Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Palestinian nationalism from 1917 to 1989 : four stages of development King, Gabriella Louise 1989-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1989_A8 K48.pdf [ 3.72MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0097733.json
JSON-LD: 1.0097733+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0097733.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0097733+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0097733+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0097733+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0097733 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0097733.txt
Citation
1.0097733.ris

Full Text

PALESTINIAN NATIONALISM  FROM 1917 TO 1989:  FOUR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT By GABRIELLA LOUISE KING B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of Guelph,  1988  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  We a c c e p t to  of P o l i t i c a l  this  t h e s i s as  the required  Science  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October ©Gabriella  1989  Louise King,  1989  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  orja#&n~\2-Wt<i  ABSTRACT  This alism  t h e s i s examines  i n the twentieth  In e a c h o f t h e s e nationalism tion the  four  the development  century periods  Palestinian  s t a t e and how  i n g s were s t i r r e d  i t was t o be  were c o n s i d e r e d  the establishment  atten-  the r o l e of of a  future  Palestinian national against  feel-  Zionist  B o t h t h e Z i o n i s t s and t h e B r i t i s h by c o l o n i a l  i n the development  of the s t a t e  aims  i n the s t i r r i n g  of P a l e s t i n i a n  period,  of I s r a e l  o f p a n - A r a b i s m was b e l i e v e d  t o o k shape  soon  i n 1948 a t w h i c h  t o be t h e b e s t  way  an independent P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e .  third  phase  i s d e a l t with  Arab s t a t e s  Arabism  and A r a b  achieved.  w h i c h was c l e a r l y a p a n - A r a b  time the s u c c e s s  the  rule.  periods.  Special  the v i s i o n  was o r g a n i z e d  t o be m o t i v a t e d  p h a s e . The s e c o n d p e r i o d nationalism,  century,  as o p p o s i t i o n  i m m i g r a t i o n and B r i t i s h  which  nationalism  of Zionism,  in Palestinian politics,  In t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h  The  anti-colonial  to the P a l e s t i n i a n v i s i o n  Arab s t a t e s  to achieve  by d i v i d i n g i t i n t o f o u r  are applied to the P a l e s t i n i a n case.  i s paid  after  of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n -  lost  i n the e v o l u t i o n of P a l e s t i n i a n i n chapter  nationalism,  two, i s marked by t h e d e f e a t o f  i n t h e June war o f 1967, a t w h i c h t i m e p a n -  much o f i t s a p p e a l .  i i  This defeat  marked t h e r i s e  of a  new P a l e s t i n e variety  in this  as  period.  in Palestinian affairs,  a militant line,  evolution  this  that  thesis characterises  change t h a t o c c u r r e d eventual  throughout  acceptance  difficult  that  ideas  t o see I s r a e l  eliminated.  the f o u r t h period  i n the  process of  t h e 1970s and 1980s. I t i n v o l v e d  o f I s r a e l and a p a r t i t i o n  o f t h e movement s i n c e  c o n c l u d e s by s u g g e s t i n g  continued  as a gradual  thus r e j e c t i n g the a n t i - c o l o n i a l ideas centre  nation-  they expressed Marxist  was t o be  of P a l e s t i n i a n nationalism  i t is  t o reduce the r o l e of the  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  a c o l o n i a l settlement  Finally,  an  The PLO a t t e m p t e d  were a  the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  t o make some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t P a l e s t i n i a n  Arab s t a t e s and  and a l t h o u g h t h e r e  o f g r o u p s and i d e o l o g i e s w i t h i n  possible alism  Liberation Organization  that  the s t i r r i n g  of Palestine,  had been a t t h e  phase. T h i s  these changes a r e l i k e l y  f o r t h e PLO t o m a i n t a i n  its fragile  iii  unity.  thesis t o make i t  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Introduction Chapter  1:  1  From A n t i - c o l o n i a l i s m Nationalism: Pan-Arabism  Chapter  2:  to Pan-Arabism  Anti-colonialism  and 9  A n t i - c o l o n i a l i s m i n Mandate t h e S t i r r i n g Phase  Palestine:  Palestinian Nationalism Pan-Arabism  Nasser's  The  PLO  and  the  and  15 28  Palestinian Revolution  The I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e PLO: F a t a h , t h e M a r x i s t s and t h e A r a b p u p p e t s Chapter  3: The  Politics  6  o f Compromise  M o d e r a t e s , R e j e c t i o n i s t s and Point Plan  33 36 47  the  Ten  A t t e m p t s a t M o d e r a t i o n i n t h e 1980s: the Post B e i r u t Area, the I n t i f a d a and t h e N i n e t e e n t h PNC  52  61  Conclusion  72  Bibliography  75 iv  INTRODUCTION  The  Palestine  e x p r e s s i o n of expressed an  Liberation  Palestinian  objectives  umbrella  O r g a n i z a t i o n , as  nationalism,  that  organization,  PLO  modern  day  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  have c h a l l e n g e d the  the  Israel's existence.  i s made up  of  a variety  of  groups t h a t  express various  p o l i c i e s t o w a r d s I s r a e l and  Palestinian  state.  commando g r o u p s came t o d o m i n a t e  PLO  after  the  When t h e  June 1967  war,  the  covenant  e x p r e s s t h e i r more m i l i t a n t  line.  commando g r o u p s a g r e e d  the  occurred their  i n 1947  was  b e l i e f that  Palestine  that  At  when I s r a e l was  1964  was  the  Palestine  covenant  would o n l y come t o an  replaced  by  a unified  future the  revised  t h i s time, a l l of  p a r t i t i o n of  i l l e g i t i m a t e and  colonialism  of  a  As  to  the which  expressed end  in  Palestinian  state.  The as  Palestinian  national  a c o l o n i a l movement and  with  i t . Prom t h e  organizations in Palestine When t h e that  time of  the  were o p p o s e d and  state  I s r a e l was  Zionist  of  has  to  movement has therefore  always seen  refused  B r i t i s h mandate, the  to  Zionism  compromise  Palestinian  Zionists' plan  for a  homeland  i m m i g r a n t s were v i e w e d a s c o l o n i a l i s t s .  I s r a e l was  a creation  of  established, foreign  1  Palestinians  Insisted  i m p e r i a l i s t s which would  eventually the  be  defeated  Arab s t a t e s .  groups took h o l d  by  After of  the  the  the  Palestinians vith  Arab d e f e a t  PLO,  reducing  in Palestinian a f f a i r s ,  but  w o u l d be  Zionism.  l i b e r a t e d from  Palestinian Declaration ideas.  still  organizations  However, t h e  a  two  state  The  most r e c e n t  By  accepting  international  nationalism  242  c o n f e r e n c e b a s e d on  since  the  look a t time of  the  p a n - A r a b and  Palestine  anti-colonial at  the  in i t s objectives  and  National  by  same  and  i n 1988  calling  t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , the  was  Council  f u n d a m e n t a l change  (1)  states  Balfour  movement has  Palestine  i t marked a  Resolution  thesis will  specifically,  the  Arab  a l l of  time of  of  commando  the  change w h i c h t o o k p l a c e  a l l y a c c e p t e d a a p a r t i t i o n of  This  by  that  assistance  the  r o l e of  claiming  variations  s o l u t i o n a d o p t e d by  i t s n i n e t e e n t h m e e t i n g and policy.  the  Palestinian national  time e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e strategies.  i n 1967,  from the  have been i n f l u e n c e d  the  in  for PLO  at PLO  an form-  Palestine.(2)  the the  development of British  i t attempts to c o n s t r u c t  Palestinian  Mandate. More  a t y p o l o g y of  Palestinian  1. S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l R e s o l u t i o n 242 c a l l s f o r a " t e r m i n a t i o n of a l l c l a i m s o r s t a t e s o f b e l l i g e r e n c y and r e s p e c t f o r and a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h e s o v e r e i g n t y , t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y and p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e o f e v e r y s t a t e i n t h e a r e a and t h e i r r i g h t t o l i v e i n p e a c e w i t h i n s e c u r e and recognized b o u n d a r i e s . . . " i t a l s o c a l l s f o r "a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e refugee problem." 2. When q u e s t i o n e d a f t e r t h e PNC m e e t i n g , Y a s s e r A r a f a t made r e c o g n i t i o n o f I s r a e l e x p l i c i t : "The PNC a c c e p t e d two s t a t e s , a P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e and a J e w i s h s t a t e , I s r a e l . " see "PLO L e a d e r R e c o g n i z e s I s r a e l ' s R i g h t t o E x i s t " G l o b e and M a i l (December 8 1 9 8 8 ) : ! .  2  nationalism periods. British  by d i v i d i n g i t i n t o four c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  In the f i r s t  p e r i o d P a l e s t i n i a n s a t the time o f t h e  mandate were s t i r r e d  organized  opposition  out of t h e i r  t o Zionism.  Zionism  c o l o n i a l i s m and P a l e s t i n i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s claims  t o land  establishment a  partition  After  were i l l e g i t i m a t e .  with  argued  the Z i o n i s t  that to the  o f a J e w i s h home i n P a l e s t i n e a n d d i d n o t c o n s i d e r of the land  t o be a f a i r  outcome o f t h e d i s p u t e .  t h e c r e a t i o n o f I s r a e l and t h e exodus o f hundreds o f  t h e most e f f e c t i v e  felt  vas equated  They o b j e c t e d  thousands o f Arabs from P a l e s t i n e , be  apathy as they  way t o r e g a i n P a l e s t i n i a n r i g h t s .  that elimination of Israel  countries Israel  was t h e o n l y  represented  p a n - A r a b i s m was b e l i e v e d t o  just  with  the a i d o f the Arab  settlement  the success  t o the c o n f l i c t  control  nationalism  of a t h i r d  phase i n  a t w h i c h t i m e commando g r o u p s  o f t h e PLO a n d t r i e d  because  o f Western c o l o n i a l i s m i n t h e Arab  w o r l d . The 1967 war marked t h e b e g i n n i n g Palestinian  I t was  t o remove t h e m s e l v e s  from  gained Arab  c o n t r o l a s much a s p o s s i b l e . The commando g r o u p s a l l a g r e e d on the  common g o a l  gle  and r e p l a c i n g I s r a e l and t h e o c c u p i e d  a  unified  defeats within  of l i b e r a t i n g  P a l e s t i n e t h r o u g h t h e armed  strug-  West Bank a n d Gaza  with  P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e . B u t a s t h e PLO s u f f e r e d a number o f  i n t h e 1970's and 1980's, m o d e r a t e s began t o emerge the organization, questioning  PLO g o a l s .  As s t e p s  were  t a k e n f r o m w i t h i n t h e PLO t o w a r d s p r a g m a t i s m t h e PLO g r a d u a l l y shifted  the nature of P a l e s t i n i a n nationalism  compromise t h a t a c c e p t e d  Israel's  3  existence.  from r e f u s a l t o a  In o r d e r nationalism, Chapter 1967 the  one  war.  this will  This  two  period  thesis will look  at  the  section will  distinct  will  territory,  periods:  discuss how  t o be  divided  provide  the  best  tinian  the  way  two  to  war  organization,  of  their  look  PLO,  i n t o the  the  While  there  the  same t i m e t h e  Arab s t a t e s  to divide  at  Palestine National  Council.  policies  evolved  p r o p o s e s a compromise v i t h  It will  strengths  the  twenty believed  of  the  discuss  their  v i s i o n of a  post-1967  i n the  the  the future  PLO's period.  periods,  at  the  independent P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e  nineteenth  Chapter three to their  the  p o l i c y which  meeting of will  most r e c e n t  Israel. Finally,  4  Pales-  P a l e s t i n i a n movement  been a c o n s i s t e n t  the  some t h o u g h t s on  the  i t into d i s t i n c t  has  f o r m a l l y dropped a t  conclude v i t h  look  divided  demands f o r  what t h e i r  organization  i n the  b a s i c demand f o r an  gradually  their  also b r i e f l y discuss  i n a l l o f Mandate P a l e s t i n e only  be  pre-1948  v a r i e t y of groups w i t h i n  have been c h a n g e s  make i t p o s s i b l e  also  PLO.  i d e o l o g i e s and  Palestinian state. It w i l l relationship vith  i t will  to  liberate Palestine.  will  the  and  the  background  when p a n - A r a b u n i t y was  n a t i o n a l movement under t h e  organization  and  until  1948-1967. The  obtained  chapter w i l l  chapters.  century  a historical  p r e - 1 9 4 8 and  1967  Palestinian  into three  e a r l y twentieth  t h e y were t o be  before  Chapter  was  be  Palestinian organizations,  w e a k n e s s e s were. T h i s  year p e r i o d  that  changing nature of  development of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m  into  and  t o examine t h e  this  look phase  the  a t hov  PLO  which  thesis  possible d i f f i c u l t i e s  vill that  the  PLO at  may the  now  f a c e as  nineteenth  a result  of the  PNC.  5  new  policies  that  i t adopted  CHAPTER  ONE  PROM ANTI-COLONIALISM TO  In t h e  first  were making p l a n s Palestinian Zionist in  two  h a l f of  for a Jewish n a t i o n a l  P a l e s t i n i a n s attempted  ways, by a p p e a l i n g t h e i r own  main g o a l s  twentieth  of  the  organizations Arabs  in t h i s period  to the  Palestine  and  p a r t i t i o n of  t o any  establish a state  ruled  D u r i n g W o r l d War had was  A r a b s . An  exchange of  to  in creating  proclaimed  an  Syria,  as  the  the  Z i o n i s t aims  1916.  by  their opposition.  remained q u i t e  land.  The  The  consistent.  objective  Ottoman T u r k s ' g r i p o v e r  Britain  letters  the  home i n was  to  Palestinians.  control  s o u g h t an  f o r about  Arab  four  a l l i a n c e with  the  between S i r H e n r y McMahon, B r i t a i n ' s the  In t h e  Sudan, and  the  Sharif  promised  Sharif  independent Arab governments  Arab r e v o l t a g a i n s t  the  Ottomans. The  i n c l u d i n g P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b s , had  6  of  Mecca  Husayn-McMahon c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  made i n w h i c h B r i t a i n  assistance  to  of a Jewish n a t i o n a l  the  native  i n E g y p t and  f r o m 1915  a g r e e m e n t was  greater  1,  weakening,  High Commissioner  an  by  creation  been under t h e i r l o o s e  centuries  opposition  to prevent the  to voice  opposition  occurred  home i n P a l e s t i n e ,  t o o t h e r A r a b s f o r s u p p o r t and  T h e r e was  lands that  c e n t u r y , when Z i o n i s t s  A r a b s made e f f o r t s t o o r g a n i z e  plan.  creating  the  PAN-ARABISM  high  Husayn  i f Husayn Arabs  in  expectations  as  they a n t i c i p a t e d But  r e g a r d l e s s o f what was  correspondence, Sir  independence a f t e r  Arthur  on November  2 1917  Balfour in a letter  F e d e r a t i o n pledged P a l e s t i n e . The  to provide  letter  said  the  war.  i n the British  to Lord  the  Foreign  Secretary  R o t h s c h i l d of the  f o r the Jewish  assured  Husayn-McMahon  Zionist  people  Zionist  a homeland  f e d e r a t i o n of  in  the  following: H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government v i e w w i t h f a v o u r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n P a l e s t i n e o f a n a t i o n a l home f o r t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e , and w i l l use t h e i r b e s t e n d e a v o u r s t o f a c i l i t a t e the achievement of t h i s o b j e c t , i t b e i n g c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t n o t h i n g s h a l l be done w h i c h may p r e j u d i c e t h e c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s o f e x i s t i n g n o n - J e w i s h c o m m u n i t i e s i n P a l e s t i n e (3)  In p r o m i s i n g  the Arabs  pondence w h i l e a t t h e Britain  would use  homeland that  same t i m e  their  i n the  promising  Husayn-McMahon c o r r e s the Jewish  best endeavours to achieve  in Palestine, Britain  were  The  independence  had  entered  i n t o two  people  a  Jewish agreements  incompatible.  B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n was  t o have a huge e f f e c t  A r a b s o f P a l e s t i n e b e c a u s e t h e A r a b s were n o t g i v e n t h e dence t h a t t h e y were d i v i d e d and of N a t i o n s . Included  that  the  expected  after  administered  B r i t a i n was  t h e war. by  Instead, Arab  on  the  indepen-  territories  t h e mandate s y s t e m o f t h e  League  g i v e n t h e mandate f o r P a l e s t i n e and  B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n i n i t s mandate. Once P a l e s t i n e  3. c i t e d i n U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The O r i g i n s and E v o l u t i o n o f t h e P a l e s t i n e P r o b l e m P a r t 1 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n , 1 9 8 4 ) , 9.  7  was  separated  from the  administration, ist  of  their  Arab  President  Conference  B r i t i s h and  The  given  s i t u a t i o n very  the  British  increased  Zion-  d i f f e r e n t from  mandate f o r P a l e s t i n e  t h a t a c o m m i s s i o n be  i t was  the  sent  the  Commission s t a t e d  and  Paris  p e o p l e . The  to the  area  there  was  including King  although  people of P a l e s t i n e was  in  Peace  to S y r i a ,  t o send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  i f foreign tutelage States  sent  wishes of the  known, was  found t h a t  United  under  with  Wilson proposed a t the  French declined  agreed that from the  was  t o determine the  C o m m i s s i o n , as  Commission  made t h e i r  Woodrow  i n 1919  Palestine,  placed  neighbours.  Before B r i t a i n 1920,  S y r i a and  t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s were f a c e d  immigration. This  that  r e s t of  Crane the  The  generally  t o come t h e y would p r e f e r i t a general  f e a r of  Zionism.  that:  I f the p r i n c i p l e [of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ] i s t o r u l e , and so t h e w i s h e s o f P a l e s t i n e ' s p o p u l a t i o n a r e t o be d e c i s i v e a s t o what i s t o be done w i t h P a l e s t i n e , t h e n i t i s t o be remembered t h a t t h e n o n - J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n of P a l e s t i n e - n e a r l y n i n e - t e n t h s of the whole - a r e e m p h a t i c a l l y a g a i n s t t h e e n t i r e Z i o n i s t programme. The t a b l e s show t h a t t h e r e was no one t h i n g upon w h i c h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e were more a g r e e d t h a n upon t h i s . To s u b j e c t a p e o p l e s o minded t o u n l i m i t e d J e w i s h i m m i g r a t i o n , and t o s t e a d y f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o s u r r e n d e r t h e l a n d , w o u l d be a g r o s s v i o l a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s j u s t q u o t e d . . . ( 4 )  Although the Z i o n i s m and grant  4.  the  cited  commission r e p o r t e d the  Balfour  that  Declaration,  the the  P a l e s t i n e mandate t o B r i t a i n  in Ibid.,  28.  8  A r a b s were o p p o s e d Allied  and  powers a g r e e d  included  the  to to  Balfour  Declaration included others  i n the  i n the  mandate. B e c a u s e t h e  mandate f o r P a l e s t i n e , t h i s  w h i c h were t o a s s i s t  independent  The  the  native  mandate s y s t e m t h a t was the  advanced  ed  these  nations"  (5)  so  that  to govern themselves  i n the  that  the  right  West s h o u l d  accordance with  selection  The  The  that  this  under t h e  i n the  the  principle  itical  t o the the  order,  the  cited cited  was  a principal  in Ibid., in Ibid.,  be  valued  n o n - W e s t e r n w o r l d , and  is generally  West a f t e r birth  liberty,  of  the  the  that  in  "the  consideration  as  i n place  spread around the  21. 29.  9  embodied  in  French  of  the an  RevoJJultitxm.  fraternity  the  in  t o be  modern e r a and  equality,  generally considered  phenomenon w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y  5. 6.  