d down t h e p r i e s t h u n t i n g f r a m e w o r k . T a k e n t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s meant t h a t e v e n t h e m o s t i n n o c u o u s h a r b o u r e r o f p r i e s t s , e v e n t h e man who h e a r d Mass i n h i s own h o u s e , was a t r a i t o r b e c a u s e he was d i f f e r e n t . And he was h u n t e d down a c c o r d i n g l y . C o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e d e s i r e t o e r a d i c a t e C a t h o l i c i s m was a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t i t w o u l d n o t r e v i v e i n t h e n e x t g e n e r -a t i o n . A c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t was made by t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s t o 43 44 Munday, A Brief Discourse P.R.O. SP 12/235/8. 61 e n c o u r a g e e d u c a t i o n i n and a d h e r e n c e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h . T o p c l y f f e made a p e t p r o j e c t o u t o f l o c a t i n g a n d r e - e d u c a t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n o f r e c u s a n t f a m i l i e s , s e p a r a t i n g them f r o m t h e i r 45 p a r e n t s i f n e c e s s a r y . Thomas N o r t o n w r o t e an e n t i r e book " T o u c h i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s " i n w h i c h he makes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f E n g l a n d ' s y o u t h . He a d v i s e s t h a t r e l i g i o n be t a u g h t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s t a t -u t o r y law. He f u r t h e r p r o p o s e s : That twice or at the least yearly there be general summons of the whole university, in so manie thereof a t random, may be and the name of those absent to be noted and the partie to be apprehended and examined to purge himself by profession and other ways lest his forbearing were at 46 variance in religion. T h i s r e f l e c t s g o v e r n m e n t c o n c e r n t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e b r e e d i n g g r o u n d s f o r d i s s e n t . And t h e move t o r e f o r m e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e s c h o o l s . N o r t o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t e v e r y E n g l i s h m a n r e - e n t e r i n g t h e r e a l m be o b l i g e d t o t a k e an o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e ; t h a t J e s u i t s be p u b l i c l y p r o c l a i m e d f o r t h e k n o w l e d g e o f a l l , 47 and t h a t t h e m i n i s t r y be r e f o r m e d . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s i n power w a n t e d more t h a n p o l i t i c a l s a f e t y . They w a n t e d c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l , and t h e y e n v i s i o n e d a s o r t o f r e v e r s e U t o p i a , an i d e a l s o c i e t y w i t h no C a t h o l i c s i n i t . 45 Acts of the Privy Council 19 87-88. 46 An MS Book of Mr. Norton s Devises, included among the State Papers. P.R.O. SP 12/177/59. 62 C h a p t e r F o u r : P r o p a g a n d a -- The L e g a c y The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e men o f s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s . T hey a c t e d t h e way t h e y d i d b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e d i t was t h e r i g h t t h i n g f o r t h e i r s o v e r e i g n a n d c o u n t r y , o r b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e u n d e r s u c h d u r e s s i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o s a y no. The o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r d e e d s was, o f c o u r s e , t e r r i f i c . The C a t h o l i c s r e a c t e d t o what t h e y p e r c e i v e d a s u n m i t i g a t e d p e r -s e c u t i o n w i t h p u b l i c d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . D u r i n g t h e 158 0 ' s a n d 9 0 ' s , when p r i e s t h u n t i n g was a t i t s p e a k , t h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n r e a c h e d c r e s c e n d o s c a l e . C a t h o l i c s i n e v e r y c o r n e r o f E u r o p e r u s h e d i n t o p r i n t t o w a r n t h e i r f e l l o w s a b o u t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s , t o c r i t i c i z e them a n d t o combat t h e i r p u r p o s e s . F rom t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y t r a c t s a n d p a m p h l e t s , a n e n t i r e C a t h o l i c m a r t y r o l o g y was spawned w h i c h p a i n t e d t h e J e s u i t s a s b e l e a g u e r e d h e r o e s a n d t h e i r o p p o n e n t s as d e s p i c a b l e , u n n a t u r a l a n d m o n s t r o u s b e y o n d b e l i e f . