UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The socio-history of the units of Kwakiutl property tenure Lando, Peter Louis 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A8 L38.pdf [ 7.92MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097717.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097717-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097717-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097717-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097717-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097717-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097717-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097717-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097717.ris

Full Text

C-THE SOCIO-HISTORY OF THE UNITS OF KWAKIUTL PROPERTY TENURE by PETER LOUIS LANDO . B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Anthropology and So c i o l o g y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standards: THE.UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1988 Q Peter L. Lando 5 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and Soc io logy The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e October 17 1988 DE-6G/81) ABSTRACT In t h i s t h e s i s I Have set out t o examine the' h i s t o r i c change i n the primary u n i t of K w a k i u t l p r o p e r t y tenure as i t r e f l e c t s the changing c h a r a c t e r of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between the members of t h i s s o c i e t y . In order t o f o l l o w t h i s p a r t i c u l a r development the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n have been s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the h i s t o r y of the p e r i o d under s c r u t i n y . This study commences w i t h the s p e c u l a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n j u s t p r i o r t o d i r e c t European c o n t a c t . The namima i s presented here as a p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g descent group w i t h an i n a l i e n a b l e attachment t o an e x c l u s i v e e s t a t e composed of s p e c i f i c t e r r i t o r i e s , s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and p r e r o g a t i v e s . As a u n i t of economic p r o d u c t i o n and consumption the namima was able t o d e r i v e a l l of i t s m a t e r i a l sustenance from t h i s e s t a t e . The r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s and the degree of access t o the f r u i t s of the harvest were organized a c c o r d i n g t o the h i e r a r c h i c a l order w i t h i n each of these descent groups. The K w a k i u t l became i n v o l v e d i n the f u r tra d e before the end of the 18th century as European entrepreneurs extended t h e i r t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l network. The wealth gleaned from t h i s trade was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the K w a k i u t l economy t o the enhancement of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order. European settlement on the Northwest coast i n t r o d u c e d the o p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the wage economy. This economy o f f e r e d i n d i v i d u a l K w a k i u t l men and women the e x p e r i e n c e o f c r e a t i n g wealth o u t s i d e of the t r a d i t i o n a l economic u n i t . I n d i v i d u a l s began t o seek s t a t u s on the b a s i s of t h e i r achievements. T h i s change e x e m p l i f i e d the new mode of r e l a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s who had p r e v i o u s l y r e l a t e d as members of a descent group were now d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s o f t h e i r a c q u i r e d wealth. While namima members of h i g h b i r t h m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r t i t l e t o t r a d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s , t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s no longer, f i g u r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the n a t i v e economy. In the 1880's the Department of Ind i a n A f f a i r s imposed u n i t s o f p r o p e r t y tenure upon the Kw a k i u t l without r e g a r d f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e u n i t s . The p o p u l a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s were f o r c e d t o r e c o g n i z e the imposed s t r u c t u r e i n order t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . In the years f o l l o w i n g 1830, then, the namima d e c l i n e d as the primary u n i t of Kwa k i u t l p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . The Kwa k i u t l r e d e f i n e d the u n i t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as the c h a r a c t e r o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s changed due to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new forms o f wealth and l a n d t e n u r e . Today the namima i s a s p e c i a l i z e d concept shared by a few Kwa k i u t l e l d e r s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . As the Kw a k i u t l a c q u i r e g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e independence i n the near f u t u r e i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the namima w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be r e d e f i n e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS iv ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS w£\ CHAPTER I ' INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE ' 9 ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES . . . ." 11 INFORMATION SOURCES 13 CHAPTER I I THE NAMIMA 18 INTRODUCTION 18 THE NAMIMA IS A DESCENT GROUP 19 THE NAMIMA IS A UNIT OF PROPERTY TENURE . . . . 2 6 THE TERRITORIAL LIMITS OF HABITATION AND SUBSISTENCE 33 SUMMARY 52 CHAPTER I I I THE HISTORIC ERA 55 INTRODUCTION . 5 5 EUROPEAN CONTACT 56 THE DEPOPULATION OF THE KWAKIUTL 59 THE FORT RUPERT ESTABLISHMENT . . 69 THE KWAKIUTL ENTER THE WAGE ECONOMY 73 SUMMARY 7 9 CHAPTER IV CO-RESIDENCE AND THE ASCENT OF THE TRIBE 81 INTRODUCTION 81 THE HISTORIC VILLAGE GROUP 82 THE COMPOSITION OF THE TRIBE 87 CO-RESIDENCE: A RESPONSE TO DEPOPULATION . . . . 89 THE GENESIS OF THE CO-RESIDENTIAL VILLAGE . . . 93 THE ASCENT OF THE TRIBE I l l THE DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IMPOSES NEW UNITS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION . . . . 117 SUMMARY 126 V;1 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 12 9 INTRODUCTION . 12 9 THE WAGE ECONOMY REWARDS THE INDIVIDUAL . . . . 131 WEALTH AND SOCIAL STATUS: AN OLD EQUATION, A NEW SOURCE 134 THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE NAMIMA'S PRIMACY . . . 144 CONCLUDING SUMMARY 151 APPENDIX A . . . 161 BIBLIOGRAPHY 162 ~7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i I would l i k e t o acknowledge the c o n t i n u e d support, a d v i c e , and guidance o f my committee members: Dr. M i c h a e l M. Ames, Dr. John Barker, and Dr. K.O.L. B u r r i d g e . I extend my s p e c i a l thanks t o the community of s c h o l a r s which make the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Museum of Anth r o p o l o g y a p l a c e o f n u r t u r e and l e a r n i n g . I o f f e r my g r a t i t u d e t o R i c h a r d I n g l i s , P e t e r Macnair, Dr. L e y l a n d Donald, Dr. S t u a r t Piddocke, and Dr. Marie Mauze, f o r t h e i r c r i t i c a l support d u r i n g t h i s study. I would l i k e t o acknowledge my debt t o H a r o l d Lando f o r h i s t i r e l e s s p r o o f r e a d i n g and s u g g e s t i o n s . I would l i k e t o s i n c e r e l y thank my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y who encouraged me throughout the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . In t h i s group I would a l s o i n c l u d e those people from Cape Mudge, A l e r t Bay, Hopetown, and Kingcome who have been generous and p a t i e n t t e a c h e r s . F i n a l l y , my l o v i n g thanks t o Marianne f o r her support and f a i t h without which t h i s study would never have been completed. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s the primary elements o f t h i s t h e s i s : the d i s c u s s i o n o f the problem, a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , and the p r i n c i p a l sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a d e s c r i p t i v e study, the p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r e change i s of fundamental i n t e r e s t t o t h i s work. C u l t u r e change w i l l be d e f i n e d here as the c o n s c i o u s adjustment o f e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , or, the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f a l i e n c a t e g o r i e s . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e change d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c e r a r e q u i r e s r e f e r e n c e t o bot h of these n o t i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o study the h i s t o r i c change i n the u n i t s of p r o p e r t y t e n ure w i t h i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The h i s t o r i c i n f l u e n c e s e f f e c t i n g the course of t h i s change i n i t i a l l y a c c e n t u a t e d the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s t r e n d was i n t e r r u p t e d by the i m p o s i t i o n of an a l i e n s t r u c t u r e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t here i s the a n c i e n t u n i t of K w a k i u t l p r o p e r t y tenure r e f e r r e d t o as the namima. An a p p r e c i a t i o n of 19th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l 1 c u l t u r e 1 The term " K w a k i u t l " w i l l be used here t o r e f e r t o the t r a d i t i o n a l l y Kwak'wala speaking people o f east, c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and the ad j a c e n t mainland waters. " K w a k i u t l " i s a more r e c o g n i z a b l e term than "Kwakwaka'wakw", the contemporary r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s group as speakers of a 2 r e q u i r e s a d i a c h r o n i c framework. I t was not as i f a sed e n t a r y stone was suddenly made t o r o l l . I t was more a matter o f a new f o r c e a c t i n g upon the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f a stone a l r e a d y i n motion. While the push and p u l l o f the new f o r c e s i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n o f the stone's r o l l i n g c ourse they must compete w i t h the i n i t i a l t r e n d . The p r e s s u r e t o respond t o the n o v e l c o n d i t i o n s o f the p o s t - c o n t a c t e r a shaped the changing f a c e o f K w a k i u t l c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . While t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were n o v e l t o the K w a k i u t l they were comparable t o those found i n the o t h e r p a r t s o f the Northwest Coast and i n the o t h e r c o l o n i e s o f the B r i t i s h Empire ( F i s h e r 1980:2). The s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the K w a k i u t l , l i k e those of the Maoris, the Haida, and the A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n e s , were compelled t o f l e x and change i n ord e r t o address the changing nature o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s engendered by t h e c o l o n i a l presence ( F i s h e r 1980:2; Henderson 1974:314). "Namima" 2 j _ s a n a n g l i c i z e d v e r s i o n o f the Kwak'wala term "namima" (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:10) or "nEme'm" (Boas 1920:115) used t o denote the fundamental u n i t o f K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i b i d ) . The academic t r a d i t i o n o f u s i n g common tongue. 2 The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l i n g u i s t i c r e n d e r i n g o f t h i s term r e f l e c t the c h a r a c t e r of the i n d i v i d u a l making the l i n g u i s t i c n o t a t i o n , or the nuance of a p a r t i c u l a r speaker and s u b - d i a l e c t . There i s no evidence t h a t the v a r i a t i o n i n the r e c o r d i s i n d i c a t i v e o f v a r i a n c e i n the nat u r e o f t h e s e groups. 3 the emic term t o denote t h i s descent group began w i t h Franz Boas (1920). L e v i - S t r a u s s ' (1982:170) c r i t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of Boas' use of t h i s Kwak'wala term i s s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t Boas gave up t r y i n g t o i n c l u d e the numayma i n a t y p o l o g y of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A f t e r r e j e c t i n g a l l the c a t e g o r i e s known t o him because none was r e l e v a n t , he c o u l d not o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n of the numayma, and r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to d e s c r i b i n g i t as a type of s t r u c t u r e without e q u i v a l e n t i n the a r c h i v e s of e t h n o l o g y . While the c h a r a c t e r of the namima w i l l be the f o c u s of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s i t w i l l be of v a l u e here t o o f f e r a b r i e f s k e t c h of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . At i t s s i m p l e s t l e v e l the namima was a s o c i a l u n i t whose members acknowledged common descent from a r e a l or imagined a n c e s t o r . I t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t e r n a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y based upon p r o x i m i t y t o the founding a n c e s t o r . " P r o x i m i t y " was measured here i n terms of p r i m o g e n i t u r e . The namima m a i n t a i n e d e x c l u s i v e access t o a l e g a c y of p r o p e r t y e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s name. T h i s e s t a t e was composed of t e r r i t o r i e s , s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, movable o b j e c t s , and r i t u a l p r e r o g a t i v e s . These p r o p e r t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d the s p e c i a l p r e c i n c t c r e a t e d by the f i r s t a n c e s t o r on b e h a l f of h i s descendants. As such, the namima's domain was c o n s i d e r e d i n a l i e n a b l e and i n v i o l a b l e . DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM While l i v i n g i n the Kwakiutl v i l l a g e of Cape Mudge from 1979 to 1981 I became aware t h a t the contemporary r e s i d e n t s of t h a t v i l l a g e d i d not have a c l e a r n o t i o n of t h e i r v i l l a g e 4 h i s t o r y . The r e s i d e n t s knew t h a t the v i l l a g e was composed of peop l e who had come from a number of v i l l a g e s but l i t t l e was known of the p r o c e s s by which t h e i r v i l l a g e had been c r e a t e d . T h i s aroused my c u r i o s i t y which I then pursued d u r i n g my f i r s t y e a rs as a graduate s t u d e n t . I began s t u d y i n g W i l s o n D u f f ' s u n p u b l i s h e d notes and manuscripts a d d r e s s i n g the m i g r a t i o n o f K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e groups. Contemporary K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s are composed of groups t h a t m i g r a t e d from d i v e r s e l o c a t i o n s . I b e l i e v e d t h a t I would a c h i e v e an i n s i g h t i n t o the c o m p o s i t i o n of contemporary v i l l a g e s by c h a r t i n g the m i g r a t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e groups. When a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h the t e r r i t o r i a l h o l d i n g s of the i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e groups I r e t u r n e d t o my c h a r t t o d i s c o v e r t h a t the v i l l a g e groups of the l a t e 18th, 19th, and 20'th c e n t u r i e s were not comparable. The v i l l a g e groups of o l d , composed of a s i n g l e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g descent group, were not comparable t o the complex v i l l a g e groups which f o l l o w e d . By assuming t h a t the co m p o s i t i o n of thes e groups had not changed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d I had w r i t t e n the u n i t s o f Kw a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n out of h i s t o r y . What I had r e c o g n i z e d r e q u i r e d an h i s t o r i c framework which c o u l d account f o r the changing c h a r a c t e r of the s o c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , not simply v i l l a g e m i g r a t i o n . I then r e c o g n i z e d a s i m i l a r problem i n K w a k i u t l e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . I was not alone i n my f a i l u r e t o ' 5 i n t r o d u c e a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the study of the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ' Boas, i n h i s 1920 p u b l i c a t i o n , "The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of the K w a k i u t l " , sums up many years of work and c l a r i f i e s s e v e r a l major problems apparent i n h i s 1897 tome, "The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and the S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s of the K w a k i u t l " . Most statements i n h i s 1920 paper r e f e r t o d i s c u s s i o n s begun i n e a r l i e r works. Here Boas (1920:111) c o n f i r m s h i s e a r l i e r a s s e r t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the namima's s t a t u s as the u n i t of p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a t t e s t s t o i t s p e r s i s t a n c e as f o l l o w s : I do not know of a s i n g l e K w a k i u t l t r i b e t h a t i s at p r e s e n t an u n d i v i d e d u n i t . A l l those s t u d i e d c o n s i s t of w e l l -r e c o g n i z e d s u b d i v i s i o n s . Furthermore, a s i n g l e l o c a l i t y i s c l a i m e d as the p l a c e of o r i g i n of each d i v i s i o n of the t r i b e . In the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the people th e s e d i v i s i o n s are fundamental u n i t s . In h i s 1934 work "Geographic Names o f the K w a k i u t l " , Boas (1934:37) mentions a c o n f l i c t between g e n e r a t i o n s on the matter of the a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e h o l d i n g u n i t f o r the h a l i b u t f i s h i n g banks i n the v i c i n i t y of Hope I s l a n d . He r e c o u n t s t h a t : 01der v i n f o r m a n t s s t a t e t h a t these banks were p r o p e r t y of the nEme'm w h i l e younger info r m a n t s deny t h i s . Boas does not e l a b o r a t e on t h i s p o i n t but h i s words c l e a r l y note a change i n the s u c c e s s i o n of a t t i t u d e s from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the next. Was t h i s simply an i s o l a t e d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g he observed? 6 Some f o r t y - f i v e years l a t e r Rohner completed h i s f i e l d work at the v i l l a g e o f Gwayasdums on G i l f o r d I s l a n d . Rohner (1967:29) r e p o r t s the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g the " w e l l r e c o g n i z e d s u b d i v i s i o n s " mentioned by Boas: Not o n l y do most people of the G i l f o r d I s l a n d Band not remember the names of the Koeksotenok or Hahuamis numimots, but most of them do not remember the ones t o which they belonged. Almost no c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e s e t r i b a l s u b d i v i s i o n s e x i s t s today, even among the o l d e r p e o p l e who had been a d o l e s c e n t s at the time of Boas' statement. T r o u b l e d by t h i s d i s c o r d , Rohner proposed t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n s which Boas noted must have been l i m i t e d t o the K w a k i u t l t r i b e s of F o r t Rupert and t h e i r c l o s e n e i g h b o r s ( i b i d : 2 9 ) . There i s a problem here! The Qwe'xsot!enox and Haxwa'mis t r i b e s of G i l f o r d are not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t a n t from the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s among whom Boas d i d most of h i s f i e l d work. There are i n s t a n c e s of marriage between th e s e two v i l l a g e groups, they speak the same language, and share most c u l t u r e t r a i t s . Boas most c e r t a i n l y i n t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e of the Qwe'xsot!enox and Haxwa'mis t r i b e s i n h i s statement c o n c e r n i n g t r i b a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l o f f e r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these o b s e r v a t i o n s which d i f f e r from those of Boas and Rohner: an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which i n c o r p o r a t e h i s t o r i c a l change. There i s a consensus among ethnographers who have s t u d i e d K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e over the l a s t c e n t u r y (Boas 1921:1345-1348, C u r t i s 1915 p.138, Drucker 1967:10, Codere 1961:442) t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y was an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of 7 the namima; i t was i n t e g r a l t o the i d e n t i t y o f t h i s descent group. Any d i s p a r i t y observed on the p a r t of the K w a k i u t l c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t y o f the primary u n i t s o f p r o p e r t y t e n u r e s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d as evide n c e of p r o f o u n d change. The namima was the fundamental u n i t o f s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e i n K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y (Boas 1920:115). An i n d i v i d u a l ' s placement w i t h i n t h i s group's descent h i e r a r c h y determined most a s p e c t s of fo r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e d the range of a v a i l a b l e marriage p a r t n e r s , r e s i d e n c e , the e x t e n t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group's c e r e m o n i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and economic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Namima members shared e x c l u s i v e access t o an e s t a t e of r e s o u r c e g a t h e r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . However, the rewards of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b s i s t e n c e e f f o r t s had t o be shared w i t h the whole descent group. The i n t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the namima's wealth r e f l e c t e d the group's h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s mode of d i s t r i b u t i o n was ac c e p t e d as an endemic f e a t u r e of t h i s economy. An a n c i e n t v i l l a g e was composed of a s i n g l e namima. The European c o n t a c t of the l a t e 18th c e n t u r y l e d t o the r a p i d d e c i m a t i o n of Kw a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n . Unable t o meet the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r members, d e p o p u l a t e d namima's j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e new v i l l a g e groups i n the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y . Near the l a s t q u a r t e r of the 19th c e n t u r y the K w a k i u t l e n t e r e d the burgeoning wage economy. T h i s economy was 8 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f l a b o r and the r e c e i p t of rewards u n f e t t e r e d by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of descent group a f f i l i a t i o n . The wage economy p r o v i d e d the cash needed t o a c q u i r e the v a l u e d p r o d u c t s of i n d u s t r i a l Europe. I t became the f o c u s of K w a k i u t l economic a c t i v i t y . The y i e l d from the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy f e l l s h o r t o f the f l e x i b i l i t y and p u r c h a s i n g power of the wage economy's cash remuneration. T h i s encouraged change i n the o l d economy. As the appeal of the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy d i m i n i s h e d , the primary economic b e n e f i t of namima a f f i l i a t i o n eroded. By the end of the 19th c e n t u r y the namima had ceased t o be r e g a r d e d as the primary u n i t of s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e and p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . The i n s t i t u t i o n s which s u p p o r t e d i t s a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e as a s u b s i s t e n c e u n i t had d i s i n t e g r a t e d . The e x c l u s i v e t e r r i t o r i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l namimas became l e s s d i s t i n c t as they no l o n g e r s e r v e d as the p r i n c i p a l b a s i s o f the economy. The independent namimas w i t h i n the v i l l a g e became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e g r a t e d through marriage, exchange, and the group's p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h o t h e r v i l l a g e groups as a s i n g l e c o r p o r a t e u n i t . Namima a f f i l i a t i o n had l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e i n the new work p l a c e as the wage economy was i m p a r t i a l t o the " e x o t i c " s o c i a l i n t r i c a c i e s o f i t s l a b o r f o r c e . A l t h o u g h the t e r r i t o r i e s o f the namima had become e c o n o m i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t they were not r e l i n q u i s h e d . Those 9 i n d i v i d u a l s of h i g h s t a n d i n g i n the descent h i e r a r c h y -m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r t i t l e t o the namima's e s t a t e of t e r r i t o r i e s , s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and the r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t those powers. However, the h i e r a r c h i c a l descent groups s t a t u s as the p r i m a r y u n i t of s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l the K w a k i u t l was d i m i n i s h i n g . The s o c i a l u n i t s were b e i n g r e d e f i n e d t o r e f l e c t the m o b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the new economy. CHAPTER OUTLINE T h i s t h e s i s w i l l b e g i n w i t h the s p e c u l a t i v e r e c o n s t u c t i o n of the namima as a p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g descent group j u s t p r i o r t o European c o n t a c t . The next c h a p t e r w i l l examine the e f f e c t s of European c o n t a c t upon K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n and the t r a d i t i o n a l economy. Chapter f o u r w i l l d e s c r i b e the change i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of the 19th c e n t u r y v i l l a g e group. Change i n the p a t t e r n s of c o r p o r a t e group r e s i d e n c e r e s u l t e d from d e p o p u l a t i o n . However, the 19th c e n t u r y v i l l a g e groups d i d not succeeded the namima as the u n i t of p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Canadian Government i n the c r e a t i o n of the 20th c e n t u r y u n i t s of p r o p e r t y tenure w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here. The l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the response of the t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p to the c h a l l e n g e of s o c i a l change. The s t a t u s of the n o b i l i t y was based upon t h e i r s i t u a t i o n as the f o r m a l h e i r s t o the namima's e s t a t e . T h e i r rank was an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. T h i s was an accurate equation when the namima's e s t a t e was the only source of wealth. When i t became c l e a r t h a t the wage economy o f f e r e d g r e a t e r rewards than the sub s i s t e n c e harvest of the e s t a t e , the value of tha t e s t a t e g r e a t l y d e p r e c i a t e d . Rank was no longer an i n d i c a t i o n of p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. The n o b i l i t y came to a p p r e c i a t e t h a t the wealth of the namima's t e r r i t o r i e s c o u l d not compete w i t h the wealth a v a i l a b l e i n the wage economy. In order t o i n t e g r a t e t h i s new wealth i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l economy, the nouveaux r i c h e s were encouraged t o use t h e i r earnings t o p o t l a t c h f o r a number of high s t a t u s honorary p o s i t i o n s c r e a t e d f o r the s i t u a t i o n . I t was as i f the c h i e f s , faced w i t h the f a l l i n g currency of t h e i r own s t a t u s , p r i n t e d a d d i t i o n a l currency t o buoy t h e i r s t a t u s . This worked f o r a short time u n t i l i t became c l e a r t h a t the currency was not based upon wealth. At t h i s time i n d i v i d u a l s began to a s s e r t t h e i r s t a t u s as independent c r e a t o r s of wealth r a t h e r than h e i r s t o p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the descent group. This change e x e m p l i f i e d the new mode of r e l a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s who had p r e v i o u s l y r e l a t e d as members of a descent group and a subsistence u n i t now c e l e b r a t e d t h e i r independent a c t i v i t i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l became more important than the rank. The c o n c l u s i o n w i l l summarize the t h e s i s , r e c o u n t i n g the changing c o n s t i t u t i o n of the v i l l a g e group, and the s t a t u s of the namima as the primary u n i t of pro p e r t y tenure. 11 ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES T h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n s two area o f p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . The f i r s t i s the p a r t i c u l a r matter of the namima. The study of the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has been a l l but o v e r l o o k e d as the s t u d e n t s of t h i s c u l t u r e f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on glamour areas such as the so c a l l e d " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s " . There have been no p r e v i o u s attempts t o summarize what i s known about the namima. The l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n a c c o r d e d the u n i t s o f K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Boas 1920, Hazard 1960, L e v i - S t r a u s s 1982) has been l i m i t e d t o the d i s c u s s i o n of the namima w i t h i n c l a n s h i p s t u d i e s , and the s t a t i c p o r t r a y a l of the "Kwakiutl s o c i a l system". The namima was an e x p r e s s i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s . As the c h a r a c t e r of r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s changed the namima came t o r e f l e c t t h i s . In the course of h i s t o r y the namima s e r v e d as a u n i t o f economic p r o d u c t i o n and consumption, r e s i d e n c e group, f e s t i v a l d i v i s i o n , and u n i t of p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . However, i t d i d not c o n s i s t e n t l y f u l l f i l a l l of these r o l e s . How can one speak s e n s i b l y o f a u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n without d i s t i n g u i s h i n g among i t s s e v e r a l bases of a f f i l i a t i o n ? The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s s h o u l d c l a r i f y t h i s a mbiguity. The o t h e r matter of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t embraced by t h i s t h e s i s i s the v a l u e of a d i a c h r o n i c or h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s o f ' K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most ethnographers of Boas' g e n e r a t i o n conducted s a l v a g e ethnography: the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an imagined t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . T h i s t r a d i t i o n h a s . s u r v i v e d and i s p r a c t i c e d i n a form d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : By endowing n a t i o n s , s o c i e t i e s , or c u l t u r e s w i t h the q u a l i t i e s of i n t e r n a l l y homogeneous and e x t e r n a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e and bounded o b j e c t s , we c r e a t e a model of the world as a g l o b a l p o o l h a l l i n which the e n t i t i e s s p i n o f f each o t h e r l i k e so many round and h a r d b i l l i a r d b a l l s (Wolf 1.982:6) . In t h i s t h e s i s I p r e s e n t i ndigenous s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . T h i s c o n t e x t i n c l u d e s the f o r c e s of c o l o n i z a t i o n and the growth of complex moneyed economies, and i t r e c o g n i z e s the K w a k i u t l as knowledgeable p a r t i c i p a n t s . The change i n the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was not an i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e . I t was an aspect of the changes which were o c c u r r i n g on a g l o b a l s c a l e , changes which have a l o n g h i s t o r y and which c o n t i n u e . While contemporary a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s advocate the h i s t o r i c a l reassessment of c u l t u r e , t h e r e are s t i l l too few s t u d i e s of t h i s n a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the N a t i v e Peoples of the Northwest Coast. 13 INFORMATION SOURCES The p r i n c i p a l p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t a ddressed i n t h i s t h e s i s b e g i n s j u s t p r i o r t o the time of the f i r s t European presence on the Northwest c o a s t t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the way through the 18th c e n t u r y . Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n examined here o r i g i n a t e s a f t e r t h i s p o i n t . While a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data and r e c o r d e d o r a l t r a d i t i o n s f u r n i s h the framework f o r K w a k i u t l p r e h i s t o r y , much of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s c u l t u r e ' s a n c i e n t p a s t i s based upon s p e c u l a t i o n . The prima r y s o c i a l changes examined i n t h i s t h e s i s o c c u r between the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y and 1950. Contemporary K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be r e g a r d e d as a p e r i p h e r a l matter. There i s an abundance of e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f the K w a k i u t l p e o p l e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , assembled i n an attempt t o r e c r e a t e an imagined t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , r e q u i r e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n a framework of change. Most of the Kw a k i u t l e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e today was c o l l e c t e d by a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s . There i s p r o b a b l y no need t o d e s c r i b e the b r e a d t h of Franz Boas' e t h n o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g s . The " f i v e f o o t s h e l f " o f Boas' e t h n o g r a p h i c p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g most f a c e t s of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e i s a r e s o u r c e v a l u e d f o r i t s d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . His roughly f o r t y - f i v e y e ars o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the Kw a k i u t l stemmed from e i g h t f i e l d v i s i t s and an extended working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h George Hunt, a F o r t Rupert based N a t i v e ethnographer t r a i n e d by Boas (Codere 1969: x x x i ) . Boas' maturing a p p r e c i a t i o n of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e was r e f l e c t e d i n h i s c o n s t a n t reworking of m a t e r i a l s c a s t i n new l i g h t . Much' of t h i s i l l u m i n a t i o n r e s u l t e d from Hunt's f a m i l i a r i t y and ease of movement among the K w a k i u t l . H i s i n t i m a t e involvement a l l o w e d him t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r o b l e m a t i c areas i n Boas' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s c u l t u r e . Boas was i n c l i n e d towards a c o n s e r v a t i v e p i c t u r e of a c u l t u r e i n the midst of r a p i d - f i r e change. He was more concerned with, "the way i t was", r a t h e r than, "the way i t was becoming". Boas' s t a t i c "snap s h o t s " of the K w a k i u t l r e q u i r e reworking i n t o a scheme which acknowledges t h e i r p a r t as knowledgeable a c t o r s amidst the c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s p e r i o d . I mention Boas and Hunt here as they are the p r i m a r y e t h n o g r a p h i c data source employed i n t h i s t h e s i s . Edward S. C u r t i s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e , w h i l e not as voluminous as Boas', o f f e r s a coherent p i c t u r e of c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s without b e l a b o r i n g d e t a i l . C u r t i s a l s o employed Hunt as h i s primary informant. A s i g n i f i c a n t degree of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s c u l t u r e has r e s u l t e d from Hunt's e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The p u b l i s h e d work of P h i l i p Drucker w i l l be r e f e r r e d to on s e v e r a l key i s s u e s as h i s i n t e r e s t s f ocus upon K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e i n t r a n s i t i o n d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . H i s • 15 i n f o r m a n t s , C h a r l e s Nowell and Ed Whonnuck l i v e d t hrough t h i s p e r i o d and o f f e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the changes t h a t were o c c u r r i n g . Drucker's work w i l l be used t o d i s t i n g u i s h the spheres of r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i o u s u n i t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The u n p u b l i s h e d e t h n o g r a p h i c f i e l d notes of P h i l i p Drucker and W i l s o n Duff have proven a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e i n the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s study. There i s no doubt t h a t the deeper one d e l v e s i n t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s o u r c e base, the more m a t e r i a l one f i n d s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s proves to be a c r e a t i v e and joyous e n t e r p r i s e l i m i t e d o n l y by the demands of time. E t h n o h i s t o r i c s t u d i e s by I n g l i s (1988), I n g l i s and Haggarty (1985,1986), and G o l l a (1987) d e p i c t the h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s of the Northwest Coast as they developed w i t h i n the maelstrom of p o s t - c o n t a c t c o n d i t i o n s . T h e i r works c h a l l e n g e the a n t i q u i t y of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and urge the i n c l u s i o n of h i s t o r i c i n f l u e n c e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n . T h e i r approach s e r v e s as a model i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c K w a k i u t l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A r e c e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n by Boyd (1985) adds substance t o the depth of i n f o r m a t i o n concerning, the h i s t o r i c d e p o p u l a t i o n of the Northwest Coast. T h i s study p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r a chronology of the presence of i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s i n t h i s c u l t u r e a r e a . Boyd's c o n t r i b u t i o n p e r m i t s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d e p o p u l a t i o n as an element r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c u l t u r e change. The i n t e r p r e t i v e works of F i s h e r (1977) and K n i g h t (1978) p r o v i d e e v o c a t i v e views of the e f f e c t s o f c o l o n i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c u l t u r e upon the c u l t u r e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . F i s h e r ' s demarcation of h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s p r o v e d t o be of u t i l i t y when e v a l u a t i n g the i n t e n s i t y of p o s t - c o n t a c t i n f l u e n c e s . Knight i d e n t i f i e d the pace and e x t e n t of N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the 19th c e n t u r y wage economy. The j o u r n a l s of sea c a p t a i n s , Hudson's Bay Company t r a d e r s , and I n d i a n A f f a i r s agents p r o v i d e a wealth of f i r s t hand r e p o r t s . These r e c o r d s r e l a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r a u t h o r s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v e d p i v o t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c r e d i b l e p i c t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n between th e s e agents of change and the N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . The b i o g r a p h i c a l p o r t r a i t s of 19th and 20th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l men and women p r o v i d e a N a t i v e view of the changes o c c u r r i n g . Ford's (1941) biography of C h i e f C h a r l e s Nowell i s as f r e s h as i t i s i n f o r m a t i v e . My a p p r e c i a t i o n of 20th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l i n s t i t u t i o n s was g r e a t l y augmented by d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l e l d e r s born d u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Harry Assu and Ruby Wilson i n Cape Mudge, Margaret Cook i n A l e r t Bay, and Tom W i l l i e and E l s i e W i l l i a m s i n Hopetown, have been p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the 19th c e n t u r y i n contemporary terms. C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h younger K w a k i u t l men and women, e s p e c i a l l y Robert Joseph i n A l e r t Bay, C h r i s Cook and W e d l i d i Speck i n Vancouver have a s s i s t e d the development of my a p p r e c i a t i o n of the contemporary f a c e of o l d e r t r e n d s . 18 CHAPTER II THE NAMIMA INTRODUCTION In t h i s c h a p t e r the namima w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d as the fundamental r e f e r e n c e group f o r matters of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p r o p e r t y , r e s i d e n c e , k i n s h i p , rank, e t c . The namima's a l l e g e d o r i g i n s were the b a s i s of the c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y upon which a l l members depended. C l a i m i n g descent from a common an c e s t o r , r e a l or imagined, namima members e s t a b l i s h e d the e x c l u s i v i t y o f t h e i r domain. Namima p r o p e r t y was regarded as the s p e c i a l l e g a c y o f the fo u n d i n g a n c e s t o r . I t s c h a r a c t e r was d e s c r i b e d i n terms of h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n the landscape. Namima members e x p r e s s e d a s t r o n g attachment t o the s t r e t c h e s of beach, and r i v e r s e t c . where t h e i r f o u n d i n g f a t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d h i s d w e l l i n g s . Namima t e r r i t o r i e s were c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a d i s c r e t e r e g i o n bounded by the proposed l i m i t s o f a n c e s t r a l h a b i t a t i o n . The areas beyond the l i m i t s of a namima's t e r r i t o r i e s were unapproachable. The v i o l a t i o n o f a namima's e x c l u s i v e domain was tantamount t o c h a l l e n g i n g t h a t group's r i g h t o f i n h e r i t a n c e : the r i g h t of e x c l u s i v e a c c e s s t o the p r o p e r t y upon which the namima depended. In t h i s r e s p e c t the namima was a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , independent " l o c a l v i l l a g e group". 