Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Music's debt : a study of poetic influence in mid-eighteenth century German instrumental music Jang, Laurie 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1988_A8 J36.pdf [ 4.78MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0097713.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097713-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097713-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097713-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097713-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097713-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097713-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

MUSIC'S DEBT: A STUDY OF POETIC INFLUENCE IN MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY GERMAN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC  BY  LAURIE JANG  B.Music,  The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS IN  THE t'£&UUFG\ OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  to the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY  as  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  SEPTEMBER, @ L a u r i e Jang,  1988 1988  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his  or  her  representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  MoS'C  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  QCTO&feg  t ^ J  ii  ABSTRACT  The technique  aim  of  this  and a e s t h e t i c  study  is  i n poetry  examine  and music  as  of  toward  rational  enquiry,  the  re-affirmation of  imitation,  and a r e t u r n to  the  ideal  theorists  and composers  the  made  "sister"  arts  between  achieved  their  their  "problem"  of  poetry  music--i.e.,  for  aesthetic  music's  intrinsic  qualities  such  composers  aesthetic  and M e n d e l s s o h n ,  a unique  and meaning o f  and  too  cognitive  The c o n s e q u e n c e s in  the  that  far  apart,  of  development  of  these of  the  of  lack of and  a medium o f  art.  since  debate  classical  a poetic  that text  musical the  music  ideas  on B e r l i n  lied.  In this  trend  the  human  to  a  consanguinity  analogies  methods  of  18th-century  by which  were they  passions.  The  content--became re-evaluation  especially  a of  susceptible  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the on  times  to  style,  expression.  Two m a j o r p o i n t s  a n d 2)  With  arts,  semantic  led  the  Led by w r i t e r / c r i t i c s L e s s i n g ,  critical  1)  power  its  discussion as  the  and the  imitation  of  A r i s t o t e l i a n theory  particular,  l i t e r a r y renaissance  significance  had s t r a y e d  the  developments.  wide-spread  were  of  the  a union of  In  to  1740-1760.  w o r k i n g i n m i d - c e n t u r y were  generating  literati  of  expression  textless  issue  to  of  goal  primary  in Berlin  and m u s i c .  materials  pertains  again preoccupied with  ultimate  of  Berlin  once  correspondences  it  and works  were  centered  the  thought  of  composers  to  the  matters of  especially  of  new m u s i c a l  is  was  concerning  the  among  poetry  needed  remain a v i a b l e composers  city  discussion  arts  artistic  which  the  and music  the  immediately  genre  Nicolai,  support medium. apparent  achieved  iii  great  popularity  considered in  their  beliefs  technique is  not  rationalists' and a s s e s s  and methodry. as  easily  music  works w i l l  illustrate  expression  assumed  hopes  clarify  instrumental this  period.  While i t  of  role  the  in art  century B e r l i n ' s  Quantz and  C.P.E.  that  of  music  musical  and  their  to  aesthetic,  Bach composed  the  develop of  their  materials This  and music  of  study  through  and  of  tones  force,  art.  two  aesthetic  An a n a l y s i s  poetry lied  these  composers  technique,  were  gap b e t w e e n t h e  expressive  criteria.  between  music  instrumental  led  creation  and  of  undisputed  structure,  relationship  J.J.  in  poetic  i n the  the  impact  indeterminate  i n terms poetic  close  text  the  was  meaning  mid-eighteenth  works by  However,  some  a primary the  worked to  concrete  that  through  discernible  Berlin.  demand f o r  of  expression  composers  contained  their  examination  as  century  themselves  to  Berlin,  synonymous  mid-eighteenth in  in  an  selected  in Berlin  during  iv  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v  " Chapter  I.  INTRODUCTION:  A E S T H E T I C BACKGROUND TO M I D - E I G H T E E N T H CENTURY POETRY  II.  III.  FORM,  EXPRESSION,  AND PURPOSE  POETRY AND MUSIC  1  IN MUSIC  COMPARED: ANALYSES  CONCLUSIONS  FOOTNOTES  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  . . .  22  OF S E L E C T E D  MUSICAL AND POETIC WORKS  IV.  AND POETRY  AO  87  89  101  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r e x p r e s s e s t h a n k s t o a l l t h o s e who h a v e s u p p o r t e d h e r w i t h t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i l e t h i s w o r k was b e i n g w r i t t e n . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s who have helped in countless ways to make the completion of this thesis possible. The w r i t e r a l s o e x t e n d s h e r g r a t i t u d e t o Y v o n n e a n d Bob L u k a s for their willingness and flexibility in the arduous t a s k o f t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t . F i n a l l y the author g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r thanks to her committee a d v i s o r D r . Gregory B u t l e r , f o r a l l h i s patience and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o v e r t h e y e a r s , and whose kind assistance made what s e e m e d a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k much e a s i e r .  1  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION: A E S T H E T I C BACKGROUND TO M I D - E I G H T E E N T H CENTURY B E R L I N  When sur  la  the  poesie  et  govern music  are  articulating  a  aesthetic  associated  art.  By  precept still of  forms  of  theorists  to  literary  aspect  and  itself musical voice.  would  art  logic  h a d come tones  to  at  the  fifty  that he  1  In  thought  to  expression.  It  an e x p r e s s i v e above  all  element but  its  and purpose "pleasant  part  noise"-*.  parallels  a kind  observations  of  accent early  It  was  obvious however,  for  they the  two  the  and  inflections  eighteenth  to  most  dialogue,  century  part easy  of  the  pitch,  that  music  with the  had for  for  of  fact  or  pitch  were a b l e  arts,  discourse  poetry, to  correlations was  of  in  directly  relatively the  not  definitive meaning  appeal  soul"2,  between  out  importantly,  the  the  o n a medium w h i c h  music brought  s e e n as  of  to  the  music  lacked  and t e c h n i q u e  ability  a  evaluation  that  demanded c l a r i t y o f  of  "reasonable  agreed  in  broach  comparative  was  of  years.  dominated by r a t i o n a l i s t i c of  was  heart  theorists  form because  More  lie  next  aesthetics  imitating  From t h e s e  allow  principles  and p a i n t i n g " ,  would the  critiques  century  immediate  be  that  of  of vocal  basic  govern poetry  principles  the  rhythm.  "the  Reflexions  eighteenth  thinkers  the  draw  that  i n Germany f o r  contained  a sense  that  principle  w i t h words  a higher  publication,  i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c b y means  s e e m e d n o t h i n g more t h a n  meter  those  artistic  applying  1719  observed  of  understanding,  impose  to  on music  and r a t i o n a l i s t  considered the  this  in his  peinture,  fundamental  question  other  powers,  la  similar  and l o c a l i t y  aesthetic with  sur  discussion  particular, period  A b b e Dubos  the human  theorists  in  2  Germany  were  able  literary  principles  to  develop  rather  In p r a c t i c e , slow  contrapuntal  complexities,  language  found i n the  reconcilable the  next  with  few  treatises  to  the  art  forms  German  1750's  to  social  a body o f  and to  is  music  as  poetic  with  the  of  the on  not  easily Yet  in  g r o w i n g number  of  were  to  a closer  the  or  technical  language.^  i n the  of  of  The emphasis  B a c h was  composition  1740's in  music.  and J . S .  a perception  reflected  third  ornateness  reiteration  By t h e  coincides  of  on words  music.  first  related  u n i o n between  homogeneous n a t u r e  new a p p r o a c h t o  a s i m i l a r change  undertake  life  B e r l i n was  by  Certain  the  present of  the  study poetic  is  to  style  factors  of  investigate  the  current  the  m i l i e u at  characterizing  m i d - c e n t u r y make i t  an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y .  outside  philosophers  possible  the  in  i n s t r u m e n t a l works p r o d u c e d by B e r l i n  cultural  just  of  of  and a e s t h e t i c  situated  poets,  that  of  that  developing.  i n music  same p e r i o d .  which  continued  music  on p u r e  i n the  and  Fux, Handel of  music based  founded  new d o c t r i n e  ideals  principles  thought  focus  technique  this  was  of  of  form,  of  style  direction  in  poetry.5  The of  works  indicates  and p o e t i c  and f u n c t i o n  this  harmonic v a r i e t y  the  that  composition  musical  reflect  decades  poetic two  than an a e s t h e t i c  contemporary  on music  aesthetic  German i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c  c e n t u r y was  as  an  the  city  at  Potsdam,  being  stimulated  and  musicians,  keen  interest  the  constantly whose  the  composers  Prussian  with  the  intellectual  and  during  capitol's  royal  and  in  court  cultural  internationally-renowned  presence  and generous  1740's  an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e  First,  by  relationship  at  patronage  court of  the  was  made  enlightened  3  king  Frederick  renaissance  II  headed  (1712-86).  Moreover  by  writer/critics  Berlin  a  Friedrich  N i c o l a i a n d M o s e s M e n d e l s s o h n was  activity  in  Poets,  the  painters  meetings  of  efforts study,  science the  was  under  result  of  the  royal  relative  the  spell  of  exercised  by  this  hopes  French  exposure,  the  king,  to  of  theories.  In a d d i t i o n to  As  a  writers  result,  concept  of  comparative  principles  applicable  large  of  for  body  the  most  hoped t h a t will  to  transitional  there  a  been  the  of  its  proper  worth  phase  i n the  history  composed  arts  of  serve music.  this  and  and  and  as  new  a  the  development thought.6  As  brand  of  aesthetic  matters.  which  the  contains  Finally,  during these years  shed  in  artists,  which r e i n f o r c e s  trivial.  musical-poetic to  for  artistic  dismissed  from a  current  rationalistic  investigation.  in Berlin  the  largely  Berlin's  on  survives  the  or often  music  of  was  artistic  schools  say  at  m a j o r German u r b a n  c u l t u r a l l i b e r a l i s m and  between  and  of  art.  city  mannerisms,  framework f o r  musical-poetic  this  the  F r e n c h m a n Dubos a n d h i s  h a d much t o  overlooked  debate  intellectuals and  of  discuss  This  control  c r i t i c a l material  i n s t r u m e n t a l works part  culture  critical  significance  any o t h e r  French  tight  was  city's  to  equal  more p r o g r e s s i v e  it  analysis  a reassessment  reveal  the  of  of  p r o v i d e d the  centered  a wealth  the  other  illustrate,  rationalism that  court  to  aesthetic  rationalism.  language,  due  enlightened  inclination,  at  than  Lessing,  viability  o r i e n t a t i o n marking  more  French  Ephraim  the  formed  and o f  literary  wide-spread  to  were drawn i n t o  philosophical  predominance  lack of  reference  Secondly,  German  Gotthold  fostering  societies  Berlin,  imposition of  study  alike  and a r t .  decades.  center,  with  intellectual  conservative  these middle  the  especially  and musicians  important  in is  city,  uniquely  the has  It  is  perspective  light  on  this  4  A l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c  b e  t h e  t h e  D u b o s ,  c e n t u r y .  a l o n g  i s  w h i c h  s p e c i f i c  a p p r o a c h  B e l l a m y  German  c e n t u r y  d i s c o u r s e ,  f r o m  w h i l e  t h e  l a t t e r  m u s i c  i  t h e  t o p i c  w h i c h  a r e  d e v e l o p m e n t .  f a i l  T h e  s t u d i e s  t o  p a r t  g o a n d  o n e  o f  t h e o r y  a  t h o u g h t , t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  o n  t h e  j o i n i n g i  H o w e v e r ,  t h e  in  t  t h e  t h e  a n d  a n d  a l l  a p p l y  e i g h t e e n t h  d i s c u s s i o n  o t h e r  t h e  w o r k s  p e r s p e c t i v e  the  in  Development  i  a r t s  of  ns t r a n d s o o f  o f  B e r l i n  m u s i c  f as  m u s i c ,  p o e t r y  a n d  a e s t h e t i c as  a  c e n t e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  a e s t h e t i c  c e n t u r y  a r e  Music  G e r m a n o f  n t h e  a m b i g u o u s  fi n s t r u m e n t a l  w i t h  i m p o r t a n c e  i  r e c e n t  t h e o r i e s  t w o  o f  e x p o u n d e d  o f t e n  o t i e  o  nc o n t e x t  t h e s e  f u r t h e r  Opera  o f  a s  f u r t h e r  n a r r o w  t h e  t h o u g h t ,  l a t e  m o r e  p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f  b e g i n n i n g  a r t  f o r  M u s i c  t h e  Instrumental  a t t e m p t s  o f  r a t i o n a l i s t  T w o  of  B r e w s t e r  w o r k ,  f r o m  o f  t o p i c  e a r l y  d i f f i c u l t ,  m o r e  t h i s i s  p a r a l l e l i s m  e n q u i r y .  f o r m e r  o f  a r t s  n t h e p o e t i c  P a r a l l e l  t h i s  F r e n c h  F l a h e r t y ' s  a c k n o w l e d g e  p a r c e l  T h e  Views  c e n t u r y  s t e p  poesis:  t h e  f r o m  t o  p r e s e n t e d  s p r i n g b o a r d  a e s t h e t i c  G l o r i a  f o c u s e s  i n v a l u a b l e  a r t i s t i c  t h e  Aesthetic  e i g h t e e n t h B o t h  o f  f i n d i n g s  s t a n d p o i n t  w o r k  musica  o  c e n t u r y  l u c i d l y  p a r t i c u l a r l y  p r o v i d e s  a n d  a n d  e x p r e s s i v e  t h i s  o f  w o r k s  b e t w e e n  d o n e  o e i g h t e e n t h  C r i t i c i s m . I n  a n  a e s t h e t i c  t h e  nt h e  a e s t h e t i c  i t  Thought.9  p h i l o s o p h y .  o f  Changing  Critical  "Ut  n o t i o n  o f  R o g e r s o n ' s  Germany,&  e i g h t e e n t h  o f  a n d  t  f o r m u l a t i o n  c e n t u r y  a v e n u e s  H o s i e r ' s  18th-century  t h e  s t u d y  a d m i r a b l e  m o r e  e x t e n s i v e  C e n t u r y  s i g n s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  m o s t  a n d  f i r s t  R o g e r s o n ' s  s u b j e c t  m u s i c  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s  c e n t u r y  t h e  op r e v i o u s  d i s s e r t a t i o n ,  e i g h t e e n t h  t o  m o r e  T h e  t h e  s e v e n t e e n t h  n  f B e r l i n ' s  E i g h t e e n t h  t r a c e s  t h r o u g h b y  i n  b e e n  o f  h e r e .  d o c t o r a l  P o e t r y  a u t h o r  o  a n u m b e r  n o t e d  R o g e r s o n s ' s a n d  h a s  a f f i n i t y  d e v e l o p m e n t s , s h o u l d  t h e r e  i n t o  p r i n c i p l e s ,  c o m p o s e r ' s  c r e a t i v e  5  process, to his music. comparative  analysis  The present study w i l l take of  this  step  through  a  poetic and musical elements in selected works by  Berlin composers.  A consideration of century  Berlin  the  aesthetic  temperament  made between the arts of poetry and music. their  humanistic  desire  enquiry into the fine arts. knowledge,  mid-eighteenth  must begin with a brief look at the rationalist philosophy  of art in the seventeenth century and, in particular,  with  of  must  have  at  early  analogies  Critics in the "age of reason",  to catalogue knowledge, began a systematic  They concluded that art, like a l l branches  logic and be reducible to a system of investigation  that yielded results, in the same way a mathematical equation, seen as most  perfect  the  symbol of man's understanding, may be solved.10 The emphasis  on reason as the basis for artistic evaluation led to the establishment a  of  of  hierarchy of art founded on a medium's ability to express concrete ideas  and actions.  Poetry, which could instruct man about human nature and moral  values as well as delight him through an order and regularity of form, considered  the  highest  of  inferior position by the symbols  [of  reality]  arts;  dictates as  pure  pure of  music  reason  abstraction  was  was relegated to the most because  not  it  bound by  "presents  the  any concrete  content."11 Although i t was conceded that something was being said, musical tones in themselves had no definitive power. more  to the senses than to the intellect,  a r t i s t i c assessment was clarity of verbal art.  Music,  throughout  appealed  and because the main precept for  meaning, the  Expression in music  it  could  seventeenth  not  compete  century,  subordinate to and was measured by the criteria of its superior.  with  remained  6  The to  were  art  forms.  the  of  so  Seventeenth  rules  these  arts  and t h a t music  in poetry),  and  and from  two a r t s .  produced s i m i l a r  effects  the  the  other  desire  important  concepts  provided  theorists  between  w h i c h became  shared similar arts  to  revive  acquired with  discourse  articulated  form,  from  the  Aristotle  advocated on the  grounds  that  discourse;  2)  and  inflection. music  are  expression  In other words, analogous.  inflections  of  that  Early  and  during  sounds  of  the  human  could imitate  are a s s o c i a t e d  with  effect  i n speech;  correspond-- i n paragraphs, themes,  the  discourse  etc.,  movements.  while  the  Thus  the  structural  music  did  of  beleved  units  music  in a  that  perspective, between  philosophy, Two  ancient  Greeks  interrelationship a form  of  speech  theory").13  First  "speech"  continuity  of  voice the  create  was  form  a  and  accents  those  of  and p i t c h  thoughts  and  i n music the  same  each communication system  composer a r r a n g e s words,  composer  the  particular  r h y t h m a n d tempo c o u l d b e m a n i p u l a t e d t o even  (as  establishing  same  musical in  part,  and music depend upon t o n a l  emotions; as  of  utterance  moving  the  antiquity.  m u s i c as  Plutarch,  most  parallels  f o r m u l a t i n g the  notion of  tones  the  of  poesis  the  thought  i n both language  Musical  language  for  tones  for  d e r i v e d from c l a s s i c a l  "passionate  1)  the  from  theorists  effect  pictura  means.!2  artistic  the  Cicero,  and  neo-classicists  when v i e w e d  were  the  l e d many  justification for  The  grounds  this  ut  power o f m u s i c  One i s  (Hosier c a l l s by  the  the  music and p o e t r y .  the  expressive  likewise  arts  century analogies,  c o n n e c t i n g the  they  the  elements,  d e r i v e d from H o r a c e ' s well-known p h r a s e ,  painting,  or  codify principles of  seek c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between  different  set  i n c l i n a t i o n to  phrases,  utilizes  not n e c e s s a r i l y  tones,  need  the  sentences, phrases, definitive  7  element that the  o f words  to  "musicians  f u n c t i o n as  can  talk with  sounds  "Klang-rede"^  supported formal  founded  long-standing  theorists,  divisions musical  of  the  and  ideas,  and arts  poetic  of  matter.  Dispositio  logical  connection  of  sequence;  actual  w i t h words, the  text  For this  reason  saw m u s i c  to  emphasis  on  theories  seen  especially  music of  as  music  musical  composition of m u s i c was  as  arts  interconnections  concepts.  as  equally  of  applicable  or the  The v a r i o u s  the  presentation  involves  the  r h e t o r i c a l step  set,  or,  best,  f o r music not  suitable  subject  found i n a  of  smooth  music  this  the  to  arrangement  into  and p e r i o d s  Sulzer believed  the  discourse  arguments  containing  divisions  a form o f  dispositio,  or s t y l e  or  as  emphasize  rhetorical  were  ideas  which the  sections,  can understand  between v e r b a l and  i n o r a t o r y and p o e t r y  images,  i n the to  on  expression  on an i m a g i n a r y t e x t  appropriate  w o r k . 17  based  the  Dubos'  others  beleved  devices.  composition,  and e l o c u t i o ,  that  Mersenne  and M a t t h e s o n ' s  analogies  rhetoric  subject  effective  voice"15  t r a d i t i o n that  music  so  later,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Germany,  between p o e t r y  on the  the  o n common e x p r e s s i v e  The  of  of  medium.  instruments,  d i s c o u r s e . " l ^ And n e a r l y a century  "inarticulate  led  an e x p r e s s i v e  the and most  relied  associated  matter  and  all  comprehensible  thatl^  i f one h e a r s a p i e c e o f m u s i c , he s h o u l d f a n c y t h a t he hears a man s p e a k i n g i n a n unknown l a n g u a g e : He s h o u l d o b s e r v e whether the sounds e x p r e s s s e n t i m e n t s , whether they denote t r a n q u i l i t y or d i s t u r b a n c e o f mind, s o f t or violent, joyful or grevious a f f e c t i o n s ; whether they e x p r e s s any c h a r a c t e r o f the s p e a k e r ; and whether the d i a l e c t be n o b l e o r m e a n . . .  