that  Covenant s t a t e d  people vere to r u l e  i s therefore  might  (6)  marked t h e of  advanc-  Woodrow W i l s o n  believed  ideas  for  territories  League o f N a t i o n s  i t the  the  "tutelage...of  as  i n the  of  need  future. President  With n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  Nationalism  developing  22  to national self-determination  became p o p u l a r  brought v i t h  the  to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  a l s o apply  French Revolution  progress.  was  unlike  in  in Article  less developed  of a Mandatory."  right  Covenant of idea  populations  s e t up  w i s h e s o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s must be the  mandate was  League o f N a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d  u n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s t o be  insisted  Declaration  governments.  Covenant of  able  Balfour  basis  of  it and pol-  kings.  t o be  a  European  vorld  and  had  universal  appeal.  Nationalism d e f i n e . An  i s a complex  attempt  formation  to  list  of a n a t i o n  l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e and in  the  could  formation be  is  the  religion  be  deemed s u f f i c i e n t .  formed by  definition  the  of  explanation  of  i n the  will,  nation  a nation  could none o f  as  may could  that  of  he  states  as  as  their  is a  own  living  that " n a t i o n a l i t y  f o r m a n a t i o n a l i t y . " (7)  be  the  the  a nation  difficult,  in  important  f a c t o r s on  formation  be  to  f a c t o r s such  insists  simply  required  considered  these  Hans Kohn  d e c i s i o n to  the  factors that are Although  of a n a t i o n ,  active corporate  i s thus d i f f i c u l t  proves f u t i l e .  most e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t and  i d e a and  a more  While  a  specific  follows:  A n a t i o n i s a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who w i s h t o l i v e together i n a g i v e n t e r r i t o r y w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be uniquely t h e i r own; t h e y have a s e n s e o f p r i d e i n a s h a r e d p a s t ( w h i c h may o r may n o t be b a s e d on f a c t ) and t h e y dream of a s h a r e d f u t u r e . A n a t i o n u s u a l l y p o s s e s s e s u n i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as a common l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e or r e l i g i o n . A n a t i o n a l g r o u p f e a r s f o r e i g n m o t i v e s and resents f o r e i g n r u l e , s i n c e f o r e i g n e r s are unable to u n d e r s t a n d or a p p r e c i a t e the n a t i o n ' s accomplishments and i t s p u r p o s e i n h i s t o r y .  National t h r e a t as insult  nationalism  to t h e i r  centuries was  f e e l i n g s are  teaches people that  human d i g n i t y . I n t h e  by a p e r c e i v e d foreign rule  nineteenth  p e o p l e under c o l o n i a l r u l e l e a r n e d  wrong a c c o r d i n g  things  often activated  w o u l d be  that  t o W e s t e r n p r i n c i p l e s and  better  i f they could  govern  7. Hans Kohn, The I d e a o f N a t i o n a l i s m Company, 1 9 4 4 ) , 15.  10  (New  and  is  foreign an  twentieth  their  treatment  they expected  themselves.  York:  Macmillan  that  Nationalism,  therefore,  i n t e r v e n t i o n , and c a n n o t be  of the  rulers  K.R.  of  Minogue a r g u e s ,  internal  Nehru d e s c r i b e d  other  that  n a t i o n a l g r o u p s , and  i s a way  g o v e r n m e n t s i n an  Colonial  nationalism  anti-feeling"  of a s u b j e c t  countries  country."  r u l e r s can  e s p e c i a l l y against  the  foreign  political  in colonized  opposition  t o b r i n g c o l o n i a l i s m t o an  contribute  significantly  policies  t r a d i t i o n s and  threaten  grew "on  or u n d e r s t a n d  the  religious  circumstances colonized suspicious  colony.  of  from alter  colonialist beliefs  social  n a t i v e s are  able  8. K.R.Minogue, N a t i o n a l i s m 26.  end.  t o the  rousing  of  the  sparks  structures. the  power who  ruled  For  may  does not  n a t i v e s . Under  p e o p l e become o p p o s e d t o  i n the  alien  f o r e i g n e r s whose  f o r e i g n m o t i v e s . Thus c o l o n i a l  manner, a s s i s t The  the  to  people. Colonization  example, r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s between r u l e r s and protests against  countries anger  ones l i f e - s t y l e  may  in colonized  (9) N a t i o n a l i s m  of o r g a n i z i n g effort  is anti-colonial  and  the d e s i r e to p r o t e c t  indirect  a  hatred  o f n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s among c o l o n i z e d  inspire  foreign  "nationalism  factions within  main forms of n a t i o n a l i s m  " e s s e n t i a l l y an  against  as  frequently a r e a c t i o n to  (8)  nationalism. as  in fact,  purely a struggle  country."  One  is quite  respect  these  foreign rule  and  governments,  in  an  development of n a t i o n a l i s m  in  the  to unite against  (New  what t h e y  York: B a s i c  9. c i t e d i n Boyd S h a f e r , F a c e s o f N a t i o n a l i s m H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , 279.  11  perceive  Books I n c . ,  (New  York:  1967),  t o be  a common t h r e a t  The  typical  where t h e y may  a n t i - c o l o n i a l movement may  f o l l o w i n g manner. As  r i v a l r y eventually  natives  as  natives  <rJass c i t i z e n s .  As  the  natives,  to self-determination  demanded e q u a l t r e a t m e n t . movements i n t h e losing  what  t r e a t e d as out  of  their  will  Any  between a n a t i o n  of  settle  of  West and  the they  national  resentment  to s t i r  life  without  for nothing  b r i n g a complete  settlement  i s considered and  that  of  fear  a colonized  living  without d e s t r o y i n g  l e s s than a  end  that  people  the  i t altogether."  compromise  (10)  territory  the  ideology  i s looked  upon  partitioned  Nationalism  emphasises  10. F r e d e r i c k H e r t z , N a t i o n a l i t y i n H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s ( L o n d o n : Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r & Co., 1 9 4 5 ) , 151.  12  of  relationship  i s c e n t r a l . "In  p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h c a n n o t be  a  to c o l o n i a l  unacceptable because the  its territory  total only  of  being  c o l o n i a l r u l e r s , the  would r e q u i r e  of almost every n a t i o n . . . i t s h i s t o r i c a l a  the  elite,  learned  c o l o n i a l power. I t i s b e l i e v e d  complete w i t h d r a w a l can  a l m o s t as  and  independence. A  the  the  second  traditional  i n the  w o r l d demanded  helped  as  foreign rule,  them mixed w i t h  expectations  withdrawal of the  one's l a n d  by  in  apathy.  population  oppression.  treated  they  i s valued  second c l a s s c i t i z e n s  With h i g h native  by  being  ideas,  Humiliated  developing  i s valued  that  generalized  E u r o p e a n s and  u s u a l l y the  w i t h Western  divided.  s e t t l e d in Asia  grew between t h e  grew t o r e s e n t  came i n c l o s e r c o n t a c t right  be  European c o l o n i a l i s t s  Africa,  the  have o t h e r w i s e b e e n  a  c o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e p a s t and important  when i t comes t o  Arab n a t i o n a l i s m , attempted  constituted  one  by p o l i t i c a l  vith  i t s strong a n t i - c o l o n i a l  W o r l d War  b o u n d a r i e s . Because  of Arab  should  territory that  n o t have been  Arabs  separated  A r a b s s h a r e a number o f c h a r a c -  t h a t a r e commonly b e l i e v e d argue  partition  elements,  1. P a n - A r a b i s t s b e l i e v e d  n a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e  Arab n a t i o n a l i s t s  is especially  territory.(11)  t o overcome t h e p o l i t i c a l  that occurred a f t e r  teristics  this continuity  t o group people together,  that  A r a b u n i t y , a s s u c h , i s an end i n i t s e l f f o r i t r e f l e c t s t h e community o f l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e , e x p e r i e n c e s and a s p i r a t i o n v h i c h a l l A r a b s s h a r e d e s p i t e p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . I t i s a p o s i t i v e movement i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t a s p i r e s t o a t t a i n t h e same norm of l i f e v h i c h t h e A r a b p e o p l e had s h a r e d i n t h e p a s t and v h i c h v a s o n l y i n t e r r u p t e d a f t e r W o r l d War 1, v h e n A r a b l a n d s v e r e d i v i d e d by E u r o p e a n p o v e r s a g a i n s t t h e v i l l o f t h e i r p e o p l e s . (12)  Arab n a t i o n a l i s t s tventieth their  century after  control  Ottoman r u l e r s a  result  o n l y opposed  t h e T u r k s made a t t e m p t s a t  o v e r t h e A r a b s . I s l a m had o r i g i n a l l y  i n the  early  tightening given  the  l e g i t i m a c y among t h e m a j o r i t y o f A r a b s , t h i s  of Muslim b e l i e f s  Muhammed. The  Ottoman r u l e  that  originated  vith  the prophet  prophet proclaimed the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  ummah, o r n a t i o n ,  i n Medina  and t h e M u s l i m s  being  of the  considered  Muslim  themselves  11. R . J . J o h n s o n , D a v i d B K n i g h t and E l e o n o r e Kofman ( e d s . ) , N a t i o n a l S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l G e o g r a p h y ( L o n d o n : Croom Helm L t d . , 1 9 8 8 ) , 24. 12. c i t e d i n L o u i s S n y d e r , The Dynamics o f N a t i o n a l i s m D. Van N o s t r a n d Company I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) , 313.  13  (Princeton:  t o be a community d i s t i n c t  from a l l o t h e r p e o p l e s . As a  result  a s l o n g a s t h e Ottoman E m p i r e was s e e n t o embody t h e I s l a m i c f a i t h t h e r e was l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n t o i t . The b r e a k - u p o f a n I s l a m i c power i n t o a number o f s m a l l e r u n i t s would have been r e g a r d e d a s r e t r o g r a d e . (13)  However, A r a b the e a r l y  nationalists  began t o p r o t e s t  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y when Ottoman p o l i c i e s  on a T u r k i s h  f l a v o u r . Turkish reforms that  a s an o f f i c i a l  language  reflected  o f power, A r a b s  t h e r e had always  been a c l o s e  the growth  historical  Sherif  i n 1916 w h i c h  sparked an Arab  example, a c c u s e d t h e T u r k s o f i n d i f f e r e n c e that  t h e T u r k s had u s u r p e d  could appertain tribe,  o n l y t o an A r a b ,  factors  that unified  c u l t u r e , and t h e i r  an e s p e c i a l l y language that  points  Because between  Arab  f o r the by t h e  revolt, for  t o I s l a m . The A r a b s  the C a l i p h a t e and t h a t i t  preferably  from  Muhammad's  the Quraysh.  The their  a greater  development  rallying  feelings  t h e T u r k s was I s l a m . The p r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d  o f Mecca  claimed  things  of national  took counter-measures.  c u l t u r e a n d I s l a m , one o f t h e c e n t r a l Arabs a g a i n s t  began t o take  included such  among t h e T u r k s . As t h e Young T u r k s a t t e m p t e d centralization  Ottoman r u l e i n  t h e A r a b s were t h e i r  common h i s t o r i c a l  e x p e r i e n c e . A r a b i c was  i m p o r t a n t f o r c e u n i f y i n g A r a b s a s i t was t h e  o f t h e K o r a n a n d t h e Mosque.  foreign  language,  i n f l u e n c e was r e s p o n s i b l e  I t was g e n e r a l l y  f o r t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n of  13. J o h n B r e u i l l y , N a t i o n a l i s m a n d t h e S t a t e Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982), 120.  14  believed  (Manchester:  the  Arab n a t i o n  protesting  so  t h a t Arab n a t i o n a l i s m  f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e and  Ottoman E m p i r e and  then against  Many A r a b s f e l t influence the  i n the  promoted by century  the  European  f o r e i g n r u l e was  imposed on  i t brought with  imperialism, the  A r a b w o r l d and  mandate s y s t e m  that  that  and  them and  the  French  s o o n became a n t i - B r i t i s h and  r u l e r s were worse t h a n t h e different  The  religion  Zionist  P a l e s t i n e was  and  one  the  against  the  powers.  a  corrupting  European  to  of  opposed  to  domination  foreign rule that  i n the  early  anti-French.  The  European  t o e s t a b l i s h a J e w i s h n a t i o n a l home i n the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l movement among P a l e s t i n i a n s . In  the  national  of the  century  f e e l i n g s and  development of  best  be  labelled  as  they expressed  Zionist t o be  P a l e s t i n e was ist  in their  British  t o be  to  Zionist  the of a  and  stirring  immigrants  marked t h e  first  stage  a phase t h a t  l a n d as  being  f e a r of  Zionist  m o t i v e s . They  claims  they developed  uniquely  t o a homeland their  own  their  opposition  Mandate.  15  to  own  in Palestine  image o f  Zionism  to  considered  governed. P a l e s t i n i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  demands, e x p r e s s e d  in may  p h a s e . P a l e s t i n i a n s began  their  Zionist  stirred  f e e l i n g s o f u n i t y among  mandate y e a r s  i m m i g r a t i o n and  illegitimate  opposition  Palestinian nationalism,  develop a perception and  main f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d  intensified  P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b s . The the  a  culture.  to  early twentieth  was  twentieth  Ottomans, however, b e c a u s e t h e y had  a different  plan  first  t h e y were t h e r e f o r e  i t . Arab o p p o s i t i o n  British  became a way  and  how maximalthe  As  a result  Zionists refused  that  required  Z i o n i s t s as c o l o n i a l i s t s o f them.  British. passed  of land  t o the  b o t h t h e B r i t i s h and  so they r e f u s e d  B e c a u s e many o f t h e J e v i s h  Europe t h e y v e r e seen as c o l o n i a l i s t s  and t h e  organizations  a surrender  immigrants. P a l e s t i n i a n s perceived  either  Britain  i n t h e pre-1948 p e r i o d , P a l e s t i n i a n any s e t t l e m e n t  Jewish the  of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards  to cooperate  vith  i m m i g r a n t s came from  n o t much d i f f e r e n t  As many P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b s s a v i t , t h e i r  from t h e  land  h a d been  from t h e hands o f t h e Ottomans t o t h e B r i t i s h ,  v i t h the  British  making p l a n s  alists,  the Z i o n i s t s .  Jevish claims t o be m o t i v a t e d organizations  t o pass  t o land  by c o l o n i a l  i t on t o a n o t h e r  i n P a l e s t i n e vere g e n e r a l l y  necessary before  betveen Western c o l o n i a l i s m  f o r example, a n d Z i o n i s m . B e c a u s e t h e  Z i o n i s t s vere vleved complete a b o l i t i o n  considered  aims, not n a t i o n a l ones. P a l e s t i n i a n  d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  i n A s i a and A f r i c a ,  group of c o l o n i -  as c o l o n i a l i s t s ,  of t h e i r  plans  i t vas f e l t  that  a  f o r a n a t i o n a l home v a s  Palestinians could  exercise  their  legitimate  rights. Hovever, as a s e t t l e r for  nationalism,  J e v s t o m i g r a t e t o P a l e s t i n e and e s t a b l i s h a s t a t e v h e r e  could  live  a n a t i o n a l home o f t h e i r ovn  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e H o l y L a n d , making H e b r e v t h e i r  language, and e s t a b l i s h i n g s o v e r e i g n t y differed  Jevs  p e r m a n e n t l y . Because t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e Z i o n i s t  movement v a s f o r t h e J e v s t o a q u i r e by  the Z i o n i s t s ' goal vas  from other  over  official  the land,  Zionism  n a t i o n a l movements. I t s a i m v a s t o f r e e t h e 16  Jews b y a l l o w i n g them t o move t o a n o t h e r  There  was, however, some a m b i g u i t y  t o be i n c l u d e d  Israel  division,  t h e J o r d a n R i v e r has  historically  P a l e s t i n e and  had v a r i o u s b o r d e r s a n d many Z i o n i s t s  p a r t s o f t h e E a s t Bank would be i n c l u d e d the t h i r t e e n t h passed  Palestine.  o v e r what t e r r i t o r y was  i n the Jewish s t a t e . Although  often served as a p o l i t i c a l Eretz  country,  Zionist  the following  Congress  expected  i n a Jewish  that  s t a t e . At  i n 1923 f o r e x a m p l e , t h e C o n g r e s s  resolution:  R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n P a l e s t i n e a r e i n r e a l i t y a n d de f a c t o one u n i t h i s t o r i c a l l y , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , and e c o n o m i c a l l y , t h e Congress e x p r e s s e s i t s e x p e c t a t i o n that the future of TransJordan s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l e g i t i m a t e demands o f t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e . (14)  Adding  to this  c o n f u s i o n , i n 1920 B r i t a i n  a r e a on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r by 1921 t h e The  Zionists,  side  being  into  however, were t o l a t e r  left  two p a r t s a l o n g t h e r i v e r . argue  f o r t h e Jews t o e s t a b l i s h  Palestine. struggled  the e a s t s i d e of  state  their  w i t h t h e west  own s t a t e . B u t  of the Jordan R i v e r , P a l e s t i n i a n  were d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n a l aims o f t h e i r unwilling  that  was made a n A r a b P a l e s t i n i a n  t h o s e on t h e west s i d e  the entire  t h e "madate f o r P a l e s t i n e . " B u t  mandate was d i v i d e d  the Jordan r i v e r  called  own a n d were  t o accept the establishment of a Jewish  clearly  state i n  T h e s e two n a t i o n a l i s m s were bound t o c o l l i d e f o r t h e same t e r r i t o r y ,  both c l a i m i n g  1 4 P i p e s , D a n i e l and Adam G a r f i n k l e , Commentary ( O c t o b e r 1 9 8 8 ) : 37.  17  "Is Jordan  Arabs,  t o have  as they legit-  Palstine?"  imate h i s t o r i c a l  As  t o the land.  a r e s u l t of the perceived  A r a b s were a b l e been a b l e the  ties  threat  of Zionism,  Palestinians  t o o r g a n i z e and c o o p e r a t e where t h e y may n o t fojcwp.  t o otherwise.  Z i o n i s t s , lacked  F o r example, t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s ,  religious unity,  unlike  w h i c h was compounded by  e c o n o m i c d i s u n i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e M u s l i m s made up t h e m a j o r i t y the  population,  The  Christians  although tial  of society  appeal  agreed  they joined  i n their opposition  committees t h a t  n o t want c o m p e t i t i o n  and  skilled  powerful  of  in influen-  C h r i s t i a n s saw  opposed  from J e w i s h  C h r i s t i a n s of  However, M u s l i m s and  t o Z i o n i s m and t o g e t h e r  it.  Middle c l a s s  immigrants  Christians  i n professions  land.  divisions also  existed  between  influential  w h i c h were n o t a s e a s i l y o v e r c o m e .  families  who were c o m p e t i n g notable  jobs  t r a d e s w h i l e t h e M u s l i m p e a s a n t s d i d n o t want t o  compete o v e r r u r a l  Palestine  areas.  s u c h a s g o v e r n m e n t , commerce a n d e d u c a -  of the B r i t i s h . ( 1 5 )  did  But  in rural  i n pan-Islam while Muslims accused  less c r i t i c a l  Christians  in  many o f them h e l d  Because o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s ,  little being  living  on t h e o t h e r hand were m a i n l y c i t y d w e l l e r s and  t h e y were a m i n o r i t y  sectors  tion.  t h e y were m a i n l y p e a s a n t s  of  i n Palestine forcontrol  families  T h e r e were a few  i n the e a r l y twentieth amongst t h e m s e l v e s .  century  The two most  f a m i l i e s were t h e H u s a y n i s and t h e N a s h a s h i b i s .  the Husayni  family  t r a d i t i o n a l l y held  positions  Members  of influence i n  15. Ann M o s e l y L e s c h , A r a b P o l i t i c s i n P a l e s t i n e 1917-1939 ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , 60-61.  