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Music's debt : a study of poetic influence in mid-eighteenth century German instrumental music Jang, Laurie 1988

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MUSIC'S DEBT: A STUDY OF POETIC INFLUENCE IN MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY GERMAN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC BY LAURIE JANG B . M u s i c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE t'£&UUFG\ OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1988 @ L a u r i e Jang, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of MoS'C  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date QCTO&feg t ^ J i i ABSTRACT The a im o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s o f s t y l e , t e c h n i q u e and a e s t h e t i c i n p o e t r y and m u s i c as i t p e r t a i n s to t h e m u s i c a l t h o u g h t and works o f composers c e n t e r e d i n B e r l i n 1740-1760 . W i t h the t r e n d t o w a r d r a t i o n a l e n q u i r y , the r e - a f f i r m a t i o n o f the A r i s t o t e l i a n t h e o r y o f i m i t a t i o n , and a r e t u r n to the i d e a l o f a u n i o n o f the a r t s , 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y t h e o r i s t s and composers were once a g a i n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the c o n s a n g u i n i t y o f the " s i s t e r " a r t s o f p o e t r y and m u s i c . I n p a r t i c u l a r , a n a l o g i e s were made between t h e i r m a t e r i a l s o f e x p r e s s i o n and the methods by w h i c h t h e y a c h i e v e d t h e i r u l t i m a t e g o a l o f the i m i t a t i o n o f human p a s s i o n s . The "problem" o f t e x t l e s s m u s i c - - i . e . , i t s l a c k o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t - - b e c a m e a p r i m a r y i s s u e f o r a e s t h e t i c d i s c u s s i o n and l e d to a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f m u s i c ' s i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s as a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . B e r l i n composers w o r k i n g i n m i d - c e n t u r y were e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e to s u c h a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s . L e d b y w r i t e r / c r i t i c s L e s s i n g , N i c o l a i , and M e n d e l s s o h n , a u n i q u e l i t e r a r y r e n a i s s a n c e c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the c i t y was g e n e r a t i n g w i d e - s p r e a d c r i t i c a l debate on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e and meaning o f a r t . Two major p o i n t s o f d i s c u s s i o n among the l i t e r a t i were 1) t h a t s i n c e c l a s s i c a l t i m e s t h e a r t s o f p o e t r y and m u s i c h a d s t r a y e d t o o f a r a p a r t , and 2) t h a t m u s i c e s p e c i a l l y n e e d e d the s u p p o r t and c o g n i t i v e power o f a p o e t i c t e x t t o r e m a i n a v i a b l e a r t i s t i c medium. The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e i d e a s on B e r l i n composers i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e deve lopment o f the lied. I n t h i s new m u s i c a l genre w h i c h a c h i e v e d i i i g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y i n B e r l i n , e x p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t e x t and m u s i c were c o n s i d e r e d synonymous as composers worked t o c l o s e the gap be tween the two i n t h e i r t e c h n i q u e and m e t h o d r y . However , the i m p a c t o f t h e s e a e s t h e t i c b e l i e f s i s n o t as e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n the i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c o f m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B e r l i n . W h i l e i t was u n d i s p u t e d t h a t m u s i c a l t o n e s i n t h e m s e l v e s c o n t a i n e d some i n d e t e r m i n a t e e x p r e s s i v e f o r c e , the r a t i o n a l i s t s ' demand f o r c o n c r e t e meaning i n a r t l e d composers t o d e v e l o p and a s s e s s t h e i r m u s i c i n terms o f p o e t i c c r i t e r i a . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r works w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h a t p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , t e c h n i q u e , and m a t e r i a l s o f e x p r e s s i o n assumed a p r i m a r y r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e i r a r t . T h i s s t u d y hopes t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t r y and m u s i c t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B e r l i n ' s lied a e s t h e t i c , and s e l e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t a l works b y J . J . Quantz and C.P.E. Bach composed i n B e r l i n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v " C h a p t e r I . INTRODUCTION: AESTHETIC BACKGROUND TO MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY POETRY 1 I I . FORM, EXPRESSION, AND PURPOSE IN MUSIC AND POETRY . . . 22 I I I . POETRY AND MUSIC COMPARED: ANALYSES OF SELECTED MUSICAL AND POETIC WORKS AO I V . CONCLUSIONS . . . 87 FOOTNOTES 89 BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r e x p r e s s e s t h a n k s t o a l l t h o s e who have s u p p o r t e d h e r w i t h t h e i r encouragement w h i l e t h i s work was b e i n g w r i t t e n . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who have h e l p e d i n c o u n t l e s s ways t o make the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . The w r i t e r a l s o e x t e n d s h e r g r a t i t u d e t o Yvonne and Bob L u k a s f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s and f l e x i b i l i t y i n the a r d u o u s t a s k o f t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t . F i n a l l y t h e a u t h o r g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r t h a n k s t o h e r commit tee a d v i s o r D r . G r e g o r y B u t l e r , f o r a l l h i s p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o v e r t h e y e a r s , and whose k i n d a s s i s t a n c e made what seemed a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k much e a s i e r . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: A E S T H E T I C BACKGROUND TO MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BERLIN When t h e Abbe Dubos i n h i s 1719 p u b l i c a t i o n , Reflexions critiques sur la poesie et sur la peinture, o b s e r v e d t h a t "the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g o v e r n m u s i c a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e t h a t g o v e r n p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g " , 1 he was a r t i c u l a t i n g a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t w o u l d l i e a t the h e a r t o f a e s t h e t i c d i s c u s s i o n on m u s i c i n Germany f o r the n e x t f i f t y y e a r s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s p r e c e p t w o u l d a l l o w e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e o r i s t s i n a p e r i o d and l o c a l i t y s t i l l d o m i n a t e d b y r a t i o n a l i s t i c t h o u g h t to b r o a c h the a e s t h e t i c q u e s t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c b y means o f c o m p a r a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n w i t h o t h e r forms o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . I t was a g r e e d t h a t m u s i c n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h words c o n t a i n e d an e x p r e s s i v e e l ement b u t l a c k e d d e f i n i t i v e p o w e r s , and r a t i o n a l i s t t h i n k e r s above a l l demanded c l a r i t y o f meaning i n a r t . By a p p l y i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f a e s t h e t i c s and t e c h n i q u e o f p o e t r y , c o n s i d e r e d a h i g h e r a r t form b e c a u s e o f i t s a b i l i t y t o a p p e a l d i r e c t l y to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e " r e a s o n a b l e p a r t o f the s o u l " 2 , t h e y were a b l e to impose a sense o f l o g i c and p u r p o s e on a medium w h i c h f o r t h e most p a r t h a d seemed n o t h i n g more t h a n " p l e a s a n t noise"-*. I t was r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r t h e o r i s t s t o draw immediate p a r a l l e l s between t h e two a r t s , f o r the l i t e r a r y a s p e c t o f v o c a l m u s i c b r o u g h t o u t o b v i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p i t c h , meter and r h y t h m . More i m p o r t a n t l y , however , was the f a c t t h a t m u s i c i t s e l f h a d come t o be s een as a k i n d o f d i s c o u r s e o r d i a l o g u e , w i t h the m u s i c a l t o n e s i m i t a t i n g t h e a c c e n t and p i t c h i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e human v o i c e . From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e o r i s t s i n 2 Germany were a b l e t o d e v e l o p an a e s t h e t i c o f m u s i c b a s e d on words o r l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r t h a n an a e s t h e t i c f o u n d e d on p u r e m u s i c . I n p r a c t i c e , German i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c i n the f i r s t t h i r d o f the c e n t u r y was s l o w to r e f l e c t t h i s new d o c t r i n e o f m u s i c . The emphas i s on c o n t r a p u n t a l c o m p l e x i t i e s , h a r m o n i c v a r i e t y and o r n a t e n e s s o f t e c h n i c a l l a n g u a g e as f o u n d i n the works o f F u x , H a n d e l and J . S . Bach was n o t e a s i l y r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y i d e a l s o f m u s i c as p o e t i c l a n g u a g e . ^ Y e t i n the n e x t few decades the c o n t i n u e d r e i t e r a t i o n i n the g r o w i n g number o f t r e a t i s e s on m u s i c t h a t p r i n c i p l e s o f m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n were r e l a t e d t o p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p e r c e p t i o n o f a c l o s e r u n i o n between the two a r t forms was d e v e l o p i n g . By the 1740's the homogeneous n a t u r e o f m u s i c a l and p o e t i c t h o u g h t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the new a p p r o a c h t o f o r m , s t y l e and f u n c t i o n i n m u s i c t h a t c o i n c i d e s w i t h a s i m i l a r change o f d i r e c t i o n i n German p o e t r y . 5 The f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e c h n i q u e and a e s t h e t i c o f the p o e t i c s t y l e c u r r e n t i n the 1740 ' s and 1750 ' s to a body o f i n s t r u m e n t a l works p r o d u c e d b y B e r l i n composers d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d . C e r t a i n f a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the P r u s s i a n c a p i t o l ' s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u a t m i d - c e n t u r y make i t an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e i n w h i c h t o u n d e r t a k e an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y . F i r s t , w i t h the r o y a l c o u r t s i t u a t e d j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y a t Potsdam, the i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e o f B e r l i n was b e i n g s t i m u l a t e d c o n s t a n t l y by i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - r e n o w n e d p o e t s , p h i l o s o p h e r s and m u s i c i a n s , whose p r e s e n c e a t c o u r t was made p o s s i b l e b y the k e e n i n t e r e s t and generous p a t r o n a g e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d 3 k i n g F r e d e r i c k I I ( 1 7 1 2 - 8 6 ) . M o r e o v e r a u n i q u e l y German l i t e r a r y r e n a i s s a n c e h e a d e d b y B e r l i n w r i t e r / c r i t i c s G o t t h o l d E p h r a i m L e s s i n g , F r i e d r i c h N i c o l a i and Moses M e n d e l s s o h n was f o s t e r i n g w i d e - s p r e a d c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e v i a b i l i t y o f a r t . P o e t s , p a i n t e r s and m u s i c i a n s a l i k e were drawn i n t o a e s t h e t i c d e b a t e a t the m e e t i n g s o f i m p o r t a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l s o c i e t i e s formed to d i s c u s s c u r r e n t e f f o r t s i n s c i e n c e and a r t . S e c o n d l y , and o f e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s s t u d y , i s the c o n s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n m a r k i n g the c i t y i n t h e s e m i d d l e d e c a d e s . B e r l i n , more t h a n any o t h e r m a j o r German u r b a n c e n t e r , was u n d e r the s p e l l o f F r e n c h r a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f the p r e d o m i n a n c e a t c o u r t o f F r e n c h i n t e l l e c t u a l s and a r t i s t s , the r o y a l i m p o s i t i o n o f F r e n c h l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e and m a n n e r i s m s , and the r e l a t i v e l a c k o f e x p o s u r e , due to the t i g h t c o n t r o l o f a r t i s t i c deve lopment e x e r c i s e d b y the k i n g , o f o t h e r more p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . 6 As t h i s s t u d y hopes to i l l u s t r a t e , i t was the Frenchman Dubos and h i s b r a n d o f e n l i g h t e n e d r a t i o n a l i s m t h a t p r o v i d e d the framework f o r B e r l i n ' s a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n to the c i t y ' s c u l t u r a l l i b e r a l i s m and r a t i o n a l i s t i c i n c l i n a t i o n , w r i t e r s c e n t e r e d t h e r e h a d much to say on a r t i s t i c m a t t e r s . As a r e s u l t , a w e a l t h o f c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l s u r v i v e s w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s the c o n c e p t o f c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s be tween the a r t s and w h i c h c o n t a i n s p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i c a b l e to a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the l a r g e b o d y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l works composed i n B e r l i n d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s has f o r t h e most p a r t b e e n o v e r l o o k e d o r o f t e n d i s m i s s e d as t r i v i a l . I t i s h o p e d t h a t a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s m u s i c f rom a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l r e v e a l i t s p r o p e r w o r t h and s e r v e to shed new l i g h t on t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l phase i n the h i s t o r y o f m u s i c . 4 A l t h o u g h t h e r e h a s b e e n n o p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d o n e o n t h e s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t y o f B e r l i n ' s m u s i c t o e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s , a n u m b e r o f m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e w o r k s i n v a l u a b l e t o t h i s t o p i c s h o u l d b e n o t e d h e r e . T h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e a n d l u c i d l y p r e s e n t e d i s B r e w s t e r R o g e r s o n s ' s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Ut musica poesis: T h e P a r a l l e l o f M u s i c a n d P o e t r y i n E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y C r i t i c i s m . I n t h i s e a r l y w o r k , t h e a u t h o r t r a c e s t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e a r t s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f F r e n c h r a t i o n a l i s t t h o u g h t , t h r o u g h t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o t i o n o f a r t i s t i c p a r a l l e l i s m a s e x p o u n d e d b y D u b o s , t o t h e f i r s t s i g n s o f a n e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r y o f a r t l a t e i n t h e c e n t u r y . R o g e r s o n ' s s t u d y o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , o f t e n a m b i g u o u s s u b j e c t i s a d m i r a b l e a n d i t p r o v i d e s t h e s p r i n g b o a r d f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n a l o n g m o r e s p e c i f i c a v e n u e s o f a e s t h e t i c e n q u i r y . T w o m o r e r e c e n t w o r k s w h i c h a p p r o a c h R o g e r s o n ' s f i n d i n g s f r o m a m o r e n a r r o w p e r s p e c t i v e a r e B e l l a m y H o s i e r ' s Changing Aesthetic Views of Instrumental Music in 18th-century Germany,& a n d G l o r i a F l a h e r t y ' s Opera in the Development of German Critical Thought.9 T h e f o r m e r a t t e m p t s t o t i e i n s t r a n d s o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a e s t h e t i c t h o u g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o r i e s o f m u s i c a s d i s c o u r s e , f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r w o r k f o c u s e s o n t h e j o i n i n g o f t h e t w o a r t s o f p o e t r y a n d m u s i c i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n c o n t e x t w i t h G e r m a n a e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h y . B o t h s t u d i e s a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f B e r l i n a s a c e n t e r o f a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e s e a n d a l l o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e t o p i c f a i l t o g o o n e s t e p f u r t h e r a n d a p p l y t h e a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h a r e p a r t a n d p a r c e l o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r ' s c r e a t i v e 5 process, to his music. The present study wil l take this step through a comparative analysis of poetic and musical elements in selected works by Berlin composers. A consideration of the aesthetic temperament of mid-eighteenth century Berlin must begin with a brief look at the rationalist philosophy of art in the seventeenth century and, in particular, at early analogies made between the arts of poetry and music. Critics in the "age of reason", with their humanistic desire to catalogue knowledge, began a systematic enquiry into the fine arts. They concluded that art, like a l l branches of knowledge, must have logic and be reducible to a system of investigation that yielded results, in the same way a mathematical equation, seen as the most perfect symbol of man's understanding, may be solved.10 The emphasis on reason as the basis for artistic evaluation led to the establishment of a hierarchy of art founded on a medium's ability to express concrete ideas and actions. Poetry, which could instruct man about human nature and moral values as well as delight him through an order and regularity of form, was considered the highest of arts; pure music was relegated to the most inferior position by the dictates of reason because i t "presents the symbols [of reality] as pure abstraction not bound by any concrete content."11 Although i t was conceded that something was being said, musical tones in themselves had no definitive power. Expression in music appealed more to the senses than to the intellect, and because the main precept for artistic assessment was clarity of meaning, i t could not compete with verbal art. Music, throughout the seventeenth century, remained subordinate to and was measured by the criteria of its superior. 6 The i n c l i n a t i o n t o c o d i f y p r i n c i p l e s o f the a r t s l e d many t h e o r i s t s t o s eek c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between the e l e m e n t s , f o r m , and e f f e c t o f the d i f f e r e n t a r t f o r m s . S e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n a l o g i e s , f o r t h e most p a r t , were d e r i v e d f r o m H o r a c e ' s w e l l - k n o w n p h r a s e , u t pictura poesis (as i n p a i n t i n g , so i n p o e t r y ) , w h i c h became the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a s e t o f r u l e s c o n n e c t i n g the two a r t s . The n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s b e l e v e d t h a t t h e s e a r t s p r o d u c e d s i m i l a r e f f e c t s when v i e w e d from the same p e r s p e c t i v e , and t h a t t h e y s h a r e d s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i v e m e a n s . ! 2 E a r l y p a r a l l e l s be tween m u s i c and t h e o t h e r a r t s l i k e w i s e were d e r i v e d f rom c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and f r o m t h e d e s i r e to r e v i v e the power o f m u s i c d u r i n g a n t i q u i t y . Two i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s a c q u i r e d f rom the a r t i s t i c t h o u g h t o f the a n c i e n t G r e e k s p r o v i d e d t h e o r i s t s w i t h the grounds f o r f o r m u l a t i n g the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u s i c and p o e t r y . One i s the n o t i o n o f m u s i c as a form o f s p e e c h o r d i s c o u r s e ( H o s i e r c a l l s t h i s the " p a s s i o n a t e u t t e r a n c e t h e o r y " ) . 1 3 F i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d b y C i c e r o , A r i s t o t l e and P l u t a r c h , m u s i c a l "speech" was a d v o c a t e d on t h e grounds t h a t 1) sounds m o v i n g i n c o n t i n u i t y f o r m a d i s c o u r s e ; and 2) e x p r e s s i o n i n b o t h l a n g u a g e and m u s i c depend upon t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , the tones o f the human v o i c e and t h o s e o f m u s i c a r e a n a l o g o u s . M u s i c a l t ones c o u l d i m i t a t e the a c c e n t s and p i t c h i n f l e c t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t s and e m o t i o n s ; r h y t h m and tempo c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d t o c r e a t e i n m u s i c t h e same e f f e c t as i n s p e e c h ; even the s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s o f e a c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m c o r r e s p o n d - - i n d i s c o u r s e t h e composer a r r a n g e s w o r d s , p h r a s e s , s e n t e n c e s , p a r a g r a p h s , e t c . , w h i l e t h e composer o f m u s i c u t i l i z e s t o n e s , p h r a s e s , themes , movements . Thus m u s i c d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n e e d the d e f i n i t i v e 7 e l ement o f words to f u n c t i o n as an e x p r e s s i v e medium. Mersenne b e l e v e d t h a t " m u s i c i a n s c a n t a l k w i t h i n s t r u m e n t s , so t h a t o t h e r s c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i s c o u r s e . " l ^ A nd n e a r l y a c e n t u r y l a t e r , Dubos ' emphas i s on m u s i c as " i n a r t i c u l a t e sounds o f the v o i c e " 1 5 and M a t t h e s o n ' s t h e o r i e s o f m u s i c as "Klang-rede"^ s u p p o r t e d f o r m a l a n a l o g i e s between v e r b a l and m u s i c a l a r t s f o u n d e d on common e x p r e s s i v e d e v i c e s . The l o n g - s t a n d i n g t r a d i t i o n t h a t saw m u s i c as a f o r m o f d i s c o u r s e l e d t h e o r i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Germany, t o emphas ize the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s be tween p o e t r y and m u s i c b a s e d on r h e t o r i c a l c o n c e p t s . The v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s o f t h e a r t s o f r h e t o r i c were s e e n as e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to m u s i c a l and p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y dispositio, o r the a r r a n g e m e n t o f i d e a s , and e l o c u t i o , the e x p r e s s i o n o r s t y l e o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Dispositio i n o r a t o r y and p o e t r y i n v o l v e s the smooth and l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n o f images , i d e a s o r arguments i n t o the b e s t , most e f f e c t i v e s e q u e n c e ; i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f m u s i c t h i s r h e t o r i c a l s t e p r e l i e d on the a c t u a l t e x t to w h i c h the m u s i c was s e t , o r , f o r m u s i c n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w o r d s , on an i m a g i n a r y t e x t c o n t a i n i n g s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and a l l t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s , d i v i s i o n s and p e r i o d s f o u n d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e w o r k . 17 F o r t h i s r e a s o n S u l z e r b e l i e v e d t h a t l ^ i f one h e a r s a p i e c e o f m u s i c , he s h o u l d f a n c y t h a t he h e a r s a man s p e a k i n g i n an unknown l a n g u a g e : He s h o u l d o b s e r v e whether the sounds e x p r e s s s e n t i m e n t s , whe ther t h e y denote t r a n q u i l i t y o r d i s t u r b a n c e o f m i n d , s o f t o r v i o l e n t , j o y f u l o r g r e v i o u s a f f e c t i o n s ; whether t h e y e x p r e s s any c h a r a c t e r o f the s p e a k e r ; and whether the d i a l e c t be n o b l e o r m e a n . . . 8 Elocutio i s t h e p a r t o f r h e t o r i c most a p p l i c a b l e to a s p e c i f i c medium o f e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i s , i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e v i c e s u s e d b y e a c h a r t t o a c h i e v e h e i g h t e n e d e x p r e s s i o n . Elocutio i s a l s o t h e a r e a i n w h i c h most p a r a l l e l s were made between p o e t r y and m u s i c i n the 1 7 t h and e a r l y 1 8 t h c e n t u r i e s . I n p o e t r y , t r o p e s and f i g u r e s were the r h e t o r i c a l t o o l s b y w h i c h the p o e t imbued h i s work w i t h e l e g a n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Elocutio i n m u s i c was a r t i c u l a t e d m a i n l y t h r o u g h the deve lopment o f m u s i c a l f i g u r e s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d d i r e c t l y t o the e x p r e s s i v e ornaments f o u n d i n r h e t o r i c and p o e t r y . J o h a n n e s L i p p i u s , J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r i n the 1 7 t h c e n t u r y , and J o h a n n M a t t h e s o n i n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y were among the more i m p o r t a n t w r i t e r s on r h e t o r i c and m u s i c w h i c h f u r n i s h e d c o m p o s e r s , t h r o u g h c o n c i s e m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l a n a l o g u e s and c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a t a l o g u i n g o f p a r a l l e l e x p r e s s i v e f i g u r e s , w i t h the means o f a c q u i r i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e s t y l e a t v i r t u a l l y the same l e v e l s as p o e t i c a r t . 1 9 A more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between r h e t o r i c and t h e m u s i c and p o e t r y o f the p e r i o d c e n t r a l t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d l a t e r ; the e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e h e r e i s t h a t t h e o r i s t s and c r i t i c s f o u n d , i n the m u t u a l dependence o f the two a r t s on r h e t o r i c , common g r o u n d on w h i c h t o b u i l d a c o m p a r a t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t t h a t gave c r e d e n c e to a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p was b a s e d on the c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y o f i m i t a t i o n i n a r t . B o t h P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e d e s i g n a t e d m u s i c as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , p l a c i n g g r e a t emphas is on m u s i c ' s a b i l i t y t o i n s t i l l the a p p r o p r i a t e p a s s i o n s i n the l i s t e n e r . A r i s t o t l e d e v e l o p e d t h i s i d e a f u r t h e r t h r o u g h h i s t h e o r y o f m i m e s i s . He v i e w e d e p i c p o e t r y , t r a g e d y , 9 comedy, l y r i c poetry and music as modes of i m i t a t i o n , meaning representations of the r e a l i t i e s i n l i f e . The verbal a r t s , of course, could t e l l the l i s t e n e r what was being imitated and thus i n s t r u c t . But even music without words was accorded a high status through i t s sympathetic r e l a t i o n s h i p with movements of the soul. In h i s Politics, A r i s t o t l e states that i n the rhythms and tunes of music there " i s a close resemblence to r e a l i t y - - t h e r e a l i t i e s of anger and gentleness, also of courage and moderation, and of the opposite of these, indeed of a l l the moral q u a l i t i e s ; and the f a c t that music does indeed cause an emotional change i n us, i s an i n d i c a t i o n of this."20 The l i s t e n e r not only f e e l s the e f f e c t s of musical rhythm and melody but i s also able to associate himself with c e r t a i n conditions of character-- that i s , be aware of the nature of the i m i t a t i o n . I t was t h i s q u a l i t y that allowed 17th and 18th century t h e o r i s t s to place music i n the same category as verbal a r t . They saw that the f i n a l purpose of the arts were i d e n t i c a l and therefore the methods of expression could be linked. As Bronson s u c c i n c t l y states: "Fundamental agreement as to the ends gives r i s e to analogous conventions among the means."21 On the whole, analogies between poetry and music i n the l a t e Renaissance and e a r l y Baroque periods grew out of the mutual dependence on r h e t o r i c a l concepts, and were concerned with methods of achieving a decorative expression through ornamental tropes and f i g u r e s . A more s p e c i f i c correspondence between the s t r u c t u r a l and s t y l i s t i c elements of both arts was considered only s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout the seventeenth century and only i n terms of the musical s e t t i n g of verse. For example, 10 J e a n - A n t o i n e de B a l f and h i s c i r c l e a t the Academie de Husique et de Poesie ( f o u n d e d 1570) , and l a t e r the F l o r e n t i n e C a m e r a t a , f o c u s e d on r h y t h m as "the l i n k be tween p o e t r y and m u s i c , meaning and sound."22 A few y e a r s l a t e r M a r i n M e r s e n n e , i n h i s Quaestiones Celebirrima in Genesina (1632) d i s c u s s e d the a n a l o g y between p r o p o r t i o n s o f p o e t i c f e e t and P y t h a g o r e a n r a t i o s i n m u s i c h a r m o n y . 2 3 The F r e n c h academies o f the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a l a r g e d e g r e e w i t h m u s i c ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o the o t h e r a r t s - - p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e and m a t h e m a t i c s - - s e e k i n g new means w i t h w h i c h to d e f e n d m u s i c as a p a s s i o n - e v o k i n g a r t . 