UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Avant-garde film theory and praxis : an historical analysis of the narrative/anti-narrative debate Insell, Maria Katherine 1988

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1988_A8 I57.pdf [ 5.82MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0097723.json
JSON-LD: 1.0097723+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0097723.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0097723+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0097723+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0097723+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0097723 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0097723.txt
Citation
1.0097723.ris

Full Text

A V A N T - G A R D E  F I L M  T H E O R Y  A N D  P R A X I S  A N H I S T O R I C A L A N A L Y S I S O F N A R R A T I V E / A N T I - N A R R A T I V E D E B A T E  T H E  b y M A R I A B . A .  S i m o n  K A T H E R I N E F r a s e r  I N S E L L  U n i v e r s i t y  1981  T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S  i n T H E  F A C U L T Y  T H E A T R E  W e  T H E  t h i s t h e  M a r i a  F I L M  t h e s i s  a s  r e q u i r e d  U N I V E R S I T Y •  ®  G R A D U A T E  D E P A R T M E N T ,  a c c e p t t o  O F  - A t j H 1 '•  O F  S T U D I E S P R O G R A M M E  c o n f o r m i n g  s t a n d a r d  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  1988--'  K a t h e r i n e  I n s e l l ,  1988/  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  /  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ii ABSTRACT This a n a l y s i s of the n a r r a t i v e / a n t i - n a r r a t i v e debate i n avantgarde f i l m t h e o r y and p r a x i s i s c o n t e x t u a l i z e d i n terms o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n M o d e r n i s m i n t h e v i s u a l and p l a s t i c a r t s . The p r o b l e m s r a i s e d by t h e a e s t h e t i c s t r a t e g i e s f o r m a l autonomy v e r s u s n a r r a t i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n a r e e x p l o r e d by e x a m i n i n g s e v e r a l d i s c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l paradigms rather than f o l l o w i n g a strict linear h i s t o r i c a l c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f M o d e r n i s m and a v a n t garde p r a c t i c e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e l a t e 1930's E a s t / W e s t d e b a t e s between t h e f o u r w r i t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e F r a n k f u r t s c h o o l were discussed because t h e i r discourses reveal a spectrum of p o s s i b i l i t i e s which span each end of t h i s polarized a u t o n o m y / e f f i c a c y argument. The d i s c o u r s e s look a t the i s s u e s of p r o d u c t i o n a e s t h e t i c s and r e c e p t i o n a e s t h e t i c s a l s o . Within the parameters o f East/West debates, the p o s i t i o n i n g o f the s u b j e c t i n terms o f " d i s t r a c t e d h a b i t " o r " p r a x i s " a r e c r i t i c a l considerations to a reception a e s t h e t i c . Another h i s t o r i c a l paradigm f o r t h i s d e b a t e was t h e w r i t i n g and f i l m p r a c t i c e w h i c h e m e r g e d f r o m t h e n e x u s o f t h e e v e n t s o f May 1968. The E a s t / W e s t d e b a t e s i n f o r m e d t h i s w r i t i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by P e t e r W o l l e n i n t h e "Two A v a n t - G a r d e s . " Here t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f m a t e r i a l i s m , o n t o l o g y , a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f human perception are raised. The r e t u r n t o n a r r a t i v e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e " s e c o n d " a v a n t - g a r d e ' s f i l m p r a c t i c e ( G o d a r d , S t r a u b e t c . ) and i n f o r m s t h e i s s u e s o f new n a r r a t i v e i n f e m i n i s t f i l m p r a c t i c e s . T h i s i s n a r r a t i v e w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e however. Here q u e s t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e a n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c u l t u r e a r e c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e d and n a t u r a l l y the n a r r a t i v e / a n t i - n a r r a t i v e debate c o n t i n u e s . Finally, t h e s e i s s u e s a r e b r o u g h t f o r e w o r d t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n t e x t and r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the production of avant-garde f i l m i n Canada. One c a n s e e t h i s c o n t e m p o r a r y d e b a t e i n l i g h t o f t h e p a s t , however, t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n by t h e t h e s i s do n o t p r e s u m e t o resolve the n a r r a t i v e / a n t i - n a r r a t i v e debate or p r e s c r i b e one p a r t i c u l a r approach, s i n c e t h i s w i l l a r i s e from a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . The i n t e n t i o n of the study i s t o introduce the c e n t r a l issues r a i s e d by s o c i a l c o m m i t m e n t / a r t i s t i c autonomy and c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the debate over t h e use o f n a r r a t i v e .  iii CONTENTS  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION The N a r r a t i v e / A n t i - N a r r a t i v e P r o b l e m An A p p r o a c h t o t h e P r o b l e m The P r o b l e m L o c a t e d - A v a n t - G a r d e and M o d e r n i s m Community and S o u r c e s f o r t h e S t u d y Notes  II.  III.  IV.  AVANT-GARDE F I L M : THE MODERNIST CONTEXT  1 3 4 5 8 17 20  Modernism: The H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t The A v a n t - G a r d e and M o d e r n i s m The A v a n t - G a r d e : E l i t e , Mass, o r P o p u l a r C u l t u r e Popular Culture Mass C u l t u r e On t h e P r o b l e m o f Autonomy v e r s u s E f f i c a c y Autonomy; Pre-History Autonomy A e s t h e t i c : A P h i l o s o p h i c a l Concept A r t Engage v e r s u s Autonomy; H i s t o r i c a l Paradigms Notes  20 29 36 36 39 42 43 44 49 52  ART ENGAGE VERSUS AUTONOMY: HISTORICAL PARADIGM  57  Lukacs Lukacs's C l a s s i c i s m v e r s u s B r e c h t ' s A n t i - A r i s t o t e l i a n View. Brecht Ben j amin •••• Adorno Notes  60 63 65 71 73 80  CONTEMPORARY DEBATE: CONCLUSION  86  May 1968 - The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s - Canada May 1968 Materialism P o l i t i c s / O n t o l o g y - The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s Human P e r c e p t i o n N e w - N a r r a t i v e A v a n t - G a r d e : F e m i n i s m i n Canada and t h e U.S.A Notes  86 88 90 92 96 101 114  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  118  I would l i k e t o t h a n k my a d v i s o r s D r . J . Newton, D r . J . Yamaguchi, and Dr J . R e y n e r t s o n f o r t h e i r p a t i e n t s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s manuscript. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Tom I n s e l l , Meg T h o r n t o n , and my mother f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and encouragement a t each s t a g e o f p r o d u c t i o n .  Vancouver 1987  Maria  Katherine  Insell  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I n e v e r y e r a t h e a t t e m p t must be made t o w r e s t t r a d i t i o n away f r o m a c o n f o r m i s m t h a t i s a b o u t to overpower i t . Walter Benjamin  The  narrative/anti-narrative  critical  h i s t o r y of  a number o f of  the  t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s about the  evolution politics  require  strategies  appropriation  if  a v a n t - g a r d e f i l m t h e o r y and  subject that  aesthetic  debate emerging from  will  of  of  be  in light  the  the  of  appropriational  carefully.  the  respective  versus distracted habit f o c u s of  the  positions  of  For  strategy,  f i l m i c text  Audience subject p o s i t i o n i n g  i m p o r t a n t and  The  of  historical  changes i n c u l t u r a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n / e x h i b i t i o n and reception/appropriation  The  narrative  the  v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i o n .  a f i l m m a k e r a d o p t s an  the  example then  the  audience's  s h o u l d be  considered  is particularly self-reflexivity  pose d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i c a l  this historical  raises  positioning  f o r m a l autonomy v e r s u s  avant-garde a e s t h e t i c s ,  and  praxis  careful consideration.  considered  the  choices.  a n a l y s i s , however, i s not  to  argue  for  or a g a i n s t  the r e t u r n  the  historical  and  intention raised,  of t h i s  ideological  t h o s e f o c u s e d on s o c i a l  theoretical  either  valued  The  terms.  more t h a n t h e  development  interesting  of  the past,  artistic  This  study  terms, the  anti-narrative  over  problems  approaches,  sphere.  This  New  and  approach  aesthetic  formal d i f f e r e n c e  narrative  be  represents  approaches and a  autonomy, critique original,  representational versus  t h e use of language v e r s u s i t s critiques  the s e p a r a t i o n  a r t sphere from the p o p u l a r  I t represents  film  conventional versus  anti-narrative,  or e l i t e ,  a p p r o a c h can  avant-garde  the predominant  oppositions:  non-representational,  high,  narrative  those of r a d i c a l  the t r a d i t i o n a l  or r e g r e s s i v e i n  Therefore neither  o f new  being re-examined.  exclusion.  progressive  show  other.  because  narrative versus  the  and  issues  of the debate  i n avant-garde cinema.  is potentially  is  the  implications  by b o t h t h e n a r r a t i v e  representational  of  and  The  a d v a n t a g e s / d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h a p p r o a c h , and w i l l  that  are  debate.  on  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  e x a m i n e , i n c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l  raised the  commitment  to a better  and p r a c t i c a l  use of n a r r a t i v e  will  a s p e c t s of t h i s  study i s t o introduce the c e n t r a l  autonomy, t o c o n t r i b u t e  the  t o n a r r a t i v e but t o f o c u s r a t h e r  an a e s t h e t i c p o p u l i s t  avant-garde sphere of c u l t u r a l  between  cultural  position  production.  within  3 While these artists  in a  consider  to  the  "post-modern"  the  aesthetic  oppositions  idiom  had  the  context,  i t is s t i l l  important  r e - a p p r o p r i a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e i n terms  losses.  Does t h e  development of  The  1  pose fundamental problems f o r  of  r e t u r n t o n a r r a t i v e imply  a p o e t i c idiom  of c i n e m a t i c  losses  expression?  o f d e m o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e Maya D e r e n a s s e r t e d  right  t o deny  to  no  man  because:  I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n e v e r y man, t h e r e i s an a r e a v h i c h s p e a k s and h e a r s i n t h e p o e t i c i d i o m . . . s o m e t h i n g i n him w h i c h can s t i l l s i n g i n t h e d e s e r t when t h e t h r o a t i s almost too dry f o r speaking. With t h i s great  thought  developments  perception  itself?  positioning narrative engaging and  the  i n an  subject  and  political  fate,  an  or d e s t i n y , the  use  dimensions of the  must b e g i n  by  situating  a historical cultural  products  which  informed  the  their  formation.  of  This w i l l context  their  of  apparatus  which  in their  debates  praxis.  avant-garde f i l m  logic  human  with  cinematic  a v a n t - g a r d e , and  i n the  the  than  o f n a r r a t i v e emerges f r o m  context.  these  rather  These are p r e s s i n g q u e s t i o n s  a s t h e t i c s and  and  consequences  f o r e i g n f i l m m a k e r s must c o n s i d e r film  become o f  identification  o b j e c t i v e examination of  debate over the  codes of  the  what w i l l  of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n terms of  historical  within  must a s k ,  critique  What a r e  itself?  avant-garde  The  i n the  enigma, c h a r a c t e r  spectacle  Canadian on  i n mind one  the  therefore  theory  and  practice  locate a reading of  the  production  aesthetic and  the  one  of traditions  specific  It  i s u s e f u l here  considerations An  for this  attempt w i l l  be  setting  i s the  implying  civilizations,  a causal  or g r e a t  refutes  critique the  directly  of  postulates  events or,  t h a n c a u s a l i t y and  to the  Positivist  a  linear men,  great  alternatively,  assume a  in a transcendental  3 Logos."  from  transcendental  c o n t i n u i t y , Foucault transformation. but  context.  "great  Foucault  that meaningful h i s t o r i c a l  in relation  and  says,  of h i s t o r y , derived  notion  discontinuity  pitfalls  f o r c e , between  meaningful c o n t i n u i t y founded  This  the  a historical  t r a d i t i o n a l view of h i s t o r y .  t r a d i t i o n a l view, Foucault  progression  methodological  within  made t o a v o i d  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , which The  to o u t l i n e the  and  events o r i g i n a t e  subject.  Rather  proposes the  History  rearrangements  i s not  "question  of p r o g r e s s ,  among t h e  m u l t i p l e f o r c e s — m a t e r i a l , economic,  others,  notion  of  a  i n the r e l a t i o n s social—that  4 comprise  how  a social  formation."  Foucault's  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l  the  of the  notion  been s u b j e c t e d notion  of the  burgeoning changed  avant-garde,  to t h i s  an  transformational  avant-garde,  political  as  as  i t was  change  historical process.  with  i t s later  hypostatized  use  i n the  entity,  The  m i l i e u of French romanticism,  significantly  exemplifies  in  has  traditional the  f o r example,  romantic  and  5 symbolist the  p e r i o d of  l'art  aesthetic discourse  present  t h r o u g h an  paradigms  as  pour  l'art.  which informs  examination of  examples f r o m t h e  Therefore, the  we  will  issues raised in  pursue the  several discrete h i s t o r i c a l  past.  The  contemporary  historical  since v i r t u a l l y  implicated arts  in general.  context  of European  artistic  emerge by change This  So  this  i n the  i n modernist  of avant-garde  i n the v i s u a l  and  political  developed.  debate  life  where  A cultural  a g a i n s t the backdrop  Nineteenth-Century  context of  liberal  of the v a r i o u s avant-gardes,  f o r the c r i s i s  i n modernist  new-narrative  (and  The  d i s c o u r s e on  aesthetic  film  and  l'art  pour  l'art  thought.  and  l'art  context,  and  production, reception  In reader situate  address.  a n a l y z i n g how distribution,  and  meaning,  artists  the and  of  who  institutions exhibition  is a  the  result.  avant-garde  debate  between  aesthetic issues  culture  historical  which mediate  the  o f a work a f f e c t i t s  is essential.  task w i l l  t o the g e n e s i s o f the term film  be  t o i n t r o d u c e the  "avant-garde"  to  a r e compounded  d e a l w i t h mass this  the  the  important  while they  Understanding  chapter I I , the f i r s t  avant-garde  are s t i l l  filmmakers,  problems t h a t  specifically  the h i s t o r i c a l  engage.^ Q u e s t i o n s  commitment  avant-garde  additional  by  and  between  will  profound  of which  aesthetic  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s informed  autonomy v e r s u s s o c i a l contemporary  aesthetics,  the post-modernist)  narrative  and  literary  c o n t e x t i n f o r m s t h e d i v e r s e movements o f modernism, evolution  film  i t i s v a l u a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the  first  i n E i g h t e e n t h - and  reasons  must  the c r i s i s  a l l definitions  cultural  modernism  setting  strategic  the  rooted  i n t h e development of modernism  plastic  and  i s fundamentally  emergence o f modernism and  aesthetics, are  debate  7  and  to  i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m s o f modernism i n  by  6  the  visual  and  plastic  arts  assume, as some c r i t i c s and  in general.  have,  that  "modernism,"^ a r e synonymous.  mutually are  dependant  essentially  a strict  linear  one  probe  will  because  of t h e i r  different.  the v a r i o u s  historical  have posed  the i s s u e s  terms  The  traditions  two  rather  The  are  than  following  by  the  c h a p t e r examines  i d e o l o g i e s of the  of a e s t h e t i c  "avant-garde"^  avant-garde,  issues raised  life.  cannot  shared f e a t u r e s , y e t they  chronology of the  t h e key h i s t o r i c a l  aesthetic  t h e two  Furthermore,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and how  However, one  avant-garde  autonomy and  aesthetic  efficacy.  After  the c o n t e x t which  controversy  is isolated,  has  formed  i t will  be  of the avant-garde  We  avant-garde  theorized  their  cannot  overstressed  to  be  the p r a c t i c e  laws  position  mediated  useful  examine t h e c r i s i s c a n a n a l y z e why  and  artists  and  i n chapter II to modernism  the importance  of avant-garde  in general.  have not a d e q u a t e l y  w i t h i n mass c u l t u r e  that  the present  today.  The  of theory i s fundamental  f i l m m a k i n g , and  knowledge o f  of p r o d u c t i o n i n our p r e s e n t c o n t e x t i s i m p e r a t i v e .  Wollen  has  rightly  stated  that:  To t h i n k about t h e f u t u r e o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e means t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t s p a s t , n o t as a n t i q u a r i a n i s m o r as a r c h a e o l o g y , b u t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e mechanisms i n w h i c h we a r e s t i l l c a u g h t .  Therefore, chapter II w i l l  a l s o examine how  argument  the legacy  the  Peter  7 of modernism, the s t r e s s principal  from  rendered  modernist  view) i n e f f e c t u a l .  sphere  art.  This requisite  avant-garde  from  Therefore  audiences.  the  Of this  course,  in effect  and  required  alienates  t h e work s h o u l d  of  the  the reach.  a filtering  i n the h i g h a r t sphere,  influence,  to the  works e x e r t an  Rock v i d e o  one  process  i s both  artisanal  other  indirect  a good and  film  down move  cultural i n f l u e n c e on  bad  aesthetic  these  i d e a s and artist  must r e c o g n i z e t h e p r o b l e m s  of a p p r o p r i a t i o n .  avant-garde  their  techniques has  do  indeed  One  must see  filter  ideas are a s s i m i l a t e d into  c u l t u r e without  the  of  elite  example  no  say  inherent t h a t the  down, b u t the  transformative effects.  become p a r t o f mass c u l t u r e , i n how,  new  i n the  mainstream The  of  i s reaching  audience.  ideas of the process  i n the  however, t h a t t h r o u g h  these  experimental  broader  aesthetic  formal s i g n i f i c a t i o n  ideas generated  concentric circles  those  and  literacy  argue,  t h e new  arenas.  in  a r t ( i n the  and  T h i s problem stems i n p a r t  the very people  Some a r t i s t s process,  the  because of the degree of l i t e r a c y  to a p p r e c i a t e the e s o t e r i c  how  i n n o v a t i o n as  the m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of the avant-garde  cultural  via  formal  means t o t r a n s f o r m h a b i t u a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s  consciousness, populist  on  new while  o r i n what c o n t e x t , t h e y  are  a  8  received.  The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n which has emerged from  t h i s s i t u a t i o n ~i"S: t a n the avant-garde s t i l l  play a  s i g n i f i c a n t and meaningful r o l e i n combating the elements of hegemony i n form and thought to produce a r i c h e r , more heterogeneous p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l  reality?  Chapter I I I w i l l r e f e r t o an h i s t o r i c a l paradigm f o r the p r e s e n t d e b a t e — t h e late.1330*s East/West d e b a t e s . The four w r i t e r s who  were a s s o c i a t e s of the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l —  Georg Lukacs and B e r t o l t B r e c h t (the e a s t e r n debate) and Walter Benjamin  and Theodor W. Adprno  (the western d e b a t e ) — r e p r e s e n t  an a e s t h e t i c d i s c o u r s e and a body of c r i t i c a l thought about the autonomy v e r s u s e f f i c a c y  issues.  These d i s c o u r s e s r e v e a l a  spectrum of p o s s i b i l i t i e s which span each end of t h i s autonomy/efficacy argument.  Thus each of t h e i r  polarized  respective  p o s i t i o n s have provided a s e t of a l t e r n a t e vantage p o i n t s and penetrating  i n s i g h t s , which may  a l s o p r o v i d e the means to  transcend the b i n a r i s m o f an a v a n t - g a r d i s t e o p p o s i t i o n to n a r r a t i v e per se. reflect  However, the o p p o s i t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y  a c t u a l avant-garde h i s t o r i c a l p r a c t i c e i n r e l a t i o n to  n a r r a t i v e but r a t h e r the c l e a r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the avant-garde to oppose the i l l u s i o n i s m and mimeticism of the dominant or c l a s s i c a l n a r r a t i v e form.  P h i l l i p Drummond notes a l s o that  b i n a r i s m was u s e f u l s i n c e i t p r o v i d e d the d i s t i n c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d past p o l i t i c a l / a e s t h e t i c  strategies.  which  this  9  The  debates  popular  c u l t u r e , and  distilled  addition  refer  or  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h a r t ,  mass c u l t u r e .  t h e t e r m s and  marginalization In  examined  e s s a y s by  to the d i s c u s s i o n  Benjamin,  f o r example, has  of beauty)  Mechanical  autonomy critiques  i n h i s seminal  Reproduction,  i n The  Author  these t h e o r i s t s which  developed use  of the term  compromised  exigencies,  Work o f A r t In The  he  addresses  book, H i s t o r y realist  1  important  views,  and  Class  Meaning of Contemporary R e a l i s m . "popular" ^and  he  asserts  issue  w h i c h were t h e n  with  versus  oppositional  ideological aesthetic  fully  inform  developed  Brecht's aesthetic  approach.  The  of the  i n t h i s body o f t h e o r e t i c a l work.  Each  are  combined  strategy of  in  views  Theatre  implications  aesthetic  on  ideas in  " r e a l i s t i c " ^ a s p e c t s of E p i c  self-reflexive  appropriational  and  The  Commitment,  theory  Consciousness,  t o our p r e s e n t d i s c o u r s e because and  that  Age  of  His views  (here read  compromised.  The  dealt  the  A d o r n o ' s e s s a y , On  knowledge  aesthetic  populist  Renaissance  to economic, h i s t o r i c a l ,  his  the  refers  e s s a y , The  o t h e r w i s e t r u t h and  Georg Lukacs's  on  "aura"  on  the  and  be  Walter  o f a r t and  as P r o d u c e r .  k n o w l e d g e ) would u l t i m a t e l y  are  insights  t h e t e n d e n t i o u s a s p e c t s o f a r t engage*.  be  will  efficacy.  his critical  autonomous a r t a r e c o m p e l l i n g b e c a u s e cannot  the  p r o p e r , we  o f autonomy and  t h e r i t u a l i s t i c - m a g i c a l use  cult of  a r t (Benjamin's  have  of these c u l t u r a l spheres.  t o the exchanges i n the debates  pertinent  to  they  problems which a r i s e from  interpenetration  to the s p e c i f i c  post-aural  Consequently  of are  these  an  writers'  v i e w s on  these t a c t i c a l the  the  aesthetic  choices  positioning  of  the  East/West debates, the  raises  losses  or  important  subject. notions  gains  questions  W i t h i n the of  derived  regarding  terms of  "distracted  and  "praxis"  significant  1 4  ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n f o r m e d by  aesthetic  implications  and  define  the  habit"  ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i s - a - v i s a l i e a t o r y t e c h n i q u e and habit)  by  1 3  apperceptual t h e o r y ) have  the  subject  differently.  Having the  raised  subject,  discussion for  the  chapter  by  IV w i l l  r e f e r r i n g to  of  aesthetics  F r a n c e and film, then  from the  the  another h i s t o r i c a l  f o c u s on  materialist  developments  the  aesthetic u l  Semiotics  to  continued  through h i s  D z i g a - V e r t o v Group. that  connected  the  of  this  paradigm film  e v e n t s o f May  "the  practice 1968  in  Co-op movement."!5 We implications  understood  (re the  by  of  the  will  a  "two  philosophical  writing  at the  time.  aesthetic  issues  r a i s e d by  influence  on  sense),  This  the  P e t e r W o l l e n s a y s V e r t o v was  the  their differing  a materialist aesthetic.  of  the  will  Brecht  G o d a r d and  materialist aesthetic  avant-gardes despite meaning of  the  the  the  and  role  more complex t h e o r e t i c a l a p p a r a t u s  Structuralism  terms of  writing  aesthetic  i t was  the  i n f o r m e d much o f  broaden the and  and  as  the  in S t r u c t u r a l i s t - M a t e r i a l i s t  termed  differing  avant-gardes ^and  which  nexus o f  which Peter Wollen  and  continue to develop  t h i s contemporary d e b a t e : the  w h i c h emerged  of  issues  linchpin  two  c o n c e p t i o n s of  the  This  concern  aesthetic  11 for  the m a t e r i a l s of production vas also  m o d e r n i s t break from R e n a i s s a n c e  The  historical  aesthetics.  t h r u s t o f avant-garde f i l m  b e e n t o d e f i n e what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the  narrative/anti-narrative  aesthetic  they  debate r a i s e s  perhaps represent  b a s i c nature  i s a salient  focused  issue i n the h i s t o r i c a l  avant-gardes.  on q u e s t i o n s  o r , as A n d r e B a z i n p u t s  Much  theoretical  r e g a r d i n g t h e cinSma's  i t , " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t  Cinema?"19  When t h e f i r s t movement  cinematic  o f 1917, w i t h  L o u i s D e l l a c , Jean  g a v e were b a s e d  avant-garde  (the Impressionist  f i l m m a k e r s s u c h as Germaine  E p s t e i n and o t h e r s ) p o s e d  What i s t h e e s s e n t i a l  quality  on t h e movement o f t h e image  When B a z i n  the question:  addressed  this  (the  photographic  document—the p r o - f i l m i c  mechanically  recorded.  like  they  photogene)  shares  with  music  question, h i s notion  a c i n e m a t i c e s s e n c e was b a s e d on t h e o n t o l o g i c a l  filmmaker  Dulac,  o f t h i s medium? t h e a n s w e r s  t h e t i m e - b a s e d e s s e n c e w h i c h t h e cinema  (synaesthesia). of  the important  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i m a g e s , words and t h e t h i n g s  d i s c o u r s e has a l s o  and  Therefore,  c o d e s ) and t h e " t e x t " 1 ^ ( l i n g u i s t i c  development of the c i n e m a t i c  le  cine~matic.  p r a c t i c e has  i s s u e s w h i c h c e n t e r on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  "image,,1'7(re-presentational codes).  d e r i v e d from t h e  nature  of the  e v e n t t h a t t h e camera  H o w e v e r , when a s t r u c t u r a l i s t - m a t e r i a l i s t  P e t e r G i d a l answered t h i s  q u e s t i o n he s a i d :  12 The s t r u c t u r a l / m a t e r i a l i s t f i l m must minimize content i n i t s overpowering, i m a g i s t i c a l l y s e d u c t i v e sense, i n an attempt t o g e t through t h i s miasmic area of 'experience' and proceed w i t h f i l m as f i l m . 2 0  T h i s statement r e f l e c t s how the s u b j e c t i s p o s i t i o n e d i n a s e l f - r e f l e x i v e and c r i t i c a l mode. cinema  Rather than seeing the  as only a form of entertainment, s t r u c t u r a l i s t -  m a t e r i a l i s t filmmakers focus on the m a t e r i a l aspect of cinema which teaches us how the c i n e m a t i c apparatus c o n d i t i o n s human p e r c e p t i o n .  This subject  positioning  c r i t i q u e s the i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g of the s u b j e c t i n the classical  i l l u s i o n i s t narrative  form.  But i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s o n t o l o g i c a l t a u t o l o g y avant-garde c r i t i c s as f i l m approach.  that  i s o l a t e as the l i m i t a t i o n of the f i l m The focus on f i l m as f i l m m i r r o r s the  modernist h i s t o r i c a l c u l - d e - s a c of l ' a r t pour  l'art,  p r e c i p i t a t i n g a r e t u r n t o n a r r a t i v e forms i n some avant-garde practices.  Yet f e m i n i s t avant-garde filmmakers are not u n i f i e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a r r a t i v e because some argue that women should develop t h e i r own forms of cine'matic e x p r e s s i o n , s i n c e the e x i s t i n g n a r r a t i v e forms n e c e s s a r i l y draw on a p a t r i a r c h a l d i s c o u r s e through the use of language.  This  view of women's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o language i s drawn from women's s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s and Lacan p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory of language.  He proposed t h a t language i s a " s y m b o l i c , "  21  order which d e r i v e s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e and s t r u c t u r e through the " l a w "  22  of the f a t h e r .  13 However, f e m i n i s t s who u s e new n a r r a t i v e t h a t women h a v e been m a r g i n a l i z e d - e x c l u d e d discourses ground are  l o n g enough.  Pleasure  uses n a r r a t i v e  foreground used,  Mulvey's essay,  i n h e r own f i l m s  Visual  t h e female  i t i s used  textual  theoretical  were g r o u n d e d linguistics,  issues raised theory  insights  Neo-Freudian  s i g n s and s i g n  Russian  other  for  this  When t h e image manner.  a r e an i m p o r t a n t  and a r e l i n k e d t o the j o u r n a l s Screen  developed  and T e l Q u e l .  by t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s in structural  psychoanalytic theory, theory,  structural  and s e m i o l o g y .  as t h e s c i e n t i f i c  The  study of  s y s t e m s b e g a n w i t h t h e work o f F e r d i n a n d de  (1916).  p u b l i s h e d h i s Course  important  i n General  L a t e r , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e work o f  P i e r c e (1930-5) was a l s o  the  forms t o  and c r i t i c a l  by n a r r a t i v e  formalist  when he f i r s t  Linguistics  t h e image.  in a self-reflective  development o f semiology  Saussure  cinema.  to forge a place f o r  v o i c e r a t h e r than  i n p r e v i o u s developments  anthropology, original  narrative  s u b j e c t , and many women u s e n a r r a t i v e  of feminist f i l m  Charles  y e t women  particular subjective  i n classical  the w r i t e r s a s s o c i a t e d with The  as t h e  " p r i m a r y " 2 3 ( c a m e r a ) and " s e c o n d a r y "24  identification  feminine  part  cultural  I n N a r r a t i v e Cine*ma, a n a l y z e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  (character)  The  their  F o r example, L a u r a  male gaze t h r o u g h  is  argue  The image o f women i s u s e d  a v o i c e t o express  perspectives.  the  from  f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and male s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  denied  Mulvey  forms  influential.  f i g u r e s who p r o v i d e  d i s c u s s i o n are the French  In a d d i t i o n ,  a theoretical  psychoanalyst  context  Jacques  14  Lacan and  the s t r u c t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t  These prominent f i g u r e s map discourse  The Tel  Claude  Levi-Strauss.  or simply i n d i c a t e the f i e l d s  from which f e m i n i s t f i l m theory drew.  f i g u r e s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t who  emerged from the  Quel group to develop the study of cinema and  are Roland Barthes, Jean-Louis Baudry, and Roland Barthes's d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a greater  Julia  of. the  operate i n the Balzac  narrative Kristeva.  a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e  d i s c u r s i v e c l a r i t y of the s u b j e c t .  a n a l y s i s i n S/Z  to the  of  provided  His s t r u c t u r a l  f i v e b a s i c codes t h a t f u n c t i o n a l l y novella Sarrasine  study of c i n e m a t i c  are  invaluable  narrative.  Baudry's I d e o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of the  Basic  Cine~matoqraphic Apparatus i s important to the study of cinSma because he i s dependent, by apparatus. literal  The  aptly describes  how  the cine"matic  i t s very nature, on the  text  cinematographic  apparatus e s t a b l i s h e s the a t t r i b u t e of  succession,  which r e i n f o r c e s the  syntagmatic o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  fundamental  elements ( l e a v i n g aside  p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s created  by e d i t i n g ,  the  fades,  dissolves, etc.).  