8  Elocutio medium o f devices also the  is  expression,  used  the  by  area  17th  effectiveness. development  Joachim  Elocutio  in  musical  in  a descriptive  and p o e t r y  of  later;  essential  the  the  which  to  the  mutual build  Both P l a t o  appropriate further  based  passions  through  his  in  the  theory  and  of  to  the  two  is  and music  mainly  were  the and  through  the  Johannes  on r h e t o r i c a n d  figures,  same  to  the  Lippius,  music  which  the  as  poetic  and  means  that arts  will  theorists  be  music  presented  and c r i t i c s  on r h e t o r i c ,  of  art.19  between r h e t o r i c and the discussion  18th  analogues  with  levels  in  elegance  directly  musical-rhetorical  is  Elocutio  and Johann Mattheson i n the  this  here  specific  characteristic  work w i t h  poetry.  v i r t u a l l y the  found,  common g r o u n d o n  investigation.  that  on the  designated  great  his  a  and f i g u r e s  corresponded  century,  important concept  placing  which  correspondences  significance  was  tropes  p a r a l l e l expressive at  the  expression.  articulated  concise  period central  and A r i s t o t l e  instruction,  the  a comparative  interrelationship  was  important writers  of  with  to  made b e t w e e n p o e t r y  imbued  rhetoric 17th  dependence  The o t h e r  were  poet  music  applicable  heightened  In poetry,  the  style  of  associated  achieve  through  study  is  parallels  the  cataloguing  A more d e t a i l e d  to  r h e t o r i c most  figures  more  composers,  acquiring  it  found i n  among t h e  of  centuries. which  Burmeister  comprehensive  in  art  by  ornaments  furnished  is,  18th  of  c e n t u r y were  that  i n w h i c h most  tools  expressive  part  each  and e a r l y  rhetorical  the  gave c r e d e n c e  classical music  emphasis  on  listener. of  mimesis.  as  theory an  music's Aristotle He v i e w e d  to  a  musical-poetic  of  imitation in  instrument ability  to  developed epic  for  art. moral  instill this  poetry,  the idea  tragedy,  9  comedy,  lyric  poetry  representations of could t e l l  and  the  music  as  realities  the l i s t e n e r what was  even music w i t h o u t words was  in  modes life.  in  the  rhythms  reality--the realities moderation, qualities; us,  and  of  accorded  and  tunes  of  anger  the  The v e r b a l a r t s , o f thus  In h i s Politics,  A r i s t o t l e states  of  gentleness,  was  l i s t e n e r not o n l y f e e l s the e f f e c t s  also  able  character-- that  this  quality  that  to  i s , be  associate  himself  as  to  linked. the  As  ends  Bronson  of  with  aware o f the n a t u r e o f the  allowed  17th  purpose o f the a r t s were i d e n t i c a l and  e x p r e s s i o n c o u l d be agreement  and  change i n  It  of  courage  and the f a c t t h a t music does indeed cause an emotional  of  indeed  of  the moral  is  these,  also  all  conditions  final  But  i t s sympathetic  and  18th  t h e o r i s t s to p l a c e music i n the same c a t e g o r y as v e r b a l a r t . the  course,  instruct.  a h i g h s t a t u s through  and  opposite  m u s i c a l rhythm and melody but  imitation.  meaning  o f music t h e r e " i s a c l o s e resemblence to  i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s . " 2 0 The  certain  imitation,  b e i n g i m i t a t e d and  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h movements o f the s o u l . that  of  century  They saw  that  t h e r e f o r e the methods o f  succinctly  states:  "Fundamental  g i v e s r i s e to analogous c o n v e n t i o n s  among the  means."21  On Renaissance  the whole, a n a l o g i e s  decorative expression s p e c i f i c correspondence arts  poetry  and  music  in  the  late  and e a r l y Baroque p e r i o d s grew out o f the mutual dependence on  r h e t o r i c a l concepts,  both  between  was  and  were  through  concerned ornamental  with  methods  tropes  between the s t r u c t u r a l and  considered  only  sporadically  and  of  achieving  figures.  stylistic  throughout  c e n t u r y and o n l y i n terms o f the m u s i c a l s e t t i n g o f v e r s e .  A more  elements  the  a  of  seventeenth  For  example,  10  Jean-Antoine  de B a l f  and h i s  (founded  1570),  "the  between p o e t r y  link  Marin Mersenne, the  later  in his  the  harmony.23  and m u s i c ,  Quaestiones  century  The  other  to  defend music  than  the  of  verse  to  firmly  underscore eighteenth attempt  analogies century.  to  deal  establish  Dubos'  Dubos'  poetic  succeeded  although  it  was  a  precarious  with  one,  on r h y t h m as  of  the  latter  de  discussed  of  the  in 17th  correspondence  art.24  However,  Musique,  under i n the  theorists until  of  1719  is  the  cocentricity  the  the of  position  of  other  service  the  significant  poetry  and music.  same  level  instrumental  theoretical  of  further  early part of first  new  Lully's  d i d not  on v i r t u a l l y the  later  later  and m a t h e m a t i c s - - s e e k i n g  arts  the  Poesie  ratios  half  with music's  two  in  (1632)  proper function  music  de  A few y e a r s  Pythagorean  Royale  treatise  raising  focused  and  degree  music's  consideration of in  et  Genesina  a passion-evoking  the  comprehensively  Husique  feet  common e l e m e n t s ,  between  Furthermore, art  as  Academie  by mutual m a n i p u l a t i o n o f  de  in  architecture  w i t h which to  direction,  poetic  a large  means  the  Academie  meaning and sound."22  academies  arts--painting,  efforts  the  Celebirrima  French  concerned themselves  the  at  F l o r e n t i n e Camerata,  analogy between p r o p o r t i o n s o f  music  to  and  circle  as  music,  discussion  in  Berlin.  Dubos' critics  and  Critical theorists,  translations. Ramler,  In  in parts  the  members  are  contained  Reflections  of  was  enjoying  Berlin  the  seven  w o r k was  highly  editions,  i n three  city's  intellectual  chapters  by  European  including  several  t r a n s l a t e d by the  by W . F . Marpurg and L e s s i n g , the  acclaimed  a n d was  clubs.25  widely  Dubos'  i n Volume 1 and i n the  c o u r t poet C.W. debated  theories  first  eight  among  on music chapters  11 of  volume  3.  philosophy, function, music. that  For  the  continuously the  among t h e  notes  that,  of  compositional  the  which  instruction was  based  verse  arts  are  or  is,  short  inherently  composition to  are  and the  a n d grammar, program. Dubos  will  or  music poets  art  that  and  generally  Again,  status  and  obvious  to  setting  a  Dubos  of  the  syllable. as  this  The  kind  of  has its  the of  concludes  poetry,  and L a t i n  syllable  art  than poetry.26  music  by  on  the  is  had  orators.27  given  Greek  Each  him,  of  same  one  rules  person, between  languages, a  He  Moreover,  rhythmic correspondences  greatly.  a long  classical  authorities  art,  the  on  power  d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to  equal  a composer  expressive  poetica  symmetrical. is  ancient  awarded a h i g h e r  comprise  heavily  and m u s i c a l  grammarians,  which  syllables  accommodating  that  relies  or quoting  poetic  was  interested  quantity  Dubos  Quintilian,  to  i n both music  length  is  worth of  ancients  essential  music  perceived,  musical  the  on an i d e n t i c a l  and  two  components,  a c c o r d i n g to  were  part  r e f e r r i n g to  various  In measuring  music  most  he  determined  neighbour--that  implications  for  uniform r e g u l a r i t y  verse:28  W h e r e f o r e when G r e e k o r Roman m u s i c i a n s s e t any piece whatsoever to music, all t h e y h a d t o do i n o r d e r t o m e a s u r e i t , was t o conform to the quantity of the syllable on which e v e r y n o t e was p l a c e d ; s o t h a t t h e value of the note was already decided by that syllable.  Thus govern  the the  rhythmic musical  However,  character  of  the  text  was  to  take  precedence  over  and  on  the  elements.  more  important  than  Dubos'  observations  12  significance of  the  of  imitative  inarticulate the as the  tones, are  metric  principle  discourse  sighs,  natural signs  and the  emotion, needed  the  for  having  of  the  performance  of  such  He n o t e s  creates  an  art  to  yet  tasteful  to  express  instrumental concedes to  music  that  determine  dramatic  debating  the  the  status  passions  first  the  its  that  with  sighs,  the a  i n music  one  of  the  rules  of  sequence  of  voice on  recitation full  and  must  appropriate  be  focuses  verse  accents  to  modulations  of  strive  for  music  subject  events)  of  inflexions  e x p r e s s i o n . 30 j_,ke p o e t r y ,  logical  passion  worth  the  being  of  art  affirmation of  association  expressed.  content the  an i m i t a t i v e  through i n a r t i c u l a t e  instrumental  emotional  as  tentative  music without  the  of  music's  the  context,  specificity  (a  in  said  and  as  matter simple  ornamentation.  By e l e v a t i n g ability  probability  "imitate  produced i n  Similarly  passionate  material),  is  Dubos  "continued modulation" of  (thematic  music  reaffirmation  and p a s s i o n s . " 2 9  music.  the  his  sounds  the  conform  is  inarticulate  sounds  automatically  also  to  actual  appropriate expression.  must  again,  ability  and a l l  the  and p o e t r y  Once  our sentiments  of  voice  i n music  i n music.  and accents  correspondence  poetry  uniformity  sinfonia  could be in  sounds,  to  lacked within a  for  the a  grants  example,  that these symphonies enflame us, us and, i n s h o r t , o p e r a t e on us as as C o r n e i l l e ' s o r R a c i n e ' s v e r s e s ?  He  precision poetic  or  acquire  justified.  rhetorically:31  Do we n o t p e r c e i v e calm us, soften e f f e c t i v e l y almost  its  worth.  degree  artistically opera,  Dubos  aesthetic  words  However,  music  and thus  of  and e m p h a s i z i n g  Dubos  a In  asks  13  Thus  the  main reason  what  Dubos  calls  w i t h words capacity  rely  for  and dance, natural  for music's  its  " n a t u r a l " means  on " a r b i t r a r y "  interpretation, utilizes  signs  of  the  expressive  the  signs,  of  potentiality expression.  dependent  whereas m u s i c ,  sensual  p a s s i o n s was  at  its  man's  a lesser  or n a t u r a l f a c u l t y  to  do  The a r t s  upon  and to  has  of  with  associated intellectual  degree  man.  painting  The power  g r e a t e s t when a l l i e d  to  of  words:32  the n a t u r a l s i g n s o f the p a s s i o n s t h a t music evokes and which i t a r t f u l l y uses to i n c r e a s e the impact of the words to w h i c h i t was s e t , m u s t t h e n make t h e s e w o r d s more a b l e t o move u s .  Even s t i l l , composer.  n o n - v e r b a l music Dubos q u o t e s  can r e v e a l  Longinus for  to  the  listener  the  intent  of  the  corroboration:33  Tho' the inarticulate sounds of this m u s i c do n o t c o n v e y w o r d s t o o u r e a r s so a s t o r a i s e p r e c i s e ideas; nevertheless the c o n c o r d s a n d rhythmus excite various sentiments i n our minds. These i n a r t i c u l a t e imitations move u s a s much a s t h e e l o q u e n c e o f a n o r a t o r .  Dubos'  confirmation of  consideration attention  to  technically to  as the  Mattheson  relay  tackled  (sound-speech),  its with  demanded  Capellmeister.  rational  question  simply agree  thinking  a  music's  of  its  Based  of  message  Mattheson  his  expression  of  to  to  the  move  method  problem i n h i s on  affective  how m u s i c n o t  ability  clarification this  form  just  affective  intrinsic  1739  belief  established  brought  associated listener. the  for  qualities  and  equal  unprecendented  w i t h words It  was  not  could enough  passions--rationalistic  achieving  this  publication,  Der  that  m u s i c was  a  formula  end.  vollkommene  a form o f for  Johann  Klang-rede  instrumental  14  composition  derived  c o m p o s i t i o n was versed since  as  the  really  compose  composer  be  that  something  true  is  directly  must  always  to  a poetic  aligned he  related  by  is to  able  to  poetic  of  affect  stresses  that  the  predecessors,  verbally  offering to  be  the  specifically  melodic  of  which had u n t i l  composing  then  ground.  Here  then  e  technical  His accent  and  reader  as  rhetorical  Mattheson  the  style--that  is,  it  of  in  sing  and  flow.  elements which  rhetorical  and  meter.  Mattheson,  of  to  like  his  present  the  sounds,  to  present  clarify  assigns  this  what he  it by  believes while  division,  unfortunately  does  t o how t h e  governing  in defining  i n general  theory  each  can  example,  closest  refers  something  rhythm  of  cannot  all,  "must be  analysis  as  principles;  expression,  attempts  f o r w h i c h he  a l l u d e d to  w h i c h was  done  make  b y means  "be  language."34  first  and  poetic  "a m u s i c i a n  vocal  affective  M a t t h e s o n comes t h e  of  of  o r d e r to  on t h e s e  as  that,  terms  basic  poetic  also  aim i n c o m p o s i t i o n  examples  the  the  to  m u s i c must  i n non-verbal music,  y  o n l y been  melody,  in  of  a poet,  insisting  instruments,  phrasing,  application  a  the  in  decoration),  passion.  instruct  A t any r a t e ,  solid  that  appropriate  The  accent,  The a f f i n i t y  and i t s  not  text--in  a n d perceptibly."36  i n matters  deduced.  more  so  a number o f  explicit not  affection  has  composition:  expression  is  a l s o be  focus  Regarding  the  poetry  deals  think  (phrasing,  art.  a composer  of  c o r r e c t l y who  construction  almost  art  m u s i c must  proceeds  composer  premise  governing  of verbal  to him, hence  the  of  Mattheson  instrumental  From t h i s  in  rules  e v e r y t h i n g w i t h w h i c h he  Indeed,  poetry."35  the  conspicuous  possible  almost  music  from  this  is  aspect  terms.  i n music  is,  particularly  to  f o r him simply  affect  "musical  of  course,  the  grammer,  the  art art  on of of  15  speaking, several  writing chapters  divisions with  and r e a d i n g  of  the  devoted  rhetoric  taken  to  the  of  i n non-verbal music.38  directly  made,  and a c c e n t  Finally considered  by  "What m e t e r s specifies defines  the are  the  musical  congruence  author  musical  to  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  the  author  to  is  and form,  rhythms  are  equivalents  equally  allude  Music's  and s u g g e s t s  the  to  phrasing)  to  is  and music is  Mattheson  types  is  clear:  not  meters,  appropriate musical  not  ideals.  poetry  poetic  and  arrangement,  poetic  i n poetry  debt  various  concerned  composition  in music..."39  of  n  symmetrical  rhythmic formulae detail.  i  (i.e.,  poetic  construction  of  addition  proportions"  measure  i n great  in poetry,  Mattheson's  and p o e t i c  Mattheson's  was  as  inimitable, be  to  the  the  is  approach the  author,  Cappellmeister  thus to  means o f  and h i s  demonstrated  with  vollkommene  composition  concepts  can  acquainted  Der  systematic  non-musical  journals  to  sense."37  only  he  also  for  each  pattern.  In  Berlin  the  the  An analogy  i n musical  rhythmic character  metrical  music  references  truest  interpretation  "geometric  caesuras  and emphasis  its  i n a m u s i c a l work,  implications  but  in  brought  instrumental artistic  i m p a c t was through the  of  its  of  a number  His  F.W. of  between point.  and a d a p t i o n  interpretation  writings  gap  narrowest  music  far-reaching.  a n d who d e v o t e d  application  to  the  for  of  non-verbal  influence  Marpurg, articles  grammatical and r h e t o r i c a l r u l e s  in  who  was  in  his  in  music  composition.40  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l  attitude  of  Berlin's  literati  toward a r t  in  the  16  mid-eighteenth rationalist Dubos,  century  thought,  and the  theorists  and  philosopher  Aristotelian  later  evaluation.  deserve  be  not  that  rated  debilitating  so  effect  of  tendency  semantic  content  among  the  what  quite  general  through  poetic  by  the  by  to  as  the  on  tones  said  a  all  by to  German as  the  criteria on  for  cognitive does of  not  music,  sung.^2 While music  may be  the  measured by  the  the  importance  music  words  or  verbally-defined  was  community,  discussions  which  by  and m u s i c a l  opinion  intellectual  nearly  minds  literary  t r a d i t i o n a l view of  tones in  is  early  explanation  Voltaire's  methods  the  were b a s e d  requires  French  expounded  essential  standards  be  Consequently  to  Berlin's  Berlin's  connecting  power  to  a comment  centered  by  to  which  as  rationalistic  became  stupid  poorly  in art.  emotions  century  on  could by  of  music achieve  allotting  context,  that  is,  Berlin,  Gotthold  analogy.  The Friedrich their  too  such  17th  N a t u r a l l y V o l t a i r e h a d a low  cling  literati  communicative  is  to  cognition--either  logic  or sentence  explained."^!  the  such  proximity  Voltaire's  "any v e r s e  stating  and  of  of  tradition cultivated With  i n close  clarity  expression:  once  theories  Mattheson.  Voltaire's  to  from a combination  music-as-discourse  establishments, artistic  developed  three  Lessing,  most  Christoph  considerations  particulary generous and sound. non-verbal  important  on  stimulated  patronage,  by  was  As  Friedrich possible  the  opera which,  becoming  combinations as  in  the  of  a result  an i n c r e a s i n g l y  perhaps  scholar  figures  N i c o l a i and Moses M e n d e l s s o h n ,  the  M e n d e l s s o h n was music.  literary  most  the of  arts. king  elaborate outspoken  and p h i l o s o p h e r ,  he  T h e y were Frederick's  affair critic  published  based  of  sight against  a number  of  17  non-verbal articles moral  music.  on a r t  scholar  aesthetics,  function  of  p o w e r s . 4 3 He was studying  As  art  i n c l u d i n g a 1763  in  theory  and  against  m u s i c was  longer  fulfill  practical  is  that  the  comprehensible. it  it  music  conceived  within  In a  was  of  the  critical  allotted  from the  and  Berlin,  l e a r n i n g to  poetry  unworthy of  viewpoint  of  affective  in  main  of  play  criticism  and c o u l d  is  the  subordinate  Lessing's  starkly  no  consideration  and remains of  of the  sentiments by p r e s e n t i n g  deemed context  art  on  special  establishment  discussion  rationalistic  essay  Mendelssohn's  arousal of is  p u b l i s h e d a number  music,  Kirnberger.44  music  he  prize-winning  musical  issues  art--the  Instrumental  Mendelssohn's  the  had separated  aim o f  "harmonious v e r s e . " Laokoon,  which  much i n v o l v e d w i t h  keyboard under Johann P h i l i p  unless  and p h i l o s o p h e r ,  draft  to  for  evident:45  M u s i c c a n be d i r e c t l y a l l i e d to p o e t r y ; to be s u r e , its first rule is really t o s e r v e as s u p p o r t t o p o e t r y . T h e r e f o r e t h e a r t o f m u s i c m u s t n e v e r be e x a g g e r a t e d so much, t h a t i t works to the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f p o e t r y . We blame the newer music with justification for its a r t i f i c i a l i t y does n o t agree w i t h harmonious p o e t r y .  The o t h e r about  music's  empirical at  the  work,  inferiority,  Bibliothek  der  attempted  Dubos  was  and  expression. his  on the  Nicolai,  1757-1806),  upon  members  observations  time. the  top  to  of  Berlin's  tempering  raise  the  status  own e x p e r i e n c e s  as  music  of  philosophy  an a v i d c o n c e r t - g o e r ,  with  Germany  an i m p o r t a n t  literary  schonen  Kiinste  i n opera.  instrumental  adamant  in  Frenchman's sensual  popularity of  less  i n s t r u m e n t a l music  und of  were  rationalistic  and e d i t o r  Wissenschaften  much i m p r e s s e d b y t h e  O b s e r v i n g the  their  popularity of  a book d e a l e r freyen  literary elite  He  basis  music  (Leipzig, had for and  read  musical calling  N i c o l a i maintained  that  18  the  tones  opera,  of  music  then,  even went as  it  as  that  for  wordless  of  to  of  show  that  he  While  opera might  still  has  the  the  i n the  member  of  avidly with  most  Poesie, two  or  did. picture  on  the  i n Hamburg  of  his  left  aesthetic  completed  the  well-known  Laokoon  on music  writings  aesthetic  to  ilber  and i t s  that  and  sense  how  his  and  die  Hamburg  discussions context.  in Berlin, yet  relationship  music.  however, As  a  one  spent  he  left  atmosphere. to  Club" he  He  Voltaire, (in  was  operation  continued  Unfortunately his  Grenzen  why  b a c k o n . ^8  "Friday  minimal.  