2 4 However , o t h e r t h a n t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e Academie Royale de Musique, u n d e r L u l l y ' s d i r e c t i o n , t o f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h m u s i c ' s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f v e r s e b y m u t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f common e l e m e n t s , t h e o r i s t s d i d n o t f u r t h e r u n d e r s c o r e a n a l o g i e s between the two a r t s u n t i l the e a r l y p a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Dubos ' t r e a t i s e o f 1719 i s t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e m p t t o d e a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w i t h the c o c e n t r i c i t y o f p o e t r y and m u s i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , Dubos ' c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m u s i c on v i r t u a l l y t h e same l e v e l as p o e t i c a r t s u c c e e d e d i n r a i s i n g the p o s i t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , a l t h o u g h i t was a p r e c a r i o u s one , i n l a t e r t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i n B e r l i n . Dubos ' Critical Reflections was h i g h l y a c c l a i m e d b y E u r o p e a n c r i t i c s and t h e o r i s t s , e n j o y i n g s e v e n e d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s . I n B e r l i n the work was t r a n s l a t e d b y the c o u r t p o e t C .W. R a m l e r , i n p a r t s b y W . F . M a r p u r g and L e s s i n g , and was w i d e l y d e b a t e d among the members o f t h e c i t y ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c l u b s . 2 5 Dubos ' t h e o r i e s on m u s i c a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h r e e c h a p t e r s i n Volume 1 and i n the f i r s t e i g h t c h a p t e r s 11 o f volume 3 . F o r the most p a r t Dubos r e l i e s h e a v i l y on c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , c o n t i n u o u s l y r e f e r r i n g to o r q u o t i n g a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t i e s on the f u n c t i o n , t h e v a r i o u s components , and the e x p r e s s i v e power o f the a r t o f m u s i c . I n m e a s u r i n g the w o r t h o f p o e t i c and m u s i c a l a r t , Dubos c o n c l u d e s t h a t m u s i c among t h e a n c i e n t s was awarded a h i g h e r s t a t u s t h a n p o e t r y . 2 6 He n o t e s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o Q u i n t i l i a n , poetica o r the a r t o f p o e t r y , i s one o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l a r t s t h a t c o m p r i s e m u s i c and t h a t m u s i c h a d r u l e s w h i c h were e s s e n t i a l t o g r a m m a r i a n s , p o e t s and o r a t o r s . 2 7 M o r e o v e r , i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h m u s i c and grammar, g e n e r a l l y g i v e n by the same p e r s o n , was b a s e d on an i d e n t i c a l p r o g r a m . A g a i n , r h y t h m i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s be tween v e r s e and m u s i c i n t e r e s t e d Dubos g r e a t l y . G r e e k and L a t i n l a n g u a g e s , he p e r c e i v e d , a r e i n h e r e n t l y s y m m e t r i c a l . E a c h s y l l a b l e has a d e t e r m i n e d l e n g t h o r q u a n t i t y w h i c h i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to i t s n e i g h b o u r - - t h a t i s , two s h o r t s y l l a b l e s w i l l e q u a l a l o n g s y l l a b l e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a r e o b v i o u s to h i m , as t h i s k i n d o f u n i f o r m r e g u l a r i t y i s accommodat ing to a composer s e t t i n g a v e r s e : 2 8 W h e r e f o r e when G r e e k o r Roman m u s i c i a n s s e t any p i e c e w h a t s o e v e r to m u s i c , a l l t h e y h a d t o do i n o r d e r t o measure i t , was to c o n f o r m t o the q u a n t i t y o f the s y l l a b l e on w h i c h e v e r y n o t e was p l a c e d ; so t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e n o t e was a l r e a d y d e c i d e d b y t h a t s y l l a b l e . Thus t h e r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r o f the t e x t was to t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r and g o v e r n t h e m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s . However , more i m p o r t a n t t h a n Dubos ' o b s e r v a t i o n s on the 12 s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e t r i c u n i f o r m i t y i n m u s i c and p o e t r y i s h i s r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f the i m i t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e i n m u s i c . Once a g a i n , m u s i c i s s a i d to be i n a r t i c u l a t e d i s c o u r s e h a v i n g the a b i l i t y t o " i m i t a t e i n i t s m o d u l a t i o n s the t o n e s , s i g h s , and a c c e n t s and a l l s u c h i n a r t i c u l a t e sounds o f t h e v o i c e as a r e n a t u r a l s i g n s o f o u r s e n t i m e n t s and p a s s i o n s . " 2 9 Dubos f o c u s e s on the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f the a c t u a l sounds p r o d u c e d i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o f p o e t r y and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m u s i c . He n o t e s t h a t w i t h a v e r s e f u l l o f e m o t i o n , t h e v o i c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y c r e a t e s the s i g h s , a c c e n t s and i n f l e x i o n s n e e d e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n . S i m i l a r l y i n m u s i c one must s t r i v e f o r t h e " c o n t i n u e d m o d u l a t i o n " o f p a s s i o n a t e e x p r e s s i o n . 30 j_,ke p o e t r y , m u s i c as an a r t must a l s o c o n f o r m to the r u l e s o f a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l ) , p r o b a b i l i t y (a l o g i c a l sequence o f e v e n t s ) and s i m p l e y e t t a s t e f u l o r n a m e n t a t i o n . By e l e v a t i n g m u s i c ' s s t a t u s as an i m i t a t i v e a r t and e m p h a s i z i n g i t s a b i l i t y to e x p r e s s the p a s s i o n s t h r o u g h i n a r t i c u l a t e s o u n d s , Dubos g r a n t s i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c the f i r s t t e n t a t i v e a f f i r m a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c w o r t h . He concedes t h a t m u s i c w i t h o u t the a s s o c i a t i o n o f words l a c k e d the p r e c i s i o n to d e t e r m i n e the p a s s i o n b e i n g e x p r e s s e d . However , w i t h i n a p o e t i c o r d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t , i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c c o u l d t o a d e g r e e a c q u i r e a s p e c i f i c i t y o f e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t and t h u s be a r t i s t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d . I n d e b a t i n g t h e w o r t h o f the s i n f o n i a i n o p e r a , f o r e x a m p l e , Dubos a sks r h e t o r i c a l l y : 3 1 Do we n o t p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e s e symphonies en f lame u s , c a l m u s , s o f t e n us a n d , i n s h o r t , o p e r a t e on us as e f f e c t i v e l y a l m o s t as C o r n e i l l e ' s o r R a c i n e ' s v e r s e s ? 13 Thus t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r m u s i c ' s e x p r e s s i v e p o t e n t i a l i t y has t o do w i t h what Dubos c a l l s i t s " n a t u r a l " means o f e x p r e s s i o n . The a r t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h words r e l y on " a r b i t r a r y " s i g n s , dependent upon man's i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , whereas m u s i c , and to a l e s s e r d e g r e e p a i n t i n g and d a n c e , u t i l i z e s the s e n s u a l o r n a t u r a l f a c u l t y o f man. The power o f n a t u r a l s i g n s o f the p a s s i o n s was a t i t s g r e a t e s t when a l l i e d t o w o r d s : 3 2 t h e n a t u r a l s i g n s o f the p a s s i o n s t h a t m u s i c evokes and w h i c h i t a r t f u l l y u s e s to i n c r e a s e the i m p a c t o f t h e words to w h i c h i t was s e t , must t h e n make t h e s e words more a b l e to move u s . E v e n s t i l l , n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c c a n r e v e a l to the l i s t e n e r the i n t e n t o f the c o m p o s e r . Dubos q u o t e s L o n g i n u s f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n : 3 3 T h o ' the i n a r t i c u l a t e sounds o f t h i s m u s i c do n o t c o n v e y words to o u r e a r s so as t o r a i s e p r e c i s e i d e a s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s the c o n c o r d s and rhythmus e x c i t e v a r i o u s s e n t i m e n t s i n o u r m i n d s . These i n a r t i c u l a t e i m i t a t i o n s move us as much as the e l o q u e n c e o f an o r a t o r . Dubos ' c o n f i r m a t i o n o f m u s i c ' s i n t r i n s i c a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s and e q u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a r a t i o n a l form o f e x p r e s s i o n b r o u g h t u n p r e c e n d e n t e d a t t e n t i o n to t h e q u e s t i o n o f j u s t how m u s i c n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h words c o u l d t e c h n i c a l l y r e l a y i t s a f f e c t i v e message to t h e l i s t e n e r . I t was n o t enough t o s i m p l y a g r e e w i t h i t s a b i l i t y to move the p a s s i o n s - - r a t i o n a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g demanded c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f method f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s e n d . J o h a n n M a t t h e s o n t a c k l e d t h i s p r o b l e m i n h i s 1739 p u b l i c a t i o n , Der vollkommene Capellmeister. B a s e d on h i s b e l i e f t h a t m u s i c was a f o r m o f Klang-rede ( s o u n d - s p e e c h ) , M a t t h e s o n e s t a b l i s h e d a f o r m u l a f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l 14 c o m p o s i t i o n d e r i v e d f rom the r u l e s o f v e r b a l a r t . The a f f i n i t y t o p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n was c o n s p i c u o u s t o h i m , hence a composer o f m u s i c must "be as v e r s e d as p o s s i b l e i n the t r u e a r t o f p o e t r y and i t s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s ; s i n c e a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g w i t h w h i c h he d e a l s i s i n the p o e t i c l a n g u a g e . " 3 4 I n d e e d , t h e composer o f m u s i c must a l s o be a p o e t , as "a m u s i c i a n c a n n o t r e a l l y compose s o m e t h i n g c o r r e c t l y who has n o t a l s o done s o m e t h i n g i n p o e t r y . " 3 5 M a t t h e s o n p r o c e e d s b y i n s i s t i n g t h a t , f i r s t o f a l l , the i n s t r u m e n t a l composer must a lways t h i n k i n terms o f v o c a l s t y l e - - t h a t i s , m u s i c t h a t i s a l i g n e d to a p o e t i c t e x t - - i n o r d e r to make i t s i n g and f l o w . From t h i s p r e m i s e he i s a b l e to f o c u s on t h e s e t e c h n i c a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h c a n be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n : a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , r h e t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( p h r a s i n g , a c c e n t , d e c o r a t i o n ) , and r h y t h m and m e t e r . R e g a r d i n g the e x p r e s s i o n o f a f f e c t i n n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c , M a t t h e s o n , l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , s t r e s s e s t h a t the a im i n c o m p o s i t i o n "must be to p r e s e n t the g o v e r n i n g a f f e c t i o n so t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t s , b y means o f s o u n d s , p r e s e n t i t a l m o s t verbally and perceptibly."36 y e t h e n a t t e m p t s t o c l a r i f y t h i s b y o f f e r i n g a number o f m e l o d i c examples f o r w h i c h he a s s i g n s what he b e l i e v e s t o be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p a s s i o n . H i s a n a l y s i s o f e a c h e x a m p l e , w h i l e e x p l i c i t i n m a t t e r s o f p h r a s i n g , a c c e n t and d i v i s i o n , u n f o r t u n a t e l y does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n s t r u c t the r e a d e r as t o how t h e g o v e r n i n g a f f e c t i s d e d u c e d . A t any r a t e , M a t t h e s o n comes t h e c l o s e s t i n d e f i n i n g t h i s a s p e c t w h i c h h a d u n t i l t h e n o n l y b e e n a l l u d e d t o i n g e n e r a l t e r m s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y i n m u s i c i s , o f c o u r s e , on more s o l i d g r o u n d . Here M a t t h e s o n r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y to the a r t o f c o m p o s i n g a m e l o d y , w h i c h was f o r h im s i m p l y " m u s i c a l grammer, t h e a r t o f 15 s p e a k i n g , w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g t a k e n i n i t s t r u e s t s e n s e . " 3 7 i n a d d i t i o n to s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s d e v o t e d to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the d i v i s i o n s o f r h e t o r i c i n a m u s i c a l work , the a u t h o r i s e q u a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f " g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s " ( i . e . , p h r a s i n g ) and c a e s u r a s i n n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c . 3 8 A n a n a l o g y to p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n i s n o t d i r e c t l y made, b u t r e f e r e n c e s to measure and f o r m , s y m m e t r i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t , and emphas i s and a c c e n t i n m u s i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l u d e to p o e t i c i d e a l s . F i n a l l y the c o n g r u e n c e o f r h y t h m i c f o r m u l a e i n p o e t r y and m u s i c i s c o n s i d e r e d b y the a u t h o r i n g r e a t d e t a i l . M u s i c ' s d e b t to p o e t r y i s c l e a r : "What m e t e r s a r e i n p o e t r y , rhythms a r e i n m u s i c . . . " 3 9 M a t t h e s o n n o t o n l y s p e c i f i e s t h e m u s i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s o f the v a r i o u s p o e t i c m e t e r s , he a l s o d e f i n e s r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r and s u g g e s t s a p p r o p r i a t e m u s i c a l t y p e s f o r e a c h m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n . I n M a t t h e s o n ' s D e r vollkommene Cappellmeister the gap between m u s i c a l and p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n i s thus b r o u g h t to i t s n a r r o w e s t p o i n t . M a t t h e s o n ' s s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h to i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c and a d a p t i o n o f n o n - m u s i c a l c o n c e p t s as the means o f a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c was i n i m i t a b l e , and h i s i m p a c t was f a r - r e a c h i n g . H i s i n f l u e n c e i n B e r l i n c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h the w r i t i n g s o f F . W . M a r p u r g , who was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e a u t h o r , and who d e v o t e d a number o f a r t i c l e s i n h i s j o u r n a l s t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l and r h e t o r i c a l r u l e s i n m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n . 4 0 The p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e o f B e r l i n ' s l i t e r a t i t o w a r d a r t i n t h e 16 m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e v e l o p e d f r o m a c o m b i n a t i o n o f 1 7 t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h r a t i o n a l i s t t h o u g h t , A r i s t o t e l i a n t h e o r i e s o f the emot ions as expounded b y Dubos , and t h e m u s i c - a s - d i s c o u r s e t r a d i t i o n c u l t i v a t e d by t h e e a r l y German t h e o r i s t s and l a t e r M a t t h e s o n . W i t h s u c h r a t i o n a l i s t i c minds as the p h i l o s o p h e r V o l t a i r e ' s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to B e r l i n ' s l i t e r a r y and m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c l a r i t y and l o g i c became the e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a f o r a r t i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n . V o l t a i r e ' s p o e t i c s t a n d a r d s were b a s e d on c o g n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n : "any v e r s e o r s e n t e n c e w h i c h r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n does n o t d e s e r v e t o be e x p l a i n e d . " ^ ! N a t u r a l l y V o l t a i r e h a d a low o p i n i o n o f m u s i c , once s t a t i n g t h a t what i s t o o s t u p i d to be s a i d i s sung .^2 W h i l e m u s i c was n o t r a t e d q u i t e so p o o r l y by B e r l i n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l communi ty , the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t o f s u c h a comment as V o l t a i r e ' s may be measured b y the g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y to c l i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t i n a r t . C o n s e q u e n t l y n e a r l y a l l d i s c u s s i o n s on m u s i c among t h e l i t e r a t i c e n t e r e d on methods by w h i c h m u s i c c o u l d a c h i e v e c o g n i t i o n - - e i t h e r b y c o n n e c t i n g tones to words o r b y a l l o t t i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e power to t o n e s i n a v e r b a l l y - d e f i n e d c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , t h r o u g h a n a l o g y . The t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s i n B e r l i n , G o t t h o l d F r i e d r i c h L e s s i n g , C h r i s t o p h F r i e d r i c h N i c o l a i and Moses M e n d e l s s o h n , b a s e d t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f the a r t s . T h e y were p a r t i c u l a r y s t i m u l a t e d b y the o p e r a w h i c h , as a r e s u l t o f k i n g F r e d e r i c k ' s g e n e r o u s p a t r o n a g e , was b e c o m i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y e l a b o r a t e a f f a i r o f s i g h t and s o u n d . M e n d e l s s o h n was p e r h a p s the most o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c a g a i n s t n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c . As s c h o l a r and p h i l o s o p h e r , he p u b l i s h e d a number o f 17 n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c . As s c h o l a r and p h i l o s o p h e r , he p u b l i s h e d a number o f a r t i c l e s on a r t a e s t h e t i c s , i n c l u d i n g a 1763 p r i z e - w i n n i n g e s s a y on the m o r a l f u n c t i o n o f a r t i n w h i c h m u s i c was a l l o t t e d s p e c i a l a f f e c t i v e p o w e r s . 4 3 He was much i n v o l v e d w i t h the m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n B e r l i n , s t u d y i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s o f m u s i c , and l e a r n i n g t o p l a y k e y b o a r d u n d e r J o h a n n P h i l i p K i r n b e r g e r . 4 4 M e n d e l s s o h n ' s m a i n c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t m u s i c was t h a t i t h a d s e p a r a t e d f rom the a r t o f p o e t r y and c o u l d no l o n g e r f u l f i l l the a im o f a r t - - t h e a r o u s a l o f s e n t i m e n t s b y p r e s e n t i n g the c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . I n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c i s deemed unworthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n l e s s i t i s c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f and r e m a i n s s u b o r d i n a t e to "harmonious v e r s e . " I n a c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f L e s s i n g ' s d r a f t f o r Laokoon, M e n d e l s s o h n ' s r a t i o n a l i s t i c v i e w p o i n t i s s t a r k l y e v i d e n t : 4 5 M u s i c c a n be d i r e c t l y a l l i e d to p o e t r y ; to be s u r e , i t s f i r s t r u l e i s r e a l l y to s e r v e as s u p p o r t t o p o e t r y . T h e r e f o r e the a r t o f m u s i c must n e v e r be e x a g g e r a t e d so much, t h a t i t works to the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f p o e t r y . We blame t h e newer m u s i c w i t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s a r t i f i c i a l i t y does n o t a g r e e w i t h h a r m o n i o u s p o e t r y . The o t h e r top members o f B e r l i n ' s l i t e r a r y e l i t e were l e s s adamant a b o u t m u s i c ' s i n f e r i o r i t y , t e m p e r i n g t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y w i t h e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the p o p u l a r i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c i n Germany a t t h e t i m e . N i c o l a i , a book d e a l e r and e d i t o r o f an i m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y w o r k , t h e Bibliothek der freyen Wissenschaften und schonen Kiinste ( L e i p z i g , 1 7 5 7 - 1 8 0 6 ) , a t t e m p t e d to r a i s e the s t a t u s o f m u s i c i n o p e r a . He h a d r e a d Dubos and was much i m p r e s s e d b y the F r e n c h m a n ' s s e n s u a l b a s i s f o r m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . O b s e r v i n g the p o p u l a r i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c and c a l l i n g upon h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s as an a v i d c o n c e r t - g o e r , N i c o l a i m a i n t a i n e d t h a t 18 the t o n e s o f m u s i c a l o n e were s u f f i c i e n t f o r a f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n o p e r a , t h e n , i t was the tones t h a t a c t u a l l y " e x p l a i n the words" .^6 N i c o l a i even went as f a r as to e n v i s i o n an o p e r a minus t h e words t o i l l u s t r a t e , the c o m m u n i c a t i v e power o f m u s i c , p l a c i n g the t o n e s t h e m s e l v e s i n a n a c t i v e r o l e , t h a t o f d e f i n i n g d r a m a t i c c o n t e n t . ^ However , N i c o l a i ' s e n t h u s i a s m f o r w o r d l e s s m u s i c was a lways t empered b y a n i n h e r e n t sense o f r a t i o n a l i s m . He a d v o c a t e d i t s c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t h r o u g h man's s e n s u a l f a c u l t i e s , y e t o f f e r e d no t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e as to how and why i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c c a n a f f e c t the l i s t e n e r . M o r e o e v e r , h i s d i s c u s s i o n s show t h a t he s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d m u s i c w i t h i n a v e r b a l l y - d e f i n e d c o n t e x t . W h i l e o p e r a m i g h t i n d e e d be a " b e a u t i f u l i n s t r u m e n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n " , one s t i l l has the d r a m a t i c o u t l i n e o f the l i b r e t t o to f a l l b a c k o n . ^8 G . F . L e s s i n g , the most w e l l - k n o w n l i t e r a r y f i g u r e i n B e r l i n , s p e n t o n l y s e v e n y e a r s i n the P r u s s i a n c a p i t o l (between 1748-1755) , y e t he l e f t an i n d e l i b l e mark on i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a t m o s p h e r e . He a p p a r e n t l y worked f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d as a m i n o r s e c r e t a r y to V o l t a i r e , was an a c t i v e member o f the c o u r t p o e t R a m l e r ' s " F r i d a y C l u b " ( i n o p e r a t i o n 1752-1755) , and e v e n a f t e r he l e f t B e r l i n f o r Hamburg he c o n t i n u e d to c o r r e s p o n d a v i d l y w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n B e r l i n . ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s w r i t t e n c o n t r i b u t i o n on m u s i c ' s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s m i n i m a l . From t h e o u t l i n e o f h i s most a m b i t i o u s work , Laokoon oder ilber die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie, c o m p l e t e d i n Hamburg i n 1766, he h a d a p p a r e n t l y p l a n n e d t o i n c l u d e two o r t h r e e c h a p t e r s on m u s i c and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o e t r y , b u t n e v e r d i d . From t h e w r i t i n g s t h a t do e x i s t , however , one c a n a c q u i r e a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f h i s a e s t h e t i c a p p r o a c h to m u s i c . As a j o u r n a l i s t and drama 19 c r i t i c , L e s s i n g was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h l i t e r a r y m a t t e r s , a n d , as s u c h , v i e w e d m u s i c o n l y from the s t a n d p o i n t o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p o e t r y and drama. H i s b r a n d o f l i b e r a l r a t i o n a l i s m a l l o w e d h im t o acknowledge the power o f e x p r e s s i o n i n m u s i c b u t he saw i t as vague and was a t a l o s s to e x p l a i n i t s p o p u l a r i t y . Reason was f o r h i m the s o l e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f a r t . As a r e s u l t , the w o r t h o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c c o u l d o n l y be measured on the b a s i s o f ease and immediacy o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . I n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c l e a v e s the l i s t e n e r c o n f u s e d and u n m o v e d - - w i t h o u t the d e f i n i t i v e e l e m e n t o f words the i n t e n t o f the composer c a n n o t be known. F u r t h e r m o r e , v a r i e t y and c o n t r a s t s i n n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c becomes u n j u s t i f i e d u n l e s s s u p p o r t e d b y w o r d s . M u s i c , he w r o t e , 5 0 l e a v e s us i n u n c e r t a i n t y and c o n f u s i o n ; we f e e l w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g a p r o p e r sequence o f o u r f e e l i n g s ; we f e e l as i f i n a dream; and a l l t h e s e c o n f u s e d f e e l i n g s a r e more f a t i g u i n g t h a n p l e a s i n g . P o e t r y , on the o t h e r h a n d , n e v e r l e t s us l o s e the t h r e a d o f o u r f e e l i n g s . H e r e we know n o t o n l y what we a r e s u p p o s e d to f e e l b u t a l s o why we a r e s u p p o s e d t o f e e l i t . And i t i s j u s t t h i s why t h a t makes the sudden t r a n s i t i o n s n o t o n l y b e a r a b l e b u t a l s o p l e a s a n t . I n f a c t , t h i s m o t i v a t i o n o f sudden t r a n s i t i o n s , i s one o f the g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e s t h a t m u s i c draws f rom the u n i o n w i t h p o e t r y , p e r h a p s e v e n t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l . The o n l y t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c t h a t L e s s i n g c o u l d condone was t h a t w h i c h was c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n a d r a m a t i c f ramework . Here l i t e r a r y c o n c e p t s o f p l o t , m o t i v e , s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , cause and e f f e c t , e t c . , c o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e m u s i c a l c o n t e n t . T h e a t r i c a l i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , i n w h i c h the composer has a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t to communicate , was f o r L e s s i n g t h e b e s t model f r o m w h i c h to d e r i v e g e n e r a l r u l e s . I n a r e v i e w o f A g r i c o l a ' s i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c to V o l t a i r e ' s drama Semiramis, f o r example , L e s s i n g 20 e x p r e s s i o n t h e e m o t i o n a l and thus m o r a l c o n t e n t o f the p r e v i o u s a c t i n the d r a m a . 5 1 C l e a r l y m u s i c ' s e x p r e s s i v e r o l e i s c o n s i d e r e d a s u b s e r v i e n t one by L e s s i n g and i t s v a l u e j u d g e d o n l y i n terms o f i t s c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y : "the more i n t e l l i g i b l y a composer e x p r e s s e s the c o n t e n t o f h i s p i e c e , t h e more p r a i s e w o r t h y he i s . " 5 2 The a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f B e r l i n ' s l i t e r a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g m u s i c ' s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e was v i t a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a r t i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f the c i t y ' s composers and the n a t u r e o f the m u s i c t h e y p r o d u c e d . T h a t the m u s i c a l community was aware o f s u c h c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by the l e v e l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o c a l m u s i c i a n s . R a m l e r ' s " F r i d a y C l u b " i n c l u d e d among i t s membership t h e m u s i c i a n s C . G . K r a u s e , A l e x a n d e r A g r i c o l a , and J . J . Q u a n t z . 5 3 i n a d d i t i o n t o a r t i s t i c d e b a t e s , m u s i c i a n and w r i t e r s o f t e n c o l l a b o r a t e d i n j o u r n a l s d e v o t e d to the p r o m o t i o n o f the a r t s . M a r p u r g , f o r example , i n c l u d e d a poem b y L e s s i n g on the d u b i o u s v a l u e o f r u l e s i n p o e t r y and m u s i c i n the J u l y 1, 1749 i s s u e o f Der critische Musikus an der Spree, and L e s s i n g l a t e r p u b l i s h e d a r e v i e w p r a i s i n g M a r p u r g ' s j o u r n a l i n Berlinische P r i v i l i g i r t e Leitung.^b I n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d how a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c method o f a n a l y s i s c a n be a p p l i e d to the m u s i c u n d e r s t u d y h e r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e common p r o p e r t i e s o f the two a r t s , the e x p r e s s i v e means t r a n s f e r r a b l e be tween them, and how m u s i c as an a r t form c a n i m p a r t a s p e c i f i c mean ing to the l i s t e n e r . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e s e a s p e c t s , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t d i r e c t a n a l o g i e s 21 made b y members o f B e r l i n ' s m u s i c a l community i n t h e m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As w i l l be s e e n , an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h to a r t i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s i n h e r e n t i n the w r i t i n g s o f b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur c o m p o s e r / t h e o r i s t s and s e r v e s as an i m p o r t a n t method f o r a n a l y s i n g t h e i r m u s i c . 