In a d d i t i o n , the composition of images  within  successive  the l i t e r a l  chain  also contribute  s i g n i f i c a n t syntagmatic aspect of the c i n e m a t i c But  to a  experience.  Baudry a l s o says t h a t the cinema's p s y c h i c a l  apparatus produces " f e a t u r e s capacity  which are s p e c i f i c to dream:  f o r f i g u r a t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n of thought i n t o  images, r e a l i t y extended to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . "  J  He  1 5  substantiates in  The  this  a n a l o g y by  Interpretation  Julia greatly  Kristeva's  referring  e x p e r i e n c e as an a n a l y s t  to the theory of d e s i r e  subjectivity  rather  that  i s not  the subject  M o r e o v e r she v a s  of  t h e modern  from  i n language  The student  term  perhaps  as  a n c  realist  j  T h e r e f o r e one  subject,"^^  and  i n the  debate  idea  person  on  of  The  narrative.  also  by  a  h i s understanding  d i s c o u r s e on  on t h e p l u r a l i t y that  former  significant  of communication  spawned t h e i n s i g h t  to the a n a l y s i s  used,  development  developed  M e t z , was  Metz's s t r e s s  must t a k e an  videly  narrative voices i s  of t h i s  a Renaissance  but  in process.  t h e nov  of n e w - n a r r a t i v e because  understand  unchanging,  i t s c o n s e q u e n t i a l break  i m p o r t a n t as t h e e s s e n t i a l i s t  must be  to the  "monologic"29novel.  as a m u l t i - c o d e d s y s t e m  to f u l l y  approach  role  t h e o r y of the cinema,  i n t h e cinema  theorist  i  versus multiple  cinema's b a s i c n a t u r e .  wishes  l l o v e  of B a r t h e s , C h r i s t i a n  t h e cine"ma  contributed  "intertextuality.£he  i n the development  t o the development  codes  for coining  "polyphonic"28  semiotic  unified,  plays a s i g n i f i c a n t  of s i n g u l a r  implicated  "split  has  and  i s alvays a subject  the Nineteenth-Century  aspect  of  fixed,  responsible  however m i s u n d e r s t o o d , intertextuality  analysis  o f Dreams.  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c understanding of the that  to Freud's  the  i n a sense,  is the of  film i f s/he  t h e c i n e m a t i c phenomenon. interdisciplinary  of the  cinema.  and  pluralistic  The in  concluding  chapter  terms of the contemporary  avant-garde filmmakers be  will  localize  this  discussions  i n Canada.  amongst  Specific  made t o t h e sometimes s t o r m y c r i t i c a l  a l s o r e f e r t o two c o n f e r e n c e s h e l d  New N a r r a t i v e  C o n f e r e n c e and t h e p a n e l  by  f o rNational  the writer  Practices;  alternative  film  the  This  3 0  organized  Avant-garde  real  concerns  i s a l s o why some  about of the p o e t i c experimental  "So what i s new a b o u t new  n a r r a t i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n , however, s t i l l  p o s i t i o n i n g of the s u b j e c t of avant-garde  politics,  and t h e v a r i o u s  and c o n s i d e r  must  address  the h i s t o r i c a l  a e s t h e t i c s , t h e changes levels  autonomy  of production.  in cultural There i s value  b o t h t h e n a r r a t i v e and a n t i - n a r r a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s ,  either  Film  i n nature, but  The a e s t h e t i c s t r a t e g i e s o f f o r m a l  evolution  in  discussion  f o r m s and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n  ask t h e q u e s t i o n ,  narrative?" versus  i n Vancouver/ the  are polemic  many f i l m m a k e r s '  i n t h e cinema.  filmmakers  i n film  S i x Views.  reflect  idiom  will  C h a p t e r IV  F i l m Week t i t l e d  Some o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s they  reference  debate  j o u r n a l s s u c h a s O p s i s and Cine~ma C a n a d a . will  debate  approach can c o n t a i n  progressive  elements of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  This  t o v a l o r i z e one a p p r o a c h o v e r  another.  and/or  however;  regressive  i s why i t w o u l d be  inaccurate  17  NOTES TO CHAPTER I  ••The t e r m " p o s t - m o d e r n " i s u s e d p r o v i s i o n a l l y b e c a u s e many h i s t o r i a n s f i n d t h e t e r m p r o b l e m a t i c . H e r e r e f e r t o t h e M o d e r n i s m and M o d e r n i t y C o n f e r e n c e P a p e r s e d . S e r g e G u i l b a u t , B e n j a m i n H. D. B u c h l o h , and D a v i d S o l k i n (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1981). M a y a D e r e n , " S t a t e m e n t o f P r i n c i p l e s , " F i l m As F i l m (London: Hayvard G a l l e r y p u b l i s h e d e x t r a c t s , c a t a l o g u e , 1979), p.123. 2  C h a r l e s C. L e m e r t and G a r t h G i l l a n , M i c h e l F o u c a u l t : S o c i a l T h e o r y a s T r a n s g r e s s i o n (Nev Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982), p . 11. 3  4  Ibid.,  p . 12.  ^The a n a r c h o - r o m a n t i c movement o f " a r t - f o r - a r t * s s a k e " d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e work o f C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e and t h e s y m b o l i s t movement d u r i n g t h e m i d - 1 8 8 0 s . B a u d e l a i r e and A r t h u r Rimbaud were b o t h v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by t h e R e v o l u t i o n s o f 1830, 1948 and t h e P a r i s Commune i n F r a n c e . Rimbaud combined B a u d e l a i r e ' s Swedenborgianism w i t h F o u r i e r t o develop h i s v i s i o n a r y idea of a u n i v e r s a l language. The s y m b o l i s t p o e t s P a u l V e r l a i n and S t e p h a n e M a l l a r m e d e v e l o p e d t h e B a u d e l a i r e a n i d e a o f p o e t i c enigma and f o r e g r o u n d , t h e e l e m e n t o f c h a n c e i n p o e t i c composition. T h i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h e a n a r c h i c element of c h a n c e i n l a t e r dada and s u r r e a l i s t a r t . Some o f the B r i t i s h e x p o n e n t s o f " a r t - f o r - a r t s s a k e " ( i n f l u e n c e d by S w i n b u r n e ) a r e O s c a r W i l d e and t h e p r e - R a p h a e l i t e s Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i and Edward B u r n e - J o n e s . 1  T h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s i d e a o f engaged a r t i s d e r i v e d f r o m J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , " Q u ' e s t - c e que l a L i t e r a t u r e ? " , L e s Temps Modernes ( 1 9 4 7 ) . 6  T h e t e r m i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Utopian s o c i a l i s t H e n r i de S a i n t - S i m o n , who was i n s p i r e d by t h e i d e a of p r o g r e s s t h a t d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e p r o g r e s s i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y l e a d i n g up t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h i s was how t h e i d e a o f p r o g r e s s was p a s s e d on i n t o t h e a r t s . 7  See  c h a p t e r I I , n o t e 19.  18 ^ A e s t h e t i c modernism developed i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as a " r e v o l t a g a i n s t p o s i t i v i s m " and t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c r i s i s i n e i g h t e e n t h - and n i n e t e e n t h century l i b e r a l thought. Modernism c u l t i v a t e d the f o r m a l c o n c e r n s of s p a t i a l montage, p a r a d o x , and t h e f r a g m e n t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t r e f l e c t e d the " c r i s i s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " P e t e r W o l l e n , R e a d i n g s and W r i t i n g s ; S e m i o t i c C o u n t e r - S t r a t e g i e s ( L o n d o n : V e r s o E d i t i o n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p.36. l u  H - B r e c h t ' s use o f t h e t e r m s a r e d e f i n e d i n c h a p t e r I I I and he c o u n t e r p o s e s t h o s e c o n c e p t s v i t h t h e d o c t r i n e o f social realism. The a e s t h e t i c i s d e r i v e d f r o m b o u r g e o i s c r i t i c a l realism. 1 2  Ibid.  13 t r acted h a b i t : apperceptual habit. D i s  interpretation vis-a-vis  ^Praxis: interpretation vis-a-vis a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l k n o v l e d g e .  the  practical  l ^ P e t e r W o l l e n , R e a d i n g s and W r i t i n g s : S e m i o t i c C o u n t e r - S t r a t e g i e s ( L o n d o n : V e r s o E d i t i o n s , . . 1982) , p . 1 6  37.  Ibid.  ^Image: r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l codes. i^Text:  linguistic  codes.  T h i s r e f e r s to Andre B a z i n ' s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a 1 9  What i s Cinema 4 v o l s . P r e s s , 1958-65), p. 2.  P e t e r G i d a l , ed., Standard F i l m A n t h o l o g y B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 2. 2 0  (London:  21-The s y m b o l i c o r d e r i s a t e r m d e r i v e d f r o m s e m i o t i c s and t h e o r y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n l a n g u a g e . L a c a n and P i e r c e d e f i n e s y m b o l i c s i g n s as s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s . 22»p] t e r m i s d e r i v e d f r o m L a c a n and r e f e r s t o t h e codes or r u l e s v h i c h govern l i n g u i s t i c systems. These r u l e s are r e l a t e d i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c terms t o the O e d i p a l myth and t h e r u l e o f p a t r i a r c h y i n l a n g u a g e and i n s o c i e t y . ie  19 ^ i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e cinema s h i f t s as i t does i n language from t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o t h e second person. P r i m a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e camera p o i n t o f v i e w while secondary i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s the s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the character. 24 I b i d , J e a n - L o u i s B a u d r y , "The A p p a r a t u s : M e t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e I m p r e s s i o n o f R e a l i t y i n t h e Cinema," Camera O b s c u r a 1 ( F a l l 1 9 7 6 ) : 115. 2 5  ^ l n h e r book D e s i r e I n Language J u l i a K r i s t e v a a n a l y z e s the "speaking s u b j e c t , " which i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s p l i t s u b j e c t — d i v i d e d by c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s motivation—between p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s and s o c i a l constraints. T h e r e f o r e t h e a c t i o n s and p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e speaking subject are the r e s u l t of a d i a l e c t i c a l process. J u l i a K r i s t e v a , D e s i r e i n Language ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 6. 2  K r i s t e v a d e f i n e s i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y "as t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f one o r more s y s t e m s o f s i g n s i n t o a n o t h e r , a c c o m p a n i e d by a new a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e e n u n c i a t i v e and d e n o t a t i v e p o s i t i o n . " This definition i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n that i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f one w r i t e r on another. I b i d . , p . 15. 2 7  28-phe p o l y p h o n i c n o v e l h a s m u l t i p l e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s and i s a open t e x t . The work o f M. M. B a k h t i n and V. N . V o l o s h i n o v a n a l y z e t h e " d i a l o g i c " q u a l i t y o f t h e voice i n polyphonic text. Ann Shukman, e d . , B a k h t i n S c h o o l Papers ( O x f o r d : Holdan Books, 1983). ^ A l s o d e r i v e d f r o m B a k h t i n and V o l o s h i n o v , t h e t e r m "monologic" ( m o n o l o q i c h e s k i i ) i s d e f i n e d as t h e o p p o s i t e o f d i a l o g i c and i s n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e d b e c a u s e t h e t e x t i s c l o s e d , c o m p l e t e d , and t h e r e f o r e n o t open t o r e s p o n s e . I b i d , 2  3°Nina F o n o r o f f and L i s a C a r t w r i g h t , " N a r r a t i v e i s N a r r a t i v e : So What i s New?", H e r e s i e s 16, v o l . 4, n o . 4 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , pp. 52-4.  20  CHAPTER I I AVANT-GARDE FILM: THE MODERNIST CONTEXT  The t h r u s t o f m o d e r n i s m i s " t h e d r i v e t o g i v e works o f a r t t h e i n t e g r i t y o f o b j e c t s , and t o l i b e r a t e them f r o m t h e b u r d e n o f human m i m e s i s . " Ortega y Gasset  Literary changes  T h i s c o n t e x t o f European  informed  strategic  aesthetics  break  reproduction  the  of a period  role  also  serious  realist,  revolutionized arts.  and n a t u r a l i s t  Modernist  t h e codes  The t u r n  The  w h i c h saw an  i n the aesthetic  of mechanical  and c o n v e n t i o n s  of the century,  mass r e p r o d u c t i o n .  painting  d i s c o u r s e of  questions regarding the function This  therefore, of a r t i n  historical with  today.  M o d e r n i s m : The H i s t o r i c a l  from  political  s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e modern/post-modern i s s u e  narrative  The  and  cin6ma a n d , c o n v e r s e l y , t h e a d v e n t  age o f m e c h a n i c a l  context  neo-classical,  epistemological critique.  the p i c t o r i a l  raised  with  an i m p o r t a n t  avant-garde  cultural  liberal  of the v a r i o u s avant-gardes.  i s a product  unprecedented  in  of the profound  t h e d i v e r s e movements o f m o d e r n i s m and t h e  evolution  modernists'  played  m o d e r n i s m was b o r n  i n E i g h t e e n t h - and N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  thought. life  and a r t i s t i c  two m a j o r  one p r o b l e m  social paradigm  Context  forces  that  precipitated  the s h i f t  t o t h e o t h e r were t h e d u a l  21 revolutions—the political industry  industrial  revolution  i n France.  and d e m o c r a c y p r o d u c e d  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , which With  revolution  the invention  o f modern c i t i e s , environment  o f t h e steam man  felt  f o r the f i r s t  able  As man  new  because man  e n g i n e and t h e t o master  shift  also  effects  the c e n t r a l  development  the natural  from c o u n t r y t o c i t y ,  consequences  s u c h as t h e s e n s e o f  of the c i t y  with the n a t u r a l  an i n c r e a s e d  age, man  dehumanizing  i n the a r t s .  and  factory  s e p a r a t e d from the s u p p o r t o f s m a l l  and c o n t a c t  he f e l t  In t h i s  became  impact of  changes i n  i n t h e i m p e r s o n a l atmosphere  communities life,  radical  and t h e  time.  h o w e v e r , came u n f o r e s e e n s o c i a l  work.  The p r o f o u n d  i n t u r n were r e f l e c t e d  Along with the population  alienation  i n England  temporality  sense of a n x i e t y felt  of farm  and f r a g m e n t a t i o n .  unable t o c o n t r o l the  of the technology which  he had i n v e n t e d  f o c u s o f h i s w o r l d seemed t o s h i f t  from  t o machine.  Paradoxically, democratic, w e a l t h was  society  f o r many.  rational,  cities  of the e l i t e  that  t h e extreme  suburbs  gave r i s e  and  alienation  and i m p e r s o n a l mass  on t h e one hand  industrialist's  were t h e c o n d i t i o n s  class consciousness.  produced  slums  utilitarian,  p r o g r e s s and m a t e r i a l  Thus t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  between h a r s h f a c t o r y w o r k e r  These  more  by some, t h e s e n s e o f h o m e l e s s n e s s  of the g a s l i g h t  decadence  appeared  and t h e s e n s e o f u n l i m i t e d felt  intensified  as s o c i e t y  polarities and t h e  on t h e o t h e r .  t o the p o l i t i c s of  Man's p r e d e t e r m i n e d , c o s m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n significantly of  state  with the decline  and c h u r c h d u r i n g  also  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  the t r a n s i t i o n  from  changed  authority  absolutist  to democratic eras.  T h i s d e c e n t e r i n g o f w o r l d v i e w and  decline  and p o l i t i c a l  in religious  absolute raised  fields  about  of thought.  thinkers  signalled  New e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  undermined  discourse.  Then, b e c a u s e  came t o q u e s t i o n t h e l e g i t i m a c y  s u c h as S o r e l  "derivations," and 2  rationalizers  production Greenberg the by  Mosca t h e " p o l i t i c a l  of t h i s  of the powerful, to  explains  imminent Kant,  Political  formulas," which the 3  e p i s t e m i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and meaning p r e v i o u s l y  of texts  political  f o r t h e p o w e r f u l had p r o m u l g a t e d .  t h e a r t s was t h e m o d e r n i s t c r i t i q u e  representation,  those questions  explored the "myths,"ipareto the  and a p o l o g i s t s  One r e s u l t in  q u e s t i o n s were  a l l previous epistemic premises,  penetrate the facades of the powerful e l i t e s . thinkers  an end t o  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e knowledge t h a t had b e e n  the b a s i s of p o l i t i c a l radically  faith  and i m a g e s . in his article  self-critical  of language, accepted i n the  In p h i l o s o p h i c a l  terms,  on m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g  tendency  b u t he d i s t i n g u i s h e s  questioning  o f m o d e r n i s m was  Clement that  influenced  that:  The s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o f m o d e r n i s m grows o u t o f b u t i s n o t t h e same t h i n g a s t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Enlightenment. The E n l i g h t e n m e n t c r i t i c i z e d f r o m t h e o u t s i d e , t h e way c r i t i c i s m i n i t s a c c e p t e d s e n s e d o e s : modernism c r i t i c i z e d from i n s i d e t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e d u r e s themselves of t h a t which i s b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d . . . . r e a l i s t i c , n a t u r a l i s t i c a r t had d i s s e m b l e d t h e medium, u s i n g a r t t o c o n c e a l a r t ; m o d e r n i s m u s e d a r t t o c a l l .attention to a r t .  23 Aesthetic an  i c o n o c l a s t i c r e j e c t i o n of  painting The  associated  painter  Sculpture  from the  and  academic t r a d i t i o n  exemplified  Peter  very  much  an  and  decoding.  and  influenced classical  essential  therefore  centrifugal  this  As  (throwing  works) r a t h e r  5 Modernism d e c e n t e r e d  I f  fragmentation  Wollen explained, the  reader  than c e n t r i p e d a l  out  of  of  this  Wollen notes that  "always p o s i t e d  as  i n France.  R o y a l Academy o f P a i n t i n g  codes  extra-referential.  own  David  in Paris  c o h e r e n c e t o e v e r y work, w h i c h p e r m i t t e d  exhaustive  meaning  the  Bourbon a b s o l u t i s m  aesthetics.  representational  and  began t o d e v e l o p  a l t h o u g h h i s p a i n t i n g was  classical  unity  vith  Jacques L o u i s  estrangement  by  modernism f i r s t  a  the  caused  unity  a r t became  work t o  (held together  of  a r t t o become  modernist the  uniform  by  other  the  work's  center) .  This  shift  in reader  t o note because of Foucault  analyzed  established painting social  in  this  the  subject  codes of p e r s p e c t i v e , V e l a s q u e z Las  relations i s established  spectating monarchy on  Foucault  subject, whom t h e  the  saw  ostensible  painter's  Meninas.  through the  i n the  important  authority.  h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g of  i n the  painting.  positioning is  change i n t r a d i t i o n a l  through the  s u c h as  of  the  and  in  the  subject,  classical A triadic  system  power o f t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  subject  and  gaze i s f i x e d )  model  (the  that:  . . . t h e p a i n t e r ' s s o v e r e i g n g a z e commands a v i r t u a l t r i a n g l e whose o u t l i n e d e f i n e s t h i s p i c t u r e o f a p i c t u r e : at the t o p — t h e only v i s i b l e corner—the p a i n t e r ' s e y e s ; a t one o f t h e b a s e a n g l e s , the i n v i s i b l e p l a c e o c c u p i e d by t h e m o d e l ; a t t h e o t h e r  gaze the  Spanish  24 b a s e a n g l e , t h e f i g u r e p r o b a b l y s k e t c h e d out on t h e i n v i s i b l e s u r f a c e of the canvas. As soon as t h e y p l a c e the s p e c t a t o r i n the f i e l d of t h e i r gaze, the p a i n t e r ' s e y e s s e i z e h o l d o f him, f o r c e him t o e n t e r t h e p i c t u r e , a s s i g n him a p l a c e a t o n c e p r i v i l e g e d and inescapable, l e v y t h e i r l u m i n o u s and v i s i b l e t r i b u t e f r o m him, and p r o j e c t i t upon t h e i n a c c e s s i b l e s u r f a c e o f t h e c a n v a s w i t h i n the p i c t u r e . He s e e s h i s i n v i s i b i l i t y made v i s i b l e t o t h e p a i n t e r and transposed i n t o an image f o r e v e r i n v i s i b l e to himself.  The  painters  s u c h as  C o u r b e t , Manet, Degas and  succeeded David, exemplified visual  codes p e r s p e c t i v e  Renaissance. realism  T h e r e was  during  painting  of  the  expressionist,  the  t h i s modernist  definitively  e a r l y decades of  impressionists and  surrealist  Japanese composition  and  decline  cosmology.  through h i s deduction  from  the  during  the  Nineteenth-Century Republic  in  then l a t e r  with the  cubist,  The  influence  on  critique  Grice  w i t h the  who  Third  perspective  basic  Malcom Le  in religious faith  the  movements.  planar  t h e s e movements r e f l e c t e d t h e epistemic  and  r e j e c t i o n of  established  a c l e a r departure  others  the  of  the  of  painters  a Western  a s t u t e l y connected  development of  the  science  that:  The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y saw t h e d e c l i n e o f a r e l i g i o u s v i e w o f t h e w o r l d , w i t h i t s b a s i s i n f a i t h and u n d e r l y i n g q u i e t r e p l a c e d by a s c i e n t i f i c materialism, with i t s basis in observation, e x p e r i m e n t and t e c h n o l o g i c a l determination. P h o t o g r a p h y was a r e s u l t o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a n s i t i o n , and, as an o b s e r v a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t , s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y aids s c i e n t i f i c research. 7  The  technological  scientific  materialism  development of cinematography i n the  d e c a d e s combined w e l l . from  a positivist  desire  arts during  I m p r e s s i o n i s m was to  scientifically  the  and  cinema's  born, for capture  early  example, and  in  accurately and of  hue  record  i n the  the  effects  natural  p h o t o g r a p h y was  provided  the  instances  environment.  considerable  "snapshot"** q u a l i t y o f also  of  The  since  Giacomo B a l l a ' s Dog  On  A Leash  Film  Grice  B e y o n d , Le  painters more  Of  9  than  interest  i s the  photography  reproduction  displaced  and  this  the  the  assertion  of  the  flat  canvas s u r f a c e .  concern with  the  flat  aspect  featured Pollock and  i n the and  Robert  the  effects  shows how Kantian than  "intrinsically  achieved  i n cinema  of  the  role  i n the This  painted  expressionist  work o f m i n i m a l i s t  another.  working The  in  advent  i n mimetic  cubist  among  aesthetic  self-reflexive surface  painting  painters  as  of  s u c h as  i s also Jackson Don  Judd  Morris.  T h e n , as and  abstract  culminating  and  Abstract  aesthetic discourse  painters,  the  impressionist  one  painter's an  to  (1911)  manner i n w h i c h a r t i s t s  initiated  discourse  influence  I n h i s book  w h i c h was  by  color  as  Staircase  (1912).  a v a r i e t y o f media were i n f l u e n c e d of  such  a l s o notes that  anything  on  Chronophotography  s u c h as Monet p r o d u c e d works w h i c h were  'cinematic'  such."  aesthetic  image b a s e f o r p a i n t i n g s Descending the  light  i t contributed  impressionism.  M a r c e l Duchamp's B r i d e  And  of  each of  the  a r t s began t o examine t h e  processes  u n i q u e t o e a c h r e s p e c t i v e medium, G r e e n b e r g  the  m o d e r n i s t m e t h o d o l o g y , as  self-criticism,  philosophy:  was  fully  exemplified  expressed  also  by  i n science  rather  26 That v i s u a l a r t should c o n f i n e i t s e l f e x c l u s i v e l y to what i s g i v e n i n v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e , i s a n o t i o n whose only j u s t i f i c a t i o n l i e s i n s c i e n t i f i c consistency. S c i e n t i f i c method a l o n e a s k s , o r m i g h t a s k , t h a t a s i t u a t i o n be r e s o l v e d i n e x a c t l y t h e same t e r m s as t h a t i n which i t i s p r e s e n t e d . The  radical  shift  i n consciousness  n i n e t e e n t h - and  early  twentieth  aesthetic ways. the  form  The  of modernist  first  aesthetic  which they  work.  Sprocket  The  Holes,  The  new  experience temporal  temporal  modernist of time.  to t h i s  context The  and  b e c a u s e he  thought  new  of c r e a t i o n  cin§"ma, t h i s  i n Which T h e r e Particles,  f e a t u r e of  that altered  to the  advent  Appears  Etc.  (1966).  and  modernism. by  a  radically  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of the  p e r c e p t i o n of time.  t h a t t i m e was spiritual  of time a truly  content  p e r i o d , t e m p o r a l i t y was  experience  of s i m u l t a n e i t y , j u x t a p o s i t i o n , the  influential force,  of the p r e s e n t .  of t h i s  and  further  Bergson's  very  creative  the  cinema  Henri  was  literature  example, s y m b o l i s t p o e t r y  and is  i m p r e s s i o n i s t ' s e m p h a s i s on  his interpretation  animated w i t h the  through  materials with  a p p r o a c h e s were p r e c i p i t a t e d  philosophy  was  Dirt  second  moment i n a d d i t i o n  contributed  specific  s t r u c t u r e s o f modern a r t  e x e m p l i f i e d the  temporal  transformed  In a v a n t - g a r d e  Edge L e t t e r i n g ,  altered  literature  t o t h e media and  i n G e o r g e Landow's F i l m  i n the  self-reflexiveness.  Thus t h e v e r y p r o c e s s e s  are foregrounded. seen  i s manifest  a r t i n a number o f  of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s or  draw a t t e n t i o n  clearly  century  late  f e a t u r e o f modernism i s m a n i f e s t  Modernists  craft  d u r i n g the  based and  literature  on  which In  the  the  montage.  of Joyce  and  For Proust  represent ordering  this  temporal  of n a r r a t i v e  e v e n t s common t o t h e avant-garde Marienbad •with t h e  The and in  (1961) o r  third  traditional  novel  event.  or  of  replaces an  provides  are  Their  and  unconscious drives an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s , as  attitudes  and  canalized the  real  by  For  example, t h e  the  previous  felt  the  paradox  decline  d i a l o g i c novel  of  monologic novel.  omniscient narrator, a l i m i t e d and  f i l m s which f e a t u r e  Hanging  of  discussed  the  vhile  The  the  fallible for  one  multiple  Afternoon  ( 1 9 6 8 ) , and  and  development of modernist  critical o f man well  actions.  irrationalism,  a  (1965) b r o k e  cultivation  previously  r e f l e c t e d Nietzsche's  to the  research  Therefore  Louis  Bunuel's  (1928).  These f i l m s a l s o contributions  Reconciled  i s the  Maya D a r e n ' s Meshes o f  Chien Andalou  novel.  a number o f p e r s p e c t i v e s  ( 1 9 4 3 ) , Oshima's D e a t h by Un  the  either exemplifies  Three avant-garde  perspectives  realist  of  narrative.  of modernism  features  presentation  1  authority.  monologic novel  century  linear  A l a i n Resnais's L Annee Derniere  a r e s u l t of  modern l i t e r a t u r e  to the  sequential  S t r a u b / H u i l l e t ' s Not  ordering  as  in contrast  and  nineteenth  feature  ambiguity  perspective  structure  f i l m s s u c h as  linear  dialogic  experience  that  often  the  Freud, a r a t i o n a l i s t unconscious drives  conscious  hope f o r m a n k i n d .  intellect  and  Nietzsche,  how  motivational  a civilization's,  on  human  i n the  age  the  be  this other  the  basis  real  could  that  significant  culture.  t h o u g h t began t o e x p l a i n  are as  Freud's  was  of  for  28 hand, e x e m p l i f i e d fixed of and  viewpoint  crisis,  the pessimism  was n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h a t  economic  political  instability,  faith,  Thus r e f l e c t e d enigmatic  cultural  context,  atmosphere  decline  in religious  critique.  these elements f i n a l l y  o f modernism, t h e movement  d e p i c t i o n of the i n t e g r a t e d or c h a r a c t e r  to  a stream  of consciousness  as  a psychic  by  the fragmentation  subject.  i n the novel,  battlefield.  contributed  away  The h i g h l y  from developed  f o r example, gave way  or the d e p i c t i o n of the s u b j e c t T h i s was r e p r e s e n t e d  in painting  or complete a b s t r a c t i o n of the f i g u r e .  Weimar e x p r e s s i o n i s t c i n e m a subject  pessimism,  of a  i n t h e a r t w o r k s o f a more c o m p l e x and  personality  the  The n o t i o n  general  and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  to the fourth feature the  of h i s age.  in films like  featured  The C a b i n e t  a fragmentation  of  of Dr. C a l i q a r i  and  Metropolis.  In  an a t o m i z e d , a l i e n a t e d mass s o c i e t y , t h e d e m i s e o f  individuality  and t h e l o s s o f b e l i e f  was p i c t u r e d v i v i d l y in  i n these  t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress  Metropolis,  the l i t e r a r y  s u c h as V i l l i e r s and  Julien  was r e f l e c t e d  i n f i l m s s u c h as  Offray  with the  The l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y  and h i s t o r i c a l de l ' l s l e  progress  The l o s s o f f a i t h  where m a c h i n e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d  d e h u m a n i z a t i o n o f man. in  films.  in positivist  antecedents of t h i s  i s also film.  Adam H a d a l y ' s L ' e v e f u t u r e  de l a M e t t r i e ' s  L'homme m a c h i n e  seen Works  (1886)  (1748), a r e  examples of of the  this  motif  robot-android  o f man  was  and  described  machine. by  The  representation  Andreas Huyssen  in  this  manner: The a n d r o i d i s no l o n g e r s e e n as t e s t i m o n y t o t h e g e n i u s o f m e c h a n i c a l i n v e n t i o n ; i t r a t h e r becomes a n i g h t m a r e , a t h r e a t t o human l i f e . In the machineman w r i t e r s b e g i n t o d i s c o v e r h o r r i f y i n g t r a i t s w h i c h resemble those of r e a l people. T h e i r theme i s n o t so much t h e m e c h a n i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d a u t o m a t o n i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r t h e t h r e a t i t p o s e s t o l i v e human b e i n g s . It i s n o t h a r d t o s e e t h a t t h i s l i t e r a r y phenomenon r e f l e c t s t h e i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i z a t i b n o f human n a t u r e and t h e human body w h i c h r e a c h e d a new stage i n the e a r l y 19th century. 1 1  Contemporary ironic  artists  manner as  machine."  1 2  This  deal with  does Andy W a r h o l when he statement  avant-gardiste  criticism  and  of the  the  notion  original  The  and  man's d e h u m a n i z a t i o n says  i s r e l a t e d to the  of the  artist  as  institution g e n i u s who  in  "I want t o be  historical of  art  creates  an  s i n g u l a r work o f a r t .  Avant-Garde  and  Modernism  This h i s t o r i c a l  and  a e s t h e t i c c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of  m o d e r n i s m shows how  the  a r t s were i n f l u e n c e d by  and  intellectual  context  and  i n d i c a t e s how  a v a n t - g a r d e movements h a v e b e e n i m p l i c a t e d development of modernism.  But  and  avant-garde should  be  the  term a v a n t - g a r d e has  from, the  an  not  term modernism  the  two  in  social  various the  terms modernism  conflated.  been i m p l i c a t e d i n a number o f  the  the  The  meaning  i n , yet  is  significant  of  distinct ways.  a  30 Traditionally, artistic against held  and s o c i a l absolutist  this  created of  radicalism  by c l a s s  the s o c i a l  differences  development  The  f o r the s o c i a l  that  result  of i n d i v i d u a l  historian  of the avant-garde  a p o s i t i o n of  by s m a l l , p r o g r e s s i v e g r o u p s  responsible  the c u l t u r a l  response  has s i g n i f i e d  and b o u r g e o i s a u t h o r i t y .  