18  the m u n i c i p a l i t y  of Jerusalem,  most n o t a b l y as mayor.  Husaynis  g e n e r a l l y had  the support  families  in Palestine.  The  the support rivalry  of the r i s i n g  between t h e s e  common f r o n t difference  to  N a s h a s h i b i s , on middle  class.  families  the d i v i s i o n each  believed  In an a t t e m p t  same e t h n i c g r o u p ,  Palestinians  countries.  They a l s o  tried  the v o r l d ,  insisting  that  groups.  including  and  Arabs  conflict  vas  support  mandate,  the and  from members o f  the  sent m i s s i o n s to v a r i o u s Arab of Muslims  the problems f a c i n g  in cooperation v i t h  the vas  around  Palestinians the  third  t o any  partition  and  so t h a t  their  such as  C a i r o i n 1938,  of P a l e s t i n e .  have g i v e n t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s clout  f o r example, t h e r e  Pan-Arab meetings,  p l a c e i n Damascus i n 1937  Palestinians did  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o Z i o n i s m . When  Damascus i n 1925  v i o l e n t demonstrations.  political  Arabs,  in neighbouring countries for  to get the s u p p o r t  form c o m m i t t e e s  Balfour v i s i t e d  opposition  mandate  i n Islam.  M u s l i m s and demonstrate  by t h e  Palestinian  c o n c e r n a l l Muslims because J e r u s a l e m city  little  an A r a b p r o b l e m  their  to a t t r a c t  holiest  f o r m a t i o n of a  that  support.  may  the  traditional  ovn  t o Arabs  took  prevented  had  i s s u e s c r e a t e d by t h e i r  they t h e r e f o r e appealed  Lord  while a  of Arab t e r r i t o r i e s  group of Arabs,  c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e  Palestinians  t h e o t h e r hand,  But  i n the n a t i o n a l g o a l s of both  caused  should  well-established  f o r much o f t h e mandate y e a r s , t h e r e v a s  Although system  two  of the  The  their  But  of  that  stressed  vhile  most  sympathy, t h e y had  p r o t e s t s vere 19  those  vere  little  Arabs little  value.  The  fragmentation  significantly  t o the  of the  Arab v o r l d  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l move-  ment under t h e  British  circumstances,  P a l e s t i n i a n s d e v e l o p e d an  other  Mandate. B e c a u s e o f  A r a b s . Hovever, the  question  alvays  Palestine  vas  contributed  remained  a separate  r o l e of other important.  their  different  i d e n t i t y separate Arabs  i n the  from  Palestine  What e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d  Palestinian n a t i o n a l i t y alongside  in  Arab  nationalism.  By  the  organized 1920  1920's, P a l e s t i n i a n o p p o s i t i o n  s t r u c t u r e . The  t o 1934,  Palestinian  vas  Balfour that  not  be  Balfour  consulted  and  ve  t o the  The  typical  of the  home i n P a l e s t i n e and  Palestine  cited  t o r e m a i n A r a b . The  in Ibid.,  used m a i n l y and  and  that  British  the  made v i t h o u t deciding  our our  mandate y e a r s  compromise be i t expressed committee's  79.  20  rule.  of  five  It  that the  insisted  being destinies."(16)  vere  i n 1921  desire  the  outlined.  made i n f a v o u r  the  from  peaceful  goals  Arab Executive  an  expressing  government demanding  The  i t as  active  T h i r d Arab Congress a t H a i f a  C o n g r e s s demanded t h a t no  Jevish  16.  vere  "vas  cannot accept  At a meeting of the demands t h a t  British  vas  organization  to Zionism  abandoned.  Declaration  vhich  organization  t r e a t e d as a c o l o n y  D e c l a r a t i o n be  the  significant  i t s opposition  numerous l e t t e r s  Palestine  first  n a t i o n a l a i m s . The  means t o e x p r e s s sent  the  Arab E x e c u t i v e ,  began t o t a k e on  of  a  for  b a s i c demands v e r e  as  f o l l o w s : 1)  population  a government was  t o be  i n P a l e s t i n e ; 2) t h e r e  J e w i s h n a t i o n a l home p r i n c i p l e ; until  a g o v e r n m e n t was  policy;  4)  its  law;  neighbouring  outlined  and  t o be  3) J e w i s h  t o be  governed  5) P a l e s t i n e was  Arab s t a t e s .  (17)  i n t h i s document a r e  native  abolition  decide  by  of  t o be  to  end  rather  separated  demands and  from  grievances  remarkably c o n s i s t e n t with  b a s i c demands o f P a l e s t i n i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the  immigration  Ottoman law  not  The  an  the  i m m i g r a t i o n was  e l e c t e d which c o u l d  P a l e s t i n e was  than B r i t i s h  was  e l e c t e d by  throughout  the  the  mandate  years.  In the r u l e was  1920's o r g a n i z e d  generally peaceful.  increased  so  objection to But  as  Zionist  to d i d  f r u s t r a t i o n among t h e  organizations  felt  especially dissatisfied  recognized  the  by  British.  later  the  t o be  representative  of the  Arab o r g a n i z a t i o n  British,  i t could  including  the  organizations  By  the  not  Balfour could  late  b e c a u s e t h e y were (1920-1934)  ( 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 ) , were n o t  Arab p o p u l a t i o n  by  considered  the  Declaration. meet t h i s  1920s s m a l l  Quite  and  considered  British  representative  (18)  by  t o the  clearly,  the mandate, Arab  requirement.  outbreaks of v i o l e n c e  were  becoming  17. W i l l i a m Q u a n d t , The P o l i t i c s o f P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l i s m ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , 14-16. 18.  Ibid.,  21.  21  not  In a d d i t i o n , f o r  issue resolutions contrary  not  British  Arabs. P a l e s t i n i a n  elected representatives. t o be  and  immigration  Arab E x e c u t i v e  A r a b H i g h e r Committee  b e c a u s e t h e y were n o t an  The  Zionism  more f r e q u e n t a n d i n t h e n e x t With t h e Nazi r i s e fleeing  two d e c a d e s v i o l e n c e c l i m a x e d .  t o power i n Germany i n 1933, many Jews  p e r s e c u t i o n went t o P a l e s t i n e . The s u d d e n  immigration  sparked  riots  as the Arabs  became c o n c e r n e d  would s o o n become a m i n o r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e . harassed  Jewish  activities  used  by both  t h e most p o w e r f u l  N a s h a s h i b i s and t h e Husaynis. of Jerusalem, at all  this  p o l i t i c a l organizations  Haj al-Amin  by the  al-Husayni, the Mufti  national  t i m e . When t h e A r a b H i g h e r parties  groups  and g u e r r i l l a  of v h i c h vere dominated  v a s t h e most p o p u l a r  s i xp o l i t i c a l  they  the Z i o n i s t s and t h e Arabs.  By t h e 1930s s i x main P a l e s t i n i a n had d e v e l o p e d ,  that  Small g u e r r i l l a  s e t t l e m e n t s and a c t s o f s a b o t a g e  vere  increase i n  leader i n Palestine  Committee v a s f o r m e d  j o i n e d and Haj al-Amin  i n 1936  al-Husayni  became t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s p r e s i d e n t . In 1936 a g e n e r a l s t r i k e Arab Higher  Committee t o p r o t e s t  a n a t i o n a l government. the s t r i k e changes  vas s u c c e s s f u l l y Zionist  As s t a t e d  of v h i c h i s t h e stoppage  immigration  by t h e A r a b H i g h e r  vas " t o continue...until  i t s present p o l i c y  the B r i t i s h  i n a fundamental  of J e v i s h  o r g a n i z e d by t h e  opposition  to Jevish  Committee,  government  manner, t h e b e g i n n i n g  immigration."  ( 1 9 ) The  o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e v i e v e d a s one o f t h e most u n i f i e d  and t o demand  i s generally  expressions of Palestinian  i m m i g r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e mandate y e a r s . The  19. c i t e d i n W.F. A b b o u s h i , The Unmaking o f P a l e s t i n e W h i t s t a b l e L i t h o L t d . , 1985), 92.  22  (Kent:  strike  b r o u g h t v i r t u a l l y a l l A r a b b u s i n e s s and  full  stop.  fear  that  While Arabs t h e y would  contributed  ten  i n government p o s i t i o n s d i d n o t  loose  percent  peasants a l s o continued t o the  their  jobs  of t h e i r  to the  that  general  strike  more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t A r a b s had refused  The  increased  chaotic  immigration  immigration  The  provide  food  those  industries that  Peel  o u t b r e a k s of v i o l e n c e .  al-Amin al-Husayni  dealt  with  i n the  dealt  with.  The the  "not  Commission,  f o r a J e w i s h home i n P a l e s t i n e ;  2)  that  4)  that  that  the  other  of P a l e s t i n e s h i f t e d by  117.  23  the  s a l e of  question  the  Arab  has  p o s i t i o n of  accurately  inch" since  Palestine  land  of P a l e s t i n e  Arab t e r r i t o r i e s  quite an  four  the that  Commission suggested t h a t  in Ibid.,  prompted  1)  C o m m i s s i o n , commenting on  demands had  and  requests:  same manner as  future  strike  Speaking before  outlined  come t o a h a l t ; 3)  p r o h i b i t e d ; and  cited  the  the  i t s plans  the  government  t o s e n d a c o m m i s s i o n , known as  t o Jews be  Peel  British  o f Jews d u r i n g  i n many  Jews became  strike  immigration  The  which time the  the  abandon  Arabs over  unsuccessful  surrounded  c o m m i s s i o n Haj  20.  for  quotas.  s i t u a t i o n that  i n v e s t i g a t e the  Jewish  t o be  b r o u g h t t o a h a l t . In a d d i t i o n the  British  Britain  by d e v e l o p i n g  t o suspend the  actually  their  strike  strikers.  they could  proved  ways. I t l a s t e d f o r s i x months d u r i n g  to  a  Z i o n i s t s , they  s a l a r i e s to the  t o work s o  to  strikers.  However, t h e  the  transport  be  been  the  observed  1920.  be  that  (20)  partitioned  so  that  Britain  Commission  could  meet  its conflicting  o b l i g a t i o n s . The  stated:  M a n i f e s t l y t h e p r o b l e m c a n n o t be s o l v e d b y g i v i n g e i t h e r t h e A r a b s o r t h e J e v s a l l t h e y v a n t . The a n s v e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n 'Which o f them i n t h e end v i l l govern P a l e s t i n e ? must s u r e l y be N e i t h e r . . . . . . P a r t i t i o n seems t o o f f e r a t l e a s t a c h a n c e o f u l t i m a t e p e a c e . We c a n s e e none i n a n y o t h e r p l a n . ( 2 1 ) 1  But  the Arabs r e j e c t e d any p a r t i t i o n  belief  that  Palestinian British  o f P a l e s t i n e due t o t h e i r  t h e Z i o n i s t s d i d n o t have l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s land.  A f t e r a c l o s e r examination of the plan the  government a l s o c o n c l u d e d  that  the plan  In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s Arab a t t a c k s increased  throughout the countryside  seemed t o be e v o l v i n g .  The B r i t i s h  measures, p r a c t i s i n g c o l l e c t i v e and  Palestinian national  A r a b H i g h e r Committee, Husayni,  fled  severe  punishment, d e t a i n i n g  leaders,  unlawful.  suspects  The B r i t i s h  and many members o f t h e  including President  continued,  e f f e c t i v e leadership  Haj al-Amin a l -  and  The p a p e r a l l o w e d  organization.  that  issued  21. c i t e d i n U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The O r i g i n s P a l e s t i n e P r o b l e m P a r t 1, 57.  a White  Paper  t h e A r a b s had s e e n i n  f o r the immigration  24  implemented  a l t h o u g h t h e A r a b s v e r e nov  v a s t h e most a g r e e a b l e p r o p o s a l  some y e a r s .  scale rebellion  government took  In 1939, on t h e v e r g e o f v a r , B r i t a i n that  settlements  t h e c o u n t r y . But e v e n a f t e r t h e B r i t i s h  such measures v i o l e n c e vithout  vas i m p r a c t i c a l .  on J e v i s h  and a f u l l  d e c l a r i n g t h e A r a b H i g h e r Committee  arrested  to  o f 75,000 J e v s  and E v o l u t i o n  of the  over  five  years,  a f t e r which time  A r a b s were t o s h a r e a r o l e their  population.  independent was  i n government  The p a p e r s a i d t h a t  i n t e n y e a r s time as long  satisfied  special  i m m i g r a t i o n would  that  "adequate  position i n Palestine  The p a p e r a l s o s a i d t h a t  according  government  Since that  as the B r i t i s h  of the Jewish N a t i o n a l  i n d e p e n d e n c e would  of  the B r i t i s h  White  of the conditions  it  were a t r u s t w o r t h y  t h e p a p e r were v a g u e ,  British  were p e r c e i v e d  P a p e r was c l e a r l y  that  the  White  " a s would  make  the best  offer  accepting the a n d were  d i d not believe  that the  a l l y a n d b e c a u s e some o f t h e a s p e c t s  the Arabs h e s i t a t e d  t o be a c l o s e a l l y  t o a c c e p t i t . The  o f t h e Z i o n i s t s because deal  of influence  I n t h e end b o t h t h e A r a b s a n d t h e Z i o n i s t s r e j e c t e d Paper.  Violence implement  Home." (22)  were t o be met p r i o r t o  a p p e a r e d a s t h o u g h t h e Z i o n i s t s had a g r e a t  i n London.  for...the  p o s s i b l e . " (23)  independence. P a l e s t i n i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s British  government  be g r a n t e d a s l o n g a s  However, many d i d n o t t r u s t t h e B r i t i s h  suspicious  become  p r o v i s i o n had been made  t h e A r a b s had s e e n , some A r a b s c o n s i d e r e d  plan.  t o the s i z e of  P a l e s t i n e would  A r a b - J e w i s h r e l a t i o n s had d e v e l o p e d t o a p o i n t good  e n d . Jews and  i n Palestine  t h e White  maintain order  continued  as the B r i t i s h  P a p e r . The B r i t i s h  tried,  attempted t o  unsuccessfully to  i n P a l e s t i n e , a n d t h e y made a t t e m p t s a t l i m i t i n g  22. c i t e d  i n A b b o u s h i , The Unmaking o f P a l e s t i n e , 163.  23. c i t e d  i n I b i d . , 162.  25  land  purchases  and  that  the p o l i c i e s  immigration.  However, t h e A r a b s  were i n e f f e c t i v e  and  the  Zionists  them a s c o n t r a r y t o t h e B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n and  T h r o u g h o u t t h e Second W o r l d War aimed a t r e s o l v i n g Arabs  failed.  Jevish state, tine.  the d i f f e r e n c e s  While  the  the Arabs  W o r l d War  Tvo  sible,  finding  took  General  vanted  fleeing  the problem  creation  o f an  A r a b and  l a n d . The  on  prevent a  Palestine  day,  f o r an  because  refuge  in i t s  in Palestine.  i n 1947.  (1947),  The  voted  in Palestine.  impos-  f o r the  The  Zionists  p l a n , a l t h o u g h some v a n t e d  t h e y made i t c l e a r  that  more  legality  of  the  they vere going to t r y to  t h e UN  vas  going to enforce i t s  became p r o b l e m a t i c . When t h e B r i t i s h on May  vas  14  1948,  troops  amongst much f i g h t i n g ,  e s t a b l i s h e d . Although  the armies  of  Israelis  o r g a n i z e d . The  proved  result  many o f vhom f l e d  on  Arab the  t o be much more p o v e r f u l and  vas a l a r g e s c a l e  to neighbouring  26  Arab  exodus of countries.  left  the s t a t e  five  came t o t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s the  of P a l e s -  i n t h e mandated t e r r i t o r y  181  the  independent  t h e o t h e r hand c h a l l e n g e d t h e  q u e s t i o n o f hov  resolution  tries  Z i o n i s t s and  partition.  The  Israel  and  the  the problem  a Jevish state  the p a r t i t i o n  resolution  called  resolution  v e r e happy v i t h Arabs  betveen  t o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s  Assembly, through  mandate.  a l l diplomatic efforts  Europe sought  the s i t u a t i o n  the  criticised  to prevent a p a r t i t i o n  intensified  a f t e r m a t h , many J e v s Britain,  Zionists  complained  of  counfollowing  better  Palestinians,  In t h i s  first  phase  i n the e v o l u t i o n  a l i s m a number o f f a c t s a r e n o t e w o r t h y . image o f t h e i r Zionists  separate identity,  but a l s o  from t h e i r  c a n b e s t be d e s c r i b e d were d e v e l o p e d  Arab  stirring  phase.  stoppage  of Jewish  organizations  They c a l l e d  The  had  wished  feelings  who  seemed  Arabs  wished  g o a l s i n the  self-government, of the  traditional  the  Zionist  Palestinian  p h a s e was  the f a i l u r e  national  to r e a l i z e  the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r  both  opponents.  f a c e d a dilemma, t h e y were u n w i l l i n g  the B r i t i s h  the  moved o u t o f i t s a p a t h y .  l i m i t a t i o n s and nationals  holistic  an a b o l i t i o n  an  mandate y e a r s  immigrants  major weakness o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n  the s t i r r i n g  and  when n a t i o n a l  for Palestinian  i m m i g r a t i o n and  The  the P a l e s t i n i a n  f o r a J e w i s h home i n P a l e s t i n e . The  s o c i e t y was  because  t o weaken t h e Z i o n i s t  of a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s .  Palestinian  to cooperate  p l a n f o r a homeland  refusal  i f they  in Palestine,  their  t o compromise,  o f how  legitimate  missed  o p p o r t u n i t i e s s u c h as t h e W h i t e P a p e r  t h e most f a v o u r a b l e o f f e r  but  that  c l a i m s t o be,  the B r i t i s h  regardless  resulted  o f 1939,  in  which  p r e s e n t e d t o the  d u r i n g t h e mandate y e a r s . In a d d i t i o n ,  Arab  the B r i t i s h  c o u n t e r measures such  resulted  the steps t h a t  in strong B r i t i s h  were t a k e n  with  would p r o b a b l y have been t h e b e s t  The  they f e l t  movement i n  their  t h e y were s e e n a s c o l o n i a l i s t s ,  c o o p e r a t i o n with the B r i t i s h way  phase,  i n r e a c t i o n t o the Z i o n i s t  to preserve. Palestinian  plan  neighbours.  that  nation-  P a l e s t i n i a n s developed  not o n l y from B r i t i s h  as a s t i r r i n g  t o be t h r e a t e n i n g t h e l i f e s t y l e  of P a l e s t i n i a n  i n response  27  confrontation  to the u p r i s i n g s  was Arabs  with  of the  as  late  1930's. B r i t i s h  policies  n a t i o n a l movement as effective to avoid  organization. the  1948  In the  majority  Arab c o u n t r i e s ,  and  t o be  1967  organized  vas  their  the state  to  Israel,  at vhich  alvays  been a  and  i n the  r i g h t to regain  Abdel  exile  the  felt  I s r a e l and  in this  neigh-  Palestine betveen  for Palestinian  1967  factor  politicians  in Palestinian  many P a l e s t i n i a n s  first  the  period  the  period  the  I s r a e l continued  best  vay  most s i g n i f i c a n t  vas  the  achieve-  of P a l e s t i n i a n  Palestinians felt  t o be  believed  upon t h e  a l l o f mandate P a l e s t i n e . But  Arab u n i t y vas  to  period  time Arab  t o P a l e s t i n e depended p u r e l y  a c o l o n i a l s t a t e and  Arabism  the  able  politics.  b e t v e e n 1948  return  decades the  i n a c t i v e time  post-1948 p e r i o d  "colonial"  I s r a e l and  A r a b p r o b l e m . The  nationalism,  period  of  next tvo  i n the  a  regain  P a l e s t i n i a n s v e r e not  ments o f A r a b u n i t y . As  s e e n as  unable to  of P a l e s t i n i a n r e f u g e e s vent  f o r the  P a n - A r a b u n i t y had  that  of the  a s t a g n a n t and  dominated P a l e s t i n i a n  but  end  p r i m a r i l y an  opposition  politics,  e x h a u s t e d and  Palestinian  thousands of P a l e s t i n i a n s .  Because the  problem vas  left  establishment  of hundreds of  bouring  i t vas  brought chaos to the  charismatic  that  i n the  to  be  they  had  post-1948  eliminate  spokesman o f leader  to  pan-  of Egypt,  Gamal  Nasser. N a s s e r ' s t h o u g h t s on  people vas ophy o f over the  the  expressed  the  s i t u a t i o n of the  i n h i s book E g y p t ' s L i b e r a t i o n ; The  Revolution.  veakness of  A r a b u n i t y and  the  In t h i s  book N a s s e r e x p r e s s e d  Arabs. Mentally  28  paralysed  for  Arab  Philos-  great  grief  centuries,  the  Arabs  had been d o m i n a t e d  ... o f a l l s e n s e Nasser argued, feel  the  States  of strength  Foreign behave  Western  murderous,  i n a superior  imperialism  invisible  In o r d e r  that  siege  of t h e i r  pride force  t h e Arabs might  believed  that  that  i s imposing a  from  not only  civilization.  