of  sensual  composition",  cultural  for  is  enthusiasm  From t h e der  Malerei  to  poetry,  one  can acquire  journalist  of und  include  but  and  to  written  outline  he h a d a p p a r e n t l y p l a n n e d t o  do e x i s t ,  approach to  fall  active  man's  to  a minor s e c r e t a r y  value  i n 1766,  as  l i t e r a r y figure  in B e r l i n . ^  oder  through  (between 1748-1755),  Berlin  i n an  inherent  instrumental  libretto  p e r i o d as  he  work,  From  the  i l l u s t r a t e , the  Nicolai's an  In  Nicolai  a verbally-defined  court poet Ramler's  ambitious  chapters  of  to  Moreoever,  music w i t h i n  intellectuals  music's  three  listener.  words".^6  themselves  rationale  intellectual  a short  by  ability  "beautiful  most  its  1752-1755) , and even a f t e r  his  a  words  tones  tempered  Prussian capitol  on  a p p a r e n t l y worked f o r  contribution  the  the  the  However,  theoretical  communication.  "explain  the  cognitive  no  i n d e e d be  mark  placing  considered  Lessing,  an i n d e l i b l e  correspond  its  can a f f e c t  still  seven years  actually  always  dramatic outline  G.F.  active  was  affective  an o p e r a minus  music,  offered  music  that  for  dramatic c o n t e n t . ^  music  yet  sufficient  tones  He a d v o c a t e d  instrumental  an  were  envision  defining  rationalism.  only  the  power  role,  faculties,  was  far  communicative  alone  never a  clear drama  19 critic, such,  Lessing  viewed  and drama. power  its  from the  standpoint  of  art.  i n m u s i c b u t he  Instrumental definitive  Reason  As a r e s u l t ,  on  the  basis  music  leaves  the  element  of  words  Furthermore,  variety  with of  l i t e r a r y matters,  its  relationship  l i b e r a l r a t i o n a l i s m a l l o w e d him to  popularity.  measured  unless  concerned  only  expression  evaluation be  music  primarily  His brand of  of  explain  was  was  the  of  Music,  as  for  ease  the  it  vague  him  worth of  listener  and c o n t r a s t s  supported by words.  saw  sole  at  immediacy  confused of  and  the  of  criteria could  to for  only  comprehension.  cannot  i n n o n - v e r b a l m u s i c becomes he  the  unmoved--without  composer  as  poetry  a loss  i n s t r u m e n t a l music  and  intent  to  acknowledge  a n d was  the  and,  be  the  known.  unjustified  wrote,50  l e a v e s u s i n u n c e r t a i n t y a n d c o n f u s i o n ; we f e e l w i t h o u t noticing a p r o p e r s e q u e n c e o f o u r f e e l i n g s ; we f e e l as i f i n a d r e a m ; a n d a l l t h e s e c o n f u s e d f e e l i n g s a r e more f a t i g u i n g than p l e a s i n g . P o e t r y , on the other hand, n e v e r l e t s us l o s e the t h r e a d o f o u r f e e l i n g s . H e r e we know n o t o n l y w h a t we a r e s u p p o s e d t o f e e l b u t a l s o why we a r e supposed to feel it. A n d i t i s j u s t t h i s why t h a t makes t h e s u d d e n t r a n s i t i o n s n o t o n l y b e a r a b l e b u t also pleasant. In fact, this motivation of sudden transitions, is one of the g r e a t e s t advantages that m u s i c draws f r o m the u n i o n w i t h poetry, perhaps even the g r e a t e s t o f a l l .  The  only  type  w h i c h was plot,  determine  model  i n s t r u m e n t a l music  conceived  motive,  composer  of  has  from  incidental  and o b j e c t ,  content.  a specific which  music  L e s s i n g c o u l d condone  w i t h i n a dramatic framework.  subject  musical  that  to to  to  general  Voltaire's  drama  etc.,  c o u l d be  instrumental music,  communicate, rules. Semiramis,  that  Here l i t e r a r y concepts  and e f f e c t ,  Theatrical  subject derive  cause  was  was  for  for  used  to  i n which  the  Lessing  In a review  of  of  the  best  Agricola's  example,  Lessing  20  expression  the  emotional  drama.51  Clearly music's  Lessing  and  more  its  intelligibly  p r a i s e w o r t h y he  The matters  produced. is  musicians  devoted  That  of  1,  debates,  1749  musical  previous  considered of  its  was  act  in  a subservient  the  one  comprehensibility: of  his  piece,  the  by  "the more  community level  Club"  of  of  dubious  arts.  value  of  critische  was  its  and J . J .  for  der  and  Spree,  music  critical of  in  local  journals included  music  in  and L e s s i n g  j o u r n a l i n Berlinische  the  addition  in  example,  in the  membership  Quantz.53  i n poetry  an  the  such  collaborated  Marpurg,  rules  of  of  involvement  among  often  determining  nature  aware  intellectual  Musikus  p r a i s i n g Marpurg's  in  and the  included  the  l i t e r a r y establishment vital  composers  m u s i c i a n and w r i t e r s  o f Der  review  the  Berlin's  Alexander A g r i c o l a ,  promotion  issue  a  the  content  value  city's  "Friday  Krause,  the  published  the  the  poem b y L e s s i n g o n t h e July  the  of  aesthetic  c o r r o b o r a t e d by  C.G.  to  is  i n terms  expresses  participation  Ramler's  artistic  role  of  is."52  active  musicians.  to  judged only  a composer  philosophy  activity  moral content  expressive  concerning music's  artistic they  value  and thus  a  the later  Priviligirte  Leitung.^b  In be  order  applied  establish  to  the  transferrable specific  u n d e r s t a n d how a m u s i c a l - p o e t i c  the  music  under  common p r o p e r t i e s between  meaning  systematically  to  to with  them, the these  study  here,  of  the  two  and  how  music  listener. aspects,  The taking  method o f  it  arts, as  is  into  necessary  the  to  means  form can impart a  chapter  account  can  first  expressive  an a r t  following  analysis  direct  will  deal  analogies  21 made b y  members  century.  As  evaluation  is  will  Berlin's be  inherent  composer/theorists music.  of  and  musical  seen, in  the  an  as  in  interdisciplinary  writings  serves  community  of  both  the  mid-eighteenth  approach to  professional  an i m p o r t a n t method  for  and  artistic amateur  analysing  their  22  CHAPTER I I FORM, EXPRESSION, AND PURPOSE IN MUSIC AND POETRY  As imitation  the e i g h t e e n t h in  century  concluded  that  emotions t o be i m i t a t e d ) , of  imitation  are  not  identical  among  Germany's  a l l artists  classical  theory  work  rationalist  presented  principles  and  with s p e c i f i c topics  interpreted,  each  t h a t remain c o n s t a n t .  has  prominent similar  t h a t embody these  expression.  In  1757  c o u r t poet Ramler t r a n s l a t e d a t r e a t i s e by C h a r l e s Batteaux, Les a  concept.  un  meme  principe  In t h i s highly  (1746)  that  effectively  the r u l e s by which he p e r c e i v e d  the  beaux-arts  dealt  i n f l u e n t i a l work, the author s t r e s s e s  p r i n c i p l e o f the i m i t a t i o n o f beauty i n n a t u r e as the b a s i s delineated  (i.e., subjects  Therefore  o f d e s i g n and e l a b o r a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p l y t o a l l forms o f a r t i s t i c  reduits  of  thinkers.  and t h a t no matter i n what medium these  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a s s o c i a t i o n s if  the  a r t as i n t e r p r e t e d by Dubos became used i n c r e a s i n g l y as the  means t o j u s t i f y n o n - v e r b a l music Theorists  progressed,  with t h i s the  single  o f a l l a r t , and  the a r t s t o be f o r m u l a t e d : 1  In the a r t s t h e r e a r e s t r i n g e n t r u l e s , c l e a r b o u n d a r i e s t h a t may n o t be t r a n s g r e s s e d . Everything i s c a l c u l a t e d i ) by measure, which c o n t r o l s the d u r a t i o n o f each sound and g e s t u r e ; i i ) by movement, which speeds up o r slows down t h i s same measure w h i l s t i n no way a l t e r i n g the number o f sounds o r g e s t u r e s , o r changing their quality; i i i ) by melody, which u n i t e s these sounds o r g e s t u r e s i n t o a s u c c e s s i v e whole; i v ) and f i n a l l y - by harmony, which c o n t r o l s consonance when s e v e r a l l i n e s combine i n t o one.  Batteaux's " r u l e s " , o f course, a p p l i e d most c l e a r l y t o  those  arts  23  whose  thematic  music  and  arts,  differentiating  dancing.  architecture) was  defined  music  statement  and  as  He was  the  2)  A few  the  over  emotional  became of  whereas the  opposed  to  poetry  relied  was to  based man's  and s t r i v e advantage poetry  arts  visual,  of Thus  was  it  directly  latter  of  time  i n between  music  i n the  but  subject  first  of  rather  to  the  imitate the  as  arts  observed  expression than  that  must:3  signs.  to  make  share  the  hearing,  differed a  more  and from  passion than  a r t was  one  to  this  show  of  be  reason  later  were a u d i b l e  as  However,  appealed  a reflection of  one  philosophy  interpretation while  natural signs  For  time  simultaneous.  A n d as  arbitrary  able  a sentimentalist  being.  over  temporal  b y Dubos w h i c h  sensual  the  music  v a r y i n g degress  of  f r o m n a t u r a l phenomena w h i c h  then  in  express  arising  natural truth,  of  the  art--both  arts  arts  on s i g n s  for  sounds  sense  only  that  poetic  both  also  intellectual  all  among  them.  signs  and c o n s e c u t i v e  to  only  formulation of  involved  that  poetry,  sculpture,  basis  L e s s i n g was  temporal  and p o e t r y  difference  on the  symbolic  can  former can not  divisions  with  treatise,  F u r t h e r m o r e , the  the  was  of  namely,  (painting,  grouped  arrangement  the  clear  space  Laokoon b y n o t i n g  however,  on s i g n s  through time,  indicate  Batteaux's  that  difference--a  Both  it  1) a p p e a l e d  falling  element  to  time.  progression  intensity  a pivotal  art.  in his  in  For Lessing, essential  after  move  arts  sound t h a t  they  arts  instantaneously, passion  of  through time.2  spatial  the  arts  years  o r i g i n because  progressed  first  depend upon the  a similar distinction same  the  between  organized  and p o e t r y  sequence.  and development  music  directly of  expression  reality held  Lessing believed  an that  24  try to raise its arbitrary signs to natural signs...that is how i t d i f f e r s from p r o s e . T h e means by which t h i s i s accomplished are the tones of the words, the p o s i t i o n o f the words, measure, f i g u r e s and tropes, similes, etc.  This  last  arts  in  from  statement  the  the  is  of  eighteenth sounds  century.  of  considered  a form o f  as  sound,  while  of  affective  the  in  becoming  symmetrical  later  F.G.  aesthetic  k e y b o a r d works  Klopstock,  the if  one  themselves  expression. role  to  merging of  then p o e t i c  was  given  emphasis  on the  semantic  the  the  notion  Emmanual B a c h ,  of  that  reasoning,  poetic  to  time  as  could of  word  become music  illustrated  expression,  sound and l e s s  be  communication  was  At this  expressive,  while  content  utterance elements  t h e o r y by m i d - c e n t u r y .  more b e a u t y  and m u s i c a l  The p l e a s u r a b l e  a n d more p o e t i c a l l y of  poetic  separates  occured through i n t e l l e c t u a l  preoccupation  the  words  musical  for  Clearly  playing a lesser  ideas  less  consequence  led  significance  a was in by of  theme.  This from  theories  make-up. sources  In a  of  the  sound-vibrations  were r a t i o n a l l y e x p l a i n e d  sounds  The  well-being. nature  ancient  c o u l d be  is  like  of  sound  and t h e i r  in  effect  seventeenth century Descartes  methodology  stimuli.^  qualities  by which a l l i n terms Greeks  employed f o r  Similarly  of  had  cathartic  Cartesian  a sounding-board,  that  purposes  philosophy  responding  to  on man's  on the  effects  believed  stemmed  formulated  operations the  art  to held  directly  physiological  from  classical  physiological  produced certain  by  being  external  combinations  of  contribute  to  that  emotional  sound-waves  man's  man's  i n s u c h a manner  25  as  to  stimulate  century  sympathetic  there  was  sound-vibrations  v i b r a t i o n of  also  exerted  general  great  that  the  sentiment  evoke  a r e c i p r o c a l response  and  meter  i n d i c a t e d by the poetry  were  seen  a dynamic e f f e c t  It to  raise  and m o r a l art  was  sound-art  must  to  term,  but  seventeenth was  harmoniously actually  a  corresponded and  directly  analogous,  is  from  imitative  these those  a  congenial by the  sounds in  of  the  what  not  reflection to  the  individual.6  of  eighteenth  physical Therefore  and p r o p o r t i o n i n music  this  and p o e t r y  to  cosmic  arose  of  order.  of  both  had an  the  a  the as and their  result  well-being  a  composer  smooth, a  that that  Art, it of  harmony o f  in of  flowing  sympathetic definition  u n i v e r s a l harmony.  working  the  obligation  and agreeable  musical  p r o d u c e d by the  from  that  nature  harmony to  everything  harmonious  pleasure  of  music  physical  century believed  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l the  the  it  human s o u l ,  reason,  pleasing  simply  larger conception  the  the  Therefore  s e n s e was  within  also  euphony by p r e s e n t i n g  r a t i o n a l l y o r d e r e d and complete; arranged  is  this  the  of  sound-arts  conducive  that  was  itself.  "would i m p a r t t h e i r  the  but  through  life  that  of  only  that  characteristic  For this  that  r e f e r r e d to and most  imitative  temperament.  rules  Not  listener,  eighteenth  theorists  sound a c t i v i t y - - they  sentiments saw  the  among  movement  since  of  ideas  Theorists  abide  soul."Harmony"  reality  that  listener  and w e l l - o r d e r e d  the  be  goodness.  related  of  i n the  regular ordering of  follows  i n the  is  In  mankind.  and b o d i l y movements.  to  the  over  and p r o p o r t i o n s  sound  pulse  existence--being in  of  nerves.  agreement  power  believed  rhythm  tones  the  of The  everything  in  existed  was  was  thought,  was  the  parts,  and  the  cosmos,  sense  state  of  balance  same p r i n c i p l e i n  general  26  aesthetic  theory--that  universal  sphere.  In for  1675  producing  language, disturb sense  he  the  euphonious defined  it;  3)  sound.  agreeable  it  century  be  the  later,  a musical poetry.  Berlin  sense,  intervals  from  the  i n modulation  unity  of  expression  symmetrical. strengthen  The i d e a l the  of  irrespective  sound,  bond  sound of  Music of  to  were  the  and  be  1)  distinct,  so  that  one  joining.7  the  theorist  be  that  voice,  sounds,  the  key  or  tones  when  between the  a  c o n s i d e r e d by  as  to  all  melody  arts  they  temporal  theorists  as  arts to  of  not  to  discern  the  i n order that  one  u n v a r y i n g ; and  4)  so  make  as  them  flow  indicate  Nearly  a  euphony  in  verses  in  like  using  thus  agreeable,  defined  by  a  is  only  should not  pleasing  those be  used  sound  and  u n i f o r m and p h r a s i n g  and music  theorists  their were  tones  quick to  Accidentals  i n both poetry two  the  i n t e r r u p t i o n and  m u s i c must of  the  conditions  Instruments..."^  Futhermore  i n m o t i o n and e v a l u a t e medium i n w h i c h  of  a work.  key.9  euphony  poetry,  sounds of  first  of  a related  of  the  T h e n Lamy i s  all  the  can e a s i l y  Johann P h i l i p K i r n b e r g e r  achieved  results  to  within  to  moderate,  and d i v e r s e  may h e a r  their  given  except  qualities  to  ear  of  stressing  E u p h o n y was  sound to  "are n e c e s s a r y  sounds  initially  them w i t h o u t  "harmony" o f  principles  B e r n a r d Lamy o u t l i n e d  Referring  equal  elements  the  appreciate  whether  that  of  concordant  or bored by  so  these  of  disproportionate  well-ordered,  that  2)  a mixture  be u p s e t b y t h e  the  movement  French philosopher  a good d i s p o s i t i o n ; of  may n o t  the  of  effect  served  to  c o u l d compares  the  on  thus  is  the  listener  organized.  based  share  on the  similar  rational structural  ordering units.  27  An  arrangement  sections poetic  was  both  syllables or  movement  or  artistic  content  been  relating  degree  to  poetry  particularly  of  Mattheson  indicating  terminology  their  aesthetic  evaluations  music,  analysis  such  as  writers  in particular tackled  the  Avison  having  subject  subject  likewise  Yet  observed  the  implies  in  question  of  shared by another purpose  of  one  during  to  note  how 1 8 t h theories. the  artistic  raising the  the  the  dimensions  m e d i u m , was  of  sound,  to  i n the here.  s h a r e d by p o e t r y  three  determined  in  length,  used  to  define  analyse  It  borrowed of  and has  already  technical  musical  terms  composition,  and m e t r i c a l  from  literary  subject  in  types.  forms  idiomatic  and d r a m a t i c f l o w .  "in a musical  how a c o m p o s e r  passions  composers  There are  is  The  terms  English  music,  sense,  in  Charles  what  the  word  writing."10  p e r i o d under study  century  duration  that  of  group.  synonomous  a n d e v e n a p p l i e d more  element  music  of  divisions  plot  in  were  adapted  subject,  each  was  and  consecutive  Cadences  by t h e o r i s t s .  grammatical  s i m i l a r l y used  literary  i n a work  phrases  of  separate  discussions  theorists  of  to  terms  Later  of  grouping  consciously  in his  measures,  and s t a n z a s .  groupings  Also,  into  the  unity  interchangeably  and r h e t o r i c  those  to  were u s e d  these  character.  that  tones  couplets  a sense  i n which  were u s e d  out  lines,  i n poetry  achieved  general  pointed  feet,  junctures  by the  musical  correspond exactly  into  b y w h i c h one arts  consecutive  seen to  and p e r i o d s means  of  and t h e o r i s t s areas and  of  of  music,  manipulate listener, It  these  and m u s i c ,  useful  correspondence--the  ornamentation  or  at  various quality  for  the  hypothetical  i n order to  their  concepts  elements  remained a  w o u l d be  developed  working with  this  point  understand expressive of  sound,  rhetorical decoration.  The  28  first,  the  quality  accent  or  emphasis.  accents  that  equivalent  of  sound,  On a g e n e r a l  produces  to  the  involves  versification  development  arranging musical  tones  in  the  of  composer  is  sonority,  expressive arising  effect.  from  intonation pitch  a  natural a vital  management  likewise  composer--rising associations structural  and  sound  musical  period  impose  at  the  this  such  alliteration,  of  musical  creating also  melody.  euphonious  produce  a as of  In other  analogy  related  the  pitches upon  and,  a poetic more  in poetic one  assonance,  tones  semantic  a  only  are  in poetry,  observed  between  how  applicable tools  making i t  their  more  of  own  In  music,  intent  of  the  emotional simple  between  the and a  masculine types poetic  to  for  Verbal  (grammatical pause)  perceive  these  sake  resources  Also,  and c a d e n t i a l  a n d rhyme a r e  the  certain work.  be  specifically,  can e a s i l y  By  content.  musical  analysis  rhythm.  in reading.  generate  statement  as  of  expressive  their  seen  for  a pitch  and  and  be  and i t s  voice  concerning p i t c h can  further,  Not  the  to  can  same a r t i s t i c have  level  words  c h o o s e s words  sounds  i n expressing is  melody  on the  of  pitch  poetry  musical  relying  end o f  endings  To t a k e as  a  of  ordering of  in  same way a p o e t  meaning  (cadence),  phrase  of  falling  correspondences  falling  feminine  and  the  and meter  inflections  role  management  level,  Vowel and consonant  the  plays  the  the  repetition "musical",  in  and  music. devices  evaluation vital but  for they  H  k i n d o f e x t e r n a l u n i t y to a r e f r a i n does to a song, alliteration.  words,  the  repetition  of  a p a s s a g e , i n t h e same way a r e f r a i n b e i n g but a form  like-sounds  in  poetry  can  be  said  to  29  correspond  to  establishing generate quality  which  relation into  is for  arises  required  meanings  the  to  from  pronounce  o f words  more e m p h a t i c ) , of  and  discriminately  the  and  frequency  on  and the  of music,  passions  of  the  "expression"  the  and t h a t  accent  music,  unity  and  relationships.  the  certain  of  tone.  (the  or  time  which concerns  stress  a  equal  emphasis  i.e.,  lifts  natural  holds  Verbal  note value  Berlin writers  and m u s i c ,  and the  must  of  also  syllables,  special  a  in  the  words Musical  longer,  the  Generally speaking,  emphasis  when  used  levels.  similarities  it  of  quantity of  pitch  listener.  expression,  without  contain  Mid-eighteenth-century  observations  sense  p a r t l y from s y n t a x ,  syntactical  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t r y  a  or r e f r a i n  Emphasis or s o u n d - a c c e n t ,  Rhetorical  upon the  among l o w e r  create  quantity  others  also  motive  and m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .  them,  leaving  that  affective  i n a sentence.  higher  tones  a key-note,  associations.  to  poetic  s i m i l a r l y depends  pitches  of  and  intrinsic  partly  prominence,  accent  repetition  structural relationships  certain  significance -accent  the  but  were  confined  between the  final  Sulzer,  aim for  well  tones  of  of  the  sound  to  broad  voice  in  speech  to  raise  themselves of  both  example,  aware  the arts  defines  melody  simply  the as  alwaysl2  d e p i c t some p a r t i c u l a r p a s s i o n o r mood. Anyone who hears i t must i m a g i n e t h a t he i s h e a r i n g t h e s p e e c h o f a man who i s i m m e r s e d i n a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g , a n d he is making i t known.  And  C.G.  Krause  s p e e c h " . 1 3 Qn t h e  saw other  that  the  hand,  the  s o u n d o f m u s i c was duration of  s o u n d as  essentially measured  "animated by  meter,  30 rhythm, link  tempo  and p h r a s i n g remained the  between  course, poetic  the  poetry  and  music  regularity of  accent  r a t h e r than p r o s a i c  context  of  the  imitative  poetry,  controlled  great  in  emphasis  properly  Kunst  i n t o words,  Kirnberger  is  also  or o r a t o r y .  deals to  at  to  "melody  More  speak", to  vary  divisions  was,  of  affinity  to  within  d u r a t i o n were  For  Musik  is  as  reason  (1771-79), asserted  as  placed  that,  by  transformed into it  was  mood i n m u s i c ,  expression  of  i n the  sudden  affective  of  a  meter  a n d makes m e l o d y c o m p a r a b l e  implications  and i t s  well  this  rhythmic rather than melodic the  the  passions--only  specifically  create  To show t h e  length with  poetic  analogy  to  der  discussed It  can music,  Kirnberger  things,  used  must c o n s e q u e n t l y  correspondences structural  Tempo  so  time  of  and  idea.  in  and tempo.  three  of  Satzes  elements moods  emotional  and s t i m u l a t i n g s p e e c h . " ! ^  i n poetry  composer  distinct  produced i t s importantly,  the  divisions  reinen  meter  these  language.!5  manner as  des  on rhythm,  "shapes n o t e s  poetic  a  Die  combining  comprehensive that  logical  r e a l l y communicate a s p e c i f i c  Kirnberger,  More  principle in art,  and most  century B e r l i n .  and p h r a s i n g t h a t  conveying  and  conspicuous  i n eighteenth  composition.  considered predominant f o r through  most  to  same  passion, character.  phrasing,  quality.  its  He makes  a  poetry:16  The rhythm o f a c o m p o s i t i o n is very similar to the v e r s i f i c a t i o n of a lyric poem. Individual melodic phrases r e p r e s e n t the l i n e s , and longer sections of s e v e r a l phrases are musical strophes.  Kirnberger varying  also  lengths,  irregularity  points as  "to  are  out lines  surprise  that  phrases  i n poetry, the  w i t h i n a musical p e r i o d are  and a composer  listener  by  can  something  utilize unusual  of  this or  31  irrational."17  Other Das  Berlin  vollkommene measure.  offered  a detailed poetic  admitted  that  notation,  d i d not  really  composer  of  m u s i c must be  types  that  The  meter.19  ornamentation,  is  based  expression.  Ornateness  tropes  the  was  seventeenth figures  to  of  and e i g h t e e n t h decorate  musical-rhetorical  figures  remind  composers  of  musical  art.  Figurative ordinary  speech.  The  of  enhance  verbal  with  and  by  poetry  and  in his  p o e t moves  for  really that  a  the  metric  that  of  on r h e t o r i c a l c o n c e p t s  for  music,  figures  and  oratory.  Likewise  composer  employed  ornamental  expression.20  over  the  distinguishes  away f r o m  as  in  affective  what  musical  music.  application of  persuasion  three  possible  and  to  Marpurg  to  stresses  all  the  The system  centuries  common d e n o m i n a t o r e x i s t i n g  is  two  c o n c e d e d was he  his  F.W. Marpurg  emphasis,  such p a t t e r n s  which had evolved  language  in  of poetry  adaptable  Mattheson,  through the  century poet  this  various  easily  mutual dependence  means  and  types  Tonkunst,  w h i c h he  familiar  shared  language  primary  while  like  and u t i l i z e  on the  the  ^  thoroughly  dimension  die  Germanic  However,  can i d e n t i f y  third  with  [^^JjJJJ  Dactylic  M a t t h e s o n was  t r a d i t i o n a l Greek nomenclature.18  examples,  concur  Amphibrachys  as  uber  interpretation of  a number o f h i s  he  Briefe  b e a r i n g the  "distorted  so  Kritische  musical  feet,  preoccupied,  with administering metric  In his  syllable  the  were  Cappelmeister,  musical  example  theorists  of  served  to  between p o e t i c  and  poetic  abstract  style  thought  from  and pure  32  sense  of  prosaic  way o f  figures  the  symbolic  in  the  of  speech.  language  case  power o f  composition  of  the  tones.  of  it  figures  and  opposed  the  alliteration) poet  is  Musical  figures  the  a single  context of  in  or  which  substance  of  referential  element  create  unexpected  that  irregular  and,  hence,  with or without repetition voices,  of  Figures of  strong of  a statement  common p o e t i c  tense  and  of  text,  notes  at  the  same  especially, is, or  of  like  tonal  in poetry ideas  so  impression. word  contrasts  that  order,  may  also pitch,  phrases,  in poetry, becomes  an the  relationships  depend upon as  to  Little or  a  the  create "asides" sudden  i n a new d i r e c t i o n have  A  repetition  phrase  the  (as  effect.  a  w i t h a new one b e g i n n i n g figures  or  a different  of  and  emphasis.  of  It  contrast  emotional  verb  assonance  or r e p e t i t i o n o f whole  development.  the  i n poetry  aid  In n o n - v e r b a l music  of  categories  sentence,  for  the  listener  breaking-off of  appears  list  composers.21  create  complete  or,  associative  poetry--figures  to  by  with  text,  two  rhyme,  used  produces  changes  examples  or  arrangement o f words a  century  to  motive  (parenthesis), of  link  and i s  word  for  and  essentially  r e i t e r a t e d note,  m u s i c a l meaning. or  are  work  comprehensive  which produces  the  musical the  a  style  the  R e p e t i t i o n o f words  phrase  in different  or with v a r i a t i o n s .  concept:  surprise  word,  meaning o f  eighteenth  there  effect  T h e y may s i m p l y be  intellectual  that  sounds,  repetition,  pitches,  to  imbues h i s  expression  offer  contrast.  an i n t e l l e c t u a l  emphasis.  literally  studies  underscore music's of  the  to h e i g h t e n  that  and e m o t i o n a l  o f music a l s o  illustrate  known  repetition of  the  different  to  figures  change  is  figures  may r e i t e r a t e  create  to  c a n be b r o a d l y s t a t e d  repetition to  figures  A number o f  which serve  a more v i v i d  The composer  non-verbal music,  musical-rhetorical However,  of  towards  significance  are for  musical of  composition.  register,  mode o r  musical  "asides"  short,  both  raising  an emotional  sense  or  or b e a t - - i s  share  artistic  what  the  what  is  as  composer  may  required  specific  i m i t a t i o n may b e  content. motion of imitation  his  imitation,  movement,  and  then,  establish  "sound-sense"  the  thing  tones  of  achieve use  the  of  identical  some  extend  bring It  into  must be  audience  of  methods  sort,  of  c a n be  of  sound,  and develop  through  focus  various  is  acquired  as  is the  concept  the is  meaningless. or  c a n one u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n time  both  appreciation  (association)  can form  or  meaning  One way a p o e t  through  has  what  nature.24 sounds  in  This of  been  the  of  of  only appear  in  the  setting  In music, of  in  semantic  i n p o e t r y w o u l d be where words d e s c r i b i n g  convey a g a l l o p i n g rhythm.  a  local  words  indirectly identified with  or  termed  sound type  by  present  from c o n t e x t .  representation in  the  remembered t h a t  for  passed  o c c u r r i n g when t h e  this  course,  has  instants  intent  or  common g o a l  " a l l poetry" likewise  that  the  that  i n m u s i c c a n be  a running horse of  arts  (expectation)  defined  suggestive,  A n example  can,  of  that  "only by a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f  be b u i l t u p . " 2 3 M e a n i n g ,  poetry  said  devices  come  style,  pleasure."22  something  to  melodic  of  and p r o v i d e meaning.  back to  change  i n s t r i v i n g to  a r t s - - a n y one moment i n m u s i c a n d p o e t r y  Only by r e f e r r i n g  instant;  of  a sudden  In  music and p o e t r y ,  temporal  change  is  of non-related melodic m a t e r i a l , etc.  been  to  c e r t a i n formal  anticipating  unexpected  " r e p e t i t i o n and c o n t r a s t  essential  components,  o c c u r when t h e r e  i n t h e i r audience,  has  memory a n d a n t i c i p a t i o n a r e of  an  poetry,  response  that  Finally, time,  texture,  and  And  to music:  contrasts  interjections  music  elaboration. applied  Musical  the  suggestive  words  and  is  34  commonly d e f i n e d in  the  of  discussion  poetry, as  this  using well  to  Another type of  instrumental  the  bird  i n t r o d u c i n g words  with  of  logic  the  Rogerson  of  rests  nature.25  calls  and  more p i c t o r i a l  other  approach  to  other  ability  to  hand,  literal  musical  is  commonly  imitation  composition.  its  is  artistic  much  of  only  one  sustain  imitative  such  a  a  etc.  fact,  musical in  century  and  rhythm  motions  imitation,  at  having  purely  In  the  brook)  entire  eighteenth  represent  (such  arrived  using  such  found and i s  the  It  is  demands  also of  passages,  and a r t i f i c i a l . device  shared  is  by  and as  really  poets  a somewhat  vocabulary a n d when  Likewise  subject  to  and  limited make  imitation the  In  "roar",  An  "harmony  method  intent. poet,  a w o r k c a n seem t r i v i a l  words.  effect.  F o r the  over-used,  too  to  in  is  of  made w i t h o u t  the  its  less  sounds  ("hiss",  imitation,  of  pertinent  poetry,  words.  where  on  to  more e a s i l y  the  legitimacy  obvious  babbling of  directly of  an  more  the  sounds are  half-steps  alliteration  music,  difficult  makes  the  orchestral  extremely  who  in  or a stormy n i g h t ,  animal noises,  expressing  c a n be  meaning  wind,  that  than s t r u c t u r a l  "Sound-sense" in  the  entirely  Qn t h e  actual  onomatopoetic  on  contends in  imitate  i n music  sounds  or d i c t i o n a r y  imitation  most",  effects  natural  sound o f  to  describing  Onomatopoetic  imitation  thesis,  composers  sounds  the  create  of  natural  analogy  sounds  means  noises  its  by  is  imitation,  " r " , a n d "1"  w o r k may b e b a s e d  operate  of  and  dying  many " b " ,  musical  principle  "sound-sense"  music  imitation  or  and  contend  his  of  death  through assonance  the  to  describes  downwards  accomplished  etc.)  because  that  P i t c h movement  c a n be  as  "buzz",  a text  this.  onomatopoeia,  as  word-painting.  conjunction with  example to  as  it is  composer  criticisms  of  35  superficiality. composer  to  In  first  the  content  convey  in  a  -non-essential poet  correlates  cadences,  and the  Moreover,  as  based on the  line the  these  do p a s s i n g  or  subtle  formal  verse,  pattern of elements  tones,  earlier  stated,  the  crucial  factor  For  this  reason,  Jones  poetry  for  defined  tones,  of  the  thoroughbass  of  the  his  descriptive  or  ways  in  i n which  development  a  that  work.  or  device  determine  between  Baroque  music:26  of  deceptive  musical  function  in late  work.  of  any p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t  of  and  The p o s i t i o n  dominant harmonies,  relationships  analogy  of  and the  ornamental passages  creating an  choice  to  by poet  through grammatical  i n music.  contribute  repetition  sees  and the  all  used  arrangement  are  the  ways  a rhyme s c h e m e ,  leading  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  is  of  more  and through s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s  terms,  as  other,  certain relationships  poetic  meaning,  pattern  are  meaning,  place,  i n poetry  key words  the  There  form.  the  rhyme  Just as the steady chords of the bass s u p p l y the h a r m o n i c f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e m e a s u r e - b y - m e a s u r e movement and i n t e r v a l l i c harmony o f the voices above rhyme...conditions the s y n t a c t i c movement o f l i n e a n d t h e c o n g r u e n t movement o f b a l a n c e a n d p a r a l l e l .  Certain musical poetical ABA  and p o e t i c use  and  the than  of  form  The r o n d o ,  out,  "any  chorus begins a  poetic  formal  composition.  musical  sonata  mediums.27 points  large-scale  forms are  of  all,  course,  but  hold equal  Brown's  that  the  i n some way, originated  stanzas  poem."28  concept,  Calvin  reveals  poem w i t h the  schemes a l s o  investigation  rondo,  as  as  a  and a chorus  well  theme  for  into  the  and v a r i a t i o n s ,  t r a n s f e r r a b l e between the poetic is  Theme a n d v a r i a t i o n s  Brown,  significance  as  other  form--as  i n rondo form is  a  musical  modern c r i t i c s ,  two  Brown if  only  rather see  it  36 as  adaptable  directly,  for verbal composition:  and  emphases,  then  followed  in  poetry  "spinning-out" intensify  of  one  has  idea  of  theme."30 The r e l e v a n c e form  i n poetry  arts.  It  has  dramatic release  to  do the  dramatic procedures involves like  the  listener  can  "character" tension the  reappearance  embellishments existence  of  of or  between  sonata,  experience.34 composition  is  mid-eighteenth  the  latter  music  the  a pre-requisite  century poetic  sonata two  establishment  of  and the  ultimate  on the  music.31  His  (motive)  which,  i n s u c h a way t h a t develops  causing  are  added, been  the  as  seen  dramatic  for  form, is  the  when  tension,  achieved  as  for  the  through where  full  procedure  especially  basis  sonata  with  more n a r r a t i v e o r  the the  a commentary."33  century  features  of  which  or,  of  thesis  particularly  review,  and  application  a  use  style,  of  is  eighteenth  containing  melodic  and a r e s o l u t i o n  has  earlier  Admittedly, not  "as  and  development,  Dramatic presentation  elaborations  the  "plot"  expand  linking  "character"  with other motives,  these motives  in  musical  the  the  point,  keyboard  and  of  a basic  concept  article  theme  issue  exposition,  through a  and augmented,  other  a wider  recent  a distinct  "collides"  "unfold,  develops  a climactic  century  moves  to  and  moods,  Baroque t r a i t  presentation--the  a  role.32  such q u a l i t i e s  distinguishing classical  of  the  simply  sense,  more c o m p l e x  short,  based  its  sustained  composer  b u i l d i n g up t o  i n a drama,  follow  the  dramatic  Frum  with  out  in different  abstract  tend  of  given  reworkings  poets  symptomatic  forces--in  is  more  a  like  i n eighteenth  or motive  is  is  recognition  a character  motive;  with  Bernard  n  o f ABA f o r m a n d t h e  antagonistic  resolution.  i  of  identified  theme  and music  tension, of  been  a single  theme  by a s e r i e s  and sometimes meters."29  variation  "a  and  The for the  dramatic in  poetic  regard lyric  to than  37  dramatic. the  One may,  sonata  or  pentameters, the  even  it  In music,  is  is  meaning--that development the  the  time  of  of  of  a  versification  chordal  was  readily  construction  that  of  relate  be  there  parallel  Consisting  of  thematic  considered  is  no a c t u a l sounding  poetic  Chords  greatly  which  is  in  two  He  i n music,  he  fundamental logic.  In  in  to  in  same  same other,  century harmony  first  that  words  implications of  to  musical  way  the  qualities the  argue  apply  a  that  are  of  musical  eighteenth  the  tones.  the  in  concept  states,  with  at  heard  the  poetry  others  or,  believed in  in  alteration  in pitch, is  and  thematic  o r more  harmony.36  and the  music  verbal  of  and  form  equivalent  p r o v i d e meaning  concerned  to  conflict  harmony to  a difficult  this.  length  by  i n poetry  and consonants  composition,  expression  at  to  that  acknowledged  iambic  concluding  dramatic  even r a p i d  differs  it  and a  regarding  musical  that  harmony to  directly  of  or vowels  that  of  14  to  followed  formal structures  correspondence  to  idea,  significance,  handling or  tones  of  and d i s c u s s e s  a possible  verse-form.  parallel  vowels  poetry. was  its  simultaneous  of  do w i t h  for  to  simultaneous  function  Kirnberger  movement  the  conceded  foundation  language.38  analogy  different  to  of  as  music.  reciprocity of  a possible  have  Kirnberger  the  in  in this  corresponding  But the  was  the  blending  effect  much  the  as  verbal  theorist  present  harmony,  suggest  art.  sonnet  theme.35 The e s s e n c e  Of course,  A l l  has  to  the  in poetry.  themes  an  to  further  harmony."37  work  back  functional  "produce  words,  elaboration  clearly  sounding  the  principle  the  Some w r i t e r s different  and  one  effects  to  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an opening  addition  there  point  fugal  reference  and r e s o l u t i o n  that  is  amplification  moral with  to  however,  of of  harmonic  place,  the  38  principle when a  of  association  composer  connects  when c h o r d  inversions  beautiful  harmonic  of end  constant of  cadence,  expected."40 sustain produced order, demands of the  syntax  And  in a poetic  only and  construction  verbal  as  conclusion.  i n both arts.  a phrase  or  line,  statement  before  its  meaning  perceived  at  end  of  the  a  musical  most  in a  state  with a  and  The  For poetry,  becomes  kept  period concludes nothing  tool  sense  but  fact  is,  is  leads  to  create  and  expectation  is  to  clear.  ear  another mutual  must  Musical  statement.  i n word  disharmony  meaning c a n o n l y be  the  tonic is  through deviations creates  the  further  used of  But  "the  the  Irregularity  that  appear,  "ear  an e s s e n t i a l  This  o r mode.  only at  means,  well,  the  complete  also  same k e y  exists  h a r m o n y , w h i c h comes  composition.  through meter  if  is  association  constructions  a more p e r f e c t  satisfaction  a satisfactory  end o f  of  Expectation-play is  not  d e r i v e d from the  irregular  period."39  "the  interest  A general  c o n n e c t i o n occurs" because  entire  then  considered.  chords  or other  expectation  the  must be  hear  and facet  a c q u i r e d at a  complete  meaning i s  Kirnberger  likewise  gives  the  reason:^!  Not until a succession of connected notes reaches a p o i n t o f r e s t at which the ear is somewhat satisfied does i t comprehend t h e s e n o t e s as a s m a l l u n i t ; b e f o r e t h i s , t h e e a r p e r c e i v e s no m e a n i n g a n d is anxious to understand what t h i s s u c c e s s i o n o f n o t e s r e a l l y wants to say. However, i f a noticeable break does occur after a moderately long succession of connected notes, which p r o v i d e s the ear w i t h a small rest point and concludes the meaning of the phrase, then the ear combines a l l these notes i n t o a comprehensible u n i t .  One m i g h t f u r t h e r of  poetic  theme.  identify Just  the as  concept  of  k e y o r mode w i t h  i n a m u s i c a l work t h e r e  is  the  development  a constant  referral  39 back at  to  a key c e n t e r  the  center  thought from  must,  this  object  of  its  foregoing  and s p e c i f i c for  sufficient being  most  the  their  attempts  elements the  that  music  to  connect  relationship  the  reinforced  will was  one  this  to  it  the  mutual  must be m e n t i o n e d ,  invariably  two  arts,  apt  to  poetic  been  different  a l i t e r a r y model.  both as  correspondence  however,  deal with  sounds  Yet evidence  that  there  (the  most  that  convey  terms  reveals  and that  overlook c e r t a i n ambiguities instead  on  the  Furthermore,  and m u s i c a l s t y l e s and  the  offered  forms  and f o c u s e d  conceived  to  qualities,  art  interdisciplinary perception.  generally  a  w a r r a n t c a u t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h  were  evaluated  of  cadence,  in poetry,  a musical-poetic  between the  is  scheme.  and music has  into  theme  and c o n t r a s t s  from  o r rhyme  an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p .  illustrate,  still  viewing  meter  a  dominant-tonic  returning,  medium o r a n o t h e r .  century c r i t i c s  p e r i o d supports  chapter  It  p o e t must to  the  outlining  i n t r i n s i c differences  originating with  eighteenth  tone,  of poetry  century works.  