19 I t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n a n c i e n t times a l l wealth was a c q u i r e d from namima t e r r i t o r i e s as a r i g h t of i n h e r i t a n c e . There was no ot h e r source o f wealt h . The a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the namima's v a l u e as an economic u n i t depends upon the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s e n t i t y ' s s u c c e s s f u l maintenance o f e x c l u s i v e t i t l e t o the s u b s i s t e n c e base. As l o n g as p r o p e r t y access was a c h i e v e d e x c l u s i v e l y through a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h i s u n i t , the namima remained the pr i m a r y b a s i s o f a f f i l i a t i o n . The d e l i n e a t i o n o f the a n c i e n t t e r r i t o r i e s o f the namimas' i s c o m p l i c a t e d by a number of f a c t o r s . The v a l u e o f l i n e a g e s t o r i e s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains, and e c o l o g i c a l models i n t h i s t a s k w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the course o f t h i s c h a p t e r . THE NAMIMA IS A DESCENT GROUP The term "namima" i s an a n g l i c i z e d v e r s i o n o f the Kwak'wala word used t o d e s i g n a t e what was a t one time the pri m a r y u n i t o f Kwa k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s term has been t r a n s l a t e d as " b r o t h e r s . . . without r e g a r d t o the s e n i o r i t y p r i n c i p l e which i s s t r e s s e d i n everyday k i n s h i p usage" (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:10). Boas (1966:37) t r a n s l a t e s the term namima as "one k i n d " . I t i s p r o b a b l y b e s t understood as "house", i n the sense o f the European medieval house ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1982:176). L e v i - S t r a u s s (op.cit.174) draws t h i s comparison i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: 20 We are, t h e r e f o r e , i n the presence of one and the same i n s t i t u t i o n : a c o r p o r a t e body h o l d i n g an e s t a t e made up of m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l wealth, which p e r p e t u a t e s i t s e l f t hrough the t r a n s m i s s i o n of i t s name, i t s goods, and i t s t i t l e s down a r e a l or imaginary l i n e , c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e as l o n g as t h i s c o n t i n u i t y can express i t s e l f i n the language of k i n s h i p or of a f f i n i t y and, most o f t e n , of b o t h . The namima was p r i m a r i l y an independent v i l l a g e community much l i k e the p r e - c o n t a c t v i l l a g e communities of the Nu-Cha-Nulth (Drucker 1951 p.85), Coast S a l i s h (Boas 1920:123), H e i l t z u k (Pomeroy 1980:223), and B e l l a C o o l a peoples ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1982:170). Boas (1966:47) e s t i m a t e d t h a t the average namima p o p u l a t i o n was one hundred p e r s o n s . I t s membership was reckoned by m u l t i l i n e a l descent from a common f o r e f a t h e r , r e a l or imaginary. The c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s group c l o s e l y resembles George Murdock's (1960:11) d e f i n i t i o n of the "ramage". "Ramages...", Murdock ( i b i d ) s t a t e s , " ....are the p r e c i s e f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t s of l i n e a g e s . " However, u n l i k e l i n e a g e s , ramages are " n o n - e x c l u s i v e " i n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l may e n t e r t a i n membership i n more than one ramage c o n c u r r e n t l y . Murdock ( i b i d ) suggested t h a t the namima s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an " o p t a t i v e - n o n e x c l u s i v e " ramage, as an i n d i v i d u a l 'could choose (or have chosen f o r him) membership among s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e u n i t s . The e x p r e s s i o n of the o p t a t i v e n o n e x c l u s i v e aspect of namima membership a c h i e v e d baroque p r o p o r t i o n s i n the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . In e a r l i e r times i t appears t h a t o n l y a few i n d i v i d u a l s were 21 engaged i n membership beyond t h e i r namima of p r i m a r y a f f i l i a t i o n (Boas 1920:115). Residence, Murdock (1960:11) e x p l a i n e d , i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r o f prim a r y namima membership a f f i l i a t i o n . He advanced t h a t , Whenever kin- g r o u p a f f i l i a t i o n i s n o n - e x c l u s i v e , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p l u r a l memberships almost i n e v i t a b l y become s e g r e g a t e d i n t o one primary membership, which i s s t r o n g l y a c t i v a t e d by r e s i d e n c e , and one or more secondary memberships i n which p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s o n l y p a r t i a l or o c c a s i o n a l . T h i s p a t t e r n of namima a f f i l i a t i o n and r e s i d e n c e was d e s c r i b e d by Boas (1948:360) as he observed t h a t , An i n d i v i d u a l may share membership i n more than one numimot, but he c l e a r l y tends t o be a f f i l i a t e d more c l o s e l y w i t h one than w i t h o t h e r s . Dominant a f f i l i a t i o n i s u s u a l l y dependent on r e s i d e n c e . ' Namima independence was founded upon the group's unique i n h e r i t a n c e . The t e r r i t o r i e s , c e r e m o n i a l p r i v i l e g e s , s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and movable o b j e c t s employed by a namima were c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r e x c l u s i v e h e r i t a g e . The l e g i t i m a c y of namima e x c l u s i v i t y was based upon the h e i r s ' c l a i m t o unbroken descent from a s p e c i a l a n c e s t o r , r e f e r r e d t o w i t h names such as " c h i e f r o o t " , or " c h i e f ahead" (Boas 1966:42). The l i n e s o f descent e s t a b l i s h e d by the o f f s p r i n g o f the f i r s t a n c e s t o r formed a " n o b i l i t y " at the core of the namima (Boas 1897:338). I t was t h i s noble l i n e t h a t gave the namima i t s d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y . At the head of the descent group was the c h i e f , or, " g i a l a x a " (southern K w a k i u t l s u b - d i a l e c t ) , which s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as " f i r s t t o come down" (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:11). T h i s term a l l u d e s t o the descent of the o r i g i n a l a n c e s t o r from the realm o f the s p i r i t s t o a p l a c e on the E a r t h where he became human-like and founded h i s l i n e a g e . 0'maxt'alaLe, the s p e c i a l a n c e s t o r o f the Gi'gElgam ("the f i r s t ones") namima of the Q!o'moyae, was the son of a b e i n g whose descent i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : "A b i r d was s i t t i n g on the beach at T E n g i s . He took o f f h i s mask, and then h i s name was NEmogwis. He became a man. (Boas 1897:382) Boas d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r o c e s s as one i n which the a n c e s t o r i n h i s s p e c i a l form "...took o f f h i s mask and became s e c u l a r ( B o a s 1920:126). The f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r ' s s p e c i a l o r i g i n was the primary b a s i s f o r the l e g i t i m a c y of the t i t l e t o the t e r r i t o r y where he descended. Rank w i t h i n the namima was based upon the p r i n c i p l e o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e " t h a t i s , degree of k i n s h i p t o the d i r e c t l i n e of descent from the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y a n c e s t o r " (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:10). T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n was s a i d t o have been c r e a t e d by the namima's i n i t i a l earthbound g e n e r a t i o n s . Rank i s p r o b a b l y b e s t understood i n the con t e x t o f i n h e r i t a n c e . Framing i t i n t h i s l i g h t , Boas (1897:338-339) e x p l a i n e d t h a t , . . . . t h e r e i s o n l y one man at a time who p e r s o n a t e s the a n c e s t o r and who, consequently, has h i s rank and p r i v i l e g e s . The i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s o n a t i n g the a n c e s t o r s form the n o b i l i t y of the t r i b e . The number of noblemen i s t h e r e f o r e f i x e d . The t y p i c a l g e n e a l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of each namima stemmed from a f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n composed of at l e a s t f o u r sons. The e l d e s t son of the f i r s t a n c e s t o r h e l d the h i g h e s t ranked p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the namima. His e l d e s t son would e v e n t u a l l y 23 i n h e r i t t h a t p o s i t i o n . The f i r s t a n c e s t o r ' s second son e s t a b l i s h e d the second h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n . H i s e l d e s t son would i n h e r i t t h a t rank. B r o t h e r s of a s t a n d i n g f u r t h e r back i n the b i r t h o r d e r would o f t e n r e c e i v e no s i g n i f i c a n t rank. A l t h o u g h they might be the sons of the h i g h e s t ranked noble c h i e f , t h o s e l a t e i n the o r d e r of b i r t h had no r i g h t of noble i n h e r i t a n c e . Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:11) suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s had some s t a t u s as p o t e n t i a l h e i r s . T h i s stemmed from t h e i r r i g h t to succeed t h e i r o l d e r b r o t h e r s i n the event of an u n t i m e l y death. E.S. C u r t i s shared L e v i - S t r a u s s ' (1982:174) view of the namima as an i n s t i t u t i o n a k i n t o the European noble house. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s e x p r e s s e d i n C u r t i s ' (1915:138) d e s c r i p t i o n of the system of ranked p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the namima: In each gens [namima] i s a d e f i n i t e number of " s e a t s " , which c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d to the h e r e d i t a r y peerages of c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y i n t h a t they were c o n s t i t u t e d i n a n c i e n t times, and t h a t t o each p e r t a i n c e r t a i n names, c r e s t s , s p e c i a l c e r e m o n i a l p r i v i l e g e s , and t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s as t o f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g v e g e t a l food. The s e a t s of the a r i s t o c r a c y were c r e a t e d (so the legends r e l a t e ) at the time of the f o u n d i n g of the gens, s i n c e when none o t h e r s have been c r e a t e d . That n o b i l i t y can be a t t a i n e d by p e r s o n a l power or t h a t new ranks can be c o n s t i t u t e d by any agency, i s to the K w a k i u t l q u i t e u n t h i n k a b l e ) . The ranked s t r u c t u r e of the namima resembles the " a m b i l a t e r a l c l a n s " d e s c r i b e d by Paul K i r c h o f f (1955:6-7) i n h i s study of " c l a n s h i p " o r g a n i z a t i o n . In r e s p e c t t o h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a n s h i p s t r u c t u r e K i r c h o f f ( i b i d ) a s s e r t s : 24 . . . i t i s p r e c i s e l y the nearness of r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the common a n c e s t o r of the group which m a t t e r s . . . C l a n membership so t o speak shades o f f the f a r t h e r one i s away from the c e n t e r - l i n e of the c l a n - the r e a l core of the group. T h i s c o r e , the a r i s t o i , c o n s i s t s of those who are, or who are supposed t o be descendants of the common a n c e s t o r of the c l a n . The membership of these s m a l l independent u n i t s was b r o a d e r than s e v e r a l r e l a t e d l i n e s of descent. Having s t u d i e d the g e n e a l o g i e s of a number of noble l i n e a g e s Boas found i n s t a n c e s of s e l e c t i v e endogamy w h i l e the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e was t h a t of exogamy (Boas 1920:117). L e v i - S t r a u s s (1982:183) suggests t h a t the v a r i a t i o n between exogamous and endogamous marriages might have been s t r a t e g i c a l l y geared t o the a c q u i s i t i o n or r e t e n t i o n of l i n e a g e wealth. K i r c h o f f (1955:7) m a i n t a i n s t h a t the endogamous p r a c t i c e s of the a r i s t o i were arranged so as t o b r i n g the progeny of the h i g h born " s t i l l h i g h e r descent". These p o s i t i o n s are not i n c o n f l i c t . Those of noble descent arranged marriages w i t h the h i g h born of o t h e r namimas l i v i n g i n c l o s e g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y . M a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s were a l s o found among f e l l o w namima members of " d i f f e r e n t d escent". T h i s a d d i t i o n a l membership s e c t o r w i t h i n the namima was composed of i n d i v i d u a l s who were s a i d t o have j o i n e d the f i r s t a n c e s t o r or h i s descendants as common members at some e a r l y time (Boas 1920:114). Boas (1966:44) wrote t h a t , "... these o t h e r s , a c c e p t e d as members, form the common people, a l s o c a l l e d the "house men ( b E g w i ' l ) " of the c h i e f . " I t i s not c l e a r how t h i s s e c t o r o f the namima came to be. "House men" may have l e f t t h e i r o r i g i n a l namima as a r e s u l t o f i n t e r n a l d i s s e n t i o n . They may have been e n s l a v e d c a p t i v e s o r t h e lone s u r v i v o r s o f h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h d i s t a n t n e i g h b o r s . There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the degree o f m o b i l i t y enjoyed by those w i s h i n g t o l e a v e t h e i r , group, b u t I would s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h i s would r e s u l t i n meager rewards. In the mythology of the Kw a k i u t l the namima members of d i f f e r e n t d e s c e n t a r e d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g c r e a t e d , transformed, or r e c r u i t e d at the w i l l o f the f i r s t a n c e s t o r . In one i n s t a n c e the non-noble members of a Smith I n l e t group are s a i d t o have been t r a n s f o r m e d from the eggs of a s e a g u l l ; the women were c r e a t e d from the s h e l l s and the men from t h e i r c o n t e n t s (Boas 1935:43). Another myth r e c o u n t s the e f f o r t s of the f i r s t a n c e s t o r , Ha'naLeno, as he r e c r u i t s the members of h i s namima from t h e i r p e r c h on l o g s s e t a d r i f t d u r i n g the g r e a t f l o o d ( i b i d ) . The t e n o r o f these myths supports the n o t i o n t h a t i t was d e s i r a b l e t o have namima members e x t e r n a l t o the c e n t r a l l i n e a g e b u t t h a t t h e power t o a d m i t o u t s i d e r s was a p r e r o g a t i v e o f the h e r e d i t a r y f o u n d e r s . These myths a l s o s t r e s s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of o u t s i d e r s w i t h i n the namimas from the very s t a r t of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . 26 THE NAMIMA IS A UNIT OF PROPERTY TENURE Many o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the namima as a u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n concern the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and p r o t e c t i o n of c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y . T h i s i s apparent i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s e n t i t y and was e x p r e s s e d i n t he s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between namima members. A d i s c u s s i o n o f the s e i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d l e a d t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o p e r t y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f these a n c i e n t v i l l a g e groups. While the ranked p o s i t i o n s o f the n o b i l i t y were the r e p o s i t o r y o f h e r e d i t a r y p o s s e s s i o n s , t h i s p r o p e r t y " . . . . r e a l l y belonged t o the b a s i c s o c i a l group...": t h a t i s , a l l namima members (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:11). Drucker and H e i z e r propose t h a t the namima s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a " k i n s h i p group" whose i n h e r i t a n c e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by i t s ranked n o b i l i t y . 3 K i r c h o f f (1955:8) suggests t h a t t h i s i s t y p i c a l o f the comp l e x i t y o f c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n c l a n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . He a s s e r t s t h a t , ...some members of the c l a n may be c h i e f s and near gods, w h i l e o t h e r s , at the o p p o s i t e end of the s c a l e , may be s l a v e s : yet a l l of them are regarded as r e l a t i v e s , and i n many cases are a b l e t o prove i t . The s a n c t i t y of namima p r o p e r t y seems t o have been c o m p l e t e l y r o o t e d i n the c o n v i c t i o n o f i t s o r i g i n s as the •3 T h i s i s not f a r from Boas' (1966:48) view of namimas as " . . . . e s s e n t i a l l y household groups and the n e a r e s t r e l a t i v e s of those who m a r r i e d i n t o the household group." 27 i n v i o l a b l e h e r i t a g e o f the descent group. S t o r i e s o f the f i r s t a n c e s t o r ' s e x p l o i t s s e r v e d t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the namima's e s t a t e . The b r e a d t h o f t h i s e s t a t e encompassed a l l o f the powers, and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f powers, a c q u i r e d from the s p i r i t realm by t h e o r i g i n a l a n c e s t o r and h i s descendants. The m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s o f the namima may be enumerated as f o l l o w s : The r i c h e s o f the numaym, however, were not e x c l u s i v e l y o f a s p i r i t u a l o r d e r . In a d d i t i o n t o o b j e c t s such as masks, headdresses, p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e s , c e r e m o n i a l d i s h e s , e t c . , they i n c l u d e d a landed e s t a t e made up of h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , streams, f i s h i n g s i t e s , and the l o c a t i o n o f weirs (which are a l s o used f o r f i s h i n g ) ( L e v i -S t r a u s s 1982 : 168) . The p r o p e r t y of the namima was passed t o s u c c e s s i v e h e i r s w i t h the name of the o r i g i n a l p r o p e r t y h o l d e r : one of the r a n k i n g members of the a n c i e n t genealogy. These names d i d not l e a v e the namima. George Hunt p r o v i d e d Boas (1921:823-824) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t : I w i l l name the names of one of the head c h i e f s o f one of the numayms of the K w a k i u t l t r i b e s . They never changed t h e i r names from the b e g i n n i n g , when the f i r s t human b e i n g s e x i s t e d i n the world; f o r the names can not go out of the f a m i l y o f the head c h i e f s o f the numayms, o n l y t o the e l d e s t one of the c h i l d r e n of the head c h i e f . And the names cannot be g i v e n t o the husband of the daughter, none of the whole number of the names, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the ten-months c h i l d ' s name u n t i l he tak e s the name of h i s f a t h e r , the name of the head c h i e f . These are c a l l e d "myth names." The o n l y names of the head c h i e f o f the numayms t h a t can be g i v e n i n marriage are the names he o b t a i n s i n marriage from h i s f a t h e r s - i n - l a w , and a l s o the p r i v i l e g e s , f o r he cannot g i v e h i s own p r i v i l e g e s t o h i s son-in-law. These i n h e r i t a n c e r u l e s express a s t r o n g concern f o r the c o n t i n u i t y of the l o c a l v i l l a g e group through the r e t e n t i o n of t i t l e . w i t h i n the l i n e s of descent. I f thes e r u l e s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f an a t t i t u d e i t would p r o b a b l y be a k i n t o one e x p r e s s e d i n C u r t i s ' (1915:43) r e c o r d o f the sentiment r e g a r d i n g i n a l i e n a b l e p r o p e r t y i n K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y . He w r i t e s as f o l l o w s : ....These h e r e d i t a r y p o s s e s s i o n s cannot be s o l d or g i v e n away; t o do so would be t o rob unborn descendants... In t h i s e x c e r p t C u r t i s seems t o have a r t i c u l a t e d the descent group's e x p e c t a t i o n f o r the c o n t i n u i t y o f i t s genealogy and the r i g h t f u l passage of p r o p e r t y through the g e n e r a t i o n s . Namima p r o p e r t y i s the s p e c i a l endowment of the f i r s t a n c e s t o r . I t was i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o the i d e n t i t y of the group i t s e l f . P r o p e r t y was c o n c e i v e d as an a t t r i b u t e of descent and group a f f i l i a t i o n . There was no o t h e r means of a c h i e v i n g access t o r e s o u r c e s . P r o p e r t y remained an i n a l i e n a b l e aspect of the namima as l o n g as i t r e t a i n e d i t s c h a r a c t e r as an independent k i n s h i p group. A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n suggests t h a t the K w a k i u t l viewed the noble l i n e a g e s as the a p p r o p r i a t e body t o r e c e i v e p r o p e r t y on the namima's b e h a l f . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of the " c h i e f l y t r i b u t e " . Hunt d e s c r i b e s t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n f o r Boas (1921:1337-1338) as f o l l o w s : Of a l l the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of food, a l i t t l e i s g i v e n t o the c h i e f by those who belong t o h i s numaym: clams, mussels, and s m a l l mussels, and horse clams. Of a l l o f these, a l i t t l e i s g i v e n t o the w i f e of the c h i e f by the woman who d i g s s h e l l f i s h , - e n o u g h t o be eaten by •the wife., o f the c h i e f . . .This i s done w i t h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s o b t a i n e d by hunters and sea 29 h u n t e r s and canoe b u i l d e r s . The canoe i s g e n e r a l l y g i v e n to the c h i e f . Boas (op.cit.:1333-1338) i n d i c a t e s , i n the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n my Appendix A,- t h a t the t r i b u t e was a more or l e s s u n i f o r m t a x . The l i m i t s of t h i s v o l u n t a r y t r i b u t e are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: When the c h i e f i s a good man, he does not t ake the goat away from the hunter by f o r c e , and the good c h i e f never t h i n k s t h a t o n e - h a l f g i v e n t o him by the hunter i s not enough. I f a c h i e f i s bad, he wishes more than h a l f t o be given...(he) may k i l l the goat hunter, but g e n e r a l l y the goat hunter k i l l s the bad c h i e f . . . (op.cit.:1334) T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d the m a t e r i a l s f o r the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n which a l l o w e d the c h i e f t o e n t e r i n t o a number of a c t i v i t i e s on b e h a l f of the namima. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , canoe b u i l d i n g , f e a s t i n g and p o t l a t c h i n g were supp o r t e d i n t h i s manner. While the c h i e f l y t r i b u t e was c o n s i d e r e d an a p p r o p r i a t e acknowledgement of the n oble l i n e a g e ' s domain and r i g h t of i n h e r i t a n c e , the e n t i r e namima b e n e f i t e d from t h i s arrangement. P o t l a t c h e s and f e a s t s were f e s t i v a l s o f f e r e d by one group t o one or s e v e r a l o t h e r s . The p o t l a t c h was an a n c i e n t forum f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the host group's c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y as w e l l as the s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n i t s membership. The guest group(s) w i t n e s s e d the h o s t ' s formal v a l i d a t i o n of t h e i r s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y . P o t l a t c h e s were h e l d when s t a t u s changes were o c c u r r i n g through i n h e r i t a n c e , marriage, and passage through age grades. The c e r e m o n i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y i n v o l v e d a l l members of the host group. The v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e s i d e n t i f i e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p l a c e w i t h i n the i n t e g r a t e d body. The s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n the guest group was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d i n the p o t l a t c h . Honors, e x p r e s s e d i n the s e a t i n g arrangement, and, the or d e r and magnitude of wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n , acknowledged f o r m a l s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s among the i n v i t e d g u e s t s . F e a s t s e x p r e s s e d the i d e n t i t y , a n c e s t r y , and p r o p e r t y o f the namima as a c o r p o r a t e e n t i t y r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g upon i t s i n t e r n a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the or d e r o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of food, the c h a r a c t e r o f the wealth d i s t r i b u t e d , and the c l a i m s made at the r e s p e c t i v e g a t h e r i n g s (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:46, Boas 1921:1025-1027). Drucker's i n f o r m a n t s Mr. Nowell and Mr. Whonnuck a s s e r t e d t h a t p o t l a t c h e s were few and f a r between i n the a n c i e n t p e r i o d . F e a s t s , on the o t h e r hand, were o f t e n g i v e n . The goods assembled f o r the c h i e f ' s f e a s t s and p o t l a t c h e s drew on the e f f o r t s and r e s o u r c e s of t h e e n t i r e namima (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:34-36). The noble l i n e a g e was the channel, or, r e c e p t a c l e f o r the i n h e r i t a n c e o f the f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r ' s e s t a t e ; the e s t a t e upon which the e n t i r e namima depended. Although f e a s t s were g i v e n i n the name of the n o b i l i t y , t he e n t i r e namima shared i n the p r e s t i g e o f the event. When approaching the matter of t h e i r u n i f i e d i n t e r e s t s as members of a common descent group, the namima members addressed the l i n e a g e head wi t h the vow, " . . . I am the body of your numaym, c h i e f " (op.cit.:1343-1344). Those f e a s t e d were, u n d e r s t a n d a b l y enough, n e i g h b o r i n g v i l l a g e groups w i t h whom the h o s t s were i n r e g u l a r c o n t a c t due t o g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y and numerous a f f i n a l r e l a t i o n s . I t i s important t o note here t h a t v i l l a g e groups f e a s t i n g each o t h e r would have shared t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s and, "... at times even h e l d a d j o i n i n g t r a c t s on f i s h i n g grounds and the l i k e . . . . " (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:39). F e a s t i n g songs s t r e s s e d the c o n t i n u i t y of the h o s t ' s descent from the s p e c i a l a n c e s t o r t o the contemporary b e a r e r of t h a t a n c e s t o r ' s name. These songs, c o u p l e d w i t h the s t o r i e s t o l d of the f i r s t a n c e s t o r ' s e x p l o i t s , s e r v e t o "map" out a g e o g r a p h i c a l area which was the h o s t ' s l e g i t i m a t e h e r i t a g e . 4 A n c e s t r a l s t o r i e s and f e a s t i n g songs comprise a p r e s e n t a t i o n which "documents the l e g a l " r i g h t " of a group t o f i s h , hunt, and l i v e e t c . on the t e r r i t o r i e s d e s c r i b e d i n the songs e t c . (Reid 1976:305-306). Drucker mentions t h a t t h i s t r a i t was shared w i t h the o t h e r Wakashan-speaking groups on the c o a s t . A g i f t of f o o d o f f e r e d t o those not e n t i t l e d by b i r t h or a f f i l i a t i o n can be regarded as an e x p r e s s i o n of the opposed a s p e c t s of i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s e x c l u s i v e and i n c l u s i v e . The group p r e s e n t i n g the f o o d i l l u s t r a t e s the e x t e n t of t h e i r 4 . See Boas 1897:675 f o r t e r r i t o r i a l r e f e r e n c e s i n a s t o r y of the o r i g i n a l a n c e s t o r of the Gi'gElgam namima of the Qlo'moyae. dominion. They a s s e r t t h e i r e x c l u s i v e access t o the t e r r i t o r y which bears the food. O f f e r i n g f o o d t o the u n e n t i t l e d speaks f o r the h o s t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o admit the guests i n t o the realm of t h e i r e x c l u s i v i t y : o r — t h a t i s , t o e n t e r i n t o an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p . As p r o p e r t y r i g h t s were woven so t i g h t l y i n t o the f a b r i c of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t r e s p a s s i n g was t r e a t e d v e r y s e r i o u s l y . " T r e s p a s s " s h o u l d be unde r s t o o d t o mean the u t i l i z a t i o n or c l a i m t o any power, t e r r i t o r y , or r e s o u r c e without the a p p r o p r i a t e descent or group a f f i l i a t i o n . Such an i n s t a n c e ( t r e s p a s s i n g ) i s h i n t e d at by George Hunt as he l i s t s the h e r a l d i c p o s s e s s i o n s of the Ha'anLena namima of the Qlo'moyae t r i b e . One senses h i s doubt t h a t t h i s namima has complied w i t h the n e c e s s a r y p r o t o c o l i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of a HaanaLena house f r o n t : The c r o s s p i e c e on top of the f r o n t board o u t s i d e o f the house i s the double headed s e r p e n t . They d i d not get i t from anyone. Not one man c l a i m s t o know from whom the numaym HaanaLena got i t . . . ( B o a s 1921: 812-813). T r e s p a s s i n g was t r e a t e d as a c h a l l e n g e t o a namima's dominion: an a t t a c k on the l e g i t i m a c y of t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t . Boas (1921:1344) i l l u s t r a t e s the v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o encroachment upon namima p r o p e r t y as f o l l o w s : The hunters of t h e . d i f f e r e n t numayms cannot go h u n t i n g on the h u n t i n g grounds of the hunters of another numaym; f o r a l l the hunters own t h e i r own h u n t i n g grounds and when a hunter sees t h a t another hunter goes on h i s h u n t i n g ground, then they f i g h t , and g e n e r a l l y one or both are k i l l e d . The same course i s to.be f o l l o w e d upon the v i o l a t i o n o f non-c o r p o r e a l p r o p e r t y . 33 I r v i n g Goldman remarks t h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the p r e s c r i p t i o n of the death p e n a l t y f o r t r e s p a s s i n g . T h i s p e n a l t y , he suggests, " . . . i m p l i e s a m y s t i c a l a t t i t u d e , a view of t e r r i t o r y as a s a c r e d p r e c i n c t p e r t a i n i n g e x c l u s i v e l y t o a p a r t i c u l a r descent l i n e " (Goldman 1975:44). The reader w i l l l a t e r be drawn t o a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the h i s t o r i c change i n t h i s a t t i t u d e . THE TERRITORIAL LIMITS OF HABITATION AND SUBSISTENCE The r e g a r d f o r t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y w i t h i n a w e l l d e f i n e d r e g i o n was expressed i n the namima'' s a b o r i g i n a l (pre-c o n t a c t ) p a t t e r n s of h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use. In o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e the h i s t o r i c changes i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the namima as a p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g u n i t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e p a t t e r n s i n some d e t a i l . As the p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t here dates t o a time j u s t p r i o r t o the presence of f i r s t - h a n d e t h n o g r a p h i c o b s e r v e r s , t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s based upon a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence, r e c o l l e c t i o n , o r a l t r a d i t i o n , and s p e c u l a t i o n . In s p i t e of t h i s the p i c t u r e t h a t emerges appears c r e d i b l e . The t a s k of d e l i n e a t i n g the a n c i e n t t e r r i t o r i e s of the v a r i o u s l o c a l groups w i t h i n the K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e a r e a i s beyond the c u r r e n t r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . S h i f t s i n l o c a l group domain observed d u r i n g the e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d were most l i k e l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t r e n d s begun i n the a n c i e n t p a s t (Boas 1966:44). "Home myths" recount the movement of a n c e s t o r s from the v i l l a g e s i t e of t h e i r o r i g i n a l "descent" t o new h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s (Boas 1966:42, 44, 1897:382, 1935A:79). Time depth i s not a matter of concern i n these t a l e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t n a r r a t i v e s of a f i r s t a n c e s t o r ' s t r a v e l s and encounters were re c o u n t e d i n the c o n t e x t of c u r r e n t n e i g h b o r s and t e r r i t o r i e s r a t h e r than those l o n g abandoned. On the s u b j e c t of an analogous matter (the genealogy of a namima's o r i g i n a l g e n e r a t i o n ) Boas (1897:335) a s s e r t e d t h a t , " I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s are p r o b a b l y not v e r y o l d , and have been m o d i f i e d w i t h the changing s o c i a l l i f e of the p e o p l e . . . " T h i s note of c a u t i o n s h o u l d l i k e l y be extended t o the "home myths". T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the p l a c e s mentioned as the a n c e s t r a l homes of the namimas were never i n h a b i t e d . Many of the p l a c e s named i n "home myths" e x h i b i t i n d i c a t i o n s of h a b i t a t i o n ( o p . c i t . : 3 3 3 - 3 3 4 ) . However, the remnants of h a b i t a t i o n do not o f f e r the d e t a i l of i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h the r e s i d e n t s ' i d e n t i t y and l e n g t h of s t a y . The motives f o r s h i f t s i n t e r r i t o r i a l domain are not p a r t i c u l a r l y t r a n s p a r e n t . The l i n e a g e h i s t o r y of the Le'LEged namima of the Q!omk!UT!ES i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r a move from an e s t a b l i s h e d v i l l a g e s i t e : The a n c e s t o r s of the YaexagEme YiXagEme, l i v e d at X u d z E d z a l i s , at the v i l l a g e s i t e of L E X s i x e ; and Waxaplalaso, and h i s p r i n c e Xaxosenaso, l i v e d on the e a s t s i d e of X u d z E d z a l i s ; and i t i s s a i d t h a t YiXagEme and Waxaplalaso c l a i m e d X u d z E d z a l i s as t h e i r p r o p e r t y . F i n a l l y Waxaplalaso began t o get t i r e d of YiXagEme. He moved away and came to G e k l E x s d E l s w i t h h i s p r i n c e Xaxosenaso, and they b u i l t a house t h e r e . . . (Boas 1921:1121). These s t o r i e s no doubt e v o l v e d over time; r e c e n t changes became i n c o r p o r a t e d at the expense of the more a n c i e n t . The r e c o g n i t i o n of s h i f t s i n namima domain ( h a b i t a t i o n and l a n d use areas) does not d i s c r e d i t the v a l u e of the " s a c r e d p r e c i n c t " as the n a t i v e r a t i o n a l e f o r the c o n t r o l of p r o p e r t y . I t does, however, i l l u s t r a t e the need f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s t o account f o r s h i f t s i n p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and l a n d use p a t t e r n s . S p e c u l a t i o n may l e a d the student t o c o n s i d e r m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s when at t e m p t i n g t o account f o r the e x t e n t of, or s h i f t s i n , namima t e r r i t o r i e s . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y would be c o n s i d e r e d foremost among th e s e . Nature d i d not chose t o d i s t r i b u t e her w ealth e v e n l y throughout the K w a k i u t l r e g i o n . The i n e q u i t i e s found w i t h i n the t e r r a i n of t h i s c u l t u r a l group were not g r e a t when comparing i n l e t w i t h i n l e t . The d i f f e r e n c e s become most acute when c o n t r a s t i n g the deep mainland i n l e t s w i t h the storm b a t t e r e d n o r t h western f r i n g e s . T h i s i n s i d e \ o u t s i d e p a t t e r n i s not unique to the K w a k i u t l . I t i s n oted as d i s t i n g u i s h i n g e c o l o g i c a l zones among o t h e r c u l t u r e groups on the B.C. c o a s t . 5 S e a s o n a l i t y i s the o t h e r major v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of primary r e s o u r c e s on the c o a s t . Seasonal 5. P e r s o n a l communication: P h i l i p Hobler, Dept. of Archaeology, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . See G o l l a ' s (1987:84), c o n t r a s t of the ecology of the s h e l t e r e d i n l e t \ o u t e r i s l a n d groups of the Nu-Cha-Nulth. 36 a v a i l a b i l i t y and n a t u r a l abundance s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as prime f a c t o r s when att e m p t i n g t o account f o r the e x t e n t of the namima's t e r r i t o r i a l domain on an e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s . A r i v e r a t t r a c t s spawning salmon f o r a time and i s then b a r r e n u n t i l the annual c y c l e i s r e p e a t e d . Were the r i v e r choked w i t h f i s h throughout the year a namima's r i v e r f o cus might have been s t r o n g e r . T h i s would i n f l u e n c e the group's s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s and the e x t e n t of t h e i r o v e r a l l domain. As i t was, a namima's t e r r i t o r i e s i n c l u d e d clam f l a t s or h a l i b u t grounds which became the focus of h a r v e s t i n g e n e r g i e s a f t e r the r i v e r ' s bounty was exhausted. The v a r i o u s salmonoid s u b - s p e c i e s , h a l i b u t , o u l i c h a n s , and h e r r i n g spawn were o n l y a v a i l a b l e or i n t h e i r d e s i r e d s t a t e i n s p e c i f i c seasons. So too the cedar bark, and n e t t l e f i b e r s used i n e v e r y t h i n g from c l o t h i n g t o f i s h i n g l i n e . N e t t l e s p r o u t s , f e r n shoots, s a l l a l b e r r i e s , k e l p , and s e a g u l l eggs were no d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Smooth seas, a p p r o p r i a t e weather, and minimum r i s k of a t t a c k by h o s t i l e groups, a l l o w e d the h a r v e s t i n g p a r t i e s to c a r r y out t h e i r t a s k s . The h i s t o r i c e r a K w a k i u t l d i s t i n g u i s h e d the seasons, ( d i v i s i o n s of .the annual c y c l e ) a c c o r d i n g t o r e s o u r c e f o c u s . S u c c e s s f u l f i s h i n g , f o r a g i n g , and p r o c e s s i n g was o f t e n c o n t i n g e n t upon calm seas, low t i d e s , or dry winds. For t h i s reason i n d i v i d u a l groups d i v i d e d the year i n t o u n i t s which r e f l e c t e d t h e i r l o c a l h a r v e s t i n g i n t e r e s t s , and a t t e n d a n t 37 weather or c e l e s t i a l c h a r a c t e r . The nE'mgis had a season c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the month of February c a l l e d " F i r s t -Olachen-Run Moon" when they t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the oulachan h a r v e s t (Boas 1935a:413). Boas (1909:413) noted the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i v i s i o n s of the annual c y c l e by s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l t r i b e s . There are no r a d i c a l c o n t r a s t s apparent. In c e r t a i n p e r i o d s the o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g groups r e f e r t o the season a c c o r d i n g t o o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g c o n cerns. The t r i b e s w i t h no acc e s s t o o u l i c h a n r i v e r s r e f e r t o the same time o f the year a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t s . The Go'sgimEx r e f e r t o the " F i r s t -Olachen-Run Moon" of the nE'mgis as the season when t h e r e i s "No Sap i n Trees ( i b i d ) . " 6 C u r t i s (1915:10) noted t h a t the middle of August u n t i l t he onset o f October was dubbed " f i g h t i n g season".- D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the calm seas and low l y i n g f o g enhanced the success of r a i d i n g p a r t i e s . F o r t i f i e d s t r o n g h o l d s were o f t e n o c c u p i e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a t t a c k s d u r i n g t h i s season. T h i s was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a good time t o s t r a y any d i s t a n c e from s e c u r i t y i n s e a r c h o f f o o d - s t u f f s . Salmon — baked, b o i l e d , b l i s t e r e d , smoked, steamed, stewed, — was the s t a p l e f o o d of the K w a k i u t l p e o p l e . Salmon spawning cree k s and r i v e r s demonstrated v a r i e t y i n p r o d u c t i v i t y due t o the s i z e of t h e i r l o c a l s t o c k , the number 6 . See Tolmie (1963:318) f o r the H e i l t z u k ( B e l l a B e l l a People) names of the moons. of s p e c i e s a t t r a c t e d , and v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from spawning c y c l e s and environmental f a c t o r s . Spawning streams o c c u r r e d r e g u l a r l y enough w i t h i n the r e g i o n of K w a k i u t l h a b i t a t i o n t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t f i s h f o r a l l l o c a l groups (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967: 139). T h i s matter has been debated at l e n g t h (Piddocke 1969, Pomeroy 1980, Donald and M i t c h e l l 1975, S u t t l e s 1968) and w h i l e i t has r e s u l t e d i n i n t e r e s t i n g s c h o l a r s h i p t h e r e i s no b a s i s f o r s u g g e s t i n g salmon sh o r t a g e s i n the r e g i o n of K w a k i u t l h a b i t a t i o n d u r i n g the c o n t a c t e r a or the time c l o s e l y p r e c e d i n g i t . There i s no doubt t h a t a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e salmon stream was a g r e a t l y v a l u e d t r e a s u r e w i t h i n a namima's t e r r i t o r y . Some groups would have more p r o d u c t i v e f i s h i n g s p o t s than t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . There were a l s o c e r t a i n s p e c i e s o f f l o r a and fauna which are absent i n some areas and b o u n t i f u l i n o t h e r s . . ' I t may be p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e an e c o l o g i c a l model f o r the K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e area which d e s c r i b e s the c r i t i c a l r a t i o of people t o r e s o u r c e s . However, these acute t h r e s h o l d s were most l i k e l y w e l l below what was o r d i n a r i l y a c h i e v e d (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:139). The abundance found g e n e r a l l y i n the K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e area would te n d t o o b v i a t e the concern t h a t the s c a r c i t y of r e s o u r c e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s h i f t s i n namima domain. V i l l a g e s i t e l o c a t i o n s addressed concerns s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l . P r o x i m i t y to a beach which p e r m i t t e d the easy 39 l a n d i n g of a canoe i s t y p i c a l of a g e n e r a l s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I f v i l l a g e s i t e s were t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by s i t e use t h e r e are two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of v a l u e : w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use. Resource use s i t e s are g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on w h i l e i n r e s i d e n c e . Winter h a b i t a t i o n s were o f t e n l o c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n ; however, most f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , and g a t h e r i n g o c c u r r e d i n the seasons p r i o r t o w i n t e r . These s i t e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d m u l t i - p u r p o s e i n c h a r a c t e r . T h i s can be s a i d of the v i l l a g e at O ' k l u n a l i s on the Kingcome R i v e r , or the o l d v i l l a g e of the (nE'mgis) Gi'gE.lgam namima on the Nimkish R i v e r . These r i v e r s i t e s a f f o r d e d s e a s o n a l a c c e s s t o spawning f i s h as w e l l as a w i n t e r r e f u g e b e f o r e \ a f t e r the spawning s t o c k s had passed. The w i n t e r v i l l a g e was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a l o n g p e r i o d of s e a s o n a l h a b i t a t i o n i n which r e s o u r c e g a t h e r i n g was not the p rimary f o c u s . The s h e l t e r s used at r e s o u r c e use s i t e s were s m a l l e r and l e s s e l a b o r a t e than the "permanent" s t r u c t u r e s e r e c t e d f o r w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n (Boas 1909:414-417). A s i t e which was o r i g i n a l l y i n h a b i t e d f o r one purpose c o u l d e a s i l y be i n h a b i t e d f o r another. The Mohtenicht s i t e on Mahatta Creek i n Quotsino Sound i s s u s p e c t e d of s e r v i n g as a s e a s o n a l l y o c c u p i e d s i t e , then a w i n t e r haven, and once ag a i n a p l a c e of s e a s o n a l use ( C a r l s o n and H o b l e r 1980:123). 