22 CHAPTER II FORM, EXPRESSION, AND PURPOSE IN MUSIC AND POETRY As the eighteenth century progressed, the c l a s s i c a l theory of i m i t a t i o n i n a r t as interpreted by Dubos became used i n c r e a s i n g l y as the means to j u s t i f y non-verbal music among Germany's r a t i o n a l i s t thinkers. Theorists concluded that a l l a r t i s t s work with s p e c i f i c topics ( i . e . , emotions to be imitated), and that no matter i n what medium these subjects of i m i t a t i o n are presented and interpreted, each has prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and associations that remain constant. Therefore s i m i l a r i f not i d e n t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of design and elaboration that embody these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s apply to a l l forms of a r t i s t i c expression. In 1757 the court poet Ramler tra n s l a t e d a t r e a t i s e by Charles Batteaux, Les beaux-arts reduits a un meme principe (1746) that e f f e c t i v e l y dealt with t h i s concept. In t h i s h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l work, the author stresses the sing l e p r i n c i p l e of the i m i t a t i o n of beauty i n nature as the basis of a l l a r t , and delineated the rules by which he perceived the arts to be formulated:1 In the arts there are stringent r u l e s , c l e a r boundaries that may not be transgressed. Everything i s c a l c u l a t e d i ) by measure, which controls the duration of each sound and gesture; i i ) by movement, which speeds up or slows down t h i s same measure whilst i n no way a l t e r i n g the number of sounds or gestures, or changing t h e i r q u a l i t y ; i i i ) by melody, which unites these sounds or gestures into a successive whole; iv) and f i n a l l y - by harmony, which controls consonance when several l i n e s combine into one. Batteaux's "rules", of course, applied most c l e a r l y to those arts 23 whose t h e m a t i c s t a t e m e n t and deve lopment move t h r o u g h t i m e , n a m e l y , p o e t r y , m u s i c and d a n c i n g . He was the f i r s t t o i n d i c a t e c l e a r d i v i s i o n s among the a r t s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the a r t s o f space ( p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e ) and the a r t s o f t i m e . Thus i t was on the b a s i s t h a t m u s i c was d e f i n e d as o r g a n i z e d sound t h a t i t was g r o u p e d w i t h p o e t i c a r t - - b o t h m u s i c and p o e t r y depend upon the arrangement o f s y m b o l i c sounds i n t e m p o r a l s e q u e n c e . A few y e a r s a f t e r B a t t e a u x ' s t r e a t i s e , L e s s i n g was a b l e t o make a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n h i s Laokoon b y n o t i n g t h a t b o t h a r t s s h a r e the same o r i g i n b e c a u s e t h e y 1) a p p e a l e d d i r e c t l y to the sense o f h e a r i n g , and 2) p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t i m e . 2 F u r t h e r m o r e , the t e m p o r a l a r t s d i f f e r e d f rom t h e s p a t i a l a r t s i n t h a t the l a t t e r c a n o n l y e x p r e s s a p a s s i o n i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , whereas t h e f o r m e r c a n n o t o n l y i m i t a t e more t h a n one p a s s i o n o v e r the p r o g r e s s i o n o f t ime b u t a l s o the v a r y i n g d e g r e s s o f e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y f a l l i n g i n between them. F o r L e s s i n g , however , m u s i c and p o e t r y as a r t s o f t i m e show one e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e - - a d i f f e r e n c e f i r s t o b s e r v e d by Dubos w h i c h l a t e r became a p i v o t a l e l e m e n t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a s e n t i m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t . B o t h a r t s i n v o l v e d s i g n s o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t were a u d i b l e as o p p o s e d t o v i s u a l , and c o n s e c u t i v e r a t h e r t h a n s i m u l t a n e o u s . However , p o e t r y r e l i e d on s i g n s s u b j e c t to i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i l e m u s i c was b a s e d on s i g n s a r i s i n g f rom n a t u r a l phenomena w h i c h a p p e a l e d d i r e c t l y to man's s e n s u a l b e i n g . And as a l l a r t was to be a r e f l e c t i o n o f r e a l i t y and s t r i v e f o r n a t u r a l t r u t h , t h e n the n a t u r a l s i g n s o f e x p r e s s i o n h e l d an a d v a n t a g e o v e r a r b i t r a r y s i g n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n L e s s i n g b e l i e v e d t h a t p o e t r y m u s t : 3 24 t r y t o r a i s e i t s a r b i t r a r y s i g n s to n a t u r a l s i g n s . . . t h a t i s how i t d i f f e r s f rom p r o s e . The means b y w h i c h t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d a r e the tones o f t h e w o r d s , the p o s i t i o n o f the w o r d s , measure , f i g u r e s and t r o p e s , s i m i l e s , e t c . T h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t i s o f consequence f o r the m e r g i n g o f p o e t i c and m u s i c a l a r t s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C l e a r l y i f one s e p a r a t e s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t f r o m the sounds o f t h e words t h e m s e l v e s t h e n p o e t i c u t t e r a n c e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a form o f m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . The p l e a s u r a b l e e l e m e n t s o f word as s o u n d , w h i l e p l a y i n g a l e s s e r r o l e to the n o t i o n t h a t the c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f a f f e c t i v e i d e a s o c c u r e d t h r o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a s o n i n g , was t o become a p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y by m i d - c e n t u r y . A t t h i s t i m e m u s i c was b e c o m i n g l e s s s y m m e t r i c a l and more p o e t i c a l l y e x p r e s s i v e , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e l a t e r k e y b o a r d works o f Emmanual B a c h , w h i l e p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , l e d b y F.G. K l o p s t o c k , was g i v e n more b e a u t y o f sound and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e o f theme. T h i s emphas i s on the q u a l i t i e s o f sound i n a r t stemmed d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e o r i e s o f s o u n d - v i b r a t i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t on man's p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a k e - u p . I n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y D e s c a r t e s f o r m u l a t e d f r o m c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s a m e t h o d o l o g y b y w h i c h a l l o p e r a t i o n s on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l b e i n g were r a t i o n a l l y e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e e f f e c t s p r o d u c e d b y e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . ^ The a n c i e n t G r e e k s h a d b e l i e v e d t h a t c e r t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n s o f sounds c o u l d be employed f o r c a t h a r t i c p u r p o s e s to c o n t r i b u t e to man's w e l l - b e i n g . S i m i l a r l y C a r t e s i a n p h i l o s o p h y h e l d t h a t man's e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e i s l i k e a s o u n d i n g - b o a r d , r e s p o n d i n g to sound-waves i n s u c h a manner 25 as to s t i m u l a t e s y m p a t h e t i c v i b r a t i o n o f the n e r v e s . I n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was a l s o g e n e r a l agreement among t h e o r i s t s t h a t s o u n d - v i b r a t i o n s e x e r t e d g r e a t power o v e r m a n k i n d . Not o n l y was i t b e l i e v e d t h a t the tones and p r o p o r t i o n s o f movement c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a s e n t i m e n t evoke a r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s e i n the l i s t e n e r , b u t a l s o t h a t the r h y t h m and m e t e r o f sound i s d i r e c t l y i m i t a t i v e o f the human s o u l , as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e p u l s e and b o d i l y movements. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , m u s i c and p o e t r y were s e e n t o be a n a l o g o u s , s i n c e t h r o u g h the n a t u r e o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e - - b e i n g the r e g u l a r o r d e r i n g o f sound a c t i v i t y - - t h e y b o t h r e s u l t i n a dynamic e f f e c t t h a t i s i m i t a t i v e o f l i f e i t s e l f . I t f o l l o w s f rom t h e s e i d e a s t h a t the s o u n d - a r t s h a d an o b l i g a t i o n t o r a i s e i n the l i s t e n e r those s e n t i m e n t s c o n d u c i v e to p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and m o r a l g o o d n e s s . T h e o r i s t s saw t h a t what i s p l e a s i n g and a g r e e a b l e i n a r t was r e l a t e d to a c o n g e n i a l temperament . T h e r e f o r e a composer o f s o u n d - a r t must a b i d e by the r u l e s o f euphony by p r e s e n t i n g smooth , f l o w i n g and w e l l - o r d e r e d sounds t h a t "would i m p a r t t h e i r harmony to a s y m p a t h e t i c s o u l . " H a r m o n y " i n t h i s sense was n o t s i m p l y the m u s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the t e r m , b u t r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a r g e r c o n c e p t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l harmony . The s e v e n t e e n t h and most o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l i e v e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n r e a l i t y was r a t i o n a l l y o r d e r e d and c o m p l e t e ; e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t e d was h a r m o n i o u s l y a r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h e c o s m i c o r d e r . A r t , i t was t h o u g h t , was a c t u a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s h a r m o n i o u s w o r k i n g o f the p a r t s , and c o r r e s p o n d e d to the p h y s i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l harmony o f the cosmos , s t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l . 6 T h e r e f o r e the p l e a s u r e p r o d u c e d by the sense o f b a l a n c e and p r o p o r t i o n i n m u s i c and p o e t r y a r o s e from the same p r i n c i p l e i n g e n e r a l 26 a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y - - t h a t o f the movement o f c o n c o r d a n t e l e m e n t s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s a l s p h e r e . I n 1675 the F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e r B e r n a r d Lamy o u t l i n e d the c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o d u c i n g e u p h o n i o u s s o u n d . R e f e r r i n g i n i t i a l l y to the t o n e s o f l a n g u a g e , he d e f i n e d a g r e e a b l e sound to be 1) m o d e r a t e , so as n o t to d i s t u r b a good d i s p o s i t i o n ; 2) d i s t i n c t , so t h a t one c a n e a s i l y d i s c e r n the sense o f i t ; 3) a m i x t u r e o f e q u a l and d i v e r s e s o u n d s , i n o r d e r t h a t one may n o t be u p s e t b y t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e o r b o r e d b y the u n v a r y i n g ; and 4) w e l l - o r d e r e d , so t h a t the e a r may h e a r them w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n and t h u s a p p r e c i a t e t h e "harmony" o f t h e i r j o i n i n g . 7 Then Lamy i s q u i c k t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s "are n e c e s s a r y to a l l sounds to make them a g r e e a b l e , whe ther i t be the sounds o f the v o i c e , o r o f I n s t r u m e n t s . . . " ^ N e a r l y a c e n t u r y l a t e r , B e r l i n t h e o r i s t J o h a n n P h i l i p K i r n b e r g e r d e f i n e d euphony i n a m u s i c a l s e n s e , s t r e s s i n g t h a t the tones o f m u s i c must f l o w l i k e v e r s e s i n p o e t r y . Euphony was to be a c h i e v e d f i r s t o f a l l by u s i n g o n l y t h o s e i n t e r v a l s f r o m the g i v e n key o f a work . A c c i d e n t a l s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d e x c e p t i n m o d u l a t i o n to a r e l a t e d k e y . 9 F u t h e r m o r e a p l e a s i n g sound and u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n r e s u l t s when a melody i s u n i f o r m and p h r a s i n g i s s y m m e t r i c a l . The i d e a l o f euphony i n b o t h p o e t r y and m u s i c t h u s s e r v e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o n d between the two a r t s as t h e o r i s t s c o u l d compares the q u a l i t i e s o f sound i n m o t i o n and e v a l u a t e t h e i r e f f e c t on the l i s t e n e r i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the medium i n w h i c h t h e y were o r g a n i z e d . M u s i c and p o e t r y , as t e m p o r a l a r t s b a s e d on the r a t i o n a l o r d e r i n g o f s o u n d , were c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e o r i s t s t o s h a r e s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s . 27 A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f c o n s e c u t i v e m u s i c a l t o n e s i n t o m e a s u r e s , p h r a s e s and s e c t i o n s was s een to c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o t h e g r o u p i n g o f c o n s e c u t i v e p o e t i c s y l l a b l e s i n t o f e e t , l i n e s , c o u p l e t s and s t a n z a s . Cadences i n m u s i c and p e r i o d s o r j u n c t u r e s i n p o e t r y were u s e d to s e p a r a t e e a c h g r o u p . The means b y w h i c h one a c h i e v e d a sense o f u n i t y i n a work was d e t e r m i n e d i n b o t h a r t s b y the degree i n w h i c h t h e s e g r o u p i n g s were o f synonomous l e n g t h , movement o r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r . A l s o , terms u s e d t o d e f i n e and a n a l y s e a r t i s t i c c o n t e n t were u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y b y t h e o r i s t s . I t has a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t M a t t h e s o n c o n s c i o u s l y b o r r o w e d t e c h n i c a l terms r e l a t i n g to p o e t r y and r h e t o r i c i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n d i c a t i n g g r a m m a t i c a l d i v i s i o n s and m e t r i c a l t y p e s . L a t e r t h e o r i s t s s i m i l a r l y u s e d t e r m i n o l o g y a d a p t e d f rom l i t e r a r y forms i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a t i o n s o f m u s i c , and even a p p l i e d more i d i o m a t i c terms o f l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s s u c h as s u b j e c t , p l o t and d r a m a t i c f l o w . E n g l i s h w r i t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r t a c k l e d the e l ement o f s u b j e c t i n m u s i c , C h a r l e s A v i s o n h a v i n g o b s e r v e d t h a t s u b j e c t i s " i n a m u s i c a l s e n s e , what t h e word s u b j e c t l i k e w i s e i m p l i e s i n w r i t i n g . " 1 0 Y e t the q u e s t i o n o f how a composer o f m u s i c , w o r k i n g w i t h c o n c e p t s s h a r e d b y a n o t h e r a r t i s t i c medium, was to m a n i p u l a t e t h e s e e l e m e n t s f o r the p u r p o s e o f r a i s i n g the p a s s i o n s i n the l i s t e n e r , r e m a i n e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l one d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u n d e r s t u d y h e r e . I t w o u l d be u s e f u l a t t h i s p o i n t t o n o t e t h e d i m e n s i o n s s h a r e d by p o e t r y and m u s i c , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how 1 8 t h c e n t u r y composers and t h e o r i s t s d e v e l o p e d t h e i r v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e a r e a s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e - - t h e q u a l i t y o f s o u n d , t h e d u r a t i o n o f s o u n d , and o r n a m e n t a t i o n o r r h e t o r i c a l d e c o r a t i o n . The 28 f i r s t , t h e q u a l i t y o f s o u n d , i n v o l v e s the management o f p i t c h l e v e l and a c c e n t o r e m p h a s i s . On a g e n e r a l l e v e l , the o r d e r i n g o f words and t h e i r a c c e n t s t h a t p r o d u c e s v e r s i f i c a t i o n and meter i n p o e t r y c a n be s e e n as e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e deve lopment o f a m u s i c a l melody and i t s r h y t h m . By a r r a n g i n g m u s i c a l t ones i n the same way a p o e t c h o o s e s words f o r t h e sake o f s o n o r i t y , a composer i s r e l y i n g on the same a r t i s t i c r e s o u r c e s f o r e x p r e s s i v e e f f e c t . Vowel and c o n s o n a n t sounds have a p i t c h o f t h e i r own a r i s i n g f r o m the n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f the v o i c e i n r e a d i n g . V e r b a l i n t o n a t i o n p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n e x p r e s s i n g s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t . I n m u s i c , p i t c h management l i k e w i s e i s r e l a t e d t o the e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t o f the c o m p o s e r - - r i s i n g and f a l l i n g p i t c h e s g e n e r a t e c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and impose meaning upon a m u s i c a l work . A l s o , s i m p l e s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g p i t c h c a n be o b s e r v e d between the f a l l i n g sound a t the end o f a p o e t i c s t a t e m e n t ( g r a m m a t i c a l p a u s e ) and a m u s i c a l p e r i o d ( c a d e n c e ) , a n d , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , between m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e p h r a s e e n d i n g s i n p o e t i c a n a l y s i s and c a d e n t i a l t y p e s i n m u s i c . To t a k e t h i s a n a l o g y f u r t h e r , one c a n e a s i l y p e r c e i v e how p o e t i c d e v i c e s s u c h as a l l i t e r a t i o n , a s s o n a n c e , and rhyme a r e a p p l i c a b l e to the e v a l u a t i o n o f m u s i c a l m e l o d y . Not o n l y a r e t h e s e t o o l s o f r e p e t i t i o n v i t a l f o r c r e a t i n g e u p h o n i o u s t o n e s i n p o e t r y , making i t more " m u s i c a l " , b u t t h e y a l s o p r o d u c e H a k i n d o f e x t e r n a l u n i t y to a p a s s a g e , i n the same way as a r e f r a i n does t o a s o n g , a r e f r a i n b e i n g b u t a f o r m o f a l l i t e r a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , the r e p e t i t i o n o f l i k e - s o u n d s i n p o e t r y c a n be s a i d to 29 c o r r e s p o n d to the r e p e t i t i o n o f a k e y - n o t e , m o t i v e o r r e f r a i n i n m u s i c , e s t a b l i s h i n g s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t c r e a t e a sense o f u n i t y and g e n e r a t e c e r t a i n meanings and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Emphas i s o r s o u n d - a c c e n t , a q u a l i t y w h i c h i s i n t r i n s i c t o a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , a l s o h o l d s e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the p o e t i c and m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . V e r b a l emphas i s o r - a c c e n t a r i s e s p a r t l y f rom the q u a n t i t y o f s y l l a b l e s , i . e . , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d to p r o n o u n c e them, and p a r t l y f rom s y n t a x , w h i c h c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n o f words i n a s e n t e n c e . R h e t o r i c a l a c c e n t l i f t s c e r t a i n words i n t o p r o m i n e n c e , l e a v i n g o t h e r s w i t h o u t s p e c i a l s t r e s s o f t o n e . M u s i c a l a c c e n t s i m i l a r l y depends upon the q u a n t i t y o f n o t e v a l u e ( t h e l o n g e r , the more e m p h a t i c ) , and a l s o s y n t a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , p i t c h e s o f h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y c o n t a i n a n a t u r a l emphas i s when u s e d d i s c r i m i n a t e l y among l o w e r p i t c h l e v e l s . M i d - e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B e r l i n w r i t e r s were w e l l aware o f the sound r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t r y and m u s i c , b u t c o n f i n e d t h e m s e l v e s to b r o a d o b s e r v a t i o n s on the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the tones o f the v o i c e i n s p e e c h and t h e t o n e s o f m u s i c , and the f i n a l a i m o f b o t h a r t s to r a i s e the p a s s i o n s o f the l i s t e n e r . S u l z e r , f o r example , d e f i n e s melody s i m p l y as " e x p r e s s i o n " and t h a t i t must a l w a y s l 2 d e p i c t some p a r t i c u l a r p a s s i o n o r mood. Anyone who h e a r s i t must i m a g i n e t h a t he i s h e a r i n g t h e s p e e c h o f a man who i s immersed i n a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g , and he i s m a k i n g i t known. An d C . G . K r a u s e saw t h a t the sound o f m u s i c was e s s e n t i a l l y "an imated s p e e c h " . 1 3 Qn the o t h e r h a n d , the d u r a t i o n o f sound as measured b y m e t e r , 30 r h y t h m , tempo and p h r a s i n g r e m a i n e d the most c o n s p i c u o u s and most d i s c u s s e d l i n k be tween p o e t r y and m u s i c i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B e r l i n . I t was, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e g u l a r i t y o f a c c e n t and p h r a s i n g t h a t p r o d u c e d i t s a f f i n i t y to p o e t i c r a t h e r t h a n p r o s a i c c o m p o s i t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the i m i t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e i n a r t , the e l e m e n t s o f d u r a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d p r e d o m i n a n t f o r c o n v e y i n g d i s t i n c t moods and p a s s i o n s - - o n l y t h r o u g h c o n t r o l l e d and l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n s o f t ime c a n m u s i c , as w e l l as p o e t r y , r e a l l y communicate a s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n a l i d e a . F o r t h i s r e a s o n K i r n b e r g e r , i n Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik ( 1 7 7 1 - 7 9 ) , p l a c e d g r e a t emphas i s on r h y t h m , meter and tempo. K i r n b e r g e r a s s e r t e d t h a t , by p r o p e r l y c o m b i n i n g t h e s e t h r e e t h i n g s , "melody i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and s t i m u l a t i n g s p e e c h . " ! ^ More s p e c i f i c a l l y i t was meter t h a t "shapes n o t e s i n t o w o r d s , so to speak" , and makes melody c o m p a r a b l e to p o e t i c l a n g u a g e . ! 5 Tempo i s u s e d to c r e a t e mood i n m u s i c , i n the same manner as i n p o e t r y o r o r a t o r y . To show the e x p r e s s i o n o f sudden p a s s i o n , a composer must c o n s e q u e n t l y v a r y r h y t h m i c r a t h e r t h a n m e l o d i c c h a r a c t e r . K i r n b e r g e r a l s o d e a l s a t l e n g t h w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p h r a s i n g , i t s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s to p o e t i c d i v i s i o n s and i t s a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t y . He makes a s t r u c t u r a l a n a l o g y t o p o e t r y : 1 6 The r h y t h m o f a c o m p o s i t i o n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f a l y r i c poem. I n d i v i d u a l m e l o d i c p h r a s e s r e p r e s e n t t h e l i n e s , and l o n g e r s e c t i o n s o f s e v e r a l p h r a s e s a r e m u s i c a l s t r o p h e s . K i r n b e r g e r a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t p h r a s e s w i t h i n a m u s i c a l p e r i o d a r e o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s , as a r e l i n e s i n p o e t r y , and a composer c a n u t i l i z e t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y "to s u r p r i s e the l i s t e n e r by s o m e t h i n g u n u s u a l o r 31 i r r a t i o n a l . " 1 7 O t h e r B e r l i n t h e o r i s t s were p r e o c c u p i e d , as M a t t h e s o n was i n h i s Das vollkommene Cappelmeister, w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g m e t r i c t y p e s o f p o e t r y to m u s i c a l m e a s u r e . I n h i s Kritische Briefe uber die Tonkunst, F . W . M a r p u r g o f f e r e d a d e t a i l e d m u s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s two and t h r e e s y l l a b l e p o e t i c f e e t , b e a r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l G r e e k n o m e n c l a t u r e . 1 8 M a r p u r g a d m i t t e d t h a t a number o f h i s e x a m p l e s , w h i l e e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e to m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n , d i d n o t r e a l l y c o n c u r w i t h Germanic v e r b a l e m p h a s i s , as f o r example the Amphibrachys [^^JjJJJ ^ w h i c h he c o n c e d e d was r e a l l y a " d i s t o r t e d Dactylic m e t e r . 1 9 However , l i k e M a t t h e s o n , he s t r e s s e s t h a t the composer o f m u s i c must be t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l p o s s i b l e m e t r i c t y p e s so t h a t he c a n i d e n t i f y and u t i l i z e s u c h p a t t e r n s i n h i s m u s i c . The t h i r d d i m e n s i o n s h a r e d b y p o e t r y and m u s i c , t h a t o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n , i s b a s e d on the m u t u a l dependence on r h e t o r i c a l c o n c e p t s f o r e x p r e s s i o n . O r n a t e n e s s o f l anguage t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f i g u r e s and t r o p e s was the p r i m a r y means o f p e r s u a s i o n i n o r a t o r y . L i k e w i s e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t and composer employed o r n a m e n t a l f i g u r e s t o d e c o r a t e and enhance a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . 2 0 The s y s t e m o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s w h i c h h a d e v o l v e d o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s s e r v e d t o r e m i n d composers o f t h i s common d e n o m i n a t o r e x i s t i n g be tween p o e t i c and m u s i c a l a r t . F i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i s what d i s t i n g u i s h e s p o e t i c s t y l e from o r d i n a r y s p e e c h . The p o e t moves away f rom the a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t and p u r e 32 sense o f p r o s a i c c o m p o s i t i o n towards a more v i v i d and e m o t i o n a l s t y l e by way o f f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . The composer o f m u s i c a l s o imbues h i s work w i t h the s y m b o l i c l a n g u a g e o f f i g u r e s to i l l u s t r a t e the meaning o f t h e t e x t , o r , i n t h e c a s e o f n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c , t o h e i g h t e n e x p r e s s i o n and a s s o c i a t i v e power o f t h e t o n e s . A number o f s t u d i e s o f f e r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s known to e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y composers .21 However , i t c a n be b r o a d l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y two c a t e g o r i e s o f f i g u r e s w h i c h s e r v e to u n d e r s c o r e m u s i c ' s l i n k t o p o e t r y - - f i g u r e s o f r e p e t i t i o n and f i g u r e s o f c o n t r a s t . R e p e t i t i o n o f words i n p o e t r y (as o p p o s e d t o the r e p e t i t i o n o f s o u n d s , w h i c h p r o d u c e s rhyme, a s s o n a n c e and a l l i t e r a t i o n ) i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f e c t and i s u s e d to c r e a t e e m p h a s i s . A p o e t may r e i t e r a t e a s i n g l e w o r d , p h r a s e o r c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e , o r may change t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h the word a p p e a r s f o r a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t . M u s i c a l f i g u r e s o f r e p e t i t i o n , w i t h o r w i t h o u t the a i d o f a t e x t , a l s o c r e a t e e m p h a s i s . They may s i m p l y be r e p e t i t i o n o f n o t e s a t the same p i t c h , d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s , o r i n d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s , o r r e p e t i t i o n o f whole p h r a s e s , l i t e r a l l y o r w i t h v a r i a t i o n s . I n n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c e s p e c i a l l y , r e p e t i t i o n i s the s u b s t a n c e o f m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s , l i k e i n p o e t r y , an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t : the r e i t e r a t e d n o t e , m o t i v e o r p h r a s e becomes the r e f e r e n t i a l e l e m e n t t h a t p r o d u c e s f o r the l i s t e n e r the t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t c r e a t e m u s i c a l m e a n i n g . F i g u r e s o f c o n t r a s t i n p o e t r y depend upon the u n e x p e c t e d o r i r r e g u l a r arrangement o f words o f i d e a s so as t o c r e a t e s u r p r i s e a n d , h e n c e , a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l i m p r e s s i o n . L i t t l e " a s i d e s " ( p a r e n t h e s i s ) , changes o f v e r b t e n s e and word o r d e r , o r a sudden b r e a k i n g - o f f o f a s t a t e m e n t w i t h a new one b e g i n n i n g i n a new d i r e c t i o n a r e examples o f common p o e t i c f i g u r e s o f c o n t r a s t s t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . M u s i c a l c o n t r a s t s o c c u r when t h e r e i s a sudden change o f r e g i s t e r , mode o r t e x t u r e , an u n e x p e c t e d change o f m e l o d i c s t y l e , m u s i c a l " a s i d e s " o r i n t e r j e c t i o n s o f n o n - r e l a t e d m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l , e t c . I n s h o r t , b o t h m u s i c and p o e t r y , i n s t r i v i n g to a c h i e v e the common g o a l o f r a i s i n g a n e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e i n t h e i r a u d i e n c e , use i d e n t i c a l methods o f e l a b o r a t i o n . And what has b e e n s a i d o f " a l l p o e t r y " l i k e w i s e c a n be a p p l i e d t o m u s i c : t h a t " r e p e t i t i o n and c o n t r a s t o f some s o r t , o f s o u n d , s ense o r b e a t - - i s e s s e n t i a l t o p l e a s u r e . " 2 2 F i n a l l y , m u s i c and p o e t r y , as a r t s t h a t e x t e n d and d e v e l o p t h r o u g h t i m e , s h a r e c e r t a i n f o r m a l d e v i c e s t h a t b r i n g i n t o f o c u s t h e v a r i o u s a r t i s t i c components , and p r o v i d e mean ing . I t must be remembered t h a t b o t h memory and a n t i c i p a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d o f the a u d i e n c e f o r the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the t e m p o r a l a r t s - - a n y one moment i n m u s i c and p o e t r y i s m e a n i n g l e s s . O n l y b y r e f e r r i n g b a c k to s o m e t h i n g t h a t has p a s s e d ( a s s o c i a t i o n ) o r b y a n t i c i p a t i n g what i s t o come ( e x p e c t a t i o n ) c a n one u n d e r s t a n d the p r e s e n t i n s t a n t ; " o n l y b y a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f i n s t a n t s i n t ime c a n f o r m o r meaning be b u i l t u p . " 2 3 M e a n i n g , t h e n , i s a c q u i r e d from c o n t e x t . One way a p o e t o r composer may e s t a b l i s h h i s i n t e n t i s t h r o u g h what has b e e n t ermed "sound- s e ns e " i m i t a t i o n , d e f i n e d as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s o u n d o f a s p e c i f i c movement, t h i n g o r c o n c e p t i n n a t u r e . 