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s , f o r t h e i r p a r t , r e s p o n d e d t o t h e c h a l l e n g e . I n o r d e r t o d e f e n d t h e i r f l a g g i n g r e p u t a t i o n s , many o f them t u r n e d a u t h o r t h e m s e l v e s . I n t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a mass o f t r a c t s a n d p a m p h l e t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l a n d j u s t i f y i n g t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s . T h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s w e r e s p o n s o r e d a n d f i n a n c e d by t h e E l i z a -b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t i n a n e f f o r t t o c o n v i n c e t h e ( l i t e r a t e ) 63 p o p u l a c e t h a t s u c h p e r s e c u t i o n was p o l i t i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y . From t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s grew a P r o t e s t a n t h i s t o r i o g r a p h y w h i c h g l o r i f i e d Queen E l i z a b e t h a n d h e r a d v i s o r s , s a n c t i f i e d t h e R e f o r m a t i o n and p a i n t e d C a t h o l i c s a s a t h r e a t t o n a t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . The two h i s t o r i o g r a p h i e s , C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , s u r v i v e t o t h e p r e s e n t day. The C a t h o l i c s had b e e n v o c a l l y c r i t i c a l o f E n g l a n d s i n c e t h e b r e a k w i t h Rome, b u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r i e s t h u n t e r s d r o v e t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a m a c h i n e t o t o p s p e e d . W i l l i a m C a r d i n a l A l l e n , d i r e c t o r o f t h e J e s u i t c o l l e g e s a t D o u a i a n d R h e i m s, d e c r i e d t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s i n E n g l a n d f r e q u e n t l y . He p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l b r o a d s i d e s a g a i n s t i t . The m o s t f a m o u s , m a i n t a i n e d t h a t C a t h o l i c s w e r e b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d f o r r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n s a l o n e , t h a t F a t h e r C a m p i o n was e x e c u t e d u n j u s t l y , and t h a t i t was n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f J e s u i t s t o s t i r up 1 p o l i t i c a l r e b e l l i o n . P e t e r H o l m e s , i n h i s w o r k o n t h e p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t o f E l i z a b e t h a n C a t h o l i c s , s e e s i t a s a 2 t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n t h e w r i t i n g o f C a t h o l i c p r o p a g a n d a . I t m arked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a more a g g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e E n g l i s h g o v e r n m e n t . I t i n t r o d u c e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h i n g s w e r e r o t t e n UJilliam Allen, A True, Sincere and Modest Defence of English Catholics Robert M. Kingdon ed. (Ithaca, M.Y.: Cornell, 1965) 6Q-65 & 117-20. 2 Peter Holmes, Resistance and Compromise: The P o l i t i c a l lhought  of the Elizabethan Catholics (Cambridge: CUP, 1982) 135. 64 i n E n g l a n d b e c a u s e o f t h o s e i n power, a n d w h i l e i t d i d n o t d i r e c t l y a t t a c k t h e Queen i t d i d s u g g e s t t h a t s h e was s u r r o u n -ded by e v i l a d v i s o r s who were i n d u c i n g h e r t o p e r s e c u t e i n n o c e n t s . A l l e n ' s A B r i e f e H i s t o r y o f t h e G l o r i o u s M a r t y r d o m  o f X I I R e v e r e n d e P r i e s t s i s a d i r e c t a t t a c k on t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s t h e m s e l v e s . H i s t h r e e m a i n t a r g e t s a r e A n t h o n y Munday and G e o r g e E l l i o t t (who d e p o s e d f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n a t