40 T h i s c o u l d w e l l have been the normal run of events r e s u l t i n g from a range of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Pomeroy (1980:166) conc l u d e d t h a t the a b o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t s i t e l o c a t i o n among the B e l l a B e l l a groups was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by movement between v a r i a b l e use s i t e s w i t h i n a l i m i t e d t e r r i t o r y . He s t a t e s t h a t : The s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n which emerges i s one of seven of e i g h t sub-groups or t r i b e s , each w i t h one or more w i n t e r v i l l a g e s and a system or group of v i l l a g e camp s i t e s i n the v i c i n i t y f o r use d u r i n g the s p r i n g , summer and f a l l f o r s u b s i s t e n c e item e x t r a c t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data base f o r the K w a k i u t l i s q u i t e s l i m and i n c o n c l u s i v e ( C a r l s o n and Hobler 1976, M i t c h e l l 1969). I t cannot be r e l i e d upon f o r the depth o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n t e g r a t e d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remnants of w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s and r e s o u r c e use s i t e s l o c a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n do not by themselves c o n s t i t u t e a h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use p a t t e r n . However, the scheme of H e i l t z u k h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use e l a b o r a t e d by Pomeroy (above) can be extended t o the Southern K w a k i u t l w i t h some s u c c e s s . Many a s p e c t s o f t h i s p a t t e r n were r e c o r d e d among the Southern K w a k i u t l d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c e r a ( C u r t i s 1915, Boas 1909) . There was one major d i f f e r e n c e between the a b o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n of H e i l t z u k s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y r e p o r t e d by Pomeroy (1980:166) and t h a t which i s p r o j e c t e d f o r the K w a k i u t l . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . One q u e s t i o n g r e a t l y c o m p l i c a t e s the c r e a t i o n o f a s e t of o p t i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s which were the p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the l i m i t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l namima's t e r r i t o r i a l dominion. I t i s u n c e r t a i n t o what degree l o c a l groups were a b l e t o approach d i v e r s e t e r r i t o r i e s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s t a n t from t h e i r l o c a l a r e a . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of access t o d i s p a r a t e r e g i o n s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of v a l u e d f o o d s t u f f s e t c . can be a p i v o t a l " w i l d c a r d " i n s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c a l models of K w a k i u t l s u b s i s t e n c e b e h a v i o r . Attempts t o d e f i n e the l i m i t s of e c o l o g i c a l systems become r a d i c a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d when f o r c e d t o i n c l u d e v a r i a b l e s as u n l i m i t e d as access t o d i v e r s e t e r r i t o r i e s . There has been some r e c e n t s c h o l a r s h i p (Pomeroy 1980; Donald and M i t c h e l l 1975) d i r e c t e d towards d e m o n s t r a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n , l o c a l group domain, and some elements of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e spawning c y c l e s and a v a i l a b i l i t y of salmon. These models assume l o c a l groups were l i m i t e d , or f r e e , t o t r a v e l beyond t h e i r r e g i o n s i n p u r s u i t of v a l u e d r e s o u r c e s . E c o l o g i c a l models i n s t u d i e s , such as Pomeroy's (1980) a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study of B e l l a B e l l a r e g i o n s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , r e l y on the assumption of l o c a l groups' u n f e t t e r e d movement i n the p u r s u i t of s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the H e i l t z u k c u l t u r a l a r e a . Pomeroy (1980:209) concludes the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g the s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s of these Northern K w a k i u t l groups: A l l but two of the e t h n o g r a p h i c groups ( w i t h i n the B e l l a B e l l a region) had a s u f f i c i e n t salmon r e s o u r c e w i t h i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s . The e x c e p t i o n s , the Weekenoch and Y a l a k l i i d o x , p r o b a b l y o b t a i n e d t h e i r salmon r e s o u r c e from streams i n an a d j a c e n t c u l t u r a l a r e a . 7 However, e a r l i e r i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n Pomeroy (op.cit.:203) admits: I t has yet t o be determined whether the e t h n o g r a p h i c sub-groups "owned" t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y and d i d not a l l o w members of o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h i c groups to o b t a i n salmon from the streams or r i v e r s i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r y , as i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the K w a k i u t l . . . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s f a c t o r c o u l d prove t o be f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the success of a model which must assume f r e e t e r r i t o r i a l access i n o r d e r t o f i t the d a t a . In r e s p e c t t o the u n d e f i n e d l i m i t s of t h i s v a r i a b l e Pomeroy (1985:221) c i t e s S u t t l e ' s (1960:536) statement t h a t , ... t o make what I have s a i d more than s p e c u l a t i o n , we would need much more work on the e c o l o g y of the Northwest Coast, on the r e l a t i o n s of l o c a l groups t o r e s o u r c e s , and on the systems of exchange of f o o d and wealth among groups. Free access t o d i v e r s e t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h i n a c u l t u r e area has been assumed as the " c l a s s i c " c o n t a c t e r a s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t paradigm f o r most Peoples of the Northwest Coast. However, r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l , e t h n o g r a p h i c , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work has c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n the age of the " s e a s o n a l round" among the Nu-Cha-Nulth of Vancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t . The a r e a of the B e l l a B e l l a People ( H e i l t z u k ) i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o have had h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e salmon runs (Pomeroy 1980:101). 43 This subsistence pattern, observed i n the e a r l y 19th century, involved the seasonal migration of whole v i l l a g e groups between a seri e s of resource harvesting s i t e s and d i s t a n t l y located winter habitation s i t e s (Sapir and Swadesh 1978: 27-46) . • ' This pattern would seem to suggest a population density and degree of t e r r i t o r i a l access at odds with the growing record. It i s of i n t e r e s t to explore the di s c o r d between the c l a s s i c and recently a r t i c u l a t e d models (Inglis and Haggarty 1985, 1986; I n g l i s 1988) i n a i d of the best f i t f o r the data introduced i n t h i s t h e s i s . There are many s i m i l a r i t i e s between the l o c a l v i l l a g e groups of the Wakashan Nu-Cha-Nulth and t h e i r Wakashan neighbors, the Kwakiutl. Drucker describes the Nu-Cha-Nulth independent v i l l a g e group as having formed around a noble lineage possessing property comparable to that of the Kwakiutl noble lineages. The members of t h i s lineage, he adds, acknowledged t h e i r descent from a s i n g l e ancestor (Drucker 1951:220) . Susan Golla's work concerning the. l o c a l v i l l a g e group of the Nu-Cha-Nulth advances that the legendary h i s t o r y of the leading c h i e f ' s family commences with the creation of the f i r s t progenitor by beings who descend from the sky. These h i s t o r i e s recount the a c q u i s i t i o n of power from the supernatural, as well as describing the t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s and complex of r e l a t i o n s between neighboring groups l i n k e d 44 through b l o o d and marriage ( G o l l a 1987:86). The n a t i v e term f o r t h e s e l o c a l v i l l a g e groups i s , " ? u s h t a q i m l " , which i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as " . . . f a m i l y , f a m i l y l i n e , or l i n e a g e . . . " (1987:86). S i t e data, from I n g l i s and Haggarty's (1985:22) e x t e n s i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey of c o n t a c t e r a and p r e -h i s t o r i c Nu-Cha-Nulth h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s , l e d them t o h y p o t h e s i z e the s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : A r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from areas t h a t have been s u r v e y e d i n t e n s i v e l y argues f o r the e x i s t e n c e of numerous r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , independent groups e x p l o i t i n g r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n s o c i a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s from year round v i l l a g e s . T h i s p a t t e r n , observed i n Nootka Sound i n 1778, was a l t e r e d e a r l y and r a d i c a l l y i n response t o Euro-American c o n t a c t . I n g l i s and Haggarty found support f o r t h i s t h e s i s w i t h i n the e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n f u r n i s h e d by W.J. F o l a n ' s (1972:173) u n p u b l i s h e d d i s s e r t a t i o n . F o l a n a s s e r t s t h a t : One of Drucker's i n f o r m a n t s t o l d him, as s e v e r a l t o l d me, i n a n c i e n t times d i f f e r e n t p eople owned each ( v i l l a g e ) s i t e and they s t a y e d t h e r e most of the year except when they went t o p l a c e s l i k e Yuquot f o r p o t l a t c h e s and o t h e r f e s t i v i t i e s . Whole groups of people d i d not move around from one p l a c e t o another as they d i d l a t e r ( I n g l i s and Haggarty 1985:2). In t h i s p i c t u r e now emerging i t appears t h a t the Nu-Cha-N u l t h l o c a l v i l l a g e groups would not move beyond t h e i r l o c a l i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s f o r g a t h e r i n g f o o d s t u f f s e t c . T h i s suggests a . s t r o n g l o c a l group attachment t o t h e i r immediate t e r r i t o r y , or a s t r o n g a v e r s i o n t o moving beyond t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s , or some combination of f a c t o r s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of the annual s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n of the Nu-Cha-Nulth people i s i n t r o d u c e d here f o r purposes of comparison. As i n the case of the Nu-Cha-Nulth ?u s h t a q i m l , the noble l i n e a g e at the h e a r t of the namima was p a r t i c u l a r t o a l o c a l i z e d area as i t s " s a c r e d p r e c i n c t " . I n g l i s and Haggarty argue t h a t m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s were the major b a r r i e r t o the s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n of the Nu-Cha-Nulth l o c a l groups. They c i t e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , v i l l a g e p r o x i m i t y , and t e r r i t o r i a l i n v i o l a b i l i t y as the prime f a c t o r s i n t h i s p a t t e r n . I t would be of i n t e r e s t t o e x p l o r e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n the a r e a of K w a k i u t l h a b i t a t i o n g i v e n the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r v i l l a g e u n i t s , a t t i t u d e s i n r e g a r d t o t e r r i t o r i a l i n v i o l a b i l i t y , and s u b s i s t e n c e base. In o r d e r t o t e s t I n g l i s and Haggarty's h y p o t h e s i s w i t h i n the K w a k i u t l r e g i o n i t must be determined whether s u f f i c i e n t d ata i s a v a i l a b l e . Gauging the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y f o r the area i n h a b i t e d by the Kwakiutl d u r i n g c o n t a c t - e r a and e a r l i e r times i s p r e s e n t l y l i m i t e d t o s p e c u l a t i o n . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s s c a r c e . In 1920 Boas commented t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the K w a k i u t l was "fragmentary" (Boas 1920:123) M i t c h e l l noted i n 1969 t h a t t h i s d i s t r i c t has, " . . . a l l but escaped the view of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s " ( M i t c h e l l 1969:194). The s i t u a t i o n has not r a d i c a l l y changed s i n c e the time of these statements. 8 8. See C a r l s o n & Hobler (1976) survey of Gwa'tslenox and na'klwaxdax h i s t o r i c t e r r i t o r i e s , as w e l l as Pomeroy's (1980) work i n the B e l l a B e l l a r e g i o n . 46 In M i t c h e l l ' s l i m i t e d Johnstone S t r a i t s i t e survey he notes t h a t f i f t y - s e v e n s i t e s show eviden c e o f h a v i n g once su p p o r t e d numbers of houses (op.cit•:196). As the h a b i t a t i o n h i s t o r y of each s i t e w i t h house d e p r e s s i o n s was not determined, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s of l i m i t e d v a l u e . There i s no m a t e r i a l r e c o r d which can be used t o a s c e r t a i n the i d e n t i t y of a namima which once i n h a b i t e d an a n c i e n t s i t e . I t would be unreasonable t o assume t h a t a l l s i t e s b e a r i n g house d e p r e s s i o n s were i n h a b i t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and thus r e p r e s e n t the t o t a l number of v i l l a g e groups f o r the surveyed a r e a . I t i s a l s o c l e a r from M i t c h e l l ' s survey t h a t t h e r e were areas of sparse and i n t e n s e l a n d use and h a b i t a t i o n . E s t i m a t i n g group p o p u l a t i o n , or the age of a s i t e , by the s i z e and depth of a midden i s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : The l e n g t h of a s i t e a l o n g a beach w i t h a narrow s t r i p of u s a b l e l i v i n g area (the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Northwest Coast p a t t e r n ) c o u l d imply v i l l a g e s i z e based on the assumption t h a t the g r e a t e r the l e n g t h , the l a r g e r the v i l l a g e . T h i s an u n a c c e p t a b l e assumption because d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the s i t e may have been o c c u p i e d year t o year by a range of p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s at d i f f e r e n t areas a l o n g the beach. The depth of a midden g i v e s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g age. A c o n s i d e r a b l e accumulation of s h e l l can be b u i l t up over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time. I n d i v i d u a l s c o l l e c t i n g s h e l l -f i s h , p r e p a r i n g them f o r w i n t e r use, and l e a v i n g the s h e l l s i n p l a c e c o u l d w e l l have b u i l t up a t h i c k s h e l l d e p o s i t i n j u s t a few y e a r s . A s i t e of t h i s type g e n e r a l l y i s c l o s e to a l a r g e mollusk p r o d u c i n g mudflat (Pomeroy 1980:90). While t h e r e appears to be i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t an a c c u r a t e . p i c t u r e of c o n t a c t e r a p o p u l a t i o n 47 d e n s i t y i t i s s a f e t o a s s e r t t h a t t r a v e l between d i s t a n t a reas w i t h i n K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y was extremely r i s k y . S t r a n g e r s p a s s i n g through a g i v e n t e r r i t o r y were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t r e s p a s s e r s or a g g r e s s o r s . In e i t h e r case they would be t r e a t e d the same. The freedom t o t r a v e l on the waterways without f e a r of a t t a c k and d e c a p i t a t i o n was not known i n the K w a k i u t l area u n t i l the King's law was e n f o r c e d a f t e r the mid-19th c e n t u r y . The s e a s o n a l round, as i t . was observed d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , would have r e q u i r e d a number of annual journeys conducted at g r e a t r i s k d u r i n g the e r a of open season on a l l s t r a n g e r s . I n g l i s and Haggarty. (1986: 135-142) a s s e r t t h a t at the time of European c o n t a c t the domain of the Nu-Cha-Nulth l o c a l groups d i d not s t r e t c h f a r beyond t h e i r immediate a r e a o f h a b i t a t i o n . They suggest t h a t the s e a s o n a l round, the p a t t e r n of v i s i t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v e r s e t e r r i t o r i e s f o r d i s t i n c t purposes, came about as a r e s u l t of p o s t - c o n t a c t d e p o p u l a t i o n , and the t e r r i t o r i a l expansion of p o w e r f u l f e d e r a t i o n s of v i l l a g e groups. The p a t t e r n of the s e a s o n a l round as observed among the h i s t o r i c Nu-Cha-Nulth was a l s o observed as the p a t t e r n of h i s t o r i c K w a k i u t l r e s o u r c e use and h a b i t a t i o n . I t has been assumed to have been an e x p r e s s i o n of the p r e - c o n t a c t s u b s i s t e n c e o r d e r . I f the K w a k i u t l had e n t e r t a i n e d a 48 d i f f e r e n t s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n p r i o r t o the s e a s o n a l round where would one expect t o f i n d evidence of t h i s ? The K w a k i u t l myths r e c o r d e d by Boas and Hunt at the t u r n of t h i s c e n t u r y cannot be depended upon t o p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e t o a s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n which had become i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s e a r l i e r . I t i s a l s o not c l e a r t o what degree a n c e s t r a l s t o r i e s a l t e r e d i n o r d e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e and l e g i t i m i z e the new l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Boas (1935: map 22) p r o v i d e d a p l a n d e l i n e a t i n g K w a k i u t l f i s h i n g grounds, h u n t i n g grounds, c l o v e r beds, and b e r r y g a t h e r i n g grounds at the head of Knight I n l e t . T h i s r e c o r d was assembled from the memories of i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g at the end of the 19th c e n t u r y . The 152 demarcated areas on h i s map are l i s t e d by geographic p l a c e name and by the name of the namimas which possess these p r o p e r t i e s . Of the 10 6 d i s t i n c t viburnum patches, mountain goat h u n t i n g areas, and b e r r y g a t h e r i n g grounds, a l l but one s m a l l a r e a are l i s t e d as the i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i o n s of the e i g h t namimas which l i v e d w i t h i n Knight I n l e t . The s o l e e x c e p t i o n b e i n g a s i n g l e area l i s t e d as the j o i n t c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y of the f i v e Ma'maleleqala namimas. T h i s lowland a r e a i s l o c a t e d j u s t above the beach a l o n g s i d e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g p r o p e r t y among the Knight I n l e t namimas i s what we might expect t o f i n d among the Nu-Cha-Nulth v i l l a g e groups at the time of 49 European c o n t a c t . The groups' r e s i d e n c e and s u b s i s t e n c e requirements were s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n a d i s c r e t e a r e a . However, a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n emerges i n the a t t r i b u t i o n of o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . Of the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of f i s h and p l a n t found i r r e g u l a r l y through K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y , the o u l i c h a n was p r o b a b l y most s i g n i f i c a n t . Each s p r i n g t h e s e g r e a s y l i t t l e f i s h t r a v e l e d i n g r e a t numbers t o spawn i n the r i v e r s which end t h e i r l o n g journey at the heads of Knight and Kingcome I n l e t . Here they were c a p t u r e d by v a r i o u s means and r e n d e r e d f o r t h e i r r i c h f a t , or smoked f o r l a t e r consumption. O u l i c h a n grease was h i g h l y v a l u e d w i t h i n the K w a k i u t l d i e t as the p r e f e r r e d condiment wi t h p r e s e r v e d and f r e s h f o o d s . At the head of Knight I n l e t , on the r i v e r named a f t e r o u l i c h a n grease, t h e r e are 52 d i s c r e t e areas l i s t e d by Boas as o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g spots at which d i p n e t s or s t a t i o n a r y o b s t r u c t i o n s were employed. Of these 52 f i s h i n g spots 33 b e l o n g t o 17 namimas l i v i n g o u t s i d e of t h i s l o n g I n l e t . T h i s does not f i t the model of l o c a l i z e d r e s i d e n c e and r e s o u r c e use. D u r i n g the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , the s p r i n g - t i m e journey t o the o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g grounds was r e c o g n i z e d as one of the s t a b l e l e g s of the K w a k i u t l s u b s i s t e n c e economy. T h i s f i s h e r y , i n v o l v i n g a p p r oximately one h a l f of a l l the K w a k i u t l l o c a l groups, prompted a f u l l s c a l e s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n . C u r t i s (1915:23) c l a i m e d t h a t p r i o r t o the 20th c e n t u r y 50 " . . . p r a c t i c a l l y every f a m i l y moved i t s goods and house-boards and e s t a b l i s h e d a temporary home at the f i s h e r y . " T h i s f i s h e r y d i d not i n v o l v e a l l of the K w a k i u t l l o c a l groups, but t h i s d i d not prevent these groups from o b t a i n i n g the v a l u a b l e g r e a s e . Groups l i v i n g a t a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g grounds were g e n e r a l l y not i n v o l v e d i n the f i s h e r y . There does not appear t o be a r e l i a b l e method f o r f i x i n g the date or means by which the s e 17 namimas a c q u i r e d t h e i r s i t e s so f a r o u t s i d e of t h e i r l o c a l a r e a . C u r t i s s i d e - s t e p s t h i s matter when mentioning t h a t the l o c a t i o n of the f i s h i n g s pots were, " . . . f i x e d by a n c i e n t c u s t o m . . . . " ( i b i d ) . The p a t t e r n of s e e k i n g r e s o u r c e s f a r a f i e l d stands out i n c o n t r a s t t o the r e g i o n a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use proposed f o r the H e i l t z u k and Nu-Cha-Nulth. I t seems a s t r a n g e a b e r r a t i o n f o r the K w a k i u t l namimas which were otherwise c o n s t r a i n e d w i t h i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n s of h a b i t a t i o n and l a n d use. T h i s i s a cause t o q u e s t i o n the a n t i q u i t y o f t h i s p a t t e r n of f a r f l u n g r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g . Were they h i s t o r i c a c q u i s i t i o n s o b t a i n e d at a time when t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y was viewed i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t ? „ C u r i o s i t y may b r i n g the r e a d e r t o ask, " I f the K w a k i u t l , l i k e the Nu-Cha-Nulth, d i d not r e l y on a s e a s o n a l round of v i s i t s t o r e s o u r c e g a t h e r i n g s i t e s i n the e r a ending soon a f t e r c o n t a c t , by what means would-the v a r i o u s l o c a l groups have a c q u i r e d d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r d i e t e t c . ? " I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e on the e x t e n t of s u b s i s t e n c e m a t e r i a l s exchanged d u r i n g the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n . As Codere (1961:436) advanced, "No v i l l a g e had an e n t i r e i n v e n t o r y of r e s o u r c e s t h a t people f e l t n e c e s s a r y t o t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g . . . " F e a s t i n g alone would not have brought a tremendous range of e x o t i c m a t e r i a l s i n t o the l o c a l economy as those groups i n f e a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h a red a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y p a r a l l e l r e s o u r c e base (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:147). I f b a r t e r was c o n f i n e d by the same concerns t h a t l i m i t e d f e a s t i n g t o n e i g h b o r i n g groups, few m a t e r i a l s would be expected t o e n t e r the f e a s t i n g c i r c l e s from beyond. Perhaps t h e r e were g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r exchange w i t h more d i s t a n t groups than has been a l l o w e d t o t h i s p o i n t . There are h i s t o r i c a l examples of b a r t e r and m a r r iages arranged between d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d groups which may r e p r e s e n t a more a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:151). C u r t i s (1915:27) notes the exchange of o u l i c h a n o i l f o r d r i e d h a l i b u t at the end of the 19th c e n t u r y . He mentions t h a t a s u r p l u s of t h e s e two f o o d s t u f f s was h a r v e s t e d by p r o d u c e r s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i r exchange v a l u e . H a l i b u t i n g r e a t q u a n t i t y were caught by: ...the f o u r t r i b e s of Quotsino sound, the two t r i b e s .(one now e x t i n c t ) at Cape S c o t t , the N a w i t i of Hope I s l a n d , the G o a s i l a of Smith i n l e t , the Nakoatok of Seymour i n l e t (now of Blunden h a r b o u r ) , and the Wikeno of R i v e r s i n l e t ( C u r t i s 1915:25). H a l i b u t f i s h i n g was a l o c a l i n d u s t r y f o r these groups, the h a l i b u t banks b e i n g w i t h i n easy reach of the groups concerned. There was no need f o r them t o "migrate" i n o r d e r t o pursue t h i s e n t e r p r i s e ( C u r t i s 1915:27). Perhaps, as i n the case w i t h h a l i b u t , o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n e a r l y times was l i m i t e d t o the groups i n h a b i t i n g the l o c a l areas i n which the o u l i c h a n s c o n c e n t r a t e d . The b a r t e r of h a l i b u t s t e a k s f o r o u l i c h a n o i l by i n d i v i d u a l namima produ c e r s may r e p r e s e n t an exchange p a t t e r n which p r e d a t e s t h a t o f the open t e r r i t o r i a l a c c e s s of the s e a s o n a l round. Whether the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s e l o c a l l y produced f o o d s t u f f s was f a c i l i t a t e d by a s e r i e s of exchanges between c l o s e n e i g h b o r s or by d i s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o d u c e r s i s of secondary importance. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s t h a t the s e a s o n a l round observed d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l e r a stands i n c o n t r a s t t o the namima's otherwise r e g i o n a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use. SUMMARY In t h i s c h a p t e r the namima has been p r e s e n t e d as an independent u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which m a i n t a i n e d e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o an e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h e d by a fo u n d i n g a n c e s t o r . The fo u n d i n g a n c e s t o r , h a v i n g descended from the realm o f s p i r i t s , imbued the p r o p e r t y of the namima wi t h a s a c r e d q u a l i t y . The fo u n d i n g a n c e s t o r ' s o f f s p r i n g o r i g i n a t e d the l i n e s o f descent w i t h i n the namima. The d i r e c t descendants o f t h i s i n i t i a l g e n e r a t i o n composed a 53 ranked n o b i l i t y which a s s e r t e d i t s p r i v i l e g e t o i n h e r i t and a d m i n i s t e r c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y on the namima's b e h a l f . T h i s e s t a t e was composed of a l l manner of t e r r a i n : l a n d s , waterways, and"mountainsides. I t was from th e s e t e r r i t o r i e s , and not beyond, t h a t namima members m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r l i v l i h o o d . In a d d i t i o n the namima's e s t a t e i n c l u d e d powers a c q u i r e d from the a n c e s t o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the world of s p i r i t s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e s e powers i n song, dance, s c u l p t u r e , e t c . were a l s o regarded as the e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y of the namima. The g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries of a namima's t e r r i t o r i e s were d e s c r i b e d i n terms of i t s f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s upon the E a r t h . The r i v e r s , clam beaches, and b e r r y g a t h e r i n g grounds which c o n s t i t u t e d a namima's e s t a t e were h e l d i n s p e c i a l r e g a r d as they were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the d w e l l i n g p l a c e of the founding a n c e s t o r . T h i s a t t i t u d e has l e d some s c h o l a r s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the p r o p e r t y of t h e s e groups as a " s a c r e d p r e c i n c t " (Goldman 1975:44). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which namima t e r r i t o r i e s s h i f t e d d u r i n g a n c i e n t times. The s t r o n g attachment to a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e , complex r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g namimas, and s e r i o u s consequences of t r e s p a s s i n g , would l i k e l y have p r e v e n t e d groups from roaming f r e e l y " i n s e a r c h of b e t t e r p a s t u r e s " . S h i f t s i n namima domain may have o c c u r r e d i n a n c i e n t times owing to a s p i r a t i o n s f o r r i c h e r r e s o u r c e s or more d e s i r a b l e h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s . However, t h e r e are no d e f i n i t e means w i t h which t o secure the a n c i e n t h a b i t a t i o n r e c o r d o f i n d i v i d u a l namimas. The " s e a s o n a l round" of r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g from d i v e r s e r e g i o n s r e p r e s e n t s a p a t t e r n of t e r r i t o r i a l a c c e s s which stands i n c o n t r a s t t o the r e g i o n a l focus o f the namima. I t i s o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s reason and has r a i s e d doubts as t o i t s a n t i q u i t y . As c o n d i t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s changed d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c e r a , the namima' s c h a r a c t e r as a p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g u n i t would be surpas s e d by the changing demands upon the s o c i a l order.' The s t r u c t u r e of the namima r e f l e c t e d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as the c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g u n i t . The ranked p o s i t i o n s of the noble descent l i n e s demonstrated the e q u i v a l e n c e o f s t a t u s and p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. Wealth i n t h i s case b e i n g the f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r who endowed the namima w i t h i t s l e g a c y of p r o p e r t y . Namima members were bound t o support t h i s s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y as t h e i r access t o p r o p e r t y was based upon t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the noble h e i r s at the core o f t h e i r descent group. 55 CHAPTER III THE HISTORIC ERA INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r s e t s the stage f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the two a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e change mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s : the c o n s c i o u s adjustment of e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , and the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a l i e n c a t e g o r i e s . These changes became m a n i f e s t i n the c h a r a c t e r of formal r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s . K w a k i u t l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the maritime f u r t r a d e d i d not r e q u i r e the development of new exchange p r a c t i c e s or an a l t e r a t i o n of the s o c i a l o r d e r . I t merely demanded the e l a b o r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . The rewards, though e x o t i c and h i g h l y valued, were regarded as wealth comparable to t r a d i t i o n a l r i c h e s . The new wealth was managed no d i f f e r e n t l y than t h a t o b t a i n e d through c o n v e n t i o n a l s o u r c e s . The changes i n s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n in. the t r a d e e n t a i l e d the adjustment of e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the descent group c o n t i n u e d t o determine the c h a r a c t e r of r e l a t i o n s between members of t h i s s o c i a l u n i t . The d e p o p u l a t i o n of the K w a k i u t l , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , might have caused a weakening of the descent group's a b i l i t y t o reproduce i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l mode of access to the f r u i t s of the h a r v e s t . S p e c u l a t i o n suggests t h a t a change i n 56 the r a t i o o f people t o r e s o u r c e s might e f f e c t some a t t i t u d e s towards t h e t r a d i t i o n a l economic o r d e r . T h i s n o t i o n i s not o f f e r e d as a k i n d of determinism, r a t h e r , one of many f a c t o r s worthy of b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d among the c o n d i t i o n s o f change. Upon e n t e r i n g the wage economy l a t e i n the 19th cent u r y , i n d i v i d u a l K w a k i u t l men and women began t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r economic independence. By embracing t h i s economy t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s moved i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l mode of p r o d u c t i o n based upon r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the descent group. They became a l i e n a t e d from the bonds of thes e r e l a t i o n s as they e x p r e s s e d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as independent wage l a b o r e r s . The i n t e g r a t i o n of money i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l economy denuded r e c i p r o c i t y of i t s appeal as a moral u n d e r t a k i n g . Exchange became q u a n t i f i a b l e , the measured purchase o f t h a t which had been g i v e n under the p r e t e n s e of good w i l l . T h i s a l t e r e d the c h a r a c t e r of r e l a t i o n s between exchange p a r t n e r s , and, by e x t e n s i o n , the communities they r e p r e s e n t e d . The ad o p t i o n of t h i s new p r o d u c t i v e mode and the use of money i n the forum of r e c i p r o c i t y e x e m p l i f y p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r e change i d e n t i f i e d as "the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a l i e n c a t e g o r i e s " . EUROPEAN CONTACT There i s every reason t o expect t h a t the p r o c e s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e was s t i l l o p e r a t i v e at the time of the i n i t i a l European a r r i v a l at Nootka Sound i n 1778. Indigenous change was g e n e r a t e d from 57 w i t h i n and s t i m u l a t e d from without. The s t r a n g e ways of one's n e i g h b o r s were lo o k e d upon wi t h i n t e r e s t on the Northwest c o a s t . Trade and warfare were perhaps the primary r o u t e s a l o n g which new i d e a s , t e c h n o l o g i e s , and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s were encountered. The c a p t i v e s of sea b a t t l e s and r a i d s were most l i k e l y the prime c o n n e c t i o n s between d i s s i m i l a r and h o s t i l e n e i g h b o r s . I t i s of no s u r p r i s e t h a t the l a t e 18th c e n t u r y Nu-Cha-N u l t h l e a d e r , Maquinna, spared the l i v e s of the b l a c k smith and the s a i l maker aboard the t r a d i n g v e s s e l Boston. The o t h e r s i n the crew were k i l l e d d u r i n g the course of the s h i p ' s c a p t u r e . The b l a c k s m i t h , J e w i t t , was kept a l i v e i n the same way t h a t a s e a - c a p t u r e d s l a v e might be p r e s e r v e d so t h a t one day he c o u l d c o u n s e l a r a i d i n g p a r t y on the flaws w i t h i n the defenses of h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e . C o n t act w i t h European c u l t u r e began w i t h the c u r i o u s poking-about of the Maritime-Empire s u r v e y o r s from Spain and England. These.scouts r e p o r t e d a n a t i v e abundance of r i c h sea o t t e r p e l t s f o r which the Chinese would t r a d e the s i l k s and f r a g r a n t s p i c e s v a l u e d i n European p o r t s . F o l l o w i n g word of the t r a d e ' s promise, merchant t r a d e r s began stowing goods f o r b a r t e r i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how q u i c k l y the s i g n s of t h e i r presence were v i s i b l e on the c o a s t . When Capt. George Vancouver v e n t u r e d i n t o K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y i n J u l y of 1792, he observed t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s . 5 8 of the Cheslakees v i l l a g e at the mouth.of the Nimkish R i v e r used muskets "...as i f they had been accustomed t o f i r e - a r m s from t h e i r e a r l i e s t i n f a n c y " (Vancouver 1984:613). Members of the crew noted t h a t some of the Cheslakees v i l l a g e r s c o u l d speak a few words of E n g l i s h . Vancouver was the f i r s t European t o s a i l i n K w a k i u t l waters. Musketry s k i l l s were one of many i n n o v a t i o n s which had been a c q u i r e d i n the s h o r t 14 year span from the time of Cook's i n i t i a l l a n d i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t . Robin F i s h e r (1977) proposes t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the maritime f u r t r a d e d i d not r e q u i r e or i n s p i r e any n o v e l change on the p a r t of the I n d i a n p e o p l e . He a s s e r t s t h a t the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the t r a d e were w i t h i n the t r a d i n g c h i e f s ' e x p e r i e n c e of i n t e r - t r i b a l r e l a t i o n s . The j o u r n a l s r e p o r t t h a t the I ndians would i n i t i a t e c e r e m o n i a l s i n g i n g , g i f t exchange, and the marriage of daughters w i t h the European and American t r a d e r s as the formal p r o t o c o l and inducement t o t r a d e ( F i s h e r 1977:10, 41). These p r a c t i c e s were d o u b t l e s s l y drawn from the n a t i v e c u l t u r e and extended t o the new s i t u a t i o n . F i s h e r a l l o w s t h a t the Indians were " . . . s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o those a s p e c t s of European c u l t u r e t h a t c o n f r o n t e d them..." and t h a t they m a n i p u l a t e d the f u r t r a d e to meet t h e i r own demands (1977:23). He contends t h a t i n e q u i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from the h e i g h t e n e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n of 59 wealth and power may have a c c e n t u a t e d and a c c e l e r a t e d change . a l r e a d y i n p r o c e s s (1977:17). THE DEPOPULATION OF THE KWAKIUTL The sudden and unprecedented v i s i t of 330 European and American v e s s e l s t o the c o a s t i n the f o r t y y e a r s between 1785 and 1825 began a profo u n d c h a i n of e v e n t s . 