authority  therefore the  the avant-garde  Donald  avant-garde  injustices  i n the l i m i t a t i o n artists  and w o r k e r s ;  Egbert says  that  has been:  . . . t o e x p r e s s i n some way o u t r a g e a t t h e " r u l e s " imposed by a u t h o r i t y , w h e t h e r t h e r u l e s o f t h e academic t r a d i t i o n i n a r t developed under a b s o l u t i s m and t a k e n o v e r by a P h i l i s t i n e b o u r g e o i s i e o r t h e r u l e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e economic development of s o c i e t y under t h e c o n t r o l o f b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s m since the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution.1^ The Henri  intellectual  De S a i n t  "avant-garde." positivist evolve  Simon  heir  o f R o u s s e a u and t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t ,  (1760-1825),  Simon was a U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t  thought;  t h u s he b e l i e v e d  through t h e development  thoughts  that  t o u s e t h e term  and t h e p r o d u c t o f  mankind would  of s c i e n t i f i c  regarding the avant-garde  when he f i r s t  was t h e f i r s t  progress.  His  were r o o t e d i n t h e s e  wrote:  I t i s we, a r t i s t s , who w i l l s e r v e y o u a s a v a n t - g a r d e : t h e power o f t h e a r t s i s i n f a c t most i m m e d i a t e and most r a p i d : when we w i s h t o s p r e a d new i d e a s among men, we i n s c r i b e them on m a r b l e o r on c a n v a s ; . . . and i n t h a t way above a l l we e x e r t an e l e c t r i c and v i c t o r i o u s i n f l u e n c e . We a d d r e s s o u r s e l v e s t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and t o t h e s e n t i m e n t s of m a n k i n d ; we s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e a l w a y s e x e r c i s e the l i v e l i e s t and most d e c i s i v e a c t i o n ; and i f t o d a y our r o l e appears n i l o r a t l e a s t v e r y secondary, what i s l a c k i n g t o t h e a r t s i s t h a t w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r e n e r g y and t o t h e i r s u c c e s s , n a m e l y , a common d r i v e and a g e n e r a l i d e a l . . 1 4  ideals  The  term  avant-garde,  from t h e m i l i t a r y  genesis of the  15 word f o r t h e v a n g a r d historians relevance  because  o f an army, h a s been c r i t i c i z e d  the m i l i t a r y  to the f i n e  understood  arts.  i n the metaphoric  Furthermore, with respect Bergstrom  characterized  interpretation  T h e r e f o r e the term sense r a t h e r  to the f i l m i c  these a r t i s t i c  from"  commercial primarily and  to  rather  cinema. referred  intellectually  that  historical  s h o u l d be  than the l i t e r a l .  avant-gardes, Janet movements a s  1*7  16  "apart  h a s no  by many  than  "ahead  of" 'the  t r a d i t i o n of  1  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e term t o new ahead  there are b a s i c a l l y  a v a n t - g a r d e has  i d e a s and works t h a t of t h e i r  time.  are temporally  Matei Calinescu  two e t y m o l o g i c c o n d i t i o n s  the meaningful existence  of a s o c i a l ,  notes  fundamental  political,  or c u l t u r a l  avant-garde. C a l i n e s c u explained that they a r e : . . . o n e — t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s be c o n c e i v e d o f , o r c o n c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g i n a d v a n c e o f t h e i r t i m e . . . and t w o — t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a b i t t e r s t r u g g l e t o be f o u g h t a g a i n s t an enemy s y m b o l i z i n g t h e f o r c e s o f s t a g n a t i o n , t h e t y r a n n y o f t h e p a s t , t h e o l d f o r m s and ways o f t h i n k i n g t h a t t r a d i t i o n imposes on us l i k e f e t t e r s t o keep us f r o m m o v i n g f o r w a r d . In T h e o r y the  actual  of t h e Avant-Garde,  historical  Peter Burger  precondition  f o r the avant-garde  p l a c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f o u r c e n t u r y when "classical" dadaism,  2 1  avant-garde,  autonomous p o s i t i o n artists  t h e European  s u r r e a l i s m , and f u t u r i s m  felt  the  out t h a t took  "historical"  1 9  or  a v a n t - g a r d e movements o f  i n t h e 1920s, c r i t i c i z e d t h e  of aestheticism.  a sense of a r t i s t i c  pointed  Burger  explained  inconsequentiality:  why  32  A e s t h e t i c i s m ' s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c autonomy and i t s e f f e c t on t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a s p e c i a l r e a l m c a l l e d a e s t h e t i c experience permitted the avant-garde to c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f autonomous a r t and, as t h e l o g i c a l consequence of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , t o attempt t o l e a d a r t back i n t o s o c i a l p r a x i s . 2 1  Burger notes that comprehend society, the  the s o c i a l  institutions  socially  which  radical  necessarily  liberating  because  The  not  towards  For of  Breton.  the  The  historical  an a r t i s t i c  social  towards  artistic  s u c h as  explanation  i f one  i n the l a t e  the  ideologies life  are  by  change.  developed  tradition  the p u b l i c  context.  not  repression-opression,  in social  and  and  classical  aesthetic  t h e a v a n t - g a r d e has  social  i n terms  instance,  the a r t i s t  work.  the nature of  compared, f o r example,  Their  from  of the Avant-Garde,  t h e r e i s no  their  Thomas Mann and  interested  t o t h e economic  characterized but  Burger  the unconcious  dada p e r f o r m a n c e s  Theory  questioning  bourgeois  B r e t o n wanted t o merge a r t and  To u n d e r s t a n d why antagonism  mediated  imply t h i s .  w h i l e Mann was  started  to  p o s i t i o n , w h i l e t h e t e r m m o d e r n i s m does  a v a n t - g a r d i s t e , Andre different  of a r t i n i n d u s t r i a l  avant-garde, then, implies  c o n s e r v a t i v e modernist  refer  status  the avant-garde  meaning of the term  the  a t t h e p o i n t where a r t i s t s began  In Renato  also),  this  ( o r as i n one  must  Poggioli's  book  the avant-garde i s "activism/'  2 2  o f what c r e a t e d  and  "antagonism,"  those  examines the p r o f e s s i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , one  attitudes.  position sees a  2-  significant rise  of  change a f t e r  the market  artists  system.  were f o r c e d  They f e l t  the  The  t o compete  a l i e n a t e d from the  middle-class  p u b l i c on  livelihood.  This enforced  and  d e c l i n e o f p a t r o n a g e and situation i n an  unstable  uneducated  whom t h e y  and  artist  indifferent  an  from  where  marketplace.  depended f o r  d e p e n d e n c e on  c r a s s p u b l i c a l i e n a t e d the  developed  the  their  often the  Philistine  social  establishment.  It  i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e why  questioned  the  recognized  t h a t the  and  truth.  social  artistic  and  politics  or  institutions  Andre Breton  social overt  provide  existence him  the  (the  t r u t h could  propaganda  artist  results  or  the  church),  in a proscribed  and  innovation.  This  new  and  ideas  into  the  original  not  suppression  be  as was  by  liberalism the  the  was  quest  the  for  and  "free" $to  capitalism into  express  2  the  "Aragon  avant-garde  i n t e r e s t s of c o u r t l y the  marketplace  freedom t h a t o v e r - s t r e s s e s  originality  i n t u r n has p r o d u c e d by  r e l i a n c e on  created the  a s i t u a t i o n where  avant-garde are  gain, yet  While European a r t i s t s  of t h e i r  it  subsumed t o p a r t i s a n  representing  a greater  and  for aesthetic  that  suggested  bourgeois  marketplace f o r corporate  marginalized.  quest  also asserted  is theoretically than  a r t because  that  c o n d i t i o n s which brought  or h e r s e l f r a t h e r  nobility  which mediated  market undermined  A f f a i r . " 24<rheref o r e , w h i l e did  avant-garde a r t challenged  artists  dealt with  freedom of e x p r e s s i o n  by  the  the  the  co-opted  are  still  objective  documented  34 historical ( e . g . , by  a d j u d i c a t i o n of  Reactionary distinctions  and  c o n s t r a i n t s on  attitudes, like  the  their  state  the  important  a r e a c t i o n a r y view of a r t .  didactic,  right. i n the  One best  of the  considers  how  the  "lifelike  realism"26  educational  j  a r e bound up  i n the  conventionalize notions Therefore b e c a u s e he  the  the  of  the  to  Enzensberger  a n (  3  "to  expectations,  desire to c o d i f y r e a l i t y  social  perhaps  supply  positivism"27  These  the  avant-garde  Hans  a r t s to  h e a l t h and  to  n a t u r a l l y and  i n order  attitude.  "all-embracing  man's f u t u r e f r o m w i t h i n . " 2 8  says,  sense,  r e a c t i o n a r y expects a n c  itself  f u n c t i o n s of  r e a c t i o n a r y ' s complacent  described  fashion  premises f o r judgments, w h i l e  a t t i t u d e complacently  everlastingly  change the  the  in  c r e a t i v e freedom.  above, r a i s e  between a p r o g r e s s i v e and  questions  reactionary  he  the  p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e towards a r t e x e m p l i f i e s a r e a d i n e s s  revise  is  by  G o e b b e l s i n Germany o r Zhdanov i n R u s s i a ) , a r t i s t s  t h e West d e a l v i t h h i d d e n  The  aesthetic questions  and  sickness.  reactionary attitude i s authoritarian in  says:  . . . "From t h a t t h e r e f o l l o w s " — v e r b a t i m ! — "such a h e i g h t e n i n g of the watchtower" t h a t i t can no l o n g e r be d o u b t e d what s o r t o f s t r a i t j a c k e t t h e watchman i n t e n d s f o r t h e a r t s ; t h e a v a n t - g a r d e , w h a t e v e r t h a t t e r m means t o him i s " d e c a d e n t , " " p e r v e r s e , " " c y n i c a l , " " n i h i l i s t i c , " and "sickly." T h i s v o c a b u l a r y w i l l be w e l l remembered f r o m t h e V o l k i s c h e B e o b a c h t e r and t h a t t h e s t a t e o f mind i t e x p r e s s e s has n o t d i e d i n our l a n d i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by e v e r y s e c o n d g l a n c e i n t o t h e n e w s p a p e r s . . .29  nature  35 Critics the  as  Enzensberger  have a l s o c o n c l u d e d  a v a n t - g a r d e has  been r e d u c e d  t o mere m a r k e t r e s e a r c h f o r  corporate of  the  such  gain.  Therefore  economic hard  the marketplace. Enzensberger  i t i s vorth pursuing  facts  and  the  In h i s a r t i c l e ,  cogently  artwork's The  that  this recognition  relationship  Aporias  of the  to  Avant-Garde,  argues:  I t thus e n t e r s i n t o a s t a t e of c o m p e t i t i o n not only w i t h o t h e r m e r c h a n d i s e b u t a l s o w i t h e v e r y o t h e r work o f a r t . The h i s t o r i c c o n t e s t f o r f u t u r e r e c o g n i t i o n becomes a c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r e s e n t p u r c h a s e . The mechanics of the market i m i t a t e s the d e v o u r i n g c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y on a s m a l l e r s c a l e : i t i s g e a r e d t o a r a p i d t u r n o v e r i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e s c a n t b r e a t h and c r u d e eye o f p l a n n e d economy. The a n t i c i p a t o r y moment o f a r t i s c u t down t o a mere s p e c u l a t i o n ; i t s f u t u r e i s c h a r t e d l i k e t h a t o f s t o c k s and s h a r e s . H i s t o r i c movement i s o b s e r v e d , comprehended, and d i s c o u n t e d — a m a r k e t t r e n d upon whose c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s depends.30  Fredric  Jameson a l s o c r i t i c i z e s  b e c a u s e he  says  i t i s the  ideology"32 hich w  by  ever  This unstable problematic  i s s u e s of  of modernism."3 modernist  4  The  historical  criticized  the  distinguished into the  social artist  of  i t s own  of a r t i s t i c  formal  context  f r o m m o d e r n i s m by  The an  and  implicated in  even w h i l e  about a r t .  the  itself  successfully  historical attempt  "crisis  the  challenged  avant-garde i s  t o l e a d a r t back  The  avant-garde challenges  as g e n i u s  and  the  aestheticist  the  avant-garde  praxis.  autonomous f o r m o f a r t .  formal  c o n s t i t u t e the  o f a r t and  3 1  axis."33  production  ontology  a v a n t - g a r d e was  institutions  many p r e c o n c e p t i o n s  and  novelty"-  "seek d e s p e r a t e l y t o renew  rotation  context  " a e s t h e t i c of  "dominant c r i t i c a l  must t h e n  more r a p i d  the  effort  the  notion  to develop  of an  36 N e v e r t h e l e s s , because culture that  industry,  the  culture."  Marcuse to d e s c r i b e social  realities  whereas the words, a  options  the and  a political critical against  The  f o r the  we  choices  grain."  does  examine t h e  " p o p u l a r " or  therefore  Brecht  Affirmative  culture  abound,  Comfort's  Affirmative  culture  closure.  providing  fate?  said  limited i t produces  does n o t  i t , i n B e n j a m i n ' s words,  promote  "brush  history  3 7  Mass, or  our  Popular  terms.  The  "folk" culture  the  specific  alternative, artisanal film  Popular  Herbert  Culture  are  political  historical often  economy,  meanings o f  confused with  conditions practice  that  i n the  relate  to  context  of  reproduction.  Culture  Essentially  popular  culture  r e f e r s to  a system of  the  the  T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y phenomenon "mass c u l t u r e ; "  consider  modern mass  of  r e l a t i o n between a r t and  define  u s e d by  i n Alex  through c a t h a r t i c  character  of  affirm existing  3  acquiescence.  N i n e t e e n t h - and  the  to  that  conclude  form  originally  traditionally/  conflict  to  the  human s u f f e r i n g s t i l l  ideological implications  must f i r s t  terms  and  prompted  voiceless victims." ^  Avant-Garde: E l i t e ,  To  t e r m was  where i n e q u i t y  t h o u g h t , nor the  This  3 5  i s c o - o p t e d by  to another  cultural artifacts  prematurely resolves What a r e  are  been reduced  a v a n t - g a r d e was  "voice  energy  cultural critics  a v a n t - g a r d e has  "affirmative  artistic  shared  values  and m e a n i n g s w h i c h a r e common t o a m a j o r i t y o f  people  i n a given  through they  the production  of popular  "popular  These v a l u e s  by o t h e r  members o f t h a t s o c i e t y .  c u l t u r e such as Herder s a i d  culture" refers  (popular  (folk  culture).  between p o p u l a r of  the  soul)  distinction  c u l t u r e and " K u l t u r d e r G e l e h r e n " ^ ( c u l t u r e  of c u l t u r a l  h a s been a t i t s c e n t e r . artifacts  consciousness  undergrids  the a r t i f a c t ' s  modern man  first  of bisons  Evident  Before  t o capture  of past  e x a m p l e , t h a t Homer's I l i a d and f i c t i o n  poems.  Later  views of  Those p a i n t e d the beast's  images  spirit,  of the species  which  through a  o f b a t t l e s t o commemorate t h e  generations.  legend,  (1879),  t h e w r i t t e n word was known, Greek  b a r d s sang o f t h e a c c o u n t s struggles  system,"^which  F o r example, when  or the r e l i g i o u s  t u r n would ensure t h e s u r v i v a l  s u c c e s s f u l hunt.  value  the w a l l s of A l t a m i r a  man were a l s o r e v e a l e d .  were d e s i g n e d  i n mankind's  i n n e r meanings.  system  t h e human  o f an i n d i v i d u a l and  or "prevailing  uncovered  primitive belief  paleolithic  history,  i s the expression  collective  in  and " K u l t u r d e s V o l k e s "  educated).  cultural  the  hence t h e terms  He a l s o made t h e c l e a r  From t h e b e g i n n i n g subject  that the  t o t h e n a t u r a l , g e n u i n e , and  spontaneous concerns of the people, "Volksgeist"  a r e made t a n g i b l e  o f o b j e c t s o r p e r f o r m a n c e s so t h a t  c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d  Scholars term  society.  Classical  scholars state, f o r  was a c o m b i n a t i o n  t h a t was t h e n  fused  t h e Romans and V e n e t i a n s  of f o l k l o r e ,  together  into  unified  (1500-1800) h e l d c a r n i v a l s  where p l e b e i a n dramas, t h e Commedia d e l l ' A r t e , stock  c h a r a c t e r s and c o u p s de t h e a t r e  effects),  were r e c e i v e d w i t h  significance festivals, derived spoken  of popular  the l o c a l  c u l t u r e — t h e folk  t o a peasant  These e n t e r t a i n m e n t s  working  who  produced  They a l s o  Weltanschauung, of t h e i r  years  investigation  the  term  popular  the s p i r i t ,  c u l t u r e h a s been v i e w e d  or  negatively  opposition to high culture.  and o n l y by t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  acquire legitimacy. throughout  intellectuals  reflected  of the people  Two  ago i t was h a r d l y c o n s i d e r e d a s e r i o u s s u b j e c t  for  inferior  concerns  presented  r e s p e c t i v e times.  because of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l hundred  art—was  obviously  c l a s s because they  r e l e v a n t themes and t h e e s s e n t i a l  Historically,  The  entertainments,  b r o a d s i d e s , and f o l k  the  them.  Europe.  n u a n c e s and a l l u s i o n s w h i c h were  i n a vernacular.  appealed  with  ( s e n s a t i o n a l stage  favor throughout  s o n g s and b a l l a d s ,  from  4 2  replete  such  Popular  century did  culture  was  considered  t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by m i d d l e as Matthew A r n o l d b e c a u s e  class  i t was n o t  deemed s u f f i c i e n t l y  uplifting  However  a s S h a k e s p e a r e and R a b e l a i s managed t o  people  such  "cross over" between 4 3  commoners, seeing light.  to the bourgeois  the high c u l t u r a l  therefore giving  arenas  t h e common man  taste.  and t h e  the experience of  t h e s t r u g g l e o f mankind i n a p r o f o u n d  yet  comprehensible  39 Mass C u l t u r e  Mass c u l t u r e  i s o f t e n confused  h o w e v e r , i t i s an h i s t o r i c a l l y that  first  twentieth folk, of  appeared  craft,  and  artisan  also  a product  of the  Revolution.  p r o d u c t i o n was  mechanized p r o d u c t i o n .  was  specific  as a p r o d u c t  cantury I n d u s t r i a l  with popular  T h i s new  and  culture;  distinct  phenomena  n i n e t e e n t h - and During  this period,  d i s p l a c e d w i t h the  phenomenon o f mass  of the r e v o l u t i o n  early  in distribution  advent  culture  and  marketing.  The and  terms of s u b j e c t i v i t y  folk  cultures  Revolution  because the  c u l t u r e were n o t experiences particular it  shifted  as a r e s u l t  cultural  i n the p r e v i o u s of the  o b j e c t s produced  inter-subjectivity  communities. On  High  But and  Popular  for  and  Mass c u l t u r e was  n o t by  culture out  strictly  of the d e s i r e  interests  only  posed  interaction  them."  artisans,  4 5  but  with the p r o f i t to address  of s p e c i f i c  c u l t u r e has  by  local  by  new  owning o r c o n s u m i n g  motive  something produced,  problems f o r c u l t u r a l  needs  a  than  and  T h e r e f o r e mass critics  have w i t h these c u l t u r a l them.  as  produced  i n mind r a t h e r  communities.  puts  the  by b u s i n e s s m e n who  the p a r t i c u l a r  cultural  people  in  Culture, after  g r a d u a l l y became  not  life  r a t h e r , as Raymond W i l l i a m s  Revolution "culture  rule,  f o r mass  of people  Industrial people  popular  Industrial  the spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n s , the  or shared  i n h i s essay  present  Williams considered  because  products the  is  the  implications produced  by  of a c u l t u r e  concerned  prominent  Trudeau.  The  strong  of  other  the to  The  We  s u c h as P i e r r e problem  of B r i t i s h  Canadian  than  rentals.  stemmed  The  Canadian  from  of  cultural  feature  of American  the f a t e  have  Pierre  initially  In terms  by t h e i m p o s i t i o n sealed  f o r example,  B e r t o n and  Colonialism.  government  film  patent  o f an i n d i g e n o u s  t h e The  Canadian  Cooperation Project  agreed not t o s t i m u l a t e  Canadian  feature  done a f t e r  the exportation The  films,  the v a r , t h r o u g h laws t h a t  of f o r e i g n  advent  powerful influence identify  sovereignty,  Canada h a s n o t f a r e d v e i l .  c o u n t r i e s had  restrict  and  identity  i n d u s t r y when i t s i g n e d  1948.  film  Canadian  vas h i n d e r e d f i r s t  controls. film  identity  Canadians  influence  industries, industry  on p e o p l e r a t h e r  them.  Canada's c u l t u r a l  the  imposed  more w i t h A m e r i c a n  i n t h e 1950s  mass c u l t u r e  culture  w h i l e M a r s h a l l McLuhan e x t o l l e d  would  currency, p a r t i c u l a r l y for  of t e l e v i s i o n  of American  as  illustrated  as C a n a d i a n s  than with t h e i r  the v i r t u e s  of a g l o b a l  own.  So  village  t h r o u g h media  m e s s a g e s , some C a n a d i a n s  considered  repercussions  o f mass c u l t u r e  of the development  i n terms  came  the of a  45 Canadian  identity.  The W i n n i p e g  M a n i f e s t o of 1974  by  Canadian  f i l m m a k e r s and  of  cultural  producers t o t h e Canadian p u b l i c .  vas  also  critical  was  i t represented the s p e c i f i c  o f McLuhan's media  signed concerns  Raymond W i l l i a m s  message t h e o r y b e c a u s e :  . . . the e s s e n t i a l l y a b s t r a c t m a t e r i a l i s m of i t s s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f m e d i a , r e s t s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r h e t o r i c a l i s o l a t i o n o f "mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " f r o m t h e c o m p l e x h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n as i n t r i n s i c , r e l a t e d and d e t e r m i n e d p a r t s o f t h e w h o l e h i s t o r i c a l s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s . ^ 4  F u r t h e r m o r e , v i t h i n Canada versus the  centralism  issues  cultural  itself  have a l s o  spurred  of c u l t u r a l production  critics  question  the debates  on  regionalism  a c u l t u r a l inquiry  as w e l l .  This  the implications  into  i s why  o f mass c u l t u r e i n  47 . . . 48 s u c h as " c o l o n i z a t i o n , " - and " c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m , " and  terms  48 "centralism."  In  addition  identity, and  mass c u l t u r e  t h i s issue  Many  to the i d e o l o g i c a l implications  artists  raises  the issue  and c r i t i c s  think  desirable  through the m o d a l i t i e s  c u l t u r a l sphere  goals,  that  the values,  classes  Faced w i t h the problems  cultural culture  fosters  thought. cultural they  taste  r o l e models,  and norms deemed  o f mass c u l t u r e  are integrated of u n i v e r s a l  because  into the status  standardization  l e v e l i n g e f f e c t s o f mass  totalitarian  Leo Lowenthal  Leo Lowenthal  than  to give  quo.  and t h e  culture, that  independent  and A d o r n o s a y t h a t  e n t r e p r e n e u r s appear that  rather  —  of i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l  s u c h a s T. W. A d o r n o a r e c o n c e r n e d  are concerned  as w e l l .  the  normative  critics  the powerful i n society  i s where a m a j o r i t y  and b a c k g r o u n d s  subsequent  o f s o c i a l hegemony  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important t o the avant-garde.  establish  the  of c u l t u r a l  even  mass  forms o f  though  p e o p l e what t h e y want,  t a s t e may be n o t o n l y  f e d but bred  e x p r e s s e d i t t h u s when he s a i d  that  may be " f e d t o t h e consumer as a s p e c i f i c o u t g r o w t h o f  technological,  interests  political,  of the masters  Furthermore,  this raises  and e c o n o m i c  conditions  and  i n the sphere of p r o d u c t i o n . " ^ 0 the question  that  i f the  42 m e d i a manager's v a l u e people, they  do  cast  system  these values off lightly  concerned with s y s t e m and  the  i s imposed  at w i l l ?  the  ordinary  become s e c o n d n a t u r e o r The  deconstruction  to f i n d  on  a v a n t - g a r d e has  of t h i s  possible points  l i b e r a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be  opened up  are been  omnipresent  of r e s i s t a n c e  within  the  value or  interstices  o f modern mass c u l t u r e .  Now  that  defined  popular,  folk,  in historical and  supporting  the  the  cultural  of  recognized,  On  as  the  One  between t h e  i t specifically  Problem  of  traditional  underlying  issues  avant-garde  modernist  i s s u e s of  artistic  Jean-Paul  Sartre's  directly  social  engaged  a r t are  Raft  the  of  Adorno t h i n k  with  life  new  the  narrative  mass debate.  Efficacy  of the film  and  significance.  David's Oath of  Stone B r e a k e r s . that  a r t s and  anti-narrative/new-  p r a c t i c e centers  autonomy v e r s u s  Medusa, D e l a c r o i x ' s  C o u r b e t ' s The  i s also  artistic  on  the  efficacy.  L i t e r a t u r e Engage, f o r e x a m p l e , a r g u e s f o r  involved  and  forms i n  historical  fine  r e l a t e s to the  of Autonomy v e r s u s  the  of  dominance o f mass media  debate of  political  importance  alternative cultural  narrative  art  the  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o examine t h e  relationship media  mass c u l t u r e s h a v e been  t e r m s and  maintaining face  and  only  the  therefore  one  Some h i s t o r i c a l Horatii,  the  other  a  examples  of  Gericault's  L i b e r t y Defending On  t h a t has  an  the  People,  and  hand, c r i i t i c s such  autonomous f o r m s a l l o w  critical  truth  as  43 to  emerge, s i n c e t r u t h  "instrumental critique  of  Marxism).  reason"  and  5 1  (the  Therefore i t i s important i t s pre-history  development of a e s t h e t i c established  that  phenomenon and  Autonomy:  The times  ideas.  seen  that  doing  through so,  with  transition  historical  be  is a historically  from  Medieval  of  specific  autonomy  efficacy.  nobility  t o Modern  i t a marked change i n t h e  in a significant  shift  in artistic  Cinquecento patronage,  b a s i s to a patronage  ( e . g . , t h e de M e d i c i ties  and  artist's  the  important  for this  nobility.  to  When  b e g a n t o work p r i n c i p a l l y  f o r the c o u r t s , a r t i s t i c  tended  i n terms of c r a f t  t o be measured n o t  the p a s t but  in purely intellectual  Renaissance individual  ideal  a During  o f t h e p a s t were d i s s o l v i n g  i n c r e a s e d demand f o r a r t i s t s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e commissions  by  from  in Florence).  the  creative  the  Pre-History  p e r i o d , the g u i l d  The  the  i t can  the a e s t h e t i c  s t a t u s because the Quattrocento  courtly  to  which permeated v u l g a r  evolution By  refers  t o i s s u e s of a e s t h e t i c  previous e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  this  and  here  o f an  as  under  execute artists achievement  i t had  been i n  terms.  autonomous,  whose i n t e r e s t  by  t o d i s c u s s the n o t i o n of  i d e a o f autonomy  i t c a n be  Renaissance  ushered the  the  in relation  brought  social  K a n t i a n term  instrumental u t i l i t a r i a n i s m  autonomy and  developed  a e s t h e t i c k n o w l e d g e a r e compromised  versatile,  c e n t e r e d on  the nature  of  experience  was  the  (and  period  developments of  artistic  e s s e n t i a l t o the  autonomy  e m p h a s i s on  was  the  educated.  a l a y and  k n o w l e d g e was inimical  t i e to s a c r a l by  the  sciences  techniques composition  artists  during  to  take  the  bourgeoisie conception  end  point the  there  of the  eighteenth  by  discipline another  the  a r t from  ritual  was  the  also  between The  process  to  ritualistic  in  the  formal  qualities  of  concept of a f r e e  century,  was  after  power i n F r a n c e ,  a systemic fully  the  a  aesthetic  and  i n the  nobility  appearance of the  the new  and  established.  economic s h i f t  o l d commission market of  established  even  developed  the  Peter  A P h i l o s o p h i c a l Concept  o f autonomy as  was  the  terms,  flourish.  seized p o l i t i c a l  philosophical  of, of  more i n t e r e s t and  which  cultural  Renaissance.  Therefore  autonomous a r t began t o  At  emancipation  previously subjected  color.  Autonomy A e s t h e t i c :  independent  the  from  L o w e n t h a l , and  ecclesiastical  of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  Leo  r e l a t i o n s h i p that  freeing perception  ends a l l o w e d  The  and  precipitated  of  sense  literature,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l sphere of  church.  the  to  developing  In e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  f o s t e r e d t h a t was  t o , the  a r t s and  This  of  i n R e n a i s s a n c e a r t a l s o stemmed  s u c h as Raymond W i l l i a m s , said  direct  film).  pertinent  a knowledge of c l a s s i c a l  mark o f t h e  critics Burger  parenthetically is s t i l l  i n contemporary  the  aesthetic discourse  At  this  a r t market  t o a new  collector,  who  from  market acquired  selected an  works o f an  investment  gradual  of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , interests  emergence o f new  forms  pour  l'art  damaged by  Theophile Gautier (1835) when he ne  peut  servire  During the  the  aesthetic  desire realm  Kant,  delight  judgment  This  by  Maupin ce q u i  movement,  exemplified  of the p r a x i s  instrumental strictly  of  a  everyday  reason motivated  definable,  c o n c e p t i o n of a r t i s t i c  notion  judgment  of d i s i n t e r e s t e d  i s disinterested  autonomy  beauty.  because  For  "the  d e t e r m i n e s t h e judgment o f t a s t e i s  of a l l i n t e r e s t  s h o u l d be  realization this  o f an  t o Kant's  independent  articulated  an autonomous c o n c e p t o f a r t as a  ends.  which  phrase  l e Beau e t l e  a de v r a i m e n t beau que  among a r t i s t s  c e n t e r e d on  aesthetic  the  a  t h e v a l u e o f a work o f a r t  independent  independent  linked  used  by  rien."  discourse  a rationale  Cousin f i r s t  o t h e r v a l u e s was  " I I n'y  of  allowed f o r the  nineteenth century a e s t h e t i c i s t  of a c t i v i t y  adaptational is  a  the  i n h i s preface to Madamoiselle  to e s t a b l i s h  life-by  that  serving  said:  The  from the r e p r o d u c t i o n  i n h i s l e c t u r e s Le V r a i  52  be  and  from  of the n o b i l i t y  Victor  (1818) . <rhe n o t i o n  would  genius).  (hence  of p e r c e p t i o n not determined  means-end r a t i o n a l i t y .  Bien  notable a r t i s t  i n the concept of a r t i s t i c  ideological  l'art  and  e m a n c i p a t i o n of a r t from r i t u a l ,  constraints the  independent  .ant f e l t  independent  of moral  law.  that  of p r a c t i c a l  Furthermore,  c o n c e p t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c s was  Kant  universal  aesthetic  r e a s o n and felt  that  the  46 b e c a u s e he t h o u g h t  that  subjective experience  through the imagination  But  this  contentious an  and  reflects  a bourgeois  bourgeoisie  This h i s t o r i c a l William Morris  discourse  by  Sainte-Beuve  during  For  example,  This  caused  National  Lord  "lordly  i n England  by t h e h o r r o r s Revolution  when  developed criticized  pleasure  a b o v e mankind " S p h e r e  a  of A r t .  distinctly  l o a t h democracy.  of the worker's  petition),  H i s sentiment  that a r t  i s c o n v e y e d by h i s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e  I n t h e poem t h e a r t i s t ' s house"  Parliament  Tennyson's p o e t r y  i n 1842 ( t h e y e a r  soul.  of the e a r l y  and t h e C h a r t i s t  to British  edge, as he came t o f i e r c e l y  r e t r e a t from l i f e  artist's  nobility.  a e s t h e t i c was f i r s t  Petition  T e n n y s o n composed The P a l a c e should  the feudal  continued  the I n d u s t r i a l  gave A l f r e d  reactionary  validity  i n 1829 when he r e f e r r e d t o i t as t h e " I v o r y  Tower."55 The c o n f l i c t  certainly  Furthermore, the  and t h e a r t s and c r a f t s movement  a e s t h e t i c o f autonomy.  workers' great  reason  i n t e r e s t s of the  struggle against  an  factories  classes.  the h i s t o r i c a l  in their  that  v o r l d v i e w and d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  a e s t h e t i c judgment h a s a u n i v e r s a l  represents  isa  who r e c o g n i z e  independent of p r a c t i c a l  the views o f the other  demand t h a t actually  o f a e s t h e t i c judgment  p r o p o s i t i o n f o r some c r i t i c s  only  represent  understanding.  