because  they  U n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e A r a b s was  t h e y had a common d e s i r e  of f o r e i g n h u m i l i a t i o n .  would  t h e n have r e s p e c t f o r  t h e y s h a r e d a common c u l t u r e ,  h i s t o r y , b u t a l s o because  enough t o b r i n g  their  and a c h i e v e n a t i o n a l d i g n i t y . N a s s e r  when t h e A r a b s were u n i f i e d a n d s t r o n g  t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r  towards  and d i g n i t y . Nasser  be awakened  a f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e and would  themselves  manner  upon t h e w h o l e r e g i o n . " ( 2 5 )  t h e y were t o u n i t e  possible  the centuries,  F r a n c e and t h e  and i n s u l t i n g  "the great  slumber,  and  ( 2 4 ) Over  s t a t e s such as B r i t a i n ,  Arabs, d r a i n i n g t h e Arabs  called  gain  and h o n o u r . "  "robbed  f o r e i g n r u l e s u p p r e s s e d t h e A r a b s a n d made them  inferior.  United  by f o r e i g n e r s a n d had been  Arab  u n i t y would  be  f o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n t o a n end a n d g i v e  language tor i d strong t h e Arabs  a sense o f p r i d e .  Nasser struggle tion  believed  against  in Africa,  Nasser  that  E g y p t had a s p e c i a l r o l e t o p l a y  foreign oppression  because  of i t s s p e c i a l l o c a -  i n t h e Arab w o r l d and i n t h e I s l a m i c  envisioned  three  circles  Egypt's r o l e i n the s t r u g g l e  world.  s u r r o u n d i n g Egypt which  against  i n the  imperialism  made  c e n t r a l . The  24. Gamal A b d u l N a s s e r , E g y p t ' s L i b e r a t i o n : The P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n ( W a s h i n g t o n : P u b l i c A f f a i r s P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , 63. 25.  I b i d . , 103. 29  first the  circle  most  closest  t o them.  u n i t y , the  one  which, a c c o r d i n g  t o E g y p t i a n s as  E g y p t i a n s were t i e d  great  potential, this  of A f r i c a  was  had  the  i t was  their  white  circle,  i n w h i c h a l l M u s l i m s were i n c l u d e d .  pilgrimage  t o Mecca c o u l d  t h a t would u n i f y a l l Muslims, tion  of g r e a t  meeting place cooperation  political f o r an  Islamic  world  believed  imperialism  E g y p t t o be  an  he  centre wished  of Arab p o l i t i c s  because  i t was  and  protected  Nasser argued  26.  Ibid.,  West. S p e a k i n g on  that  112. 30  the  mutual  that only  of  to  leader  obvious  actor  in  year.  that  the  two  elements  to that  anti-colonialism. Israel  a symbol o f W e s t e r n power o v e r A r a b l a n d s , the  become  P a l e s t i n i a n question  was  by  that  institu-  from year  i t included  t o p r o m o t e ; p a n - A r a b i s m and  Islamic  "an  where  important the  a  institution  i t was  established  P a l e s t i n i a n problem. Nasser e l e v a t e d the  that  Mecca c o u l d  Arab world,  their  struggle  the  i n t o an  t h a t E g y p t ' s r o l e was  i n the  N a s s e r would c o n s i d e r  was  parliament  be  that  Nasser b e l i e v e d  developed  power." (26)  because  their o i l .  Africans  circle  insisting  among M u s l i m s c o u l d  B e c a u s e he against  be  was  i n which Egypt, as  against  the  was  Nasser b e l i e v e d  t e r r i t o r y and  a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to help third  that  a r e s u l t of  African circle,  i m p e r i a l i s t s . The  one  Arab world  and  being  to Nasser,  the  to the  civilization  s t r a t e g i c s i t u a t i o n of  second c i r c l e  part  Arab c i r c l e ,  common h i s t o r y and  A r a b s had  The  the  important  of t h e i r the  was  the  as  issue  i t was of  created  Palestine,  The i m p e r i a l i s t s i n t e n d e d t h i s t e r r i t o r y t o be a b a r r i e r d i v i d i n g the Arab E a s t from the Arab West, and a c o n s t a n t d r a i n on t h e e n e r g y o f t h e Arab n a t i o n , d i v e r t i n g i t from p o s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . (27)  The  establishment  constant control  of the state  reminder  o f t h e i r v e a k n e s s and t h e i r  t h e i r land  Palestine  of I s r a e l vas, f o r the Arabs, a  and t h e i r d e s t i n y .  vas Arab  he had a l e g i t i m a t e  r i g h t to lead  u n i t y and e x c i t e d  regain  by t h e West and  to Palestinians  felt  that  and many imperialism,  and a n t i - c o l o n i a l  ideas.  b e c a u s e he c a l l e d f o r A r a b  a P a l e s t i n i a n audience  in his calls  o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s , v h a t he c a l l e d t h e " s a c r e d  Palestinians the  Nasser  the P a l e s t i n i a n s  t o Nasser's progressive  Nasser vas important  rights  the Arab n a t i o n ,  feeling victimized  vere a t t r a c t e d  What v a s n e e d e d t o  unity.  Because Egypt vas t o l e a d  Palestinians,  i n a b i l i t y to  p a n - A r a b i s m v a s s e e n t o be t h e b e s t  sought a f t e r end, a P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e  f o r the c a u s e . " To  means t o a c h i e v e  i n a l l o f mandate  Palestine.  In Nasser  1964 a t t h e F i r s t initiated  ization. justified part  A r a b Summit  the c r e a t i o n  of the P a l e s t i n e  The PLO v a s m a n i p u l a t e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t  of a l a r g e r goal  imperialism.  Conference,  by A r a b s t a t e s  President  Liberation and t h i s  the l i b e r a t i o n of P a l e s t i n e  of l i b e r a t i n g the e n t i r e Arab v o r l d  H o v e v e r , vhen t h e A r a b s t a t e s  suffered  27. c i t e d i n A a r o n D a v i d M i l l e r , The A r a b S t a t e s P a l e s t i n e Q u e s t i o n , (Nev Y o r k : P r a e g e r ) , 61.  31  a  Organvas vas from  humiliating  and t h e  defeat  i n 1967,  a c h i e v e an  pan-Arabism  was  discredited  independent P a l e s t i n i a n  organizations  that  took o v e r i n p l a c e  called of  state  and  a s t h e b e s t way Palestinian  f o r independent P a l e s t i n i a n  pan-Arabism.  32  to  leadership  CHAPTER  THE  After Israel  PLO  AND  the defeat  THE  TWO  PALESTINIAN REVOLUTION  of the Arab s t a t e s  o c c u p i e d a l l o f Mandate P a l e s t i n e  i n t h e S i x Days  and many P a l e s t i n i a n s  became d i s i l l u s i o n e d o v e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y achieving played 1967  a P a l e s t i n i a n homeland.  a secondary r o l e  of pan-Arab  Prom 1948  i n the s t r u g g l e  t o 1967  against  the d e s i r e  t o minimize Arab  influence  unity  Palestinians  I s r a e l but a f t e r  a number o f g r o u p s e x p r e s s e d r e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d s  t i o n and  War,  Arab  domina-  in Palestinian  affairs.  The period Fatah states was  was  most p r o m i n e n t c r i t i c Yasser Arafat,  leaders i n the  criticised  close  leader  i n the  post-1967  o f t h e commando g r o u p  al-Fatah.  b o l d l y c a l l e d f o r the n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n  of the  internal affairs  The  o l d PLO  and  too  as b e i n g  of the P a l e s t i n i a n s .  insufficiently  revolutionary  t o t h e A r a b s t a t e s . As a d i r e c t a t t a c k  F a t a h spokesman s t a t e d the  of pan-Arabism  Palestinian self  that  and  Fatah refused  i t s melting  33  Arab  on N a s s e r ' s i d e a s ,  a  " . . . t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n of  i n the wider c i r c l e ,  the  circle role  of [Arab] n a t i o n a l i s m .  that  Israel  P a l e s t i n i a n s were t o p l a y  and t h e g r o u p  construct  their  insisted  o f t h e PLO e x p r e s s i n g The d e f e a t  nev phase groups  period Marxist  i n the struggle  politics.  t h e commando ideas  gained control  a t vhich  vas seen as t h e best  Africa.  In the l a t e  1960's Y a s s e r A r a f a t  groups  vay to return in this  vhen he s a i d : "We  t o o u r homes and l a n d theory  vithout  from  Arab  vay t o l i b e r a t e  and t h e P a l e s t i n i a n  i n t h e same framework a s V i e t n a m ,  o f t h e commando  tovards  t i m e t h e commando  t o remove t h e m s e l v e s a s much a s p o s s i b l e  from t h e Z i o n i s t o c c u p i e r s  We b e l i e v e  groups  and a m i l i t a n t p o l i c y  vas seen  only  against  o f t h e A r a b a r m i e s marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a  The armed s t r u g g l e  Palestine  the c e n t r a l  P a l e s t i n i a n s had t h e r i g h t t o  i n Palestinian nationalism  tried  control.  that  ovn independent  In t h e p o s t - 1 9 6 7  Israel.  (28) F a t a h e m p h a s i z e d  struggle  A l g e r i a and b l a c k expressed the f e e l i n g  have b e l i e v e d  that the  i s t h e armed  struggle.  any c o m p l i c a t i o n s ,  and t h i s i s  our a i m and o u r hope." (29)  The  PLO c o v e n a n t  covenant, ant  reflected this  differs  importance struggle  o f 1968, a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n increased  from t h e e a r l i e r  i s the only  m i l i t a n c y . The r e v i s e d  covenant  o f t h e armed s t r u g g l e ,  o f t h e 1964  i n that  insisting  coven-  i t emphasizes the  that  t h e "armed  v a y t o l i b e r a t e P a l e s t i n e . Thus i t i s an  28. c i t e d i n Muhammad M u s l l h , "Moderates and R e j e c t i o n i s t s Within the P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n Organization," Middle East J o u r n a l ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 6 ) : 129. 29. c i t e d i n " S t u f f o f A r a b L e g e n d s , " 26 1 9 7 0 ) , A2.  34  New  York  Times  (September  overall  strategy,  repudiates  the  not  merely a t a c t i c a l  existence  all  o f P a l e s t i n e must be  that  they might e x e r c i s e  PLO  covenant c o n t a i n s  the  Palestinian struggle  oppressed  of  phase."  (30)  I s r a e l c o m p l e t e l y and  restored their  to the  The  document  insists  that  P a l e s t i n i a n people  so  r i g h t to self-determination.  a strong  indictment  for l i b e r a t i o n  of  Z i o n i s m and  w i t h the  The  i t links  struggle  of a l l  peoples:  Z i o n i s m i s a p o l i t i c a l movement o r g a n i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p e r i a l i s m and a n t a g o n i s t i c t o a l l a c t i o n s f o r l i b e r a t i o n and t o p r o g r e s s i v e movements i n t h e w o r l d . I t i s r a c i s t and f a n a t i c i n i t s n a t u r e , a g g r e s s i v e , e x p a n s i o n i s t and c o l o n i a l i s t i n i t s aim, and f a s c i s t i n i t s method. (31)  The  PLO  Palestinian  covenant  organizations  Declaration,  the  q u e n c e s , t o be Palestinians' t h a t any  1947,  and  and  null  the  that  exercise  and  as  void.(32)  (33)  r i g h t to  as  the  a l l of  covenant  of  insists  homeland and  Israel,  are  Ibid., Ibid., Ibid.,  conseon  able  to  place  eliminated  return  the  i t asserts  fundamentally  Once Z i o n i s m was  past  Balfour  their  to  19 in invalid, it  was  Palestine  self-determination.  30. Y e h o s h a f a t H a r k a b i , The P a l e s t i n i a n C o v e n a n t and ( L o n d o n : M i t c h e l Co L t d . , 1 9 7 9 ) , 114. 31. 32. 33.  of  i s unacceptable. A r t i c l e  P a l e s t i n i a n s would be their  declares  well The  tradition  of P a l e s t i n e , which took  establishment they l a s t "  20  historic  of P a l e s t i n e  partition  with the  Article  mandate as  r i g h t to t h e i r  "The  however l o n g believed  British  partition  states that  is consistent  123. 122. 122. 35  I t s Meaning  The  covenant serves  of the groups organization and  over  and  c o n s i s t of the National  has v a r i e d  i t s members a r e o f t h r e e  The  an i n t e r m e d i a r y Central  as a "parliament  categories;  Council  Council  militant  vas e s t a b l i s h e d  Committee and o t h e r  the  PNC. The E x e c u t i v e  and  a chairman and i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e  al-Fatah  group vas e s t a b l i s h e d strongest,  i n c l u d i n g a l l of the members e l e c t e d by persons  f o r implementing the  1969 Y a s s e r  Arafat  h a s been  influential  group  of Yasser A r a f a t .  i n t h e PLO i s  Although the  i n t h e 1950's vhen p a n - A r a b i s m v a s a t i t s  F a t a h has a l v a y s  Palestinians  months and i s  Committee.  f a r t h e l a r g e s t and most under t h e l e a d e r s h i p  inde-  Committee.  i s made up o f f o u r t e e n  b y t h e PNC. S i n c e  chairman of the Executive  By  the  Committee  in exile"  i n t h e e a r l y 1970's  meets a b o u t once e v e r y t h r e e  members o f t h e E x e c u t i v e  the  200 t o  organizations  b e t v e e n t h e PNC and t h e E x e c u t i v e  f o r t y members  adopted  Council National  such a s u n i o n s , and  made up o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  policies  the Central  f r o m t h e P a l e s t i n i a n community  , popular a s s o c i a t i o n s  p e n d e n t s . The C e n t r a l as  Council,  all  i nthe  o v e r t h e y e a r s n u m b e r i n g anywhere f r o m  t h e v o r l d . The PNC f u n c t i o n s  such as Fatah  t y i n g together  Committee. Membership o f t h e P a l e s t i n e  400 p e r s o n s who a r e c h o s e n  around  force  i n t h e PLO. The main p o l i c y making b o d i e s  the Executive  Council  as a u n i f y i n g  vere to play  Palestinian struggle  emphasized  in their  the c e n t r a l role  s t r u g g l e . Fatah  as a var of l i b e r a t i o n  ism and f o r e i g n o p p r e s s i o n  insisting  36  that  that  leaders sav  against  " [ a 1 1 1 ve v a n t  coloniali s to  liberate of for  our  Israel  homeland  were s e e n  from  this  foreign  i n t h e same l i g h t  success  t h e g r o u p has  no  as  "a n a t i o n a l  and  Zionism."  the French  can  clear  be  cut  largely attributed i d e o l o g y , as  The  Jews  in Algeria,  (35)  t o the  i t defines  l i b e r a t i o n movement s t r u g g l i n g  s h i e s away f r o m  fact  that  itself  merely  against imperialism  U n l i k e many o t h e r g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e PLO,  i d e o l o g y . In f a c t ,  s i n c e i t i s our c o n v i c t i o n d e d i c a t e h i m s e l f above a l l we r e q u i r e t h a t c a n d i d a t e s w i t h any p a r t y f o r m a t i o n s .  Yasser  A r a f a t has  Fatah  insisted  one  that are  o f t e n opposing  member r e m a r k e d ,  highway w i t h  Fatah  few  rejected  each other  "Ideologically,  stop signs."  Palestinian  politics  to  power came a t a t i m e  34. A b d u l l a h S c h l e i f e r , 'Abu Amar," E v e r g r e e n  before  to coexist  Fatah  i s a wide  of  within i t . super-  (37)  the pan-Arab  in  that  t h a t t h e P a l e s t i n i a n must t o the P a l e s t i n i a n s t r u g g l e , f o r membership s e v e r a l l t i e s (36)  i s the group's nebulous c h a r a c t e r which a l l o w s a v a r i e t y  factions As  as  (34)  example.  Fatah*s  It  occupation."  i d e a s t h a t had  the  1967  war,  been s o  and  when many P a l e s t i n i a n s  important  the group's  felt  a need  " A l Fatah Speaks; A C o n v e r s a t i o n Review ( J u l y 1 9 6 8 ) : 85.  rise  to  with  35. J o h n a t h a n R a n d a l , "PLO's Armed S t r u g g l e R h e t o r i c , " W a s h i n g t o n P o s t (March 2 1 9 8 0 ) , 1.  36. c i t e d i n A b d u l l a d S c h e i f e r , " A l F a t a h W i t h Abu 'Amar,": 84. 37. c i t e d 1.  i n Johnathan Randal,  Speaks: A  Conversation  "PLO's Armed S t r u g g l e R h e t o r i c , " :  37  assert  their  independence  turning point  for Fatah occurred  fought w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e t r o o p s a t Karameh. morale  in determining their  The  invincible. inspired  who  Within  to j o i n  and making  until  "victory"  The  when t h e  group  Israeli  f o r F a t a h a t Karameh r a i s e d  the  as w e l l as many A r a b s t h r o u g h o u t t h e  then f e l t  two  i n March o f 1968  future.  of t h e J o r d a n i a n army a g a i n s t  o f many P a l e s t i n i a n s ,  Middle East,  own  that  the I s r a e l i  days of the b a t t l e  army  was  5000 r e c r u i t s  were  t h e f e d a y e e n r a n k s , s w e l l i n g F a t a h membership  i t t h e most p o p u l a r and  p o w e r f u l group  i n the  organization.  Fatah's p o p u l a r i t y diffuse Arafat  o f i d e o l o g y and  stability  on a n y s i n g l e  not to o f f e n d has o f t e n  Arab s t a t e .  PLO  i n the post-1967  i n t h e PLO,  and dependcareful  f o r independence, Arab  groups a r e a l s o t o s e t PLO  t o be  as  interests.  group  i n the  influential  policy.  so  There are s i x  A number o f g r o u p s e x p r e s s M a r x i s t  i d e a s and w h i l e F a t a h a t t e m p t s t o m i n i m i z e t h e r o l e states  group.  complete  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  e r a , other  i n t h e PLO.  Algeria  However, F a t a h has in i t s calls  t h a t F a t a h i s by no means f r e e main g r o u p s  to avoid  charged with abandoning  A l t h o u g h F a t a h has been  PLO  control  o f s u p p o r t f r o m a number  Saudi A r a b i a ,  i t has been a b l e  the Arab s t a t e s been  and A r a f a t ' s  unknown t o a n y o t h e r  i n c l u d i n g Kuwait,  jPxTiV&te P a l e s t i n i a n s ,  it  on t h e PLO  t h e g r o u p r e c e i v e s a wide r a n g e  of A r a b s t a t e s  ence  of i t s l e a d e r s h i p , i t s  i t s wide r a n g e o f s u p p o r t . F o r many y e a r s  has had a commanding g r i p  over F a t a h d i s p l a y s Because  is a result  many g r o u p s a s s i g n an  38  of the  important r o l e  Arab  t o the  Arab s t a t e s i n the  The  Popular  most c r e d i b l e support  struggle for Palestine.  Front  alternative  to Fatah  i n the P a l e s t i n i a n  tinian struggle in being a c o l l e c t i o n leader  f o r the L i b e r a t i o n  of the  Marxist  group,  struggle  t o be  world  regimes.  After  the  Arab s t a t e s ,  t e r m s and  identifies Zionism,  1967  of P a l e s t i n e i s the  because the  community. The  of P a l e s t i n i a n  (38)  g r o u p has  PFLP v i e w s t h e  it criticises  bourgeois.  Palesas  G e o r g e Habash,  the enemies of the  i m p e r i a l i s m and  d e f e a t Habash was  Fatah  notable  the  Palestinian  Arab r e a c t i o n a r y  quite c r i t i c a l  of  the  claiming that:  The A r a b a r m i e s have f a i l e d t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s t h r e e t i m e s now: i n 1936 t h e y gave us h o l l o w p r o m i s e s ; i n 1948 t h e y e n t e r e d t h e war a g a i n s t I s r a e l and l o s t h a l f o f P a l e s t i n e ; and i n 1967 t h e y a g a i n e n t e r e d t h e war a g a i n s t I s r a e l and l o s t t h e o t h e r h a l f o f Palestine. (39)  George Habash b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e their  objectives until  most o f t h e A r a b w o r l d . be  no d e a l i n g w i t h  the  social The  and  political  g r o u p has  enemy and  P a l e s t i n i a n s cannot  r e v o l u t i o n s occur  insisted  although  achieve  the  that there PFLP  in  i s to  is quite  38. The s i x m a j o r g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e PLO a r e F a t a h , ( n a t i o n a l i s t , i n d e p e n d e n t i s t ) , the Popular F r o n t f o r the L i b e r a t i o n of P a l e s t i n e ( M a r x i s t ) , S a ' i q a ( p r o - S y r i a n p a n - A r a b i s t ) , t h e Popu l a r Democratic F r o n t f o r the L i b e r a t i o n of P a l e s t i n e ( M a r x i s t ) , the Popular F r o n t f o r the L i b e r a t i o n of P a l e s t i n e G e n e r a l Command ( M a r x i s t ) , and t h e A r a b L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t ( p r o I r a q i p a n - A r a b i s t ) . S m a l l e r r e s i s t a n c e g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e PLO a r e t h e P a l e s t i n i a n P o p u l a r S t r u g g l e F r o n t ( p r o - S y r i a n ) , which has n e v e r had a s e a t on t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee and t h e P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t ( p r o - I r a q i ) , w h i c h had a s e a t i n 1983. The Communist p a r t y was g i v e n a s e a t on t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee i n 1987. 