C a m p i o n ' s t r i a l ) a n d Thomas N o r t o n (who d e p o s e d a t t h e p r i e s t O r t o n ' s ) . A l l e n r e v i l e s them a l l a s l i a r s , a n d r e f e r s t o " . . . f a l s e w i t n e s s e s a s o f t h e c h i e f p l a y e r s i n t h i s a c t i o n . L e t u s c o u n t t h e n o t o r i o u s and p u b l i c l i e s w h i c h t h e y have 3 u t t e r e d f o r f u r n i s h i n g t h e i r w i c k e d a c c u s a t i o n a n d e v i d e n c e . " P r i e s t s who h a d s p e n t t i m e i n E n g l a n d a n d e s c a p e d a d d e d f u e l t o t h e f i r e by p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r m e m o i r s , a p r a c t i c e e n c o u r a g e d by t h e C h u r c h . F a t h e r R o b e r t P e r s o n s ' m e m o i r s c o n t a i n d a m n i n g s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s , a s do U F a t h e r C h r i s t o p h e r G r e n e ' s , and F a t h e r R i c h a r d H o l t b y ' s . F a t h e r J o h n G e r a r d , i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l h i s s u f f e r i n g s a t t h e h a n d s o f t h e p o u r s u i v a n t s a n d a t t r i b u t e s 5 any m i r a c u l o u s e v e n t t o p e r s e v e r a n c e i n C a t h o l i c i s m . 3 William Allen, A Briefe History (Europe: 1582) Sig. Aiv. U J. Morris, Troubles of our Catholic F o r e f a t h e r s 121-22. 5 Gerard, 64-115. 65 i'he s p e e c h e s o f Edmund C a m p i o n a t h i s t r e a s o n t r i a l i n 1582 w e r e q u i c k l y p u b l i s h e d a r o u n d t h e C a t h o l i c w o r l d . Ke i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t E l l i o t t and Munday: What t r u t h may vou expect from t h e i r mouths, the one hath confessed himself a murderer, the other well known a detestable Atheist, a profane heathen, a destroyer of two men already. On your consciences would you believe them? They have betrayed both God and man, they that have 6 nothing to swear by, neither religion nor honesty. F a t h e r W i l l i a m C r i c h t o n p u b l i s h e d a p a m p h l e t d e n o u n c i n g J o h n Snowden a s a t u r n c o a . t p r i e s t ( h e was r i g h t ) . Thomas N o r t o n , 8 T o p c l y f f e and F l e e t w o o d w e r e a i l r e v i l e d by C a t h o l i c s . And t h e c o u n t e r - r e f o r m a t i o n p r o p a g a n d a d i d n o t l a c k w i l l i n g p r i n t e r s . W i l l i a m C a r t e r , whose C a t h o l i c s y m p a t h i e s w e r e w e l l known, was e v e n t u a l l y p r o s e c u t e d a n d hung f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n 9 o f s e d i t i o u s b o o k s i n L o n d o n . F l e e t w o o d p r e s i d e d a t h i s t r i a l . B u t d e s p i t e a l l e f f o r t s t o h a l t i t , t h e p r o p a g a n d a s p r e a d . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e g a l v a n i z e d i n t o a c t i o n . T h e y r e p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e i r a c c u s e r s . J o h n Snowden, h a v i n g r e t u r n e d -- a t l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y -- t o t h e C a t h o l i c f o l d , p u b l i s h e d i n .1599 a r e p l y t o F a t h e r C r i c h t o n ' s p a m p h l e t . Howell, State Trials 1071. Mentioned in preface to C e c i l , A Discovery of Some Errors 1. P.R.O. SP 12/152/72 & Gerard, 68. C.S.P.D. Eliz. V. 206 #92. b 7 8 9 He i n d i g n a n t l y d e n i e d a n y i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e b e t r a y a l o f S c o t t i s h C a t h o l i c s , s a y i n g he was o r i g i n a l l y t a k e n by f o r c e , and p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t " t o u c h i n g a h a i r on a C a t h o l i c h e a d . " 10 He i n s i s t e d t h a t he r e m a i n e d a t a l l t i m e s a g o o d C a t h o l i c , and a t t e m p t e d t o c o r r e c t some o f C r i c h t o n ' s i n a c c u r a c i e s . G e o r g e E l l i o t t p u b l i s h e d an a c c o u n t o f C a m p i o n ' s a r r e s t i n w h i c h he c a n d i d l y a d m i t s t o h i s r o l e o f p r i e s t h u n t e r . He s a y s t h a t a f t e r h i s l a p s e i n t o C a t h o l i c i s m , he made f u l l c o n f e s -s i o n t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a n d " f o u n d a t t h e i r h a n d s