2 4 T h i s t y p e o f l o c a l i m i t a t i o n may be s u g g e s t i v e , o c c u r r i n g when the sounds o f t h e words i n p o e t r y and t h e t o n e s i n m u s i c c a n be i n d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t . A n example o f t h i s i n p o e t r y w o u l d be where words d e s c r i b i n g t h e m o t i o n o f a r u n n i n g h o r s e convey a g a l l o p i n g r h y t h m . I n m u s i c , s u g g e s t i v e i m i t a t i o n c a n , o f c o u r s e , o n l y a p p e a r i n the s e t t i n g o f words and i s 34 commonly d e f i n e d as w o r d - p a i n t i n g . P i t c h movement downwards b y h a l f - s t e p s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t e x t t h a t d e s c r i b e s d e a t h o r d y i n g i s an o b v i o u s example o f t h i s . A n o t h e r t y p e o f "sound-sense" i m i t a t i o n , more p e r t i n e n t to t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c and i t s a n a l o g y t o p o e t r y , i s onomatopoeia, the i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l sounds i n the sounds o f w o r d s . I n p o e t r y , t h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a s s o n a n c e and a l l i t e r a t i o n ( s u c h as u s i n g many "b" , " r " , and "1" sounds to i m i t a t e the b a b b l i n g o f a b r o o k ) as w e l l as i n t r o d u c i n g words d e s c r i b i n g a c t u a l sounds ( " h i s s " , " r o a r " , " b u z z " , e t c . ) O n o m a t o p o e t i c e f f e c t s i n m u s i c a r e more e a s i l y a r r i v e d a t b e c a u s e t h e i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l sounds c a n be d i r e c t l y made w i t h o u t h a v i n g to c o n t e n d w i t h l o g i c o r d i c t i o n a r y meaning o f the w o r d s . A n e n t i r e m u s i c a l work may be b a s e d on onomatopoetic i m i t a t i o n , u s i n g p u r e l y m u s i c a l means to c r e a t e the sound o f the w i n d , o r a s t o r m y n i g h t , e t c . I n f a c t , i n h i s t h e s i s , R o g e r s o n c o n t e n d s t h a t the l e g i t i m a c y o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r i n c i p l e o f i m i t a t i o n i n o r c h e s t r a l m u s i c , where "harmony and rhy thm o p e r a t e most" , r e s t s e n t i r e l y on i t s a b i l i t y to r e p r e s e n t the m o t i o n s and n o i s e s o f n a t u r e . 2 5 Qn the o t h e r h a n d , l i t e r a l m u s i c a l i m i t a t i o n , s u c h as b i r d c a l l s and o t h e r a n i m a l n o i s e s , i s l e s s commonly f o u n d and i s r e a l l y more p i c t o r i a l t h a n s t r u c t u r a l i n i t s e f f e c t . "Sound-sense" i m i t a t i o n i s o n l y one method s h a r e d b y p o e t s and composers i n e x p r e s s i n g a r t i s t i c i n t e n t . I t i s a l s o a somewhat l i m i t e d a p p r o a c h t o c o m p o s i t i o n . F o r the p o e t , the demands o f v o c a b u l a r y make i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n i m i t a t i v e p a s s a g e s , and when i m i t a t i o n i s o v e r - u s e d , a work c a n seem t r i v i a l and a r t i f i c i a l . L i k e w i s e t h e composer who makes t o o much o f s u c h a d e v i c e i s s u b j e c t to c r i t i c i s m s o f 35 s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . T h e r e a r e o t h e r , more s u b t l e ways u s e d b y p o e t and composer to c o n v e y m e a n i n g , b a s e d on the f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f h i s work . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e f i n e d t h r o u g h g r a m m a t i c a l c o n t e n t i n p o e t r y and t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s i n m u s i c . The p o s i t i o n o f key words i n a p o e t i c l i n e o r v e r s e , the c h o i c e o f d e s c r i p t i v e o r - n o n - e s s e n t i a l t e r m s , the p a t t e r n o f a rhyme scheme, and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e p o e t c o r r e l a t e s t h e s e e l e m e n t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e to the deve lopment o f m e a n i n g , as do p a s s i n g t o n e s , l e a d i n g t o n e s , dominant h a r m o n i e s , d e c e p t i v e c a d e n c e s , and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o r n a m e n t a l p a s s a g e s i n a m u s i c a l work . M o r e o v e r , as e a r l i e r s t a t e d , r e p e t i t i o n o f any p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t o r d e v i c e i s the c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r c r e a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t d e t e r m i n e f o r m . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , J o n e s sees an a n a l o g y o f f u n c t i o n be tween the rhyme p a t t e r n o f p o e t r y and the t h o r o u g h b a s s i n l a t e Baroque m u s i c : 2 6 J u s t as t h e s t e a d y chords of the bass s u p p l y the h a r m o n i c f o u n d a t i o n f o r the m e a s u r e - b y - m e a s u r e movement and i n t e r v a l l i c harmony o f the v o i c e s above i t . . . s o rhyme...conditions the s y n t a c t i c movement o f l i n e and t h e c o n g r u e n t movement o f b a l a n c e and p a r a l l e l . C e r t a i n l a r g e - s c a l e f o r m a l schemes a l s o h o l d e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r m u s i c a l and p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n . C a l v i n Brown' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p o e t i c a l use o f m u s i c a l forms r e v e a l s t h a t the r o n d o , theme and v a r i a t i o n s , ABA and s o n a t a f o r m a r e a l l , i n some way, t r a n s f e r r a b l e be tween the two mediums.27 The r o n d o , o f c o u r s e , o r i g i n a t e d as a p o e t i c f o r m - - a s Brown p o i n t s o u t , "any poem w i t h s t a n z a s and a c h o r u s i s i n rondo f o r m i f o n l y the c h o r u s b e g i n s the poem."28 Theme and v a r i a t i o n s i s a m u s i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a p o e t i c c o n c e p t , b u t Brown, as w e l l as o t h e r modern c r i t i c s , see i t 36 as a d a p t a b l e f o r v e r b a l c o m p o s i t i o n : "a theme i s g i v e n o u t s i m p l y and d i r e c t l y , and t h e n f o l l o w e d b y a s e r i e s o f r e w o r k i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t moods, emphases , and sometimes m e t e r s . " 2 9 i n a more a b s t r a c t s e n s e , theme and v a r i a t i o n i n p o e t r y has b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the B a r o q u e t r a i t o f the " s p i n n i n g - o u t " o f a s i n g l e m o t i v e ; p o e t s t e n d to " u n f o l d , expand and i n t e n s i f y one i d e a o f theme l i k e the composer d e v e l o p s a b a s i c m e l o d i c theme."30 The r e l e v a n c e o f ABA form and the more complex i s s u e o f s o n a t a form i n p o e t r y and m u s i c i s symptomat ic o f a w i d e r c o n c e p t l i n k i n g t h e two a r t s . I t has t o do w i t h d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n - - t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n , the b u i l d i n g up to a c l i m a c t i c p o i n t , and t h e u l t i m a t e r e l e a s e o f a n t a g o n i s t i c f o r c e s - - i n s h o r t , e x p o s i t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t , and r e s o l u t i o n . B e r n a r d Frum b a s e d a r e c e n t a r t i c l e on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y k e y b o a r d m u s i c . 3 1 H i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t m u s i c a l " c h a r a c t e r " ( m o t i v e ) w h i c h , l i k e a c h a r a c t e r i n a drama, moves t h r o u g h a " p l o t " i n s u c h a way t h a t the l i s t e n e r c a n f o l l o w i t s r o l e . 3 2 D r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n d e v e l o p s when the " c h a r a c t e r " o r m o t i v e " c o l l i d e s " w i t h o t h e r m o t i v e s , c a u s i n g t e n s i o n , the t e n s i o n i s s u s t a i n e d and augmented, and a r e s o l u t i o n i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s e m o t i v e s "as a r e v i e w , o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y where e m b e l l i s h m e n t s o r o t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n s a r e a d d e d , as a commentary ."33 The e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h q u a l i t i e s i n m u s i c has b e e n s e e n as t h e b a s i s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the e a r l i e r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o n a t a and the c l a s s i c a l s o n a t a , the l a t t e r c o n t a i n i n g t h e f e a t u r e s f o r f u l l d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . 3 4 A d m i t t e d l y , t h e use o f d r a m a t i c p r o c e d u r e i n p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n i s n o t a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r f o r m , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t i c s t y l e , w h i c h i s more n a r r a t i v e o r l y r i c t h a n 37 d r a m a t i c . One may, however , p o i n t to the s o n n e t as a p o s s i b l e p a r a l l e l t o the s o n a t a o r e v e n f u g a l p r i n c i p l e i n m u s i c . C o n s i s t i n g o f 14 i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r s , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an o p e n i n g t h e m a t i c i d e a , f o l l o w e d b y the a m p l i f i c a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , and a c o n c l u d i n g m o r a l w i t h r e f e r e n c e b a c k to the theme.35 The e s s e n c e o f d r a m a t i c c o n f l i c t and r e s o l u t i o n i s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t i n t h i s v e r s e - f o r m . I n a d d i t i o n to the r e c i p r o c i t y o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s i n p o e t r y and m u s i c , t h e r e i s one f u r t h e r a n a l o g y to be c o n s i d e r e d r e g a r d i n g f o r m and m e a n i n g - - t h a t o f the f u n c t i o n a l p a r a l l e l o f m u s i c a l harmony to t h e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n p o e t r y . O f c o u r s e , t h e r e i s no a c t u a l e q u i v a l e n t i n p o e t r y t o the e f f e c t s o f harmony, the s i m u l t a n e o u s s o u n d i n g o f two o r more t o n e s . Some w r i t e r s s u g g e s t the s i m u l t a n e o u s h a n d l i n g o r even r a p i d a l t e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t themes as a p o s s i b l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e to h a r m o n y . 3 6 o t h e r s a r g u e t h a t the s o u n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n t vowe l s o r v o w e l s and c o n s o n a n t s a t the same t i m e "produce a b l e n d i n g o f tones t h a t d i f f e r s i n p i t c h , o r , i n o t h e r , w o r d s , an e f f e c t c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h a t w h i c h i s h e a r d i n m u s i c a l h a r m o n y . " 3 7 A l l have c o n c e d e d t h a t i t i s a d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t t o a p p l y to v e r b a l a r t . B u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f harmony to p r o v i d e meaning i n a m u s i c a l work has much t o do w i t h p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , and the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e o r i s t K i r n b e r g e r r e a d i l y acknowledged t h i s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t harmony was t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n i n m u s i c i n t h e same way t h a t v e r s i f i c a t i o n was f o r p o e t r y . C h o r d s i n m u s i c , he s t a t e s , a r e t h e words o f l a n g u a g e . 3 8 K i r n b e r g e r was g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c h o r d a l movement and d i s c u s s e s a t l e n g t h f u n d a m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s o f h a r m o n i c c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to v e r b a l l o g i c . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the 38 p r i n c i p l e o f a s s o c i a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d . A g e n e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s when a composer c o n n e c t s c h o r d s d e r i v e d f r o m the same key o r mode. B u t when c h o r d i n v e r s i o n s o r o t h e r i r r e g u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s a p p e a r , "the most b e a u t i f u l h a r m o n i c c o n n e c t i o n o c c u r s " b e c a u s e the "ear i s k e p t i n a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t e x p e c t a t i o n o f a more p e r f e c t harmony, w h i c h comes o n l y a t the end o f the e n t i r e p e r i o d . " 3 9 And i f the p e r i o d c o n c l u d e s w i t h a t o n i c c a d e n c e , t h e n "the s a t i s f a c t i o n i s c o m p l e t e and n o t h i n g f u r t h e r i s e x p e c t e d . " 4 0 E x p e c t a t i o n - p l a y i s a l s o an e s s e n t i a l t o o l u s e d t o c r e a t e and s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t i n a p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n . The sense o f e x p e c t a t i o n i s p r o d u c e d n o t o n l y t h r o u g h v e r b a l means, b u t t h r o u g h d e v i a t i o n s i n word o r d e r , s y n t a x and meter as w e l l , I r r e g u l a r i t y c r e a t e s d i s h a r m o n y and demands a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n . T h i s f a c t l e a d s to a n o t h e r m u t u a l f a c e t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h a r t s . F o r p o e t r y , meaning c a n o n l y be a c q u i r e d a t the end o f a p h r a s e o r l i n e , t h a t i s , the e a r must h e a r a c o m p l e t e s t a t e m e n t b e f o r e i t s meaning becomes c l e a r . M u s i c a l meaning i s l i k e w i s e p e r c e i v e d a t the end o f a m u s i c a l s t a t e m e n t . K i r n b e r g e r g i v e s the r e a s o n : ^ ! Not u n t i l a s u c c e s s i o n o f c o n n e c t e d n o t e s r e a c h e s a p o i n t o f r e s t a t w h i c h the e a r i s somewhat s a t i s f i e d does i t comprehend t h e s e n o t e s as a s m a l l u n i t ; b e f o r e t h i s , the e a r p e r c e i v e s no meaning and i s a n x i o u s t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h i s s u c c e s s i o n o f n o t e s r e a l l y wants to s a y . However , i f a n o t i c e a b l e b r e a k does o c c u r a f t e r a m o d e r a t e l y l o n g s u c c e s s i o n o f c o n n e c t e d n o t e s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s the e a r w i t h a s m a l l r e s t p o i n t and c o n c l u d e s the meaning o f the p h r a s e , t h e n the e a r combines a l l t h e s e n o t e s i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e u n i t . One m i g h t o f p o e t i c f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y the c o n c e p t o f key o r mode w i t h the deve lopment theme. J u s t as i n a m u s i c a l work t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n t r e f e r r a l 39 b a c k t o a key c e n t e r t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s o f c h o r d a s s o c i a t i o n , a theme i s a t the c e n t e r o f p o e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , and a l l v a r i a t i o n s and c o n t r a s t s o f t h o u g h t mus t , o f n e c e s s i t y , h a r k b a c k to i t . A d o m i n a n t - t o n i c c a d e n c e , f rom t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , c a n be s e e n as the r e t u r n i n g , i n p o e t r y , t o the o b j e c t o f t h o u g h t i n i t s o r i g i n a l form a f t e r v i e w i n g i t f r o m a d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t o r a d o p t i n g a d i f f e r e n t t o n e , m e t e r o r rhyme scheme. The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o u t l i n i n g the m u t u a l q u a l i t i e s , b o t h a b s t r a c t and s p e c i f i c i n n a t u r e , o f p o e t r y and m u s i c has b e e n o f f e r e d as groundwork f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o r k s . I t must be m e n t i o n e d , however , t h a t t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t i n t r i n s i c d i f f e r e n c e s be tween the two a r t forms ( t h e most o b v i o u s b e i n g t h a t the p o e t must i n v a r i a b l y d e a l w i t h sounds t h a t convey s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d t h e m s e l v e s ) to w a r r a n t c a u t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h terms and c o n c e p t s o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h one medium o r a n o t h e r . Y e t e v i d e n c e r e v e a l s t h a t most e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s were a p t to o v e r l o o k c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c o n n e c t the a r t s , and f o c u s e d i n s t e a d on t h e p o s i t i v e e l e m e n t s t h a t r e i n f o r c e d an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m u s i c o f the p e r i o d s u p p o r t s t h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r c e p t i o n . As the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l i l l u s t r a t e , p o e t i c and m u s i c a l s t y l e s were synonymous, f o r m u s i c was s t i l l g e n e r a l l y c o n c e i v e d and e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a l i t e r a r y m o d e l . 40 CHAPTER I I I POETRY AND MUSIC COMPARED: ANALYSES OF SELECTED MUSICAL AND POETIC WORKS A n a n a l y s i s o f B e r l i n ' s m u s i c i n terms o f i t s c o n s a n g u i n i t y to p o e t r y must n e c e s s a r i l y b e g i n w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f the p o e t i c s t y l e p r e v a l e n t a t m i d - c e n t u r y . From a b o u t 1740 when F r e d e r i c k a s c e n d e d the P r u s s i a n t h r o n e , t o the f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a Sturm und Drang movement i n the 1 7 7 0 ' s . German p o e t r y f o l l o w e d two d i s t i n c t s t y l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s - - t e r m e d b y modern c r i t i c s as r o c o c c o and empfindsam s t y l e s - - t h a t were to e v e n t u a l l y c o a l e s c e i n the works o f Goethe and S c h i l l e r a t the end o f the c e n t u r y . The g r a c e f u l and s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a n n e r i s m s , w i t and charm t h a t were synonymous w i t h t h e F r e n c h C o u r t l y l i f e became m a n i f e s t i n a p o e t i c s t y l e r e p r e s e n t e d by such w r i t e r s as F r i e d r i c h v o n H a g e d o r n , J . W . L . G l e i m , and i n B e r l i n , K . W . R a m l e r . E v e n the r a t i o n l i s t L e s s i n g , e v e r aware o f c o n t e m p o r a r y f a s h i o n s , i n d u l g e d i n r o c o c c o s e n s i b i l i t y , i n an e a r l y c o l l e c t i o n o f p o e t r y e n t i t l e d Kleinigkeiten ( B e r l i n , 1 7 5 1 ) . ! The t e n d e n c y i n German a r t to i m i t a t e the F r e n c h s t y l e was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t o f the p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t y o f the d e s p o t i c k i n g o f P r u s s i a f o r the bienseance o f h i s n e i g h b o u r s . F r e d e r i c k was adamant i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t F r e n c h manners , cus toms a n d l a n g u a g e were s u p e r i o r t o t h e G e r m a n - - h e surrounderd h i m s e l f w i t h n o t a b l e F r e n c h t h i n k e r s ( n o t a b l y V o l t a i r e ) , spoke and w r o t e F r e n c h i n v i r t u a l l y a l l h i s t r a n s a c t i o n s , a n d , i n g e n e r a l , a s p i r e d t o w a r d the e f f u s i v e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y o f the F r e n c h r o c c o c o s p i r i t . 2 A n a c r e o n t i c p o e t r y , s o - c a l l e d a f t e r the s i x t h - c e n t u r y G r e e k p o e t 41 A n a c r e o n , whose s cenes o f f l i r t a t i o u s l o v e and c o n v i v i a l i t y became a s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , s h a r e d most c l o s e l y r o c c o c o c o n c e r n s f o r s t y l e , t one and a t m o s p h e r e . P o e t i c c o n t e n t i n a n a c r e o n t i c w o r k s , u s u a l l y p a s t o r a l i n theme, r e m a i n e d s u b o r d i n a t e to t h e s e m a t t e r s ; t h e r e was i n g e n e r a l , no c o n t i n u i t y o f t h o u g h t , b u t r a t h e r a s t r i n g o f l o o s e l y c o n n e c t e d d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s c h o s e n f o r t h e i r p i c t o r a l e f f e c t s . Forms p r e f e r r e d b y a n a c r e o n t i c p o e t s were b r i e f , e c o n o m i c a l , and s y m m e t r i c a l , s u c h as the lied, i d y l l , p a s t o r a l and s o n n e t . 3 W i t h i n a r e g u l a r framework, p o e t s a s p i r e d to a f l e x i b i l i t y and v a r i e t y o f r h y t h m i c m o v e m e n t - - j u s t enough t o p r e v e n t a monotony o f s t y l e w h i l e a v o i d i n g any sense o f c o m p l e x i t y and i r r e g u l a r i t y . E a s y c l a s s i c a l m e t e r s , most o f t e n o f the l o n g a l e x a n d r i n e t y p e ( i . e . , a l i n e o f 12-13 s y l l a b l e s , d i v i d e d i n h a l f by a c a e s u r a , and whose whole l i n e s rhyme w i t h e a c h o t h e r ) , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h s h o r t e r l i n e s , worked w i t h i n a b a l a n c e d rhyme scheme. P o e t i c l a n g u a g e was c h o s e n c a r e f u l l y w i t h an eye t o g r a c e and a t m o s p h e r e , w i t h c h a i n s o f synonyms, c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s and r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s s u c h as variatio and amplificatio. V e r s e 2 o f H a g e d o r n ' s Der Morgan, f r o m h i s 1742 c o l l e c t i o n o f Oden und Lieder, o f f e r s an e x c e l l e n t example o f r o c c o c o a e s t h e t i c : ^ D i e H u g e l und d i e Weide The h i l l s and meadows S t e h n a u f g e h e l l t , To b r i g h t n e s s y i e l d , Und F r u c h t b a r k h e i t und F r e u n d And F e r t i l i t y and F r i e n d Beb lumt das F e l d . F l o w e r the f i e l d . Der Schmelz d e r gr i inen F l a c h e n The glow o f g r e e n p l a i n s Glar^tz v o l l e r P r a c h t , G l i t t e r i n g b r i g h t , Und v o n d den k l a r e n B a c h e n And i n t o t h e c l e a r b r o o k s E n t w e i c h t d i e N a c h t . E s c a p e s t h e n i g h t . W i t h i n a modest y e t s y m m e t r i c a l form ( i a m b i c m e t e r a l t e r n a t i n g between f o u r and two b e a t l i n e s ) , the words p a i n t a b u c o l i c s cene o f n a t u r a l b u t u n s p e c t a c u l a r b e a u t y . T h e r e i s no p r o f u n d i t y o f t h o u g h t h e r e and no 42 d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e - - i n f a c t , e x c e p t f o r the f i r s t and l a s t two, the s t a n z a s o f t h i s poem c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n any o r d e r . The sound and rhythms o f the words t h e m s e l v e s a r e s i m p l e and a r e g e n t l y v a r i e d t o c r e a t e a f l u i d i t y o f movement w i t h o u t l o s i n g a sense o f b a l a n c e and s t a b i l i t y . E a c h s t a t e m e n t w i t h i n the s t a n z a i s a b r i e f d i s t i n c t e n t i t y , and the t o t a l p o e t i c e f f e c t i s l i k e a " s e r i e s o f r h y t h m i c s h o c k s " r a t h e r t h a n "one c o n t i n u o u s b r e a t h o f e x a l t a t i o n ."5 On the w h o l e , H a g e d o r n has c a p t u r e d i n t h i s r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c work the g e n t l e p l e a s u r e s o f n a t u r e , t h r o u g h f l e e t i n g i m a g e r y , r h y t h m i c r e g u l a r i t y and a h a r m o n i o u s b a l a n c e o f r e a s o n and f e e l i n g t h a t a l l o w s the r e a d e r to a p p r e c i a t e the e x h i l i a r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l b e a u t y w i t h o u t b e i n g overwhelmed b y e m o t i o n . I t was s u c h an a p p r o a c h to p o e t r y t h a t s p a r k e d a new i n c e n t i v e f o r song c o m p o s i t i o n i n Germany a t m i d - c e n t u r y b e c a u s e , d e s p i t e the c o n c e r n f o r g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n , m e t r i c r e g u l a r i t y and . p o v e r t y o f t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t , t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t l y r i c i s m t h a t made poems l i k e Der Morgan e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e f o r m u s i c a l accompaniment . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , r o c c o c o p o e t r y p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n on w h i c h composers o f the s o - c a l l e d f i r s t B e r l i n song s c h o o l b u i l t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e as the e x p r e s s i o n o f p u r e e m o t i o n e m a n a t i n g f r o m the s o u l o f the a r t i s t was an i d e a l b e i n g d e v e l o p e d c o n c u r r e n t l y t o r o c c o c o t e n d e n c i e s . The s e n t i m e n t a l i s t a p p r o a c h was b e c o m i n g e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r among G e r m a n y ' s bourgeois t h i n k e r s , p a r t l y as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s h a l l o w f r i v o l i t y and a r t i f i c i a l w o r l d d e p i c t e d b y r o c c o c o a r t , and p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f a new n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s among German a r t i s t s s t r i v i n g 43 t o b r e a k f r e e o f the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f F r e n c h a e s t h e t i c s . I r o n i c a l l y i t was the Frenchman Abbe'' Dubos who i n s p i r e d t h e s e men b y h i s b e l i e f t h a t man's r e a s o n c o u l d be b e s t i n f l u e n c e d t h r o u g h an a p p e a l t o the s e n s e s - - t h a t a l l a r t must s t r i v e t o a r o u s e the n e c e s s a r y s e n t i m e n t s i n the a u d i e n c e . I t was p r i m a r i l y L e s s i n g who e n u n c i a t e d t h e s e i d e a l s i n h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , a e s t h e t i c w r i t i n g s and d r a m a t i c w o r k s . He t o o k f o r h i s r o l e m o d e l , n o t the F r e n c h n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , b u t r a t h e r E n g l i s h s e n t i m e n t a l bourgeois t r a g e d y , f o r he f e l t t h a t i f German d r a m a t i c p o e t r y were t o f o l l o w i t s n a t u r a l i m p u l s e i t w o u l d r e s e m b l e the E n g l i s h r a t h e r t h a n the F r e n c h f o r m . 6 L e s s i n g ' s e a r l y drama, Miss Sara Sampson ( 1755) , r e v e a l s h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s to the E n g l i s h i d e a l s o f s e n t i m e n t a l i s m and m o r a l v i r t u e . N e a r l y e v e r y c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s t r a g e d y o f m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t r i g u e c r i e s a t l e a s t once ; t e a r s a r e m e n t i o n e d more t h a n t h i r t y t i m e s i n the f i r s t t h r e e a c t s . 7 I n n o n - d r a m a t i c p o e t r y t h i s s e n t i m e n t a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o o k as i t s p r o t o t y p e the r e l i g i o u s and e m o t i o n a l e p i c poems o f M i l t o n , and the m e d i t a t i o n a l w r i t i n g s o f Edward Y o u n g . 8 The r e l i g i o u s i m p u l s e i n German l i t e r a t u r e d e r i v e d f rom P i e t i s t t h o u g h t , w i t h i t s i d e a l o f the " a l l - f e e l i n g , a l l - s u f f e r i n g , a l l - c r e a t i v e and a l l - c o n s u m i n g h e a r t . " 9 E m o t i o n i n t h i s s ense was n o t the h i g h l y - c h a r g e d , i r r a t i o n a l o u t p o u r i n g o f t h e l a t e r S t u r m und Drang w r i t e r s , b u t was t i e d t o a d e f i n a b l e s t a t e o f human c h a r a c t e r and d e v e l o p e d f rom a p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n on t h a t s t a t e . M e l a n c h o l y , u n r e q u i t e d l o v e , f r i e n d s h i p as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n were the p o p u l a r themes from w h i c h a p o e t c o u l d c u l t i v a t e e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . The works o f F . G . K l o p s t o c k (1742 -1803 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s monumental e p i c poem, D e r Messias ( 1748 -1773 ) , c a p t u r e s e s p e c i a l l y t h i s c u l t o f f e e l i n g i n 44 l i t e r a t u r e . K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c a im was to "set the whole s o u l i n m o t i o n , " 1 0 and i n h i s Messias t h i s a im was r e a l i z e d most e f f e c t i v e l y b y the t o t a l n e g l e c t o f e x t e r n a l a c t i o n f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e r n a l e m o t i o n . C l e a r l y i n s p i r e d b y M i l t o n ' s Paradise Lost ( 1 6 6 7 ) , K l o p s t o c k d e v e l o p s the theme o f t h e a s c e n s i o n o f C h r i s t w i t h a l y r i c f reedom and b o l d n e s s o f p o e t i c i m a g e r y u n h e a r d o f i n Germany u n t i l t h e n . He r e j e c t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l use o f a rhyme scheme, p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d f r e e v e r s e b u i l t on i n n o v a t i v e p o e t i c l a n g u a g e : u n u s u a l word f o r m a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y compounded w o r d s ; i n t r i c a t e l y - d e s i g n e d t u r n s o f p h r a s e ; a c a r e f u l c h o i c e o f e u p h o n i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s ; and u n i q u e a p p r o a c h to m e t e r , s y n t a x and l i n g u i s t i c r h y t h m t h a t c r e a t e s a m u s i c a l q u a l i t y to h i s p o e t i c l i n e . The o p e n i n g v e r s e ( o f n e a r l y 20 ,000 v e r s e s t h a t c o m p r i s e the e n t i r e poem) g i v e s a n example o f the e x p r e s s i v e s t y l e o f l a ng ua g e K l o p s t o c k p r o m o t e d : H S i n g , u n s t e r b l i c h e S e e l e , d e r s u n d i g e n Menschen E r l o s u n g , Der d e r M e s s i a s a u f E r d e n i n s e i n e r M e n s c h e i t v o l l e n d e t , Und d u r c h d i e e r Adams G e s c h l o c h t e zue d e r L i e b e d e r G o t t h e i t , L e i d e n d , g e t d d t e t , und v e r h e r r l i c h e t , w i e d e r e r h o h t h a t . A l s o g e s c h a h des Ewigen W i l l e . V e r g e b e n erhub s i c h S a t a n gegen den g o t t l i c h e n Sohn; umsonst s t a n d J u d a Gegen i h n a u f ; e r t h a t s , und v o l l b r a c h t e d i e g r o s s e Verso 'hnung. T r a n s l a t i o n : S i n g , i m m o r t a l S o u l , o f d e l i v e r a n c e o f the S i n n e r , W h i c h t h e M e s s i a h a c c o m p l i s h e d on e a r t h i n h u m a n i t y , And h e , t h r o u g h the f a l l o f Adam from the l o v e o f G o d , S u f f e r i n g , d i e d , and e x a l t e d , has r i s e n a g a i n . Thus came to "be t h e E t e r n a l W i l l . Rose up S a t a n a g a i n s t t h e h e a v e l y Son; i n v a i n s t o o d J u d a s a g a i n s t h i m ; he d i d t h i s , and b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e g r e a t R e c o n c i l i a t i o n . K l o p s t o c k o r i g i n a l l y w r o t e the f i r s t t h x e e c a n t o s i n p r o s e b u t was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t . By t h e s e c o n d p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1755 he h a d 45 d e c i d e d to e m u l a t e the p o e t s o f a n t i q u i t y b y a d o p t i n g the hexameter i n h i s v e r s e , a meter n e v e r b e f o r e u s e d i n German p o e t r y . As B r o w n i n g e x p l a i n s , i t i s "a p r e d o m i n a t e l y d a c t y l l i c measure , i n w h i c h t r o c h e e s and spondees a r e a l s o e m p l o y e d . The c h a r a c t e r o f the i n d i v i d u a l hexameter i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y the p l a c e m e n t o f the c a e s u r a . " ! 