39. J o h n W Amos, P a l e s t i n i a n R e s i s t e n c e : O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a N a t i o n a l i s t Movement (New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , 77. 39  critical  of  "imperialistic"  associate  with  Yeman and  A l g e r i a . The  "non-reactionary"  smaller  g r o u p s . Two  and  National  the  Quite  on  describing the of not  vith  the  described  contrary  s h a p e and  in  this  and  the  Marxist  the  revolution  restore  detail  platform  a Marxist  i s quite  their  three  Return  i t vishes  it  so  is clearly  f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made by a PFLP  as  a result  While Fatah to create  the  social  relatively  constrained  and  in  its liberation, and  is unvilling  f o r a more p r a g m a t i c , p r o g r e s s i v e  Arab v o r l d  value  ideology  vith  has  in context  flexible  by  to a l t e r  Marxism its  moderate p o l i c y .  represented  in  the  representative:  The f u t u r e s t a t e o f P a l e s t i n e a f t e r t h e l i b e r a t i o n v i l l be r u n a c c o r d i n g t o M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s . T h e r e v i l l be a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y and t h e PFLP v i l l be the l e a d e r of the r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s f i g h t f o r the l i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e v i l l t a k e a n o t h e r 20 t o 30 y e a r s , and a f t e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n e v e r y t h i n g v i l l be d i f f e r e n t . Not o n l y v i l l P a l e s t i n e be f r e e f r o m Z i o n i s m , b u t Lebanon and J o r d a n v i l l be f r e e f r o m r e a c t i o n , and S y r i a and I r a q f r o m p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e . They v i l l be t r a n s f o r m e d i n a  40  the  rights.  inflexible.  PFLP a p p e a r s t o be  idealism  the  s e e s no  concerned  pan-Arab r e v o l u t i o n t h a t  Popular Front's  Heroes of  of P a l e s t i n e a f t e r  t y p e of s o c i e t y t h a t  the  combining  i n much o f  r e v o l u t i o n . A l t h o u g h F a t a h seems t o be respect,  South  A r a b n a t i o n a l movement,  g r o u p seems q u i t e  PFLP  to  A r a b n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  i s i n the  on  Libya,  by  groups, the  to Fatah, vhich  i t s struggle  terms, the  the  the  i n 1967  is willing  L i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e , were  P a l e s t i n i a n s can  i t s i d e a l i s m the  of  The  the  PFLP b a s e s  class  f o r the  that a social  needed b e f o r e  formed  these three  PFLP's h e r i t a g e  group b e l i e v e s is  of  group  r e g i m e s s u c h as  PFLP was  Front  closely affiliated Because t h e  Arab s t a t e s , the  t r u l y s o c i a l i s t s e n s e and u n i t e d . P a l e s t i n e p a r t of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t A r a b i a . (40) The  PFLP  to a Marxist result for  Two  i n the  group i n the  smaller  PFLP a r e  of P a l e s t i n e - G e n e r a l  from t h e  PFLP b e c a u s e  DFLP t a k e s  of a l l of  PFLP, t h e  DFLP b e l i e v e s  revolution  occurs  Palestine  the  i t saw  But  DFLP e n j o y s s u p p o r t  the  the  the  The does not GC has  other  conflict.  have s i g n i f i c a n t  The  towards  of the  the  to  the  "The  v i c t o r y of  imperialism  in  the  i n i t s ideology, has  a  leading  DFLP  the  relatively the  PLO  Israel.  PFLP,  i s the  t o any  group,  DFLP)  liberated after a  frequently  most m i l i t a n t g r o u p  leader  the  Z i o n i s t enemy" a  PFLP-GC, a g r o u p  i n f l u e n c e o v e r PLO  been opposed  for  r i g h t wing.  Similar  be  the  (or  a  Front  i s probably  PLO.  will  i t is radical  s p i n - o f f of the  traditionally  too  i n P a l e s t i n i a n community and  its policies  i s p r o b a b l y the  PDFLP  PFLP as  v i c t o r y over  moderate a t t i t u d e towards I s r a e l i s , in moderating  Front  Arab world.  movement o v e r  while  i s committed  Democratic  Popular  the  that Palestine  "depends on  (41)  Popular  s e r i o u s l y and  r e s t of  that  be  g r o u p s w h i c h came a b o u t as  groups w i t h i n  i n the  liberation  spokesman s t a t e d , Arab r e g i o n . "  the  PLO  Command. The  i t s Marxism v e r y  most l e f t  the  only  L i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e and  Liberation  The  the  ideology.  of a s p l i t  the  split  i s not  will  i n the  policies.  that  The  PFLP-  organization  as i t  political  settlement  Ahmad J i b r i l ,  of  the  is a Palestin-  40. W i l l i a m B Quandt, The P o l i t i c s o f P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l i s m ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), 108. 41. R i a d N E l - R a y y e s and D u n i a Nahas, G u e r r i l l a s f o r ( B e i r u t : An-Nahar P r e s s S e r v i c e s , 1 9 7 4 ) , 39.  41  Palestine  ian  officer  and  f r o m t h e S y r i a n army who o f t e n  wishes t o concentrate  group  is critical  selves Syria  on t h e armed s t r u g g l e .  o f t h e commando g r o u p s t h a t  with Arab c o u n t r i e s , and L i b y a .  resistance  rejects  A PFLP-GC  the group  itself  PNC  decisions  While  affiliate receives  the them-  a i d from  spokesman h a s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t  movement has become a t e s t i n g  ground  A r a b r e g i m e s . " (42) The P F L P - G C s c r i t i c i s m s  "The  f o r the various  a r e b y no means  inaccurate.  Pan-Arabism tinian  has always p l a y e d  a significant  p o l i t i c s and i n the post-1967  operate not  outside  very  well  the Arab d e f e a t of Arab  were a b l e  Arab  g u i d a n c e . As a r e s u l t ,  influence  groups d i r e c t l y  able  to affect  under  PLO p o l i c y  and e v e n t h e l e a d e r s  Arab s t a t e s  in their  the Arab  they could  and u n i t e d  42. I b i d . ,  states  own  so  o f t h e most  as not t o i n s u l t  the  c a l l s f o r independence.  Many o f t h e A r a b s t a t e s would  strong  while a t the  the c o n t r o l of the Arab s t a t e s a r e  group, Fatah, a c t c a r e f u l l y  so that  could  i s c l e a r l y demonstrated by t h e f a c t  influential  a  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  a c c e p t the support of the Arab s t a t e s  that  PLO  had l o s t much o f  t o u s e s u p p o r t f o r t h e PLO t o p u r s u e t h e i r  interests.  contin-  i n 1967, t h e PLO c o u l d n o t  i n f l u e n c e , because  same t i m e r e f u s i n g t h e i r  i n Pales-  e r a the Arab s t a t e s  ued t o s u p p o r t t h e PLO. Even t h o u g h p a n - A r a b i s m i t s appeal after  role  like to alter  correspond v i t h  movement v o u l d  44. 42  pose  their  the goals  of the  o v n . The t h r e a t  that  t o t h e A r a b s t a t e s has  motivated  Arab r u l e r s t o l i m i t  movement.  Arab  influence  the u n i t y and independence  has h e l p e d t o p r e v e n t a n y s i n g l e  from d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  A r a b s u p p o r t h a s k e p t t h e PLO a l i v e ,  pan-Arab  made i t p o s s i b l e  to j u s t i f y  politics  f o r the Arab s t a t e s  Arab s t a t e s , c r e a t e d  Palestinians  i n the Syrian  was c r e a t e d  any p a r t  on t h e i r (43)  their  vhile  meddlesome  a r e puppets of their  that  i n the Arab  the r e v o l u t i o n  be s o c i a l i s t .  "neither  will  A Sa'iqa  the P a l e s t i n i a n s alone  o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e movement a r e e n t i t l e d  own a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e f a t e o f P a l e s t i n e  But S a ' i q a ' s t i e s  inter-  In the l i b e r a t i o n of  that  will  own  i n t h e 1960's o u t o f  that a revolution  i n a new A r a b s o c i e t y t h a t has i n s i s t e d  to protect  Ba'th p a r t y .  S a ' i q a members a r g u e  representative nor  puppet,  i s n e c e s s a r y and t h e y b e l i e v e  result  so t h a t  r h e t o r i c has a l s o  t h e PLO t h a t  by A r a b s t a t e s  ests. Sa'iqa, a Syrain  world  group  and t o r e s t r a i n PLO p o l i c y m a k e r s .  T h e r e a r e a few g r o u p s w i t h i n  Palestine  of the  t o S y r i a have o f t e n  t o determine  after victory."  made i t s p o l i c i e s  u n p o p u l a r among P a l e s t i n i a n s , a s i n 1976 when S a ' i q a s u p p o r t e d Syrian  m i l i t a r y intervention against  Another Arab puppet  t h e PLO i n L e b a n o n .  i n t h e PLO i s t h e A r a b L i b e r a t i o n  and a s i t s name makes c l e a r , t h e g r o u p Arab r a t h e r the  i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e  than the P a l e s t i n i a n nature of the s t r u g g l e .  t i m e o f i t s c r e a t i o n an ALF s t a t e m e n t d e c l a r e d  struggle  was b e c o m i n g  Front,  At  that the  too exclusively P a l e s t i n i a n oriented.  43. c i t e d i n W i l l i a m Quandt, P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l i s m : I t s P o l i t i c a l and M i l i t a r y D i m e n s i o n s , 69.  43  The ALF  follows i n an ALF  the  effort  has  to counter  high  I r a q i Ba'ath p a r t y  Syrian  number of  than the  i n the  internal  generalizations  look  at  the  PLO  ideological beliefs the  all  of  goal  struggle the  not  occupied  can  be  these tvo  vay  and  to achieve  ideas,  the  the  majority  puppet S a ' i q a .  the  A  and  ALF the  of  PLO  ideology  importance  and  most o f t h e  groups  their  reduced of  Arabs f o r f i n a n c e s occupied  groups d i s a g r e e d  i n the  PLO  context.  and  the  the  the  a l l of  the the  r o l e of the  After  1967  vere  the  struggle on  quite  Fatah,  in their  ovn  emphasizes affairs  against  even though the  PLO  Arab  vas  by  b e c a u s e t h e y d e p e n d e d on b a s e due  to  Arab s t a t e s  groups d i d agree 44  PLO  things;  armed  PLO  PLO,  r e g i m e s . But  a territorial  the  beyond agreement  a l l o f mandate P a l e s t i n e . W h i l e on  tvo  have s p o k e n o u t  Arab s t a t e s  variety  groups w i t h i n  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r 1967, the  an  support.  group v i t h i n  Arab r e a c t i o n a r y  means i n d e p e n d e n t  ian s t r u g g l e ,  groups v i t h i n  of P a l e s t i n i a n independence  c o l o n i a l i s m and i n f l u e n c e vas  and  But  As  houses a  t o a g r e e on  goal.  d i r e c t i o n that  defeat.  in a socialist  this  various  most i n f l u e n t i a l  the  Israel  However,  territories  1967  demonstrates, the  for Palestine  in their  The  created  P a l e s t i n i a n s and  i n d e p e n d e n t P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e and  best  divided  i t was  PLO.  made a b o u t t h e  commando g r o u p s v e r e a b l e  o f an  the  i n the  Syrian  P a l e s t i n i a n movement took a f t e r t h e  see  and  camps.  A few the  influence  i t s members a r e  a weak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  refugee  as  of the  i s much l e s s I n f l u e n t i a l  notably  of  policies  on  the  the the  fact  no the  that  various  i n the  Palestin-  fragmentation  of  the  A r a b w o r l d . The M a r x i s t s  ation with a s o c i a l  attempted  revolution  t o overcome t h i s  fragment-  i n the Arab world, while So w h i l e  Fatah  wished  t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f A r a b p o l i t i c s .  1967 marked a  change  i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n movement, t h e r e  a l s o some c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e movement i n t h e p o s t - 1 9 6 7 R e g a r d l e s s o f how much some wanted t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t , states continued  As Zionist their  i n Palestine  with the struggle  p h a s e , and l a t e r  colonial  occupation.  national  support,  eventually  i n the  o f I s r a e l was v i e w e d a s a  groups  felt  i n defeating  that  capabilities  t h e y would  the state  o f I s r a e l and i n a l l o f mandate  was u n r e a l i s t i c  i n that i t  much beyond t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  resources.  some i n d e p e n d e n c e and was s u r e  i t was t o be o b t a i n e d ,  unaware o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . G r a d u a l l y , I s r a e l ' s permanence and t h e l i m i t s  account and t h e s e changes e v e n t u a l l y 45  inter-  Israel.  of destroying  W h i l e t h e PLO had g a i n e d  took  peoples of the world.  an independent P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e  a n d how  exercise  They l i n k e d t h e P a l e s t i n i a n  the s t a t e  P a l e s t i n e v i a t h e armed s t r u g g l e  basic goal  f o r a n end t o  as h a v i n g c o l o n i a l aims  t h e commando  However, t h e g o a l  required  t h e PLO c a l l e d  affairs.  I n s p i t e o f I s r a e l ' s permanence a n d  be s u c c e s s f u l  establishing  in Palestinian  of a l l oppressed  Z i o n i s t s were p e r c e i v e d  stirring  the Arab  so t h a t P a l e s t i n i a n s c o u l d  right to self-determination.  struggle The  organizations,  period.  g r o u p s may have  i n the post-1967 p e r i o d  t o be i m p o r t a n t a c t o r s  with e a r l i e r rule  o f t h e commando  was  of their  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  changes d i d occur o f Arab support  began t o a l t e r  was  that into  some o f t h e  fundamentals was  o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l movement.  t o become e v e n more p a i n f u l l y d i s i l l u s i o n i n g  and some g r o u p s contradicted settlement  i n t h e PLO  and  began t o a d o p t a t t i t u d e s  t h e PLO's p o s i t i o n t h a t  t h a t must e v e n t u a l l y  be  46  I s r a e l was  defeated.  Pan-Arabism burdensome that  a colonial  CHAPTER THREE  THE  After agreed  that  POLITICS OF COMPROMISE  t h e 1967 war, a l l o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n commando t h e Arab v o r l d  i n i t s present  groups  s t a t e vas too divided  f o r p a n - A r a b i s m t o s u c c e e d . The PLO, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  remained  influenced  groups  assigned regain  b y A r a b s t a t e s and many o f t h e commando  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o t h e Arab s t a t e s  Palestine.  fragmentation  i n t h e d e c a d e s a f t e r 1967, t h e  o f t h e A r a b v o r l d made t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  Arab r e v o l u t i o n  less r e a l i s t i c .  Israel's existence that  Hovever,  i n the struggle to  perceived  gradually  f o r a pan-  S i m i l a r l y , the r e a l i t y of  l e d t h e PLO t o q u e s t i o n  I s r a e l as a c o l o n i a l settlement  that  i t s policy v a s t o be  eliminated.  The h i g h l y covenant  idealistic  PLO t h a t e x p r e s s e d i t s g o a l s  o f 1968 demanded t h e d e s t r u c t i o n  by means o f t h e armed s t r u g g l e . been  toned dovn  so that  o f t h e PLO's o f f i c i a l factors  of the state  Hovever, t h i s  of Israel  has g r a d u a l l y  t h e c o v e n a n t h a s been v i o l a t e d b y s e v e r a l  and u n o f f i c i a l  policies.  have l e d some g r o u p s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t  defeated  m i l i t a r i l y and t h a t  Israel's  existence  could  goal  i n the  a political  perhaps b r i n g  47  A number o f I s r a e l c a n n o t be  s o l u t i o n that  better  accepts  r e s u l t s . The  " m o d e r a t e s " l e d by insider said  on  coexistence  with  many o c c a s i o n s  Palestinian that  Yasser A r a f a t ,  state  with  final  coexistence nineteenth  territory:  with  a l l or  me."  (44)  nothing  I s r a e l has  meeting of  they challenged been a t  the  One  of  face  of  PNC.  the  the  PLO's f i r s t Israel.  called  f o r the  destruction 1968  The  up  P a l e s t i n i a n s . " (45)  colonialists,  positions  i t was Jewish  continued  By  compromise.  a p o l i c y of at  the  its policies  the  from w i t h i n  of  the  PLO  the  that  stirring  PLO  only  beginning  Because the  of  were  the  immigrants  left  t o change u n t i l  Zionist  only  to  and  the  invasion be  come t o  P a l e s t i n e . However, provisions  regards  normally  Jews were b e l i e v e d  that c o l o n i a l i s m could  have  Shuqairy  i t s inhabitants  "Jews who  as  phase.  with  u n d e r Ahmad  I s r a e l and  trad-  gradually shifted  a t m o d e r a t i o n was  original  to the  felt  w h i c h have  formalized  altering  pragmatism,  i d e o l o g i c a l foundations that  steps  stated  in Palestine  when t h e  increased  from r e f u s a l t o  being  a  just in Jericho, i f  This  movement s i n c e  Jews o f  covenant of  evolved,  to  has  t o s e t up  p o l i c y , has  severe c r i t i c i s m  some o f  centre  the  the  t o the  resident  willing  "telven  a willingness  Yasser A r a f a t  phase of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m  m o d e r a t e s were t o  end  would be  nature of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m  In t h e  are  in fact  Palestinian organizations  i t i o n a l l y a d o p t e d an  PLO  he  were a l l t h e y would g i v e  which c o n t r a s t s  the  I s r a e l and  that  i n any  have e x p r e s s e d  an  PLO  were made f o r  the  44. c i t e d i n H e l e n a Cobban, The P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n : P e o p l e , Power and P o l i t i c s ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , 18. 45.  Yehoshafat  H a r k a b i , The  P a l e s t i n i a n Covenant, 48  120.  rights  o f Jews, C h r i s t i a n s and  s t a t e . At accepted  the the  fifth idea  Yasser A r a f a t  PNC  Muslims  meeting  of a s e c u l a r  s a i d there  could  in a  future  i n F e b r u a r y of  Palestinian  1969  the  d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e and  PNC  in  1970  be  a d e m o c r a t i c , n o n - Z i o n i s t , s e c u l a r s t a t e where we would a l l l i v e i n peace and e q u a l i t y as we d i d f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . I f t h e Z i o n i s t s would a c c e p t t h i s p r i n c i p l e , we c o u l d s h a r e power on a d e m o c r a t i c b a s i s . We would not i n s i s t on h a v i n g an A r a b majority. (46)  This  was  a significant  t h o s e p e o p l e who Palestine after  by  step  because the  they believed  had  conquest, to remain  PLO  accepted  established  the  a state  of  in  i n P a l e s t i n e with equal  rights  liberation.  S t a t e m e n t s v e r e n e v e r made, h o v e v e r , t h a t a c c e p t e d existence  or  suggested a p a r t i t i o n  Jevs to remain  in a  future  accepting  a partition  their  vas  quite  t o be  the  ovn  believed rejecting  the  idea  F a t a h spokesman the  right  nev  of P a l e s t i n e . A l l o w i n g  P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e vas  the  another.  land  that  In t h e  they  one  felt  i n the  vas  that  involves  the  "ItJhe  condition,  destruction  m i l i t a r y foundations  46. " P a l e s t i n e : A Case o f R i g h t (December 21 1 9 7 0 ) , 18.  49  of the  v.  of  the  Right,"  Time  generally  vas  still  I s r a e l and sine  qua  non  political,  chauvinist  but  uniquely  PLO,  o f a West Bank s t a t e a l o n g s i d e  the  thing,  e a r l y 1970's F a t a h ,  most p r a g m a t i c g r o u p  insisted  Palestine  e c o n o m i c and  of  Israel's  racist  Magazine  a of  colonial  state."  state  Israel  of  (47) was  A p o l i c y of moderation  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  t h e commando g r o u p s b e c a u s e t h i s  a colonial  state,  ment w h i c h saw black A f r i c a ,  Since  t h e armed s t r u g g l e was  Jordanian t e r r i t o r y raids  into  often  Israel  brought  at Jordan's  w h i c h had  for this  expense.  literally  to t h r e a t e n the s t a b i l i t y moved t o s u p p r e s s no ber  PLO  longer t o l e r a t e o f 1970,  "Black  Palestinians, army. The  PLO  ability was  effect due  clearly  to  the  best  from from  late  military  raids  September" as  which  retaliation  to used  PLO  into  Jordan,  i n Jordan,  i t clear  from  i t has  King that  come t o be  between t h e PLO  and  In s o d o i n g , B l a c k i t confirmed  i t s d e p e n d e n c e on  he  known the  began  Hussein  his territory.  