universal notion  a e s t h e t i c completely  i s filtered  5 6  on  soul  i s cast  a "huge c r a g - p l a t f o r m  she laments:  in a  towering  47  0 g o d - l i k e i s o l a t i o n w h i c h a r t mine, I can but count thee p e r f e c t g a i n , What t i m e I w a t c h t h e d a r k e n i n g d r o v e s T h a t r a n g e on y o n d e r p l a i n .  o f swine  In f i l t h y sloughs they r o l l a p r u r i e n t s k i n , They g a z e and w a l l o w , b r e e d and s l e e p ; And o f t some b r a i n l e s s d e v i l e n t e r s i n , And d r i v e s them t o t h e d e e p . . . 5  The in  doctrine of a r t f o r art's t h e famous c o n t r o v e r s y  Wilde's these and in  Mallarme e a r l i e r order  realm that and  sake vas a c t i v e l y  betveen  The P i c t u r e o f D o r i a n  aesthetic issues.  t o emphasize  of non-purposive  Gray  the l o c a t i o n creation.  out moral  Nevertheless, wholly  dictated  debated Ruskin.  (1891) a l s o g r a p p l e d  to free  an a e s t h e t i c s c h o o l b a s e d which r u l e d  W h i s t l e r and  The F r e n c h  wanted  8  symbolist their  poets  Baudelaire  perceptual  capacities  of a e s t h e t i c value  i n the  Yet Baudelaire d i d f e e l  p u r e l y on l ' a r t  content,  pour  was " c h i l d i s h  l'art,  utopianism."^  K a n t ' s argument f o r an autonomous a r t n o t  t o by m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y  or "instrumental  was w e l l t a k e n .  H i s t o r i a n s such  Burger  t h a t K a n t ' s t h e o r y was t h e r e f o r e :  recognize  vith  as A r n o l d  reason"  H a u s e r and P e t e r  . . . c o n c e i v e d a s a s p h e r e t h a t does n o t f a l l u n d e r t h e p r i n c i p l e of the maximization of p r o f i t p r e v a i l i n g i n a l l spheres of l i f e . 1  M o r r i s was s e n s i t i v e implied  a retreat  when he  said:  to this  dilemma o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , w h i c h  o f a r t from l i f e  i n the nineteenth  century  48 I r e p e a t , t h a t e v e r y s c r a p o f g e n u i n e a r t w i l l f a l l by t h e same hands ( i . e . , t h e hands o f t h o s e a c t u a t e d by t h e g r e e d f o r C o m m e r c i a l P r o f i t ) i f t h e m a t t e r o n l y g o e s on l o n g enough, a l t h o u g h a sham a r t may be l e f t i n i t s p l a c e , by d i l e t t a n t i f i n e g e n t l e m e n and l a d i e s w i t h o u t any h e l p from below;. . Burger  a l s o noted  function  for Schiller  premise—the  immediate ends.  because  and  reason.  transcendental  T h i s i s why  T h i s concept  which  Adorno thought  compromised  i s also  Within l'art  of p r a c t i c a l  knowledge  debate  a contextualist s 1  w o r k s o f a r t w h i c h combine b o t h the c r e a t i o n significant A case  in point  interprets because  o f an a b s t r a c t social  within  reality  between f o r m a l i s m ' s  1'art  l'art  are  engage, t h e r e  a modern f o r m a l c o n c e r n  language  to  but  be  censored.  A r n o l d Hauser  in, p r o g r e s s i v e terms  criticizes  with  communicate  i s Pablo P i c a s s o ' s Guernica•  Picasso's eclecticism  and  recognized  found  objective  i s s u e s which otherwise might  t h e work i m p l i c i t l y  personality  and  Kant's  also.  the modernist and  reason  that  by  d e r i v e d from  the p r e c o n d i t i o n of knowledge i s not m e r e l y  subjective  pour  truths  of  facilitate  p h i l o s o p h y , which e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y  the c o n s t r a i n t s in  censored.  social  not  function  those forms  a e s t h e t i c k n o w l e d g e would be  instrumental  that  be  and  social  in i t s  w h i c h need  Therefore the s o c i a l  the e x p r e s s i o n of a e s t h e t i c o t h e r w i s e might  precisely  disinterest  autonomous a r t i s i n d i r e c t  truth  the p o s i t i v e  o f autonomous a r t i s f o u n d  fundamental serve  that  the u n i t y  the n o t i o n of the a l i e n a t e d  of  genius  thus:  49 P i c a s s o ' s e c l e c t i c i s m s i g n i f i e s the d e l i b e r a t e d e s t r u c t i o n of the u n i t y of the p e r s o n a l i t y ; h i s i m i t a t i o n s are .protests a g a i n s t the c u l t of o r i g i n a l i t y ; h i s d e f o r m a t i o n of r e a l i t y , which i s a l w a y s c l o t h i n g i t s e l f i n new f o r m s , i n o r d e r t o more f o r c i b l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r a r b i t r a r i n e s s , i s i n t e n d e d , above a l l , t o c o n f i r m the t h e s i s t h a t " n a t u r e and a r t a r e two e n t i r e l y d i s s i m i l a r phenomena." Picasso turns himself into a conjurer, j u g g l e r , a p a r o d i s t , out of o p p o s i t i o n t o the r o m a n t i c w i t h h i s " i n n e r v o i c e , " h i s "take i t or l e a v e i t , " s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - w o r s h i p . And he disavows not o n l y r o m a n t i c i s m , but even the R e n a i s s a n c e , w h i c h , w i t h i t s c o n c e p t o f g e n i u s and i t s i d e a o f t h e u n i t y o f work and s t y l e , a n t i c i p a t e s r o m a n t i c i s m t o some e x t e n t . He r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e t e b r e a k w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i s m and s u b j e c t i v i s m , t h e a b s o l u t e d e n i a l o f a r t as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f an u n m i s t a k a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y . His works a r e n o t e s and c o m m e n t a r i e s on r e a l i t y ; t h e y make no c l a i m t o be r e g a r d e d as a p i c t u r e o f a w o r l d and a t o t a l i t y , as a s y n t h e s i s and e p i t o m e of e x i s t e n c e . P i c a s s o compromises t h e a r t i s t i c means o f e x p r e s s i o n by h i s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use o f d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t i c s t y l e s j u s t as t h o r o u g h l y and w i l l f u l l y as do t h e s u r r e a l i s t s by t h e i r r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s .63  Art  Engage V e r s u s Autonomy: H i s t o r i c a l  An  historical  efficacy classical period  period  there  formalist a rich  and  and  cultural  was  the  a great  futurist  fertile  artists,  the  versus  During  aesthetic and  this  d e b a t e among  filmmakers.  Proletkult  the  It  was  proletarian 1917).  They  autonomous r e l a t i o n s h i p between  state. 1918  autonomy  decade c a l l e d  which v a r i o u s  formed the  Conference65pf  movement among t h e  of  writers,  during  r e t a i n an  c u l t u r a l s p h e r e and  the  cultural history.  flourish  period  organizations  Ail-Russian  post-revolutionary  of Russian  proposed p o l i c i e s to the  Paradigms  paradigm, which addressed  i s s u e s , was  a  The  Proletkult  recommended  "that  p r o l e t a r i a t s h o u l d have an  First the  cultural  independent  place  50 alongside this  and  Soviet  the p o l i t i c a l  l a t e r merged t h e  state,  t h e new  and  e c o n o m i c movement."66 L e n i n  P r o l e t k u l t w i t h the organ  the Commissariat  director  of the  of Education  Commissariat,  (1917-29), encouraged experimental therefore the  d i d not  socialist  realism.  connected  to the problems of c u l t u r a l  tell  of the reasons  Yet  Lunacharsky  modes o f p r o d u c t i o n  1930s, t h e B o l s h e v i k P a r t y o f f i c i a l l y  acute  the  (NARKOMPROS).  Anatoly  pose a g r e a t t h r e a t t o the  One  of  6  opposed  arts.  However,  promulgated  f o r t h i s was development  and by  Soviet  inherently  in Russia.  a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r o b l e m o f mass i l l i t e r a c y  caused  This  Lenin  to  Clara Zetkin that: . . . i t does n o t m a t t e r what a r t means t o some h u n d r e d s o r e v e n t h o u s a n d s i n a n a t i o n , l i k e o u r own, o f many m i l l i o n s . A r t belongs to the people. I t s r o o t s should p e n e t r a t e d e e p l y i n t o t h e v e r y t h i c k o f t h e masses o f t h e p e o p l e . I t s h o u l d be c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e s e masses and l o v e d by them. I t s h o u l d u n i t e t h e e m o t i o n s , t h e t h o u g h t s and t h e w i l l o f t h e s e masses and r a i s e them t o a h i g h e r l e v e l . I t s h o u l d awaken a r t i s t s i n t h e s e masses and f o s t e r t h e i r development.68  This  argument was  position  regarding the  engagement w i t h  The the  fundamental  next  versus Bretolt  chapter  engagement w i t h  conceptions  realist aesthetic  a e s t h e t i c i s s u e s of a r t i s t i c  will  d i s c o u r s e on  Brecht  social  autonomy  versus  society.  East/West debates,  aesthetic  to the  and  of the  examine a n o t h e r  which continued  to develop  the problems of a r t i s t i c society.  Georg L u k a c s  The  paradigm,  the  autonomy  e a s t e r n d e b a t e between  i s c o n s t i t u t e d by  a e s t h e t i c nature  framework of s o c i a l i s t  historical  their  of a r t i n r e l a t i o n  s o c i e t y , w h i l e the western  opposing to  debate  the between  51  Walter  Benjamin  and  Theodor  Adorno  i s concerned with the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a v a n t - g a r d e and c o m m e r c i a l society.  The  spectrum of a e s t h e t i c views  t h e s e d e b a t e s t h e n became i n c o r p o r a t e d May  1968.  The May 1968 h i s t o r i c a l  the  p r e s e n t contemporary  to  i n the l a t e r  paradigm  historical  d i s c o u r s e or c o n v e r s a t i o n which  the debate  t o emerge  on n a r r a t i v e  today.  from discourses  i n t u r n has  narrative/anti-narrative  Consequently, these e l l i p t i c a l aesthetic  art in capitalist  informed  debate.  paradigms is still  also  d e v e l o p an relevant  of  52  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I  iGeorge L i c h t h e m , Europe i n t h e T w e n t i e t h Century (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 209-20 and 243. 2  Ibid.  3  Ibid.  Clement ( 1 9 6 1 ) : 103. 4  Greenberg,  "Modernist P a i n t i n g , "  A r t s Yearbook  S p e t e r w o l l e n , S i g n s and M e a n i n g i n t h e Cinema I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p . 162. of  4  (Bloomington:  •^Michel F o u c a u l t , The O r d e r o f T h i n g s : An A r c h a e o l o g y t h e Human S c i e n c e s (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5. .  M a l c o l m Le G r i c e , MIT P r e s s , 1977) , p . 7. 7  8  Ibid.,  p . 103.  9  Ibid.,  p . 104.  Clement ( 1 9 6 1 ) : 9. 1 0  Greenberg,  Abstract  Film  and Beyond  "Modernist P a i n t i n g , "  (London:  A r t s Yearbook  A n d r e a s H u y s s e n , "The Vamp and t h e M a c h i n e : T e c h n o l o g y and S e x u a l i t y i n F r i t z L a n g ' s M e t r o p o l i s , " New German C r i t i g u e 24-5 ( F a l l / W i n t e r 1981-2): 2 2 5 . 1 1  1 2  public screen  W a r h o l h a s made t h i s s t a t e m e n t i n a number o f i n t e r v i e w s and t h i s i d e a i s c o n n e c t e d t o h i s s i l k "machine a e s t h e t i c . "  D o n a l d Drew E g b e r t , S o c i a l R a d i c a l i s m (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 741. 1 3  1 4  Ibid.,  p . 121.  and The A r t s  4  53 15ij O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s " v a n g u a r d " as "the f o r e m o s t p a r t o f an army o r f l e e t a d v a n c i n g " and t h i s vas t h e l i t e r a l meaning. I n 1831 C a r l y l e f i r s t u s e d t h e term "vanguard" w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Oxford d e f i n i t i o n o f the word "van" t o t r a n s l a t e t h e F r e n c h word " a v a n t - g a r d e , " which Saint-Simon had used f i g u r a t i v e l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e r o l e o f t h e a r t i s t as t h e s o c i a l vanguard. B u t Simon and C a r l y l e d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l views because t h e neop l a t o n i s t C a r l y l e b e l i e v e d t h a t l i f e and h i s t o r y a r e s u p e r i o r to a r t . H i s T o r y b e l i e f i n t h e G r e a t C h a i n o f B e i n g where "a man h a s h i s s u p e r i o r s , a r e g u l a r h i e r a r c h y above h i m : e x t e n d i n g up . . . t o Heaven I t s e l f . . Thomas C a r l y l e , C r i t i c a l and M i s c e l l a n e o u s E s s a y s 5 v o l s . (London: Chapman and H a l l , 1 8 9 9 ) , p . 1 8 9 . n e  i G j a n e t B e r g s t r o m and C o n s t a n c e P e n l e y , "The A v a n t - G a r d e H i s t o r i e s and T h e o r i e s , " S c r e e n , v o l . 1 9 , n o . 3 (Autumm 1978): 123. 1 7  Ibid.,  p. 123.  M a t e i C a l i n e s c u , "Avant-Garde, Neo-Avant-Garde, P o s t m o d e r n i s m : The C u l t u r e o f C r i s i s , " C l i o v o l . IV, no. (1975): 19. 1 8  P e t e r Burger, Theory of t h e Avant-garde U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1974), p. 67. 1 9  2 0  Ibid.  2 1  Ibid.,  (Minneapolis:  p. 51.  R e n a t o P o g g i o l i , The T h e o r y o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e ( L o n d o n : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 30. 2 2  2 3  Ibid.  o  M a l c o l m Haslam, The R e a l W o r l d o f t h e S u r r e a l i s t s York: G a l l e y P r e s s , 1978), pp. 205-6. 2 4  (New  In aesthetic 2 5  a democracy one does n o t h a v e dictates of the state.  t o a b i d e by t h e  26 Hans Magnus E n s e n s b e r g e r , "The A p o r i a s o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e , " R a i d s and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s : E s s a y s i n P o l i t i c s , C r i m e and C u l t u r e ( L o n d o n : P l u t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 23. Ibid. 2 8  Ibid.,  p. 25.  2 9  Ibid.,  p. 20.  I l l  54 3 0  Ibid.  F r e d r i c Jameson, "The I d e o l o g y o f t h e T e x t , " S a l m a g u n d i 31/32 ( 1 9 7 5 - 6 ) : 240. 3 1  3 2  Ibid.  3 3  Ibid.  3 4  Ibid.  H e r b e r t Marcuse, Negations: Essays i n C r i t i c a l T h e o r y ( B o s t o n : 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 95; s e e a l s o E r o s and C i v i l i z a t i o n ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , v h i c h f o c u s e s on an a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l psychology of a f f i r m a t i v e c u l t u r e . 3 5  ^ A l e x C o m f o r t , A r t and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( L o n d o n : F a l c o n P r e s s , 1946), p . 16. 3  W a l t e r B e n j a m i n , " T h e s i s on t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f I l l u m i n a t i o n s , e d . Hannah A r e n d t (New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 257. 3 7  3 8  Volksgeist  means " f o l k  History" Books,  soul."  Kulture culture.  des V o l k e s i s t h e German t e r m f o r p o p u l a r  Kulture educated.  der G e l e h r e n r e f e r s  3 9  4 0  ^Prevailing 4 2  The  value  French term  system, or  to the c u l t u r e  of the  ideology.  for sensational  stage  effects.  for  T h i s t r a n g r e s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l a r e n a s i s t h e model the a p p r o p r i a t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c approach.  New  R a y m o n d W i l l i a m s , "On H i g h and P o p u l a r C u l t u r e , " R e p u b l i c , v o l . 171, no. 21 (November 23, 1 9 7 4 ) : 15.  4 3  44  K i r w a n Cox, " H o l l y w o o d ' s Empire i n C a n a d a , " P o r t r a i t s ( C a n a d a : M u t u a l P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 38 4 5  6Raymond W i l l i a m s , P r o b l e m s i n M a t e r i a l i s m C u l t u r e ( L o n d o n : V e r s o P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 52. 4  Self  and  55 ^^These terms r e f e r of c u l t u r e .  to the production  and  dissemination  48ibid. 49l-bid. L e o Lowenthal, L i t e r a t u r e , Popular C u l t u r e , S o c i e t y (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 12. 5 0  S l T h i s usage r e f e r s  and  52in t r a n s l a t i o n the good.  to the M a r x i s t  t h i s means, t h e  and  a e s t h e t i c framework.  t r u e , the  beautiful  5 3 l n t r a n s l a t i o n t h i s s t a t e m e n t s a y s , "The t h i n g s t h a t are r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l are u s e l e s s . " Theophile Gautier, M a d a m o i s e l l e M a u p i n ( P a r i s : B i b l i o t h e q u e C a r p e n t i r e , 1907), p . 22, o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1835. S^immanuel K a n t , The C r i t i q u e o f Judgement, t r a n s . James C r e e d " M e r e d i t h ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.42, o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1790. S^Saint-Beuve s a p a r t o f t h e famous l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c Ce^nacle, w h i c h was c o n n e c t e d t o V i c t o r Hugo. R o m a n t i c p a i n t e r s s u c h as D e l a c r o i x , A l f r e d De V i g n y and D a v i d d A n g e r s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s C e n a c l e . w  a  1  5 A . M. D. Hughes, T e n n y s o n , Poems P u b l i s h e d ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 13. 6  5 7  Ibid.  5 8  Ibid.  S^idem, n o t e ,  63.  &°Idem, n o t e ,  66.  G l p e t e r Burger, Theory of the Avant-Garde U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 42. 6 2  Press, (New  W i l l i a m M o r r i s , The 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 527.  A r t of the  People  in  1842  (Minneapolis:  (Nonesuch  ^ A r n o l d H a u s e r , The S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f A r t , v o l . 4 Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , n . d . ) , p. 234.  56 T h e P r o l e t k u l t , an a m a l g a m a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o l e t a r i a n c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , was f o u n d e d i n 1917. A year l a t e r t h e P r o l e t k u l t F i r s t A l l - R u s s i a n C o n f e r e n c e was h e l d d u r i n g which they proposed t h a t the c u l t u r a l spheres remain i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s p h e r e and t h a t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t d e v e l o p new c u l t u r a l f o r m s w h i c h d i f f e r f r o m the b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e o f the p a s t . L e n i n opposed t h e s e motions. In 1920 t h e P r o l e t k u l t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e A l l - U n i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P r o l e t a r i a n W r i t e r s (VAPP), w h i c h was l a t e r r e o r g a n i s e d as RAPP ( R u s s i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P r o l e t a r i a n Writers). T h i s new g r o u p t h e n s t r i c t l y u p h e l d t h e "correct party l i n e . " b 4  6 5  Ibid.  6 6  Ibid.  6 7  Ibid.  V l a d i m i r L e n i n , L e n i n and t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ( H a s s o c k : Carmen C l a u d i n - U r o n d o , H a r v e s t e r P r e s s , 1977), pp. 60-1. 6 8  57 CHAPTER I I I  ART ENGAGE VERSUS AUTONOMY: HISTORICAL PARADIGM  Once t h e l i f e o f t h e mind r e n o u n c e s d u t y and l i b e r t y o f i t s own p u r e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , i t h a s abdicated. T. W. A d o r n o  The  E a s t / W e s t d e b a t e s o f t h e 1930s r e p r e s e n t  historical  paradigm, which d e l i n e a t e s  engagement v e r s u s The  four writers  Georg Lukacs  autonomy involved  ("realism")  ("popular r e a l i s m " ) ,  2  ("popular  in relation  to subject  of a r t i s t i c positioning.  a r e : the Hungarian  cultural  and  Bertolt  the dramatist  representing  h a n d , and t h e F r a n k f u r t Benjamin  1  the issues  an i m p o r t a n t  the eastern  critic Brecht  d e b a t e on one  School  a e s t h e t i c philosophers Walter 3 realism/modernism") and T. W. A d o r n o  4 ("modernism/formalism"), r e p r e s e n t i n g other. field  A l l four w r i t e r s of p o s s i b i l i t y  form/content School  aspect  "critical  further represent  that  5  an  d e b a t e on t h e  intellectual  expands t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e  of t h i s  theory"  the western  discussion.  analyzes  a u t h o r - p r o d u c e r and t h e " s u b j e c t " ^  In a d d i t i o n ,  Frankfurt  the p o s i t i o n of the as p r o d u c e r  i n terms o f t h e  appropriational  and o p p o s i t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c s t r a t e g i e s .  critical  utilizes  theory  methodology r a t h e r The  the  i n order  "East/West"  7  dialetical  thought  as a  critical  t h a n as a cosmology.  intellectual  clarified  Marxist  Finally,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these w r i t e r s  t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e i r  debates.  should  discourses  By 1938, A d o r n o had f l e d  be  are called  Nazi  Germany  58 and moved t o Nev "Institute was  for Social  officially  Meanwhile, and  York  C i t y , where he was Research."  both Benjamin  respective  institutionally  The  conceptions fabric  mediated. Georg  of s o c i a l i s t  relationship  a capitalist  Lukacs spectrum way. and  produced  positioning,  led  film  and L u k a c s  e a s t e r n debate involved  nature of a r t i n r e l a t i o n to the while the western Theodor  Adorno  debate  was  concerned w i t h  commercial  art in  society.  r e p r e s e n t e d e a c h end  their differences  h a v e been  position  was  w h i l e Adorno,  of the  position  difference  Benjamin's  by h e r / h i s  In t e r m s  pessimism  informed, s t i m u l a t i n g ,  and  precisely  critical  9  provided  potentially  of s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l  between a u t h o r / p r o d u c e r and was  "cathartic"  of p r a x i s ,  i s untenable i n p r a c t i c e  objective  in this  essentially Aristotelian  a t the o t h e r extreme  of p r o d u c t i o n .  aesthetic  contrasted  a p e t r i f a c t i o n of the subject  Adorno's  and  were  between  i s t o r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y and  Brecht  while  t h e i r opposing  i n t e l l e c t u a l argument b u t h i s e x t r e m e  hierarchical  an  and  b a s e d on f r i e n d s h i p ,  between t h e a v a n t - g a r d e and  to a paralysis  change,  The  society,  and A d o r n o  and  Commmissar.  i n t e l l e c t u a l bond  t o Adorno  Lukacs  Lukacs's a e s t h e t i c  a sound  was  of the a e s t h e t i c  between W a l t e r B e n j a m i n the  strong  relationships  B r e c h t and  Lukacs  and B r e c h t were i n e x i l e i n F r a n c e  b e t w e e n B r e c h t and B e n j a m i n  Bertolt  A t t h e same t i m e ,  8  i n s t a l l e d i n t h e USSR as C u l t u r a l  Denmark r e s p e c t i v e l y .  their  working w i t h the  this:  cultural  i f avant-garde reduce the subject. to develop  environment.  In  the debates  on t h e p r o b l e m o f s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  working w i t h i n a Kantian reference  philosophical  framework when he made  to the subject/object r e l a t i o n s h i p .  view p o s i t e d t h a t the s u b j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l dialectically experience.  related  framework, which Lukacs,  consciousness, i s  Brecht,  from  the Hegelian  and B e n j a m i n a l l s h a r e d .  H e g e l i a n view p o s i t e d t h a t the s u b j e c t , c l a s s related  maintained  proletarian extremely  class  consciousness.  mass c o n s c i o u s n e s s  of  an H e g e l i a n  accepted in  M e a n w h i l e A d o r n o t o o k an emancipation  subject consciousness.  Brecht's  and e d i f i c a t i o n  and t h e r e f o r e had no f a i t h i n t h e n o t i o n  A d o r n o was v e r y Hegelian  During  critical  the course of  o f B e n j a m i n b e c a u s e he  perspective.  T h e r e was an  t e r m s o f h i s t o r i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n between B r e c h t  because t h e i r  sense  of pessimism  knowledge o f c u l t u r a l development o f Fascism of  was an o p t i m i s t b e c a u s e he  dim v i e w o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  debates,  conciousness, i s  f a i t h i n a p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y n o t i o n of  of  the  barbarism  a e s t h e t i c views are c o n s i d e r e d v i t a l  o f a mass c u l t u r a l  and B e n j a m i n ,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e  i n Germany.  arguments p r o v i d e o p t i o n s w h i l e  affinity  was s h a p e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l  But t h e i r s  the I n t e l l e c t , Optimism of W i l l . "  limitations  The  to the object, s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l t o t a l i t y .  L u k a c s a t one end o f t h e s p e c t r u m still  The K a n t i a n  t o t h e o b j e c t , s p e c i f i c phenomena o f  This i s differentiated  dialectically  A d o r n o was  1 0  was a " P e s s i m i s m  B r e c h t and B e n j a m i n ' s  today  because  their  recognizing the s i t u a t i o n a l context.  60 Lukacs  Lukacs's H i s t o r y the  concept  life,  and  of  the  way  n 1 1  of commodities.  cultural  the  the  biting  criticism  Ottwalt,  In  gained  circles  a close  1938,  USSR.  He  and  L u k a c s was t h e n had  a specifically  proclaimed  friend  to  Bredel,  Party.  his Ernst  Brecht.  in  political  context—one  the activism  which  a premature r e s o l u t i o n t o p r o l e t a r i a n a l i e n a t i o n discourse.  into  h i s ideas  recanting  consciousness  and  This  accepting  the  to address the Russian  was  a p r o b l e m ; t h e r e f o r e , he  the  so-called "correct" aesthetic party i n the  development.  For  i s why  about the  had  production  his  party p e r i o d i c a l  reconcile his Marxist  from p o l i t i c a l  realist,  left  C u l t u r a l Commissar  post-revolutionary  and  influential  a w o r k e r n o v e l i s t , and of  the  is similar  a t t e n t i o n because of  associate  appointed  inner  a e s t h e t i c import  a f t e r he  i n the  vith  through  H u n g a r i a n Communist  considerable  of W i l l i  ideas  L u k a c s became an  i n the  of the  impoverishment  original  a e s t h e t i c v i e w s were p u b l i s h e d and  (1923) d e a l s  impoverishment  This  artifacts.  responsibilities  Linkscurve  to  Consciousness  a e s t h e t i c f o r m s and  among German l i t e r a r y  political His  "reification,  k i t s c h a r t empties  meaning of critic  Class  t h e meaning o f  fetishization to  and  1 2  he  pressured  development of  reality  cultural  was  of  party  context  accepted  the  both  a class control.  where mass  He  illiteracy  p r a g m a t i c need  for  party aesthetic policy.  The  line  artistic  profoundly  most a d v e r s e ways and instance,  the  affected hindered  purges of  the  social-  cultural  1930s c a u s e d  the  61 victimization production pedantic; Lenin  of Mayokofsky  in Russia  however, a f t e r  insisted  that the  engagement o f t h e influenced equally linked  conservative  the  ultimate  the  classical  Fascist  s e i z e d power i n Germany,  threat required  personality,"13and  position.  Lukacs thought decay of  to the  nineteenth  Brecht  harshly  through techniques  or  him  formalism  outlined  i n L u k a c s ' s G r o s s e und  (1934).  Brecht  Brecht  was  was  i n the  related  an  early humanist,  represented embodied  in  caustic criticism  century,  for either  but  at  was  not  exemplifying  of j o u r n a l i s t i c  Verfall  i n f l u e n c e d by  des  of  Lukacs's  expressionism,  Expressionismus  expressionism  e a r l y 1920s; t h e r e f o r e L u k a c s  oder B e s c h r e i b e n ?  reportage  anti-Aristotelian  to h i s d i s l i k e  for his retrospective a r t i s t i c  Erzablen  inherited  the n o n - c l a s s i c a l r e n d i t i o n of c h a r a c t e r .  of B r e c h t  career  directly  century  because of h i s  critique  his  his  twentieth.  traits of  But  r e t a r d a t a i r e a e s t h e t i c , which  naturalist  aesthetic,  not  the harmonious t o t a l i t y  a limited,  active  certainly  i t was  nineteenth  His  "the  position.  Rather  Greek W e l t a n s c h a u u n g .  Lukacs c r i t i c i z e d  accused  this  t h a t modernism  perhaps a p p l i c a b l e to the  Cultural  exceedingly  background, which c u l t i v a t e d  time e x e m p l i f i e d  applicable  p o i n t became  Nazis  o f C l a s s i c i s m and  culture.  the  was  this  artists.  a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n was  to h i s p o l i t i c a l  appreciation  this  total  other  Lukac's c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l  from a bourgeois  high  after  and  when he  began  attacked  development.  (1936) o u t l i n e s t h e main  Lukacs's principles  62 of  his doctrine  critique should  of  be  literary  naturalism,  the  nexus o f  both external also  of  realism.  suggests that the  reportage  and  Lukacs thought  that  traditional  b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e was  world  i n the  process  different  groups  in society  his praise  bourgeois  critical  pilloried  the  classic  realism"V^and  canon.  "social  confronted  perspective.  character  i n d i v i d u a l , and  d e s c r i p t i o n and  the  "critical  to  rejects  He  therefore  active  realism"  justifiable  responded  the  realist  typical  transformation  because  and  the  n o v e l s of B a l z a c  way  contravened  the  realism,"^because  Officially,  f r o m an  socialist  depicted  i n which He  m o d e l s and and  of  it  the  Tolstoy,  while  he  r e g u l a t i v e norms  of  L u k a c s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between  society  1 4  those changes.  Greek c l a s s i c a l  m o d e r n i s t s , who  literary  implicitly  of  of  reiterates his  i n t e r n a l psychologism.  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between p a s s i v e  reiterated  the  s o c i e t y and  narration.  the  Here he  "social  "critical  realism"  1 7  internalized, socialist  realism  was  defined  as:  . . . a r t i s t i c method whose b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i s t h e t r u t h f u l , h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n c r e t e d e p i c t i o n of r e a l i t y i n i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , and whose most i m p o r t a n t t a s k i s t h e Communist e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m a s s e s . 1 8  Lukacs c r i t i c i z e d , n a r r o w n e s s and this  respect  L u k a c s and  as  dogmatism  the  Lunacharsky  to destroy  cinematic death.  of  are  a l l the  heritage  by  possible,  the  Stalin's cultural  more l i b e r a l i z e d  S h u m a y a t s k y , Y e z h o v , and fact  much as  cultural  contrasted Zhadanov.  vestiges  threatening  of  policies.  policies  to those The  the  bureaucratic  latter  of  of tried  in  avant-garde  artists  with prison  or  In  63 L u k a c s ' s C l a s s i c i s m v e r s u s B r e c h t ' s A n t i - A r i s t o t e l i a n View  L u k a c s owed h i s c o n c e p t i o n Hegel who  and  faces  conceived  of  a conflict  the  of  the  dramatic hero  protagonist  b e t w e e n two  as  the  mutually  Here l i f e ' s  p o t e n t i a l i t y reveals  of  as  instantiates his will  against  the  a l l obstacles.  depending  on  the  potentialities and  hero  not  in  surrender  This  are  represented  2 0  personality  also represents  dialectical  unity  the  to  the  1  the  and  mode v e r s u s  the  subject  i s that  and  Lukacs  self-reflexive  of  tragic  said  end,  these  "subjectivity."21  fate.  t h r o u g h c a t h a r s i s s/he  argument  1 9  The  the  the  over  " t r u t h " i n the  fictional  c a t h a r s i s and  act  aim  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  Brecht's  possession/dispossession  of  i n the  sole  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ' of  "subject's"  question  ethical  individual in a contradictory  When e x a m i n i n g L u k a c s s  crucial  and  will  "objectivity in n a r r a t i v e "  schematism" or  s u b j e c t i v i t y and  of  by  itself  fate, glory,  p o t e n t i a l i t y in question.  "expressionist to  is his  exponent of  exclusive  demands. choice  to  mode, c o n s i d e r  reality.  the fictional the  L u k a c s ' s view of feels:  A s o r r o w , and e v e n a s o r t o f shame, a t n e v e r h a v i n g p e r c e i v e d i n r e a l i t y , i n h i s own l i f e , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s g i v e n so " n a t u r a l l y " i n t h e work. I t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o go i n t o d e t a i l how an i n i t i a l f e t i s h i z i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t s d e s t r u c t i o n by an u n f e t i s h i z e d image i n a work o f a r t , and the a u t o - c r i t i c i s m of s u b j e c t i v i t y are c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g up o f a c o n t r a s t o f t h i s p e r t u r b a t i o n . R i l k e g i v e s a p o e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of a n c i e n t A p o l l o . The poem c u l m i n a t e s e x a c t l y i n t h e l i n e w i t h our d i s c u s s i o n w i t h an a p p e a l by t h e s t a t u e t o t h e p e r s o n c o n t e m p l a t i n g i t : "you must change y o u r l i f e " ? 