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Harunobu : an Ukiyo-e artist who experimented with Western- style art Hockley, Allen F. 1987

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AN UKIYO-E ARTIST WHO  HARUNOBU: EXPERIMENTED WITH WESTERN-STYLE by ALLEN  F . HOCKLEY  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  o f V i c t o r i a , 1979  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FULFILLMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F i n e A r t s ; A r t H i s t o r y  We  accept t h i s to  THE  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  as  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  December 1987 ©Allen  F . H o c k l e y , 1987  ART  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  -ii -  ABSTRACT  From  the beginning  Japanese  woodblock  Harunobu  (1725-1770)  the in  development the c r e a t i o n  particular illustrate the  achieved  Ko"kan  often  of  untimely  running,  at  focussed  upon  fact  times  he  and h i s  chose  to  o f h i s a r t , made him The  popularity  he  artist  just  prints  on Kokan's and  and, which  as of  h i s death  beginning  and l a t e r  historians  heated  after  Shiba  his career,  admitted  to d o i n g  confession,  connoisseurs,  there  a  y e t , unresolved Harunobu's  a  long debate  prints  are i n  forgeries. Because  experimented  Kokan with  eventually styles  from E u r o p e , Harunobu's one  Shortly  Based  determining  of h i s r o l e  was monumental, but he met w i t h  death.  a young  art  subject  Suzuki  This,  which  of  position in  because  his generation.  o f Harunobu's  among  a prominent  beauty  study  artist  colour p r i n t s .  feminine  in h i s autobiography.  developed  the  primarily  full  his lifetime  (1747-1818),  accorded  as t h e main  artist  made f o r g e r i e s so  of  art historical  U k i y o-e,  a r t form  of the f i r s t  most  and  or  has been  of that  during  premature  serious  prints  conception  dominant  of  such  Western been  such  attribution  an  illogical.  designated  Why  and t e c h n i q u e s prints  technique,  question  on  Kokan  fame newly  that contain have  this  as an  linear  To t h i s  criterion  introduce  artist  imported  traditionally  as f o r g e r i e s .  based  would  acquired  t o Japan  perspective, and  without  author, seems  something  who  making  somewhat  foreign  to  -i i i-  Harunobu's  style  Harunobu's is  to  with  into  originals?  assume  that  The  European  Based  this  visual  evidence  European-style a  accounts  of h i s l i f e  discusses  They  simply  needed  to be does,  o f the  overlooked  by  Harunobu's  Western-style  of  sources  Maruyama TJkyo The  quences  be  of  this  the  to  to  to  pass  to t h i s  been  off  as  quandary  experimenting  introduces l i t e r a r y a  this  number  The long  prints social  prints  and  the  been  known  to  support  introduce  Art I n s t i t u t e  identified  through  among  the  literary  and  artistic  documents art  this one  which  It provides  a r t and  to  which  historians.  premise.  print  from  seems to have a  clear  visual  of  uncovered  and  the  and  sources  was  with  reworked however,  of  evidence  Harunobu's  scholars.  the been  example  analysis  Western-style  of  of i t ,  megane-e  ( 1733-1795).  concluding  reattributed within  Oregon  other  can  of  have  collection  its  cf  worked.  thesis  also  thesis  in accordance  he  thesis  this  Much  this  This  have  Harunobu  re-examination  i n which  intended  styles.  linking  through  context  must  premise,  art.  he  simplest resolution  Harunobu  imported on  prints  section  evidence. Harunobu  tradition  and  of  this  Two  of  his  thesis the  prints  of W e s t e r n - s t y l e  examines  so-called as  a  the  conse-  forgeries  whole  art in Japan.  are  are  recast  -IV-  TABLE  OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT TABLE  .................................................  OF CONTENTS  i i  .......  iv  L I S T OF FIGURES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  PREFACE CHAPTER 1. A. B. C. D. E.  . INTRODUCTION TO THE A R T I S T S , THE SCHOLARSHIP, AND THE ISSUE  EXISTING  Harunobu's P o s i t i o n i n U k i y o - e Hi s t o r y . S h i b a Kokan as a F o r g e r of Harunobu's P r i n t s . S t y l i s t i c and C a l l i g r a p h i c C r i t e r i a f o r D e t e r m i n i n g KcJkan's F o r g e r i e s . Compositional C r i t e r i a . The I s s u e .  Notes  B. C.  The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Rangaku to the S p r e a d of Westernstyle Art in Japan. H i r a g a Gennai i n the C o n t e x t of J a p a n e s e S o c i e t y . G e n n a i ' s C o n n e c t i o n t o Harunobu's A r t .  OTHER SOURCES OF WESTERN-STYLE  ART  The U k i - e _ G e n r e Maruyama Okyo's Megane-e Harunobu's F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e Megane-e Genre New E v i d e n c e : A Harunobu P e r s p e c t i v e P r i n t  59 64 68 71  Notes  79  CHAPTER 4.  C.  35 37 43 53  CHAPTER 3.  A. B.  16 21 25  HARUNOBU'S RELATIONSHIP WITH HIRAGA GENNAI  Notes  A. B. C. D.  1 10  29  CHAPTER 2 . A.  xi  THE  IMPLICATIONS OF THE  EVIDENCE  The R e a t t r i b u t i o n of F o r g e r i e s . W e s t e r n - s t y l e A r t i n the C o n t e x t o f Harunobu's N i sh i k i - e . C o n c l u d i n g Remarks.  82 84 89  Notes  91  FIGURES  92  BIBLIOGRAPHY  *  ..  .  •••••  125  - V-  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  Figure  Page  1  Suzuki Harunobu. G i r l i n a Summer Shower. (Jack H i l l i e r , S u z u k i Harunob~u~| P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t , 1 9 7 0 , p. 4 3. ) (Op. c i t . M a r g a r e t 0. G e n t l e s , V o l . I I , The Clarence Buckingham Collection of Japanese Prints, Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , 196b, F i g . 2~7T~ p. 12.) 92  2  H a r u n o b u , T h r e e Sake T a s t e r s . (D.B. Waterhouse., Harunobu "and H i s A g e , London: B r i t i s h Museum, 196 4, p. 76.) " (Op. c i t . H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b u , p . 57.)  93  H a r u n o b u , Daruma C r o s s i n g t h e Water on a R e e d . ( H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b ¥ l p. 90.) (Op. c i t . W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e , p . 128.)  93  Harunobu, Shoki C a r r y i n g ( I b i d . , p . 50.)  94  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  Girl.  S h i b a Ko*kan ( a s Harunobu's ( I b i d . , p . 221.) H a r u n o b u , The Snow Dog. ( G e n t l e s , Vol . I I , C l a r e n c e F i g . 185.)  forger),  Maki ng a S n o w b a l l . :  Buckingham  94  Collection, 95  H a r u n o b u , i l l u s t r a t i o n from E h o n H a r u ( H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b u , p~ 235 .)  noNlishiki . 95  H a r u s h i g e , Moon i n t h e Gay Q u a r t e r s o f S h i n a g a w a . (Sadao K i k u c h i , A T r e a s u r y o f J a p a n e s e Woodblock P r i n t s , N.Y.: Crown P u b . I n c . , 1 9 6 9 , F i g . 364.)  96  S h i b a K"okan ( a s Harunobu's f o r g e r ) , Beauty on t h e Veranda. ( I b i d . , F i g . 361. ) ( Op . c i t . I l l u s t r a t e d C a t a l o g u e s o f t h e • T o k y o N a t i o n a l Museum. U k i y o - e P r i n t s . V o l . 1, T5ky"5: 1960, F i g . 617.)  96  H a r u s h i g e , The A r c h e r y G a l l e r y . ( C a l v i n F r e n c h , S h i b a K o k a n , New p . 36 . )  97  York:  Weatherhill,  S h i b a K'Skan (as Harunobu's f o r g e r ) , F l y i ng a Ki t e . ( J u l i a n L e e , The O r i g i n and Development o f J a p a n e s e Landscape P r i n t s , D i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1977, F i g . 381.)  97  -vi -  F i gure 12  13  14  Page  H a r u s h i g e , The Fukagawa ( K i k u c h i , F i g . 3 6 5.)  Brothel. 98  S h i b a ICokan (as Harunobu's f o r g e r ) , C o u r t e s a n R e a d i n g a Letter. ( D a v i d W a t e r h o u s e , Images o f E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y J a p a n , Toronto: Royal O n t a r i o Museum, 1975 ,, p . 145. ) KTJkan, F o r g e r y Fig.  o f Harunobu's  98  S i g n a t u r e , d e t a i l of  9.  99  15  Harunobu'ssignature.  16  H a r u n o b u , Wisdom. ( G e n t l e s , V o l . I I , The C l a r e n c e Buckingham C o l l e c t i o n , F i g . 1 1 0 , p. 6 9 . ) (Op. c i t . I l l u s t r a t e d C a t a l o g u e s o f To*ky5 N a t i o n a l Museum, U k i y o - e P r i n t s 1, TSky'o': 1960, F i g . 480. ) 100 H a r u n o b u , Two L o v e r s a t Y a t s u h a s h i i n Mikawa P r o v i n c e . ( W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e , p~. 124. ) (Op. c i t . G e n t l e s , V o l . I I , The C l a r e n c e Buckingham C o l l e c t i o n , F i g . 128, p . 13. ) 100  17  99  18  Harunobu. (Gentles, F i g . 227, (Op. c i t . the V e v e r F i g . 145,  19  So" S h i s e k i , L i o n Illustration. (Genshoku Ninon no B i j u t s u " V o l . 2 5 , Tokyo: 1970, F i g . 58.)  Sh"3gakukan, 102  L i o n i l l u s t r a t i o n t a k e n from J o n s t o n ' s t e x t . (Genshoku Nihon no B i j u t s u , V o l . 2 5 , Tokyo": ShTTgakukan, 1 9 / 0 , F i g . 59.)  103  Odano N a o t a k e . ShinobazuPond. ( C a l v i n F r e n c h , Through CI osecT D o o r s . Michigan: Meadow Brook A r t G a l l e r y , 1 9 / / , F i g . 2 4 , p. 1 2 8 . ) , C o l l . Akita Prefectural Office.  103  F r o n t i s p i e c e from Rembertus Dodanaeu's K r u y t B o e c k . ( T . Haga, Hi r a g a Gennai , Tokyo": 1961, p. 28. )  104  H a r u n o b u , p i l l a r p r i n't. ( J a c o b P i n s , The J a p a n e s e P i l l a r P r i n t H a s h i r a - e , London: R o b e r t B. S a w e r s , 1982, F i g . 1 9 / , p. 122.  105  20  21  22  23  R e t u r n i n g S a i l s at Shinagawa. V o l . I I , The C l a r e n c e - B u c k i n g h a m C o l l e c t i o n , p . 138.) H i 1 1 i e r , Japanese P r i n t s a n d _ P a i n t i n g s f r o m C o l l e c t i o n V o l . l~j London: S o t h e b y , 1976 , p. 146.) 101  -vii-  F i gure 24  Page  H a r u n o b u , G i r l L o o k i n g a t the Shadow of Her P a r a s o l . (H i 1 1 i e r , J a p a n e s e P r i n t s and P a i n t i n g s from the V e v e r Col 1 e c t i o n V o l . 1, F i g . 99, p. 112.)  106  25  So" S h i s e k i , F i v e f ol d Long! i f e . ( R o b e r t T. P a i n e J r . , " J a p a n e s e P r i n t s by So" S h i s e k i , " B u l l e t i n : of the: Museum of F i n e A r t s , V o l . X L I V , No. 4 2 , p. 42.) 107  26  H a r u n o b u , Bowl o f Chrysanthemums. ( W a t e r h o u s e , H a r u n o b u ' a n d H i s Age, p . 95.) ( o p . c i t . G e n t l e s , V o l . I I , The C l a r e n c e Buckingham Col 1 e c t i on , F i g . 51" p~. 3 1 . )  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  Harunobu, S t a g . (Yone N o g u c h i , H a r u n o b u , T o k y o , 1932, P l a t e  77.)  107  108  Shen N a n p i n , D e e r . ( K o k k a , No. 2o~4\T  108  Okumura Masanobu, E v e n i n g Cool by Ry'ogoku B r i d g e . ( H e l e n C. G u n s a u l u s , The C l a r e n c e Buckingham C o l l e c t i o n of J a p a n e s e P r i n t s . The P r i m i t i v e s . Chicago: The A r t I n s t i t u t e of C h i c a g o , 1955, F i g . 8 4 , p. 155.)  109  Optical viewing d e v i c e . ( J . A . C h a l d e c o t t , " Z o g r a s c o p e or O p t i c a l D i a g o n a l Machine," A n n a l s o f S c i e n c e , V o l . IX, No. 2, Dec. 1953, p. 3 2T71  110  Edward R o o k e r , The Grand Walk i n the V a u x h a l l Gardens in London. (W.G. C o n s t a b l e , C a n a l e t t o , V o l . 1, O x f o r d : 1962, p l a t e 183, no. 2.1  110  G i o v a n n i A n t o n i o C a n a l , V a u x h a l l 'Gardens - i n ( I b i d . , p l a t e 8 0 , n o . 43T7T  111  London.  Anonymous Suzhou a r t i s t , T r e e s i n Z h e j i a n g . (Edo No Y o g a k a , Tokyo: S a n s a i s h a , 1 9 6 8 , F i g . 24.)  I l l  Maruyama T)kyo, View o f t h e W a n n i a n B r i d g e (megane-e). ( F r e n c h , Through C l o s e d D o o r s , F i g . 19, p. 108.)  112  Anonymous Suzhou a r t i s t , Wannian ( I b i d . , F i g . 2 0 , p. 108.)  112  Bridge  (detail).  C a n a l e t t o , E t c h i n g of W e s t m i n s t e r B r i d g e . ( C o n s t a b l e , C a n a l e t t o , V o l . 1, p l a t e 141, no. 751.)  113  -v i i i-  F i gu re 37  38  39  40  41  42  Page  fJkyo, A r c h e r y C o n t e s t a t SanjUsangendrj ( m e g a n e - e ) . ( F r e n c h , Through C l o s e d D o o r s , F i g . ZTT, 105. )  113  tJkyo, T h e a t r e D i s t r i c t i n KyT5to (megane-e) . ( F r e n c h , Through C l o s e d D o o r s , no~ 1 4 a , p . 106.)  114  Utagawa T o y o h a r u , A r c h e r y C o n t e s t a t S a n j u s a n g e n d o . (Nihon Hanga B i j u t s u ZenshTJ, Toky"5: K o d a n s h a , 1961, F i g . 33 5, V o l . I I I . )  114  H a r u n o b u , Tama R i v e r o f Mt. K o y a . ( F r e n c h , Through C l o s e d D o o r s , N"o . 4 2 ,  115  p. 104.)  H a r u n o b u , u n t i t l e d p e r s p e c t i v e view o f a h a r b o u r i n China. (Oregon A r t I n s t i t u t e . )  116  Harunobu, Chinese Scene. ( G e n t l e s , Vol . I I , The~~Clarence Buckingham F i g . 16, p . 7.)  117  43  Harunobu,  44  Long  45  Harunobu, S i x S a i n t s of P o e t r y . ( W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e , p. 67.) ( o p . c i t . G e n t l e s , V o l . I I , The C l a r e n c e Buckingham Col 1 e c t i on , F i g. 9 , p . 5 . )  119  Torii Kiyomitsu, Six-Saints of-Poetry. ( K i k u c h i , A T r e a s u r y o f J a p!a n e s e Woodblock F i g . 2 51.) ;  119  46  47  detail  Collection,  of F i g u r e 41.  form o f Harunobu's  118  signature.  118  Prints,  H a r u n o b u , Three Summer E v e n i n g s . (Genshoku U k i y o - e D a i h y a k k a J i t e n , Tokyo": T a i s h u k a n s h o t e n , 1982, V o l . 4, F i g . 428.)  120  48  KcTkan (as Harunobu's f o r g e r ) , E n j o y i n g t h e Cool A i r . ( F r e n c h , S h i b a K "ok a n , p . 32.) ( o p . c i t . I l l u s t r a t e d C a t a l o g u e s o f ^ t h e P5kyT5 N a t i o n a l Museum U k i y o - e P r i n t s V o l . 1, F i g . 619.) 120  49  K"okan, d e t a i l  50  Harunobu, r e a t t r i b u t e d f o r g e r y . ( I , Oka, " F U k e i Hanga," Nihon no B i j u t s u , V o l . 1, No. 6 8 , F i g . 59.)  121  Harunobu, r e a t t r i b u t e d f o r g e r y . ( J a c k H i l l i e r , J a p a n e s e P r i n t s , D r a w i n g s , and P a i n t i n g s , London! Kegan P a u l , 1967, F i g . 21.)  122  51  of F i g u r e 48.  121  - i x-  F i g u re 52  53  54  55  Harunobu, (Hillier,  Page Courtesan P l a y i n g a Samisen. S u z u k i Harunobu , p. 191. )  Harunobu, A L o v e l y F l o w e r . ( H i l l i e r , J a p a n e s e P r i n t s and Drawings C o l l e c t i o n V o l . I , F i g . 113, p. 125.)  123  from  the V e v e r 123  Harunobu, F i d e l i t y : One o f the F i v e C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s . ( H i l l i e r , S u z u k i Harunobu! \T. 13/. ) (op. c i t . G e n t l e s , V o l . T l , T h e C l a r e n c e B u c k i n g h a m C o l l e c t i o n , F i g . I l l , p. 70.)  124  Okyo, Wannian B r i d g e (megane-e). ( F r e n c h , Through C l o s e d D o o r s , no. 4 4 d , p. 108.)  124  -X-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  To  my  greatly  graduate  indebted.  This  without  h i s guidance  student  I regarded  connotation an  M.A.  this his  thesis, stature  not have  Throughout  him as my s e n s e i  a r e coming  Coryne That  intact  Lastly,  processing  would  and s u p p o r t .  i n my mind  wife  Rousseau  thesis  i n every  to a c l o s e  t h e word  Matsumoto,  onshi  been  my  would  as h i s  and i n e v e r y  Now t h a t my with  am  possible  tenure  sense  I  s t u d i e s as  the c o m p l e t i o n of be more  befitting  i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p .  patience. sanity  Dr. Moritaka  t h a t t h a t word e n c o m p a s s e s .  student  My  adviser,  deserves  she  credit  survived  these  f o r , above last  two  a l l e l s e , her years  with  her  i s remarkable. I  would  for their of t h i s  like  to  assistance  thesis.  thank  Kim  Adams  with  the  editing  and and  Rachel word  - xi-  PREFACE  My indirect the  interest  in  manner.  In  introduction  Japan, the  quite  most  fact  of  that  me  for  moving  primarily prints  in  produced of  this  that  on  from  the  premise  imitation  premise,  Harunobu  made  Harunobu's  I  that  to be  in Japan.  that  and  an  argument  is  provides duces  an  Shiba  Ko" k an's t h a t has  a  Harunobu's  of  to  into  art  resulted prints.  from  the  made the a  Europe,  The  justification  of  study  rested  Western-sty 1 e  test  must the  to  validity  convince  me  history  of  i n the an  have  examination  of  conviction.  four  and  with  and  from  too  a place is  Kokan,  perspective,  evidence  thesis  Harunobu  confession  scholarship forger  This  to  in in  Kokan  career,  Harunobu  enough  Shiba  produced  e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t  introduction  his  course  accorded  divided  interest  that  Japanese  attempting  most  experiment  linear  i f KcTkan  In  art  My  of  Harunobu,  Western-style evidence  into  encountered  deserved  use  a  painting  of  to  fact in  initial  designs.  art  artists The  in  a wider  art in d e t a i l .  my  of  the  early  introduced  away  similar  prints  about  European-style  techniques.  device  explore  of  Japanese  forgeries  came  of p u r s u i n g  encountered  all  and  these  to  I  Harunobu's  compositional led  of  prints  course  spread  naturally  styles  forgeries  the  and  famous  Western  Harunobu's  and it  chapters. his  art.  reviews  knowledge  This chapter  also  the  The  first  It  intro-  existing  t h a t Kcikan explores  was the  -x i i-  criteria  that  Harunobu's linear been  prints  associated which  making ICokan  are  alone.  the  same is  with  enough  The  argument  the  evidence of  Harunobu  existed.  through  I  the  and  not  Harunobu  was  three  not  are  must  but  not  and  Beginning  be  have  has  My  of  exclusive  to  of  that  that  to  of  the  so. That  i s to  within  environment  endeavored  this.  Harunobu  some  based.  chapter  working  verify  understood  first  hypo-  logic  necessarily  social  i n the  criteria,  capable  is contextually  present  why  the  suggest  of  reasons  chapters  only  which  Harunobu.  trademark  perspective  I  these  stylistic  forgeries  last,  of  the  questions  to  artistic  the  determine  i t examines  remaining  a whole  to  chapter,  that  linear  as  and  Kokan  a  evidence  with  used  important  this  perspective  context  ing  Shiba  once c o n s i d e r e d  My  most  It suggests  experimented prints  the  mode.  have  forgeries  concludes  linear  There  say  historians  perspective,  thesis,  in  art  in  and  the which  continu-  recreate  that  environment. The the  premise  of  this  plausibility  of  the  reader's terms,  understanding  I have  possible provided  for  used him  evidence  thesis,  the  conclusions of  that  Harunobu's  I  draw,  environment.  environment  artistically t o show how  evidence  at he  that  realized  to  time those  I  present,  depend In  the  suggest and  then  upon  and the  simplest what I  was have  possibilities.  -x i i i-  The  issue  facet  of  a  this,  I have  possible, to  addressed  l a r g e r , more had  make  complex  through  I found  topic  attempting  to answer  opinions other  complex  with  every  this  this  enough  thesis  in  those  questions  schol ars  surrounding  who this  o f f the  or e v a l u a t i n g  the lend  attempted  topic.  problems  wandering  withstand  have  tried  the argument I  history.  o f s u b s e q u e n t s c h o l a r s h i p , i t may of  that  without  question,  period  issues  of  Wherever  in general.  was  criticism  presentation.  and  to p r e s e n t  should  Because  of those  tried  that  i n my  problems.  single  aware  topic  however,  s e t of  i s but a  I have  the r e a d e r  associated  thesis  the use o f f o o t n o t e s ,  to t h i s  opinion  in this  to be j u d i c i o u s  primarily  at l e a s t  related  I have  I  every  do  feel,  scrutiny support to  and  to the  answer  the  -  A.  Harunobu's  In  1769  fiction, Story  Position  "Ota  o f Dohei  i n Ukiyo-e  a short  t h e Candy  was  the popular  and  in a  contemporaries,  book  artist,  reference  Nampo  an  entitled  Vendor).  Ukiyo-e  passing  History  ( 1749-1823 ) ,  Nampo  published  1 -  Ameuri  of  Dohei  The i l l u s t r a t o r Suzuki  to  author  Den (The  of t h i s  Harunobu  the a r t of  popular  book  (1725-1770),  Harunobu  and h i s  wrote:  The black and w h i t e prints of e a r l i e r days a r e a n t i q u a t e d now, and t h e o n l y t h i n g p e o p l e c a r e f o r i s the newly d e v i s e d g o r g e o u s n e s s o f t h e E a s t e r n B r o c a d e Pictures.*  The  term  ni s hi k i-e,^ had  come  of  which  capable  making  worked  The "newly these  which,  devised very  print  which  gorgeousness"  exquisite,  as he s t a t e d , had  of the a n t i q u a t e d  of polychrome  within  designs  "black  very  achieved  and  individual  with  the s u r v i v i n g  printing  the l i m i t a t i o n s  i n two or t h r e e  what t h e p r e c i s e  of m u l t i c o l o u r e d  from  o f woodblock  white  days."  of producing  single  clear  prints  to the i n c e p t i o n  i s not c l e a r  style  described  a t the expense  artists  P i c t u r e s " o r , i n J a p a n e s e , Azuma  new  i n 1765.  spoke  of e a r l i e r  Ukiyo-e  Brocade to a  multicolour  Prior  a  vogue  Nampo  popularity  It  referred  into  sumptuous  prints  "Eastern  prints,  invention  of  a  colours  process  a t most.3  was t h a t  enabled the  nor i s i t p o s s i b l e  to a c c r e d i t  i t s discovery,4 prints  in Japan,  that  but i t i s abundantly  i n the e a r l i e s t  stages  of  -  n i sh i ki -e all  p r o d u c t i o n , Suzuki  designers.  bear  his  that  Harunobu  the  significant  remains,  Nap),  the  beginnings  that  leaves  so  print.  position  As with  that  he  i n a book author  no  most  prolific  from  that  option with  but  the  s o u r c e s ^ from  to  the  the  Ukiyo-e.  was  not  of  solely  period  conclude  time  has  history  of  d e v e l o p m e n t of  s u c h , Harunobu  come  support  to  occupy  The  responsible  fact  for  the  technology.  entitled  Shuho  the  prints  connected  Literary  further.  was  many  scholars  made i n p r i n t i n g  1824,  Harunobu  i n some way  however,  innovations  a  was  conclusion  In  fact  signature  polychrome  that a  The  2 -  K a r i ne  Shichizaemon  no  Yume  Raimu  (Dreams  reflected  During  upon  the  of ni s h i k i - e :  As f o r the ni s h i k i - e o f t o d a y : i n the b e g i n n i n g o f Meiwa ( 1 765) t h e r e were v e r y l a r g e numbers of dai sho" s u r i m o n o and p e o p l e s t a r t e d using d i f f e r e n t colours Tn the printing of the woodblocks. Principally t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s o f Okubo J i n s h i r o , a bannerman from Ushigome (a d i s t r i c t ' of Edo) who used the haimyTT [poetic name] K y o s e n , and o f Abe H a c h i n o s h i n Shakei from the wharf i n U s h i g o m e , c l u b s were formed and dai sho" e x c h a n g e d . L a t e r t h e r e were b i g m e e t i n g s i n such p l a c e s as the Yushima t e a h o u s e , but they ended within two y e a r s . From t h a t t i m e , n i s h i k i - e were s o l d on a l a r g e s c a l e t h r o u g h the book s h o p s . ^  It in  i s now  the  development  significance affiliation 1758  to with  entitled  illustrations himself.  known  7  Apart  of  this  Ukiyo-e  can  Shi r i . various  from  i n d i v i d u a l , K y o s e n , and  polychrome  Harunobu's  Segen by  that  this  prints  art. be  of  Documentation  found  This  in  work  Ukiyo-e and  was  the  book  he  contained  artists mention  and of  his  role  particular of  Kyosen's  published a  number by  his  in of  Kyosen name  in  - 3 -  Karine  no  number  of  good  Yume,  deal  dai sh'o  Kyosen  is  Harunobu  prints  of  are  these  the  kyj£k_a_8  the  of  These  the  known  festivities, were  members,  as  they  exchanged  prints  acting  in  signature  mentioned  as  was  the  artist  designs.  To  understand  poets  designs  the  or  in Karine  The  of  the  Based  ( dai  no  in  called  the  a  government, (dai  days  year,  uruzuki  thirteenth were  look  a  large  seal.  no  A  Yume  to  as  and sho)  calendar  system  i n use  cycle,  short  or  cycle  long  it order  was  and  would  that which  their  each y e a r  brief that was  be  an  in  short  was  as  the  calendar. 9 their  with  which  into  their  however,  time  was  very  divided  into  of  intercalary  to to  some  years.  determined  reorganize avoid  any  the  explanation.  thirty  twelve month  i n s e r t e d to make up  occurs  policy so  in  t s u k i ) months  times  club  illustrate  year  no  the  There were g e n e r a l l y  certain  jungetsu  a  Year's  surimono.  which  First,  at  the  ( sKo"  d a i s h'o  information  require  literary  New  ingenuity  example.  prominent  somewhere  to  and  the  year's  chosen  respectively.  lunar be  upcoming  calendar  at  conceal  cleverness  an  in  the  formed  of  style  often  at  lunar  but  part  would the  the  t s u k i ) and  twenty-nine  months  of  calendar on  as  Ukiyo-e  the  Japanese  Japanese  complex.  