d e s t r o y e d t h e PLO's most s i g n i f i c a n t  as  way  into a state within a state,  o p e r a t i o n s , making  on t h e PLO,  and  Zionism,  1960's.  of the J o r d a n i a n regime,  operations against Israel. dramatic  t o be  Israel  i n the  Israeli  involved a battle  battle  Algeria  When t h e PLO's p r e s e n c e  developed  move-  g r o u p s s u c h a s F a t a h had  purpose  harsh  national  liberation  Palestine  base n e a r  i t s struggle. Guerrilla  the  consider.  believed  to liberate  required a t e r r i t o r i a l  c a r r y out  a national  c o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y never  of  would mean a c c e p t i n g  i t s s t r u g g l e i n t h e same c o n t e x t a s  t o m o b i l i z e t h e masses and t h e PLO  acceptance  n o t h i n g s h o r t of  t r e a s o n by  a compromise t h a t  and  would Septemby  Jordanian  base  September  had  of a  t h e PLO's v u l n e r -  the Arab s t a t e s ,  whose  support  limited.  47. c i t e d i n I r e n e G e n d z i e r "The P a l e s t i n i a n R e v o l u t i o n , t h e Jews, and O t h e r M a t t e r s , " New M i d d l e B a s t ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 1 ) , 40.  50  The  PLO,  i n need  of a t e r r i t o r i a l  Jordan, e s t a b l i s h e d  itself  Lebanese  prevented a c o n f r o n t a t i o n  government  September.  However, t h e need  c o n c e r n among PLO liberate  officials,  any Arab t e r r i t o r y  likelihood a secular of  i n Lebanon  base a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r  and  After  the  i n t h e O c t o b e r War achieving  President  for a p o l i t i c a l  s o l u t i o n t o the c o n f l i c t .  positions. and  He  i n 1975  efforts  Sadat signed  discuss out  UN  the f i n a l  the  questioned  In the y e a r s  to include  s o l u t i o n and  he e x p r e s s e d Because able  support  to influence  willing  w e l l as a P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e  PLO  with I s r a e l  f o l l o w i n g the October  War  i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace  peace  to accept  s t a t e s and t h e  i n order  be " t o to  carry return  of a P a l e s t i n i a n Israel's existence  i n the occupied  territories  and  as he  48. c i t e d i n Moshe Shemesh, The P a l e s t i n i a n E n t i t y 1959-1974 ( L o n d o n : P r a n k C a s s , 1 9 8 8 ) , 275.  51  a  i n w h i c h he p r o m i s e d n o t t o  the c o n f r o n t a t i o n  lasting  to  Egypt played  the c o n f l i c t  b o r d e r s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t S a d a t was  of  by some  r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r , i e . a  (48)  to  term g o a l  p u r p o s e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , S a d a t s a i d , would  t o t h e 1967 state."  to resolve  were made by S a d a t t o have an  The  and  S a d a t was  an a g r e e m e n t  Israel.  c o n f e r e n c e w h i c h was PLO.  politics,  seemed w i l l i n g  use f o r c e a g a i n s t  failed  S a d a t o f E g y p t began  o f t h e armed s t r u g g l e  i n PLO  serious  o f 1973,  the long  being  doubt the value  role  a  PLO.  t h e O c t o b e r War  significant  s i m i l a r to Black  when t h e A r a b s t a t e s  i n a l l o f P a l e s t i n e was  the groups w i t h i n  t h e weakness o f t h e  f o r a s e c u r e b a s e was  o f t h e armed s t r u g g l e state  and  wanted t h e PLO pursuing  t o a d o p t a more r e a l i s t i c  i t s a l l or n o t h i n g  Setbacks made t h e  such  as  or n o t h i n g limitations  g l e may  not  to maintain  e l i m i n a t i o n of  considered  Israel  b e s t way internal  Fatah  PLO  may  by most g r o u p s  cohesion  i n t h e PLO  t o be  the  the  settlement ranks  1973  their a l l  and  was  to  the  to  t h e armed s t r u g -  Palestine, i t  i n the  PLO,  have been u n r e a l i s t i c ,  leader of the Popular  Democratic  o f P a l e s t i n e , N a i f Hawatmeh, was  idea  of P a l e s t i n i a n he d i d s o a s  the  n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y on  e a r l y as  1973.  the  was  and  while  i t was  still  only f a i r  outcome  Palestinian  people  to determine t h e i r  i n the own  f u t u r e . " (49)  i n the Arab L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t , the the  f o r the L i b e r a -  first  to propose  the  49. c i t e d i n A l a i n G r e s h , The PLO: Zed Books L t d . , 1 9 8 8 ) , 139.  he  and  came f r o m A r a b Front  Command. But  The  Gaza  made i n t h e  right  DFLP was  Popular  General  52  The  the  West Bank and  absolute  West Bank o f J o r d a n  for i t s suggestion. C r i t i c i s m  o f P a l e s t i n e , and  front  In a s t a t e m e n t  S o v i e t U n i o n , Hawatmeh r e a f f i r m e d " t h e  tion  as  to l i b e r a t e  tion  cised  in  conflict.  The  and  question  ambiguously, because while  have been t h e  t h e b e s t way  the  Groups such  However, m o d e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e  g r a d u a l l y and  of  PLO  Arab defeat  began t o speak o f a p o l i t i c a l  proceed  an  i n the  the  t h e y became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f  of Arab support.  Democratic Front conflict.  September and  officials  p o l i c i e s and  than  policy.  Black  more p r a g m a t i c  goal, rather  the  of  the  Gaza  heavily  Strip criti-  nationalists  f o r the L i b e r a Hawatmeh was  Struggle Within  not  (London:  persuaded  by t h o s e who a c c u s e d  b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d should  that  take p r i o r i t y  PLO s h o u l d  realize  him o f b e t r a y i n g  t h e need  cause  f o r a P a l e s t i n i a n homeland  over pan-Arab ideas  the l i m i t s  the Arab  of Arab  a n d he b e l i e v e d  that  the  support:  Yes ve a r e A r a b s : b u t ve a r e , a t t h e same t i m e , P a l e s t i n i a n s . J u s t as e v e r y Arab p e o p l e has f u l l r i g h t t o an independent n a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e , so t h e P a l e s t i n i a n p e o p l e t o o has a f u l l r i g h t t o an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e . (50)  While the proposed pied  territories  vas f l a t l y  PLO, F a t a h , S a ' i q a best  idea  of n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y  r e j e c t e d by s e v e r a l g r o u p s  and OFLP b e l i e v e d  i n t e r e s t t o adopt t h i s  leaders  of Fatah,  PNC  occupied vas  significant  Palestinian  cited cited  that  Khalaf, "until  ve a c h i e v e t h e  fate should  meeting of the  v a s knovn a s t h e t e n p o i n t  national authority  time t h a t  o f P a l e s t i n e . The p l a n  national authority  n o t be  and t h e DFLP s u c c e e d e d i n  i t vas the f i r s t  a partition  t h e need f o r  one o f t h e  v a s t o be m e r e l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l  i n that  i n the  i t v a s i n t h e PLO's  At the t v e l f t h  a d o p t e d . The p l a n  i t stressed  territories  ever considered  50. 51.  (51)  i n June o f 1974 F a t a h , S a ' i q a  and a l t h o u g h  that  base, vhose  t o t h e one i n J o r d a n . "  h a v i n g a phased p l a n plan  as S a l a h  argued  s t r a t e g i c a i m ve need a s a f e similar  that  p o l i c y . Fatah emphasized  a secure P a l e s t i n i a n t e r r i t o r y , original  i n the occu-  i n the program, i t  t h e PNC had called  f o r "a  i n any P a l e s t i n i a n areas l i b e r a t e d  i n I b i d . , 140. i n Moshe Shemesh, The P a l e s t i n i a n E n t i t y , 289. 53  from  Israeli  The  c o n t r o l . " (52)  PNC t e n p o i n t  plan  by a n o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y members r e j e c t e d the  plan.  point  or anything  that  state could  i n t h e PNC, a s o n l y  four  o f t h e 187  T h e r e was, however, some o p p o s i t i o n t o  that  the r e a l i z a t i o n only  implied  recognition  of a s e c u l a r  o f I s r a e l and he  democratic P a l e s t i n i a n  come a b o u t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e armed  Habash p l e a d e d w i t h t h e s u p p o r t e r s had  vague t o be a d o p t e d  G e o r g e Habash was e s p e c i a l l y o u t s p o k e n a b o u t t h e t e n  plan  argued  the plan.  was s u f f i c i e n t l y  of t h i s  abandoned t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e i r  plan  who,  struggle. i n h i s view,  struggle:  Have we r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s s t a t e w i l l be s q u e e z e d between I s r a e l on t h e one s i d e a n d t h e r e a c t i o n a r y J o r d a n i a n r e g i m e on t h e o t h e r ? Have we r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s s t a t e would be t h e r e s u l t o f an A r a b and i n t e r n a t i o n a l g i f t ? T h i s s o l u t i o n w i l l be t h e " f i n a l s o l u t i o n " t o t h e M i d d l e E a s t problem.  Habash c o n t i n u e d ,  arguing  that  An e s s e n t i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i l l e x i s t between t h e s t a t e and t h e P a l e s t i n i a n masses f r o m t h e 1948 a r e a s whose v i t a l q u e s t i o n s w i l l n o t be s o l v e d by t h i s s t a t e . (53)  Habash b e l i e v e d liberating political ported  Palestine  that  i f t h e PLO w i s h e d  t h r o u g h a n armed s t r u g g l e ,  s o l u t i o n would be f u t i l e .  him f e l t  that  t o be c o n s i s t e n t i n then an i n t e r i m  H a b a s h and t h o s e t h a t  sup-  the p r i n c i p l e s of the covenant should  n o t be  52. c i t e d i n H e l e n a Cobban, "The PLO i n t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 ' s : between the Gun and t h e O l i v e B r a n c h , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 38 no. 4 (Autumn 1 9 8 3 ) , 643. 53.  cited  i n A l a i n G r e s h , The PLO: The S t r u g g l e 54  Within,  148.  compromised strategy  to achieve  would b r i n g  PFLP i s r i g i d alter and  in  of P a l e s t i n e and  better  r e s u l t s i n the  i t s ideology,  its policies  as  part  i t has  Arafat  and  Habash, were d e b a t i n g  alism.  Arafat  voiced  was  opposition  to the  towards a l t e r i n g  by  goals.  point  some o f  ten  point  transitional  progressive  opposition  was  bound  the  p r i n c i p l e s of  to  plan,  the  The  The the  strategy  from I s r a e l .  to goals  leaders,  plan,  own  nation-  (54)  Arafat  PFLP-GC b e l i e v e d  the  groups  his political  i t s leaders  succeed  liberation  interpretation  a number o f  that  Habash's  policies.  personal  that  to  were moving  seemed t o o v e r l o o k  arguing  not  of  Arafat  PLO's t r a d i t i o n a l  movement and  movement,  two  regardless  F a t a h and  PFLP b e l i e v e d  will  l e s s t h a n the  liberation  the  to Arafat,  fail.  the  the  Fatah,  f o r m s of P a l e s t i n i a n  But  i n w h i c h he  nature of  sed  political  plan,  Because  f o r a compromise w h i l e Habash wanted  holistic ten  two  In r e a c t i o n t o Y a s s e r A r a f a t ' s  the  run.  nothing  it difficult  and  Habash. I n e f f e c t ,  pushing  pursue t r a d i t i o n a l  anything  a l l or  f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s a t m o d e r a t i o n were made by was  the  long  found  t o w a r d s more r e a l i s t i c  opposition  of  the  was  expres-  strategy compromising  Insisted that  his  in a t t r a c t i n g concessions  that  a p o l i c y that  of a l l of  a "defeatest  Palestine  s o l u t i o n " . (55)  suggested was,  for  Together,  54. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e t w e l f t h m e e t i n g o f t h e PNC, f o r example, A r a f a t a n n o u n c e d : "Now, a t the p r e s e n t s t a g e of the s t r u g g l e and i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t have t a k e n s h a p e i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t , we have d e c i d e d t o s e t up an i n d e p e n d e n t P a l e s t i n i a n a u t h o r i t y i n any l i b e r a t e d p a r t of t h e t e r r i t o r y . " c i t e d i n " Y a s s e r A r a f a t on t h e P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a l e s t i n e Movement," New T i m e s ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 4 ) , 11. 55.  cited  i n A l a i n G r e s h , The  PLO: 55  The  Struggle  Within,  164.  in  September  group, the  of  1974,  Front  of  Central  Council  PLO  deviating  vas  Front  formalized  throughout the those t h a t conflict  liberate  a p a r t i t i o n i n the  PLO  to consider vith  Palestine  from  to the  from v i t h i n plan  vas  the  Arab s t a t e s  appeared  to  leaders  as  veil  as  representative the  of  the  the  PLO  backing  and  vas  vho  vished  to  interpre-  of  the  more c o m f o r t a b l e at  given  the full  f r o m them t o  reluctant  cited in Ibid.,  56  ten vith  Rabat authority  form t h e i r  to accept  resolution  the vas  asserted  179.  from  moderation  the P a l e s t i n i a n p e o p l e ' s r i g h t t o e s t a b l i s h i t s ovn i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e PLO-the s o l e l e g i t i m a t e representative of the P a l e s t i n i a n p e o p l e - i n a l l l i b e r a t e d P a l e s t i n ian t e r r i t o r y . " (56)  56.  the  those  reaction  adoption  Palestinians, a  A r a b Summit v h i c h  s o l u t i o n to  the  f o r a P a l e s t i n i a n homeland and 1974  the  betveen  PLO's s l i g h t  be  the  persist  to Arafat's  the  the  occupiers."  problematic,  positive. After  i n November o f  to  of  c o v e n a n t and  PLO  v o r l d community t o t h e  generally  vas  its "colonial  small  formed  creation  a West Bank s t a t e  held  a  grounds that  a political  the  Arab  passed a t  that  of  the  the  and  1980's. A d i v i s i o n e x i s t e d  s t a t e . A l t h o u g h K i n g H u s s e i n vas the  on  point  conference  as  Front,  ALF  Struggle,  i t s p r o p e r c o u r s e . The  reaction  PLO's p l a n s  ovn  Popular  ten  plan  the  from  PFLP-GC, t h e  the  i n p o l i c y vas  by  Rejection  armed s t r u g g l e ,  a l l of  many p a r t s  point  Palestine  vere s a t i s f i e d  the  of  the  PFLP, t h e  1970's and  While the tation  the  vere v i l l i n g  and  supported  the  of  the  PLO  A  further  invited  to  speak a t  November o f expressed dream o f vill  v i c t o r y came f o r t h e  1974.  the  speech to  democratic s t a t e .  vithout  living  t h e r e vho  discrimination."  that  Z i o n i s m vas  ian revolution  i s not  a g g r e s s i o n . The  goal  racist  aimed a t of  the  Moslem t o  live  in equality."  partition  plan  or  that  the  UN  to d i v i d e .  of any  partitioned The  had  that  given Arafat  tional  line  After Nations, of  could  the  at  the  the  (58)  of  the  and  remain to  the  at  of  and  a territory  Arafat  equating  keep the  Arafat  Palestin-  Christain  giving  that  expressed at  live  Zionism  any  compromise v i t h I s r a e l , A r a f a t i n 1947  PLO's  Zionist,  racist  i s f o r Jev,  he  tomorrov  In h i s s p e e c h  but  Instead  i t had the  fragile  PLO  united.  to express the  The  and  and  hint  of  a  argued no  UN,  right  reject-  Zionism v i t h c o l o n i a l i s m ,  q u e s t i o n of P a l e s t i n e  Palestinian  57. " Q u e s t i o n o f 1 9 7 4 ) , 82.  spoke of  in  vere  tvelfth  PLO's  PNC  tradi-  UN.  resolution  Ibid.,  G e n e r a l Assembly  i m p e r i a l i s t . "The  Jev  enough f l e x i b i l i t y  3236 vas  p u r p o s e s and  Palestine,"  vas  passed v h i c h  people to regain  accordance v i t h the  58.  the  vas  United Nations  choose t o  Jev  Arafat  Palestine  (57)  and  struggle  p o l i c i e s that  i n g a West Bank s t a t e policies  the  "The  made a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t v e e n t h e insisting  the  PLO's t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y v h e n he  a l l Jevs  i n peace and  when Y a s s e r  General Assembly of  In A r a f a t ' s  a secular  include  the  PLO  UN  81. 57  discussed  at  recognized  i t s r i g h t s by  p r i n c i p l e s of  the  Monthly C h r o n i c l e  the "the  United right  a l l means i n Charter  of  (December  the  United  Nations."  status  at  the  recognition, socialist  (59)  UN.  But  countries.  that  p o l i c y to the  PLO  stability of  the  tion  called  political  had  and  the  moderates  " [ t J h i s current  The  Rejection  p r i n c i p l e s of  policies. tee.  In  1977  rather  the  i s captive  world;  p o l i c i e s were  statements. were  threat  to  shifting  the  o p p o s e d by  had  moderates r i g h t i s t s  success  the  R e j e c t i o n i s t s , George  of  Rejec-  Habash,  b e e n misnamed and  argued  i t s class a f f i l i a t i o n s . "  to the  that  the  the  r e v o l u t i o n , were u n a b l e  ALF  and  PFLP-GC r e j o i n e d  the  were t o p e r s i s t i n t h e  compromising  to reverse Executive  PLO Commit-  PLO's i n t e r n a l  wished to moderate t h e i r p o l i c y  60. "George Habash: The F u t u r e o f Movement," J o u r n a l o f P a l e s t i n e  58  (60)  m o d e r a t e s were  A r a b w o r l d and  59. c i t e d i n J.R. G a i n s b o r o u g h , The ( B r o o k f i e l d : Gower, 1 9 8 6 ) , 191.  The  Israel's  need t o q u e s t i o n  accusations  between t h o s e who  and  t h a n m i l i t a r y , were aware  " A r a b d e v i a t i o n i s t s " who  Front's  However, t e n s i o n s  structure  conflicting  They were b i t t e r l y  abandoning t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s the  and  i n the  of  world Western  o f PLO  t o t h o s e g r o u p s who  m o d e r a t e s . Habash l a b e l l e d the that  i n the  intentions  action  leader  observer  international  from t h i r d  support  n e v e r been a s e r i o u s  the  qiven  recognition.  the  they believed  and  was  achieved  mainly  American  name g i v e n  PLO  had  lacked  i n judging  armed s t r u g g l e .  Front  PLO  the  PLO  was  internal struggles  "moderates", the their  The  i t lacked  Difficulties r e s u l t of  w h i l e the  this recognition  most n o t a b l y ,  a  In a d d i t i o n  and  Arab-Israeli Conflict  the P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l S t u d i e s (Summer 1 9 8 5 ) , 5-7.  t h o s e who the  PLO  d i d n o t . The  underlying c o n f l i c t  should consider  t y p e o f s t r a t e g y would Palestinian  In  accepting  Israel's  was  based  be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l  1977  and  1978,  t h e PLO  suffered  serious  spoke  were many a n g r y r e a c t i o n s because  i t was  seen as a w i l l i n g n e s s  with Israel.  In  had  March o f 1978  country  i n which  ture since stated,  By t a k i n g  enhanced  Israel  t h e PLO  i n Lebanon,  eliminating Lebanese  In  felt  that  t h e PLO  territory  yet a  s i g n e d a peace  i t failed and  There  to  negotiate a unilateral Sadat  invaded s o u t h e r n Lebanon, i t s most e x t e n s i v e  have s u c c e e d e d  had  in achieving  the infastruc-  As Menachem B e g i n arm  of  terrorism."  in dispersing  i t s objective  PLO  of  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o use  for i t s operations against  further  peace.  to  claims to Jerusalem.  to "cut o f f the e v i l  W h i l e t h e o p e r a t i o n may  troops  Israel's  had b u i l t  g o a l was  and  s t e p s towards  i t s e v a c u a t i o n from J o r d a n i n 1970.  Israel's  travelled  on S a d a t ' s p a r t  the P a l e s t i n i a n s ,  by g o i n g t o J e r u s a l e m , t h e PLO  abandoned them and  of Egypt  throughout the Arab world t o Sadat's  the Arabs, e s p e c i a l l y  s e p a r a t e peace  (61)  Anwar e l - S a d a t  s e t b a c k s . In  i n the Knesset about A r a b - I s r a e l i  and  a  state.  I s r a e l and  peace  what  i n achieving  President  desert  whether  e x i s t e n c e and  November o f 1977  visit  on  blow  t o t h e PLO,  t r e a t y with I s r a e l .  The  Israel.  i n September PLO  was  distanced  61. c i t e d i n B e r n a r d Gwertzman, "US S e e k s P u l l o u t T r o o p s , " New York Times (March 18 1 9 7 8 ) , 1.  