m o s t h o n o u r a b l e d e a l i n g . " T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by p r o p a g a n d a o n r o y a l j u s t i c e a n d me r c y a s o p p o s e d t o t h e P o p e ' s t r e a c h e r y . E l l i o t t c o n c l u d e s h i s a c c o u n t d e f i a n t l y , s a y i n g "Some men b l a m e me f o r d i s s e m b l i n g t h e m a t t e r a s I d i d , b u t t o do my P r i n c e and c o u n t r y s e r v i c e , I h o l d i t l a w f u l t o u s e a n y 11 r e a s o n a b l e p o l i c i e s . . . . " A n t h o n y Munday was a P r o t e s t a n t h a c k w r i t e r o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r . I n t h e 1 5 8 0 ' s a l o n e , he p r o d u c e d a t l e a s t n i n e pamph-l e t s o n s u b j e c t s r a n g i n g f r o m C ampion's a r r e s t t o t h e r o l e o f 12 m a g i s t r a t e s i n t h e commonwealth. M o s t o f t h e s e w e r e j u s t i -f i c a t i o n s o f h i s r o l e i n Ca m p i o n ' s p e r s e c u t i o n . M unday's John C e c i l , A Discovery of Some Errors 9. George E l l i o t t , A Very True Report Sgg. Ba-B3. S.T.C. #18259-18281. 67 w r i t i n g f o s t e r e d t h e i d e a t h a t J e s u i t s a n d s e m i n a r i e s were a d i r e c t p e r s o n a l t h r e a t t o t h e s o v e r e i g n ; t h a t Campion and h i s c o n f e d e r a t e s w e re condemned f o r h i g h t r e a s o n , n o t f o r r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n s ; a n d t h a t C a t h o l i c s who owed a bond t o t h e Pope c o u l d n e v e r be c o u n t e d upon t o be g o o d E n g l i s h m e n . H i s s t a t e m e n t s w e re t h e p r e c u r s o r o f a P r o t e s t a n t v i e w p o i n t w h i c h was t o s t i c k t h r o u g h h i s t o r y . The p r o m i n e n t p r i e s t h u n t e r s w r o t e p r o p a g a n d a a s w e l l . W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d made a n i m p a s s i o n e d s p e e c h t o t h e G u i l d h a l l i n O c t o b e r 1571, o c c a s i o n e d by r e c e n t t r o u b l e i n t h e N o r t h . He p l a y e d u p o n e v e r y L o n d o n e r ' s f e a r o f f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e d p e o p l e t o i n f o r m t h e g o v e r n m e n t i f t h e y o b s e r v e d H s t r a n g e b e h a v i o u r . Thomas N o r t o n p u b l i s h e d h a l f a d o z e n a n t i - C a t h o l i c t r a c t s . He i s s u e d a t h u n d e r i n g w a r n i n g a g a i n s t P a p i s t s : Every such English Papist is a traitor to the Queen of England, and hateth her life, wisheth the alteration of her government, and liveth in hope of another world . . . Every such English Papist is a special traitor to the realm of England, and hath no regard into what slavery, conquest, 15 subjugation to foreign tyranny, dishonour or other misery it be thrown. . . . Anthony Munday. An Advertisement for Truth U The Effect of the Declaration Made in the Guildhall (author unknown) (London: 1571) Sgg. Bii-Biii. 1 5 Thomas Morton, To the Queen's Majesty's Poor Deceived Subjects 68 The E l i z a b e t h a n g o v e r n m e n t d i d an e f f e c t i v e j o b o f d i s -t r i b u t i n g P r o t e s t a n t p r o p a g a n d a . I t s p o s i t i v e m e a s u r e s i n c l u d e d w i d e d i s s e m m i n a t i o n o f r o y a l p r o c l a m a t i o n s , s p o n s o r s h i p o f r e l i g i o u s p a m p h l e t s and s e r m o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n o f A n g l i c a n p r a y e r s a n d numerous d e f e n c e s by L o r d B u r g h l e y o f E l i z a b e t h ' s 16 f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The n e g a t i v e m e a s u r e s were t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t C a t h o l i c p r o p a g a n d a d i d n o t g e t t h e u p p e r h a n d : p r i e s t h u n t i n g i t s e l f , t i g h t e n e d c u s t o m s r e g u l a t i o n s t o p r e v e n t i m p o r t i n g o f f o r b i d d e n b o o k s , a n d a p p o i n t m e n t o f p r i e s t h u n t e r s t o k e y c e n s o r s h i p p o s i t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , F l e e t w o o d became a c o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e r e f o r m o f a b u s e s i n p r i n t i n g ; N o r t o n t h e l i c e n s e r o f