2 The c o m b i n a t i o n o f r h y m e l e s s n e s s and the hexameter rhythm dependent upon n a t u r a l word s t r e s s gave K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y the power to e x p r e s s d e e p e r t h o u g h t s and emot ions t h a n c o u l d t h e s i n g - s o n g rhymes and m e t e r s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d German v e r s e b e f o r e h i s t i m e . Some o f the more extreme r a t i o n a l i s t s i n B e r l i n condemned K l o p s t o c k ' s a e s t h e t i c o f e m o t i o n , y e t s e n t i m e n t a l i s m was b e c o m i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f o r c e i n German l i t e r a t u r e . K l o p s t o c k ' s w r i t i n g s s e r v e d as a r o l e model f o r a g r o w i n g number o f young p o e t s , most n o t a b l y a group b a s e d i n L e i p z i g - - t h e s o - c a l l e d G o t t i n g e r H a i n - - a n d the d r a m a t i s t s L e i s w i t z and G u r s t e n b e r g . T h i s new g e n e r a t i o n o f w r i t e r s s t o o d o n t h e p e r i p h e r y o f the Sturm und Drang p e r i o d ; i n d e e d , many o f them were c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f G o e t h e , and i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the d e m o n s t r a t i v e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y o f the e a r l i e r s t y l e and t h e e m o t i o n a l s p o n t a n e i t y o f t h e "Sturm und D r a n g e r " . 1 3 I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d i s t a n c e f rom the p o e t i c s t y l e , a e s t h e t i c and t e c h n i q u e p r e v a l e n t i n m i d - c e n t u r y B e r l i n t o i t s m u s i c . The most o s t e n s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n between the two a r t forms e x i s t s i n the g e n r e o f the s e c u l a r p o p u l a r s o n g . A l t h o u g h the ma in c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y i s n o n - t e x t e d m u s i c and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o e t i c s t y l e , i t w o u l d seem u s e f u l 46 to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the p h i l o s o p h y o f B e r l i n ' s composers on t h e u n i o n o f the two a r t s . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Oden und Lieder i n 1753 b y the p o e t R a m l e r and the t h e o r i s t K r a u s e , song c o m p o s i t i o n became a m a j o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h B e r l i n ' s m u s i c i a n s , t h e o r i s t s and c r i t i c s . I n t h i s f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n o f lieder, the t h i r t y - o n e works r e p r e s e n t a l l o f the c i t y ' s t o p composers ( i . e . , t h o s e i n the s e r v i c e o f the k i n g ) and G e r m a n y ' s l e a d i n g p o e t s - - m u s i c b y K . H . G r a u n ( 5 ) , J . G . G r a u n ( 2 ) , Q u a n t z ( 4 ) , A g r i c o l a ( 4 ) , F . Benda ( 3 ) , C . P . E . Bach ( 3 ) , K r a u s e ( 5 ) , T e l e m a n n ( 2 ) ; w i t h t e x t s by H a g e d o r n ( 7 ) , E b e r t ( 4 ) , S c h l e g e l ( 2 ) , R a m l e r ( 1 ) , Uz ( 1 ) , v o n K l e i s t ( 1 ) , and G l e i m ( 1 0 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , G l e i m and H a g e d o r n , who e x e m p l i f y a n a c r e o n t i c p o e t s i n a p a r a d i g m a t i c way, a r e most p r o m i n a n t i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . A y e a r e a r l i e r , K r a u s e , the s e l f - a c k n o w l e d g e d l e a d e r o f t h e B e r l i n Liederschule, s e t o u t the p r i n c i p l e s f o r song c o m p o s i t i o n i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , Von der musikalische Poesie ( B e r l i n , 1752) . T h i s i m p o r t a n t w o r k - - d i s c u s s e d , c r i t i c i z e d and e d i t e d b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n b y the members o f the Montagsclub (wh ich i n c l u d e d the c i t y ' s top c o m p o s e r s ) 1 4 - - a c h i e v e d a h i g h measure o f s u c c e s s s u c h t h a t the v i e w s p u t f o r t h by K r a u s e were l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d b y J . G . S u l z e r i n h i s famous t r e a t i s e , Allgemeine Theorie der schSnen Kunste ( B e r l i n , f i r s t e d i t i o n , 1 7 7 1 - 7 4 ) . 1 5 K r a u s e ' s a e s t h e t i c , i n t u r n , r e l i e d much upon the Abbe Dubos ' i d e a l s o f the a n c i e n t f u s i o n o f the a r t s . K r a u s e b e l i e v e d t h a t p o e t r y , i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g a b l e to s t i m u l a t e the i n t e l l e c t , was more s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n v e y i n g the e m o t i o n s t h a n m u s i c . M u s i c c o u l d e x p r e s s o n l y g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s , n o t s p e c i f i c i d e a s , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n "we u n i t e words and m u s i c w i t h one a n o t h e r i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s 47 c o n c r e t e t h o u g h t s i n music ,"16 £ n o r d e r to " p e n e t r a t e the h e a r t d e e p e r . " I ? P o e t r y must come f i r s t - - t h e m u s i c must f o l l o w i t s l e a d s u c h t h a t the composer matches t h e r h y t h m , m e t e r , and a l l r h e t o r i c a l d i v i s i o n s o f the t e x t . I t must n e v e r o b s c u r e the p o e t r y ; m u s i c a l accompaniment e x i s t e d s i m p l y t o p r o v i d e a n easy m e l o d y , a l l o w i n g the words to " t e l l t h e i r own s t o r y i n t h e i r own way."18 On the o t h e r h a n d , n o t e v e r y poem c o u l d be s e t t o m u s i c e f f e c t i v e l y . O n l y t h o s e w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r m u s i c a l accompaniment and c o n t a i n i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s o f words and p a s s i o n s were deemed s u c c e s s f u l ( p a s s i o n s s u c h as anger and d e s p a i r were c o n s i d e r e d n o t m u s i c a l b y K r a u s e ) 1 9 . A l s o a song s h o u l d i d e a l l y d e p i c t o n l y one e f f e c t i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s t r o p h i c form i n w h i c h t h e s e lieder were w r i t t e n . The e x c e p t i o n was f o r a s a d p a s s i o n to change to a j o y o u s one a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t r o p h e - - t h i s was s een as q u i t e s u i t a b l e to t h e p u r p o s e b e h i n d lieder c o m p o s i t i o n , i . e . , t o e n t e r t a i n and move the a u d i e n c e . The r e s u l t o f K r a u s e ' s p r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e b y the members o f B e r l i n ' s a r t i s t i c community was t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a n a r t - s o n g t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e a s y - t o - s i n g m e l o d i e s made up o f s h o r t l i n e s w i t h s i m p l e accompaniment , b a s e d on a t e x t t h a t a d d r e s s e d the e m o t i o n s and was e n t e r t a i n i n g to the l i s t e n e r . A p r i m e example o f t h i s d e l i b e r a t e a r t l e s s n e s s i s t h e s o n g , Ein Vernunftschluss, w i t h t e x t b y G l e i m and m u s i c b y K r a u s e (Example 1);20 48 Example 1 - Ein Vernunftschluss f r o m Oden und Lieder ( B e r l i n , 1753) Ern»H>aff \U V 1 T 1 It,**. , tJp\ f f 1 rT» —| iff' (n)" J ^ J — * — - a * * C L r J LU i I U J t i t 17— locW, Id, i i »*9 • «<-4 | \ •/ r r r • TJ—T 1 v r *• —t-t-t— lit p t f — l l <.» —4^  xr* L[) E - 1 i—• *-T r a n s l a t i o n : A Clever Turn F u l l many m o r a l i s t s have s a i d i t ; M a n k i n d was o n l y made f o r g r i e f ; B u t I r e m a i n a s t u b b o r n p u p i l , Yes I who've o f t e n l a u g h e d a t them, I s a y t h a t he was made f o r m i r t h . J u s t now U r s i n e s s a y e d to p r o v e i t : M a n k i n d was o n l y made f o r g r i e f ; B u t I r e p l i e d : t h o u w i s e s t w i s e man, We've o f t e n l a u g h e d a t y o u r expense : T h e r e f o r e w e ' r e s u r e l y made f o r m i r t h . T h i s poem o f two s t r o p h e s p r e s e n t s the t y p i c a l a n a c r e o n t i c c o n v i c t i o n i n the p r i o r i t y o f l a u g h t e r and m e r r i m e n t i n l i f e . E a c h s t r o p h e i s d u a l i s t i c i n n a t u r e : t h e f i r s t two l i n e s c o n v e y the o l d a t t i t u d e o f t h e m o r a l i s t who f o c u s e s on human f a u l t s , 2 1 w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e l i n e s 49 expound the new a t t i t u d e o f one who i s a b l e to l a u g h a t man's f o i b l e s . The m u s i c a l accompaniment r e f l e c t s t h i s b i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e . W h i l e the song b e g i n s s o m b e r l y enough i n G m i n o r , t h e r e i s an e m p h a t i c change i n k e y and m e l o d i c s t y l e a t the p o i n t where t h e change i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e o c c u r s (m. 8). M i n o r changes to m a j o r k e y a f t e r a d r a m a t i c p a u s e w i t h v i r t u a l l y no p r e p a r a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a few s u b t l e c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n s t h a t h i n t a t a s h i f t i n g t o n a l i t y ( F ^ and C# i n m. 5 and m. 6) . H a r m o n i c a l l y the f i r s t two l i n e s a l t e r n a t e between the t o n i c and dominant o f t h e m i n o r k e y . The melody i t s e l f f o l l o w s the n a t u r a l rhythms o f the w o r d s ; a c c e n t e d s y l l a b l e s a lways f a l l on f i r s t and t h i r d b e a t s . The s e v e n measures up to t h e key change c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two p h r a s e s o f f o u r and t h r e e measures e a c h w i t h the m e l o d i c b r e a k a t measure f o u r c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the p u n c t u a t e d d i v i s i o n between p o e t i c l i n e s . K r a u s e has r e p e a t e d the words "zum Gram" f o r e m p h a s i s , a d d i n g on a measure and thus h i g h l i g h t i n g w i t h a c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n (C#) and q u i c k e n e d r h y t h m , what he deemed as a key p h r a s e . A t t h e key change (m. 8 ) , a marked c o n t r a s t o f s t y l e i s e v i d e n t . R h y t h m i c and h a r m o n i c movement i s s p e d up as i f t o m i r r o r the j o y and v i t a l i t y o f t h e o p t i m i s t . I n measures 8-14 the t o n a l c e n t e r f l u c t u a t e s be tween C m a j o r and D m a j o r b e f o r e f i n a l l y s e t t l i n g on G m a j o r as the h a r m o n i c g o a l . A g a i n K r a u s e r e p e a t e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t p h r a s e o f the s e c o n d p a r t , " z u r L u s t " , and f o r e x t r a e m p h a s i s , the e n t i r e l a s t l i n e . The melody i s u n c o m p l i c a t e d , t h e h a r m o n i e s b a r e and r a t h e r s t a t i c and the rhythms o f the n o t e s , f o r t h e most p a r t , match t h e s y l l a b l e s o f the w o r d s . M u s i c and p o e t r y a r e f u s e d i n s u c h a way t h a t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o p i n i o n c o n v e y e d b y the words i s a c c e n t u a t e d - - n o t o b s c u r e d - - b y the m u s i c a l accompaniment , and t h i s was paramount to K r a u s e ' s (and h i s B e r l i n s u p p o r t e r s ) a e s t h e t i c c o n c e r n i n g 50 lieder c o m p o s i t i o n . A g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f o t h e r works i n K r a u s e ' s and R a m l e r s c o l l e c t i o n o f lieder r e v e a l s s i m i l a r r e l i a n c e o f m u s i c on poem, w i t h the f o r m e r o f t e n b o r d e r i n g on monotony as a r e s u l t o f i t s u t t e r s i m p l i c i t y o f t e c h n i q u e . The d e s i r e to succumb t o the d i c t a t e s o f the p o e t l e d t h e s e B e r l i n composers to be aware o f the v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e i r m u s i c r e f l e c t s a deep c o n c e r n to match a r t i s t i c e l e m e n t s s h a r e d w i t h the t e x t s : r h y t h m s , p h r a s i n g , q u a l i t y o f sound (harmony and melody) and affekt c h a r a c t e r i z i n g m u s i c a l accompaniment d e r i v e s o l e l y f rom t h e g o v e r n i n g medium o f v e r b a l a r t . The i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c and t e c h n i q u e i n m u s i c and p o e t r y a r i s i n g f rom the f u n d a m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s common to b o t h a r t s as w e l l as the d e l i b e r a t e exchange o f a r t i s t i c e l e m e n t s p e c u l i a r to one medium o r a n o t h e r c a n be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the v o c a l m u s i c o f the s o - c a l l e d f i r s t B e r l i n s c h o o l . As most o f t h e s e composers a l s o p r o d u c e d n o n - v e r b a l works one c a n assume t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s b e h i n d t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c embodied the i d e a l s o f the v o c a l s t y l e . C e r t a i n l y i t was e m p h a s i z e d b y a number o f t h e o r i s t s / c o m p o s e r s to t h i n k as v o c a l l y as p o s s i b l e when w r i t i n g f o r an i n s t r u m e n t .22 Whether composers were a c t u a l l y c o n s c i o u s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o e t i c s t y l e a t t h e t ime o f m u s i c a l c r e a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , i n d e t e r m i n a b l e . Y e t an e x a m i n a t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i r m u s i c w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y b r i n g s to l i g h t the homology o f a r t i s t i c i n v e n t i o n . Two i n s t r u m e n t a l works r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s t i n c t s t y l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s 51 o f the p e r i o d u n d e r s t u d y h e r e have b e e n c h o s e n to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n t o p o e t i c a r t . The f i r s t work . J . J . Q u a n t z ' s Concerto in G for Flute and Orchestra,^ o f f e r s a p r i m e example o f t h e g a l a n t o r r o c c o c o t r e n d i n m u s i c . I t s v e r b a l p a r a l l e l c a n be f o u n d i n the a n a c r e o n t i c and n a t u r e p o e t r y p o p u l a r a t m i d - c e n t u r y . Q u a n t z , o f c o u r s e , s p e n t the m a j o r i t y o f h i s c a r e e r i n the employment o f the K i n g o f P r u s s i a and was r e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e i n the most p o p u l a r a r t i s t i c c l u b s i n the c i t y . 2 4 H i s f l u t e t r e a t i s e 2 5 w a s h i g h l y r e g a r d e d b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s - - M a r p u r g r e f e r r e d t o i t as a m u s i c a l e n c y c l o p e d i a w h i l e C . P . E . Bach and J . A . H i l l e r c o n s i d e r e d the t r e a t i s e as a g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n manual f o r good t a s t e i n m u s i c . 2 6 As w e l l , h i s m u s i c was i n demand b y the most p o p u l a r p o e t s o f the day ( s u c h as H a g e d o r n , R a m l e r , U z , and L e s s i n g ) as the i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r lieder t e x t s . The f l u t e c o n c e r t o u n d e r s t u d y h e r e embodies s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s w h i c h p o i n t to a c o m p o s i t i o n a l d a t e r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n t h e c o m p o s e r ' s c a r e e r . Q u a n t z , i t has b e e n shown, t e n d e d t o w a r d a more c o n s e r v a t i v e s t y l e i n h i s e a r l i e r w o r k s , f a v o u r i n g i m i t a t i v e and s e q u e n t i a l methods o f m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 7 T h i s work e x h i b i t s some o f t h e t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r s o - c a l l e d c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d s : homophonic w r i t i n g , p e r i o d i c i t y , e t c . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e movements to w h i c h s p e c i f i c tempo and i n t e r p r e t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s have been a s s i g n e d . The f i r s t (Allegro assai) and l a s t (Allegretto) movements a r e i n the t o n i c m a j o r w h i l e t h e s l o w m i d d l e movement (Affetuoso) i s c e n t e r e d on G m i n o r . I n a manner t y p i c a l o f h i s d a y , Q u a n t z u t i l i z e s the r i t o r n e l l o form i n the o u t e r movements. The f i r s t movement has f i v e c o m p l e t e o r p a r t i a l s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e r i t o r n e l l o , w i t h t h e f i r s t , f o u r t h and l a s t s t a t e m e n t s b e i n g i n the t o n i c k e y : 52 MR S R l S R2 S MR* S R m e a s u r e s : 1-17 18-44 44- 47 48-71 71--76 77-85 85-93 94-110 111-118 same new same as as mm mat- mm 10-17 10- 13 e r i a l k e y : I I V V V I --V V I - V I I I (MR=main r i t o r n e l l o ; S = s o l o , R = r i t o r n e l l o , M R * = f i r s t h a l f o f m a i n r i t o r n e l l o ) The r i t o r n e l l o theme i t s e l f i s d u a l i s t i c i n n a t u r e , a l s o t y p i c a l of' Q u a n t z ' s a p p r o a c h to the f o r m , and e a c h p a r t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t o n i c and dominant w i t h l i t t l e m e l o d i c o r r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n . Mos t o f Q u a n t z ' s i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c i s l a b e l l e d as galant i n s t y l e and t h i s work i s no e x c e p t i o n . D a v i d S h e l d o n has shown t h a t i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany, the t erm was b r o a d l y u s e d i n m u s i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s to d e s c r i b e a c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i v e s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r o c o c c o movement.29 He d i v i d e s the m u s i c a l galant i n t o two p h a s e s : an e a r l i e r p e r i o d t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s to e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y galant p o e t r y ( e . g . Hofmannswaldau , L o h e n s t e i n , e t c . ) and i n c l u d e d s u c h composers as T e l e m a n n , H a n d e l and J . S . B a c h ; and an a c t u a l galant phase i n m u s i c o c c u r i n g a t m i d - c e n t u r y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the G r a u n s , H a s s e , M a r p u r g and Q u a n t z , and p a r a l l e l i n g a y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n o f p o e t s whose m a i n i n t e r e s t s l a y i n the d e p i c t i o n o f p a s t o r a l and f e s t i v e s c e n e s . 3 0 Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c , i n p a r t i c u l a r , has much i n common w i t h h i s p o e t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e r e i s the same c o n c e r n f o r c r e a t i n g a tmosphere t h r o u g h l i g h t n e s s o f s t y l e and c a r e f u l y e t t a s t e f u l e m b e l l i s h m e n t a n d , i n g e n e r a l , f o r " p l e a s i n g " t h e l i s t e n e r . 3 1 M i d - c e n t u r y r o c o c c o p o e t s saw the e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f t h e i r a u d i e n c e as the s o l e f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r a r t and as a r e s u l t chose s u b j e c t m a t t e r and p o e t i c 53 t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n , amusement and r e l a x a t i o n . I n the same way, Q u a n t z , by w o r k i n g s i m p l i s t i c t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l and a v o i d i n g any sense o f m u s i c a l t e n s i o n i n m e l o d i c o r h a r m o n i c d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o d u c e d m u s i c t h a t was e s s e n t i a l l y a divertissement. The G m a j o r c o n c e r t o f o r f l u t e w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d e s i r e to c r e a t e m u s i c f o r the enjoyment o f i t s a u d i e n c e . The r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f the work makes i t a c c e s s i b l e t o the a m a t e u r . l i s t e n e r , y e t t h e r e i s enough v a r i e t y and m u s i c a l c o m p l e x i t y to s a t i s f y the more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g e a r . M e l o d i c and h a r m o n i c d i r e c t i o n i s a lways p r e d i c t a b l e . The f i r s t movement moves f r o m a s t r o n g t o n i c o p e n i n g to the dominant key as t h e h a r m o n i c c e n t e r a t measure 47 b y way o f sequence and r e p e a t e d V - I p r o g r e s s i o n s . E a c h m o d u l a t i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f i t s l o g i c a l i t y i n the o v e r a l l h a r m o n i c p l a n . T h i s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s o f f s e t b y a number o f m u s i c a l d e v i c e s to c r e a t e v a r i e t y : sudden dynamic c h a n g e s , echo e f f e c t s , r h y t h m i c c o m p l e x i t i e s , t e x t u r a l c h a n g e s , e t c . The o p e n i n g r i t o r n e l l o , q u o t e d h e r e i n f u l l (mm. 1 - 1 8 ) , e p i t o m i z e s the c o m p o s e r ' s modus operandi (Example 2):^2 54 Example 2 - J . J . Q u a n t z : Concerto in G Major f o r f l u t e , and s t r i n g s and b . c . 1 s t mvmt . , mm 1-18 . • t i f f f Jrr-r f- f 1 / fl, f tf" p r r r / f 1 f *• 1 A T } > c i i* 0 , •* J Urn l b f riM =f y ' u r r i 1 > . r J~) t j • From Q u a n t z ' s use o f form and c o n t e n t , the d e t e r m i n i n g affekt o f h i s m u s i c i s u n d i s g u i s e d , i n f a c t , i s t r a n s p a r e n t i n i t s o b j e c t i v e . I n h i s t r e a t i s e , Q u a n t z h i m s e l f u n d e r l i n e s the e l ements by w h i c h one may d i s c o v e r t h e m a i n p a s s i o n o r affekt o f a work: 1) the k e y ; 2) i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; 3) number and t y p e o f d i s s o n a n c e s ; and 4) d e s i g n a t i o n g i v e n b y the composer t o e a c h m o v e m e n t . 3 3 I f t h i s c r i t e r i a i s a p p l i e d t o t h e G m a j o r c o n c e r t o , one sees t h a t 1) the t o n i c was deemed to be s u i t e d to the 55 e x p r e s s i o n o f gay as w e l l as s e r i o u s a f f e c t s , and was c o n s i d e r e d " i n s i n u a t i n g and p e r s u a s i v e " 3 4 . 2) the m e l o d i c l i n e o f the p r i n c i p l e theme c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f i n t e r v a l l i c m o t i o n i n s t e p s , t h i r d s , and f o u r t h s ; 3) d i s o n n a n c e i s r a r e , the most common b e i n g the p a s s i n g tone and the most d a r i n g t h e a p p o g i a t u r a o f a 7 t h o r 9 t h r e s o l v i n g t o a 6 t h o r 8 t h , and f i n a l l y 4) the d e s i g n a t i o n g i v e n to e a c h movement-- Allegro, Affetuoso, Allegretto,--are o f a s i m i l a r t y p e g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s as c h e e r f u l , p l e a s a n t , c h a r m i n g and a f f e c t i n g . 3 5 A l l t h i s p o i n t s to a work t h a t has l i t t l e e m o t i o n a l v a r i e g a t i o n , i s d e l i b e r a t e l y s i m p l i s t i c i n t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s , y e t i s marked b y a m e l o d i c a l a c r i t y , i m p l y i n g a s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n a l c o n t e x t - - t h a t o f Helterkeit, o r a k i n d o f s e r e n e , u n a f f e c t e d g a i t y . 3 6 A l t h o u g h one must a lways c o n t e n d w i t h the a r b i t r a r i t y o f words i n v e r b a l a r t , a s i m i l a r l i s t o f a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a may a l s o be a p p l i e d i n o r d e r to deduce p o e t i c a f f e c t : 1) theme, 2) sound and r h y t h m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; 3) number and t y p e o f e x p r e s s i v e and e m p h a t i c w o r d s ; and 4) t i t l e . And t h e r e e x i s t a l a r g e number o f p o e t i c works t h a t a c h i e v e the same a f f e c t i v e g o a l as Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c - - f o r example , H a g e d o r n ' s Der Mai, a c h a r m i n g n a t u r e poem i n w h i c h the a r r i v a l o f s p r i n g i s c e l e b r a t e d t o the l i l t i n g r h y t h m o f a c o u n t r y d a n c e . H e r e i s the f i r s t v e r s e : Der N a c h t i g a l l r e i z e n d e L i e d e r A l r e a d y the n i g h t i n g a l e ' s s t r a i n E r t & n e n und l o c k e n s c h o n w i e d e r R e s o u n d i n g , now h e r a l d s a g a i n D i e f r o h l i c h s t e n S t u n d e n i n ' s J a h r . The m e r r i e s t days o f the y e a r . Nun s i n g e t d i e s t e i g e n d e n L e r c h e ; The l a r k s o a r s upwards and s i n g s , Nun k l a p p e r n d i e r e i s e n d e n S t o r c h e ; The s t o r k comes f l a p p i n g i t s w i n g s , Nun s c h w a t z e t d e r g a u k e l n d e S t a a r . The c h a t t e r i n g s t a r l i n g s a p p e a r . 56 The t i t l e and theme i n t h e m s e l v e s compel the p o e t to a v o i d c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t e c h n i q u e ; i n f a c t , the r h y t h m , an a m p h i b r a c h i c t y p e , i s t h e p r e p o n d e r a t e e l e m e n t ; b o t h c o n t e n t - - t y p i c a l p a s t o r a l images o f s p r i n g - - a n d e x p r e s s i v e m e a n s - - t e r s e , u n e m p h a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s and u n i f o r m rhyme s c h e m e - - a r e r e d u c e d t o a minimum. A more s p e c i f i c c o m p a r i s o n between Q u a n t z ' s work and c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y i s c a l l e d f o r a t t h i s t i m e . Two works b y J . W . L . G l e i m (1720 -1796) , Anakreon and Der Wille w i l l s e r v e to e l u c i d a t e s t r u c t u r a l p a r a l l e l s and s i m i l a r i t i e s o f c o n t e n t w i t h the f i r s t movement o f the f l u t e c o n c e r t o . G l e i m , t o g e t h e r w i t h H a g e d o r n , Ramler and U z , was an e x e m p l a r y a n a c r e o n t i c p o e t much a d m i r e d b y the B e r l i n l i t e r a t i , i n c l u d i n g L e s s i n g . I n 1744 he p u b l i s h e d anonymous ly i n B e r l i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f w o r k s , Versuch in Schwerzhaften Liedern, t h a t c o n s i s t e d o f p o e t r y b u i l t on a n c r e o n t i c m o t i f s s u c h as w i n e , e r o t i c p l a y , s o n g , and d a n c e , e t c . The o p e n i n g p r o g r a m m a t i c poem, Anakreon, s i n g s i n p r a i s e o f the p a r a g o n o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t s . A l s o i n the c o l l e c t i o n , Der Wille i s a s h o r t y e t e l e g a n t work t h a t a p p l a u d s a n c r e o n t i c i d e a l s . The two poems a r e g i v e n h e r e i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n s : A n a k r e o n A n a c r e o n A n a k r e o n , m e i n L e h r e r , A n a c r e o n , my t e a c h e r , S i n g t n u r v o n W e i n u n d L i e b e ; S i n g s o n l y o f wine and romance; E r s a l b t den B a r t m i t S a l b e n , He r u b s h i s b e a r d w i t h o i n t m e n t , Und s i n g t v o n W e i n und L i e b e ; And s i n g s o f wine and romance; E r k r o n t s e i n Haupt m i t R o s e n , He crowns h i s h e a d w i t h r o s e s , Und s i n g t v o n W e i n und L i e b e ; And s i n g s o f wine and romance; E r w i r d b e i m T r u n k e i n K o n i g , He becomes a k i n g w i t h d r i n k i n g , Und s i n g t v o n Wein und L i e b e ; And s i n g s o f wine and romance; 57 E r s p i e l t m i t s e inem G o t t e r n , E r l a c h t m i t s e inem F r e u n d e n , V e r t r e i b t s i c h Gram und S o r g e n , V e r s c h m a h t den r e i c h e n P o b e l , V e r w i r f t das Lob d e r H e l d e n , Und s i n g t v o n W e i n und L i e b e ; S o i l denn s e i n t r e u r e r S c h u l e r V o n Hass und Wasser s i n g e n ? Der W i l l e He f r o l i c s w i t h the g o d s , He l a u g h s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s , Spurns b o t h g r i e f and s o r r o w , D i s d a i n s t h e w e a l t h y r a b b l e , R e j e c t s the p r a i s e o f h e r o s , And s i n g s o f wine and romance; S h o u l d t h e n h i s l o y a l s t u d e n t s s i n g o n l y o f h a t e and w a t e r ? The W i l l I c h w i l l n i c h t w e i n e n , I c h w i l l n i c h t s c h e l t e n , I c h w i l l n i c h t k l a g e n , I c h w i l l n i c h t m u r r e n , I c h w i l l n i c h t t r o t z e n , I c h w i l l n i c h t t r a u r e n . I c h w i l l n u r k u s s e n , I c h w i l l n u r t r i n k e n , I c h w i l l n u r t a n z e n , Und b e i dem T a n z e n W i l l i c h n u r l a c h e n , Und b e i dem T r i n k e n W i l l i c h n u r s c h e r z e n , Und b e i dem K u s s e n W i l l i c h n u r s p i e l e n ; Und d i e s e n W i l l e n Hat a u c h m e i n Madchen . I w i l l n o t c r y , I w i l l n o t s c o l d , I w i l l n o t c o m p l a i n , I w i l l n o t g r u m b l e , I w i l l n o t be o b s t i n a t e , I w i l l n o t g r i e v e . I w i l l o n l y k i s s , I w i l l o n l y d r i n k , I w i l l o n l y d a n c e , And w h i l e I dance I ' l l o n l y l a u g h , A n d w h i l e I d r i n k I ' l l o n l y j e s t , And w h i l e I k i s s I ' l l o n l y p l a y ; A n d t h e s e i n c l i n a t i o n s My m a i d has a l s o . 