that  A  form a f t e r  discussion i n nature,  chord a s s o c i a t i o n ,  it.  s e e n as  original  something beyond themselves) concepts  be  further investigation  mid-eighteenth  obvious  can  of  and a l l v a r i a t i o n s  hark back to  or adopting a d i f f e r e n t  groundwork  are  in  process  development,  necessity,  thought  The  of  of  poetic  perspective,  standpoint  abstract  of  t h r o u g h the  As were in  the  the  positive music  of  following  synonymous, terms  in  of  for its  40  CHAPTER  III  POETRY AND MUSIC ANALYSES  An  analysis  p o e t r y must prevalent Prussian in  of  Berlin's begin  mid-century.  throne,  the  OF S E L E C T E D MUSICAL AND P O E T I C  necessarily  at  to  the  1770's.  music  with  From  first  German  poetry  were  eventually  coalesce  century.  The g r a c e f u l  the  that  were  poetic  style  Gleim, of  synonymous w i t h  and i n B e r l i n ,  contemporary  collection in  German  particular his  of  poetry  art  to  effusive  all  French his  Anacreontic  of  Even the  the  two  adamant  (notably and,  the  was  so-called  Voltaire),  movement  distinct  stylistic styles--that  wit  general,  the  manifest  Lessing,  in  the that  J.W.L. aware  i n an  early  tendency  result  of  the  bienseance French  and wrote  of  manners,  surrounderd  aspired  a  ever  The  the  end  and charm  von Hagedorn,  largely  spoke  the  Drang  1751).!  belief  to  style  ascended  sensibility,  German--he  after  und  became  Prussia for  French roccoco  poetic  mannerisms,  rationlist  in  the  and S c h i l l e r a t  Friedrich  in his  consanguinity  a n d empfindsam  rococco  king of  s u p e r i o r to  the  a Sturm  life  style  its  of  (Berlin,  French  despotic  poetry,  in  WORKS  when F r e d e r i c k  Goethe  as  Kleinigkeiten  transactions, of  works  indulged  thinkers  sentimentality  rococco  by such w r i t e r s  F r e d e r i c k was were  of  French Courtly  entitled  the  1740  followed as  of  overview  and s o p h i s t i c a t e d  K.W. Ramler.  of  and language  virtually  the  imitate  affinity  notable  i n the  fashions,  neighbours.  customs with  represented  an  manifestations  by modern c r i t i c s  of  i n terms  about  tendencies--termed to  COMPARED:  himself  French  in  toward  the  Greek  poet  spirit.2  the  sixth-century  41 Anacreon, of  inspiration for  for  style,  usually in  whose s c e n e s  tone  and  pastoral  general,  connected  no  the  in  of  18th  theme,  continuity  poets  aspired  enough  the  to  to  a  type  chosen  carefully  synonyms,  pastoral  with  circumlocutions Verse  und  Lieder,  Hugel und d i e  to  offers  a modest  a n d two b e a t unspectacular  yet  lines), beauty.  the  words There  and  sense  of  in  the  half  Poetic  such  as  roccoco  long  1742  was  chains  variatio  a  with  language with  of  by  i n combination  from h i s of  Forms  framework,  any  often  divided  other),  Morgan,  loosely  movement--just  and atmosphere,  example  The h i l l s  symmetrical  most  was  symmetrical,  avoiding  meters,  devices  there  of  and  rhythmic  rhyme s c h e m e .  H a g e d o r n ' s Der  Weide  string  works,  pictoral effects.  while  each  grace  an e x c e l l e n t  of  syllables,  rhyme w i t h  Stehn a u f g e h e l l t , Und F r u c h t b a r k h e i t und F r e u n d Beblumt das F e l d . Der Schmelz d e r griinen F l a c h e n Glar^tz v o l l e r P r a c h t , Und v o n d den k l a r e n Bachen Entweicht die Nacht.  Within  style  and r h e t o r i c a l  2 of  these matters; a  source  concerns  in anacreontic  economical,  variety  12-13  eye  their  a  roccoco  and s o n n e t . 3 W i t h i n a r e g u l a r  of  of  lines  an  for  Easy c l a s s i c a l  a line  to  rather  brief,  and  monotony  closely  content  but  worked w i t h i n a b a l a n c e d  amplificatio.  Die  p o e t s were  a n d whose w h o l e lines,  Oden  a  Poetic  chosen  flexibility  (i.e.,  shorter  s h a r e d most  thought,  and i r r e g u l a r i t y .  alexandrine  of  of  idyll,  prevent  complexity  caesura,  lied,  a n d c o n v i v i a l i t y became  remained subordinate  passages  p r e f e r r e d by anacreontic as  century,  love  atmosphere.  descriptive  such  flirtatious  of  and collection  aesthetic:^  meadows  To b r i g h t n e s s y i e l d , And F e r t i l i t y and F r i e n d Flower the f i e l d . The glow o f g r e e n p l a i n s Glittering bright, And i n t o the c l e a r brooks Escapes the n i g h t .  form (iambic meter paint is  no  a  bucolic  profundity  a l t e r n a t i n g between scene of  of  thought  natural here  four but  a n d no  42 development  of  stanzas  of  this  rhythms  of  a  theme--in  the  fluidity  poem  words  of  fact,  except  could  be  themselves  movement  without stanza  poetic  a  effect  continuous this  and  imagery,  song  proportion, an i n h e r e n t for  song  school  artist  tendencies.  lyricism  musical  Literature the  The  as  of  gently  whole,  gentle  to  poetry  that  accompaniment.  built  as was  their  the  poems  As w i l l  total  rather than  of  captured  nature,  balance the  "one in  through  of  reason  exhiliaration  of  despite of  like be  incentive the  the  for  content,  Morgan  discussed of  concern  thematic  Der  for  easily  later,  roccoco  so-called  first  reputation.  expression  an i d e a l b e i n g  sentimentalist  of  pure emotion emanating  developed  approach  thinkers,  a new n a t i o n a l  stability.  and the  s p a r k e d a new  r e g u l a r i t y and . p o v e r t y made  create  emotion.  mid-century because,  that  and  Hagedorn has  appreciate  the  The sound and  entity,  pleasures  two,  v a r i e d to  rhythmic shocks"  reader  f r i v o l i t y and a r t i f i c i a l  a result  of  f o u n d a t i o n on which composers  among G e r m a n y ' s bourgeois shallow  metric  last  any o r d e r .  distinct  b e i n g overwhelmed by  i n Germany a t  p o e t r y p r o v i d e d the  of  the  such an approach to  adaptable  soul  allows  It  is  and  a sense o f balance  On t h e  the  without  geometric  Berlin  work  in  and are  a brief  "series  beauty  composition  there  is  first  r h y t h m i c r e g u l a r i t y and a harmonious  that  was  simple losing  exaltation."5  simplistic  feeling  natural  like  breath of  rather  fleeting  is  the  presented  are  Each statement w i t h i n the  for  partly  concurrently  was b e c o m i n g e x t r e m e l y as  a  reaction  w o r l d d e p i c t e d by roccoco  consciousness  to  among German  from  roccoco popular  against  art,  artists  the  the  and p a r t l y striving  43  to  break free  the  Frenchman  reason art  of  the Abbe''  c o u l d be b e s t  must  strive  to  primarily  Lessing  aesthetic  writings  natural  for  Lessing's to  the  early  influenced  who  senses--that  all  audience.  was  if  would resemble Miss  ideals  Sara  of  meditational literature  writings derived  of  s e n s e was  the  later  Sturm  und  not  Drang  i n the  sentimentalist epic  thought,  with  writers,  b u t was  from a p e r s o n a l  Melancholy,  f r i e n d s h i p as  the  p o p u l a r themes  The poem,  works  of  D e r Messias  from which a p o e t  once;  three  acts.  of  Milton,  captures  as  on  that  the  German the  heart."9  of  state. were  expression.  monumental of  of  state  devotion  emotional  cult  its  outpouring  religious  this  as  of  a definable  particularly his  especially  in  ideal  reflection  well  7  and  impulse  irrational  could cultivate  F . G . K l o p s t o c k (1742-1803), (1748-1773),  least  approach took  to  form.6  at  all-consuming  tied  its  every  its  and  highly-charged,  human c h a r a c t e r a n d d e v e l o p e d unrequited love,  poems  follow  Nearly  cries first  the  indebtedness  and moral v i r t u e .  all-creative the  not  bourgeois  his  Y o u n g . 8 The r e l i g i o u s  Pietist  Emotion i n  this  this  Edward  all-suffering,  model,  than the  reveals  intrigue  times  emotional  "all-feeling,  role  sentimental  rather  (1755),  sentimentalism  and  from  English  Sampson  poetry  literary criticism,  for his  rather English  of middle-class  non-dramatic religious  He t o o k  in his  French  m e n t i o n e d more t h a n t h i r t y  the  ideals  man's  It  the  tears  prototype  these  i n the  to  in  In  sentiments  the  German d r a m a t i c p o e t r y w e r e  character are  tragedy  to  that  was  through an a p p e a l  necessary  that  Ironically it belief  t r a d i t i o n , but  drama,  this  French a e s t h e t i c s .  i n s p i r e d t h e s e men b y h i s  enunciated  felt  it  English  the  of  and d r a m a t i c works.  he  impulse  Dubos who  arouse  French n e o - c l a s s i c a l tragedy,  pervasiveness  feeling  epic in  44  literature. motion," total  1 0  Klopstock's and i n h i s  neglect  of  inspired  theme o f  the  poetic  ascension  imagery  innovative  poetic  that  of  Christ of  language:  style  for  the  in  of  a  the  r e a l i z e d most  expression  of  (1667),  lyric  Germany  turns  to  phrase; meter, his  the  entire  and  in  by  the  emotion.  of  rejects  the  verse  choice  of  built  on  compounded euphonious  linguistic  rhythm  The o p e n i n g v e r s e gives  the  boldness  especially  and  line. poem)  He  free  a careful  poetic  internal  then.  syntax  soul  effectively  freedom  until  whole  Klopstock develops  preferring instead  of  comprise  language  "set  u n u s u a l word f o r m a t i o n s ,  quality  that  to  Lost  with  approach to  musical  20,000 v e r s e s  expressive  was  a i m was  a rhyme s c h e m e ,  and unique a  this  action  intricately-designed  creates  nearly  of  unheard  use  expressions;  aim  b y M i l t o n ' s Paradise  traditional  words;  Messias  external  Clearly  poetic  an example  of  (of the  Klopstock promoted:H  S i n g , u n s t e r b l i c h e S e e l e , der sundigen Menschen E r l o s u n g , Der der M e s s i a s a u f E r d e n i n s e i n e r M e n s c h e i t v o l l e n d e t , U n d d u r c h d i e e r Adams G e s c h l o c h t e z u e d e r L i e b e d e r G o t t h e i t , L e i d e n d , g e t d d t e t , und v e r h e r r l i c h e t , wieder erhoht h a t . A l s o geschah des Ewigen W i l l e . V e r g e b e n erhub s i c h S a t a n gegen den g o t t l i c h e n Sohn; umsonst s t a n d J u d a Gegen i h n a u f ; e r t h a t s , und v o l l b r a c h t e d i e g r o s s e Verso'hnung. Translation: S i n g , immortal S o u l , o f d e l i v e r a n c e o f the S i n n e r , Which the M e s s i a h a c c o m p l i s h e d on e a r t h i n h u m a n i t y , A n d h e , t h r o u g h t h e f a l l o f Adam f r o m t h e l o v e o f G o d , S u f f e r i n g , d i e d , and e x a l t e d , has r i s e n a g a i n . T h u s came t o "be t h e E t e r n a l W i l l . R o s e u p S a t a n a g a i n s t the h e a v e l y Son; i n v a i n s t o o d Judas a g a i n s t h i m ; he d i d t h i s , and b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e great Reconciliation.  Klopstock dissatisfied  with  o r i g i n a l l y wrote the  result.  the  first  By t h e  thxee  cantos  i n prose  second p u b l i c a t i o n i n  but  1755  he  was had  45  decided verse, it  is  are  to a  emulate meter  the  never  "a p r e d o m i n a t e l y  also  employed.  determined  by  and  before  c o u l d the  before  his  placement the  of  the  aesthetic  increasingly  important  as  a role  group based  and  periphery  of  spontaneity  the  rhymes  the  hexameter  As B r o w n i n g trochees  caesura."!2  and meters  his  explains, spondees is  largely  combination  upon n a t u r a l word  deeper that  The  in  and  i n d i v i d u a l hexameter  express  extreme  of  thoughts  and  of  stress  emotions  c h a r a c t e r i z e d German  force for  Sturm of  Goethe,  so-called  verse  sentimentalism  Drang is of  often the  Hain--and of  indeed,  difficult  earlier  becoming  Klopstock's  generation  period;  condemned  was  young p o e t s ,  Gottinger  new  Berlin  the  writers many  to  style  most  writings notably  a  dramatists stood  of  on  them  distinguish and  an  the  the were  between  emotional  "Sturm und D r a n g e r " . 1 3  prevalent  connection  music  This  sentimentality  a relatively  in  i n German l i t e r a t u r e .  and i t  is  yet  a g r o w i n g number o f  und  the  popular  rationalists  emotion,  of  and t e c h n i q u e  non-texted  the  to  power  more  model  demonstrative  secular  of  of  i n which  the  Gurstenberg.  contemporaries  ostensible  measure,  rhythm dependent  in Leipzig--the  Leiswitz  It  i n German p o e t r y .  hexameter  sing-song  Klopstock's  the  used  the  time.  Some  served  a n t i q u i t y by a d o p t i n g  dactyllic  gave K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y than  of  The c h a r a c t e r  the  rhymelessness  poets  short  distance  from the  i n mid-century B e r l i n between the  song. and i t s  Although  two  art  the  relationship  to  to  forms  main poetic  poetic its  exists  concern style,  style,  music. in of it  the  aesthetic The  genre  this  most of  the  study  is  w o u l d seem  useful  46  to  take  the  two  the  poet  into  account  arts.  the  philosophy  Beginning with  Ramler and the  theorist  preoccupation with  Berlin's  first  lieder,  collection  city's  top  of  composers  Agricola with  (4),  texts  F. by  by  Benda  (1),  exemplify  anacreontic  this  Graun  (5),  poets  (4),  earlier,  Liederschule,  set  publication,  Von  work--discussed,  of  the  Schlegel  i n 1753  by  a  all  In  this  of  the  Quantz  (4),  Telemann  Ramler (1),  Gleim  major  and Germany's  (2),  (5),  i n a p a r a d i g m a t i c way,  of  critics.  king)  (2),  union  became  Graun  Krause  Significantly,  incorporated schSnen  der  Krause,  out  the  and  (2);  Uz  (1),  Hagedorn,  who  a r e most  self-acknowledged  principles  musikalische  (which of  Poesie  success  included such  that  by J . G . S u l z e r  Kunste  the  (Berlin,  in his  first  before  the the  famous  edition,  prominant  Abbe Dubos'  arts.  Krause b e l i e v e d  poetry,  Music reason  was  could express "we u n i t e  words  general  put  top  in  one  not  the  in  of  of  composers)14--achieved  a  Allgemeine  the  being the  in  later  Theorie  der  aesthetic,  ancient  specific  another  his  important  f o r t h by K r a u s e were  i n conveying  feelings,  and music w i t h  This  Berlin  members  treatise,  ideals  the  composition  1752).  i n a d d i t i o n to  more s u c c e s s f u l only  song  of  1771-74).15 Krause's  r e l i e d much u p o n t h e  intellect,  leader  p u b l i c a t i o n by  city's  views  turn,  that  for  (Berlin,  c r i t i c i z e d and e d i t e d  Montagsclub  h i g h measure  the  Lieder  represent  J.G.  Bach (3),  on the  collection.  A year  the  (10).  und  and  works  service  Ebert  Oden  composition  i n the  C.P.E.  composers  theorists  thirty-one  K.H.  and G l e i m  song  musicians,  Hagedorn (7),  von K l e i s t  publication of  those  (3),  Berlin's  Krause,  the  (i.e.,  leading poets--music  the  of  able  fusion to  of  the  stimulate  emotions  than  ideas,  and f o r  order  in  to  music. this  express  47  concrete  thoughts  P o e t r y must  come  i n music,"16  first--the  composer  matches  text.  must n e v e r  It  simply story to  to  the  in their  music  musical  by Krause)19.  keeping with  the  exception  for  was  the  (passions  art-song lines  result  emotions  of  that  with  deliberate  was  other hand,  a song  i.e.,  of  was  was  the not  anger  of  quite  entertain  artistic  accompaniment,  to the  was  entertaining is  the  to  song,  ( E x a m p l e 1);20  the Ein  a  that  "tell  only  lieder  were one  at  the  general  the  text  Vernunftschluss,  of  the  existed their  for  own  be  set  musical  passions  were  considered one  effect  written. the  not in The  conclusion  purpose  behind  acceptance  production  melodies  listener.  the  audience.  and t h e i r  community  on  to  and  depict  suitable  based  words  a joyous  a n d move  deeper."I?  accompaniment  and d e s p a i r were  to  Krause's principles  such  words  ideally  change  lead  specifically  i n which these  to  heart  e v e r y poem c o u l d  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e a s y - t o - s i n g  artlessness  and music by Krause  to  kinds  the  rhetorical divisions  written  should  form  its  musical  allowing  those  s e e n as  Berlin's  simple  and  poetry;  s u c h as  a sad p a s s i o n  composition,  members  Also  strophic  strophe--this  The  and a l l  and c o n t a i n i n g c e r t a i n  successful  lieder  meter,  own way."18 On t h e  deemed  the  follow  the  Only  "penetrate  must  easy melody,  effectively.  accompaniment  of  rhythm,  an  o r d e r to  n  music  obscure  provide  £  of  made up o f  that  addressed  A prime example with  of  t e x t by  by an  short the this Gleim  48 Example  1  - Ein  Vernunftschluss  f r o m Oden  und  Lieder  (Berlin,  1753)  Ern»H>aff  \U (n)"  V 1 T 1It,**.  -  ,  tJ  p\  * * CLr  J^J—*—  ff  J  iff'  1 rT» — |  LU i I U  J  a  ii  17—  locW,  tit  Id,  »*9 • «<4  |  v  1  \ •/ r r r •TJ—T —t-t-t—  r *•  —4^ xr*  — l l <.»  lit  t  p  f  L[)  i—•  *-  E-1  Translation: A Clever Full  Turn  many m o r a l i s t s  M a n k i n d was But  I  Yes  I who've  I  say  Just  remain a that  But  now U r s i n I  conviction is  in  dualistic  moralist  who  the  we're  surely  two  priority  i n nature:  pupil, for  to  the  them,  mirth.  prove  for  w i s e man,  your  expense:  made f o r  laughter first  it:  grief;  strophes of  it;  grief;  thou wisest  laughed at  of  focuses  made  essayed  replied:  poem  said  laughed at  o n l y made  often  Therefore This  stubborn  often  h e was  M a n k i n d was We've  have  o n l y made f o r  two  o n human f a u l t s , 2 1  mirth.  presents  the  typical  anacreontic  and merriment i n  life.  lines  old attitude  while  convey the  the  remaining  Each  three  strophe of  the  lines  49  expound  the  musical  accompaniment  begins  somberly  melodic occurs  (m.  the  at  a  shifting two  lines  alternate  itself  always  fall  the  change  c a n be  key  each w i t h  the  between  emphasis,  alteration the  key  (C#)  (m.  h a r m o n i c movement optimist.  Krause and f o r  extra  is  after  the  harmonies  most  part,  such  a way  bare  follows  the  accentuated--not  tonic  and thus  the  the  syllables  Krause's  (and h i s  deemed is  line.  joy  and  the  rhythms o f  of  words.  Music  the  opinion musical  Berlin  to  measures  punctuated  words  "zum Gram"  a  chromatic  a key p h r a s e .  of  the  between C major  part, is the  by  At  Rhythmic and  "zur  and  Again Lust",  uncomplicated, notes,  and p o e t r y  conveyed  are  the  accompaniment,  supporters)  up  vitality  The melody  and the  minor  accented  harmonic g o a l .  second  that  the  evident.  static the  words;  with as  fluctuates  the  with  the  and three  the  center  philosophical  obscured--by  the  four  tonal  last  pause  6). Harmonically  the  entire  attitude  5 a n d m.  repeated  on G m a j o r as  and  alterations  of  style  of  key  chromatic  mirror  important phrase  in  dramatic  to  settling  and r a t h e r  the  if  a  highlighting  of  song  in philosophical  coinciding with  K r a u s e has  W h i l e the  The s e v e n measures  two p h r a s e s four  The  change  n a t u r a l rhythms o f  measure  foibles.  and dominant o f  and t h i r d b e a t s .  lines.  8-14  most  match the that  subtle  ( F ^ a n d C# i n m.  s p e d up a s  emphasis,  the  to  major key  a marked c o n t r a s t  finally  repeated  paramount  8),  structure.  change  between the  man's  an emphatic  q u i c k e n e d r h y t h m , what he  I n measures before  is  t h a n a few  break at  and  laugh at  bipartite  there  divided into  poetic  to  the  a d d i n g on a measure  change  D major  to  on f i r s t  melodic  able  where  tonality  syllables  for  point  changes  is  this  i n G minor,  the  8). M i n o r  The melody  division  one who  no p r e p a r a t i o n o t h e r  first  key.  at  of  reflects  enough  style  virtually hint  new a t t i t u d e  aesthetic  and  for fused  the in  words  is  this  was  concerning  50  lieder  composition.  A of  lieder  general reveals  bordering  on  The d e s i r e  to  composers music  succumb  to  be  to  phrasing,  medium o f v e r b a l  c a n be  assume music  As most  particular  of  a large  b y a number o f for  various  of  utter the  facets  of  sound  with  the  former  simplicity  of  poet  these  led  of poetic elements  solely  often  technique. Berlin  composition. shared  (harmony and melody)  derive  the  aesthetic  properties  i n the  these  from  part of ideals  the  Their  with and  the affekt  governing  vocal  theorists/composers  poetic  style  at  to  the  instrumental  to  light  works  the  process style.  well  so-called  vocally  it as  were a c t u a l l y  of musical creation  and  comparison homology  representing  of  as  of  distinct  Berlin one  can  instrumental was  emphasized  possible  when  conscious  of  is,  their  artistic  the  another  first  behind their  time  the  poetry  one medium o r  Certainly  t h i n k as  Whether composers  Y e t an e x a m i n a t i o n  contemporary poetry brings  of  to  as  and  a l s o p r o d u c e d n o n - v e r b a l works  creative  the  i n music  common t o b o t h a r t s  v o c a l music  the of  and t e c h n i q u e  elements p e c u l i a r  composers  an instrument.22  indeterminable.  