t h e L o n d o n p r e s s ; and N i c h o l a s B a c o n t o o k a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f s e d i t i o u s m a t e r i a l . D u r i n g t h e 1580's , a t l e a s t f o u r p r o c l a m a t i o n s w e r e i s s u e d 17 i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . The E l i z a b e t h a n p r o p a g a n d a m a c h i n e was e v e r y b i t a s p o w e r f u l a s t h e C a t h o l i c one, a n d i t s e f f e c t s w e r e t o p r o v e j u s t a s p e r m a n e n t . On t h e C a t h o l i c s i d e , t h e p r o p a g a n d a w a r w o u l d p r o d u c e a c o m m i t m e n t t o m a r t y r o l o g y w h i c h h a s n o t y e t a b a t e d The m e m o i r s o f t h e J e s u i t p r i e s t s who s u r v i v e d t h e i r t e r m i n E n g l a n d p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r a number o f d e t a i l e d w o r k s Conyers Read, "William Cecil and Elizabethan Public Relations" Elizabethan Government and Society S.T. Bindoff ed. (London: Athlone Press, 1961) 21-55. 17 S.T.C. #7754.8-8172. on t h e J e s u i t m i s s i o n t h e r e . The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c h i s t o r i a n , J o h n L i n g a r d , m a i n t a i n s t h a t E l i z a b e t h I.'s g o v e r n -ment t r i e d t o t a k e a r o a d o f r e l i g i o u s c o m p r o m i s e a n d f a i l e d , u n a b l e t o do more t h a n s t r i k e down t h e r a d i c a l s on b o t h s i d e s . " B u t " , s a y s L i n g a r d , " t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e P u r i t a n s b o r e no c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h o s e o f t h e C a t h o l i c s . " He g o e s on t o e x p o u n d on t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f C a t h o l i c s i n E n g l a n d a n d t o u n d e r -18 t a k e a l e g a l d e f e n c e o f C a m p i o n . I n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , A.O. M e y e r ' s E n g l a n d a n d t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h u n d e r  Queen E l i z a b e t h became t h e s t a n d a r d C a t h o l i c w o r k o n t h e p e r i o d . M e y e r i n s i s t e d t h a t C a m p i o n ' s t r i a l was r i g g e d a nd i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e w i t n e s s e s f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n : "Men were p r o d u c e d a s w i t n e s s e s a g a i n s t t h e p r i e s t s who w e r e r e n e -g a d e s a n d h a d b e t r a y e d t h e i r c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s . " He b l a m e s " t h e p u r i t a n s " f o r m o s t o f i t , w i t h W a l s i n g h a m a t t h e i r h e a d . M e y e r g o e s t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o j u s t i f y t h e J e s u i t s ' r e l u c -t a n c e t o be f r a n k u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a nd o b v i o u s l y h a s a h a r d t i m e w i t h a p o s t a t e p r i e s t s . He f i n a l l y d i s m i s s e s them a s u n f o r t u n a t e b y - p r o d u c t s who c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e known 19 what t h e y w e r e d o i n g . M e y e r ' s w o r k h a s b e e n f o l l o w e d by a number o f l e a r n e d s t u d i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c i s m , among them 18 Lingard, V. 6, pp. 328-40. 19 Meyer, pp. 150-51. 70 20 t h o s e o f F a t h e r P h i l i p Hughes and F a t h e r J o s e p h L e c l e r , S . J . T h e s e w o r k s a r e s c h o l a r l y b u t s t i l l c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t h a t t h e y a s s i g n a l l t h e i n t e r e s t t o t h e p e r s e c u t e d and none t o t h e p e r s e c u t o r s . And e v e n t h e most r e c e n t w o r k i n E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i s f o l l o w i n g a p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n . The e x p e r t s a r e now a r g u i n g o v e r " t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f E l i z a b e t h a n C a t h o l i c i s m b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e c o m i n g o f t h e s e m i n a r y 21 p r i e s t s " r a t h e r t h a n e x a m i n i n g t h e e f f o r t s t o d e f u s e what s t r e n g t h E l i z a b e t h a n C a t h o l i c i s m d i d p o s s e