to  Kyosen,  amongst t h e m s e l v e s  most  integrated  i t i s best  workings  and  designers,  Harunobu  these  including  the  details  short  his  through  (1765) a number of  kyTJkaren,  the  months  type  time,  composition  the  bear  e a r l y Meiwa p e r i o d  poets  societies  and  that  primarily  surimono.  In  long  known  the  for  Which by  the long-  repetition.  - 4 -  In a  addition cycle  to  of  sixty  determined  by  celestial In  ji k kan  twelve of  both  also  counted  rise  of  years  were  pieces  of  latter  its  twelve  new  no  had  official  been  calendar  pictures  exchanged  as  a problem  since  the  sale A  (Figure the  left  KcT,  the  could  reached who  calendrical  gifts  (or  ten  in  the  time,  the  somewhere  lowest  common  kanshi  or  that  the  date. dai  until to  as  they  Of  the  and  the  members, t h e i r  the  government  the  through  only  the  legal  kyo"karen' s  called)  legality  extended  three  i t was  public  were  were  With  the  the  the  cycle"  years  sho*,  Because  government monopoly  "year  proclaimed,  licensed  as  multiple  " e r a names."  was  information.  among c l u b  the  the  released  egoyomi  "ten  within  era  were  or  somewhere  the  from  being  signs."  determine  and  ji k k a n  Furthermore,  new  cycle"  on  zodiac  neng'o", k a n s h i , or  printers,  of  a  "year  the  neng'o" or  successively  one  purveyors  sixty,  called  or  operated  "twelve  same  Because  emperor  information,  or  fall  years.  calendar  both  shi  the  is  sixty  counted  of  would at  the  kanshi  juni  year  i n a system  that  decision  the  and,  every  each  each  shi c y c l e .  and  repeat  alignment,  with  and  each  juni  ten  sho  combination  cycle  year  would  a  words,  dai  years  systems"  other  year  the  were  was  only  never  as  f a r as  Summer  Shower  of c a l e n d a r s .  very 1)  popular provides  of the  print a  figure  conceiver  member o f a p o e t r y  of  entitled  good we  see  the  club.  example the  print On  the  Girl of  the  in  a  egoyomi  signature  and  and  likely  .most  bottom  right  we  genre.  seal  of a  see  To  Hakusei  prominent t h r e e more  -  s i g n a t u r e s , each right  to l e f t ,  the  middle  the  last  almost and  reads  Suriko  (printer),  a publisher's  n i s h i k i-e  style,  competition ^  tion  the  the  kimono  upcoming  characters, ~  On  ) , t h e nengo  (i.e.,  celestial  together the  we  print.  Kinoto  t h e new y e a r in a  calendar  Summer Shower c o n t a i n s  other  have  hidden  been  prints,  only 1  hidden. *  Careful  examina-  reveals  Mixed  the  i n with  o f t h e Meiwa e r a ) .  On  tori,which  ( £  )> one o f t h e  tori  ( V •) ), the Reading  indicate  was s i t u a t e d .  a l l three  these ni  of the c o c k .  print  months i n  Mei wa  f o r K i noto  the y e a r  g e t t h e words  sixty-year cycle  information  in  indicating  of t h e  o f the l o n g  s y s t e m s , and i n k a n a , t h e word  symbol  years  a r e t h e words  second y e a r  ten  i n the  see the c h a r a c t e r d a i  script,  woman's o b i i s t h e c h a r a c t e r  name  prints  clothesline  by a numbering  i n k ana  tradition  of t h e c o l l e c t i v e  a l l .  ( 1 , 2, 3, 6, 8, 1 0 ) .  written  By  i n the i n i t i a l  the  Harunobu,  Ends Goryrj and  to i s s u e  them  i t we  the  zodiac  Suzuki  from  the a r t i s t ' s  b u t because  on  Reading  Ko"shi .  only  required  blowing  followed  year  with  to mention  information. "long"  Yumoto  i t was common  calendar  signifying  seal,  artisans  1  calendar  title.  GakTT ( a r t i s t ) ,  are i n s c r i b e d  of a l l these  of  says  a specific  Ch5k"5 ( b l o c k c u t t e r or e n g r a v e r ) ,  a l l Ukiyo-e  effort  beneath  the f i r s t  says  perhaps  new  placed  5-  varied calendar  these  where i n  The amount o f from  print  systems  to  while  t h e nengTJ o r t h e d a i sho" i n f o r m a t i o n  may  - 6 -  From  the  technical its  of  that  which  I t was  from  the  gorgeousness"  a  new  these  to  several  they  of  The a  he  is  quote  were  consumers pleasure  of  provided  the  and  with who  of  apparent  as  d a i s ho"  of  many  the  one  prints,  examples.  "newly  devised  and  commis-  example, brought  Spurred unique,  artists,  technology  much  designed  artistically  Karine  Tokugawa were  was  on  by  their  through  their  block-cutters,  to  produce  extended  as  and  prints  well  products  themes  Yume m e n t i o n e d A  in  to  No  when he  retainers  the  their  rank  of  the  The  the  art  of  Kyosen  hatamoto the  the  nation  shogun,  It  in  theaters,  frequented  Ukiyo-e.  in and  d u t i e s , they  available  Kabuki  as  samurai  income made them  capital.  they  the  official  services  that  of  unified  and  brothels for  their  doubt  that  bannerman, or  special  v a r i e d with  the  the  a  direct  off.  of  no  Ieyasu  well  districts  teahouses,  is  the  e x h i b i t e d i n a d a i s ho"  tradition.  Ushigome."  salaries  generally  one  i s but  creativity  Japanese, by  their  hand men  It  actually  i s only  The  the  from  from  Hatamoto  although  were  that  received  ky~5karen.  in  Ukiyo-e  appears  designs.  taken  in  created  1603.  hand  Their  it  creativity  Ukiyo-e  created  Yume  printing  of whom Kyosen  with  "bannerman  class,  the  something  their  known  that  the  colours.  content  was  to  efforts  printers,  n i sh i k i-e  appear  prints,  create  combined  the  of - n i s h i k i - e .  ingenuity  desire  of  i n a Summer Shower  should  no  polychrome  members  coincidence  composition  Karine  to  earliest  Girl  no  sioned  in  advancement  impetus  well  account  is  had no  avid the the long  wonder  -  that  they If  had  took  an i n t e r e s t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  to U k i y o - e  literature tions.  arose  nishiki-e  they  their  the l e v e l  Many  i t was to t h e b e n e f i t o f t h o s e  tradi-  impetus  from  taken  subjects  related  to Buddhism  elaborately  the  to  costumed  The c a l e n d a r  sake  than  o f women.  jar.  a simple  a popular  prior  three  theme  depicted  Buddha,  time.  Laozi ,  religious  Another  print,  legend  Buddhism crossed  on a r e e d  which to  for raising  calendar  2,  or  otherwise,  history,  Most o f t e n  appeared  around  to be  i s hidden  a  large  by  print  shown  three  seems  of China  in Figure  in a river.  This  tells  of Bodhidharma,  China  and  the Changjiang  women  and C o n f u c i u s ,  doctrines  Japan, River  and  on  a  simply  3,  three  j a r of  i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n s of  ink p a i n t e r s  The  or  these  f o r example, d e p i c t s  standing  this  to new  in Ukiyo-e.  literature,  i n what  Figure  produce calendar  nothing  d e p i c t i o n of the s u b j e c t , but i t a c t u a l l y  great  standing  to t h e i r  or C o n f u c i a n i s m .  the s u r f a c e  t o Harunobu's  represent  time,  classical  information  On  brought  to  w i t , and a n e c d o t e  that  ladies  provided  i n part  variously disguised  illustrations  sake.  from  they  they  of l i t e r a c y ,  themes  were  societies toward  depicted  themes  o f t h e kyo"ka  dilettantish  responsible  of the p r i n t s  a r t form.  attitude  the  were  particular  members  and t h e c l e v e r n e s s  designs, heights  from  from  -  in that that  and t h e a r t s , Apart  7  a  more  alludes  few c e n t u r i e s  are intended  the founders  to  of the  and J a p a n . depicts  image  a young  i s an a l l u s i o n  the p a t r i a r c h who reed.  was  who  reputed  In t h i s  woman to a  brought to  have  print his  - 8 -  venerable of  image has been  replaced  tation out  4 depicts  as a woman  The p r i n t  either  t o an  In t h i s  carrying may  be  elopement  carrying and  a woman  discovered  that  Shoki  school  of p a i n t e r s  somewhat some  i s depicted  scene  less  subtle  than  These  "parody"  or  hiding prints,  were  which  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and v a r i e t y mi t a t e - e  indicative  produced  the input  of the k y o k a r e n .  Given  Harunobu  invention  little  as  to  classic,  in a  noted  I se  Kano  i n the there i s  themes  in  which  this means  the p r a c t i c e Like  of  calendar  but i n the c r e a t i v e dramatically  as  did  sources.  i n t h e Meiwa  of the calendar  partially  era are f u r t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n s and  responsible for  i t i s astonishing  training.  stream  as w e l l  Perhaps  depiction.  increased  printing,  of h i s early  i t alluded  rendered  mi t a t e - e ,  refers  i s deemed  o f polychrome  i s known  manner.  of t h e i r  early  of the c r e a t i v i t y  that  has been  a simple  numbers  on h i s  of the o f f i c i a l  n o t new to U k i y o - e ,  e n v i r o n m e n t o f 1765 t h e i r  The  work  be  the hidden  known  theme w i t h i n  m i ta te- e  I t should  Ukiyo-e  and  i n two ways;  saw her r e f l e c t i o n  t h e woman  are  beauties  the Japanese  i n the brush  prints  completely  about a young man who, w h i l e  accompanying  "analog,"  a deeper  legend  official  mockery  print.  from  a demon.  while  he i s seen  one o f Harunobu's  on h i s b a c k ,  she was  print,  interpreted  M o n o g a t a r i , or to a p o p u l a r  the  o f one  Shoki , t h e demon q u e l l e r , who had a repu-  hater.  of c h a r a c t e r ,  back.  of  beauty  Harunobu' s g i r l s . Figure  the  by t h e c h a r m i n g  Traditional  t h a t so  historio-  - 9 -  graphy  held  Shigenaga  that  1753,  responsible  for  its  Zoku  Edo  although  they  are  nonetheless  basis  that  and The  in  derived  from  Shigenaga.  observe  more  convincing  time.  only In  a  be  in  the  In  1768  usual  other  singular  Harunobu's  associations  the  artist Harunobu  this  to  an  published  in  design  from  was  EdoMiyage, would  and  Nishimura  view  illustrations  stylistically  comprise  to  this  indeed,  style  p r o d u c i n g at the  they  for  Harunobu  sequel,  similar  related  work e n t i t l e d  Miyage.  diverge  was  work,  The  stated  produced  of  artistically  in Shigenaga's  which  Harunobu  was  (1697-1756).  announcement in  he  work,  Shigenaga's, sort  of  w o r d s , as  example  of  work  a body  a  style  a r t , i t is possible  with  the  styles  of  to  other  artists. It  i s now  acknowledged  stylistic  roots  Nishikawa  Sukenobu  illustrations functioned This record  is  can  prototypes  of  the  Harunobu's  death  indicative  of  seems  to be  associated  by  a  some  Hayashi  his  personal  since  for  of  died  w i t h the N i s h i k a w a  in  f o r the line.  are  which  that  a  of  artist,  to  1  ni s hi k i-e. 2  entry  1751. notion  the  a  two  this  is  men  is  Nonetheless, that  -j n  describing  Whether  between  of  have  discovery,13 an  his  number  appear  Harunobu's  name.  relationship  here  there  Yoshikazu's family,  scholars  o f the K y o t o  books  posthumous  Sukenobu  some s u p p o r t  works  Certainly  picture  Nishikawa  and  a l l Harunobu  i n the  ( d . 1751).  supported  questionable  found  i n Sukenobu's  as  book  be  by  there  Harunobu  was  -  Although strongly becomes  the  established somewhat  w o r k s , meaning any  of at  exponent of which  the  take  described examples  of  are  comparatively his  as  theme, a l t h o u g h  their  format  These,  and of  prints  works  resemble  with  as  little  man,  his  7  with  and There  and  also  foremost  are  better  one  or  bear  no  Chinese a  vague very  n i shi k i-e,  and  the  and  art during is  two  A l l in a l l ,  his  although  a r t , i t will  being  depicting  Sukenobu's,  life  the  a  still  forces this much  this doubt  formto  thesis shed^  be is  light  well.  a Forger of Harunobu's  prints  artistic  resemble  unclear. I  those  they  hoso-e.16  works  the  but  which  are  v a r i o u s h o s o - e , 14  along  concern  early  very  also  shows  There  of  There  early  these  style.  (1735-1785), are  most  connection  None o f  school.  Harunobu  life  the  Kiyomitsu  be  Harunobu's  reminiscent  i n Harunobu's  S h i b a Kokan as  From  by  group  concerned  his early  clearly  some o f K i y o m i t s u ' s  at work  about  primarily  ing  a  later  period  learned  B.  to  his  influences  on  similar  t o 1765.  may  the  considers  Sukenobu's  scenes.1^  Harunobu's  although  ative  Torii  comprise  resemblance few  time  genre  of  scenes,  prints  landscape as  to  connection  evidence,  i f one  issued prior  whatsoever  that  Harunobu visual  problematic  actor  produced  to  through  those  connection  number  Sukenobu  10 -  Harunobu biographical  upbringing,  issued  Prints  prior  to  1765  information there  i t would  be  difficult  is to  and  the  concernimagine  -  the  subsequent  course  the  production  of the f i r s t  of  this  new  enough  technique  would  Between  artist  dominated it  i t seems,  t o be  the f i r s t  achieve, a  seems  forgers. provided  print, before  attracted  inevitable No  doubt,  major  that  Given  stimulus  artist  similar  proportion.  art,  like  following.  his style Harunobu's  h i s a r t would  the  o f t h e new  of  few a f t e r ,  popularity  exponent  an immense p o p u l a r  h i s premature  the g r e a t e s t  determined  The  i n 1 7 7 0 , Harunobu's  tradition.18 that  h i s involvement in  prints.  popularity  him and v e r y  the Ukiyo-e  without  polychrome  1765 and h i s d e a t h  polychrome no  of h i s career  a r t form,  fortunate  11 -  draw  the Like  singularly popularity,  the a t t e n t i o n  and u n t i m e l y  of  death  i n 1770  of  spurious  f o r the issuance  printsbearinghissignature. Between were  compiled  Volume by  Shiba  K"5*kan  passage  a piece  under  Kokan  KT5kai  of the r e g r e t s from  this  Ki w h i c h , the author reads  Hyakka  Shumparo  Inserted  section  o f many  the t i t l e  entitled  (1747-1818).  entitled  a record  short  and p u b l i s h e d  One c o n t a i n e d  section was  1890 and 1892 t h e w r i t i n g s  into  o l d authors Setsurin.19  Hikki^O  this  piece  as t h e t i t l e had about  written was a  implies,  his l i f e .  as f o l l o w s :  When I grew up I studied under Kan~o" Hisanobu (Furonobu). B u t , f e e l i n g t h a J a p a n e s e p a i n t i n g was too commonplace I l a t e r s t u d i e d under So S h i s e k i . At that time the Ukiyo-e master known as S u z u k i Harunobu was m a r v e l l o u s a t d e p i c t i n g t h e manners and customs o f women o f t h e d a y . When he was p a s t h i s fortieth year he s u d d e n l y fell i l l and d i e d . I m y s e l f drew i m i t a t i o n s ( n i semono) o f t h e s e [ p i c t u r e s  A  -  12 -  of h i s ] ; a n d , when they were c u t and p r i n t e d , t h e r e was nobody who c a l l e d them ni semono, and the w o r l d at l a r g e took me to be H a r u n o b u . Fowever s i n c e I was not H a r u n o b u , I d i d not f o l l o w him a b j e c t l y b u t , t a k i n g the art-name H a r u s h i g e , I drew the b e a u t i e s o f our own country with the c o l o r t e c h n i q u e of such C h i n e s e a r t i s t s as Qiu Y i n g and Zhou C h e n . For a picture o f t h e summer m o n t h s , I p a i n t e d a [woman whose] body was v i s i b l e t h r o u g h a t h i n d r e s s , after t h e manner o f C h i n e s e paintings; and f o r a picture of the winter months, a rustic house s u r r o u n d e d by bamboos, a garden w i t h a s t o n e l a n t e r n , etc., shading with pale pink i n k the snow which c o v e r s t h o s e o b j e c t s , l i k e the t r e a t m e n t of snow i n Chinese p a i n t i n g s . I t was about t h i s time t h a t t h e r e came i n t o use the o b j e c t known as b i n s a s h i f o r the h a i r of women, which l e d to a compleTe change i n the s t y l e of c o i f f u r e . T h i s f a s h i o n I p o r t r a y e d , and my pictures became v e r y p o p u l a r . However, as I was afraid that I would lose my good name by these 2 p i c t u r e s , I p a i n t e d them no more. *  This of  confession  Harunobu's  running, which  at  prints  times  itself Often  the  worked  heated  the  K(?kan it in  is  K'Skai  1811,  Ki  a  has  a  question case,  any  compounded  the  by  was  imitations  scholars  a  long-  y e t , unresolved controversy,  of  one  his often  many  before on  such  has  a  about  demonstrated  Kokan's  account  he  of  this of  the  part  document, the  he  may  have was  events  Kokan  them.  There  of but  S h u m p a r"5  arrogance  into  manuscript  reported  the  writings,  his l i f e  Although  time,  that  inclination of  an  of  inserted.  long  reliability  suspicions  he had made  Ukiyo-e  accuracy  Hi k k i ,  meaning  in i t occurred natural  the  period  described been  among  a n d , as  Shumparo  over  that  facets.  questioned  on  completed  initiated  has many  particularly which  by S h i b a Kcfkan  and  scholars in  to  Kokan's  Hi kki  are  propensity  -  to  make  one  himself  seem  of many such  more  passages  13 -  important from  than  he  his diary,  actually  KcFkan  was.  In  writes:  From my y o u t h I was d e t e r m i n e d to become famous. I wanted to l e a r n some a r t f o r which I would be so w e l l known t2 2h a t my name would be remembered l o n g a f t e r my death.  From that  Kokan  achieve is  this was  a person  Kokan  simply  no  doubt  the  question.  accuracy  of  spot  similar  occurred  to  Although  prints  to  some  by  the  become  fact  remains  they  acknowledge  the  evidence  forgeries  have  addressed  to v e r i f y  the  t h e r e are  artist  the  calling  Chinese-style  are  Harunobu.  possibility  that  an  to  the  exist  of  in order  The  who  conclude  same t i m e , i t  of  resemble  but  signed  visual  story  signature  K'okan,  they  itself.  documents  only  could  at the  scholars  K i , the the  one  a forger  but  whole  other  not  prints  although  stylistically In  problems  to p r o c e e d  short, with as  art  Kokan's  though  it  r e l i able . Besides  Kcfkan's  confession a second  same t i m e appeared was  no  These  c o n f e s s i o n , have enough  of  to  a l l the  bearing  described  historians,  his  passages,  in h i s t o r y ,  concocted  Harushige.  paintings  were  willing  o f t h e Kokan K o k a i  number  himself  similar  to q u e s t i o n the c o n f e s s i o n  has  a  other  a significant  possible  that  and  a  a t one  version  as Hyakka in  small  a  questionable  work  of  time the  was  further  Kokan  KcTkai  Setsurin.  The  entitled  Ukiyo  variation  in  one  honesty,  interpretation  clouded  by  the  Ki , p u b l i s h e d  same c o n f e s s i o n Hennenshi.  phrase  from  which  of  existence about  the  quoted  above  However,  there  Arthur  Waley,  -  then  the c u r a t o r  that  Kokan  this  of Asian  stylistic have  would  comparisons  now  unanimously  reasoning  was  rebuttal the  Japanese  so  overwhelmingly  any  Ki  From  from  sound  that  the  These  of  little  o f the e v e n t s  i n 1 7 7 0 , (2) Kokan made  them  Harunobu,  that he  In this  terms  style  sequence  said  to  i s as f o l l o w s :  the time  fact,  in his  reconstructed  According  about  (4) he then  of p a i n t i n g  of v e r i f i a b l e  chronological  another  o f the c o m p a r a t i v e  had r e g r e t s  pseudonym, and (5) about this  t h e Ko"kan  to  being produced  that visual  traditional (1) Harunobu  f o r g e r i e s of h i s p r i n t s  h i s name t o H a r u s h i g e ,  abandoned  been  i t s precise  rise  K"okan  has been  f o r much  died  changed  since  texts,  given  that  scholars.  (3) KcTkan  A r t s , was  scholarship.23  regarding  have  of events  recent  have  of  issue.  implications  the order  o l d Japanese  sharp  the c u r a t o r  contemporary  questions  the  of Fine  ideas  questions  scholars  H i s l i n e of  and  then  of the  these  accepted,  Museum  Although  much  was wrong.  Waley's  o f most  relatively  by  negated  Ko'j i ro" T o m i t a ,  by  a chronology  done  be  concluded  person.  scholars,  Waley  to  that  surrounded  profound  effectively  a t the B o s t o n  f a c e t of t h i s  confession,  consensus  agreed  Museum,  not the same  by U k i y o - e  translation  is  interesting  analysis  made  collection  interpretation.  has  have  to t h e f o o t n o t e s  Like Kok a i  were  too convoluted  i t elicited  relegated  a r t at the B r i t i s h  and H a r u s h i g e  conclusion  14 -  and  signed  a f o r g e r and works  the h a i r s t y l e s  under  changed,  altogether. the f i r s t  are sound.  and l a s t  steps  The K"okan Ko"kai K i ,  of the  - 15  Nishikawa his  family  prints  records,  verify  the in  1770.  The  change  around  1774  and  b i nsa s hi accepts other  in  in fact  scholars  of  then  that  KcTkan  the one  Kokan  the  that  of  However, i t has  been  the  all  while  of  the  prints  Harunobu  implied  by  was  K"o~kan's  be  Ki ,  the  all  events  sequence  contention  a l i v e . 24  one  like  above  signed  of  If  and  that  the  of  some  Harushige i  confession  about  occurred  period.  K*7kai  four  to  of  appearance  must acknowledge  three,  production  mentioned  by  from  in  demise  and  or  produced  drop  Harunobu's  paintings  two,  some  of  sudden  substantiated  and  occur.  chronology  some  other  n  may  be  may  words, open  to  interpretation. This  claim  Kokan was comes  at  is  based  on  the  one  time  a student  primarily  from  a  states and  steps  that  have been the  be  credibility  by  the  hairstyle  s c h o l a r s , I do,  described did  year  can  prints  the  and  -  that  Harunobu  learned  Dutch  description, numerous  artist.  sparse  as  existence  of  number  additional  of  paintings Harunobu's  signed art.  a  the  literary a  in  the  disciple  it  in  achieved  This  a  Harunobu.  is,  fame  source  relationship  he  Harushige Further,  the  between exist.  reveal the  the  a  choice  Kokan,  as only two  Nagasaki  for  this after he  Western-style  evidence men. the  remarkable the  which  styles,27  a  First,  of  to  this  Certainly  different  sought  that  for  RuikT"2 5  travelled  Shiba  of  i s not  arguments  Evidence  painting.26  fits  number  assumption  Ukiyo-e  who  ( European-style)  attempts  eventually  of  passage  had  fundamental  for  Indeed, prints  similarity  name,  the a  and to  Harushige,  16  -  may  indicate  common which  that  he r e c e i v e d  f o r the s t u d e n t s contained  addition,  a  one  -  i t from  Harunobu  of a prominent  reference  Harushige  their  print  to adopt  a name  There  i s , in  teacher.  which  depicts  a  group  admiring  print,  the  implication  that  p r i n t - w i t h i n - a - p r i n t format  was  a  tribute the  to one's  only  family  teacher.28  record  i fo  Ruiko", and i g n o r e s the  justification  to  prints  tutelage.  My  when  those  C.  little  forgeries  the f a c t  that  the  may  which  there of  forgeries sented  been  issue  acquired  the  skill  to  the f a c t  that  many  the  Waterhouse.  by  prints Shiba  following  To c l a r i f y  each  among  bearing  comments  of  remarks  as w e l l  comment  is  as  forger  could  there  under  do  exist,  i s some that  the  How  forgeries and  i t is  thesis.  f o r Determining  scholars  i t can Jack  I have  some  have  Harunobu's  his  Harunobu's  then  their  o f the U k i y o - e  Harunobu  Krikan,  Ki i s  are a m b i v a l e n t .  of t h i s  Criteria  paying  the Nishikawa  produce  forgeries  consensus  of the f o r g e r i e s  Accordingly,  produced  a r e the c o n c e r n  of  implication  this  which  than  perhaps  toward  issued  by  then  resulting  have  i s any  the  other  of  being  the Kokan Kokai  any c l e v e r  evidence,  accept  way  the r e l i a b i l i t y  S t y l i s t i c and C a l l i g r a p h i c Kokan's F o r g e r i e s If  tions  death,  accepts  e  feelings  Kokan  changes  n  other  Harushige  or  /\ncj f i n a l l y ,  o f Harunobu's  diary.29  manipulated  Harunobu  i t was  courtesans this  a  to  artist  in that  as t o  signature best  Hillier  be and  are  repreDavid  provided  illustra-  comparative  material.  accompanied  by  some  visual  17  -  analysis that  which  these  scholars  suspicious In  represents  -  a summation  have  used  of the s t y l i s t i c  to d e t e r m i n e  criteria  authorship  of t h e  prints.  reference  to F i g u r e  5, Jack  Hillier  states:  The exaggerated p e r s p e c t i v e of the f e n c e , the h a i r s t y l e s and t h e form o f t h e s i g n a t u r e have been more or l e s s u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d as c o n f i r m i n g t h i s t o be a p r i n t by S h i b a K o k a n , t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r g e r o f Harunobu's s i g n a t u r e . 3 0  This is  print,  often  compared  entitled tion The  a book  Brocades  son.  i s also about  i n most  example,  in  Shi nagawa.  taken  considered The  of  Haru  woman  a  compared  Harushige's  prints  The  8,  and because  Moon  i s rare Figure  Harunobu's  an  of  or  sinuous  i n compari-  the other  is  seen, f o r  Quarters designs.  5 i s a composite of s i m i l a r  two,  quality  Gay  i n Harunobu's  prints  Book:  prints  and can be the  illustra-  these  is stiff with  print  A compara-  7.31  thin-kneed  in  Snowball,  (Picture  curvaceous  forgery  This  at For  o f m o t i f s and conception, i t  a forgery.32 depicted  forgery,  has a s i m i l a r  fore  attributed  be  i n each  the knees.  