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The role of vision in Les caracteres Brown, Margaret Ellen 1989

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THE ROLE OF VISION IN LES CARACTERES By MARGARET ELLEN BROWN B.A., York University, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 (c)Margaret Ellen Brown, 1989 MASTER OF ARTS in In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Les Caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle, written by Jean de La Bruyere at the twilight of the seventeenth century has been both hailed as a brilliant study of human nature and dismissed as the malicious revenge of a jealous court figure. Such variety in criticism is to be expected of an author who, by painting precise portraits of members of his society, illuminates the depths to which human nature has fallen in a decadent age of material opulence, social frivolity and moral debility. What Jean de La Bruyere presents is man's relationship with his peers rather than with himself as did Pascal. This study examines the vast tableau of the observers and the observed whose very existence depends on seeing and being seen. It highlights the author's skillful depiction of the members of society who spend much of their time watching each other: examining, scrutinizing, judging, mocking, condemning and imitating. Visual references and vocabulary such as the verbs of seeing ("voir", "remarquer", "observer", "paraitre") and nouns of sight ("yeux", "oeil", "vue") abound in the text and are included as Appendix A as extensive textual evidence of the self-reflective nature of La Bruyere's society. This study examines the visual aspects of the social relationships of the textual heroes, the visual bonds between the King and his court, the optique of the author as astute observer of men and perceptive judge of the psychological significance of the visible, and the moral implications of the prominence of the "act of seeing" in society. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv PART I: The act of seeing Chapter 1. Les Caracteres: Portrait of a self-reflective society ... 1 Chapter 2. La Bruydre's Vision and its cultural context 13 PART II: The Ocular code Chapter 3. The King and eye/I 34 Chapter 4. Society's ocular code 53 PART III: Eye to eye Chapter 5. The Observed 77 Chapter 6. The Observer 90 CONCLUSION: La Bruyere the spectator 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 112 APPENDIX A. Concordance of visual vocabulary 118 APPENDIX B. Definition of "les yeux" (Binet, 1621) 135 iv A CKNO WLEDGEMENT I am grateful to the many excellent professors who shared their love of literature with me. Specifically however, I extend my heartfelt appreciation to Dr. Richard Hodgson who lit up a 1985 undergraduate seventeenth century course with his energy, humour and knowledge; four years later, this thesis is testimony to the excitement he brings to literature and the commitment he makes to education. To Dr. Bruce Carpenter, whose insights on the eighteenth century enriched my appreciation of all literature, my thanks too for his perceptive and apt comments on this thesis. To my husband Herb Capozzi, whose refreshing approach to the written word amazes and impresses me, whose interest in my studies has been unfailing, whose pride in me has helped me continue, I truly thank him. And to Willie, my best friend, thanks for keeping me company so that all those cloistered hours spent reading and writing became the very best time of my life. 1 PART 1: The act of seeing CHAPTER 1 Les Caracteres: Portrait of a self-reflective society Preciosity ... seems to flourish most luxuriantly at the point in its history when a civilization has reached its cultural zenith and is beginning to follow a downward spiral ... Gracian is one of the most cosmopolitan of Spanish writers ... That he should have made a special appeal to the French is not surprising. His realism, cynical wit and love, if not of clarity, of concision, soon found a discriminating public in the land of La Bruyere and La Rochefoucauld. L.B. Walton, Baltasar Gracian. The Oracle.1 The memorialist Saint-Simon pinpointed a particular year in the late seventeenth century as the cultural zenith of the French nation under the monarchical domination of Louis XIV. Historians such as G.R.R. Treasure recognize the accuracy of this date and its political and literary implications: "The year 1688 marks the apogee of the reign of Louis XIV, the height of his glory and prosperity." Saint-Simon's date has a significance in literature too. The great writers were almost silent. 1 L.B. Walton, Baltasar Gracian: the oracle. (New York, W. Salloch, 1953) 17,22. 2 G.R.R. Treasure, Seventeenth Century France. (London: Rivingtons, 1966) 495. 2 Almost silent: rustling in the ominous literary quiet described in the history books, a remarkable voice was heard that year, a voice that whispered of tales behind the "glory and prosperity" of the Sun King's court. Like a prophet forecasting doom for the imperial power that was to begin its relentless descent into darkness, that voice belonged to Jean de La Bruyere and his work was Les  Caractdres. published in 1688. Destined to be his only major work, this collection of portraits, maximes and reflections leaves a chilling legacy of a meticulous depiction of contemporary life in France's most powerful circle, of its most influential people, drawn from a privileged perspective: one who belonged to that inner circle. As a member of the CondS household, France's second family, La Bruyere was an intimate of the Court; his testimony incriminates the French aristocrats and bourgeois who lived only to play society's games, but much more, it reflects upon the universal qualities of man as his ethics and morality are consumed by the hunger for riches and power. Far from a noiseless entry into the cultural whirl of that inauspicious year of 1688, Les Caract&res created a maelstrom of controversy that rocked the society of its time. It was after all, a book about society, and it appealed to that desire in all of us to read about ourselves. Secondly, it talked about one's neighbours, about familiar faces. Thirdly, it was an exquisite literary gem. Le succes fut immediat. Les adversaires de La Bruyere ont tous soulign<§ que ce fut un succes de scandale et que l'on se pr€cipita pour acheter le livre, afin d'en trouver les cl6s... La BruySre devient rapidement un auteur a la mode... 3 J P. Kuentz, Introduction. Les Caractferes ou les Moeurs de ce Steele. By Jean de La Bruydre. (Paris: Bordas, 1976) 5. 3 Egotism and curiosity created an immediate audience for La Bruyere. He directed his ruthless ridicule at the "heroes" of his text and provided them with a mirror which forced them to see themselves as they had never seen before. In addition to this revelatory looking glass, La Bruyere did more than merely hold up a mirror; he painted a detailed tableau that showed how the customs and mores of the day were eating away at man's soul. The society whose fundamental principle was collectively self-reflective, "qui occupait son oisivete a se montrer et a se regarder" * was simultaneously attracted and insulted by the criticisms of La Bruyere. At the root of the success and acceptance in 1688 of Les Caracteres was the knowledge that the inspiration for the text was reality. Its subsequent success however relies on a a delicate balance of philosophy, literary artistry and social history, as Antoine Adam expresses in the Postface of Les Caracteres: Cet aspect des Caracteres n'est d'ailleurs pas celui qui interesse le plus les lecteurs d'aujourd'hui. Ce n'est pas plus l'oeuvre d'un philosophe que celle d'un historien qu'ils y voient avant tout. C'est l'ensemble d'images curieuses, etonnantes, fortement dessinees, qu'il met sous nos yeux. C'est a ses dons d'evocation qu'ils trouvent leur joie, aux qualites pittoresques des scenes qu'il decrit, a la vivacite de ses portraits. 5 The link between reality, its perception and La Bruyere's representation and the reflection of both of the foregoing, depends to a great extent on the larger issues that must be addressed: the optique of the writer and the observations of the observers. As Adam suggests, La Bruyere puts lively ' E. Lavisse, Histoire de France. Vol VII, (Paris: Colin, 1911) 231. 5 Antoine Adam, Postface (1975). Les Caracteres ou les Moeurs de ce Siecle. By Jean de La Bruyere. (Paris, Gallimard, 1965) 459. 4 images in front of our eyes: what the author sees is rendered in a visible style - he insists that we see what he sees. The visual presentations in Les  Caracteres are essential to the complexity, subtlety and unity of the text as a whole. What did La Bruyere see around him? What did he want his readers to see? What were his contemporaries looking at and why? What did he want his readers to see themselves seeing? What are the textual clues that perform the necessary functions of identifying real people and actual situations and distinguishing real from imaginary? Did La Bruyere attempt to reproduce reality in Les Caract&res? Is the reproduction of reality an essential goal of the text? The answers to these questions will substantiate the importance of the theme of "sight" to Les Caracteres. La Bruydre weaves a thread of continuity through his text that ties together the disparate fragments in order to create a visual tapestry of the decadent morals of seventeenth century society, of the influence of its omnipotent sovereign, and of its author's unique insight. The intersection of these essential elements contributes to La Bruyere's prominent position in French literary tradition that resonates with visual signage: In France in particular, the domination of visual experience and the discourse of sight seems to have been especially strong. Whether in the theatrical spectacle of Louis XIV's court, the emphasis on clear and distinct ideas in Cartesian philosophy, the enlightening project of the philosophes, or the visual phantasmagoria of the "city of light", the ocularcentric character of French culture has been vividly apparent. * The evidence of this ocularcentric character in Les Caracteres performs a 11 Martin Jay, "In the Empire of the Gaze: Foucault and the Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-century French Thought" Foucault: a critical reader. Ed. David Couzens Hoy. (New York: Blackwell, 1986) 176. 5 dramatic technical function as a structural link between the fundamental coherence of the text and its philosophic and social statement: the visual elements forge concrete links between the fragments of Les Caracteres. synthesizing them into a coherent and visual textual unit. Roland Barthes drew attention to the visual nature of La Bruyere's fragments when he referred to Les Caracteres as "le scraps-book [sic] de la mondanite: c'est une gazette intemporelle, brisee, dont les morceaux sont comme les significations discontinues du reel continu." 7 La Bruyere's social puzzle comes together as the misshapen, disparate pieces fit into the author's visual presentation of the many faces of humanity. A powerful psychological portrait emerges of the complexity of individual insecurities, material hunger, social fears and spiritual shallowness that haunt man as he leaves behind the feudal society that cradled him in the security of its static identity. Les Caracteres is a captivating photographic compilation that justifies in part the warning of Barthes against the art form of the Photograph: "when generalized, it [an image] completely de-realizes the human world of conflicts and desires, under cover of illustrating i t . " 8 In fact, when we become aware of the preponderance of visual vocabulary in Les Caracteres, the heroes that populate the text are often de-humanized, generalized and reduced in La Bruyere's scrapbook of humanity to ephemeral images of faces and eyes. ' Roland Barthes, "La Bruyere". Essais critiques. (Paris: Seuil, 1964) 234. 8 Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Trans. Richard Howard. (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1988) 118. 6 The fragmentary nature of the text also creates a substantial problem for a succinct methodology of analysis, for there is no narrative line that can be traced episodically. A. Lanavere recommends that Les Caracteres be read like a book, in a continual fashion, almost as if it were a story: Les Caracteres demandent a §tre lus comme un livre, c'est-a-dire de facon suivie ... une lecture suivie du livre fait surgir en nous un monde ou erre un homme a notre image ... Cette lecture suivie, ou nous devons interpreter un texte qui, selon les lois du genre, ne d6veloppe pas une thSorie mais en indique les implications concretes tout en y renvoyant de maniere oblique... 5 This is then a text to interpret, not to follow: in this new and unfamiliar environment, the reader must sharpen his sensual perceptions, sensitize himself to nuances, and seize images that continually float by him. A text that communicates in a circular rather than linear fashion, Les Caracteres has confounded many readers over its three century life. Odette de Mourgues acknowledges that there has been "almost universal reproach directed against Les Caracteres ... the apparent untidiness of the work, its lack of unity, its lack of pattern." 1 0 She considers the text to be "a kind of diary which spread over twenty years of the author's life and when he noted at different times in different ways the different topics which interested him at a given moment." 1 1 The reader must pursue random thoughts instead of narrative development or theoretical precision. 3 A. Lanavere, "La Bruydre". Dictionnaire de Litteratures de lanque  francaise. Ed. J.P. de Beaumarchais, D. Couty, Alain Ray. (Paris: Bordas, 1987) 1241-2. 1 0 Odette de Mourgues, Two French Moralists. La Rochefoucauld and La  Bruyere. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978) 96. 1 1 de Mourgues, 98. 7 Roland Barthes too expressed difficulty in labelling the discourse of Les  Caracteres: Recit manque, metaphore masquee...c'est un livre de fragments, parce que precisement le fragment occupe une place interm6diaire entre la maxime qui est une metaphore pure, puisqu'elle definit...et l'anecdote, qui n'est que recit...mais il cesse bient6t des qu'il menace de tourner a la fable. 1 2 These comments express the universal difficulty in approaching the text as a continuous, flowing work. It is obvious however that the text, whether diary, "text suivi" or false narrative/masked metaphor, is unified by a common bond; it may well be that the imperceptible glue that binds the text together is the scope of visual imagery and metaphor that recur often and with dramatic impact throughout the text. The genesis of Les Caracteres is particularly pertinent to our awareness of the importance of the visual nature of the text; the continual changes made by La Bruyere indicate his determination and ability to focus ever more sharply on the issue that concerned him most deeply: man in his social context. The thematic pivotal point was in 1689, in the fourth edition, noted by Louis Van Delft in his rigorous genetic analysis of Les Caracteres: Dans l'ensemble de l'edition IV, l'enquete sur l'homme est plus large et plus variee... Themes nouveaux, curiosity plus grande... 1 3 Not only did La Bruyere include more portraits and maximes, but his tone became more ascerbic as he took direct aim at his human targets. Antoine Adam notes this development in his introduction to Les Caracteres: 1 1 Roland Barthes, "La Bruyere". Essais Critiques. (Paris: Seuil, 1964) 234. 1 3 Louis Van Delft, La Bruyere: Quatre etudes du moraliste. (Geneve: Droz, 1971) 28. 8 Non seulement les "portraits", jusqu'alors eu nombreux, se multiplient. Mais les reflexions consacrees plus particulierement a la peinture des moeurs du temps donnent a l'ouvrage un sens nouveau et une saveur satirique. 1 4 La Bruyere's satiric criticism of society depends on the whole of the text forming a unit, like a huge mural that depends on the intricacy of each brushstroke to reveal an infinity of details. These details must intermingle so intricately that the whole society takes on a new meaning from the unity of its parts. Edward Knox explains the structural cohesion of Les Caracteres despite the apparent fragmented composition of portraits, maximes and pens£es: In a work whose overall structure of organization remains highly problematic, this fundamental coherence of caractere pattern ... remains a basic reference point and locus of meaning, one which generates not only the "air de famille" among the caracteres, but the sense as well of a unified vision of man in society. 1 5 The similarity in appearance of the textual heroes, often physically described as faces and eyes, adds to the family feeling of Les Caracteres that Knox describes, a family whose portrait is sketched in outlines. More particularly, the fundamental coherence and the "unified vision" are due to the similarity of visible traits, of the manner in which these people use their eyes, and the manner in which we perceive them. It is not accidental that La Bruyere chose for himself the label of painter: "Tout l'esprit d'un auteur consiste a bien definir et a bien peindre." (Ouvrages 1 4 Antoine Adam, Postface. Les Caracteres ou les Moeurs de ce siecle. (Paris: Gallimard, 1975) 451. 1 5 Edward C. Knox, Patterns of person: Studies in Style and Form from  Corneille to Laclos. (Lexington: French Forum, 1983) 60. 9 de l'esprit, 14) 1 6 His painting is a literary creation that relies on the linking of strokes of different colours, shapes, textures and shading. Unity is achieved through integration of the technical fragments in combination with a thematic consistency that renders the painting whole, that communicates the painter's inner thoughts to the viewer. The bond between material fragmentation, thematic intent and congruent style enables the author to communicate his cynicism so vividly. In attempting to work in a concrete format, La Bruyere succeeds in solidifying abstract concepts: in that most abstract of environments, society itself, he succeeds in concretizing the intangible qualities of man's waning ethics and his materialistic morality. The literary painter captures the essence of the social being in a highly fluid medium, on a moving canvas. Many of the literary critics who have painstakingly analyzed his work have also applied the term "painter" to describe La Bruyere. For Louis Van Delft, the term "painter" is interchangeable with "author" when describing the skill with which La Bruyere presents his "model" in the portrait form: Le personnage qu'il d4peint s'anime d'une vie qui lui est propre. Sans doute, il est d'abord imitation du reel. Mais ensuite, vivant de sa vie autonome, il rend au peintre l'inestimable service de lui faire oublier le module pitoyable qui lui a donne naissance. 1 7 1 6 Jean de La Bruyere, Les Caracteres ou les Moeurs de ce siecle. Ed. Robert Garapon. (Paris: Gamier Freres, 1962) 70. 1 7 Van Delft, 35. 10 Van Delft develops Julien Benda's description of La Bruyere as "l'annonciateur de l'impressionisme contemporain" 1 8 by emphasizing the vigorous, impulsive and fragmented quality of his impressionist tableau: II n'adopte, pour peindre les hommes, aucun angle privilegie, a la maniere d'un Bossuet, ecrivant l'Histoire. II brosse de la societe un tableau purement impressionniste, ne suit que sa verve ou son caprice, et aboutit a une fragmentation, a une divergence illimitees. In Andre Maurois' study of the modern quality of the "morceau" from La Bruyere to Proust, the coherence of the impressionists' paintings is applied to the fragmentation of Les Caracteres: Nous en sommes venus a penser qu'il est fort difficile de construire un systeme du monde, que les pensees intelligentes ne sont pas necessairement liees, ou du moins que leur coherence n'apparait point au premier regard, et nous acceptons rimpressionnisme ^tteraire comme nous avons accepte rimpressionnisme des peintres. The label of La Bruyere as an impressionist artist assists in linking the sometimes disconcerting fragmentary nature of the text with the overwhelming textual importance of vision. In a commentary on the technical process involved in impressionist painting, Germain Bazin noted that when "Les Poseuses", by the painter Georges Seurat in 1887, were observed under a microscope, "that the touches are not so much juxtaposed as disposed in different layers and linked i a Julien Benda, Introduction. Oeuvres completes: La Bruyere. (Paris: Pleiade, 1951) xix. 1 9 Van Delft, 54. 2 0 Andre Maurois, De La Bruyere a Proust. (Paris: Fayard, 1964) 29. 11 together like the weave of a fabric". 1 The result of the weaving of various layers is that the perceived unity of the work overrides specific brushstrokes. Their [impressionist painter Seurat and his companions] systemization of the Impressionist procedure of disengaging strokes shifted the artist's interest from the subject painted to the mechanisms of optical perception. Painting began to play with the retina. 2 2 Similarly, La Bruydre's text plays with our retina. Louis Van Delft noted that Les Caracteres were made for the eye: Dans le m§me ordre d'idees, ce qui frappe encore, dans le monde de La Bruy6re, c'est la primaute du concret. C'est un univers fait pour l'oeil. 2 3 Les Caracteres is a visual textual world, impressionistic in style but classical in content. Thus La Bruyere straddles two centuries of cultural history; he paints with the technical inventiveness of an impressionist and with the singular clarity demanded of a seventeenth century artist who has chosen his society as his model. A.J. Krailsheimer considers Les Caracteres to be the most accurate portrayal of social man at the end of the seventeenth century: ... if we want to know what it felt like to be alive in the dawn - and sunset too - of le roi Soleil, La Bruyere is the man to tell us ... In their chosen field of observation, the Caracteres range much more widely than the aristocratic Maximes, and even the Pensees ... In La Bruyere the canvas is fuller and more representative ... Even allowing for a generation's development it is remarkable how often La Bruyere's observations confirm and amplify those of his 1 1 Jean Clay and Josette Contreras, "Romantic Tumult, Impressionist Calm, and Modernist Innovation (19th-20th Centuries)", The Louvre. (Paris: Hachette, 1980) 290. 2 2 Clay, 250. 2 3 Van Delft, 75. predecessors. l i La Bruyere's own self-portraiture as painter, and the obvious similarities to the impressionist style, reinforce the importance of vision in Les Caracteres; A painting cannot be heard. It has no odour. If touched, it will be destroyed. A painting can only be appreciated by the sense of sight: the eyes must awaken all the other senses. The power of La Bruyere's tableau must be communicated through the eyes: La Bruyere's, his heroes' and ours. It will be our task to identify and underline this unifying force of powerful and dominant visual images that float through the text, fusing one image onto the next. Visual images build on each other. In their diversity of angle, of scope, of distance and time, it is the visual impression that gradually imprints on our consciousness. La Bruyere draws our attention over and over again to the faces of those who populate his world; faces that were familiar in 1688, but that were intended to stretch out into time and touch the future. With an eye like a camera that sees all, then backs away into the lighted shadows, La Bruyere pans the faces of the men and women of society, adjusts the focus and captures on the page what he sees in their eyes. 2 4 A.J. Krailsheimer, Studies in self-interest from Descartes to La Bruyere (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962) 196. 13 CHAPTER 2 La Bruyire's vision and its cultural context Long accounted the "noblest" of the senses, sight traditionally enjoyed a privileged role as the most discriminating and trustworthy of the sensual mediators between man and world. Whether in terms of actual observation with the two eyes ... or in those of internal mental speculation, vision has been accorded a special role in Western epistemology since the Greeks. Although at times more metaphorical than literal, the visual contribution to knowledge has been credited with far more importance than that of any other sense. Martin Jay, "In the Empire of the Gaze"1 The first lines of a text often contain the key to the entire text. For La Bruyere, the "Preface" constitutes the true beginning of his text, not the opening chapter, "Ouvrages de l'esprit". In fact, the first two lines of the "Preface" form a diminutive model of Les Caracteres that establishes all the important data upon which the text builds; Les Caracteres hinges upon these first two key phrases, as does our analysis of the vision and visual technique of La Bruyere. Jay, 176. 14 The meticulous selection of vocabulary is a fundamental element of the technical structure and the textual nuances of Les Caracteres; it is widely acknowledged that La Bruyere always searched diligently for the exact word: Pour La Bruyere, comme pour la plupart des ecrivains modernes, il s'agit de ... technique de l'expression litteraire, art des mots, de la phrase ou du paragraphe, maltrise des effets du langage .... L'ecriture est choisie selon un plan delibere, qui calcule ses effets, les surveille, les conduit jusqu'au but fixe. 2 The deliberate selection of words in the very first sentence of the "Preface" underscores La Bruyere's focus on the public, on his role as painter and on the revelatory role of his text. For emphasis here and throughout this analysis, we have underlined the essential five words which identify these major functional components: "Je", "public", "regarder", "portrait" and "d'apres nature". They represent the thematic threads that are introduced at this critical point of literary departure: Je rends au public ce qu'il m'a prete; j'ai emprunte de lui la matiere de cet ouvrage: il est juste que, l'ayant acheve avec toute l'attention pour la verite dont je suis capable, et qu'il merite de moi, je lui en fasse la restitution. II peut regarder avec loisir ce  portrait que j'ai fait de lui d'apres nature, et s'il se connait quelques-uns des defauts que je touche. s'en corriger. 3 Syntactical guideposts signal key elements of Les Caracteres: the pronominal subjects, the choice of nouns, verbs and adjectives combine to construct a specific image in the reader's mind. The role of the pronouns for example, must be considered in light of the personally perceptive and representative task facing La Bruyere. 2 Jacques Mercanton, Le Siecle des grandes ombres. (Paris: Bertil Galland, 1981) 94. 3 La Bruyere, 63. The very first word of Les Caracteres is "Je". La Bruydre's first and foremost thought is to inform the readers that the text is "his". "I" am doing something in this text; "I" have written it, "I" am the active subject. The prominent position of the pronoun "je", as the premier word of the entire text, underscores the personal involvement of the author: there will be no doubt that whatever this text is, it is La Bruydre's creation. The object of the first sentence, "le public" is equally important. The seventeenth century implications of the word "public" are critical to our understanding of the author's intentions; in the Furetiere dictionnary of 1690, the "public" is "un terme relatif et collectif oppose a particulier-, se dit aussi de ce qui est connu et manifests a tout le monde".* In the seventeenth century, the public was opposed to the individual: it is an imprecise syntactical differentiation between singular and plural. Three centuries of use have further defined "le public" to the extent that the Petit Robert dictionary of 1982 equates it with other collective nouns: "l'etat, la collectivite; les gens, la masse de la population". 5 The opposition between individual and crowd has dissipated, and the "public" becomes a part of an accepted social group, a collectivity, a mass of people. This important difference in nuance enables us to distinguish more clearly the layers that overlap in Les Caracteres as a result of the conceptual ambiguity of the "public". As we shall see, in Les Caracteres, the individual is often opposed to the public, in a particularly visual format. A. Furetiere, Dictionnaire universel (La Haye: n.p., 1690) N.pag. Paul Robert, Le Petit Robert Dictionnaire. (Paris: Le Robert, 1982) 1563. 16 From the intensely personalized beginning of "I", the immediate passage to a large anonymous body of people stresses the vivid contrast that fulfills two essential functions for La Bruyere-. firstly, the quantitative antithesis that is evident in the first four words, continues throughout the entire text in a myriad of situations; secondly, and more pertinent to our analysis, the subject and object of the Les Caracteres (La Bruyere and the "collectivity" of society), are brought together sharply in our focus. Each will be further defined as the social context takes form later in this study, as both are rendered increasingly visible by La Bruyere. We must appreciate then the significance of the verbs "preter/emprunter" that together denote an uncertainty of the possession of the object. Les  Caracteres does not present a religious treatise or a thesis based on self-aggrandizement in the manner of Pascal or La Rochefoucauld, both of whom lay claim to their own objective ingenuity; instead, La Bruyere "borrowed". La Bruyere's "borrowing" is tied to the concept of the importance of visual representation in the seventeenth century, expressed by Dreyfus and Rabinow in their study of representation in the classical age: There was a world created by God, existing by itself. The role of man was to clarify the order of the world. He did this, as we have seen, by way of clear and certain ideas ... Man clarified but did not create...6 La Bruyere, intent on clarification, on edification, saw what others could not see; he then returned it in a form which could be seen: a text, a tableau. ' Hubert L. Dreyfus and Raul Rabinow, "The Illusion of Autonomous Discourse." Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. (Chicago.- University of Chicago Press, 1982) 20. La Bruyere proudly declares his non-originality. By crediting society with being the source of his work, he avoids the label of plagiarist so despicable to him (see Ouvrages de l'esprit, 62). He suggests, by the use of "prater" and "emprunter" that society willingly gave him something, that there was an acquiescence on the part of the subject, that society was aware of its own visibility, of its own "publicness". That the final picture is unflattering, is irrelevant. What is relevant is the implied covenant between subject and painter, between society and La Bruyere. In terms of La Bruyere's own fundamental analogy, it is as if society "sat" for him enabling him to draw his devastating group portrait. It is La Bruyere himself who originates this analogy of the writer as artist, and it is La Bruyere who describes his literary talents as artistic abilities. In the second sentence of his "Preface, he invites the public to look at "ce portrait que j'ai fait de lui d'apres nature". He does not refer to a "mirror" that he is holding up: rather, to a painting that he has drawn, "que je touche". A mirror reflects only what it sees, it makes no judgment on what it reflects. A portrait comments on what it reflects, it makes a judgment on what it sees. This critical distinction between a painting and a mirror lies at the root of a question that has engrossed many critics, that of the "real-life" quality of Les  Caracteres. If the text were nothing more than a mirror, then La Bruyere would have failed in his efforts. His explicit goal was to produce a painting that would make a comment. A comment on what is seen: what is seen by the Prince, what is seen by the public which is seeing the prince, which is seen by the viewer, as seen in the portrait, as seen by La Bruyere. 18 There is substantial evidence that La Bruyere's style imitates the subject that he paints. Odette de Mourgues acknowledges the importance of vision to Les Caracteres as she rejects the notion of La Bruyere solely as a stylist 7: But to call La Bruyere a stylist is not in itself, a satisfactory explanation. Style does not exist in a vacuum. A certain way of saying things corresponds to a certain way of seeing them and the fascinating quality of La Bruyere's writing may well reside in the way - or ways - he chose to look at men and at life: the curious angles of vision, the parcelling out of topics, the unexpected and puzzling shifting of the camera, from the close-up to the panoramic scene, from earth to heaven. 8 With La Bruyere's "certain way of seeing things", with his curious perspective, with his camera panning his contemporaries, Les Caracteres mirrors this visual foundation. This subtle "mise en abyme" of visual inspiration and visual reproduction enables La Bruyere to profit from the fragmented style to reflect the "cruel" social fragments that are his subject. By means of La Bruyere's finely-tuned perceptions and his ability to reproduce textually these visual impressions, he creates a work that is metaphorically rich, dramatically shadowed and visually haunting. In her analysis of La Bruyere's "style cruel", Doris Kirsch outlines the vital interplay between the author's optique and the nature of his subject: La Bruyere declare vouloir "remarquer" plut6t que legiferer, et cette difference d'intention est refletee dans les partie ularit^s de son style: style superficiel parce qu'il decrit une realite concrete, varie et pittoresque parce que caique sur la vie quotidienne des hommes, discontinu enfin, parce que fidele au rythme, forcement ' Michael Koppisch, in The Dissolution of Character (Lexington: French Forum Publishers, 1981), p. 112: "La Bruyere's new understanding of man and his new way of portraying him are rather the result of the writer's encounter with his art... What changes his experience of mankind is not the human encounters recorded in a biography, but his encounter with man on the written page." 8 de Mourgues, 95. inconsistant, du ph£nomene "remarque". s It is this "phenomene remarque", this visual stimulus of the reality of human behaviour, that inspires La Bruyere to create an equally vital visual text that will enable men to recognize themselves in his portrait. In the "Preface", La Bruyere draws the attention of the "public" to the portrait he has drawn "d'apres nature". Reminiscent of the Italian movement in Italy fifty years earlier, when Caravaggio earned artistic respectability by his reliance on "realism", Les Caracteres relies on this same "realism". Names, faces, places, all are ruthlessly specified by La Bruyere. His goal however, was not solely a scathing reproach of these individuals; rather he intended his individual portraits to broaden into a general moral lesson from which all men could learn: "sans que mon livre ne perde beaucoup de son etendue et de son utilite, ne s'ecarte du plan que je me suis fait d'y peindre les hommes en general..." (Preface) 1 0 As significant as the first two lines of his "Preface", the lines with which he ends the "Preface" are equally so, since they complete the circle and illuminate the clarity and concision of the fundamental message of the text: "je consens, au contraire, que l'on dise de moi que je n'ai pas quelquefois bien  remarque. pourvu que l'on remargue mieux." (Preface) 1 1 Thus the verb "remarquer", reinforced by its repetition and application in the first and third ' Doris Kirsch, La Bruyere ou le style cruel (Montreal: U. of Montreal Univ. Press, 1977) 26. 1 0 La Bruyere, 62. 1 1 La Bruyere, 65. person singular, in the past and present tenses, links La Bruyere the writer who observes, with "i t " the public who will observe: the subject is linked textually and grammatically with the object, and both are linked syntactically by the verb "remarquer". This reinforcement of the act of seeing and its prominent climactic position in the author's final personal words, affirms and foreshadows the prominence of the lexicon of vision that pervades Les  Caracteres. La Bruyere's stated objective in the "Preface" then, must be considered in the light of the variety and accumulation of the expressions of "seeing" in Les Caracteres. To teach men to "remarque[r] mieux", to see more clearly, to be wiser, takes on a more profound meaning. The contemporary definition of this sense of sight provides fundamental reasons for the visual nature of Les Caracteres. Furetiere's dictionary of 1690 defines "remarquer" as follows: remarquer: observer, considerer ce qui a quelque chose de  sinqulier, d'extraordinaire, de notable; apercevoir, reconnaitre de  petites choses; noter et faire reflexion sur quelque chose qui nous  servira dans la suite; prendre garde a quelques signes ou marques  dont nous avons besoin. 1 2 An essential and subjective aspect of each definition illuminates the contemporary nuances of the act of seeing. Cumulatively, it is not enough to just see; simultaneously one must also contemplate, judge and assess. Objective neutrality does not suffice: "remarquer" means to enter into the arena of the mind where one must strive to reach a verdict on the object's uniqueness, notability, relative size or value: to observe or "remarquer" is to make a judgment. Furetiere, REM. 21 The comparison between the seventeenth century implications and our present connotation indicates the more powerful role that the word "remarquer" must have played for La Bruyere. The Petit Robert dictionary (1980) gives the following definition for "remarquer": 1. Avoir la vue; l'attention attir^e ou frapp6 par quelque chose. V. apercevoir, constater, d^couvrir, observer. 2. Exprimer une remarque. 3. Distinguer particuli6rement (une personne parmi d'autres). 1 3 The subjective and judgmental capacity of "remarquer" has been reduced in modern times; judgment is no longer a function of the eyes when engaged in the act of seeing. A direct and simple contact is made with the object in sight, the eyes are merely conductors of external visual stimuli to the brain or mouth. The personal link between subject and object disappears, as the absence of Furetiere phrases such as "sur quelque chose qui nous servira dans la suite", " marques dont nous avons besoin" testifies. This comparison illustrates a fundamental element of the author's cultural complexion: in the seventeenth century, the verb "remarquer" combines its visual function with an additional moral obligation to linger over what is seen. What one notices ("remarquer") in Les Caractdres is social behaviour, what one judges ("contemple") is the individual. The functional connection between the act of seeing, the necessity of judging, the result of knowledge, lends a sociological and psychological richness to La Bruyere's skillful and subtle focus on the eyes of his contemporaries. His observations of society evolve into an indictment of men and women who cannot or will not "see", thus cannot "know" Petit Robert Dictionary. Ed. Paul Robert. (Paris: Le Robert, 1982) 1655. 22 and "judge", and whose philosophical blindness dooms social interaction to frivolous theatrical displays of preciosity. Similarly, an excellent Racinian study provides contemporary background on the function of the eyes at the time Les Caracteres is written. Leo Spitzer analyzes Racine's preoccupation with the act of seeing in the "recit de Theramene" in Phedre.-With Racine, the words for "seeing" are always fraught with connotations of intellectual clarification and cognizance ... The preferential place given to "sight" in comparison with the other senses, as we find it in Racine, is the continuation of an Augustinian and medieval trend of thought: cognizance, love, sin all come through the sense of senses, the eye. ^ It is clear then, that sight performs the major sensory/intellectual role for Racine, who relies on visual perception of events partly to remain within the bounds of theatrical rules of decency, and largely to augment the dramatic impact of the spectacles. Spitzer acknowledges explicitly the key role that the act of seeing plays for the great seventeenth century playwright: This insistence on the act of seeing, whether physical or "transposed", which is not isolated in Racine, cannot fail to impress us with the importance of "sight" for Racine's Weltanschauung ... we cannot brush aside as "poetic formulae" such phrases as "l'oeil d'un pere" as "un pere", or the repetition of voir ... 1 5 As in Racine's plays, Les Caracteres contains a myriad of references to "les yeux/l'oeil", to the "face" which is often synonomous with eyes and literally hundreds of uses of the verbs to see: "remarquer", "observer", "regarder", and "voir" (which, for example, occurs over 350 times). The occurrences of the 1 4 Leo Spitzer, Linguistics and literary history: Essays in stvlistics. (new York: Russell & Russell, 1954) 130. 1 5 Spitzer, 105. 23 visual lexicon are listed in the attached Appendix A, which attests to the frequency of the words of sight. Numbers alone however, do not adequately reveal La BruySre's profound dependence on the sense of sight, nor do they illustrate its social implications for the "caracteres", for the textual heroes who interract according to a complex visual code. This visual code was firmly embedded in the psyche of man by 1688, the beneficiary of more than half a century of revolutionary discoveries in the optical field. In L'Oeil surpris. Francoise Siguret documents the effect that the perceptions of the eye had upon cultural representations, specifically theatre and painting, in the first half of the seventeenth century: II est certain qu'il faut attendre le d6but du XVIIe siecle en France, pour que la physique de l'oeil conduise bient6t l'histoire de la pens6e vers une mStaphysique de la perception, ... l'histoire de la peinture vers le trompe-l'oeil et l'anamorphose, l'histoire du theatre vers une introspection du regard. Comme si l'oeil. au centre d'un  homme nouveau. r^velait cet homme a sa raison, le surprenant microscopiquement dans le secret de ses mouvements et de ses passions ou les derives de son imagination. Comme si l'oeil. tendu  hors de l'homme, a travers lentilles et miroirs, lui r6v61ait sa  petitesse dans 1'uniyers, frappant tout son §tre connaissant dans le secret de sa vanit6. l b In 1688, the modern introspection of "le regard" was fifty years old; by 1637, Descartes had published many scientific treatises relating to the eye specifically and to sight in general. The eye was now the centre of "modern" man, it was capable of revealing previously-hidden universal truths. It is in this era of optical discovery that La Bruyere wrote his visual text. In addition to the fragments of Les Caracteres in which La Bruyere explicitly describes l b Francoise Siguret, L'Oeil surpris. (Tubingen: Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature/Biblio 17, 1985) 18. optical discoveries (see Esprits Forts, 43 and 45 for astronomy, EF,44 for his "Le ciron a des yeux" presentation of Pascal's celebrated Pensee 72, of two infinities), there is a general and constant focus on vision, which is a literary manifestation of the contemporary obsession with the optical sciences. Siguret presents a definition of "les yeux" by P. Etienne Binet in 1621, , which was, according to Siguret, "si souvent consulte et cit6 jusqu'a la fin du siecle". 1 7 This definition, included in its entirety in Appendix B, sets out the optical framework within which La Bruyere wrote; the eye's three essential qualities reveal much of its poetic image in the seventeenth century: Les Yeux 1. Les yeux sont un vrai miracle de la nature; on les nomme miroirs de 1'cime. Gallien: membres plein de divinitS. 2. Portes du soleil, fenStres de l'Sme. 3. Les truchements de l'ame et son miroir. On lit en lui l'amour, la haine, la fureur, la piti6, la vengeance. L'audace lui enleve le sourcil...^ The eyes are bestowed with a divine quality; they are a miracle of nature, openings to the sun, mirrors of human passions, and expressors of love, hate, fury, pity and vengeance. Windows to the soul, Binet's definition is reminiscent of the Renaissance adoration of the eye, expressed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1492: "Now do you not see that the eye embraces the beauty of the whole world? ... It counsels and corrects all the arts of mankind ... The eye is the window of the human body through which it feels its way and enjoys the beauty of the Siguret, 19 (see Appendix B, pp. 132-133). Siguret, 20. 25 world." 1 5 For La Bruyere two centuries later, this window to the soul sees not the beauty of the world, but its ugliness; this pane reveals not the virtue of man's soul, but its vice. Jean Starobinski in L'Oeil vivant states that vision is a vital connector of of human beings: Le regard constitue le lien vivant entre la personne et le monde, entre le moi et les autres: chaque coup d'oeil chez l'6crivain remet en question le statut de la r6alit6 (et du rSalisme litt6raire), comme aussi celui de la communication (et de la communaute humaine). 2 0 The "regard" is a living link between an individual and the public, joining one person to another. La BruySre's text is testimony that in the latter years of the seventeenth century, the superficial society of "les prScieux" found itself lacking in vital communication between people, as Jules Brody's description suggests: Chez La Bruydre, la vision de l'homme en society comporte deux elements compl6mentaires: mouvement machinal et communication de^aillante. 2 1 By examining the details of the act of seeing in Les Caracteres, we will see more clearly the accuracy of La Bruydre's criticism and his supreme artistry in depicting the soulful emptiness of his contemporaries by exposing a fundamental corruption in their communication. Jules Brody's choice of the word "vision" emphasizes the importance of sight to Les Caracteres: La Bruyere's vision of society is one of man's mechanical movements and failing communications, where n Jos6 A. Arguelles, The Transformative Vision: Reflections on the Nature and  History of Human Expression. (Boulder: Shambhala, 1975) 21-22. 2 0 Jean Starobinski, L'Oeil vivant. (Paris: Gallimard, 1961) 17. 2 1 Jules Brody, Du Style a la pens6e. (Lexington: French Forum, 1980) 35. men and women are linked only by the tattered cord of sight. An excellent study by Michel Guggenheim concentrated on this "mutual observation" aspect of Les Caracteres in his article, "L'homme sous le regard d'autrui". Guggenheim focuses on the presence of the individual and the crowd, as in a theatrical production which depends on both actor and audience: L'homme y est depeint comme un etre se donnant sans cesse en representation a autrui, attache a se faire voir et se delectant du plaisir d'etre reqarde - a moins qu'il ne soit lui-meme un spectateur observant avec fascination la comedie qui lui presentent les autres. Life is a continual show for others, each person acting out his or her part as both actor and spectator. That is why La Bruyere's own analogy of life as a play is so important: Dans cent ans le monde subsistera encore en son entier: ce sera le meme theatre et les memes decorations, ce ne seront plus les m£mes acteurs...Il s'avance deja sur le theatre d'autres hommes qui vont jouer dans une meme piece les memes r61es... de nouveaux acteurs ont pris leur place. (Cour, 99) 2 3 Guggenheim admits that the image of the theatre of life is banal, but he stresses that it is most appropriate for La Bruyere's text which is so intricately woven with visual metaphors and images. The dual roles that each person must play as actor and audience complicate the interraction and necessitate their constant vigilance toward one another as individuals and as members of the audience/public. L L Michel Guggenheim, "L'homme sous le regard d'autrui ou le monde de La Bruyere," PMLA. LXXXI, (1966) 535. 2 3 La Bruyere, 252. 27 Roland Barthes too recognizes the importance of the theatre as a visual metaphor for La Bruyere: En termes formels (et on a dit combien la forme fermee predeterminait ce monde), les classes pauvres, qu'aucun regard politique ne vient eclairer, sont ce pur exterieur sans lequel la bourgeoisie et l'aristocratie ne pourraient sentir leur §tre propre (voir le fragment 31 des Biens de Fortune), ou le peuple reqarde les grands vivre d'une existence emphatique, comme sur un theatre: les pauvres sont ce a partir de quoi on existe; ils sont la limite constitutive de la cldture. 2 4 Barthes stresses the partition between the social classes that excludes the poor from the world that La Bruyere paints. The poor are the human circumference of society's circle; they fulfill a geometric function for the rich by delineating the finite limits of their world. In Barthes' pictoral presentation of the world of Les Caracteres, society is depicted in visual terms as a circular display of wealth in the core which is surrounded by a larger concentric circle of the poor. The barrier is transparent, however, for the rich need the eyes of the poor to be constantly upon them in order to re-affirm their position of superiority. Barthes identifies the importance of visual reinforcement between the two major divisions in social classes of the French society, that of rich and poor, recognizing that La Bruyere represents and defines only one class, the elite: La Bruyere ne definit cependant pas des classes sociales; il peuple diversement un inland et un outland: tout ce qui prend place a l'interieur de la clSture est par la meme appele a l'Stre; tout ce qui reste a l'exterieur est rejete dans le neant; on dirait que paradoxalement les substructures sociales ne sont que le reflet des formes de l'admission et du re jet. 2^ Admitted into the inland enclosure are the nobility, the clergy and the Barthes, 228. Barthes, 227. 28 bourgeoisie that La Bruy&re observes and paints. Inside the enclosure are rules of behaviour, codes of comportment, standards of morality. Within its invisible walls, the smallest detail of daily life is regulated; in a world in which each person is familiar with the others, it is no wonder that their eyes turn on each other in myopic examination and imitation. Through unending visual verification, the inhabitants of the inland substantiate their lives by watching and judging others. The restricted number of people of the inland has some very specific implications for this study that affect the importance of the visual structure of Les Caractdres. The finite population of this elite and the physical capabilities of the sense of sight provide a link that binds the inland to sight in a physiological interdependancy. Donald Lowe in his History of Bourgeois Perception, provides a pertinent description of the natural limits of sight: Seeing, in contrast to hearing, touching, smelling and tasting, is preeminently a distancing, judgmental act. The data of the other four senses come to us, so that perceptually we connect ourselves to what is proximate. But sight is extension in space, presupposing  a distance. We see by frontally opening before us a horizontal field, within which we locate the objects of our attention - frontal, in the sense that we see only what is presented before our eyes... Within this frontal, upright, horizontal extention, seeing is  judgmental. 2 6 In this limited and judgmental world which excludes all but the few wealthy and powerful, and which closes itself off from interference or influence from the bulk of the French population, the elite could not see further than each other. With the spectacular scenes filling the shallow stage on which they Z b Donald Lowe. History of Bourgeois Perception. (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1966) 6-7. 29 play out their lives in front of each other, the elite could not see beyond their own superficial theatre: physically they had no choice, socially they had no desire, and economically they had no need. Sight, a bond as taut as a chain, bound them to one another in perpetual adjudication. In his study of CrSbillon fils' Les Egarements du coeur et de l'esprit, Peter Brooks addresses the exclusive nature and visual character of the enclosure (Barthes' inland): If this consciousness of society's image has such coercive presence and reality, it is because society is seen as a theater, closed to the outside but utterly public to its members, who are both actors and spectators and must perform their social parts before the eyes of others. ^ Brooks' description of eighteenth century society is equally applicable to La Bruyere's late seventeenth century: the similarities of the elite exclusivity and the analogy of the theatrical nature of society underscore man's historic craving for reinforcement and recognition provided by visual confirmation. We step into the inland with La Bruyere; this is his world. He is the omniscient philosopher who has examined his contemporaries with discernment and has reproduced the superficial nature of their ethics and morality. In the self-portrait in "Des Ouvrages de l'esprit", La Bruydre explains that the philosopher must rely on his observations of man: Le philosophe consume sa vie a observer les hommes, et il use ses esprits a en d6meler les vices et le ridicule; s'il donne quelque tour a ses pens6es, c'est moins par une vanity d'auteur, que pour mettre une v6rit6 qu'il a trouv§e dans tout le jour necessaire pour faire l'impression qui doit servir a son dessein... II porte plus haut ses projets et agit pour une fin plus relev^e: il demande des hommes un plus grand et un plus rare succes que les louanges, et m§me que '' Peter Brooks, The Novel of Worldliness (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969) 18. les recompenses, qui est de les rendre meilleurs. (OE, 34) z° Like Alfred de Vigny's 1835 portrayal in Chatterton of the clairvoyant role of the poet, " i l lit dans les astres la route que nous montre le doigt du Seigneur" 2 3, who must rely on his sense of sight to see what God is showing him, La Bruyere's philosopher must also rely on his eyes to see, observe and watch. Unlike the poet however, he watches other men instead of the heavens. It is then, other men who become the focus of La Bruyere's vision. In a duplication that reflects the interweaving of technical vision and thematically visible elements of Les Caracteres, La Bruyere uses his eyes to watch the "others" who become his textual heroes: Je ne sors pas d'admiration et d'etonnement a la vue de certains personnages que je ne nomme point; i'ouyre de fort grands yeux  sur eux: le les contemple ... (Femmes, 42) J M In a seemingly banal statement of the obvious, La Bruyere expresses his explicit dependence on his sense of sight to see people, that he consciously opens his eyes wide to gaze upon them and study them. The process of "seeing" enables La Bruyere to relate to his subject, to contemplate, and to judge; the action of "seeing" is essential to the moral message of his text: "to see" is not only to let in light and distinguish objects, but rather to know, to judge, to learn. A traditional symbol of knowledge and of enlightenment 3 1, the eye is used 2 8 La Bruyere, 78-79. 2 9 Alfred de Vigny, Chatterton. (Paris: Larousse, 1973) 82. 3 0 La Bruyere, 122 3 1 According to An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols by J.C. Cooper (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978), page 62: "Eye - Omniscience; the all-seeing divinity; the faculty of intuitive vision. The eye is a symbol of all sun gods and of their life-giving power of fertilization by the sun; their power is incarnated in Les Caracteres synonomously with astute and insightful behaviour and La Bruyere extols their role in acquiring knowledge: L'homme, qui est esprit, se mene par les yeux et les oreilles. (Hommes, 154 )3 2If one is bright and ambitious, one will rely on one's senses, led first by the eyes, then by the ears. La Bruyere advises that if one "has eyes", one will see: Celui au contraire qui se jette dans le peuple ou dans la province y fait bient6t, s'il a des yeux. d'etranges decouvertes, y voit des choses qui lui sont nouvelles ... il avance par des experiences continuelles dans la connaissance de l'humanite...(Hommes, 156)33 La Bruyere's goal is to provoke men to improve their ability to "see": in his "Preface, he consents to potential criticism that he did not always observe well, if by so doing, it will enable people to see better. Here he outlines the rewards if one's eyes are used to "see": an advancement in his understanding of mankind. Implied in his objective is that "seeing" will be clearer, more "discriminating and trustworthy", that "seeing" will be more readily engaged in and acknowledged in the process of "knowing". There is a certain openness implicit in the sense of sight used in the figurative manner when men "have eyes", or allow their eyes to lead them sensibly to do the correct thing; the same capacity is reversed in his criticism of certain women who do not use their eyes to see: La devotion (fausse) ... Autres temps, autres moeurs: elles outrent l'austerite et la retraite: elles n'ouvrent plus les yeux qui leur sont  donnes pour voir: elles ne mettent plus leurs sens a aucun usage... in the god-king.... It is also the mystic eye; light; enlightenment; knowledge; the mind ..." 3 2 La Bruyere, 347. 3 3 La Bruyere, 156. 32 (Femmes, 43) 3 4 When La Bruyere criticizes women for not being well-read, he implies that one has only to open one's eyes to read. The implication is that women shut their eyes intentionally, that they choose to shut out the world, in what is an almost unnatural gesture: Pourquoi s'en prendre aux hommes de ce que les femmes ne sont pas savantes? Par quelles lois, par quels 6dits, par quels rescrits leur a-t-on d6fendu d'ouvrir les veux et de lire ... Ne se sont-elles pas au contraire gtablies elles-memes dans cet usage de ne rien sa voir...3 5If we disregard the sexist overtones, we will recognize the underlying principle of Les Caracteres. that the eyes are integral to knowledge, and that all meaningful insight comes through the eyes. As La Bruyere himself notes when discussing the workings of nature, an eye only has to open to see, to learn: Demandez a une femme comment un bel oeil n'a qu'a s'ouvrir pour  voir, demandez-le a un homme docte.(Esprits forts, 46) i b A "good eye" has only to open in order to see: knowledge is therefore in front of our eyes, we have only to open them in order to contemplate and learn about the world. The eyes are La BruySre's window to the world of the imagination: Si l'on ne le vovait de ses veux. pourrait-on jamais s'imaginer ... (Biens de Fortune. 51 6 1 ... Qui pourrait s'imaqiner. si rexp6rience La Bruyere, 124. La Bruyere, 126. La Bruyere, 484. La BruySre, 180. 33 ne nous le mettait devant les yeux ... (Quelques Usages, 27) 3 8. It is obvious that the role that La Bruyere attributes to the eyes is unquestionably important, for he suggests that man's imagination, his capacity to dream, his ability to invent, his possibility to foresee the future, is based in fact on a single question: "If the eyes had not seen, how could the brain ever imagine?" So it is in this analysis that we must now pull aside the curtain, look inside La Bruyere's world and see what he saw. Using his visionary capabilities. La Bruyere shows us how to "know" man, how to study the visible evidence of his nature and how to contemplate the social implications of our observations; through La Bruyere's ability to "remarquer" and to learn, the readers also learn to "remarque[r] mieux". La Bruyere, 422. 