s s . A g a i n , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on t h e h u n t e d , n e v e r t h e h u n t e r s . The P r o t e s t a n t p r o p a g a n d a a l s o p r o d u c e d a r i c h h i s t o r i o -g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n . J o h n F o x e s e e s t h e a c c e s s i o n o f E l i z a b e t h 22 I a s a m i r a c u l o u s l y h a p p y e n d i n g t o h i s A c t s and Monuments. Camden's A n n a l s ( 1 6 3 5 ) m i g h t be q u o t i n g one o f C e c i l ' s pamph-l e t s v e r b a t i m : Re Seminaries: The Queen and her Counsel found that they were sent unaerhand to withdraw the Subjects from t h e i r allegiance and obedience due t h e i r Prince, to binde them by Reconciliation, to perform the Pope's commitments, to raise intestine rebellions ... to the end that way might be made for the Pope and the Spaniard, who had of late intended the 23 conquest of England. Philip Hughes, The Reformation in England 3 vols. (London: Hollis & Carter, 1952-54) V. 3 297-8 & 308-11. Also J. Lecler, Histoire Vol. 2 362-5. 21 For examples of this controversy, Christopher Haigh, "Revisionism, Reformation and the History of English Catholicism" 3.E.H. 36 (1985) 394-405; P. McGrath & J. Rowe, "The Marian P r i e s t s under Elizabeth l" Recusant History 17 (1984) 103-121. 71 I n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d e f e n s e o f E l i z a b e t h a n p o l i c y was s t i l l p o p u l a r . James A n t h o n y F r o u d e , a h i s t o r i a n d e v o t e d h i m s e l f t o t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e 1559 r e l i g i o u s s e t t l e m e n t h a d f o r m e d a m i d d l e r o a d w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o t o l e r a n c e : "The m o d e r a t e s o f b o t h p a r t i e s c o u l d meet a n d w o r s h i p u n d e r i t s a m b i g u o u s f o r m u l a . . . Z e a l o t s who c o u l d n o t be s a t i s f i e d m i g h t p a y a f i n e f o r t h e i r p r e -24 c i s i o n , a n d h a v e t h e i r s e r m o n s and s a c r a m e n t s a t home. He a l s o e n d o r s e d t h e G l o r i a n a image o f a w i s e and f a r s i g h t e d Queen s t e e r i n g E n g l a n d t h r o u g h t r o u b l e d t i m e s : " H e r t h e o r y was two c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e i t s t i m e . . . She r e c o g n i z e d f o r a t i m e t h a t h e r w r e s t l e w i t h S p a i n was a m o r t a l o n e , a n d 25 t h a t s h e must w i n o r pe r i s h . " The t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w o r k on E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n h a s o n l y s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e G l o r i a n a image. Her most f a m o u s 22 John Foxe, Acts and Monuments 8 vols. (Reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1965; London: 1632-41) Vol. 8. 23 UJilliam Camden, Annales 3 vols. 3rd ed. (London: 1635) V. 3 216-17. 24 Froude, V. 11, 7-8. 25 Froude. V. 11, 9 & 616. 72 b i o g r a p h e r v o i c e s i t t h u s : There was no greater tribue to the tolerance, sagaciy and masterful nature of Elizabeth than her choice of such ministers as UJalsingham. She chose them for their a b i l i t y , their honesty and their unshakeable loyalty. Even in their intensity they were the expression of the England she was nurturing, and i f like thoroughbreds they were hard to ride, 26 she was a pe r f e c t horsewoman. M a r y Queen o f S c o t s ' e x e c u t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d a s a n u n f o r t u n a t e b u t n e c e s s a r y t r a g e d y . Of t h e B a b i n g t o n P l o t : " I s i t a n y wonder 27 t h a t a wave o f p a s s i o n a t e i n d i g n a t i o n s w e p t o v e r P r o t e s t a n t E n g l a n d ? " I t w o u l d be no w o n d e r t o t h e E l i z a b e t h a n P r o t e s t a n t s b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d h a v e w r i t t e n t h e s e w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s . The a d u l a t i o n o f t h e s o v e r e i g n , t h e w i s e a d v i s o r s , t h e d a n g e r p o s e d by t h e C a t h o l i c s t o E n g l a n d a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y t o s t r i k e b a c k -- a l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p r o p a g a n d a a r e s t i l l i n p l a c e f o u r h u n d r e d y e a r s l a t e r . B u t t h e C a t h o l i c h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i s no more i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t s o r i g i n s . The same i d e a s p r e v a i l , t h e r e , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , t h a t d i d f o u r h u n d r e d y e a r s ago i n t h e b r o a d s i d e s 26 27 IMeale. Queen Elizabeth 228-9. INieale 265. 