a quality  from  thin  as w i t h  in Figure  have  a  conceived  noNishiki  woman  women  Making  similarly  6, as w e l l  Ehon  quite  Figure  Such  reasons  gestures is  entitled  Harunobu's  particularly  these  Dog, F i g u r e  The woman i n t h e assumed  She  common  Harunobu's  of the t a l l e r  that  posture.  titled  of S p r i n g ) , i l l u s t r a t e d  analysis  reveals  i s sometimes  with  The Snow  from  tive  which  to  in Figure  9, a p r i n t  thinness  about  KTJTkan.  This  also  the knees print  considered  a  and can t h e r e -  also  illustrates  -  another the  feature  case,  The  of  an  The  the  is  Figure  10.  prints.  On  contrary,  The  from taller  the  knees  anatomical The  right  of  leg. sed leg,  the  leg.  This above. the  his  that  two  occasions.  the  to  to  the  can  be  Archery  in  look  ability  more K"Jkan  ankle The  exist  cursory  the  foot  f o o t and  of  lower  designs.  entitled  a  remarkable  in  Figure  Figures  left  Although  two  Harunobu's  at  any  depict  the  drapery  and,  Waterhouse states:  has  as  has  women  of  his  the  her  foot  weight  11  does  as  well  not  reference  Figure s h~5~j i .  past  the  than  in F i g u r e  depict  the  i t too  s u c h , most l i k e l y to  another  primarily  swing  implies that  made  a  thinness  has  prints.  i s much l o n g e r  seen  same  she  opening  i s about to leg  the  9 h a v e , but  with  be  Figure  also  in Harushige's  leg  can  11  5 and  found  peculiarity  He  print  lack  and  than  of  the  even  pendulating  tomically incorrect David  of  problems  is standing  the  shape of  top  always  angle.  woman  The  stiffer  such  Brothel, depicts  leg while  bearing  No  ankle,  Harunobu's  the  Harushige  peculiarity  Fukagawa  taller  any  in  problems  Gal 1 e r y ,  about  another  foot,  generally  joining  with  correctly  not  of  of  reveal  i t is  structure  morphological  will  Although  shows a d i s c e r n i b l e  renderings  way  the  style. he  compared  designs  •  correct  -  prints  itself  awkward  ankle.  his  the  leg  anatomically has  Kokan s  i n many of  understanding leg.  1  of  18  The  on  her  weight-  the 8  12,  right  discus-  pendulating  would  be  ana-  a forgery. Figure  13  on  two  -  19 -  . . . a p r i n t in T o r o n t o , with i t s experimental use of Western p e r s p e c t i v e , marks the t r a n s i t i o n to the use o f the H a r u s h i g e s i g n a t u r e , though i t i s s t i l l s i g n e d Harunobu.33 In  addition,  he  comments  that:  The s h a r p l y r e c e d i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , the a n g l e of the kamuro's h e a d , the c o l o u r i n g and the form of the s i g n a t u r e a r e a l l u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c even of Harunobu's l a s t manner. I t may t h e r e f o r e be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p r i n t i s one o f the i m i t a t i o n s done by S h i b a Ku"kan i n the y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g Harunobu's death.34  According  to  W a t e r h o u s e , KcTkan, i n what a p p e a r s  characteristic anatomical been it  limits  twisted  appears From  the  the  prints  ever,  these  above of  the  prints. about the  wise  be  knees  fact  that  any  the  present  considerable the  found covers  in  which  are  kamuro's  has  not  i n the  9,  some of the  for  prints  found  in  summary  of  that  the  and  in  discern  none  of  the  and  make How-  one  the In  certain  and  further KcTkan's  as we  forgeries  of  thin-  feet,  t h a t might  Harushige.  prints,  13  every  women's a n k l e s  signed  among t h o s e  a  forgeries.  complicated to  neck.  forgeries.  irregularities  used  Furthermore,  11,  present  other  is  the  head  apparent  f o r e x a m p l e , shows  being  faults  5,  .candidates  matter  his  is  a  the  atop  it  been  misunderstood  presented  Figures  structural  variation  The  set haphazardly  13,  a l l of  same  form.  scholars,  This  again  have  inconceivable point.  likely  qualities  in  once  discussion,  most  visible.  show  an  other  drapery  obscuring  some  to  Figure  the  him,  human  irregularities  thus  not  the  irregularities  these  prints,  for  i f i t were  analyses  these  of  backward  as  anatomical  ness  problem  to  otherby  the  hand  are  There  is  have  while  seen, others  - 20 -  reveal, is  on o c c a s i o n ,  fortunate  anatomical such  Hillier  artists  and  as b e i n g  comparison  of a  reveals  Figure  Harunobu's  prints  o f the human  assigned  have o t h e r  leave  number  to  form.  It  based  on  Kokan  peculiarities  can be haru  the t h i r d  strokes.  that  support  form  o f the  between gave  configuration, quite Harushige's  character  to c o i n c i d e  (  ).  No  15.  signature,  Harunobu's ) i n such  character from  a  taller  opening  by  practice a way  to  as t o  diagonal  broader,  squarish  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  character  raising  that  the i n t e r s e c t i o n is left  while  In the c h a r a c t e r  and some o f t h e f o r g e r i e s .  with  o f both  i t and the two i n t e r s e c t i n g  different  prints  stroke 7^  o f Harunobu's  ) , i t was  that  A  F o r the sake o f c o m p a r i -  in Figure  (^  of Kokan.  o f the s i g n a t u r e s  differences.  seen  the  o f t h e hand  horizontal stroke  This  the  indicator  14 i s a Ko"kan f o r g e r y style  mentioned  o f examples  two main  an o p e n i n g  made  Waterhouse  another  the s y l l a b l e  inscribe  in  perception  attributions.  signature  for  the  irregularities  Both  son  that  a sound  between  KcTkan u s u a l l y  third  horizontal  o f t h e two  i t and the  diagonals  intersecting  diagonals. There Kokan  a r e some  formed  Harushige central  the c h a r a c t e r  as w e l l  vertical  horizontal  (  d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l  ga. ( \1L'  )•  as i n h i s f o r g e r i e s , stroke  strokes  configuration  noticeable  )•  In the p r i n t s he sometimes  so as to l e a v e  unconnected On r a r e  from  i n the way signed  o m i t t e d the  t h e top and t h e bottom  the c e n t r a l  occasions  he  Harunobu  element would  o f the fail  to  -  connect  the  prints  top  the  bottom  calligraphic 13  to Kokan  D.  stroke stroke  analysis, is  forgeries by  most  depict  who  have  figural able the  who  thesis, as has Much  been of  forgeries a  lesser  of  this  to  chosen  the  all  5,  on  9,  his this  11,  and  of  the  is  to  ( F i g u r e 5, degree.  a  bearing  of  Shiba  perspective  here of  said and  of do  and  to  13),  this  signature  and  reli-  understanding demand of  the  to  the  argument of  this  describe  and  define  term  Harunobu  about  of  singlemost  what they  by  scholars  presence  Since  and  composition.  a l l other  the  KcFkan.  prints  perspective  the  the  as  attribution,  these  Harunobu  i s fundamental  representative  11,  as  the  an  linear  Indeed,  work  be  of  this,  regarded  art  features  such  elements  be  them  the  use  to  linear  as  to  issue.  i t is appropriate  what  on  Based  Figures  support  i s the  a print  i s using  i t relates  of  ).  d i f f e r e n c e between  refer  come  of  to  background  in  has  indicator  artist  the  device  mechanics  ( L^l  but  calligraphic  scholars  Waterhouse  style  and  designs  addressed  pictorial  manner,  attribution  noticeable  Kokan  and  the  helped  Harunobu  Hillier  same  i s connected  stylistic  authentic to  the  Criteria  the  which  f a r the  -  corroborated.  Compositional  Besides  in  21  and  his  example i t will  although  forger. of  apply  the to  this  Figure 9 forgeries. the  other  i n some i n s t a n c e s  to  - 22 -  On 9 fits lady of  the well  within  print.  his  given the  most b a s i c  day,  much the  same way  as  certain is  difference  The  lies  extended  sect  at  the  illusion commonly To choose  at  be  terms  of of  the  point in  as  the  as  from  with  is  picture  women always  forgery, plane,  of  print  different  norm.  i n which  in  Apart  the  radically  delineate  the  a  recession  few  the  That  architec-  and  recede  into  moves  toward  the  discrepancies, the  print  motif,  i f those  they  KTTkan  using  architectural  would  has  the  lines inter-  created  visual  the  system  perspective. linear  In  level  point  the  p i c t u r e plane  that  position  same  vertical  to  horizon.  at  the  the  this  compositional  on  scene.  vantage  are  of  entire  the  In  the  manner  the  this  stationary  the  subject  structure  bounds  linear  successful  situated  tion  converge  depth  depict  beautiful  depicted.  begin  defined  one  depicts is  of  Harunobu's  which  past  the  Figure  i n Harunobu's w o r k s .  that  the  theme,  venue,  of  to  compositional  in  or  design.  close  used  same  choice  characteristics  Apart  subject  n i s h i k i-e  overall  Ko*kan  line.  were  his  that  distance,  horizon  the  primarily  lines  his  f i g u r e s appear  have been  s t r u c t u r e , and the  the  considered  motifs  of  situated  however,  what  bulk  within  of  most common  accordingly  is  this,  tural  the  figure  possesses from  and  that  Harunobu's  far  prominence  human  from  By  level,  in  perspective, from  these as  dimensions  prints,  the  this of  which  the he  print the  is  vantage  line.  so  much  and point  The  relatively  design,  must  observes  that  horizon  artist  posilow so  in that  -  the  roof  of  composition. that  the  structure  This  the ground  23 -  dominates  low v a n t a g e  plane  will  point  recede  the  upper  effectively  almost  half  o f the  predetermines  h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t o the  distance. Linear  perspective  dimensional in  must  background to  depict  front  supported  landscape.  farther  away  By  to o p t i c a l  contrast,  design.  type  aerial angle  from  of  which  plane.  sensation  structure design.  fixed  overlap  picture  compositional  above,  prints  as  composition  seen  is  could  ground  The t i l t that  t o the  vantage  point  i f one  i s in  and  plane.  design  i n the  clarity By  bears  as  applying a  close  reality.  Harunobu's  the  as  in size  do  not use  known  as  plane  tilts  o f t h e ground  the f u r n i t u r e  conceivably  slide  and down  a  this  motifs  f o r example  p e r s p e c t i v e , and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c at  picture  the same  diminish the  illusion  recession  F o r t h e most p a r t , h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  depicted  This  they  that  i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  similar  His motifs  from  his  a  on a two  e n d , the r e c e s s i o n  at f i r s t  used  o f depth  must m a i n t a i n  that  by  KTJkan  and  principles,  resemblance  the  be  the l a n d s c a p e .  get  these  To  as i t i s d e f i n e d  of the o t h e r ,  they  and  composition.  horizon,  motifs,  the i l l u s i o n  s u r f a c e , but the a r t i s t  the e n t i r e  distant  creates  type  a r e viewed  in Figure  b i r d ' s-eye-v i ew  common to t h e s e vertically plane  of  16. or  i s the  toward  the  gives  the v i e w e r  the f i g u r e s  i n s i d e the  to  the  bottom  of the  -  Much scenes an the  the  as  iris  same  well.  pond  that  subject  is  point.  vertical  tilt  which  point In  same s h i f t  in vantage  figure  the  third the if  as  tional 1,  in  d e s k , has she  been  16  would  types  he  the  calendar  female  subjects  One  notes  level,  and  recession, only.  fairly  in  of  level,  are  worked  in  are  on  placed 1  in  not  of  Like  in  which  bird's-eye  characteristic  distant  view.  It  shifted  his  view  of  the  i n t e r i o r , much  the  direct  frontal  insofar  as  concerned. kneeling  the  standing  However, to  as  limited other  of  many  represent are  many  earlier,  the  the  there  the  the  do  There  that  considerably but  a  its  same way  two  discussed  though  18  setting  Harunobu  girl  the  only  with.  print  artist  a  the  bridge.  that  are  shore  the  the  the  side  of  setting,  as  above.  17  Figure  the  print  i s apparent  e x p e c t , they  even  Figure  landscape  and  has  exterior  the  from  architectural  print,  from  the  appreciable  calligrapher  depicted  16,  in  at  plank  depicted  a more  the  point  that  were viewed  one  16,  young  figure  Figures and  Figure  lovers  plane  in this  Harunobu  simple  Figure  any  accommodate  by  two  a  been  prevents  figures.  and  in  ground  evident  to  used  by  has  The  -  depicts  spanned  placed  particularly  vantage  17  was  structure  is  vantage  is  Figure  architectural  the  design  24  very  ample  plane room  similar which of  is  hand  depicts  i n the  setting  settings.  the  The  a  deep  foreground  background  ground in  Figure  Harunobu's  depict  to  architectural  to  to  attention  vista.  composi-  comparatively  his  deep  prints,  a l l the  simplest  ground  is  in  Harunobu  the  plane  a is  foreground  - 25 -  has  been  conceived  in aerial  composed  o f two  juxtaposed  prints.  Despite  this  virtually  no  system  depict  the a r c h i t e c t u r e  are  considered  the  Kokan's  This  relationship  i s common  which  possess  forgeries,  according  is precisely  forgeries.  This  of compositional  designs  visual  p e r s p e c t i v e . 35  views,  variety  Harunobu of  perspective.  nor  type  of d e s i g n ,  among  Harunobu's  t y p e s , there are the s i n g l e  are there  to t h e p r i n c i p l e s why  Figures  united  any of  that  linear  5, 9 , 1 1 , and 1(3  What r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r  examination i s ,  of l i n e a r  perspective  with  the a r t o f  by  the c o n c e p t  of  linear  the p r i n t s  of  Harunobu's  Shiba  Kokan.  E.  came  The  Issue  The  process  t o be  Shiba  associated  may  with  K"okan, i s t h e t o p i c  concerned. of  which  this  It i s d i f f i c u l t  process  change  1740's.  that  at t h i s  views.  linear  that  Speaking  in  a r t at that  time  this  point much  the  is primarily  to p r o v i d e  a  history argue  i t i s important  was  i n wide  i n Japanese  only  thesis  forger,  o f what I w i l l  Nonetheless  perspective  a r t but n o n e x i s t e n t  36  which  f o r the reason  existing  understand European  with  perspective  practice  a r t before  broadest  to in  the e a r l y  generalizations,  I' Japanese  representing  the world  in  art.  European  imported admired,  European  The  d i d not e x p r e s s  i n the o p t i c a l l y concept  i d e a , and l i k e  experimented  with,  of  t h e same c o n c e r n f o r  realistic  linear  European  practised,  manner  perspective a r t i n general  and  taught  by  found  was  an  i t was a  very  / <  -  select found  few  Japanese  i t worthy  individual. he  was  the  also  a  art  Painting).  the  traditional  of  of  but  European  theory  opened. his  role  By  L o o k i n g back  from  monumental.  assumed  style  it  which  and  our  of  to  shows t r a c e s  treatise  on  of  linear  extolled  K"Jkan s the  painting  vantage  any  of Western  of  art  floodgates  art  why  time,  concepts  outpouring the  the  1  as  had  point,  appears  reputation  see  Western  Japanese  Japanese  his  easy  of  of  i n which  that  in o i l  criticizing  Before  in  that  number  use  twentieth-century  \ Wn'th  is  made  voluminous  impression  at  his t r e a t i s e  Japan.  his  his  while  instances  Westernization  learning,  Harunobu  both  a  man  of  print  in  the  influence  would  be  to be h i s .  Although really  the  of  a  such books,  interest  (Discussion  expression  comparison, the  Dan  was  in  which  produced  also  reasons, one  found  similar  techniques  found  he  of was  process,  a  device  isolated  one  and  European  few  gives  in  central  a  Kokan  his paintings  aesthetics  art  traditions. and  and  Shiba  and  note  Seiyo"ga  Western  visual  were  took  idea, Of  etchings  variety  etching  He  foreign  a  descriptions  as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l  virtues  there  the  works.  His  perspective  from  entitled  for  attention.  in Japan.  European-looking Western  their  6 -  who,  copper-plate  unknown  painting,  artists  Working  reproduced  time  of  2  no  produced 1780's,  38  this  seems  justifiable in and  1783,37  a  logic his  his treatise  reasonable to  first was  i t . oil  assumption,  Ko"kan's  first  painting  written  in  there  etching  appeared  1799.  39  in  is was the  A l l these  - 27  accomplishments,  monumental  Harunobu's  i n 1770.  the  death  Western-style  forgeries years able  produced  and  he  oil  this  reached  paintings,  notion.40  the  period  linear  of  with  those  forgeries  style?  that  The  we  that  bearing  reminiscent  of  Harunobu's  Harunobu's  influence  sometime etchings  to  support during  the  influence  Furthermore, a  unique  Shiba  the  of  totally  of  the  art  as  would  Harunobu,  foreign  historical a  European-style  of  not  contain  to  events  product  Perhaps  which  if  composi-  Ko"kan, why  prints  forger.  of  reason-  European-derived,  indeed  signature  is  forgeries  to  something logic  ten  evidence his  hand of  acquired  produce  Harunobu. is  his  It  p o s s i b l e that  affected his  the  is  forging  internal  consider  environment prints  the  i n t e n t of  Harunobu's requires  of  the  to  to  introduction  perspective  KcTkan, in  a r t began  able  produced  affected  after  Shiba  he  prints.  there  i f he  indicative  introduce  the  being  long  perspective  i n European  indeed,  also  linear  element  acting  same  and  between  reputation  spurious  of  formative  receiving  Western-style  he,  the  interest  However, his  by  point  occurred  linear  perspective, i t is entirely  was  tional  the  the  those  his  were,  connection  and  supported  to assume t h a t  before  he  he  be  they  The  artist,  cannot  after  as  -  the  a l l of  elements art  are  forgeries. The using ICokan.  i n t e n t of  linear  perspective  Although  scrutinized,  this  the  the  thesis as  i s to  an  opinions  reevaluate  indicator of  argument p r e s e n t e d  some below  of  the  the  hand .of  scholars i s not  validity  have  of  Shiba been  a criticism  of  -  their  efforts.  forgeries  vity  conclusions  previously discussed  calligraphic suspect  The  28  the  with  analyses  provide  authorship  which  not  extend  to  and  stylistic  they  of use  a l l the  they are  the  this  work  with  Western  Style  will  than  reassess  the  more  argue  influence be  that  of  An  Art"  stylistic  and to  exclusi-  criterion  may  compositional  problem  Western  art.  Evidence  to  implications  of  and The  the  sources  will  become of  Thus,  his while  Kokan  forgeries,  this  issue  o f We s t e r n - s t y 1 e  from  central  thesis  is  few  this  the  this  Harunobu  specific  concerned  that  under view  evidence  his  Who  forgeries.  worked  encounter  also  art in Japan.  a  Artist  implies  support  placing  generation's addressing  of  himself  which in  Ukiyo-e  clearly  Harunobu  context  culture.  the  However, the  particular  times  discussed.  wider  that  regarding  in themselves  perspective  at  presented,  inspiration  Their  cause  prints.  "Harunobu:  Experimented  will  sound.  linear of  reached  configuration.  Entitling  do  have  sufficient  those  prints  -  derived  the  be his  art within  the  European  issue with  I  will  will  with  I  the  of  the  wider  -  NOTES  29 -  CHAPTER 1  1  Quoted from J a c k H i l l i e r , S u z u k i Harunobu: An E xh i bi ti o n of H i s C o l o u r - P r i n t s a n d l l l u s t r a t e d Books on t h e O c c a s i on of t h e B i c e n t e n a r y o f ' H i s Death i n 17 7TJ ( P h i l adel phi a: P h i l a del p h i a Museum oT A r t , 1970) , p~. 10. Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b u .  2  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , Western a r t h i s t o r i a n s have t r a n s l a t e d the term n i s h i k i - e as " b r o c a d e p i c t u r e s , " but t h i s has l e d many t o b e 1 i e v e t h a t t h e a r t i s t s o f Harunobu's time chose t h i s name t o l i k e n t h e i r p r i n t s to c o l o u r s and t e x t u r e s o f brocade f a b r i c s . In f a c t , the f i r s t use o f the term i n r e f e r e n c e to woodblocks o c c u r r e d i n 1771 i n the t i t l e of a book Ehon Haru no Nishiki (Picture Book of Spring B r o c a d e s ! i l l u s t r a t e d by Harunobu b u t p u b l i s h e d a f t e r h i s death. The word n i s h i k i h e r e was p r o b a b l y borrowed from the t i t l e o f a book p u b l i shed i n Kyoto i n 1739 by Sukenobu e n t i t l e d H a n a Mus ubu N i s h i k i - e ( B r o c a d e P i c t u r e Entwined w i t h F l o w e r s ) which was an i n s t r u c t i o n a l manual teaching the h a n d i c r a f t p r a c t i s e d w i d e l y by women o f the time i n which a picture was made by g l u i n g shaped pieces of coloured cloth on a d r a w i n g . An a l t e r n a t i v e argument, p r e s e n t e d i n D a v i d W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e . The Devel opment o f Col our P r i n t i n g T n J a p a n (Londo"n~: British Museum, 1964T~] TI ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e ) , p o i n t s out t h a t two e r o t i c books from C h i n a had Tn t h e i r t i t l e s t h e c h a r a c t e r f o r the word g i n , which t r a n s l a t e s as b r o c a d e . Whether the w r i t e r s o f the time had r e f e r r e d to t h e s e books i s as y e t u n a n s w e r e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d as w e l l t h a t the e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s to polychrome prints often called them Azuma n i s h i k i-e ( B r o c a d e p i c t u r e s o f the E a s t ) p e r h a p s to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r i d e n t i t y with Edo, the E a s t e r n c a p i t a l .  3  T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s a c c u r a t e i n a g e n e r a l sense i n t h a t i t r e f e r s to Ukiyo-e a r t i s t s . T h e r e a r e , however, q u i t e a v a r i e t y o f i l l u s t r a t e d b o o k s , d a t a b l e t o the e a r l y p a r t o f the eighteenth c e n t u r y , which were p r i n t e d in several colours. These are d e s c r i b e d at length i n Waterhouse, Harunobu and H i s A g e , p . 18. I t h i n k i t i s p r o p e r to maintain a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e and the p o l y c h r o m e p r i n t s i s s u e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the U k i y o - e t r a d i t i o n . It i s clear in literary s o u r c e s from t h e time ( m i d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) , some o f which a r e d i s c u s s e d below, t h a t t h e i n c e p t i o n o f p o l y c h r o m e p r i n t i n g was a h i s t o r i c ally s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t , b r o u g h t about by the e f f o r t s o f p e o p l e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e U k i y o - e t r a d i t i o n , i n a manner i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p r e c e d e n t s d i s c u s s e d by W a t e r h o u s e .  -  30 -  4  There seem t o be a number of c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints regarding this discovery. One group o f w r i t e r s , which i n c l u d e s B a k i n (1767-1848) and K i t a m u r a Nobuyo ( d . 1 8 5 6 ) , a s s e r t s t h a t "a wood-block c u t t e r named K i n r o k u had a t a l k with a p r i n t e r . They d e v i s e d s o m e t h i n g which would f i x the a l i g n m e n t on t h e w o o d b l o c k s , and f o r t h e f i r s t time produced p r i n t i n g i n four or f i v e c o l o u r s . " Ota Nampo, and t h e c o m p i l e r o f - t h e U k i y o - e Ruiko" c o n t e n d e d t h a t a d e v i c e c a l l e d a ken to was i n v e n t e d 5y Demura K i c h i e m o n i n 1744. T h i s d e v i c e , which c o n s i s t e d o f marks c a r v e d i n t o the c o r n e r s o f t h e b l o c k s e n a b l e d t h e c o r r e c t r e g i s t r a t i o n of t h e p a p e r as i t was p a s s e d from b l o c k t o b l o c k . This controversy was discussed at length by Waterhouse i n Harunobu and H i s A g e , p. 1 5 , b u t H i l l i e r , i n Suzuki H a r u n o b u , \T. m e n t i o n s t h e s c h o l a r s h i p o f Shi g e k i c h i M i h a r a , who b e l i e v e d that the a r t i s a n s o f t h e 1760's d e v i s e d a s m a l l wedge c a l l e d a k u i k i which was i n s e r t e d between t h e k e n to and t h e paper i n such a way as t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f both t h e paper and t h e b l o c k s as t h e wet p i g m e n t s were a p p l i e d .  5  In t h e A n t h o l o g y o f P r o s e and V e r s e w r i t t e n i n 1767, there i s the f o l l o w i n g  by Neboku statement:  Bunshu,  ". . . i n t h e manner o f t a k i n g impressions of p r i n t s e v e r y t h i n g i s changed i n t h e e a s t e r n c a p i t a l , t h e s h e e t s c o l o u r e d w i t h b e n i - e no l o n g e r f i n d a m a r k e t . Harunobu d e p i c t s a l l s o r t s o f men and women i n t h e most e l e g a n t manner." T h i s p a s s a g e was t a k e n from J a c k H i l l i e r , The J a p a n e s e Print: A New A p p r o a c h ( L o n d o n : G. B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p~. 