9 . T h i s brought about the r a p i d a c c e l e r a t i o n o f change on the Northwest Coast. The most s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h i s p e r i o d i s t h a t o f d e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s began d u r i n g the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t stage as w i l l l a t e r be d i s c u s s e d . I t i s somewhat f r u s t r a t i n g t h a t the demographic study o f the n a t i v e p e o p l e s of the B.C. c o a s t must b e g i n w i t h s p e c u l a t i o n . Duff (1964:38) summarizes t h i s s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : We would v e r y much l i k e t o know how many Ind i a n s t h e r e were i n the 1770's, b e f o r e the e f f e c t s of European c o n t a c t began to be f e l t , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n now a v a i l a b l e t o make a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s f o r any time e a r l i e r than 1835...By 1835 the Indians had a l r e a d y been i n c o n t a c t w i t h the Europeans f o r s i x decades, and i n t r o d u c e d d i s e a s e s , f i r e a r m s , and a l c o h o l must a l r e a d y have taken t h e i r s u b s t a n t i a l t o l l . We know from n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s and s c a t t e r e d r e p o r t s i n e a r l y j o u r n a l s t h a t a number of areas s u f f e r e d from smallpox epidemics, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o judge whether t h e i r e f f e c t s i n any g i v e n i n s t a n c e were l o c a l or widespread, or to what degree t h e ' p o p u l a t i o n had r e c o v e r e d from t h e i r e f f e c t s by 1835. The c h a r a c t e r of the a f f l i c t i o n s mentioned i n the above q u o t a t i o n can p r o b a b l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: d i s e a s e s which caused r e p r o d u c t i v e d i s t r e s s , and those h a r d s h i p s and y . T h i s f i g u r e i s based upon F i s h e r ' s (1977) survey of Howay's c o m p i l a t i o n of v e s s e l s v i s i t i n g the B.C. c o a s t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 60 d i s e a s e s which decimated the l i v i n g . The prime components i n t h i s f a t a l c o n c o c t i o n were v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s and smallpox. T h e i r combined e f f e c t was d r a s t i c . The c r i p p l e d p o p u l a t i o n s b e i n g unable t o r e l y on normative f e r t i l i t y t o enhance t h e i r d e p l e t e d numbers a f t e r a severe epidemic had eased i t s h o l d . The epidemics of the 1770's c o u l d have been the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s ' f i r s t exposure t o smallpox, a l t h o u g h t h i s has not been a b s o l u t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d (Boyd 1985:72). S a i l i n g crews c l e a r l y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s t o the c o a s t ( F i s h e r 1977:21). E a r l i e r smallpox c o n t a g i o n s might have come t o the c o a s t by a v a r i e t y o f means. T h i s d i s e a s e c o u l d have been c a r r i e d aboard one of the s a i l i n g v e s s e l s t o r n from Chinese waters by storms and c a r r i e d t o t h i s c o a s t by ocean c u r r e n t s . I t c o u l d have been passed by i n t e r - t r i b a l c o n t a c t from the south c o a s t , or perhaps t r a n s m i t t e d a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t over a l o n g e r p e r i o d . While th e s e s c e n a r i o s suggest p o s s i b l e r o u t e s of conveyance, t h e r e i s c u r r e n t l y no data t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the appearance of smallpox on the Northwest c o a s t b e f o r e the 1770's (Boyd 1985:72). Robert Boyd's (1985) d i s s e r t a t i o n has brought c l o s e s c r u t i n y t o the h i s t o r y of i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s on the Northwest c o a s t . He a s s e r t s t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of smallpox i n t h i s area can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a member, or members, of the crew of the Spanish v e s s e l s Santiago, ' commanded by Bruno Heceta, and Sonora, commanded by Juan F r a n c i s c o de l a Bodega y Quadra. D u r i n g t h e i r 1775 voyage c o n t a c t was made wit h the ind i g e n o u s people o f T r i n i d a d Bay, Q u i n a l t R i v e r , B u c a r e l i Bay, and S i t k a Sound ( o p . c i t . : 91) . The f i r s t i n s t a n c e s o f smallpox on the c o a s t were noted i n t he J o u r n a l o f N a t h a n i e l P o r t l o c k i n 1787. P o r t l o c k observed the few T l i n g i t s u r v i v o r s o f a smallpox epidemic i n a v i l l a g e near S i t k a . He was a b l e t o comprehend from rough d i s c o u r s e w i t h a b a d l y s c a r r e d e l d e r t h a t t h e r e had been a r u t h l e s s epidemic t h e r e some years e a r l i e r . He observed a young woman w i t h smallpox s c a r s who he e s t i m a t e d t o be about 14 years o l d . N o t i c i n g s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 years o l d b e a r i n g no s i g n of smallpox, P o r t l o c k c o n c l u d e d t h a t the epidemic must have "raged" no l e s s than 12 ye a r s b e f o r e . (Boyd 1985:76) I t was not l o n g a f t e r b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d on the n o r t h c o a s t t h a t smallpox was observed i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the Northwest c o a s t . John B o i t and John Hoskins s a i l e d a l o n g the southwest c o r n e r of Vancouver I s l a n d aboard the "Columbia" i n June of 1791. They both observed and r e c o r d e d t h a t smallpox was o f c u r r e n t concern i n the v i l l a g e o f the N i t i n a t p eople (Howay 1941:377, 196) C a p t a i n George Vancouver noted the s c a r i f i c a t i o n l e f t by smallpox on the naked b o d i e s o f the n a t i v e Coast S a l i s h men of the Hood Canal area i n May of the f o l l o w i n g year (Vancouver 1984:540). I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e how many peo p l e d i e d from the time of the e a r l y waves of i n f e c t i o n u n t i l f i r s t p o p u l a t i o n surveys i n the 1830's. Boyd (1985:264) suggests t h a t , Copious documentation of p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e from mid-n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y smallpox epidemics suggests t h a t m o r t a l i t y s h o u l d have been at l e a s t as g r e a t , i f not g r e a t e r , from known epidemics i n the 1700's. Contemporary s c h o l a r s such as F i s h e r (1977:21-22) have c a l l e d f o r moderation i n the a p p r a i s a l o f I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n l o s s e s r e s u l t i n g from the a r r i v a l o f new d i s e a s e s on the northwest c o a s t . F i s h e r ' s b i d f o r r e s t r a i n t i s based upon what he has deemed t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t data f o r s t r o n g charges. Boyd (1985) c h a l l e n g e s t h i s p o s i t i o n . He a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e are many sources, not d i s c u s s e d by F i s h e r , which support the t h e s i s t h a t the new d i s e a s e s had a " . . . g r e a t impact on n u m e r i c a l d e c l i n e and p o p u l a t i o n s u r v i v a l " (1985:521). Smallpox no doubt s t r u c k the K w a k i u t l l o n g b e f o r e news of t h e i r p l i g h t was f i r s t brought t o the a t t e n t i o n o f James Douglas i n 1837 (Codere 1966:51). T h e i r c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o groups r e p o r t e d t o have ha r b o r e d the smallpox c o n t a g i o n suggests the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of i n f e c t i o n contemporary w i t h S a l i s h and Nu-Cha-Nulth p o p u l a t i o n s (1790-1800). Helen Codere (1966) c h r o n i c l e d the v a r i o u s surges o f smallpox, t u b e r c u l o s i s , measles, and " s c r o f u l a " , which c o n t i n u e d t o decimate the K w a k i u t l from the f i r s t r e p o r t e d outbreaks u n t i l the p o p u l a t i o n s t a b i l i z e d i n the mid 1920's (1966:51-61). Drawing mainly from Hudson's Bay Company j o u r n a l s and Government of Canada I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e p o r t s , the p i c t u r e of t h i s p e r i o d develops as one of worsening c o n d i t i o n s . a n d the wider d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f e c t i o n . The passage o f smallpox d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was h a r d l y random or haphazard. Recent s c h o l a r s h i p suggests t h a t the s p r e a d of d i s e a s e on the Northwest c o a s t f i t s many of the c l a s s i c a l paradigms. In the f o l l o w i n g passage Boyd (1985:72) a s c r i b e s the e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n of smallpox outbreaks t o the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e t t l e m e n t d e n s i t y and immunological exposure: The a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s of the P a c i f i c Northwest were never dense nor continuous enough t o support the c o n t i n u a l e x i s t e n c e of smallpox. The d i s e a s e o c c u r r e d t h e r e f o r e p e r i o d i c a l l y , dependent upon, f i r s t o f a l l , i n t r o d u c t i o n from o u t s i d e the r e g i o n and secondly, upon the defense o f a p o o l of non-immune s u s c e p t i b l e s i n the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . Smallpox epidemics o c c u r r e d r o u g h l y every g e n e r a t i o n . . . The p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by Boyd may have been enhanced by the temporary d i s p e r s i o n of groups r e c o g n i z i n g the presence of the c o n t a g i o n i n t h e i r midst. The n a t u r a l r e c o u r s e t o i n d i g e n o u s t h e o r i e s of s i c k n e s s ( s o r c e r y etc.) may have promoted the p e r i o d i c abandonment of communal r e s i d e n c e . The r e g r o u p i n g of non-contagious s u r v i v o r s would have a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r e was no " c o n t i n u a l e x i s t e n c e of smallpox" w i t h i n t h a t g e n e r a t i o n . D u f f r e p o r t s t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad outbreak of smallpox i n V i c t o r i a i n 1862 f o r c e d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o burn the s q u a t t e r camps of the more than 2000 In d i a n s g a t h e r e d t h e r e from v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c o a s t . F l e e i n g t o t h e i r n a t i v e v i l l a g e s , s u r v i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s c a r r i e d the b l i g h t t o a l l p o i n t s of the compass (Duff 1964:42). Boyd (1985:262) e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r wave of i n f e c t i o n k i l l e d 69% of the K w a k i u t l l i v i n g at t h a t time. I t has been suggested (Duff 1964:43) t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f i r e a r m s i n t o the t h e a t r e of n a t i v e warfare r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d f a t a l i t i e s w i t h i n a d e p l e t e d p o p u l a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e i n the range of weaponry was accompanied by the development of new c o n f l i c t s between groups competing f o r dominance w i t h i n the f u r t r a d e . I t took l i t t l e time f o r the n a t i v e groups of the Northwest Coast t o r e a l i z e t h a t he who c o n t r o l l e d the t r a d e would be k i n g . The r o l e s of p o r t manager, f o r t guard, and t r a d i n g b r o k e r were much co v e t e d ( F i s h e r 1977:29). In d i s c u s s i n g the s t r u g g l e between c h i e f s f o r c o n t r o l of the t r a d i n g p o r t of Yuquot, I n g l i s and Haggarty (1985:18) o f f e r e d t h a t , The s h i p s r e p r e s e n t e d wealth of a magnitude never b e f o r e imagined and t o g a i n c o n t r o l of t h i s new found wealth would mean a b s o l u t e supremacy. T e r r i t o r i e s which produced the t r a d e commodities, and r o u t e s through which the commodities flowed, a c q u i r e d h e i g h t e n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s e a - o t t e r r i c h k e l p beds of n o r t h western Vancouver I s l a n d assumed tremendous v a l u e as the t r a d e was e s t a b l i s h e d . S t u d i e s by I n g l i s and Haggarty (1985, 1986) and by I n g l i s (1988), noted a number of l a t e 18th c e n t u r y t e r r i t o r i a l r e a l i g n m e n t s which, they c l a i m , arose as v a r i o u s p a r t i e s fought to dominate the f u r t r a d e i n t h e i r r e g i o n . In a r e c e n t l y f i n i s h e d study I n g l i s (1988) suggested t h a t the southward movement of the K w a k i u t l on both s i d e s of Vancouver I s l a n d were attempts t o c a p t u r e t e r r i t o r y w e l l s i t u a t e d f o r success i n the t r a d e . Indeed the Le'gwildax campaign a g a i n s t the S a l i s h a n i n h a b i t a n t s of the Cape Mudge, Campbell R i v e r area, as w e l l as the L!a'sq!enox conquest of the a r e a n o r t h of Brooks p e n i n s u l a on the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , date t o the p e r i o d b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . I n g l i s ' (1988) t h e s i s i s o f i n t e r e s t as s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l s c h o l a r s have a s s e r t e d t h a t K w a k i u t l warfare was not m o t i v a t e d by the l u r e of economic g a i n . 10 In any case t h e s e wars brought f u r t h e r d e v a s t a t i o n . They h e l p e d reduce a p o p u l a t i o n which was c o n c u r r e n t l y s u f f e r i n g g r e a t l o s s e s from d i s e a s e and o t h e r p l a g u e s . While r a i d i n g appears t o have been p r a c t i c e d i n p r e -h i s t o r i c times, the e x t e n t of the b l o o d s h e d i n c u r r e d i n t h e s e a c t i o n s i s a s p e c u l a t i v e matter. D u r i n g t h i s 19th c e n t u r y p e r i o d of d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e are r e l i a b l e r e c o r d s of r a i d s which were s a i d t o be v e r y c o s t l y i n l i v e s . These were hot h i t and run a s s a u l t s which a f f o r d e d the p e r p e t r a t o r s a few heads and a few p r i s o n e r s . Boas (1966:47) remarked t h a t i U . (Codere 1950:105, 1966:439), (Rosman & Rubel 1971:139) and (Spradley 1969:28-29) propose t h a t K w a k i u t l warfare was not m o t i v a t e d by economic needs or d e s i r e s . S p r a d l e y (Ibid) quotes James Sewid's statement t h a t , "... they used t o f i g h t f o r heads r a t h e r than f o r w ealth or l a n d or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . I f you were a b l e t o get a head you were brave and had proven t h a t you had been on a war p a r t y . " 66 K w a k i u t l "....war r e c o r d s t e l l us of whole t r i b e s t h a t were p r a c t i c a l l y a n n i h i l a t e d . " In h i s u n p u b l i s h e d notes c o n c e r n i n g the Southern K w a k i u t l , Duff mentions the near e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the Gwa'waenox at Nimmo Bay and the NaqE'mgElisala at Quaanee by 19th c e n t u r y H e i l t z u k r a i d e r s . A w e l l documented B e l l a Coola r a i d between 1858 and 1860 r e s u l t e d i n the massacre of the Qwe'wsot!enox people of G i l f o r d I s l a n d (Boas 1897:427). The t i m i n g of t h e s e events was p a r t i c u l a r l y damaging as the d e p r e s s e d p o p u l a t i o n s s u f f e r e d blows from which t h e y c o u l d never r e c o v e r . The f i r s t r e l i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e f o r the K w a k i u t l comes from the 1885 survey conducted by George Dawson w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the I n d i a n Agent, George B l e n k i n s o p . Dawson o f f e r s f i g u r e s f o r what he c a l l s the " T r i b a l S u b d i v i s i o n s of the Kwakiool P e o p l e " (Dawson 1887:65). These s u b d i v i s i o n s are e s s e n t i a l l y the w i n t e r v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , each composed of a number of namimas. The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h a t (1885) year, 1969 s o u l s , was composed of 1033 males and 936 females. A number of s c h o l a r s r e f e r t o the d i a r i e s of Dr. W.F. Tolmie f o r the e a r l i e s t [1835] r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e of K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n . 1 1 Tolmie was an educated p h y s i c i a n who worked as a f u r t r a d e r f o r the Hudson's Bay Company at F o r t McLoughlin near the p r e s e n t day v i l l a g e of B e l l a B e l l a . 1 1 . Duff (1957:1), Boyd (1985:264), 67 B e i n g a c u r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l and a n a t u r a l master of the p r e -c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n , Tolmie took i n t e r e s t i n the t r a d i t i o n s and changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e . Hi s p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s are assembled from an e q u a t i o n which matched the average number of p e o p l e i n a B e l l a B e l l a house, 25 persons, i n c l u d i n g 6 men, w i t h the number of houses i n each of the K w a k i u t l w i n t e r v i l l a g e s (Tolmie 1963:317-319) .' Tolmie must have a c q u i r e d the e s t i m a t e s f o r the number of houses i n each v i l l a g e from the B e l l a B e l l a c h i e f , Boston. Duff (1957:1) suggests t h a t w h i l e C h i e f Boston's approximations may be low f o r the Le'gwildawx, the attempt as a whole i s p r o b a b l y more r e l i a b l e than s i m i l a r u n d e r t a k i n g s f o r t h i s p e r i o d . Tolmie l i s t s 301 houses w i t h i n the Southern K w a k i u t l f o r a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e of 7525. A d j u s t i n g t h i s f i g u r e f o r the u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d number of Le'gwildawx houses, Duff (1957:4) a r r i v e s at an 1835 p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e of 8000. What f r a c t i o n of the p r e - h i s t o r i c K w a k i u t l populace 8000 persons r e p r e s e n t s remains an enigma. Boyd (1985:264) a s s e r t s t h a t 18th c e n t u r y Indian m o r t a l i t y "... s h o u l d have been at l e a s t as g r e a t , i f not g r e a t e r . . . . " than the p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e observed i n the c e n t u r y t h a t f o l l o w e d . The s i x decades between 1835 and the time of f i r s t c o n t a c t times must have seen many Kwa k i u t l people consumed by the dreaded pox. I t would be a simple matter t o e s t i m a t e a p r e -68 c o n t a c t p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e based on the o p i n i o n s p r e s e n t e d but t h i s would n e c e s s a r i l y be i n e r r o r . The p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the K w a k i u t l are c o n s i d e r e d t o be f a i r l y r e l i a b l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h Dawson's 1885 census. F o l l o w i n g Dawson's work, p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h i s r e g i o n were f i l e d a n n u a l l y w i t h the Government of Canada i n the Report on I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Agents f o r the "Kwawkewlth Agency", b e g i n n i n g w i t h George B l e n k i n s o p (1881-1885), began r e c o r d i n g i n d e t a i l such matters as d i s e a s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n f l u c t u a t i o n s (Annual Report, D.I.A. 1885:84). These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n i n g t o a h i s t o r i c a l low of 1039 persons i n the year 1924. Codere (1966:60) suggests t h a t the 1920's r e v e r s a l i n the t r e n d towards t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n "...was consequent on a r e a l i n c r e a s e i n per c a p i t a m e d i c a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . " She a l s o suggests t h a t the s u r v i v i n g p o p u l a t i o n may have a t t a i n e d immunity t o the f a t a l d i s e a s e s . I f i n t e r - t r i b a l warfare, aggravated by the f u r t r a d e and made more l e t h a l by i t s use of f i r e - a r m s , was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e , i t ceased to be so w i t h the enforcement of Pax B r i t a n n i c a i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y ( F i s h e r 1977:170). However, v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s c o n t i n u e d t o lower f e r t i l i t y and the growing p r a c t i c e of p r o s t i t u t i o n a s s u r e d the perseverance of t h i s b l i g h t among the p e o p l e . 69 THE FORT RUPERT ESTABLISHMENT The i n i t i a l f r e n z y o f the maritime f u r t r a d e s u b s i d e d i n a s h o r t time and by the 1820's the t r a d e focus was s h i f t i n g t o l a n d based t r a d i n g f o r t s . The amalgamation of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company (H.B.C.) i n 1821 a l l o w e d t h i s u n i f i e d body t o e v e n t u a l l y overcome maritime c o m p e t i t i o n and e s t a b l i s h a monopoly i n t h i s l u c r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the Kw a k i u t l c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e a premium p r i c e f o r t h e i r f u r s by t r a d i n g w i t h the American v e s s e l s s a i l i n g i n t o t h e i r waters ( F i s h e r 1977:29). The q u e s t i o n of t i t l e t o the lands and t e r r i t o r i e s o f the I n d i a n people does not appear t o have been at i s s u e d u r i n g the maritime and land-based p e r i o d s of the f u r t r a d e . There were no t i t l e d i s p u t e s o t h e r than those of the s o r t which o c c u r r e d when Cook attempted t o take on water and wood from the f o r e s h o r e at F r i e n d l y Cove ( I n g l i s and Haggarty 1985:6). The H.B.C. t r a d i n g f o r t s d i d not r e q u i r e a g r e a t expanse of t e r r i t o r y and t h e i r placement w i t h i n any group's t u r f was c e l e b r a t e d by-the l o c a l s . F i s h e r notes t h a t the H.B.C.'s 1844 abandonment of the t r a d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t , F o r t McLoughlin, was undertaken when the l o c a l H e i l t z u k were away f i s h i n g . T h i s s t r a t e g y was brewed as a means of e s c a p i n g the wrath o f . . t h e i r l a n d l o r d s which i t was f e a r e d would be aroused upon the a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y (1977:30). 70 P r i o r t o 1846 the H.B.C. had no i n t e r e s t i n . p u r s u i n g a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r than the l u c r a t i v e f u r t r a d e . As Shankel (1945:3) remarked, So l o n g as the Company merely o c c u p i e d t r a d i n g p o s t s , I n d i a n p o l i c y c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the good w i l l of the a b o r i g i n e s — p e a c e f o r the purpose of p r o f i t . U n t i l the mid-19th c e n t u r y the f u r t r a d e never seemed t o p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r the K w a k i u t l . T h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s were not as h i g h l y s t o c k e d w i t h the p r i z e d sea o t t e r s as t h e i r Nu-Cha-Nulth nei g h b o r s , nor were they i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o n t r o l a ccess t o t r a d i n g f o r t s . Good f o r t u n e f i n a l l y appeared i n the form of mother e a r t h i t s e l f : the b l a c k coal, of Beaver Harbor c o u l d power the Company's steamships. The inducement of a l o c a l c o a l supply and a mid-Vancouver I s l a n d t r a d i n g c e n t r e brought the Hudson's Bay Co. t o e s t a b l i s h F o r t Rupert on K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y i n 1849. A more a c c e s s i b l e c o a l supply was d i s c o v e r e d i n Nanaimo f o u r year l a t e r , l e a v i n g the F o r t w i t h the p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of a c q u i r i n g f u r s (Codere 1966:22). Drucker's Kwe'xa informant, C h a r l e s Nowell, c l a i m e d t h a t the H.B.C's F o r t Rupert b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d on l a n d between areas owned by the Kwe'xa and GwetEla t r i b e s (Drucker 1953). In any case f o u r t r i b e s (Kwe'xa, wa'las Kwa'gul, GwetEla, Q!o'mk!ut!Es) composing an i n f o r m a l c o n f e d e r a c y chose t o e s t a b l i s h r e s i d e n c e around the F o r t . These t r i b e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n - t h i s t h e s i s as the, " F o r t Rupert T r i b e s " . Having e s t a b l i s h e d themselves i n a p o s i t i o n of power they c o u l d manage the t r a d e i n much the same way as the H e i l t z u k s u r r o u n d i n g F t . McLoughlin, the Songhees at F o r t V i c t o r i a , and the T s i m s hian at F o r t Simpson ( F i s h e r 1977:31). The F o r t Rupert t r i b e s c l e a r e d l a n d , b u i l t t h e i r houses, and began the b u s i n e s s at hand. The F o r t Rupert t r i b e s were now i n a p o s i t i o n to a c t as b r o k e r s . T h e i r new p o s i t i o n a l l o w e d them t o r e v e r s e the d i r e c t i o n of t r a d e w i t h the Nu-Cha-Nulth. The raw f u r s a c q u i r e d from t h i s group as w e l l as o t h e r K w a k i u t l groups were t r a d e d t o the Hudson's Bay f o r t t o t h e i r advantage (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:16). T h i s golden s i t u a t i o n was not about t o be i g n o r e d come b e r r y p i c k i n g time. T r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h i s new v e n t u r e . The f i s h were r u n n i n g and the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s were t r a d i n g . In the f o l l o w i n g passage I n g l i s and Haggarty (1985:20) remark upon a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n which b e f e l l the people of Yuquot v i l l a g e 70 y e ars e a r l i e r : Manpower was s c h e d u l e d away from t r a d i t i o n a l economic p u r s u i t s t o guard the v e s s e l s and thus p r e v e n t o t h e r groups from h a v i n g d i r e c t access t o the t r a d e . C h i e f s had t o be p r e s e n t t o handle p r o t o c o l and to conduct the a c t u a l t r a d e n e g o t i a t i o n s . The people of Yuquot, i n c h o o s i n g t o abandon t r a d i t i o n a l economic a c t i v i t i e s i n f a v o r of becoming p o r t managers, had t o f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e means of a c q u i r i n g s u f f i c i e n t f o o d s t u f f s ... Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:16) a s s e r t e d t h a t the F o r t Rupert c h i e f s were a b l e to purchase the b e t t e r p a r t of t h e i r w i n t e r salmon cache from the l e s s f o r t u n a t e l y s i t u a t e d nE'mgis. As the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s became more enmeshed i n the t r a d e , they sought o t h e r avenues of a c q u i r i n g the commodities 72 of exchange. T h i s d r i v e seems t o have i n f l u e n c e d the scope of w a r f a r e d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . K w a k i u t l warfare was a l l e g e d t o have been l i m i t e d t o revenge or quests of b r a v e r y . P r o p e r t y r a i d s , such as those d e s c r i b e d by Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:16) i n the f o l l o w i n g passage, may have become n o v e l e x p r e s s i o n s of the changing r e g a r d f o r p r o p e r t y ownership: The z e a l f o r p r o f i t l e d them (the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s ) at times t o r a i d i n g . S e v e r a l major r a i d s aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at l o o t i n g were made a g a i n s t Northern Nootkans, and one t a l e r e c o u n t e d a l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n a g a i n s t the B e l l a C o o l a i n which a l a r g e f o r c e c r o s s e d v i a a t r a i l , from the head of Knight I n l e t — an arduous and even dangerous journey t h a t i n v o l v e d c r o s s i n g a g l a c i e r and took seven days' t r a v e l each way. T h i s e x p e d i t i o n staged a s u c c e s s f u l n i g h t a t t a c k on an important B e l l a C o o l a v i l l a g e , and r e t u r n e d home, i t i s s a i d , w i t h a t r e a s u r e t r o v e of f u r s and o t h e r v a l u a b l e s . While t r a d e was not f o r e i g n t o the K w a k i u t l , t h e d i v e r s i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t o the f u l l time brokerage of commodities produced by a l i e n groups, c o n s t i t u t e s a p i v o t a l m o d i f i c a t i o n . Codere (1950:20) mentioned t h a t the K w a k i u t l t r a d i t i o n a l l y worked t o produce a s u b s i s t e n c e s u r p l u s . T h i s wealth was r e c o g n i z e d as the f r u i t of a namima's dominion, the r i g h t f u l h e r i t a g e of the descent group. Any m a n i p u l a t i o n of s u r p l u s (as i n f e a s t i n g ) s t r e s s e d the group's i d e n t i t y and the c o n t i n u i t y of t h e i r t i t l e t o the wealth p r o d u c i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . The s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n of wealth from p r o p e r t y a l i e n t o the namima c o n s t i t u t e s a change i n r e g a r d f o r h e r e d i t a r y namima p r o p e r t y as the s o l e source of p r o s p e r i t y f o r i t s members. Loot from p r o p e r t y r a i d s and the r f r u i t s of s u c c e s s f u l brokerage i n c r e a s e d namima a f f l u e n c e from o u t s i d e of the namima's e x c l u s i v e domain. T h i s abundance was c l e a r l y not the l e g a c y of the namima's f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e r e were so u r c e s of wealth beyond what was a v a i l a b l e through descent and a f f i l i a t i o n would foreshadow K w a k i u t l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n wage l a b o r and c o n t r i b u t e t o the r e m o d e l l i n g of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . By the time the f u r t r a d e had begun t o s u b s i d e i n the f o l l o w i n g decades, the K w a k i u t l had o b t a i n e d an i r r e v e r s i b l e i n t e r e s t i n the e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e t r a d e m a t e r i a l s woven, fo r g e d , and baked i n the m i l l s of i n d u s t r i a l Europe. C o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t and i n d u s t r y , growing hand i n hand, p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the K w a k i u t l t o f i n d work as the hewers of wood and the h a u l e r s of water. THE KWAKIUTL ENTER THE WAGE ECONOMY R o l f K n i g h t ' s (1978) l a b o r h i s t o r y of the I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia c h r o n i c l e s the entrance of the B.C. Indians i n t o the l a b o r f o r c e as f o l l o w s : A l r e a d y by the mid 1870s BC Indians were m i g r a t i n g t o work i n s a w m i l l s , c a n n e r i e s , hopyards, docks, and a l l manner of jobs from A l a s k a to the American Northwest. Some were working on P a c i f i c c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g and got as f a r as San F r a n c i s c o . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e a l r e a d y were I n d i a n hunters and seamen i n v o l v e d i n the s e a l i n g s h i p s w i n t e r i n g over i n Japan (Knight 1978:15). Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:16) date the b e g i n n i n g of K w a k i u t l l a b o r h i s t o r y t o the summer of 1880 or 1881. The f i r s t K w a k i u t l workers may have been r e c r u i t e d at F o r t Rupert where t h e r e had been t h i r t y years of i n t e r a c t i o n between Hudson's Bay Co. p e r s o n n e l and the l o c a l t r i b e s . These K w a k i u t l p i o n e e r s were s a i d t o amount t o f o r t y men. T h e i r f i r s t jobs saw them f i s h i n g f o r c a n n e r i e s on the F r a s e r R i v e r where they made what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be good money. I n d i a n agent George B l e n k i n s o p noted the success of the K w a k i u t l cannery and hops f i e l d workers i n the year 1882. He p r e d i c t e d t h a t the l u r e of matched e a r n i n g i n 1883 s h o u l d " . . . c o n t i n u e t o draw them (the K w a k i u t l workers) south. ..."(Annual Report on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1883:48). Codere (1950:25-43) c o n c u r r e d w i t h the o t h e r s c h o l a r s mentioned c o n c e r n i n g the date of the K w a k i u t l e n t r a n c e i n t o the cash economy. She suggested t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r i n t r o d u c t o r y employment r e q u i r e d the simple e l a b o r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e t a s k s . F i s h i n g , f i s h p r o c e s s i n g , the r e n d e r i n g of o i l , working w i t h wood, and the r i g g i n g of l i n e s were, a f t e r - a l l , f a m i l i a r a c t i v i t i e s . The work was s e a s o n a l and corresponded t o some degree w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . Perhaps t h i s whole matter was as simple as the i d e a e x p r e s s e d by a 2 0th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l man who remarked from the wheel of h i s f i s h i n g boat, "In the o l d days we ate food, but now we eat money" (Wolcott 1967:14). One c o u l d agree w i t h Codere's p r o p o s i t i o n p r o v i d i n g i t was l i m i t e d s o l e l y t o p h y s i c a l t a s k s . There i s no doubt t h a t K w a k i u t l fishermen found the t r a n s i t i o n from the s u b s i s t e n c e f i s h i n g t o commercial f i s h i n g "a p i e c e of cake". The s t r a t e g i e s , t e c h n i q u e s , and equipment were f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y . There i s , however, a s i g n i f i c a n t economic d i f f e r e n c e between f i s h i n g as the e n t i t l e d m a n i p u l a t i o n of an e x c l u s i v e h e r i t a g e by v i r t u e of descent, and f i s h i n g as an i n d u s t r i a l l e v e l h a r v e s t i n g and p r o c e s s i n g of a l i e n p r o p e r t y f o r u n f e t t e r e d cash compensation. In t r a d i t i o n a l K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e , access t o t e r r i t o r i e s and the r i g h t t o h a r v e s t the wealth they c o n t a i n e d was e s t a b l i s h e d by v i r t u e of descent and a f f i l i a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the " c h i e f l y t r i b u t e " , and the i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f namima p r o p e r t y , s t r e s s e d the i n a l i e n a b l e c o n n e c t i o n between "who we a r e " and "what we have ac c e s s t o " . As the K w a k i u t l e n t e r e d the forum of i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r they found themselves h a r v e s t i n g f i s h t o which they had no t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t , on r i v e r s t h a t had belonged t o o t h e r p e o p l e . Knight (1978:11) p o i n t e d out t h a t , ...a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the I n d i a n commercial fishermen d i d not f i s h i n t h e i r " a n c e s t r a l " t e r r i t o r i e s . . . . Large numbers of I n d i a n fishermen t r a v e l l e d l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o f i s h f o r . s p e c i f i c c a n n e r i e s . While members of l o c a l bands may have f i s h e d i n waters roughl y t r a d i t i o n a l t o them, many I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n (probably the m a j o r i t y ) came t o n o v e l f i s h i n g grounds .... The n o v e l t y of f i s h i n g unknown waters p a l e d i n s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the i r r e g u l a r i t y of f i s h i n g i n an area where t h e r e were no i n h e r i t e d access r i g h t s . The o n l y c u l t u r a l p r e c e d e n t s b e a r i n g any s i m i l a r i t y t o t h i s new p a t t e r n were t r e s p a s s i n g and r a i d i n g . These, however, were not p r o l o n g e d a c t i v i t i e s or dependable s t r a t e g i e s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g p r o s p e r i t y . In the l a s t two decades of the 19th c e n t u r y a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m o d i f i e d the t r a d i t i o n a l K w a k i u t l r e s p e c t f o r the s t r i c t t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y of the namima. As wage l a b o r e r s , the energy t h a t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n v e s t e d i n s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s on l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t e r r i t o r i e s , was now engaged i n a l i e n a t e d s e a s o n a l l a b o r . The t e r r i t o r i e s o f the namima became of secondary importance as the economic f o c u s s h i f t e d t o the g i l l net boats and c a n n e r i e s d i s t a n t l y l o c a t e d . I n d i v i d u a l s began t o generate u n f e t t e r e d wealth w i t h machinery and r e s o u r c e s which they d i d not own. No o b l i g a t i o n s were i n c u r r e d , no c h i e f l y t r i b u t e r e q u i r e d . The c r e a t i o n of wealth from sources independent of the descent group r e p r e s e n t s a profound break w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t o c o l . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of money i n t o the economy a l s o changed the c h a r a c t e r of r e l a t i o n s . Money, by i t s v e r y nature, a l l o w e d the i n d i v i d u a l producer t o become a l i e n a t e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l economy based upon r e c i p r o c i t y . He was f r e e t o opt out of o l d exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s t a y down i n V i c t o r i a , and exchange h i s money f o r whatever he wanted w i t h whomever he wanted. By i n t r o d u c i n g money i n t o the forum of r e c i p r o c i t y the c h a r a c t e r of exchange became q u a n t i f i a b l e . I t was reduced t o a matter of i s o l a t e d purchases based upon supply and demand. R e c i p r o c i t y was no l o n g e r seen as a moral u n d e r t a k i n g , an e x p r e s s i o n of the good w i l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The concerns of i n d i v i d u a l wage l a b o r e r s were v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of descent group members o b l i g a t e d t o r e s p e c t and support the e x i s t i n g s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y . The a n c i e n t K w a k i u t l concern f o r the maintenance of e x c l u s i v e a ccess t o l o c a l i z e d r e s o u r c e s would be s u p p l a n t e d by a n x i e t y over h i g h p r i c e s at the cannery s t o r e . L o c a l t e r r i t o r i e s no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t e d the s o l e source of wealth, a l t h o u g h they c o n t i n u e d t o f e e d the p e o p l e . There were, however, many fewer people t o f e e d . By the mid-1860's smallpox, measles, and t u b e r c u l o s i s e t c . had reduced the K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n t o a mere 30% of i t s s i z e at the time of c o n t a c t (Boyd 1985:262). T h i s r e m a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n had been reduced a f u r t h e r 15% by 1885 (Dawson 1887:65). Salmon would remain the s t a p l e element of the K w a k i u t l d i e t f o r some time. R i v e r s t h a t once produced an abundance f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of 8000 and g r e a t e r were now r e q u i r e d t o f e e d l e s s than 2000. The d i e t a r y s t a p l e s of salmon, clams, b e r r i e s , and grease never l o s t t h e i r a p p e a l . They-were easy to o b t a i n , p r e s e r v e , and p r e p a r e . O u l i c h a n grease d i d r e q u i r e a f a i r amount of p r e p a r a t i o n but i t was so a p p r e c i a t e d by the K w a k i u t l p a l a t e as t o remain e s s e n t i a l . P i l o t bread, r i c e , sugar, and f l o u r would a l s o f i n d t h e i r way i n t o the n a t i v e d i e t . T r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s t u f f s , augmented w i t h imported p r o v i s i o n s , do not appear t o have ever been i n s h o r t supply, and the reduced p o p u l a t i o n made t h e i r abundance a l l the more pronounced. The K w a k i u t l had exchanged t h e i r c l o t h i n g o f cedar bark f o r woolen t r o u s e r s , c a l i c o , and H.B.C b l a n k e t s by t h e end of the 19th c e n t u r y . T h e i r e a r n i n g s brought i n c r e a s i n g l y more European manufactured goods i n t o t h e i r m i d s t . The ease w i t h which th e s e a r t i c l e s flowed i n t o the hands o f the K w a k i u t l i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:16) as f o l l o w s : ...the new economy not o n l y made wealth goods a v a i l a b l e i n abundance t o the K w a k i u t l , but a l s o p r o v i d e d means t o a c q u i r e those goods t h a t were both f a m i l i a r and easy t o him, i n t h a t way making the t r a d e goods cheap. T r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s , once r e l i e d upon f o r a l l the s u b s i s t e n c e requirements of thousands of p e o p l e , were now i n u n d a t e d w i t h the q u i e t of o c c a s i o n a l use by a much s m a l l e r u s e r group. There were i n i t i a l l y few i n d u s t r i a l demands on the r i v e r s i n K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y . T h e i r s m a l l s i z e would not support a commercial f i s h e r y on the s c a l e of the s o c k e y e - r i c h F r a s e r (Codere 1950:27). 1 2 i f the i n t e g r i t y of the namima was due t o i t s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e i t s members w i t h e x c l u s i v e a c c e s s t o l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , p o p u l a t i o n r e d u c t i o n and the new source of wealth would te n d to render t h i s v i r t u e i n s i g n i f i c a n t . i Z . In- 1870 a f i s h s a l t e r y was b u i l t by two c o l o n i a l s e t t l e r s at A l e r t Bay (Healey 1958:25). T h i s s a l t e r y (which l a t e r became a cannery) p r o c e s s e d f i s h from the Nimpkish R i v e r . E a r l y c a n n e r i e s were a l s o b u i l t at G l e n d a l e Cove and Bones Bay w i t h i n the K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e a r e a . 79 SUMMARY The N a t i v e people of the Northwest c o a s t chose t o e x p l o i t the maritime f u r t r a d e f o r the wealth t h a t i t o f f e r e d . Trade w i t h a l i e n groups was common p l a c e and t h i s d i d not appear t o have been t r e a t e d as an e x c e p t i o n . T h i s new wealth was i n f u s e d i n t o the economies of the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups as an i n v i g o r a t i n g t o n i c . C h i e f s managed the t r a d e to h e i g h t e n t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s and s t r e n g t h e n the e x i s t i n g o r d e r . Some groups r e a r r a n g e d t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s t o take f u l l advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e f o r e them. T h i s e n t e r p r i s e d i d not a l t e r the c h a r a c t e r of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i s e a s e , guns, and the h e i g h t e n i n g of t e r r i t o r i a l c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t e d i n the d e c i m a t i o n of N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s change i n the r a t i o of p e o p l e t o r e s o u r c e s d i m i n i s h e d the economic importance of the e x c l u s i v e a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e g a t h e r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , a p r i m a r y b e n e f i t of namima a f f i l i a t i o n . T h i s might have weakened some namima member's support f o r the regime which i n s t i t u t e d the h i e r a r c h i c a l a ccess to the f r u i t s of the h a r v e s t . Should t h i s have o c c u r r e d a change i n the c h a r a c t e r of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s would have ensued. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h i f t h i s came about as a number of o t h e r f a c t o r s c o m p l i c a t e the i s o l a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of K w a k i u t l men and women i n the wage economy a l t e r e d the c h a r a c t e r of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t wealth c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d by means beyond the sphere of the descent group. Wage l a b o r e r s were f r e e from the o b l i g a t i o n s i n c u r r e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e h a r v e s t , f r e e from the h i e r a r c h y of a c c e s s t o the f r u i t s of the h a r v e s t . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s were moved f u r t h e r askew by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of money i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l economy. T h i s change a l s o encouraged the i n d i v i d u a l t o r e g a r d p r o d u c t i o n as an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than c o r p o r a t e u n d e r t a k i n g . E a r l y i n the 19th c e n t u r y the d epopulated v i l l a g e group composed of a s i n g l e namima proved unable t o meet the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t s members. T h i s engendered the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v i l l a g e group i n k e e p i n g w i t h the new c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s change r e q u i r e d an a r t i c u l a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i d not a l t e r the r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s matter w i l l be f u l l y e l a b o r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 81 CHAPTER IV CO-RESIDENCE AND THE ASCENT OF THE TRIBE 0 INTRODUCTION P r i o r t o the h i s t o r i c d e p o p u l a t i o n o f the Northwest Coast the namima was the primary r e s i d e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n o f the Kw a k i u t l p e o p l e . As a " l o c a l v i l l a g e group" the economic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the namima appears t o have s a t i s f i e d the p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l requirements o f i t s members. T h i s s i t u a t i o n , as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , a l t e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y as the p o p u l a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l namimas d e c r e a s e d t o m a r g i n a l l e v e l s i n the 19th c e n t u r y . When the p o p u l a t i o n of the l o c a l v i l l a g e group was c o n s i d e r e d i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l needs of the u n i t , new r e s i d e n c e arrangements were enacted. Namimas l i v i n g w i t h i n c l o s e geographic p r o x i m i t y o f each o t h e r .opted t o share a w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e . These new v i l l a g e groups were composed of ap p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r namimas which had p r e v i o u s l y been i n v o l v e d w i t h each o t h e r i n exchange, marriage, and f e a s t i n g . T h i s new u n i t was simply the r e s u l t o f a f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n a d o p t i n g c o - r e s i d e n c e . In a n c i e n t times f e s t i v a l exchange had been g e a e r a l l y c o n f i n e d t o the s e v e r a l namimas composing a r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . These a n c i e n t f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s would on r a r e o c c a s i o n s engage a s i n g l e n e i g h b o r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n i n a f e a s t or p o t l a t c h (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:43). \ A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the expansion of exchange r e l a t i o n s i n the 19th c e n t u r y . B e g i n n i n g soon a f t e r the 1849 e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Hudson's Bay Co. t r a d i n g p o s t at F o r t Rupert, the i n f l u x of wealth, and the expanded s e c u r i t y of t r a v e l on the c o a s t promoted i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the new v i l l a g e groups. S t r i v i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h themselves as the w e a l t h i e s t and most p r e s t i g i o u s , t h e s e new v i l l a g e u n i t s began t o engage more d i s t a n t u n i t s of comparable s t r u c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n s o f c o m p e t i t i v e r e c i p r o c i t y . The expansion of the range of p o t l a t c h i n g p a r t n e r s was soon f o l l o w e d by an expanded "guest l i s t " f o r i n d i v i d u a l p o t l a t c h e s . As p o t l a t c h i n g expanded t o i n v o l v e a l l of the new v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h i n a s i n g l e u n i f i e d o r d e r , a p r o t o c o l f o r t h i s expanded system was developed. T h i s p r o t o c o l s t r e s s e d the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the s e new v i l l a g e u n i t s and brought t h i s u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h i n K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e . The new v i l l a g e u n i t composed of an a s s o c i a t i o n of namimas l i n k e d through marriage and exchange r e l a t i o n s emerged from t h i s p e r i o d as a p r e s t i g i o u s c o r p o r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n . THE H I S T O R I C V I L L A G E GROUP The f i r s t e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o g n i t i o n of the namima as an independent u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n dates from the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y . By t h i s time these independent 83 groups had abandoned t h e i r l o c a l i z e d r e s i d e n c e and s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s t o i n h a b i t v i l l a g e s s h a red w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r namimas. T h i s change i n r e s i d e n c e arrangements most l i k e l y o c c u r r e d sometime i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the 19th-c e n t u r y . As the new s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s f o l l o w e d the a n c i e n t o r d e r of r e v o l v i n g w i n t e r f e s t i v a l r e s i d e n c e , t h i s change i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h p r e c i s e l y . The censuses of the 1830's compiled by Tolmie (1963:317-319) and Work ( C u r t i s 1915:303) t a l l i e d the K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e groups. John Work's census l i s t e d v i l l a g e s composed of v a r i a b l e numbers of r e s i d e n t s , s l a v e s , canoes, guns, and houses. A l l of the v i l l a g e groups names he r e c o r d e d were l a t e r r e c o g n i z e d as the names of u n i t s composed of s e v e r a l namimas. The one e x c e p t i o n t o the above statement b e i n g the v i l l a g e o f the "Cex-e-ni-nuth". C u r t i s ( i b i d ) i d e n t i f i e d t h i s group as a s i n g l e "gens [namima] of the A w a i L E l a , " r a t h e r than an assembly of namimas r e c o g n i z i n g a common c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y as was the case i n a l l of the o t h e r v i l l a g e s counted. The names of the v i l l a g e groups t h a t the H e i l t z u k c h i e f , Boston., d e l i v e r e d t o Tolmie at F o r t Mc-Loughlin i n 1835 were a l s o the names of c o r p o r a t e groups composed of s e v e r a l r a t h e r than s i n g l e namimas. T h i s s t r e n g t h e n s the a s s e r t i o n t h a t by t h i s time (approx. 