34 Part II: The Ocular Code CHAPTER 3 The King and eye/I The theory of knowing is modeled after what was supposed to take place in the act of vision. The object refracts light and is seen; it makes a difference to the eye and to the person having an optical apparatus, but none to the thing seen. The real object is the object so fixed in its regal aloofness that it is a king to any beholding mind  that may gaze upon it. A spectator theory of knowledge is the inevitable outcome. John Dewey, The Quest for Certainty 1 Over the course of the seventeenth century, a remarkable transformation took place as a result of the interwoven theatrical and political spectacles at Court. In a review of L'Oeil surpris by Francoise Siguret, David Graham summarizes the political effect of the theatrical spectacle in the early part of the century: Elle [Siguret] montre d'abord qu'au theatre comme dans une galerie de peintures le regard du spectateur est attirS dans de nombreux pieges dresses par l'artiste. Invito a s'asseoir a l'endroit d'ou la perspective illusionniste de la mise en scene paraitra la plus convaincante, le Roi devient a son tour le point de mire de tous les  regards des courtisans. qui assistent ainsi a un double spectacle ou theatre et politique se fusionnent lorsque Sa Majesty elle-meme monte sur la scdne ou lorsque le dramaturge met en scene un personnage royal: la rampe n'est plus des lors gu'une barriere des John Dewey, The Quest for Certainty. (New York: Putnam, 1960) 23. plus fragiles entre deux mondes qui se refletent sans cesse. L Louis XIV perfected the technique of visibility from which his father, Louis XIII had profited. In Le Roi-machine, a study of the influence of the spectacle on political power of, under and around Louis XIV, Jean-Marie Apostolides focuses on the political and psychological significance of the visibility of the King: Pour les intellectuels du XVIIe siecle, le spectacle est une necessite intrinsequement liee a l'exercice du pouvoir; le monarque doit eblouir le peuple.3 Apostolides documents the transition of the French court from feared chevaliers whose military influence spread over much of western Europe to emasculated "gentilhommes" who were trapped inside the court splendors of Versailles: L'aristocratie desarmee, depossedee de ses coutumes, privee de ses prerogatives militaires, se mue alors en une caste spectaculaire .... formant le cercle de la cour, elle diffracte partout l'image solaire du  souverain place en son centre. ' From 1661 on, Louis XIV himself metamorphosed from the identities that he variously played in theatrical representations and spectacles, from the sun god Apollo, Alexander the Great, to Louis-Auguste; after twenty years of triumphant rule, the image of the Sun King firmly entrenched, Louis XIV became the living solar legend. Over these twenty years, the members of his court, blinded by his brilliance, revolved around him in obedient rotation and imitation, like planets around the sun. Unable to survive without the sustenance from the radiance of 1 David Graham, Rev. of L'Oeil surpris by Francoise Siguret. Papers on  French Seventeenth Century Literature XIII No. 25 (1986) 153-156. 3 Apostolides, Jean-Marie. Le Roi-machine. (Paris: Minuit, 1981) 8. Apostolides, 46. 36 his royal luminescence that faded with distance, the country's most powerful people were trapped in a photobiotic dependency on the centre, enslaved by his light that they mistook for life. The charismatic allure of Louis XIV and the spectacular nature of life in the court created a solar system that revolved around the King, forming a physical re-creation of the abstraction of power. In the words of La Bruydre, the court is a specular magnet: Se dSrober a la cour un seul moment, c'est y renoncer: le courtisan gui l'a vue le matin, la voit le soir pour la reconnaitre le lendemain. ou afin que lui-m§me y soit connu. (Cour, 4) 5The temporal progression of the verb "voir" that accompanies the morning, evening and following day underscores the substantive domination exerted by the court. In the early 1670's, the aristocracy flocked to Versailles to take up permanent residence around the King: proximity to the King secured supremacy. The pronouncement by "le Roi soleil" that "la nation ne fait pas corps en France, elle reside tout entiSre dans la personne du roi" 6, held serious implications for the rich and powerful in French society. It became necessary to remain in the inland, in close proximity to the King, in order to reap the financial, political and social benefits of the court. La Bruyere does not describe the physical luxury of the King's court; instead, he alludes to the universal appreciation of its magnificence by enthusiastic visual conclusions: Qui a vu la cour a vu du monde ce qui est le plus beau, le plus spScieux et le plus orn6; qui m^prise la cour, aprds l'avoir vue, 5 La Bruyere, 221. 6 Apostolides, 13. meprise le monde. (Cour, 100)' In other words, the court is the world; it is the centre of all that is spectacular, opulent and awesome. It is to be seen and savoured. All could now see the King, and watch the spectacular events of his creation. The King was centre of the inland, the core of the court, the nucleus of the French nation. To be out of this enclosure was unbearable: "Sire", said one nobleman to Louis XIV, on returning to the court after twenty years of exile, "quand on est assez miserable pour etre eloigne de vous, non seulement on est malheureux, mais on est ridicule." 8 Surrounded by the powerful people of the country, intent on preserving his supremacy, Louis XIV completes the spectral transformation begun by his father: the spectators who had come to watch the theatrical representations, become obsessed instead with watching the King and imitating him. They in their turn become participants; under the empirical gaze of Louis XIV, they become actors and Louis XIV becomes the spectator. After establishing the court behaviour, the King steps aside and becomes the absolute observer, who rules his courtisans by virtue of a continuously watchful eye. La Bruyere describes the thousands of unknowns who crave royal acknowledgment by visual confirmation of their presence: Mille gens a peine connus font la foule au lever pour etre vus du  prince, qui n'en saurait voir mille a la fois; et s'il ne voit  aujourd'hui que ceux qu'il vit hier et qu'il verra demain. combien ' La Bruyere, 253. 8 John Lough, An Introduction to Seventeenth Century France. (London: Longmans, 1955) 171. de malheureux. (Cour, 71) 3 La Bruyere's technique of repetition and temporal progression of the verb "voir" and the adjectives of time "aujourd'hui", "hier" and "demain" reinforces the obsession to be seen at all times by the King, thus to be acknowledged repeatedly by him. Madame de Maintenon, Louis XIV's companion, disdainfully describes the overwhelming desperation of the court inhabitants to be seen by the King and the preparations they make for the possibility of one fortuitous moment of visibility: On se leve de grand matin, on s'habille avec soin, on est tout le jour sur ses pieds, pour attendre un moment favorable, pour se  faire voir, pour se presenter, et souvent on revient comme on etait alle, excepte que Ton est au desespoir d'avoir perdu son temps et sa peine. Mais je voudrais que vous puissiez voir l'etat des plus heureux, c'est-a-dire, de ceux qui voient le Roi. et qui ont l'honneur d'etre dans sa familiarite; i l n'y a rien de pareil a l'ennui qui les devore. 1 0 It is important that the cherished acknowledgment by the King be visual. La Bruyere does not say that these courtisans want to be heard, that they have anything to say: all they want, in this world of appearances, is to be seen by the King. Time is inconsequential for them, as yesterday, today and tomorrow become a temporal blur obscured by the need to be acknowledged by the King. Qui considerera que le visage du prince fait toute la felicite du courtisan, qu'il s'occupe et se remplit pendant toute sa vie de le voir et d'en etre vue, comprendra un peu comment voir Dieu peut faire toute la gloire et tout le bonheur des saints. (Cour, 75) " La Bruyere compares the objective of royal acknowledgment to the La Bruyere, 244. Lough, 170. La Bruyere, 246. motivation to know God. For the courtisan, to see the King's face is a spiritual quest. He dedicates his life in pious pursuit of the ultimate earthly pleasure; to see the face of Louis XIV and to be seen by him is to attain salvation. In this fragment, La Bruyere displays his psychological perceptivity and his biting sarcasm as he mocks the pseudo-religious quest of "un regard" from the King. One might well wonder what can happen if the King sees one of his hungry subjects, or if the clammer for royal attention is futile. La Bruyere answers this in his portrait of Xantippe: Xantippe au fond de sa province, sous un vieux toit et dans un mauvais lit, a r§v6 pendant la nuit qu'il voyait le prince, qu'il lui parlait ... Xantippe a continue de vivre: il est venu a la cour, il a  vu le prince, il lui a parte; et il a 6t6 plus loin que son songe, il est favori". (Cour, 68) 1 2 In a rare foray into the country, La Bruyere talks of the success of Xantippe, seemingly a peasant from the provinces, who becomes a favourite of the King because he came, he saw, he spoke to the King. By means of his visibility, this unknown is illuminated by the light of Louis XIV, and he joins in the stellar Court that is as far from the provinces as the sun is from earth. Louis XIV is a keenly perceptive judge of men. Apostolides guotes revealing advice from Louis XIV to his son, the Dauphin, in his M6moires in which he explains the powerful effect of the royal presence on the rather simple souls of their subjects: Cette soci6t6 de plaisirs, qui donne aux personnes de la cour une honn^te familiarity avec nous, les touche et les charme plus qu'on ne peut dire ... Par la, nous tenons leur esprit et leur coeur quelquefois plus fortement peut-etre que par les recompenses et les La Bruyere, 243. bienfaits. 1 J Louis XIV knows that the courtiers, bewitched by the mystique of the royal presence, are more successfully seduced by proximity to the King and his family; he recognizes that it is more difficult, if not impossible, to buy reverence. When accomplished through more subtle and insidious means, the submission is far more effective. By means of his visual presence, Louis XIV draws the courtisans into an ever tighter circle, like a spider weaving his web around his prey. As they are drawn closer and closer, the King ensnares them as the distance between them diminishes with each passing year of dependancy. Apostolides summarizes Louis XIV's shrewd understanding of human nature and of visual domination: De cette place royale. on peut tout voir et tout montrer. Mais le spectacle ne reste pas inscrit dans l'espace concret de Versailles, il s'incruste sur les corps et dans les tetes.... Le courtisan est creature monarchique; il parle du roi seulement parce que le roi l'a cree a son image et lui accorde une pseudo-existence. L'homme de cour ne peut pas dire le spectacle avant que le spectacle ne soit dit en lui. *4 The King has become the playwright, producer, director of the show that is the life of the inland. The courtisans have become the supporting cast, who must always keep their eyes on the King in order to know what to do. The physical limitations of the sense of sight dictate that the circle be small and tight, for seeing is a temporal and spatial matter: temporal because according to Descartes, "celui qui veut regarder d'un seul coup d'oeil beaucoup Apostolides, 49. Apostolides, 51. d'objets a la fois, n'en voit aucun distinctement" 1 5, and spatial because of Donald Lowe's definition of seeing that keen sight relies on a certain distance between eye and object, within a definite frontal spectral field 1 6. In his article on the "I" of history in the memoirs of Louis XIV, Richard Lockwood situates the King's eye/I on the same narrative and metaphoric levels that reinforces the dominance of vision in the M6moires: The elevated seat from which the King's eye ranges everywhere is the foundation of the King's power as pedagogical narrator, but it is also the foundation of his "I" as subject, writer of his autobiographic work. 1 7 The King's eye is also the primary instrument of power itself, which Louis XIV recognizes and about whose importance he instructs his son accordingly: Tout ce gui est le plus n6cessaire a ce travail est en m§me temps agr6able; car, c'est en un mot, mon fils, avoir les veux ouverts sur  toute la terre: apprendre a toute heure les nouvelles de toutes les provinces et de toutes les nations... §tre inform^ d'un nombre infini de choses qu'on croit gue nous ignorons; p6n6trer parmi nos  suiets ce gu'ils nous cachent avec le plus de soin; d^couvrir les  vues les plus eloigners de nos propres courtisans, leurs int6r§ts les plus obscurs qui viennent a nous par des int6r§ts contraires. 1 8 His advice is to keep his eyes open on all the territory, in order to know all, to penetrate hidden areas, to discover things that the courtiers might ignore. In other words, to be as all-seeing as possible. Lockwood examines in particular 1 5 Ren6 Descartes, Regies pour la direction de l'esprit, IX. (Paris: Gallimard Pleiade, 1953) 67. 1 6 See page 28 in Chapter 2 for Donald Lowe's description of the spatial limitations of sight: "But sight is extension in space, presupposing a distance." 1 7 Richard D. Lockwood, "The "I" of history in the M6moires of Louis XIV." PFSCL, 1987, Vol. XIV, 27. 557. 1 8 Lockwood, 558. 42 the element of secrecy that Louis savours, the fact that his observing is not observed: The King, who sees all, stands in a dissymetrical relation to all others, who see only parts of the picture, who do not know the King sees all, who are unable to penetrate his thought. 1 3 La Bruyere enunciates this subtle reversal of visionary capabilities in two important fragments in his "Souverain" chapter. In an obvious homage to Louis XIV, La Bruyere defines the characteristics of a truly great leader: Une naissance auguste, un air d'entpire et d'autorite, un visage qui  remplisse la curiosite des peuples empresses de voir le prince ... (Souverain, 35) Z B The people must see his face: the people believe that Louis XIV's face is the window to his soul, for on it, they hope to read what is in his heart. His people believe that his heart is open and sincere ("le coeur ouvert, sincere, et dont on croit voir le fond". (Souverain, 35) 2 1), his goodness visible for all to see. La Bruyere continues the list of the necessary qualities to govern well, including: une etendue de connaissance qui fait que le prince voit tout par ses  yeux. qu'il agit immediatement et par lui-m§me. ^ La Bruyere, perceptive observer of the power of sight, recognizes that the King is indeed observing all. Louis XIV's all-encompassing visual knowledge enables him to retain his independance and his superiority over his courtiers, who have Lockwood, 559. La Bruyere, 293. La Bruyere, 293. La Bruyere, 294. 43 a one-dimensional understanding of the power of the act of seeing. La Bruyere explains that the King must see all in order to govern well: II y a peu de regies g6n6rales et de mesures certaines pour bien gouverner; l'on suit le temps et les conjonctures, et cela roule sur la prudence et sur les vues de ceux gui rfegnent: aussi le chef-d'oeuvre de l'esprit, c'est le parfait gouvernement... (Souverain, 32) 2 3 In another important fragment of this chapter which deals explicitly with the King, La BruySre compares him to a shepherd tending his flock: Quand vous voyez quelquefois un nombreux troupeau ... le berger, soigneux et attentif, et debout aupres de ses br6bis; il ne les perd  pas de vue. il les suit .... quels soins! quelle vigilance! quelle servitude! Quelle condition vous parait la plus d61icieuse et la plus libre, ou du berger ou des br6bis ... Image naive des peuples et du prince qui les gouverne, s'il est bon prince .... (Souverain, 29) 2 4 By beginning the fragment with "Quand vous voyez", the author cleverly draws the reader into the action. By including the reader in the scene, La Bruyere transforms the metaphor into a three-dimensional fable: the reader is present and sees the flock, the narrator is there to perform the descriptive function, and to participate actively by interjecting a series of personal exclamations, and the prince, whom we are watching, does not lose sight of his lambs. La Bruyere admits that this metaphor/fable is a simplistic representation of the prince's mandate to govern; the intimacy and softness of the imaginary scene that the reader is encouraged to witness, lulls him into a passive acceptance of this arbitrary protection. 2 3 La Bruyere, 292. 2 4 La Bruyere, 291. It is most important to note that the watchful shepherd is standing up, close to his flock. Donald Lowe defines the physical position from which sight is based: "And we assume an upright posture in relation to the data of sight. We can hear, touch, smell and taste in any position we like, without affecting that particular sensing. But seeing is most certain when we assume an upright posture..." 2 5 Thus sight reinforces the shepherd's domination of the flock; he follows them in order to continually keep them in his sight's range. The shepherd's control of the flock depends on that certain distance from which he maintains visual contact and physical authority; like an invisible leash, Louis XIV uses his sight to maintain a vigilant watch over his flock. La Bruyere's analogy of the King as shepherd is apt when considered in light of the tremendous importance of vision in the text. It is inconsequential whether Louis XIV actually followed his flock in the literal sense, or if he followed them with his eyes. Both accomplish the same domination, according to Jean Starobinski's definition of the verb to watch, which is most applicable in this sense of the shepherd not losing sight of his flock: Regarder est un mouvement qui vise a reprendre sous garde... L'acte du regard ne s'epuise pas sur place: il comporte un elan perseverant, une reprise obstinee, comme s'il etait anime par l'espoir d'accroitre sa decouverte ou de reconguerir ce gui est en  train de lui echapper.26 Starobinski's perception of the verb "regarder" as capable of recapturing something that is trying to escape links the concept of visual control through "le regard" to Jean-Marie Apostolides' explanation of the courtiers' abdication of Lowe, 6-7. Starobinski, 11. 45 freedom implicit in their contract made with Louis XIV in exchange for their political and financial gain: En acceptant le don irreversible du prince, les courtisans contractent une dette a regard de l'Etat; ils deviennent d^biteurs du pouvoir, sans espoir de se lib6rer jamais.27 The courtiers are captured by their greed, held by the King's visual control, conquered by "le regard" that seizes them before they can escape. The effect of the look's ability to capture, to prevent the courtier's escape from the domination of the King, is consistent with the image of the court as a place from which there can be in fact, no escape. In a study of the contemporary novel Princesse de Cleves (1678), Serge Doubrovsky describes the limited world described by its author, Madame de Lafayette: Des personnages peu nombreux sont en proie les uns aux autres, la cour est une cage dont ils ne peuvent s'6chapper.28 People unable and/or unwilling to leave, locked in an invisible cage, the bars around them are the stringent rules and regulations that they dare not break, the guards are the "others" who watch and judge; this societal prison keeps itself in check by constant visibility. If you are seen, then you exist; if you exist, you might be powerful. Jean Starobinski describes the dazzling reflection of the King in the courtier, the imitation of the sun by its rays: II ne suffit pas d'etre source de lumiere, il faut #tre en m§me temps l'oeil ouvert a cette lumiere, joindre au bonheur d'£blouir celui d'§tre illumine^ voir et €tre vu et faire voir en n'ayant pour objet u ApostolidSs, 106. 2 8 Serge Doubrovsky, "La Princesse de Cloves: une interpretation existentielle". Table Ronde 137-140 (1959) 38. 46 que soi-meme.29 To have one's eye open to the light of the King and to be illuminated by it, to see, to be seen, to make oneself visible, all with the objective of one's own increasing luminosity: that is the essence of the courtier in this era of visual domination and visible submission. La Bruyere's satirical portrait of Cimon and Clitandre is a graphic example of courtisans caught in a desperate attempt to be seen, to solidify their tenuous grasp on court power by making themselves visible: Ne croirait-on pas de Cimon et de Clitandre qu'ils sont seuls charges des details de tout l'Etat et que seuls aussi ils en doivent repondre? .... On ne les a jamais vus assis. jamais fixes et arretes: qui meme les a vus marcher? on les voit courir, parler en courant ... Ne les retardez pas dans leur course precipitee, vous demonteriez leur machine ... Leur profession est d'etre vus et revus ... (Cour, 1 9 ) 3 0 Cimon and Clitandre run on a treadmill of perpetual activity, never sitting or stopping; always running, creating the impression that they have so much to do that they just cannot stop, not even to talk. To portray importance, Cimon and Clitandre must be seen and seen again: it is their profession. The repetition of their being "vus et revus" attempts to convince the public of their indis pe n sability. Jean Marmier, in his article, "Le Sens du Mouvement chez La Bruyere" outlines the author's psychological perception in reading beyond this constant, visible activity and in his skillful freezing of movement to expose the true nature of the "caracteres": 29 Starobinski, 57. 3 0 La Bruyere, 225-226. 47 Jamais La Bruyere n'a plus plaisamment libere cette imagination "dansante" dont i l est pourvu que lorsqu'il a jumeie en un seul portrait Cimon et Clitandre, ces deux courtisans que leur agitation perpetuelle ne mene pas loin, mais entretient dans une sorte de trepidation brownienne: feux-follets insaisissables, Dioscures de la mediocrite, ils sont le mouvement m§me, gratuit encore qu'interesse, inutile mais irrepressible. 3 1 Useless and gratuitous movement, the essence of mediocrity: Cimon and Clitandre exemplify the excessive behaviour encouraged in the Court. Desperate to belong, to be seen, to succeed, like the planets in the solar system, their reason for existence is to revolve around the sun according to a universal principle of continual motion that is out of one's control. Power and ambition drive the courtiers; ambitious men recognize that one can impress the powerful men of the Court only if one is seen: De tous ceux gui s'empressent aupres des grands et qui leur font la cour, un petit nombre les honore dans le coeur, un grand nombre les recherche par des vues d'ambition et d'interet, un plus grand nombre par une ridicule vanite, ou par une sotte impatience de se  faire voir. (Cour, 72) 3 2 The bitterness of La Bruyere's social commentary is evident in his numerical progression as he enlarges his focus onto a growing field of hollow, ambitious men: a small number of followers are earnest, a large number are driven by visions of ambition and self-interest, and an even greater number by vanity or the silly impatience to be seen. La Bruyere emphasizes the visibility of the courtier by placing the verbal construction "se faire voir" at the end of the fragment. Recognized as one of La 3 1 Jean Marmier, "Le Sens du Mouvement chez La Bruyere". Les Lettres  romanes, XXI (1967) 229. 3 2 La Bruyere, 244. Bruyere's more effective techniques, the positioning of "se faire voir" at the end of the sentence gets the attention of the reader, as Jacqueline Hellegouarc'h explains in her succinct analysis of "La phrase de La Bruyere": Ce qui est juste dans l'eloge traditionnel, c'est 1'importance attachee implicitement a la forme de la phrase... Ces "coupes", ces "suspensions", cette "cadence mineure", ce "mot de la fin" ... Le schema de la phrase, auquel tiennent en fin de compte tous les principaux effets, contribue a exprimer l'idee presque autant que les mots.33 In this technical manner then, La Bruyere doubles his focus on the visual, by the visual verb "se faire voir" and by its syntactical position. The reflexive pronoun and the verb "faire", underline too the urgency of the ambitious man to force himself to be seen, as if he is forcing someone against his will. La Bruyere ridicules courtisans like Theophile who advance their personal ambitions through their ability to be seen. The author's derisive attitude is evident in his reference to Theophile's ambitions as an incurable disease; reinforced by the past, present and future tenses of the verb "vouloir", Theophile's sickness signifies a progressively unhealthy urge to dominate others: Quelle est l'incurable maladie de Theophile? .... il a voulu, il veut, et il voudra gouverner les grands ... II n'y a point de palais ou il ne s'insinue ... on attend qu'il ait parle, et longtemps et avec action, pour avoir audience, pour etre vu. (Grands, 15) 3 4 It is essential however, to keep one's eyes open while making oneself visible. One must watch and be watched: Si celui qui est en faveur ose s'en prevaloir avant qu'elle lui 3 3 Jacqueline Hellegouarc'h, "La phrase de La Bruyere". Information litteraire XXX (1978): 83-93. 3 4 La Bruyere, 257-258. 49 echappe, s'il se sert d'un bon vent qui souffle pour faire son chemin, s'il a les yeux ouverts sur tout ce qui vague, poste, abbaye, pour les demander et les obtenir ... vous lui reprochez son avidite et son ambition ... Cependant qu'a-t-il du faire? (Cour, 26) 3 5 Tension rules the men and women of the court. Dominated by Louis XIV in every sphere of life, the courtisans spend their lives attempting to remain in this powerful nucleus, naturally at the expense of the others who have the same ambition. Jean-Marie Apostolides describes the combative nature of court life: Baltasar Gracian, jesuite espanol, auteur d'un des traites de politesse mondaine les plus fameux (L'homme de cour...) montre quelle direction le courtisan doit donner a son personnage ... II presente la vie de cour comme une guerre civile dans laquelle " i l ne  faut pas vaincre seulement par la force mais encore par la maniere". La violence dans le domaine prive n'est plus exterieure mais interiorisee, elle est psychologique et non plus physique. 3 6 In this agressive atmosphere, sight is an effective weapon in a wordless war: by refusing to be seen with someone of lesser rank, for example, one delivers a potent psychological blow: Chrysante, homme opulent et impertinent, ne veut pas etre vu avec  Eugene, qui est homme de merite, mais pauvre: i l croirait en %tre deshonorer.(Biens de fortune, 54) 3 7 There are strict rules in this visual war, stringent regulations that must be followed in the daily combat zone of social interaction. La Bruyere shows himself to be respectful of some of these rules: he is after all, no 35 36 37 La Bruyere, 228. Apostolides, 53. La Bruyere, 195. 50 revolutionary. 3 8 According to La Bruyere, the Court needs certain rules to restrict the unlimited visibility of the small enclosure: to preserve the hierarchical structure, rules governing visibility must be applied. La Bruyere finds comfort in the structure of a visually regulated society: Je n'aime pas un homme que je ne puis aborder le premier, ni saluer avant qu'il me salue, sans m'avilir a ses yeux... (Societe, 30) 3 9 Always conscious of one's status in the other's eyes, La Bruyere seeks to be on equal footing with his social opponent: La Bruyere would be uncomfortable if he had to wait for the other to make the first overture of greeting. He analyzes the behaviour of those men who defy the rules, acknowledging that there are indeed, rules governing "seeing" others: D'ou qu'Alcippe me salue aujourd'hui ... Je ne suis pas riche, et je suis a pied: i l doit, dans les regies, ne me pas voir. N'est-ce point pour etre vu lui-meme dans un meme fond avec un grand? (L'homme, 74) 4 0 La Bruyere correctly identifies the underlying need of Alcippe to be seen with a "grand", since the elite's bonds to each other are strengthened by visible associations. Behaviour that runs contrary to the rules of comportment upsets La Bruyere, and he experiences sweet revenge when haughty men who do not show enough visible acknowledgment are humbled by the presence of more powerful i° See Rene Jasinski, Histoire de la litterature francaise. (I) Paris, Nizet, 1965, page 324: "Qu'on se garde pourtant de le dresser en revolutionnaire ... Au surplus, ses severites se temperent d'affirmations prudemment conservatrices. II admire le roi, rend hommage aux nobles qui lui en paraissent dignes, reconnalt a l'occasion le merite de la cour, ne dissimule pas les defauts du peuple." 3 9 La Bruyere, 162. La Bruyere, 321-322. 51 courtisans, in a social, and visible, "check-mate": Vous voyez des gens qui entrent sans saluer que 16g6rement ... ils vous interrogent sans vous regarder ... ils ont la parole, president au cercle, et persistent dans cette hauteur ridicule et contrefaite, jusqu'a ce qu'il survienne un grand, qui, la faisant tomber tout cij'un coup par sa presence, les rSduise a leur naturel... (Cour, 17) The function of the eyes in this internally violent war that raged in the court is perhaps most eloquently and vividly explained by La BruySre in his indictment of one man's ambition to govern at court: N'espSrez plus de candeur, de franchise, d'6quit6, de bons offices, de services, de bienveillance ... dans un homme qui s'est depuis quelque temps livrS a la cour, et qui secretement veut sa fortune. Le reconnaissez-vous a son visage, a ses entretiens? ... il est froid et indifferent sur les observations que l'on fait sur la cour et sur le courtisan ... il est mSdiateur, confident, entremetteur: il veut gouverner. II a une ferveur de novice pour toutes les petites pratiques de cour; i l sait ou il faut se placer pour §tre vu ... il pleure d'un oeil, et il rit de l'autre. (Cour, 62) n This courtier knows all the right words and gestures, including where he must be in order to be seen. The direct question posed by La Bruydre to the readers regarding the familiarity of his face implies that the courtisan has successfully placed himself in universally visible positions, which make him well-known to all. Even more damning however, is La Bruyere's last sentence, that the courtisan cries with one eye and laughs with the other. The simultaneous contrast of laughing and crying eyes evokes the image of the mask of the theatre where tragedy and comedy are reflected at the same time; this startling image of split eyes suggests an insidious and profound deception that illustrates more clearly 41 42 La Bruyere, 224. La BruySre, 241-242. the visual nature of the Court. The eyes have become the means by which the men of the court, led by the King, know, judge, deceive and eventually control each other; the eyes are the props which enable life to be played out in the theatre of the king and his court, each of them players on a stage needing to see and be seen by the other in order to exist. 