2  the  Brecht, not  make) t h e  Eleventh not  simply a  the  s o  that  point.  Thesis  world"23 i is  thought  on  L u k a c s was  Brecht  missing  makes r e f e r e n c e  Feuerbach to point  out  "change o n e ' s l i f e ,  but  .  fallacy  p  Brecht,  o r  totalizing  attempt  (or perhaps  the  that  attempt of  to  the one  should  t o change cathartic  to e s s e n t i a l i z e the  the theory  subjectivity  of humanity through a c o n f l i c t  i n the h e r o ' s  Brechtian  catharsis results in a  theory  separation an  suggests  (which i s q u i t e  absolution  owed more t o  concluded  i n the  Aristotelian  Platonic the  period  drama.  h e r o who  2 4  our  n a t u r e of  t o an  of  a  epic  Brecht  which  a Socratic  s t a g e on  which  out."25  a l s o embodied  p r i n c i p l e s o f V e r f e m d u n q 2 6 ( a l i e n a t i o n ) and play  Puntilia,  f o r i n s t a n c e , has  adaptable character.  Stephen Heath e x p l a i n s of A r i s t o t e l i a n  tragedy  Herr  infinitely  In h i s essay L e s s o n s  the  Brechtian  (and  The the montage.  Puntilla consenting, from  Platonic)  Brecht, critique  thus:  I n t r a g e d y , t h a t i s , s u f f e r i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i z e d and s o , as i t were, redeemed, t h e s p e c t a t o r a b s o l v e d i n t h e l a y i n g b a r e o f an a b s o l u t e p a t t e r n o f m e a n i n g , s e p a r a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h e p i t y and f e a r o f catharsis. 2 7  to  dispassionate,  acted  character  as  and  theatre  E u r i p i d e s , than  "empty  s o c i e t y are  this  distanciation)  of Greek tragedy  featured  is likened  consciousness.  Brecht's  drama  e x c h a n g e r o l e s t o become a p l i a n t , and  from  Benjamin d e s c r i b e d  because h i s p l a y s  contradictory  Brecht's  that  "rationalist"  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  Brechtian  different  f r o m human s u f f e r i n g .  therefore  dramatist  that  could  Brecht about  thought  this  t h e human c o n d i t i o n — " t h i s  naturally  leads to a p a s s i v i t y ,  a petrifaction  of the  aesthetic  debate  differing  definitions  the p o s i t i o n i n g Lukacs's the  and  "mimesis"^  of  fate.  positioning  sign,  the 3 1  strict  the  unquestioned  literary  issue  quality  of  implications  of  contribute  to  "suspension  of d i s b e l i e f . "  s c r e e n i s a "window on  3 3  In cinema, readily  rather  situated  Kantian).  components  than  thing  secures  "a  film  i s s e e n . " 34  o b j e c t e d to the a e s t h e t i c  consequences and  of Lukacs's  the a f f i n i t y  with Walter profound  hostility  and  political  t o a l l f o r m s o f modernism  for bourgeois realism.  Benjamin,  consequences  Brecht complained  In a c o n v e r s a t i o n bitterly  of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  to the  about  the form,  [frame]  Brecht  Brecht  of  the  In t h e d o m i n a n t n a r r a t i v e the world"  of  this  the s u b j e c t to the  of photographic r e a l i s m  of  aesthetic  the use  manner.  their  f o r m a l codes  i n s e m i o t i c t e r m s o f t h e two  which the world  the  o f t h e s u b j e c t ( H e g e l i a n and  ontological  through  2 9  thus  examines  manner t h r o u g h  " s i g n i f ier'^° d i r e c t s i n an  and  c e n t e r s on  The  "diegesis" J  fatalism  B r e c h t , the c r u x of  Here the a e s t h e t i c  describe this  'signified'  the  and  a  i t i s " — which  I f one  "realism"  of the s u b j e c t .  ( i n cinema  hierarchical  the  between L u k a c s  implied  acceptance,  subject.  subject in a hierarchical  we  i s how  nineteenth century, r e a l i s t ,  catharsis  If  essentialization  the  Russian  66 literary  policy  responded anything you  of Lukacs,  G a b o r , and K u r e l l a .  t o h i m by s a y i n g , "These p e o p l e to v r i t e  home a b o u t  (literally:  c a n ' t make a s t a t e B r e c h t  Benjamin  just  aren't  with these  people  replied:  Or r a t h e r , a S t a t e i s a l l y o u c a n make w i t h them, b u t n o t a community. They a r e , t o p u t i t b l u n t l y , e n e m i e s o f production. P r o d u c t i o n makes them u n c o m f o r t a b l e . You n e v e r know where y o u a r e w i t h p r o d u c t i o n ; p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e u n f o r e s e e a b l e . You n e v e r know what i s g o i n g t o come o u t . And t h e y t h e m s e l v e s d o n ' t want t o p r o d u c e . They want t o p l a y a p p a r a t i c h i k and e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over other people. E v e r y one o f t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s contains a threat. °  Brecht  fought  interest" ?rom 3  a g a i n s t the dogmatic  the extreme r i g h t  1930s, d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d was  a target  wrote about  for state  the "three-penny  opposition  t o the moribund  prescribed  by f a t e ,  f o r "human  and t h e l e f t .  of Fascism  control  demand  i n Germany,  and c e n s o r s h i p .  In the e a r l y he When he  l a w s u i t , " 3 a n d h i s adamant 8  position  o f t h e s u b j e c t as  he p o i n t e d o u t :  I t i s t h e y who want t o s e e t h e e l e m e n t o f " f a t e " e m p h a s i z e d i n a l l d e a l i n g s between p e o p l e . Fate w h i c h u s e d [ o n c e ] t o be among t h e g r e a t c o n c e p t s , h a s l o n g s i n c e become a v u l g a r one, where t h e d e s i r e d " t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n " and " i l l u m i n a t i o n " a r e a c h i e v e d by r e c o n c i l i n g o n e s e l f t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s and a p u r e l y c l a s s w a r f a r e one, where one c l a s s f i x e s the f a t e of another. As u s u a l , one m e t a p h y s i c i a n ' s demands a r e n o t h a r d t o f u l f i l l . 3  Yet next  year  censor was  f o r B r e c h t t h e y were h a r d (1931), h i s f i l m  i n that  the s u i c i d e  9  to f u l f i l l .  K u h l e Wampe was banned by t h e German o f t h e young u n e m p l o y e d w o r k e r  n o t d e p i c t e d i n a "humane e n o u g h " ^ m a n n e r .  company  said  t h e y had  During the  "esteem  B r e c h t and  f o r the acute censor"41in  that  67  he  saw  The  the  i d e o l o g i c a l aspect of the  censor explained  the  representation  d e c i s i o n t o ban  in this  of  subject.  way:  We l e a r n t o o l i t t l e a b o u t h i m [ t h e w o r k e r ] , b u t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e o f a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e and t h i s f o r c e s me t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the r e l e a s e of your f i l m . Your f i l m h a s t h e t e n d e n c y t o p r e s e n t s u i c i d e as t y p i c a l , as a matter not of t h i s or t h a t [morbidly i n c l i n e d ! i n d i v i d u a l , b u t as t h e f a t e o f a w h o l e c l a s s This  sense of f a t e s h i f t i n g  important a little  because Brecht l e c t u r e on  from i n d i v i d u a l to c l a s s  s a i d the censor  r e a l i s m from the  "had  read  standpoint  was  us  of  the  43 police."  Brecht s  p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the  1  direct  response to the  during  and  a f t e r the  During Brecht's t o u n d e r s t a n d and function  g r o t e s q u e s t r e s s on  period  of H i t l e r ' s  lifetime  i t was  d e c o d e t h e way  i n a symbiotic  consciousness.  representation  important and  ideology  de-form that  f i l m s were e s s e n t i a l t o a comprehensive  b a c k f o r more.  I n 1941  to f u l l y the  4 4  s t a t e m e n t i n Das  phenomenon as e v e n t s and  consider  most i m p o r t a n t l y , b r o u g h t them  f u n c t i o n of e q u i p p i n g  i t s struggle for existence."  c a r e f u l l y Brecht's  a u d i e n c e s , g a v e them  G o e b b e l s s a i d , "Even e n t e r t a i n m e n t  from time to time perform the  first  accession.  manner t o f o r m and  sense of s e c u r i t y , and,  In order  a  irrational  (as i n o u r s )  i d e o l o g i c a l program because they l u l l e d  for  the  C e r t a i n l y Goebbels understood  entertainment  a false  r a t i o n a l was  as s o c i a l  We  must t h e r e f o r e  Wort, "Consider events."  c o m p r e h e n d what B r e c h t  t e r m s " s u b j e c t " and  a  can  nation weigh  literary  4 5  means, we  "ideology."  should  C o l i n McCabe  68 noted i n Realism  and  Cinema that the problem with the use  of  the term " s u b j e c t " i s t h a t i t i s an i d e o l o g i c a l n o t i o n which i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from modern European p h i l o s o p h y .  The  " s u b j e c t " i s o f t e n used as a d e s c r i p t i v e s c i e n t i f i c  term  concept.  McCabe proposed an a h i s t o r i c a l view of i d e o l o g y because, even though s p e c i f i c i d e o l o g i e s have a h i s t o r y i n v o l v i n g both and  internal  e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s , the a c t u a l form of i d e o l o g y i s the same.  In r e f e r e n c e to A l t h u s s e r ' s essay  Ideology  and  I d e o l o g i c a l State  Apparatuses, McCabe e x p l a i n e d :  A l t h u s s e r argues t h a t the c e n t r a l and unvarying f e a t u r e of i d e o l o g y i s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s the imaginary r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l s to t h e i r r e a l c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e . Ideology i s always "imaginary" because these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s p l a c e the s u b j e c t i n p o s i t i o n i n h i s / h e r society. In other words i d e o l o g y always has a p l a c e f o r a founding source o u t s i d e of r e a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . Here McCabe a l s o makes the important Descartes's  d i s t i n c t i o n between  c o g i t o , "I t h i n k t h e r e f o r e I am," and Lacan's 47  r e w r i t t e n v e r s i o n ( i n l i g h t of Freud), am  not and  I am where I do not t h i n k . " L a c a n ' s  the pronoun " I " h a s been 4 9  constructed/deconstructed of language.  through the  intersubjectivity  S u b j e c t i v i t y i s shaped by the d e s i r e to  communicate through language and the unconscious and  complicated  rewritten  48  v e r s i o n e x e m p l i f i e s how  by  "I t h i n k where I  continues  language.  by the f a c t t h a t the  to be  informed  Further, s u b j e c t i v i t y i s "I"^present  r e c o g n i z e the moment i n continuum.  does not  McCabe t h e r e f o r e  says:  69  The ego i s c o n s t a n t l y caught i n t h i s fundamental misunderstanding (meconnaissance) about language i n which from an i l l u s o r y present i t attempts to read only one s i g n i f i e d as present i n the metaphor and attempts t o b r i n g the s i g n i f y i n g , c h a i n t o an end i n a p e r p e t u a l l y d e f e r r e d present. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the s u b j e c t ' s p r e v i o u s  imaginary  s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n i n language corresponds t o the s t r u c t u r e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c l a s s i c r e a l i s t t e x t and cinema. dominant form reminds the reader/viewer denied  realist  The  t h a t they are  a prominent p l a c e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l  the p r o d u c t i o n  The  process of  of meaning due t o the unquestioned s t a t u s of  representation.  s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n was s i m i l a r l y analyzed  by Foucault  i n the p a i n t i n g Las Meninas when he s a i d , "He [the s u b j e c t ] sees h i s i n v i s i b i l i t y made v i s i b l e t o the p a i n t e r and transposed  52  i n t o an image f o r e v e r i n v i s i b l e to h i m s e l f . " 53  Through the "suspension  of d i s b e l i e f "  (a mimetic p r o c e s s ) ,  the s u b j e c t i s asked t o i d e n t i f y with the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s while s/he i s p r o f f e r e d a p o s i t i o n of pseudo-knowledge and " t r u t h " ^ ( s o c i a l t r u t h ) v i s - a - v i s the 4  various narratological discourses.  Yet an understanding  of  the l a r g e r s o c i a l t r u t h s of the c h a r a c t e r s i s given only i n 55 so f a r as the " c l o s e d t e x t , "  n a r r a t i v e framework  ( b e g i n n i n g , middle, and end) w i l l a l l o w .  The nature  " c l o s e d t e x t " ^ w i t h i t s formal s t r u c t u r e of l o g i c a l 5  of the linear  coherence and b e l i e v a b l i t y cannot t o l e r a t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e the " r e a l , " - " w h i c h and  exposes an h o r i z o n of polyvalence  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , must be channelled  i n t o a narrow spectrum  70 of c h o i c e s  (both f o r f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s  viewing/reading s u b j e c t s ) . outside  the p r o d u c t i o n  w i t h the c h a r a c t e r  The  s u b j e c t must be  while continuing  f a t e and  and  to  identify  n a r r a t i v e enigma.  c l o s e d t e x t , the s u b j e c t must defer t o the  placed  In  the  divine,  h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y of the producer's t r u t h . the c l o s e d t e x t must r e l y on c a t h a r s i s to end,  Finally, but  not  d i s r u p t , the ontology of t h i s dominant form of t r u t h .  Russian formalism i n f l u e n c e d Brecht's m a t e r i a l i s t aesthetic.  The  of p r o d u c t i o n  f o r m a l i s t s ' i n t e r e s t i n exposing the  r a t h e r than m y s t i f y i n g  because he wanted to c r e a t e  c l a s s to know that conceived and  ...  i t appealed to Brecht  a " p o p u l a r - r e a l i s t " ^ a r t that  a c c e s s i b l e to the working c l a s s and artistic-intellectual elite.  process  not only to  was  an  He wanted the working  " h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s may  as i n s c r u t a b l e f o r c e s  not  be  . . . they are  created  maintained by man."59  B r e c h t ' s d e s i r e to merge form and  content i n t h e a t r e  was  demonstrated by the f a c t that the focus  of h i s  was  not the stage but  His main  o b j e c t i v e was response.  r a t h e r the audience.  to e l i c i t  T h i s i s why  the a r t of s e e i n g . "^He  an a c t i v e c r i t i c a l he  audience  s a i d i t i s important to " l e a r n  sought to serve  populace with the t h e a t r e ' s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the e p i c  theatre  the  i n t e r e s t s of  c a p a c i t y to r e v e a l  style.  by  the  71  Brecht s  thoughts  1  are s t i l l  contemporary  film  reasons.  gave a c l e a r  popular  He and  considered important  p r o d u c t i o n and  realistic  criticism  definition  to  f o r these  o f what he meant  i n the following  by  statement:  Our c o n c e p t o f what i s p o p u l a r r e f e r s t o a p e o p l e who n o t o n l y p l a y a f u l l p a r t i n h i s t o r i c a l development but a c t i v e l y usurp i t , f o r c e i t s pace, determine i t s d i r e c t i o n . We have a p e o p l e i n mind who make h i s t o r y , c h a n g e t h e w o r l d and t h e m s e l v e s . We h a v e i n mind a f i g h t i n g p e o p l e and t h e r e f o r e an a g g r e s s i v e c o n c e p t o f what i s p o p u l a r . R e a l i s t i c means: d i s c o v e r i n g t h e c a u s a l c o m p l e x e s o f s o c i e t y / u n m a s k i n g t h e p r e v a i l i n g v i e w o f t h i n g s as t h e v i e w o f t h o s e who r u l e i t / w r i t i n g f r o m t h e s t a n d - p o i n t of the c l a s s which o f f e r s the b r o a d e s t s o l u t i o n s f o r the p r e s s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n which human s o c i e t y i s c a u g h t / e m p h a s i z i n g t h e e l e m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t / m a k i n g p o s s i b l e t h e c o n c r e t e , and making p o s s i b l e a b s t r a c t i o n from i t . ^ l  B r e c h t ' s work a l w a y s politically  committed  experimental, poetic, maintained to  think  addition, great to  an  and  and  h i s honest  didactic.  the h i s t o r i c  and  optimism  i t s position  form  that  that  about  our  society.  self-reflexivity  events which  he  capacity  document h i s c r i t i c a l  aesthetic  as  was  A g a i n s t a l l odds  to plan for a better  political  insights  stated  a r t i n an a e s t h e t i c  irrepressible  creatively  social  practically  In  produced responses  affected  him  most  profoundly.  Benjamin  Benjamin that  was  and  B r e c h t s h a r e d an h i s t o r i c a l  n e v e r t h e l e s s i n f o r m e d by  imagination  the e x p e r i e n c e of  exile  and  cultural  vhich held be  barbarism.  that  Y e t t h e y s h a r e d an h i s t o r i c a l  t h e mass a u d i e n c e ' s c r i t i c a l  awakened t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s of " d i s t r a c t e d  viewing  of entertainment.  entertaining theatrical montage  vision  awareness habit"  B r e c h t ' s g e s t i c music  6 2  i  could n  the  was  and was a f o r m o f montage t h a t b r o k e t h e  illusion.  "obliged  action"^through  T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t and  the spectator this  t o take a p o s i t i o n  toward t h e  process of apperceptual h a b i t ;  therefore,  rather  t h a n t h e work o f a r t a b s o r b i n g y o u , y o u a b s o r b i t .  Brecht  characterized  catharsis  from  distinguishing  6 4  the e m o t i o n a l responses engendered  outrage at s o c i a l critical  Verfremdunseffekt by  injustices  thought.  or the sorrow which  To A d o r n o ' s  c o n c e n t r a t e on a r t , r a t h e r  lament  that  by m o r a l produces  t h e masses do n o t  seek d i s t r a c t i o n  only,  Benjamin  answered:  The f i l m w i t h i t s s h o c k e f f e c t meets t h i s mode o f p e r c e p t i o n h a l f way. The f i l m makes t h e c u l t v a l u e r e c e d e i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d n o t o n l y by p u t t i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c r i t i c , b u t a l s o by the f a c t t h a t a t t h e movies t h i s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s no a t t e n t i o n . The p u b l i c i s an e x a m i n e r , b u t an almost absent-minded one.^5 The notion  "cult  v a l u e " ^ w h i c h Benjamin  o f t h e decay  the advent  referred how  s a i d , was d e r i v e d  or p l a c e  of a r t .  from the  and m a g i c a l c o n t e x t .  t o the "Renaissance s e c u l a r  the f u n c t i o n  The c o n c e p t o f t h e  originally  of a r t i n a r i t u a l i s t i c  the aura's d e c l i n e produced  of r e f e r s to the  t h e work o f a r t a f t e r  of mechanical reproduction.  aura, Benjamin production  of the "aura"  speaks  cult  of beauty" lo 6  a c r i s i s regarding L'art  pour  l'art  was  one  Benjamin show  73 response t o t h i s original  crisis.  Because t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y of the  vork of a r t , the h i e e t n u n c  6 9  (the  h e r e and now),  was t h e c r u x o f t h e i s s u e , B e n j a m i n came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n that: From a p h o t o g r a p h i c n e g a t i v e , f o r e x a m p l e , one c a n make any number o f p r i n t s ; t o a s k f o r t h e " a u t h e n t i c " p r i n t makes no s e n s e . But the i n s t a n t t h e c r i t e r i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y c e a s e s t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o a r t i s t i c production, the t o t a l function of a r t i s reversed. I n s t e a d o f b e i n g b a s e d on r i t u a l , i t b e g i n s t o be b a s e d on a n o t h e r p r a c t i c e — p o l i t i c s . 7 0  B e n j a m i n and B r e c h t potential  thought  that  i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l  reproduction  f o r the a r t s .  there  advent  was a p o s i t i v e of mechanical  Here Benjamin proposed  that the:  M e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t changes t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e masses t o w a r d a r t . The r e a c t i o n a r y a t t i t u d e toward a P i c a s s o p a i n t i n g c h a n g e s ^ j n t o a p r o g r e s s i v e r e a c t i o n towards a C h a p l i n movie.  Adorno  While  i n London  i n 1936 A d o r n o w r o t e a l e t t e r t o  Benjamin c r i t i c i z i n g idea  that  his position.  a reactionary  a v a n t - g a r d e by an e x p e r t  i s turned  Adorno s t a t e d  that "the  i n t o a member o f t h e  knowledge o f C h a p l i n  films strikes  72 me a s o u t - a n d - o u t characteristically provide  romanticization." w i t h t h e method  the concrete  understanding experience.  "particular"  Adorno  continued  of c r i t i c a l theory 7 3  o f t h e w h o l e by c i t i n g  for this  to  "abstract"  7 4  an example f r o m h i s own  Adorno r e c o u n t e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e  i n this  way:  74 When I s p e n t a day i n t h e s t u d i o s o f N e u b a b e l s b e r g two y e a r s ago, what i m p r e s s e d me most was how [ l i t t l e ] montage and a l l t h e a d v a n c e d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t you e x a l t a r e a c t u a l l y u s e d ; r a t h e r , r e a l i t y i s e v e r y w h e r e [ c o n s t r u c t e d ] w i t h an i n f a n t i l e mimetism and t h e n 'photographed •" You u n d e r - e s t i m a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l i t y o f autonomous a r t and o v e r e s t i m a t e t h a t of t h e d e p e n d e n t a r t ; t h i s , i n p l a i n t e r m s , would be my main o b j e c t i o n . 7 5  Historians took  control  production revealed massive  that  after  1933,  o f t h e German f i l m  o f mass l i g h t  later  that  he  as w e l l .  interested  entertainment.  not  Goebbels  During  i n awakening  said  convey  that  this  kammerspielfilm.  T h i s was  passively rather  than  The  awakening  problem  foresaw,  but  experience). kitsch  any  f i l m s such  consistent  critical  anticipate  quality  as  war,  autonomous, n o n - b o u r g e o i s  censor  the  the p e r i o d of  i n keeping escapist  people  desires  capacities.  which Benjamin  to which  that  i t could  (authentic  Benjamin  promoted  In c o n t r a s t , Adorno art.  He  also  affirmative  of Erfahrunqen  films.  not  consciousness.  the e x t e n t t o which  the degree  possibility  private  t o wage  with  their  A d o r n o ' s p e r c e p t i o n was  r a t h e r than  promoted  "used  w h i c h A d o r n o d e s c r i b e d and  c o u l d not  usurps  7 8  fulfilling  their  d o m i n a t e e x p e r i e n c e , was culture  controlled  N a z i ' s were i n t e r e s t e d  e n t e r t a i n e d by  Germany's  t h e r e f o r e , s e t out t o  "unhealthy"  The  were  the  also  p e r i o d , t h e N a z i s were  the newsreels  "undesirable" and  book b u r n i n g .  UFA,  the n a t i o n s c r i t i c a l  7  7 9  secretly  Goebbels  f o c u s e d on  I t was  only c o n t r o l l e d  information" ^and, 7 7  when J o s e f  i n d u s t r y , he  p r o d u c t i o n complex, but  companies  not  note  made t h e p o i n t  that,  w h i l e he  d e c l i n e d , he and  agreed  also  asserted  aura  in i t . "  8  0  always recognized  F u r t h e r , he  i s not  and  the p o l i t i c a l  the p r o g r e s s i v e sense.  o f t h e work o f a r t  had  "the autonomy o f t h e work o f a r t ,  t h e r e f o r e i t s m a t e r i a l form,  element  in  t h a t the  i d e n t i c a l with  h i s c o l l e a g u e Max  aspect  the  Horkheimer  This p o l i t i c a l  it  reflected  The  aspect  not  their  religious  objective  and  of a r t  otherwise,  substance."  o f mass f i l m  share  Brecht's  c u l t u r e hinged  on  and  "blind  Benjamin's  s p o n t a n e o u s power o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t  no  expressed of  less  that  0 ±  o b j e c t i o n Adorno v o i c e d r e g a r d i n g the  character did  institutions,  the  which  affirmative fact  that  he  confidence  is itself  i n the  a  82 product  of b o u r g e o i s  Brecht's  society."  i n f l u e n c e on  In f a c t ,  B e n j a m i n t o be  he  considered  unfortunate.  He  83 chastised and  was  b o t h men  f o r what he  particularly  called  "crude t h i n k i n g "  c r i t i c a l of B r e c h t ' s  "political  84 naivety."  Some c r i t i c s  criticisms;  however, B r e c h t was  new  f o r m s and  perhaps  agree  i t i s not  expectation  of h i s t o r i c a l  implication  of A d o r n o s concern  effects  of  1  "affirmative  w i t h Adorno's experimenting  political with  possible to f u l f i l l  accuracy.  Nevertheless,  w i t h the  culture" ^is 8  every the  hegemonic  important  to  pursue.  Raymond W i l l i a m s d e f i n e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i n f l u e n c e of  i d e o l o g y and  had  of a r t ( p r e - a u r a l d e c l i n e )  "a f o r c e o f p r o t e s t o f t h e humane a g a i n s t t h e p r e s s u r e domineering  magical  t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f hegemony  thus:  76  Hegemony s u p p o s e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s t r u l y t o t a l , which i s not merely secondary or s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l , l i k e t h e weak s e n s e o f i d e o l o g y , b u t which i s l i v e d at such a depth, which s a t u r a t e s the s o c i e t y t o s u c h an e x t e n t , and w h i c h , as G r a m s c i p u t i t , even c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s u b s t a n c e and l i m i t o f common s e n s e f o r most p e o p l e u n d e r i t s sway. . . . F o r i f i d e o l o g y were m e r e l y some a b s t r a c t , imposed s e t o f n o t i o n s , i f o u r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i d e a s and a s s u m p t i o n s and h a b i t s were merely the r e s u l t o f s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g which might be s i m p l y ended o r w i t h d r a w n , t h e n t h e s o c i e t y w o u l d be v e r y much e a s i e r t o move and t o change t h a n in practice i t i s . 6  T h e r e f o r e , Adorno  d i d agree with Brecht  and  Benjamin's  87  assertion reduced  that  " t r a g i c mode" i n modern mass c u l t u r e i s  to a threat  ideology  t o anyone  framed w i t h i n  text/image. co-authored element  the  of t h r e a t  describes  with the media  o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t ( w h i c h Adorno  Horkheimer)  i n tragedy.  the f a t e  does n o t comply  t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e mass  The D i a l e c t i c w i t h Max  who  in fact  The  of the female  referred  following  to that  passage  subject:  T r a g e d y i s r e d u c e d t o a t h r e a t t o d e s t r o y anyone who does n o t c o - o p e r a t e , whereas i t s p a r a d o x i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e once l a y i n a h o p e l e s s r e s i s t a n c e t o mythic destiny. T r a g i c f a t e becomes j u s t p u n i s h m e n t , w h i c h i s what b o u r g e o i s a e s t h e t i c s a l w a y s t r i e d t o turn into. The m o r a l i t y o f mass c u l t u r e i s t h e c h e a p form of y e s t e r d a y ' s c h i l d r e n ' s books. In f i r s t c l a s s p r o d u c t i o n s , f o r example, t h e v i l l a i n o u s c h a r a c t e r a p p e a r s as a h y s t e r i c a l woman who ( w i t h presumed c l i n i c a l accuracy) t r i e s to r u i n the happiness of her o p p o s i t e number, who i s t r u e r t o r e a l i t y , and h e r s e l f s u f f e r s a quite u n t h e a t r i c a l death. °  To c o n c l u d e , t h e d i s c o r d represented of  the  correct  between  a fundamental p o l i t i c a l  1930s.  A hypothetical  proletarian  Adorno  and  break d u r i n g  realm of a f u t u r e  c o n s c i o u s n e s s was  something  Benjamin the debates imputed Adorno  and  77 refused  to recognize  proposition felt  and  found  on w h i c h t o r e s t  t h a t B e n j a m i n had  the K o n i g s t e i n t a l k s  agreed  with  rule  empirical immanent  earlier At  of  the  realm  the  because of  of n e g a t i v e  "non-identical" framework.  element t h a t d e f i n e d  8 9  The  a fundamental d i f f i c u l t y  dialectics  that  and  is pivotal  the p r i n c i p l e  principle  of the  n o n - i d e n t i c a l i s i n the  predictable,  dogmatic,  and  Dialectics,  end  w h o l e n e s s o f Scho'nberg's t w e l v e - t o n e theory  became a p r i m a d i a l e c t i c a  p r i n c i p l e ) when A d o r n o h i m s e l f had first took  principles. the  logic,  thereof  right  logic  of c r i t i c a l  after  the  to exist  which q u e s t i o n s  logic  the  the h o l o c a u s t ,  9 0  effect only  row.  objected  Negative  to a l l  consequences  negation  to  question:  Auschwitz?  and  the  (a philosophical  fundamental  after  and  The  mirrored  Furthermore, the  p o i n t o f e x t i n c t i o n — t o ask  Does a r t h a v e t h e  i n her  therefore ever-identical.  conceptual  h i s theory  the  quite  wholeness of h i s a e s t h e t i c theory  philosophic  of  his  i s t h a t the  conceptual  dialectical  with  p r o b l e m w h i c h Susan B u c k - M o r s s n o t e d of Negative  of  their  to h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Origin  the  of  Adorno's a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y  b o o k , The  of  had  approach.  problematic  first  they  Kantian  t h a t knowledge remain w i t h i n the was  a  Adorno  t h a t time  This  experience  as  conclusions  of e x p e r i e n c e .  T h e o r i s t s , however f i n d  theory  their  i n 1929.  data  untenable  Consequently,  anti-metaphysical aspect  t o keep w i t h i n the  insistence  theory.  betrayed  during  the  completely  This  meaning o f  leads to a loss  of  line  a r t or nerve  lack  78 v h o s e end  point  criticism  of  his  own.  Hans E n s e n s b e r g ' s r e p l y t o A d o r n o ' s q u e s t i o n  his  logic  of c r i t i c a l  art,  i s paralyzed  "stasis"91which  Ensensberg  angst.  Therefore,  Adorno invoked  nihilism.  the  very  against  In t e r m s o f t h e  Benjamin  was  rectified  production  of  said:  . . . we must r e s i s t t h i s v e r d i c t . In o t h e r words, s u c h t h a t i t s mere e x i s t e n c e a f t e r A u s c h w i t z i s n o t to surrender to c y n i c i s m ?  be  9 2  Adorno's pessimism or  its ability  barbarism, after  one  t o e v o k e an  must be  Auschwitz.  history  leads  regarding  viewed His  from  experience  of b r u t a l i t y  The  across  pessimism  cultural  and  r e l e v a n t to the  on  the  today.  regarding  The  "no  1968  in this  the  art  (in particular  d i s c u s s i o n s o f May  1968  is  9  view.  The  ahistorical  working toward  perspective  i s why  d i s c o u r s e s on to the  is  the  East/West  cinema  contemporary  the  during  discourse film issues  between autonomous a r t the  cinematic  then  important  a progressive,  These d i s c o u r s e s developed  relationship  there  bomb," ?is  of Adorno's thought  In p a r t , t h i s  and  life  universal but  a p p l i c a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e i n avant-garde  practice  engaged  a damaged  boundaries.  while  debates are  social  to humanitarianism,  rigor  society.  o f May  of  that  i s s e e n f r o m an  enlightened  events  thought  is transgressed  t o comprehend, a l l t h e  the  context  of c u l t u r e ,  to  s l i n g s h o t t o t h e megaton  History  cuts  i n the  chilling  sobering.  that  adequate response  savagery  l e a d i n g from the  the p r o d u c t i o n  a r t s ) and  moved t h o s e  and society.  debates  onto  a different  historical critical  plane  s i n c e t h e y were i n f o r m e d  understanding  c o n t e x t , which  o f t h e p a s t and  by  by  t h e May  i n v o l v e d a l l s e c t o r s of  an 1968  society.  80  NOTES TO  CHAPTER I I I  ^-These t e r m s r e p r e s e n t t h e a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n s the four w r i t e r s that are explained f u r t h e r i n t h i s chapter. 2  Ibid.  3  Ibid.  4  Ibid.  of  F o r a thorough e x p l a n a t i o n of the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l ' s c r i t i c a l t h e o r y , see J o h n O n e l l , On C r i t i c a l T h e o r y (New Y o r k : S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) . 5  in  ^Here r e f e r chapter I. 7  See  t o t h e K a n t i a n and H e g e l i a n  definition  definition  in text.  