59  o f 1978  by  Egypt  from  Israeli  one  of  i t s most v a l u a b l e  its  allies  and t h e A r a b w o r l d  i s o l a t e d Egypt f o r  move. A l t h o u g h t h e Camp D a v i d a g r e e m e n t r e f e r r e d t o P a l e s t i n -  i a n r i g h t s and c a l l e d f o r P a l e s t i n i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a ment, t h e PLO saw i t a s a huge d e f e a t believed  that  because  S a d a t had no r i g h t t o n e g o t i a t e  i a n s a n d he had made t o o many c o n c e s s i o n s , ambiguous g u a r a n t e e s  f o r the P a l e s t i n i a n s  ment a l s o made t h e p o s s i b i l i t y regain was  Palestine  insured.  unlikely, since  f o r the P a l e s t i n -  i n return.  only The a g r e e -  Arab-Israeli  war t o  without Egypt an Arab  defeat  R e m a r k i n g on t h e Camp D a v i d a g r e e m e n t , Hawatmeh  pointed  out that  extract  concessions  Rejectionsts.  the organization  receiving  of a future  settle-  the f a i l u r e from  of the moderates  I s r a e l could  i n t h e PLO t o  work t o t h e b e n e f i t  "Sadat's c o w a r d i c e and I s r a e l ' s o b s t i n a t e  refusal  t o c o n t e m p l a t e a c o m p r o m i s e . . . a r e d r i v i n g us i n e l u c t a b l y the  positions  In  o f our opponents  failing  satisfaction,  to eliminate  once a n d f o r a l l . "  built  PLO a c t i v i t i e s  I s r a e l launched a f u l l  June o f 1982, t h e o b j e c t i v e PLO  i n the Rejection  scale  t h i s time b e i n g  Front."  succeeded  Lebanon, d i s p e r s i n g evacuation  (62)  invasion  o f Lebanon i n  t o "get r i d of the  (63) Between 1971 a n d 1982 t h e PLO had  a s i g n i f i c a n t presence  way t o B e i r u t  towards  i n Lebanon t o t h e i r  i n L e b a n o n a n d i t had c l o s e  t i o n s with t h e P a l e s t i n i a n r e f u g e e s . But I s r a e l ' s the  of the  rela-  invasion a l l  i n f o r c i n g t h e PLO t o e v a c u a t e  i t across  nine Arab c o u n t r i e s .  The f o r c e d  o f L e b a n o n was a huge blow t o t h e PLO b e c a u s e  i t had  62. c i t e d i n A l a i n G r e s h , The PLO: The S t r u g g l e W i t h i n , 215. 63. c i t e d i n A b d u l l a h F r a n g i , The PLO a n d P a l e s t i n e (Frankfurt: Zed Books L t d . , 1 9 8 3 ) , 198.  60  been g i v e n  considerable  PLO  had  its  operations.  place PLO  lost  of  yet  political  another Since  operations,  border  the and  PLO  state  had  became d a n g e r o u s l y d e p e n d e n t on Hafez el-Assad  policies,  d i d not  most n o t a b l y  in that  from which  country.  conduct  Jordan as  E g y p t would n o t  from  The  i t could  previously lost  b e c a u s e the  to conduct r a i d s i n t o I s r a e l  ident  freedom  allow  its territory,  the  the PLO  S y r i a , d a n g e r o u s l y because  agree v i t h  Arafat's  calls  Arafat  on  a  Pres-  a number o f  for non-intervention  PLO  in  PLO  affairs.  The  moderates  Lebanon v a s longer  final  vorld This  that  military  a s e n s i b l e o p t i o n . While the  PLO  may  f o r the  liberation  so vas  that  the  maintain  unity  Israel,  PLO  preserve  as  The part  consider  the  the  other  Palestinian  nov  had  to  As  the could  the  challenge  the  state.  the  PLO  could  When Y a s s e r A r a f a t 61  no the  eliminated.  m o d e r a t e s may  of  Arab  have  b r i n g about  the  best  hov  vay  a to  evacuation i t vas  to  movement.  most e x t e n s i v e  m o d e r a t e s t o abandon p a s t vays v h i c h  across  not  no  evacuated  after their  a national liberation  era displayed  i t vas  remained  a result,  face  vas  comfortable  i n p r a c t i c e been  armed s t r u g g l e  in  struggle  dispersed  armed s t r u g g l e  PLO.  vas  post-Beirut of  the  i n the  of Lebanon, the itself  vas  var  p o l i c y of v a i t i n g  problem because v h i l e  avare that of  PLO  armed s t r u g g l e  a serious  collapse  The  this  the  have been  of P a l e s t i n e b e f o r e  Lebanon v a r  seemed r a t i o n a l .  been v e i l  the  ranks b e l i e v e d the  from B e i r u t , a f t e r the longer  PLO  indication that  valting  a  i n the  policies  achieve vas  an  and  efforts  on  to  independent  re-elected  unanimously  at  the  PNC  meeting  i n 1983,  PNC  ambiguous t o a l l o w  him  did  Reagan p l a n  not  basis  reject  of  the  r e s o l u t i o n s were  room t o maneuver.  r e s o l u t i o n 242.  For  which c a l l e d  A l t h o u g h the  plan  i n d e p e n d e n t P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e and  d i d not  participate  PNC  in negotiations,  quate. In a d d i t i o n , the adopted called  by  the  f o r the  PNC  the  accepted  A r a b s t a t e s and right  the  PLO  of a l l s t a t e s  independent P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e , to  Arafat  made a number o f p o l i t i c a l  improve t h e  PLO's d e s p e r a t e s i t u a t i o n .  cluded, man  f o r example, a w r i t t e n  expressing  resolutions of  concerning  resolutions that  1947  (partition),  a willingness this  was  in return,  the  to  as  not  PLO  w e l l as  Fez  of  knowing t o o  (64)  Arafat's t o an  This  1967.  enormous b u r d e n on  take t h i s  PLO,  plan,  1982,  including  risk  effort  recognition  also  i n E r i c R o u l e a u , "The ( F a l l 1 9 8 3 ) , 146.  62  Future  of  the  that  However,  getting  another  PLO,"  of  expressed  knowing  r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d have  possibly causing  Nations  i n c l u d i n g 181  Israel.  without  to  anything placed split  organization.  64. c i t e d Affairs  an  congress-  United  implied  242,  to  the  Fez  American  Arafat  enormous b u r d e n on  this  inade-  diplomacy i n -  " a l l the  an  that  an  to  The  moves i n an  formally accept Resolution  willing  plan.  always r e j e c t e d ,  242  PLO  plan  region,  the  favour  the  the  PNC  i n peace.  t o a b i d e by  had  not  i n September o f  statement  Palestine."  the  would have p l a c e d  Arafat  an  a willingness  did allow  i n the live  example, t h e  f o r p e a c e on  called the  sufficiently  Foreign  in  In  further  efforts  t a c t s with Egypt Israeli  peace  "national ists  were renewed, and  activists,  treason."  own  group.  rejected which a  the d i s g u s t  reaction  o f 1983  Fatah's C e n t r a l  on Reagan's p l a n  had  covenant improve  that  L i b y a and  PLO  policies  had  emerged  a  style  Libya,  o f p o v e r . The  had v i o l a t e d  vith  the  h i s ovn spoke  PLO  group.  out they  dissidents  vere  t o the  t h e y v a n t e d t o break o f f such as Jordan adhere  and t o the  on numerous o c c a s i o n s and  n o n - r e a c t i o n a r y regimes  Yemen. The d i s s i d e n t s  such as  Syria,  v i t h i n Fatah along v i t h  65. c i t e d i n E m i l e S a h l i y e h , The PLO A f t e r ( L o n d o n : W e s t v i e v P r e s s , 1 9 8 6 ) , 105.  63  the  time  t h e y v e r e opposed  t o resume t h e armed s t r u g g l e ,  Arafat  split  o f l e a d e r s h i p and  p l a n o f 1974,  and  from v i t h i n  and  by S y r i a  c o n s e r v a t i v e Arab regimes  South  talks.  sponsored  t h e F e z p l a n and  relations  Arafat,  242  i n peace  from v i t h i n  t o the t e n p o i n t  Egypt. They v i s h e d  rejection-  Committee  to face o p p o s i t i o n  demanded a more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  relations vith  called  nev a t t e m p t s a t m o d e r a t i o n . T h i s  against Arafat's authoritarian  Reagan p l a n and  the  to accept Resolution  of r e j e c t i o n i s t s  to Arafat's  Fatah's d i s s i d e n t s ,  opposed  with  proposed agreement w i t h K i n g H u s s e i n o f J o r d a n  a group  hovever, A r a f a t  that  con-  o f A r a f a t ' s moves o c c u r r e d w i t h i n  as attempts a t moderating  i n 1974,  met  n o t have s u r p r i s e d  Palestinian-Jodanian delegation  Just  in  While  Arafat  the r e j e c t i o n i s t s  d i p l o m a c y may  In A p r i l  based  i n 1983  a move t h a t  repudiation  Arafat's  was  joint  PLO  (65)  e x p r e s s e d towards  more s i g n i f i c a n t his  a t i m p r o v i n g t h e PLO's s i t u a t i o n ,  the Lebanon  War  the  PFLP-GC and  Sa'iqa  called  d i p l o m a c y w i t h o u t PLO their  f o r an  approval.  cies.  a l l i a n c e s were formed  One  was  made up  of  F a t a h and  the  Popular  Struggle  National  Salvation Front.  political  tion  of  desire  Israel,  preferred  to negotiate  with  Communists and  but  leadership,  lacking  Arafat  succeeded the  the  to Arafat's the  on  and  formed t h e  and  from  Palestine rejecting  r e j e c t i n g any option  poli-  dissidents  Salvation Front,  military  of  recogni-  t h e y had  PFLP, t h e  National  because  to the  able  the  However, t h e  PLO.  Salvation  that Arafat  them as  DFLP and  Salvation  members o f  Although both Front  the  the  challenged r o l e of  clients  enjoyed,  Front  they c r i t i c i s e d  to minimize the  in portraying  support  who  conflict  made up  National was  t i m e was  no  " i m p e r i a l i s t s . " A second c o a l i t i o n ,  to Arafat.  were l o y a l  i c A l l i a n c e and  he  Front  A l l i a n c e were " l o y a l i s t s "  leadership  and  in opposition  t h e y agreed w i t h the  opposition  cratic  was  of  unnecessarily.  National  the  practice  that  PFLP-GC, S a ' i q a ,  The  s o l u t i o n t o the  Democratic A l l i a n c e ,  their  the  to Arafat's  They b e l i e v e d  s i d e , m a k i n g a compromise  Two  a  end  (66)  of  the  the  the in  DemoArafat's DemocratArafat's rebels  Syria. Clearly  those  in  opposi-  66. F a t a h and A r a f a t a r e w e l l known t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t among P a l e s t i n i a n s i n t h e o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r i e s . A l t h o u g h p o l l s t a k e n u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t e x i s t i n t h e West Bank a l w a y s r i s k i n a c c u r a c y , numerous p o l l s i n d i c a t e m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t f o r A r a f a t and F a t a h . F o r example, a p o l l s p o n s o r e d by t h e newspaper A l - F a j r , Newsday and t h e A u s t r a l i a n Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n i n September 1986, a t t h e t i m e when A r a f a t ' s l e a d e r s h i p was b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d , f o u n d t h a t when P a l e s t i n i a n s i n t h e o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r i e s were a s k e d t o c h o o s e t h e i r p r e f e r r e d l e a d e r f r o m among Y a s s e r A r a f a t , G e o r g e Habash, Abu Musa, Ahmad J i b r i l , N a i f Hawatmeh, as w e l l as o t h e r s , s e v e n t y - n i n e percent chose A r a f a t , while j u s t over f i v e p e r c e n t chose Habash. See " P o l l R e s u l t s , " A l - F a j r (September 12 1 9 8 6 ) , 1. 64  tion  to h i s leadership  tive  t o him and t h e y v e r e  In A p r i l and  the  the  vith  S y r i a , d i d not attend  "democratic  in Israel"  t i o n and e x p a n s i o n . "  Resolution allowing adhered PLO  (67)  that  1974, v e r e  vere against  called  242. Thus t h e PNC m o d e r a t e d  to i t s tradition  had been  1984  a seat  vith  "Israeli  f o r a confederation  occupaArafat's vith  i t s opposition to  its policies  Israelis,  on  for relations vith  and v o i d and i t r e s t a t e d  for negotiations  given  The PNC m e e t i n g a l s o d e c l a r e d  King Hussein, vhich  J o r d a n , t o be n u l l  time s i n c e  t h e m e e t i n g , t h e PFLP and  Committee and t h e PNC c a l l e d  forces  vith  bankrupt.  The communists, v h o have a c c e p t e d t h e  o f a West Bank s t a t e s i n c e  Executive  accord  politically  and t h e PFLP-GC, t h e t v o g r o u p s most c l o s e l y  DFLP d i d a t t e n d .  principle  left  a credible alterna-  o f 1987 t h e PNC met f o r t h e f i r s t  although Sa'iqa  affiliated  vere unable t o c r e a t e  slightly,  by  b u t a t t h e same t i m e i t  of r e j e c t i n g Resolution  242. The  fragile  reunited.  Nineteen eighty-seven  vas a l s o the year  that  the I n t i f a d a  began  i n t h e West Bank and t h e Gaza S t r i p .  vorld  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e P a l e s t i n i a n problem, c r e a t i n g an opportun-  i t y that  Arafat  and t h e PLO c o u l d  originally surprised organization would very  find well  67. c i t e d Foreign  The I n t i f a d a a t t r a c t e d  n o t a f f o r d t o m i s s . The PLO was  by the I n t i f a d a and i t f o r c e d the  t o come up w i t h a c l e a r p r o g r a m t h a t  acceptable.  In f a i l i n g  have been f o r c e d  to achieve t h i s  to stand  Bankers  t h e PLO  back v h i l e West Bank  i n W a l i d K h a l i d i , "Tovards Peace A f f a i r s ( S p r i n g 1988), 786.  65  West  could leaders  i n t h e Holy Land,"  became t h e spokesmen f o r P a l e s t i n i a n s i n t h e o c c u p i e d  ter-  ritories .  The  I n t i f a d a a l s o demonstrated  increased  radicalization  territories. es  strikes  that  there  h a s been an  of the P a l e s t i n i a n population  i n the  The I s l a m i c g r o u p Hamas, f o r e x a m p l e , w h i c h  a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f i t s own, i s o p p o s e d  compromise w i t h  Israel.  s o l u t i o n and i t c a l l s  Hamas i s u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t  fora liberation  organiz-  t o any a two s t a t e  of P a l e s t i n e through the  armed s t r u g g l e . The g r o u p ' s p o p u l a r i t y h a s made a d i v i s i o n the  P a l e s t i n i a n community e v i d e n t .  This d i v i s i o n  between t h e s e c u l a r P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s activists, process  i n m o t i o n e v e n more  The favour  a n d i t makes a n y PLO a t t e m p t  PLO, a t t e m p t i n g  Israel,  resolutions nineteenth gradual  favour,  statement about  to a climax  the year  meeting  in its  i t s policy  what had been a  t h e use o f t e r r o r i s m ,  l o n g u p r i s i n g , and t h e C o u n c i l with  10 a b s t e n t i o n s  because t r a d i t i o n a l l y  t o accept  implicit.  242 was a major a c h i e v e m e n t  as s e v e r a l  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o long  The PNC r e n o u n c e d  t h u s making r e c o g n i t i o n o f I s r a e l  PLO  balance  o f m o d e r a t i o n o v e r a number o f y e a r s  46 a g a i n s t  Resolution  a peace  t o s p e e d up t h e n e g o t i a t i n g p r o c e s s . The  PNC m e e t i n g b r o u g h t  PLO p o l i c i e s .  excluding  at setting  met i n November o f 1988 a n d p a s s e d a number o f  r e s o l u t i o n s were p a s s e d a t t h i s standing  and t h e I s l a m i c  t o change t h e p o l i t i c a l  i n an e f f o r t  process  seems t o e x i s t  difficult.  and f o r c e d t o make a c o n c r e t e  towards  within  voted  253 i n  R e s o l u t i o n 242,  The a c c e p t a n c e o f  f o r the moderates  i n the  t h e PLO has b e e n s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o  the  resolution, formally  1987. the  Arafat greatest  r e j e c t i n g i t up t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h  and t h e m o d e r a t e s q u i t e risks  t o the u n i t y  clearly  initiated  o f t h e PLO s i n c e  PNC i n  one o f  the b i r t h  of the  organization.  Hovever, t h i s  relatively  bold  m o d e r a t e s v a s n o t made v i t h o u t c l e a r l y stated  their  r e s u l t s . Ahmed J i b r i l , black  (68) W h i l e  his c r i t i c i s m  the leader  t h e PNC s e s s i o n  a s some g r o u p s  and condemned t h e  of the group, s a i d  "[tlhis  t h e Arabs  o f t h e new p o l i c y , George Habash a l s o  to recognize  isa  their  o f t h e PFLP v a s n o t a s v i g o r o u s i n  Resolution  making t o o many c o n c e s s i o n s  unvise  of the  t o t h e PNC's n e v p o l i c y . F o r  the leader  Tifvser v a t i o n s a b o u t a c c e p t i n g  an  objections,  day i n our h i s t o r y . Only f o r c e can g i v e  rights."  vas  serious  opposition  example, t h e PFLP-GC b o y c o t t e d  move on t h e p a r t  242, a r g u i n g  t o o s o o n . Habash  I s r a e l or t o a c c e p t  expressed  felt  Resolution  that that  i t was  242 p r i o r t o  i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e c o n f e r e n c e . H o v e v e r , Habash a l s o  stated  that  t h e PFLP had e v e r y  less  o f t h e outcome o f t h e m e e t i n g and a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g he v a s  bold  enough t o s t a t e  that  m o d e r a t i o n would b r i n g principle." ple"  (69)  he was s u r e t h a t  better  Habash's p u r s u a l  who s u p p o r t e d  68. J o h n B i e r m a n , 1 9 8 8 ) , 24.  i n t h e PLO  regard-  "the p o l i t i c s of  r e s u l t s than the p o l i t i c s of  , a s one PNC member n o t e d ,  because those  69.  i n t e n t i o n of remaining  t h e PLO  of the  appeared  "politics  t o be i n t h e p a s t ,  h i s p o s i t i o n were c l e a r l y  "A M a j o r New S t e p , " M a c l e a n s  I b i d . , 24. 67  of p r i n c i -  i n the  (November 28  minority: since past  i n e f f e c t by as  for,  " T h e r e was  embodied  T"he  PNC  but  i t had  cherished  had  partition  that  formation  had,  existence  PLO  formalized  voted against  as  i n favour the  the  their  what Habash had  that  was  officially  rejected  of a J e w i s h s t a t e  formed had  by  with PNC  its  the implic-  the c o l o n i a l  been o p p o s e d t o  stirring  p h a s e . The  p a n - A r a b i s m and towards  it  Israel,  since PNC  had  accepting  i n Mandate P a l e s t i n e .  been a t r e n d  the  i t s most  contradicted  P a l e s t i n i a n s t a t e h o o d . The state  of  stood  some o f  passages t h a t d e a l t  demands i n the  what had  leave  (70)  formally  Palestinian organizations of  were t a k i n g  of c h a n g i n g  Council  t o a l l the  Israel,  Arafat  meeting A r a f a t  of a t  only  a l s o voted  repeated  General Assembly  secular  we  represented,  The  towards moderation  over  years.  Yasser the  not  its anti-colonial policies  the  several  him  f o r what he  in his defiant gestures."  regards  in effect,  abandoned  nostalgia  against  o f P a l e s t i n e and  accepted  settlers the  voting  principles,  covenant with  itly  a sad  reminded the  p o l i c y of  December  A s s e m b l y of  13  the  i n a l l of P a l e s t i n e  his  organization  1988.  At  this  PLO's dream o f that  he  the  General Assembly  However, A r a f a t  said that  had  become aware o f  the  between r e a l i t y  and  this  s t a t e . Although  his  the  the  PLO  dream of  i n many ways ambiguous, A r a f a t  70. Edward S a i d , " A r a f a t ' s (December 2 1 9 8 8 ) , 27.  Agenda," New  68  spoke of  a  spoke  appearance before  s p e e c h was  first  new  i n Geneva on  democratic state  his  the  the  s t a t e s m a n and  in  1974. gap  equality  Society  at  of  t h e two p a r t i e s  withdrawal respect not  i n the c o n f l i c t  from a l l Arab t e r r i t o r i e s  to the United  express  Nations  of the f a c t  a Jewish  state,  that  Israel,  itself,  i t called  two s t a t e s i n P a l e s t i n e . He i n s i s t e d  the  entire  should  resolution  should  be c r e a t e d w i t h  i n 1967. W i t h  p l a n o f 1947 A r a f a t d i d b u t r a t h e r , he was  i t had o n l y r e s u l t e d  although  for Israel's  i t occupied  partition  o p p o s i t i o n to the plan  critical  of  and he c a l l e d  i n the c r e a t i o n of  f o r the establishment  t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of  be met and a P a l e s t i n i a n  the a s s i s t a n c e of the U n i t e d  state  Nations.  In view o f our b e l i e f i n ( t h e ) i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g i t imacy and t h e v i t a l r o l e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . . . a c t i o n s ( s h o u l d ) be u n d e r t a k e n t o p l a c e o u r o c c u p i e d P a l e s t i n i a n l a n d under t e m p o r a r y U n i t e d N a t i o n s s u p e r v i s i o n , a n d . . . i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r c e s ( s h o u l d ) be d e p l o y e d t h e r e t o p r o t e c t our p e o p l e a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , t o s u p e r v i s e t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e I s r a e l i f o r c e s f r o m o u r c o u n t r y . (7/1D)  Arafat the  said  t h a t t h e PLO was e a g e r t o s e t t l e  framework o f a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Resolutions  the  f o r p e a c e b a s e d on  A s s e m b l y 104 members r e c o g n i z e d  of a P a l e s t i n i a n  Nations  o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n d e l e g a t i o n was c h a n g e d  "State of P a l e s t i n e . "  occurred  i n response  t h e PNC's  s t a t e w h i c h was made a t t h e n i n e -  t e e n t h m e e t i n g o f t h e PNC and a t t h e U n i t e d title  within  242 and 338.  