53 CHAPTER 4 Society's ocular code ... it is his [Foucault's] contention that we are all caught within disciplinary systems - systems of micro-pouvoirs. These systems, he asserts, exist throughout bourgeois society and control our behaviour without our knowing it. Their functioning is dependent on a regime of observation, surveillance, and inspection similar to Bentham's Panopticon, even though less obvious in its workings. The whole exercise of discipline within modern society pre-supposes, according to Foucault, "a mechanism that coerces through the play of the glance [par le jeu du regard]. This disciplinary power "is exercised through its invisibility" yet, at the same time, it "imposes on those whom it subjects a principle of compulsory visibility". Allan Megill, Prophets of Extremity The ocular code that lies at the nucleus of the King's court extends like the sun's rays beyond the court's limits to light up the inland enlosure. The bourgeois society that is formed in imitation of the court struggles to determine its own identity. This search for its identity out of the shadow of the court depends upon a regime of observation, surveillance and inspection of each 1 Allan Megill, "Foucault and Structuralism", Prophets of Extremity. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985) 242. member of the enclosure. Peter Brooks defines the purpose of the literature of worldliness, under which category he includes Les Caracteres. as "to know, assess, celebrate, master and give meaning to man's words and gestures as they are formed by his consciousness of society."2 Brooks identifies the glance, "le regard", as the primary means of establishing these common ethics and mores fundamental to any society, as the nucleus of the consciousness of society: The glance, the look of the eyes, is in fact, the central physical and metaphorical expression of the closure and lack of privacy that are the primary conditions of life in society.... The glance is used to gain knowledge and control of another ... Seeing, knowing and controlling form the nucleus of a system of values shared by the novelist and his characters. 3 Although Brooks is referring specifically to the society of CrSbillon fils around 1736, it is clear from his analysis of Les Caracteres that the act of seeing is equally important to the knowing and controlling which dominates the inland of the late seventeenth century. Both Barthes and Brooks devote much analysis to the physically restrictive nature of the enclosure which comprises the world of La Bruyere and in which the act of observing one another forms its own physical and social basis. For Brooks, a novel of worldliness paints a vivid portrait of society's common philosophy: "Worldliness, as point of observation and object of study, is one, a total ethos, the one way of being in the only society that counts."4 Brooks, 4. Brooks, 18-19. Brooks, 78. 55 That "one way of being" originates with the King. According to Jean-Marie Apostolides, the image of the King is interiorised and emulated by each spectator, who eventually loses his own identity and assumes that of the King, but of course, in reflection only, since he cannot be the King. Other clones around him reinforce this illusionary image and society becomes a house of mirrors that reproduces the illusion of an independent court and an individual identity: Le spectacle est celui du corps symbolique, c'est-a-dire qu'il met en scene, a travers la vie du roi, une image concrete/abstraite du fonctionnement de la nation. A ce niveau, il est davantage interiorise: c'est l'image du roi que chacun enfouit a l'interieur de lui-m^me, a la fois comme un modele fascinant qu'il faut suivre et une loi qu'il faut respecter.... plus le spectateur interiorise l'image qu'il en recoit comme exemplaire, comme un modele de conduite absolu, vrai, qu'on ne peut ni contourner ni refuser et auquel on ne peut qu'obeir. Visual reinforcement becomes essential for survival in the Court. The courtier created by the King in his image is multiplied in the refracted images in the mirror; these mirrors form the concentric circles which define the French "nation" and reflect continuously the hierarchical society of King, court and inland: Ce qui a trait au moi profond, tout ce qui fait d'un homme un €tre unique, doue d'une identite et d'une histoire propre, ce qui le definit dans ses deviances ou ses disfonctionnements, disparait au profit d'un comportement r£gule par le iuqement d'autrui. A la cour, l'autre est connu dans la mesure ou il est reconnu comme le semblable, celui qui vous renvoie votre image en miroir.6 Apostolides, 152. Apostolides, Roi-machine 54. 56 La BruySre's numerous examples of the "vue des autres" reflects the extent to which the individual submits to the scrutiny of the others. One recognizes himself in the societal mirror; in his search for himself, he sees his own image in everyone around him. Observing and watching becomes an obsession for society, as Michel Guggenheim vividly describes the eyes, ever-alert, watching, scrutinizing, evaluating, judging, shunning, imploring : Par sa peinture de personnages dont les veux sont sans cesse a  l'affut. 6valuant, condamnant. esp£rant, se d£robant quand ils craignent d'§tre d6sapprouv6s, implorant quand ils recherchent l'approbation, La Bruyere a brillamment d6montr6 la portee du regard et ses multiples significations: le regard passif des uns et le regard actif des autres traduisent d'assujettissement ou de domination d'un individu face a autrui. 7 In Les Caracteres, "le regard" becomes a tool of acclaim and confirmation, of judgment and condemnation, of domination and submission, of lies and manipulation. An essential part of La Bruyere's society, the glance continually affirms its common bonds, judges and condemns according to its shared values and ethics, and manipulates its social patterns, as we shall see from the following excerpts from Les Caracteres. A basic reguirement in the court is visibility, but La Bruydre illustrates that this requirement is not confined to the court. The necessity and even the desire to be seen, extends beyond the court's boundaries into the inland. La Bruyire introduces a successful man who thrives on and expects public acclaim: Celui au contraire qui a bonne opinion de soi, et que le vulgaire appelle un glorieux, a du gout a se faire voir, et i l fait sa cour avec d'autant plus de confiance qu'il est incapable de s'imaginer que les grands dont i l est vu pensent autrement de sa personne qu'il fait Guggenheim, 536, lui-meme. (Merite personnel, 14)B This man is so enamoured with himself that it is inconceivable that any and all who see him would not share his enthusiasm with himself. Only by being visible and by sharing himself with the public, with "les grands", can he truly be appreciated. At the most superficial level, one's appearance is the first surface which society judges; many of La Bruyere's characters show an exaggerated concern for how their clothes and their physical attributes are seen (thus judged and appreciated) by others: Un homme fat et ridicule porte un long chapeau, un pourpoint a ailerons, des chausses a aiguillettes et des bottines; il r§ve la veille par ou et comment il pourra se faire remarquer le jour qui suit. Un philosophe se laisse habiller par son tailleur: il y a autant de faiblesse a fuir la mode qu'a l'affecter. (Mode, 11) 9 La Bruyere begins his description of the stupid and ridiculous man with his own pejorative judgment, then continues his attack on the fellow's exaggerated dress with a vivid picture of him dreaming where and how he can make himself noticed the next day. La Bruyere notes that the philosopher too is concerned with his appearance, and that he has his tailor dress him. There are unspoken limits of acceptable dress, and of acceptable concern over one's appearance, limits which both the philosopher and the "homme fat" exceed. La Bruyere exposes the narcissism of being seen and judged by one's appearances and the concern over certain places where one just must be seen: Quelques-uns n'estiment les autres que par de beau linge ou par une riche etoffe; Ton ne refuse pas toujours d'etre estime a ce 8 La Bruyere, 100. 9 La Bruyere, 401. prix. II y a des endroits ou il faut se faire voir... (L'homme, 71) 1 8 La Bruydre's sharp sarcasm takes aim at narcissists like Iphis, for whom excruciating humiliation is being seen in public in outdated shoes: Iphis voit a l'6glise un Soulier d'une nouvelle mode; il regarde le  sien et en rougit; i l ne se croit plus habillS. II 6tait venu a la messe pour s'v montrer, et i l se cache ... (Mode, 14) 1 1 La Bruyere intensifies his mockery of Iphis' humiliation by his repetition of the act of Iphis seeing: first Iphis sees a newer shoe, then he sees his own and finally the real reason for coming to church is made known: to make himself seen. By tripling the actual act of seeing, La Bruy&re emphasizes the game that seeing has become and intensifies his ridicule of society's excessive concerns with appearance. La Bruyere describes simple gestures in a such way that he captures the egotistical character behind the frivolous flaunting of one's attributes: Argyre tire son gant pour montrer une belle main ... elle rit des choses plaisantes ou s6rieuses pour faire voir de belles dents; si p^le montre son oreille. c'est qu'elle l'a bien faite (L'homme, 83) Concerned only with showing off her physical attributes, Argyre is uninterested in the content of the conversation; it does not matter to her what is said, she is concerned only that people look at her and appreciate her beauty. Social conversation is her stage on which she performs as the star, never speaking, never listening, only there to be seen and acclaimed. La BruySre, 321. La BruySre, 402. La BruySre, 324. 59 Women are particularly vulnerable to superficial appearances, as this description of their infatuation with an egotistical public interrogator shows: A un homme vain, indiscret, qui est grand parleur et mauvais plaisant, qui parle de soi avec confiance et des autres avec mepris ... i l ne lui manque plus, pour etre adore de bien des femmes, que de beaux traits et la taille belle. (Femmes, 31 )*3 According to La Bruyere, all that is necessary to capture the adoration of many women is superficial attractiveness; visible traits appeal to women so much that the seduction may be with visibility itself. La Bruyere takes direct aim at Lelie, who like other romantic women, has fallen under the spell of a public figure: Je vous plains, Lelie, si vous avez pris par contagion ce nouveau gout qu'ont tant de femmes romaines pour ce qu'on appelle des hommes publics, et exposes par leur condition a la vue des autres. (Femmes, 33) 1 4 Women are strangely dependent on the eyes of a strong man who rules them with a look into his eyes: Une femme est aisee a gouverner, pourvu que ce soit un homme qui s'en donne la peine ... Elles n'approuvent et ne desapprouvent, ne louent et ne condamnent, qu'apres avoir consulte ses yeux et son  visage". (Femmes, 45)1' Only after receiving visual confirmation that their actions are acceptable, will certain women approve, disapprove, praise or condemn: their faculties of judgment are completely ruled by the message in the eyes and on the face of a man. 13 14 15 La Bruyere, 119. La Bruyere, 120. La Bruyere, 124. Although La Bruyere does not show a particularly enlightened attitude toward women, susceptibility to appearances is not the exclusive territory of women. It is society in general that La Bruyere targets, both men and women whom he describes in terms of their vision. Location is also important in this ocular world: one must know where to be seen, as in the portrait of the "homme fat et ridicule" who dreamt "ou et comment il pourra se faire remarquer". In La Bruyere's criticism of the "faux devot", where one is seen and where one is not seen is an integral part of the process of keeping up the appearance of devotion: Negliger vepres comme une chose antique et hors de mode, garder sa place soi-m§me pour le salut, savoir les §tres de la chapelle, connaltre le flanc, savoir ou Ton est vu et ou Ton n'est pas vu... (Jugements, 21 J 1 6 Technically, La Bruyere relies on the recurring infinitive and the repetition in the positive and negative forms of the complete phrase "ou Ton est vu" to underline the impersonal and calculated efforts of the "faux devot". The repetition also underscores the equal importance of not being seen in certain places. The church ceases to be a private spiritual matter, and instead provides a public forum in which to display one's virtue. The outward appearance, of going through the motions of doing the right thing, is enough to impress others with one's devotion, just as much as being in the right place, and not being in the wrong one. Onuphre is another who locates himself in just the right place to be seen, in order to carry off the impersonation of a "devot": S'il marche par la ville, et qu'il decouvre de loin un homme devant 1 6 La Bruyere, 404. qui i l est n6cessaire qu'il soit d6vot, les veux baissgs ... il joue son r61e. S'il entre dans une 6glise, il observe d'abord de qui il peut  etre vu.... II entre autre fois dans un lieu saint, perce la foule, choisit un endroit pour se recueillir, et ou tout le monde voit qu'il s'humilie ... on n'y manque point son coup, on v est vu... (Mode, 24)1' With eyes lowered in mock humility, Onuphre then surveys the church to see who will see him and chooses a spot from which his humility can be seen. Onuphre's goal is accomplished: he has been seen. By knowing the customs and ethics of society and their visible manifestations, Onuphre controls what people think of him; their assessment is naturally based upon visual evidence which fits not only into their code of what they see, but one which Onuphure has fabricated. Michel Guggenheim, in his study of "L'homme sous le regard d'autrui" identifies the active and passive looks that betray the state of subjection and domination of one individual over another: "le regard passif des uns et le regard actif des autres traduisent l'6tat d'assujettissement ou de domination d'un individu face a l'autrui". 1 8 While Guggenheim focused primarily on public spectacles, there are several important portraits and fragments that tell a more complete visual picture of the individual, that illuminate more clearly the role of active and passive looks which overlap continually to blur the lines between individual and crowd. One of La Bruyere's more celebrated portraits, of MSnippe the mediocre, relies on significant visual imagery, in which both active and passive glances La Bruyere, 406-8. Guggenheim, 536. 62 play a parts MSnippe est l'oiseau par de divers plumages qui ne sont pas a lui ... il n'est que l'Scho de quelqu'un qu'il vient de quitter ... l'on iuge,  en le voyant, qu'il n'est occupy que de sa personne ... qu'il croit que tous les veux sont ouverts sur lui. et que les hommes se relayent pour le contempler....(M6rite personnel, 40) The comparison of MSnippe to a bird of many feathers illustrates that MSnippe adapts his outward appearance in a visual manners the image of "the plumage of birds" suggests an array of brilliant colours which can be detected only visually. La Bruyere takes advantage of this visual analogy when he explains that MSnippe believes that all eyes are upon him and that men take turns admiring hiitis "tous les yeux sont ouverts sur lui, et que les hommes se relayent pour le contempler". This is true of course, since La Bruyere as the omniscient narrator, has already informed us from the expression "l'on juge, en le voyant", that when one sees him, MSnippe is judged as a man preoccupied with himself. La Bruyere emphasizes the use of the eyes of the discerning crowd to see and then to form an opinion from the visual impression. The expression of constant surveillance amongst the members of the inland persists. The fact that one watches is a factor in an event recalled by La Bruyeres Je vois un homme entourS et suivi; mais il est en place. J'en vois  un autre que tout le monde aborde; mais il est en faveur. Celui-ci est embrassS et carressS, mime des grands; mais il est riche. Celui-la est regard^ de tous avec curiosity, on le montre du doigt; mais il est savant et eloquent. (Cour, 31) Z B Two important elements in this fragment contribute to the portrayal of the visual nature of society. La BruySre's personal presence brings the activity of 1 ? La Bruydre, 109-110. 2 0 La Bruydre, 230. 63 seeing much closer to the reader. Edward Knox, in his analysis of the textual function of the semiology of observation in Les Caracteres, considered the pronominal observers "I", "we" and "you" (underlined by Knox): Far more frequent, however, is an implicit assimilation or at least association of "I's" audience to mankind as public: the sycophants and the intruded-upon, the predisposed and undiscerning who share equal responsibility for the lamentable state of affairs which prevails. 2 1 La Bruyere participates in the narrative as a spectator whose presence and whose sight verify the reputation of the two men. The two sentences which begin "Je vois" and "J'en vois" do not merely describe an event, they also set down a moral judgment on the men, a judgment the reader accepts because the narrator saw it, and according to Knox's theory, because La Bruyere's "I" draws the reader into the activity of mankind as a public observer. On a more general level, this fragment repeats the image of one man who is regarded with curiosity by all, who point their finger at him in emphasis: "celui-la est regarde de tous avec curiosite". The "others" play an important judgmental role in Les Caracteres. La Bruyere laments that clever men do not live according to their own conscience and spirit, that they live according to the standards of others: ...ces gens d'un bel esprit et d'une agreable litterature, esclaves des grands ... contre leurs propres lumieres et contre leur conscience. Ces hommes n'ont jamais vecu que pour d'autres  hommes. et ils semblent les avoir regarded ... lis ont eu honte de se  sauver a leurs yeux, de paraltre tels qu'ils etaient peut-etre dans le coeur... (Esprits forts, 9) 2 2 Edward C. Knox, Jean de La Bruyere. (New York: Twayne, 1973) 74. La Bruyere, 461. In the shadow of "des grands", these men have watched them and have lived for them. La Bruyere continues the image of submission to others in the phrase that they are ashamed to save themselves in their own eyes ("honte de se sauver a leurs yeux").23 They are in fact, humiliated under the public pressure of society's surveilling eyes by the surrender of their own souls. La Bruydre tries to rally some confidence that the "others" are not continually watching. He points out that it is vanity to believe that people are always talking about us; we should have enough confidence to realize that all glances are not directed at us, and all whispers are not about us: Comme il faut se dSfendre de cette vanity qui nous fait penser que les autres nous reqardent avec curiosity et avec estime ... aussi devons-nous avoir une certaine confiance qui nous emp§che de croire qu'on ne se parle a l'oreille que pour dire du mal de nous, ou que l'on ne rit que pour s'en moquer.(L'homme, 73) 2 4 In light of La Bruyere's own overwhelming specular focus throughout the text, however, this warning of vanity is unconvincing: society in the late seventeenth century is self-absorbed, self-reflective and self-punishing. There is little room for individualism under the constant watchful eye of others. La Bruyere laments the lack of individual freedom to express one's emotions publicly, that one cannot laugh or cry without embarassment: D'ou vient que l'on rit si librement au theatre, et que l'on a honte d'y pleurer? ... Est-ce une peine que l'on sent a laisser voir que  l'on est tendre, et a marquer quelque faiblesse ... que l'effect naturel du grand tragique serait de pleurer tout franchement et de concert a la vue l'un de l'autre et sans autre embarras que celui L i Contrast with women who should not apply their own standards of beauty in their own eyes: "Si les femmes veulent seulement etre belles a leurs propres yeux..."(Femmes, 6). 2 4 La Bruyere, 321. d'essuyer ses larmes; (Ouvrages de l'esprit, 50) / 5 Afraid of the judgment and condemnation of others, emotional behaviour in view of others is denounced. Outward visible show of sentimentality are frowned upon as beyond the bounds of acceptable social behaviour. In a few instances however, the individual who is the target of society's stares, dominates the crowd. Troile for instance is the house oracle to whom all eyes look for guidance: "Si celui-ci est a table, et qu'il prononce d'un mets qu'il est friand, le maltre et les convies ... le trouvent friand ... tous ont les yeux  sur lui, observent son maintien et son visage... (Societe et Conversation, 13)^b All eyes are upon him, they watch him carefully and follow his lead. There is a certain similarity in the visual authority which radiates from Troile and the roi, and one wonders whether the closeness in names ("roi" forms the linguistic base of "Troile") suggested to La Bruyere's contemporaries the presence of a divine authority that emanates from the prominence of being the centre of attention. It is rare however, in Les Caracteres, that the observed has more authority than the observer; most objects of visual attention submit to public pressure and the individual is rarely stronger than the group. La Bruyere presents an extensive range of portraits and sketches of the individual controlled by the all-seeing, all-knowing eye of the crowd. The arrogant Pamphile avoids you if there is no public, but will acknowledge you profusely in the presence of a crowd: II vous apercoit un jour dans une galerie, et il vous fuit; et le 2 5 La Bruyere, 85. 2 6 La Bruyere, 157. lendemain, s'il vous trouve en un endroit moins public ou s'il est  public, en la compagnie d'un grand, il prend courage, il vient a vous .... Aussi les Pamphiles sont-ils toujours comme sur un theatre .... (Grands, 50) 2 7 There are many people like Pamphile, actors for whom life is like a theatre; one must perform for the audience. Friendships do not exist off-stage or outside of the public eye. Many crave the public attention. For years ArthSnice rehearses the role of astute and wise woman. Like a reject from the chorus, she practices in the wings, awaiting her turn in the limelight: On peut la [Arthenice] louer d'avance de toute la sagesse qu'elle aura un jour, et de tout le merite qu'elle se prepare par les annees ... il ne lui saurait peut-§tre manquer que les occasions, ou ce qu'on appelle un grand theatre, pour y faire briller toutes ses vertus. (Jugements, 28) 7 3 La Bruyere criticizes the hunger that Lucile experiences in her desire to move ahead in the social circle. La Bruyere wants tighter controls on the "rules of seeing" which enable some people to move in and out of restrictive circles of the social hierarchy without restriction: Lucile aime mieux user sa vie a se faire supporter de quelques grands, que d'etre reduit a vivre familierement avec ses £gaux. La  regie de voir de plus grands gue soi doit avoir ses restrictions. (Grands, 14) n The public sphere takes on the complexion of a gladiator ring, in which the participants fight each other with eyes as weapons. It is in public that battles are won and lost at the nod of another's head: 27 28 29 La Bruyere, 270-271. La Bruyere, 361. La Bruyere, 257. 67 De cette source vient que dans les endroits publics et ou le monde se rassemble, on se trouve a tous moments entre celui que l'on  cherche a aborder ou a saluer, et cet autre que l'on feint de ne pas  connaitre... (L'homme. 131)JM Ridicule is a weapon sharpened by visual presence, a disciplinary means of controlling behaviour. In the portrait of MSnalque, La BruySre mocks this absent-minded man in a detained humorous account of many embarassing situations into which MSnalque falls. On one occasion, when MSnalque visits the King's apartment, his wig is caught on a chandelier and hangs there to the amusement of the court: tous les courtisans regardent et rient; MSnalque regarde aussi et rit plus haut que les autres, il cherche des veux dans toute 1'assemble ou est celui qui montre ses oreilles.... (L'homme, 7) 3 1 MSnalque doesn't realize that the wig belongs to him. This lengthy portrait reminds a modern reader of the exaggerated slapstick gags of twentieth century classic films of Charlie Chaplin and Laurel and Hardy. The sight gag which relies on action rather than speech, which at the hands of La Bruyere becomes a visual weapon that increases the ridicule of MSnalque. The humour is derived in part from M4nalque's distraction, but to a greater extent, from the silent action of all the viewers: the cohesion of the scene depends on the courtisans looking and laughing, and on MSnalgue looking and laughing. La BruySre underscores the visual duplication of the act of looking by rewording it for reinforcement, " i l cherche des yeux", and MSnalque becomes a distracted mimic, a puppet manipulated by the crowd. La BruySre, 340. La Bruyere, 299. Burlesque humour is an integral part of Les Caracteres. but Robert Garapon searches behind the comical dimension of these gags: Mais, plus profondement, le burlesque se caracterise par une attitude de defiance instinctive devant tout ce qui est magnifie, admire ou consacre par la vie sociale; c'est la reaction de defense et d'ironie....32 Garapon suggests that the burlesque humour and bawdy ridicule evident throughout Les Caracteres confirms La Bruyere's discomfort in the face of social standards. La Bruyere's sensitivity to the problems of man's constant visibility in society is evident in his empassioned plea to renounce the exploitation of others in one's desperation to be noticed. He notes that this would have disastrous effects on the "grands", who take pleasure in public mockery of others, qui les traverserait dans le gout qu'ils ont quelquefois a mettre les  sots en vue ... qui ferait d'un cour orageuse ... comme une piece comique ou meme tragique, dont les sages ne seraient que les  spectateurs.... (Merite personnel, 11) 3 3 Men are thrust often unwillingly onto the court theatre: they are puppets who must dance when their strings are pulled by the more powerful. The tension of the drama relies entirely upon its public nature, for it is precisely because others see it, that it becomes so vital. The public drama originates with the specular code of the King who dominates the Court that dominates the powerful who dominate the weak. The games all the people play provide a spectacle that bewitches the nation, as reflected in its visual ethics. On a wider scale, this multi-level domination Garapon, xxviii La Bruyere, 98-99. affects the very nature of man, for his social interaction adjusts to the level of superficiality that pervades the entire society, that defines interpersonal relationships. The specular nature of the Court that sustains the competitive opposition between courtisans, filters down through the various levels of society. La Bruyere follows this trail as he extends his critical eye beyond the court nucleus and deeper into the psyche of the inland. Outside of the circle of the court, other concentric circles form their own nuclei. La Bruyere describes these smaller circles that spin off in their own planetary revolution in imitation of the court and its theatrical nature: Quelques-uns n'ont pas meme le triste avantage de rSpandre leurs folies plus loin que le quartier ou ils habitent: c'est le seul theatre  de leur vanity. L'on ne sait point dans l'lle qu'And § brille au Marais ... mais il se ruine obscurSment .... (Ville, 11) 3 4 In this daily theatre, the spectators play a role that extends beyond mere watching: they perform a critical function which reinforces the activities that take place within the perceived range of their circle. In another fragment, a man is honoured by the outside world, but the group closest to him does not share society's evaluation: Tel, connu dans le monde par de grands talents, honors et chSri partout ou il se trouve, est petit dans son domestigue et aux veux  de ses proches, qu'il n'a pu rSduire a l'estimer ... (Jugements, 58) 3 5 The household forms a smaller circle, one no less powerful and no less unified. The circles that form "les autres" can be the Court, the family, the quartier, or even a village, but even these smaller circles can often be linked by La BruySre, 212. La BruySre, 369-370. 70 a common cord. Periandre for example, is held in low esteem by an entire city: C'est lui que Ton envie, et dont on voudrait voir la chute ... les supprimera-t-il aux yeux de toute une yille jalouse, maligne, clairvoyante ... (Biens de fortune, 21) J b It is clear that the vengeance will be complete only when seen; the eyes of the malicious city express the ill-will of the inhabitants and the visual impact of seeing Periandre fall is the exercise of discipline by which the crowd keeps control of society. The judgment of "les autres" in these smaller circles is not always negative. In the case of N**, the abbe de Mauroy, cure of Les Invalides, the city respects him for his visible act of charity: N**... fait de sa maison un depot public ... toute une ville voit ses  aumdnes et les publie ... (L'homme, 104) 3 7 The power of visibility is often enough to inspire confidence, as La Bruyere indicates in this fragment regarding the priest whose fame spread quickly and whose audience grew proportionately: Je devais le prevoir, et ne pas dire qu'un tel homme n'avait qu'a se  montrer pour §tre suivi .... (Chaire, 5) 3 8 He has only to appear in public, to be followed by the faithful, his reputation having preceded him: his visibility reinforces the myth. Religion is particularly susceptible to the pressure of presence: Un clerc mondain ou irreligieux, s'il monte en chaire, est d6clamateur. II y a au contraire des hommes saints, et dont le seul caractere est efficace pour la persuasion: ils paraissent, et tout un peuple qui doit les ecouter est deja emu et comme persuade par leur 3 6 La Bruyere, 185-186. 