6 2 , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to a H i l l i e r , New A p p r o a c h . The Harunobu passage:  entry  in  the Ukiyo-e  R u i k'o  includes  this  "From t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f Meiwa he drew and put o u t Azuma n i s h i k i-e and was t h e i r o r i g i n a t o r a t t h i s t i m e . " (Taken from W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s A g e , p . 16.) 6  This passage appeared i n i t i a l l y i n K i k u c h i Sadao, Ukiyo-e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 176. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f f e r e d here i s from M a t t h i F o r r e r , Egoyomi and Surimono: T h e i r H i s t o r y and D e v e l o p ment (Vi t h o o r n : J . C . G i e b e n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 5.  7  According to Hillier, Suzuki Harunobu, p. 10, the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Segen Shui a r e Tn £h~e s t y l e o f S u k e n o b u , a Ky'oto a r t i s t wFo d i e d Tn 1750 . Contemporary scholars a g r e e u n a n i m o u s l y t h a t Harunobu's p r i n t s were d e r i v e d from the Sukenobu s t y l e and t h a t h i s major s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n was Sukenobu's b o o k s . Perhaps s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s i n  -  31  -  Sukenobu b r o u g h t Kyosen and Harunobu together sometime p r i o r to 1765. T h i s seems a l i t t l e more than a c o i n c i dence when one c o n s i d e r s as w e l l the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the term n i s h i k i - e may have come from one of Sukenobu's books. See f o o t n o t e 2, t h i s c h a p t e r , f o r more d e t a i l s . 8  Kyoka p o e t r y i s w r i t t e n i n the same form as the more t r a d i t i onal comic waka o f the Heian period. It i s , h o w e v e r , v e r y much a p r o d u c t of the mid-Edo p e r i o d , i n that i t was filled with the vulgar language commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p l e a s u r e q u a r t e r s of Edo.  9  Very l i t t l e i s known of the s t r u c t u r e and membership of the k y o k a r e n , nor t h e i r r e a s o n , f o r commemorating the new y e a r w i t h such an e v e n t . The i n i t i a l e v e n t , h e l d i n 1765, was f o l l o w e d by a much s m a l l e r one i n 1766 . After that d a t e , t h e r e a r e a l m o s t no e x t a n t dai sho" p r i n t s f o r a l m o s t a decade.  10  I t was not a c o m p e t i t i o n i n b u t i t i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as  the t r u e such.  sense  of  the  word,  11  The dai sh"5~ p r i n t was not a new idea. T h e r e are a number of exampl es from earlier times, but they appear only sporadically, in sharp contrast to the large numbers d a t i n g from 1765 and 1766. M a t t h i F o r r e r ' s Egoyomi and S u r i m o n o , p. 39, c o n t a i n s a l i s t of most of them. Ti Ts -arguabl e > why so many exist from the Meiwa period. Obviously, a calendar o u t l i v e s i t s u s e f u l n e s s at y e a r ' s e n d , and many examples of e a r l i e r y e a r s c o u l d have been discarded. On the o t h e r h a n d , the f a c t t h a t the Meiwa examples were so . i n n o v a t i v e could account for their p r e s e r v a t i o n o v e r the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s .  12  In D a v i d W a t e r h o u s e , " S u z u k i Harunobu: Some R e f l e c t i o n s on the Bicentenary of H i s Death (1970)," Oriental Art (Winter 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 345, the author discussel both the h i s t o r y of t h i s v i e w p o i n t and the main examples which h e l p to s u b s t a n t i a t e i t .  13  Yoshikazu H a y a s h i , "Sukenobu k a r a U k i y o - e , No. 11 ( T o k y o , 1 9 6 4 ) .  14  Hoso-e i nches  15.  M a r g a r e t 0. G e n t l e s . The C l a r e n c e Buckingham C o l l e c t i o n ofJapanese Prints. Harunobu, K o r y U s a i , Shigemasa. T h e i r F o l l o w e r s and C o n t e m p o r a r i e s ^ Vol . TI ( C h i c a g o : The A r t Institute 57 Chicago, 1965) , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as G e n t l e s , AIC, illustrates a number of Harunobu's early works.  refers by 5.5  to a t y p e inches.  of  print  Harunobu  e  no  keifu,"  g e n e r a l l y measuring  12.5  - 32  -  16.  An example of K i y o m i t s u ' s l a n d s c a p e W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s Age, p.  17  Hillier i n Suzuki H a r u n o b u , p. 9, n o t e s t h a t many o f Harunobu's e a r l y p r i n t s bear the mark of a p u b l i s h e r named Suzuki. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t he perhaps came from a f a m i l y of p r i n t e r s .  18  See G e n t l e s , A . I . C . f o r a c o m p l e t e of Harunobu's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  19  Hyakka S e t s u r i n  20  The o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t o f the Shumparo H i k k i was i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f Kanda T a k a h i r a a nel was t r a n s c r i b e d f o r the Hyakka S e t s u r i n by "Otsuki ShTTji; i t can be found i n Volume 1, p p . 119-1187.  21  E v e r y s c h o l a r who has c o n f r o n t e d t h i s i s s u e has o f f e r e d a t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage. The v a r i e t y i s immense, and the nuances each conveys are quite different. After comparing a number o f v e r s i o n s w i t h the o r i g i n a l and a number o f r e w r i t e s i n modern J a p a n e s e , I have c o m p i l e d and edited them into the form quoted here. The middle s e c t i o n , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the word 'At' and e n d i n g w i t h the word 'Ch'en" i s taken from David Waterhouse, "Suzuki Harunobu: Some R e f l e c t i o n s on the B i c e n t e n a r y o f H i s Death ( 1970)," O r i e n t a l A r t ( W i n t e r ' 1971) , p. 348. The remainder is from Kb" j i r~U T o m i t a , "Shiba KTTkan and Harushige Identical," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine LV ( 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 67.  22  T h i s passage was taken from C a l v i n F r e n c h , S h i b a KTTk a n Artist, I n n o v a t o r and P i o n e e r ' i n the- W e s t e r n i z a t i o n o f Japan (New York: Weatherh i 1 1 , 1974 ) , p~. Tfi~, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as F r e n c h , S h i b a K"ok a n. Other examples o f Kokan's a r r o g a n c e can be found on pa~ges 44, 5 1 , and 114 o f t h i s book.  23  The e n t i r e argument can be found i n A r t h u r W a l e y , " S h i b a K"5kan and H a r u s h i g e not I d e n t i c a l , " Burlington Magazine L1 1 ( 1 9 2 9 ) , pp. 178, 183 and Koj i r"o Tomi t a , "ThTba K"5kan and H a r u s h i g e I d e n t i c a l , " B u r l i n g t o n Magazine LV (1929), pp . 6 6 - 7 3 .  24  Japanese s c h o l a r s seem more i n t e n t on d e a l i n g w i t h this issue than do Western scholars. See the following: Masanobu Hosono, "Harushige ni tsuite," Museum (Toky'o K o k u r i t s u Haku Butsukan B i j u t s u S h i , No. 233"^ Aug. 1970 ) , pp. 22-29. Jo H i g u c h i , " S h i b a Kokan ( H a r u s h i g e G i s a k u ) to Suzuki Harunobu," Bunka s h i g a k u , No. 42 (1986), pp. 22-41.  (Tokyo:  style 188.  can  sampling  of  be  seen  the  in  works  Y o s h i k a w a KTTbunkan, 1 8 9 2 ) .  - 33  Much of what t h e s e i n the t e x t of t h i s the  authors thesis.  Hosono c i t a t i o n ,  -  believe  been  summarized  25  See  26  The o r i g i n s of Dutch or E u r o p e a n - s t y l e a r t i n Japan i s one o f the s u b j e c t s d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n t h i s t h e s i s i n a v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s . For t h a t r e a s o n I w i l l not d e f i n e i t at t h i s p o i n t . I t w i l l s u f f i c e to say t h a t Kokan f i g u r e d prominently in i t s propagation through Japanese a r t . It s h o u l d be n o t e d here t h a t when I speak of W e s t e r n - s t y l e a r t I am r e f e r r i n g to m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d a f t e r the e x p u l s i o n of the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . Although i t i s true that they and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s produced W e s t e r n - s t y l e art, i t went u n d e r g r o u n d d u r i n g the p e r s e c u t i o n and had no e f f e c t on the l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s .  27  The Kokan KTJkai k i c o n f e s s i o n q u o t e d above a c c o u n t s f o r t h r e e 57 the s t y l es he e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h , t h o s e b e i n g the KancT s t y l e , So" S h i s e k i ' s s t y l e a n d , of c o u r s e , the U k i y o - e s t y l e. Most o f h i s work has been r e p r o d u c e d i n F r e n c h , Shiba Kokan.  28  This  29  H i g u c h i ( f o o t n o t e 24) c o n d u c t s an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s o f Kokan K"o"kai k i , s t r e s s i n g the passages i n which K"okan d e m o n s t r a t e d some knowledge of Harunobu i n such a way as to p e r h a p s i n d i c a t e t h a t he knew Harunobu p e r s o n a l l y .  30  Jack  31  T h i s book was p u b l i s h e d one y e a r a f t e r Harunobu's d e a t h , but i n the p r e f a c e the a u t h o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t Harunobu was i n d e e d the a r t i s t . See H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b u , p. 23 5.  32  In h i s a n a l y s i s of F i g u r e 1, H i l l i e r a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t the hairstyles in this print were unlike those in Harunobu's prints. As he did not s p e c i f y what these d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e , I can o n l y assume t h a t he was referring to what appear to be " s i d e l o c k s " j u s t above the e a r s . If he considered these to be similar to the "sidelocks" supported by the bi ns as hi of which Ko"kan spoke i n h i s c o n f e s s i o n , then he was w r o n g , and a c o m p a r i s o n of the h a i r s t y l e s i n F i g u r e 1 w i t h Kokan's p a i n t i n g s w i l l r e v e a l p r e c i s e l y how the a p p e a r a n c e of t h e s e " s i d e l o c k s " changed when b i n s a s h i were u s e d .  33  Some R e f l e c t i o n s on D a v i d W a t e r h o u s e , " S u z u k i Harunobu: the B i c e n t e n a r y of Hi s Death (1970) ," O r i e n t a l A r t ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 349.  print  is illustrated  Hillier,  Suzuki  footnote  has  24.  in Higuchi  H a r u n o b u , p.  (footnote  24),  p.  36.  219.  -  34 -  34  David Waterhouse, Images of- Eighteenth Century Japan Ukiyoe Prints from t h e S i r Edmund Walker Collection (Toronto: Royal O n t a r i o Museum, 1975 ) , p~! 145.  35  T h i s s t a t e m e n t may r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n once t h e e v i d e n c e I will present i n subsequent chapters has been discussed. It i s appropriate to l e a v e i t unchanged here s i n c e i t represents accurately the t h i n k i n g o f most Harunobu scholars.  36  The e a r l i e s t uses o f l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e i n J a p a n e s e a r t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n s u c c e s s i v e c h a p t e r s . 1 H e r e , s u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t they were u n r e l a t e d to K o k a n s f o r g e r i e s .  37  The f i r s t e t c h i n g s i n J a p a n were p r o d u c e d by t h e J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the e a r l y 1600's, but with t h e i r e x p u l s i o n from t h e c o u n t r y , t h e t e c h n i q u e was l o s t . For the best d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Dutch books KTJkan u s e d , see Yo" Sugano, "The Literary Source of the E t c h i n g Method o f KcTkan S h i b a , " B i j u t s u Kenkyxr (No. 265 , S e p t . 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 81 and (No. 2 6 6 , Nov. 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1 2 7 . See as w e l l a l a t e r a r t i c l e by t h e same a u t h o r i n t h e same j o u r n a l : "Dutch Book K o r s t Kabi n e t and Hakim's "Oranda DTyhan-e-hP" (No. 3 2 1 , S e p t . 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 1. The e t c h i n g i s e n t i t l e d View o f Mimeguri and i s k e p t i n t h e Kobe C i t y Museum. By 1784, KcTkan had not only improved h i s t e c h n i q u e , b u t he had c o n s t r u c t e d a camera obscura f o r viewing his etchings. True to c h a r a c t e r , he wrote t h e f o l l o w i n g on t h e bottom o f t h e v i e w i n g d e v i c e: "In 1 7 8 3 , he (meaning h i m s e l f ) s u c c e e d e d i n making a copperplate p i c t u r e . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a Western one and h i s e n g r a v i n g s a r e the f i r s t e v e r made i n J a p a n . A r t i s t s i n t h e f u t u r e who p l a n to make c o p p e r p l a t e s , do n o t f o r g e t t h a t S h i b a Ko"kan made the f i r s t one." (Taken from F r e n c h , S h i b a K o k a n , p . 44.)  38  The Kobe C i t y Museum has t h e l a r g e s t c o l l e c t i o n o f K"o"kan oils. French i l l u s t r a t e s most o f them i n c h a p t e r 7 o f S h i b a KTJkan.  39  See F r e n c h , Shiba Kirk a n , Appendix c o m p l e t e t r a n s l a t i on o f S e i y o g a D a n .  40  The f a c t t h a t he made f o r g e r i e s w i t h l i n e a r s h o r t l y a f t e r Harunobu's d e a t h i s c o n v i n c i n g (The next two chapters will explore his detail.)  I I I , p.  171  for a  perspective in i t s e l f . sources in  -  A.  The S i g n i f i c a n c e A r t i n Japan  In  studies  historians include impact much the of  inevitably  some this  trade  movement  literature  i n Japan  describe  some  as  relate,  Dutch  closed  usually  country"  policy  previous  decades  ted  a  island  Only  of  their  (Dutch  the v i s u a l  may  in  privileges  were  granted  proselytize  Christianity.  development  deal of  o f t h e dominant It  b u t r a t h e r to  o f Dutch  only  in earnest  to f o r e i g n e r s by  among  located  r e s u l t of  A good  material  characteristics  the  because  i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  this  to  the  studies  most  cursory  art.  of meddling  Dejima,  and  and a l i s t  sometimes  and  and t h i s  and H o l l a n d .  be f o u n d  the  was, f o r t h e most  supervised  research  studies)  arts,  the o r i g i n s  p e r s e , began  described  painting, art  a r t came as a d i r e c t  Japan  with  and h i s  t h e Dutch  tightly  of  scope  to r e e x a m i n e  the c o u n t r y  edicts,  the  is available,  albeit  studies,  Edo  rangaku  of the general  m a n n e r , t o Harunobu  on  between  on t h e s u b j e c t here  to the Spread o f Western-style  influences  to European  concerned  not the i n t e n t  aries.  of  had on  relationship  studies  regime  widen  discussion  scholarship  they  o f Rangaku  European  of the exposure  Dutch  is  of  35 -  after  i n 1641.  term  sakoku  part,  t h e Tokugawa The s e r i e s o f  or  a reaction  the  a g a i n s t the  by P o r t u g e s e  and S p a n i s h  the European  nations  access  to  i n the  Nagasaki  to  them  Japan  mission-  were  through harbour.  because  "closed  they  permit-  the  tiny  Trading did  not  - 36 -  At  the  outset  scholars)  was  language,  a  important was  the  European  these  government  term  Gentaku  (Facts  About  Sugita the  c o u r s e of the  the  publication  These  of  Sugita men,  Gempaku  both  they  dissection  on the  they  illustrations to  Dutch  shortly  Shinsho  (New  were  that  they  translate  the  enlisted book.  common  on  to  Dutch Hajime  1774.  Maeno  Both  event in  grounds  the Kaitai  spent tech-  perform  i n Edo.  accuracy  help  also  Rycftaku.  i n a Dutch  the  being  surgical to  of  Shinsho  of  after  Anatomy)  permission  with  usage  Koto  in  Dutch  illustrations  impressed  to t h e ' r e s t  m e d i c i n e , had  corpse with so  slowly  with  execution  were  discipline  Book  a c o r p s e a t the the  arts.  in Japan, that  studying  granted  astronomy,  a monumental  studies  quickly  pursuit  Studies)  after  equally  the  Rangaku  in Confucian  Nagasaki  of  (Introduction  in partnership  trained  1771  into  Kaitei  Dutch  the m i l i t a r y  a  published  of  but  Japanese  Nagasaki  i t s way  Rangaku  Kaitai  niques.  In  found  of  promoting  as  (Dutch  t e c h n o l o g y as i t  The  actively  s p r e a d o f Dutch  in  scholars  trade  knowledge  i t s p r e a d from  appeared  time  2  of  study  m e d i c i n e , and  Gempaku  considerable  text,  rangakusha*  the  sake  rangaku  Beginnings  the  by  as  rangaku  publications  comparing  to  to J a p a n .  was  and  published  and  authored  the  Europeans'  science,  credibility  Studies)  the  knowledge,  The  Otsuki  the  brought  of  natural  long  Japan.  primarily for  i n books  the v a l u e  cartography,  acquired  directed  of  as a means o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g European  recognized  of  concern  necessity  described  Before  the  a  After medical of  many became  the Dutch the  -  first  translation  lated  in  artist  technique tions in  o f a European  Japan.  Odano  The  Naotake  light  t h e Dutch  (1749-1780),  dimensional Japanese  Odano  of  Both  and Naotake  K'okan's  introduction  documentable this it  Dutch  connection  relationship  would  be  Gennai's  In  mentality,  the  social,  Gennai  Hiraga  Gennai  samurai  accurately  a  Hiraga  between  was  to  examine senses  and  b u t he a l s o  there  and  time.  death  a  Before however,  aspects only  of the  product of  changes  sweeping  are of p a r t i c u l a r  to Harunobu's a r t .  i n the Context  3  changes  Shiba  i s also  not  to be a  cultural  These  some  typifies  appears  new t o  on  Harunobu.  briefly  he  three  (1728-1780).  influence  a r t , but  Gennai  objects  of i t through the  Gennai  significant  European  illustra-  realistic,  perspective,  h i s knowledge  had a  the  of r e n d e r i n g  them  the  use o f t h e  was  born  o f Japanese  into  the f a m i l y  Society  o f a low  i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e dai my? o f T a k a m a t s u . ^  father's keeper  publication,  deliberate  technique  scholar,  many  s o c i e t y at that  Hiraga  made  linear  political,  i m p o r t a n c e , as w e l l ,  B.  this  and c i r c u -  and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e e x p l o r e d ,  rangakusha  Japanese  like  appropriate  life.  many  to  of  to g i v e  acquired  instruction Gennai  a  This  i n order  appearance,  art.  to be p u b l i s h e d  to r e p r o d u c e  text.  and shadow  book  illustrator  of chiaroscuro  from  37 -  i n 1 7 4 9 , Gennai  o f t h e Takamatsu  rice  succeeded  warehouses.  his position  ranking Upon h i s as t h e  In 1754, c o m p l a i n i n g  -  of  i l l health,  and  he  obtained  tent  It was  of  has  been  that  studies  of  his  official  honzogaku.6  Oriental  medicine, herbs  twelve.  By  his  official  r e c o g n i t i o n , and  numerous  domains,  tion.  7  1761,  from  Although his  of  a  a  severe  petitioning  duties.  his  he  1  social  in  a rigidly was  the  in  the  perpetuating  divided  ranks  phenomenon  beginnings,  top,  afforded  study  in to  to he  other  his  was  the voca-  granted  become a r o n i n,  samurai."  i n many ways  sharply  received  position  had  nature,  hierarchy  of  daimyo's  daimyo,  Officially  age  his  hindrance  his  branch  young  of  his  medicinal  connection  individualistic  enforcing  of  that  this  efforts  and  to  its  the  in charge  as  disconfrom  the the  put  this  him  to  in at  travel  duties  his  kept  studious  Although  felt  of  introduced  passage  interested  at  duties  Gennai s  wider  From  source  his  for  official  responsibilities  products,  was  become  after  a l l his  "masterless  to  had  his  specialized  pharmacy.  eventually  domain  In  release  and  been  year he  one  family  mineral  opportunities  he  Takamatsu  and  from family  that  had  eighteenth  personal, gardens  his  which  of  him  and  He  -  release  speculated^  application  the  a  s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r renounced  well.  or  38  roni n status  in Japan  Tokugawa  regime  i t s power  by  the  according  to  status,  between.  soldier  Because  and  society.  occupied  foot  i t was  occurring  hierarchical  lowly  was  samurai  at the  with the  in  at  that  was  upper  class, the  but  time.  primarily peace  by  stratum  of  i t too  powerful  bottom,8 and  entire  due  symptomatic  maintaining The  part  society  was  daimyo"  a number and  its  -  economy  was  second  stratum,  position most  the  who  and  agricultural between  considered  to  the  to  about  one's  on  and  put  peace  the  peace  down  the  and  who  Such  the  in  the In  an  middlemen  necessary  the  Tokugawa  rigidity  production  as  were  was  artisan  level.  acted  a  F o r the  level  last  the  was  The  their  third  fourth  on  With  scale  the  social  but  design  era  entered  the  between  classes  had  was  solidly  advent  of  the  rarely  samurai  of  family,  necessary.  In an  ranks  the  and  the  pursuit  of  scholarship.  to  up  the  Those  leading  were  edge  of, the  order.  of  warrior  o f the  for  immediate  values  Dutch  by  the  advo-  loyalty  Samurai  heritage  of  to  speak,  soon  found  arts  as  studies.  beneficiaries  However,  effort  of  b r u s h , so  traditional  example,  overt  government  Confucian  sword.  peace  Tokugawa  traditional  take  entrenched  national  the  vocations  social  class the  was  the  encouraged  sciences  and  samurai  ascendance  among  to  the  newer  and  of  the  a large  were  themselves  arts  by  superiors  ranks  the  through  the  9  This  or power.  consumers,  as  values.  adherence  all  as  the  but  much  samurai .  existence.  merchants,  and  occupied  dissolve.  maintain  cated  the  farmers  status  society  nonetheless.  century,  militarism to  the  occupied  regime,  militaristic  brought  the  the  Philosophically, in  to  producers  by  the  peasant's  the m e r c h a n t s ,  parasites  eighteenth begun  led a  society  the  promoted  farmers  commodities,  hierarchy  based,  more than o f a c t u a l  contributed  useful  -  i m m e d i a t e l y ' below  o f honor  part  class, of  agriculturally  39  of  well The  national  mid-eighteenth  - 40  century, status  those  quo  In  government  became  order  Tokugawa  keep  household  while  he,  accompanied  years  between policy,  Japanese  ization  food,  The  merchant  class  form  status,  calendar  in  reserved i s well  It  and  a  could  in  the  In many  of  1765  senses  artisans  with  profound large  only  extent, now  the  urban-  activity  in  accustomed  to  amenities  of  artisan  classes  the  and  came  a  a  slightly luxuries  1766 are  Ukiyo-e  society  significant,  they  on  class.  urban  and  effects  meant  afford  and  capital.  This  a large  lower  an  metropolis^  commercial  p o p u l a r i t y of  the  the  the  the  permanently  provinces.  these  limited  particularly  competitions  artists  To  line,  in a l t e r n a t e  and  all  class.  maintain  there  a  the  children,  households,  that  samurai  that  the  required  they  f o r the  known  seems  to  that  i t s genesis  dissipation. of  which,  in  dai myo'  had  became  their  provide.  class  wife,  boom of  entertainment  could  wealth  found  cities.  and  upper  domain  1  luxury,  the  reside  k(7ta i 0  from  and  each  maintaining  e n t o u r a g e , moved  Edo  wealth  comparative  new-found  It  by  to  family  a whole.  dai myTT  clothing,  normally  a large  s a nki n  to  His  r e s u l t e d in a v e r i t a b l e  in  higher  as  entirely  city.  living  by  as  that  required  at  feudal  Edo.  provincial  known  society  supported  the  his  powerful  in  were  aimed  burdensome  required  residence  immediate  This  the  administration  alternative  policies  increasingly  to  -  bore  of  as  Japan's  however, the  fruit  an  major  that of  the  result  of  a  samurai  class,  be  they  art  the  class  mingling r?n i n  - 41 -  or  otherwise.  eventually Of k"otai  many  policy 12  costly.  of  laws  placed  The  the  powerful 1 3  the  samurai  nation, who,  but  under  that  the  many  Many r*on i n abandoned or m e r c h a n t s , w h i l e  clearly  defined  pursuits Gennai  which  he  of  social  the  no l o n g e r  still  were  sons  would  with  of  be  that  samurai  guaranteed  In an e f f o r t  to f i n d  a productive  r o n i n,  the now  and to the c a p i t a l  scholarly  education,  classes  who  which  could  they they  afford i t .  a l t o g e t h e r and became  artisans  G e n n a i , became  novelists  material.  In the c a p i t a l ,  t h e once  between and  and t h e c i r c l e moved  interest  others, like  boundaries less  at high  to the  from  class  of popular  became  i n debt  support  of the lower their  and  find  became  of t h e i r  no  increasingly  in accord  third  the  Goods,  expensive  status  circumstances  on  continued.  