1835) v i l l a g e groups were composed of numbers of namimas a f f i l i a t e d under a c o r p o r a t e name r a t h e r than s i n g l e namimas. Work's i n a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h the v i l l a g e o f the "Cex-e - n i - n u t h " from v i l l a g e s h a r b o r i n g s e v e r a l namimas u n i t e d under a c o r p o r a t e t i t l e may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h r e e ways. F i r s t , the group t h a t was l a t e r known as the AwaiLEla, a u n i t whose c o r p o r a t e t i t l e was shared by an a s s o c i a t i o n o f s e v e r a l namimas, was at t h a t p o i n t i n time known as the " C e x - e - n i -nuth". Second, the "Cex-e-ni-nuth" namima was s t i l l at t h a t time an independent v i l l a g e group. As the "Cex-e-ni-nuth" were l a t e r enumerated by Boas (18 97:331) as a namima w i t h i n the A w a i L E l a t h e r e i s a chance t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the namimas composing t h i s u n i t had not yet c o a l e s c e d . However, the most l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t of a m i s - a t t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the b a r r i e r s of language and c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t does not appear t h a t Tolmie and Work were concerned w i t h the co m p o s i t i o n of K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e groups beyond the c a t e g o r i e s . e x p l o r e d i n t h e i r census work. Where t h e i r p r imary area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e i r p r i m a r y u n i t of comparison was the v i l l a g e . They o f f e r no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r b e i n g aware of the u n i t s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d by the i n h a b i t a n t s of the v i l l a g e s they t a l l i e d . T h e i r r e c o r d i s of v a l u e here as i t supports the f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t by 1835 the t y p i c a l K w a k i u t l w i n t e r v i l l a g e group was composed of s e v e r a l namimas r e c o g n i z i n g a common c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y which came t o be known i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the " t r i b e " . " T r i b e " was a term i n use d u r i n g the European c o l o n i z a t i o n o f North America. I t s e t y m o l o g i c a l r o o t s date back t o usage i n e a r l y Roman s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s term was used by the Ki n g of England i n a 1763 p r o c l a m a t i o n t o The Honorable Governor Murray, l e a d e r o f the f l e d g l i n g c o l o n y on the e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h i s c o u n t r y (Mclnnes 1914:31). In the con t e x t of the p r o c l a m a t i o n i t denoted independent, n a t i v e American l a n d h o l d i n g u n i t s . This' term found use on the Northwest Coast by mid-19th c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s bound by the King's p r o c l a m a t i o n . 13 Governor Douglas r e f e r r e d t o what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be the in d i g e n o u s l a n d h o l d i n g u n i t s on the Northwest Coast as " t r i b e s " ( o p . c i t . 4 8 ) . The ethnographers o f the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l - Dawson (1885:64), Boas (1887:225-226), and C u r t i s (1915:132) - used the term " t r i b e " or "band" t o r e f e r t o the u n i t s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e d the primary p o l i t i c a l u n i t of the contemporary r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e group. T h i s was the usage adopted by most s c h o l a r s . Some stu d e n t s o f Kw a k i u t l c u l t u r e have r e f e r r e d t o t h i s u n i t w i t h terms which are l e s s l i k e l y t o connote any co m p l e x i t y of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or e v o l u t i o n a r y schemes. Codere's (1961:442) account o f K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n abandons the term " t r i b e " i n f a v o r of "the v i l l a g e " . 1 3 Mclnnes (1914:31) s t a t e d t h a t the Royal P r o c l a m a t i o n t o Governor Murray of 1763 has, "....the f o r c e and e f f e c t of a s t a t u t e i n Canada." Donald and M i t c h e l l (1975:326) f a v o r the term " l o c a l group" to r e f e r t o t h i s u n i t . T h i s s e a r c h f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e e t i c term does not appear to r e f l e c t any debate about 'the s t r u c t u r e or o r g a n i z a t i o n of the u n i t i t s e l f . Boas i d e n t i f i e d the Kwak'wala terms l e l q w a l a L e and g o k u l o t as e q u i v a l e n t t o h i s use of " t r i b e " (Boas 1921:1464). Rohner (1967:74-75) suggested t h a t t h i s term i s d e r i v e d from the Kwak'wala e x p r e s s i o n f o r house, gyu'x. The term g o k u l o t . t y p i c a l l y appears i n George Hunt's Kwak'wala t e x t s i n r e f e r e n c e t o independent w i n t e r v i l l a g e groups composed of s e v e r a l namimas u n i t e d under a c o r p o r a t e name (Boas 1921:1056) . Boas d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of names assumed by t r i b e s and namimas as c o r p o r a t e t i t l e s . These are t h e : . . . c o l l e c t i v e form or the name of the a n c e s t o r 14, names taken from the r e g i o n i n h a b i t e d by the t r i b e or c l a n . [namima], and names of honor (1897:332-333). I t i s not known i f the a d o p t i o n of these names preceded or f o l l o w e d the c o - r e s i d e n c e of a s s o c i a t e d namimas. However, the e x i s t e n c e of th e s e c o r p o r a t e t i t l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the K w a k i u t l d i s t i n g u i s h e d these u n i t s from i n d i v i d u a l namimas. 1 4 . T h i s c l a s s of names r e f e r s o n l y t o the a n c e s t o r of a namima as t r i b e s don't have a n c e s t o r s (Boas 1935:41). There are s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where the name of a namima, d e r i v e d from the name of an a n c e s t o r , has been broadened and assumed as the name of a t r i b e (e.g. the Wiweqae) (Boas 1897:333). 87 THE COMPOSITION OF THE TRIBE Drucker d e s c r i b e d the K w a k i u t l " t r i b e " as the f o r m a l assembly of n e i g h b o r i n g namimas who a n n u a l l y converge w i t h i n a shared w i n t e r v i l l a g e f o r purposes " e s s e n t i a l l y c e r e m o n i a l " (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:12). He does not appear t o view sh a r e d r e s i d e n c e as an a t t r i b u t e of t h i s p r e - h i s t o r i c a s s o c i a t i o n . Namimas, he suggests, came t o g e t h e r as independent elements g i v i n g up none of t h e i r autonomy or p r o p e r t y . Namimas were ranked w i t h i n t h e i r f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n (Boas 1921:792-793, 1046). Rank was p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s e d i n the s e a t i n g p l a c e s and o r d e r of g i f t g i v i n g i n the p o t l a t c h ceremony ( I b i d ) . For the remainder of t h i s t h e s i s the term " t r i b e " w i l l be used t o denote the f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of namimas d e s c r i b e d by Drucker above. Boas o f f e r e d t h a t w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s "....each t r i b e c o n s i s t s of u n i t s t h a t c l a i m as t h e i r p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , l o c a l i t i e s not f a r a p a r t " (Boas 1920:111-112). Namimas c o n s t i t u t i n g a t r i b a l u n i t had a h i s t o r y of i n t e r a c t i o n . They were drawn t o g e t h e r by marriages which renewed t h e i r c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n i n every g e n e r a t i o n . The marriage between two h i g h l y p l a c e d l i n e a g e members b e l o n g i n g t o s e p a r a t e namimas u n i t e d the man, woman, l i n e a g e s , and namimas (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:70). Having e s t a b l i s h e d c l o s e a f f i n a l l i n k s , and a h i s t o r y of r e c i p r o c i t y over many g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s of independent e n t i t i e s began t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r c o r p o r a t e 88 u n i t y . The i n i t i a l forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f the i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e new u n i t s was the p o t l a t c h . The 19th ce n t u r y t r i b e was an a s s o c i a t i o n o f a f f i l i a t e d namimas. In the 19th ce n t u r y i t became a r e s i d e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n , a p o l i t i c a l u n i t (Drucker 1953), and a m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e ( C u r t i s 1915:98-124). However, the t r i b e h e l d no c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y . As a u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the t r i b e had no grounds upon which t o c l a i m p r o p e r t y . There was no a n c e s t o r common t o a l l namimas w i t h i n a t r i b e and t h e r e f o r e no r e f e r e n c e t o a common h e r i t a g e . The o n l y p r o p e r t y t o which a t r i b e c o u l d c l a i m e x c l u s i v i t y was i t s p a r t i c u l a r namima composition, and i t s rank and r e p u t a t i o n i n i n t e r - t r i b a l a c t i v i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e does make the e x c e p t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o t r i b a l t e r r i t o r i e s . 1 ^ However, the a n t i q u i t y o f these a t t r i b u t i o n s i s obscure. R i t u a l p r e r o g a t i v e s preformed on b e h a l f o f t r i b e s were the p o s s e s s i o n s o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t namimas. In the f o l l o w i n g passage Boas (1925:59) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t i n h i s account of the r o l e of the "Assembler": And now about K!wak!waxsdala, the Assembler of the numaym of the Kukwaklumasa of the GwetEla [ t r i b e ] . He i s the o n l y one who assembles the seven numayms of the GwetEla. l5. In a diagram of o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g s i t e s at the head of Knight i n l e t , Boas i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l s i t e s as the p o s s e s s i o n s of the Ma'maleleqala namimas. He a l s o demarcated an a d j a c e n t camping spot as the p o s s e s s i o n of the Ma'maleleqala v i l l a g e (Boas 1934: map22, #143). CO-RESIDENCE: A RESPONSE TO DEPOPULATION The change i n r e s i d e n c e arrangements addressed the imbalance between c o n d i t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the tempest of changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The c o n d i t i o n s o f a c t i o n f a c e d by the K w a k i u t l were d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by the e a r l y European and American presence on the Northwest c o a s t . D i s e a s e and warfare t h r e a t e n e d the e x t i n c t i o n of the independent l o c a l v i l l a g e group composed o f a s i n g l e namima. P o p u l a t i o n l o s s e s s u f f e r e d by t h e s e d i m i n u t i v e groups l e f t them unable t o f u l f i l l the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r members r e g a r d i n g m a t e r i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and s e c u r i t y from armed a t t a c k . P o p u l a t i o n d e p l e t i o n , as Codere (1950:50-51) p o i n t s out i n the f o l l o w i n g passage, was o f t e n the impetus f o r the abandonment of the s o l i t a r y w i n t e r s i t e s i n f a v o r o f the co-r e s i d e n t i a l h a b i t a t i o n . The numayms, and even the sub-groups, are known i n h i s t o r i c a l times t o have moved from c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s and amalgamated with o t h e r numayms and sub-groups... S e v e r a l o f them seem t o have been a consequence of the r e d u c t i o n of K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Residence groups composed of s e v e r a l namimas l i n k e d through marriage and c o m p e t i t i v e exchange had an i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d of weathering the storm. The a f f i n i t y between groups i n v o l v e d i n t h i s l e v e l of r e c i p r o c i t y was s u f f i c i e n t t o support c o - r e s i d e n c e . I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t when co-r e s i d e n c e became a d e s i r a b l e s t r a t e g y , the c o n s t i t u e n t members of each group were those who shared a h i s t o r y of bonding r e l a t i o n s . The s t r u c t u r e o f the f e s t i v a l r e l a t i o n s between s e v e r a l namimas became the i n i t i a l b a s i s f o r the s t r u c t u r e of the c o - r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e . The g e n e s i s o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s i d e n c e u n i t s composed of s e v e r a l independent namimas s h o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d as a s t r a t e g y f o r success i n warfare. The t h r e a t o f the l o s s e s s u f f e r e d i n r a i d s i n f l u e n c e d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n , t r a v e l , ' a n d r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g p a t t e r n s . As Codere (1966:449) s u g g e s t s : In the e a r l y days the k w a k i u t l may have c o n s i s t e d o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i s o l a t e d groups f o r which s u c c e s s i n warfare was important t o assure s u r v i v a l . The defense b e n e f i t s of c o - r e s i d e n c e undertaken by s e v e r a l weak p o p u l a t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d by Donald and M i t c h e l l (1975:342) as f o l l o w s : I f w arfare was s i g n i f i c a n t i n K w a k i u t l l i f e , t h e r e are s e v e r a l reasons why l a r g e s i z e would be of v a l u e t o l o c a l groups. L a r g e r groups can supply more men f o r o f f e n s i v e purposes and are l e s s weakened d e f e n s i v e l y when w a r r i o r s are away. L a r g e r groups are s t r o n g e r d e f e n s i v e l y and i f they s u f f e r l o s s e s , they can have a l e s s s e r i o u s e f f e c t on the p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e so t h a t e x t i n c t i o n i s not so l i k e l y . . . . Warfare would encourage growth and d i s c o u r a g e f i s s i o n . . . M o r t a l i t y from d i s e a s e i n the l a t e 18th and e a r l y 19th c e n t u r i e s was " . . . . a t l e a s t as g r e a t , i f not g r e a t e r . . . " than the p o p u l a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n the f i r s t s i x t y y e a r s a f t e r the f i r s t censuses (Boyd 1985:264). I f v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n s u r v i v i n g the t r i a l s o f warfare, then namimas w i t h t h e i r numbers s t r i c k e n by smallpox would be i n p e r i l . J o i n t r e s i d e n c e might have been 91 e n a c t e d as a s t r a t e g y f o r the c r e a t i o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t defence f o r c e . The K w a k i u t l were not alone i n t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h d e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was f a c e d by v i r t u a l l y a l l c u l t u r e s on the Northwest Coast. Not a l l groups responded t o t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n the same manner. Boyd (1985:315) i l l u s t r a t e s the d i v e r s i t y of the response t o d e p o p u l a t i o n i n h i s f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t of the Haida and Chinookan P e o p l e s : When the p o p u l a t i o n of a Haida v i l l a g e f e l l below a c e r t a i n l e v e l , the s u r v i v o r s moved en masse and u n i t e d w i t h o t h e r v i l l a g e s i n t o a s i n g l e v i a b l e u n i t . Chinookan l o c a l groups, by c o n t r a s t , seem t o have remained i n p l a c e u n l e s s f o r c i b l y removed. They d i d not amalgamate i n t o v i a b l e l a r g e r v i l l a g e s of a s i n g l e e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c t y p e . The u l t i m a t e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the Chinookans was due t o submersion and replacement of t h e i r s m a l l l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s i n t o the l a r g e r and more ro b u s t p o p u l a t i o n s of n e i g h b o r i n g and i n v a s i v e p e o p l e s . Dawson (1887:66) conc l u d e d t h a t concern- f o r the v u l n e r a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from d e p o p u l a t i o n was a prime f a c t o r i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of the 19th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e u n i t s . V i s i t i n g the area i n the mid 1880's and h a v i n g spoken w i t h I n d i a n and I n d i a n Agent a l i k e he r e s o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g : When the small-pox f i r s t ravaged the c o a s t , a f t e r the coming of the whites, the Indians were not o n l y much reduced i n numbers, but became s c a t t e r e d , and new combinations were p r o b a b l y formed subsequently; w h i l e t r i b e s and p o r t i o n s of t r i b e s , once forming d i s t i n c t v i l l a g e communities, drew t o g e t h e r f o r mutual p r o t e c t i o n when t h e i r numbers became s m a l l (Dawson 1885:66). The a b i l i t y t o s u c c e s s f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n warfare was not the o n l y e x p e c t a t i o n p r e d i c a t e d upon s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s . The c a p t u r e and p r o c e s s i n g of f i s h , house b u i l d i n g , and canoe c o n s t r u c t i o n , were a l l geared to a p o p u l a t i o n which 92 c o u l d p r o v i d e a s t a b l e l a b o r p o o l . ^ There were p o p u l a t i o n t h r e s h o l d s beneath which a l o c a l groups' a b i l i t y t o perform c e r t a i n t a s k s was j e o p a r d i z e d . Boyd e l a b o r a t e s t h i s p o i n t i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: The r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e on o p t i m a l f o r a g i n g t h e o r y (e.g. Smith and W i n t e r h a l d e r 1981) f o r i n s t a n c e , suggests t h a t t h e r e are minimum p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s r e q u i r e d f o r the maintenance o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of t a s k groups, which i n t u r n are n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out c e r t a i n s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . I t stands to reason t h a t d e p o p u l a t i o n which causes t h e s e t a s k groups t o f a l l beneath t h e i r minimum l e v e l t h r e a t e n s t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and i n t u r n e f f e c t s the e f f i c i e n c y and\or n a t u r e of the groups s u b s i s t e n c e e f f o r t (Boyd 1985:528). Should the p o p u l a t i o n f a l l s h o r t of the minimal t h r e s h o l d l e v e l s , . . . p o p u l a t i o n u n i t s , l a c k i n g adequate members t o c a r r y out s y s t e m - s u s t a i n i n g endeavors, combine i n t o l a r g e r groups or cease t o e x i s t as independent v i a b l e u n i t s (1985:521). The c o - r e s i d e n t i a l union of namimas was an a d a p t i v e measure enact e d i n response t o d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n . "Adaptive measure" i s used here i n the sense o f f e r e d by the human e c o l o g i s t Durham (Smith and W i n t e r h a l d e r 1981:218) as f o l l o w s : For human p o p u l a t i o n s , an a t t r i b u t e i s a d a p t i v e when i t can be shown wit h a l t e r n a t e c h a r a c t e r s t a t e s t o c o n f e r the l i k e l i h o o d of maximum s u r v i v a l and r e p r o d u c t i o n f o r i t s c a r r i e r s . Conceived i n these terms, the concept of a d a p t a t i o n does not i t s e l f p r e s c r i b e or r e q u i r e any p a r t i c u l a r e v o l u t i o n a r y pathway, b i o l o g i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l . Namimas assumed a d a p t a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n c e arrangements i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e expected l e v e l s of defence and s u b s i s t e n c e s e c u r i t y . 1 6 See Boas (1921: 1338-1340) f o r an example of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r among c o - r e s i d i n g namimas. THE GENESIS OF THE CO-RESIDENTIAL VILLAGE The g e n e s i s of v i l l a g e groups composed of s e v e r a l namimas p r e d a t e s the presence of ethnographers on the Northwest Coast. K w a k i u t l n a r r a t i v e s of the f u s i o n and f i s s i o n of r e s i d e n c e groups were r e c o r d e d by Boas (1921) w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of h i s c e l e b r a t e d " f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s " . Drucker (1953) and F o r d (1941) a l s o r e c o r d e d n a t i v e accounts of the h i s t o r i c e r a c r e a t i o n of c o - r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e groups. These accounts support the s p e c u l a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s , but to a p o i n t s h o r t of the i d e a l . E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t namimas had developed c o - r e s i d e n c e and t r i b a l i d e n t i t i e s as l a t e as the f i r s t censuses i n 1835. Were v i l l a g e s of c o - r e s i d i n g namimas e s t a b l i s h e d many g e n e r a t i o n s b e f o r e t h i s date? In the f o l l o w i n g passage Boas (1920:111-112) suggests t h a t the p r o c e s s . o f r e s i d e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n t r i b a l u n i t s had been t a k i n g p l a c e f o r a p e r i o d of i n d e t e r m i n a t e d u r a t i o n . The development of the concept of the t r i b a l u n i t i s not, by any means c l e a r , except i n so f a r as i t appears as an e f f e c t of the c o n g r e g a t i o n at one p l a c e of a number of l o c a l u n i t s . Recent t r a d i t i o n , the h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h of which cannot w e l l be doubted, shows c l e a r l y t h a t such a c o n g r e g a t i o n has o c c u r r e d r e p e a t e d l y . U n i t s may a l s o have broken up, owing t o i n n e r d i s s e n s i o n s or t o o t h e r a c c i d e n t s . One of the n a r r a t i v e s d e s c r i b i n g the m i g r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l namimas from t h e i r s i n g u l a r homes t o j o i n t l y o c c u p i e d v i l l a g e s i t e s would appear t o suggest t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s took p l a c e w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of time. Boas r e c o r d e d the f o l l o w i n g account of the c o n v e r g i n g of s e v e r a l 94 independent namimas i n t h r e e n e i g h b o r i n g v i l l a g e s of Qalogwis, Q!abe, and Adap!: Now f o r a l o n g time t h e r e was no v i l l a g e t h e r e . Then the C h i e f of the numaym Maamtagila, Maxuyalidze, came from where h i s house s t o o d at K l o d a g a l a , w i t h h i s w i f e Aomol and h i s t h r e e sons and t h e i r wives and many c h i l d r e n , and a l s o w i t h two daughters and t h e i r husbands and t h e i r many c h i l d r e n . They t r a v e l l e d i n f o u r canoes, f o r i n d e e d they moved away from K l o d a g a l a t o look f o r a good p l a c e f o r a v i l l a g e . They pass e d F o r t Rupert, and maxuyalidze wished t o go t o wiwedzeq. He a r r i v e d at noxdem and i n v a i n he l o o k e d f o r water. He d i d not f i n d any. Then they p a d d l e d and went eastward and he saw Qalogwis which was a v e r y good v i l l a g e s i t e . Then maxuyalidze and h i s s o n s - i n - l a w unloaded t h e i r cargo at t h a t p l a c e and immediately they b u i l t houses t h e r e (Boas 1921:1386). The account c o n t i n u e s from t h i s p o i n t t o e x p l a i n t h a t the a n c e s t o r s of the namimas, Kukwa'klwEm, SenLIe, Wa'wElibaye and La'alaxsEndayu, b u i l t houses at Qalogwis. The a n c e s t o r s of the namimas, LeLEGed and LeqlEm, s e t t l e d at the beach around the c o r n e r at Adap!, as d i d Dzenzqlayo, a n c e s t o r of the numaym DzE'ndzEnx!ayu. The a n c e s t o r s of the Yae'xagame, Haa'yalikawe, and Ge'xsEm namimas b u i l t houses at Q!abe, r i g h t a c r o s s the water from Qalogwis. The s t o r y ends w i t h the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s as f e a s t i n g p a r t n e r s : That i s how i t happened t h a t they came t o g e t h e r . Now they i n v i t e d one another i n the v i l l a g e s Qalogwis and Q!abe and Adap! f o r they were ready i n the v i l l a g e s they had b u i l t (Boas 1921:1387-1388). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t n a r r a t i v e s l i k e the one p r e s e n t e d above were r e p e a t e d without r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r span of time. The r e p o r t e d movements of t h e s e namimas c o u l d have o c c u r r e d over one or t e n g e n e r a t i o n s . However, the language used i n the f i n a l sentence of t h i s Boas t e x t adds a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t dimension t o t h i s t a l e . George Hunt, who penned t h i s l e g e n d f o r Boas wrote: "Now they i n v i t e d one another... f o r they were ready i n the v i l l a g e s they had b u i l t " ( i b i d ) . 1 7 T h i s seems t o suggest some degree of s y n c h r o n i c i t y ; t h a t i s , they were a l l "ready" t o i n v i t e each o t h e r around the same time as they had a l l moved t o t h e i r new v i l l a g e s i n u n i s o n . Had each group r e l o c a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the o t h e r over a g r e a t span of time, the impetus f o r t h i s move c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o l o n g d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l and demographic t r e n d s or d i v e r s e causes. I f t h i s move t r a n s p i r e d r a p i d l y , as t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the n a r r a t i v e suggests, the motive f o r the change i n r e s i d e n c e may have been an abrupt v a r i a t i o n i n s u b s i s t e n c e c o n d i t i o n s (such as d e p o p u l a t i o n ) . I t would be unreasonable t o o v e r - i n v e s t i n the nuances of Hunt's p h r a s i n g but t h i s may be a c l u e where few are to be found. I t i s p r o b l e m a t i c t o depend s o l e l y upon f a m i l y n a r r a t i v e s t o p r o v i d e the data f o r the changes b e i n g examined. T h i s i s not to charge t h a t these s t o r i e s have no v a l u e i n e t h n o - h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . N a r r a t i v e s o f t h i s s o r t were meant t o address the contemporary s i t u a t i o n w i t h the v a l u e s o f l o n g s t a n d i n g t r a d i t i o n . Another n a r r a t i v e , 1 7 C h a r l e s Nowell (Ford 1941:48) d e s c r i b e s the p r a c t i c e of f e a s t i n g and wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n at the co m p l e t i o n of house c o n s t r u c t i o n . He says, " T h i s i s what we c a l l warming up o f the new house. T h i s i s always done when a new house i s f i n i s h e d . " which w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , demonstrates t h a t changes i n the t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n of namimas were not n e c e s s a r i l y remembered. I t was p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a group's c l a i m t o e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y access was p r e s e n t e d i n the form of an i n h e r i t e d l e g a c y . The accuracy of the c l a i m i s r a r e l y v e r i f i a b l e . Whether or not an a n c e s t o r s e t up camp on a p a r t i c u l a r bend i n a r i v e r i s moot. The success of the c l a i m p i v o t s upon the c l a i m a n t ' s a b i l i t y t o have the c l a i m r e c o g n i z e d . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the c l a i m by o t h e r s h i n g e d upon the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of the c l a i m a n t ' s r e s o u r c e s and the c o s t o f - o p p o s i n g , or not opposing i t . However, a c l a i m t o p r o p e r t y had to be p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g i t i m a t e format. At the h e a r t of t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n was a s t o r y r e c o u n t i n g " t h e a n c e s t r a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p o s s e s s i o n . I t i s b e s t to approach these legends w i t h an eye f o r s t r u c t u r e and p a t t e r n r a t h e r than a d e s c r i p t i o n of e v e n t s . Accounts such as the one d e s c r i b i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the v i l l a g e s of Qalogwis, Qlabe, and Adap! o f f e r a s t r u c t u r e f o r the s p e c u l a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c r e a t i o n of the co-r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e . However, the d e t a i l s of t h i s n a r r a t i v e may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which the one-time i n h a b i t a n t s of these v i l l a g e s were found at the time of t h i s s t o r y ' s r e c o u n t i n g . The t i d y appearance of the account of namima m i g r a t i o n r e p o r t e d above might g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the t r e k to the v i l l a g e s of Qalogwis, Q!abe, and Adap! was as r e g u l a r as an annual p i c n i c . However, the f o r m a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t r i b a l u n i t s was o f t e n the r e s u l t of complex r e a l i g n m e n t s . Most s c h o l a r s a t t e m p t i n g t o connect the a n c e s t r a l l i n e s w i t h the a c t u a l movements, f i s s i o n , and f u s i o n of the namimas have found the t a s k near i m p o s s i b l e (Dawson 1887:64; Codere 1950:50; Rohner 1967:75). A f t e r l e a r n i n g the Kwak'wala language and s t u d y i n g t h i s c u l t u r e f o r c l o s e t o one h a l f of a c e n t u r y , Boas (1934:35) expressed h i s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the t a s k of s o r t i n g out t h i s matter as f o l l o w s : There i s so much c o n f u s i o n due t o r e d u c t i o n i n numbers, changes of names, the u n c e r t a i n t y t o which a n c e s t r a l l i n e a n a r r a t o r r e f e r s and the endeavor t o c l a i m the most important s t o r i e s f o r the a n c e s t o r s , t h a t my time was not s u f f i c i e n t t o c l e a r up a l l the d e t a i l s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the f u s i o n of t r i b e s and r e a l i g n m e n t of namimas c o n t i n u e d to occur throughout the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s . O b s e r v a t i o n s of c o n t i n u i n g change i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of t r i b a l u n i t s provoked Boas (1920:114-115) t o remark as f o l l o w s : A l t h o u g h i n the p r e s e n t p e r i o d the concept of the t r i b e i s very c l e a r i n the minds of the Indians, t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the t r i b e s have undergone many changes i n number and c o m p o s i t i o n . There are some i n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s . p r o c e s s even at the p r e s e n t time. One n a r r a t i v e r e c o r d e d by Boas r e v e a l s the hand of r e v i s i o n caught i n the a c t of r e a l i g n i n g the p a s t i n harmony w i t h the p r e s e n t . T h i s was not a f e a t of s u b t e r f u g e d e s i g n e d t o c l a i m an i n h e r i t a n c e b e l o n g i n g t o another. I t was an attempt t o encourage the success of the r e a l i g n m e n t by f a i l i n g t o mention a r e c e n t change i n a f f i l i a t i o n . The important p o i n t brought out here i s t h a t i n K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e , c o n t i n u i t y i s equated w i t h l e g i t i m a c y . Boas r e c o r d e d a s t o r y t o l d by George Hunt which belongs t o the f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f the L e ' l E g e d namima of the Q!omk!uT!ES t r i b e . In t h i s t a l e t he son of Waxaplalaso, Xaxosenaso, r e t u r n s from the w i l d e r n e s s a f t e r b e i n g away i n s e a r c h o f s p e c i a l powers. Hunt e x p l a i n s t h a t Waxaplalaso r e c o g n i z e d the v o i c e of h i s son i n the melody of a s a c r e d song t h a t Xaxosenaso sang i n the w i l d e r n e s s , not f a r from the v i l l a g e . Waxaplalaso a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t he has been g i v e n t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o ca p t u r e h i s son back from the realm of the s p i r i t s and thus assembles the members of h i s t r i b e t o a s s i s t him. The L e ' l E g e d namima was at one time c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the QlomkluTlES t r i b e . In the r e c o u n t i n g o f t h i s s t o r y Hunt r e a l i g n s the namima a f f i l i a t i o n s t o r e f l e c t the o r d e r of the times. The t e x t d e s c r i b i n g . Waxap!alaso's endeavors i s worded as f o l l o w s : He went t o the houses of h i s t r i b e , and c a l l e d the people t o come t o h i s house. D a y l i g h t had not n e a r l y come yet, when they a l l came; and Waxaplalaso t a l k e d t o h i s t r i b e , the a n c e s t o r s of the Le'LEged of the G r e a t - K w a k i u t l and asked them t o c a p t u r e Xaxosenaso (Boas 1921:1137). Boas added a f o o t n o t e t o t h i s passage t o the e f f e c t t h a t the "Great K w a k i u t l " (wa'las Kwa'gul) mentioned i n t h i s s t o r y , . . . s h o u l d be the QlomklutEs; however s i n c e t h i s d i v i s i o n i s 99 much reduced i n numbers and has j o i n e d the wa'las Kwagul they are g e n e r a l l y counted w i t h them ( i b i d ) . I t i s not known when t h i s n a r r a t i v e a c q u i r e d t h e s e r e v i s e d p a r t i c u l a r s but as Boas (1920:114-115) w r i t e s o f the two t r i b e s i n a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , ...the tendency i s such t h a t w i t h i n a s h o r t time the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e might w e l l d i s a p p e a r . T h i s s t o r y of the L e ' l E g e d namima of the Q!omk!UT!ES d i d not r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l a l t e r a t i o n t o become a s t o r y o f the L e ' l E g e d namima of the wa'las Kwagul. The f a c t t h a t i t was r e t o l d i n t h i s manner suggests the L e ' l E g e d namima was simply r e d e f i n i n g i t s p a s t i n keeping w i t h i t s c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . D u r i n g the 19th c e n t u r y the namima remained the p r i m a r y u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , capable o f s h i f t i n g from one t r i b e t o another. An example of the changing t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n o f some namimas i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Drucker's (1953) u n p u b l i s h e d account of the f o r m a t i o n of the Kwe'xa t r i b e . T h i s c h r o n i c l e was o b t a i n e d from C h a r l e s Nowell, a h i g h r a n k i n g member of the Kwe'xa t r i b e . In r e c o u n t i n g the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s t o r y t o F o r d (1941:57), Nowell e x p l a i n s t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f the Kwe'xa t r i b e r e s u l t e d from the f i s s i o n o f two namimas of the Gwe'tEla t r i b e . T h i s s p l i t was i n i t i a l l y a consequence of a r i v a l r y between Ma'xwa, the C h i e f of the Maa'mtagila namima, and Yakodlas, the C h i e f of the Kukwa'kwEm namima. The c o n t e s t between these two e s c a l a t e d t o the p o i n t where they b o t h t r i e d t o k i l l each o t h e r . When Yakodlas f i n a l l y succeeded i n d e f e a t i n g h i s r i v a l , a number of f r a c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e namimas were exposed. Members of the Kukwa'kwEm and Maa'mtagila namimas who s i d e d w i t h Yakodlas i n the d i s p u t e moved away from the o t h e r namimas composing the Gwe'tEla t r i b e . The Kukwa'kwEm formed the f i r s t namima of a new t r i b e , a p p r o p r i a t e l y dubbed "Kwe'xa", meaning, " k i l l e r s " . T h i s d i s p u t e a l s o caused a r i f t i n the Ge'xsEm namima of the Gwe'tEla; the break-away f a c t i o n j o i n i n g the wa'las Kwa'gul t r i b e . The f a t e o f the Maa'mtagila members t h a t l e f t t he Gwe'tEla i s not c l e a r . Nowell e x p l a i n e d t o Drucker (1953) t h a t the Maa'mtagila who l i v e d on Turner I s l a n d as a s e p a r a t e group, were the Maa'mtagila members who f a v o r e d Y akodlas. Nowell i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o the Ma'dilbe t r i b e who shared the v i l l a g e o f Kalokwis on Turner I s l a n d w i t h the L a ' w i t l s e s t r i b e d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y . The Ma'dilbe are the o n l y o t h e r t r i b e w i t h a "Maa'mtagila" namima. The Ma'dilbe are r e f e r r e d t o as the Maa'mtagila by the p r e s e n t day K w a k i u t l . 1 8 Other namimas soon j o i n e d the t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n i t i a t e d by the members of the Kukwa'kwEm namima, which had seceded from the Gwe'tEla t r i b e . Nowell e x p l a i n e d t h a t the Ha'anaLena namima came t o a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h the i a The contemporary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t f o r t h i s groups i s r e f e r r e d t o as the "Tanakteuk-Mamtagila". 101 Kukwa'kwEm through marriage. T h i s namima, ranked second w i t h i n the Kwe'xa t r i b e , may have been an independent v i l l a g e group when they j o i n e d the Kwe'xa. Nowell' t o l d Drucker (1953) t h a t t h e s e people, "were s e p a r a t e , too, w i t h t h e i r own a n c e s t o r s . " He added t h a t they h e l d some t e r r i t o r y on the p o i n t between F o r t Rupert and Hardy Bay. The next namima d i s c u s s e d by Nowell i s the Haa'yalikawe, whose o r i g i n a l home was " l a ' l a d i " on the Nort h shore and creek o f Hardy Bay. The f i r s t a n c e s t o r of t h i s group, Haa'yalikawe, i s s a i d t o have been d r e s s e d i n r e d cedar bark when he descended t o the e a r t h l y realm. Nowell a t t r i b u t e s the i n g r e s s o f t h i s namima i n t o the Kwe'xa t r i b e t h rough marriage a l s o . The Haa'yalikawe were ranked f o u r t h i n the o r d e r of precedence w i t h i n t h i s t r i b e . The n a r r a t i v e o f the l i n k i n g o f the Gi'gElgam namima wi t h the o t h e r namimas of the Kwe'xa p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the p r i n c i p l e of p r i m o g e n i t u r e i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In l i n e a g e s t o r i e s such as the one t h a t f o l l o w s , the c o n f l i c t s between s i b l i n g s a re g e n e r a l i z e d t o the l i n e s o f descent which the c o n t e s t i n g b r o t h e r headed. T h i s was one of the f a c t o r s the K w a k i u t l deem r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the movements of namimas between t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . Drucker (1953) suggested t h a t the Gi'gElgam l i k e l y j o i n e d the Kwe'xa d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e o f C h a r l e s Nowell's f a t h e r . As C h a r l e s was born i n 1870 h i s f a t h e r , " M a l i t s a s " , was p r o b a b l y born no e a r l i e r than 1830 ( a l l o w i n g t h a t the man C h a r l e s c a l l e d " f a t h e r " was h i s b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r ) . Drucker renders'Mr. Nowell's words as f o l l o w s : 19 There were t h r e e b r o t h e r s , who were the sons of omaxtalLiT, who was the son of the a n c e s t o r of Gi'gElgam [namima] of the wa'las Kwa'gul [ t r i b e ] . omaxtalLiT was a g r e a t spear hunter, h a v i n g much success s p e a r i n g s e a l s , e t c . He had t h r e e sons. He gave t o h i s f i r s t son the r i g h t t o be c h i e f of h i s descendants. He gave t o h i s second son the name "mountain". He gave "mountain" a l l the dances. The t h i r d son was t o be c a l l e d yayaxala'1 ("at f o o t of mountain"). The n i g y e ("mountain") c l a n 20 wanted to get ahead of the f i r s t c l a n . The c h i e f of the f i r s t c l a n was m a r r i e d t o the Kukwa'kwEm of the Kwe'xa. O'wadi t o l d h i s son and t h i s c l a n t o move over and j o i n the Kwixa and the Gi'gElgam moved over...[Had the f i r s t c l a n competed w i t h the n i g y e ] . . . . They p r o b a b l y would have l o s t out i n the c o m p e t i t i o n , and the n i g y e would have gone ahead of them. . By j o i n i n g the Kwe'xa the Gi'gElgam became h i g h e r anyhow. [The Kwe'xa t r i b e i s ranked h i g h e r i n the o r d e r of precedence than the wa'las Kwa'gul] It i s not p o s s i b l e t o date the events d e s c r i b e d above, but as Drucker p o i n t e d out, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the Kwe'xa t r i b e was assembled d u r i n g the h i s t o r i c e r a . 21 THE CO-RESIDENCE OF TRIBES The combined p o p u l a t i o n s of namimas w i t h i n co-r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e s appears t o have s a t i s f i e d the v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n requirements of 1835. However, K w a k i u t l 19 Drucker's notes are w r i t t e n i n p o i n t form u t i l i z i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and symbols. My r e n d e r i n g of h i s notes r e f l e c t f i d e l i t y t o h i s language and p h r a s i n g . 20. I assume Mr. Nowell uses the word " c l a n " here t o denote the i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s of descent stemming from omaxtalLiT, the son of the a n c e s t o r of the Gi'gElgam. 21 Codere (Boas 1966:45) suggests t h a t the f r a c t u r i n g of two namimas of the Gwe'tEla t r i b e o c c u r r e d about 1810. However, she does not r e v e a l the b a s i s of her a s s e r t i o n . 