Two  of  artistic  identified  embodied  writing  dictates  accompaniment  fundamental  exchange o f  that  its  quality  interconnection  easily  school.  the  of  o n poem,  collection  art.  from the  deliberate  of  o f music  a result the  i n K r a u s e ' s and Ramlers  a deep c o n c e r n to match a r t i s t i c  characterizing musical  arising  o t h e r works  as  aware  rhythms,  The  of  similar reliance  monotony  reflects  texts:  survey  of  a  course,  music  with  invention.  stylistic  tendencies  51  of  the  period  correlation for  Flute  trend  and  in  nature  to  under  study  poetic  art.  Orchestra,^  music.  of  Its  relatively flute  his  referred  to  considered  it the  as  day  as  composer's  with  periodicity,  last  middle  first with  the  as  a general  m u s i c was  first,  of  his  compositional  in his  later  consists  of  have  movements  (Affetuoso)  five  This  so-called  indications  has  has  is the  three been are  most  the  the  to  good  His  Hiller  taste  some  for  in  the  t o w a r d a more and of  sequential the  traits  homophonic w r i t i n g ,  which  tonic  the  stylistic  late  tended  in  of  setting  embodies  specific  The f i r s t  i n the  (Allegro  major while  tempo assai)  the  slow  I n a manner t y p i c a l outer  statements  statements being  city.24  relatively  on G m i n o r .  or p a r t i a l  the  P r u s s i a a n d was  ideal  periods:  assigned.  and  spent  popular poets  the  shown,  movements  G  roccoco  Bach and J . A .  work e x h i b i t s  r i t o r n e l l o form  f o u r t h and l a s t  in  in  anacreontic  favouring imitative  in  this  contemporaries--Marpurg  as  date  classical  centered  complete  of  study here  been  e a r l i e r works,  development.27  It  under  or  course,  King  C.P.E.  and L e s s i n g )  to  it  galant  i n s t r u c t i o n manual f o r  concerto  a  of  the  i n demand b y t h e  Uz,  the  clubs  by  flute  Quantz u t i l i z e s  movement  regarded  illustrate  found i n the  popular a r t i s t i c  highly  s  (Allegretto)  movement  day,  most  of  Quantz,  employment  to  J . J . Q u a n t z ' s Concerto  a prime example  i n the  Quantz,  the  etc.  interpretive  and  his  style  of musical  associated  and  point  career.  conservative methods  his  The  which  work.  mid-century.  Hagedorn, Ramler,  texts.  traits  a  treatise  As w e l l ,  lieder  w  The f i r s t  chosen  a musical encyclopedia while  music.26 (such  at  i n the  treatise25  been  v e r b a l p a r a l l e l can be  career  active  have  offers  poetry popular  majority  here  i n the  movements. of  the  tonic  of The  ritornello,  key:  52  MR measures:  S  1-17  Rl  18-44  S  4 4 - 47 same  R2  48-71  S  71--76  77-85 new material  a s mm 1 0 - 13 key:  I  I  V  (MR=main r i t o r n e l l o ; ritornello) The r i t o r n e l l o Quantz's  Most and t h i s  theme  of  is  period  and each  instrumental  no  Germany, describe  the  a  certain the to  Hofmannswaldau,  Lohenstein,  etc.)  and  J.S.  Bach;  the  depiction  particular,  has  of  pastoral  for  yet  embellishment  tasteful  Mid-century sole  function  creating  rococco of  early  their  poets art  and,  and  a n d as  the  typical the  tonic  style  of' and  Grauns, of  two  galant  such  phase  Hasse,  counterparts.  chose  of  style  "pleasing" of  their  subject  the  in  an  as  music  Marpurg  and  interests music,  in  There i s  the  and  careful  listener.31  audience  matter  the  poetry  composers  galant  in  musical  phases:  p o e t s whose m a i n  entertainment  that  in  scenes.30 Quantz's  for  style  associated with  into  actual  in  shown  used  through l i g h t n e s s  a result  galant  has  included  poetic  in general,  saw  in  eighteenth-century  and f e s t i v e  atmosphere  main  also  as  broadly  generation  much i n common w i t h h i s  same c o n c e r n  labelled  galant  the  and p a r a l l e l i n g a younger  of  presented  Sheldon  was  associated with  Quantz, in  is  an  at  I  nature,  is  as  10-17  variation.  and  occuring  lay  mid-century,  part  musical  corresponds  Handel  in  expressive  that  Telemann,  I  MR*=first h a l f  David term  111-118 mm  I  music  exception.  R  same  dualistic  or rhythmic  m o v e m e n t . 2 9 He d i v i d e s  earlier (e.g.  to  form,  melodic  Quantz's  work  discussions  the  is  S  85-93 94-110  VI-V  V I --V  R=ritornello,  itself  little  eighteenth-century  rococco  S=solo,  approach to  dominant w i t h  V  MR*  and  as  the  poetic  53 terminology In the  that  was  same w a y ,  avoiding  any  Quantz,  sense  produced music  associated  that  of was  by  flute  well  illustrates  it  accessible  to  the  amateur.listener,  variety  and m u s i c a l  complexity  to  Melodic  and  moves  from a s t r o n g  center  at  measure  Each m o d u l a t i o n logicality a number o f effects,  the  musical  rhythmic  ritornello, operandi  in  is  direction  tonic 47  opening  b y way o f  always  to  the  sequence  straightforward  and  o v e r a l l harmonic p l a n . devices  to  complexities,  quoted here  (Example  satisfy is  2):^2  in full  create  development,  1-18),  more  yet  dominant  key  there  is  as V -  no  the I  is  enough  epitomizes  etc. the  ear.  movement harmonic  is  of  its  offset  by  sudden dynamic changes,  changes,  of  progressions.  question  predictability  to  simplicity  The f i r s t  and r e p e a t e d there  desire  discriminating  predictable.  This  this  The r e l a t i v e  the  variety:  textural (mm.  and  divertissement.  audience.  harmonic  relaxation.  material  or harmonic  its  makes  the  for  i n melodic  a  and  thematic  of  work  for  simplistic  tension  essentially  amusement  enjoyment  the  music  recreation,  working  musical  The G m a j o r c o n c e r t o create  with  The  echo  opening  composer's  modus  54  Concerto in G Major  Example 2 J . J . Quantz: b.c. 1 s t m v m t . , mm 1 - 1 8 .  for  f- f  • t i f f f Jrr-r  / fl, f  tf"  p  r  A  f1  u  i  treatise, the  main  undisguised,  Quantz h i m s e l f passion  j  r  From Q u a n t z ' s use is  or  of  in fact,  underlines  affekt  of  3)  number a n d t y p e  by  to  each movement.  major  composer concerto,  one  sees  is  that  1)  3 3  i*  •  form and c o n t e n t ,  relationships; the  1  *•  f  c  0 , •* J Urn l b' f riM r i=f 1 > . r J~) t y  music  and  T  }>  his  and s t r i n g s  rr /  1  flute,  the  determining  transparent in the  elements  work:  of  dissonances;  the  this tonic  the  key;  and 4)  criteria was  objective.  b y w h i c h one may  a  If  1)  its  affekt  is  2)  In  his  discover  intervallic  designation  applied  deemed t o b e  of  to  suited  given the to  G the  55  expression  of  "insinuating consists  is  the  finally  the  serene,  as  in  unaffected  order  same  And  affective  charming lilting  3)  one  melodic  common b e i n g or 9th  given  to  of  was  the  thirds,  the  passing to  a  each movement--  type  generally  considered  principle  fourths;  tone  and the  6th  or  yet  is  context--that  most and  Affetuoso,  characterized  is  by  his  A l l  this  deliberately  marked by a m e l o d i c o f Helterkeit,  3)  8th,  Allegro,  variegation,  theme  and  charming and a f f e c t i n g . 3 5  emotional  matters,  and  line  resolving  pleasant,  must  always of  or  poetic  exist as  poem  contend with  the  arbitrarity  a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a may a l s o affect:  number a n d t y p e  goal  rhythm o f  the  affects,  alacrity,  a  kind  of  of  words  in  gaity.36  there  nature  2)  little  emotional  deduce  relationships; title.  has  a similar list  to  serious  similar  cheerful,  a specific  art,  a 7th  technical  Although verbal  a  a work t h a t  simplistic  as  most  designation of  contemporaries  implying  the  appogiatura of  4)  to  well  i n t e r v a l l i c motion i n steps,  rare,  Allegretto,--are  points  as  and p e r s u a s i v e " 3 4 .  mainly of  disonnance daring  gay  of  a large  1)  expressive number o f  Quantz's music--for i n which the  a country dance.  Der N a c h t i g a l l r e i z e n d e L i e d e r Ert&nen und l o c k e n schon wieder Die f r o h l i c h s t e n Stunden i n ' s J a h r . Nun s i n g e t d i e s t e i g e n d e n L e r c h e ; Nun k l a p p e r n d i e r e i s e n d e n S t o r c h e ; Nun s c h w a t z e t d e r g a u k e l n d e S t a a r .  theme,  Here i s  poetic  of the  sound  applied and  works  that  first  and  achieve  H a g e d o r n ' s Der  spring is  in  rhythmic  and emphatic words;  example,  arrival  2)  be  celebrated  4) the  Mai,  a  to  the  verse:  A l r e a d y the n i g h t i n g a l e ' s strain R e s o u n d i n g , now h e r a l d s a g a i n The m e r r i e s t days o f the y e a r . The l a r k s o a r s upwards and s i n g s , T h e s t o r k comes f l a p p i n g i t s w i n g s , The c h a t t e r i n g s t a r l i n g s a p p e a r .  56  The  title  a n d theme  technique; element;  in  fact,  the  unemphatic  compel  the  poet  to  avoid complexities  rhythm, an a m p h i b r a c h i c t y p e ,  both c o n t e n t - - t y p i c a l  means--terse, to  i n themselves  pastoral  descriptions  images  of  is  the  of  preponderate  spring--and  expressive  a n d u n i f o r m rhyme s c h e m e - - a r e  reduced  a minimum.  A poetry  more  is  Anakreon  called  for  a n d Der  Wille  similarities Gleim, poet  of  much  as  will  Liedern, erotic  Anakreon, Also  applauds  by  anonymously  wine,  poets.  with  this  content  admired  Schwerzhaften  poem,  at  c o m p a r i s o n between Q u a n t z ' s work and contemporary time. serve with  Two w o r k s b y J . W . L . G l e i m to  elucidate  the  first  structural  movement  t o g e t h e r w i t h H a g e d o r n , R a m l e r a n d U z , was  published  such  specific  the  ancreontic  in  Berlin Berlin  that play,  sings in  the  of  poetry  Der  of  the  Wille  is  the  parallels flute  an exemplary  etc.  of  works,  built  I n 1744  he in  on a n c r e o n t i c  motifs  paragon of  T h e two poems a r e  concerto.  Versuch  The o p e n i n g  a short  and  anacreontic  including Lessing.  collection  and dance,  praise  collection, ideals.  a  consisted  song,  in  literati,  of  (1720-1796),  yet  given here  programmatic  eighteenth-century e l e g a n t work in  their  translations:  Anakreon  Anacreon  Anakreon, mein L e h r e r , S i n g t nur von Wein und L i e b e ; Er s a l b t den B a r t m i t S a l b e n , Und s i n g t v o n Wein und L i e b e ;  A n a c r e o n , my t e a c h e r , Sings o n l y o f wine and romance; He r u b s h i s b e a r d w i t h o i n t m e n t , And s i n g s o f wine and romance;  Er k r o n t s e i n Haupt m i t Rosen, Und s i n g t v o n W e i n u n d L i e b e ; Er w i r d beim Trunk e i n Konig, Und s i n g t v o n Wein und L i e b e ;  He c r o w n s h i s h e a d w i t h r o s e s , And s i n g s o f wine and romance; He b e c o m e s a k i n g w i t h d r i n k i n g , And s i n g s o f wine and romance;  that  entirety  57  He f r o l i c s w i t h t h e g o d s , Er s p i e l t mit seinem G o t t e r n , He l a u g h s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s , Er l a c h t m i t seinem Freunden, V e r t r e i b t s i c h Gram u n d S o r g e n , S p u r n s b o t h g r i e f a n d s o r r o w , Verschmaht den r e i c h e n P o b e l , D i s d a i n s the wealthy r a b b l e , V e r w i r f t das Lob d e r H e l d e n , R e j e c t s the p r a i s e o f h e r o s , Und s i n g t v o n W e i n und L i e b e ; And s i n g s o f wine and romance; S o i l denn s e i n t r e u r e r S c h u l e r Should then h i s l o y a l students Von Hass und Wasser singen? s i n g o n l y o f h a t e and water? Der  Wille  The  Ich Ich Ich Ich Ich Ich Ich Ich Ich Und Will Und Will Und Will Und Hat  w i l l n i c h t weinen, w i l l nicht schelten, w i l l nicht klagen, w i l l n i c h t murren, w i l l nicht trotzen, w i l l nicht trauren. w i l l nur kussen, w i l l nur t r i n k e n , w i l l nur tanzen, b e i dem T a n z e n i c h nur lachen, b e i dem T r i n k e n i c h nur scherzen, b e i dem K u s s e n i c h nur s p i e l e n ; diesen Willen auch mein Madchen.  I I I  Will  will will will  not not not  cry, scold, complain,  I w i l l not grumble, I w i l l n o t be obstinate, I w i l l not g r i e v e . I w i l l only kiss, I w i l l only drink, I w i l l only dance, And w h i l e I dance I ' l l only laugh, And w h i l e I d r i n k I ' l l only j e s t , And w h i l e I k i s s I ' l l only play; And t h e s e i n c l i n a t i o n s My m a i d h a s a l s o .  58  In perceives rhythm" on  comparing  Kramer d e f i n e s  ritornello  cadences. the  a n d mm.  ending  junctures--e.g., solo  tonal that  center  i n which t u t t o  major  48  n o movement  44,  the  passage  of  arrival  occur  the  (Example  is  tutti. is  3):  mm.  does  flute  returns  and s o l o  immediately  on a  the felt  stated,  1-47,  I  where  i n which and  harmonic  the a  center  statement.  The  "pattern  conspicuous 48  from the  in  harmonic  re-entry  establishment  development  D m a j o r as  solid V -  dominant,  the  built  opening  m.  change  feeling  mm.  is  the  highly at  structural  restate  a new m u s i c a l  a  one  48-85,  i n the  ritornello  no r e a l  establishes  been  sections:  themes  Musical  f o r w a r d towards  writing  has  o r i g i n a l theme a n d t h e  there  fully  sequential  the  upon  division  preceding  pattern,  tutti  depends  as  dominant;  rework e a r l i e r  and f i n a l  "convergence  three  85-118,  music  by the  the  to  music,  d i v i s i o n punctuated by  given  up u n t i l m.  where  a clearcut  cadenza  the a  tutti  a  The c o n c e r t o ,  establishes  instrument with  is,  Quantz's  passage  with  unfolding" of  the  with  roughly divided into  transitional  melody, of  c a n be  and ensuing  G major;  it.37  form w i t h  ritornello  solo  short to  It  second  flute  works  a common s t r u c t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n - - o r  as  the  these  works  melodic goal,  of in  or  center  after  of  impending  new  blocks, harmonic  and o n l y  key  a  of  u n t i l m. a  lengthy  change  and  59  Example  3  - Q u a n t z : Concerto  In that  is  the  same  in  manner,  the  poet uses  up a r i d i c u l o u s Liebe",  is  activity.  scene  given  of  his  There is  r e f r a i n appears  the  salute to  be  not  only  Anakreon,  distinct  couplets  hero.  the  flute,  in  with  place  a g a i n as and the  the  of  couplet  last  as does  poem a n d m u s i c the the  converge  p r i n c i p l e means  of  the  of  In  Anakreon,  ten  lines  nur  von  refer  is In the  for to  as  build  Wein  a  und  double  refrain.  central  anacreontic  design.  r i t o r n e l l o pattern constantly  the  shape  anacreontic  11 w h e r e  serve  distinctly  39-48  a temporal  and a l t e r n a t i n g  lines  artistic  mm.  images o f  line  r e m i n d us  two  most  first  different  approach at  to  mvmt,  "Singt  of  if  1st  areas.  the  The r e f r a i n ,  c o n s i d e r e d b y t h o s e who q u e s t i o n  Where repetition  to  three  a sudden change  line  pointe  G l e i m ' s poems h a v e  alternately  anaphora take  this  both of  rhymeless  and t r i p l e  of  for  structurally divided into  instance,  16  G major  a  At  purpose  kind  of  attitude.  from t h e i r Quantz's listener  use  of  work, back  to  60  a  central  theme,  repeated  over  Example 18-27  4  J  Jt-  the  and over  f fTT f  M  importance of  best  type  restated  of  or  itself  (Example  4):  rf  t»  i  [Tf The  theme  rf  f.f  built  repetition  to  for  several  Flute,  1st  rhythmic  movement,  units  f l u t e mm.  ii •  Quantz i s  a few  on  i  M u i f i r  music uses  subtly  is  Concerto in G Major  - Quantz:  T  f  but  ideas  evident  from h i s  of high quality  belief  that  are  that  the  continually  varied:38  No new idea must be introduced that cannot by subsequently repeated at a convenient place. Nothing i s e a s i e r than to throw t o g e t h e r a mish-mash o f a l a r g e number o f new i d e a s t h a t h a v e no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one another. In it  the is  poem,  the  v a r i a t i o n of  will"--and that  Der Wille,  and r e t a i n  major  musical  distinguishes  them f r o m  dramatic  movement.  is  the  repeated words--e.g., i n the  the  element  contemporary  of  the  a sudden change  create  A  word r e p e t i t i o n  pattern of  reader's  the  of  development  ich" instead (see  of  lines  and "Ich  10-15)  interest.  poetic later  "Will  repetition  shared by these works, and  essence  as  compositions,  Sturm und Drang,  The method o f  well  extension  is  as that  the  the  majority  of  particularly  lack of  by a d d i t i o n h o l d s  any for  sense both  61 Q u a n t z ' s a r g u e  m u s i c  a n d  w o r k  a n d  G l e i m ' s  r e s o l v e  o u t ,  e t c . , o  f r e l a t e d  t h e m e .  I n  Q u a n t z ' s  d i s s o n a n c e r h y t h m i c  i  T  m u s i c a l  i d e a s  m e r e l y  a  r e l a t i n g  s i  a  a n d  s e r i e s I m a g e  t  s m o s t  h a r m o n i c  p l a n ,  F r u m ' s  a n a l o g y ,  t t a k e s  Anakreon  o a  to  b u t  v a r i o u s  Der  Wille  o f  s h o r t  d o e s  p r e v i o u s  e v i d e n t a n d  one;  f r o m  t h e r e  i  i  o u t  t h e  t h e  c o n t i n u i t y  o f  i  n a  f  s i m p l e d r a m a t i c  a f e e l i n g  o f  a  u n d e r g o i n g milieu.39  w o r k s ;  t h e  f i m a g e , o f  o f  c h a n g i n g  p r e s e n t  m e t h o d  l a c k o  u s e  " p l o t " ,  n a  to f a  d e s c r i p t i v e  o  s t a t e ,  t e n s i o n  t h e  sn e v e r  " r o l e s "  t h a t  o  o  f r o m  d e v e l o p e d  s i m p l e  n o  a s i m p l e  m u s i c a l  f l o w  w o r k ,  t  j u x t a p o s i t i o n  c r e a t e  c l a u s e s  n o t  a t  a  axe  o d e s i r e  t h e  n e v e r  t h r o u g h  s n  b y  i  p r o g r e s s i n g  t h e m e .  b a c k  t o g e t h e r  i  f o r c e s  o c c u r s  v a r i e d  Bernard  c o n n e c t s  c e n t r a l  o r  t h e r e  a n t a g o n i s t i c  t h i s  o v e r a l l  " c h a r a c t e r "  i s ,  d e v e l o p m e n t  c o n c e r t o  ou s e  S i m i l a r l y b o t h  n o  t h a t  m o u l d e d  r e p e a t e d  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  t h e  r a t h e r  n t h e  m o t i v e s  f a s h i o n .  a n y t h i n g ,  b u t  s e r i e s  p o e m s ,  G l e i m  v a r i a t i o n s  e a c h  n e w  c o m p o s i t i o n  i  o f i d e a  s p u r e l y  a d d i t i v e .  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e  p o e m s  t h e  l i s t e n e r / r e a d e r .  w i t h i n  a  p l e a s i n g w o r k ,  i t  i  l i t t l e  f r o m  e l e m e n t  t h e y  a r e  I n  f a c t ,  d e s i g n  t o  s t r u c t u r e m a k e s  i  i n  i t ,  t h e  t h e m  t h a t  t o  st h e  s k i l l f u l  a n d  c o n v e y  a n d t h e Der  f o r m i  p r e d i c t a b l e s o m e t h i n g  o r  o f  o  f  i n t e r e s t t  o  o f  a s i m p l e  i d e a  r e l i e s  o n  a s i m p l e ,  y e t  r e a p p e a r s s u b t l y  s s u p p o r t e d  c o n c i s e  t e x t u r a l  s t r o n g  e m p h a s i s f o r  t h r o u g h o u t  v a r i e d .  t i  Wille,  n a t u r e  h a n d l i n g  c o n c e r t o  c o n t i n u a l l y  r a t h e r  p l a n  p o e m s w o r k .  T h e  o r i g i n a l  b u t  h a r m o n i c  o f  ti  a n d  a b l e  c h a r m s .  m o t i v e  o b s c u r e  r e p e t i t i v e  s t i l l  t h a t  f r a g m e n t e d ,  a l o g i c a l  t h a t  u n d r a m a t i c ,  r h y t h m i c  o r  i s s u e  st h e  m u s i c ,  s i m p l e  w h o l e  c o m p l e x b u i l t  a n d  t h e  b  T h e r e y a  f a b r i c . o  n t h e  e x a m p l e ,  t h e i  s n o  f r a m e w o r k L i k e w i s e , r h y t h m i c e s t a b l i s h e s  62  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each s h o r t motive--the f i r s t poet does not want, the next p a t t e r n o f the p r e v i o u s desires  and  lastly  the rhythm does b o r d e r of  rhymelessness  The  aesthetically-pleasing structural  nothing  brevity  o f thematic  superfluous  irreducible, (except  Der  in  Wille,  in  where  the f i r s t person  for  the  the  quality  of  last  relationships,  word  c h o i c e and  In Gleim's  arrangement. manner  activities  works, The  poet  possible,  the s u b j e c t - v e r b - p r e d i c a t e s t r u c t u r e i s  "Ich" being  c o u p l e t ) and  the  sole  subjective  condition  the v a r i o u s a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to " I c h "  s t a t e d as s u c c i n c t l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h no a d j e c t i v a l m o d i f i e r s . Anakreon  new  content which c h a r a c t e r i z e s both  conveys h i s message i n the most c o n c i s e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d especially  three  content.  