themselves  and  s a nk in  households  and more  increased  second  the  burden two  them c u r r e n c y  population  samurai  to t h o s e  playwrights  more  clans.  the b e n e f i t s  dispensed  became  would  Ukiyo-e.  government,  financial  found  Gennai  the a r t o f  of m a i n t a i n i n g  lent  by h e r e d i t y c o u l d  livelihood, brought  who  normal  burdened  in  by  o f a l l ranks  financially  sense,  cost  appearance  merchants  The  positions  and  context  i t s heaviest  enormous  Samurai  families  and  this  enacted  and e n t e r t a i n m e n t  maintaining  rates.  in  e s c a l a t e d as t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s  services,  now  is  come t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the  daimyo". doubt  It  less  class  distinct.  of s c h o l a r s ,  products  roles,  of  a  In the  artists,  society  occupations,  in  broadest  and w r i t e r s transition.  - 42 -  German's consequence he  turned  to  of l e a v i n g  life  of  coarse t h e new  form  were  rq n i n  this  p r o f e s s i o n , while  positions.  expressive  format  administration included  1823),  both  fellow  r"on i n,  official It  Morishima in  Dutch  which  Churyo"! studies  in  the context  7  Kanko  in imitation these  of a connection  popular  status  satirized  (1749-  (1726-89), a an  fief  important  of Akita.16 disciple  similar  ChTIryo" even  between Gennai  and  that  one  Harunobu.  in  interests adopted  o f h i s mentor G e n n a i . novels  the  immediate  Nampo  important  as l i t e r a t u r e .  of a  o f i t s l o o s e and  Tosaku  h i s master, held  official  of e i t h e r  ( 1735-1813),  an  Some  benefits  and 'Ota  the n o r t h e r n  vulgar  f o r adopting  Gennai's  Hezutsu  had  These  practitioners  their  often  (1740-1800)  Gennai  as w e l l  because  them.15  from  who, l i k e  men  the  took  descent.  to m a i n t a i n  Kisanji  clan  that  of  The  motives  quite  officials,  Hoseido  Sanjin  they  employed  Akera  as w e l l  name F u r a i  evidence  i n which  and  chose  which  of Edo.  o f samurai  t o t h e genre  government  the  class.  this  /\t  i n t h e sometimes  b u t as a g r o u p ,  of the Satake  appears  men  novel  t h e y t o o r e a p e d t h e monetary  attracted  circle  were  others  publication,  t o be  To remedy  quarters  and w r i t t e n  immediate  literature.^  G e n n a i , who had f i n a n c i a l  No doubt  successful seemed  like  popular  of the middle  literary  the  an i n c o m e .  i n the p l e a s u r e  vernacular  had  a new t y p e o f p o p u l a r  works were humorous, w i t t y , and  status  to w r i t i n g  was e m e r g i n g  i t s subject  ro"n i n  him w i t h o u t  his talents  time, there as  passage  can  It  is  find  - 43  Gennai's Connection  C.  The Candy  book  entitled  Vendor),  preceding  from  chapter,  (Gennai).  Like  scenes  the  for  from  the  book  to Harunobu's  Ameuri  which  Suzuki  that  the  begun  some  years  earlier.  in  book  B a s k e t ) , Gennai's  Den  (The  passage preface of  illustrated.  Story  of Dohei  Writing  quoted  in  by  Furai  Sanjin  this  type,  The  and  Harunobu  under  the  pen  Morishima  (The  the  some  illustrator  Gennai  Hogokago  the  was  Furthermore, evidence  between  entitled  disciple,  Art  literature  were  relationship  a  a  Harunobu.  cates  Bansho'tei,  short  popular  storyline  was  a  Dohei  contained  all  -  indihad  name  Waste  Churyo", w r o t e :  In Meiwa 2, the Monkey Year [a m i s t a k e : Meiwa 1 was the Monkey Y e a r , Meiwa 2 (1765) the Bird Year], da i sho* p i c t u r e s were p o p u l a r : much e l e g a n c e was put i n t o these a b b r e v i a t e d c a l e n d a r s , and their merits were a p p r a i s e d as i f they were p a i n t i n g s . From t h i s time began block-printing with seven or eight printings. The b l o c k c u t t e r s were Y o s h i d a Hyosen, Okamoto Sh"6**gy"o, Nakade T o e n , and o t h e r s . Surimono b e f o r e t h i s p e r i o d d i f f e r e d a l s o i n composi t i on from t h o s e of the p r e s e n t d a y . A dai s ho* c a l e n d a r of the p e r i o d , f o r Masjter F u r a i [ M o r i s h i m a was F u r a i I I ] ; , i s a picture by Oba Ho"sui showing three half-length figures: Sawamura S o j U r o s t a n d i n g i n the c e n t r e of a c i r c u l a r window p l a y i n g the Demon K i n g as a s e r v a n t ; \ Matsumoto Koshiro" standing on his left facing V s i d e w a y s , as H a o r i Kudo; and I c h i k a w a R a i z o glaring on h i s r i g h t , i n kami s h i mo costume as Goro* T o k i m u n e . At this period the so-called portrait prints (n i g a o no e^) d i d not e x i s t , and so t h i s p r i n t became very famous. I t was from i t and o t h e r s t h a t S u z u k i Harunobu h i t on the i d e a of p u t t i n g out to v a r i o u s d e a l e r s i n i l l u s t r a t e d n o v e l s (e-z*oshiya) the p o s t e r s ( k a n b a n) known as Azuma n i s h i k i - e " B r o c a d e P i c t u r e s o f t h e E a s t , " and s e l1 l8 i n g them. T h i s was the o r i g i n o f modern n i s h i k i - e .  of  Paper  - 44 -  In one  of  the  original  text  ChTfryo"  added  which made f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e  to  a  number  of  footnotes,  Harunobu.  He was an artist and head of a f a m i l y in Kanda, Shi rakabe-cho*. He l e a r n t p a i n t i n g from Nishikawa, and f r e q u e n t e d the same p l a c e s as M a s t e r F u r a i . 9They say n i s h i k i - e was d e v i s e d by him as an o l d man.*  At  the  very  solid  least,  sources  which  Harunobu  were  meant  Harunobu's  to  Ameuri  Dohei  suggest  the  acquaintances. art  Den  and  possibility  Exactly  i s the  Hogokago  topic  what  of  two  Gennai  and  that this  the  provide  acquaintance  remainder  of  this  chapter. The  spirit  the  calendar  man  like  created  of  events  at  least he  a  e^ or  ni ga o  its  no  G e n n a i . ^0  innovation,  abouts  inventiveness  no  of  one  design  print  are  appearance  from  in  2  surrounded  attractive  and,  first  lure  in  time  a  the  modern  be  art  imagined  to  that  a he  spirit  of  known  as  format  Unfortunately,  to  only  that  ChTTryo" s s t a t e m e n t s  print."  unknown  can  an  Meiwa  f o r the  "portrait  innovation  provided  It appears  introduced  this  exact  doubt  and  the  where-  h i s t o r i a n s , and from  ChTfryo"'s  description.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to  suggest  source  for  its  examining  a s s o c i a t i o n with  the  design  rangaku tion  by  movement.  had  a direct  Gennai's come  in  1752  undertake his  stay  As  a year's there,  so  was  pointed  bearing  first when  in d e t a i l  on  was  study one  out  with  dispatched in  can  previously, this  his a r t i s t i c  encounter  he  Gennai's  by  assume  associa-  endeavours.  "Dutch  Nagasaki. only  a  the  Studies" Takamatsu  There that  is the  no  probably daimyo" to  account  reason  of  for his  - 45 -  trip  was  centre  to f u r t h e r  of Chinese  roots  i n China  science  trade  and  earliest  o f t h e Takamatsu  memoir  written  Gennai Dutch  embassy  event  one y e a r  among  t h e Dutch  year  gifts.  From  his  Gennai's  of  Together  the specimens  effort  came  to  publication  references called  In to  berein  was s t u d y i n g  the a u t h o r  that  scholar  grew  bear  in  23  was  the  at a  similar  quite  a  stir  succes-  Dutch  books  foreigners  likened  specialist  public  as  his  in this mineral to  of t h i s  scholarly  (Categories book he  t h e deep  in  exhibitions  noteworthy  Hinshitsu  One  a  In 1763 t h e f r u i t most  the d e s c r i p t i o n s art.  with  him the o p p o r t u n i t y to  organized  Gennai's  Butsurui  European  the  (1718-1776),  the two men  that  i n a number o f f i e l d s .  to Edo a f f o r d e d  Gen'yTf  entitled  i n each  received  with  In a  demonstrating h i s  At the t i m e , and  t h e y had c o l l e c t e d .  burau,  and  by  meetings  under  i n Edo.  to a m e e t i n g  occasion,  regularly  still  recollected  colleagues  22  this  and the  (1733-1817)  h i s own  entitled  Qualities).  Gennai  time, while  party  of  China.  created  early  Tamura  had i t s  apparently  assignment  with  Honzogaku  Gennai  1 7 6 9 , Gennai  as a Dutch  honzogaku.  At  knowledge.  until  reputation  study  later,  were  was the  between  Gempaku  Studies,  i n Edo.21  pharmaceutical sive  Sugita  rangakusha  and  At t h a t  Nagasaki  development  with  a link  c l a n , Gennai  o f Dutch  and o t h e r  of trade  a t which  i n 1815 by  Beginnings  as D u t c h .  the Japanese  i s 1760.  charge  The  of  result  date  can be v e r i f i e d  of honzogaku.  as w e l l  much  was t h e d i r e c t  The Dutch  h i s study  one had  and  can  find  found  and  blue  pigment  - 46 -  used  in  the  illustrations  r y o k u e n , he l i k e n e d green.  In  familiarity the  Hinshitsu  of  a  a  the  another the  Chinese  artist, of  So  detailed, through  who  Shen  with  had  somewhat  Dutch  is  The  Gennai  embassy.  title der  p a i n t i ng." >  his  B u ts u r ui  event  in  Gennai's  It s i g n a l l e d  the  beginning  had  The  was  from  book  the  artist  So  and was  Vogelen,  of  these,  to  into  animals,  Dutch  by  Vissen  en  Slangen fish,  M.  Shen's  finely  seems  in  John  Grasius  Beschryving Bloedlooze en  Draken.  birds,  insects,  that  illustration  numerous  originally  the  flower  of  copied,  by  and  It  of h i s meetings  Naeukeurige  Dieren,  style  descent,  1730's  bird  Edo.  made  were  written  Scottish  a  is illustrated  they  at one  the  bringing  style  of which  Kronkel-Dieren,  encyclopedia  with  he  Jonstons  Viervoetige  Primarily  Of  was  translated Jan  27  i n N a g a s a k i , worked in  to the  which  of  to J a p a n  introduced  obtained  naturalist  some y e a r s  naturalistic  books.  etchings  spent  credited  2  1675),  or S p a n i s h  demonstrated  its illustrator,  brought  1768, 8 t h e most n o t a b l e  Polish  2 4  2f  hair ^  arts.  Nanpin.  Shiseki  G e n n a i , he  in  which  he  significant  visual  painting  artist  painter,  19.  gurori n  called  by c o m m e n t i n g , " I t i s used i n 2  Red  Another,  (1715-1786).  style  used  books.  material,  painting  relationship  This in  with  long  Shiseki  of  marked  association  this  Western  colouring  Dutch  to the p r o d u c t supansu  describing with  in  copies  here were  in F i g u r e in a  with  by  Jonston  de  Water It and  the  (1603-  1660.  van  book  the Dutch  Latin  in  in  Its Natuur  Dieren, was  an  reptiles.  - 47 -  The is  prototype illustrated It  their  which  here  is clear  interest  i n the  images  underside original ly  on  So  Shiseki  in Figure  from So  and  of the l i o n  the  the  European  shade.  i n much  same t e c h n i q u e  He  the  other  he e n c o u n t e r e d , t h e r e  through these In  Akita on  a  2 9  his  1773 and  there  Gennai.  In  The  of  the  way  as  a decided  used  to  model  shading  was  done  he  elements  Gennai  be l i t t l e  o f the i n the  consistent-  had  of  the  with  the  doubt  Shiseki  came  to  northern  1778  essays  on  to  that i t  experiment  ideas.  daimyo"  of  Akita, Odano  Naotake,  Shozan  published  three  albums  (Album  of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  compilation  art  3  In r e f e r r i n g  koYyU  Gaho" r i k a i  Gennai  on Western  Gaho  and  (On  (A  to l i g h t  of  This  illustra-  Summary  as  well  of  the  the U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f in these  a r t from which and  pursued  Drawings). and  take  drawings  i t included  i s mentioned  style  of  of  Shozan  instruction  information  sources, ^  entitled and  of  to  Satake  the  a  with  domain  a r t began  under  Drawing).  as t h e a u t h o r i t y  i n European  vigor  o f Drawing)  and  the  his retainers,  from a number o f Dutch  Painting  So  summoned  painting  actually  Principles  his  one  Shaseich"5"  was  that  his interests  and  style  two  was  significance.  Western  tions  influence  Gennai  (1748-1785),  work  artists  the r e l a t i o n s h i p can  had  techniques.  new  entitled  he  to the l a n d s c a p e  Judging  with  that  copied  same  composition. artists  from  illustrations  20.  e t c h i n g , but what i s r e m a r k a b l e i s t h a t  applied  was  his lion  S h i s e k i 's c o p i e s  techniques  in l i g h t  based  3  essays *  Shozan  derived  s h a d e , the a u t h o r  stated,  - 48 -  When t h e sun i s i n t h e e a s t , t h e shaded side i s t o w a r d t h e west; and when the sun i s i n the w e s t , the shaded s i d e i s toward t h e e a s t . 3 2  He  also  made  context  one  of t h i s  comment  about  perspective  which,  d i s c u s s i o n , seems e s p e c i a l l y  given  the  relevant:  The eye sees near t h i n g s as l a r g e and d i s t a n t t h i n g s as s m a l l . . . . When the d i s t a n c e becomes s e v e r a l leagues, t h e eyes fail and t h e o b j e c t cannot be seen. T h i s p o i n t of d i s a p p e a r a n c e i s a t the h o r i z o n 1 i n e. 3 3  Odano have  Naotake, the i l l u s t r a t o r  been  the  teachings. like and  He  here  as  shadow. Figure  most p a r t  flower  copies  that  line.  Shiba  Naotake,  t h e mutual  had t a u g h t  Within  format  their  light  Gennai  sphere  men  is  shade,  illustrated  compositions f o r  and  bird  shade,  clustered  and  of  bird  and f l o w e r  had  his  with  or a  around a  much  t h e European  of i n f l u e n c e  i s mentioned  i n K"5kan's w r i t i n g s 3 7  at  time  that  both  added  light,  and,  time  in  style  Gennai. touches  To  which  him.36  Gennai's  Kokan.  spent  So" S h i s e k i ' s  he  Gennai's  foreground, a large  in  who  acquaintance  places any  with  o f which  in that  rendered  encountered  compositional  Gennai  one  by  i11ustrations34  the same c o n c e r n  i n the immediate  usually  probably  through  of Jonston's  His p a i n t i n g s ,  have  affected  c o n s i s t i n g of a d i s t a n t landscape  horizon  Edo,35  directly  21, are unique  motif,  background low  made  most  So* S h i s e k i , he showed cast  the  artist  o f K a i t a i Shi n s h o , seems t o  Gennai  was  a  nd  i n at  although  his teacher,  one must least  also  four  K"okan never i t seems  include  different indicated  likely  that  - 49 -  such  was  studied that  21.  with  parallel  are there Odano 39  have  o f any age  perhaps  d e s i r e d , thought  ^;It  an  Gennai,  an  the f i r s t  held  prefaced  by  evidence  then,  Gennai  and  artists  Harunobu  Knowing  European  that  Harunobu  art.  died  seeking  the  that  in Figure  w r i t i n g s are  illustrated We  to f o r g e  There  know  they  t o o may  i s visual  that  also  evidence  Hogokago he was  Dohei is  Den,  further  I t i s o f no  designed  under  this  K"o"kan had enough  i t i s only  have worked  of  and t h a t  Harunobu  who  Hiraga  Ch"uryo"' s  relationships  shared,  around  members  his prints.  S"o" S h i s e k i  in Japan.  of a r t i s t s  print  he  t h a t Odano  b o o k , Ameuri by  at a  recognition  a r t formed  a calendar  So  similar  suddenly  a circle  that  3 8  t h a t Ko"kan may  painter  in Ukiyo-e.  of the personal  and t h e i n t e r e s t s  assume t h a t  Naotake  Nampo's  acquaintance.  significance  prints.41  interest  of Harunobu.  with  indicate  significant  had d e s i g n e d  of t h e i r  familiarity  in  above  b u t Kokan's  in European-style  an  t h a t Gennai  acquaintance  are remarkably  European-style  apparent,  interest  also  small  truly  but i t i s e s p e c i a l l y  circle noted  to h i m .  style.  i t b e t t e r n o t to a d m i t t o t h e w o r l d  i s quite  shared  and f l o w e r  which  pupil,40  t h a t he  of h i s p a i n t i n g s  illustrated  sources  Kokan,  he m e n t i o n e d  a r e some  which  as was  Odano's  reference  and  was i n f a c t  style,  been  there  o f Kokan  are l i t e r a r y  actually  young  and  Ki  So" S h i s e k i ' s b i r d  paintings  Naotake's  There  devoid  In the K M a n K*5"k a i  S? S h i s e k i ,  closely  too to  the c a s e .  calendar  between  these  reasonable  to  the i n f l u e n c e o f  to s u p p o r t  this.  - 50  In  Hogokago, ChTjry*o  Gennai.  He  centre type  of  of  not  a  been  1765 .  in It  a  European  style  or  during  early  1760's.  Dutch  book  and,  Dodanaeu's This  Kruyt  sort  of  interest  i n honzogaku.  contacts  he  that  he  obtained  conjecture he  made  that  produced  discrepancy The 22,  in  at  in  the  (Manual have  of  did  composition  may  may  Gennai  he  used  the  is  in  although the  Hinshitsu,  to  of  in  portrait have  it  1752  in  idea  the  from  a  Rembertus likeliest.  because  of  his  i t through  the  Edo.  He  there  recorded  has  been  illustrations seems  seen  in  Edo  the  received  meetings  have  linked  Nagasaki  got  Herbs)  likely  and  of  possibilities,  of  1765,  event  could  a t t r a c t e d Gennai  his  be  mission  he  of  print,  tradition  Dutch  the this  calendar  to  in  in  unlikely  some  i t when  given  the  dates.  frontispiece  inspiration longer  may  the  by  that  portrait  trip  though,  Most  i t in he  the  standing  print  rich  his  number  one  Butsurui  contains  placed  at  a  during  a  would  or  to  designed  mentioned  composition  is  with  Boeck  book  a  likely,  of  also  print  actor  p o s s i b l e that  portrait  More  he  addition  there  meetings  an  portrait  such  is entirely  his  of  ni g a o - n o - e , The  for  which  painting.  and  creative  sources  art  a  time.  Gennai's  The  Western  that  as  a calendar  figure  window  known  at  mentioned  the  circular  print,  exist  have  described  -  exists,  this  i t s design  base  for  of  of  each  Gennai's but  there  book,  two  portraits,  column. calendar are  illustrated in  Perhaps design.  Harunobu  here  in  circular  these  frames,  provided  Gennai's designs  Figure  of  print  the no  similar  - 51  conception. depicts  a  One  woman  portrait-like Harunobu  pillar  print,  framed  manner  calendar  by  as  a  at  the  shadow  of  example  of  the  use  cast  an  i n f l u e n c e of By  circle  virtue  that  calendar  print,  Figure  print was  known  is  as  coincidence genre  Harunobu  a  limelight  ST  the  in a  few  after  but  of  within  the  Figure  he  bird  and  flower  early  but  prolific  as  and  is  an  subject  brought  Japan  by  and Shen  of  and  prints. for  the  the  STT  of  Shiseki's here  calendar  S o" S h i s e k i  i t is  perhaps prints  no  as  a  production.  (fl.  1760's  came i n t o  not  source  to the  large  suggesting  beginnings  calendar  Harunobu's  conception  connection  26.  who  of  Gennai.  illustrated  am  identifiable  /\  first  comparitively I  42  Gennai's  So"  flowoer  produced  Nanpin,  in  visual  KoryTTsai  Harunobu  responsible  through  ni s h i k i - e  Isoda  death,  flower  of  the  Harunobu's  and  same  is indicative  Figure  bird  years  designs,  another  in  to  p a i n t e r , and  c r e a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t of 27,  this,  Harunobu.  subject  the  23  d e p i c t s a woman  Shiseki  another  and  i n c e p t i o n of  was  So"  Figure  Hogokago.  Perhaps  Chrysanthemums ,  certainly  reminiscent to  as  the  F i v e f o l d L o n g l i f e and  similar  of  much  to Harunobu  of  artists  in  ( F i g u r e 24)  of  conceive  Harunobu's  Shiseki  genre,  a  the  artist  quanitities that  bird  that  made  1780's) an  of  Bowl  began  of  in  in Ukiyo-e,  inclusion  entitled  entitled  shadow  of  the  in  parasol.  a r t passed  group  25  her  European  i t i s p o s s i b l e to  between  as  of  1766^3  here  window  described  from  looking  i11ustrated  circular  was  print  -  who  of  this  worked  competition.  designs,  is  clearly  the  of  painting  style  Shiseki's  acknowledged  -  master.  Figure  artist's  deer  picked  up  Gennai  and  Paine  4 4  Museum  it  i s dated  of  Arts  who  i t may  bird  and  had  prints  from is  art.  be  some grounds  to  visual  h a n d , the  evidence  the  them, the  mixing  of  of  context  he  was  and  there  aware of  contemporaries  European  artists.  can  from  the  with  It i s  a variety  Somewhere  in  source  the  and  of  new the  Boston  comprised  and  publica-  few  Harunobu  of  Ameuri  an  there  the  On  art  found  in  to  other events  artists  forces  that  became  this  that,  fascination  pictoral  the  and  Western-style  doubt  seem  calendar  same  thrived  Gennai  i n f l u e n c e , but  enough.  about  Dohei  between  the  little  Chinese  this  Nampo's  conjecture  solid  of  4 5  connection  Harunobu be  the  and  essentially  experimentation.  environment,  of  scholars, dilettantes,  which  i t , Robert  i s So" S h i s e k i ' s m a t e r i a l ,  existence.  not  with  of  brought  were  in  seen  contains  possibility  is  that  the  association  reproductions  the  inference  backgrounds  not  Harunobu  and  verifiable  forces  created  his  in  social  various  have  Chinese  illustrations  Hogokago,  simply  his  the  that  collection  volume  find  suspect  of  printed, colour  Nagasaki.  no By  I  designs  still  really  conceivable  the  second  ChTTryo" s  of  So" S h i s e k i G a f u .  of  come to  Harunobu's  subject  in  first the  examples  context  book  p o s s i b l e to  flower  there  least,  a  The  and  of  is  Although  designs,  be  Apart  in  It the  is a collection  tion  and  many  entitled  1765.  Nanpin's  painters  the  in  -  of  volumes of woodblock  third  Den,  one  circle.  note  Fine  three  the  theme  his  made of  is  paintings.  this  of  Shen  28  52  at  on  techniques  the  the  creative the  very  part used  of by  - 53 -  NOTES CHAPTER 2 A term used to Dutch s t u d i e s .  describe  the  Japanese  scholars  devoted  The t e x t used was O n t l e e d k u n i ge T a f e l l e n , but t h i s was translation by G e r a r d Di e t e n o f Anatomiche Tabellen, 1731 p u b l i c a t i o n a u t h o r e d by Johan Adam K u l m u s .  to  a a  G e n n a i ' s t r u e name was S h i r a i s h i Kunimune. He changed h i s name to Gennai i n 1749 a f t e r c o m p i l i n g a g e n e o l o g y which linked him to Hiraga Genshin, a once-powerful feudal lord. T h i s s o r t o f t h i n g was a common way f o r t h o s e of l o w e r s t a t u s to a c q u i r e a p e d i g r e e . Matsudaira  Yoritaka  (1711-1771).  S t a n l e i g h Jones J r . , S c h o l a r , S c i e n t i s t , Popular A r t i s t Hiraga Gennai, 1728-1780 , d i s s . , Columbi a Uni vers i ty, 1968, V.M.I. (Ann A r b o r 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 9. Hereafter referred to as S t a n l e i g h J o n e s J r . Hon z (Tg a k u literally means "the study of roots and grasses." S t a n l e i g h Jones J r . g i v e s a complete synopsis of i t s o r i g i n and h i s t o r y i n J a p a n , p p . 32-42. As e v i d e n c e o f G e n n a i ' s d i s c o n t e n t , S t a n l e i g h J o n e s J r . ( p . 12) o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g quote t a k e n o r i g i n a l l y from a l e t t e r Gennai wrote i n 1760. H i s s o u r c e was I r i t a Seizo ( e d . ) , H i r a g a Gennai zenshu (2 v o l s . ; T o k y o , 1 9 3 5 ) , Vol. I , p. 61TT As f o r me, I'm terribly busy and making very slow p r o g r e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , I am frequently r e q u i r e d to be i n a t t e n d a n c e a t the Takamatsu mansion i n Meguro, and b e c a u s e of t h i s I am distracted from the exhibits and my medical b o o k s , and i t seems t h a t my s t u d i e s are g e t t i n g nowhere. In J a p a n e s e a f o o t s o l d i e r Gennai's o f f i c i a l rank.  was  called  ashigaru.  This  was  For an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n of the m e r c h a n t c l a s s i n t h e Edo period, I would recommend John Whitney Hall, "The Tokugawa Bafuku and the M e r c h a n t C l a s s , " Uni v e r s i ty o f Michigan Occasional Papers, V o l . 5 (1951): 26-34. This a r t i c l e i s d e v o t e d to the p a r a d o x i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the samurai and merchant c l a s s e s . It i l l u s t r a t e s how t o t a l l y d e p e n d e n t t h e samurai were on the m e r c h a n t s y e t ,  -  54  -  a t the same t i m e , how contemptuously a s s o c i a t e d with m e r c a n t i l i s m . translation  of  they  sank i n k~5"tai  those  10  The l i t e r a l turn."  11  The historical demography of Edo was the s u b j e c t of a d e t a i l e d s t u d y by G i l b e r t Rozman, "Edo's Importance i n the C h a n g i n g Tokugawa S o c i e t y , " J o u r n a l of J a p a n e s e Studies (Autumn 1974) , p p . 91-113.  12  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to T r e a s u r e s Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo" i n Tokugawa Japa~n~ (New Haven: Yal e University P r e s s , 1974) , R o b e r t B o1i t h o, d e s c r i b e s the c o l l e c t i o n of policies known as buke shohatto which placed various financial burdens on the d a i my "5. His calculations i n d i c a t e t h a t Sank i n KcTtai was the most c o s t l y .  13  In h i s a r t i c l e " S o c i a l Changes D u r i n g the Tokugawa P e r i o d , T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of J a p a n (2nd S e r i e s , Vol . 