T h e I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l R e s e a r c h was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n F r a n k f u r t a f t e r F e l i x W e i l approached h i s f a t h e r f o r t h e i n i t i a l endowment i n 1914. After Hitler r o s e t o power, t h e i n s t i t u t e moved t o New Y o r k . 8  The climactic social experience. 9  l O T h i s motto  outlet  t o emotion  i s Hegelian  t h r o u g h drama o r a  in origin.  ^ L u k a c s ' s o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the study of c u l t u r e was h i s f o c u s on t h e c o n c e p t o f r e i f i c a t i o n i n h i s c h a p t e r " R e i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s C o n s c i o u s n e s s . " Here he a n a l y z e d t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n o f b o u r g e o i s p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e a l i s m and d u a l i s t i c separation i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s u b j e c t - o b j e c t . T h i s i s why c o m m o d i t i e s a r e r e i f i e d . P r o d u c t s a p p e a r as o b j e c t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e w o r k e r s who p r o d u c e them; t h e r e f o r e c o m m o d i t i e s i n a r e i f i e d f o r m a r e " f e t i s h e s , " w h i c h a p p e a r as s e p a r a t e and o b s c u r e d f r o m t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s t h a t p r o d u c e s them. Georg L u k a c s , H i s t o r y and C l a s s C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( L o n d o n : M e r l i n P r e s s , 1967), p. 319. !^This party.  " c o r r e c t n e s s " was  s h a p e d by L e n i n  and  the  81  F r a n z R o s e n z w e i g , The S t a r o f R e d e m p t i o n , 2d ed./ t r a n s . W i l l i a m W. H a l l o (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1970), p . 238, o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1930. 1 3  1 4  Lukacs,  1 5  Ibid.  1 6  Ibid.  1 7  Ibid.  History  and C l a s s  C o n s c i o u s n e s s , p. 114.  l ^ C . D. K e r n i g , e d . , M a r x i s m , Communism, S o c i e t y 8 v o l s . (New Y o r k : H e r d e r and H e r d e r , 1 9  Lukacs,  History  and C l a s s  and W e s t e r n 1972), 8:1.  C o n s c i o u s n e s s , p p . 22-35.  20ibid. 21 I b i d . 22ceorg Lukacs, Die Elqenart L u c h t e r h a n d , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 818. no.  23stephen Heath, "Lessons 2 (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) : 109.  des A s t h e t i s c h e n  (Berlin:  f r o m B r e c h t , " S c r e e n , v o l . 15,  24<r is r e f e r s t o t h e r a t i o n a l i s t p e r i o d o f Greek drama. E u r i p i d e s d e v e l o p e d t h i s f o r m as an i c o n o c l a s t i c c o n t r a s t t o A r i s t o t e l i a n drama. n  2 5 w a l t e r B e n j a m i n b a s e d h i s i d e a s on H e g e l ' s c o n c e p t o f t r a g e d y and he t a l k s a b o u t B r e c h t ' s e p i c t h e a t r e i n "The A u t h o r as P r o d u c e r , " New L e f t R e v i e w , 62 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1 9 7 1 ) : 93. 2&The c o n c e p t o f Verfemdunq was d e r i v e d f r o m R u s s i a n c o n s t r u c t i v i s m and f u t u r i s m and f r o m w r i t e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i v i s t j o u r n a l s L e f and Novy L e f , s u c h as M a y a k o v s k y , B o r i s A r v a t o v , S e r g e i T r e t j a k o w , and t h e f o r m a l i s t c r i t i c V i k t o r Shklovky. B r e c h t was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h A s j a L a c i s and E r w i n P i s c a t o r t o d e v e l o p a " p r o d u c t i o n a e s t h e t i c , " w h i c h c a u s e d a d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and e s t r a n g e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f montage and d i s c o n t i n u i t y T h i s q u a l i t y of d i s c o n t i n u i t y encourages a r a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s p a r t , r e n e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t h e emancipation of the viewing-working subject. 2 Stephen 7  Heath,  "Lessons  f r o m B r e c h t , " : 109.  82 T h e term "mimesis" i m i t a t i o n of n a t u r e . 2 8  the  i s derived  from  the  G r e e k , meaning  T h e term " d i e g e s i s " r e f e r s , a c c o r d i n g to the C h r i s t i a n Metz, t o the d e n o t a t i v e m a t e r i a l of f i l m n a r r a t i v e ( i n c l u d i n g t h e f i c t i o n a l s p a c e and t e m p o r a l d i m e n s i o n s of the n a r r a t i v e ) . 2 9  I n s e m i o t i c terms, the fundamental u n i t of s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s the s i g n . The s i g n has two components: t h e s i g n i f i e r t h a t c a r r i e s meaning and t h e s i g n i f i e d , w h i c h i s the concept or the t h i n g . The c l a s s i c example i s t h e word " t r e e " ( s i g n i f i e r ) , which r e p r e s e n t s the concept ( s i g n i f i e d ) of the r e a l t h i n g — a r e a l t r e e . 3 0  3 1  Ibid.  3 2  This  i d e a was  explained  well  by  Martin  W a l s h when  he  said : The a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n w h i c h E i s e n s t e i n , B r e c h t and Godard h o l d i n common i s a h o s t i l i t y t o i l l u s i o n i s m ; i l l u s i o n i s m b e i n g a mode o f a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h a t has as i t s most c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a d e s i r e to ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ) penetrate i n d i v i d u a l experience; i t s primary appeal i s to the emotions r a t h e r than the i n t e l l e c t , d e s i r i n g the audience's empathetic involvement w i t h t h e e v e n t s p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e them, i n t h e p a s s i v e manner s u g g e s t e d by C o l e r i d g e ' s "willing s u s p e n s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f " ; i t has a c l o s e d form w h i c h i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c autonomy, a s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n ; i t p r e f e r s t o r e g a r d t h e medium of e x p r e s s i o n as somehow t r a n s p a r e n t , n e u t r a l , h a v i n g no " p o i n t o f v i e w " of i t s own; language wants t o be o v e r l o o k e d , e f f a c e d . B r e c h t ' s t h e a t r i c a l p r a c t i c e o b v i o u s l y i n v e r t s a l l of t h e s e p r i o r i t i e s , and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s the contemporary n e c e s s i t y of a r e t h i n k i n g of dramatic p r a x i s . His theatre may t h u s be s e e n as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p e r s p e c t i v a l t r a d i t i o n of the post-Renaissance world; which p o s i t e d t h e eye (and t h e man b e h i n d i t ) as t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w o r l d , and a r t as a window ( t h e r e f o r e t r a n s p a r e n t ) on t h a t w o r l d . M a r t i n W a l s h , The B r e c h t i a n A s p e c t o f R a d i c a l ( L o n d o n : B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 3 3  Ibid.  3 4  Ibid.  B e r t o l t Brecht, "Conversations with L e f t Review, 77 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 55. 3 5  New  Brecht,"  Cinema 11.  83 Ibid.  3 6  Ibid.  3 7  K e i t h A. D i c k s o n , T o w a r d s U t o p i a : A S t u d y o f B r e c h t ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 4 9 . 3 8  3 9  ibid.  4 0  lbid.  4 1  Ibid.  4 2  I b i d . , p. 4 6 .  4 3  Ibid.  R i c h a r d T a y l o r , F i l m Propaganda: S o v i e t R u s s i a N a z i Germany ( L o n d o n : Croom Helm, 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1 6 1 . 44  and  % e r t o l t B r e c h t , "Das W o r t , " Gesammelt W e r k e , v o l . 20 ( F r a n k f u r t am M a i n : Suhrkamp, 1967) n.p., o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1935. 4  C o l i n MacCabe, " R e a l i s m and t h e C i n e m a : N o t e s on some B r e c h t i a n T h e s e s , " S c r e e n (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) : 4 6 . 4 f  of  4 7  Ibid.,  4 8  Ibid.  4 9  Ibid.  5 0  Ibid.  5 1  Ibid.,  p. 17.  p. 18.  ^ ^ M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , The O r d e r o f T h i n g s : An A r c h a e o l o g y t h e Human S c i e n c e s (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 5, 5 3  Ibid.,  n o t e 37.  5 4  See chapter I I I .  5 5  See chapter I I ,  5 6  See chapter I I , I I I .  III.  57 See c h a p t e r I I I . B e r t o l t B r e c h t , G e s a m m e l t e Werke, v o l . 2 am M a i n : Suhrkamp, 1 9 6 7 ) , n.p. 5 8  (Frankfurt  5 9  D i c k s o n , Towards U t o p i a : A Study of B r e c h t ,  6 0  Ibid.  p. 4 9 .  84 ^ B e r t o l t B r e c h t , " A g a i n s t Georg L u k a c s , " L e f t Review, 84 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1974): 74, 85. 1  New  W a l t e r Benjamin, Review, 62 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 6 2  "The A u t h o r as P r o d u c e r , " New 1 9 7 1 ) : 9.  6 J o h n W i l l e t , e d . , B r e c h t on T h e a t r e (New D i r e c t i o n s , 1964), p . 144. 3  6 4  See  chapter  Left  York:  New  ill.  6 W a l t e r B e n j a m i n , I l l u m i n a t i o n s : The Work o f A r t In The Age o f M e c h a n i c a l R e p r o d u c t i o n , e d . Hannah A r e n d t , (New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n B o o k s , 1969), p . 240. 5  6 6  Ibid.,  6 7  Ibid.  6 8  Ibid.  6 9  See  7 0  7 1  p.  40.  chapter II.  Benjamin,  Illuminations,  Ibid.,  40.  Adorno, 1936," p. 66. 7 2  p.  p.  244.  " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h B e n j a m i n : March  18,  A d o r n o ' s immanent a p p r o a c h p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t r u t h c r i t i c a l l y c h a l l e n g e d t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y and t h a t s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n would be e v i d e n t w i t h i n t h e m a t e r i a l of p h i l o s o p h y . 7 3  7 4  Ibid.  '-"T. W. A d o r n o , 18, 1936," New  March 66.  "Correspondence w i t h Benjamin, L e f t Review 84 ( M a r c h / A p r i l ) :  London:  R i c h a r d T a y l o r , F i l m Propaganda: S o v i e t R u s s i a Germany ( L o n d o n : Croom Helm, 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 161. 7 l 3  Nazi  7 7  Ibid.  7 8  Ibid.  7  9ibid.  8 0  Adorno,  "Correspondence w i t h Benjamin,"  p.  65.  and  85 8 1  Ibid.,  p.  67.  8 2  Ibid.,  p.  66.  8 3  Ibid.,  p.  65.  8 4  Ibid.,  p.  66.  8 5  See  chapter I I I .  Raymond W i l l i a m s , (London: Verso E d i t i o n s , 86  8 7  See  Problems i n M a t e r i a l i s m 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 37.  and  Culture  chapter I I I .  M a x H o r k h e i m e r and T. W. A d o r n o , D i a l e c t i c o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t (New Y o r k : The S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 8 8  152.  A d o r n o attempted t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e p h i l o s o p h y from w i t h i n , b u t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e n o n - i d e n t i c a l and h i s a n t i s y s t e m became a s y s t e m u n t o i t s e l f . The n o t i o n o f " n o n - i d e n t i t y " w a s i n s p i r e d by B e n j a m i n ' s c o n c e p t o f e x p e r i e n c e and h i s a t t e m p t t o r e s c u e t h e p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e f r o m o b l i t e r a t i o n by t h e t o t a l i t y . In America, f o r example, A d o r n o f e l t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s were r e p e t i t i o u s and i d e n t i c a l i n mass c u l t u r e ; t h e r e f o r e , he saw t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t e d by autonomous a r t . 8 9  9 ° A d o r n o i s o l a t e d t h e p r o b l e m t h u s "Such a m b i v a l e n c e of i d e n t i t y and n o n i d e n t i t y e x t e n d s even t o l o g i c a l problems of i d e n t i t y . For those, t e c h n i c a l terminology stands ready w i t h the customary formula of ' i d e n t i t y i n n o n i d e n t i t y ' — a f o r m u l a w i t h w h i c h we w o u l d f i r s t have t o c o n t r a s t the n o n i d e n t i t y i n i d e n t i t y . But such a p u r e l y f o r m a l r e v e r s a l w o u l d l e a v e room f o r t h e s u b r e p t i o n t h a t d i a l e c t i c s i s p r i m a p h i l o s o p h i a a f t e r a l l , as "prima dialectica." T h e o d o r W. A d o r n o , N e g a t i v e D i a l e c t i c s , t r a n s . E . B. A s h t o n (New Y o r k : The S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1973), p . 154. D u r i n g t h e 1960s t h e New L e f t c r i t i c i z e d Adorno f o r b r i n g i n g c r i t i c a l t h e o r y t o a dead e n d . Adorno i n s i s t e d t h a t n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was an a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e , t o p r e s e r v e t h e capacity to experience the n o n - i d e n t i c a l . His theoretical l o g i c e n s u r e d t h a t r e a s o n c o u l d n e v e r be i n s t r u m e n t a l and t h e r e f o r e p r a c t i c a l work t o w a r d s a U t o p i a n i d e a l was precluded. 9 1  E n s e n s b e r g r e s p o n d e d t o A d o r n o ' s s t a t e m e n t " I h a v e no wish t o s o f t e n the s a y i n g that to w r i t e l y r i c poetry a f t e r A u s c h w i t z i s b a r b a r i c : i t e x p r e s s e s i n n e g a t i v e form t h e i m p u l s e w h i c h i n s p i r e d c o m m i t t e d l i t e r a t u r e . " T. W. A d o r n o , Commitment (New Y o r k : The S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1979), p. 84. 9 2  9 3  Adorno,  Negative D i a l e c t i c s ,  p.  320.  86  CHAPTER IV  CONTEMPORARY DEBATE: CONCLUSION The p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n , t o sum up, i s n o t e r r o r , i l l u s i o n , alienated consciousness or ideology; i t i s truth itself. Michel Foucault  May  1968 —  The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s  We have e s t a b l i s h e d  that  of n a r r a t i v e i n avant-garde  the  development context  Those s o c i a l  epistemological of  ideas  occurred arts  i n the modernist  in a l l fields  the very  and p r o d u c e d  of thought.  and p o l i t i c a l fabric  a healthy  In t u r n ,  i n the a e s t h e t i c form/content  context.  forces--material,  European c u l t u r a l  changes r e d e f i n e d  cosmology  d e b a t e on t h e  p r a c t i c e i s i n f o r m e d by  how t h e m u l t i p l e  e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l - - s h a p e d life.  film  of a e s t h e t i c ideas  revealed  Canada  the contemporary  use  This  —  o f man's  re-examination  fundamental  of the v i s u a l  changes  and p l a s t i c  t o e s t a b l i s h the modernist break with n e o - c l a s s i c a l ,  realist,  and n a t u r a l i s t  self-reflexivity, aesthetic  historical  temporality,  autonomy v e r s u s  contemporary questions  aesthetics.  film  culture.  have d i f f e r e d perspective.  The m o d e r n i s t  ambiguity,  social  and t h e q u e s t i o n s  commitment  are s t i l l  The a n s w e r s g i v e n  as a r t i s t s  aesthetic of  t o these  of  evident i n aesthetic  and t h e o r i s t s d e v e l o p an  87 The field of  East/West h i s t o r i c a l  that  representation,  and a e s t h e t i c  Benjamin/Adorno debated  they  represents  an  intellectual  a l s o e n g a g e s i n a c r i t i q u e o f modernism, t h e means  artistic  and  paradigm  forms.  the autonomy/efficacy  r e l a t e to the p o s i t i o n i n g of the subject  ideological distracted  implications habit.  Lukacs/Brecht  of s e l f - r e f l e x i v i t y  The d e b a t e s r e - e x a m i n e d  i s s u e s as  i n terms o f the and p r a x i s  versus  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  b e t w e e n t h e a u d i e n c e and t h e p r o d u c e r , d e v e l o p i n g new  insights  a b o u t t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s o f production  In  and f o r m s o f s o c i a l  t h i s chapter  through the w r i t i n g  these  and  materialism  Bertolt to  aesthetic  and f i l m  May 1968 i n F r a n c e .  In t u r n ,  anti-narrative  similarly  lace  of s e l f - r e f l e x i v i t y  of Dziga  V e r t o v and  t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s t a e s t h e t i c has l e d  etc.)  d i r e c t i o n (the Dziga-Vertov  and t h e o t h e r  contemporary  avant-garde  examines t h e a e s t h e t i c to n a r r a t i v e .  still  o n t o l o g i c a l , and  Snow, e t c . ) .  F i n a l l y , the  issue with n a r r a t i v e  g a i n s and l o s s e s  i n North  derived  America  from t h e r e t u r n  Thus t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o n t o l o g y o f  a p p a r a t u s , human p e r c e p t i o n the subject  a formal,  group,  d i r e c t i o n ( t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t - m a t e r i a l i s t co-op  movement, P e t e r G i d a l , M i c h a e l  are  aesthetic  t h e development  one a n a r r a t i v e  Godard, Straub,  of  will  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a v a n t - g a r d e  directions:  the  issues  p r a c t i c e and n e x u s o f e v e n t s o f  The m o d e r n i s t  influenced  Brecht.  organization.  and l a n g u a g e , and t h e p o s i t i o n i n g  i n terms o f f a t e , d e s t i n y ,  vitally  important  and  t o the p r a c t i c e  representation  of filmmaking.  88 May  1968  The during in  issues of s t a t e  t h e "Night o f t h e B a r r i c a d e s "  periodicals  seen  such  culture  the f i l m  culture  involved i n the p o l i t i c s  t o take c o n t r o l  executive director,  unified  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  1968 p r e c e d i n g t h e c r i s i s  attempted  stimulated great  1  development o f modernist  became a c t i v e l y  February  by s t u d e n t p r o t e s t s  i n France.  of culture i n  C i n e m a t h e q u e by f i r i n g  Henri L a n g l o i s . and r e s u l t e d  The " L a n g l o i s A f f a i r "  the  distinguished  participated state  i n the student  French  and u n i o n  the Cinema"  4  resonance. conceded  During  5  popular  raised  the General  .  a particular  Strike,  .  .  historical  R e v o l u t i o n o f 1789 t h e monarchy  support  the "States General."^  R e v o l u t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y  at  when t h e s t u d e n t s  t o dual representation with the bourgeoisie i n the  Commons t o e s t a b l i s h  since  then  (May 1 0 ) . The " E s t a t e s G e n e r a l  sounding  the French  culture  Truffaut,  p r o t e s t s because of the  (ECG) f o r m e d t o s u p p o r t  t h e name " E s t a t e s G e n e r a l "  called  film  censorship of the p o l i c e b r u t a l i t y  t h e b a r r i c a d e s i n Rue Guy L u s s a c of  Some o f  3  on t h e c o m m i t t e e v e r e : R e n o i r ,  and B a r t h e s .  2  i n the formation of  "Committee f o r t h e D e f e n c e o f t h e C i n e m a t h e q u e . " people  Film  i n May, v h e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t  of the Paris  community  Also  relevant given  the  Godard, R i v e t t e ,  debates  a s C a h i e r s du Cinema and C i n e m a t h e q u e .  i n context, these debates  the h i s t o r i c a l  its  censorship raised  f o rthe Third  E s t a t e , then  The image o f t h e F r e n c h  significant  f o r French  i t a l s o c o n j u r e d t h e image o f a r t i s t s ,  t h e b a r r i c a d e s d u r i n g t h e " P a r i s Commune"  film  Courbet  culture  f o r example,  o f 1871.  Thus  89 it  was a t o u c h s t o n e t o a p e r i o d  of  aesthetic  and  discourses  that  regarding  also  stimulated  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t  life.  The  w r i t i n g and f i l m  practice that  emerged  from the  n e x u s o f e v e n t s o f May 1968 i n F r a n c e e x e m p l i f i e d failed of  a plethora  p o t e n t i a l and a t h o r o u g h r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l a s p e c t s  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  generated fresh  both the  during  a i r that  this  life.  The e n t h u s i a s m and p u b l i c  period  i s characterized  discourse  a s "a g u s t o f  b l e w t h r o u g h t h e d u s t y m i n d s , o f f i c e s and  7 bureaucratic  structures  though the a c t u a l entrenchment  of and  the s o c i a l  for social  social  justice  criticism  developed  culture.  political  protests  and c h a n g e .  emerged t h a t  power  transformed  F i l m m a k e r s and t h e o r i s t s r e v i e w e d  questions  Russia  o f t h e day.  i n the context  They d i s c u s s e d  t h e s p i r i t and  social  of the p o l i t i c a l  t h e work o f t h e f u t u r i s t s  the  issues  proposes  examined  o f p r o l e t a r i a n a r t and t h e p r o b l e m s o f l i t e r a c y  concrete  interesting  institutions  the debates of  t h e f o r m a l i s t s , E i s e n s t i e n and D z i g a V e r t o v and  their  forms  i n contemporary  and  to  to the  A v a r i e t y o f new  systems  Even  i n Parliament,  represented  the a n a l y s i s of sign  post-revolutionary  i n France."  r e s u l t of these events contributed  o f de G a u l l e ' s  nevertheless, desire  i n a l l walks of l i f e  involvement  conclusion  owing  i n t h e w o r k i n g man's s t r u g g l e .  drawn f r o m a d e b a t e  i n Cahiers  An  du Cinema  that:  Any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f w o r k e r s ' s e l f e x p r e s s i o n must e n c o u n t e r , and f i n d , ways o f d e a l i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h t h e twin dangers o f u n p r i n c i p l e d p o p u l i s m ( " i f a w o r k e r s a y s i t , i t must be r i g h t " ) and v a n g u a r d i s t e l i t i s m ("the w o r k e r s d o n ' t know what's good f o r them, and must on a l l o c c a s i o n s be s p o k e n f o r by t h e v a n g u a r d / P a r t y w h i c h d o e s know").  90 Materialism  Out  of t h i s  Godard, Straub,  struggle with aesthetic and  the Dziga-Vertov  and  political  group c o n s i d e r e d  t h e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a u d i e n c e t o promote the a u d i e n c e aesthetics the  focus of t h e i r  analysis the  as w e l l  d i s c u s s i o n s and  their was  Brecht's  relationship  ill  producer  of meaning.  work.  cinematographic  Exhibition  and  perception.  admonition to the  considered.  of t h i s First  to avant-garde  apparatus  Brecht  Jean-Louis  apparatus  group's understanding  o r g a n i z e s consumption considered  as t h e p r o d u c e r  and  as p r o d u c t i o n a e s t h e t i c s were t h e r e f o r e  of the b a s i c  Dziga-Vertov  ideas,  Baudry's  developed apparatus  they  which  carefully  artists  that  of p r o d u c t i o n / r e c e p t i o n  contends  that:  The a v a n t - g a r d e d o n ' t t h i n k o f c h a n g i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s , because they f a n c y t h a t they have at t h e i r d i s p o s a l an a p p a r a t u s w h i c h w i l l s e r v e up w h a t e v e r t h e y f r e e l y i n v e n t . . . . But t h e y a r e n o t i n f a c t f r e e i n v e n t o r s ; t h e a p p a r a t u s goes on f u l f i l l i n g i t s f u n c t i o n w i t h or w i t h o u t them. 9  The  Dziga-Vertov  production from  that  by  group t h e r e f o r e focused  emphasizing  a self-reflexive  thread of m a t e r i a l i s t  logic  f o r m a l i s m / c o n s t r u c t i v i s m w h i c h was materialist  aesthetic  of  on  t h e means o f  cinema.  They  drew  i n Russian  the b a s i s of Dziga  Vertov s  Kino-Eye:  The d e c o d i n g o f l i f e as i t i s . I n f l u e n c e o f f a c t s upon t h e w o r k e r s ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n f l u e n c e of f a c t s , not a c t i n g , dance, or v e r s e . R e l e g a t i o n of s o - c a l l e d a r t — t o the p e r i p h e r y of consciousness. P l a c i n g of s o c i e t y ' s economic s t r u c t u r e at the c e n t e r of a t t e n t i o n . 1 0  1  The  D z i g a - V e r t o v group adopted V e r t o v ' s c o n c e r n f o r the  m a t e r i a l means o f p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h t h e g r o u p s a i d  sought t o :  . . . make a c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s o f a c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n . . . t o u n d e r s t a n d the laws of the o b j e c t i v e world i n order to a c t i v e l y transform t h a t w o r l d . . . t o know one's p l a c e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n o r d e r t h e n t o change i t . Godard cinema  i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  through h i s d i d a c t i c  therefore is  engaged  politically." correct  literary  T h i s echoed  political  The  expectation committed  work.  position  artists They  l o n g , he  polyvalent  said,  Party voiced  produce  literary  authoritarian petrified of  i t s criticism  of the  correct,"  w i t h Adorno's commitment  realism  c a n accommodate i t s e l f  personality  this:  the s o c i a l  on  remains  whose  Adorno  argues  to the  because a " c o n f o r m i s t not a l l o w  1 4  m o t i v a t e d , as  "as i t i s n o t r e d u c e d t o p r o p a g a n d a ,  facade of o p i n i o n " * ^ w i l l  that  paper  itself  i f i t is politically  the unconscious to d i s t u r b  deduces  opposition  and t h e D z i g a - V e r t o v  p l i a n c y mocks any commitments by t h e s u b j e c t . " that  tendency."-  the b a s i c  "politically  out t h a t  even  i t s literary  exemplified  were f a m i l i a r  Commitment, w h i c h p o i n t e d politically  films  .  i t includes  group r e g u l a r l y that  "problem  Benjamin's statement,  b e t w e e n t h e F r e n c h Communist group.  the  t e n d e n c y o f a work i n c l u d e s i t s  because  aesthetic  sound/image;  that  f i l m s b u t t o make  1 2 .  quality  This  of the  the D z i g a - V e r t o v group a s s e r t e d  n o t t o make p o l i t i c a l  "The  critique  of the language of  respect  the "inner  order."  1 7  He  for a elements  92 . . . h o s t i l i t y t o anything a l i e n or a l i e n a t i n g . . . even i f i t p r o c l a i m s i t s e l f c r i t i c a l o r s o c i a l i s t , t h a n t o works w h i c h swear a l l e g i a n c e t o no p o l i t i c a l s l o g a n s , b u t whose mere g u i s e i s enough t o d i s r u p t t h e whole s y s t e m o f r i g i d c o o r d i n a t e s t h a t g o v e r n s authoritarian personalities. . . . 1  Godard  8  and t h e D z i g a - V e r t o v g r o u p t a c k l e d  concerning  a fusion  the problems  o f t h e f o r m a l and i d e o l o g i c a l  aspects of  t h e cinema w i t h t h e view t o d e v e l o p i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e t h a t would  not r e v e r t  recognized  that  unproductive. aesthetic  this  his  i n s t r u m e n t a l v i e w was  The f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n  o f images  Politics/Ontology  By  t o an i n s t r u m e n t a l v i e w o f a r t .  a s k s i s "Who  articulation  s i m p l i s t i c and  that  a progressive  and t o whom/for whom?" 19  -- The Two  Avant-Garde  speak o f two a v a n t - g a r d e s i n  e s s a y , The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s , w h i c h a n a l y z e d of the avant-garde i n Europe.  was u n e v e n ,  he s a y s , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e two w h o l l y i n avant-garde f i l m  represented  practice.  one p o l i t i c a l  This  the h i s t o r i c a l  development  Huillet  Godard  direction,  development distinct and S t r a u b -  while  emerged f r o m t h e c o - o p movement  and d e v e l o p m e n t s i n  structuralist  in this  film.  Filmmakers  P e t e r G i d a l , Malcolm Le G r i c e , others.  Wollen noted that  materialist differing The  They  i s s p e a k i n g i n any image o r  1975 P e t e r W o l l e n c o u l d  directions  aesthetic  Brigit  the other  avant-garde  included  and W i l h e l m H e i n , and  Dziga Vertov connected the  aesthetic  o f t h e two a v a n t - g a r d e s d e s p i t e  their  conceptions  o f t h e meaning o f a m a t e r i a l i s t  aesthetic.  two a v a n t - g a r d e s t h e n p r o v i d e  another h i s t o r i c a l  paradigm  93 o r model f o r t h e p r e s e n t d e b a t e strand  of the avant-garde  ontology in  term  of cinema.  i s primarily  The  structuralist  concerned w i t h the f o r m a l  Yet the d e l i n e a t i o n  of p o l i t i c s  too e a s i l y  on n a r r a t i v e .  o f t h e two  i s d i s p u t e d by W o l l e n b e c a u s e  asserted  that  one  avant-garde  avant-gardes  " i t i s often  is 'political'  and  the  20 other  i s not."  implications questions is  why  The  filmmaker  of s t r u c t u r a l i s t  Peter Gidal film  because  the nature of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Gidal  said  that  t h r o u g h t h i s miasmic  structuralist  area of  defends this  the  film  form  i n the cinema.  films  "attempt  ' e x p e r i e n c e ' and  political radically  That  to get  proceed with  21  'film  as f i l m . ' "  On  supporters  o f Godard  themselves  from  because to  t h e o t h e r hand, W o l l e n and  Straub-Huillet  filmmakers  they understood  said  being p o l i t i c a l  deduces t h a t  carefully could Mick  thought  lead Eaton,  polarization "itself  was  of t h i s  stopped, i t  also  stated  of the m a t e r i a l / s i g n i f i c a t i o n l o n g e r be  theoretical  a s p e c t ; however, G i d a l  position.  that  Co-op and  the  opposition question  so c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . " 2 2 and  f i l m work c l e a r l y  i m a g i n a r y a s p e c t o f t h e image i n f a v o r  pointing  i s not  on SEFT/London F i l m m a k e r s  issue with narrative,  enough  diegesis.  argument  d o m i n a n t f o r m s , y e t h i s f i l m s were c r i t i c i z e d  by  not  back t o the o t h e r a v a n t - g a r d e  in his article  c a n no  Gidal's  i f the l o g i c  through, or a r b i t r a r i l y  directly  avant-garde  the  Pontecorvo  s u b v e r t o r d e c o n s t r u c t t h e b o u r g e o i s norms o f  Wollen  the  distinguished  s u c h as K a r m i t z and  that  that  responded  out t o these c r i t i c s  to t h i s that  questioned the f o r suppressing  of i t s o b j e c t i v e  critique  t h e y may  with  insight  not understand  the  94 the  subject's  position within  always o p e r a t i v e the  Gidal  the  a p o s i t i o n against  suppression  therefore  and  that  the  unconscious  t h r o u g h , f o r example, r e p r e s s i o n .  u n c o n s c i o u s as  to obviate  ideology  reasons  of the  To  knowledge i n the  imaginary  i s not  the  invoke attempt answer.  that:  . . . one i s i n i d e o l o g y and one does i d e o l o g i c a l combat. One c a n know o f b e i n g i n p r o c e s s , one can know o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s o p e r a t i v e i n image formation/transformation: one does n o t know, one " m i s s e s " o r " m i s r e c o g n i s e s " one's p o s i t i o n , one's r e l a t i o n , one's b i n d i n g s / f r a c t u r e s a g a i n s t t h a t ( " I t i s where I 'am' n o t " ) . A f i l m can i n c u l c a t e p o s i t i o n i n g which f o r c e attempts—moment t o moment a t t e m p t s — a t k n o w l e d g e , a t t e m p t s a t d e l i n e a t i n g p r e c i s e l y the p e r c e p t i o n of d i s t a n c e between p e r c e p t i o n and ( a b s e n t ) k n o w l e d g e . The a p p r e h e n s i o n -of t h e • f a i n c t l o n i n g o f t h a t d i s t a n c e i s a p o s i t i o n i n knowledge. Gidal's issues, is  but  work does engage w i t h perhaps the  a n t i - n a r r a t i v e or,  as  structural-materialist of v e r b a l say  that  better  Wollen pointed  film  this  history in his article  Ray's L ' E t o i l e de Michael  While of  forms.  predecessor's:  Snow's So  mer  by  i t i s not  the  Image by  exclusion  accurate  to  and  i s a h i s t o r y of  T e x t As  h i s work  that  S c o t t MacDonald  the  use  of  r e m i n d s us  of  mentioning  the  Duchamp's Anemic Cine'ma (1926) o r ( 1 9 2 8 ) , as w e l l  Is This  as  recent  films  such  (1982).  i t i s t r u e , however, t h a t  n a r r a t i v e , the  out,  from n o n - o b j e c t i v e  cinema b e c a u s e t h e r e  i n t h o s e cine"matic  historical  But  political  i s that  is characterized  language i s excluded  text  as  distinction  language-and n a r r a t i v e .  structuralist  Man  i d e o l o g i c a l and  • . • conventions of  these  films contain  . 2 4 "classical" narrative  elements  95 are  eschewed.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e movement o f a v a n t - g a r d e  concerned with ontology the  as f i l m " f i o e s  Wollen explained  Brecht,  tend  2  ( o r p e r h a p s as W o l l e n  cinema.  