58 I n c o m p a r i n g t h e s e works w i t h Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c , one i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v e s a common s t r u c t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n - - o r a "convergence on a s t r u c t u r a l r h y t h m " as Kramer d e f i n e s i t . 3 7 The c o n c e r t o , as has b e e n s t a t e d , i s b u i l t on t h e r i t o r n e l l o form w i t h a c l e a r c u t d i v i s i o n p u n c t u a t e d b y s o l i d V - I c a d e n c e s . I t c a n be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : mm. 1 -47 , where t h e s e c o n d r i t o r n e l l o e s t a b l i s h e s t h e d o m i n a n t ; mm. 4 8 - 8 5 , i n w h i c h t h e f l u t e s o l o and e n s u i n g t u t t i r ework e a r l i e r themes i n t h e d o m i n a n t , and a s h o r t t r a n s i t i o n a l p a s s a g e g i v e n t o the f l u t e r e t u r n s t h e h a r m o n i c c e n t e r t o G m a j o r ; and mm. 85-118 , i n w h i c h t u t t o and s o l o r e s t a t e t h e o p e n i n g m e l o d y , e n d i n g w i t h c a d e n z a and f i n a l r i t o r n e l l o s t a t e m e n t . The " p a t t e r n o f u n f o l d i n g " o f the m u s i c depends upon the h i g h l y c o n s p i c u o u s h a r m o n i c j u n c t u r e s - - e . g . , a m a j o r d i v i s i o n i s f e l t a t m. 48 f rom the r e - e n t r y o f t h e s o l o i n s t r u m e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l theme and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new t o n a l c e n t e r b y t h e p r e c e d i n g t u t t i . M u s i c a l deve lopment works i n b l o c k s , t h a t i s , up u n t i l m. 48 t h e r e i s no r e a l change i n m e l o d i c o r h a r m o n i c p a t t e r n , no movement f o r w a r d towards a new m u s i c a l g o a l , and o n l y u n t i l m. 44 , where the t u t t i f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e s D m a j o r as key c e n t e r a f t e r a l e n g t h y p a s s a g e o f s e q u e n t i a l w r i t i n g does a f e e l i n g o f i m p e n d i n g change and a r r i v a l o c c u r (Example 3 ) : 59 Example 3 - Q u a n t z : Concerto in G major f o r f l u t e , 1 s t mvmt, mm. 39-48 I n t h e same manner, b o t h o f G l e i m ' s poems have a t e m p o r a l shape t h a t i s s t r u c t u r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t a r e a s . I n Anakreon, f o r i n s t a n c e , the p o e t u s e s r h y m e l e s s c o u p l e t s i n the f i r s t t e n l i n e s to b u i l d up a r i d i c u l o u s s cene o f h i s h e r o . The r e f r a i n , " S i n g t n u r v o n Wein und L i e b e " , i s g i v e n a l t e r n a t e l y w i t h the d i f f e r e n t images o f a n a c r e o n t i c a c t i v i t y . T h e r e i s a sudden change o f a p p r o a c h a t l i n e 11 where a d o u b l e and t r i p l e a n a p h o r a t a k e the p l a c e o f c o u p l e t and a l t e r n a t i n g r e f r a i n . A t l i n e 16 t h e r e f r a i n a p p e a r s a g a i n as i f t o r e m i n d us o f the c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s s a l u t e t o Anakreon, and the l a s t two l i n e s s e r v e as a k i n d o f pointe t o be c o n s i d e r e d b y t h o s e who q u e s t i o n the a n a c r e o n t i c a t t i t u d e . Where poem and m u s i c c o n v e r g e most d i s t i n c t l y i s f rom t h e i r use o f r e p e t i t i o n as the p r i n c i p l e means o f a r t i s t i c d e s i g n . I n Q u a n t z ' s work , n o t o n l y does t h e r i t o r n e l l o p a t t e r n c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r the l i s t e n e r b a c k to 60 a c e n t r a l theme, b u t the theme i t s e l f i s b u i l t on s e v e r a l r h y t h m i c u n i t s r e p e a t e d o v e r and o v e r (Example 4 ) : Example 4 - Q u a n t z : Concerto in G Major f o r F l u t e , 1 s t movement, f l u t e mm. 18-27 J Jt- f T f fTT f M i t» rf r f f . f i [Tf M u i f i r i i • The i m p o r t a n c e o f r e p e t i t i o n t o Quantz i s e v i d e n t f rom h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e b e s t t y p e o f m u s i c uses a few i d e a s o f h i g h q u a l i t y t h a t a r e c o n t i n u a l l y r e s t a t e d o r s u b t l y v a r i e d : 3 8 No new i d e a must be i n t r o d u c e d t h a t c a n n o t b y s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p e a t e d a t a c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e . N o t h i n g i s e a s i e r t h a n to throw t o g e t h e r a mish -mash o f a l a r g e number o f new i d e a s t h a t have no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one a n o t h e r . I n t h e poem, Der Wille, word r e p e t i t i o n i s t h e e s s e n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t and i t i s the v a r i a t i o n o f the r e p e a t e d w o r d s - - e . g . , " W i l l i c h " i n s t e a d o f " Ich w i l l " - - a n d a sudden change i n the p a t t e r n o f r e p e t i t i o n (see l i n e s 10-15) t h a t c r e a t e and r e t a i n the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t . A m a j o r e l ement s h a r e d b y t h e s e w o r k s , as w e l l as t h e m a j o r i t y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c a l and p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n s , t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from the l a t e r Sturm und Drang, i s the l a c k o f any sense o f d r a m a t i c movement. The method o f e x t e n s i o n b y a d d i t i o n h o l d s f o r b o t h 61 Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c a n d G l e i m ' s p o e m s , t h a t i s , t h e r e i s n o d e s i r e t o s t a t e , a r g u e a n d r e s o l v e a n y t h i n g , n o a n t a g o n i s t i c f o r c e s a t w o r k , n o t e n s i o n t o w o r k o u t , e t c . , b u t r a t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s b y t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d i d e a s m o u l d e d t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e m e . I n Q u a n t z ' s c o n c e r t o t h i s i s m o s t e v i d e n t f r o m t h e l a c k o f d i s s o n a n c e i n t h e o v e r a l l h a r m o n i c p l a n , a n d f r o m t h e u s e o f s i m p l e r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s r e p e a t e d o r v a r i e d b u t n e v e r d e v e l o p e d i n a d r a m a t i c f a s h i o n . T o u s e B e r n a r d F r u m ' s a n a l o g y , t h e r e i s n e v e r a f e e l i n g o f a m u s i c a l " c h a r a c t e r " p r o g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h a m u s i c a l " p l o t " , u n d e r g o i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a s i t t a k e s v a r i o u s " r o l e s " i n a c h a n g i n g m i l i e u . 3 9 S i m i l a r l y b o t h Anakreon a n d Der Wille axe s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e w o r k s ; G l e i m m e r e l y c o n n e c t s a s e r i e s o f s h o r t c l a u s e s t h a t p r e s e n t t h e v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l t h e m e . I m a g e d o e s n o t f l o w o u t o f i m a g e , e a c h n e w i d e a r e l a t i n g b a c k t o a p r e v i o u s o n e ; t h e m e t h o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n i s p u r e l y a d d i t i v e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e u n d r a m a t i c , r e p e t i t i v e a n d p r e d i c t a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e p o e m s a n d m u s i c , t h e y a r e s t i l l a b l e t o c o n v e y s o m e t h i n g o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e l i s t e n e r / r e a d e r . I n f a c t , i t i s t h e s k i l l f u l h a n d l i n g o f a s i m p l e i d e a w i t h i n a s i m p l e d e s i g n t h a t c h a r m s . T h e c o n c e r t o r e l i e s o n a s i m p l e , y e t p l e a s i n g l i t t l e r h y t h m i c m o t i v e t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y r e a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r k , w h o l e o r f r a g m e n t e d , i n o r i g i n a l f o r m o r s u b t l y v a r i e d . T h e r e i s n o c o m p l e x i s s u e t o o b s c u r e i t , b u t r a t h e r i t i s s u p p o r t e d b y a f r a m e w o r k b u i l t f r o m a l o g i c a l h a r m o n i c p l a n a n d c o n c i s e t e x t u r a l f a b r i c . L i k e w i s e , i t i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o e m s a n d t h e s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o n t h e r h y t h m i c e l e m e n t t h a t m a k e s t h e m w o r k . Der Wille, f o r e x a m p l e , e s t a b l i s h e s 62 r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each short motive--the f i r s t s i x l i n e s state what the poet does not want, the next three what he does, followed by an a l t e r n a t i n g pattern of the previous three l i n e s ( s l i g h t l y varied) with the three new desires and l a s t l y a two l i n e denouement. While the sing-song q u a l i t y of the rhythm does border on monotony, i t s strength, combined with the element of rhymelessness and a e s t h e t i c a l l y - p l e a s i n g s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , serves to balance shortcomings of content. The extreme b r e v i t y of thematic content which characterizes both music and poems further underlines s t y l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s . In Gleim's works, there i s nothing superfluous i n word choice and arrangement. The poet conveys h i s message i n the most concise, straightforward manner possible, e s p e c i a l l y i n Der Wille, where the subject-verb-predicate structure i s i r r e d u c i b l e , the f i r s t person "Ich" being the sole subjective condition (except f o r the l a s t couplet) and the various actions r e l a t i n g to "Ich" stated as s u c c i n c t l y as possible with no a d j e c t i v a l modifiers. Even i n Anakreon the a c t i v i t i e s of "mein Lehrer" are presented with v i r t u a l l y no embellishment. In the concerto, the terseness of Gleim's poems i s mirrored i n the well-defined p e r i o d i c phrasing and paucity of motivic m a t e r i a l - - i n f a c t , i n 118 measures, there are r e a l l y only seven motives b u i l t from d i f f e r e n t yet r e l a t e d rhythmic patterns (Example 5): 63 Example 5 - Q u a n t z : Concerto in G major f o r f l u t e , r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s . \\'\} ^^\\\\ i r r r n r \ \ \ w \ \ \ \ \ \ lJ,' i f T n ^ . ^ T T f T r i . . , I E a c h i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t , f i t t i n g n e a t l y w i t h i n the b a r l i n e ( i . e . , no o v e r l a p p i n g i n t o t h e n e x t measure) and a r t i c u l a t e d b y r e s t s , dynamic changes o r r h y t h m i c c o n t r a s t . What R e i l l y has t e r m e d "weak, s h o r t - w i n d e d u n i t s " c r e a t e a r a t h e r d i s c u r s i v e q u a l i t y to the m u s i c , a q u a l i t y t h a t b r i n g s to m i n d t h e c h a n g i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the s u b j e c t i n Der Wille and Anakreon. The c o n c e p t o f a s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e i n Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c ( a n t e c e d e n t - c o n s e q u e n t p h r a s e s ) i s a l s o e v i d e n t , a l t h o u g h n o t o v e r t l y p r o m i n e n t - - m e a s u r e s 2 7 - 3 1 , f o r example , c o u l d be d e f i n e d as a n " e l a b o r a t e d s e n t e n c e " w i t h measures 27 and 28 as the a n t e c e d e n t c l a u s e and t h e r e s t as c o n s e q u e n t i a l (Example 6) :^0 Example 6 - Q u a n t z : Concerto in G Major f o r F l u t e , f l u t e : mm 2 7 - 3 1 . The e f f e c t s o f p h r a s i n g and meter r e v e a l one more p o i n t o f c o n v e r g e n c e between poem and m u s i c . R e g a r d i n g m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , b o t h Der Wille and Anakreon a r e e s s e n t i a l l y o f the i a m b i c t y p e , t y p i c a l o f the a n a c r e o n t i c g e n r e . 4 1 A l s o b o t h poems a r e s t r u c t u r e s i n f r e e v e r s e f o r m . T h i s r h y m e l e s s n e s s , i t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d , i s compensated f o r b y the r i g i d n e s s o f m e t r i c a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e c o n s i s t e n t y e t e f f e c t i v e use o f the c o l a . 4 2 i n Anakreon, G l e i m has s t r u c t u r e d each p h r a s e to c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f 64 s h o r t c l a u s e s b r o k e n b y l i g h t c o l a , as f o r example : E r s a l b t den B a r t / m i t S a l b e n , Und s i n g t / v o n W e i n und L i e b e . and E r s p i e l t / m i t s e inem G o ' t t e r n , E r l a c h t / m i t s e innem F r e u n d e n , The p e r i o d i c i t y and symmetry t h a t r e s u l t f rom a rhyme scheme a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t h e r e b y o t h e r m e a n s - - n o t o n l y does the p o e t employ t h e s t a n d a r d c o u p l e t f o r m ( b e l i e v e d t o "impose form on l a n g u a g e and o r d e r on the i m a g i n a t i o n " ^ ) D U t e a c h c o u p l e t i s c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t a r e c u r r i n g emphas i s d e v e l o p s f rom the s u b t l e b r e a k s i n e a c h l i n e . The poem Der Wille p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h to p h r a s i n g - - t h e j o i n i n g o f a number o f s h o r t , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , m e t r i c a l l y - e q u a l p h r a s e s , s t r o n g l y p u n c t u a t e d t o e f f e c t numerous i n t e r i o r c a e s u r a s o r c a d e n c e s . The c o n c e r t o i l l u s t r a t e s a p a r a l l e l t r e a t m e n t o f p h r a s i n g and m e t e r . F i r s t l y , i t s m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n f a l l m a i n l y i n t o the d a c t y l l i c c a t e g o r y ( a l t h o u g h m i x e d w i t h o t h e r t y p e s ) , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to M a t t h e s o n , i s " v e r y common" and " s u i t a b l e to j o c u s e as w e l l as s e r i o u s m e l o d i e s . " 4 4 A n d t h e r i g i d i t y o f the p a t t e r n o f a c c e n t and emphas i s h a r k s b a c k to G l e i m ' s w o r k s . The b a r l i n e i s n e v e r o b s c u r e d ; f i r s t and t h i r d b e a t s a r e a l w a y s p r o m i n e n t t h r o u g h r h y t h m i c c o n t r a s t o r b y h a r m o n i c / m e l o d i c r e s o l u t i o n . M o r e o v e r , the b r e a k i n g up o f the m e l o d i c l i n e i n t o s h o r t m o t i v e s o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e b r i n g s a b o u t t h e same e f f e c t as the c a e s u r a s i n the poems. M a r p u r g , i n f a c t , b e l i e v e d t h a t the use o f f r e q u e n t c a d e n c e s , n o t a l l b e i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e , i s a d i s t i n c e s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e o f galant o r 65 r o c o c c o m u s i c :45 { C a d e n c e s } . . . c a n be u s e d i n any p l a c e , a t t h e end as w e l l as i n the m i d d l e , w i t h o u t any d i s t i n c t i o n as to t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l { f u n c t i o n } as c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i c t a t e . P e r i o d i c i t y and symmetry a r e f o r e m o s t t o Q u a n t z ' s d e s i g n . I f t h e o p e n i n g r i t o r n e l l o i s a n a l y z e d i n terms o f i t s p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e (mm. 1 - 1 7 ) , one f i n d s t h a t i t e s s e n t i a l l y b u i l t on two 8 measure g r o u p i n g s , w i t h a r e p e a t o f measure 2 i n the form o f an e c h o . E a c h group o f 8 measures c a n be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two groups o f 4 measures t h a t a c t i n an a n t e c e d e n t - c o n s e q u e n t f a s h i o n . F i n a l l y the q u e s t i o n o f r h e t o r i c and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t s d e v i c e s to poem and m u s i c r e m a i n to be c o n s i d e r e d . On the w h o l e , r h e t o r i c a l i d e a l s were o f r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e to b o t h G l e i m and Q u a n t z . The a r t o f p e r s u a s i o n , paramount i n o r a t o r y and c o n s e q u e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o e a r l i e r composers who c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e v o c a l p r o j e c t s o r i n s t r u m e n t a l works d e s i g n e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e , e f f e c t , e t c . , was n o t a n e c e s s a r y f a c e t o f t h e galant s t y l e , i n w h i c h t h e s o l e a im was to e n t e r t a i n . C e r t a i n l y p o e t s and composers w o r k i n g i n t h i s v e i n were n o t unaware o f r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to a r t - - a s Buelow p o i n t s o u t , Q u a n t z and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s were much i n t e r e s t e d i n a s p e c t s o f the d e l i v e r y o r pronunciatio o f a work .46 B u c as t o the more complex i s s u e s o f r h e t o r i c , e s p e c i a l l y the elocutio ( t h a t p a r t i n w h i c h the f i g u r e s o f e x p r e s s i o n o r i g i n a t e ) , a p a r t from a few s t a n d a r d d e v i c e s w h i c h were u s e d o v e r and o v e r , t h e r o c o c c o c o m p o s e r / p o e t f e l t no n e e d t o a d d r e s s them. 66 T h i s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n G l e i m ' s poems where d e c o r a t i v e f i g u r e s a r e v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . As has b e e n p o i n t e d o u t , G l e i m r e l i e s s o l e l y on t h e c o n c e p t o f r e p e t i t i o n as a means o f e l a b o r a t i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e s where r e p e t i t i v e f i g u r e s a r e e m p l o y e d - - s u c h as t h e Anaphora a t l i n e s 11-12 and 13-15 i n Anakreon, and l i n e s 1-9 i n D e r Wille, and a t y p e o f Anastrophe i n Der Wille a t l i n e s 7 -14 . I n f a c t t h a t use o f a r e f r a i n i n Anakreon c a n be c l a s s i f i e d as an example o f V er sever ant io The c o n c e r t o s i m i l a r l y p r e s e n t s few i n s t a n c e s o f c o n s c i o u s r h e t o r i c a l t e c h n i q u e and a g a i n , t h o s e e v i d e n t a r e f i g u r e s o f r e p e t i t i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s i s the use o f the echo (mm. 3 - 4 , r i t o r n e l l o ; mm. 1 9 - 2 0 , f l u t e s o l o ) w h i c h Buelow l i s t s as Palillogia ( a f t e r B u r m e i s t e r ) and the many s e q u e n t i a l p a s s a g e s c o u l d be deemed examples o f Gradatio ( B u r m e i s t e r ) , f o r example mm. 21-27; mm. 32 -33; mm. 3 4 - 3 5 ) . 4 8 However , Q u a n t z seems h a r d l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i n g s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s as a means to e m b e l l i s h h i s m u s i c a l i d e a s . I t was s i m p l y more i m p o r t a n t to c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n a p l e a s i n g s o u n d , e x e c u t e p r e c i s e rhythms and p h r a s i n g s , and a v o i d ponderous a s p i r a t i o n s . W i t h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s b o t h c o n c e r t o and poems a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e ; T u r n i n g t o the s e c o n d m u s i c a l example and c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o e t i c w o r k s , a s u b s t a n t i a l d e p a r t u r e f rom r o c c o c o a e s t h e t i c i s d e m o n s t r a t e d . C a r l P h i l i p p Emanuel B a c h ' s k e y b o a r d S o n a t a i n C m a j o r (Wq. 65 No. 16) has b e e n c h o s e n t o i l l u s t r a t e the o t h e r s t y l i s t i c t r e n d d i r e c t i n g m u s i c a l and p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n a t m i d - c e n t u r y . B a c h i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the p r i m a r y a d v o c a t e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d empfindsamer S t i l i n m u s i c , i n f a c t , the 67 t e r m i s o f t e n a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o B a c h ' s m u s i c as a s p e c i a l c a s e o f the galant s t y l e . ^ 9 T h e r e i s , however , a marked d i f f e r e n c e between galant and empfindsamkeit ( t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y ) w h i c h w a r r a n t s a s t y l i s t i c s e p a r a t i o n i n b o t h l i t e r a t u r e and m u s i c . I n a d d i t i o n , the c o n t r a s t be tween Q u a n t z ' s and B a c h ' s p o s i t i o n i n B e r l i n s o c i e t y b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n each c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c . B a c h was a l s o employed by F r e d e r i c k as a member o f the r o y a l m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t b u t , u n l i k e Q u a n t z , p l a y e d a l e s s p r o m i n e n t r o l e as the k i n g ' s a c c o m p a n i s t . Due t o t h e u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e t a s t e o f the r o y a l p a t r o n , he was r a r e l y a s k e d t o compose works to be p e r f o r m e d i n the r o y a l p r e s e n c e . 5 0 T h i s d i d n o t , however , h i n d e r h i s c o n n e c t i o n s o u t s i d e the c o u r t , f o r he was f a i r l y a c t i v e i n the c i t y ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e , b e i n g on c l o s e terms w i t h p r o m i n e n t l i t e r a r y p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( e s p e c i a l l y L e s s i n g , G l e i m and K l o p s t o c k . ) 5 1 As a r e s u l t , the c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e b e i n d h i s m u s i c was n o t t e m p e r e d b y c o u r t c o n s e r v a t i s m as i n the c a s e o f Q u a n t z ' s w o r k s , b u t drew f r o m the i n n o v a t i v e a e s t h e t i c t h o u g h t o f h i s l i t e r a r y c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . W i t h h i s t r e a t i s e on k e y b o a r d p e r f o r m a n c e , Versuch uber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen ( B e r l i n , 1753 ) , Bach g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t f rom f e l l o w m u s i c i a n s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , s o m e t h i n g he n e v e r a c h i e v e d w i t h h i s p a t r o n d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e a t c o u r t . The Sonata in C major ( d a t e d 1746) i s one o f the s e v e n t y o r so i n d i v i d u a l u n p u b l i s h e d k e y b o a r d s o n a t a s composed between 1731 and 1786. The 1 7 4 0 ' s i n B e r l i n was f o r Bach a p e r i o d o f a m b i t i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i v i t y . The k e y b o a r d works o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h i s decade have b e e n shown t o f e a t u r e i n n o v a t i v e m u s i c a l i d e a s and an i n t e n s i t y o f 68 e x p r e s s i o n t h a t c o n t r a s t s the more s e r i o u s , " r e f i n e d " works o f t h e 1750 ' s and 6 0 ' s . 5 2 T h i s work i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s p l a y s some o f t h e dynamic e n e r g y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s l a t e r F a n t a s i a s , w h i c h , as i m p r o v i s a t o r y r e a l i z a t i o n s , a l l o w the h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f e x p r e s s i v i t y and d e p i c t i o n o f human p a s s i o n ; I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y c o m p o s i t i o n a l d a t e and c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h l i t e r a r y t r e n d s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . A number o f l a t e r works have a l r e a d y b e e n a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e i r l i t e r a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Programm - Trio in C minor, 1749 ( W q . 1 6 1 / 1 ) , i n w h i c h the two u p p e r p a r t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o n t r a s t i n g c h a r a c t e r s S a n g u i n e u s and Melanch'olicus, engage i n a s p i r i t e d d i a l o g u e , 53 and the "Hamlet" Fantasia in C minor, ( W q . 6 3 / 6 / 3 ) f o r w h i c h the p o e t G e r s t e n b e r g p r o v i d e d the S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o l i l o q u o y o f Hamle t c o n t e m p l a t i n g d e a t h . 5 4 A n a n a l y s i s o f the C major s o n a t a d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t i t i s n o t s i m p l y t h e e x c e p t i o n a l and o b v i o u s works t h a t r e v e a l the c o m p o s e r ' s a f f i n i t y f o r p o e t i c a e s t h e t i c and t e c h n i q u e b u t r a t h e r t h a t p o e t i c t e n d e n c i e s a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The s o n a t a c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e movements l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n a l m o s t c y c l i c f a s h i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a breakdown o f measure , key and tempo f o r the e n t i r e work: 69 Movement S e c t i o n M e a s u r e s Time S i g n a t u r e Tempo M a i n k e y s t o n i c i z e d I A B A 1-30 31-70 71-91 4 4 A l l e g r o C - F - D - G G - a - B b - E - D - G C - F - C - G - C I I 92-127 4 4 A d a g i o / C - a - F - d - G - d A n d a n t e / A - B b - C - B b - a - G A l l e g r o I I I A B 128-173 173-240 3 4 A l l e g r e t t o C - c - g - G G - e - C - G - C C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h i s work make i t q u i t e t y p i c a l o f B a c h ' s e a r l i e r k e y b o a r d c o m p o s i t i o n s . The p r a c t i c e o f l i n k i n g movements t o g e t h e r a p p e a r s f a i r l y e a r l y i n the c o m p o s e r ' s c a r e e r , a p r a c t i c e w h i c h , b y t h e Hamburg y e a r s , f o u n d consumate e x p r e s s i o n i n the s i n g l e m o d u l a t i n g f a n t a s i a s o f v a r y i n g a f f e c t s . T h i s s o n a t a , however , does n o t r e a l l y a c h i e v e the u n i f i c a t i o n o f o t h e r c y c l i c w o r k s , s u c h as the s o n a t a i n F m i n o r (Wq.57 /6 ) as S c h u l e n b e r g p o i n t s o u t . 5 5 o t h e r t h a n the o b v i o u s h a r m o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i m a r y keys o f e a c h movement, the o n l y c o n n e c t i o n between the c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n s i s C major a r p e g g i o and s c a l i c theme o f the o p e n i n g movement i n t e r p o l a t e d c o n t i n u a l l y t h r o u g h o u t the s e c o n d movement (Examples 7a and 7 b ) ; 5 6 70 Example 7 a - C . P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C Major, Wq.65 No. 16, mm. 1-2 . Example 7 b - C . P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C Major, Wq.65 No. 16, mm. 1 0 8 - 1 1 . T h e m o t i v i c i n s e r t i o n s p r o d u c e an u n e x p e c t e d t w i s t to m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , b r e a k i n g t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t e m p o r a r y m o t i o n a n d , as w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d l a t e r t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e empfindsam n a t u r e o f the work . The o u t e r movements a r e i n b i n a r y form w i t h many s o n a t a - f o r m t r a i t s , a l t h o u g h Bach n e v e r r e a l l y a c h i e v e d t h e mature c l a s s i c a l s o n a t a f o r m scheme o f e x p o s i t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t and f u l l r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . 5 7 T h e r e c a n be s e e n , however , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t movement, a k i n d o f e x p o s i t o r y s t a t e m e n t b a s e d on the o p e n i n g a r p e g g i o and s c a l e f i g u r e (mm. 1 - 3 0 ) , a m i d d l e i m p r o v i s a t o r y , deve lopment l i k e s e c t i o n where the theme a p p e a r s i n v a r i o u s h a r m o n i c / m e l o d i c g u i s e s (mm. 31-70) and a r e t u r n t o the o p e n i n g a r p e g g i a t i o n i n t h e t o n i c k e y , a l t h o u g h t h e m o t i v i c work i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d s o o n t h e r e a f t e r (mm. 7 1 - 9 1 ) , The t h i r d movement, a t y p i c a l m i n u e t , a l s o h i n t s a t the t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e o f s o n a t a f o r m , b u t n o t as c o m p r e h e n s i b l e as the f i r s t movement. 71 T e x t u r a l l y the o p e n i n g movement d i s p l a y s more v a r i e t y t h a n the o t h e r s (a m i x t u r e o f b r i e f c o n t r a p u n t a l s e c t i o n s , s o l o - l i k e o u t b u r s t s i n c o n c e r t o s t y l e , and f u l l - f l e d g e d homophony) . The s e c o n d movement v a c i l l a t e s be tween v a r i o u s t empi w h i l e the o u t e r movements, on t h e w h o l e , r e t a i n t h e Baroque p u l s a t i n g b a s s . The h a r m o n i c l angugage i s r i c h and even d a r i n g i n t h i s work , b u t n o t u n u s u a l l y s o . The k e y b o a r d s o n a t a s a r e g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r a p i d h a r m o n i c r h y t h m , b r i e f b u t c o n s t a n t e x c u r s i o n s i n t o u n r e l a t e d k e y s , and s u b t l e c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n s i n b o t h h a r m o n i c and m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n . 