17) , 235-254 , H e r b e r t Z a c h e r t documents c a s e s of h i g h r a n k i n g samurai who become so d e b t - r i d d e n t h a t they had to r e n t t h e i r dwel1i ngs to the m e r c h a n t s .  14  Gennai's first p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1761, was entitled Rice Cakes Grow on T r e e s , but h i s f i r s t r e a l s u c c e s s came w i t h the publ i c a t i o n TIT 1763 o f The Rootless Grass. For a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n to p o p u l a r l i t e r a r y f o r m s , see James T. A r a k i , "Sharebon: Books f o r Men of Mode," Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , V o l . 24 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 31-45. A c c o r d i ng to him s h a r e b o n , which l i t e r a l l y means "books of sophisticated wit," F i r s t a p p e a r e d i n the 1 7 7 0 ' s . If t h i s is true, G e n n a i , who wrote p r i m a r i l y i n the 1 7 6 0 ' s , must have been e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h some of i t s e a r l i e r forms p u b l i s h e d i n a f o r m a t commonly known a t t h a t t i m e as kusazoshi or " g r a s s books." A r a k i g i v e s an a c c o u n t of t h e s e as wel 1 .  15  See Adriana D e l p r a t , Forms of Dissent in the Gesaku L i t e r a t u r e of Hi raga Gennai (1728-1780 ) , d i s s . , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1985, UMI (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n 1 9 8 6 ) . r By her a c c o u n t i n g , Gennai was highly c r i t i c a l of the Tokugawa regime.  16  These which  17  What i s known of ChlTryo's b a c k g r o u n d i s s k e t c h y at b e s t . The most i n f o r m a t i v e document I c o u l d l o c a t e was Otsuki My ode n, S h i n sen YcTgaku Nempyo (Revised Chronology of Western L e a r n i n g ) , TUkyo", 1927 . T h i s work was a later edition o f Ninon Yogaku NempyTJ w r i t t e n i n 1878. The a u t h o r was the g r a n d s o n of O t s u k i G e n t a k u , a Dutch s c h o l a r who had c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h G e n n a i . The t r a n s l a t i o n of the Churyo i n f o r m a t i o n below was t a k e n from C.C. K r i e g e r , TJhe  men f r e q u e n t l y wrote p r e f a c e s they e u l o g i z e d h i s t a l e n t s .  to  is  regarded  "attendance  Gennai's  works  by  in  - 55 -  Infiltration 18th C e n t u r y  of European C i v i 1 i z a t i o n i n J a pan D u r i n g the (LeidTfT: E . J . B r i l l , 1940), p. 99.  M o r i s h i m a ChTTryo' was a b r o t h e r of Katsuragawa HoshTT. He was i n the s e r v i c e of M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu, l o r d of Shirakawa. Churyo" was in n a t u r e i n d i f f e r e n t to w o r l d l y and c o n v e n t i o n a l customs. He was a p u p i l o f H i r a g a Gennai and had as h i s penname F u r a i S a n j i n i n i m i t a t i o n of h i s master." 18  D a v i d W a t e r h o u s e , Harunobu and H i s Age: The Development of C o l o u r P r i n t i n g i n Japan (London: The T r u s t e e s of the B r i t i s h Museum, 1964) , p~! 17. A c c o r d i n g to W a t e r h o u s e ' s f o o t n o t e s he took t h i s p a s s a g e from Kendo I s h i i , N i s h i k i e no h o r i t o s u r i (Ky*3to and Tokyo": Unsodo, 1929 ) , p . 6. I have 1 e f t P r o f e s s o r W a t e r h o u s e ' s comments, i n d i c a t e d by the s q u a r e b r a c k e t s , because they h e l p to c l a r i f y some of the f i n e r p o i n t s o f the t e x t .  19  Ibid:  p.  17.  In T. Haga, H i r a g a Gennai (Tokyo", 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 286 , the ' a u t h o r has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y different interpretation of this footnote to ChXTryo's text. The l a s t l i n e , which Waterhouse t r a n s l a t e s as "They say n i s h i k i - e was devised by him as an o l d man" i s w r i t t e n i n J a p a n e s e a s,v " N i s h i k i - e wa o no kufU n a r i to i u . " The c h a r a c t e r "o ( 4fa ), whicji means " o l d man" i s the key to Haga's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "0 no kufTj" t r a n s l a t e s as "the i n v e n t i o n of the o l d man," who i s none o t h e r than G e n n a i . In o t h e r words Haga t h i n k s t h a t Gennai was the i n v e n t o r o f ni s h i k i - e . If nothing else, this i s food f o r thought"] C e r t a i nl y Gennai's s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y and h i s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y as an inventor would make him c a p a b l e of s o l v i n g the technical problems of multicolour printing. He was definitely i n the r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t time i n the sense t h a t h i s e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e b r o u g h t him t o g e t h e r w i t h both the U k i y o - e a r , t i s t s and the kyipkaren. Perhaps s c h o l a r s have been too h a s t y to c o r r e c t the d i s c r e p a n c y i n the d a t e s r e p o r t e d by C h u r y o . Maybe Gennai's calendar design was made i n the Monkey Year (Meiwa 2) and Ch"u"ry"o r e c o r d e d i n c o r r e c t l y the number of t h a t y e a r and not the name. Of c o u r s e o t h e r literary documents ( s e e C h a p t e r 1) c o n t r a d i c t t h i s v i e w , and Haga, l i k e ChTJry'o, had a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n g i v i n g Gennai a s i g n i f i c a n t place in h i s t o r y . 20  S t a n l e i g h J o n e s J r . ( p . 98) m e n t i o n s t h a t "Ota Nampo was the l e a d e r o f a kycTkaren. He o f f e r s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n to s u p p o r t t h i s but TT Tt was s o , p e r h a p s i t would further e x p l a i n G e n n a i ' s p r e s e n c e i n the c a l e n d a r c o m p e t i t i o n o f 1765. Haruko Iwasaki (Harvard) reported i n the Japan  - 56 -  F o u n d a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r (1D e c . 1987) t h a t she w a s • c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i nto Ota Nampo s a c t i v i t i e s . She has d e t e r m i n e d t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many g a t h e r i n g s o f kyo"ka p o e t s but c u r i o u s l y enough she m e n t i o n s o n l y t h o s e i n t h e 1770's and 1 7 8 0 ' s . 21  The Dutch were r e q u i r e d on an annual b a s i s .  22  F o r an a c c o u n t i n g J r . , p. 20.  23  This i s a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n o f t h e Dutch bl auw o r , i n E n g l i s h , " P r u s s i a n b l u e . "  24  Supansu green."  25  "Red H a i r " Dutch.  26  Taken  27  Shen Nanpin ( d a t e s unknown) was i n Japan f o r o n l y two years between 1731 and 1733. So S h i s e k i was p r o b a b l y influenced by h i s many p u p i l s , t h e most l i k e l y being e i t h e r Yuhi (1712-1777) or So S h i g a n ( d a t e s unknown).  28  The b a s i s f o r t h i s date comes from So" S h i s e k i ' s p a i n t i n g of a l i o n , i l l u s t r a t e d i n Hyakusui H i r a f u k u , Nihon yoga no shoko (Tokyo 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 6. I t i s d a t e d 1768 and T t s c o l o phon i n d i c a t e s t h a t he d e r i v e d i t from a book i n the poss e s s i o n of G e n n a i . Gennai a l s o r e c o r d e d t h a t he r e c e i v e d the book i n 1768. See S t a n l e i g h J o n e s J r . , p . 6 8 , f o o t note 1 0 1 .  29  I t was m e n t i o n e d above t h a t one o f G e n n a i ' s a s s o c i a t e s i n Edo was H o s e i d o K i s a n j i . His o f f i c i a l duties included c a r e o f t h e A k i t a mansion i n Edo. Perhaps t h r o u g h t h i s c o n n e c t i o n Gennai became known t o t h e A k i t a c l a n .  30  A c c o r d i n g t o Masanobu H o s o n o , N a g a s a k i P r i n t s and E a r l y Copperplates (Tokyo, 1969), p~ WT] S h a s e i chlr c o n t a i ns q u o t e s from G e n n a i ' s B u t s u r u i H i n s h i t su" about pigments, illustrations from Groot Schilderboek (Great Painters Book) by G e r a r d de L a i r e s s e (1641-1711) and a c o l l e c t i o n o f European e t c h i n g s .  31  See H o s o n o , p. 5 9 .  32  I b i d . , p. 6 0 .  33  I b i d . , p . 60.  guroun "  from  was  of t h i s  was  a  to send  Stanleigh  incident,  Gennai's  term  a tribute  mission  see S t a n l e i g h  term  transliteration  the Japanese  used  to Edo  Jones  Berlijnsch  of "Spanish  to d e s c r i b e t h e  Jones J r . , p. 65.  - 57  -  34  These are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Namban B i j u t s u of the series Genshoku Ninon no S h o g a k u k a n , 1970) p l a t e s 60 and 6 1 .  to YofTJga, V o l . 25 Bijutsu (To"kyo":  35  A c c o r d i n g to C a l v i n F r e n c h , Shi ba Ko"kan, p. 167, Gennai met Naotake i n 1773 when he w"al Tn £ W e A k i t a prefecture. Naotake r e t u r n e d to Edo w i t h Gennai and remained there until he r e t u r n e d to A k i t a i n 1777 . In 1778 he came to Edo a g a i n but r e t u r n e d to A k i t a i n 1779.  36  S t a n l e i g h J o n e s J r . ( p . 73) q u o t e s from one o f G e n n a i ' s l e t t e r s :  the  following  passage  I obtained the other day two paintings by Takesuke (i.e., Odano Naotake) which I had earlier promised you, and I am having them forwarded. As I t o l d you some time a g o , they are i n the s t y l e of p a i n t i n g t h a t I have been promoti ng. I t i s c l e a r from t h i s p a s s a g e t h a t Gennai had undertaken an a c t i v e r o l e i n the p r o m o t i o n of E u r o p e a n - s t y l e a r t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d as w e l l t h a t t h e r e i s a p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g , executed in o i l s , of a European lady that has been a t t r i b u t e d to G e n n a i . There i s , h o w e v e r , no e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t the a t t r i b u t i o n . I t i s i n the Kobe C i t y Museum c o l l e c t i o n and i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n V o l . 25, Genshoku n i h o n no B i j u t s u , p l a t e 6 3 . 37  Kokan's S h u m p a ro H i kki and SeiytTga Dan contain r e f e r e n c e ! to h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h G e n n a i . See F r e n c h , K o k a n , pp. 4 1 , 4 2 , 7 9 , 121.  38  These are i l l u s t r a t e d 17, and 18.  39  I t i s e n t i t l e d " W i l l o w and W a t e r f o w l i n W i n t e r " and i t i s i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f K i m i k o and John P o w e r s , New York. See F r e n c h , S h i b a K o k a n , p. 101, f o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n .  40  The i n f o r m a t i o n I have c o n c e r n i n g t h i s comes from F r e n c h , S h i b a Ko~kan, p. 182, f o o t n o t e 6, but a p p a r e n t l y F r e n c h ' s s o u r c e was an a r t i c l e by R i n t a r o Takehana and F u j i o Naruse entitled "Odano Naotake to Shiba Kokan no kankei ni t s u i t e , B i j u t s u s h1 70, V o l . 18, No. 2 ( S e p t m e b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 33-5~n A p p a r e n t l y , some documents b e l o n g i n g to the Akita clan r e p o r t e d t h a t Odano Naotake taught Westerns t y l e p a i n t i n g to S h i b a K o k a n . The p r o v e n a n c e of t h o s e documents i s q u i t e c o m p l e x . For p r e c i s e d e t a i l s p l e a s e r e f e r to the c i t a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d h e r e .  41  This Jr.,  in  French,  little-known f a c t was i n the B u l l e t i n o f the  -  Shiba Kokan,  r e p o r t e d by R o b e r t Museum o f F i n e A r t s  these Shiba  plates  16,  T. Paine (Boston),  -  58  -  No. 42 (1946), p p . 42-45. The a r t i c l e was titled "Japanese Prints by So" S h i s e k i i n the L i t e r a r y Man's Style." He i l l u s t r a t e d and d i s c u s s e d two c a l e n d a r p r i n t s , one d a t e d 1768 which i s d i s c u s s e d below i n t h i s t e x t , and another dated 1770. 42  Another p r i n t of s i m i l a r design i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n G e n t l e s , AIC, p l a t e 43. Although t h i s p r i n t i s unsigned (the seal says "Shimpo" and p r o b a b l y belongs to a member o f a ky"3karen) i t i s i n Harunobu's s t y l e .  43  The d a i no t s u k i ( l o n g months) and t h e neng5 ( e r a name) Meiwa 3 ( c o r r e s p o n d i ng to 1 7 6 6 ) , a r e i n s c r i b e d i n the c l e a r c i r c l e s o f t h e kimono p a t t e r n .  44  R o b e r t T . P a i n e , J r . , "Japanese P r i n t s by S"3 S h i s e k i , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e Museum o f F i n e A r t s , No. 42 ( 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 4 4 .  45  Of c o u r s e t h e r e a r e o t h e r C h i n e s e books t h a t had been i m p o r t e d t o Japan i n t h e mid 1 7 0 0 ' s . Any o f them c o u l d have e a s i l y p r o v i d e d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r H a r u n o b u . Paine also noted that the Boston collection has two o t h e r untitled volumes o f So* S h i s e k i ' s b o o k s , d a t e d 1771 b u t p r e f a c e d 1769. These t o o would have t o be s c r u t i n i z e d b e f o r e any s o l i d c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be r e a c h e d r e g a r d i n g Harunobu's p r i n t s i n t h e b i r d and f l o w e r g e n r e .  - 59 -  A.  The  In could  Uki-e  the  have  previous had  association Dodanaeus of  a  an  book  take  between seen  although  their  of  met  any  visual  and  since  Harunobu sources  evidence  artists  presented  basic  worked  in  intent  the  of  or the  art.  (1686?-1764?)  so y e a r s Ukiyo-e  began  architectural  according  to  the  so  in  elements of  to  of  perspective  as  for  the  art.  best  we  low  paintings,  produced  thesis  style,  connection  environment  f a r i s at this  a  linear  Harunobu's  the  depiction  Naotake's  same  of  perspective, i t  make  of  a  his  in  too The  which  late  to  literary  circumstantial, is  to  show  must  look  to  rise  to  that other  verification. to  tradition  issuing  laws  to  of  prior  Sometime  linear  undoubtedly  Western  f o r more c o n c l u s i v e  European  the  were  importance  a r t through  Furthermore,  the  Harunobu  frontispiece  application  in  that  portraits,  reasoning  lay  they  the  Twenty  in  landscapes  genesis  specific  and  rendered  forgeries.  Gennai,  the two  the  distant  suggested  the  convoluted and  was  to We s t e r n - s t y 1e  with  garden  Kokan's  and  it  Although  along  source  horizons  be  has,  much  in  Harunobu  Gennai.  herb  this  chapter  introduction  with  European  would  as  Genre  the  Harunobu's had early  prints of  linear  the  their  first  1740's known  as  encounter  Okumura uki-e,  composition  perspective.  prominence,  The  with  Masanobu 2  were  in  1  which  rendered  prototypes  on  - 60 -  which  Masanobu  been  and  convincingly  that  his  imported circle  books — much  were  examined,  to  later.  prototypical  have based remote  their  after  will  suffice  to  another  very  similar  body  style  t o Kokan's  The  according  depict  theatre  interiors, groups,  the  structure these  and  to  some  surrounding  the  compositional behind  that  sense  they  that  reason  they  present  matter.  street  interiors  interior  design  do  need  some to be  represent a  possibility  examination  will  of t h e s e  discussion  much  are q u i t e will  A  closer  There  of  i n date  closest  with  into  number are Of  of  teahouse  these  side  prints.  areas  Some o f  or no  view  of t h i s here  of  of  i n which landscape  o f the s t r u c t u r e .  t o Kokan's  be the f o c u s  three  in compositional  little  large  three  o f them  a r e , h o w e v e r , some  includes  is illustrated  fewer  perspective  scenes  similar  large  scenes.  are  or o f f to e i t h e r  example  shadow  issued  subsequent  relatively  landscape.  positioned  and h i s  i n t h e 1740's can be d i v i d e d  the Harunobu-style  any  Gennai cast  this  of a r t , produced  interiors,  are s t r i c t l y  resentative  a  through  H a r u n o b u , or h i s f o r g e r ,  Although  up  acknowledge was  they  discussion,  open  subject  teahouse  to  because  never  forgeries.  uki-e produced  groups  and  artists  on which  the ensuing  prints  and  these  designs.  which  shade,  briefly,  source  by  have  scholars  perspective  route  The p r i n t s  h i s work  most  linear  to l i g h t ,  i f only  based  but  the same  introduced  even  pos-sible  seem  identified,  introduction  twenty y e a r s  could  his associates  In  forgeries,  and f o r  discussion.  A rep-  i n F i g u r e 29.  -  This  print  revelry  in  a  River.  Through  background of  the  boaters  c r o s s i n g to  can  see  of  In  the  this to  picture  ural  i s the  nearly  the  the  opposite  were motif  structure  is  and  that  quite has  been  that  are  a number  veranda.  the  room  the  converging  of  Sumida  can  see  in  To  above  the  the  which  left  left  people  corner  i t , the  one  faint  the  Note,  board  extreme  right lines  balcony  behind  fan  over  head  and  because  of  the  ground  plane  has  this  been  by  gate.  however, the  that is  the  as the  form  a  device  in  the  latter  of  The  architectof  linear  converge  there the  are  right  sections o f f that  that the  to  the  this  laws  that  the  against  lines  rooms  on  a  some  of  the  room  from  angled  consistently  with  define  the  not  rendered  i t appears  described  scenes,  to  that  members  used  parallel  in  floor  first  directly  a large  the  parallel  The  street  according  particularly  characteristics  Note  Masanobu  by  rendered  of  i t s supporting  his  i s , most of  The  uki-e.  positioned  framed  point.  inconsistencies,  his  clouds  the  over  top  i n the  print. and  often  vanishing  structure.  the  evening's  of  air.  Bridge  In  early  some  entire  interiors  on  one  evening  Ry"ogoku  an  banks  teahouse  cool  there the  the  theatre  the  shore.  a l l of  plane,  perspective,  main  of  famous  composition  around  single  rooms  on  depicts  moon.  architectural  which  situated  enjoying  the  Masanobu  a d i s t a n t t e m p l e , and  outline  his  the  teahouse  common  Okumura  teahouse  are  frame  by  61 -  figure in  of  a  rest man  bird's-eye  i f i t is  of  the  holding  a  perspective,  floating  remainder  of  away  this  from  motif.  - 62 -  Inconsistency  of vanishing  point,  especially  rooms o f a t e a h o u s e , or t h e rooms b e h i n d print,  is a trait  By  f a r t h e most  relationship to  point.  a l l uki-e  some  degree  print. that  forgeries, the as  unusual  which  This  of  has been  prior  interest  these which  early  this  of l i n e a r  prints.  demonstrated  popular, began  not only  b u t i t was  declined  of  i s common  the a r t i s t s component  united from  from  show  of the points  t h e Ko~kan's  visual  system  t h e same  with  vantage Kb"kan  point demon-  d i d those  artists  Of c o u r s e ,  the q u e s t i o n  remains  K"o~kan w i t h  these  t h e decade  also  designs,  of n i s h i k i-e  bird's-eye  systems  In other, w o r d s ,  of extant  than  uki-e  but  advances  he so  1750's.  productions,  that  produced  enthusiasm  Between  i t seems  t h e genre  i n which  and S h i g e n a g a their  prints  i n which  t h e decade  Masanobu  i n the e a r l y  a  in his forgeries.  i s known  t o wane.  quantity  tion  was  from  different  perspective  clearly  1740-50  perspective,  a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and c o n s i s t -  or n o t we a r e to c r e d i t  what  so  depicted  whether  From  i s the  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of vantage  structure.  the uki-e  print  in linear  landscape  a clearly  landscape  understanding  this  depicted  the  uki -e  in his forgeries  who p r o d u c e d  of  t o 1765 , i n which  in  feature  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  strated  feature  in a theatre  uki-e.  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of v i s u a l  produced  background  ent  to a l l the e a r l y  It i s precisely  makes  the stage  of the s t r u c t u r e , rendered  the l a n d s c a p e ,  vantage to  common  i n the a d j o i n i n g  that  became  popularity the  largest  for this  format  time  the issuance  that  and the i n c e p -  of u k i-e  designs  -  was  sporadic  farther five  than  years  artists with  those  patrons  Kokan's  concept,  combination dence  with  Toyoharu  source  pure  was  but  Kokan's  from  are  kabuki  elements  His  of  dramas  the His  or  so  most  the  uki-e  in  no  coinci-  as  Utagawa of  discount  large  theatre  in  of  the some  them  interiors,  as  uk i- e  their  landscape,  include teahouse  the  same  i n Kokan's  there  are  none  of  work, whose  considered prototypes for  are  teahouse  u k i-e  depictions  demonstrate  is evident  in  of  subjects  of E u r o p e , and  areas  His  prolific  range  to be  landscapes  architecture,  is  to  popularity  which  compositions  include  of  not  forgeries.  enough  small.  were  same time  the  reasons  perspective that  similar  examples  the  the  fascination  uki-e  It  the  1770,  d e s i g n s , t h e r e f o r e , warrant  scenes,  hundred  In  only a return  genre.  revive  a number o f  encompasses  comparatively  to  of C h i n a , scenes  one  such,  first  at about  began  his  as  lady  generation.  forgeries.  vision  are  beautiful  All  of  his  the  in  a one-pointed  and  extended  genre.  death  r e p r e s e n t not  are  battle  scenes  compositions  of  any  dramas.  among  shared  unquestionably  landscapes,  understanding  Harunobu's  f o r K"okan's  from  interiors,  and  Toyoharu's  of  never  i n n o v a t o r s o f the  print  they  matter  the  were p r o d u c e d  material  kab u k i  lady  the  in s p i t e  designers  subject  of Ukiyo-e  (1735-1811)  Toyoharu  by  forgeries  composition.  mention  of  1765  but  t h a t they  uki-e  used  beautiful  produced. uk i - e  choice  between  and  the  and  63 -  vista-like. which  the  interiors composition and  human  Their human  and the  his  field  figures scenes  necessary  figures,  but  - 64  their the  field  focus  of  view  is expansive,  is decidedly  on  Most o f T o y o h a r u ' s material  for  dates.  K'okan's  Many  have  which  came i n t o  women  have  ing  that  they  designs, been  produced  life  and  but  as  could  was  consider  to  time,  the  had  he  was  Harunobu's  dating  busy  definable  prototypes  strate  a  B.  sophisticated  as  has  to  available  in  that  their  There  prints.  i t should  In other  assume  that as  they  Harunobu's  K'okan's work, dissimilar one  the  must  late  artists  of  be  that  of  uki-e linear  these were  there  which  also  that by are  demon-  perspective.  comprised to  in  1760's  influenced  noted  few have  clearly  Toyoharu's  understanding  on  a  could  of  the  indicat-  are  that  year  seal,  remain,  hair,  context,  the  production  censor's  strikingly  this  prints  to Kokan  those  last  are  where  prototypical  their  uncertain,  like  for  as  kiwame  1774.  the  lady  issuing  of  some b e a r i n g  s t a r t e d , and  clearly  material  in  In  beautiful  Finally,  naturally  is  a b o v e , they  style.  One  after  forgeries.  just  a  bi ns as hi  earliest  out  virtue  In most of  with  prints,  figures.  eliminated  with  t h e r e f o r e have had  Toyoharu's  career  by  produced  the  be  imprinted  their  pointed  composition  his  at  can  i n 1789.  were  u n l i k e K'okan's  foreground  forgeries  depicted  although  the  uki-e  been  use  been  -  source  Toyoharu.  Maruyama "Okyo's Megane-e  Outside  of  the  early  uki-e  experiments  of  the  1740's,  the  - 65  megane-e large  of  the  body  of  n i s hi ki-e. block  be  tioned devices soon  a  is  quick  The  ance  of  the  For  that  use  in  d' o p t i q u e, Figure  prints  31.  depicting, Vauxhall  and  the  device  as  a  referred  This and  Gardens  From  the  between  1759  work  and  etchings  be  often  were  An  by  accordingly,  i n London.  The  Such  where  on "Okyo's a  and  behind  Much of  in this  i t s arrangements appear-  through i t .  specifically  landscapes  example  of  in  is  Edward  Rooker Grand  an  shown  here  vue in  (1711-1774)  Walk  perspective  for  exag-  a European  known,  linear  toy  beneficial  viewed  Europe  The  they  well. of  were  in  popularly  engraving  lens.  three-dimensional  depicted  style.  posi-  8  prints.  a r t . as  that  produced  mirror  background  will  an  image  for  1763.  as  their  1750's  the  in uki-e  the  the  them  wood-  Megane-e  inscription  and  general,  30.5  that  late  produced  enhanced  most  titled  the  to  known  and  by  machine, because  art  i s an  in  to Harunobu's  perspective they  device  behind  he  in  this  another  Harunobu's  device  angle  developments  mirrors,  linear  for  lens  "Okyo's  diagonal  reason,  this  gerated  of  is relevant  and  predates  viewing  Japan  that  i n Kyoto  later  optical  lenses  into  clear 7  the  degree  phenomenon  understanding  comprise  pictures"  below  novelty.6  survey  megane-e  information  surface  imported  merchant  A  "Okyo  that  specifically  through  became a p o p u l a r  novelty  of  a flat  it  art  "eyeglass  forty-five  were  megane-e,  the  on  Maruyama  machine,^ i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e  reflected  at  or  designed  diagonal  were p l a c e d would  3  artist  Western-style  Megane-e  prints  optical  Ky"oto  -  in  used  the in i t  - 66 -  is  obvious,  indicate  that  Because the  b u t n o t so i t was  appear  reversed.  