3 7 La Bruyere, 330-331. 3 8 La Bruyere, 447. presence: le discours qu'ils vont prononcer fera le reste. (Chaire, 24) J 3 With such power residing in mere appearance, man's ability to judge correctly is sorely tested. Just as visibility aids those ambitious people who clammer onto the public stage, La BruySre acknowledges that many of those who have arrived, select their public appearances carefully, wisely combining visibility with acclamations L'on voit des hommes que le vent de la faveur pousse ... ils ne se montrent gue pour §tre embrassSs et fSlicitSs ... c'est le public, ou ces gens 6chouent. (Jugement, 61) Visibility is in fact an option of the powerful. In this excerpt of La Bruyere's classic portrait of contrasts, Giton and PhSdon are described in terms of their eyes and their visibilitys Giton a le teint frais, le visage plein et les joues pendantes, l'oeil fixe et assurS ... S'il s'assied, vous le voyez s'enfoncer dans un fauteuil, croiser les jambes l'une sur l'autre ... abaisser son chapeau sur ses veux pour ne voir personne ... i l est riche. PhSdon a les yeux creux, le teint SchauffS ... i l marche les yeux baissSs, et i l n'ose les lever sur ceux gui passent ... i l va les Spaules serrSes, le chapeau abaissS sur ses veux pour n'§tre point  vu ... II est pauvre. (Biens de fortune, 83)iV The differences between the rich man and the poor man are evident in their eyes. Giton's eyes are steady and assured, PhSdon's blank and lowered: Giton lowers his hat over his eyes so that he sees no one, but PhSdon's hat covers his eyes so that no one can see him. Michel Guggenheim offers this insight into the implication of the visual differences: La BruySre nous montre ici que dans une sociStS hautement hi6rarchis6e, un subalterne, s'il regarde un supSrieur avec La Bruyere, 453. La BruySre, 203-5. 72 consideration ou envie, peut aussi apprShender le fait mSme d'etre regard^ par lui: reqarder et Stre regards sont icl le privilege des puissants. 4 1 The same privilege of invisibility substantiates the seeming authority of another powerful figure, Clitiphon. La Bruyere comes to Clitiphon's door, but the businessman's employees do not let La Bruyere see him: Rendez service a ceux qui dependent de vous: vous le serez davantage par cette conduite que par ne vous pas laisser voir. 0 homme important et chargS d'affaires ... le philosophe est accessible ... Le manieur d'argent, l'homme d'affaires est un ours qu'on ne saurait apprivoiser; on ne le voit dans sa loge qu'avec peine: que dis-je? on ne le voit point; car d'abord on ne le voit pas encore, et bient6t on ne le voit plus. L'homme de lettres au contraire est trivial comme une borne au coin des places: i l est vu de tous. et a  toute heure. et en tous Stats, a table, au lit, nu, habillS, sain ou malade... (Biens de fortune, 12) 4 2 Like a bear in his own den, the rich man has the choice of visibility. Clitiphon chooses not to be seen, his invisibility emphasized by the repetition and accumulation of "on ne le voit pas" in five negative variations. In contrast to the the self-concealment of the rich man, the philosopher is seen everywhere, by all, at any time: the phrase " i l est vu ..." is used only once, but it rings out like a chime. Visibility is quite clearly a choice of the privileged. If a powerful man is in a position to help someone of a lesser rank, La Bruyere suggests visual discretion: mais comme c'est en une chose juste, i l doit prSvenir la sollicitation, et n'Stre vu gue pour Stre remerciS ... (Grands, 31) 4 3 Les Caracteres provides a vivid demonstration of man's need to be 41 42 43 Guggenheim, 537. La Bruyere, 182. La Bruyere, 263. 73 recognized, to be admired, to be envied. Even in conversation says La Bruyere, it is better to be admired and praised than to be informative; La Bruyere stresses the need to show off one's superiority, to win the approval of one's peers: L'esprit de la conversation consiste bien moins a en montrer beaucoup qu'a en faire trouver aux autres ... Les hommes n'aiment point a vous admirer ils veulent plaire; ils cherchent moins a etre instruits, et meme rejouis, qu'a etre qoutes et applaudis; et le plaisir le plus delicat est de faire celui d'autri. (Societe, 16) 4 4 La Bruyere criticizes the deception of lackeys who share fraudulently in the glory of military and court officials by accompanying them in public. It is acclamation by visual association: fiers d'§tre regardes de la bourgeoisie qui est aux fenetres ... ils rendent compte des endroits ou 1'en vie de voir les a pqrtes et ou il ne laissait pas d'y avoir du pSril .... (Jugements, 99) ^ Not only lackeys, but adventurers profit by the honour of public visibility accorded to the country's heroes: II y a dans les cours des apparitions de gens aventuriers et hardis ... Ils profitent cependant de l'erreur publique ... ils percent la foule, et parviennent jusqu']a l'oreille du prince, a qui le courtisan  les voit parler, pendant qu'il se trouve heureux d'en etre vu. (Cour, 16) 4,1 It is possible to deceive one's way into positions of power, provided that the adventurer has been seen talking with the prince; public visibility smooths the way for a more ready acceptance. Knowing how influential appearances can be, many people rely on 44 45 46 La Bruyere, 159. La Bruyere, 380-381. La Bruydre, 224. 74 expensive clothes to impress others; others flaunt their private lives before the insatiable eyes of the crowd: ...ils se plaisaient a faire du theatre public celui de leurs amours ... Leur gout n'allait qu'a laisser voir qu'ils aimaient non pas une belle personne ou une excellente comedienne, mais une comedienne. (Jugements, 16) 4 7 In this public theatre of private loves and lives, people perform for each other. Personal relationships cease to be private, as the rules of public visibility override common sense and social custom discourages appearing with one's wife in public: Qu'on evite d'etre vu seul avec une femme qui n'est point la sienne ... Mais quelle mauvaise honte fait rougir un homme de sa propre femme, et l'empeche de paraltre dans le public avec celle qu'il s'est choisie pour sa compagne inseparable ... Je connais la force de la coutume ... je sens neanmoins que j'aurais l'impudence de me promener au Cours, et d'y passer en revue avec une personne qui serait ma femme. (Quelques Usages, 35) ^ The fact that La Bruyere has no wife does not prevent him from posturing his own behaviour, and committing himself to public acknowledgment of a wife, but it does reduce somewhat the impact of his bravery in confronting the practices of restrictive visibility in society. Even friendships fall victim to the power of the group, when people embrace someone when they are alone, but they avoid the same person when in public: Combien de gens vous etouffent de caresses dans les particuliers, vous aiment et vous estiment, qui sont embarrasses de vous dans le  public, et qui, au lever ou a la messe, evitent vos yeux et votre rencontre! II n'y a qu'un petit nombre de courtisans qui, par grandeur, ou par une confiance qu'ils ont d'eux-memes, osent La Bruyere, 353. La Bruyere, 424. honorer devant le monde, le merite qui est seul et denue de grands etablissements. (Cour, 30) 4 9 The slight is on the same visual level: men avoid eye contact ("evitent vos yeux") in order to maintain their distance. To defy society's pressures requires an inner strength that La Bruyere praises, but he admits that few men possess this fortitude and confidence. In his comparison of a man to a transplanted tree, La Bruyere makes a subtle indictment of the ocular society that he describes in such detail: Combien d'hommes ressemblent a ces arbres deja forts et avances que Ton transplante dans les jardins, ou ils surprennent les yeux de ceux qui les voient places dans de beaux endroits ou ils ne les  ont point vus croitre et qui ne connaissent ni leurs commencements ni leurs progres! (Biens de fortune, 22) 5 0 La Bruyere acknowledges that society is not in fact all-seeing, since it did not notice that the man was thriving in a place where they had seen him begin. In not paying attention to this person, he admits that in reality, that it is possible to hide from the public scrutiny. The metaphor itself seems to be of secondary importance; that these men survived and in fact thrived out of the public view amazes La Bruyere. For some women who abandon themselves to convents or lovers, there is some privacy: Quelques femmes donnent aux couvents et a leurs amants ... ou personne ne voit qu'elles ne prient point Dieu. (Femmes, 35) 5 1 La Bruyere notes however, that in convents, out of the public eye, no one sees La Bruyere, 230. La Bruyere, 186. La Bruyere, 121. that the women are not praying. The duplication of the negative construction "personne ne voit qu'elles ne prient point...") expresses La Bruyere's negative reaction to the escape that the women have made from the confirming scrutiny of the crowd. The fact that the convents and lovers' trysts are out of public view means that suspected breaking of social standards cannot be verified. The link is clear between seeing and knowing: if it has not been verified by sight, it is not necessarily accurate or true. Accordingly, in the following maxime, like Caesar's wife, it is insufficient to be good, one must also be appear to be good: Ce qu'on appelle humeur est une chose trop nSgligSe parmi les hommes: ils devraient comprendre gu'il ne leur suffit pas d'etre bons, mais gu'ils doivent encore paraitre tels ... (L'homme, 9) i 2 La Bruyere suggests that just to be something is not enough; one must always present it to the world for public verification as well. In constant search for confirmation, members of the inland society play a complicated game of masking and unmasking, of determining the real from the imaginary, the true from the false. The visual duality of the active and passive roles of the eye, as the seen and the seeing, as the controlled and the controller, contributes sustantially to the moral dilemma in Les Caractdres. As man relies increasingly upon visual affirmation, the eye plays a greater regulatory role which, as La Bruyere demonstrates, can serve man's virtue or his vice. La Bruyere, 305. 77 PART Ills Eye to Eye CHAPTER 5 The Observed Entre l'art et l'anatomie, le lyrisme des visions et la mecanique raisonee de la vision, le XVTIe siecle francais ouvre l'oeil ... Entre le reel et l'imaginaire, "voir" suppose un ordre et des regies de l'esprit sans lesquels "prendre l'oeil pour juge" c'est s'exposer a confondre certitude et illusion, a prendre l'objet visible du regard et peut-etre Dieu, invisible garant de la Verite. Francoise Siguret, L'Oeil surpris 1 In a society which relies heavily on the act of seeing to reinforce its ethical structure, "what one is seeing" in another person is problematic. There must be certain assumptions made which allow one to, in the words of Siguret, distinguish certitude from illusion, reality from the imaginary. La Bruyere does not give us specific rules; instead, he addresses this complex issue with a characteristic antithesis. On the one hand, he presents some fragments which point to truth seen in the eyes and on the faces of those observed, in which the eyes and face reveal that which lies beneath the surface; on the other hand, he reports instances where men purposefully alter their eyes and faces in order to hide the true interior. How then can each member of the society share the consciousness of the society, judge what is within and without its bounds, know Siguret, 17-18. what behaviour is acceptable? The ambiguity in the trustworthiness of the act of seeing carries with it important implications for the significance of men watching and studying each other. Jules Brody's description of La Bruyere's contemporaries as superficial characters explains the inability of the writer to portray more profound characteristics: Ses Caracteres, a l'instar des caracteres d'imprimerie ... ne sont rien d'autre que des surfaces accidentees. tout en dehors et en  superficie, sans aucune substance, sans aucune reality interne. Et c'est dans cette superficialite qu'il faut chercher la vraie substance de son exterieur. Si La Bruyere s'obstinait a peindre ses contemporains par le dehors, c'est tout simplement parce que ses contemporains, surtout nobles, ne lui montraient plus autre chose.2 Brody concludes that the textual heroes of Les Caracteres are only surfaces, without substance, without an internal reality. It is most important to note that Brody maintains that the nobles did not show La Bruyere anything more consequential than the superficiality that he painted. Viewing from the outside, from the exterior, La Bruyere painted what he saw, what the act of seeing permitted him to see under the circumstances. But what are these circumstances, and why was it so difficult to see? What are the things that make it difficult for La Bruyere to see and for us to see? Can it be that La Bruyere is endeavouring to warn us that "what you see may not be what you get"? The following fragments and portraits of Les Caracteres substantiate the difficulty expressed by Jules Brody in reaching the essence of the characters. La Bruyere acknowledges the challenge one has in judging men accurately. Brody, 29. 79 Human beings are not after all, like a painting that one must see and judge according only to the sense of sight and often on first impression: II ne faut pas juger des hommes comme d'un tableau ou d'une figure sur une seule et premiere vue: il y a un intSrieur et un coeur gu'il faut approfondir. Le voile de la modestie couvre le mSrite et le masque de l'hypocrisie cache la malignitS. (Jugements, 27) 3 Man has an interior in which his heart is hidden; both virtue and vice can be covered by modesty or hypocrisy. For La Bruyere, the act of seeing (thus judging) is contingent upon the understanding that in many cases, there is more than meets the eye. He does not feel that men should be judged only by what they are seen to do. The outward manifestation is not solely representative of men's interior character. Education is one means by which men can change an exterior that does not match the interior: II y a de petites rdgles, des devoirs, des biensSances attaches aux lieux, aux temps, aux personnes, qui ne se devinent point force d'esprit, et que l'usage apprend sans nulle peine: juger des hommes par les fautes gui leur Schappent en ce genre avant qu'ils soient assez instruits, c'est en juger par leurs ongles ou par la pointe de leurs cheveux: c'est vouloir un jour Stre d6tromp6. (Jugements, 36 )4 To judge men by faults which occur because of lack of education is unfair, compared by La Bruy&re to judging men by insignificant physical characteristics (by their fingernails or the tips of their hair). La BruySre points out the fallacy of the exterior as confirmation of the interior. La BruySre, 360. La Bruyere, 363. 80 La Bruyere believes that education is a means by which one changes the exterior but not the interior: Quand i l serait vrai ... que l'Sducation ne donne point a l'homme un autre coeur ni une autre complexion, qu'elle ne change rien dans son fond et ne touche qu'aux superficies, je ne laisserais pas de dire qu'elle ne lui est pas inutile. (Jugements, 85) ' The negative construction typical of La BruySre's style reinforces the fact that he addresses disapproving criticism of the value of education with an acknowledgment that some may feel that education is not useful. He points out that education does make valuable superficial changes which bring a person more into line with society's values. La BruySre presents several examples that substantiate his theory that moral characteristics can be and are visibly feigned. One may think that modesty for example, is outwardly visible, but La BruySre points out that only the exterior manifestations of modesty are visible. The display of this moral virtue may in fact, be a lie: On ne voit point mieux le ridicule de la vanitS, et combien elle est un vice honteux, gu'en ce gu'elle n'ose se montrer, et gu'elle se  cache souvent sous les apparences de son contraire. La fausse modestie est le dernier raffinement de la vanitS; elle fait gue l'homme vain me parait point tel ... c'est un mensonge... (L'homme, 66) 6 Vanity hides under the appearance of its moral opposite: the disguise of false modesty may be so successful that the vain man does not appear that way at all. Therefore, one cannot judge by what one sees at first glance, as in a painting that is all surface and can only be seen; one must look beyond the surface. La BruySre, 377. La Bruydre, 318-319. 81 Appropriately, La Bruyere introduces his reflection on the appearance of vanity by the verb "voir" ("on ne voit point mieux..."), indicating that it is possible to see the absurdity of vanity, that the degree to which it is a shameful vice can be seen, that it can be seen to hide under its moral counterpoint, modesty. The entire reflexion is built stylistically upon the act of seeing, which reinforces the visual nature of its meaning. Modesty is not excluded from La Bruyere's complicated perception of visible virtue and vice. Modesty is not an interior sentiment, that is, an invisible characteristic. Instead, La Bruyere proposes that modesty is a virtue of the exterior, a moral intention that alters one's visible demeanor. La modestie n'est point, ou est confondue avec une chose toute differente de soi, si on la prend pour un sentiment interieur qui avilit l'homme a ses propres yeux. et qui est une vertu surnaturelle qu'on appelle humilite. L'homme, de sa nature, pense hautement et superbement de lui-meme, et ne pense ainsi que de lui-meme: la modestie ne tend qu'a faire que personne n'en souffre; elle est une  vertu du dehors, qui regie ses yeux, sa demarche, ses paroles, son ton de voix, et gui le fait agir exterieurement avec les autres comme s'il n'etait pas vrai qu'il les compte pour rien. (L'homme, 69)7 One's outward modest deportment, that which others see, belies the vanity which remains hidden in the unseen recesses of one's soul. Modesty is an outward cover that rules one's eyes, one's walk, one's words and tone of voice, in short, all the visual clues with which one makes judgments about others. The true virtue is humility, which is interior and known only to men who look into their own soul. Politeness is another virtue that affects the outward appearance and which is often construed as an indication of one's morality and ethics: La Bruyere, 320. 82 La politesse n'inspire pas toujours la bonte, 1'equite, la complaisance, la gratitude; elle en donne du moins les apparences, et fait paraltre 1'homme au dehors comme il devrait §tre  interieurement. (Societe, 32) aLa Bruyere suggests that politeness is an exterior clue to the interior of a person, but that it too can be a false appearance. La Bruyere warns specifically that physical appearances can be misleading and should be used only for a guide, for he knows that men do indeed judge others by what they see on the faces of their peers: La physionomie n'est pas une regie qui nous soit donnee pour juger des hommes: elle nous peut servir de conjecture. (Jugements, 31 y In his portrait of Timon, La Bruyere presents a person who may in his heart be austere and mean, but who appears to be civil and ceremonious: Timon, ou le misanthrope, peut avoir l'ame austere et farouche; mais exterieurement i l est civil et ceremonieux...(L'homme, 155)*" Timons's interior and exterior contrast with one another, and the spectator's difficulty is that only the exterior is visible to serve as material evidence of one's nature. Being visible does not mean that something is true. La Bruyere describes the French society as a place where what is visible is false, and what is hidden is real: II y a un pays oD les ioies sont visibles. mais fausses, et les chagrins caches, mais reels. Que croirait que l'empressement pour les spectacles, que les eclats et les applaudissements aux theatres de Moliere et d'Arlequin ... couvrissent tant d'inquietudes ... tant de craintes et d'esperances, des passions si vives et des affaires si La Bruyere, 163. La Bruyere, 362. La Bruyere, 347. serieuses? (Cour, 63) 1 1 In this privileged place of "les prScieux", where ridiculous affectation, coquetterie, excessive politeness, extravagant dress, pleasantries and parlour games prevail, who would have thought that this ostensible and visible frivolity covered such sadness, fears and insecurities. Jean-Marie Apostolides describes the requirement of the courtier that he control himself in all situations and mold his face and his gestures accordingly: Le courtisan apprend a se contrdler dans toutes les circonstances, a modeler son visage et ses gestes en fonction de la bienseance.12 La Bruyere is quite specific about the facial disguises that are necessary at the court: Un homme qui sait la cour est maltre de son geste. de ses yeux et  de son visage: il est profond, impenetrable; il dissimule les mauvais offices, sourit a ses ennemis, contraint son humeur, dSguise ses passions, dement son coeur, parle, agit contre ses sentiments. Tout ce grand raffinement n'est qu'un vice, que l'on appelle faussete, quelquefois aussi inutile au courtisan pour sa fortune, que la franchise, la sincerite et la vertu. (Cour,2)*3 The courtier is master of his face, his eyes, his gestures; his real thoughts and his true emotions are hidden under an exterior that changes according to the demands of the situation. In the portrait of the adaptable politician whose exterior changes like a chameleon, La Bruyere stresses the visual mirror that guides him through his theatrical production: Quelguefois aussi il sait feindre le caractere le plus conforme aux 11 12 13 La Bruy6re, 242. Apostolides, Roi-machine, 52. La Bruyere, 221. 84 vues qu'il a et aux besoins ou i l se trouve, et paraitre tel qu'il a intSrSt que les autres croient qu'il est en effet ... il laisse voir en lui quelque peu de sensibility pour sa fortune: i l s'attire par la des propositions qui lui dScouvrent les vues des autres les plus secretes ... Toutes ses vues, toutes ses maximes, tous les raffinements de sa politique tendent a une seule fin, qui est de n'Stre point trompS, et de tromper les autres. (Souverain, 12J1 * The minister is a master of disguises, knowing exactly what behaviour to adopt, with its matching exterior; he watches others to discover their views, then acts in accordance with them. His essence is to mislead other, but never to be misled himself. La BruySre reflects upon the mask that men wear to portray themselves differently than they are by means of a visible masquerade: La difference d'un homme qui se revSt d'un caractere Stranger a lui-m§me, guand i l rentre dans le sien, est celle d'un masgue a un  visage. (L'homme, 140) 1 5 La BruySre's analogy of a face to a mask provides a vivid example of his successful integration of style with thought. Robert Garapon comments on La BruySre's use of remarkable images and comparisons: Cette ingSniositS se montre d'abord dans les mStaphores et les comparaisons... Constamment soucieux de faire voir et convaincu que le pittoresque est le meilleur piment de la briSvetS, i l se plait aux "transpositions" hardies. 1 6 Garapon notes that La BruySre's intention to make matters visible ("de faire voir"), leads him to paint with brevity by using striking images, comparisons and metaphors. The pictoral image created by the word "masque" suggests a 14 15 16 La BruySre, 281-5. La Bruyere, 342. Garapon, 148. grotesque facial cover; combined with the staccato rhythm of the short subordinate phrase ("celle d'un masque a un visage") at the emphatic final position of the sentence, La Bruyere focuses so precisely on the contrast between the mask and the face, that one overlooks the fact that the mask and the face belong to the same man. In the case of Theognis, La Bruyere describes his mask in more detail: Theognis ... n'est pas hors de sa maison, qu'il a deia aiuste ses yeux et son visage, afin que ce soit une chose faite quand i l sera dans le public, qu'il y paraisse tout concerte... (Grands, 48) 1 7 Theognis adjusts his eyes and face to the image which he wants to portray before he leaves his home, so that he is not caught unprepared, so that when he is in public, his mask is already firmly in place. An essential element of the public mask is the alteration of the eyes and face. La Bruyere directs scornful criticism against women who disguise their looks. In the chapter on "Women", La Bruyere champions the natural look and attacks makeup as a deceitful mask that men hate: Si les femmes veulent seulement etre belles a leurs propres yeux et se plaire a elles-memes, elles peuvent sans doute ... suivre leur gout et leur caprice ... mais si c'est aux hommes gu'elles desirent de  plaire ... gu'ils haissent autant a les voir avec de la ceruse sur le  visage, qu'avec de fausses dents en la bouche, et des boules de cire dans les machoires; (Femmes, 6) *8 La Bruyere sarcastically introduces his opinion with a proclamation that if women want to please themselves, they can dress as they please; if they wish to please men however, and he implies that they do and should, then they should La Bruyere, 269. La Bruyere, 113-114. be aware that men are sensitive to such superficial alterations, and do not wish to see them in an unnatural guise. Facial makeup is equated with false teeth, a most unattractive comparison. La Bruyere rhapsodizes that "un beau visage est le plus beau de tous les spectacles" (Femmes, 10) 1 8, but it might be difficult for all women to participate in this spectacle, when he admonishes women for forgetting that "l'age est ecrit sur le visage". (Femmes, 7) 2 0 According to La Bruyere, women's own standards of beauty ("belles a leurs propres yeux") differ from men's standards; the author does not encourage women to be true to their own standards, in the same way that he exhorts men to be true to their standards when they use their own eyes as a moral guide. 2 1 Women's freedom of visible expression is greatly compromised in Les Caracteres. A mask may not be as definable as makeup or impressive finery. It may be an abstract air that obscures one's appearance, like Telephe the enigme, clearly seen for what he is not, but whose true nature is unknown: II a comme une barriere qui le ferme ... il trouve lui-meme son endroit faible, et se montre par cet endroit ... on voit clairement ce  qu'il n'est pas, et il faut deviner ce qu'il est en effet. (L'homme, 1 4 1 p The eyes can be a vehicle of silent communication. Man has learned to profit from facial expressions, gestures, "looks" which reveal the words he n La Bruyere, 115. 2 8 La Bruyere, 114. 2 1 Contrast with "L'homme, qui est esprit, se mene par les yeux et les oreilles" in L'homme, 154. 2 2 La Bruyere, 342-3. 87 cannot utter. If for instance, one has a secret that must not be told, there are ways to purposefully and silently communicate the secret through the eyes: Des gens vous promettent le secret, et ils le rSvSlent eux-memes, et a leur insu; ils ne remuent pas les 16vres, et on les entend; on lit  sur leur front et dans leurs veux, on voit au travers de leur  poitrine, ils sont transparents. (SociSte, 81)li By manipulating one's exterior, one's eyes, face and heart become merely part of the disguise. La Bruyere understands the value which society places on appearances and he holds society responsible for the reverence of outward appearances instead of virtue and behaviour. In his portrait of Philemon, La BruySre describes a young man who dresses himself in bejewelled splendour: L'or delate, dites-vous, sur les habits de Philemon ... i l a au doigt un gros diamant qu'il fait briller aux veux...il faut voir du moins des choses si pr§ ieuses... Ce n'est pas qu'il faut quelquefois pardonner a celui qui, avec un grand cortege, un habit riche et un magnifique Equipage, s'en croit plus de naissance et plus d'esprit: i l lit cela dans la contenance et dans les yeux de ceux gui lui parlent. (MSrite personnel, 27) Z 4 Society is in awe of the spectacle of the gold and jewels worn by Philemon. The visible signs of his wealth dazzle the eyes of the spectators: Philemon reads the estime in the eyes and the faces of the spectators. Is Philemon any more guilty than society, La Bruyere asks? Society is so conscious of appearances that in the case of judges, an edict was passed which forced them to wear bands instead of ties. The effect of this regulation of the judges's appearances however, is to erase the respect that La BruySre, 178. La Bruyere, 104. 88 their distinguished comportment has earned them: L'homme de robe ne saurait guere danser au bal, paraitre aux theatres, renoncer aux habits simples et modestes, sans consentir a son propre avilissement; et il est etrange qu'il ait fallu une loi pour reqler son exterieur. et le contraindre ainsi a etre grave et plus respecte. (Quelques usages, 47 The church is affected by changes to its appearance which lead to criticism of La Bruyere for its emphasis on superfluity: Le discours Chretien est devenu un spectacle. Cette tristesse evangelique qui en est l'ame ne s'y remarque plus: elle est suppleee par les avantages de la mine, par les inflexions de la voix, par la regularity du geste. par le choix des mots, et par les longues enumerations. (Chaire, 1)2° The exterior presentation has usurped the focus and the spotlight is no longer on the holiness of the church's divine doctrine. Like an amateur stage production competing with Moliere's plays, the Christian dogma is overwhelmed by the necessity of theatrical devices and disguises to capture the eyes and ears of its followers. The disguises in which the eye participates illustrate that for La Bruyere, the eye as the visual metaphor for knowledge as well as the primary physical means by which the soul receives sensory information, is at the basis of his visually-oriented society. Earlier in the seventeenth century, Descartes expressed the role of the eyes, so important for society's self-observation, as opaque windows to man's soul: "We know for certain that it is to the soul that that sense belongs, not to the body" and "It is the soul that sees, not the La Bruyere, 428. La Bruyere, 445. eyeV' Fundamental questions arise in light of La Bruyere's descriptions of the eyes' capacity for disguise and masking, whether such deception mirrors the decadent soul of man in seventeenth century society, whether knowledge passing through the eyes is able to be filtered, whether one can ever truly distinguish certitude from illusion and reality from the imaginary. Descartes, 38. 