73 o f C a r d i n a l . A l l e n a nd F a t h e r P e r s o n s . C a m p i o n ' s w o r d s a t h i s t r i a l a r e t h e s t u f f o f l e g e n d , w h i l e t h e men who c o n -demned h i m a r e s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d u n s p e a k a b l y d i a b o l i c . T h i s i s t h e l e g a c y l e f t by t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s a n d t h e i r w o r l d - - a b a r r a g e o f p r o p a g a n d a w h i c h h a s p e r p e t u a t e d i t s e l f , w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s , t o t h e p r e s e n t day. B e n e a t h t h e m a s s e s o f b o o k s , p a p e r s , p a m p h l e t s , s p e e c h e s and s e r m o n s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l t r a c e s o f t h e men who b e g a n i t a l l . The r e m a r k a b l e t h i n g i s n o t t h a t t h e t r a c e s a r e s o few, b u t t h a t we h a v e f o u n d them a t a l l . M o s t men l e a v e s o m e t h i n g o f a p a p e r t r a i l a f t e r t h e i r d e a t h s ; t h e one s t a r t e d b y t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s i s n o t f i n i s h e d y e t . 74 C o n e l u s i o n I w i s h t o c o n c l u d e by d e c l a r i n g w h a t t h i s p a p e r i s n o t . I t i s n o t a m o r a l j u d g e m e n t on t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s . N o r i s i t a m o r a l j u d g e m e n t on t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n C a t h o l i c s . T h o s e j u d g e m e n t s a r e a s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e n d e r now a s t h e y w e r e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s p a p e r j_s an e x p l o r a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f p e o p l e who had g r e a t r e p e r c u s s i o n s on t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . I f t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s h a d n o t e x i s t e d , t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n a q u i e t e r p l a c e . N o t t h a t i t w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e b e e n C a t h o l i c . Some h i s t o r i a n s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n came 1 t o E n g l a n d b e a r i n g t h e s e e d s o f i t s own d e s t r u c t i o n . B u t w o u l d i t h a v e b e e n s o c o m p l e t e l y d e f e a t e d w i t h o u t t h e s e men? One w o n d e r s . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h s o f C a t h o l i c s who m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e gone f r e e . They e l i m i n a t e d p r i e s t s , a n d t h e r e f o r e p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n , on a w i d e s c a l e . They e n c o u r a g e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f P r o t e s t a n t e d u c a t i o n . And t h e y c r e a t e d a b ody o f w r i t t e n s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h spawned E l i z a b e t h a n h i s t o r i o g r a p h y a s we h a v e known i t f o r 1 Christopher Haigh, 395. 75 c e n t u r i e s . T h i s i s no mean a c c o m p l i s h m e n t f o r men who h a v e 2 b een d e s c r i b e d a s "a number o f s e e d y and d i s r e p u t a b l e c h a r a c t e r s . " They m i g h t h a v e been s e e d y a n d d i s r e p u t a b l e . T h e y m i g h t have b e e n b i g o t e d , c r u e l a nd c o e r c e d . B u t t h e y do n o t d e s e r v e t o be d i s m i s s e d a s t h e t o o l s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n whose o n l y g o a l was t o p r e s e r v e p o l i t i c a l u n i t y . I t i s n o t t h a t t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s d i d n o t b e l i e v e R e f o r m a t i o n p r o p a g a n d a . M o s t o f them d i d . B u t t h e y w e re d o i n