Vertov,  "film  to focus  suggested,  on a  film  formal  an a n t i - o n t o l o g y ) o f  how t h e m a t e r i a l i s t  a e s t h e t i c of  and G o d a r d was m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by G i d a l  thus:  H i s aim has been t o produce f i l m s which a r e m a t e r i a l i s t p r e c i s e l y because they "present" r a t h e r t h a n r e f l e x i v e l y " r e p r e s e n t " t h e i r own p r o c e s s o f substance. . . . G i d a l ' s sense of m a t e r i a l i s m d i f f e r s c r u c i a l l y f r o m any p o s t - B r e c h t i a n s e n s e o f m a t e r i a l i s m , w h i c h must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f what i s r e p r e s e n t e d , i t s e l f l o c a t e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d and i n h i s t o r y . ° 2  But  this  aesthetic  could  and o n t o l o g y .  photo r e a l i s t continuum events  data. a  Bazin's  ontology  the "long  2 7  take"  2 8  and  a role  in this  s t o r y c a n emerge f r o m t h e s e n s o r y during  the p r o - f i l m i c  a e s t h e t i c denies  representation  and e l i d e s  subjectivity.  Rudolf  the  artistic  permeated  the v i s u a l  represented  elements of  however,  sensory  Bazin's  with which G i d a l i s  remains a t t h e l e v e l  the role  i n human  continuum of i n f o r m a t i o n  event;  Arnheim notes  imperative  focus  a e s t h e t i c i n s o f a r as  the materialism  concerned, because t h e f i l m  Ontological  2 9  t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f human  attention to specific  Narrative plays  ontologic  on a  of p r o - f i l m i c  "deep f o c u s . "  through the capacity of s e l e c t i v e  which d i r e c t s  recorded  idealist  was b a s e d  t h r o u g h the rendering  i n t h i s view, reproduces  perception vision,  o f Andre B a z i n ' s  a e s t h e t i c , w h i c h p o s e d a m e n t a l and p e r c e p t u a l  of " r e a l i t y "  with  realism,  a l s o be s a i d  of mimetic  o f a r t and human i n The C o m p l e t e F i l m  t o be t r u e t o n a t u r e  a r t s i n t h e pre-modern  t h e p r i m i t i v e human d e s i r e  t h a t had period  "to get material  that  objects  into  realist  aesthetic  simply  Human  t o copy  analysis  debate  because  the p o l i t i c a l shift  America the from  J U  Bazin's  urge n o t  to interpret,  o f t h e development  t o mold."  o f t h e two a v a n t - g a r d e s  from  of the lack conflicts  o f two m a j o r  the romantic abstract  mentality"  North America,  structuralism  3 2  could  period  of  not solve  and, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  consider  o f r e s o u r c e s , and  o f Brakhage,  social  post-World-War-II  t h e problems relationships towards from  Stan  Brakhage  cameraman a s a n e u t r a l  i n urban  Europe t o between t h e  significant.  and t h e s u b j e c t i v e  i n Metaphors  resulting  f o r example, t o t h e f o r m a l  the d i f f e r e n c e betveen Bazin's  o f human p e r c e p t i o n  that  the question of  i n the comparison  i s therefore  view  that  f o r m a l i s m o f t h e 1960s i n d i c a t e d  constrained  o f Warhol  and B e y o n d ,  credence i n  Y e t he a r g u e s  i n the context of the s h i f t  romantic abstraction  Film  wars.  The d r a m a t i c c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e  human p e r c e p t i o n  First  i n Abstract  of space, s c a r c i t y  America.  different.  r o m a n t i c i s m h a s no i n t e l l e c t u a l  the i n c r e a s i n g l y  America.  i n North  c o n t e x t i s q u i t e , however,  to the s t r u c t u r a l  "frontier  i s connected t o the  on t h e u s e o f n a r r a t i v e  L e G r i c e comments, f o r example,  an a p o l i t i c a l  Europe  the  but t o o r i g i n a t e ,  North American  Malcolm that  a l s o precluded "the a r t i s t i c  the modernist autonomy/efficacy issue  contemporary The  them a f r e s h . "  Perception  Wollen's and  o n e ' s power by c r e a t i n g  of V i s i o n .  objective  one p r o p o s e d by  Bazin conceives of the  o b s e r v e r who m e r e l y  records p r o - f i l m i c  97 events  to  t e c h n i c a l l y r e p l i c a t e the  human p e r c e p t i o n Nanook o f  the  (Flaherty's  North vas  long  a case  p h y s i o l o g i c a l experience  t a k e of  in point).  o t h e r h a n d , i s known f o r h i s v i s i o n a r y perception. heroic  Now  In h i s  "mythopoetic"  3 3  the  question  of  aspect  the  of  cinema t h r o u g h  documentary  that  the  e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h human  a r t , the  development of a greater  a basic  in  B r a k h a g e , on  cameraman i s a  objectivity i s also  B r a k h a g e ' s work p r o d u c e d  'first  s e a l hunt  protagonist.  theoretical-practical  the  the  of  person'  and of  literary  cinema,"  "neutrality,"  i s cognizant  comments on  the  act  of  3 5  3 4  with  the  the  a central issue  documentary  awareness of  of  framing.  genre.  the  Le  q u a l i t y of  Vertov's  i n which the  camera  subjective  Grice  objective/subjective  first  compares  "essential still  Brakhage's f i r s t - p e r s o n  camera's s u b j e c t i v e  in  role.  person  maintains perspective  Le  Grice  in this  way: B r a k h a g e a p p e a r s t o c r e a t e a p o l a r i t y between o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e c i n e m a , b u t what he a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e s i s an a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h e r e can be no a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c a m e r a ' s s u b j e c t i v e r o l e . In c o m m e r c i a l c i n e m a t h e f a l s e n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e c a m e r a i s a m a j o r c a u s e o f i t s a e s t h e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e t a r d a t i o n , i t s a t t i t u d e being p a r a l l e l to the v i e w p o i n t of the n o v e l i s t i n the Victorian novel. 3 6  P e r s o n a l v i s i o n and are is  the  subjective  r o l e of  the  c e n t r a l t o Brakhage's a e s t h e t i c view because the  must  highest  allow  value  v i s i o n s to  of  film,  occur  then the  rather  than  camera  " i f vision  camera  (and  its  force  them  (by  man) script)  37 upon s u b j e c t s . "  Brakhage t h e r e f o r e  proposed  a cinema  of  the  98 f r e e d o m and objective  imagination.  Human p e r c e p t i o n  g i v e n b u t an a d v e n t u r e i n t o  experience  a new  external,  r e a l m of p e r c e p t u a l  f o r t h e f i l m m a k e r and s p e c t a t o r  preamble t o Metaphores of V i s i o n , perspective  i s n o t an  alike.  Brakhage  In h i s  framed h i s a e s t h e t i c  thus:  I m a g i n e an eye u n r u l e d by man-made l a w s o f p e r s p e c t i v e , an e y e u n p r e j u d i c e d by c o m p o s i t i o n a l l o g i c , an eye w h i c h d o e s n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e name o f e v e r y t h i n g b u t w h i c h must know e a c h o b j e c t e n c o u n t e r e d i n l i f e t h r o u g h an a d v e n t u r e o f perception. 3 8  Yet  B r a k h a g e ' s work a l s o p r e s e n t s p r o b l e m s f o r some  critics They  who  think  limits  the  are too personal  t h a t h i s f o c u s on t h e p e r c e p t u a l  whereas i n a more o b j e c t i v e  emerge.  individual  historical great  that h i s films  and  act of  narcissistic,  seeing  t h e s c o p e o f t h e work i n t e r m s o f t h e b r o a d e r h i s t o r i c a l  context, would  feel  But t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s aesthetic  perspective.  form, the h i s t o r i c a l ignore  act actually Similarly,  t h e manner i n w h i c h  reflects  they  the broader  do n o t a c k n o w l e d g e  c o n t r i b u t i o n he h a s made t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  perception replies  through the experimental  to those c r i t i c i s m s  individual  expression  and  film  by a s s e r t i n g  i t s relation  to  ground  form.  o f human  Brakhage  the value of mankind.  Brakhage argues: I w o u l d s a y I grew v e r y q u i c k l y as a f i l m a r t i s t once I g o t r i d o f drama as a p r i m e s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n . I began t o f e e l t h a t a l l h i s t o r y , a l l l i f e , a l l t h a t I w o u l d h a v e as m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h t o work, w o u l d h a v e t o come f r o m t h e i n s i d e o f me o u t r a t h e r t h a n as some f o r m imposed f r o m t h e o u t s i d e i n . I had t h e c o n c e p t of e v e r y t h i n g r a d i a t i n g o u t o f me, and t h a t t h e more p e r s o n a l o r e g o c e n t r i c I would become, t h e d e e p e r I w o u l d r e a c h and t h e more I c o u l d t o u c h t h o s e u n i v e r s a l c o n c e r n s w h i c h would i n v o l v e a l l men.39  the  99 The with  concept that  the universal  argument Deren to  an i n d i v i d u a l  when s h e i n s i s t s  desire  phrased  on  this  t o me,  in political  capacity i s true  practices  reality  this  heterogeneous Warhol's  Deren  films  to t h i s — t h a t ,  of avant-garde  film  nature of a e s t h e t i c  t o say t h a t  delineation  there  does  developments  a r e two a v a n t - g a r d e s , y e t i n  not begin t o account f o r the  in this history;  a radical  f o r example,  "other" frame of reference to 4 1  t h a n do t h e m y t h o - p o e t i c  influences  are linked  practices  to the c l a s s i c a l  movement o f dada  H i s a u t o m a t i c machine a e s t h e t i c c o n s t r u c t s  did.  "to i n s i s t  Furthermore, f o r the purposes of c l a r i t y ,  a v a n t - g a r d e and t h e a n t i - a r t  roll  constraints,  and B r a k h a g e .  Warhol's  record  form o f  4 0  t h e r e a l m o f human p e r c e p t i o n of  or instrumental  i s the heterogeneous  f i l m s pose  Deren's  space f o r a p o e t i c  a study of the h i s t o r y  and a p p r o a c h e s .  by Maya  idiom.  t e r m s when s h e s a y s  democracy."  i nthe  i s t h i s human n e e d - d e s i r e  i n a l l men, t o a d d r e s s my  therefoe  i s possible  I t i s echoed  f o r a poetic  regardless of p r o f i t  What emerges from  it  there  t o m a i n t a i n and d e f e n d t h a t  is  ideas  that  forms.  a space i n our l i v e s  expression,  experience connects  human e x p e r i e n c e i s a k e y e l e m e n t  f o r autonomous f i l m  claim  subject  pro-filmic  duration  events with a f i x e d  in a "neutral"  This notion  4 2  and s u r r e a l i s m .  the parameters t o  camera frame  f a s h i o n much l i k e  of n e u t r a l i t y  leaves  aside  and camera  the Lumieres  f o r t h e moment  100  the in  subjective fact the f i r s t  duration;  of s e l e c t i n g a point  place.  Some o f W a r h o l ' s f i l m s work w i t h  f o r example, t h e s i x - h o u r  hour Empire Hour M o v i e  instance, extended twitch  (1966-7).  While  avant-gardist i n his films,  period  momentous o c c a s i o n .  boredom as  Peter  principle  h o u r The T w e n t y - F o u r  t h e s e f i l m s may b o r e some important  critique  contributions to the  o f human p e r c e p t i o n .  the spectators'  perception  i n Sleep) i s transformed  His films illustrate  For  o v e r an (e.g., the  into a  the minimalist  o f " l e s s i s m o r e . " ^ So t h e a s p e c t  is explicitly Gidal  extended  (1963), the e i g h t -  i s changed because t h e minute event  o f a man's body  aesthetic  Sleep  (1964), o r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e  audiences, they a r e enormously historical  o f v i e w and s u b j e c t  of  4  foregrounded  i n Warhol  f i l m s because,  explains:  W a r h o l ' s e a r l y f i l m work c a n be d e f i n e d a s b o r i n g o r e x c i t i n g , d e p e n d i n g on one's a t t i t u d e , and t h e n , i n t u r n , t h e "boredom" c a n be d e f i n e d a s p o s i t i v e o r negative. R a t h e r t h a n o v e r e m p h a s i z e human f e e l i n g , r e a s o n , meaning e t c . W a r h o l t a k e s one t o t h e beginnings of confrontation-with the "other". The e a s y v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n melodrama i s s i m p l i s t i c and l e a v e s no t i m e f o r t h o u g h t , commitment, o r r e v e l a t i o n . It i s , in practical, human t e r m s , w o r t h l e s s . C r y i n g a t the sad p a r t s of m o v i e s a l l o w s one t o v i c a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e s o l i d l y i d e n t i f i a b l e "good" a g a i n s t t h e o b v i o u s (usually black-shirted) " e v i l " . This manipulation i s b o t h e a s y and p l e a s i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l self-esteem. W a r h o l f i l m s a r e l o o s e l y b a s e d on n a r r a t i v e i n some instances; version But  f o r example, V i n y l  o f Anthony B u r g e s s ' s n o v e l  t o say that  faithful  (1965) was t h e f i r s t  the f i l m  used  Orange.  r e s e m b l e s o r even s u g g e s t s a  r e n d i t i o n of the novel  s t o r y was s i m p l y  A Clockwork  film  as g u i d e  would be m i s l e a d i n g . f o r performer  action.  The The  4 4  101 camera was subjected  s e t up,  turned  on,  t o a camera t e s t .  performers;  he  simply  i t i s enigmatic  corporate as  an  his silk-screen  the  institutionalized  s u b j e c t matter and  at the  the  position crisis  of the  then  process.  the  being mechanical  the  image of  includes content—the  reproduction  Warhol's a r t t h e r e f o r e addresses i n the context  uses  the process  a  o f mass media  and  Barthes,  study  proposed  i n Canada and  by  the  the  and  the  of the  the French  Julia  contributed  much f i l m narrative.  theory  an  and  and  analysis  of  cinema.  Freud,  Roland  C h r i s t i a n M e t z , a l l have  o f t h e f o r m a l , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c , and  of cin§matic n a r r a t i o n .  and  In t h e  on  structuralist/semioticians  study  implications  new-narrative  s u b j e c t i n l a n g u a g e and  Kristeva,  to the  t h e U.S.A.  of s e m i o t i c s , p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ,  These d i s c o u r s e s have f o c u s e d  positioning  social  replicating  meaning o f a r t i n i t s f o r m a l  artist  He  Soup p a i n t i n g s ,  formally serializes By  position  images.  " F a c t o r y , " 45yj rhol i m p l i c i t l y  r e t u r n to n a r r a t i v e  feminism.  Lacan,  activity.  of modernism.  emerges f r o m  the  the  autonomous a v a n t - g a r d e  New-Narrative Avant-Garde: Feminism  The  pro-filmic  i n the Campbell's  of the p a i n t i n g  a r t market.  were  direct  i n i t s p l a y w i t h mass m e d i a  icons, especially  commodification  their  i n an  o s t e n s i b l e s u b j e c t and  through  then performers  Warhol d i d not  observed  W a r h o l ' s work i s r o o t e d and  and  practice  took  a critical  1980s, some e x p e r i m e n t a l  During  the  attitude filmmakers  1970s, towards  102  are of  incorporating their  for  work.  Filmmakers  and a g a i n s t  positions position  narrative  range  this  dominant  to narrative.  from t h e extreme  forms.  example, a r e B r i t i s h  Their  i n their  The v a r i o u s  materialist  avant-garde  arguments  cinema,  avant-garde  which has  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and  film  aesthetic  are divided  return  to a populist  reconsidered  i n the conceptual structure  L a u r a Mulvey exponents  and P e t e r W o l l e n , f o r  o f n e w - n a r r a t i v e , and t h e i r  i d e a s h a v e h a d an i m p a c t  i n Canada and t h e U.S.A.  a e s t h e t i c has developed out o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y  avant-garde feminist  issues  analysis  cinema-history,  regarding  the c r i s i s  of the p o s i t i o n  o f modernism, a  o f the female  and t h e m a r g i n a l i z e d  outlined  state  subject i n  of the  avant-garde.  From a f e m i n i s t narrative that  critique  of the representation  and i n a v a n t - g a r d e  cinema,  women a r e i n "a z e r o p o s i t i o n ,  relation  t o both language  feminist,  How does  perpetuating  socialized  return  a female  The c r u x o f t h e  4 6  subjectivity  to narrative  of binary have into  addressed. a cultural  excluded i t , without  and e s s e n t i a l i z e d  subject  concluded  o f non-meaning i n  and De L a u r e t i s  has h i s t o r i c a l l y  masculine/feminine  analysis  a space  and c i n e m a . "  b o t h Mulvey  one i n t e r j e c t  d i s c o u r s e which  The  T e r e s a De L a u r e t i s  new-narrative concern i s the issue  o p p o s i t i o n , which  o f women i n  notions of  identities?  arises  of the representation  also  from  the feminist  o f women i n a v a n t - g a r d e  103  cinema.  N e w - n a r r a t i v e appears t o have t h r e a t e n e d  avant-garde  filmmakers,  p a p e r on n a r r a t i v e it  i s associated  that  avant-garde.  that  with  men o c c u p i e d  and P a t r i c i a  t h i s may, i n p a r t ,  within  This  i s associated feminists  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  w i t h t h e cheap  pleasures  are i r o n i c a l l y  thought  p a t r i a r c h a l stereotype  of the  f e m a l e who i n g r a t i a t e s h e r s e l f t o g e t what s h e w a n t s .  superficial  reworking and  be p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e  r o m a n t i c i s m , m o d e r n i s m , and t h e  o f mass c u l t u r e ; t h e r e f o r e ,  devious  out i n her  f e m i n i s m and moves women i n t o t h e r o l e s  Narrative  t o be g u i l t y  Gruben p o i n t s  some m a l e  reading  ignores  the fact  that  feminists are  t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s o f woman as m a n a g e a b l e Muse  object  of desire.  Gruben e x p l a i n s  that  women a r e :  . . . t a k i n g c o n t r o l o f some o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e s that a s s o c i a t e us w i t h t h e n o n - v e r b a l , t h e A b s o l u t e , t h e m y s t i q u e o f f e m i n i n i t y — n o w t h a t we a r e r e - c l a i m i n g and r a d i c a l i z i n g t h a t typage, t a k i n g back t h e p o s i t i o n o f Other from romantic f i l m m a k e r s l i k e [ B r u c e ] E l d e r , we a r e a t h r e a t t o t h e model o f " s u f f e r i n g l o n e r " t h a t he w o u l d p r e f e r t o o c c u p y alone. 4 7  Feminists  a l s o examine t h e r o l e and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  in  avant-garde cinema;  is  analyzed  from t h i s  f o r example, t h e work o f M i c h a e l point  (1967) h a s been i n f l u e n c e d aesthetic  from Warhol's cosmology.  of view.  Michael  Zen m y s t i c a l In f a c t ,  q u a l i t y that  one c o u l d  framework a s more s u b j e c t i v e  summation o f my n e r v o u s  asthetic  ideas."  4 8  Snow's W a v e l e n g t h  a e s t h e t i c approaches d i f f e r .  Snow's  i s absent  characterize  Snow's  and s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l  t h a n W a r h o l ' s f i l m s b e c a u s e he d e s c r i b e s "a  Snow  by W a r h o l ' s s t r u c t u r a l m i n i m a l i s t  even though t h e i r  work embodies a r e l i g i o u s ,  aesthetic  o f women  W a v e l e n g t h as  s y s t e m , r e l i g i o u s i n k l i n g s and  Snow's f i l m  h a s been d e s c r i b e d  by Manny  Farber  104 as t h e B i r t h essential  of A N a t i o n i n avant-garde f i l m  quality  of the f i l m ' s  zoom o f a r o o m " ^ i s combines  pure f i l m  illusion  and  s p a c e and  "fact."  5 0  We  film  form  minute  in relation  Teresa in  Snow's f i l m ,  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  a death)  has  narrative  interrupting  commented on t h e a s p e c t o f  P r e s e n t s (1981).  De L a u r e t i s  differently  fragmented  modalities  than i n  which  film.  centrally  She  features,  to  t h e f e m a l e body,  a variety  painting, cinema,  video,  and  with the s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l t h e m a l e s u b j e c t who Lauretis  poses  subject/viewer? by  saying:  She  modes o f v i s u a l  classical  (studio 5 2  How  "scopic  does  answers  film.  for representation drive  and  produces the f i l m .  is:  film  reclining  as a s u b j e c t / s i g n ,  "structural"  ground  a  the  5 1  t h e n a n a l y z e s t h e manner i n  selected  avant-garde or  body as t h e o b j e c t  De  and  of o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l  photography,  and  among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  i n the  "classical'  phenomenologically describes  f e m a l e nude as t h e s u b j e c t which  narrative  narrative  q u e s t i o n s whether  subject/viewer i s positioned of t h i s  this  films.  the female  narrative  the  on t h e n a t u r e o f  to conventional narrative  De L a u r e t i s  minute  because i t  s e e t h e components o f a  zoom and v e r e f l e c t  The  forty-five  achievement  time v i t h  ( f o u r human e v e n t s , i n c l u d i n g forty-five  "pure, tough  a great h i s t o r i c a l  4  history.  the f i l m  the question  But  i s linked  representation— and  staged)  Here  t h e woman's  i s inscribed  sexualization" the question  address the i n terms  of  5 3  of  that  female vision  105  . . . t h e n e x u s o f t h e l o o k and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s p r o d u c e d and b r o k e n i n r e l a t i o n t o " c i n e m a " ( " I t ' s a l l p r e t t y s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l — r e f e r e n t i a l both t o i t s e l f and f i l m i n g e n e r a l , " s a y s Snow), h e n c e t o i t s s p e c t a t o r a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u e d , as s e x u a l l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ; and women s p e c t a t o r s a r e p l a c e d , a s t h e y a r e by c l a s s i c a l c i n e m a , i n a z e r o p o s i t i o n , a space o f non-meaning. Because the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l paradigm which guarantees the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t , man-woman d i c h o t o m y i s s t i l l o p e r a t i v e here, as i t i s i n c l a s s i c a l cinema, P r e s e n t s a d d r e s s e s i t s d i s r u p t i o n o f l o o k and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o a masculine s p e c t a t o r - s u b j e c t . 5 4  H e r e De L a u r e t i s r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t o f hegemony and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n subject binary tried in  identity.  The q u e s t i o n  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l model  problem  o f a m a l e and f e m a l e  o f how t o work a r o u n d  i s the problem Laura  t o answer i n h e r p a p e r , V i s u a l P l e a s u r e  which  she a n a l y z e s  cinema v i s - a - v i s character  i n the c r i t i c i s m  this  Mulvey  and N a r r a t i v e  Cinema,  t h e movement o f n a r r a t i v e i n c l a s s i c a l  subject  identification  (both  primary—  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n — a n d secondary—camera  identification).  De L a u r e t i s h a s f o r m u l a t e d  problem  and p r o d u c t i o n  of theory  the feminist  i n t h i s way:  To n e g o t i a t e t h a t c o n t r a d i c t i o n , t o k e e p i t g o i n g , i s to r e s i s t the pressure of the binary epistemological model t o w a r d s c o h e r e n c e , u n i t y , and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a f i x e d s e l f / i m a g e , a s u b j e c t - v i s i o n , and t o i n s i s t i n s t e a d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o i n t s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , an e l s e w h e r e o f v i s i o n . 5 5  Feminist question should  of narrative.  Some f e e l  justified  d e v e l o p new f o r m s t o i n t e r j e c t  subjectivity Luce  a v a n t - g a r d e f i l m m a k e r s a r e d i v i d e d a l s o on t h e  into cultural  I r i g a r a y and M i c h e l e  regarding  discourse; Montrelay  t h e use of language.  i n saying  and c o n v e y t h e i r  t h a t women female  f o r example, F r e n c h  take  this position  The f e m i n i s t  experimental  feminists  106  filmmakers Nina Fonoroff position  i n r e l a t i o n to  Narrative  i s Narrative;  portion  of  feminist  deconstruction the  construction  (e.g.,  the  temporal of  of  the  of  narrative  little  the  i t can  concerns rather cinematic has  are  of  Cartwright  the  analysis  feminist  of  viewership narrative  However, t h e y a r e been p a i d  to  films that  economic motive behind cause filmmakers  critical  the  break  The  grant  support.  the  with  issue  of  funding  of  to  narrative  market  new  forms  of  economic s u r v i v a l scarcities in  However i f n a r r a t i v e  employ  the  the  films  p o t e n t i a l i n mind, the  l a r g e budgets of mainstream cinema. argue  critical  return  development  f i l m s must n e c e s s a r i l y  therefore  are  to c a p i t u l a t e to  than f o s t e r the  representation.  accessible" and  and  essay,  large  towards  avant-garde filmmakers  produced with marketing  tools  a  characterization,  a t t e n t i o n has  become paramount b e c a u s e o f  system  in their  They say  identification  this  altogether.  inherent  because  take  processes through the  closure).  experimental  also  form  been d i r e c t e d  point-of-view, and  film  What I s New?  subject  Furthermore, these of  So  s t u d y has  continuity,  development of  L i s a Cartwright  experimental  narrative  study of  f a c t that  and  "formally  sophisticated Fonoroff  that:  . . . " b e t t e r " p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e s , and more t o p i c a l themes a l l s i g n a l t h e move t o w a r d m a k i n g f i l m s t h a t are c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e p r o d u c t s — l i f t e d from o b s c u r i t y t o g r e a t e r " p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e , " from s m a l l f i l m - s c r e e n i n g spaces to art-movie houses, a step away f r o m c o m m e r c i a l h o u s e s — a n d , by d e s i g n o r d e f a u l t , a s h i f t from a concern f o r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f new u s e s o f f i l m t o a c o n c e r n f o r m a r k e t a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . 5 6  and  107 The  economic  i s s u e may  different  critical  modernism  and  the  be  viewed  perspectives,  however.  marginalization  of the  have e s t a b l i s h e d , h i s t o r i c a l l y aesthetic  has  artists.  Tougas's i n s i g h t that schizophrenia  of  Nevertheless, "the the  the  of  First,  the  crisis  avant-garde,  and  independent  film  a number  produced  economy i n w h i c h i n n o v a t i o n  work a g a i n s t  the  from  as  of  we  a particular  inaccessibility value  in  Kirk  f i l m m a k e r must  medium w i t h  embody  i t s frequently  57 antagonistic valued.  p o l a r i t y b e t w e e n a r t and  When t h e  money i s t o be  choice  money"  between a r t i s t i c  made, one  must a g r e e w i t h  should  integrity Kirk's  also  be  and  insistence  that:  The i n t e g r i t y o f p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and c o n v i c t i o n , whether i n e x p e r i m e n t a l , animated or documentary f o r m s , t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e o v e r , and t h e r e b y c o n f r o n t s , t h e f i l m - a s - p r o f i t a b l e - r e t u r n - o n - c a p i t a l and f i l m - a s - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d - c r e a t i p n t h a t are the dominant models i n t h i s c o u n t r y . The that  "integrity  i s seen  production critique  of  of  i n the  personal  appropriation  classical  Buchloh's paper F i g u r e s is  critical  painting.  of  the  Here he  b e t w e e n c i n e m a and return  about  post-modernist  of  and  experimental-artisanal  i s worth t h i n k i n g the  expression  in light  return  of  f o r example,  of A u t h o r i t y , to the  Ciphers  figure in  also establishes  an  the stylistic Benjamin of  aesthetic  Cocteau's a h i s t o r i c a l  Regression  post-modernist  painting with h i s c r i t i c i s m  to n a r r a t i v e .  5 9  mode o f  e c l e c t i c i s m and  forms;  conviction"  of  6 0  connection Cocteau's  thought  and  108 anti-modernist  stance  popularization  of post-modernism.  recycled  conventions  i s c o n s i s t e n t with the a r t world's He s t a t e s  that  t h e use of  represents:  The s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e ' s a u d a c i t y h a v i n g become c o n v e n t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , u s e d p r i m a r i l y by t h o s e who want t o d i s g u i s e t h e i r new c o n s e r v a t i s m as i t s own k i n d o f a u d a c i t y ( C o c t e a u a t t h e t i m e o f "Rappel a l ' O r d r e " had j u s t t u r n e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m ) . They deny t h e f a c t t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f i s a manoeuver t o s i l e n c e any f o r m o f c r i t i c a l n e g a t i o n , and t h e y w i s h t o s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e b e s t o w s on t h o s e who s u p p o r t f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s i t i s embodied i n c u l t u r a l conventions. Buchloh might  i s even more p e s s i m i s t i c  be a new  form  about  of a f f i r m a t i v e  the nature  culture  o f what  i n the following  passage: The q u e s t i o n f o r us now i s t o what e x t e n t t h e r e d i s c o v e r y and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e s e modes o f f i g u r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . . . r e f l e c t and d i s m a n t l e the i d e o l o g i c a l impact of growing a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , o r t o what e x t e n t t h e y s i m p l y i n d u l g e and r e a p t h e b e n e f i t s of t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e , o r , w o r s t y e t , t o what e x t e n t t h e y c y n i c a l l y generate a c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m t o f a m i l i a r i z e us w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s t o c o m e . 6 2  Yet  the r e t u r n to the f i g u r e  potentially reasons,  c a n be u s e d  just  appallingly the Future  f o r progressive or r e a c t i o n a r y  as f i l m s w h i c h employ r a d i c a l  sexist of Film  new-narrative  as w e l l . Theory  f i l m s where shown w h i c h ,  and p r o g r e s s i v e .  The  Diggers  (1983),  f o r m s c a n be  At the New-Narrative  conference,  critical Gold  and t o n a r r a t i v e  Cinema and  a s e r i e s of i n v a r i o u s ways, were  Some o f t h e s e were S a l l y  L a u r a M u l v e y ' s and P e t e r  Potter's  Wollen's  109 Riddles  of  the  (1982), Pat  Sphinx  Murphy's and  Gordon's V a r i e t y Character  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , AMY  ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and  J o h n D a v i e s ' s Maeve  (1983) , and  Patricia  n a r r a t i v e w h i c h do  Gruben's  not  a range of  experimental Some d i f f e r  complacently  techniques i n the  and  i t s aural  culturally  through  an  stresses  representation  over-coded  feature  The  in a self-reflexive  Character  the  rather  voices  and  grain  The  characters  explicitly  confront  of pornography  reveal  complex ways i n w h i c h media  organizes  an  Finally, autonomy and are  still  of  new  i n d i v i d u a l ' s unconscious  i t i s important e f f i c a c y , the  pertinent  narrative  issues  to the  controversy.  In  techniques.  see  Language and  the the  films  rendered  Some f i l m s to  subtly and  mind.  that  the  of h i s t o r i c a l  issues  of  debate,  contemporary n a r r a t i v e / a n t i some o f  American cinema, the  R o s e , f o r example, we  of  structures  to recognize  product  form.  than e x p l o i t s  narration.  the  employ  represented;  extended v o i c e - o v e r  the  films  narrative  i m a g e / s i g n o f woman.  multiple  to  r e p l i c a t e the  manner i n w h i c h women a r e  example, C e n t r a l  often  Betty  Central  approaches  c o n v e n t i o n s of dominant n a r r a t i v e forms.  voice  (1982),  (1977).  These f i l m s exemplify  for  C r y s t a l Gazing  the  recent  achievements  f i l m s o f James B e n n i n g o r  works t h a t titled  i n c r e a s i n g l y use  texts  augment  Peter integrated  rigorous  110 visual  explorations.  humorous manner, as also playfully  The  text  i n Snow's f i l m  uses s u b t i t l e s  which appears to represent foreign-sounding because  babble.  i t d e f i e s our  production authority  the  This  Rose, l i k e  i n l a n g u a g e and  the  of  ecstatic  The  Man  panel  the  act  filmmakers  taking  Rimmer, P a t r i c i a  narrative which  of  the  part  term  film  See  and  the  questions  the  Far  a  contradict  Enough  (1981),  through  protagonist  the  engaged  Avant-Garde F i l m P r a c t i c e s : the  modernist  historical  Canadian filmmakers  i n the  today.  discussion, Michael  a v a r i e t y of are  The  Snow, Dave  theory  a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n s on  connected and  to the  issues  questioned  the  " a v a n t - g a r d e " 6 3 b u t d i d a s s e r t an p o s i t i o n which d i f f e r e d  conventions.  