reversing through here  vantage  Besides  1  design  demand.  To maximize  Sometime  As  to  example has  have  been  who  gained  reflect would  appear  correctly  engraving, Antonio at  Canal  this  of c o m p o s i t i o n .  seen  low  One can  the o r i g i n a l . bilingual  titling  i s also  vues  d'optique.  When  the o p t i c a l  area,  could  barely  to C h i n a  removed, but the t r e e - l i n e d  the they  machines and from  artists,  Europe.**  particularly  t h e European in  Chinese  are Chinese  designs  diagonal  33, Trees  i t i s an  up w i t h  one l a n g u a g e .  adapting  2  keep  of t h e i r  i n more than  printed,I that  a  i n Europe, the l a r g e p u b l i s h i n g  began  Figure  The f i g u r e s  to  compensate by  excelled  p o p u l a r i t y , Chinese  3  machine.  image,  titles  scenes.  which  perceived  Giovanni  f o r them were b r o u g h t  speculated*  Grand W a l k .  by  style  reversed  designs  o f a woodblock  been  devices  f o r Rooker's 9  the m a r k e t a b i l i t y  with  i n t h e Suzhou  Chinese  diagonal  so i t would  i n t h e mid 1 7 0 0 ' s , o p t i c a l  designed  the device  those  produced  issued  features  t h i s , would  artist  became p o p u l a r  that  etchings  an  perspective  houses *^  were o f t e n  optical  knowing  painting  o f European  machine  other  i n these  The p r o t o t y p e  the r e v e r s e d  characteristic  used  i n h i s design  (1697-1768),  Rooker's  diagonal  mirror  32, i s a  p o i n t , deep  that  f o r an  The a r t i s t ,  the v i e w e r .  in Figure  a r e two  t h e l e n d s , t h e image t h e user  t h e image  (Canaletto)  see  made  of the s i n g l e  image t h r o u g h  obvious  Zhej i ang,  vues  i s one  d'optique.  adaptation  of  and t h e European boulevard,  designs  It  Rooker's buildings  complete  with  - 67 -  cast no  shadows, i s s i m i l a r of  record  known  vues  tions.  fact  d'optique provides  in  the  rather  Figure  34,  megane-e  View  of  illustrated Canaletto  "Skyo  which  which,  megane-e  which  depict  The A r c h e r y  such  as F i g u r e  that  Chinese  also  i t i s presumed  Chinese  to  outside  the  Japanese  that  of  was  Ukyo  the  made  Okyo's Ukiyo-e  36.  woodblock on  a  There a r e collec-  of  in  37,  scenes  the same  similar  megane-e  from  Figure  to genre  much  to  5  "Okyo's  range  compositions a  is a  correspondence.*  depicted  European  this.  based  These  in K y o t o . I n  material.  mainstream  as  scenes  China,  number  subjects.  one-  confirms  i n the T e n r i  a  Nara,  megane-e a r e  Suzhou  turn,  possesses  adapted  themes,  the  of Sanjusangendo,  38, A Theatre artists  in  in  Chinese  Gusu,  prototypical  leisure,  Contest  of  Bridge, Figure  Japanese  class  on  4  vues  The v i r t u a l  prototypes  woodblocks  a similar  Library  upper  Suzhou  Chinese  Chinese  Okyo's  models.  based  of Westminster and  that  Bridge,  35  Tenri  entitled  Wannian  in  designs  for  Library*  number  Suzhou  is  illustrate  of  a  It  The  scenes  European  the  of  University  to s u s p e c t  the  Figure  prototypes  collec-  conclusively.  Tjkyo's.  etching  TJkyo  Tenri  than  There i s  i n Chinese  collection  between  and of  European  only  cause  correspondence by  or C h i n e s e ,  to i d e n t i f y the  sufficient  on C h i n e s e  other  reason,  that  are  depicted  tion  that  prototype.  went to C h i n a , nor a r e t h e r e any  European  are d i f f i c u l t  The  to-one  engravings  d'optique,  For  designs  based  which  to i t s s u g g e s t e d  way  Chinese  switch  from  l i e somewhat  tradition,  but  there  - 68 -  is  evidence  that  Toyoharu.  This  Toyoharu's The tion to  links  be  easily  v e r s i o n of  the  Archery  upon  demonstrate  tive.  the  but  that  material  does  not  In making  of  on  Japanese  a visual  tive.  In  bird's-eye uk i -e  none and  prints.  generations direct seen  his  can  of be  the  by  the  the  were  of  Figure  39, 17  Ukiyo-e  tradi-  Japanese  artist  of l i n e a r from  of  perspec-  the  copies  significance  Suzhou  of  his  Chinese contribu-  c o p y i s t to c r e a t o r of m a t e r i a l  was  able  the  work  prints  Sanjusangendo.  knowledge  works  to m a i n t a i n  principles  is  there as  Toyoharu,  designers  beneficiaries  i f Harunobu  his  by  and  u k i-e  at  understanding  perspective  Ko~kan  of  was  from  unified  linear  Contest  he  first  switch  of  demonstrated  first  t h e m e s , he  system  woodblock  that  diminish  the  the  to  obtained his  to  fJkyo's megane-e  fact  he  artists,  based  of  a comprehensive  Arguably  tion.  designs  can  significance  rests  his  that  "Okyo's  of  the  was and  to  linear  seen' i n for  that  succeeded  the  integrity perspec-  juxtaposition  knowledge.  connected  the  the  It  were  remains  megane-e  early  matter  them,  of  the the  to  be  tradition  as  wel 1 .  C.  Harunobu's  The doubt  p o p u l a r i t y of  had  Harunobu people  F a m i l i a r i t y with  its and  the  enjoying  optical  counterpart  illustrated this  t h e Megane-e  in  here  novelty.  diagonal  Edo. as  In  Figure  Obviously,  Genre  machine a  print  40,  he  he  i n Kyo"to  no  issued  by  depicts  knew  enough  two of  - 69 -  the  device  this  to  be  able  p r i n t , written  Koy a ,  indicating  Rivers"  theme  Harunobu  i n the  that that  never he  depicted  sites,  the  landscape  scape  elements  cance  to  the  the  a  landscape  scapes  after  closest  thing  1730's by  depicted B i wa,  the  both  a  to  a  Eight  these  than  figure  there  is  in  that  effectively  pure  landscapes  to  depict  per  the  topographical his  land-  signifi-  composition  has  no  of  the  a  Toyoharu was  was  land-  Eight  their  genesis  on from  the  mentioned  time  i n the  19  the  1720's  of  By  landscape  Nonetheless, human  figures  consideration  next  he  Lake  arts.  with  the  series  Views  painterly  concern  focus  prints  tradition,  untitled  his contempories.  its i t is  Harunobu's  In two  more  of  that  produced  the  part  fact  but  to  much more  these  as  18  the  designs  but  was  and  for  of  se.  landscapes,  Omi  show  removes  in  the  Ukiyo-e  Prior  print  of  subjects  Shigenaga's  and  Similarly,  themselves,  Shigenaga.  prints  times.  under  i n the  the  death.  prints  Tama  subjugated  p e r s p e c t i v e , the  unto  Views  Mount  of  considerable  landscape  In  landscape  Nishimura  number  specific  have  only  "Six  of  machine.  in l i n e a r  genre  popular  the  present  Harunobu's  comparison, do  p r i n t , which  popular  prints,  form.  title of  a  always  human  significant.  comprise  occurred  and  is  were  miniature  rendered  to  The  Tama R i v e r  the  landscape  alluded  the  viewing  this  of  depicted  elements  theme, are  Although composition  which  in t h i s  megane-e under  part  pure  with  precisely.  c a r t o u c h e , says  i t was  produced  concern  i t so  Harunobu  themes  overriding  to d e p i c t  Ukiyo-e  above,  these  as  artist were  -  produced  just  intervening  before  years  70  Harunobu's  between  -  death  Shigenaga's  landscapes  were  depicted  primarily  machines.  That  Harunobu  chose  the  image  Mt.  Koya  most  under print,  often  evidence  the  viewer  in  that  for  print  a  he  indicates  chosen  at  earliest.  prints  for  use  as  in  additional  subject  with  support  diagonal  Tama  designs.  the  Toyoharu's,  the  the  familiarity  megane-e  and  In  in o p t i c a l  landscape  depicted  his  adds  the  for  River  at  the  subjects  Other  internal  for  this  obser-  vation. "Okyo's  megane-e,  Toyoharu's  earliest  borders.21  One  reason  that  there  designs  is  (and  possibly  Some  were  mirror  uki-e^Q  were  Chinese)  lens  they  and could  that  regard.  simpler help  or  the  glare  and  Harunobu's enough  user  to  For  his  familiarity him  be  frame  use  Harunobu  and at  the  convenience  that  viewers, ample  the  width  Furthermore, the  produced  by  frame  a  the  the  megane-e  Mt.  Koya  by  landscape  print place-  vital allow  frame  in for  would  deadening  room genre  accom-  of  was  the  adjust-  easier  dark  image  to no  would  time.  and  size  of  these  Japanese  lowered  in  dark  around  depicted,  and  limited  on  his  in  raised  the  vision  with  frame  European  and  wide,  O t h e r s , h o w e v e r , had  generally  reflections  have  of  of  prototypes, within  of a dark  one  perhaps  adjustments. focus  Suzhou  machines  the  types  Their  no  use  prints.  were  different  contained  could  accommodate.  ment under  are  viewing  assembly  therefore  the  a variety  like  modate d i f f e r e n t - s i z e d ments  of  f o r the  adjustable,  and  many  the  lighting. was  in  precise a  fashion  -  similar  to  what  imitating.  with  optical  D.  New  the  To  Harunobu  to  Art  The  that most  confirmed  Chinese  if  On  print  is  it  tion,  a  attire  the  view  worn  by  the  of  print,  the  face  signature  described  the  that  necessary  i t takes with  Given this  elements  as  i t s theme  Suzhou  Harunobu's  print  is  to of  upon  familiarity not  that  with  in  above  a megane-e  prototypes  human  harbour  this  outside form.  in  China,  the  scene,  observations, print,  there  characteristics  the  scene  and  Harunobu's.  the  linear  it  the  these  from  a  really  of  41.  23  controversial.  people  i t as  in be  a  collection Figure  puts  subject,  hand, i t i s p r e c i s e l y  this  produced  damaged,  prove  landscape  of  In  badly  doubt  other  keeping  work.  no  at a l l to c o n s i d e r  contains  in  as  a  t h a t make i t a prime c a n d i d a t e  fact  here  choice  depicts  remove  illustrated  reason  of  have  Print  the  no  features  was  may  those  from  to  the  to  he  he  a print  were be  genre that  some way  untitled, will  i t even more u n u s u a l .  one  would  this  common  that  by  in  now  2 2  design  the  Furthermore,  makes  introduce  scholars,  conceived  Harunobu's  the  p o s s i b l e , then,  related  Institute  strangely fact  in  A Harunobu P e r s p e c t i v e  like  Oregon  done  viewers.  Evidence:  I would of  images  diagonal  -  commonly  I t seems e n t i r e l y  experimented for  was  71  and  observations,  derivative.  It  p e r s p e c t i v e , and  the  of  China  which the  unusual.  is  (5kyo  certainly based  megane-e It  his  tradi-  would  seem  - 72  only  natural  as  the  that  themes  and  to  putable  has  landscape  little  experiment unique,  print  as  be  rendered  to  form  seen  i n the  trees,  groupings  distant  boats  sketched  with  be  conclusive elusive.  style  of  like the  soaring  are,  and  to  and  theme  the  on  like  the  of  after  the  i n Harunobu's  i s minimal  figure  significance  at b e s t .  and  as  at  An  by. are  the  can  huts  distant  length  in  and  pier,  print,  still  motifs  their  a  remain in  the  importance  structure  F u r t h e r m o r e , as  right  similarities  secondary  the  behind  mountains  would  prints  trees  the  in t h i s  These  a  resemble  upper of  of  find  include  those  so  pieces  style,  end  the  Scattered  one  i n the  an  are  print  to  indis-  made,  and  the  seen  O.A.I.  a l l , only  justifica-  be  These  at  Chinese  there  bits  skies.  discussed  is,  compared.  horizon,  strokes  those  composition  right,  those  with  come  can  form  pylons  distant  and  their  in  the  on  on  which  figures,  seen  same h a t c h i n g in  his  print.  those  of  the  O.A.I,  boats  attribution  O.A.I, p r i n t ,  to  which,  built  illustrated  They  composition  the  houses  corner,  birds  in  easily  be  in  unique  some  so  and  can  n i s h i k i-e ,  motifs  dot  the  it  backgrounds  of  is  comparisons  subject  which  that  as  Harunobu's.  prints,  which its  Harunobu's that  can  to  because  repertoire  the  so  something  Thus, there  figure  designs  print,  throughout  could  them  O.A.I.24  Harunobu's  of  unusual,  and  eventually  made  the  with  a u t h e n t i c a t i o n i s , however, not  O.A.I,  those  familiar  perspective.  consider  abundance  what  would  that  linear  Unlike  large  artist,  megane-e,  characteristics  tion  an  -  of  the  I have not  yet  -  discussed  the  Harunobu's  dating  of  n i s h i k i-e  the  73  -  O.A.I, p r i n t ,  (i.e.,  prints  comparisons  made  of  1765 )  after  i t to  may  be  premature. In  regard  subject print  a by  of  Apart  Chicago  here from  2 5  A  both  of  prints  indicative  the  vantage  low  been  depicted  side  of  the  possesses despite in  the  that  unique view  entitled  been  fact  An  the  authenticate  a view  is  Print.  way  fact  "roll"  of a  that  point viewed  of  the  One the  see  the  Scene  either  way  in is  print,  motifs  have  and  top-  the  this  motif  Chinese  Scene  is considerably  higher  in need  in  the  i t has  O.A.I,  "twist"  reverse  low  precludes  underside or  Scene  on  foreground  the  time.  Chinese  no  the  the  in  to  same m o t i f  In  bridge  ( F i g u r e 29)  O.A.I.  Art  It  Chinese  source.  vantage  1  the  Scene.  sophisticated  of both  a r t a t the  Harunobu's  similar the  uniquely  unique  arched  of  promenade  in  but  which  bird s-eye-view  interior  way,  from  a  this  a  the  by  as  common  the  Chinese  as i t s  other  collection  utilize  duplicated  that  to J a p a n e s e to  both  in  The  one  s i m i l a r i t i e s between  such  a  takes  42.  approached  point  print.  teahouse small  is  of  bridge.  only  the  O.A.I, p r i n t ,  permits  has  of  and  rendered  perhaps  know in  motif  been  O.A.I, p r i n t  is  thematic  the  the  It  bridge  shared  authenticity  I  in Figure the  stone  that  China,  O.A.I, p r i n t , they  arched, side.  in  fact  Harunobu.  illustrated  the  the  scene  Institute  and  to  such  a  only  bridge  manner  compare  in  difference. may  in  part  was this  Masanobu's In help  this to  - 74 -  on  In  terms  of  this  print  may  conclusive. major  change  "Suzuki Apart  of  formed  on is  towards in  a  more  connected the  right  the  spine  ( ii-'  such  down  a  in  as  would  In  the  of  be  made  and  that  character  way  that  it  the ( %  appears  "gold"  calligraphic straddle  style"  the  writing  this  radical  his  these  two  ( £  ).  so  43  quickly  the  final opposite  in  be  strokes The  which on  tucked  and  were  stroke  opposite  ni shi ki-e,  ) encroaches to  or  he  u s u a l l y wrote  Figures  manner  way  radical  characteristically  feature  fairly  i n the  that  "block  angle  Nonetheless,  calli-  the  would  one  26  of  line  in  one  name,  the  "kin"  outside  which  seen  in  personal  strokes  Harunobu  spine  and  altogether.  of  from  horizontal  the  O.A.I, p r i n t  small  full  "Suzuki"  the  his  be  more a p p a r e n t i n  word  In  character.  style,  of  its  of  two  are  to  more  "Harunobu."  i s most e v i d e n t  trademark  ).  thin  stroke  (  his  changes  the  .  the  angle  retain  element  of  both  a  wrote  signature  seemed  version,  these  )  the  Sometimes,  calligraphic  in  spine  side  disappear would  in  there  minor  consistency  left,  cursive  connecting  He  a  direction. from  some  the  authentication  s i g n a t u r e - - f rom  are  the  with  career  shortened  "suzu"  the  its  make  short  character  would  to  c h a r a c t e r s , but  this  evident  evidence,  its  there  and  internal  his  version.  vertical  these  of  to  individual  the  radical  long  form  this,  consistently  help  Harunobu's  in  shortened  style  also  Harunobu"  from  graphy the  In  comparative  to 44,  the  on  normal details  horizontal  that  it  would  vertical  stroke  angle.  This  the the  right ki n  side  radical  underneath  i t ,  - 75 -  comprise  two  calligraphy  clearly  which  the  full  the  O.A.I, p r i n t water  to  discern.  in  itself  The "Harunobu"  has been  damage.  here  the  of c o r r e l a t i o n s .  gested  that  the p r i n t ,  Scene  may  have  may  colouring is  safe  Before produced  a  seems  formative the  entitled  45.  I t was  the  same  of  method  as  the  Scene  Chinese  was  This  have  ni sh i k i -e , 7  i s supported  by a  above  sug-  i t was  r e l a t e d to the O.A.I, stone  that  o f t h e O.A.I, p r i n t prototype.  i s also  Chinese or  both  Since  the  pre-nishiki-e,28 i t  experimenting  with  bridge,  a low v a n t a g e  i t i s possible  same  dated  2  a  come from  material  to f i t well  with  sometime what  megane-e  before  little  we  1765.  know o f  years. of  prints  Six Saints  conceived  reason  Harunobu  inception  number  not  the l o w - a r c h e d ,  only  from  of Chinese  thematically  Harunobu's  series,  stemmed  scheme  assumption  could  can be  authenticity.  the d i s c u s s i o n  a derivative  to assume t h a t  derived, This  have  date.  is  C h i n e s e - S c e n e , was  For t h a t  been  for i t s  print  of d e p i c t i n g  prints,  composition.  In  i s impossible  t h e O.A.I, p r i n t  O.A.I,  f o r a pre-1765  The manner  prints  by which  f u r t h e r evidence  that  point  on  evidence  number  to both  of h i s s i g n a t u r e  Any c o r r o b o r a t i n g  strongly  common  portion  bearing  by what a p p e a r s to  argues  print.  Harunobu's  obscured  The p r o c e s s  fact  of  partially  provides  The  features  appear c o n s i s t a n t l y i n a l l h i s p r i n t s  signature.  be  distinguishable  n i s h i k i-e  which  production,  emphasized  of P o e t r y ,  landscape.  i s shown  i n the same hoso-e f o r m a t Chinese  Scene.  It  Harunobu  here  One  in Figure  and c o l o u r e d  is  evident  by  from  - 76  Harunobu's producing no  actor  prints  designs  similar  s u r p r i s e that  close  47)  46.  and  figure  are  designs prior  of  to  derable.  the  working  with  seen  as  a natural  In  the  depicts  a  of  to  at  that  extension  scene  of  in  This  suggests  vues  d'optique,  or  scene.  The  low-arched,  stone  shown  to  unique  be  manner  O.A.I, p r i n t graphic within been  similar  to  i n which was  style. a period  shown  with  noted  in  contain  to  be  his  depicted early  and  to  the  the  decade  is  consi-  predisposed  O.A.I, p r i n t  it  that  may  have  to  can  in  the  be  consistent  with  dating  of  when  he  of  a  Scene  print  on  was  by  the  on  the  calli-  places  known  a  Chinese  print  Harunobu's  was  per-  based  signature  this  print  linear  O.A.I,  Chinese The  landscape.  O.A.I,  been  megane-e  depicted.  career  the  incorporating  bridge  the  i n Harunobu's  experimenting  The  i n Harunobu's  be  Furthermore  time.  Japanese  i t was to  seemed  to  these  prints  worked  in  i t s middle he  If  a  (Figure  extended  print.  they  here  prints  i n which  calendar  manner  a  that  manner  is  bears  illustrated  of  was  It  series  qualities  who  he  this predisposition.  that  Suzhou  career  Kiyomitsu.  in landscape  i t was a  his  pre-ni shi k i - e  landscape  w o r d s , Harunobu  Chinese  hoso-e  artists  of  in  Torii  O.A.I.  Harunobu's  d i s c u s s i o n above  spective.  the  the  Ukiyo-e  landscapes  to  sketch-like  amount  other  time  SaintsofPoetry  interest  The  to  a l l other  In  Six  Harunobu's  elements  1765,  style  is similar  compared  that  Kiyomitsu  his  prints.  landscape  prints  of  that  d i s t a n t views  the  the  Another  demonstrates  early  to  at  in  Harunobu's  resemblance  Figure  that  -  to  it  have  - 77 -  Although  each  itself,  taken  confirm  the  being  of  together  the  attribution  a c c e p t e d , an  qualities  these  will  arguments  evidence  of  the  to  the  clarify  inconclusive  provides  solid  O.A.I, p r i n t  a n a l y s i s of  help  is  print's  the  to  context  grounds  Harunobu.  formal in  in to  This  and  stylistic  which  Harunobu  designed i t . It  appears  elements  of  composite meaning the  from  the  of  the  sorts.  The  scene  structure  and  form  the has  of  of  haphazard  a p p l i c a t i o n of  By  contrast,  particularly linear  line.  to  the  cleaner This  structures, print  on  like  may  portions  have  captured  distant  texture  the  of  the  that  a  ambiguous  due  required  of  the  of  to  Great  linearity  of  the  motifs.  Notice  tantamount  importance  sorts,  that  in  wall  image, f a c i l i t a t e d evident  along  qualities. to  itself  the  be  in  the  the near  rather  promenade,  prints,  i t s r a i son  motifs, rules  of  systematic  attention the  mostly  those  Meticulous  perspective may  the  a much more  artist.  the  to  the  foreground  attentiveness  i s evidence  particularly  and  but  strokes.  rendering  the  from  sketch-like  aptly,  mountains,  a  composition,  loose,  quite  the  be  protrude  the  to  rendered  actually  of  i t s perspective  and  it  part  look is  that  g r o u n d , are  that  the  artist  landscapes  been  p e r s p e c t i v e , there  paid  tively  in  those  meticulousness been  middle  the  print,  the  shoreline  which  upper  distant  of  quality.  in  design  The and  border  the  way  O.A.I,  middle  right  the  has  compara-  by  crisper  architectural that  give  linearity  the  is  of  a prerequisite  of  d' e t r e .  But  the  - 78 -  fact in  that  the  the  the  foreground  design  upper  same m e t i c u l o u s  were  part  harbour,  of  may  continuous  ground  the  terms  linear  an  what  example  perspective or  vanishing  points  harbour,  the  horizon,  and  linear  style  print.  a  the  has  between  clustered required  O.A.I, d e s i g n  may  that  incongruous  in  the  perspective  in crude  a  that  and  in he  the  horizon.  The  rudimentary  of  a  a  the  sits  on  the  forms.  meticulously  and  a  of  of  despite  this the print  the  relation-  distant  landscape  essential  are  of  of  experimental  the  vues  banks  quality  aware  is the  inconsistency  styles  print  with  Chinese  point  of  with  landscape  right  A l l of  perspective  design.  part,  in  this  view  the  familiarity  his  and  was  of  the  O.A.I,  on  of  of The  illusion  experimental mix  parts  bank  s k e t c h - l i k e and  design,  clearly  a  the  vanishing  of  boat  horizon.  encountered  neither  the  source.  left  Harunobu's  left  the  these  balance  derivative. the  that  the  the  like  the  create  of  have  combination  a low  to  depict  the to  experimentation  between  shown  around to  print  characterize  Despite  added  to  another  maintain  know  Japanized  fact  inconsistencies Harunobu  he  from  unbroken  a  used  perhaps  help  we  of  copied  simply  plane,  is  indicates  and  not  genre,  d'optique  ship  been  do  of  megane-e  perhaps  image,  have  they  probably  carefully  the  Certainly  In  most  line  present  elements in  the  - 79  -  NOTES CHAPTER  3  1  Okumura Masanobu i s c o n s i d e r e d by most s c h o l a r s to be the o r i g i n a t o r o f u k i - e but t h i s has never been proven c o n c l u sively.  2  The o r i g i n o f t h i s term i s u n c l e a r , but the t i o n e r s o f u k i - e used i t from t h e o u t s e t .  3  Some of the e a r l i e r megane-e were, hand-drawn. ones were p r i n t e d but h a n d - c o l o u r e d .  4  "Optical Diagonal Machine" or "zograscope" are English names; i n F r e n c h , i t i s o p t i q u e ; i n German, g u c k k a s t , i n D u t c h , o p t i c a or o p t i c a - t o e s t e l . The J a p a n e s e name was nozoki k a r a k u r i .  5  There are a p i c t u r e d here  6  The history o f the o p t i c a l d i a g o n a l machine i n Europe, C h i n a , and Japan i s not c l e a r . the most e x t e n s i v e t r e a t ment I have seen i s J u l i a n L e e , The O r i g i n and D e v e l o p m e n t of J a p a n e s e L a n d s c a p e P r i n t s : A Study i n t h e S y n t h e s i s ~bT E a s t e r n and Western A r t , d i s s . , U~. Washi n g t o n , 1977 . FTe p r o v i d e s a t h o r o u g h i n t r o d u c t i o n to the t y p e s of m a c h i n e s , the a r t p r o d u c e d f o r them, t h e i r p o p u l a r appeal i n C h i n a and J a p a n , and the e f f e c t they had on J a p a n e s e a r t . There a r e tremendous p r o b l e m s w i t h the d a t i n g of e v e r y t h i n g to do w i t h t h i s t o p i c . For t h a t r e a s o n , a l l the d a t e s I have quoted so f a r and will quote in this discussion of megane-e should be accepted in only the most g e n e r a l sense.  7  Many o f Tokyo's works a r e i n s c r i b e d w i t h "Owariya seals. He was the p r o p r i e t e r o f the toy s t o r e .  8  These dates seem verifiable. Julian Lee (p. 307) d i s c u s s e s two megane-e d e p i c t i n g the t h e a t r e d i s t r i c t s i n Kycfto. From the b a n n e r s and p o s t e r s in these prints, which advertise specific plays performed by specific actors, i t is possible to d e t e r m i n e the dates o f the p r i n t s by c o r r e l a t i n g them to the d a t e s o f the p e r f o r m a n c e s , p r o v i d e d t h a t one b e l i e v e s the p r i n t was issued at the same time as the p e r f o r m a n c e .  9  Many o f C a n a l e t t o ' s p a i n t i n g s were made i n t o e t c h i n g s by other a r t i s t s . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t Rooker based h i s design on one of these as opposed to the original painting.  early  practi-  The  variety of makes and designs. was p o p u l a r i n F r a n c e and E n g l a n d .  The  later  one  Kambei"  -so10  According to Julian Lee (p. 263 ) p u b l i s h e r s o f vues d ' o p t i q u e , one each A u g s b e r g , and B a s s a n o .  11  E x a c t l y which o f the thirteen European nations trading with China at that time brought the optical diagonal machine to C h i n a i s not known. Nor i s the e x a c t d a t e .  12  Woodblock p r i n t i n g was the a r t i n A s i a at t h a t t i m e .  13  By  14  Most of  15  For e x a m p l e , Okyo made t h r e e d ' o p t i q u e , Trees in Z h e j i a n g ,  J u l i an  Lee,  this  p.  only  means  there were four in P a r i s , London,  of  mass  producing  267 .  collection  is illustrated  TT.  in Julian  Lee.  c o p i e s of the C h i n e s e vues i l l u s t r a t e d above as F i gure  16  A c c o r d i n g to J u l i a n Lee ( p . 286) the p r o d u c t i o n of genre scenes corresponds to a shift in the popularity of megane-e from the upper to the 1 o w e r _ c l a s s e s . He used this fd~ea to suggest a dating f o r Okyo's d e s i g n s but failed to t a k e into a c c o u n t the long history of genre p a i n t i n g p a t r o n i z e d by the upper c l a s s .  17  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r j n t i t i s p o s s i b l e to see a d i r e c t connection between Okyo and Toyoharu, but it seems a p p a r e n t from the e v i d e n c e presented by J u l i a n Lee that two, l e s s e r - k n o w n Kyoto a r t i s t s , F u i n s a i and K o k k a d o , were the first to copy Okyo's work. They p r o d u c e d stencil c o l o u r e d v e r s i o n s of many of Okyo's megane-e, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e may have been the p r o t o t y p e s to which Toyoharu turned f o r h i s u k i-e .  18  These are (Honolulu: 155-158.  19  E x c l u d i n g , of c o u r s e ,  20  Not a l l megane-e have b o r d e r s , which may indicate that they couTd Be enjoyed without the optical diagonal machine. There i s , however, e v i d e n c e t h a t many of the borders were c r o p p e d o f f when some p r i n t s , especially t h o s e of Okyo, were remounted i n o t h e r formats.  21  T o y a h a r u p r o d u c e d a number of v e r y s m a l l u k i - e i n which two s c e n e s , each m e a s u r i n g 11 x 15 cm, were p r i n t e d s i d e by- s i d e on a s i n g l e hosoban s h e e t of p a p e r . These have p a r t i c u l a r l y wide b o r d e r s ; t h i s , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r small size, indicates that they were made specifically for  illustrated in University  the  Howard L i n k , P rim i t i v e U k i y o - e Press of Ha wa i i , 1980), pp.  uki-e  prints  from  that  period.  - 81  -  viewing machines. J u l i a n Lee ( p p . 845, 849) illustrates some e x a m p l e s . The p r e s e n c e of s i m i l a r b o r d e r s formed by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l motifs i n the e a r l y u k i - e , makes one wonder i f they too were meant f o r v i e w i n g m a c h i n e s . This i d e a has never been e x p l o r e d to my k n o w l e d g e . 22  In June of 1987, D o n a l d J e n k i n s , the c u r a t o r of A s i a n A r t at the Oregon A r t I n s t i t u t e ( f o r m e r l y the P o r t l a n d Museum of A r t ) , c o u r t e o u s l y a g r e e d to spend an a f t e r n o o n w i t h me l o o k i n g a t Harunobu's p r i n t s in that c o l l e c t i o n . This p a r t i c u l a r p r i n t was i n the back o f Harunobu's f o l d e r and to Mr. J e n k i n s ' knowledge i t had n e v e r been e x h i b i t e d nor i l l u s t r a t e d i n any s c h o l a r l y publication.  23  The edges of the p r i n t are r a t h e r f a d e d and s t a i n e d i n some a r e a s .  24  T h i s acronym w i l l be used Oregon A r t I n s t i t u t e .  25  T h i s same type o f b r i d g e can be seen i n Okyo's megane-e e n t i t l e d Lake Q i n g c a o which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 101, Genshoku Nihon no B i j u t s u , volume 25. Tokyo: Shogakukan,  henceforth  ragged.  when  It  is  referring  very  to  the  TWTTT. 26  D o n a l d J e n k i n s i n f o r m e d me t h a t the l o n g e r s i g n a t u r e was used more o f t e n i n the e a r l y y e a r s of Harunobu's n i s h i k i - e production. Harunobu's p r e - n i s h i k i - e p r i n t s , however, use b o t h the l o n g and s h o r t f o r m s .  27  I t was c o l o u r e d w i t h beni , y e l l o w , and p e r h a p s some b l u e . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of p i g m e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s most l i k e l y a b e n i z u r i - e , the most p o p u l a r p r i n t p r i o r to 1765 .  28  C h i n e s e Scene i s a mi z u - e . These were p o p u l a r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p o l y c h r o m e p r i n t i n g .  just  prior  -  A.  The R e a t t r i b u t i o n  In among  Chapter  scholars  to  Harunobu-style bute  the  I  the  presence  the  main  Shiba  designs.  scholarship.  Forgeries  the as  to  -  criticized  use  print  print  Harunobu's that  1,  of  82  of  linear  criterion  K"okan,  a  Specifically, I  long-standing  tendency  perspective  by  which  to  s e l f-admi t t e d I  challenged  in  a  attri-  forger  of  logic  of  the  said:  If indeed Western-style linear perspective is a unique c o m p o s i t i o n a l e l e m e n t i n d i c a t i v e of the hand o f S h i b a K o k a n , why would he, a c t i n g w i t h the i n t e n t of f o r g i n g the p r i n t s of H a r u n o b u , i n t r o d u c e to t h o s e forgeries something totally foreign to Harunobu's style?  Chapters  2  and  affirmed  that  currents  of  3  introduced  Harunobu  art  at  called  f o r g e r i e s must be  illogical  composition original. toward  that  time.  of In  a  print  doing  If  style  print  such  a print  this  this,  no  longer  is a  influences  have  such  added  intended he  that  simply Harunobu  then  linear  automatically  forgery.  and  ways  linear pass  extended had  work  longer  to  the  Japanese  does  off  as  in his  begun  a  to  art a  a  the  Harunobu  earlier in  so-  i t seem  perspective  perspective and  in  which  a f f i r m a t i o n , the  No  to  arguments  susceptible  at  an  re-evaluated.  he  i s so,  some  Given  f o r Ko"kan to  Westernization  career.  in  Western-derived  visual  so  was  evidence  in  trend his  Harunobu-  e x c l u s i v e l y means  that  -  In  Chapter  various  stylistic  linear from  1,  I  and  perspective  that  attribution  of  those  (Figures  9,  11,  5,  evaluation. warrant  similar  Harunobu  was  Of Figure  is  and  yet  Figure is  49,  the  50  is  The  arose  to  support  Among  this  the group  suitable for  the  to  re-  prints  that  knowledge  visible  Kokan  that  show the  of  style  The  none o f  of  Harunobu's is  Kokan  evidence  to  overt  forgeries,  to  which  human  the  other  uncommon  enlargement  forgeries,  assess.  in  maturity  the  be  to  here,  convincing  compositionally  room,  eye  strong  diagonals  according  are  that  perspective.  difficult  in  the  shown  and  as  in  such  attribute  this  forger.*  bird's  ground  most  t a b l e , and  style.  an  means  with  considered  a  ignoring  questionable  now  depicted  betray  to  criteria  therefore  linear  according  Even  Kokan.  other  clearly  signature,  the  forgeries.  al  three  i s most a s s u r e d l y  Figure  writing  so  faces  The  to  been  the  Shiba  none  commonly  problems  probably  print  to  with  features.  workable  scrutiny--but  have  their  prints.  prints  particularly  they  anatomical  a  13)  forgeries  prints,  provided  exist  prints  48  f o r m s , as  those  familiar  the  four  calligraphic  and  There  -  analysed  in  analysis  83  containing  i t s adjoining  perspective,  The to  and  the  landscape  sloping  floors  of  into  that  the  of  the  seated  other  around  a  have been  conceived  in  structure  retains  the  common to  those  linear  any  figures  veranda  hence  rules fits  two  and  s t r u c t u r e behind  unlike  that  f i g u r e s has  perspective,  conception  compositionbeen  and  depicted the  back-  accordingly.  From  - 84 -  the  compositional  tion  of visual  which  standpoint  systems  he c o n v e y e d  comparatively sense,  this  compositional selves  which  be s a i d  to  Harunobu  signature  that  i s that  they  have  i s more  in  of  being  In  that  with  them-  i s hampered  standing  figures  the c a s e , the most  K'okan's  keeping  and a  the f i g u r e s  irregularities  the y o u t h f u l  in  plane  distance.  a r e no  Such  ground  prints in  t h e c o n f i n e s o f Harunobu's  analysis  there  uncommon  the  within An  a comparison.  but  into  f o r anatomical  the f a c t  to base  can  nicely  the j u x t a p o s i -  o f Harunobu's  for a level  recession  fits  search  by  t o many  some c o n c e r n  repertoire.  in a  somewhat  common  deeper  print  F i g u r e 50 p o s s e s s e s  robust  prints.  look  that  common  Finally,  Harunobu's  on  the  calligraphic  style. Among Figure  the p r i n t s  51 i n p a r t i c u l a r  bution  to  Harunobu.  anatomical their  assumed  The  features  Furthermore,  definitely  figures found  they the  Harunobu's.  to  be  Kokan's  i s the s t r o n g e s t c a n d i d a t e  inconsistencies  facial  lot.  B.  once  depicted in  Korean's  a r e t h e most signature  show  on  forgeries,  for reattrinone  of the  prints,  and i n  Harunobu-1 i ke this  print  of t h e  is  most  2  W e s t e r n - s t y l e A r t i n the Context o f Harunobu's  Nishiki-e  Of  demonstrate  all  Harunobu's niques  the  exposure  derived  from  evidence to  the  European  presented influences  here of  to  concepts  a r t , t h e O.A.I, p r i n t  and  tech-  i s the most  - 85  crucial.  It  Harunobu's  i s the  Harunobu's  work, would  between not  i t and  by  of the  Harunobu  KSkan's  are  similar  considered wide  gulf  material. believe  he  being  during  exists  fact  his  that  rose  to  between  now  of  one  of  the  the  This  n i s h i k i-e  b a s i s of  Harunobu  not  prints  3  does  accepted  as  of  prints to  remains and  the  to  as  prototypes  detail  in  the  be  be  that a later  found,  Western  inception  of  reasons,  I  has in  a  profound  that  Playing  the  which  are  least was  of  doing  bearing  i t i s now  a  manner  n i s h i k i-e  more of what he  his compositional  Courtesan  composition  gap.  working  with  fact  How-  prints.  in  print  f o r a number of  period.  entitled  five  was  was  groups  not  are  this  know a l i t t l e  his  two  if Yet  Harunobu  certainly  considered  those  be the  come to be  O.A.I,  bridge  popularity  d e f i n e , i n p a r t , the  sents  be  prototypes  Harunobu  formative  52,  the  clear  t h a t we  Figure  i f they  conception  is significant  understanding  later  the  without  and  f o r those  a relationship.  Although  production these  in  theme  of  to  compositions..  it  Certainly  i t i s p o s s i b l e to  The before  enough  in  him  forgeries,  could  Even  that  perspective  forgeries,  designs,  to  print  differences  forgeries.  i n such  O.A.I,  prototype  example  in a l l p r o b a b i l i t y  attributable  of  extant  perspective.  seem  reattributed  reattributed  for  now  the  the  authentic  linear  be  rudiments  constitute a viable  authentic  to  the  virtue  The  our  not  provided  with  by  of  f o r g e r i e s , which  affirmation  ever,  verifiably  exploration  reattributed  familiar  one  -  on  possible  aesthetic.  Samisen,  repre-  compositionally  - 86  unique  because  depicted. linear  the  I t has  been  of  demonstrated viewer  such  a level,  that  Masanobu's  view  (Figures  of  37  clear  difference  generation  be  evident  in  t o 1765  Harunobu  a backdrop  in his figure  indicates  that  his  Western-influenced production, of  beautiful  of  his  women  prints  figures  are  Harunobu  renewed  figures.  Of  of and  the  his designs a l l of  to  prints.  The  as  has  affords  bridge  to a  the  bridge  with  and  compare  "Okyo's  (Figures  megane-e  5, 9,  11,  i s demonstrating by  only  such, that  set  i n a minimal  the  13, that  later  interest  the  tended  landscape  presented  into  the  advent  primarily in  as  of  an  the  illustrator  of  of  compositions  his  environment. with  types  he  ability.  and  motifs  in  Shortly setting  e x p l o r e d , ten  in middle  landscape  the  4  distant in a  of  nishiki-e  earliest  his  as  so f a r  realm  aspect  fascination  compositional  with  evidence  With  simplest  the  of  a  29),  in  extended  the  depict  of  (Figure those  Harunobu  landscape  experimenting  are  show an  these  was  exploit  his  print  degree  artists.  popularity  and,  a certain  possessed  compositions. to  that  view  t h a t Harunobu  experiments  rose  popularity  calendar the  he  previous chapter  underneath  this  understanding  been  his  o r K'okan's f o r g e r i e s  of W e s t e r n - s t y l e  Prior  for  view  with  landscape  this  interior  landscape  has  artist In  Compare  teahouse  38)  It should  the  unobstructed  the  48).  of  the  i n the  understanding,  horizon.  and  which  p o i n t e d out  an  defined  in  in  its principles.  clearly  this  manner  perspective required  understanding  the  of  -  of  years His that after his  percent  5  landscape  manner  that  - 87  implies a  a level  bridge"  are  prints  others,  which The  r e c e s s i o n of are  like  included  of  these  landscape  linear  perspective  There  is  an  as  i s represented  is  this  he  and  which what  1765  a  of  and  motifs  in  elements forgeries  Mt.  the  the  Koya  print  of  53  low  among  and  depicted  in  54,  horizons.6 the  Ukiyo-e  assimilation  into  his  European-influenced  the  the  series  The  of  beginning  prints of  that  the  Harunobu's  death  Kokan  issued  we  found  have  a number  do  prints.  40),  From  i n a manner  compositions.  not  he  depict  rendition  is  seen  With include  since  Just  Harunobu's  designs  in  these  the  a  prior  to  and  51)  the  period  n i s h i k i-e similar His  to  "view  most  sophis-  produced  between  the of the  architectural the  landscape  reattributed  intermediary  Harunobu's  i t is  chrono-  ( F i g u r e s 50  represent  the  which  of  1770.  of  rendered  intermediary they  end  forgeries.  collectively  must a l s o  (Figure  in  in p e r s p e c t i v e  that  K'okan's  The  forgeries  his  motifs  perspective,  one  to  chapter.  by  Although  sequence  the  reattributed  approaches and  Figures  1765.  s o r t of  linear  as  before  prints  1770.  there  i t s produc-  landscape  bridge"  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , but  O.A.I, p r i n t , w i t h  1770  i s commonly  ticated  in  and  contain  under  1765  the  after  under  unique  chronology  this  by  produced  between  in  sometime  anchored  shortly  prints,  implied  chronology  logy  "view  here  The  compositions.  far  being  plane.  d i s t a n t views  i t was  so  date  most  represents  discussed  tion  the  design  b e f o r e , them,  prints  ground  illustrated  in t h e i r of  the  far  those  composition  produced  by  -  prints  Tama R i v e r  n i s h i k i-e  and  of  since  - 88  it  contains  an  accurate  -  of  illustration  an  optical  diagonal  machine. The  O.A.I,  prototype of  was  one.  depicted also  It  is  from the  the  used  likely one  the  arched,  topography buted  or  in  that  the  found  composition  and  on  the  left.8  attention  forgeries  certainly The  evidence  megane-e prints  in keeping  related he  different clear  material  aspects  between of  for in  that those  forgeries,  but  the  possibility  t h a t they  The  was  context  existed  a t one  are  reattri-  "Okyo's  teahouse  the  of the  right  new,  side  landscape  although  preferences. exposure  to  reference  time  in  i t is  1770  make  There  is  figures  nature.  have  of  forgeries,  continuous  once I  scheme  Japanese  Harunobu's  tradition.  7  of  aesthetic  a  but  themes.  bridges  foreground  quite  and  prints  his  i s on  to the  of  1765  Japanese  of  motif  that  megane-e  scene,  depictions  p e r s p e c t i v e view  shows  TTkyo  compositional  some  Harunobu's  clearly  issued  prototype  with  the  a Chinese  because  i s , however, s o m e t h i n g  appeal,  in  i n the  given  popular  concept  this  architectural  derivative  material.  illustrate  to  that i t s  Chinese  of C h i n a .  the  the  to  versions  of  The  over  similar  the  a Japanese  developed  adopted  in those are  or  It i s c l e a r l y  variety  not  theme, i m p l y i n g  bridge"  concept  Japanese  otherwise,  interiors  a  Harunobu  wooden but  under  same  that  of  genre  F i g u r e 55.  the  in  d'optique  precedence  "view as  vues  megane-e  took  the  here  i s Chinese  Suzhou  themes  replicated  he  a  As  Japanese  design  may  assumed  not to  recreated  be  now  to  be  a  K'okan's  above,  seems g r e a t .  The  the  - 89 -  C.  Concluding  Of ished  the  in  over  many  the  creativity the  of  a  the  of  the  Shiba  organized  into  match  f o r the It  is  Ukiyo-e  being  carrying  in  European  art.  Ukiyo-e a t one It  in  environment outside tition  be this  part  members  of  YofUga  the  and  ultimately the  occupied  and  like  in  among Odano  possibly  be  still  be  no  stream  of  Ukiyo-e.  points  to  per-  there  extent  chronological  various  he  would  within  significance  because  here  could  it  can  perspective  artists  Denzen  tradition,  at  one  the  by  currents  derived  from  Westernization  a position  of  situated  confluence.  clear  from  thesis  conditioned  influence.  Aodo  with  with  through  to a l e s s e r  influences  Harunobu's in  the  maintained  fascination  1740's  found  and  visualize  flow  p o i n t of  should  presented  to  be  tradition  intersected  arises such  and  continuous  their  can  flour-  adventuresome  genre  Kuniyoshi,  experiments  although  possible  the  that  the  their  of  and  school  Western-style  to  strongest  uki-e  their  K"okan, a  the  interests  and  traditions  that  Hokusai ,  Okyo-Shijo  paintings,  Naotake,  time  the  Toyoharu,  Similar  artists  of  From  to  and  i t i s a testament  period  continuity  works o f  schools  Ukiyo-e  art.  chiaroscuro.  Nanga  period  longest  landscapes  the  artistic  Edo  Western-style  ceive  Remarks  the  kyokaren  evidence  Harunobu's  receptivity  Through the  that  the  to  auspices brought  and  a  arguments  immediate  these of  the  artistic  cross-currents the  new  calendar literary  of  compeelement  -  to  Ukiyo-e.  interest  in  followers the  merely part  artists  megane-e  a record  of these reveal  of  h i s times; they  Okyo  currents he was  reveal  and  available  Her  Japanese print  conceived  prints in a  once  Harunobu's  as they e n t e r e d  more  than  Harunobu  Surely, ought  Western-style  someone  a willingness  on h i s the new  Woman L o o k i n g a t t h e Shadow o f  the  first  demonstrated European  and  Shiba  Ko~kan's  perspective  in  of  to  be  accorded  a r t i n Japan.  these a  cast  shadow  the e a r l i e s t  amalgam  the  of l i n e a r light  of  landscape.  a unique  fashion  to be  use  i s perhaps  the r e a l m o f pure  assumed  introduction  tion.  entitled  The O.A.I, p r i n t  to a p p r o a c h  bridge"  prints  print  demonstrated  art.  his  to h i m .  calendar  Parasol  an  p e r s p e c t i v e to  Collectively  new  that  stimulated  t o e x p e r i m e n t , t o u n d e r s t a n d , and to i n n o v a t e w i t h  His  the  the  tradition.  Yet h i s p r i n t s  material  a  of  understanding of l i n e a r  u k i-e  i n tune w i t h  -  his circle  a r t and  a new  strong  comprise  Ukiyo-e.  and  European  brought  already  prints  Gennai  9 0  bi ji n  in  under  of a landscape theme.  Those  represent  to the b i j i n-g a  position  Ukiyo-e  H i s "view  forgeries,  innovative  in  tradi-  achievements, the  history  of  -  91  -  NOTES CHAPTER 4 1  C a l v i n F r e n c h , S h i b a K o k a n , p. 32 went to g r e a t l e n g t h s to p r o v e t h i s p r i n t was a f o r g e r y . He spoke about the still left arm and the posture of the young man seen here holding the fan, claiming that this was u n l i k e any of Harunobu's p r i n t s when i n f a c t t h e r e are numerous Harunobu p r i n t s i n which t h i s can be s e e n . The a u t h e n t i c Harunobu p r i n t to which he made h i s c o m p a r i s o n s was so different from t h i s f o r g e r y t h a t h i s a n a l y s i s was a k i n to c o m p a r i n g apples with oranges. N o n e t h e l e s s , h i s comments about the mature look of the faces were appropriate but like Waterhouse and H i l l i e r , he too e m p h a s i z e d the p r e s e n c e of l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h i s p r i n t as the prime i n d i c a t o r o f Kokan's h a n d .  2  This was Higuchi's conclusion as well. See Higuchi, " S h i b a Kokan (Harunobu G i s a k u ) to S u z u k i Harunobu K o k a i k i ni t s u i t e no, ni san no mondai," Bunka S h i q a k u , #42, 1986 , pp. 2 3 - 4 1 .  3  The other four are illustrated in S e i i c h i r c J Takahashi , Harunobu (Tokyo and P a l o A l t o , CA: K U d a n s h a , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 90; Jacob Pins, The JapanesePillar P' r' i n t , Hashira-e (London: R o b e r t TT. S a w e r s , 1982) , p~. 123, Illustrated Catalogues of Tokyo" N a t i o n a l Museum Uk i y o - e ~ P r i n t s 1 (To*ky*o": 1960) , p l a t e 438; H i l l i e r , S u z u k i H a r u n o b u , pi ate 126 .  4  E x a c t l y what r o l e the d e s i g n e r s of t h e s e p r i n t s had in formulating t h e i r compositional s t r u c t u r e i s unknown but perhaps this simplicity somehow reflects an aesthetic f o s t e r e d by hatamoto s e n s i b i l i t y .  5  T h i s f i g u r e i s a r e s u l t of s u r v e y s I have c o n d u c t e d of the c o l l e c t i o n s of the A r t I n s t i t u t e of C h i c a g o and the Toky~5 N a t i o n a l . Museum.  6  The Tokyo N a t i o n a l Museum C o l l e c t i o n has a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e number of p r i n t s which use t h i s t y p e of composition. See I I 1 u s t r a t e d C a t a l o g u e s o f the Tokyo N a t i o n a l Museum U k i y o - e P r i n t s 1, i l l u s t r a t i o n s 438, 450, 451, 4b2, 481, 500, 535, 560.  7  OkyoJs megane-e i s e n t i t l e d F e s t i v a l of the -Tamma S h r i n e in Osaka. Fuinsai and Kokkado" r e p l i c a t e d TI as di d Toyoharu. They are i l l u s t r a t e d i n J u l i a n L e e , pp. 816, 832, and 849, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  8  The e a r l y u k i - e have t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n as w e l l , but they do not have the a d j o i n i n g l a n d s c a p e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p e r s p e c t i v e system.  FIGURE  1.  Suzuki  Harunobu.  Girl  i n a Summer Shower.  FIGURE 2.  Harunobu,  Three Sake  Tasters.  FIGURE 5.  S h i b a Kokan Snowbal1.  (as  Harunobu's  f o r g e r ) , Making a  FIGURE 6 .  FIGURE  7.  H a r u n o b u , The Snow  Harunobu, i l l u s t r a t i o n  from  Dog.  Ehon  Haru  no  nishiki.  -94FIGURE 8.  FIGURE 9.  Harushige,  Moon i n the Gay  S h i b a Kokan Veranda.  (as Harunobu's  Quarters  of Shinagawa.  f o g e r ) , Beauty  on the  -77FIGURE  FIGURE  11.  10.  Shiba  H a r u s h i g e , The A r c h e r y  Kokan  Gallery.  (as Harunobu's f o r g e r ) ,  Flying  a  Kite.  FIGURE  13.  S h i b a Kokan (as Harunobu's Reading a L e t t e r .  forger),  Courtesan  FIGURE  14.  Kokan, Forgery of F i g . 9.  of Harunobu's  Signature,  detail  FIGURE  17.  H a r u n o b u , Two Province.  Lovers  at Yatsuhashi  i n Mikawa  FIGURE  18.  Harunobu, Returning  Sails  at Shinagawa.  -/6SL-  FIGURE  19.  So  S h i s e k i , Lion  Illustration.  FIGURE  22.  Frontispiece  from  Rembertus  Dodanaeu's  Kruyt  Boeck.  -/0S--  FIGURE  23.  Harunobu, p i l l a r  print.  FIGURE 24.  Harunobu, G i r l Parasol.  Looking  at "  the  Shadow o f "  Her  -107FIGURE  25.  So  Shiseki,  Fivefold  Longlife.  FIGURE  28.  Shen N a n p i n ,  Deer.  -/OP-  FIGURE  29.  Okumura Masanobu, E v e n i n g  Cool  by Ryo~goku B r i d g e .  -///-  FIGURE  33.  Anonymous  Suzhou  artist,  Trees  in Zhejiang.  FIGURE  35.  Anonymous Suzhou (detail ) .  artist,  Wannian  Bridge  FIGURE 37.  Okyo, A r c h e r y  Contest  a t SanjTJsangendo  (megane-e).  FIGURE  FIGURE  39.  38.  Okyo, T h e a t r e  Utagawa  District  Toyoharu, Archery  i n Kyoto  Contest  (megane-e).  at Sanjusangendo .  - //$*-  FIGURE  41.  Harunobu, u n t i t l e d  perspective  view o f h a r b o u r  i n C h i n a , Oregon  Art  Institute.  -//7-  FIGURE  42.  Harunobu, C h i n e s e S c e n e .  FIGURE 4 3 . Harunobu, d e t a i l of F i g u r e  Long  41  FIGURE 44. form o f Harunobu's s i g n a t u r e  - //?-  Harunobu  FIGURE 45. S i x S a i n t s of  Poetry  FIGURE  FIGURE  48.  47.  Ko"kan Air.  H a r u n o b u , Three  (as Harunobu's  Summer  forger),  Evenings.  E n j o y i n g the Cool  FIGURE  51.  Harunobu, r e a t t r i b u t e d  forgery.  FIGURE  54.  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