music and poems f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e s s t y l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s . there i s  the  l i n e denouement. While the s i n g - s o n g  shortcomings o f  extreme  ( s l i g h t l y varied) with  alternating  on monotony, i t s s t r e n g t h , combined w i t h the element  and  s e r v e s to b a l a n c e  t h r e e what he does, f o l l o w e d by an  three l i n e s  a two  s i x l i n e s s t a t e what the  Even  o f "mein L e h r e r " are p r e s e n t e d w i t h v i r t u a l l y  in no  embellishment.  In the c o n c e r t o ,  the t e r s e n e s s o f Gleim's poems i s m i r r o r e d i n  w e l l - d e f i n e d p e r i o d i c p h r a s i n g and p a u c i t y o f m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l - - i n f a c t , 118  measures, t h e r e are r e a l l y o n l y seven motives b u i l t  r e l a t e d rhythmic  patterns  (Example 5 ) :  from d i f f e r e n t  the in yet  63  Example  5  - Q u a n t z : Concerto  in  G major  \\'\} ^^\\\\ i r r r n r  is  a self-contained  overlapping  into  unit,  the  next  or rhythmic contrast.  units"  create  brings  to  mind the  Anakreon. music  a  The  rather  concept  sentence"  consequential  Example  6  effects  convergence Wille  rhymelessness,  rigidness i  of  n  metric  Anakreon,  in  and  Also  it  barline  articulated termed  of  subject  the  also  the  music,  phrase  in  c o u l d be  antecedent  dynamic  a quality Der  as  clause  that  Wille in  an  and  Quantz's  although not  defined  no  short-winded  structure  evident,  (i.e.,  by r e s t s ,  "weak,  to  the  G Major  phrasing  are  genre.41  as  the  quality  is  example,  a n d 28  motives.  overtly  "elaborated  and the  rest  as  6):^0  b e t w e e n poem  anacreontic  cola.42  for  27  of  a n d Anakreon  within  a subject-predicate  27-31,  (Example  and  activities  - Q u a n t z : Concerto  The  This  of  w i t h measures  neatly  What R e i l l y h a s  (antecedent-consequent phrases)  prominent--measures  Der  fitting  discursive  changing  rhythmic  I  measure)  changes  flute,  \\\w\\\\\\  i f T n ^ . ^ T T f T r i . . ,  lJ,'  Each  for  has  and  music.  essentially both been  Flute,  meter  flute:  reveal  of  the  suggested,  iambic  consistent  more  typical  i n free  compensated yet  s t r u c t u r e d each phrase  for  create  use  of both  of  verse  effective to  point  organization,  type,  structures is  mm 2 7 - 3 1 .  one  Regarding metric  poems a r e  a p p l i c a t i o n and the G l e i m has  for  the form.  by of  a series  the the of  64  short  clauses  broken by l i g h t  cola,  as  for  example:  E r s a l b t den B a r t / m i t S a l b e n , Und s i n g t / v o n Wein und L i e b e . and Er Er  The  s p i e l t / m i t seinem Go'ttern, l a c h t / m i t seinnem Freunden,  periodicity  about here couplet  and  by other  form  symmetry  means--not  (believed  imagination"^)  D U  t  to  each  develops  presents  a s i m i l a r approach to  numerous  caesuras  concerto  subtle  or  Firstly,  its  category  (although  mixed w i t h  "very  common"  r i g i d i t y of  Gleim's  works.  always  prominent  resolution. motives  of  the  poems.  not  all  the  The  Moreover, equal  being  organization other  of  types),  to of  is  jocuse accent  never  in fact,  importance,  so  line.  strongly  the  standard  and o r d e r on that  a  the  recurring  T h e poem Der  joining of  a number o f punctuated  is  fall  up the  that  a distince  mainly  of  Wille short,  to  effect  as  well  and  of  as  first  the  use  stylistic  dactyllic Mattheson,  melodies."44 to  and t h i r d b e a t s  are  harks  harmonic/melodic  melodic  of  to  and  back  by  same e f f e c t the  the  serious  emphasis  or  phrasing  into  which a c c o r d i n g  contrast  about  believed  treatment  obscured;  breaking  importance brings  Marpurg,  language  i n each  parallel  rhythmic  the  on  employ  constructed  breaks  a  pattern  through  form  poet  brought  cadences.  metric  barline  the  phrases,  and " s u i t a b l e  And the  f r o m a rhyme scheme a r e  phrasing--the  illustrates  meter.  is  does  is  metrically-equal  interior  The  only  couplet  the  result  "impose  emphasis  self-contained,  from  that  as  line the  into  caesuras  frequent feature  short  of  in  cadences, galant  or  65  rococco  music:45  { C a d e n c e s } . . . c a n be u s e d i n any p l a c e , a t the end as well as in t h e m i d d l e , w i t h o u t a n y d i s t i n c t i o n as t o their conventional {function} as circumstances dictate.  Periodicity ritornello finds of  and is  that  measure  further  symmetry  analyzed it  into  antecedent-consequent  to  the  poem a n d m u s i c  were  of  persuasion, composers  a  entertain. unaware out,  question  little  who c o n c e r n e d  necessary  of  Quantz and h i s  especially  the  originate),  and o v e r ,  the  of  the  (mm.  8  opening  1-17), with  a  measures  measures  4  If  groupings,  considered.  themselves for  that  act  application of  On t h e  whole,  one repeat  can  be  in  an  with  large-scale  style,  and composers and i t s  apart  in  working i n  this  B  (that  f r o m a few  u c  as  part  to  etc.,  was  sole  were  Buelow  the  no  need  to  not  of  not  the issues  figures  address  to  points  s t a n d a r d d e v i c e s w h i c h were  felt  or  a i m was  more c o m p l e x  which  of  earlier  i n aspects  the  in  art  to  vein  art--as  ideals  projects  effect,  much i n t e r e s t e d  a work.46  composer/poet  vocal  which the  a p p l i c a t i o n to  were  elocutio  devices  rhetorical  significant  a p a r t i c u l a r purpose,  of  its  to b o t h G l e i m and Q u a n t z . The  galant  the  rococco  and the  o r a t o r y and c o n s e q u e n t l y  pronunciatio  rhetoric,  group  of  rhetoric  contemporaries  or  Each  design.  structure  8 measure  groups  of  r h e t o r i c a l theory  delivery  over  in  designed  facet  Quantz's  phrase  o n two  importance  C e r t a i n l y poets  of  expression  two  to  fashion.  paramount  i n s t r u m e n t a l works  its  an echo.  r e m a i n to be  relatively  of  built  form o f  divided  foremost  i n terms  essentially  2 i n the  Finally  are  used them.  of of  66  This  is  clearly  virtually the  non-existent.  concept  places 11-12  of  where  Anastrophe  c a n be  The  at  and  Immediately  obvious  the  the  flute  many  is  solo)  (Burmeister),  for  example  seems  hardly  devices  as  means  important and  to  create  phrasings,  concerto  Carl  a n d poems  been  chosen  poetic primary  to  21-27;  concerned  with  embellish  are  to  in  the  second  departure  illustrate  advocate  of  of  at  lines  type  of  a refrain  in  io  conscious  are  of  repetition.  figures 3-4,  ritornello;  (after  deemed  Burmeister)  examples  32-33;  mm.  specific It  execute  With  of  was  and  However,  rhetorical s i m p l y more  precise  these  mm.  Gradatio  34-35).48  ideas.  sound,  aspirations.  use  a  several  of  (mm.  musical  on  Anaphora and  incorporating  his  solely  instances  Palillogia  mm.  are  There are  the  ant  figures  rhythms  principles  both  accordance;  Emanuel B a c h ' s  composition  echo  be  mm.  to  few  evident  as  relies  that  o f V er sever  the  could  as  In fact  and m a i n t a i n a p l e a s i n g  a substantial Philipp  of  and a v o i d ponderous  Turning works,  use  Gleim  i n D e r Wille,  7-14.  those  decorative  elaboration.  presents  again,  passages  Quantz  a  1-9  w h i c h Buelow l i s t s  sequential  of  an example  similarly  technique  where  employed--such  lines  as  rhetorical  19-20,  are  and l i n e s  classified  concerto  a means  figures  Wille  poems  been p o i n t e d out,  as  i n Anakreon, Der  Gleim's  As has  repetitive  in  in  repetition  and 13-15  Anakreon  evident  the  musical from  example  roccoco  keyboard Sonata other  at  mid-century.  the  so-called  stylistic Bach  empfindsamer  and c o r r e s p o n d i n g  aesthetic i n C major  is  is  generally  Stil  demonstrated.  (Wq. 65 N o .  trend directing  i n music,  poetic  16)  musical  has and  considered  the  in fact,  the  67  term i s  often  applied specifically  galant  style.^9  There i s ,  empfindsamkeit  (to  separation Quantz's  i n both and  be  discussed  of  the  employed  Frederick  Quantz, played a less  to  ultra-conservative  the  compose  works  to  be  however,  hinder his  in  city's  the  performed  intellectual  personalities  result,  the  conservatism aesthetic  thought  keyboard  performance,  (Berlin,  1753),  intellectuals, tenure  at  of his  royal  of  as  royal  outside  the  Lessing,  beind  his  uber  die  something  he  never  better  court, on  king's  G l e i m and m u s i c was but  wahre  stylistic between  This  was  also  terms w i t h  Due  not  active  prominent As  tempered by the  das  Clavier  fellow his  to  not,  Klopstock.)51  his  with  but,  did  fairly  With  from  an  r a r e l y asked  drew f r o m  Art  respect  achieved  and  accompanist.  f o r h e was  close  the  facilitates Bach  presence.50  Quantz's works,  a  contrast  music.  l i t e r a r y contemporaries. Versuch  the  p a t r o n , h e was  being  of  musical establishment  the  royal  Bach g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  a  court  innovative  treatise zu  on spielen  musicians  and  patron during  his  court.  T h e Sonata individual  in  in  musical  expressivity.  shown  C major  (dated  1746)  unpublished keyboard sonatas  1740's  been  case  the  life,  impulse  i n the  the  the  (especially  creative as  in  connections  literary  society  case  b e t w e e n galant  warrants  i n each composer's  of  a special  In a d d i t i o n ,  prominent r o l e  taste  which  Berlin  a member o f  unlike  as  a marked d i f f e r e n c e shortly)  in  differences as  Bach's music  and m u s i c .  position  understanding by  however,  literature  Bach's  to  Berlin  to  was  for  is  one  of  the  seventy  c o m p o s e d b e t w e e n 1731  Bach a p e r i o d o f  ambitious  innovative  musical  ideas  and  so  and 1786.  The  experimentation  The k e y b o a r d works o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h i s  feature  or  an  decade  in  have  intensity  of  68  expression and  that  60's.52  that  contrasts  This  early  It  their  literary  and the  "Hamlet"  provided  the  affinity  The cyclic the  poetic  are p a r t  sonata  fashion.  entire  of  work:  degree o f to  this  works have  C minor,  (Wq.63/6/3)  and  obvious  aesthetic  for of  that  technique  and p a r c e l  of  his  consists  of  three  is  a breakdown o f  The f o l l o w i n g  its  relatively  analyzed  in  under  terms  C  of  minor,  contrasting  which  rather  the  poet  contemplating  that  reveal  but  compositional  movements  the  Hamlet  demonstrates  works  and  of  of  i n a s p i r i t e d d i a l o g u e , 53  soliloquoy  C major sonata  and d e p i c t i o n  representing  engage  energy  improvisatory  Programm - Trio in  Melanch'olicus,  1750's  l i t e r a r y trends  a l r e a d y been  two u p p e r p a r t s ,  the  dynamic  as  expressivity  with  of  the  which,  compatability  Shakespearean  the  some o f  study because  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  in  the  exceptional  for  tendencies  and  Fantasia  death.54 An a n a l y s i s simply  later  i n which the  Sanguineus  Gerstenberg  and  implications,  (Wq.161/1),  characters  date  A number o f  " r e f i n e d " works  Fantasias,  highest  significant  compositional  discussion.  later  the  is  more s e r i o u s ,  in particular displays  his  allow  human p a s s i o n ;  1749  work  characterizes  realizations,  the  it  the  is  not  composer's  that  poetic  process.  linked together measure,  key  in  almost  a n d tempo  for  69  Movement S e c t i o n M e a s u r e s  Time  Main keys  Tempo  tonicized  Signature  I  A B A  II  1-30 31-70 71-91  4 4  Allegro  C-F-D-G G-a-B -E-D-G C-F-C-G-C  92-127  4  Adagio/  4  Andante/  b  C-a-F-d-G-d A-B -C-B -a-G b  b  Allegro  III  A B  Certain  128-173 173-240  features  of  this  early  i n the  years,  found  varying  affects.  unification as  composer's  Schulenberg points  between  the  contrasting movement 7a a n d  sonata,  out.55  is  of  other  quite of  a practice i n the  s u c h as than the  e a c h movement,  C major arpeggio  which,  single does the  Bach's  earlier  together  appears  by  Hamburg  the  modulating fantasias  not  really  sonata  obvious the  of  movements  achieve  i n F minor  harmonic  and s c a l i c  theme  of  of the  (Wq.57/6)  relationship  o n l y c o n n e c t i o n between  i n t e r p o l a t e d c o n t i n u a l l y throughout the  7b);56  C-c-g-G G-e-C-G-C  typical  linking  however,  c y c l i c works,  p r i m a r y keys sections  career,  expression  This other  it  The p r a c t i c e  consumate  of  Allegretto  w o r k make  keyboard compositions. fairly  3 4  the  s e c o n d movement  the  opening (Examples  70  Example  7a-C.P.E.  Bach:  Sonata in C Major,  Wq.65 N o .  16,  mm.  1-2.  Example  7b-C.P.E.  Bach:  Sonata in C Major,  Wq.65 N o .  16,  mm.  108-11.  The  motivic  breaking later  the  this  movements never  consistency  are  development  opening  improvisatory,  in  arpeggiation  the  hints  in  and the  to  as  at  the as  the  (mm.  classical  movement,  like  key,  scale  section 31-70)  figure  and  although  71-91),  the  the  a  of  demonstrated  the  work.  (mm.  The  although form can  be  outer  Bach  scheme  expository  of  seen,  statement  1-30),  a  middle  theme a p p e a r s  in  various  return motivic  of  development,  be  There  to work i s  The t h i r d movement,  structure  movement.  a kind  where  of  sonata  first and  will  traits,  recapitulation.57  tripartite first  mature  musical  nature  full  (mm.  tonic  thereafter  comprehensible  the  development guises  also  empfindsam  the  arpeggio  harmonic/melodic  soon  twist  temporary motion and,  to  achieved  especially  on the  altered  of  an unexpected  i n b i n a r y f o r m w i t h many s o n a t a - f o r m  really  however,  produce  contributes  exposition,  based  insertions  sonata  the  substantially  a typical form,  opening  but  minuet, not  as  71 Texturally others  (a m i x t u r e  concerto  style,  the of  opening  brief  and  movement  contrapuntal sections,  full-fledged  vacillates  between v a r i o u s  retain  the  Baroque p u l s a t i n g  bass.  daring  in  this  not  generally  work,  in  line  stylistic majority  threatened  the  a  and o f t e n  and s u b t l e  of  large  part  or  of  assigned  extent  Benda,  Franz  literature,  as of It  this  vein. to  the  directly  expounded  by  of  has,  in  fact,  the  the  rich  whole, and  even  to  in  both  in  this Dotted  fragment  the  sheer v a r i e t y music  typical  from  "walking is  are  constant  rhythm  Bach's  C major sonata,  C.P.E.  parallels  the  Klopstock.  been  the  but  forward motion  empfindsamer  human p a s s i o n s - - u n d e r l i e s  is  of  serve  i n s p i r a t i o n a l source  music  on  movement  and the  Bass"  continually  disparity.  the  The  in  compositions.  separates  work,  outbursts  alterations  use  galant  Despite  description of  roccoco  Bach's  Quantz However,  rhythmic motives  the  second  brief  chromatic  passages  impeded by r h y t h m i c  brief  exclusively  cultivation  to  than  The k e y b o a r d s o n a t a s  rhythm,  post-Baroque scale  drawing from a d i f f e r e n t  galant  artists.  keys,  rapid  The  movements,  so.  harmonic  contemporary compositions.  Even t h i s B a c h was  unusually  of  solo-like  The h a r m o n i c langugage  i n a manner s i m i l a r  underlies  outer  rapid  typical  with  inconsistency of  the  progression.58.Finally,  a sense  interspersed  melodic  in  unrelated  and m e l o d i c  is,  rhythms  which  into  by  more v a r i e t y  homophony).  tempi w h i l e  but  characterized  excursions harmonic  work,  displays  Bach,  it  is  than those  Stil,  a  J . G . Graun,  sentamentalist  suggested  music that  and  that  composing  term  almost  and to  some  movement  T h e same i d e a l - - t h a t  the  clear  of  poetry  K l o p s t o c k was  the of  a  in free  these  frequent  72 guest that  at the  Berlin  Emanuel B a c h ' s poet's  sets  inherent  lightness  must be  applied  the  the  been  the  concurrant early  to  be  works  j  o  n  e  could easily  f a m i l i a r to  achieved  emotional  states,  idealized music  The  Baroque  There  that,  like  a  of  the  but  Bach  surmise  during  little  most  so-called und  not  r a t h e r by the by the  one  is  of  his  was  that  composers.  empfindsam  works  leaving  abandonment  a unity of  do n o t crisis"  its  i n music,  rationalized  of  style.  as  of  mark in  the  its  artist  subjectivity of  It  of  has  been  It  has  coincide running on  to  expression  a  single  and  affect  pure  certain  gain control  of  the  literary  human p a s s i o n s  never  that  Empfindsamkeit  style  musical  is  roccoco  volatility  classical  and  imitation  and of  purpose. remains  music.  quite  His aesthetic  l i k e d excessive  Drang  I r r a t i o n a l elements aware  works  for  Klopstock's poetic  inward contemplation  the  i n empfindsam  himself  taking.  always  concern  an e m o t i o n a l  "Austrian  Drang  by the  f r o m galant  l i t e r a r y movement,  early  Bach's  goal  i.e.,  tradition  intact  never  its  apart  f r o m a S t u r m und  a number o f that  is  instead  expressionism  representation.  and  Bach  "I h a v e  composers  a n d M o z a r t . 6 0 T h e Empfindsamkeit  impulses,  the  tone.  l i t e r a r y Sturm  emotional  m u s i c was  of  of  the  these  separated  beginnings to  of  One f i n d s  however,  out  Haydn  relatively  of  pointed  counterpart,  their  e m o t i o n w o u l d be  music  extreme  should  to  recently with  of  playfulness.  stressed,  music  the  seriousness  and  corresponds  in  aesthetic  a n c  years.  What the  Hamburg r e s i d e n c e , 5 9  adament goal  about  comes t o  the light  stylistic with  uniformity i n composition  direction  his  s u c h comments  as:  and  taste,"61  and  73  "My  main  efforts...have  composing  as  songfully  flexibility  of  realism  playing,  while to  Certainly  a  emotion. himself not  famous  at As  the  means  music.  directed  aesthetic  Schulenberg puts  exaggerated  the  towards  description  to  for  Both  purpose  of  it,"...the  in considering  of  of  reveal  a  achieving  an  on  keyboard  performance,  passionate Burney  of  gives  expression. Bach  composer's  and  playing  aesthetic  of  importance which Burney and Bach  emotional the  on  the  playing  treatise  art  Charles  supports  direct  the  based  toward  statements  Furthermore, Bach's  clavichord  attach  especially  possible..."62  compositional  seem t o  be  in his  primarily  the  "possessed"  as  directly  compositional  emotional  credence  been  expression  role  i n performance  such e x p r e s s i o n  plays  should  in  Bach's  was  Bach's  compositions."63  Thus  the  Baroque  concern  c o n c e r n as  well.  His music,  expression  set  galant  emotion  was  in  d e p i c t i o n must Klopstock's  by  a  take  poetry  however,  to  find  its  transformation;  likewise,  works,  the  treated  with  meters  as  motives,  tempi,  is  and  of  contrasting  despite  the  relationship  material  disparity between the  is of  change  i n Bach's music, constant well  connected affective  various  and  inconsistency.  as  m a j o r - m i n o r modes a n d u n r e l a t e d h a r m o n i e s . this  the  expression narrow  K l o p s t o c k , he  flux  a theme s u d d e n l y  abrupt  listener  Like  state  account  affective leaves  composers.  constant into  for  believed  It  is  not  and  uncommon  of  sudden and r a p i d  content,  in  contrasting alteration out,  In  other  is  an  "primary"  an  keyboard  Barford points  there a  human  artistic  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  as  of  d i r e c t i o n or undergo  juxtapositions  But,  that  any r e a l i s t i c  "psychologically".  affekts  boundaries  of all  words,  intrinsic  emotion.64  i  n  74  considering overall  the  sonata  affective  under d i s c u s s i o n  impression  is  here,  not  the  obscured  progressions  and r h y t h m i c d i v e r s i t y .  After  section  a  diversion,  or  territory.  capricious  There i s  always  unbridled emotionalism same d e s i r e  for  Klopstock's  poetry.  unquestionable to  suit  his  volatile  is  but  adherence  there  to  is  with  and  the  aim i s  not  to  is  Yet  a sense  of  if  unusual harmonic  returns  familiar  Bach  ourselves' to  turns,  lose  the  that  validity.  The  is  apparent is  the  somewhat his  most  modified  emotionally despite  e a c h new f r a m e o f states:  aim o f  control  "To  his  mind  move  Klopstock's of  in  poet's  disconnection;  Browning is  to  realized  this  although in  the  harmonic  expression  thematic  As  poet  as  even  emotional  one.  the  Bach  that  ambiguous  corroboration of  method.  