103 p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o drop throughout the 19th c e n t u r y . The 1835 p o p u l a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8000 persons had d e c l i n e d t o 1,597.by 1898 (Canada Annual Report on I n d i a n A f f a i r s 1898). As p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o d e t e r i o r a t e through the century, v i l l a g e s composed of a s i n g l e a s s o c i a t i o n of c o - r e s i d i n g namimas would s u f f e r the same f a t e as the v i l l a g e s i n h a b i t e d by a s i n g l e namima: they too would become underpopulated. I f the maintenance of v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s i n keeping w i t h m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the co-r e s i d e n c e of a f f i l i a t e d namimas, then i t s h o u l d be expected t h a t u n d e r - p o p u l a t i o n would a l s o engender the c o - r e s i d e n c e of a f f i l i a t e d t r i b e s . As i t i s , the h i s t o r y of Kwakiutl' v i l l a g e groups i n the second h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e s i d e n t i a l - c o n g r e g a t i o n of u n d e r p o p u l a t e d t r i b e s . When t r i b e s opted f o r c o - r e s i d e n c e t h e i r p a r t n e r s of c h o i c e were t r i b e s w i t h which they had some a f f i l i a t i o n . M a r r i a g e s between members of n e i g h b o r i n g t r i b e s i n i t i a t e d a s e r i e s of r e c i p r o c a l o b l i g a t i o n s which l i n k e d t h e s e t r i b e s as f e s t i v e p a r t n e r s . As the c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s grew they composed what Drucker r e f e r s t o as a " l o c a l confederacy, of t r i b e s " (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:42). C o n f e d e r a c i e s were emic c a t e g o r i e s . The southern most co n f e d e r a c y of K w a k i u t l t r i b e s was r e f e r r e d t o as the "Le'gwildax". The f o u r t r i b e s of the Kingcome I n l e t 104 c o n f e d e r a c y were r e c o g n i z e d as composing the "Mus-Gamagw Dza'wadEnox". While the t r i b e s w i t h i n these c o n f e d e r a c i e s may have had cause f o r p e a c e f u l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a n c i e n t times, i t seems much more l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e c o a l e s c e d i n the 19th c e n t u r y . In the f o l l o w i n g passage Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:12) d e s c r i b e s the b r e a d t h of the phenomenon of t r i b a l c o n f e d e r a c i e s among the K w a k i u t l : Some groups of t r i b e s which o c c u p i e d a d j o i n i n g t r a c t s u n i t e d i n t o c o n f e d e r a c i e s . . . A l t h o u g h t h e s e l a r g e r e n t i t i e s — s u c h as the Kwagyul, who assembled at Beaver Harbor, the s i t e o f F o r t Rupert, and the Kingcome I n l e t g r o u p s — a c h i e v e d t h e i r f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t , because of t h e i r geographic p r o x i m i t y , the u n i t s composing each of the c o n f e d e r a c i e s c e r t a i n l y had more i n t i m a t e bonds among themselves f o r a l o n g e r time than w i t h more d i s t a n t n e i g h b o r s . The v i l l a g e group of the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y was composed of e i t h e r one or s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t t r i b e s . In t h e s e v i l l a g e s i t was not unusual t o f i n d a t r i b e i n the p r o c e s s of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . " D i s i n t e g r a t i o n " s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d here t o mean the l o s s of a t r i b e ' s c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y and the d i s p e r s i n g of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t namimas among ot h e r t r i b e s . • Few t r i b e s a c t u a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d . These i n s t a n c e s may r e p r e s e n t a tendency f o r groups t o d i s p e r s e and then regroup when f a c e d w i t h a b l i g h t of unknown o r i g i n . 22 j n ^he absence of, or i n p r e f e r e n c e t o , immunological t h e o r y , the l A Dawson (1885:66) was of the o p i n i o n t h a t due t o the ravages of small-pox, "....the Indians were not o n l y much reduced i n numbers, but became s c a t t e r e d . . . " 105 members of s o c i a l groups may a t t r i b u t e the cause of i l l n e s s t o f o r c e s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y . The Kw a k i u t l b e l i e v e d s o r c e r y , or "eka" i n Kwak'wala, was a primary cause o f i l l n e s s ( C u r t i s 1915:63-98). C u r t i s ( i b i d ) s o l i c i t e d s e v e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t s and r i v a l r i e s endemic t o Kw a k i u t l s o c i e t y where "eka" was i n t r o d u c e d as a s t r a t e g y f o r v i c t o r y . When f a c e d w i t h i l l n e s s of plague p r o p o r t i o n s , the namimas may have abandoned t h e i r c o - r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e s i n the hope of a l l e v i a t i n g t he c o n f l i c t s b e l i e v e d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the "eka" i n f l i c t e d s u f f e r i n g . I n d i a n Agent f o r the Kwawkewlth Agency, R. H. P i d c o c k i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i n h i s r e p o r t o f Sept 3 1888 : These Indians ("the Wa-lit-sum, whose r e s e r v e i s at Salmon R i v e r " ) have v a c a t e d t h e i r houses on account o f many deaths among them....I met a good many of them at Cape-Mudge f i s h i n g , and I a d v i s e d them t o go back t o t h e i r own homes, which they s a i d they would do. (D.I.A. Annual Report 1888:104) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine i f t h i s i n s t a n c e o f d i s p e r s i o n o c c u r r e d i n order t o escape the "eka" c a u s i n g the deaths at home. However, t h i s a c t i o n may r e p r e s e n t an o l d e r p a t t e r n based upon t h i s t h e o r y . Namimas abandoning t h e i r common t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n o f t e n a c t e d i n c o n c e r t . That i s , they a l l j o i n e d the same t r i b e as they abandoned t h e i r p r e v i o u s c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y . The e a r l i e r mentioned merging of the Q!omk!utEs and wa'las Kwa'gul t r i b e s e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s i n s t a n c e 106 Boas (1921:1137) suggested t h a t the namimas of t h e Q!omk!utEs had j o i n e d the wa'las Kwa'gul as t h e i r ranks were "much reduced i n numbers." T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o p o p u l a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t of namima r e - a f f i l i a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the c o r p o r a t e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of a t r i b e . When the namimas of one t r i b e j o i n those of another, those o f l e s s p o p u l a t i o n adopt the c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y of t h e i r more populous h o s t s . When the d i s p e r s e d namimas of one t r i b e become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h another, t h e " s t r u c t u r e of the amalgamated e n t i t y i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the s t r u c t u r e of the host t r i b e . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the ranked o r d e r of namimas w i t h i n the amalgamated e n t i t y . 23 R e l y i n g h e a v i l y on i n f o r m a t i o n s o l i c i t e d by C h i e f Mungo M a r t i n , D u f f ' s u n p u b l i s h e d notes on the Southern K w a k i u t l a l l u d e t o s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of t r i b a l i n t e g r a t i o n . In these notes Duff f o l l o w s the f a t e of the t h r e e " N a h w i t t i T r i b e s " of the n o r t h c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , the L!a'Lasiqwala, the NaqE'mgElisala, and the Yu'LIenox. He w r i t e s the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g these groups: These t r i b e s have l o s t t h e i r s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s and no l o n g e r i n h a b i t t h e i r o l d t e r r i t o r i e s . The Y u t l i n u k of the S c o t t I s l a n d s passed out of e x i s t e n c e e a r l y i n the 19th Century. The N a k u m g i l i s a l a of Cape S c o t t amalgamated w i t h the T l a t l a s i k w a l a about the middle of the c e n t u r y , and shared t h e i r subsequent h i s t o r y . About 1860 they a l l moved t o Hope z- i The namimas of the wa'las Kwa'gul ranked l a s t and second to the l a s t are namimas which were f o r m e r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Q!omk!utEs t r i b e (Boas 1897:330, 1921:801). 107 I s l a n d , where they had t h e i r p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e u n t i l about 1954 (Duff, U n p u b l i s h e d N o t e s ) . The r e l a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n d i s p a r i t y between t h e s e t h r e e t r i b e s b e ars s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon the h i s t o r y o f t h e i r co-r e s i d e n c e . The Yu'LIenox, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 50 i n 1835 ( i b i d ) , were the f i r s t group t o l o s e t h e i r s p e c i f i c t r i b a l i d e n t i t y . I b e l i e v e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the s u r v i v i n g members of the namimas of t h i s group j o i n e d one of the two l a r g e r t r i b e s i n t h i s c o n f e d e r a c y . The NaqE'mgElisala, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 100 i n 1835 ( i b i d ) , moved t o the v i l l a g e of the L ! a ' L a s i q w a l a i n the mid-1850's. The L ! a ' L a s i q w a l a were the most populous group i n t h i s combined u n i t , w i t h an 1835 p o p u l a t i o n of 250 ( i b i d ) . The v i l l a g e s shared by these t h r e e groups from the time of t h e i r i n i t i a l merging u n t i l 1954 were those b e l o n g i n g t o the L ! a ' L a s i q w a l a . Boas (1887:231) noted the i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y of t h e s e t r i b e s d u r i n g h i s f i e l d work i n t h e i r r e g i o n i n the 1880s. E a r l i e r i n the same decade the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (D.I.A.) had lumped these c o - r e s i d i n g t r i b e s t o g e t h e r i n t o a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t , the " N a h w i t t i T r i b e " . The t e r r i t o r i e s r e s e r v e d f o r t h i s group by the D.I.A. under the name, " N a h w i t t i T r i b e " , r e f e r s t o the p r e v i o u s owners of each p a r c e l by " t r i b e " . T h i s s i t u a t i o n poses an i n t e r e s t i n g problem. I f the N a h w i t t i t r i b e s were " i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e " then how i s i t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i o n s of the t r i b e s were 108 d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e ? As p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t r i b e s are not p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g e n t i t i e s . P r o p e r t y d i d not pass from the domain of the namima i n t o the domain of the t r i b e . While t h e s e t r i b e s d i d not p e r s i s t as d i s t i n c t s o c i a l e n t i t i e s the namimas which comprised them s u r v i v e d . The groups of namimas which at one time c o n s t i t u t e d the i n d i v i d u a l N a h w i t t i t r i b e s had r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e v i l l a g e u n i t w i t h no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t r i b a l d i v i s i o n s . The t e r r i t o r i e s i n q u e s t i o n were the p o s s e s s i o n s o f namimas. The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r i b a l u n i t s d i d not e f f e c t the namimas' p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . The memory of p r e v i o u s t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n no doubt p e r s i s t e d f o r a w h i l e thus p e r m i t t i n g the a t t r i b u t i o n of " t r i b a l " l a n d t e n ure by v i r t u e o f p a s t namima a f f i l i a t i o n . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the N a h w i t t i t r i b e s were a f f i l i a t e d as independent u n i t s w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l c o n f e d e r a c y f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e i r r e s i d i n g i n a s i n g l e w i n t e r l o c a t i o n . D u r i n g the p e r i o d of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n as c o - r e s i d e n t s o f a w i n t e r v i l l a g e the d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t i e s of the t h r e e t r i b e s d i s i n t e g r a t e d . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n as a s i n g l e t r i b a l u n i t w i t h i n the K w a k i u t l p o t l a t c h (Margaret CooK: 1988 p e r s o n a l communication). C o - r e s i d e n c e was not pursued by d i s i n t e g r a t i n g t r i b e s o n l y . Some t r i b e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h i n a c o n f e d e r a c y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t i e s f o r a time w h i l e s h a r i n g the b e n e f i t s o f j o i n t h a b i t a t i o n . The c o - r e s i d e n c e of the 109 Gwe'tEla, Kwe'xa, and wa'las Kwa'gul t r i b e s at F o r t Rupert (commencing i n 1849) , the r e s i d e n t i a l convergence of the A w a i L E l a and DEna'xdax t r i b e s of K n i g h t s I n l e t (commencing around 1870), and the j o i n t h a b i t a t i o n of the Ma'dilbe and the L a ' w i t l s e s t r i b e s at Kalokwis (commencing around 1900), are a l l examples of t r i b e s t h a t e n t e r e d i n t o c o - r e s i d e n c e w i t h - t h e i r c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t i e s i n t a c t . These t r i b e s a c t e d as independent, c o o p e r a t i v e members of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e u n i t s . D e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g these v i l l a g e groups were mediated by c o u n c i l s composed of the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g men from each t r i b e (Ford 1941:15) . The h i g h e s t ranked p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a t r i b e belonged t o the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g namima w i t h i n t h a t t r i b e . However i t would be expected t h a t namimas, as independent u n i t s w i t h i n a t r i b e , would p r o b a b l y p a r t i c i p a t e as near e q u a l s when c r e a t i n g d e c i s i o n s which would e f f e c t , the t r i b e . By way of the same l o g i c , Ford's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the d e c i s i o n s e f f e c t i n g the v i l l a g e were the p r o v i n c e of a l l r e s i d e n t t r i b e s , r i n g s t r u e . The s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i l l a g e s composed of s e v e r a l a f f i l i a t e d t r i b e s was comparable to t h a t of v i l l a g e s composed of s e v e r a l a f f i l i a t e d namimas (a s i n g l e t r i b e ) . Each t r i b e i n h a b i t e d a d i s t i n c t t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n the co-r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e (Drucker 1953) . T h i s arrangement was comparable to the s e t t l e m e n t p l a n found w i t h i n a v i l l a g e composed of a s i n g l e t r i b e . As Boas (1966:48) a t t e s t s , 110 W i t h i n the t r i b e , the numayma r e t a i n t h e i r s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . As l o n g as the o l d s e t t l e m e n t s remained i n t a c t , every numayma o c c u p i e d i t s own s e c t i o n of the v i l l a g e . C h a r l e s Nowell's account of a t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p u t e w i t h i n the v i l l a g e of F o r t Rupert i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t v i l l a g e group's segmented c o m p o s i t i o n . Mr. Nowell e x p l a i n e d t h a t , Each person c l e a r s h i s l a n d where he i s g o i n g t o b u i l d h i s house, and t h i s , way a l l the l a n d gets c l e a r e d t h a t belongs to the t r i b e . . . . I f the Walas K w a k i u t l i s t r y i n g t o get some of the K w a k i u t l l a n d where t h e i r houses has been, the c h i e f s b e g i n t o remember who c l e a r e d the l a n d , and t h a t p e r s o n has a r i g h t t o i t as a member of t h a t t r i b e (Ford 1941:49) . The s t r u c t u r e of a v i l l a g e group composed of a c o n f e d e r a c y of t r i b e s e x p r e s s e d s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s t o a v i l l a g e group composed of an a s s o c i a t i o n of namimas (an i n d i v i d u a l t r i b e ) . E s s e n t i a l l y the same p r o c e s s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o - r e s i d e n c e of t r i b e s and namimas. I t i s unreasonable, however, to equate t r i b e s and namimas. The 19th c e n t u r y t r i b e was the primary unit, i n which namimas i n t e r a c t e d w i t h o t h e r namimas beyond t h e i r v i l l a g e . T r i b e s came t o g e t h e r as m i l i t a r y u n i t s and as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p o t l a t c h . The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of a t r i b e ' s c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y r e s u l t e d i n the f o r f e i t of i t s unique p l a c e w i t h i n these p r e s t i g i o u s t h e a t r e s . By j o i n i n g another t r i b e the namimas of a d i s i n t e g r a t e d u n i t were a b l e to c o n t i n u e w i t h i n t h i s forum. However, they s u f f e r e d the demise of t h e i r p r e s t i g i o u s name, the l o s s of t h e i r p l a c e of honor, and the ignominy o f . t a g g i n g a l o n g w i t h a more f o r t u n a t e peer. As u n d e s i r a b l e as the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of one's t r i b e must have been, i t was s u r v i v a b l e . In c o n t r a s t , namima members I l l were h e i r s t o an a n c i e n t l e g a c y of p r o p e r t y p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i r descent l i n e . The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of one's namima was i n the mind of the K w a k i u t l " u n t h i n k a b l e " ( C u r t i s 1915:138). THE ASCENT OF THE TRIBE In o r d e r to c o n t i n u e from t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i l l u s t r a t e the ascent of the t r i b e as a u n i t of s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The year 1849 marks the a c c e l e r a t i o n of many changes i n K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e . T h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y the b e g i n n i n g of the end of the r e g i o n a l i s o l a t i o n of K w a k i u t l t r i b e s . The wealth a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company's f u r t r a d i n g e f f o r t at F o r t Rupert caught the a t t e n t i o n of a l l K w a k i u t l groups. Codere r e p o r t s t h a t most of the two t o t h r e e thousand Indians t h a t were t o be found at F o r t Rupert, c o n s t a n t l y , d u r i n g the year 1850, were v i s i t o r s from o t h e r v i l l a g e s (Codere 1966:457). The F o r t Rupert t r i b e s , h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n c e around the t r a d i n g s t a t i o n , became the most p o w e r f u l t r i b e s i n the a r e a . By v i r t u e of t h e i r p o s i t i o n as middlemen i n the t r a d e , they a l s o became the w e a l t h i e s t . Codere d e s c r i b e d the r a d i c a l h i k e i n s t a t u s enjoyed by the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s d u r i n g the e a r l y days of the t r a d e as f o l l o w s : The f o u n d i n g of F o r t Rupert was f o l l o w e d immediately by changes i n K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y by changes i n the s o c i a l rank o r g a n i z a t i o n of the people and changes i n p o t l a t c h i n g . Unusual o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e t o the people of the v a r i o u s numayms and v i l l a g e s t h a t moved t o F o r t Rupert w h i l e i t was b e i n g s e t up....The r e s u l t was the e x a g g e r a t i o n of the wealth and s o c i a l importance of the " F o r t 112 R u p e r t s " and a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n p o t l a t c h i n g g e n e r a l l y (Codere 1966:455). A new dawn was c a s t i n g i t s f i r s t rays w e l l beyond the p r i o r l i m i t s o f p e a c e f u l c o n t a c t . The f o u n d i n g o f the Hudson's Bay Company post at F o r t Rupert was the c a t a l y s t f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e r - g r o u p p r o t o c o l beyond the r e g i o n a l c o n f i n e s of t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l group a r e a s . The abundance ge n e r a t e d by the f u r t r a d e and the f r e e passage of the waterways marked the s t a r t of a new e r a . The s i t u a t i o n was potent w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y . In o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r wealth and spread t h e i r p r e s t i g e over a g r e a t e r area, the c h i e f s chose t o expand the l i m i t s o f membership i n t h e i r r i n g o f p r e s t i g e X w e a l t h exchange groups (Codere 1966:449). C h a r l e s Nowell a s s e r t e d t h a t the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s were the f i r s t t o . g i v e p o t l a t c h e s " . . . . t o o t h e r t r i b e s i n s t e a d o f among themselves..." (Drucker 1953) Mr. Nowell's b i a s a s i d e , the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s were the f i r s t among the Kw a k i u t l t o encounter the p r o s p e r i t y r e s u l t i n g from t r a d e w i t h the H.B.C. They would have been the most l i k e l y t o have amassed the wealth and power n e c e s s a r y t o engage t r i b e s beyond t h e i r c onfederacy i n f e s t i v i t i e s and c o m p e t i t i v e exchange. In e a r l i e r times wealth was exchanged by opposing e q u a l s . L o c a l groups engaged n e i g h b o r i n g l o c a l groups i n c o m p e t i t i v e exchange. When s e v e r a l l o c a l groups combined r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n a s i n g l e v i l l a g e they extended the s c a l e of c o m p e t i t i v e exchange t o u n i t s of comparable s t r u c t u r e . T h i s 113 system c o u l d be t h e o r e t i c a l l y extended t o more complex u n i t s , p r o v i d i n g the p r i n c i p l e of opposed p a i r s was m a i n t a i n e d . Drucker's inf o r m a n t s a s s e r t t h a t d u r i n g " a n c i e n t t i m e s " p r i o r t o the development of the r e g i o n a l c o n f e d e r a c i e s of t r i b e s (such as the F o r t Rupert group), one t r i b e was " p a i r e d " w i t h another i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of c o m p e t i t i v e exchange (Drucker 1967 p.41). As F o r d (1941:17) s t a t e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t : " T h i s p a t t e r n runs through a l l p o t l a t c h e s l a r g e or s m a l l . There always has t o be the x o t h e r s i d e ' . " There were r i v a l r i e s w i t h i n the ranked membership of a namima. R i v a l s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e were " p a i r e d " , i n t h a t the r a n k i n g s t r u c t u r e decreed the p o i n t s of c o n t e n t i o n , t h a t i s , which p o s i t i o n would be c h a l l e n g e d by the h o l d e r of any f i x e d p o s i t i o n . These r i v a l r i e s were not composed of e q u a l o p p o s i t e s as the r a n k i n g system d i c t a t e s a sequence i n which no two p o s i t i o n s are e q u a l . R i v a l s w i t h i n the namima were always of d i f f e r e n t rank. The r i v a l r y between the sons of omaxtalLiT, a n c e s t o r of Gi'gElgam namima of the wa'las Kwa'gul t r i b e , i s an i n s t a n c e of the c o m p e t i t i o n between ranked s i b l i n g s . T h i s legend ( d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ) i l l u s t r a t e s how two b r o t h e r s were i n c o n f l i c t over the r i g h t of i n h e r i t a n c e i m p l i c i t i n the r u l e of p r i m o g e n i t u r e . From Mr. Nowell's account i t appears t h a t the p r o t o c o l p r e s c r i b e d by t h i s r u l e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be somewhat c h a l l e n g e a b l e . 114 In the e r a f o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of F o r t Rupert, c h i e f s w i s h i n g t o e n l a r g e the l i m i t s of t h e i r p r e s t i g e sought t o engage a g r e a t e r number of t r i b e s i n c o m p e t i t i v e exchange.. They chose t o expand t h e i r p o t l a t c h guest l i s t t o i n c l u d e s e v e r a l t r i b e s at a s i n g l e event. E n l i s t i n g a d d i t i o n a l independent t r i b e s w i t h i n a c o m p e t i t i v e forum, s t r u c t u r e d t o accommodate two opposing t r i b e s , r e q u i r e d a s t r u c t u r a l change. The n o t i o n of equal o p p o s i t e s becomes q u i t e complex when accommodating more than two elements. The move t o extend the sphere of r e l a t i o n s beyond the pre-1849 l i m i t s r e q u i r e d a new t i e r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The K w a k i u t l s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem was t o express r i v a l r i e s i n terms of p a i r e d u n i t s , i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a ranked o r d e r of precedence, acknowledged by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p a i r s were composed of " . . . t r i b e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y i n the rank h i e r a r c h y ( R o s m a n and Rubel 1971:143). T h i s s o l u t i o n was a s y n t h e s i s of the two modes of r i v a l r y . i n p l a y w i t h i n K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e at t h i s time: p a i r e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l . Drucker suggests t h a t the expanded p o t l a t c h guest l i s t s , and ranked o r d e r of precedence, were developed i n the l a s t t h r e e decades of the 19th c e n t u r y (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:45). As a wide range of t r i b e s began t o i n t e r a c t , t h e i r nascent i d e n t i t i e s emerged. As they s t r o v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h themselves w i t h i n the expanded forum, t r i b e s began t o c e l e b r a t e t h e i r p o t l a t c h deeds and boast of t h e i r "mountains of wealth". The t r i b e became a p r e s t i g e b e a r i n g u n i t of 115 s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which membership became i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The s t r u c t u r e of the ranked o r d e r of precedence i s r e c o g n i z a b l e throughout the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The ranked descent l i n e s w i t h i n the namima are s t r u c t u r a l l y comparable t o the ranked namimas w i t h i n the t r i b e . The ranked o r d e r of t r i b e s w i t h i n the c o n f e d e r a c i e s i s the s t r u c t u r a l e x t e n s i o n of t h i s system. 24 The u n i t i n g of t r i b e s w i t h i n c o n f e d e r a c i e s demands the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the same fundamental f i s s u r e s and c a t e g o r i e s which a l l o w e d the namimas t o u n i t e w i t h i n t r i b e s . The e x p r e s s i o n of the common s o c i a l order, which encompasses a l l c o n s t i t u e n t members was rank. In the f o l l o w i n g passage Drucker d e s c r i b e s the s i n g u l a r p r i n c i p l e of t h i s system which l i n k s each of t h e s u c c e s s i v e l y complex u n i t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : [Within the t r i b e ] . . . t h e namimas, were ranked r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r - t h a t i s , i n a f i x e d s e r i e s of precedence which, l i k e t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i e f s w i t h i n each namima, was r e c o g n i z e d i n the o r d e r i n which they were g i v e n g i f t s at p o t l a t c h e s . . . [ I n the i n s t a n c e of the t r i b a l c o n f e d e r a c i e s ] as i n the t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the main symbol of u n i t y was the r a n k i n g of the component groups i n t o a s i n g l e precedence s e r i e s f o r the purposes of the p o t l a t c h (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:12). The development of the p r o t o c o l f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between t r i b e s was c r e a t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n c r e a s e d z q T h i s e q u i v a l e n c e i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the c o m p e t i t i o n between opposed r i v a l s . The namimas were not ranked w i t h i n the t r i b e a c c o r d i n g to the same i d e o l o g y (primogeniture) r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a n k i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the namima. 116 c o m p l e x i t y of exchange. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of rank at the l e v e l of the t r i b e was developed as the p r i m a r y a s p e c t of t h i s p r o t o c o l . Rank w i t h i n the namima was a d e s i g n a t i o n of p r o x i m i t y t o the f i r s t a n c e s t o r on the b a s i s of p r i m o g e n i t u r e . Namimas were d i s t i n c t descent groups. With few e x c e p t i o n s , no two namima acknowledged common a n c e s t r y . 25 when e s t a b l i s h i n g a r a n k i n g o r d e r of namimas. w i t h i n a t r i b e , and t r i b e s w i t h i n a confederacy, t h e r e was no r e c o u r s e t o the r e f e r e n c e of p r i m o g e n i t u r e . While the l o g i c used to e s t a b l i s h the o r d e r of rank i n t h e s e u n i t s was not based upon the same c r i t e r i a as the namima (primogeniture) they e x p r e s s e d a common concern: p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. The e l d e s t son of the f i r s t a n c e s t o r was the source of the namima's wealth by v i r t u e of h i s landed i n h e r i t a n c e . He was accorded the h i g h e s t rank i n h i s descent group. In t h i s c o n t e x t i t may be submitted t h a t rank was an i d e o l o g i c a l d e s i g n a t i o n of p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. I n t e r - t r i b a l rank acknowledged the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s as paramount. I f i n t e r -t r i b a l rank were t o be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n of the c o r p o r e a l p r o x i m i t y to wealth, the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s were ranked a p p r o p r i a t e l y . A t r i b e ' s rank was i t s primary domain. I t was a source of p r e s t i g e f o r a l l members. The a s s e r t i o n and maintenance 25 i n d i v i d u a l namimas d i d i n some i n s t a n c e s share r e f e r e n c e t o a common a n c e s t r y . Boas (1905:179, 181, 185) noted an example of t h i s among the Qwe'xsot!enox. 117 of rank i n the l a s t decades of the 19th c e n t u r y enhanced t r i b a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . Great f e a t s of p r o p e r t y m a n i p u l a t i o n and p o t l a t c h bravado brought some t r i b e s l e g e n d a r y s t a t u r e . The maintenance of t r i b a l rank cut a c r o s s the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the t r i b e . By a d d r e s s i n g the forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of c o r p o r a t e achievement (the p o t l a t c h between t r i b e s ) the independent namimas composing a t r i b e were u n i t e d . As Boas (1920:115) contended: The s t a b i l i t y o f the t r i b e s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t the t r i b a l u n i t s have f a i r l y d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n s d i s t i n c t from the f u n c t i o n s of the t r i b a l d i v i s i o n s . These appear p a r t i c u l a r l y i n formal g a t h e r i n g s i n which the t r i b e s are a r r a n g e d i n rank and i n which, furthermore, d e f i n i t e t r i b e s are ranked. THE DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IMPOSES NEW UNITS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Government d i s t i n c t i o n s d i d not p r o f o u n d l y impinge upon the s t r u c t u r e of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the 19th c e n t u r y . As I n d i a n Agent George B l e n k i n s o p admitted i n h i s r e p o r t of 1884, The Kwawkewlths e v i n c e no d e s i r e f o r improvement; they see p l a i n l y t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l d e s t r o y t h e i r o l d , much p r i z e d domestic i n s t i t u t i o n s , and hence they c l i n g t o them w i t h more p e r t i n a c i t y than ever. A l l t h a t I can c l a i m i s , t h a t I have p r e v e n t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p i r i t u o u s l i q u o r s , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , and p r e s e r v e d the peace (D.I.A. Annual Report 1884 :102) . 2<° 2 6 As i n the case w i t h the Government, the Church made few i n r o a d s p r i o r t o 1890. The Kwawkewlth Agency r e p o r t e d t h a t 1736, of a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 1898, were "pagan" i n the year 1888. The remaining 162 i n d i v i d u a l s were r e p o r t e d as P r o t e s t a n t . These 162 i n d i v i d u a l s composed the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of A l e r t Bay (D.I.A. Annual Report 1888:315). 118 In the s e v e r a l decades p r e c e d i n g the year 1900 the t r i b e had become a s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t w i t h i n K w a k i u t l a f f a i r s . However t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was not r e f l e c t e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s d e s i g n a t e d by the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . In the 20th c e n t u r y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s c r e a t e d by the D.I.A. came t o bear s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon the s u r v i v a l of the n a t i v e u n i t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the time t h e ) t r i b e was becoming an eminent u n i t w i t h i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the seeds of i t s c a p i t u l a t i o n were coming t o l i f e . T h i s o n s l a u g h t appeared i n the form of two measures i n t r o d u c e d by the Government of Canada. T h i s f i r s t blow was the p r o h i b i t i o n o f the p o t l a t c h . T h i s e l i m i n a t e d the forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of the t r i b a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of rank. The second measure was the D.I.A.'s a p p r o p r i a t i o n of K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r i e s , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the u n i t s of l a n d t e n u r e . When the D.I.A. acknowledged the n a t i v e u n i t ( t r i b e ) as a d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t (D.I.A. t r i b e ) i t h e l p e d support the t r i b e ' s autonomy. As D.I.A. t r i b e s were r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h the department i n d i v i d u a l l y i t was incumbent upon them t o m a i n t a i n the n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s encouraged the t r i b e t o r e t a i n i t s independent d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y , i n t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s of a unique h i s t o r y . However, when the D.I.A. c r e a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s which combined autonomous 119 t r i b e s , the n a t i v e u n i t s l o s t much of t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . Membership i n D.I.A. t r i b e s a c q u i r e d added s i g n i f i c a n c e as t r i b a l t r u s t funds were e s t a b l i s h e d . D.I.A. t r i b a l t r u s t accounts were f u r n i s h e d from the proceeds of a c t i v i t i e s , such as the l o g g i n g o f r e s e r v e lands (Codere 1950:38). The proceeds from t h e s e accounts were a d m i n i s t e r e d on the b e h a l f of the D.I.A. t r i b e r a t h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g ' u n i t s . An example of D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g the independence of the n a t i v e t r i b a l u n i t s i s observed i n the s h a r i n g of the v i l l a g e o f Gwayasdums by the Dza'wadEnox, Gwa'waenox, Haxwa'mis, and Qwe'xsot!enox t r i b e s . The Dza'wadEenox of Kingcome I n l e t were the f i r s t o f f o u r t r i b e s t o move t o the v i l l a g e o f Gwayasdums s e v e r a l y ears a f t e r i t was abandoned by the Qwe'xsot!enox i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1857. The Dza'wadEenox were the most numerous t r i b e i n t h i s v i l l a g e , numbering 200 i n 1935 (Tolmie 1963:317-319) and 148 i n 1885 (Dawson 1887:65). The much s m a l l e r Gwa'waenox, and Haxwa'mis, t r i b e s j o i n e d the Dza'wadEenox s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r move. Rohner (1967:32) was ab l e t o s o l i c i t t he f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l f o r the Dza'wadEenox move t o Gwayasdums: One reason f o r the annual m i g r a t i o n t o G i l f o r d was t h a t the Kingcome r i v e r f r e e z e s d u r i n g . p a r t of the w i n t e r , making food and wood f o r f u e l d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . At G i l f o r d , which i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o by the Indians as the "banana b e l t , " i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s t o d i g clams, t r a p , hunt, and f i s h . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was e a s i e r than at Kingcome. The t r i b e s r e s i d e d at Gwayasdums from about the middle of November t o the middle of March, when they r e t u r n e d t o Kingcome and t h e i r home s i t e s f o r the s p r i n g oulachon run. The Gwa'waenox and Haxwa'mis t r i b e s i n h a b i t e d v i l l a g e s comparable t o Gwayasdums, and would not l i k e l y have been a t t r a c t e d t o t h a t s i t e f o r the same reasons as the Dza'wadEenox. T h e i r 1885 p o p u l a t i o n s were 46 and 69 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Dawson 1887:65). I t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n t o j o i n t h a b i t a t i o n was the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n of the r e s i d e n c e u n i t . These t h r e e t r i b e s were j o i n e d by the Qwe'xsot! enox f a t some p o i n t i n the l a s t decade of the 19th c e n t u r y . Fo r the next t h i r t y y e ars the f o u r t r i b e s l i v e d t o g e t h e r i n much the same way as the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s . Each t r i b e d e c l a r e d t h e i r autonomy by b u i l d i n g houses i n d i s c r e t e s e c t i o n s of the v i l l a g e ( E l s i e W i l l i a m s 1988: p e r s o n a l communication). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the f o u r t r i b e s c o n t i n u e d t o engage t r i b e s beyond the v i l l a g e i n the p o t l a t c h . T h i s t h e a t r e enhanced the d i s t i n c t i o n s between each t r i b e as they p r o c l a i m e d the wealth and p r e s t i g e of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u e n t s . The p r o t o c o l of t h i s forum was such t h a t i t c e l e b r a t e d the s t r u c t u r e of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups. T r i b e s engaged t r i b e s as namimas had engaged namimas. The i n i t i a l a t t r i b u t i o n of r e s e r v e d lands i n the names of t h e s e t r i b e s was confounded by the- Reserve Commission's c o n f u s e d view of the h i s t o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s v i l l a g e group. Subsequent p e t i t i o n i n g managed t o a l e r t the D.I.A. of 121 t h e i r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Duff a s s e r t s t h a t the r e s e r v e s g r a n t e d t o each of the f o u r t r i b e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y muddled t h e i r d i s t i n c t t e r r i t o r i e s . While t h i s mess was never t o t a l l y r e c t i f i e d , the D.I.A. d i d come t o acknowledge each t r i b e as a s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y . ; In a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1922 the Gwa'waenox and Dza'wadEenox t r i b e s opted t o r e t u r n to t h e i r . t r a d i t i o n a l w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e s (Rohner 1967:37). Rohner was o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s move wh i l e he conducted h i s f i e l d work i n the v i l l a g e of Gwayasdums: C h i e f P h i l i p was going t o g i v e a P o t l a t c h among the Four T r i b e s of Kingcome i n the w i n t e r of 1922. Robertson [W.M. H a l l i d a y ] was an Indian Agent at the time. Kingcome was chosen f o r the p o t l a t c h i n o r d e r to escape o f f i c i a l d i s c o v e r y . [ P o t l a t c h i n g was i l l e g a l at t h a t time] Robertson's b r o t h e r , who ran the Robertson farm up Kingcome, was p l e a s e d t h a t the p o t l a t c h was going to be g i v e n t h e r e because he was a b l e t o s e l l a number of h i s cows f o r the event. At any r a t e , the Tsawatenok d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they c o u l d s u r v i v e up Kingcome without any major h a r d s h i p s d u r i n g the w i n t e r . They d i d n ' t have t o go t o G i l f o r d . S i n c e then they have s t a y e d t h e r e d u r i n g the w i n t e r (Rohner 1967:34). A f t e r seventy years of c o - r e s i d e n c e t h e s e t r i b e s had remained d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s . T h i s was due to the maintenance of t h e i r s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s i n the n a t i v e and D.I.A. t h e a t r e s . T h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t i e s were c e l e b r a t e d i n the p o t l a t c h and d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the D.I.A.'s f i l e s . The power of these f o r c e s was such t h a t even the t i n y Gwa'waenox t r i b e embracing 18 members i n 1921 c o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e i r a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e , Hegems, as an independent t r i b e 122 (Rohner 1967:39). V i l l a g e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s which would have been c o n s i d e r e d m a r g i n a l i n the 19th c e n t u r y became v i a b l e i n the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . T h i s was l a r g e l y due t o i n c r e a s e d p e a c e f u l c o n t a c t between t r i b e s , freedom from r a i d e r s , and changing s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . An example of D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r i b a l independence i s observed i n the c o - r e s i d e n c e of the A w a i L E l a and DEna'xdax t r i b e s . The impetus f o r the 1870 c o - r e s i d e n c e of the AwaiLEla and DEna'xdax t r i b e s of Knight I n l e t f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o those p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . The s u r v i v i n g A w a i L E l a numbered o n l y 46 i n 1883, w h i l e the DEna'xdax were a s s e s s e d as b e i n g 112 s t r o n g (Boas 1887:231). In the 1880's, when the K w a k i u t l l a n d r e s e r v e s were b e i n g surveyed, the D.I.A. observed t h e s e t r i b e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . The Department deemed t h a t t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l e n t i t y c o u l d be regarded as a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . T h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and a f f a i r s were u n i t e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e d g e r of the D.I.A. These t r i b e s were d e f i n e d i n Departmental ja r g o n as the two "Bands" of the "Knight's I n l e t T r i b e " (Duff: u n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s ) . D e s p i t e b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d as a s i n g l e e n t i t y by the D.I.A., both of these groups c o n t i n u e d t o a s s e r t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t i e s as t r i b e s as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . The v a l i d a t i o n of the t r i b e as a n a t i v e u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was based upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the forum of a l l 123 t r i b e s , the p o t l a t c h . They p e r s i s t e d i n the maintenance of o b l i g a t i o n s incumbent upon t r i b e s h o l d i n g a ranked p l a c e i n the p o t l a t c h order (Margaret Cook 1988: p e r s o n a l communication). The p o t l a t c h became i n a c c e s s i b l e around 1922 as the s t a t u t e p r o h i b i t i n g i t s p r a c t i c e was r e f i n e d t o a l l o w the s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s . As p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s forum became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t the K w a k i u t l t r i b e s were l e f t without a p l a t f o r m f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of t r i b a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . The t r i b e s most a c u t e l y e f f e c t e d by t h i s l o s s were those which were c o - r e s i d i n g as a s i n g l e D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . The 20th century h i s t o r y of the AwaiLEla and the DEna'xdax t r i b e s exemplify the e f f e c t of the Government of Canada's i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . These c o - r e s i d i n g t r i b e s might have r e t a i n e d t h e i r corporate independence had they not been regarded as a s i n g l e u n i t by the D.I.A., and been.deprived of the op p o r t u n i t y t o p o t l a t c h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e names. With e f f e c t i v e p r o h i b i t i o n s a g a i n s t warfare and p o t l a t c h i n g , the t r i b e had no stage upon which to. c e l e b r a t e and enhance the g l o r y of i t s name. As the D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s rose t o prominence i n the 20th century, the n a t i v e u n i t s became obscured i n t h e i r i n t r u s i v e shadow. The d i s t i n c t i o n between the AwaiLEla and DEna'xdax became a 124 s p e c i a l i z e d ' m a t t e r , e x p r e s s e d o n l y at r i t u a l o c c a s i o n s . 27 D.I.A.