90 CHAPTER 6 The Observer De sorte que, a l'Sgard de ces invit6s-la, ils Staient jeunes vus de loin, leur age augmentait avec le grossissement de la figure et la possibility d'en observer les diffSrents plans; i l restart dependant du spectateur. qui avait a se bien placer pour voir ces figures-la et a n'appliquer sur elles que ces regards lointains qui diminuent l'objet comme le verre que choisit l'opticien pour un presbyte; pour elles la vieillesse, comme la presence des infusoires dans une goutte d'eau, Stait amende par le progres moins des annSes que, dans la vision de  l'observateur, du degrS de l'6chelle. Marcel Proust Le temps retrouvS* A fervent admirer of the work of La Bruyere, Marcel Proust recaptures the visual theme so integral to Les Caracteres, in which the perspective of the spectator is paramount: like an optician treating presbyopia who adjusts the vision of the observer, the object diminishes or increases in size, with a corresponding aging progression. The knowledge one gains, the conclusions one reaches are linked naturally with sight. It is from this angle, from the perspective of the observer, that La BruySre is able to convince us of the complexity of the ocular consciousness of society. The observer looks from a Marcel Proust, Le temps retrouv6. (Paris: Gallimard, 1954), 319. certain angle, from a certain distance, with a certain mental attitude: both literal and figurative angles of vision greatly affect the object seen and therefore the person observing. In his article on "L'homme sous le regard d'autrui", Michel Guggenheim draws our attention to the people in Les Caractere who watch others . His examples reveal more of the excessive nature of the public's all-seeing gaze, than simply seeing and being seen. As Jean Starobinski explains, "Notre app6tit de voir est toujours disponible pour la curiosite frivole, pour la distraction vaine, pour les spectacles cruels". 2 Guggenheim gives as examples the public curiosity exhibited at the "morning after" wedding examination, at public executions and on public promenades. A brief textual analysis of each of these scenes illustrates the depth of La Bruyere's contempt for his contemporaries' abuse of the privilege of sight. These spectacles are occasions that society accepts as conventional events; wedding festivities, evening walks and public justice provide traditional social entertainment. La Bruyere's criticism therefore is aimed at conventional forms of entertainment that bring out a side of human nature that makes La Bruyere uncomfortable. The custom of a morning-after inspection of the bride, for example, offends La Bruyere and incites his biting sarcasm: Le bel et le judicieux usage que celui qui, preferant une sorte d'effronterie aux bienseances et a la pudeur, expose une femme d'une seule nuit sur un lit comme sur un theatre, pour y faire pendant quelques jours un ridicule personnage, et la livre en cet etat a la curiosite des gens de l'un et de l'autre sexe, qui, connus ou inconnus, accourent de toute une ville a ce spectacle pendant 2 Starobinski, 14. qu'il dure!... (Ville, 19)J The intimacy of the first three days of marriage is violated by the public and transformed into a theatrical production, a spectacle that strangers run to see. Society reinforces its idle curiosity by supporting a custom that forces a newly married woman to remain in her bed and receive visitors for the first three days of her marriage, thus to be exposed to the peering glances of strangers, and forced to participate in a voyeuristic manipulation of a private event. "Ocular possession" is at the root of this voyeuristic game that society legitimizes by its customs. In his study of "le regard", Jean Starobinski outlines the possessive nature of the eye, also keenly recognized by Bossuet, La Bruyere's contemporary and admirer: ... de tous les sens, la vue est le plus faillible, le plus naturellement coupable: "N'attachez point vos yeux sur ce qui leur plait, et songez que David pSrit par un coup d'oeil. (Bossuet) ... La "concupiscence des yeux" inclut et resume toutes les autres: elle est le mal par excellence. "Sous les yeux sont en quelque sorte compris tout les autres sens; et, dans l'usage du langage humain, sou vent sentir et voir, c'est la m§me chose." (Bossuet). 4 Idle curiosity attracts people on daily strolls in the public gardens, a form of spectator sport that to this day is a fundamental part of European social life. La BruySre however, forces us to see the discriminatory nature of this curiosity and the stroll becomes an exercise and sport of observing and judging: L'on se donne a Paris, sans se parler, comme un rendez-vous public, mais fort exact, tous les soirs au Cours ou aux Tuileries, pour se regarder au visage et se dSsapprouver les uns les autres... L'on s'attend au passage r6ciproquement dans une promenade 3 La BruySre, 217. 4 Starobinski, 14. 93 publique; Ton y passe en revue l'un devant l'autre: carrosse, chevaux, livrees, armoiries, rien n'echappe aux yeux, tout est curieusement ou maUqnement observe: et selon le plus ou le moins de l'equipage, ou Ton respecte les personnes, ou on les dedaigne. (Ville, l ) r People's eyes search each other's faces, disapproval or respect follows. It is a cruel game of mutual observation, a vicious, silent game. Nothing escapes the omniscient eyes that constantly move like search lights in a dangerous sky, observing and judging, missing nothing. The arsenal of sight underscores human weaknesses in the faces of phantoms silently moving around each other in a ritualistic dance, connected only by eyes rivetted to each other. The repetition of the impersonal pronoun "on" like the beat of a drum reinforces the anonymity of the omnipresent public. Louis Van Delft notes the visual obscurity of the indefinable "on" which requires the active participation of the reader, who must enter into this vagueness in an attempt to illuminate the shadows that obscure their faces: Quand La Bruyere ecrit par exemple: "L'on s'accoutume difficilement" ... i l est clair que, par l'emploi de l'impersonnel, des indefinis, tout tend a permettre au lecteur de prolonger, de developper, de detainer une situation qui n'est qu'ebauche ... c'est au lecteur de faire le reste, de mettre un visage sur ce "on" ... 6 These are form-less, anonymous creatures who pass each other in line, fixing only their eyes on the other ("l'un devant l'autre ... rien n'echappe aux yeux"): the public promenade is more like a military review, and substantiates Michel 3 La Bruyere, 206. 6 Louis Van Delft, La Bruyere: Quatre etudes sur le moraliste. (Geneve: Droz, 1971) 79. 94 Foucault's theory of discipline by visual coercion. La Bruydre illustrates the absurd behaviour that is demonstrated when a custom such as an after-dinner stroll becomes entrenched as a social institution and extended to the ridiculous: PSnible coutume, asservissement incommode! se chercher incessamment les unes les autres avec l'impatience de ne se point rencontrer ... ne sortir de chez soi I'apr6s-dln6e que pour y rentrer le soir, fort satisfaite d'avoir vu en cinq petites heures trois suisses, une femme que l'on connait a peine, et une autre que l'on n'aime guSre! Qui considSrerait bien le prix du temps, et combien sa perte est irreparable, pleurerait amSrement sur de si grandes misdres. (Ville, 20) 8 "How satisfying to have seen three Swiss, one woman that one hardly knows and another that one hardly likes, in five short hours!": La Bruyere's brutal sarcasm cuts to the heart of the observation game. The deterioration of a pleasant social outing into a competition which people win for the most "people sightings", as one would with rare birds or animals, is seen as a waste of precious time. It indicates truly the impersonalization of the "other" social beings. La BruySre's own harsh words express his disgust at crass visual spectacles that draw men like magnets to exhibitions of others' misfortune: L'on court les malheureux pour les envisager; l'on se range en haie, ou l'on se place aux fen§tres, pour observer les traits et la  contenance d'un homme qui est condamn6....vaine, maligne, inhumaine curiosity si les hommes Staient sages, la place publique serait abandonnSe, et il serait Stablie qu'il y aurait de l'ignominie seulement a voir de tels spectacles. (Cour, 50)' refer to epigraph, chapter 4. La Bruyere, 217-218. La Bruyere, 236. 95 The faceless "on" is once again the omnipresent, aloof spectator bearing ill-will. The repetition of "on" and the similar brevity and staccato rhythm of the first three sentences express La Bruyere's anger at the scene in front of him. By varying the verbs "to see" ("envisager", "observer" and "voir"), La Bruyere illustrates various degrees of participation in the act of seeing: he shows us a sad spectacle which brings disdain on those who watch it in any way. To see is to participate in the pathetic circumstances of public humiliation, a gratuitous, and indolent act. Sight becomes a weapon that turns on the observer, that destroys his own humanity by his visual participation. Participation requires a certain proximity to that which is seen, since a functional restriction of sight is distance. As we know, a correct depth of field is essential to human vision: human beings cannot see clearly objects that are either too far away, or too close. Seen from too great a distance, the object is vague and its true characteristics are invisible; seen from too close, it is distorted and indiscernable. La Bruyere closes the gap between reality and appearance, both of which can be distorted when separated by too large or too small a distance: La province est l'endroit d'ou la cour, comme dans son point de vue, parait une chose admirable: si Ton s'en approche. ses agrements  diminuent. comme ceux d'une perspective que Ton voit de trop pres. (Cour, 6) 1 B The court, when seen from a distance, seems like a wonderful place to be, but when one reduces the distance and gets a closer look, their attributes fade. For the courtier himself, distance plays an important role, as Jean-Marie La Bruyere, 222. Apostolides points out: Le courtisan se construit comme un chateau, tout en facade: il ne donne son plein effet que regarde a une certaine distance. " Like a building whose cracks are plainly visible on closer inspection, close proximity to the courtisan might expose his faults. Like the people in Proust's quotation 1 2 who age with increasing closeness, the courtiers' faults are more evident the closer one gets. La Bruyere recounts a personal episode in which he is deceived by his view from too great a distance from a small town on the horizon: Je la vois dans un jour si favorable ... Je me recrie et je dis: "Quel plaisir de vivre sous un si beau ciel et dans ce sejour si delicieux!" Je descends dans la ville, ou je n'ai pas couch6 deux nuits, que je ressemble a ceux qui l'habitent: j'en veux sortir. (Societe, 49) 1 3 When seen from a distance, the town was quite appealing; in close proximity however, it lost its charm and La Bruyere departed quickly. La Bruyere suggests that our faults are not apparent to ourselves, because we cannot see them from a proper distance. If however, we see these same faults in someone else, and stand back far enough to see them from the right distance, we will recognize them in ourselves: Les m§mes defauts qui dans les autres sont lourds et insupportables sont chez nous comme dans leur centre; ils ne pesent plus, on ne les sent pas. Tel parle d'un autre et en fait un portrait affreux, qui ne voit pas qu'il se peint lui-meme. Rien ne nous corrigerait plus promptement de nos defauts ... de les reconnaltre dans les autreS: c'est dans cette juste distance que, nous paraissant tels  qu'ils sont. ils se feraient hair autant qu'ils le meritent. Apostolides, 53. epigraph, chapter 6. La Bruyere, 168. 97 (Jugements, 72) 1 4 From a correct distance then, not too far and not too close, our vision is clear. La Bruyere echoes other writers of his century and their fascination with the laws of perspective that are applicable in both physical and moral situations. In the due de La Rochefoucauld's reflection on society for example, he advises men to consider the physical perspectival law when considering their visibility in society and how they wish to be seen: Comme on doit garder des distances pour voir les objets, i l en faut garder aussi pour la soci£t6: chacun a son point de vue, d'ou i l  veut §tre regarded on a raison, le plus souvent, de ne vouloir pas §tre Sclair6 de trop pres. et i l n'y a presque point d'homme qui veuille, en toutes choses, se laisser voir tel qu'il est. 1 5 La Rochefoucauld suggests that one must maintain one's distance to physically see objects properly and he applies this theory to society. Since everyone must be standing somewhere in order to see, it is essential that if one wishes to be seen, it is often in one's benefit to be seen from as far away as possible. Still in the figurative sense, La Bruyere's treatment of morality is affected by spatial considerations; virtues and vice are described within the physical bounds of perspective: La fausse grandeur est farouche et inaccessible: comme elle sent son faible, elle se cache, ou du moins ne se montre pas de front, et ne se fait voir qu'autant qu'il faut pour imposer et ne paraitre point ce  qu'elle est ... la veritable grandeur ... ne perd rien a Stre vue de  pres: plus on la connalt, plus on l'admire. (MSrite personnel, 42) l b 1 4 La Bruyere, 374. 1 5 due de La Rochefoucauld, Maximes et Reflexions diverses. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1977) 113. 1 6 La Bruyere, 111. 98 False greatness is not openly visible, appearing only rarely and surreptiously in order to impose itself and to sustain a false impression; true greatness on the other hand, can withstand close scrutiny and repeated study. La Bruyere utilizes perception in the figurative sense but always with the same underlying spatial dependance. In the portrait of the arrogant Arsene, La Bruyere offers an example of the contemplation of others that takes place from a distance, when one is psychologically removed from the crowd and feels superior to everyone in it: Arsene, du plus haut de son esprit, contemple les hommes, et dans l'eloiqnement d'ou il les voit. i l est comme effraye de leur petitesse; loue, exalte, et porte jusqu'aux cieux par de certaines gens qui se sont promis de s'admirer reciproquement, i l croit, avec quelque merite qu'il a, posseder tout celui qu'on peut avoir, et qu'il n'aura jamais; occupe et rempli de ses sublimes idees, i l se donne a peine le loisir de prononcer quelques oracles; eleve par son caractere au-dessus des jugements humains, i l abandonne aux ames communes le merite d'une vie suivie et uniforme ... incapable d'etre corrige par cette peinture, qu'il ne lira point. (Ouvrages de l'esprit, 24) 1 7 The spatial aspect of sight becomes a factor that demands add dimensions, angles and depth. It is important to be aware of this relationship: Arsene can only contemplate men from a distance; as a result of spatial separation, he focuses on men. He is however, "eleve par son caractere au-dessus des jugements humains": he has lost touch with human beings, isolated from them by the excessive distance between them and him. Treated as a god (syntactically reinforced by words such as "haut" "loue", "exalte", porte jusqu'aux cieux", "prononcer quelques oracles" "idolatrent"), Arsene, along with the reader, is deluded into accepting the divine implication of the privileged La Bruyere, 74. 99 distance. La BruySre saves his ridicule for the last lines in a climactic manner that is his trademark: ArsSne is plucked suddenly from the sky and forced to confront the portrait that La Bruyere has painted of him; "incapable d'etre corrige par cette peinture, gu'il ne lira point." 1 8. Doomed to ignorance, this subtle "mise en abyme" of observation emphasizes the peril of extreme distance in the utilisation of the sense of vision as a means of exercising judgment. Along the same figurative vein, La Bruyere describes a man contemplating his success at court. A good example of the author's talent for turning an abstract metaphor into concrete action, the courtisan turns around, and looks far behind him into the past, as if down a long road is winding along behind him: "Celui qui voit loin derriere soi un homme de son temps et de sa condition, avec qui il est venu a la cour la premiere fois ... ne se souvient plus de ce qu'avant sa faveur i l pensait de soi-m§me et de ceux qui l'avaient devanceV' (Cour, 24) The author's ability to substitute figurative and literal vision is important to the interplay of psychological and physical drama that underlines Les Caracteres. La Bruyere enchants the reader with the striking image of a palatial home surrounded by verdant gardens and flowing water: Ce palais, ces meubles, ces jardins, ces belles eaux vous enchantent et font recrier d'une premiere vue sur une maison si deiicieuse, et sur l'extreme bonheur du maitre qui la possede. II n'est plus ... il s'est noye de dettes pour la porter a ce degre de beaute ou elle vous ravit. Ses creanciers Ten ont chassS: il a tourne la t§te, et 11 l'a regards de loin une derniere fois: et il est mort de saisissement. 1 8 La BruySre, 75. 1 5 La Bruyere, 228. (Biens de fortune, 79) i B He plays on the temporal antithesis between our first view and the maitre's last sight of his home: that vision which has just come alive for us, dies just as quickly for the owner. The effectiveness of the image comes from the distinct sequence of the action played out in slow motion: the creditors chase him, he turns his head dramatically in one last longing look at his creation, then dies. This fragment illustrates La Bruyere's stylistic genius and the cinematographic quality of his writing that both contribute to its power and appeal. The figurative and literal aspects of sight are again combined in La Bruyere's criticism of men who are so concerned with the acquisition of property that they are limited by its physical bounds and cannot see beyond the heavens and the stars to God himself; J'appelle mondains, terrestres ou grossiers ceux dont l'esprit et le coeur sont attaches a une petite portion de ce monde qu'ils habitent, qui est la terre ... gens aussi limites que ce qu'ils appellent leurs possessions ou leur domaine, que Ton mesure, dont on compte les arpents, et dont on montre les bornes ... avec des  vues si courtes, ils ne percent point a trayers le ciel et les astres, jusques a Dieu m§me... (Esprits forts, 3) n Blinded by their possessions "dont on montre les bornes", they are tied visually to earth, restricted by their "vues si courtes", sentenced never to know creativity, dreams or salvation. La Bruyere demonstrates the connection of the angle of physical vision which gives a figurative meaning to the perspective of observation in his portrait of Arfure: 2 0 La Bruyere, 202-203. 2 1 La Bruyere, 459. 101 Arfure cheminait seule et a pied vers le grand portique de Saint**, entendait de loin le sermon d'un carme ou d'un docteur qu'elle ne voyait qu'obliquement, et dont elle perdait bien des paroles. Sa vertu etait obscure, et sa devotion connue comme sa personne ... quelle monstrueuse fortune en moins de six annees! Elle n'arrive a l'Sglise que dans un char ... l'orateur s'interrompt pendant qu'elle se place; elle le voit de front, n'en perd pas une seule parole ni le moindre geste...(Biens de fortune, 16) 2 2 As a poor person, Arfure observed from an awkward angle, far away from the priest; six years later however, a rich Arfure sees clearly, close up and openly. Arfure's physical position from which to see is directly related to her social positions as her worth improves, so does her vision. The relation between vision and one's spiritual perspective is addressed in La Bruyere's well-known portrait of the professional spectator. La Bruyere concedes that the ocular code, like other ethical structures in society, is often stretched beyond a moral acceptability, and this portrait supplies uneguivocal evidence of the extent to which observation is taken, in this society based on exaggeration: Voila un homme, dites-vous, que j'ai vu quelque part: de savoir ou, il est difficile; mais son visage m'est familier. - II Test a bien d'autres... Ou pourriez-vous ne l'avoir point vu?... S'il y a dans la place une fameuse execution, ou un feu de joie, i l parait a une fenStre de l'H6tel de ville... si le Roi recoit des ambassadeurs, i l voit leur marche...C'est son visage que l'on voit aux almanachs reprSsenter le peuple ou l'assistance. II aime les troupes, la milice, la guerre; i l la voit de pres...CHANLEY sait les marches, JACQUIER les vivres, DU METZ l'artillerie: celui-ci voit, i l a vieilli sous le harnois en voyant, i l est spectateur de profession; i l ne fait rien de ce qu'un homme doit faire, i l ne sait rien de ce qu'il doit savoir; mais i l a vu, dit-il, tout ce gu'on peut voir, et i l n'aura point regret de mourir... Quelle perte alors pour toute la ville!... Enfin, puisqu'il y a a la ville comme ailleurs de fort sottes gens, des gens fades, oisifs, desoccupSs, gui pourra aussi parfaitement leur convenir? La Bruyere, 184. 102 (Cour, 13) 2 3 This observation displays La Bruyere' stylistic talents at their best, the literary artist fusing images, styles and vocabulary. He uses the verb "voir" nine times, "paraltre" once; the total of ten uses of the verbs of seeing is not in itself exceptional. What makes it pertinent is that it is not only the "spectateur de profession" who is doing the seeing. La Bruyere skilfully expands the act of seeing to include the reader, who is forcefully drawn into the picture by the style indirect, a technique used so effectively by La Bruyere throughout Les Caracteres. La Bruyere begins by putting himself in our shoes: "Voila un homme, dites vous, que j'ai vu". He repeats what we must have told him, what we must have noticed: La Bruyere speaks for us. We are bothered by this man's presence, nagged by the question of where we might have seen him. We in fact have seen him twice, and can now reflect on the familiarity of his face. The transition to the man himself is made ever so gently by the verb "paraltre", because it requires someone (the reader) to be there to acknowledge this appearance. We are caught in the prolonged act of watching this man ourselves: we are watching the one who watches. The first time that La Bruyere focuses on this man, he is watching the king receiving ambassadors, not in itself an unusual spectacle for anyone to be watching. Back to us. We now recognize this face that we see at the almanacs. The focus shifts back to the man and remains on him until La Bruyere finishes the episode with his commentary on lazy people who do nothing but live to watch. La Bruyere, 213. 103 The cumulative impact of these many shifts in focus is the effective incrimination of not only the specific "spectateur" at whom the criticism is overtly aimed, but of the reader as well. By the accumulation of the verb "voir" and its position and contextual application, La Bruyere ensnares us in his trap and we are no less guilty of gratuitous observation than the "spectateur de profession". Renee Linkhorn outlines the effect of the reader's involvement in the texts La Bruyere nous propose de petits exercices intellectuels par lesquels nous devenons ses complices, et qui nous permettent le detache indispensable a l'ambiance que l'auteur recherche; nous  nous dedoublons. en quelque sort, en spectateurs d'un monde ou  pourtant nous sommes aussi des acteurs". / 4 La Bruyere draws us into the action, his accomplices in criticizing the "spectateur de profession", from a special perspective of textual proximity and moral detachment. As spectators and actors, we the readers share in the condemnation of the "spectateur", whose empty life is described by Guggenheim: " i l ne vit que pour regarder les autres vivre, i l n'existe que par procuration." 2 5 Like a leech, he sucks life from others. La Bruyere is aware that the act of seeing often has ominous implications for man's moral fibre. As in the professional spectator whose life is made meaningful by the vicarious thrills of watching and living through others, there exists the potential of a dangerously easy transition from visual affirmation to visual gratification. 2 4 Renee Linkhorn, "L'humour linguistique chez La Bruyere". Studi Francesi 22, (1978): 260. 2 5 Guggenheim, 536. 104 In Jean Starobinski's examination of the word "voir" in Racine's lexicon, he establishes a more active role for the verb "to see": Si Ton interroge les textes de Racine, et si Ton reprend l'analyse stylistique qu'en donne Leo Spitzer, Ton s'apercoit que le verbe voir, si frequemment utilise, veut dire tentdt: savoir, connaltre, et implique alors une vision intellectuelle - d'ailleurs souvent precaire - des verites humaines et divines; mais que, d'autres fois, voir desiqne un elan affectif incontrdle. l'acte d'une convoitise qui  se repait amoureusement, insatiablement, de la presence de l'etre  desire...^ This fervent lust and ardent desire to possess someone by sight is clear in La Bruyere's portrait of Emire. Rooted in the Augustinian sin of ocular desire, La Bruyere's presentation of passion through observation is indicative of the outer limits of tolerable social behaviour. It is the closest that La Bruyere gets to telling a story, an example of what Roland Barthes calls a false narrative 2 7, but its meaning is clearest if one focuses on the accumulation of the verb "voir" in its specific use. The outline of the tale is that an entire town is fascinated by the love life of a pretty local girl, Emire. De trois amants que ses charmes lui acquirent successivement, et dont elle ne craignit pas voir toute la passion ... i l [vieillard] desira de continuer de la voir, et elle le souffrit. II lui amena un jour son fils ... Elle le vit avec inter£t ... II la vit seul. parla assez, et avec esprit; mais comme il la reqarda peu ... elle s'entretint de lui avec son amie, qui voulut le voir. II n'eut des yeux que pour Euphrosyne ... et Emire si indifferente, de venue jalouse ... Elle desira de les voir ensemble une seconde fois pour etre plus eclaircie; et une seconde entrevue lui fit encore plus qu'elle ne craignit de voir ... Ctesiphon et Euphrosyne se voient tous les jours ... s'epousent ... Emire recherche Euphrosyne pour le seul plaisir de revoir Ctesiphon ... i l ne voit dans Emire que l'amie d'une personne qui lui est chere ... La jeunesse de Smyrne, qui l'a vue si fiere et si Z b Starobinski, 75. 2 7 Barthes, 231. "... le "caractere" est un faux rScit, c'est une metaphore qui prend l'allure du recit sans le rejoindre vraiment (on se rappellera d'ailleurs le mepris de La Bruyere pour le conten Des Jugements, 52)." 105 insensible, trouve que les Dieux l'ont trop punie. (Femmes, 81) 2 8 This tale is based on sight as the substitute for love, for passion, for possession. The numerous verbs and expressions of seeing ("voir", "regarder", "avoir des yeux pour", "revoir") connect the heroes of the tale by an invisible thread of sight: Emire wanting to "see" CtSsiphon, the old man wanting to "see" Emire, CtSsiphon wanting to "see" Euphrosyne, CtSsiphon and Euphrosyne "seeing" each other every day. The act of seeing is charged with underlying passion and emotions which remain unfulfilled except for the marriage of the two "reciprocal observers" who married. In the end, the once-proud Emire is "seen" by the public and her punishment judged too severe. In one of his most famous portraits, La Bruyere presents the obsessive nature of hobbyists who become empassioned with the sight of their beloved objects. The first "amateur" is the florist who is so enamoured with the sight of his tulips that we see him planted, he takes root amongst his flowers, kneeling in worship.-Vous le voyez plants, et qui a pris racine au milieu de ses tulipes et devant la Solitaire; i l ouvre de grands veux, i l frotte ses mains, i l se baisse, i l la voit de plus pres. i l ne l'a jamais vue si belle ... Cet homme raisonnable, qui a une ame, qui a un culte et une religion, revient chez soi fatiquS, affamS, mais fort content de sa journSe: U a vu des tulipes. (Mode, 2) 2' The hobbyist experiences the ecstasy of visual lust which envelopes him in the floral identity of the tulips. 2 8 La Bruyere, 134-136. 2 9 La Bruyere, 393-4. 106 The second "amateur" is the lover of fruit trees. La Bruydre puts himself into the text as an active spectator who shares the fruit, who watches the unrestrained joy of the "prunier": Et la-dessus ses narines s'enflent; il cache avec peine sa joie et sa vanity par quelques dehors de modestie. 0 l'homme divin en effet! homme qu'on ne peut jamais assez louer et admirer! homme dont il sera parlS dans plusieurs siScles! que ie voie sa taille et son visage pendant qu'il vit que i'observe les traits et la contenance d'un homme qui seul entre les mortels possede une telle prune!