5 8 . F i n a l l y , B a c h ' s use o f r h y t h m i n t h i s w o r k , i s , i n a sense t y p i c a l o f p o s t - B a r o q u e galant c o m p o s i t i o n s . D o t t e d rhythms i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h r a p i d s c a l e p a s s a g e s s e r v e to f r a g m e n t the m e l o d i c l i n e i n a manner s i m i l a r to Quantz However , the s h e e r v a r i e t y and s t y l i s t i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s s e p a r a t e s B a c h ' s m u s i c f rom the m a j o r i t y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n s . D e s p i t e the t y p i c a l " w a l k i n g Bass" w h i c h u n d e r l i e s a l a r g e p a r t o f t h i s work , f o r w a r d m o t i o n i s c o n t i n u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d and o f t e n impeded by r h y t h m i c d i s p a r i t y . E v e n t h i s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the C major s o n a t a , i t i s c l e a r t h a t B a c h was d r a w i n g f rom a d i f f e r e n t i n s p i r a t i o n a l s o u r c e t h a n t h o s e c o m p o s i n g i n t h e galant or roccoco vein. The empfindsamer S t i l , a t e r m a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o the m u s i c o f C . P . E . B a c h , J . G . G r a u n , and to some e x t e n t F r a n z B e n d a , d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l s t h e s e n t a m e n t a l i s t movement i n l i t e r a t u r e , as expounded by K l o p s t o c k . The same i d e a l - - t h a t o f t h e f r e e c u l t i v a t i o n o f human p a s s i o n s - - u n d e r l i e s the m u s i c and p o e t r y o f t h e s e a r t i s t s . I t h a s , i n f a c t , b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t K l o p s t o c k was a f r e q u e n t 72 g u e s t a t Emanuel B a c h ' s Hamburg r e s i d e n c e , 5 9 a n c j o n e c o u l d e a s i l y s u r m i s e t h a t the p o e t ' s a e s t h e t i c o f e m o t i o n w o u l d be f a m i l i a r t o Bach d u r i n g h i s B e r l i n y e a r s . What s e t s the m u s i c o f t h e s e composers a p a r t f r o m galant works i s t h e i n h e r e n t s e r i o u s n e s s o f t o n e . T h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r r o c c o c o l i g h t n e s s and p l a y f u l n e s s . One f i n d s i n s t e a d an e m o t i o n a l v o l a t i l i t y t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s to the extreme e x p r e s s i o n i s m o f K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c s t y l e . I t must be s t r e s s e d , however , t h a t , l i k e the l i t e r a r y movement, Empfindsamkeit i n m u s i c s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d f r o m a S t u r m und Drang s t y l e t h a t has been a p p l i e d t o t h e works o f a number o f e a r l y c l a s s i c a l c o m p o s e r s . I t has r e c e n t l y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t B a c h ' s most empfindsam works do n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h the b e g i n n i n g s o f a s o - c a l l e d " A u s t r i a n m u s i c a l c r i s i s " r u n n i n g c o n c u r r a n t to the l i t e r a r y Sturm und Drang and l e a v i n g i t s mark on the e a r l y Haydn and M o z a r t . 6 0 The Empfindsamkeit i n m u s i c , as i n i t s l i t e r a r y c o u n t e r p a r t , a c h i e v e d i t s g o a l n o t by the abandonment o f the a r t i s t t o p u r e e m o t i o n a l i m p u l s e s , b u t r a t h e r b y the r a t i o n a l i z e d s u b j e c t i v i t y o f c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s , i . e . , b y the i n w a r d c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f human p a s s i o n s and t h e i r i d e a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I r r a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s n e v e r g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e m u s i c and one i s a lways aware o f a u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n and p u r p o s e . The B a r o q u e t r a d i t i o n o f the i m i t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e a f f e c t r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t i n empfindsam m u s i c . B a c h h i m s e l f was q u i t e adament about the s t y l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n h i s m u s i c was t a k i n g . H i s a e s t h e t i c g o a l comes to l i g h t w i t h s u c h comments a s : "I have n e v e r l i k e d e x c e s s i v e u n i f o r m i t y i n c o m p o s i t i o n and t a s t e , " 6 1 and 73 "My m a i n e f f o r t s . . . h a v e b e e n d i r e c t l y e s p e c i a l l y t o w a r d p l a y i n g and c o m p o s i n g as s o n g f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . . . " 6 2 B o t h s t a t e m e n t s r e v e a l a f l e x i b i l i t y o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l means f o r the p u r p o s e o f a c h i e v i n g an e m o t i o n a l r e a l i s m i n h i s m u s i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , B a c h ' s t r e a t i s e on k e y b o a r d p l a y i n g , w h i l e p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d towards the a r t o f p e r f o r m a n c e , g i v e s c r e d e n c e t o a c o m p o s i t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c b a s e d on p a s s i o n a t e e x p r e s s i o n . C e r t a i n l y the famous d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h a r l e s B u r n e y o f B a c h p l a y i n g "posse s sed" a t the c l a v i c h o r d s u p p o r t s the c o m p o s e r ' s a e s t h e t i c o f e m o t i o n . As S c h u l e n b e r g p u t s i t , " . . . t h e i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h B u r n e y and Bach h i m s e l f seem t o a t t a c h t o d i r e c t e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d n o t be e x a g g e r a t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the r o l e s u c h e x p r e s s i o n p l a y s i n B a c h ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s . " 6 3 Thus t h e Baroque c o n c e r n f o r a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n was B a c h ' s c o n c e r n as w e l l . H i s m u s i c , however , l e a v e s the n a r r o w b o u n d a r i e s o f e x p r e s s i o n s e t b y galant c o m p o s e r s . L i k e K l o p s t o c k , he b e l i e v e d t h a t human e m o t i o n was i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x and any r e a l i s t i c a r t i s t i c d e p i c t i o n must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . I t i s n o t uncommon i n K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y t o f i n d a theme s u d d e n l y change d i r e c t i o n o r undergo an a b r u p t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; l i k e w i s e , i n B a c h ' s m u s i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e k e y b o a r d w o r k s , the l i s t e n e r i s t r e a t e d w i t h c o n s t a n t j u x t a p o s i t i o n s o f c o n t r a s t i n g m o t i v e s , t e m p i , and m e t e r s as w e l l as sudden and r a p i d a l t e r a t i o n o f m a j o r - m i n o r modes and u n r e l a t e d h a r m o n i e s . B u t , as B a r f o r d p o i n t s o u t , a l l t h i s c o n t r a s t i n g m a t e r i a l i s c o n n e c t e d " p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y " . I n o t h e r w o r d s , d e s p i t e t h e d i s p a r i t y o f a f f e c t i v e c o n t e n t , t h e r e i s an i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the v a r i o u s affekts and a " p r i m a r y " e m o t i o n . 6 4 i n 74 c o n s i d e r i n g the s o n a t a u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e , the l i s t e n e r f e e l s t h a t the o v e r a l l a f f e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n i s n o t o b s c u r e d b y the u n u s u a l h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n s and r h y t h m i c d i v e r s i t y . A f t e r a r a t h e r ambiguous h a r m o n i c s e c t i o n o r a c a p r i c i o u s r h y t h m i c d i v e r s i o n , B a c h r e t u r n s to f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y . T h e r e i s a lways a sense o f c o n t r o l , as i f B a c h r e a l i z e d t h a t u n b r i d l e d e m o t i o n a l i s m i n m u s i c i s p a i d f o r w i t h a r t i s t i c v a l i d i t y . The same d e s i r e f o r c o n t r o l l e d freedom o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i s a p p a r e n t i n K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y . The most o b v i o u s c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f t h i s i s the p o e t ' s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e a d h e r e n c e to c l a s s i c a l measure , a l t h o u g h somewhat m o d i f i e d to s u i t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l method. Y e t even i n h i s most e m o t i o n a l l y v o l a t i l e w o r k s , t h e r e i s n e v e r a sense o f t h e m a t i c d i s c o n n e c t i o n ; d e s p i t e f r e q u e n t and s e e m i n g l y u n j u s t i f i e d e m o t i o n a l t u r n s , e a c h new frame o f m i n d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r e v i o u s one . As B r o w n i n g s t a t e s : "To move i n f e e l i n g s and make us ' b e s i d e o u r s e l v e s ' i s the a im o f K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y , b u t i t s a im i s n o t to cause the p o e t to l o s e c o n t r o l o f h i s f a c u l t y o f judgement ."65 A more t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n on how b o t h a r t i s t s m a n i p u l a t e t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t o c r e a t e an i n t e n s i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n r e v e a l s the p a r i t y o f t e c h n i q u e and a e s t h e t i c . Two o f K l o p s t o c k ' s e a r l i e r poems have b e e n c h o s e n t o mark the s i m i l a r i t i e s to B a c h ' s s o n a t a , e a c h poem t y p i c a l o f the p o e t ' s e m o t i o n a l p a t h o s . Gegenwart der Abwesenden (1752 o r 53) and Die Fruhen Graben (1764) a r e b o t h s o l i l o q u o y s f u l l o f y e a r n i n g and hope ; i n t h e c a s e o f the f o r m e r i t i s a y e a r n i n g f o r a r e u n i o n w i t h h i s b e l o v e d , w h i l e the l a t t e r work e n v i s i o n s the p e r f e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l b e a u t y . The f i r s t t h r e e v e r s e s o f Gegenwart der Abwesenden and the whole o f Die Fruhen Graben are 75 n o t e d be low w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n : 6 6 Gegenwart der Abwesenden Der L i e b e S c h m e r z e n , n i c h t d e r enwartenden Noch u n g e l i e b t e n , d i e Schmerzen n i c h t , Denn i c h l i e b , so l i e b t e K e i n e r ! so werd i c h g e l i e b t ! D i e s a n f t e r o n Schmerzen , we l che zum W i e d e r s e h n H i n b l i c k e n , w e l c h e zum W i e d e r s e h n T i e f a u f athmen, doch l i s p e l t Stammelnde F r e u d e m i t a u f ! D i e Schmerzen w o l l t i c h s i n g e n . I c h h o r t e s c h o n Des A b s c h i e d s T h r a n e n am R o s e n b u s c h W e i n e n ! w e i n e n d e r T h r a n e n Stimme d i e S a t e n h e r a b ! Presence in Absence The agony o f l o v e , n o t a n t i c i p a t e d S t i l l n o t l o v e d , n o t the agony F o r I l o v e , so have l o v e d No one! t h u s become l o v e d ! The g e n t l e agony , t h a t to r e u n i o n A w a i t s , t h a t to r e u n i o n B r e a t h e s d e e p , y e t a l s o w i t h w h i s p e r i n g Stammering j o y ! I want t o s i n g to agony . I have a l r e a d y h e a r d The p a r t i n g t e a r s to the r o s e b u s h C r y i n g ! The t e a r s w e e p i n g Down the s t r i n g s ! Die Fruhen Graben W i l l k o m m e n , o s i l b e r n e r Mond, S c h o n e r , s t i l l e r G e f a h r t d e r N a c h t ! Du e n t f l i e h s t ? E i l e n i c h t , b l e i b , G e d a n k e n f r e u n d ! S e h e t , e r b l e i b t , das Gewolk w a l l t e n u r h i n . Des M a i e s E r w a c h e n i s t n u r S c h o n e r n o c h wie d i e Sommernacht, Wenn ihm T a u , h e l l wie L i c h t , aus d e r L o c k e t r a u f t , Und z u dem H u g e l h e r a u f r o t l i c h e r kommt. I h r E d l e r e n , a c h , es bewachst 76 E u r e M a l e s c h o n e r n s t e s Moos! 0 wie war g l u c k l i c h i c h , a l s i c h n o c h m i t euch Sahe s i c h ro' ten den T a g , sch immern d i e N a c h t ! The Early Graves Be welcome, 0 s i l v e r y moon, S i l e n t , b e a u t i f u l mate o f n i g h t . Must y o u f l e e ? T a r r y , r e m a i n , p h i l o s o p h e r . See , he r e m a i n s . 'Twas b u t c l o u d s w a f t i n g a l o n g . T h e r e i s b u t t h e w a k i n g o f s p r i n g F a i r e r s t i l l t h a n the summer n i g h t , When h i s c u r l s , s h i n i n g b r i g h t , s p r a y s o f dew d i s p e l An d up the h i l l ' s s l o p i n g s i d e r e d - h u e d he comes. Ye n o b l e r s o u l s , o v e r y o u r s t o n e s Grows a l r e a d y a v e i l o f moss . Oh how happy I was, when w i t h y o u I w a t c h e d Redness e n v e l o p the d a y , s l u m b e r the n i g h t . P a r a l l e l s i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e between p o e t r y and m u s i c become i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t w i t h Die Fruhen Graben. The t h r e e v e r s e s r e p r e s e n t i n d e p e n d e n t y e t c o n n e c t e d v i s i o n s . V e r s e 1 f e a t u r e s the moon as the c r e a t o r o f a tmosphere and as a s t i m u l a n t to t h o u g h t ( i n the r o l e o f Gedankenfreund), w h i l e v e r s e 2 forms the image o f the dawning s u n . The f i n a l v e r s e draws t o g e t h e r the t h r e a d s o f moon and s u n , where t h e f o r m e r g i v e s way t o t h e "schoner noch" i n a s p e c t a c u l a r f i n a l e ( i . e . , dawn) . The poem makes a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s t a t e m e n t and works t o a d e f i n i t e p l a n , d e s p i t e the i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n t h a t the p o e t aims a t . The k e y b o a r d s o n a t a f u n c t i o n s i n a s i m i l a r manner , i . e . , m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s e t s t r u c t u r e - - b i n a r y f o r m i n t h e l a r g e r s e n s e , q u a s i - s o n a t a form on a more r u d i m e n t a r y l e v e l . W i t h i n t h e s e p r e d e t e r m i n e d f o r m s , i m p a s s i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n i s c u l t i v a t a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t movement where h a r m o n i c and r h y t h m i c u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y works 77 a g a i n s t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n f a c t , i t i s t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l c o n d i t i o n , b r o u g h t about b y the d e l i b e r a t e c r e a t i o n o f m u s i c a l t e n s i o n t h r o u g h m u s i c a l a m b i g u i t i e s and t h e u l t i m a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l e a s e a t t h e r e t u r n o f e x p e c t e d p r o g r e s s i o n s t h a t form t h e b a s i s o f h o m o g e n e i t y be tween B a c h ' s m u s i c and K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y . A s p e c i f i c example i n b o t h p o e t r y and m u s i c w i l l i l l u c i d a t e t h i s c o n c e p t o f t e n s i o n - r e l e a s e t h a t i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f the empfindsamer S t i l . I n the f i r s t movement o f the s o n a t a , B a c h b e g i n s t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f the b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e (m.31) w i t h the o p e n i n g m o t i v e o f the movement i n the d o m i n a n t . T h e r e i s a n immedia te d e v i a t i o n f r o m the o r i g i n a l p r o g r e s s i o n b y way o f a d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h t o a new t o n a l a r e a (A m i n o r ) a t m.34. The d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h t h e n assumes a d i r e c t i n g r o l e i n d e v e l o p m e n t : the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s a r i s i n g f rom t h i s harmony i s o v e r s t a t e d b y the composer to the p o i n t o f o v e r l o a d (Example 8 ) : Example 8 - C P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C major, Wq.65 No. 16, mm. 3 5 - 4 0 . Y •fr 1 g. ofc. The i n e v i t a b l e r e s o l u t i o n a p p e a r s a l l too b r i e f l y b e f o r e t h e d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h r e t u r n s , e x t e n d e d i n a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e (Example 9 ) : Example 9 - C . P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C major, Wq.65 No. 16, mm. 4 0 - 4 5 . T h i s ebb and f l o w o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n ^ c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e e n t i r e work e s p e c i a l l y i n p a s s a g e s where the harmony c o n s t a n t l y f l u c t u a t e s 78 between m a j o r and m i n o r . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , f o r m a l meaning i n m u s i c i s i m p l i e d b y h a r m o n i c d i r e c t i o n , 6 8 a n d B a c h ' s h a r m o n i c l i c e n s e g i v e s h i s m u s i c e m o t i o n a l c o n t e x t . T h i s , i n f a c t , l i e s b e n e a t h the c o n c e p t , as d i s c u s s e d b y S c h u l e n b e r g , o f m u s i c as e x p l i c i t m e t a p h o r . B a c h ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , as he p o i n t s o u t , were n o t h e s i t a n t t o i n t e r p r e t h i s m u s i c i n terms o f a m a r r a t i v e , ode o r p o e t i c s o l i l o q u o y . 6 9 I n K l o p s t o c k ' s poems the b u i l d i n g o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n f o l l o w e d b y r e l a x a t i o n i s d e v e l o p e d from c o n t i g u o u s o p p o s i n g t h e m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s and by c o n t i n u o u s e m p h a t i c i n s e r t i o n s w i t h i n a s i n g l e t h e m a t i c c l a u s e . The o p e n i n g v e r s e o f Die Fruhen Graben b e g i n s on a t r a n q u i l n o t e . I m m e d i a t e l y a p p r e h e n s i o n s e t s i n as the p o e t i m a g i n e s h i s Gedankenfreund l e a v i n g h i m , b u t s o o n r e a l i z e s t h a t i t was o n l y an i l l u s i o n o f "das Gew'olk w a l l t e n u r h i n . " I n Gegenwart der Abwesenden, i n n e r t e n s i o n i s d e v e l o p e d i n the f i r s t two v e r s e s by a s e r i e s o f e m o t i o n a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s t h a t c a l l a t t e n t i o n to t h e m s e l v e s , thus s e v e r i n g the o p e n i n g t h e m a t i c c l a u s e , "der L i e b e S c h m e r z e n " , f rom i t s t r u e c o n c l u s i o n i n v e r s e 3 , " . . . w o l l t i c h s i n g e n " . E m o t i o n a l u n i t y i s b r o k e n b y the deve lopment o f s y n t a c t i c a l t e n s i o n s u c h t h a t the r e a d e r i s f o r c e d t o r e v i e w the whole p e r i o d i n o r d e r to be s u r e he c o m p r e h e n d s . F u r t h e r on i n the poem one f i n d s t h a t the o p e n i n g theme o f l i v i n g i n sweet agony i n the absence o f the b e l o v e d i s s u d d e n t l y r e p l a c e d b y t h e e m o t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e o f h e r p h y s i c a l absence and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h e r p r e s e n c e i n a b s e n c e , i . e . , p r e s e n t i n t h e p o e t ' s m i n d : 79 Gegenwart des Abwesenden ( V e r s e 6, l i n e s 21-22 Wie s t a n d s t du v o r m i r , C i d l i , wie h i n g m e i n H e r z A n de inem H e r z e n , G e l i e b t e r e , As y o u s t a n d b e f o r e me, C i d l i , as my h e a r t H o l d s on t o y o u r embrace , b e l o v e d , P a s s i o n a t e o u t b u r s t s have g i v e n way t o an a l m o s t j o y o u s r e s p o n s e t h a t d e v e l o p s f rom t h e f i n a l v i s i o n , and the r e a d e r i s l e f t t o p o n d e r the e m o t i o n a l i m p e r s p i c u o u s n e s s o f one h o v e r i n g on t h e b o r d e r o f what seems to be and what i s r e a l . From a t e c h n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e K l o p s t o c k and Bach a p p r o a c h the p r o b l e m o f e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n an i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n . F o r example , B a c h ' s t h e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , b a s e d e s s e n t i a l l y on m e l o d i c v a r i a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n i s , i n many ways , p a r a l l e l t o K l o p s t o c k ' s method o f d r a m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f one e m o t i o n a l i d e a b y v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The o p e n i n g m o t i v e o f the s o n a t a i s t h e o n l y d i s t i n c t one o f the f i r s t movement; m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n o c c u r s b y 1) sequence ( c h r o m a t i c s c a l e as i n measures 49-52 (Example 1 0 a ) ; 2) t h r o u g h v a r i a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l i d e a , e i t h e r b y a l t e r i n g the s u p p o r t i n g harmony, i m b u i n g the theme w i t h c h r o m a t i c i n f l e c t i o n s , o r , as i n measure 53 , r e v e r s i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f the me lody (Example 1 0 b ) , and 3) b y i n t r o d u c i n g l o n g p a s s a g e s made up o f a s e r i e s o f s t r i c t l y o r n a m e n t a l g e s t u r e s as i n measures 64-65 (Example 10c) : 80 Example l O a - C . P . G . B a c h : Sonata in C Major, Wq.65 , No. 16, mm. 4 9 - 5 2 . - — *r r r r r l l , ' m . — — - E = ^ = > M I T SS s Example 10b-measures 53 . Example 1 0 c - m e a s u r e s 6 4 - 6 5 . i f W J , U r u j J ^ i — * — j J - j '..-4.4. C a r l R o s e n n o t e s t h a t : " . . . B a c h ' s most s t r i k i n g p a s s a g e s . . . e x i s t i n and f o r t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to any c o n c e p t i o n o f the whole w o r k . " 7 0 W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l a c k o f t r u e m o t i v i c deve lopment i n B a c h ' s m u s i c , t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s r e l a t i v e l y a c c u r a t e ( the t e n measures o f t h e e x p a n d i n g d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h - - s e e examples 7a and 7 b - - m u s i c a l l y d r a m a t i c b u t q u i t e u n c o n n e c t e d t o the p r i n c i p l e theme, a r e a c a s e i n p o i n t ) . K l o p s t o c k ' s poems c a n a l s o be v i e w e d as the e v o l u t i o n o f a s i n g l e i d e a t h r o u g h v a r i o u s e m o t i o n a l l e v e l s . A l t h o u g h i t has b e e n shown t h a t h i s themes c a n be s u d d e n l y a l t e r e d o r changed and even t h o u g h t h e p o e t moves t h r o u g h v a r i o u s , o f t e n u n r e l a t e d e m o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i m p u l s e r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t . I n Die Fruhen Graber, f o r example , t h e p o e t v o i c e s a p p r e h e n s i o n , r e l i e f , o p t i m i s m , r e g r e t , n o s t a l g i a ; y e t a l l o f t h e s e human p a s s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d to e a c h o t h e r and to the more p r o f o u n d c o n c e p t o f n a t u r e ' s o m n i p r e s e n c e t h a t the p o e t e x p e r i e n c e s . 81 K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e , f o r w h i c h he was renowned as an i n n o v a t o r b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , c l e a r l y has much i n common w i t h B a c h ' s m u s i c a l empfindsamkeit. K l o p s t o c k b e l i e v e d t h a t p o e t i c l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom p r o s e . He a c h i e v e d t h i s b y a number o f l i n g u i s t i c means, l i s t e d b y B r o w n i n g as f o l l o w s : 7 1 1) u s i n g o b s o l e t e o r a r c h a i c words o r f o r m s ; 2) c h a n g i n g i n f l e c t e d forms b y a d d i n g o r d r o p p i n g a v o w e l ; 3) u s i n g " s i m p l e x " f o r compound words ; 4) f o r m i n g new words b y a d d i n g p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s and compounding w o r d s ; 5) d e v i a t i o n f rom n a t u r a l p r o s e o r d e r ; and 6) e x c e s s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p e r i o d i c i t y ( i . e . , b y i n s e r t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s ) . I n b o t h p o e t i c examples v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e s e d e v i c e s c a n be f o u n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a s t two, w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e most to the e m o t i o n a l i m p a c t o f the w o r d s . The s y n t a c t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y t h a t r e s u l t s f rom K l o p s t o c k ' s i n n o v a t i o n s o f t h e p o e t i c l a ng uage i s most c o m p a r a b l e t o B a c h ' s q u i t e r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h to r h y t h m , m e t r i c s and a r t i c u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h S c h u l e n b e r g n o t e s t h a t much o f B a c h ' s m u s i c r e t a i n s the c o n s i s t e n c y o f m o t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p s f r o m Baroque dance r h y t h m s , ? 2 v a r i a t i o n s i n s u r f a c e a c t i v i t y c r e a t e t h e same s y n t a c t i c i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c l i n e . B a c h ' s use o f rhy thm i n t h e C m a j o r s o n a t a i s h i g h l y t y p i c a l o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s d e s i r e to move away form c o n s i s t e n c y o f f o r w a r d m o t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d movement Bach a v o i d s a s y m m e t r i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n o f the b e a t w i t h u n e x p e c t e d s y n c o p a t i o n s , r e s t s on s t r o n g b e a t s , a p p o g g i a t u r a s , e t c . I n many ways the m e l o d i c l i n e h e r e i s e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t f o u n d i n Q u a n t z ' s m u s i c , i . e . , a c o n t i n u o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f s h o r t , 82 c o n t r a s t i n g r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s . 7 3 However , Bach i s f r e e r w i t h h i s m e l o d i c f i g u r a t i o n , and i t i s q u i t e n o r m a l to f i n d d i s c o r d a n t e l e m e n t s o f rhy thm w i t h i n p h r a s e s and m e a s u r e s . F o r example i n measure 107-108 t h e me lody moves f r e e l y f r o m d o t t e d rhythms t o t r i p l e t s to a r u n n i n g s i x t e e n t h p a t t e r n w i t h i n a two-measure s p a n (Example 1 1 ) : Example 11 - C . P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C major, Wq.65 No. 16 mm. 107-108 . T h i s r h y t h m i c d i v e r s i t y i s e a s i l y c o m p a r a b l e to K l o p s t o c k ' s s y s t e m o f " w o r d - f e e t " , d e s c r i b e d b y B r o w n i n g as " c o l a o r m e t r i c a l p h r a s e s t h a t demand t o be t a k e n t o g e t h e r " . 7 4 " W o r d - f e e t " f o l l o w t h e r i s e and f a l l o f e m o t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the poem; e a c h i n d i v i d u a l word becomes a p a t t e r n o f rhy thm w i t h i n the l a r g e r p a t t e r n o f t h e whole v e r s e . The r e s u l t i s p o e t r y t h a t seems t o f o l l o w no m e t r i c a l scheme a t a l l ( p r o s e - l i k e ! ) e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s a c a r e f u l l y c a l c u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between e a c h m e t r i c a l u n i t . 7 5 gy t h e 1770 ' s K l o p s t o c k was so t h o r o u g h l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s i n v e n t i o n t h a t he i n c l u d e d w i t h e a c h new work a d e t a i l e d m e t r i c scheme f o r t h e r e a d e r ' s b e n e f i t . P h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n i s a n o t h e r a r e a o f c o n g r u e n c e f o r m u s i c and p o e t r y . A c o n s e q u e n c e o f K l o p s t o c k ' s word f e e t and B a c h ' s v a r i e g a t e d rhythms i s t h a t s y m m e t r i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f p h r a s e s i s m i n i m i z e d . The 83 i n t e r i o r c a e s u r a e t h a t f r a g m e n t K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c l i n e o c c u r i n v a r y i n g p o s i t i o n s , dependent upon n a t u r a l word e m p h a s i s . P h r a s e s c a n v a r y f rom a s i n g l e word to whole l i n e s and a r t i c u l a t i o n s marked e m p h a t i c a l l y as i s "Denn a c h , i c h s a h d i c h ! t r a n k d i e v e r g e s s e n h e i t (Gegenwart der Abwesenden, V e r s e 5, l i n e 1 ) , o r i n a more s u b t l e manner as i n " s e h e t , e r b l e i b t , das Gewolk w a l l t e n u r h i n " . ( D i e F r u h e n G r a b e r , V e r s e 1, l i n e 4 ) . L i k e w i s e B a c h ' s s ense o f p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n d e v e l o p e d f r o m h i s d e s i r e to f o l l o w t h e e m o t i o n a l i m p u l s e s o f h i s m u s i c . E x c e p t f o r the t h i r d movement, w h i c h i s b u i l t on a dance rhy thm and thus r e t a i n s a s t r o n g p e r i o d i c i t y n e c e s s a r y t o t h e s t y l e , p h r a s e l e n g t h s v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the ebb and f l o w o f e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n . The o p e n i n g s t a t e m e n t o f f i r s t movement, f o r example , c a n be a n a l y s e d i n terms o f r h y t h m i c b l o c k s , p a t t e r n e d i n a 4+3+2+3+3+3 r e l a t i o n s h i p (mm. 1 - 1 8 ) . S e q u e n t i a l r e p e t i t i o n , on w h i c h B a c h r e l i e s h e a v i l y f o r m e l o d i c e x t e n s i o n , p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r and l e n g t h o f p h r a s e s (a t y p i c a l Baroque t r a i t ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h i n p h r a s e s t h e m s e l v e s , one c a n o f t e n f i n d a sudden i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c a l l y c o n t r a s t i n g m a t e r i a l , s e v e r i n g t h e p h r a s e i n t o two p a r t s . A n example o f t h i s c a n be f o u n d i n mm. 2 6 - 3 0 , where the n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e I c h o r d t o the dominant s e v e n t h i s i n t e r r u p t e d b y a d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h f o l l o w e d b y a one -measure m e l o d i c f l o u r i s h b u i l t on a d e c e p t i v e c a d e n c e (Example 1 2 ) : 84 Example 12 - C . P . E . B a c h : Sonata in C major Wq.65 No. 16 mm. 2 6 - 3 0 . I n f a c t , m a j o r a r t i c u l a t i n g d e v i c e s s u c h as sudden s i l e n c e s and f e r m a t a s t e n d to o c c u r w i t h i n , n o t be tween , p h r a s e s , h e i g h t e n i n g t h e sense o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the m e l o d i c l i n e . The l a s t a r e a o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o be d e a l t w i t h h e r e c o n c e r n s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f r h e t o r i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and d e v i c e s . R h e t o r i c p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n b o t h B a c h ' s and K l o p s t o c k ' s w o r k s . B o t h o f the poems a r e , i n f a c t , p u r e r h e t o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t s r e l y i n g on f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n f o r h e i g h t e n e d e m o t i o n a l i s m . F o r example , h i s e n t r e a t y t o the moon and s u n i n Die frilhen Graber, i n w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e s t o t h o s e e l e m e n t s powers b e y o n d t h e scope o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , i s an example o f what Q u i n t i l i a n , i n h i s t r e a t i s e on r h e t o r i c , t e r m e d conformatio, meaning p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . 7 6 The s u r r e a l a t m o s p h e r e i s f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d b y f i g u r e s o f a d d i t i o n , a m p l i c a t i o n and e x c l a m a t i o n , as i n the o p e n i n g moment o f f e a r when t h e p o e t b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s b e i n g d e s e r t e d b y h i s " G e d a n k e n f r e u n d " . The f e i g n e d o u t b u r t s t h a t d i s p l a y h i s t e r r o r , a n example o f exclamatio, c r e a t e s an u n d e r c u r r e n t o f t e n s i o n and s e t s .the mood f o r the r e s t o f t h e poem.77 I n Gegenwart der 85 Abwesenden, f i g u r e s w h i c h v a r y the n o r m a l s y n t a x a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c s t y l e . The f i r s t two v e r s e s w i t h t h e i r p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f i n t e r j e c t i o n s , c a n be s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d as a series, o r a s e r i e s o f p h r a s e s w h i c h a r e i n c o m p l e t e u n t i l the f i r s t l i n e o f v e r s e 3 . A l s o , e v i d e n c e o f transgressio ( e f f e c t i v e word o r d e r changes ) and reduplicatio ( t o r e p e a t the l a s t word o f one p h r a s e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the n e x t ) a p p e a r s i n V e r s e 3: I c h h o r t e s c h o n Des A b s c h i e d s T h r a n e n am R o s e n b u s c h W e i n e n ! w e i n e n d e r T h r a n e n Stimme d i e S a i t e n h e r a b ! K l o p s t o c k c l e a r l y makes f u l l use o f r h e t o r i c a l means to a m p l i f y h i s e x p r e s s i v e p o t e n t i a l , t o the p o i n t t h a t even modern c r i t i c s c o m p l a i n o f h i s " s t r a i n e d and a r t i f i c i a l s t y l e " i n works t h a t seem "a lmos t comic i n t h e i r b a n a l i m a g e r y , t h e i r e x c e s s i v e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and t h e i r o v e r w r o u g h t e m o t i o n " . 7 8 The f u n c t i o n o f r h e t o r i c i n Emanual B a c h ' s s o n a t a i s a l i t t l e h a r d e r t o d e f i n e . C e r t a i n l y i n the Programm-Trio (Wq.161/1) Bach was d e l i b e r a t e l y t r a n s f e r r i n g a r h e t o r i c a l l y - c o n c e i v e d i n t e r c o u r s e i n t o m u s i c a l t e r m s . B u t t h i s a p p e a r s to be an i s o l a t e d example o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g one a r t f o r m i n t o a n o t h e r . Bach was a p p a r e n t l y n o t k e e n on t h i s and o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s t o make p r o n o u n c e d l i n k s be tween m u s i c and r h e t o r i c a l a r t . 7 9 W h i l e he r e c o g n i z e d the p a r a l l e l o f r h e t o r i c a l d i s c o u r s e t o m u s i c , he was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h c a p t u r i n g the e m o t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t y o f v e r b a l a r t t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e s , s y n t a x , and rhythms r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o t r a n s l a t e p a r t i c u l a r r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n t o m u s i c a l s o u n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n i n 86 h i s k e y b o a r d s o n a t a s c e r t a i n d e v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y c a n be f o u n d . The f i r s t and s e c o n d movements, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s e c o n d , c a n be s a i d to be s t r u c t u r e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f ellipsis--a t e rm r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e o f j u x t a p o s i n g c o n t r a s t i n g m u s i c a l p a s s a g e s , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , "an u n e x p e c t e d new d i r e c t i o n t a k e n b y a p a s s a g e t h a t has l e d up t o a n e x p e c t e d c o n c l u s i o n . " 8 0 Between measures 109-127 , tempo, t e x t u r e , and rhythms change t e n t i m e s , w i t h e a c h new m u s i c a l s t y l e l a s t i n g two o r t h r e e measures and s e p a r a t e d f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g m o t i o n b y t h e a r t i c u l a t i n g d e v i c e o f abruptio o r sudden s i l e n c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e B a c h ' s r a t h e r d i s j u n c t m e l o d i c s t y l e g i v e s r i s e t o i n s t a n c e s o f exclamatio , a n i n t e r v a l l i c f i g u r e ( u s u a l l y a l e a p up o r down o f more t h a n a m i n o r 6 t h ) t h a t evokes a f e e l i n g o f e m o t i o n a l s u r p r i s e ( t h e o p e n i n g m o t i v e , f o r e x a m p l e - - s e e example 7 a - - c o n t a i n s a d r a m a t i c p l u n g e i n the u p p e r p a r t s p a n n i n g o v e r two o c t a v e s ) . One c a n a l s o p o i n t to B a c h ' s h e a v y r e l i a n c e on s e q u e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t as c a s e s o f climax o r gradatio ( a f t e r B u r m e i s t e r ) a n d f r e q u e n t r e p e t i t i v e p a s s a g e s as palillogia ( a l s o a f t e r B u r m e i s t e r ) . F i n a l l y , i n a b r o a d e r s e n s e , the p e r v a d i n g mood o f the f i r s t two movements c a n o n l y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a model o f dubitatio, an o r a t o r i c a l f i g u r e ( a f t e r Q u i n t i l i a n ) d e s c r i b i n g h e s i t a t i o n o r u n c e r t a i n t y o f s e n t i m e n t . T h i s a t once h a r k s b a c k t o K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t i c manner , f o r i n t h e two examples u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n h e r e , the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f e m o t i o n a l temperament t a k e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s u g g e s t s doubt o r h e s i t a t i o n to t h e r e a d e r . A t any r a t e i t i s c l e a r t h a t B a c h was f a m i l i a r w i t h e x p r e s s i v e c o n c e p t s d e r i v e d f rom b o t h r h e t o r i c and p o e t r y , a n d , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g h i s d i s i n t e r e s t i n d i r e c t a n a l o g y , i n c o r p o r a t e d them u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n t o h i s m u s i c . 87 CONCLUSIONS The p r e s e n t s t u d y has s o u g h t t o d e f i n e t h e s t y l i s t i c i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between m u s i c and p o e t r y i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B e r l i n . I t has b e e n f o r m u l a t e d on the b a s i s o f the a e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f the p e r i o d - a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , on the u n i q u e c r e a t i v e a tmosphere c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the P r u s s i a n c i t y . I n an e n l i g h t e n e d age when r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d f o r a l l n a t u r a l phenomena, B e r l i n composers f o u n d a s o u r c e f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s i n the v e r b a l a r t s , w h i c h o f f e r e d a l o g i c a l i t y o f p u r p o s e and t e c h n i q u e . O f c o u r s e , once a g a i n , i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t b o t h m u s i c and p o e t r y were s u b j e c t to a b r o a d e r movement o f t h o u g h t , a r i s i n g o u t o f p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s s e n s e , a r t i s t s w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e n t i o n s , w o r k i n g t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t m e d i a , u s e d c u l t u r a l l y - s h a r e d imagery and themes t o p r o d u c e a n a l o g o u s e f f e c t s . However , b e c a u s e o f B e r l i n ' s r o l e i n l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , and the p a r t i c u l a r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f i t s m u s i c i a n s , a more c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e b y l i t e r a t u r e c a n be a s s e r t e d . A n a l o g o u s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s c a n , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , be a t t r i b u t e d to the c r i t i c a l awareness and u n c o n s c i o u s i m i t a t i o n o f German p o e t i c s t y l e b y c o m p o s e r s . The two m u s i c a l examples a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t y to p o e t i c t r e n d s a t the t ime o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n . B o t h Quantz and Emanuel Bach r e c e i v e d c r e a t i v e impetus f rom t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . The m u s i c examined h e r e r e f l e c t s an i n t e l l i g e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f p o e t i c s t a n d a r d s - - f r o m the p e r v a s i v e a f f e c t i v e e t h o s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e to 88 s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s u s e d b y p o e t s t o i n v i g o r a t e e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . To s a y t h a t t h e s e m u s i c i a n s were s i m p l y d u p l i c a t i n g the c u r r e n t p o e t i c s t y l e i n t h e i r own medium i s , o f c o u r s e , o v e r - s t e p p i n g the l i m i t s o f c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t . T h e r e i s enough e v i d e n c e , however , t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t b o t h B a c h a n d Q u a n t z r e c o g n i z e d the power o f p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n and s o u g h t to c a p t u r e i t s s p i r i t i n t h e i r m u s i c . 89 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I 1-Abbe Dubos , Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting and Music, t r a n s . Thomas N u g e n t , R e p r i n t e d f rom the 1748 London e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s I n c . , 1978) , V o l . 1, p . 372. 2 H James J e n s o n , The Muses' Concord, ( B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976) , p . 29. ^Johann G . S u l z e r , Allgemeine Theorie der schSnen Kunste ( 1 s t e d . B e r l i n , 1771-7'4), 2nd e d . , 4 v o l s . ( L e p z i g , 1792; f a c s i m i l e e d . , H i l d e s h e i m : George 01ms, 1967) , s . v . " I n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c . " ^ A l t h o u g h C h r i s t o p h W o l f f n o t e s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n o f musica poetica and m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c was d e e p l y i n g r a i n e d i n B a c h ' s m u s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , he m a i n t a i n s t h a t the composer was more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r a p u n t a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a n i n c r e a t i n g m u s i c a l d i s c o u r s e . See W a l t e r Emery and C h r i s o p h W o l f f , "Johann S e b a s t i a n B a c h , " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980) , 2, p p . 785-840. 5 R . H . Thomas, Poetry and Song in the German Baroque, ( O x f o r d : C l a r e d o n P r e s s , 1963) , p . 99. Thomas s t a t e s t h a t H a g e d o r n ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f a n a c r e o n t i c p o e t r y , Oden und Lieder (1740) marks a p o i n t o f c r i t i c a l change i n German p o e t r y . S i m i l a r l y , D a v i d S h e l d o n n o t e s t h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f an a c t u a l g a l a n t phase i n m u s i c o c c u r s a t m i d - c e n t u r y i n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e to German R o c c o c o p o e t r y . See "The G a l a n t S t y l e R e v i s i t e d and R e - e v l a t u a t e d , " Acta Musicologica 47 (1975) : 269. 6 S e e L . A . W i l l o u g h b y , The Classical Age of German Literature 1748-1805 (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1966) , p . 1 6 . ^ B r e w s t e r R o g e r s o n , "Ut musica poesis: The P a r a l l e l o f M u s i c and P o e t r y i n E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y C r i t i c i s m " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 5 ) . 8 B e l l a m y H o s i e r , Changing Aesthetic Views of Instrumental Music in 18th-century Germany (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1981) . ^ G l o r i a F l a h e r t y , Opera in the Development of German Critical Thought ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . l u F o r a b r i e f s t u d y o f the m a t h e m a t i c a l b a s i s t o m u s i c see A r t h u r L o c k e , " D e s c a r t e s and S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y M u s i c , " Musical Quarterly 21 (1935) : 4 2 3 - 4 3 1 . l i p . H . L a n g , Music in Western Civilization (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n & C o . I n c . , 1941 ) , p . 131. 12see J o h n A l e x a n d e r , "Ut musica poesis i n E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y A e s t h e t i c s , " English Miscellany 24 ( 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 ) , p . 131. 90 1 3 H o s l e r , o p . c i t . , p . 45 . i ^ j e n s e n , o p . c i t . , p . 45 . 1 5 D u b o s , o p . c i t . , p . 182. l ^ E . R . H a r r i s s , Johann Mattheson's "Der vollkommene Capellmeister"--A Revised Translation with Critical Commentary (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1981 ) , p . 13. l ^ B e n i t o R i v e r a , German Music Theory in the Early 17th Century--The Treatises of Johannes Lippius (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1974 ) , p . 170. 1&H.M. S c h e u l l e r , " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e s Between M u s i c and the S i s t e r A r t s , A c c o r d i n g to 1 8 t h C e n t u r y A e s t h e t i c T h e o r y , " Journal of Aesthetics 11 ( 1 9 5 2 / 5 3 ) : 334-359 . ! 9 s e e George Bue low, " R h e t o r i c and M u s i c , " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ( 1980) , 15 , p p . 793-803 . 2 0 A r i s t o t l e , The Politics, t r a n s . T . A . S i n c l a i r (Harmondsworth , M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1962) , p . 308-309 . 21B . H . B r o n s o n , "Some A s p e c t s o f M u s i c and L i t e r a t u r e ' " i n Facets of the Enlightenment ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973 ) , p . 108. 2 2 R . M . I s h e r w o o d , Music in the Service of the King--France in the Seventeenth Century ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973 ) , p . 70 . 23rjean Mace , " M a r i n Mersenne on Language and M u s i c , " Journal of Music Theory 14 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 . 2 4 F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the n a t u r e o f the 1 7 t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h academies see F r a n c e s Y a t e s , The French Academies in the Sixteenth Century ( L o n d o n : W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , 1947) , p p . 275-316 . 2 5 F l a h e r t y , o p . c i t . , p . 190. 26nubos , o p . c i t . , V o l . 3 , p . 2. 2 7 i b i d . , p . 1 1 . 2 8 i b i d . , p . 21 . 2 9 i b i d . , V o l . 1, p . 386. 3 0 i b i d . 91 31lbid. , p . 61 . 3 2 i b i d . , p . 362. 3 3 i b i d . , V o l . 3 , p . 35. 3 A H a r r i s s , o p . c i t . , p . 250. 3 5 i b i d . , p . 406 . 3 6 i b i d . , p . 291. 3 7 i b i d . , p . 170. 3 8 i b i d . , p . 451 . 3 9 i b i d . , p . 344. 4 0 H . J . S e r w e r , " F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m M a r p u r g ( 1 7 1 8 - 9 5 ) : M u s i c C r i t i c i n a G a l a n t A g e , " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 ) , p . 186. ^ l R e n e W e l l e c k , History of Modern Criticism: 1750-1950 ( L o n d o n : J o n a t h a n C a p e , 1955) , p . 39. P o r t n o y , The Philosopher and Music (New Y o r k : Da Capo P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 150. ^ A l e x a n d e r A l t m a n n , Moses Mendelssohn--A Biographical Study (A labama: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a b a m a P r e s s , 1973) , p . 129. 4 4 M e n d e l s s o h n a l s o w r o t e an a r t i c l e on k e y b o a r d temperament . See W o l f g a n g Suppan , "Moses M e n d e l s s o h n und D i e M u s i k a ' s t h e t i k des 18 . J a h r h u n d e r t s , " Die Musikforschung X V I I (1964) : 24. 4 5 i b i d . , p . 122. "Die M u s i k k a n n g e r a d e z u m i t d e r P o e s i e v e r b u n d e n w e r d e n , j a i h r e r e r s t e n Bert immung n a c h s o i l s i e e i g e n t l i c h n u r d i e P o e s i e z u r U n t e r s t u t z u n g d i e n e n . Daher muss d i e K u n s t d e r M u s i k n i e m a l s so s e h r u b e r t r i e b e n w e r d e n , dass s i e d e r P o e s i e zum N a c h t t e i l g e r e i c h e , und w i r t a d e l n d i e n e u e r e M u s i k m i t R e c h t , d a s s i h r e K u n s t e l e i e n s i c h m i t k e i n e r w o h l k l i n g e n d e n P o e s i e v e r t r a g e n . " 4 6 i b i d . , p . 120. "What i s o p e r a anyway f o r most o f the a u d i e n c e b e s i d e s a b e a u t i f u l i n s t r u m e n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n ? " 49james U p t o n , " L e s s i n g as M u s i c C r i t i c , " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t A u s t i n , 1968 ) , p . 25 . 5 0 i n Hamburgische Dramaturgie ( J u l y 31, 1767) : V , 127, c i t e d f rom F l a h e r t y , o p . c i t . , p . 228. 5 1 S e e H o s i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 139. 5 2 i b i d . , p . 140. 5 3 u p t o n , o p . c i t . , p . 25. 5 4 i b i d . , p . 30 . 93 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I I c h a r l e s B a t t e u x , Les beaux-arts reduits a un meme principe ( P a r i s , 1746 ) , P a r t 33 , S e c t i o n 3, C h a p t e r 3 . C i t e d f rom P e t e r l e H u r a y and James Day , e d . , Music and Aesthetics in the Eighteenth Centuryu and Early-Nineteenth Centuries ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1981 ) , p . 52 . 2 F l a h e r t y , op . c i t . , p . 217. S z e n c z i , "The M i m e t i c P r i n c i p l e i n L a t e r E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y C r i t i c i s m , " i n Studies in Eighteenth Century Literature ( B u d a p e s t : A k a d e m i a i K i a d o , 1974 ) , p . 23. ^Rene D e s c a r t e s , Discourse on Method, and Meditations, t r a n s . L . A . L a f l e u r (New Y o r k : L i b e r a l A r t s P r e s s , 1960) . ^ H o s i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 73 . ^ H . M . S c h u e l l e r , " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between M u s i c and t h e S i s t e r A r t s , A c c o r d i n g t o 1 8 t h C e n t u r y A e s t h e t i c T h e o r y , " Journal of Aesthetics 11 ( 1 9 5 2 / 5 3 ) : 334 -35 . 7w.G. W a i t e , " B e r n a r d Lamy, R h e t o r i c i a n o f the P a s s i o n s , " i n Studies in Eighteenth Century Music--A Tribute to Karl Geiringer, e d . H . C . R o b b i n s L a n d o n ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1970) , p . 390. 8 I b i d . , p . 392. 9 j . P . K i r n b e r g e r , The Art of S t r i c t Musical Composition, T r a n s . D. B e e c h and J u r g e n Thym (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s ' i t y h P r e s s , 1982 ) , p . 347 -48 . 1 ° L L i p k i n g . The Ordering of the Arts in Eighteenth-Century England ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970) , p . 222. H p M a l l a m , An Approach to Poetry ( L o n d o n : Methuen & C o . L t d . , 1929) , p . 13. 1 2 J . G . S u l z e r , o p . c i t . , s . v . " M e l o d i e , " c i t e d f rom B . H o s i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 153 . 1 3 j o h n R. E d w a r d s , " C h r i s t i a n G o t t f r i e d K r a u s e : M e n t o r o f t h e F i r s t B e r l i n Song S c h o o l , " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1973 ) , p . 70 . r n b e r g e r , o p . c i t . , p . 375. 1 5 i b i d . 94 1 6 I b i d . , p . 404 . 1 7 I b i d . , p . 410. l ^ F . W . M a r p u r g , Kritische Briefe uber die Tonkunst, 2 V o l . , f a c s i m i l e o f B e r l i n 1760 e d . (New Y o r k : G e o r g 01ms V e r l a g , 1974 ) , V o l . I , p . 4 9 4 - 9 6 . l ^ i b i d . , p . 496 . "e ine v e r z o g n e n D a c t y l u s . " 20xh e B e r l i n composer Q u a n t z , who d e v o t e d a c h a p t e r on o r n a m e n t a t i o n i n h i s t r e a t i s e on the f l u t e , saw t h a t d e c o r a t i v e f i g u r e s o r " g r a c e s " were e s s e n t i a l f o r m u s i c to become p a s s i o n a t e e x p r e s s i o n : " S i n c e m u s i c s h o u l d now r o u s e the p a s s i o n s , now s t i l l them a g a i n , the u t i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f t h e s e g r a c e s i n a p l a i n and u n a d o r n e d melody i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . " J . J . Q u a n t z , On Playing the Flute, t r a n s , by Edward R e i l l y ( L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r L t d . , 1966) , p . 98. 21See f o r example H . U n g e r , Die Beziehungen zwischen Musik und Rhetorik im 16. - 18. Jahrhundert ( W u r z b u r g : K o n r a d T r i l t i s c h V e r l a g , 1 9 4 1 ) . 2 2 M a l l a m , op . c i t . , p . 11 . 2 3 c a l v i n Brown, J r . , "The P o e t i c Use o f M u s i c a l F o r m s , " Musical Quarterly 30 (1944) ; 87. 24james A . W i n n , Unsuspected Eloquence: A History of the Relations between Poetry and Music (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981) , p . 215. 2 5 R 0 g e r s o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 57 -58 . 2 6 j o h n A . J o n e s , "The A n a l o g y o f E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y M u s i c and P o e t r y : Bach and P o p e , " Centennial Review 21 (1977) : 223-24 . 2 7 B r o w n , o p . c i t . , p p . 93 -100 . 2 8 i b i d . , m p . 92. 2 9 j . b i d . , p . 93 -94 . 3 u J o n e s , o p . c i t . , p . 224. ^ B e r n a r d Frum, "An E a r l y Example o f D r a m a t i c P r o c e d u r e s i n 1 8 t h C e n t u r y K e y b o a r d M u s i c , " Musical Quarterly 56 (1970) : 230-246 . 3 2 i b i d . , p . 232. 3 3 I b i d . , p . 235. 95 3 4 I b i d . , p . 230. 35ihomas H i n t o n , " F u g a l P r i n c i p l e s and German Baroque P o e t r y , " German Life and Letters 13 (1959) : 126. 36firown, o p . c i t . , p . 89. 3 7 G . L . Raymond, Rhythm and Harmony in Poetry and Music--Together with Music as a Representative Art (New Y o r k : G . P . Putnam's S o n s , 1904) , p . 170. 3 8 K i r n b e r g e r , op . c i t . , p . 109. 3 9 i b i d . , p . 111. ^ O i b i d . , p . 405 . 4 i l b i d . , p . 404 . 96 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I I I w i l l o u g h b y , The Classical Age of German Literature, p . 31 . 2 l b i d . , p . 13. 3 v i c t o r L a n g e , The Classical Age of German Literature ( L o n d o n : Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1982) , p . 45 . ^ e x c e r p t t a k e n f rom A . Menhennet , Order and Freedom - Literature and Society in Germany from 1720 to 1805 (London - W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1973 ) , p . 94. 5 R . M . B r o w n i n g , German Poetry in the Age of the Enlightenment - From Brockes to Klopstock ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) , p . 85. ^ W i l l o u g h b y , op . c i t . , p . 33. ^Theodore Z i o l k o w s k i , "Language and M i m e t i c i n L e s s i n g ' s Miss Sara Sampson," The Germanic Review (November 1965) : 271. 8 w i l l o u g h b y , op . c i t . , p . 18. 9 L a n g e , o p . c i t . , p . 48 . l ^ B r o w n i n g , op . c i t . , p . 197. H e x c e r p t t a k e n from Der Messias ( B e r l i n : W a l t e r d e r G r u y l e r , 1974) , p . 56 . 1 2 B r o w n i n g , o p . c i t . , p . 203. 13Menhennet , o p . c i t . , p . 122. 1 4 - F l a h e r t y , op . c i t . , p . 167 15Edwards , o p . c i t . , p . 4 7 . 1 6 I b i d . , p . 64. l ? I b i d . , p . 58. 18R H i n t o n Thomas, P o e t r y and Song in the German Baroque ( O x f o r d : C l a r e d o n P r e s s , 1963 ) , p . 109. l ^ E d w a r d s , o p . c i t . , p . 70 . 2 0 M u s i c and t r a n s l a t i o n t a k e n from E d w a r d s , o p . c i t . , m u s i c , p . 172, t e x t t r a n s l a t e d , p . 220. 97 2 l T h e r e f e r e n c e to " U r s i n " i n V e r s e 2 p o s s i b l y means e i t h e r T h e a d o r e C h r i s t o p h U r s i n (1702-1748) o r J o h a n n H e i n r i c h U r s i n ( 1 6 0 8 - 1 6 6 7 ) , b o t h b e i n g t h e o l o g i a n s who w r o t e books on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g and n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n . See the National Union Catalogue - Pre 1956 Imprints, V o l . 626 (New Y o r k : M a n s e l l P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 196 -199 . 2 2 M a t t h e s o n , f o r example , u se s the a n a l o g y o f a m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e f o r m e r b e i n g v o c a l m u s i c and the l a t t e r i n s t r u m e n t a l . He u r g e d t h e d a u g h t e r "to a d j u s t h e r s e l f a f t e r h e r m o t h e r l y p r e c e p t s as b e s t p o s s i b l e , t o make e v e r y t h i n g b e a u t i f u l l y s i n g e a b l e and f l o w i n g , so t h a t one m i g h t h e a r whose c h i l d she i s . " Der vollkommene Capellmeister, o p . c i t . , p . 419 . 23NO f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s work . Q u a n t z w r o t e o v e r 20 f l u t e c o n c e r t o s i n G M a j o r , most b e i n g a p a r t o f F r e d e r i c k ' s m u s i c c o l l e c t i o n and h o u s e d i n the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek and a t the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz i n B e r l i n . 2 4 S e e J . J . Q u a n t z . On Playing the Flute I n t r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n b y Edward R e i l l y ( L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r L t d . , 1966) , x x v i i . 25 Versuch einer Anweisung die FTote traversiere zu spielen ( B e r l i n , 1752) . 2 6 R u d o l f S c h a f k e , "Quantz a l s A s t h e t i k e r , " Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft V I (1924) : 213. 2 7 S ee Edward R e i l l y , Quantz and his *Versuchy, A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y - S t u d i e s and Documents No. 5 (New Y o r k : The A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y I n c . , 1971) . 28see R e i l l y , Quantz and h i s *Versuch\ f o r a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f Q u a n t z ' s use o f the r i t o r n e l l o f o r m . 2 9 D a v i d S h e l d o n , "The G a l a n t S t y l e R e v i s i t e d and R e - e v a l u a t e d , " Acta Musicologica 47 (1975) : 251. 30ibid. , p . 269. 3 1 R e i l l y , Quantz and his yVersuch1, p . 259. 32xhis example and a l l o t h e r examples u s e d h e r e o f t h i s c o n c e r t o a r e d e r i v e d f r o m Concerto in sol maggiore per flauto, archi e continuo, a r r a n g e d and e d i t e d b y O l i v e r Nagy, Boosey & Hawkes M u s i c P u b l i s h e r s L t d . ( L o n d o n : E d i t i o M u s i c a B u d a p e s t , 1969 . ) 33see Q u a n t z , On Playing the Flute; p . 125. 3^H L e n n e b e r g , "Johann M a t t h e s o n on A f f e c t and R h e t o r i c i n M u s i c , " Journal of Music Theory I I (1958) : 235. 98 3 5 S ee f o r example L e o p o l d M o z a r t , A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing, t r a n s , b y E d i t h a K n o c k e r ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948) : 50. 3 6 A Menhennet , Order and Freedom--Literature and Society in Germany from 1720 to 1805 ( L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1973 ) , p . 97 . 37Lawrence K r a m e r , Music and Poetry: The Nineteenth Century and After ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1984) : 10 . 38see t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Q u a n t z ' s Sei Duetti a due Flauti Traversi (1759) q u o t e d i n E . R e i l l y , " F u r t h e r M u s i c a l Examples f o r Q u a n t z ' s Versuch," Journal of the American Musicological Society 17 (1964 ) : 160. 3 9 F r u m . , o p . c i t . , p . 232. 4 0 L R a t n e r , " E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y T h e o r i e s o f M u s i c a l P e r i o d S t r u c t u r e , " Musical Quarterly No. 4 (1956) : 441 . 41-For M a t t h e s o n , the i a m b i c f o o t i s " m o d e r a t e l y g a y . I t i s n e i t h e r o f a f l i g h t y n o r o f a r u n n i n g q u a l i t y . " See L e n n e b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 233. 4 2 B r o w n i n g , o p . c i t . , p . 101. 4 3 j o n e s , o p . c i t . , p . 213. 4 4 L e n n e b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 233. 4 5 q U O t e d i n R a t n e r , op . c i t . , p . 440. ^New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 15, p . 802. 47see Lee S o n n i n o . A Handbook to Sixteenth-Century Rhetoric, ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1968) . ^New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 15 , p . 795-796 . 49D . S c h u l e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 16. 50Eugene H e l m , " C a r l P h i l i p p Emanuel B a c h , " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ( 1980) , 1, 844-863 . 5 1 l b i d . 52Q. S c h u l e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 10 . 5 3 S ee Hans Meersman, " E i n P r o g r a m m t r i o K a r l P h i l i p p Emanuel B a c h s , " Bach-Jahrbuch 14 (1917) : 137-170 . 99 54see P h i l i p B a r f o r d ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s work i n "A F a n t a s i a b y C . P . E . B a c h , " Monthly Musical Record 85 (1955) : 144-150 . 5 5 s c h u l e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 140. 5 6 T h i s and a l l s u b s e q u e n t examples o f B a c h ' s s o n a t a have b e e n t a k e n f r o m Six Sonatas for Keyboard by C.P.E. Bach, e d i t e d b y P h i l p F r i e d h e i m , (New Y o r k : G a l a x y M u s i c C o r p . , 1967) . 5 7 S e e W. Newman, The Sonata in the Classic Era ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1963) , p p . 4 2 0 - 2 1 . 5 8 i b i d . , p . 428 . 5 9 P . B a r f o r d , The Keyboard Music of C.P.E. Bach (New Y o r k : O c t o b e r House I n c . , 1965 ) , p . 107. 6 0 s c h u l e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 11 . 61from B a c h ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , c i t e d i n Newman, o p . c i t . , p . 422 . 6 2 I b i d . , p . 428 . 6 3 s c h u l e n b e r g , op . c i t . , p . 18. 6 4 P . B a r f o r d , The Keyboard Music of C.P.E. Bach (New Y o r k : O c t o b e r House I n c . , 1965 ) , p . 107. 6 5 s r o w n i n g , German Poetry, p . 283. 6 6 n i e Gegenwart der Abwesenden c i t e d f rom Browning, op. c i t . , p. 225; Die Fruhen Graben and t r a n s l a t i o n was c i t e d f r o m An Anthology of German Poetry Through the 19th Century, 2nd e d i t i o n A l e x a n d e r Gode and F r e d e r i c k U n g a r . (New Y o r k : F . Ungar P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1972 ) , p . 32. 6 7 f i a r f o r d c a l l s i t the " g e n e r a t i o n - e x t e n s i o n " p r i n c i p l e , where g e n e r a t i o n r e f e r s t o f o c a l p o i n t o f f e e l i n g s i n the m u s i c and e x t e n s i o n comes w i t h " E l a b o r a t i o n s " o r c o n t r a s t s o f theme o r key w h i c h s u r r o u n d the p o i n t s o f g e n e r a t i o n . See B a r f o r d , " F a n t a s i a " , o p . c i t . , p . 148. 68see p . 39 . 6 9 s c h u l e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p . 18. 70 from C . 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