- r e c o g n i t i o n (or n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n ) of t r i b a l d i s t i n c t i o n s had l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the independence of co-r e s i d i n g t r i b e s p r i o r t o 1920. The p r o f u s i o n o f p o t l a t c h a c t i v i t y i n the few decades b e f o r e t h i s time (Codere 1961:454) s t r e s s e d the d i s t i n c t i o n s between t r i b e s . I t was not u n t i l r o u g h l y 194 0 t h a t the D.I.A. would attempt t o o r c h e s t r a t e the heavy-handed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i l l a g e groups. 28 T h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e was e x e m p l i f i e d by the 1950 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e amalgamation of the nE'mgis t r i b e w i t h the remnants of o t h e r t r i b e s l i v i n g i n A l e r t Bay. To ensure t h a t t h i s amalgamation was i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v i l l a g e , the D.I.A. i n s i s t e d upon the e l e c t i o n of a v i l l a g e c o u n c i l t o manage l o c a l a f f a i r s . The e l e c t o r a t e was d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o r e s i d e n c e r a t h e r t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n . The c o u n c i l was t o r e p r e s e n t t h e . i n t e r e s t s of the v i l l a g e r a t h e r than the n a t i v e u n i t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s i d i n g t h e r e . 1 1 A r e v i v a l of t r a d i t i o n a l K w a k i u t l c e r e m o n i a l i s m began i n the 1970's. In the f o r m a l i t i e s of the modern p o t l a t c h the AwaiLEla are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the DEna'xdax. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s q u i t e s p e c i a l i z e d and does not appear t o go f a r beyond t h i s forum. (Margaret Cook 1988: p e r s o n a l communication) 28 see Pineo (1955:33-35) for- a d i s c u s s i o n of the D.I.A.'s attempts to have numbers of s m a l l t r i b e s amalgamate i n the p e r i o d between 1935 - 1950. D.I.A. t r i b e s which c o n t i n u e d t o c o - r e s i d e i n the mid-20th c e n t u r y ran the r i s k of f a l l i n g prey t o the Department's s t r a t e g i e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . The prime t a r g e t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n were D.I.A. t r i b e s l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o each o t h e r . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s c o u l d be g r e a t l y s t r e a m l i n e d i f these neighbors c o u l d be c o n v i n c e d to become a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t . By e s t a b l i s h i n g minimum p o p u l a t i o n requirements f o r the f u n d i n g of h e a l t h c l i n i c s , s c h o o l s , e t c . the D.I.A. attempted t o encourage the amalgamation of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . 'The 1948 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e amalgamation of the Haxwa'mis, and Qwe'xsot!enox t r i b e s at Gwayasdums was i n i t i a t e d by t h e s e groups i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r v i l l a g e . U n t i l t h i s time these c o - r e s i d i n g t r i b e s had been re g a r d e d as independent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . However, n e i t h e r t r i b e had s u f f i c i e n t membership to. meet the D.I.A.'s minimum p o p u l a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . By r e n o u n c i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e independence and becoming a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t t h e s e two t r i b e s a c h i e v e d the p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on b e h a l f of a D.I.A. t r i b e . In r e t u r n the D.I.A. began the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s c h o o l and a water system f o r the v i l l a g e (Rohner 1967:37-38). 2 9 2 9 See S p r a d l e y (1969:141) f o r a s i m i l a r account of D.I.A. p r e s s u r e f o r the amalgamation of the I n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e and the Nimpkish r e s e r v e at A l e r t Bay. 126 Pressure was exerted upon the GwasEla of Smith Inlet and the na'klwaxdax of Blunden Harbor to amalgamate i n order to receive s i m i l a r b e n e f i t s . The Regional Superintendent of the D.I.A. was hopeful that concern over the lack of these services would bring these two groups together. A democratic vote was arranged i n order to give a voice to a l l of the members of both t r i b e s . The two t r i b e s refused the D.I.A. proposal (Duffrunpublished notes). Tribes which continued to co-reside i n the^20th century tended to merge s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y within t h e i r v i l l a g e . Long term co-residence, a s s i s t e d by the administrative f r u g a l i t y of the D.I.A., served to e f f e c t i v e l y render the v i l l a g e group as the primary unit of s o c i a l organization by the second quarter of the 20th century. SUMMARY To summarize b r i e f l y : In the 19th century the namima was unable to r e t a i n i t s r e s i d e n t i a l independence. In the short term (50 - 80 years) co-residence d i d not undermine t h i s descent group's d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y . A longer term may very well have. In the following passage Wolf (1982:89) asserts that co-residence i s one of the p r i n c i p a l components i n the epoxy of s o c i a l organization: Coresidence i s often more s i g n i f i c a n t than genealogy; many l o c a l groups include people who are r e l a t i v e s but also others who are not. Tasks may be c a r r i e d out by teams of non-r e l a t i v e s , and products of the hunt or of other a c t i v i t i e s nay be shared among nonkin as well as k i n f o l k . Indeed, many 127 a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have seen r e s i d e n c e as more c r i t i c a l than, k i n s h i p i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how people o r g a n i z e themselves. Thus bot h Krober and T i t i e v have argued t h a t c o r e s i d e n c e u n d e r l a y the f o r m a t i o n of l i n e a g e s . Namimas adopted c o - r e s i d e n c e i n o r d e r t o escape the h a r d s h i p s engendered by d e p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s c r e a t e d by c o - r e s i d i n g namimas f o l l o w e d the s t r u c t u r e o f the a n c i e n t f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . These u n i t s , " t r i b e s " , became i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t as the u n i t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between d i s t a n t l y l o c a t e d namimas. They brought t h e i r namima components p r e s t i g e and a broad range of exchange p a r t n e r s at a time when unprecedented wealth was b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the l o c a l economy. The s e t t l e m e n t of the Northwest Coast under a B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t the i n d i g e n o u s i n h a b i t a n t s be accorded t i t l e or compensation f o r t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . In o r d e r t o a d m i n i s t e r t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g the c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t y ( f o l l o w e d by the F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y ) d e s i g n a t e d c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n groups as t e n u r e d u n i t s . These u n i t s were not n e c e s s a r i l y the r e s i d e n t i a l groups c r e a t e d i n response t o the 19th c e n t u r y p o p u l a t i o n c r i s i s . They were c e r t a i n l y not the n a t i v e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g u n i t s . They were t r i b e s , or groups of t r i b e s , l i v i n g w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f each o t h e r . What we see here i s c o l o n i a l p o l i c y , c r e a t e d i n support of a growing economic system, i n f l u e n c i n g 20th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In the 20th c e n t u r y the D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of N a t i v e h e l d t e r r i t o r i e s began t o impinge upon the n a t i v e u n i t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the same time the i n d i g e n o u s forum f o r the v a l i d a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l u n i t s of p r o p e r t y t e n u r e was p r o h i b i t e d . To a t t r i b u t e the D.I.A. wit h the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o have c o o r d i n a t e d t h e s e two a s s a u l t s upon the t r a d i t i o n a l u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o g i v e more c r e d i t than i s due. I t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t the D.I.A. d i d not expect the d e p l e t e d N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s or t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o s u r v i v e . However, the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the u n i t s of p r o p e r t y t e n ure and the p r o h i b i t i o n of the p o t l a t c h do r e p r e s e n t a common b e l i e f which was based upon the c o l o n i z i n g powers' p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e : t h a t a complex moneyed economy would come to dominate ot h e r economic modes. In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the wage economy and the t r a d i t i o n a l economy of h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d descent groups w i l l be e x p l o r e d . 129 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e l a b o r a t e upon changes i n the s t a t u s of the namima which began t o become apparent i n the l a s t decades of the 19th c e n t u r y . A number of i t s p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e s seemed t o have been overwhelmed by l o g i s t i c a l problems o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n and by p r e s s u r e from w i t h o u t . These p r e s s u r e s undermined the namima's p o s i t i o n as the primar y u n i t of s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e . The e r o s i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the t r i b u t e t o the c h i e f and the maintenance of t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y demonstrate t h a t the b a s i s o f r e l a t i o n s between namima members had changed. The c h i e f agents o f change a f f e c t i n g the namima's s t a t u s as t he c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g e n t i t y were the entrance of i n d i v i d u a l K w a k i u t l men and women i n t o the wage economy, and the Department o f Ind i a n A f f a i r s ' i m p o s i t i o n o f new u n i t s o f l a n d t e n u r e . Both o f these f o r c e s t h r e a t e n e d t o d e p r i v e the namima of i t s s t a t u r e as the s o l e source o f p r o s p e r i t y f o r i t s membership. The wage economy a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f K w a k i u t l men and women at the expense of the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy. The m o b i l i t y of the 1880's demonstrated t h a t a f f l u e n c e d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n the namima. I n d i v i d u a l s began t o amass r i c h e s on t h e i r own b e h a l f w h i l e 130 f i s h i n g on the F r a s e r R i v e r and h u n t i n g s e a l i n the B e r i n g Sea. T h i s change i n the source of wealth, and p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l achievement, brought about a change i n r e g a r d f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the namima. The s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l e x p l o i t a t i o n of e x c l u s i v e namima t e r r i t o r i e s appeared i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n t r a s t t o the a f f l u e n c e of the wage economy. The namima's guarantee of e x c l u s i v e a c c e s s t o s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s may have been a d e s i r a b l e v i r t u e at the b e g i n n i n g of the 19th c e n t u r y . However, t h i s had i r r e v o c a b l y changed by the c e n t u r y ' s c l o s e . The o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n e r o d i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f the namima as an e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g u n i t stemmed from c o n t i n u i n g p o p u l a t i o n l o s s . As a descent group, the namima a s s e r t e d t i t l e t o s p e c i f i c t e r r i t o r i e s as an a t t r i b u t e o f i t s h e r i t a g e . . The l e g i t i m a c y o f the namima's r i g h t o f i n h e r i t a n c e was based upon i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c r e a t e and v a l i d a t e the s t r u c t u r e of i t s i n i t i a l g e n e r a t i o n o f founders. Each g e n e r a t i o n passed the names and p r o p e r t i e s of the fou n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e i r h e i r s . The names never l e f t the namima. The u n m i t i g a t e d d e p l e t i o n of namima membership l e f t t h i s u n i t without a s u f f i c i e n t number of h e i r s t o r e c e i v e the l e g a c y of the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s . E t h n o g r a p h i c accounts o f 19th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e d e s c r i b e a number of s t r a t e g i e s adopted t o ensure the c o n t i n u i t y o f the namima l e g a c i e s . These s t r a t e g i e s l e d t o c o n f u s i o n and the 131 weakening o f the namima as a c o h e s i v e u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . THE WAGE ECONOMY REWARDS THE INDIVIDUAL Much of the s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d towards l a t e 19th c e n t u r y K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e was f o c u s e d upon the n a t u r e o f the p o t l a t c h . I t has been p r e s e n t e d i n the work of some s c h o l a r s (Codere 1961:454-473) as p o s s e s s i n g a k i n d o f l i f e a l l i t s own. Without d e l v i n g too deeply i n t o t h i s a r e a i t w i l l s u f f i c e t o say t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the namimas change i n s t a t u s were r e f l e c t e d i n p o t l a t c h p r o c e d u r e . In a n c i e n t times i t was only the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g c h i e f from each namima who gave a p o t l a t c h . The goods assembled f o r the c h i e f ' s p o t l a t c h drew on the e f f o r t s and r e s o u r c e s o f the e n t i r e namima (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:36). By the end of the 19th-century p o t l a t c h e s were b e i n g g i v e n by i n d i v i d u a l s o f lower rank. The f i n a n c i n g o f th e s e events s t r e s s e d the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l sponsor r a t h e r than the e f f o r t of the c o r p o r a t e group. Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:37) e l a b o r a t e t h i s s h i f t as f o l l o w s : J u s t when l e s s e r c h i e f s began t o p o t l a t c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o es t i m a t e , except t h a t t h i s was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the expanded wealth economy of the Southern K w a k i u t l w e l l a l o n g i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n c e n t u r y . Codere (1950:97) c i t e s h i s t o r i c r e c o r d s showing t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e had reached the p o i n t where i t had.become obvious t o white o b s e r v e r s by the e a r l y 1880's. The economic s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t the f i n a n c i n g of the p o t l a t c h became an i n d i v i d u a l not a group e n t e r p r i s e . 1 D u r i n g a 1953 f i e l d t r i p t o the Northwest Coast, Drucker s o l i c i t e d v a r i o u s accounts o f the changes t h a t had o c c u r r e d i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e s o f h i s i n f o r m a n t s . One informant, Mr. Ed Whonnuck 30 f o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the change i n the s t a t u s o f the namima: Si n c e about 1900 our people has changed. B e f o r e each namima has l e a d e r , the people had t o g i v e whatever they c o u l d t o him ( j u s t l i k e government get tax now)....In r e c e n t times i s a l l i n d i v i d u a l c h i e f would r a i s e money by h i m s e l f , but t h a t i s j u s t new way (Drucker 1953). In t h i s statement Mr. Whonnuck c h r o n i c l e s the demise of the " t r i b u t e t o the c h i e f " . O f f e r i n g the namima c h i e f a p o r t i o n o f the h a r v e s t from namima t e r r i t o r i e s was an e x p l i c i t acknowledgement of the namima's t i t l e t o the e x p l o i t e d l a n d s e t c . The c h i e f l y t r i b u t e a l l o w e d the c h i e f t o f e a s t and p o t l a t c h n e i g h b o r i n g namimas. The r e l a t i o n s f o r g e d at thes e events e s t a b l i s h e d p e a c e f u l exchange and the r e c o g n i t i o n of the ho s t ' s t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y . These o b j e c t i v e s were i n the i n t e r e s t o f a l l namima members. Mr. Whonnuck c h a r a c t e r i z e d the i n s t i t u t i o n of the c h i e f l y t r i b u t e as analogous t o t a x a t i o n . When the economic focus of the Kwa k i u t l economy s h i f t e d from the t e r r i t o r i e s of the namima to the c a n n e r i e s and f i s h i n g companies t h i s "tax" • i U. Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:7) d e s c r i b e Mr. Whonnuck i n a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n as a "hard b o i l e d p r a g m a t i s t " who had been s u c c e s s f u l i n p o t l a t c h i n g as w e l l as the c a p i t a l economy 133 was no l o n g e r j u s t i f i e d . P r o s p e r i t y had been a c h i e v e d o u t s i d e of the namima' s dominion. Rather than f u r n i s h i n g the wealth f o r the c h i e f s ' p o t l a t c h e s " l e s s e r c h i e f s " began t o use t h e i r new a f f l u e n c e t o p o t l a t c h f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l system. However t h e r e was l i t t l e m o b i l i t y w i t h i n a s i n g l e g e n e r a t i o n . There were a l i m i t e d number of ranked p o s i t i o n s a c c e s s i b l e t o any i n d i v i d u a l . R i v a l r i e s between i n d i v i d u a l s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n rank a l l o w e d a man to c o n t e s t the s t a t u s o f h i s ranked s u p e r i o r but not t o usurp the rank i t s e l f . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r the r i g h t of i n h e r i t a n c e • d i d a l l o w some m o b i l i t y but t h i s was l i m i t e d t o c l o s e k i n . Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:36) contend t h a t i n e a r l i e r times " . . . . p o t l a t c h i n g o n l y by ranked c h i e f s was an e x p r e s s i o n of the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of p o t l a t c h goods, not an e x c l u s i v e p r e r o g a t i v e . . . " Success i n the 19th c e n t u r y wage economy p r o v i d e d the r e s o u r c e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s of low rank who wished t o host a p o t l a t c h . Lowly ranked i n d i v i d u a l s who chose to enhance t h e i r s t a t u s by p o t l a t c h i n g t h r e a t e n e d t o undermine the s t a t u s of t h e i r ranked s u p e r i o r s . WEALTH AND SOCIAL STATUS: AN OLD EQUATION, A NEW SOURCE Rank, as mentioned e a r l i e r , was the t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n of p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. As the source of w ealth s h i f t e d from l i n e a g e i n h e r i t a n c e (namima t e r r i t o r i e s ) t o the 134 wage economy, ranked p o s i t i o n s were t h r e a t e n e d w i t h i r r e l e v a n c e . In the l a s t q u a r t e r of the 19th c e n t u r y the K w a k i u t l c h i e f s encountered c h a l l e n g e s from a growing number of low r a n k i n g , nouveaux r i c h e s a s p i r a n t s . The c h i e f s r e c o g n i z e d the n e c e s s i t y of acknowledging the achievements of t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s , and of a v o i d i n g the e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s of s t a t u s maintenance. At the same time they were not about t o debase or compromise t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s of h i g h rank. S e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s were developed t o c o n f e r s t a t u s r e c o g n i t i o n upon the l o w l y ranked a f f l u e n t c o ntenders. One prominent scheme saw the s i g n i f i c a n t expansion of a c a t e g o r y of t i t l e s which o f f e r e d the c o n f e r e e s s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n p o t l a t c h ceremonies. These t i t l e s were r e f e r r e d t o i n Kwak'wala as "Kwikw", meaning " E a g l e s " . As Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:88) commented i n t h e i r review of the twelve E a g l e p o s i t i o n s of the F t . Rupert t r i b e s : 31 ....the o r i g i n a l incumbents of the p o s i t i o n s [Eagles] were f o r the most p a r t nouveaux r i c h e s , c h i e f s of low rank or commoners who wanted t o p a r t i c i p a t e p r o m i n e n t l y i n the p o t l a t c h . . . U n l i k e the ranked p o s i t i o n s of the namima which d e s i g n a t e d the rank h o l d e r s as h e i r s t o v a r i o u s l i n e a g e p o s s e s s i o n s , an E a g l e p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o u t s t a n d i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n of wealth i n the sphere of the J 1 Boas (1921:820-821) i d e n t i f i e d 8 E a g l e p o s i t i o n among the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s . p o t l a t c h ( i b i d ) . An Eag l e appointment was a s t a t u s d e s i g n a t i o n . I t was e x c l u s i v e l y "honorary". I t i s und e r s t a n d a b l e t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the E a g l e p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r i b u t e s o l e l y w i t h i n the p o t l a t c h ceremony. 32 Ea g l e p o s i t i o n s assumed some of the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the t r a d i t i o n a l ranked p o s i t i o n s . They were i n t r o d u c e d as the c r e a t i o n of a n c i e n t a n c e s t o r s and were passed on t o h e i r s a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e (Boas 1921:823). The E a g l e t i t l e s ( c r e a t e d by the c l a i m a n t s ) a l l u d e d t o g r e a t d i s p l a y s o f wealth and p o t l a t c h prowess (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:89). E a g l e s were e n t i t l e d t o g i v e p o t l a t c h e s and r e c e i v e major p o t l a t c h g i f t s . The a s s e r t i o n o f Eag l e s t a t u r e was c u l t i v a t e d at the d i s c r e t i o n of the c h i e f s . A f t e r the 12th F o r t Rupert E a g l e p o s i t i o n was c o n f e r r e d the c h i e f s agreed t h a t a c e i l i n g had to be e s t a b l i s h e d . They acknowledged no f u r t h e r p e t i t i o n s f o r E a g l e p o s i t i o n s (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:96). Two i n d i v i d u a l s attempted t o a s s e r t t h e i r r i g h t t o E a g l e p o s i t i o n s a f t e r the c h i e f s had agreed t o honor no f u r t h e r c l a i m s . These men abandoned t h e i r v enture when they i Z K w a k i u t l s c h o l a r s do not seem t o have reached a consensus on the date of the i n c e p t i o n of the E a g l e p o s i t i o n s . Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:46) suggest t h a t i t was a " l a t e development... r e f l e c t i n g p o t l a t c h expansion and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the v a r i o u s groupings such as the Kwagyul c o n f e d e r a c y . " T h i s h y p o t h e s i s seems most r e a s o n a b l e g i v e n the d i s c u s s i o n advanced t o t h i s p o i n t . 136 r e c o g n i z e d the s t r e n g t h of the c h i e f s ' combined r e s o l v e ( i b i d ) . The E a g l e p o s i t i o n s were r e c o g n i z e d i n the sequence of wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n a p o t l a t c h . The p r o g r e s s i o n i n which wealth was d i s t r i b u t e d by the p o t l a t c h host f o l l o w e d the guest u n i t s ' ranked o r d er of precedence (Ford 1941:15). The E a g l e p o s i t i o n s were added on t o the a n c i e n t sequence to the e f f e c t t h a t , ...they r e c e i v e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s p e c i a l sequence p r i o r t o a l l the r e a l c h i e f s and w i t h no r e g a r d t o t h e i r namima a f f i l i a t i o n s (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:46). I t was the p r i v i l e g e of the E a g l e s t o "wa'It' a ' l a x " , meaning, "to r e c e i v e b e f o r e the p o t l a t c h b e g i n s " ( D r u c k e r 1953). E a g l e t i t l e s were not found i n every t r i b e . Boas (1921:822) noted t h a t the Q!omk!ut!Es t r i b e of F o r t Rupert was without an E a g l e . Drucker (1953) l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e were no E a g l e s among the Go'sgimEx and na'klwaxdax t r i b e s . There were s i x E a g l e t i t l e s w i t h i n the ranks of the Ma'maleleqala (Boas 1897:339). 33 These p o s i t i o n s were o b t a i n e d through marriage w i t h the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s (Drucker 1953) . C h a r l e s 33 when w r i t i n g h i s 1897 i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the K w a k i u t l Boas l i s t e d the Ma'maleleqala E a g l e s as a s e p a r a t e " c l a n " (namima) of t h a t t r i b e (Boas 1897:339). T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e s the d i m i n i s h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of the namima as a u n i t of c o r p o r a t e r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Boas (1921:820-823) came t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t E a g l e t i t l e s were the p o s s e s s i o n s o f . i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g to d i s c r e t e namimas and d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a " c l a n " unto themselves. 137 Nowell informed Drucker t h a t the Knight I n l e t t r i b e s had " l o t s o f Kwikw". On the b a s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by Drucker's two F o r t Rupert inf o r m a n t s a case c o u l d be made f o r the o r i g i n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Eag l e p o s i t i o n s from the F o r t Rupert c o n f e d e r a c y . I f t h i s c o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t would add l i t t l e t o the a l r e a d y o v e r - e m b e l l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n of the F o r t Rupert t r i b e s as the f i r s t t o accommodate p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the wage economy. The i n s t i t u t i o n of the E a g l e p o s i t i o n s i s n o t a b l e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r o f change i n t h i s s o c i e t y . As the p r o p e r t y of the namima no l o n g e r s t o o d paramount i n the K w a k i u t l economy, the r i g h t t o i n h e r i t t h a t p r o p e r t y d i m i n i s h e d i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . Rank, the measure of p r o x i m i t y t o the a n c e s t o r who e s t a b l i s h e d the namima's p r o p e r t y , was no l o n g e r an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o x i m i t y t o m a t e r i a l wealth. However, the o r d e r of precedence c e l e b r a t e d i n the p o t l a t c h was r e t a i n e d as the s t r u c t u r a l framework f o r the c o n f e r r i n g of s t a t u s upon the new e l i t e . The i n t e g r a t i o n of the nouveaux r i c h e s i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l economy was guided by the ranked s t r u c t u r e of the namima. The E a g l e p o s i t i o n s ( i n the i n i t i a l g e n e r a t i o n at l e a s t ) d e s i g n a t e d p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. The E a g l e s ' s t a t u s was r e c o g n i z e d i n the p o t l a t c h a c c o r d i n g t o the n o t i o n t h a t those c l o s e s t i n p r o x i m i t y t o wealth r e c e i v e f i r s t . They d i d not take over the ranked l i n e a g e p o s i t i o n s , r a t h e r , they were acknowledged ahead of them. The c h i e f s were s a t i s f i e d t h a t the E a g l e s ' s t a t u r e appeared as an e x t e n s i o n of the r a n k i n g system ( i n which they were h e a v i l y i n v e s t e d ) without c o r r u p t i n g i t s s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y . Whether t h i s s t r a t e g y was s u c c e s s f u l i s a matter of q u e s t i o n . Drucker and H e i z e r (1967:97) u n d e r s t a t e the importance of t h i s development i n t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t : The i n s t i t u t i o n of the e a g l e s thus might be s a i d t o have i n j e c t e d a s m a l l measure of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i n t o the o t h e r w i s e r i g i d K w a k i u t l system. " Drucker's i n f o r m a n t s d e s c r i b e another change i n the n a t u r e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth at p o t l a t c h e s b e g i n n i n g i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the rank of an i n d i v i d u a l was a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s a n c e s t o r ' s p l a c e w i t h i n an a n c i e n t and r e v e r e d genealogy. The sequence i n which p r o p e r t y was d i s t r i b u t e d at a p o t l a t c h acknowledged t h i s genealogy. The r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s a n c i e n t o r d e r was compounded by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o t l a t c h g i f t s (property) t o the e x t e n t t h a t the " . . . v a l u e of the g i f t was d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o , and o n l y t o , the r e l a t i v e rank of the r e c i p i e n t (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:38). In the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y p r o p e r t y c o n t i n u e d t o be d i s t r i b u t e d i n a sequence which r e c o g n i z e d the ranked o r d e r of the guest group (with the a d d i t i o n of the E a g l e c l a s s ) .. However, t h e r e was no b a r r i e r p r e v e n t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s of low rank from d i s t r i b u t i n g more wealth than t h e i r ranked 139 s u p e r i o r s . When the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e c i p r o c a t i o n arose, t h e s e generous i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v e d g i f t s concomitant w i t h the e x t e n t of t h e i r e a r l i e r endowments. The q u a n t i t y of wealth g i v e n t o a p o t l a t c h guest began t o r e f l e c t h i s p o t l a t c h r e c o r d r a t h e r than h i s rank. Drucker's i n f o r m a n t s p e r c e i v e d t h i s as a s i g n i f i c a n t change ( i b i d ) . Mr. Whonnuck recounted a 1932 f l o u r f e a s t which he gave t o the nE'mgis, L a ' w i t s l e s , Ma'maleleqala, Maa'mtagila, Kwagul, and the f o u r t r i b e s of Kingcome. The p r i m a r y commodity d i s t r i b u t e d at t h i s f e a s t was f l o u r by the sack. The p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n was d e s c r i b e d t o Drucker (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:38) as f o l l o w s : ...the informant s a i d he gave an average of f o u r t o f i v e sacks of f l o u r t o most of the c h i e f s , except t h a t t o the very h i g h e s t r a n k i n g c h i e f s of the t r i b e s he gave s i x t o e i g h t s a c k s . There was however a ma'amtagila c h i e f of medium rank who on a p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n had g i v e n the informant e i g h t sacks of f l o u r ; t o him Mr. Whonnuck gave e i g h t e e n s a c k s . A Kingcome I n l e t c h i e f who was the o n l y one who had g i v e n a f e a s t t o the Kwagul i n r e c e n t years was g i v e n t e n sacks, more than any of h i s h i g h e r r a n k i n g c o l l e a g u e s . . . The s o r t of d i s t r i b u t i o n d e s c r i b e d above, which took i n t o account both rank and p r e v i o u s p o t l a t c h i n g of guests and even s p e c i a l c o u r t e s i e s , was t y p i c a l of the Southern K w a k i u t l p o t l a t c h i n g d u r i n g and a f t e r the c l o s i n g decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As i n the expansion of the E a g l e p o s i t i o n s , t h i s development demonstrates .the y i e l d i n g of the c h i e f s t o accommodate the i n f l u x of new wealth w i t h i n the a n c i e n t r a n k i n g system. Here, as i n the i n s t a n c e of the E a g l e s , the ranked o r d e r p r o v i d e s the s t r u c t u r e f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of the changes o c c u r r i n g but does not undergo s t r u c t u r a l change 140 i t s e l f . What d i d change i s the status of ranked p o s i t i o n s as in d i c a t o r s of proximity to wealth. The acknowledgment of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s rank within the po t l a t c h implied a reference to the structure of h i s namima. The i n d i v i d u a l was seated and given g i f t s i n an order which was determined by h i s rank within the namima. The s o c i a l unit was, therefore, always acknowledged i n references to rank. In the l a t e 19th century p o t l a t c h an i n d i v i d u a l was disti n g u i s h e d by his potl a t c h record above h i s rank. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o t l a t c h record was a reference to h i s success i n the wage economy: the realm beyond the domain of the namima. The growing attention given to the p o t l a t c h record should be appreciated as an i n d i c a t i o n of the decreasing s i g n i f i c a n c e of the namima as a unit of reference within Kwakiutl s o c i a l organization. Population decline continued unabated on the Northwest coast through the end of the 19th century. This trend was not halted among the Kwakiutl u n t i l 1924 (Codere .1950:50). The decrease i n population d i d not e f f e c t the number of ranked p o s i t i o n s within the various namimas but i t d i d e f f e c t the number of people a v a i l a b l e to f i l l them. In recounting the events surrounding the funeral of the DzEndzEnxq!ayu chief, maxmEwesagEme, George Hunt informed Boas (1925:83) that there are 658 ranked seats among the namimas of the 13 t r i b e s of the Southern K w a k i u t l . 34 Codere (1950:97) noted t h a t i n 1898, the f i r s t y e a r i n which p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r the K w a k i u t l , t h e r e were 637 men who were " s i x t e e n y e a r s or more i n age". The imbalance here i s obvi o u s . By 1898 t h e r e were not enough p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o f i l l a l l of the ranked p o t l a t c h p o s i t i o n s . As C u r t i s (1915:138) observed i n h i s v i s i t s w i t h the Kw a k i u t l between 1910 and 1914: . . . i n t h e s e days of d e p l e t e d p o p u l a t i o n the head of a f a m i l y u s u a l l y has more s e a t s at h i s d i s p o s a l than he has c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n on whom t o c o n f e r them. As the ranked p o s i t i o n s were the r e p o s i t o r y f o r the i n h e r i t a n c e o f l i n e a g e p r o p e r t y i t was c r u c i a l t h a t t h e s e p o s i t i o n s be f i l l e d by p o t e n t i a l h e i r s . As Boas (1920:115) advanced: We have t o r e c o g n i z e f i r s t o f a l l t h a t p o s i t i o n s i n a numaym, or at l e a s t the r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n s must be f i l l e d and t h a t t h e i r d i s a p p e a r a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o the i d e a s of the Indians would be a m i s f o r t u n e . In h i s n a r r a t i o n of the h i s t o r y o f K!wak!waxsdala, the Asseinbler of the Kukwaklumasa namima of the GwetEla t r i b e , Hunt documented the t e r m i n a t i o n of one l e g a c y f o r Boas (1925:63) as f o l l o w s : . . . . f o r now K!wak!waxsdala d i e d and he had no c h i l d l i v i n g , and he had no near r e l a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e the name K!wak!waxsdala j u s t d i s a p p e a r e d . And the same happened t o J 4 . These are the 13 t r i b e s of expanded F o r t Rupert c o n f e d e r a c y . They are the GwetEla, Qlomoyaye, walas Kwagul, Q!omk!utEs, nE'mgis, l a ' w i t s l e s , Ma'dilbe, DEna'xdax, AwaiLEla, Qwe'xsot!enox, Dza'wadEenox, Haxwa'mis, and Gwa'waenox. L E m k l a l a . They a l s o were a l l dead, and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no Assembler among the Great Kwagul. The message here i s q u i t e simple; no h e i r , no i n h e r i t a n c e . As l e g i t i m a t e h e i r s t o l i n e a g e p o s s e s s i o n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e , s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s were developed f o r the maintenance of the ranked s t r u c t u r e of the namimas. The r e l a x a t i o n of i n h e r i t a n c e requirements c o n s t i t u t e d one scheme. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e v e r a l ranked names upon s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t i t u t e d the o t h e r . The l o o s e n i n g of i n h e r i t a n c e r u l e s i n c r e a s e d the number of p o t e n t i a l h e i r s i n the d e populated groups. One e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s t r e n d was t o admit women of h i g h b i r t h t o the s t a t u s of rank h o l d e r s . C h a r l e s Nowell a f f i r m e d t h i s change as f o l l o w s : The way i t i s now, when so many people has no c h i l d r e n , the women, i f they are any r e l a t i o n t o a c h i e f , would g i v e a p o t l a t c h and take one of h i s p l a c e s . In the o l d days i t would be the men t h a t would get t h e s e p o s i t i o n s (Ford 1941: 233) . The o t h e r d i r e c t i o n of t h i s d r i f t i s apparent i n the t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e of the c h i e f s towards the obscure c l a i m s of non-nobles t o the ranked p o s i t i o n s of the namimas. These m o d i f i c a t i o n s were desperate measures i n the f a c e of a d v e r s i t y . In the f o l l o w i n g passage C h a r l e s Nowell acknowledged h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h i s change: Those t h a t has no s t a n d i n g and ho p l a c e i n the c l a n s i s the common p e o p l e . They are not c h i e f s . In my time, they a l l had p o s i t i o n s , but they was lower down. (Ford 1941:56) The c h i e f s a l s o e n l i s t e d a s t r a t e g y f o r the maintenance of the ranked s t r u c t u r e of the namima which d i d not r e q u i r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of low ranked commoners. Rather than a l l o w i n g those of low rank w i t h i n the realm of the n o b i l i t y , i n d i v i d u a l c h i e f s extended c l a i m s t o s e v e r a l ranked p o s i t i o n s . C h a r l e s Nowell i l l u m i n a t e d t h i s p r o c e s s f o r Drucker d u r i n g h i s 1953 f i e l d t r i p t o the P a c i f i c c o a s t as f o l l o w s : A c h i e f would take h i s f a t h e r ' s p l a c e and g i v e a p o t l a t c h . Then when h i s f a t h e r d i e s he i n h e r i t s the p l a c e he p o t l a t c h e d f o r . I f he has 3 or 4 u n c l e s i n the same c l a n [namima] and he i s the o n l y nephew, he c o u l d g i v e a p o t l a t c h f o r each of them when they d i e , and have 4 or 5 p l a c e s i n h i s c l a n [namima]. I f h i s mother's f a t h e r d i e d he c o u l d p o t l a t c h t h e r e and get a p l a c e i n another c l a n (Drucker 1953). There has been no s y s t e m a t i c study q u a n t i f y i n g the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of ranked s e a t s i n the hands of a d e c r e a s i n g number of n o b l e s at the end of the 19th c e n t u r y . However, i t i s c l e a r from the b u l k of e t h n o g r a p h i c accounts t h a t most men of h i g h b i r t h h e l d more than one rank d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . C h a r l e s Nowell mentions t h a t h i s b r o t h e r , "Owadi", . h e l d e l e v e n p o s i t i o n s at the time of h i s death i n 1921 (Ford 1941:218). While the c h i e f s g r e e t e d t h i s change w i t h some apprehension they p r o b a b l y p r e f e r r e d t h i s r o u t e t o a d m i t t i n g commoners i n t o the ranked n o b i l i t y . The important matter b e f o r e them was the v a l i d a t i o n of l i n e a g e p o s i t i o n s which c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y r e c e i v e the i n h e r i t a n c e due. 144 T h i s d i d n o t c h a n g e t h e n a m i m a ' s d i m i n i s h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e as the primary u n i t . o f s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e . The maintenance of the s t r u c t u r e of the namima d i d not s o l v e the p r o b l e m s i t f a c e d as a r e s u l t o f d e p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e debasement o f i t s l e g a c y o f t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y . As D r u c k e r and H e i z e r (1967:26) s u g g e s t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage: . . .by the l a t t e r p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the Southern K w a k i u t l were g o i n g t o extreme l e n g t h s t o t r y t o h o l d t o g e t h e r what t h e y r e g a r d e d as the most important p a r t of t h e i r s o c i a l structure:...What they d i d not do w i l l i n g l y was t o p e r m i t changes i n t h e i r s y s t e m o f f o r m a l s o c i a l rank, which i t was the b a s i s of the p o t l a t c h t o d e f i n e . The c o m p i l i n g of s e v e r a l ranked p o s i t i o n s by i n d i v i d u a l n o b l e s was a source of c o n f u s i o n i n a p e r i o d of r a p i d change. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was compounded when an i n d i v i d u a l h e l d ranked p o s i t i o n s i n more than one namima. The problems r e s u l t i n g from t h i s i n n o v a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d by Boas (1920:115-116) i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: A c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the numaym i s made ve r y d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t t h a t the number o f p o s i t i o n s i s a t p r e s e n t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number o f members o f the t r i b e , so t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d more than one p o s i t i o n i n more than one numaym. I t may be t h a t even i n e a r l y times, important personages had the r i g h t t o do so, but the p r e s e n t e x t e n s i o n of t h i s r i g h t i s , no doubt, due t o the r e d u c t i o n i n the number of members of the t r i b e . As a matter o f f a c t , the I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t by any means c l e a r as t o the r i g h t s of each i n d i v i d u a l , and q u a r r e l s r e g a r d i n g r ank and p o s i t i o n are of common oc c u r r e n c e . 145 THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE NAMIMA'S PRIMACY The i n n o v a t i o n s mentioned above p e r m i t t e d the s t r u c t u r e of t he namima t o s u r v i v e t o the end of the 19th c e n t u r y . However, by t h i s time the namima had ceased t o be the economic and s o c i a l f o cus of K w a k i u t l men and women. Namima a f f i l i a t i o n no l o n g e r p r e s c r i b e d the t e r r i t o r i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n , or the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the economic u n i t . T h i s i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f one of t h e namima's prima r y a t t r i b u t e s : t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y . One o f the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s change, the dis a p p e a r a n c e o f the c h i e f l y t r i b u t e , has a l r e a d y been mentioned. The e x c l u s i v e access t o namima t e r r i t o r i e s became e c o n o m i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t s h o r t l y a f t e r the K w a k i u t l became engaged i n the wage economy. K w a k i u t l workers p r e f e r r e d the rewards reaped from the independent access t o the "commons" and f r e e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l a b o r encouraged by t h i s system. I t was c o n s i d e r e d more f l e x i b l e and l u c r a t i v e than the s u b s i s t e n c e economy. As the economic focus s h i f t e d away from the namima's h a r v e s t o f r e s o u r c e s from e x c l u s i v e l y h e l d t e r r i t o r i e s , i t s membership ceased t o r e g a r d i t as an economic u n i t . K w a k i u t l men and women working o u t s i d e of namima t e r r i t o r i e s as f r e e l a b o r chose t o r e t a i n t h e i r e a r n i n g s as t h e i r u n f e t t e r e d p r o p e r t y . The e r o s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the namima's economic base i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the d i s c o r d among s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c o r p o r a t e u n i t s o f p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . In g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r h i s 1934 p u b l i c a t i o n "Geographic Names of the K w a k i u t l " , Boas observed d i s c o r d between g e n e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the l i m i t s o f the namima's t e r r i t o r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y . When d i s c u s s i n g the ownership of the h a l i b u t f i s h i n g banks i n the v i c i n i t y o f Hope I s l a n d , Boas r e l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : O l d e r i n f o r m a n t s s t a t e t h a t t h e s e banks were p r o p e r t y of the nEme'm w h i l e younger info r m a n t s deny t h i s (Boas 1934:37). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s passage a l l u d e s t o the namima's p o s s e s s i o n s i n the p a s t tense, i . e . "these banks were p r o p e r t y of the nEme'm" Not o n l y were t e r r i t o r i e s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be the p r o p e r t y o f namimas, but the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n was not aware t h a t they ever had been. T h i s t r e n d i s n o t a b l e i n C h a r l e s Nowell's 1953 d e s c r i p t i o n of o u l i c h a n f i s h i n g s i t e s at the head o f Knight I n l e t . Mr. Nowell d e s c r i b e d the contemporary l a c k o f concern f o r t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : The o l a c h e n grounds at Kn i g h t ' s I n l e t a l l b e l o n g t o the Tenaxtax, as p a r t of t h e i r r e s e r v e - but people j u s t go anywhere now- not to o l d t r i b a l c a mpsites... (Drucker 1953) In the passage above Mr. Nowell r e f e r s t o the oulachon f i s h i n g grounds as the p o s s e s s i o n of the "Tanaxtax". T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the D.I.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y composed of the DEna'xdax and AwaiLEla t r i b e s . H is r e f e r e n c e t o t e r r i t o r i e s i n terms o f t h e i r D.I.A. t r i b a l a t t r i b u t i o n i s t y p i c a l o f the mid-20th c e n t u r y . Long b e f o r e t h i s time most K w a k i u t l men and women had e n t i r e l y ceased t o r e g a r d t e r r i t o r i e s as the p o s s e s s i o n s of namimas. 147 I t was not l o n g a f t e r the end of the 19th c e n t u r y t h a t the namima ceased t o be the c o r p o r a t e c e r e m o n i a l f o c u s o f the K w a k i u t l . The impetus f o r cer e m o n i a l e f f o r t s had s h i f t e d i from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the namimas' h e r i t a g e t o the c e l e b r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l wealth and achievement. T h i s would seem t o be supported by the f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g the changing nature of r i v a l r y p o t l a t c h e s : I t appears t h a t i n the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the b u i l d i n g o f the f o r t [post 1849] t h e r e were more c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g precedence of g r o u p s - - t h a t i s , the namima or even the t r i b e s -- w h i l e toward the end of the c e n t u r y c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s were i n v a r i a b l y those of i n d i v i d u a l s (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:100). I n d i v i d u a l s p o t l a t c h e d f o r the ranked p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n and beyond t h e i r o r i g i n a l namima as a means t o g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l p r e s t i g e . They undertook th e s e v e n t u r e s on t h e i r own b e h a l f , f u e l e d by t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . As Mr. Whonnuck a s s e r t e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t : "Since about 1900 our peo p l e has changed"(Drucker 1953). S e v e r a l developments c o m p l i c a t e d the s u r v i v a l of the ranked s t r u c t u r e of the namima i n the 20th c e n t u r y . One f a c t o r d e t r i m e n t a l t o i t s c o n t i n u i t y was the 1876 p r o h i b i t i o n of the p o t l a t c h . Numerous attempts t o p r o s e c u t e v i o l a t i o n s under t h i s a r t i c l e f l o u n d e r e d u n t i l the enforcement of the law was e f f e c t i v e l y pursued by the In d i a n Agent W.M. H a l l i d a y i n 1920 ( L a V i o l e t t e 1961:83). T h i s l e d the K w a k i u t l t o c u r t a i l much of t h e i r p o t l a t c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as t o develop a l t e r n a t e means of v a l i d a t i n g the passage of i n h e r i t a n c e at b i r t h s , deaths, and m a r r i a g e s . As p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o d i m i n i s h i n the f i r s t two decades of the 20th c e n t u r y the r i v a l r i e s between p o t e n t i a l h e i r s i n t e n s i f i e d t o the p o i n t of becoming s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e . C h a r l e s Nowell contended t h a t the c h i e f s were f r u s t r a t e d w i t h the b i c k e r i n g about "....rank, E a g l e s , and who s h o u l d be ahead of who" (Drucker 1953) . F i n a l l y at one p o t l a t c h at Gwayasdums the c h i e f s p r o c l a i m e d t h a t , "There w i l l be no more t r y i n g t o get ahead of any-body a f t e r t h i s " ( i b i d ) . Mr. Nowell e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n was made i n the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y by a "committee of young n o b l e s " ( i b i d ) . T h i s same committee d e c l a r e d t h a t , . . . t h e r e would be no more order o f rank. W e ' l l j u s t s t a r t at one end of the v i l l a g e and go through t o o t h e r . From t h a t time t h e r e as been no q u a r r e l l i n g i n the p o t l a t c h ( i b i d ) . As the t h r e a t of p r o s e c u t i o n made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o assemble the t r i b e s f o r a p o t l a t c h ceremony, o t h e r ways were found t o d i s t r i b u t e wealth and v a l i d a t e c l a i m s . F o l l o w i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the new regime by the "committee of young n o b l e s " the order o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth was no l o n g e r determined by rank. The p o t l a t c h e s o f the mid-1920s appeared f a r d i f f e r e n t than those of twenty years e a r l i e r . When Mr. Nowell's daughter Jane, was wed t o A r t h u r Shaughnessy, the p o t l a t c h p r o h i b i t i o n was under enforcement. While t h i s d i d not prevent the p r i v a t e payment of a b r i d e p r i c e i t d i d i n f l u e n c e the c h a r a c t e r of the p u b l i c v a l i d a t i o n of the marriage. In order t o comply w i t h the a u t h o r i t y o f 149 the s t a t e , the wedding was h e l d i n an A l e r t Bay church w i t h a f e a s t f o l l o w i n g . As Mr. Nowell c o u l d not openly d i s t r i b u t e cash t o the wedding guests he r e s o r t e d to sponsoring the showing of the f i r s t motion p i c t u r e i n A l e r t Bay. R i s i n g a f t e r the bulk of wedding f e s t i v i t i e s he addressed the assembly as f o l l o w s : " I stood up and s a i d t h a t on Saturday everyone c o u l d go t o the show f r e e , t h a t I w i l l pay whatever i t c o s t " (Ford 1941:224). Mr. Nowell's sponsorship of t h i s event i s noteworthy f o r i t s e g a l i t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r . Everyone of the guests was given the same g i f t without reference to rank. Upon the death of h i s daughter Jane, Charles Nowell undertook the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth among h i s neighbors i n A l e r t Bay. In the f o l l o w i n g passage he d e s c r i b e d h i s conscious m o d i f i c a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l p o t l a t c h mode of wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n : I got out $300 and went around to the houses and gave out the money. That i s , I sent three men to go around and g i v e some to everybody who i s here at A l e r t Bay. I f the Indian Act hadn't been enforced, I would have c a l l e d a l l the people here f o r a p o t l a t c h , and we would have gone through a l l the ceremonies... Then we announced we were going t o put eagle down of t h e i r heads, which means we are going t o gi v e the money around. On the f o u r t h day a f t e r her death, the three men went around and give out the money—the same amount to  everybody (Ford 1941:227). (my emphasis) <* Drucker and Heizer (1967:47) date t h i s " d r a s t i c change" i n p o t l a t c h methods to "1926 or 1927." They e l a b o r a t e d the change i n procedure as f o l l o w s : This m o d i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d i n the complete abandonment of d i s t r i b u t i n g g i f t s a ccording to the order of rank. Instead the c h i e f g i v i n g . a p o t l a t c h at A l e r t Bay went from house t o 150 house i n g e o g r a p h i c a l o r d e r accompanied by h i s s e c r e t a r y , a l i t e r a t e young man w i t h a pen and notebook, sometimes a speaker, and two or t h r e e o t h e r s , u s u a l l y f r i e n d s of h i g h rank. _ In each d w e l l i n g the c h i e f announced the motive o f the p o t l a t c h and the amount of the g i f t t o be g i v e n t o the head of the house and t o any o t h e r member of the household h a v i n g a p o t l a t c h p l a c e , t h i s b e i n g d u l y noted by h i s s e c r e t a r y . The namima became c u l t u r a l l y e s o t e r i c i n the 20th c e n t u r y . The term "namima" i s no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e d by the v a s t m a j o r i t y of K w a k i u t l men and women. Rohner documented t h i s d u r i n g h i s 1960's f i e l d work at G i l f o r d I s l a n d as f o l l o w s : Not o n l y do most people of the G i l f o r d I s l a n d Band not remember the names of the Koeksotenok or Hahuamis numimots, but most of them do not remember the ones t o which they belonged. Almost no c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e s e t r i b a l s u b d i v i s i o n s e x i s t s today, even among the o l d e r p e o p l e who had been a d o l e s c e n t s at the time of Boas's statement (Rohner 1967 : 29) . 3 5 I t c o u l d be a s s e r t e d t h a t the namima has become a s p e c i a l i z e d c u l t u r a l concept, shared by a v e r y few e l d e r s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t o n l y a very few i n d i v i d u a l s r e g a r d c o r p o r e a l and n o n - c o r p o r e a l p r o p e r t y as the domain of the namima. I f c u l t u r e may be seen as the p e r s p e c t i v e of each i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the c u l t u r e group, then i t can be s a i d t h a t the namima has s u r v i v e d t o the p r e s e n t . 3 5 Rohner i s r e f e r r i n g here t o Franz Boas (1920:111) statement c o n c e r n i n g the namima's s i g n i f i c a n c e as the b a s i c u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Boas s t a t e d t h a t , "In the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the people these d i v i s i o n s are fundamental u n i t s . " 151 I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s t o e n t e r i n t o d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f contemporary K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I w i l l j u s t o f f e r t h a t t h e r e has been a r e v i v a l of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y which began i n the l a t e 1960's. T h i s resurgence i n the i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l " r o o t s " m o t i v a t e d s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r g e n e a l o g i c a l p a s t and t o attempt the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . As K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e c o n t i n u e s t o change, t h e o r d e r o f the p a s t may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of new s o c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Most K w a k i u t l i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d w i t h contemporary c e r e m o n i a l i s m r e g a r d the " f a m i l y " as h e i r t o the h e r a l d i c p o s s e s s i o n s once a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the namima ( E l s i e W i l l i a m s and Tom W i l l i e : p e r s o n a l communication). T h i s same group r e g a r d t e r r i t o r i e s as the p o s s e s s i o n s o f " t r i b e s " . The term " f a m i l y " i s c u r r e n t l y used t o denote a wide range of r e l a t i o n s and s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d the prim a r y p o i n t of s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n contemporary K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r study c o u l d determine the ex t e n t t o which the contemporary K w a k i u t l " f a m i l y " resembles the namima. CONCLUDING SUMMARY The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i l l u s t r a t e the h i s t o r i c change i n the u n i t s o f p r o p e r t y t e n ure w i t h i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The K w a k i u t l h e l d t h a t 152 p r o p e r t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by s p e c i a l a n c e s t o r s i n the name of t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . As l o n g as the descent group (the namima) m a i n t a i n e d the s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r f o u n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n , those descendants were i n a p o s i t i o n t o c l a i m t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c r u c i a l t o d e s c r i b e the changing s i g n i f i c a n c e of the namima as the primary u n i t of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In p u r s u i t of t h i s o b j e c t i v e s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d as i n d i c a t o r s of the p e r s i s t e n c e of the namima's a n c i e n t s t a t u s . Foremost among thes e was the namima's s u r v i v a l as a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d descent group. The o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s examined were r e s i d e n c e , economy, s t a t u s r e c o g n i t i o n , and the u n i t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The fundamental c o n d i t i o n s of change were i d e n t i f i e d as the r e s u l t of c o n t i n u i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the c o l o n i a l s e t t l e m e n t c u l t u r e which was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d on the Northwest c o a s t . These c o n d i t i o n were d e s c r i b e d as d e p o p u l a t i o n , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the complex moneyed economy, the p r o h i b i t i o n of the n a t i v e forum f o r the formal r e c o g n i t i o n of p r o p e r t y t r a n s f e r and s t a t u s demarkation, and f i n a l l y , the a p p r o p r i a t i o n and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n d i g e n o u s u n i t s of l a n d t e n u r e . „ The i n i t i a l changes i n the c o n d i t i o n s of a c t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d d i d not engender s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the namima's s t a t u s as a u n i t of p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the maritime f u r t r a d e a c c e n t u a t e d the 153 e s t a b l i s h e d d i s t i n c t i o n s i n K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The o p p o r t u n i t y t o b a r t e r w i t h the European t r a d e r s f u e l e d the t r a d i t i o n a l economy and enhanced the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the nanuraa's domain. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i s e a s e and f i r e a r m s r e s u l t e d i n the d e c i m a t i o n o f K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e d the f i r s t e s s e n t i a l change i n the s t a t u s o f the namima. U n t i l the onset of d e p o p u l a t i o n a s i n g l e namima c o n s t i t u t e d a v i l l a g e group. In o r d e r t o s a t i s f y s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s namimas e s t a b l i s h e d c o - r e s i d e n c e w i t h t h e i r c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d n e i g h b o r s . N e i g h b o r i n g namimas were a s s o c i a t e d as f e s t i v a l p a r t n e r s . The namimas composing -these a s s o c i a t i o n , r e f e r r e d t o i n Kwak'wala as g o k u l o t , o r " t r i b e s " , i n t e r - m a r r i e d , and h o s t e d each o t h e r a t f e a s t s and p o t l a t c h e s . The post-1835 v i l l a g e group was g e n e r a l l y composed of a s i n g l e t r i b e . As an a s s o c i a t i o n of c o - r e s i d i n g f e s t i v a l p a r t n e r s , the s o c i a l u n i t , " t r i b e " , d i d not i n i t i a l l y d e t r a c t from the namima's s t a t u s as the primary u n i t o f s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e . The t r i b e h e l d no c o r p o r a t e p r o p e r t y . In the mid-19th c e n t u r y the t r i b e became a u n i t f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n of d i s t a n t l y l o c a t e d namimas. Namimas p r e s e n t e d themselves i n t h e i r t r i b a l u n i t s when c r e a t i n g a m i l i t a r y f o r c e and when p o t l a t c h i n g w i t h namimas beyond t h e i r f e s t i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n . In 1849 the Hudson's Bay Co. e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g p o s t at F o r t Rupert and i n t r o d u c e d unprecedented wealth i n t o the 154 Kw a k i u t l economy. T h i s was soon f o l l o w e d by t h e c o l o n i a l Government's s u c c e s s f u l p r o h i b i t i o n o f i n t e r - t r i b a l w a r f a r e . Supported by the new wealth and ease o f movement, c h i e f s w i s h i n g t o spread t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n among a wider range o f exchange p a r t n e r s began t o host f e s t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g d i s t a n t t r i b e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the t r i b e becoming a p r e s t i g i o u s s o c i a l u n i t . The r e l a t i v e s t a t u s of t r i b e s was f i x e d on a h i e r a r c h i c a l s c a l e which was based upon the s t r u c t u r e o f the namima's system of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The ranked h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n the namima was an index o f p r o x i m i t y t o the namima's fou n d i n g a n c e s t o r . T h i s index, based upon the p r i n c i p l e s o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e , was p o s s i b l e due t o the namima members' r e c o g n i t i o n o f common descent. As the i n d i v i d u a l namimas w i t h i n a t r i b e , and t r i b e s w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y of t r i b e s , d i d not acknowledge common a n c e s t r y , they c o u l d not r e f e r t o the p r i n c i p l e o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e t o e s t a b l i s h a ranked h i e r a r c h y . These u n i t s based t h e i r system of r a n k i n g upon the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of the namima's ranked h i e r a r c h y . As the namima's f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r was the source of the namima's wealth, rank, an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o x i m i t y t o the fou n d i n g a n c e s t o r , e x p r e s s e d p r o x i m i t y t o wealth. Rank was i n t r o d u c e d among the u n i t s o f d i v e r s e a n c e s t r y as simply t h a t : an i n d i c a t i o n of p r o x i m i t y to wealth. 155 The K w a k i u t l e n t e r e d the wage economy t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the way through the 19th c e n t u r y . I n d i v i d u a l s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they c o u l d secure wealth as independent agents u n f e t t e r e d by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l economic u n i t . The rewards of wage l a b o r e r were reaped by the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the c o r p o r a t e group. The c h i e f s had no c l a i m t o a p o r t i o n of the f r e e h a r v e s t of the commons. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e t o the low ranked members of t h e s e k i n s h i p groups, a s e c t o r which r e c e i v e d minimal b e n e f i t from the t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b u t e t o the c h i e f . T h i s undermined the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy based upon the namima's e x c l u s i v e access t o r e s o u r c e s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of money i n t o the economy a l t e r e d the r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s from a q u a l i t a t i v e moral b a s i s to a q u a n t i f i a b l e o p t a t i v e b a s i s . By a c q u i r i n g money, w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f l u i d i t y , i n d i v i d u a l s were r e l e a s e d from the n e c e s s i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the community of r e c i p r o c i t y . Money c o u l d be hoarded, hidden, or used t o e s t a b l i s h a l i f e o u t s i d e of the community. As money c o u l d be p r e c i s e l y measured, i t robbed r e c i p r o c i t y of i t s moral or e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r . Exchange became a matter of payment\repayment r a t h e r than good w i l l b e g e t t i n g good w i l l . The c h i e f s chose to i n t e g r a t e the nouveaux r i c h e s i n t o the p r e s t i g e economy to a v o i d the development of a competing system. S p e c i a l s t a t u s was c o n f e r r e d upon low ranked i n d i v i d u a l s who met w i t h success i n the wage economy. 156 Contrary to t h e i r expectations t h i s tended to debase the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the namima7 s h i e r a r c h i c a l structure. It celebrated the achievements i n d i v i d u a l s performed outside of the namima's corporate sphere. This accentuated the merit of i n d i v i d u a l achievement at the expense of corporate cohesion. The r e s u l t of t h i s was to diminish the namima's s i g n i f i c a n c e as an economic unit and the status of the c h i e f s ' ranked p o s i t i o n s . Wolf (1982:99) explained that t h i s s i t u a t i o n t y p i f i e s an early stage i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p i t a l i s m and other economic modes. He asserts, i n the following passage, that - i f the chief cannot control access to the source of wage pro d u c t i v i t y , the hierarchy i n which his rank i s invested w i l l d e f l a t e i n value. A chief can become a pivot of the power of h i s kinship group; but i f he i s sometimes able to incarnate the kin order, he i s also i t s prisoner. Chiefs who want to break through the l i m i t a t i o n s of the kin order must lay hold of mechanisms that can guarantee them independent power over resources. Such chi e f s must e i t h e r a l l o c a t e some of the labor under t h e i r c o n t r o l to another mode, or enter into r e l a t i o n s with that mode d i r e c t l y , be i t as t r i b u t a r y overlords or as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c a p i t a l i s t production. To e f f e c t such change requires new p o l i t i c a l instruments of domination, whether c o n t r o l l e d d i r e c t l y by the chiefs or applied by others on t h e i r behalf. F a i l i n g t h i s , the people they s t r i v e to mobilize may well rebel or secede, leaving them as c h i e f s only "over the pumpkins". As population continued to decline i n the 19th century the heirs to the ranked positions of the namima became inc r e a s i n g l y scarce. This threatened to deprive the descent group of i t s inheritance. A number of reforms were introduced i n order to insure the continuity of the namima's l i n e s of d e s c e n t . These measures i n t r o d u c e d c o n f u s i o n and c o n t e n t i o n i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l o r d e r . T h i s supplemented the weakening of the namima's u t i l i t y as the p r i m a r y u n i t of s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e . The h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the descent group c o n t i n u e d t o d i m i n i s h i n s t a t u r e as i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r i n g wealth o u t s i d e of the t r a d i t i o n a l economy appealed f o r r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n . The more reforms were i n t r o d u c e d t o acknowledge the new wealth the more the s t a t u s of the ranked p o s i t i o n s d e c l i n e d . T h i s e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e g e n e s i s of new s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y based p r i m a r i l y upon i n d i v i d u a l achievement w i t h i n the wage economy. The mode of r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the complex moneyed economy overcame the t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the k i n s h i p u n i t . T r i b e s had become very p o p u l a r u n i t s of i n t e r a c t i o n by the end of the 19th c e n t u r y . I t was i n the p o t l a t c h , the forum f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n of t r i b e s , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s began to express the new order of r e l a t i o n s f o r g e d by the exchange of moneyed wealth. P o t l a t c h e s h e l d at the end of the 19th c e n t u r y were f i n a n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s not the s o c i a l u n i t (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:37). I t has a l s o been noted t h a t d i s p u t e s r a i s e d i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y p o t l a t c h e s i n v o l v e d the c l a i m s of i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than s o c i a l u n i t s (Drucker and H e i z e r 1967:100) . 158 I would o f f e r t h a t by the b e g i n n i n g of the 20th c e n t u r y the ranked p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the namima' s t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y had ceased t o be the primary s t a t i o n s of wealth. By t h i s time i n d i v i d u a l s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the wealth of the competing moneyed economy promised f a r g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y , p u r c h a s i n g power and m o b i l i t y . For a time the p r e s t i g e economy e n t i c e d t h e i r , p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s was i n i t i a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n the accumulation of r i t u a l p r o p e r t i e s and the m a n i p u l a t i o n of wealth i n the p o t l a t c h . Some of the r i t u a l p r o p e r t i e s were t r a d i t i o n a l w h i l e o t h e r s were c r e a t e d e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . I t i s as i f the c h i e f s , f a c e d w i t h the f a l l i n g c u r r e n c y of t h e i r own s t a t u s , had p r i n t e d and c i r c u l a t e d more of the same c u r r e n c y i n o r d e r t o buoy t h e i r s t a t u s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, and a d m i t t e d l y c o n t r a r y t o p r e v i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h a t the t r i b e d i d not become a u n i t of p r o p e r t y t e n u r e . The p r o p e r t i e s of the namima were never r e l i n q u i s h e d by t h e i r t i t l e h o l d e r s . However, by the second decade of the 20th c e n t u r y these p r o p e r t i e s had l i t t l e economic s i g n i f i c a n c e . In the 1880's the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (D.I.A.) i n t r o d u c e d two measures which shaped the development of the u n i t s of K w a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the 20th c e n t u r y . The p o t l a t c h was p r o h i b i t e d by the F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y i n 1876 a l t h o u g h i t was not s u c c e s s f u l l y e n f o r c e d u n t i l 1921. From t h a t time the p r e s e n t a t i o n of formal c l a i m s t o the 159 t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s of rank and s t a t u s were choked t o a minimum. T h i s a r r e s t e d the passage of the namima's e s t a t e . The t e r r i t o r i e s o f the namimas were subsumed i n the u n i t s o f N a t i v e l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t i t u t e d by the D.I.A. These e n t i t i e s were d e s i g n a t e d without r e f e r e n c e t o the namima, the t r a d i t i o n a l u n i t o f l a n d t e n u r e . The new u n i t s of l a n d t e n u r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s t i t u t e d by the D.I.A were simply convenient from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . In c o n c l u s i o n i t must be a l l o w e d t h a t the h i s t o r i c changes i n the u n i t s of Kw a k i u t l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l i n k e d t o the h i s t o r y of g l o b a l changes. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the f o l l o w i n g statement r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f h i s t o r i c events r e l a t e s t o the course of K w a k i u t l h i s t o r y . Many of the I n d i a n " n a t i o n s " or " t r i b e s " l a t e r r e c o g n i z e d as d i s t i n c t e t h n i c e n t i t i e s by government agents or by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s took shape i n response t o the s p r e a d of the f u r t r a d e i t s e l f . . . Thus, the h i s t o r y of the s e supposedly h i s t o r y - l e s s people i s i n f a c t a p a r t o f the h i s t o r y o f European expansion i t s e l f (Wolf 1982:194). I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e a s s e s s the development of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n l i g h t of t h i s l i n k . T h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s end. The response of the Kw a k i u t l t o the changing c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the p e r i o d under study was to r e d e f i n e the u n i t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n keeping w i t h the changing c h a r a c t e r of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The i n i t i a l changes i n r e s i d e n c e , s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s , and the s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y can be c o n s i d e r e d adjustments of c u l t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s . The same cannot be s a i d f o r the e f f e c t s o f the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the complex moneyed economy and the i m p o s i t i o n o f a l i e n u n i t s l a n d t e n u r e . These changes brought about new s e t s o f r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s , r e l a t i o n s which undermined e s t a b l i s h e d c a t e g o r i e s and r e q u i r e d the r e d e f i n i t i o n o f o t h e r s . 161 APPENDIX A: TRIBUTE TO THE CHIEF OF THE NAMIMA (Boas 1921: 1333-1339) bears: sea o t t e r s : Total Chief Hunter salmon: goats: s e a l s : 100 10 regardless 20 + 5 a l l but 1 80 c i n q u e f o i l : roots regardless a l l the long roots a l l short roots b e r r y cakes: f i v e bundles (c o l l e c t e d & made by a woman) 1 f o r ch i e f ' s wife berry cakes: 200 bundles 40 for ch i e f ' s 160 BIBLIOGRAPHY Census and R e s e r v a t i o n s o f the K w a k i u t l N a t i o n . B u l l e t i n of the American G e o g r a p h i c a l  S o c i e t y , V o l . 19. No. 3. New York. The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and the S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s of the Kw a k i u t l I n d i a n s . Report of the U.S.  N a t i o n a l Museum f o r 1895, pp.311-738, Washington. The K w a k i u t l of Vancouver I s l a n d . . American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Memoir 8, P u b l i c a t i o n o f the Jessup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n . G.E. S t e c h e r t , New York. The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the K w a k i u t l . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , New S e r i e s , V o l . 22. No.2 1920. Ethnology of the K w a k i u t l . Bureau of American  Ethnology, T h i r t y - F i f t h Annual Report, p a r t s 1 and 2, Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington D.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l Names of the K w a k i u t l I n d i a n s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o  Anthropology, V o l . 20. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York. K w a k i u t l C u l t u r e as R e f l e c t e d i n Mythology. American F o l k - L o r e S o c i e t y , V o l . 28. G.E. S t e c h e r t and Co., New York. K w a k i u t l T a l e s . New S e r i e s . Columbia  U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Anthropology, V o l . 26, P a r t 1. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York. K w a k i u t l Ethnography, e d i t e d by Helen Codere. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago. 163 Boas, Franz and Hunt, George 1905 - K w a k i u t l T e x t s . P u b l i c a t i o n of the Jessup North  P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , Vol.3 G.E. S t e c h e r t , New York. Boyd, Robert T. 1935 The I n t r o d u c t i o n of I n f e c t i o u s D i s e a s e s Among the Indians of the P a c i f i c Northwest' 1774-1874. Unpu b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , Department of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e . C a r l s o n , Roy L. and Hobler, P h i l i p M. 1976 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Seymour I n l e t , Quotsino Sound, and Adjacent L o c a l i t i e s . C u r r e n t  Research Reports, No. 3. Department of Archaeology, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Codere, H. 1950 • F i g h t i n g With P r o p e r t y . Monographs of the  American E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , No. 18. U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , S e a t t l e . 1961 K w a k i u t l . P e r s p e c t i v e s i n American I n d i a n  C u l t u r e Change, e d i t e d by E.H. S p i c e r , pp.431-516, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago. Cove, John J . 1982 . The G i t k s a n T r a d i t i o n a l Concept of Land Ownership. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a , N.S. V o l . XXIV. pp. 3-17, Ottawa. C u r t i s , Edward. S. 1915 The 10 . K w a k i u t l . The North American I n d i a n , The P l i m t o n P r e s s , Norwood Mass. V o l . 164 Dawson, G.M. 1887 Notes and O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Kwakiool People of the Northern P a r t of Vancouver I s l a n d and Adj a c e n t Coasts, Made d u r i n g the Summer 1885, wi t h a V o c a b u l a r y o f about Seven Hundred Words. Pre c e e d i n g s and T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the Royal  S o c i e t y of Canada f o r the year 1887, V o l . 5, S e c t i o n I I : pp. 63-98. Department o f In d i a n A f f a i r s 1872-1898 Annual Report on In d i a n A f f a i r s . • Canadian Government P u b l i c a t i o n s . Maclean, Roger and Co., Ottawa. Donald, L e y l a n d and M i t c h e l l D.H. Some C o r r e l a t e s o f L o c a l Group Rank among the Southern K w a k i u t l . Ethnology V o l . 14. No. 4. pp. 325-346. Ph i - l i p C u l t u r e element d i s t r i b u t i o n s : XXVI Northwest Coast. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Records V o l . 9. No.3 pp. 157-294, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . The Northern and C e n t r a l Nootkan T r i b e s . Bureau of American Ethnography, B u l l e t i n No. 144. Washington. Unpublished F i e l d Notebooks from B.C. Box 1. P a r t 2, VOL. 1. B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a . P h i l i p and H e i z e r , Robert F. To Make My Name Good U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , Los Angeles. 1975 Drucker, 1950 1951 1953 Drucker, 1967 165 Duff, W i l s o n 1957 K w a k i u t l P o p u l a t i o n , 1835 - 1954. U n p u b l i s h e d notes, Human H i s t o r y D i v i s i o n , R o y a l B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . The Southern K w a k i u t l . U n p u b l i s h e d notes, Human H i s t o r y D i v i s i o n , Royal B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . 1964 The Impact of the White Man. The I n d i a n H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . 1 An t h r o p o l o g y i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. 5. P r o v i n c i a l Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and Anthropology, V i c t o r i a . Durham, W i l l i a m H. 1981 Optimal F o r a g i n g A n a l y s i s i n Human E c o l o g y . In: HunterXGatherer F o r a g i n g S t r a t e g i e s ; E t h n o l o g i c a l and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s . e d i t e d by, Smith, E. and W i n t e r h a l d e r , B. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Chicago. F i s h e r , Robin 1977 Contact and C o n f l i c t . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, Vancouver. 1980 The Impact of European Settlement on the Indigenous Peoples of A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, and B r i t i s h Columbia: Some Comparative Dimensions. Canadian E t h n i c S t u d i e s , V o l . 12 .No. 1. F o l a n , W.J. 1972 The Community, Settlement and S u b s i s t e n c e P a t t e r n s of the Nootka Sound Ar e a : A  D i a c h r o n i c Model. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of Anthropology, Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y . 166 Ford, C l e l l a n S. 1941 Smoke From T h e i r F i r e s . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Inc. New Haven. G o l l a , Susan 1987 He Has A Name: H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e Among the Indians of Western Vancouver I s l a n d . •Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York. H a l l i d a y , W.M. 1935 P o t l a t c h and Totem. J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . , Toronto. Hazard, Thomas P. 1960 On the Nature of the K w a k i u t l Numaym and i t s C o u n t e r p a r t s Elsewhere on the Northwest Coast. U n p u b l i s h e d Paper, P r e s e n t e d t o the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e Meetings, December. Healy, F. 1971 H i s t o r y of A l e r t Bay. Comox D i s t r i c t F r e e P r e s s . Henderson, John A. 1974 M i s s i o n a r y I n f l u e n c e s on the Haida Settlement and S u b s i s t e n c e P a t t e r n s , 1876-1920. E t h n o h i s t o r y , V o l . 21, No. 4. Howay, F r e d e r i c k 1941 Voyages of the "Columbia" t o the Northwest Coast, 1787-1790 and 1790-1793. C o l l e c t i o n s of  the Massachusetts H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y No. 7 9, Boston. 167 I n g l i s , R i c h a r d 1988 A Re-examination of the Nu-Cha-Nulth (Nootka) K w a k i u t l Boundary on the West Coast o f  Vancouver I s l a n d . U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d at the Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n f e r e n c e i n Tacoma Washington. I n g l i s , R i c h a r d I. and Haggarty, James, C. 1985 Cook t o J e w i t t : Three decades o f Change i n Nootka Sound. Le C a s t o r F a i t Tout, S e l e c t e d  papers o f the f i f t h N orth American f u r t r a d e  conference, e d i t e d by Bruce T r i g g e r e t a l . pp. 193-222, Lake S t . L o u i s H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . 198 6 H i s t o r i c Resources S i t e Survey and Assessment, P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l Park. U n p u b l i s h e d manuscript, Parks Canada, C a l g a r y . Knight, R o l f 1978 Indians at Work. New S t a r Books, Vancouver. K i r c h o f f , P a u l 1955 The P r i n c i p l e s of C l a n s h i p i n Human S o c i e t y Davidson J o u r n a l of Anthropology V o l . 1 . No. 1 L a V i o l e t t e , F o r e s t E. 1961 The S t r u g g l e For S u r v i v a l U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, Toronto. L e v i - S t r a u s s , Claude 1982 The Way of the Masks. Douglas & M c l n t y r e Ltd.., Vancouver. Maclnnes, T.R.E, 1914 Report on the Ind i a n T i t l e i n Canada w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o B r i t i s h Columbia. House of Commons, S e s s i o n a l paper, No. 47. Ottawa. 168 Macnair, P e t e r L. 198 6 From K w a k i u t l t o Kwakwaka'wakw. In: N a t i v e P e o p l e s : The Canadian E x p e r i e n c e . E d i t e d by M o r r i s o n , Bruce R. and Roderick, Wilson, C. M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, Toronto. 1971 D e s c r i p t i v e Notes on the K w a k i u t l Manufacture of Eulachon O i l . S y e s i s , V o l . 4. pp. 169-177. Mauze, M. 1984 Enjeux Et Jeux Du P r e s t i g e . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , E c o l e Des Haute Etudes En S c i e n c e S o c i a l , P a r i s . M i t c h e l l , Donald H. 1969 S i t e Survey i n the Johnstone S t r a i t Region. Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes, -"Vol. 3. S p r i n g 1969, U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. Murdock, George P. 1960 C o g n a t i c Forms of S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . In: S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e i n Southeast A s i a , V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, No. 29, Wenner-Gran Foundation f o r A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research, New York. Piddocke, S t u a r t 1969 The P o t l a t c h System of the Southern K w a k i u t l : a new p e r s p e c t i v e . In: Environment and C u l t u r a l  Behavior, E d i t e d by A.P. Vyda, N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s . 1960 W e r g i l d Among Northwest Coast I n d i a n s . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Department of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 169 Pineo, P e t e r C. 1955 V i l l a g e M i g r a t i o n s of the Modern K w a k i u t l . B.A. T h e s i s , Department of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Pomeroy, John A. 1980 B e l l a B e l l a Settlement and S u b s i s t e n c e . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , Department of Archaeology, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Vancouver. R i c h a r d s o n A l l a n , 1982 - The C o n t r o l of P r o d u c t i v e Resources on the Northwest Coast of North America. In: Resource  Managers: North American and A u s t r a l i a n Hunter  G a t h e r e r s, E d i t e d by W i l l i a m s , Nancy and Hunn Eugene, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e S e l e c t e d Symposium No. 67, Westview Pr e s s , B o u l d e r . Rohner, Roland P. 1967 The people of G i l f o r d , A Contemporary K w a k i u t l V i l l a g e . Anthropology S e r v i c e s , 83, N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Rohner, Roland P. and Rohner, E v e l y n C. 1970 The K w a k i u t l Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, Toronto. Rosman, Abraham and Rubel, P a u l a G. 1971 F e a s t i n g With Mine Enemy: Rank and Exchange among Northwest Coast S o c i e t i e s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York. S a p i r , Edward and Swadesh, M o r r i s 1978 N a t i v e Accounts of Nootka Ethnography. AMS Pr e s s , New York. 170 Sewid-Smith, D a i s y 1979 P e r s e c u t i o n or P r o s e c u t i o n . Nuyumbalees S o c i e t y , E.W. B i c k e l L t d . , Campbell R i v e r . Shankel, G.E. 1945 The Development of I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Un p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e . Smith, E. and W i n t e r h a l d e r , B. 1981 HunterVGatherer F o r a g i n g S t r a t e g i e s ; E t h n o l o g i c a l and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s E d i t o r s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, Chicago. S p r a d l e y , James P. 1969 Guests Never Leave Hungry: The Autobiography o f James Sewid, A K w a k i u t l I n d i a n . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Inc. New Haven. S u t t l e s , Wayne 1968 Coping with Abundance: S u b s i s t e n c e on the Northwest Coast. In Man the Hunter, E d i t e d by Lee, R i c h a r d B. and Devore, I r v e n A l d i n e P r e s s , Chicago. Tolmie, W i l l i a m F. 19 63 The J o u r n a l s of W i l l i a m F r a s e r Tolmie: P h y s i c i a n and Fur Trader. M i t c h e l l P r e s s , Vancouver. Vancouver, G. 1984 A Voyage of D i s c o v e r y t o the North P a c i f i c Ocean and Around the World. The Voyage of George  Vancouver 1791 - 1795,' V o l . 2, E d i t e d by Kaye Lamb, The Hakluyt S o c i e t y , London. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097717/manifest

Comment

Related Items