(Mode, 2) 3 8 La Bruyere is scathing in his mockery of the "prunier's" religious experience, of the immortality that awaits him, of the adulation to be bestowed upon him, when the world sees his beloved fruit. As the textual spectator, La BruySre overlaps visual levels of the portrait in order to emphasize the multi-dimensional elements at play in the complex visual game. RenS Jasinski comments on La Bruyexe's own visibility in the texts II se met d§lib6r6ment au centre de son oeuvre ... II observe non pas en philosophe Spris d'universality, mais en tSmoin qui ne cache pas ses vivacitSs, ses sautes d'humeur, ses nerfs".l 3* The biting sarcasm that La BruySre directs at these hobbyists automatically extends beyond the textual boundaries, as the duplication of La Bruydre as textual presence and author of Les Caractferes suggests a possible duplication of the reader of Les Caracteres and a textual hobbyist as well. The net of hobbyists which La Bruydre casts in this long portrait is wide enough to catch many readers in its confines. 3 0 La Bruydre, 394. 3 1 Jasinski, 324. 107 Another hobbyist, Diognete collects medals. He lacks one in particular however, and it is this deficiency which troubles his enjoyment of life: II a une tablette dont toutes les places sont garnies a l'exception d'une seule: ce vide lui blesse la vue. et c'est precisement et a la lettre pour le remplir qu'il emploie son bien et sa vie. (Mode, 2) 3 2 It is important to note that the vacuum which wounds his view is visual, that Diognete's sense of sight is the faculty affected by this deficiency. The purpose of Diognete's life is to fill the visual void created by the absence of one coin. La Bruyere repeats his mockery of a man obsessed with travel, who does so only to see, but who soon forgets what he has seen: Tel autre fait la satire de ces gens qui s'engagent par inquietude ou par curiosite dans de longs voyages, qui ne font ni memoires ni relations, qui ne portent point de tablettes; qui vont pour voir, et  qui ne voient pas, ou qui oublient ce qu'ils ont vu...(Mode. 2)iS What then can be the intelligent reason for pursuing a hobby which is forgotten as soon as it is undertaken? Horticulturalist, arborist, traveller, numismatist, book collector, butterfly collector, a man who builds a house so magnificent that it attracts more attention than its builder, all these are targets in this extraordinary portrait. La Bruyere makes the same point many times over: it is but a waste of time to collect things that are visible, things that others can see and appreciate. The collector of material goods is nothing more than a professional spectator who observes things instead of people and by observing, endeavours to bond himself to what he sees. La Bruyere, 395. La Bruyere, 395-6. 108 These visual bonds that bind spectators to objects and to each other serve as a means of invisible discipline within a structured society, bonds which affirm one's place in the hierarchy and which become psychological instruments that can be misused and abused. The communication between men becomes distorted; it is a time of confusion because the visual code, at the very centre of society, can be manipulated; man squanders his time sorting out the visual messages he receives and manoeuvring those he sends. It is thus that La Bruyere illustrates the darkening of the seventeenth century, fading from the bright light of "le Roi-soleil" by the eclipse of his power, obscured behind a complex communication system of perplexing visual signage. 109 CONCLUSION La Bruy&re, the spectator Je rends au public ce qu'il m'a pretS; j'ai empruntS de lui la matiere de cet ouvrage ... II peut regarder avec loisir ce portrait que j'ai fait de lui d'aprSs nature, et s'il se connait quelques-uns des d^fauts que je touche, s'en corriger.... je consens ... que l'on dise de moi que je n'ai pas quelquefois bien remarque^ pourvu que l'on remarque mieux. Jean de La Bruyere Les Caracteres 1 The Furetiere dictionary (1690) defines a spectator as someone present at a spectacle, at some extraordinary action: ("Qui est present a un spectacle, a quelque action extraordinaire"). 2 La Bruyere was then the quintessential spectator; for him, every day brought a spectacle to be watched, every person became an actor to be studied, every gesture and glance betrayed an invisible emotion to be examined. Louis Van Delft describes La Bruyere's perspective as a spectator and his personal vision as recorder and commentator of the social spectacle: Toujours t6moin, se voulant toujours lucide, sa supreme ambition est qu'"il n'Schappe rien a [ses] yeux" (De la Ville, 1). Tout ce qu'on ne saurait "d§meler" des yeux lui inspire une mSfiance instinctive, et, s'il est le prScurseur de la psychologie du comportement, i l Test naturellement aussi du positivisme. Sa religion et ses idSes sociales ou politiques ne sont dans le fond qu'une morale par provision. 1 La Bruyere, 61-65. 2 Furetiere dictionary, N. pag. 110 Seul ce que l'oeil a confirme, depassant le vraisemblable, atteint au vrai. 3 Only that which the eye confirms is valid to La Bruyere; only that which he sees is indicative of man's moral fibre. Antoine Adam concurs with Van Delft's assessment of La Bruyere the observer, that his true gift was his ability to see: II se prenait sans doute pour un penseur. II avait tort. Son vrai don etait de voir et d'observer.4 Floyd Gray insists however that there are so many exaggerations in the portraits, that La Bruyere could not possibly have seen all the characters or situations that he painted: Quand on dit que La Bruyere decrit (ecrit) ce qu'il a vu, on s'engage dans des speculations dangereuses. Ou distinguer entre des souvenirs d'observation et des amplifications fictives? ... Meme si les portraits sont partiellement fondes sur l'observation et l'experience, ils sortent de ce domaine du precis et du verificable pour tomber dans le dramatique ... Tout en pretendant avoir vu ses personnages - c'est ce que Ton pourrait supposer d'apres le ton peremptoire qu'il prend pour les dessiner - i l nous donne toutes les raisons de croire qu'ils appartiennent, quant au resultat ecrit, a l'imaginaire, done au poetique.5 Whether La Bruyere was or was not a thinker, in the tradition of other literary philosophers such as Pascal, La Rochefoucauld and Vauvenargues who distinguished themselves in the seventeenth century, is less important than his ability to accomplish his goals. Prevost-Paradol in 1885 made the following astute assessment of La Bruyere's brilliant achievement as painter of the surfaces that i Van Delft, 76. * Antoine Adam, Histoire de la litterature francaise au XVIIe. V (Paris: Domat, 1956) 198. 5 Floyd Gray, La Bruyere. Amateur de caracteres. (Paris: Nizet, 1986) 148. 111 he saw on the faces of his contemporaries and that he reproduced textually in Les  Caracteres; II laisse aux Pascal, aux la Rochefoucauld, aux Vauvenargues, cette investigation hardie et cette grande curiosit.6 qui s'attaquent au fond m§me de notre nature. C'est plut6t l'aspect et la figure de nos passions gue leur source qui l'attirent; c'est surtout leur physionomie extSrieure, leur allure involontaire ou calcul6e, leur marche et leur effet dans le monde, leur combinaison avec les accidents de la vie et avec l'ordre de la society. What La Bruyire chose to paint is man's exterior, natural and calculated, and the effect this surface had on people, events and the social hierarchy. His own vision enabled him to accomplish what he set out to do: enable men to see more clearly. Jean-Marie Apostolides summarizes the vital role of La Bruyere's personal vision in Les Caracteres: Grace a la perspective, le spectateur dScouvre la v6rit6 sitdt qu'il regarde. C'est moins dans un discours moralisateur que l'auteur Snonce ses choix sociaux que par l'utilisation d'une esthStique. Celle-ci n'est pas neutre, puisque le point de vue determine la transparence du personnage ou le rSduit a un masque. Regarder, c'est d6ja juger, puisgue c'est reproduire un regard tout-puissant qui est a la fois celui de Dieu et du monarque.6 La BruySre's extraordinary work and vision establishes him firmly as a forerunner of behavioural psychology; he created a poetic work that illuminated the social breakdown which accompanied the political and cultural decline of the French nation as he rendered visible all the opaque corners of man's psyche, of man's ethical and moral nature and of his growing inability to know and understand himself. La Bruyere's perception of man's need to see and to be seen fills in the shadows of Descartes' theory "cogito, ergo sum", and completes the portrait of social man, for whom "to see and to be seen is to exist." Jean-Marie Apostolides, Le Prince sacrifi6. (Paris: Minuit, 1985) 37. 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY Critical Studies of La Bruydre Adam, Antoine. Postface. Les Caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle. Paris: Gallimard, 1975. Alter, Jean. "La Bruyere: Deux variations sur la pathologie du signe." Papers  on French Seventeenth Century Literature VIII 15.2 (1981): 193-200. Barberis, Pierre. "La Faille: 1. Une aventure critique, Jean de La Bruyere." Aux  sources du realisme: Aristocrates et bourgeois. Du texte a l'histoire. Paris: UGE, 1978. Barthes, Roland. "La Bruyere." Essais Critigues. Paris: Seuil, 1964. 221-237. Berk, Philip. "The shape and shaping of Des Ouvrages de l'esprit. La Bruyere and Horace." Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature X 18 (1983): 111-133. Brody, Jules. Du Style a la pen see. Lexington: French Forum, 1980. . "Images de l'homme chez La Bruyere". L'Esprit Createur XV, 1-2 (1975), 164-188. Brooks, Peter. Novel of Worldliness. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. Campion, Edmund. "Rhetorical theory in Les Caracteres." Papers on French  Seventeenth Century Literature VIII 15.2 (1981): 227-238. De Mourgues, Odette. Two French Moralists. La Rochefoucauld and La Bruyere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Doubrovsky, Serge. "Lecture de La Bruyere." Poetigue, No. 2 (1970): 195-201. Garapon, Robert. Preface. Les Caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1962. . Les Caracteres de La Bruyere: La Bruyere au travail. Paris: Sedes, 1978. Gray, Floyd. La Bruyere: Amateur des Caracteres. Paris: Nizet, 1986. Guggenheim, Michel. "L'homme sous le regard d'autrui ou le monde de La Bruyere." PMLA LXXXI (1966): 535-539. Harth, Erica. "Classical Disproportion.- La Bruyere's Caracteres." L'Esprit  Createur 15 (1975): 189-210. 113 . "Classical Innateness." Yale French Studies. 48-49 (1973): 212-230. Hellegouarc'h, Jacqueline. "La phrase de La Bruyere." Information litteraire XXX (1978): 83-93. Houston, John. Traditions of French Prose Style. Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1981. Janet, Paul. Les Passions et les Caracteres dans la litterature du XVIIe siecle. Paris: Calmann Levy, 1898. Kirsch, Doris. La Bruyere ou le style cruel. Montreal: University de Montreal UP, 1977. Knox, Edward C. Jean de La Bruyere. New York: Twayne, 1973. . Patterns of person: Studies in Style & Form from Corneille to Laclos. Lexington: French Forum, 1983. Koppisch, Michael S. "On three texts of La Bruyere." Papers on French  Seventeenth Century Literature 15 (1981): 201-209. . The Dissolution of Character. Lexington: French Forum, 1981. Krailsheimer, A.J. Studies in self-interest from Descartes to La Bruyere. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962. . "The Social Spectacle." Times Literary Supplement (1978): 1096. La Bruyere, Jean de. Les Caracteres ou les Moeurs de ce siecle. Ed. Robert Garapon. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1962. La Bruyere, Jean de. Les Caracteres ou les Moeurs de ce siecle. Ed. Pierre Kuentz. Paris: Bordas, 1976. Lanavere, A. "La Bruyere." Dictionnaire des Literatures de Langue francaise. Ed. J-P. de Beaumarchais, D. Couty, Alain Ray. Paris: Bordas, 1987. Laubriet, Pierre. "A propos des "Caracteres": Ordre ou Fantaisie?" Revue  d'Histoire de la France 67 (1967): 502-507. Linkhorn, Renee. "L'humour linguistique chez La Bruyere." Studi Francesi 22, (1978): 250-260. . "Le point de vue negatif chez La Bruyere." Romance Notes XVIII (1977/78): 214-220. Marmier, Jean. "Le sens du mouvement chez La Bruyere." Lettres romanes XXI 114 (1967): 223-237. Maurois, Andre. Postface. Les Caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle. Paris: Gallimard, 1975. Michaud, Guy. "La Bruyere et le Grand Siecle." Le Francais dans le monde. 6-7, 53 (1967): 50-54. Prevost-Paradol. Etudes sur les moralistes francais. Paris: Hachette, 1885. Romero, Laurent, "Lectures de La Bruyere: Esquisse d'un bilan 1970-78." Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature VIII 15.2 (1981): 239-254. Stegmann, Andre. Les Caracteres de La Bruyere: Bible de l'honnete homme. Paris: Larousse, 1972. Van Delft, Louis. La Bruyere: Quatre etudes du moraliste. Geneve: Droz, 1971. — . "Language and power: eyes and words in Britannicus." Yale French Studies, 44-45 (1970): 102-112. . Du caractere, de Theophraste a La Bruyere." Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature VIII 15.2 (1981): 165-192. . Rev. of The Dissolution of Character, by Michael Koppisch. Revue d'Histoire litteraire de la France LXXXV (1985): 295-296. Woshinsky, Barbara. "Shattered speech: La Bruyere et la cour." Papers on  French Seventeenth Century Literature VIII 15.1 (1981): 211-226. Seventeenth Century Cultural and Historical Background Apostolides, Jean-Marie. Le Prince sacrifie. Paris: Minuit, 1985. Apostolides, Jean-Marie. Le Roi-machine. Paris: Minuit, 1981. . "Le spectacle de l'abondance." L'Esprit Createur XXI 3 (1981): 26-34. Benichou, Paul. Morales du grand siecle. Paris: Gallimard, 1948. Descartes, Rene. Regies pour la direction de l'esprit. Ed. Andre Bridoux. Paris: Gallimard, 1953. Doubrovsky, Serge. "La Princesse de Cleves: une interpretation existentielle." 115 Table Ronde 137-140 (1959): 36-51. Du Thalage, J.N. Les Theatres de Paris au XVIIe siecle. Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles, 1880. Furetiere, A. Dictionnaire universel. La Haye-Rotterdam, 1690. Graham, David. Rev. of L'oeil surpris. Perception et representation dans la premiere moitie du XVIIe siecle. by Francoise Siguret. Papers on French  Seventeenth Century Literature XIII 25 (1986): 153-156. Jasinski, Rene. Histoire de la litterature francaise. (I) Paris: Nizet, 1965. Koch, Erec R. "The Perspective of Science: Pascal's Preface pour le traits du vide". Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature XV 28 (1988): 149-60. Lagarde, Andre and Laurent Michard, eds. XVIIe Siecle. Paris: Bordas, 1985. La Rochefoucauld, Francois de. Maximes et reflexions diverses. Ed. Jacgues Truchet. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1977. Lavisse, Ernst. Histoire de France. Vol. VII. Paris: Colin, 1911. Lockwood, Richard D. "The "I" of History in the Memoires of Louis XIV." Papers  on French Seventeenth Century Literature XIV 27 (1987): 551-64. Lough, John. An Introduction to Seventeenth century France. London: Longmans, 1955. Mercanton, Jacques. Le Siecle des grandes ombres. Paris: Bertil Galland, 1981. Pascal, Blaise. Pensees. Ed. Michel Autrand. Extracts. Paris: Bordas, 1981. Petit Robert Dictionary. Ed. Paul Robert. Paris: Le Robert, 1982. Racine, Jean. Britannicus. Ed. Jean-Pol Caput. Paris: Larousse, 1971. serullaz, Maurice. Velazguez. New York: Abrams, 1987. Siguret, Francoise. L'oeil surpris. PFSCL/Biblio 17, 22, 1985. Spitzer, Leo. Linguistics and literary history: Essays in stvlistics. New York: Russell & Russell, 1963. Starobinski, Jean. L'Oeil vivant. Paris: Gallimard, 1961. Walton, L.B. Baltasar Gracian: the oracle. New York: W. Salloch, 1953. 116 Related Critical Works Arguelles, Jos6 A. The Transformative Visions Reflections on the Nature and History of Human Expression. Boulder: Shambhala, 1975. Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: The Noonday Press, 1988. Cooper, J.C. An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols. London: Thames & Hudson, 1978. Dewey, John. The Quest for Certainty. New York: Putnam, 1960. Dreyfus, Hubert L. and Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism  and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Foucault, Michel. Order of Things: An archeology of the Human Sciences. (I) Paris: Nizet, 1974. Hagen, Margaret A. Ed. The Perception of Pictures. New Yorks Academic Press, 1980. Hoy, David Cousens. Ed. Foucault: a Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. Jay, Martin. "In the Empire of the Gazes Foucault and the Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-century French Thought." Foucaults a critical reader. Ed. David Couzens Hoy. Oxfords Blackwell, 1986. Keller, Evelyn Fox and Christine R. Grontkowski. "The Mind's Eye." Discovering  Realitys Feminist perspectives on Epistemology. Metaphysics. Methodology  and Philosophy of Science. Ed. Sandra Harding and Merrill B. Hintikka. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1983. Lowe, Donald. History of Bourgeois Perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966. Fondation de l'Hermitage, Lausanne. Ren6 Magritte. Geneve: Cosmopress, 1987. Megill, Allan. Prophets of Extremity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Visible et Tin visible. Ed. Claude Lefort. Paris: Gallimard, 1964. Miller Kahr, Madlyn. Velazquez; The Art of Painting. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. Proust, Marcel. Le temps retrouvS. Paris: Gallimard, 1954. Reiss, T.J. Toward Dramatic Illusion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971. Rorty, Richard. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. Sartre, Jean-Paul. L'§tre et le n6ant. Paris: Gallimard, 1943. 118 APPENDIX A Concordance of visual vocabulary in Les Caracteres of La Bruyere. This Annex lists the following visual terms from Les Caracteres (Edition Robert Garapon, Paris: Gallimard, 1962): voir . regarder . observer . remarquer . yeux . visage . vue/visible . paraltre . portrait/peindre/peintre/peinture . exterieur/interieur . spectacle/spectateurs/theatre . A lower-case letter at the beginning of a quotation indicates that it was taken from the interior of a sentence. The quotations are located by initials representing the following chapter titles, and the appropriate portrait/reflection/maxime number: OE: Ouvrages de l'esprit MP: Du Merite personnel F: Des Femmes C: Du Coeur S: De la Societe BF: Des Biens de fortune V: De la Ville DC: De la Cour G: Des Grands SR: Du Souverain ou de la Republique H: De l'Homme J: Des Jugements M: De la Mode QU: De Quelques usages Ch: De la Chaire EF: Des Esprits forts VOIR ...il verra du moins qu'on les confondant Preface ...de ces differences qui se voient Preface ...L'on n'a quere vu... un chef-d'oeuvre 0E,9 ...ce qu'on ne vovait plus que dans les ruines 0E,14 ...jusques a ce qu'ils aient vu le cours 0E,21 ...dans l'eioignement d'ou i l les voit 0E,23 ...il s'est vu plus fort que l'autorite OE,30 ...plus de style que l'on en voit 0E,37 ...que notre lanque...se soit vue reparee 0E,42 ...on voit bien que l'Opera 0E,47 119 ..laisser voir que l'on est tendre OE,50 ..le propre d'un efi6min6...de se voir au miroir OE,52 ..roman et com6die...L'on v voit OE,53 ..livres...ron n'v voit pas toujours la v6rit6 0E,58 ..esprits iustes...ils ne voient rien au dela 0E,61 ..mais le ridicule...il faut l'v voir 0E,68 ..Quand vous les voyez de fort pr6s MP,2 ..du gout a se faire voir MP,14 ..que les grands dont il est vu MP,14 ..Philemon...faut voir...des choses si pr^cieuses MP,27 ..et sait pr6cis6ment comment l'on voit Dieu MP,28 ..AEmile...voyait encore ou personne ne voyait plus MP,32 ..les esprits born6s...ou ils voient 1'agrSable MP,34 ..M6nippe...ceux gui passent le voient MP,40 ..L'on juge, en le voyant MP,40 ..fausse grandeur...ne se fait voir qu'autant MP,42 ..Le sage...il ne voit rien dans MP,43 ..hommes...haissent autant a les voir F,6 ..Les femmes...amants...elles ne se voient plus F,9 ..certaines beaut6s...que l'on se borne a les voir F,12 ..femmes...ou personne ne voit qu'elles ne prient Dieu .... F,35 ..gens en qui ie crois voir toutes choses F,42 ..Je vois bien que le gout qu'il y a F,42 ..a voir plusieurs personnes de nom et de distinction .... F,42 ..je vois bien, encore une fois F,42 ..elles n'ouvrent plus yeux...pour voir F,43 ..femme ais6e a qouverner...il voit leurs juges F,45 ...On le voit avec elles dans leurs carrosses F,45 ..II est 6tonnant de voir dans le coeur de certaines F,49 ..L'on voit Glycere en partie carr£e au bal F,73 ..Emire...celle gui n'a pas encore vu celui F,81 ..gu'elle voyait F,81 ..dont elle ne craignit pas de voir toute la passion F,81 ..il [vieillard] d6sira de continuer de la voir F,81 ..Elle le [fils] vit avec int6r€t F,81 ..II la vit seul, parla assez et avec esprit F,81 ..s'entretint de lui avec son amie, qui voulut le voir F,81 ..d€sira de les voir ensemble une seconde fois F,81 ..lui fit voir encore plus qu'elle ne craignait de voir F,81 ..Ct6siphon et Euphrosyne se voient tous les jours F,81 ..Emire...pour le seul plaisir de revoir CtSsipon F,81 ..il ne voit dans Emire que l'amie d'une personne F,81 ..jeunesse de Smyrne, qui l'a vue si fiere et insensible . . . F,81 ..il est plus ordinaire de voir un amour extr§me DC,6 ..L'on ne voit dans l'amitiS que les d6fauts DC,27 ..L'on ne voit en amour de d6fauts...que ceux dont DC,27 ..L'on est encore longtemps a se voir par l'habitude DC,37 ..par la petite peine qu'on a de le voir au-dessus DC,51 ..II est doux de voir ses amis par gout et par estime DC,57 120 ..quelque joie a voir perir un mechant homme DC,66 ..L'on voit des gens qui, dans les conversations SC,6 ..Arrias a tout lu, a tout vu. il veut le persuader SC,9 ..un mystere que les autres n'v voient pas .' SC,10 ..que bientdt on ne revoit plus! SC,11 ..Troile...L'on voit qu'un parasite ne le fait pas rire SC.,13 ..L'on voit des gens brusques, inquiets, suffisants SC,26 ,.Cleante...L'on ne peut voir ailleurs plus de probite SC,43 ..une petite ville...Je la vois dans un jour si favorable .... SC,49 ..ou l'on voit parler ensemble le bailli et SC,50 ..L'on a vu...un cercle de personnes des deux sexes SC,65 ..Qui pourrait ecouter...ferait voir quelquefois SC,67 ..Hermagoras...n'a jamais vu Versailles, il ne le verra SC,74 il a presque vu la tour de Babel SC,74 ..on voit au travers de leur poitrine...transparents SC,81 ..ils laissent voir en lui le ridicule BF,4 ..Si Ton ne le voyait de ses veux...s'imaginer BF,5 ..Clitiphon...que par ne vous pas laisser voir BF,12 on ne le voit dans sa loge qu'avec peine BF,12 on ne le volt point BF,12 car d'abord on ne le voit pas encore BF,12 et bient6t on ne le voit plus BF,12 homme de lettres...il est vu de tous et a toute heure .... BF,12 ..Arfure...qu'elle ne voyait qu'obliquement BF,16 fortune...elle le voit de front BF,16 ..Cresus...l'on n'a vu chez lui ni julep, ni cordiaux BF,17 ..Periandre...dont on voudrait voir la chute BF,21 ..ceux qui les voient places dans de beaux endroits BF,22 ou ils ne les ont point vus croltre BF,22 ..Si certains morts revenaient..et s'ils voyaient BF,23 ..cuisines, ou l'on voit reduit en art et en methode BF,25 si vous vovez tout le repas BF,25 ..Chrvsippe...se voir un jour deux mille livres de rente . . . BF,27 ..Ergaste...le peuple... le plaisir de le voir riche BF,28 de lui voir une meute BF,28 ..plaisir de la tragedies il voit perir sur le theatre BF,31 ..il biaise...selon qu'il v voit de jour et d'apparence BF,38 ..faire sa fortune...gens a voir clairement BF,45 ..Chrysante...ne veut pas §tre vu avec Eugene BF,54 ..Quand je vois de certaines gens BF,55 vous verrez que cet homme-ci est mieux loge BF,55 ..que les yeux souffrent de voir de telles extremites BF,71 ..ceux qui voyagent vers l'Arabie de re voir... ce palais .... BF,78 ..L'on ne saurait s'empScher de voir...hasard BF,80 ..Giton...S'il s'assied, vous le vovez s'enfoncer BF,83 abaisser son chapeau...pour ne voir personne BF,83 Phedon...chapeau abaisse...pour n'etre point vu BF,83 ..on les voit de fort pres se jeter dans l'eau V,2 on les en voit sortir V,2 121 ..il voit un peuple qui cause, bourdonne V,4 ..des Sannions...on les voit sur les litres V,10 ceux qui ont vu votre grand-pere V,10 Le voyez-vous le lendemain . V,10 qu'il a vu donner les six chiens V,10 ..Voila un homme, dites-vous, que j'ai vu V,13 Ou pourriez-vous ne 1'avoir point vu? V,13 si le Roi recoit des ambassadeurs, il voit leur marche . . . V,13 C'est son visage que l'on voit aux almanachs V,13 il la voit de pres V,13 celui-ci voit. il a vieilli...en voyant V,13 il a vu. dit-il, tout ce qu'on peut voir V,13 ..mais si elle a vu de sa fenetre un bel attelage V,15 quelle impatience...de voir deja...le cavalier V,15 ..fort satisfaite d'avoir vu en cinq petites heures V,20 ..On ne les voyait point s'eclairer avec des bougies V,22 ..le courtisan qui l'a vue le matin la voit le soir DLC,2 pour la reconnaitre le lendemain DLC,2 ..ceux d'une perspective que l'on voit de trop pres DLC,6 ..ou il voit reqner egalement le vice et la politesse DLC,9 ..a qui le courtisan les voit parler DLC,16 pendant qu'il se trouve heureux d'en etre vu DLC,16 ..Vous voyez des gens qui entrent sans saluer DLC,17 ..a des heures ou les grands n'osent se faire voir DLC,18 ..Cimon et Clitandre...On ne les a jamais vus assis DLC,19 qui meme les a vus marcher? on les voit courir DLC,19 Leur profession est d'etre vus et revus DLC,19 tous deux fort eloignes de s'y voir assis DLC,19 ..Celui qui voit loin derriere soi DLC,24 ..tous n'ont pas assez de plaisir a me voir heureux DLC,28 ..Je vois un homme entoure et suivi DLC,31 J'en vois un autre que tout le monde aborde DLC,31 ..L'on voit des hommes tomber d'une haute fortune DLC,34 ..on me dit...de mal de cet homme et j'v en vois si peu .... DLC,39 ..Je ne vois aucun courtisan a qui le prince vienne DLC,45 ..L'on court les malheureux pour les envisager DLC,50 seulement a voir de tels spectacles DLC,50 voyez un heureux, contemplez-le DLC,50 voyez guelle serenite cet accomplissement DLC,50 il ne leur repond pas, il ne les voit pas DLC,50 qu'il ne voit plus de si loin, ache vent de lui nuire DLC,50 ..Theonas...de se voir habille de pourpre DLC,52 .."Vous verrez, dit-il...qu'ils me feront archev§que" DLC,52 ..a un spectacle, dont i l est refuse, il la voit accorder .... DLC,60 a un homme qui n'a point d'veux pour voir DLC,60 ..L'on voit des gens enivres, ensorceies de la faveur DLC,61 ..il sait ou il faut se placer pour etre vu DLC,62 ..puissances qu'on ne voyait bien qu'a force de lever .... DLC,66 ..Xantippe...a reve...qu'il voyait le prince DLC,68 122 il est venu a la cour, i l a vu le prince DLC,68 ..Mille gens...font la foule...pour etre vu du prince DLC,71 qui n'en saurait voir mille a la fois; DLC,71 et s'il ne voit aujourd'hui que ceux qu'il vit hier DLC,71 et qu'il verra demain. combien de malheureux! DLC,71 ..par une sotte impatience de se faire voir DLC,72 ..faces elevees vers le roi, que l'on voit a qenoux DLC,74 On ne laisse pas de voir...de subordination DLC,74 ..pendant toute sa vie de le voir et d'en etre vu DLC,75 comprendra un peu comment voir Dieu peut faire DLC,75 ,.Iphicrate...vous lui avez vu faire une belle action DLC,78 vous vous souveniez encore de la lui avoir vu faire .... DLC,78 ..plus de plaisir...a entendre, a voir et a manger DLC,82 ..Je vous dis, moi, que j'v vois clair...comprends tout .... DLC,86 ..L'on contemple...et l'on voit bien DLC,95 ..Qui a vu la cour a vu du monde DLC,100 qui meprise la cour, apres l'avoir vue DLC,100 ..Quand je vois d'une part aupres des grands G,13 ..La regie de voir de plus grands que soi doit avoir G,14 ..Theophile...pour avoir audience, pour etre vu G,15 ..qu'elle voie avec plaisir revenir, toutes les annees G,23 ..n'etre vu que pour etre remercie G,31 ..loue les grands pour marquer qu'on les voit de pres .... G,37 ..rapportent ce qu'ils lisent, ce qu'ils voient et G,42 ..afin que tous l'v voient et s'empressent de Ten 6ter .... G,44 ..il est triste pour eux d'v voir que nous sortions G,47 ..Avec de bons yeux on voit sans peine la petite ville .... G,53 l'on s'etonnerait de voir ce qu'elle embrasse G,53 ..on ne voit pas par ou le calme peut en sortir SR,5 ..L'on voit une espece de maux que l'on peut corriger .... SR,7 On en a vu enfin qui ont sap§ par les fondements SR,7 ..La guerre...on l'a toujours vue remplir le monde SR,9 ..peuple...consentiraient a voir...les ennemis aux portes . . . SR,10 ...a voir tendre des chaines et faire les barricades SR,10 ..j'ai vu la guerre...l'histoire m'en a beaucoup appris SR,11 ..il laisse voir en lui quelque peu de sensibilite SR,12 ..dont vous vovez l'image...une physionomie forte SR,21 ..Quand vous vovez...un nombreux troupeau SR,29 ..peuples empresses de voir le prince SR,35 ...le coeur ouvert...dont on croit voir le fond SR,35 ...le prince voit tout par ses yeux SR,35 ...rare de les voir reunies dans un meme sujet SR,35 ..contre les hommes en voyant leur duret6 H,l ..M6nalque...s'apercoit qu'il est...il voit que son epee H,7 ...On l'a vu...heurter...contre celui d'un aveugle H,7 ...prenant raveuqle...il croit voir un prie-Dieu H,7 ...Menalque est surpris de se voir...sur les jambes H,7 ...il eclate de rire d'y voir son chien...serre H,7 ...il ne laisse pas d'etre surpris de ne voir qoutte H,7 123 ...on voit le pain se multiplier insensiblement H,7 ...voir r6pandu sur son linge...le potage H,7 ...on lui fait voir un cl6tre orn6 d'ouvrages H,7 ...on le voit ce jour-la en tous les endroits de la ville ... H,7 ...il est 6tonn6 de ne le point voir H,7 ...l'on se voit une autre complexion H,15 ...je suis 6tonn6 de voir...personnes...sous un m§me toit . . . H,15 ...ils n'v voient rien qui margue...pour mesurer le temps . . . H,47 ...qu'ils contrefont ce gu'ils ont vu faire H,53 ...ils se voient un riche 6qui[age H,53 ...On ne voit point mieux le ridicule de la vanit6 H,66 ...II y a des endroits ou i l faut se faire voir H,71 ...Alcippe...doit dans les regies, ne me pas voir H,74 N'est-ce point pour etre vu lui-m§me H,74 ...l'on voit neanmoins de certaines gens gui rient H,77 ...Argyre...faire voir de belles dents...montre son oreille . . . H,83 ...il s'6tonne de voir dans le monde d'autres talents que . . . H,85 ...L'on voit peu d'esprits entterement lourds et stupides . . . H,86 l'on en voit encore moins qui soient sublimes et H,86 ...de se voir si Eminent H,94 ...ne lui laissant pas le loisir de les voir de pres H,98 ...toute une ville voit ses aum6nes et