g more t h a n t h a t , and t h e y knew i t . A t t h e m o s t b a s i c l e v e l , t h e y were h u n t i n g down a n d d e s t r o y i n g Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i n E n g l a n d . They d i d t h i s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e g e n u i n e l y u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h r e l i g i o u s f r o m p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t . To t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r , u n i f o r m i t y was s u r v i v a l . T h i s b e l i e f makes them v i r t u a l l y i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e modern min d . And i t i s t h e b e s t r e a s o n why t h e y c a n n o t b e j u d g e d . L o n g a f t e r t h e p r i e s t h u n t e r s w e r e d e a d o r g o n e i n t o h i d i n g , t h e i r l e g a c y r e m a i n e d . T h e i r c o m p l e t e u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o m p r o m i s e p r o d u c e d a f o r m o f r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e w h i c h was t o l a s t f o r c e n t u r i e s . I f one i s t o u n d e r s t a n d why Roman C a t h o l i c s w e r e s t i l l f i g h t i n g t o h o l d p u b l i c o f f i c e a n d t o s i t i n P a r l i a m e n t i n t h e r e i g n o f Queen V i c t o r i a , one must go b a c k t h r e e h u n d r e d y e a r s t o t h e s e men. The R e f o r m a t i o n 2 Meyer 171. 76 p r o d u c e d o n l y t h e i d e a s o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m , a nd t h e b r e a k f r o m Rome p r o d u c e d o n l y t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f r o y a l s u p r e m a c y . The p r i e s t h u n t e r s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e n f o r c e m e n t . L i k e m o s t e n f o r c e r s o f t h e l a w , t h e y w e r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d t h e m s e l v e s , u s u a l l y u n p o p u l a r , and s o m e t i m e s h a t e d . B u t t h e w o r k c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n done w i t h o u t them. 77 B i b i i o g r a p h y P r i m a r y S o u r c e s 1. A c t s o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l o f E n g l a n d New S e r i e s , J.R. D a s e n t e d. 32 v o l s ( L o n d o n : H.M.S.O., 1890-1907) 2. C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e P a p e r s , D o m e s t i c S e r i e s , D o m e s t i c S e r i e s  o f t h e R e i g n s o f Edward, M a r y , E l i z a b e t h a n d James I 1547-1625 ( L o n d o n : Longman, Brown, G r e e n , Longmans a n d R o b e r t s , 1856-72) 3. C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e P a p e r s , F o r e i g n S e r i e s , o f t h e R e i g n  o f E l i z a b e t h I ( L o n d o n : Longman & Co. 1870--) 4. C a l e n d a r o f t h e M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e M a r q u e s s o f S a l i s b u r y ,  p r e s e r v e d a t H a t f i e l d House ( L o n d o n : H.M.S.O. , 1915) 5. C a l e n d a r o f t h e S h r e w s b u r y a n d T a l b o t P a p e r s ( L o n d o n : H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s C o m m i s s i o n , 1966) 2 v o l s . 6. C a t h o l i c R e c o r d S o c i e t y , M i s c e l l a n e a I I ( L o n d o n : C a r l e t o n , 1906) 7. C e c i l , J o h n , A D i s c o v e r y o f t h e E r r o r s C o m m i t t e d . . . by a m a l i t i o u s m y t h o l o g i e t i t l e d a n a p o l o g i e , a n d  c o m p i l e d b y W i l l i a m C r i t o n p r y e s t a n d p r o f e s s e d j e s u i t e ( M o n t m a r t r e , 1 5 9 9 ) . 8. C e c i l , W i l l i a m , The E x e c u t i o n o f J u s t i c e i n E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : 1 5 8 2 ) . 9. D'Ewes, S i r S i m o n d s , A C o m p l e a t J o u r n a l . . . o f t h e H o u s e  o f L o r d s a n d House o f Commons t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e r e i g n o f  Queen E l i z a b e t h ( L o n d o n : J o n a t h a n R o b i n s o n , 1708) . 78 10. The E f f e c t o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n Made i n t h e G u i l d h a l l by  Mr. R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n A u t h o r unknown. ( L o n d o n : 1 5 7 1 ) . 11. 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