In t h e G e n e r a l declaration  conference  the c o n f l i c t  An a d d i t i o n a l  to Arafat's press  f r o m t h e "PLO" t o  international  conference  71. S t a t e o f P a l e s t i n e : A d d r e s s o f Mr. Y a s s e r P a l e s t i n e I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , 1 9 8 8 ) , 10.  69  the o f f i c i a l  reward  on December  Arafat  (Ottawa:  14  1988,  a t w h i c h he c l e a r l y  existence  announced  w i t h t h e PLO. gained  a  that  increased  development, face  i t would  i t Is q u i t e  likely  movement and  may  once a g a i n  threaten  little  a n t l y accepted  entering that  t h e new  i n 1974  example,  certain oppose is  takes t h e PLO  his initiatives  opposition  t o him and  i s that  may  enough s u p p o r t  These g r o u p s l a c k  72. c i t e d Tribune  may  will  well  initiatives  i n the occupied  only r e l u c t -  and v o i d " ,  (72) f o r  increased What seems t o be  will  continue  will  formally  be a b l e  to  to  implemented.  territories  i n James Markham, " F r a n c e R e c e i v e s A r a f a t , " (May 3 1 9 8 9 ) , 1.  70  and  has made. However, i t  t h e P F L P - G C and S a ' i q a  support  changes  line.  i n t h e PLO.  policies  threatened  moderates are  result in  Arafat  have  Is f a r from  them a f a i l u r e  rejectionists  their  once  t o w a r d s c h a n g i n g PLO  covenant " n u l l very  The  groups t h a t  rejectionist  e f f o r t s that  t o have  US  in i t s  t h e new  i f t h e new  further steps  the t r a d i t i o n a l  the d i p l o m a t i c  phase  The PLO  1983,  declare  further s p l i t s  highly u n l i k e l y that  gain  and  p o l i c y and  abandon them f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  by d e c l a r i n g  a new  i n the f u t u r e .  policies  the  dialogue  has  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  positive effect,  As Y a s s e r A r a f a t  t h e PLO  t h e u n i t y o f t h e PLO.  by no means f r e e t o s e t PLO t o have  t o open a  j u s t as a m o d e r a t i o n i n p o l i c i e s  u n i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  policy,  Israel's  of i t s o b j e c t i v e s .  a p p e a r s t o be  the  prove  accepted  be w i l l i n g  recognition  some i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m s  united  t h e PLO  T h u s , by m o d e r a t i n g i t s s t a n d  vwhile t h e PLO  to  that  and r e j e c t e d t h e use o f t e r r o r i s m . As a r e s u l t ,  government  again  stated  and t h e  Herald  camps and t h e y a r e s e e n a s p u p p e t s o f S y r i a and L i b y a , •tthat have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r many o c c a s i o n s . Arafat be  will  So w h i l e  continue,  l i m i t e d support  opposition  f o r P a l e s t i n i a n s on  t o t h e new p o l i c i e s  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  their  f o r the hard  consistent  statements about careful  i n the  liners  ability  i n the future  to force  its policies. future  when he s p e a k s  tion.  71  i s most  t h e PLO t o make  Arafat  and t o  the r e j e c t i o n i s t s  s e e n a s a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o F a t a h and A r a f a t .  success  two s t a t e s  will  will  The g r e a t e s t  likely  t o be  ambiguous  have t o c o n t i n u e  for his fragile  t o be  organiza-  CONCLUSION  A s t u d y of the e v o l u t i o n that  t h e movement d e v e l o p e d  past  holistic  involved  goals  were p u r s u e d and a n y a l t e r n a t i v e  Liberation organization  past  Palestinian organizations  land  in Palestine  this  perception,  a compromise t h a t  that  out of the  question.  inherited a tradition  perceived  felt  involved  t o be a v i o l a t i o n  so, a p a r t i t i o n Arabs  that  In the  Jewish claims  from to  t o be i n s p i r e d by c o l o n i a l a i m s . As a r e s u l t of  was a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d  estinian  reveals  from r e j e c t i o n t o c o m p r o m i s e .  a compromise w i t h t h e Z i o n i s t s was  The P a l e s t i n e  Equally  of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m  was  a surrender  from t h e t i m e o f t h e B r i t i s h  own  land  of P a l e s t i n i a n r i g h t s .  of P a l e s t i n i a n t e r r i t o r y their  of  that  and d i s t i n c t i v e l y  mandate, c o n s i d e r e d  the P a l -  Arab,  was  t o be  impossible.  In t h e 1970's and 1980*s t h e PLO g r a d u a l l y of compromise and c o e x i s t e n c e  with  altered  Jews who  i t s policies  to allow  Israel.  r i g h t s w i t h C h r i s t i a n s and Molsems  after  liberation.  Israel's  I n 1969  were w i l l i n g  equal  such as Black  adopted a p o l i c y  t o remain  As t h e PLO s u f f e r e d a number  to accept in Palestine  of s e r i o u s  September, Egypt's peace t r e a t y w i t h  invasion  t h e PLO  I s r a e l and  o f L e b a n o n , I s r a e l ' s permanence and t h e 72  defeats  limits  of Arab s u p p o r t the  became i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t .  pragmatic groups  secular  democratic state  existing future tion  i n the  circumstances,  and  had  the  converted  to  u n l i k e l y t o be i n the  this  PLO  reality.  to Fatah expressed  following  that  i n a l l of P a l e s t i n e  moderates  to adapt  organization  the  the  PLO's i d e a  was,  achieved  believed A  I t became c l e a r  under i n the  that  to of  the near  the  organiza-  f o r m e r PFLP r e j e c t i o n i s t  p o s i t i o n of  the  a  moderates  who  in  the  way:  I f t h e I s r a e l i s would a c c e p t t h e i d e a o f l i v i n g together with equal r i g h t s with P a l e s t i n i a n s then we would f o r m one b i g s t a t e , a more v i a b l e one p r o b a b l y . But s i n c e t h e I s r a e l i s have e x p r e s s e d c l e a r l y t h a t t h e y d o n ' t want t h a t , t h e o n l y r e a l i s t i c t h i n g t o do t o a t t a i n p e a c e i s t o have a two s t a t e s o l u t i o n . (73)  At  the  nineteenth  h a v i n g a p o l i c y of traditional  the  has  Palestinian British  homeland that  PLO's new  of  73cited Books  the  formally  moderates succeeded  a c c e p t e d . E v e n one  been p o s s i b l e  to d i v i d e  the  evolution  n a t i o n a l movement i n t o f o u r  t o the  British  Arab s t a t e s  basic  the  willingness  mandate and  i n the  i n S c o t t M a c l e o d , "The ( A p r i l 13 1 9 8 9 ) , 44.  7^  Under  for  Palestinians  PLO,"  The  the  a  believed  Palestine. After  S i x Days War,  New  the  organized  Z i o n i s t plans  t o 1967  them r e g a i n  of  periods.  Palestinian society  i n P a l e s t i n e . From 1948  the  a  of  in  policy.  A r a b u n i t y would h e l p  defeat  PNC  George Habash, e x p r e s s e d  mandate t r a d i t i o n a l  opposition  the  compromise  rejectionists,  t o t r y out  It  meeting of  the  Palestinian  New  York R e v i e w  of  nationalism  took  on a m o d e r n i z i n g c h a r a c t e r  for a secular democratic state  i n a l l of P a l e s t i n e with  rights  f o r Jews, C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems.  gained  c o n t r o l o f t h e PLO, e x p r e s s i n g  Israel  and a d e s i r e t o m i n i m i z e A r a b  politics.  and t h e o b j e c t i v e was  The commando  a militant line influence  i t s appeal  t h e s e g r o u p s were a b l e  t o some g r o u p s  in Palestinian struggle  t o m o d e r a t e PLO p o l i c i e s ,  time  the organization  In the f i n a l  i n the development of P a l e s t i n i a n n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e  moderates  i n t h e PLO have a l t e r e d PLO p o l i c i e s  concessions  that violate their  to preserve  the organization  moderates a r e t o succeed  traditional  and f u r t h e r i n having  numerous o b s t a c l e s  remain. O p p o s i t i o n  PFLP-GC and S a ' i q a  i s evident  and made  beliefs  their  74  However, i f  policies  maintained,  from groups such as t h e  and t h e r e v i v a l  p r o v e t o be a s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e  i n an e f f o r t  i t s goals.  of Islamic  f u n d a m e n t a l i s m among P a l e s t i n i a n s i n t h e o c c u p i e d could  towards  i n t h e PLO and e a c h  was " r e w a r d e d " by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community.  the  groups  B u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1970's and 1980's t h e armed  began t o l o s e  period  equal  f o r t h e PLO.  territories  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A b b o u s h i , W.F. L t d . , 1985.  The Unmaking o f P a l e s t i n e . K e n t : W h i t s a b l e  A j a m i , F o u a d . "The End o f P a n - A r a b i s m . " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s 1 9 7 8 ) : 355-373. Amos, J o h n . P a l e s t i n i a n R e s i s t a n c e : O r g a n i z a t i o n Movement. New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s , 1980. A r m s t r o n g , J o h n A. N a t i o n s B e f o r e N a t i o n a l i s m . U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1982. "Assembly Renews C a l l s f o r M i d d l e C h r o n i c l e (March 1989):50-55. Bierman, John. 1988):22-24.  "A M a j o r New  B r e u i l l y , John. N a t i o n a l i s m U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982.  Step."  East  (Winter  of a N a t i o n a l i s t  North C a r o l i n a :  Peace C o n f e r e n c e . "  Macleans  (November  UN  28  and t h e S t a t e . M a n c h e s t e r :  Caplan, N e i l . A r a b - Z i o n i s t Negotiations Mandate. L o n d o n : F r a n k C a s s , 1986.  Litho  Manchester  and t h e End o f t h e  Cobban, H e l e n a . "The PLO i n t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 ' s : between t h e Gun and t h e O l i v e B r a n c h . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l (Autumn 1 9 8 3 ) : 6 3 5 - 6 5 1 . r p  n  e  Power and P o l i t i c s . Cremeans, C h a r l e s . P r a e g e r , 1963.  P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n Organization: People, C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984. The A r a b s and t h e W o r l d . New  Emerson, R u p e r t . From E m p i r e t o N a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1960.  Cambridge:  E l - R a y y e s , R i a d N. and D u n i a Nahas. G u e r r i l l a s B e i r u t : An-Nahar P r e s s , 1974. Frangi, Gellner, 1983.  Abdallah.  The PLO and P a l e s t i n e . New  Ernest. Nations  and N a t i o n a l i s m .  75  Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A.  Harvard  forPalestine.  York: Praeger,  Oxford:  Basic  1979.  Blackwell,  Gendzier, Matters."  I r e n e . "The P a l e s t i n i a n R e v o l u t i o n , t h e Jews, and O t h e r New M i d d l e E a s t ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 1 ) : 3 8 - 4 1 .  "George Habash: The F u t u r e o f t h e P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l Movement." J o u r n a l o f P a l e s t i n e S t u d i e s (Summer 1 9 8 5 ) : 3 - 1 4 . Goldschmidt, Arthur J r . A Concise B o u l d e r : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1988. Gresh, A l a i n . L t d . , 1988.  H i s t o r y of the Middle  The PLO: The S t r u g g l e  Within.  East.  L o n d o n : Zed Books  Haim, S y l v i a G and E l i e K e d o u r i e ( e d s . ) Z i o n i s m and A r a b i s m i n P a l e s t i n e and I s r a e l . L o n d o n : F r a n k C a s s and Co. L t d . , 1982. Hamid, R a s i d . "What i s t h e PLO?" J o u r n a l (Summer 1 9 7 5 ) : 9 0 - 1 0 9 .  of P a l e s t i n e  Studies  H a r k a b i , Y e h o s h a f a t . The P a l e s t i n i a n C o v e n a n t and I t s M e a n i n g . London: M i t c h e l Co L t d . , 1979. "How t o T a l k 1989):36.  W h i l e R u n n i n g on t h e S p o t . " E c o n o m i s t  (March 4  H u r s t , D a v i d . " P a l e s t i n i a n s Back P e a c e P a r l e y R o l e . " Times (March 21 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 . H e l l e r , Mark. "The P a l e s t i n i a n D i m e n s i o n o f t h e A r a b C o n f l i c t . " M i d d l e E a s t F o c u s (Summer 1 9 8 6 ) : 2 3 - 2 6 .  New  Israeli  H e r t z , F r e d e r i c k . N a t i o n a l i t y i n H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s . Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r and Co. L t d . , 1945. " I s r a e l Vows O p p o s i t i o n 1988):14.  t o New N a t i o n . "  London Times  J i r y i s , S a b r i . "The A r a b W o r l d a t t h e C r o s s r o a d s . " P a l e s t i n e S t u d i e s ( W i n t e r 1978)-.26-61. Kedourie,  Elie.  Nationalism.  London: H u t c h i n s o n  Kedourie, E l i e (ed.) N a t i o n a l i s m Redwood P r e s s L t d . , 1970. K h a l i d i , Walid. State." Foreign (Spring  York  London:  (November  16  J o u r n a l of  and Co. L t d . , 1966.  i n A s i a and A f r i c a .  London:  "Thinking the Unthinkable: A Sovereign P a l e s t i n i a n A f f a i r s ( J u l y 1978):695-713 .  "Towards Peace 1988):771-789.  i n the Holy  Land." F o r e i g n  Affairs  Kohn, Hans. N a t i o n a l i s m : I t s Meaning and H i s t o r y . P r i n c e t o n : D. Van N o s t r a n d Company I n c . , 1955. 76  "Knowing t h e Enemy." Time M a g a z i n e  (November  7 1988):46-48.  L e s c h , Ann M o s e l y . A r a b P o l i t i c s C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979.  i n P a l e s t i n e , 1917-1939.  "Levantine."  4 1989):40-41.  Economist  (February  Ithaca:  L u k a s , Yehuda and A b d a l l a M. B a t t a h ( e d s . ) The A r a b - I s r a e l i C o n f l i c t : Two Decades o f Change. B o u l d e r : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1988. M a c i n t y r e , R o n a l d . "The P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f P a l e s t i n e S t u d i e s (Summer 1 9 7 5 ) : 6 5 - 8 9 . M i l l e r , A a r o n D a v i d . The PLO and t h e P o l i t i c s Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1982.  New  York: Praeger,  The A r a b S t a t e s and t h e P a l e s t i n e 1986.  H (Winter  (January  of S u r v i v a l .  Tfte  PLO: what N e x t ? " W a s h i n g t i o n  New  Question. Quarterly  1983):116-125. "Palestinians 1984):17-20,34-36.  Minogue, K.R. N a t i o n a l i s m .  i n t h e 1980 • s . "  Current  New Y o r k : B a s i c Books I n c . ,  History  1967.  M u s l i h , Muhammad. " M o d e r a t e s and R e j e c t i o n i s t s W i t h i n t h e P a l e s t i n e L i b e r a t i o n Organization." Middle East J o u r n a l (Spring 1976) :127-140. N a k h l e h , E m i l e . "The P a l e s t i n i a n s and t h e F u t u r e : P e a c e T h r o u g h R e a l i s m . " J o u r n a l of P a l e s t i n e S t u d i e s (Winter 1989):3-15. N a s s e r , Gamal A b d u l . E g y p t ' s L i b e r a t i o n : The P h i l o s o p h y R e v o l u t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n : P u b l i c A f f a i r s P r e s s , 1955. O ' N e i l , B a r d E . Armed S t r u g g l e i n P a l e s t i n e : A A n a l y s i s . B o u l d e r : Westview P r e s s , 1978.  of the  Political-Military  P a l e s t i n e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence, ( u n o f f i c i a l t r a n s l a t i o n ) Ottawa: P a l e s t i n e I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , 1988. P e r e t z , Don, E v a n W i l s o n and R i c h a r d Ward. A P a l e s t i n i a n E n t i t y ? W a s h i n g t o n : The M i d d l e E a s t I n s t i t u t e , 1970. P e r e t z , Don. The M i d d l e W i n s t o n , 1978.  East  Today. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  P i p e s , D a n i e l and Adam G a r f i n k l e . " I s J o r d a n Commentary ( O c t o b e r 1 9 8 8 ) : 35-42.  77  Palestine?"  Quandt, W i l l i a m . P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l i s m : I t s P o l i t i c a l and M i l i t a r y D i m e n s i o n s . S a n t a M o n i c a : Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1971. Quandt, W i l l i a m (ed.) The P o l i t i c s B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a "Question 152.  o f P a l e s t i n e . " UN  of P a l e s t i n i a n N a t i o n a l i s m . Press, 1973.  Monthly C h r o n i c l e  R a n d a l , J o n a t h a n . "PLO's Armed S t r u g g l e P o s t (March 2 1 9 8 0 ) : A 1 .  Washington Post  " O b s t a c l e s Keep New (March 3 1980):A1.  (December  Rhetoric."  Blood  1974):80-  Washington  From PLO  Leadership."  Range, W i l l a r d . "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f N a s s e r i s m . " P o l i t i c a l Q u a r e l y (December 1959):1005-1016.  Western  Ronen, Dov. The Q u e s t f o r S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979.  Haven:  R o u l e a u , E r i c . "The 1983):138-156.  Future  S a h l i y e h , E m i l i e . The Press, 1986.  PLO  of t h e  PLO."  A f t e r the  S a i d , Edward and C h r i s t o p h e r London: V e r s o , 1988.  Foreign A f f a i r s  L e b a n o n War.  Hitchens  (eds.)  S a i d , Edward. The Q u e s t i o n of P a l e s t i n e . New Times Book Co. I n c . , 1979.  2  " A r a f a t ' s Agenda." New 1988):26-27.  New  the  Y o r k : The  S a y i g h , Y e z i d . "The S t r u g g l e W i t h i n , t h e S t r u g g l e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s ( S p r i n g 1989 ):247-271.  New  Smith, Anthony. T h e o r i e s and Co. L t d . , 1983.  London: G e r a l d  Snyder, L o u i s . M a c r o - N a t i o n a l i s m s : A H i s t o r y of the Movements. L o n d o n : Greenwood P r e s s , 1984.  78  (December  With  Pan  'Abu  Old  1959-1974. L o n d o n :  of N a t i o n a l i s m .  York  Without."  S h a f e r , Boyd C. F a c e s of N a t i o n a l i s m : New R e a l i t i e s and M y t h s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h I n c . , 1972. Palestinian Entity  Victims  Society  S c h l e i f e r , A b d u l l a h . " A l - F a t a h Speaks: A C o n v e r s a t i o n Amar." E v e r g r e e n Review ( J u l y 1968):45-46, 83-88.  Shemesh, Moshe. The Cass, 1988.  (Fall  L o n d o n : Westview  Blaming  S t a t e s m a n and  Yale  Frank  Duckworth  v a r i e t i e s or N a t i o n a l i s m : A Comparative H i n s d a l e : The D r y d e n P r e s s , 1976. "Special 24.  R e l a t i o n s h i p a t R i s k . " Economist  (January  Study.  21 1 9 8 9 ) : 2 1 -  S t a t e o f P a l e s t i n e : A d d r e s s o f Mr. Y a s s e r A r a f a t D e l i v e r e d B e f o r e t h e 43rd S e s s i o n o f t h e UN G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y . O t t a w a : P a l e s t i n e I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , 1988. "Stuff  o f A r a b L e g e n d s . " New  York Times  (September  26 1970):A2.  "The PLO, between t h e 1 9 t h PNC i n A l g i e r s and t h e UN G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y i n G e n e v a . " C o n t e m p o r a r y M i d e a s t B a c k g r o u n d e r (December 1988) "Things  Fall  A p a r t . " Economist  (January  28 1 9 8 9 ) : 3 7 .  T u r k i , Fawaz. " A r a f a t ' s PLO a d o p t s a New Look f o r t h e P a l e s t i n i a n Movement." I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s (May/June 1 9 7 5 ) : 1 1 - 1 4 . U n i t e d N a t i o n s . The O r i g i n s and E v o l u t i o n o f t h e P a l e s t i n e P r o b l e m . ( p a r t s 1,2,3) New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n , "Whose Ends S a t i s f i e d ? "  PLO I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n  (July  15 1 9 8 5 ) .  " Y a s s e r A r a f a t on t h e P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a l e s t i n e Movement." Times 32 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 4 ) : 1 0 - 1 1 .  79  1984.  New  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 30 27
United States 12 5
Russia 1 0
City Views Downloads
Beijing 21 3
Shenzhen 9 22
Wahiawa 6 0
Ashburn 6 0
Saint Petersburg 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097733/manifest

Comment

Related Items