les publie H,104 ...trop grande negligence...font mieux voir leur caducity . . . H,116 ...Cliton...ne s'est jamais vu expos6 a...l'inconv6nient H,122 ...Ruffin...parle a celui qu'il voit une premiere fois H,123 ...N**...maison de pierre...qu'on ne verra jamais la fin H,124 ...L'on voit certains animaux farouches H,128 ...on voit clairement ce qu'il n'est pas H,141 ...qui l'a vu une fois, l'a vu dans tous les instants H,142 ...auxquels elle s'est vu attached si longtemps H,143 ...il leur fasse voir d'autres spectacles H,145 ...L'on voit l'homme jusgue dans le courtisan H,145 ...Celui gui n'a vu que des hommes polis et raisonnables . . . H,156 ...s'il a des veux...y voit des choses...nouvelles H,156 ...il a vu mourir et revivre sa reputation en un...jour J,13 ...Leur gout n'allait qu'a laisser voir qu'ils aimaient J,16 ...certaine culture...qu'ils ne voient que dans les autres . . . J,20 ...Anisthdne...ne verrons-nous point de vous un in-folio . . . J,21 ...voir d'autres peuples raisonner comme nous J,22 ...Ce pr61at...on ne le voit point avec des femmes J,25 ...a les voir si plaisants et si ag€ables J,26 ...a la voir avec tout l'attirail de la mode J,29 ...qui croient voir le ridicule ou il n'est point J,47 ...pourquoi voit-on des imbeciles qui y excellent J,56 il ne sait...ni raconter ce qu'il vient de voir J,56 on est surpris de voir naitre...le bon sens J,56 ...L'on voit des hommes que le vent de la faveur pousse . . . J,61 ils ne se montrent que pour §tre embrass§s et J,61 ...pour voir qu'il doit se taire sur quelque autre J,63 124 ...des vices... on crovait les voir, ils faisaient peur J,66 ...comme c'est un evenement qu'on ne voit point J,67 ...un portrait affreux, qui ne voit pas qu'il se peint J,72 ...religion...on le voit s'en acquitter avec exactitude J,89 ...pour voir changer les hommes d'opinion J,94 ...A voir comme les hommes aiment la vie, pouvait-on J,98 ...des endroits ou l'envie de voir les a portes J,99 ...Si je replique que c'est a ouvrir les yeux et a voir J,104 ...quels feux de ioie a-t-on vus? Quelle fete publique .... J,117 ...Qui pourrait voir des choses si tristes avec yeux sees . . . J,118 ...qui voient les nuages se former au-dessous d'elles J,119 si vous voyez deux chiens qui s'aboient J,119 ...fleuriste...Vous le voyez plante et qui a pris racine M,2 devant la Solitaire...il la voit de plus pres M,2 il ne l'a jamais vue si belle...il a vu des tulipes M,2 que je voie sa taille...pendant qu'il vit M,2 Un troisieme que vous allez voir vous parle des M,2 plaisir qu'il se fait de ne voir pas M,2 "Vous voulez, ajoute Democede, voir mes estampes?" .... M,2 de longs voyages...qui vont pour voir. M,2 qui ne voient pas, ou qui oublient ce qu'ils ont vu M,2 bibliotheque...je souhaite de la voir M,2 voir sa tannerie, qu'il appelle bibliotheque M,2 tous demandent a voir la maison M,2 ...et personne a voir Monsieur M,2 ...Je voudrais bien voir un homme poli. enjoue M,7 ...L'on voit Eustrate assis dans sa nacelle M,9 on voit Eustrate revenir sur l'eau et faire M,9 il paralt une seconde fois M,9 on ne le revoit plus, il est noye M,9 ...Iphis voit a l'£glise un Soulier d'une nouvelle mode M,14 il regarde ses jambes et se volt au miroir M,14 ...La mode...qui fait plus de plaisir a voir M,15 ...savoir ou Ton est vu et ou l'on n'est pas vu M,21 ...Onuphre...observe d'abord de qui il peut etre vu M,24 vers lui un homme de bien...qui le verra M,24 celui-ci, qui le voit partir. s'apaise et ne souffle M,24 ou tout le monde voit qu'il s'humilie M,24 on n'y manque point son coup, on v est vu M,24 quand on le revoit paraltre avec un visage extenue .... M,24 qu'il a la consolation de les voir M,24 ...ron ne s'etonne plus de voir que la devotion sache M,25 ...a force d'assurer qu'il a vu un prodige QU,4 se persuade faussement gu'il a vu un prodige QU,4 ...craindre de voir... un jeune abbe en velours gris QU,16 ...ron ne voit point d'images profanes dans les temples .... QU,18 ...L'on ne voit point faire de voeux ni de pelerinages QU,20 ...l'on ne me verra point deroger a mon titre QU,26 a qui fera voir par un long usage qu'il n'est point QU,26 125 ...Qu'on 6vite d'etre vu seul avec une femme qui n'est .... QU,35 l'impudence d'y passer en revue avec...ma femme QU,35 ...On a toujours vu dans la r6publique QU,38 ...Qui voit-on dans les lanternes des chambres QU,58 On y voit les testamentaires qui plaident QU,58 ...Titius...se voit officier, loge aux champs et a la ville .... QU,58 il se voit une bonne table et un carrosse QU,59 ...Hermippe.,.11 voit faire son lit QU,64 ...ceux qui font voir dans un miroir ou dans un vase QU,69 ...magie...hommes graves gui les ont vus QU,70 ...Ayez le plaisir de voir que vous n'§tes arrets QU,72 ...je ne vois pas par ou beaucoup l'emporte sur lui QU,73 ...l'on voit m§me qu'il a entrains gentil dans sa chute QU,73 ...on voie guere ce que la langue francaise gagne QU,73 ...a les voir s'opiniatrer a cet usage Ch,5 ...se sont vus d6concert6s par des hasards Ch,13 ...L'on voit des clercs revenir de quelques provinces Ch,22 ...on crolt voir qu'il est plus ais6 de prScher que de Ch,26 ...autre crainte que de celle de le voir demeurer court .... Ch,29 ...Je voudrais voir un homme sobre...point de Dieu Ch,ll ...J'aurais...curiosity de voir celui...Dieu n'est point Ch,12 ...s'ils vovaient dans leurs ouvrages plus de tour et Ch,21 ...Quel plaisir d'aimer la religion, et de la voir crue Ch,21 ...L'homme est n6 menteur...Voyez le peuple Ch,22 cent personnes gui l'on vue la racontent en cent Ch,22 ...on sSche de les voir danser et de ne danser point EF,26 ...Ce gu'il voit de la mort le frappe plus violemment EF,32 ...de ne voir nulle fin a la pauvrete a la d§pendance EF,33 les voir changer inviolablement et par la revolution .... EF,33 ...qui a toujours 6t6 telle gue nous la vovons EF,36 gui sera toujours telle gue nous la vovons EF,36 ...L'ame voit la couleur par l'organe de l'oeil EF,41 mais elle peut cesser de voir ou d'entendre EF,41 l'ame n'est point pr£cis6ment ce gui voit la couleur .... EF,41 ...Voyez. Lucile, ce morceau de terre EF,43 Vous verrez gu'il n'y en a aucune EF,43 ...ne pouvant percer jusgu'a nos veux pour §tre vues .... EF,43 ...L'on voit dans une goutte d'eau que le poivre EF,44 ...Vovez-vous qu'elle soit peupl6e, et de quels animaux .... EF,45 Laissez-moi voir apres vous EF,45 ...il ne s' voit rien qui ne soit marqu£ au coin de EF,46 ce qui s'y voit quelquefois d'irr6gulier et imparfait .... EF,46 un bel oeil n'a gu'a s'ouvrir pour voir EF,46 REGARDER ...II peut regarder avec loisir ce portrait Preface ...11 ne faut regarder dans ses amis MP,19 126 ...AEmile...On l'a reqarde comme un homme MP,32 ...jeunes...regardent dans un miroir F,4 ...femme coquette reqarde le temps F,7 ...Lise...se reqarde au miroir F,8 ...On reqarde femme savante comme...belle arme F,49 ...comme il la reqarda peu F,81 ...Une femme...reqarde toujours homme comme homme DC,2 ...homme reqarde une femme comme une femme DC,2 ...fuir de toute sa force et sans regarder derriere soi .... SC,27 ...si je commence & le regarder avec d'autres yeux BF,9 ...si vous regardez par quelles mains elles passent BF,25 ...qui le regardaient comme un homme...pas riche BF,56 ...il l'a regardee de loin une derniere fois BF,79 ...a Paris...pour se regarder...et se desapprouver V,l ...ils vous interrogent sans vous regarder DLC,17 ...Celui-la est reqarde de tous avec curiosite DLC,31 ...que les gens de bien soient reqardes comme inutiles .... G,13 ...reqardes des grands...comme inevitables G,22 ... regardez... hommes. ..que vous ne regardez jamais G,21 ...regardez la peinture G,21 ...regarder froidement la mort H,2 ...tous les courtisans regardent et rlent H,7 Menalgue reqarde aussi...rit plus haut que les autres . . . H,7 il reqarde enfin celui qu'il traine apres soi H,7 il passe sans vous regarder. ou il vous reqarde sans . . . H,7 il ne reqarde ni vous ni personne, ni rien qui soit H,7 ...hommes parlent de maniere, sur ce qui les reqarde H,67 ...que les autres nous regardent avec curiosite et avec .... H,73 ...leur pratique ne regardant que les choses que nous .... H,104 ...tiers d'§tre reqardes de la bourgeoisie aux fenetres .... J,99 ...qu'il les reqarde comme des preuves parlantes de J,2 Approchez, regardez ce gu'il vous montre J,2 ...Iphis...reqarde le sien et en rougit M,14 il reqarde ses iambes et se voit au miroir M,14 ...les avoir reqarde comme leur derniere fin EF,9 OBSERVER ...Le philosophe consume sa vie a observer OE,34 ...Si vous observez avec soin qui sont les gens SC,59 ...Quelle majeste n'observent-ils pas BF,56 ...curieusement ou malignement observe V,l ...pour observer les traits et la contenance DLC,50 ...il le trouverait capable d'observer et de calculer DLC,61 Theodote, j'ai observe le point de votre naissance DLC,61 ...il est froid et indifferent sur les observations DLC,62 ...Qu'un favori s'observe de fort pres DLC,94 127 ...il les observe avec scrupule H,120 ...ils montrent une face humaine H,128 ...que i'observe les traits et la contenance d'un homme .... M,2 ...vos observations...naissent de votre esprit et QU,72 ...Si un homme observait... une etoile fixe EF,43 Si deux observateurs, l'un sur la terre et l'autre EF,43 observaient en mime temps une etoile EF,43 les deux rayons visuels de ces deux observateurs ..... EF,43 qu'on appelle le monde, apr6s les avoir observes EF,43 si c'est par hasard qu'ils observent des regies EF,43 ...Vous avez, Lucile, observe la lune EF,45 observez-la avec plus d'exactitude EF,45 REMARQUER ...que je n'ai pas quelquefois bien remarque Preface ...pourvu que l'on remarque mieux Preface ...les esprits bornes...talents que l'on remarque MP,34 ...Glvcere...On remarque neanmoins sur elle une riche F,73 ...Sur les moeurs, vous faites remarquer des defauts ..... SC,64 ...L'on remarque dans les cours des hommes avides DLC,46 ...on n'y remarquerait pas un melange ou G,5 ...Un homme fat et ridicule...se faire remarquer M,ll ...on remargue dans toutes un temps de pratigue QU,48 ...tristesse evangeiique...ne s'v remarque plus Ch,l ...graces...on n'en remarque dans la plupart des livres .... Ch,21 ...cette trace lumineuse gu'on remargue au ciel EF,43 ...on le met sur de l'ebene pour le mieux remarguer EF,44 ...disproportion...gu'elle se remargue parmi les hommes .... EF,48 PARAJTRE ...ne leur suffit pas d^etre bon mais... paraitre tels H,9 ...de paraltre tels gu'ils etaient...dans le coeur EF,9 ...gui doivent leur paraitre tres folles et tres ridicules .... EF,29 ...juste distance gue, nous paraissant tels qu'ils sont J,72 ...a paraitre en cent endroits pour n'etre nulle part J,96 ...II ne peut pas avoir paru sur la scene avec un si bel . . . J,115 ...crainte d'etre d6couvert et de paraitre ce qu'il est M,24 ...l'empeche de paraitre dans le public avec celle QU,35 ...le secret de paraitre nus tout habilies QU,73 ...elle parait grande comme le soleil EF,43 ...si l'on en juge par son apparence EF,43 guelque voisines qu'elles nous paraissent EF,43 une etoile parait assise sur l'une de celles qui EF,43 c'est comme une etoile qui parait double EF,43 elles puissent conserver une certaine apparence ...... EF,43 128 YEUX ... qu'il trouvat sous ses veux Preface ...Le peuple Scoute avidement, les veux eievSs 0E,8 ...Operas ... les yeux...dans un 6gal enchantement 0E,48 ...poste devant leurs veux et...montre son visage MP,14 ...Philemon...diamant qu'il fait briller aux veux MP,27 ...il lit...dans les veux de ceux qui lui parlent MP,27 ...M6nippe...tous les veux sont ouverts sur lui MP,40 ...grandeur artificielle...mouvement des veux MP,2 ....qui se montrent a ceux gui ont des veux MP,2 ...Chez les femmes...imposer aux veux F,5 ...femmes...belles a leurs propres veux F,6 ...i'ouvre de fort grands veux sur eux; je les contemples . . . F,42 ...aprds avoir consults ses veux et son visage F,45 ...femmes...defendu d'ouvrir les veux et de lire? F,49 ...homme...peut consulter les veux d'une jeune femme F,64 ...Une femme qui n'a jamais les veux que sur une meme .... F,65 ...Glycere...d6robe avec soin aux veux de son mari Ff73 ...II n'eut des veux que pour Euphrosyne F,81 ...II y a du plaisir a rencontrer les veux de celui a qui .... DC,45 ...elles se d6quisent...aux veux des autres DC,72 ...Troile...tous ont les veux sur lui SC,13 ...ni saluer...sans m'avilir a ses veux SC,29 ...on lit sur leur front et dans leurs veux SC,81 ...Si l'on ne le voyait de ses yeux...s'imaqiner? BF,5 ...si je commence a le regarder avec d'autres veux BF,9 ...aux veux de toute une ville jalouse...clairvoyante BF,21 ...ou ils surprennent les yeux de ceux qui les voient BF,22 ...cette elegance gui charment vos veux BF,25 ...que les veux souffrent de voir de telles extremites BF,71 ...n'offrent point aux veux rien de si grave BF,72 ...Giton...l'oeil fixe et assure BF,83 abaisser son chapeau sur ses yeux...ne voir personne . . . BF,83 Phedon...les veux creux BF,83 il marche les veux balssSs, et il n'ose les lever BF,83 le chapeau abaisse sur les veux.-.n'etre point vu BF,83 ...rien n'echappe aux veux V,l ...elles s'offrent aux veux de toutes parts V,10 ...6tera-t-elle les veux de dessus lui? V,15 ...homme...maitre...de ses veux et de son visage DLC,2 ...s'il a les veux ouverts sur tout ce qui vaque DLC,26 ...dans le public...evitent vos veux et votre rencontre .... DLC,30 ...on en a au-dessus des veux. on n'y tient pas DLC,32 ...je me trouverais sous l'oeil et sous la main du prince . . . DLC,43 ...un homme qui n'a point d'veux pour voir DLC,60 ...ils ont les veux eqar6s et l'esprit aliene DLC,61 129 ...il pleure d'un oeil. et il rit de l'autre . . DLC,62 ...beaux talents se decouvrent...du premier coup d'oeil .... G,26 ...il detourne ses yeux, de peur de tomber G,37 ...expose aux yeux des hommes, a leur censure...eloges .... G,41 ...Theognis...a deja aiuste ses yeux et son visage G,48 ...Avec de bons yeux on voit sans peine la petite ville .... G,53 ...que le prince volt tout par ses yeux SR,35 ...l'homme qui est...sort de son sens...etincelle des yeux . . . H,3 ...Menalgue...ouvrant les yeux et se reveillant H,7 ...il cherche des yeux dans toute l'assemblee H,7 ...il a...les yeux fort ouverts, mais il ne s'en sert H,7 ...qui avilit l'homme a ses propres yeux H,69 ...vertu du dehors, qui regie ses yeux, sa demarche .... H,69 ...elle veut le rendre ridicule a ses propres yeux H,78 ...leurs yeux...radmiration ou ils sont d'eux-mSmes H,94 ...lui a enfin ierme les yeux H,105 ...Gnathon...il roule les yeux en mangeant H,121 ...Ruffin...il a un visage frais et un oeil vif H,123 ...L'homme, qui est esprit, se mene par les yeux et H,154 ...fait bientdt, s'il a des yeux. d'etranges decouvertes .... H,156 ...qui occupe les yeux et le coeur de ceux qui lui J,28 ...pret de se jeter aux yeux de ses critiques J,56 ...petit dans son domestique et aux yeux de ses proches . . . J,58 ...Si je replique que c'est a ouvrir les yeux et a voir J,104 ...voir des choses si tristes avec des yeux sees et J,18 ...vous arraches les yeux de la t§te J,119 ...que l'oeil s'y trompe. ajouter qu'il ne lit jamais M,2 des filles devant leurs yeux M,2 ...je ne sais quel adoucissement dans les yeux M,14 ...qu'il soit d6vot, les yeux baisses, la demarche lente M,24 ...si 1'experience ne nous le mettait devant les yeux QU,27 ...lecture d'un testament...des yeux rouges et humides .... QU,59 les larmes lui coulent des yeux QU,59 ...ils ont eu honte de se sauver a leurs yeux EF,9 ...Une chose arrive aujourd'hui...presque sous nos yeux . . . EF,22 ...L'ame voit la couleur par l'organe de l'oeil EF,41 ...ne pouvant percer iusgu'a nos yeux pour etre vues .... EF,43 a en iuger par nos yeux; une oeil paralt assise EF,43 ...Le ciron a des yeux. il se detourne a la rencontre EF,44 ...un bel oeil n'a qu'a s'ouvrir pour voir EF,46 ...la precaution...pour les derober aux yeux des hommes . . . EF,47 VISAGE ...Rabelais...c'est une chimere, c'est le visage 0E,43 ...l'on detourne son visage pour rire OE,50 ...je rirais...qui voudrait me ressembler de visage OE,64 ...les sages...la serenite sur leurs visages MP,11 130 ..leur montre son visage MP,14 ..cSruse sur le visage F,6 ..l'age est Scrit sur le visage F,7 ..Lise...met du rouge sur son visage F,8 ..Un beau visage est le plus beau de tous les spectacles . . F,10 ..aprSs avoir consults ses yeux et son visage F,45 ..en un moment un beau visage ou une belle main DC,3 ..Vous me trouvez bon visage SC,7 "Je vous trouve bon visage" SC,7 ..Troile...observent son maintien et son visage avant de . . . SC,13 par quelqu'un qui a un visage...qu'il dSsapprouve SC,13 ..la moindre sSrSnitS qui parait sur son visage SC,41 ..mille livres de rente se trouve Scrit sur les visages .... BF,53 ..une triste sSvSritS regne sur leurs visages BF,72 ..Giton a le teint frais, le visage plein BF,72 PhSdon a les yeux creux...et le visage maigre BF,83 ..pour se regarder au visage et se dSsapprouver V,l ..homme de robe...chez soi, il reprend...son visage V,8 ..mais son visage m'est familier V,13 C'est son visage que l'on voit aux almanachs V,13 ..homme... malt re de ses yeux et de son visage DLC,2 ..a peine les puis-je reconnaitre a leurs visages DLC,13 ..ne montrent pas un visage si assurS DLC,18 les premiers visages qui frappent les nouveaux venus . . DLC,18 ..gens a qui ne connaitre point le nom et le visage DLC,38 ..MSnophile...masque...quoique a visage dScouvert DLC,48 On le reconnait et on sait guel i l est a son visage DLC,48 ..ThSodote avec un habit austere a un visage comigue .... DLC,61 sa voix...son attitude accompagnent son visage DLC,61 ..Le reconnaissez-vous a son visage, a ses entretiens .... DLC,62 ..qu'on ne connaisse les hommes a leur visage DLC,74 ..Qui considSrera que le visage du prince fait DLC,75 ..s'il a le visage plus ouvert DLC,94 et 1'entStement pour leur geste, leur visage G,l ..ThSoqnis...aiustS ses yeux et son visage...public G,48 ..Pamphile...la rougeur lui monterait-elle au visage G,50 ..un visage qui remplisse la curiositS des peuples SR,35 ...qui rappelle les besoins des sujets, leurs visages .... SR,35 ..demander son masque...elle l'avait sur son visage H,7 ...il en flague plus de la moitiS au visage de celui H,7 ..Ruffin commence a grisonner; mais...un visage frais H,123 ..N**...il a le visage dScharnS. le teint verdatre H,124 ..Antagoras a un visage trivial et populaire H,125 ..caractere Stranger...celle d'un masgue a un visage H,140 ..jette de la boue au visage de CORNBILLE J,17 ..de...visage blanc, nous sommes barbares pour quelques . . J,23 ..une grace naive Sclate sur son visage J,29 ..phvsionomie...pas une rSgle...pour juger des hommes .... J,31 ..vous Sgratigner au visage J,119 131 ...que je voie sa taille et son visage M,2 ...qui eloigne les cheveux du visage M,12 ...femmes changent phvsionomie douce...en une autre M,12 ...fantaisies du peintre...ni sur le visage M,15 ...qu'il n'aura point le visage austere et la mine triste .... M,23 ...quand on le revoit paraltre avec un visage extenue M,24 ...une bonne conscience etale sur le visage M,25 ...qui les connaissait tous...de nom et de visage QU,53 ...qui corrompent le geste et detigurent le visage Ch,29 VUE/VISIBLE ...de ne pas perdre mon titre de vue Preface ...pleurer.-.franchement a la vue l'un de l'autre OE,50 ...jeune personne iette...sa vue sur tout 0E,53 ...le gout qu'ils ont...a mettre les sots en vue MP,11 ...Les vues courtes, je veux dire les esprits bornes MP,34 ...Mopse...il ecrit a des femmes qu'il connalt de vue MP,38 ...fausse grandeur...ne perd rien a §tre vue de pres MP,42 ...Lelie...hommes publics...a la vue des autres F,33 ...etonnement a la vue de certains personnages F,42 ...sans autre vue que de la cacher DC,74 ...Troile...ride son front et i l detourne sa vue SC,13 ...ils ne se perdaient pas de vue. ils se sont apercus SC,39 ...II y a une chose que l'on n'a point vue sous le ciel SC,50 ...d'avoir en vue ni le vrai ni le faux SC,75 ...ils perdent de vue leurs egaux BF,73 ...un jeu...ou l'on n'a en vue que la ruine totale BF,75 ...Ce palais.-.vous font recrier d'une premiere vue BF,79 ...l'on y passe en revue l'un devant l'autre V,l ...La province...comme dans son point de vue DLC,6 ...Les hommes...que l'on decouvre les vues qu'ils ont DLC,44 ...Il y a un pays ou les joies sont visibles mais fausses .... DLC,63 et les chagrins caches, mais reels DLC,63 ...par des vues d'ambition et d'interet DLC,72 ...s'ils agissent selon leurs vues et leurs lumieres G,22 ...il meurt obscur et dans la foule G,41 ...Un Pamphile...ne se perd pas de vue G,50 ...ou tu n'as fait que te montrer G,9 ...caractere le plus conforme aux vues qu'il a G,12 ...decouvrent les vues des autres les plus secretes G,12 ...Toutes ses vues...de n'Stre point trompe G,12 ...il ne les perd pas de vue. i l les suit, i l les conduit SR,29 ...sur la prudence et sur les vues de ceux qui regnent .... SR,32 ...une vaste capacite...aux vues de la politique SR,35 ...l'incivilite...un defaut visible et manifeste H,8 ...maux effroyables...dont la seule vue fait fremir H,30 ...ils les saisissent d'une premiere vue H,54 132 ...elle se cache...sous les apparences de son contraire H,66 ...qui par l'etendue de ses vues et de sa penetration H,67 ...honte d'etre heureux a la vue de certaines miseres H,82 ...il n'a nulles vues et il est incapable de profiter H,87 ...Ceux au contraire que la fortune aveugle H,94 ...Asterie...ne le perdait pas de vue. secourait H,105 ...d'une complaisance aveugle pour ce vieillard H,107 ...palit a la vue d'une souris H,144 ...dont la vue seule est un spectacle H,145 ...Berylle tombe...a la vue d'un chat J,21 et moi a la vue d'un livre J,21 ...II ne faut pas juger des hommes comme d'un tableau ou d'une figure, sur une seule et premiere vue J,27 ...avoir des vues serieuses sans renoncer aux plaisirs .... J,30 ...leur gloire, ainsi partage, offense moins notre vue J,60 ...ils perdent en un moment la terre de vue J,61 ...mechant homme...Louez ses vues et ses projets J,116 ...des pieces rares dont il faut acheter la vue J,119 si cet homme avait la vue assez subtile pour vous J,119 ...ce vide lui blesse la vue M,2 ...n'empruntez leurs lumieres et ne suivez leurs vues QU,72 ...ap6tres...les suivre et ne les pas perdre de vue Ch,5 ...un tel homme n'avait qu'a se montrer pour etre suivie . . . Ch,5 ...hommes saints...paraissent...tout un peuple...deja emu . . . Ch,24 ...avec des vues si courtes ils ne percent point...le ciel .... EF,3 ...avec une...etendue d'esprit et de certaines vues EF,5 ...contre la vue de la mort et du dernier supplice EF,34 ...d'un autre un beau point de vue EF,43 sur le miracle de ce monde visible EF,43 les deux rayons visuels de ces deux observateurs EF,43 a peine la vue peut-elle atteindre a discerner EF,43 ...et qu'on ne les perde pas toutes de vue EF,43 ...dont le microscope nous fait apercevoir la figure EF,44 qui echappent a la vue des hommes EF,44 PORTRAIT/PEINDRE/PEINTRE/PEINTURE ...ce portrait que j'ai fait de lui d'apres nature Preface ...d'y peindre les hommes en general Preface ...a bien definir et a bien peindre 0E,14 ...incapable d'etre corrige par cette peinture 0E,24 ...il en fait la peinture ou l'histoire 0E,39 ...poeme tragique...pas de portraits agreables 0E,51 ...peintre qui fait d'apres nature force et exagere F,48 ...qui pourrait le decider sur le portrait que j'en DLC,61 ...qui font de lui un compose bizarre ou un grotesque .... J,26 ...II ne faut pas juger des hommes comme d'un tableau .... J,27 ...un aveugle qui veut peindre. un muet qui J,40 133 ...il manquerait un trait a cette peinture si surprenante . . . J,56 ...j'ai fait le portrait de deux personnages tout J,56 ..."Quels bizarres portraits nous fait ce philosophe! J,66 c'etaient des vices, mais peints au naturel J,66 ...un portrait affreux...qu'il se peint lui-meme J,72 ...les nSgliger dans leurs portraits M,15 fantaisies de peintre qui ne sont prises ni sur l'air .... M,15 elle a le m§me agrSment dans les portraits M,15 ...vouloir ressembler a ses portraits Ch,9 vices dont l'on m'avait fait une peinture si agrSable .... Ch,9 SPECTACLE/SPECTATEURS/THEATRE ...l'OpSra est l'ebauche d'un grand spectacle OE,47 ...souhaiter la fin de tout le spectacle OE,47 ...c'est la faute de theatre, d'action 0E,47 ...L'0p6ra...ce sont des vers; ni un spectacle 0E,47 ...dans les spectateurs cette douce illusion 0E,47 ...qui est tout le plaisir du theatre 0E,47 ...le propre de ce spectacle ... enchantement OE,47 ...le spectacle...ou s'est donne le spectacle OE,48 ...connaisseurs...decisive sur les spectacles 0E,49 ...moeurs du theatre...dScentes et instructives 0E,52 ...dont les sages ne seraient que les spectateurs MP,11 ...Un beau visage est le plus beau de tous les spectacles . . F,10 ...laisser parler cet inconnu...a un spectacle SC,14 ...Si vous allez derriere un theatre BF,25 les principes et les ressorts de ce spectacle si beau .... BF,25 ...p4rir sur le theatre...les personnages les plus odieux . . . BF,31 ...c'est le seul theatre...il se ruine obscurement V , l l ...il est spectateur de profession V,13 ...expose une femme...sur un lit comme sur un theatre V,19 accourent de toute une ville a ce spectacle V,19 ...homme de merite se donne, je crois, un joli spectacle .... DLC,60 ...Qui croirait que l'empressement pour les spectacles DLC,63 que les eclats...aux theatres de Moliere et d'Arlequin . . . DLC,63 ...ce sera le meme theatre...ne plus les mimes acteurs DLC,99 II s'avance da sur le theatre d'autres hommes DLC,99 ...les Pamphiles sont-ils toujours comme sur un theatre . . . G,50 ...dans les lieux dont la vue seule est un spectacle H,145 il leur fasse voir d'autres spectacles H,145 ...grand theatre, pour y faire briller toutes ses vertus .... J,28 ...n'entend...ni dans un sermon des tons de theatres QU,18 ...des livres distribues comme au theatre QU,19 ...appeler tout ce spectacle office d'Eglise QU,19 ...L'homme de robe ne saurait..paraitre aux theatres QU,47 ...medecins...le theatre et la satire ne touchent point QU,65 ...Le discours Chretien est devenu un spectacle Ch,l 134 EXTERIEUR/INTERIEUR ...paraitre selon l'exterieur contre la v6rit6 F,5 ...politesse...comme il devrait §tre intirieurement SC,32 ...L'intSrieur des families...nous trompent SC,40 ...nuls vices ext6rieurs...ne soient apercus par enfants .... H,54 ...qui le fait agir exterieurement avec les autres comme .... H,69 ...Timon...ext6rleurement i l est civil et cSrSmonieux H,155 ...L'homme de robe...loi pour r6qler son extSrieur QU,47 ...mais ne vous laissez pas tromper par les dehors EF,43 135 APPENDIX B Definition of "les yeux" by P. Etienne Binet, Essay des merveilles de Nature et  des plus nobles artifices. Rouen, 1621, published in L'Oeil surpris by Francoise Siguret, PFSCL/Biblio 17, 22, 1985. Les Yeux 1. Les yeux sont un vrai miracle de la nature; on les nomme miroirs de l'Sme. Gallien: membres plein de divinite". 2. Portes du soleil, fenitres de l'Sme. 3. Les truchements de l'Sme et son miroir. On lit en lui l'amour, la haine, la fureur, la pitie", la vengeance. L'audace lui eleve le sourcil, l'humilite' l'abaisse, ils flattent en l'amour, ils s'effarouchent en la haine, ils sourient en la joie, il languissent en la tristesse et se fondent en larmes, ils s'enaigrissent en la colore, ils se collent opinicttrement et s'attachent a terre parmi les soucis et pensees ennuyeux, ils fletrissent et ternissent leur cristal es maladies. 4. Ils sont de nature aqueuse, glissante, cristalline, pour plus aisement recevoir les portraits et images de toutes les creatures. 5. L'oeil a six muscles qui sont les ressorts qui jouent pour le mouvoin la poulie qui le hausse par le moyen d'un petit ligament inconnu a l'Antiquite et decouvert par Fallopius. Les noms des muscles droits sont: 1. le hausseur superbe-, 2. l'abaisseur humble-, 3. l'ameneur biberon; 4. l'emmeneur dGdaigneux. Et les deux obliques, roueurs, circulaires et amoureux.. 6. L'oeil etant de nature d'eau, afin qu'il ne coule, a besoin de tuniques pour resserrer les humeurs aqueuse, cristalline et vitree. La premiere est dite conjonctive, le blanc de l'oeil, Iris, la fonde etc., elle attache l'oeil et le garde de sortir. La 2.s la cornee, car elle est dure et claire, lisse et laisse que le jour la perce et donne jusqu'au cristallin, et embrasse tout l'oeil et le defend. La 3 est l'uvee qui est comme un grain de raisin: elle est percee au mitan d'un petit trou, c'est-a-dire, la prunelle de l'oeil et la fenetre; elle est de diverses couleurs; par son noir, elle attrempe l'Sclat de la lumie're et rabat et meurtrit sa trop grande lueur. 4. c'est l'aranoide ou araigniere, faite pour envelopper le cristallin. 5. la reticulaire qui apporte et menage les esprits visoires dans le cristallin et dans l'oeil et porte les images au cerveau comme au juge. 6. la vitree qui separe l'humeur aqueuse de la vitree afin qu'elles ne se mSlent et confondent 7. Les humeurs sont trois. La premiere en excellence est la cristalline qui est l'Ume de l'oeil, le miroir et le centre; c'est la princesse de l'oeil £ qui 136 toutes les autres parties servent La 2, c'est l'aqueuse qui est pourtant la premiere qui se voit et gui sert de rempart £ l'oeil-, sa substance est comme l'eau ou aubin de l'oeuf; elle sert comme de lunette au cristallin pour lui adoucir les objets. La 3 est la vitrS, elle est comme du verre fondu; elle est derriere le cristallin et comme son etui gui le nourrit, le conserve, le repolit Au reste la cornSe sert de glace au cristallin pour adoucir la lumiere: l'uvee par ses couleurs la rejouit; la prunelle lui sert de fenetre, l'araigniere lui ramasse les esprits et fait comme le plomb aux miroirs. L'humeur aqueuse est comme son boulevard, la vitr6e est sa nourrice, le nerf optique lui apporte les esprits visoires et lui sert de messager pour porter les espfeces au cerveau; les nuscles et les nerfs lui donnent mouvement; la paupiere de rideau, les cils et les sourcils de corps de garde; le front de parasol 8. II y a les nerfs optiques qui ne semblent avoir aucune concavite, et portent par leur continuity les esprits visoires et animaux; les autres nerfs sont pour le mouvement. II y a aussi des veines et arteres pour porter des esprits vitaux; de la graisse pour le tenir chaud; de la chair molle aux coins des yeux afin que les larmes, la chassie et autres humeurs ne lui nuisent. 


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