of  Al the  modernism  p r a c t i c e today.  Snow's p r e s e n t a t i o n  individualist  ironic  G r u b e n , J o y c e W i e l a n d , R o s s M c L a r e n , and  debate t h a t  inform  cinematic  therefore  a  seeing.  work o f  represented  Michael of  is  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  cameraman as h e r o i c  discussion titled  informs the  Razutis,  is really  Rose's f i l m s c o n t a i n  C o u l d Not  S i x V i e w s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s how context  language  w h i c h comment on  Who  Rose  narration,  B r a k h a g e , f o r e g r o u n d s human p e r c e p t i o n  representation in  of  narrator's voice.  In The  Peter  language but  use  in a  Is T h i s .  for a voice-over  another  number o f n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s each other.  So  conventionalized  o f meaning of  i s sometimes u s e d  Snow commented  from  application  autonomous  mainstream  that:  Ill  I d o n ' t c l a i m t o be a v a n t - g a r d e b u t t o make t h e f i l m s o f M i c h a e l Snow, o f h a v i n g made f i l m s w h i c h c a n be s a i d w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o be d i f f e r e n t enough f r o m t h e mass o f m e c h a n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e by now w e l l l e a r n a b l e r e p e r t o i r e of cinematic c o n v e n t i o n s . 6 4  So  Is T h i s  image was  (1985) was  Experimental on  the  The  importance  Rimmer's p o s i t i o n  the problem  stress  of h i s text  structure  Repression  on  Sex  as  and  i s one the  text  a visual  instead  aid, like  attributes  power o f t h e  this  of the a slide  tendency  image" o r , as he  of the E r o t i c  f o r the L i t e r a l l y  of p i c t o r i a l  with experimental  w i t h t h e word  and  paper  Cinema, o r S a f e  the n a r r a t i v e  to  the use  application.  Dave Rimmer's  film.  and  d i s c u s s e d i n terms of f i l m i c  post-modern  focused  screened  codes  image.  cinema today image.  The  show t h a t to people's  Minded  i n experimental  o f autonomy, and over  in  he  questions  rimmer s a i d  i s that  image has  i t starts been  illustrates fear  that  a  of the  reduced  lecture "naked  put i t :  . . . a f e a r o f t h e e r o t i c power o f t h e v i s u a l image, an i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h t h i s image on a d i r e c t l e v e l , a need t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e image, p e r h a p s , t o t r a n s l a t e t h e image t o a n o t h e r medium, t h e c o n v e n i e n t one o f c o u r s e b e i n g w o r d s ; t o a n a l y z e , t o i n t e r r o g a t e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e , t o d e m y s t i f y , and u l t i m a t e l y t o s a n i t i z e t h e image; an a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e t h e e r o t i c power o f t h e image t o a more m a n a g e a b l e f o r m . Rimmer p r i v i l e g e s b e c a u s e he being erotic  t h e c i n e m a t i c image i n e x p e r i m e n t a l  enjoys v i s u a l  said.  B e c a u s e he  quality  of the  p l e a s u r e more t h a n i s primarily  image, he  c o n t e n t , o r what's  concerned  with the  sensuous  l o o k s f o r the development  intuitional-autonomous  films  according  or r a t i o n a l  to narrative  film  r a t h e r than  ones t h a t  models.  are  of  produced  His presentation  112  harkened  back t o the  a  o b j e c t of  sacred  with  a screening  "I'm  not  going  funding. funding  o f As  and  about  tend  In o t h e r  T.V., i t . "  6  after  particularly  words he  the  ended h i s  talk  said,  "you  performance-  scarcity  critical  a binary  said  as  6  discussed  t o work on  of a r t  w h i c h he  Ross McLaren gave a j o i n t  M c L a r e n was  figures.  Seen On  i n which they  bodies  "auratic" ideal  i n e x h a u s t i b l e meaning v h e n he  to talk  Joyce Wieland presentation  aestheticist,  of the  system of  are  o f Canada fact  Council  that  authority  e i t h e r a one  or  a  67 zero"  and  this  Patricia paper  creates  a type  Gruben p r o d u c e d  s e r i o u s l y engaging  opinions  expressed  G r u b e n makes t h e  of c u l t u r a l n e c r o p h i l i a .  a thoughtful  in a discourse  p a p e r on with  i n Bruce E l d e r ' s a r t i c l e  point  that  i n d e f i n i n g the  narrative,  the  the a n t i - n a r r a t i v e The  Cinema We  Canadian  Need.  avant-garde:  . . . t o o o f t e n we're b e i n g t o l d what i t i s n o t o r what i t s h o u l d be r a t h e r t h a n what i t m i g h t be, o r b e s t o f a l l , what i t i s . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e way t h e a v a n t - g a r d e i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g d e f i n e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y i s an e x c l u s i o n a r y , e l i t i s t , and f u n d a m e n t a l l y b o u r g e o i s a t t i t u d e t o e f f e c t e v e r y o n e b u t o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l f o l l o w e r s o r r o l e m o d e l s f r o m t i n i e r and t i n i e r camps. Finally, which it  A l Razutis  featured  passed  a film  presented  t h a t was  through a bleach  a  performance/screening  projected  bath.  H e r e he  and  then destroyed  made t h e  point  as  that:  The a v a n t - g a r d e i s n o t r e p e a t a b l e . I t d o e s n o t t r a d e on t h e a r t commodity m a r k e t , p l u g g i n g o n e ' s c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e , h o a r d i n g t h e p a s t and f a k i n g t h e p r e s e n t . . . .69  R a z u t i s ' s p e r f o r m a n c e was titled  On  Society,  the or  a film  of  P r o b l e m o f t h e Autonomy o f A r t  in  Splice  distribution  followed  (1986), which  t o be  marketed  and  by  i n t u r n was  the  Bourgeois  then  placed  at the panel  A v a n t - G a r d e F i l m P r a c t i c e s : S i x V i e w s , r e v e a l how the  avant-garde s t i l l  Filmmakers n e g o t i a t e autonomy and  and  efficacy.  critical  insight  They a r e p r o d u c t s experiences  a tight  but  they  gain  social/self  this  i s an  age  social  do  They s e e k t h e  made.  But  so  understood  heterogeneity constant cares  of  s u r p r i s e and  to pursue t h i s  pleasure  searching,  should  p o s s i b l e to v a l o r i z e  narrative search  approach.  f o r self-knowledge  and  and  social with  confronted  The  Anyone  who  of knowing, or of r a t h e r  the  encouraged.  artist  or  practice is a  fascination.  be  yet  i s fraught  negotiated.  a n a r r a t i v e as  Instead,  impossible,  a t t i t u d e s h a v e t o be and  to  reactionary, sexist,  of avant-garde thought  source  k n o w i n g and not  be  these  be  survival.  others,  for truth  Subjectivity  a t t i t u d e s may  integrity  institutional  t r y , some more t h a n  search  money,  artistic  their  and  not  It i s therefore  opposed t o a must c o n t i n u e  in a self-reflexive  of  p r a c t i c e today.  s t r u g g l i n g f o r economic  must be  can  the h i s t o r y  while  anti-intellectual. that they  film  descussion,  p a s s a g e b e t w e e n a r t and  knowledge.  and  inform  They t r y t o m a i n t a i n  i n which the  transformation contradiction  of  in  consumed.  T h u s , i n summary, t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  m o d e r n i s m and  event,  form.  nonto  114  NOTES TO CHAPTER IV  ^ • S y l v i a H a r v e y , May '68 and F i l m C u l t u r e (London: B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 5. 2  Ibid.,  3  Ibid.  4  Ibid.,  5  Ibid.  6  Ibid.  p.  14.  p.  16.  P a t r i c k S e a l e and Maureen M a c C o n v i l l , F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n 1968 ( L o n d o n : Heinemann and P e n g u i n , 1968), p . 136-7. 7  8  H a r v e y , May  john Willet, 1964) , pp. 34-5. 9  '68  and F i l m  Culture,  trans., Brecht  p.  96.  on T h e a t r e ( L o n d o n : Methuen,  D z i g a V e r t o v , K i n o - E y e : The W r i t i n g s o f D z i g a V e r t o v , ed. A n n e t t e M i c h e l s o n , t r a n s . K e v i n O ' B r i e n ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1984), p . 66. 1 0  ^Dziga-Vertov Afterimage 1 (April  Group, 1970):  "What i s t o be 14.  Done?"  C o l i n MacCabe, G o d a r d : Images, Sounds, P o l i t i c s ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 51. 1 2  W a l t e r B e n j a m i n , "The A u t h o r as P r o d u c e r , " L e f t Review 62 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1971): 256. 1 3  New  l^MacCabe,  Godard:  Images, Sounds,  T . W. A d o r n o , "Commitment," New (September/December 1 9 7 4 ) : 302. 1 5  1 6  Ibid.  1 7  Ibid.  1 8  Ibid.  1 9  MacCabe, Godard:  Images, Sounds,  Politics, Left  p.  56.  p.  21.  Review  Politics,  115 P e t e r W o l l e n , "The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s , " S t u d i o I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 190, no. 978 (November/December 1 9 7 5 ) : 101. 2 0  P e t e r G i d a l , "The A n t i - N a r r a t i v e 20, no. 2 (Summer 1 9 7 9 ) : 79. 2 1  vol.  (1978)," Screen,  M i c k E a t o n , "The A v a n t - G a r d e and N a r r a t i v e Two SEFT/London F i l m - M a k e r s Co-op Day S c h o o l s , " S c r e e n , v o l . 19, n o . 2 (Summer 1 9 7 8 ) : 130. 2 3  2 3  Gidal,  "The A n t i - N a r r a t i v e  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , " p . 79.  T h e 1930s saw t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c n a r r a t i v e . "This s t r u c t u r e i s that the c l a s s i c , sometimes a l s o c a l l e d the " r e a l i s t " n a r r a t i v e , which c a l l s f o r t h c e r t a i n modes o f n a r r a t i o n w h i c h a r e t h e n p u t i n t o e f f e c t by a l i m i t e d s e t o f c i n e m a t i c c o d e s " . Pam Cook, e d . , The Cinema Book ( L o n d o n : B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 212. 2 4  2 5  Gidal,  "The A n t i - N a r r a t i v e  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , " p . 79.  P e t e r W o l l e n , " ' O n t o l o g y ' and ' M a t e r i a l i s m ' S c r e e n , v o l . 17, n o . 1 ( S p r i n g 1976): 13. 2 6  B a z i n ' s frame archaeological.  of referene  2 7  2 8  Andre  2 9  ibid.  Bazin,  What  i s almost  i s Cinema?,  p . 38.  R u d o l f A r n h e i m , "The C o m l e t e F i l m , " (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 3 0  3 1  M a l c o l m Le G r i c e , A b s t r a c t F i l m ( C a m b r i d g e : MIT P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 87. 3 3  Ibid.,  29.  3 4  Ibid.,  89.  3 5  Ibid.  (Fall 3 7  F i l m as A r t 1966), p . 29.  Ibid.  3 2  3 6  i n Film,"  S t a n Brakhage, 1 9 6 3 ) . n.p. Le  Grice,  "Metaphors  Abstract  Film  and  Beyond  of V i s i o n , " Film  and Beyond,  p . 89.  Culture  30  116 ^Brakhage,  "Metaphors  o f V i s i o n , " n.p.  P . Adams S i t n e y , " I n t r o d u c t i o n C u l t u r e 30 ( F a l l 1963) n.p. 3 9  Film  t o Metaphors  of V i s i o n , "  M a r y a D e r e n , " S t a t e m e n t o f P r i n c i p l e s , " F i l m As F i l m ( L o n d o n : Hayward G a l l e r y , 1979):123. 4 0  41 G i d a l ' s  word.  0 n e must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e camera i s n o t n e u t r a l b e c u a s e a s u b j e c t i s c h o s e n and f r a m e d . 4 2  T h e i d e a t h a t l e s s i s more v a s i m p o r t a n t t o Bauhaus a r t a s v e i l . 4 3  4 4  Peter  G i d a l , Andy W a r h o l  (London: S t u d i o  V i s t a , 1971)  p . 86. 4 5  This  name was i r o n i c  and w e l l  chosen.  T e r e s a De L a u r e t i s , "Snow on t h e O e d i p a l S t a g e , " A l i c e Doesn't (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 71. 4 6  P a t r i c i a Gruben, i n h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e m i n a r " A v a n t - G a r d e F i l m P r a c t i c e : S i x V i e w s , " mod. M a r i a I n s e l l , FilmWeek 86, V a n c o u v e r : 1986. 4 7  Peter B r i t i s h Film 4 8  4 9  G i d a l , ed., Standard Film Anthology I n s t i t u t e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 39.  (London:  ibid.  S n o w ' s work i n g e n e r a l b e t w e e n t h e s e two t e r m s . 5 0  focuses the r e l a t i o n s h i p  ^ S t r u c t u r a l f i l m i s u s u a l l y viewed w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c r i t i c a l t e r m s , s o i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t De L a u r e t i s a n a l y z e s t h e f i l m t h i s way. 5 2  De  Lauretis,  5 3  lbid.,  5 4  Ibid.  p . 75.  "Snow on t h e O e d i p a l  Stage," p.71.  117 5 5  De  Lauretis,  "Snow on t h e O e d i p a l  S t a g e , " p . 77.  N i n a F o n o r o f f and L i s a C a r t w r i g h t , "Narrative i s N a r r a t i v e : So What i s New?," H e r e s i e s , v o l . 4, n o . 4 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 53. 5 6  K i r k T o u g a s , "2: P e r s p e c t i v e s , " S e l f P o r t r a i t , e d . P i e r r e V e r o n n e a u and P i e r s H a n d l i n g , t r a n s . M a r i e - C l a u d e H e c q u e t and A n t o i n e t t e V i d a l ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n F i l m I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 140. 5 7  5 8  Ibid.  5 9  Ibid.  B e n j a m i n H. D. B u c h l o h , " F i g u r e s o f A u t h o r i t y , C i p h e r s o f R e g r e s s i o n , " M o d e r n i s m and M o d e r n i t y C o n f e r e n c e P a p e r s , e d . B e n j a m i n H. D. B u c h l o h , S e r g e G u i l b a u t , and D a v i d S o l k i n ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s 1981), p . 90. 6 0  6 1  Ibid.  6 2  Ibid.,  p . 82  ^ ^ M i c h a e l Snow, i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e m i n a r " A v a n t - G a r d e F i l m P r a c t i c e : S i x V i e w s , " mod. M a r i a I n s e l l , F i l m w e e k 86, V a n c o u v e r , 1986. 6 4  Ibid.  6 5  D a v e Rimmer, " A v a n t - G a r d e  6 6  Ibid.  6 7  Ross  6 8  Patricia  6 9  A1  McLaren,  "Avant-Garde  Gruben,  Razutis,  Film  Film  "Avant-Garde  "Avant-Garde  P r a c t i c e : S i x Views"  Film  Practice:  Film  S i x Views".  P r a c t i c e : S i x Views*  P r a c t i c e : S i x Views".  118 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W i e s e n g r u n d . The J a r g o n o f A u t h e n t i c i t y . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1964. A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W i e s e n g r u n d . P r i s m s . L o n d o n : N e v i l l e Spearman, 1967. A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W i e s e n g r u n d . Gesammelte S c h r i f t e n . V o l s . 1 and E d i t e d by R o l f T i e d e m a n n . 26 v o l s . F r a n k f u r t am M a i n : Suhrkamp V e r l a g , 1970. Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund. N e g a t i v e D i a l e c t i c s . The S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1973.  New  2  York:  A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W i e s e n g r u n d . Minima M o r a l i a : R e f l e c t i o n s f r o m a Damaged L i f e . T r a n s l a t e d by E. F. N. J e p h c o t t . L o n d o n : New L e f t Books, 1974. Althusser,  Louis.  F o r Marx. L o n d o n : New  L e f t Books,  1977.  B a k h t i n , M i k h a i l . Problems of D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s . O x f o r d : Ardis Press, 1970. Bakhtin, M i k h a i l . Bakhtin School Papers. Edited O x f o r d : H o l d a n B o o k s , 1983. Barthes,  R o l a n d . S / Z . New  York: H i l l  and Wang,  B a r t h e s , R o l a n d . I m a g e / M i s i c / T e x t . New 1977.  Baudelaire:  by  Frankfurt  Benjamin, W a l t e r . I l l u m i n a t i o n s . S c h o c k e n Books, 1969.  Edited  B e n j a m i n , W a l t e r . The O r i g i n New L e f t B o o k s , 1977.  S o n t a g . New  Suhrkamp  by Hannah A r e n d t . New  B e r g e r , J o h n . Ways o f S e e i n g . L o n d o n : P e l i c a n ,  York:  Poems. E n g l a n d :  am M a i n :  o f German T r a g i c  B r e c h t , B e r t o l t . B r e c h t . E d i t e d by P e t e r P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1962.  and Wang,  Susan  Selected  B e n j a m i n , W a l t e r . A n g e l u s Novus. Verlag, 1966.  Shukman.  1974.  York: H i l l  B a r t h e s , Roland. A B a r t h e s Reader. E d i t e d H i l l and Wang, 1982. Baudelaire, Charles-Pierre. P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1975.  by Ann  York:  Drama. London: 1972.  Demets. Englewood  Cliffs:  119 Brecht, B e r t o l t . Brecht L o n d o n : Methuen,  on T h e a t r e . 1964.  Translated  B r e c h t , B e r t o l t . Gesammelte S c h r i f t e n . V o l . M a i n : Suhrkamp V e r l a g , 1967.  15.  by  John  Willet.  Frankfurt  am  B u c h l o h , B e n j a m i n H. D. G u i l b a u t , S e r g e ; and S o l k i n , D a v i d ; Editors. M o d e r n i s m and M o d e r n i t y . V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1981. B u c k - M o r s s , S u s a n . The O r i g i n o f N e g a t i v e The H a r v e s t e r P r e s s , 1977.  Dialectics.  England:  B u r g e r , P e t e r . Theory of the Avant-Garde. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1974. Chatman, Seymour. S t o r y and D i s c o u r s e : N a r r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e i n F i c t i o n and F i l m . L o n d o n : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. Cook, D a v i d . A H i s t o r y o f N a r r a t i v e F i l m , n.p.: Co. , 1961.  W.W.  Coward, R o s a l i n d , and E l l i s , J o h n . Language and L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1977.  Materialism.  De  L a u r e t i s , Teresa. A l i c e Does-n't. Bloomington: University Press, 1982.  H o r k h e i m e r , Max, and A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W. D i a l e c t i c New Y o r k : The S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1944. D i c k s o n , K e i t h A. Towards U t o p i a : A S t u d y Clarendon Press, 1978. Eco,  Norton  &  Indiana of  Enlightenment.  of B r e c h t .  Oxford:  Umberto. The R o l e o f t h e R e a d e r : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t h e S e m i o t i c s of T e x t s . Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979.  E g b e r t , D o n a l d Drew. S o c i a l R a d i c a l i s m and t h e A r t s , W e s t e r n E u r o p e . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1972. E n s e n s b e r g e r , Hans Magnus. R a i d s and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s : E s s a y s i n P o l i t i c s , C r i m e and C u l t u r e . L o n d o n : P l u t o P r e s s , 1970. Freud,  Film  Sigmund. The S t a n d a r d E d i t i o n o f t h e C o m p l e t e P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works o f Sigmund F r e u d . E d i t e d by S t r a c h e y . L o n d o n : The H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1964.  As  F i l m . London: A r t s C o u n c i l of Great  F o u c a u l t , M i c h e l . The Human S c i e n c e s .  Britain,  O r d e r o f T h i n g s : An A r c h a e o l o g y New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1970.  F o u c a u l t , M i c h e l . Power/Knowledge: S e l e c t e d I n t e r v i e w s W r i t i n g s • New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n Books, 1972.  James 1979. of  the  and  Other  120 F o u c a u l t , M i c h e l . L a n g u a g e , Counter-Memory, P r a c t i c e . New Cornell U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977. Gidal, Gidal,  Peter.  Andy W a r h o l • L o n d o n : S t u d i o  1971.  P e t e r , ed. S t a n d a r d F i l m A n t h o l o g y . L o n d o n : Film Institute Publishing, 1976.  H a n d l i n g , P i e r s , ed. S e l f P o r t r a i t . Institute, 1980.  H a u s e r , A r n o l d . The S o c i a l H i s t o r y V i n t a g e B o o k s , n.d.  British  Ottawa: Canadian  H a r v e y , S y l v i a . May '68 and F i l m C u l t u r e . Film Institute Publishing, 1978.  Jay,  Vista,  London:  York:  Film  British  o f A r t . V o l . 4.  New  York:  M a r t i n . The D i a l e c t i c a l I m a g i n a t i o n : A H i s t o r y o f t h e F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l and t h e I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l R e s e r c h 1923-50. B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1973.  K o c h , S t e p h e n . S t a r g a z e r : Andy W a r h o l ' s W o r l d New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1973.  and  His  Films.  K r a c a u e r , S i g f r i e d , e d . From C a l i g a r i t o H i t l e r : A P s y c h o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f German F i l m . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1947. Kristeva, Julia. Literature  D e s i r e i n Language: A S e m i o t i c Approach t o and A r t . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1977.  L a c a n , J a c q u e s . The Language o f t h e S e l f . T r a n s l a t e d by Anthony W i l d e n . B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins, 1968. Le  G r i c e , Malcolm. A b s t r a c t 1977.  F i l m and  B e y o n d . L o n d o n : MIT  Lemert, Charles C , and G a r t h , G i l l a n . M i c h e l Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. Lenin,  V l a d i m i r I l y i c h . M a t e r i a l i s m u s und V o l . 14. B e r l i n : D i e t z V e r l a g , 1922 1909].  Lukacs, Georg. H i s t o r y Press, 1968.  and  Class  Foucault.  New  York:  Empiriokritizismus. [ o r i g i n a l l y published  C o n s c i o u s n e s s . London:  L u k a c s , G e o r g . The M e a n i n g o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M e r l i n Press, 1963.  Press,  Realism.  Merlin  London:  121 Lunri/  Eugene. M a r x i s m and M o d e r n i s m ; An H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y o f L u k a c s , B r e c h t , B e n j a m i n and A d o r n o . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1982.  MacCabe, C o l i n . G o d a r d ; Images, Sounds, P o l i t i c s . Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980.  Bloomington:  M a r k s , E l a i n e , and De C o u r t i v r o n , I s a b e l l e , e d . Nev F r e n c h F e m i n i s m . M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s P r e s s , 1980. Metz, C h r i s t i a n . F i l m Language: A S e m i o t i c s of the Cinema. T r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l T a y l o r . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974. M e t z , C h r i s t i a n . The I m a g i n a r y S i g n i f i e r : P s y c h o a n a l y s i s t h e Cinema . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , N i c h o l s , B i l l . Ideology University Press,  and t h e 1981.  Image. B l o o m i n g t o n :  N i c h o l s , B i l l . M o v i e s and M e t h o d s . B e r k e l e y : C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1982. Nichols, of  B i l l . M o v i e s and M e t h o d s . V o l . 2. C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1985.  and 1977.  Indiana  U n i v e r s i t y of  Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y  N e i t z s c h e , F r i e d r i c h . The W i l l t o Power. E d i t e d and T r a n s l a t e d W a l t e r Kaufmann. New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1967. N i e t z s c h e , F r i e d r i c h . Beyond Good and E v i l . E d i t e d and W a l t e r Kaufmann. New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1968. O ' N e i l , J o h n . e d . On Press, 1976.  Critical  T h e o r y . New  Y o r k : The  by  Translated  Seabury  R u i t e n b e e k , H e n d r i k M. e d . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s and Female S e x u a l i t y . New Haven: New Haven C o l l a g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. Seale,  P a t r i c k , and M a c C o n v i l l , M a u r e e n . F r e n c h L o n d o n : Heinemann and P e n g u i n , 1968.  Silverman, Kaja. University  The S u b j e c t o f S e m i o t i c s . Press, 1983.  Revolution  Oxford:  1968.  Oxford  S i t n e y , P. Adams. The E s s e n t i a l Cingma: E s s a y s on t h e F i l m s i n t h e C o l l e c t i o n o f A n t h o l o g y F i l m A r c h i v e s . New Y o r k : A n t h o l o g y F i l m A r c h i v e s and New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. S i t n e y , P. Adams. V i s i o n a r y F i l m : The A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979.  by  122 Tar,  Z o l t a n . The F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l ; The C r i t i c a l T h e o r i e s o f Max H o r k h e i m e r and T h e o d o r W. A d o r n o . New Y o r k ; J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1977.  V e r t o v , D z i g a . K i n o - E y e : The W r i t i n g s o f D z i g a V e r t o v . E d i t e d by A n n e t t e M i c h e l s o n . T r a n s l a t e d by K e v i n O ' B r i e n . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1984. W a l k e r , J o h n A. A r t I n The Pluto Press, 1983. W a l s h , M a r t i n . The B r i t i s h Film  Age  o f Mass M e d i a . L o n d o n :  B r e c h t i a n A s p e c t o f R a d i c a l Cinema . L o n d o n : I n s t i t u t e P u b l i s h i n g , 1981.  W a r h o l , Andy. Andy W a r h o l : The P h i l o s o p h y Harcourt Brace J o v a n i c h , 1975. W i l l e t t , J o h n . The T h e a t r e o f B e r t o l t New D i r e c t i o n s , 1959.  o f Andy W a r h o l . New  B r e c h t . New  W i l l i a m s , Raymond. P r o b l e m s i n M a t e r i a l i s m and London: Verso E d i t i o n s , 1980. Wolff,  J a n e t . The S o c i a l Press, 1981.  W o l l e n , P e t e r . S i g n s and Indiana U n i v e r s i t y  York:  Culture.  P r o d u c t i o n of A r t . London: Meaning i n the Cinema. Press, 1969.  Macmillan  Bloomington:  W o l l e n , P e t e r . R e a d i n g s and W r i t i n g s : S e m i o t i c C o u n t e r S t r a t e g i e s . London; Verso E d i t i o n s , 1982.  York:  123  PERIODICALS Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund. "Correspondence v i t h Benjamin, L e t t e r s , Adorno t o Benjamin: Hornberg, B l a c k F o r e s t , A u g u s t 2, 1935, L o n d o n , M a r c h 18, 1936, Nev Y o r k , November 10, 1938," Nev L e f t R e v i e v 84 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1974). A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W i e s e n g r u n d . "Commitment," Nev (September/December 1 9 7 4 ) .  Left  Reviev  B a u d r y , J e a n - L o u i s . "The A p p a r a t u s : M e t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e I m p r e s s i o n o f R e a l i t y i n t h e Cinema," Camera O b s c u r a 1 ( F a l l 1 9 7 6 ) . Benjamin, W a l t e r . "Correspondence v h t h Adorno, B e n j a m i n , P a r i s , December 1938" Nev L e f t ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1974). B e n j a m i n , W a l t e r . "The A u t h o r As P r o d u c e r , " Nev ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1971). Benjamin, Walter. "Conversations v i t h ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1973).  L e t t e r from R e v i e v 84 Left  B r e c h t , " Nev  Left  B e n j a m i n , W a l t e r . " L e f t - W i n g M e l a n c h o l y , " S c r e e n 15: (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) . Brakhage, S t a n . "Metaphors 1963).  of V i s i o n , "  Film  B r e c h t , B e r t o l t . " A g a i n s t G e o r g L u k a c s , " Nev ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1974). Brecht, Bertolt. "Collective ( S p r i n g 1974).  Presentation  Culture Left  Reviev Reviev  77  2, 30  (Fall  Reviev  84  ( 1 9 0 2 ) , " S c r e e n 15: 2  B r i n c k m a n n , C h r i s t i n e N o l l , and W e i n b r e n , Grahame. " M u t a t i o n s o f F i l m N a r r a t i v e , " I d i o l e c t s 12 ( F a l l 1 9 8 2 ) . C a l i n e s c u , M a t e i . "Avant-Garde, Neo-Avant-Garde, Postmodernism: The C u l t u r e o f C r i s i s , " C l i o IV, I I I , 1975. Chatman, Seymour. "Towards a T h e o r y o f N a r r a t i v e , " H i s t o r y 53: 295 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 5 ) . Covie,  Elizabeth.  Nev  Literary  "Woman as S i g n , " n y f ,  Doane, M a r y Ann. " M i s r e c o g n i t i o n ( F a l l 1980).  and  Identity,"  Cini-Tracts  11: 3  124 Doane, Mary Ann. "The V o i c e i n t h e Cinema: The A r t i c u l a t i o n o f Body and S p a c e , " Y a l e F r e n c h S t u d i e s 60 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Doane, Mary Ann. " F i l m and t h e M a s q u e r a d e : T h e o r i s i n g t h e Female S p e c t a t o r , " C i n e - T r a c t s 2 ( F a l l 1 9 8 0 ) . D z i g a V e r t o v Group. 1970).  "What  i s t o be Done?," A f t e r i m a g e 1  (April  E a t o n , M i c k . "The A v a n t - G a r d e and N a r r a t i v e : S E F T / L o n d o n F i l m - m a k e r s Co-op Day S c h o o l s , " S c r e e n 19: 2 (Summer 1 9 7 8 ) . F o n o r o f f , N i n a , and C a r t w r i g h t , L i s a . " N a r r a t i v e So What i s New?", H e r e s i e s 16: 4 ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Foucault, Michael. Fried, Michael.  "What  i s Narrative:  i s an A u t h o r ? " S c r e e n 20: 1 ( S p r i n g  " A r t and O b j e c t h o o d , " A r t f o r u m  (June  1967).  Gidal,  P e t e r . " T h e o r y and D e f i n i t i o n o f S t r u c t u r a l i s t M a t e r i a l i s t F i l m , " S t u d i o I n t e r n a t i o n a l 190: 978 (November/December 1 9 7 5 ) .  Gidal,  Peter. (Summer  "The A n t i - N a r r a t i v e 1979).  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , " S c r e e n 20; 2  Greenberg, Clement. (1939).  "Avant-Garde  Greenberg,  "Modernist P a i n t i n g , " A r t s  Clement.  1979).  and K i t s c h , "  Partisan  Review 6  Yearbook  4 (1961).  G r o s s , D a v i d . " L o w e n t h a l , A d o r n o , B a r t h e s : T h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s on P o p u l a r C u l t u r e , " T e l o s 45 ( F a l l 1 9 8 0 ) . G u z z e t t i , A l f r e d , e d . " N a r r a t i v e and t h e F i l m New L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y ( W i n t e r 1975). Heath,  Image,"  S t e p h e n . " L e s s o n s f r o m B r e c h t , " S c r e e n 15: 2 (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) .  H u y s s e n , A n d r e a s . "The Vamp and t h e M a c h i n e : T e c h n o l o g y and S e x u a l i t y i n F r i t z L a n g ' s M e t r o p o l i s , " New German C r i t i q u e 24-5 ( F a l l / W i n t e r 1 9 8 1 - 2 ) . Jameson, F r e d r i c . (1975-6).  "The I d e o l o g y o f t h e T e x t , " S a l m a g u n d i  J a m e s o n , F r e d r i c . "The I m a g i n a r y and S y m b o l i c i n L a c a n : M a r x i s m , P s y c h o a n a l y t i c C r i t i c i s m , and t h e P r o b l e m S u b j e c t , " Y a l e F r e n c h S t u d i e s ( A p r i l 17 1 9 7 8 ) . Jameson, F r e d r i c . " P o s t m o d e r n i s m , o r t h e C u l t u r a l C a p i t a l i s m , " New L e f t Review 146 ( 1 9 8 4 ) .  31/32  of the  Logic of Late  125 Kristeva,  Julia.  "Women's Time,"  S i g n s (Autumn  1981).  MacCabe, C o l i n . " R e a l i s m and t h e C i n e m a : N o t e s on Some B r e c h t i a n T h e s e s , " S c r e e n (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) . M a c D o n a l d , S c o t t . " T e x t as Image: I n Some R e c e n t N o r t h A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e F i l m s , " A f t e r i m a g e (March 1 9 6 6 ) . Mayne, J u d i t h . "The Woman a t t h e K e y h o l e : Women's Cinema and F e m i n i s t C r i t i c i s m , " Nev German C r i t i g u e 23 (Spring/Summer 1981). Mitchell, Nev  S t a n l e y . " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o B e n j a m i n and B r e c h t , " L e f t Review 77 ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) .  Montrelay, Michele.  "Inquiry  Mulvey, L a u r a . " V i s u a l (Autumn 1975).  I n t o F e m i n i t y , " M/F 1 ( 1 9 7 8 ) .  Pleasure  and N a r r a t i v e  Cinema," S c r e e n  R a z u t i s , A l , R e i f , Tony, and E l l i o t - H u r s t , M i c h a e l , e d , OPSIS V o l s . 1 and 2. V a n c o u v e r : C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y f o r t h e Advancement o f C r i t i c a l Cinema, ( 1 9 8 4 - 6 ) . T i t u n i k , I . R. "M. M. B a k h t i n : The B a k h t i n S c h o o l and S o v i e t S e m i o t i c s , " D i s p o s i t o 1: 3 ( 1 9 7 6 ) . W o l l e n , P e t e r . " ' O n t o l o g y ' and ' M a t e r i a l i s m • i n ( S p r i n g 1976). Wollen,  Peter.  Film,"  S c r e e n 1: 17  "The Two A v a n t - G a r d e s , " S c r e e n 20: 1 (Summer  W o l i n , R i c h a r d . "An A e s t h e t i c o f R e d e m p t i o n : B e n j a m i n ' s t o T r a u e r s p i e l , " T e l o s 43 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 0 ) .  Path  1976).  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 22 2
Canada 8 4
United Kingdom 7 0
France 5 0
India 4 0
Germany 4 19
China 3 8
Philippines 2 0
Ukraine 2 0
Brazil 1 0
Romania 1 0
Republic of Korea 1 0
Hong Kong 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 22 19
Ashburn 6 0
Mountain View 4 0
New York 4 1
Waterloo 3 0
London 3 0
Montreal 2 0
Maidenhead 2 0
Beijing 2 1
Mangalore 2 0
Shelbyville 2 0
Washington 2 0
Angoulême 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097723/manifest

Comment

Related Items