'beside  the  rather  emotional  measure,  unjustified  by  feels  paid for with a r t i s t i c  classical  never  cause  a  control,  obvious  previous  make u s  of  freedom o f  compositional  associated  its  music  The most  and seemingly  feelings  a sense  in  controlled  works,  frequent  rhythmic  listener  in  poetry,  faculty  of  judgement."65  A  more  thorough  materials  to  technique  and a e s t h e t i c .  to  mark t h e  emotional Graben of  the  create  (1764)  verses  of  Two o f  is  of  Bach's der  der  expression  sonata,  full  (1752 of  or  53)  of  and the  the  and  beloved,  natural beauty. whole  o f Die  the  of  chosen poet's  Die  Fruhen  i n the  case  while  the  The f i r s t  Fruhen  their  parity  have been  y e a r n i n g and hope;  a reunion with his  perfection  Abwesenden  reveals  manipulate  e a c h poem t y p i c a l o f  Abwesenden  soliloquoys  the  o n how b o t h a r t i s t s  K l o p s t o c k ' s e a r l i e r poems  a yearning for  envisions  Gegenwart  to  Gegenwart  are both  former i t work  intensity  similarities  pathos.  latter  an  examination  Graben  three are  75  noted below  Gegenwart  with  der  translation:66  Abwesenden  Der L i e b e Schmerzen, n i c h t der enwartenden Noch u n g e l i e b t e n , d i e Schmerzen n i c h t , Denn i c h l i e b , s o liebte K e i n e r ! so werd i c h g e l i e b t ! D i e s a n f t e r o n S c h m e r z e n , w e l c h e zum W i e d e r s e h n H i n b l i c k e n , w e l c h e zum W i e d e r s e h n T i e f a u f athmen, doch l i s p e l t Stammelnde F r e u d e m i t a u f ! Die Schmerzen w o l l t i c h s i n g e n . Ich h o r t e Des A b s c h i e d s T h r a n e n am R o s e n b u s c h Weinen! weinen der Thranen Stimme d i e S a t e n h e r a b ! Presence  in  schon  Absence  The agony o f l o v e , n o t a n t i c i p a t e d S t i l l n o t l o v e d , n o t the agony F o r I l o v e , so have l o v e d No o n e ! t h u s become l o v e d ! The g e n t l e agony, t h a t to r e u n i o n A w a i t s , t h a t to r e u n i o n Breathes deep, y e t a l s o w i t h w h i s p e r i n g Stammering j o y ! I want t o s i n g to The p a r t i n g t e a r s C r y i n g ! The t e a r s Down t h e s t r i n g s ! Die  Fruhen  agony. I have a l r e a d y to the r o s e b u s h weeping  heard  Graben  W i l l k o m m e n , o s i l b e r n e r Mond, Schoner, s t i l l e r Gefahrt der Nacht! Du e n t f l i e h s t ? E i l e n i c h t , b l e i b , G e d a n k e n f r e u n d ! S e h e t , e r b l e i b t , das Gewolk w a l l t e n u r h i n . Des M a i e s E r w a c h e n i s t n u r S c h o n e r n o c h wie d i e Sommernacht, Wenn i h m T a u , h e l l w i e L i c h t , a u s d e r L o c k e U n d z u dem H u g e l h e r a u f r o t l i c h e r kommt. Ihr  Edleren,  ach,  es  bewachst  trauft,  76 Eure Male s c h o n e r n s t e s Moos! 0 w i e war g l u c k l i c h i c h , a l s i c h n o c h m i t e u c h Sahe s i c h r o ' t e n d e n T a g , s c h i m m e r n d i e N a c h t ! The  Early  Graves  Be w e l c o m e ,  0 silvery  moon,  S i l e n t , b e a u t i f u l mate o f n i g h t . Must you f l e e ? T a r r y , r e m a i n , p h i l o s o p h e r . S e e , he r e m a i n s . 'Twas b u t c l o u d s w a f t i n g a l o n g . There i s but the waking o f s p r i n g F a i r e r s t i l l t h a n t h e summer n i g h t , When h i s c u r l s , s h i n i n g b r i g h t , s p r a y s o f dew d i s p e l A n d up t h e h i l l ' s s l o p i n g s i d e r e d - h u e d h e c o m e s . Ye n o b l e r s o u l s , o v e r y o u r s t o n e s Grows a l r e a d y a v e i l o f m o s s . Oh how h a p p y I w a s , when w i t h y o u I w a t c h e d Redness envelop the day, slumber the n i g h t . Parallels  in  surface  immediately  a p p a r e n t w i t h Die  independent  yet  creator  of  connected  atmosphere  Gedankenfreund), final  verse  draws  noch"  a straight  material sense,  intensity  The  keyboard  is  organized  quasi-sonata  predetermined in  the  first  2  "schoner  poem makes  forms,  Graben. Verse  forms  threads  into form  a on  a  impassioned  movement  where  three  1  features thought  image  of  and  expression  that  to the  the  rudimentary  expression  is  become  represent moon a s  the  role  dawning sun. where  the  (i.e.,  dawn).  a poet  aims  form  in  level.  cultivatated,  the of The  former  definite  i n a s i m i l a r manner,  structure--binary more  verses  the  finale  works  and music  (in  o f moon a n d s u n ,  functions set  poetry  The  in a spectacular  emotional  sonata  to  the  forward statement of  between  stimulant  the  to  the  verse  a  together  g i v e s way  despite  the  Fruhen  visions.  and as  while  structure  The plan,  at.  i.e.,  musical  the Within  larger these  particularly  harmonic and r h y t h m i c u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y works  77 against  the  paradoxical tension at  stability condition,  return of  and  music  foundation  sonata,  brought  expected  between B a c h ' s music  the  formal  presentation.  about by  through musical ambiguities  the  poetry  of  of  opening motive  the  deviation  from the  new  area  tonal  progressions  illucidate  empfindsamer  the  of  and the  second  the  this  ultimate  that  part of  movement  in  In  (A m i n o r )  role  harmony  is  overstated  Example  8-CP.E.  at  m.34.  i n development:  Bach:  by the  Sonata  composer  resolution  seventh  returns,  extended  Example  9-C.P.E.  Bach:  This entire  ebb  and  flow  work e s p e c i a l l y  appears  of  too  in a different  Sonata  in  intense  point  Wq.65 No.  C major,  briefly guise  of  16,  mm.  emotional  i n p a s s a g e s where  the  is  of  the  with  the  immediate to  assumes  arising  overload  from  (Example  a a  this 8):  35-40.  ofc.  before  (Example  Wq.65 No.  then  stress  •fr 1 g.  all  an  both  that  a diminished seventh  psychological  C major,  in  (m.31)  There is  musical  homogeneity  movement  dominant.  Y  inevitable  first  the  the  of  this  release  tension-release  binary structure  to  of  example  The d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h the  in  basis  the  o r i g i n a l p r o g r e s s i o n b y way o f  directing  The  the  is  creation  A specific of  it  psychological  form the  concept  Stil.  fact,  deliberate  and K l o p s t o c k ' s p o e t r y . will  Bach begins  the  In  16,  the  diminished  9):  mm.  expression^  40-45.  characterizes  harmony c o n s t a n t l y  the  fluctuates  78  between  major  meaning  i n music  license  gives  concept, Bach's music  and is  his  as  minor.  contemporaries, of  relaxation is  by  as he p o i n t s  developed  emphatic  opening verse  o f Die  but  soon  hin."  sets  realizes  two v e r s e s  by a s e r i e s  themselves,  thus  Schmerzen", Emotional that  the  its  unity  is  comprehends. living by her  the  in  sweet  it  was  of  true  the  i n the  i n absence,  on a t r a n q u i l  that  opening  metaphor. his  3,  the whole finds  of  and  clause.  The  note.  call  him,  period  clause,  the is  "der ich  i n order  the b e l o v e d  i n the  to  Liebe  singen".  to be  suddently  mind:  first  tension  opening  and the  nur  attention  syntactical  poet's  Immediately leaving  "...wollt  that  followed  tendencies  developed  thematic  development  i n the  the  "das Gew'olk w a l l t e  interjections  present  harmonic  interpret  Gedankenfreund  o f her p h y s i c a l absence  i.e.,  to  formal  beneath  explicit  thematic  is  of  lies  opposing thematic  inner tension  absence  Bach's  of psychological tension  begins  poem one  d  study,  soliloquoy.69  conclusion i n verse  review  n  as  o n l y an i l l u s i o n o f  broken by the  agony  music  imagines h i s  emotional  on i n the  a  in fact,  within a single  Abwesenden,  emotional acceptance  presence  poet  f o r c e d to  Further  or poetic  Graben  severing  from  reader is  in this  were n o t h e s i t a n t  from c o n t i g u o u s  the  der  out,  of  the b u i l d i n g  Fruhen  that  I n Gegenwart  ode  insertions  i n as  This,  Schulenberg,  a marrative,  by c o n t i n u o u s  apprehension  earlier  music emotional context.  I n K l o p s t o c k ' s poems by  discussed  i m p l i e d by harmonic d i r e c t i o n , 6 8  discussed  i n terms  As  such  sure  theme  he of  replaced  realization  of  79  Gegenwart ( V e r s e 6,  des lines  Abwesenden 21-22  Wie s t a n d s t d u v o r m i r , C i d l i , w i e An deinem H e r z e n , G e l i e b t e r e ,  h i n g mein  Herz  A s y o u s t a n d b e f o r e me, C i d l i , a s my h e a r t H o l d s on to y o u r embrace, b e l o v e d ,  Passionate develops  from the  emotional be  outbursts  is  problem of  technical  emotional  thematic  extension  is,  development  of  scale  first as  original with of a  the  10c) :  many  one  idea,  of  an almost  reader  is  one h o v e r i n g o n t h e  joyous left  response  that  ponder  the  to  border of  based  ways,  essentially  parallel  emotional  either  melodic  49-52  idea  (Example 10b),  strictly  or,  a n d 3)  ornamental  on  what  Bach  seems  fashion.  For  to  levels  occurs 2)  is by  the 1)  i n measure  53,  of  example,  only  dramatic  distinct  of  imbuing the the  the theme  direction  i n t r o d u c i n g l o n g p a s s a g e s made up  gestures  as  in  measures  64-65  one  (chromatic  variation  reversing  and  subjective  sequence  through  the  variation  K l o p s t o c k ' s method o f  s u p p o r t i n g harmony,  by  approach  melodic  sonata  10a);  the as  and  various  the  progression  by a l t e r i n g  to  by of  (Example  inflections,  Klopstock  i n an i d e n t i c a l  The o p e n i n g m o t i v e  i n measures  chromatic  series  the  signification  movement;  melody  of  and  to  perspective  development, in  interpretation. the  vision,  way  real.  From a  of  final  given  imperspicuousness  and what  Bach's  have  of  (Example  80  Example  lOa-C.P.G.  Bach:  Sonata  -  ll,  '  Example  10b-measures  53.  Example  10c-measures  64-65. i f  i  Carl  — * — j  J  -  Rosen notes with  With respect  to  the  little lack  is  diminished  seventh--see  of  through  c a n be  any c o n c e p t i o n o f  accurate  (the  poems  can also  often  voices  apprehension, are  unrelated I n Die  relief,  r e l a t e d to  omnipresence  that  measures  point).  be v i e w e d  as  the it  emotional  Fruhen  regret,  each other poet  and to  has  been  though  for  experiences.  but  more  this  quite  a  single  shown t h a t  the  poet  the  yet  his  moves  fundamental  example,  nostalgia; the  work."70  expanding  evolution of  attitudes,  Graber,  the  dramatic  in  Although  whole  of  are a case  optimism,  the  the  i n and f o r  i n Bach's music,  7a a n d 7 b - - m u s i c a l l y  theme,  remains constant.  nature's  ten  suddenly a l t e r e d o r changed and even  various,  human p a s s i o n s  passages... exist  t r u e m o t i v i c development  examples  impulse  of  striking  through various emotional l e v e l s .  themes  mm. 4 9 - 5 2 .  SS s  T  I  16,  WJ,UrujJ^  principle  Klopstock's idea  M  r e l a t i o n to  relatively  the  >  No.  rrr r  *r  " . . . B a c h ' s most  statement  unconnected to  Wq.65,  '..-4.4.  j  that:  themselves,  C Major,  —  —— - E = ^ =  .  m  in  all  profound  the  poet  of  these  concept  81  Klopstock's i n n o v a t o r by h i s musical  poetic  technique,  contemporaries,  empfindsamkeit.  much  Klopstock believed  that  from p r o s e .  means,  by B r o w n i n g as  or  forms;  using  2)  "simplex"  prefixes, order;  and  6)  devices  emotional  The  radical notes  impact  of  the  approach to  that  develops  much o f from  the  poetic  line.  of  composer's  the  In the  the beat  same  first with  appoggiaturas, that  poetic  of  the  complexity  Bach's music  of  obsolete  deviation  last  a  two,  3)  by  adding  natural  prose  (i.e.,  virtually  words  vowel;  words  from  be  linguistic  or archaic  new  an  Bach's  should  of  dropping  periodicity  by  inserting  all  of  which c o n t r i b u t e  the  to  rhythm i n the move  away  unexpected  these most  to  variations  found i n Quantz's music,  that  i.e.,  of  of  is  rests  a continuous  line  on here  quite  Schulenberg motion  that  activity  Klopstock's  highly  forward  a symmetrical  melodic  Bach's  characterize  form c o n s i s t e n c y  the  to  i n surface  C major sonata  syncopations,  Klopstock's  Although  consistency  Bach avoids  many ways  from  comparable  and a r t i c u l a t i o n .  irregularities of  results most  rhythms,?2  a n d s e c o n d movement  In  5)  with  language  number  forming  is  retains  dance  syntactic  etc.  using  that  language  rhythm, metrics  desire  a  renowned as  common  poetic  by  4)  was  words.  poetic  B a c h ' s use  in  examples  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  Baroque  create  words;  In both  found,  he  forms by a d d i n g o r  exploitation  syntactical  innovations  1)  and compounding words;  excessive  be  this  follows:71  compound  clauses).  can  He a c h i e v e d  inflected  for  suffixes  independent  the  changing  which  c l e a r l y has  differentiated listed  for  typical motion.  subdivision strong  is  beats,  equivalent  juxtaposition  of  of  to  short,  82  contrasting  rhythmic  figuration,  and i t  w i t h i n phrases moves  freely  within  This  11  - C.P.E.  be  Bach:  seems  to  poem;  larger  follow  a carefully  1770's  (Example  is  easily  triplets  no m e t r i c a l calculated  Klopstock  included with  each  was  so  of  the  107-108  Wq.65 No.  to  16 mm.  of  rhythm  the  melody pattern  107-108.  Klopstock's  "cola or m e t r i c a l phrases follow  whole  scheme a t  the  rise  becomes verse.  all  relationship  a  and f a l l  The r e s u l t  (prose-like!)  detailed  system that of  pattern  even  is  metric  scheme  emotions  of  rhythm  poetry  though  invention for  the  of  demand  that there  between each m e t r i c a l u n i t . 7 5  thoroughly preoccupied with his  new w o r k a  melodic  a running sixteenth  comparable  i n d i v i d u a l word  pattern  elements  i n measure to  with his  11):  "Word-feet"  each  freer  discordant  Sonata in C major,  together".74  i n the  the  rhythms to  span  find  Bach i s  F o r example  d e s c r i b e d by B r o w n i n g as  taken  within  However,  normal to  measures.  rhythmic d i v e r s i t y  inherent  is  and  quite  from d o t t e d  "word-feet", to  is  a two-measure  Example  motives.73  gy  the  that  he  reader's  benefit.  Phrasing and p o e t r y . rhythms  is  and  articulation is  A consequence that  of  symmetrical  another  area of  K l o p s t o c k ' s word f e e t structuring  of  and  phrases  congruence Bach's is  for  music  variegated  minimized.  The  83  interior  caesurae  positions, single  dependent  word to  "Denn a c h ,  Likewise desire  5,  follow  the  movement,  which  is  periodicity and  movement,  for  patterned  of  Furthermore,  within  interpolation  natural by  phrasing  on  to  style,  can  (Die and  impulses  built the  die  a  parts.  heavily  character  of  An example of  a diminished seventh cadence  the  1-18).  of I  this  12):  Sequential  typical  one  the  can  material,  found  i n mm.  dominant  by a one-measure  severing 26-30,  seventh  melodic  is  third strong the first  blocks,  repetition, role  Baroque find  his  of  a large  often  4).  to  rhythmic  phrases  (a  a  statement  plays  c a n be  chord to  retains  according  of  er  line  the  extension,  contrasting  followed  (Example  of  (mm.  themselves,  dramatically  progression  a deceptive  and l e n g t h  terms  1,  Except for  opening  in  "sehet,  from  lengths vary  is der  developed  phrase  analysed  in  Verse  rhythm and thus  for melodic  phrases  music.  as  (Gegenwart  manner as  dance  The  varying  can v a r y from a  vergessenheit  his  in  emphatically  Fruhen Graber,  of  tension. be  occur  Phrases  articulation  i n a 4+3+2+3+3+3 r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  line  marked  i n a more s u b t l e  nur h i n " .  emotional  example,  determining  two  or  emotional  on which Bach r e l i e s  into  trank  1),  of  necessary  flow  articulations  dich!  line  sense  to  ebb  and  Gewolk w a l l t e  Bach's  Klopstock's poetic  n a t u r a l word emphasis.  lines  sah  Verse das  fragment upon  whole  ich  Abwesenden, bleibt,  that  in  trait).  a  sudden  the  phrase  where  the  interrupted  flourish built  on  84 Example  12 - C . P . E .  In f a c t , tend  occur  fragmentation  The  within,  of  area  i n both Bach's  pure  rhetorical  atmosphere  exclamation, i s being  tension  as  his  to those of  intensified  fermatas  the sense o f  a n example  Rhetoric plays  a  expression  for  Quintilian,  large  in  his  of addition,  o f fear  o f exclamatio, the  frilhen  beyond the scope o f  personification.76  by figures  of  the  heightened  t o t h e moon a n d s u n i n Die  meaning  a n d s e t s .the mood f o r t h e r e s t  concerns  B o t h o f t h e poems a r e , i n f a c t ,  by h i s "Gedankenfreund".  terror,  with here  e l e m e n t s powers  what  i n t h e o p e n i n g moment  deserted  and  heightening  anddevices.  h i s entreaty  conformatio,  is further  silences  to be d e a l t  r e l y i n g on f i g u r a t i v e  i s a n example  termed  phrases,  26-30.  line.  i n which he a t t r i b u t e s  rhetoric,  display  between,  principles  F o r example,  existence,  as sudden  andK l o p s t o c k ' s works.  statements  emotionalism.  such  o f correspondence  rhetorical  part  he  not  o f the melodic  last  application  their  Sonata in C major W q . 6 5 N o . 16 mm.  major a r t i c u l a t i n g devices  to  Graber,  Bach:  treatise The  on  surreal  amplication  and  when t h e p o e t b e l i e v e s  that  The f e i g n e d creates  poem.77  outburts  that  an undercurrent o f In  Gegenwart der  85  Abwesenden,  figures  Klopstock's  poetic  interjections, which  are  which  style.  c a n be  vary  the  The f i r s t  normal syntax  two v e r s e s  simply described  incomplete  until  the  first  with  a series,  as  line  are p a r t their  of verse  3.  (effective  word o r d e r changes)  a n d reduplicatio  last  one  at  the  phrase  the  beginning  of  of  proliferation  of  or a s e r i e s  transgressio word o f  and p a r c e l  next)  of  Also,  evidence  of  repeat  the  (to  appears  phrases  i n Verse  3:  Ich horte schon Des A b s c h i e d s T h r a n e n am R o s e n b u s c h Weinen! weinen der Thranen Stimme d i e S a i t e n h e r a b !  Klopstock  c l e a r l y makes  expressive  potential,  "strained  and  banal  full  to  the  use point  a r t i f i c i a l style"  imagery,  their  of  rhetorical  that  to  even modern c r i t i c s  i n works  excessive  means  that  and  his  complain of  seem " a l m o s t  sentimentality  amplify  comic  their  in  his  their  overwrought  emotion".78  The harder  to  function  define.  deliberately terms. form  While  Certainly  appears  another.  experiments he  to  to  be  Bach  recognized  structures,  particular  in  in  the  Emanual  an i s o l a t e d  was  the  example  apparently  p a r a l l e l of  c a p t u r i n g the syntax,  and  rhetorical figures  into  Bach's  not  sonata  intercourse of  keen and  on  musical  sound.  little  Bach  into  was  musical  this  and  rhetorical  potentiality  rhythms r a t h e r  a  i n c o r p o r a t i n g one  rhetorical discourse  emotional  is  (Wq.161/1)  Programm-Trio  make p r o n o u n c e d l i n k s b e t w e e n m u s i c  more c o n c e r n e d w i t h through  rhetoric  transferring a rhetorically-conceived  But t h i s  into  of  to of  other art.79  music,  he  verbal  than t r y i n g to Nevertheless,  art  was art  translate even  in  86  his  keyboard  theory  sonatas  c a n be  second,  can  referring  passage  The f i r s t  be  to  or  109-127,  l e d up t o  tempo,  texture,  by  lasting the  exclamatio,  for  6th)  over  sequential and  Finally, can  at  the  figure of  cases  passages  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  the  of  as  back to  examination here, suggests  that  rhetoric analogy,  and  Bach  poetry,  to  p e r v a d i n g mood o f  inconsistency  to  notwithstanding  i n c o r p o r a t e d them u n c o n s c i o u s l y  the  of  for  into his  of than  part on  Burmeister) Burmeister).  two  movements  oratorical sentiment.  figure This  two  examples  temperament  taken by  concepts  A t any r a t e  music.  it  d e r i v e d from  disinterest  a  motive,  reliance  (after  i n the  reader.  his  more  upper  after  an  silences.  opening  first  new  instances  i n the  (also  emotional the  to  (the  or uncertainty  of  sudden  rise  dubitatio,  manner,  each  surrounding  Bach's heavy  palillogia  familiar with expressive and,  or  gradatio  or  with  from  a  measures  up o r down o f  surprise  point  Klopstock's poetic the  gives  a leap  climax  a model o f  Between  times,  a dramatic plunge  doubt or h e s i t a t i o n  was  style  emotional  One c a n a l s o  as  ten  term  musical  new d i r e c t i o n t a k e n b y  abruptio  (usually  7a--contains  contrasting  and s e p a r a t e d  of  the  ellipsis--a  principle of  change  measures  device  particularly  conclusion."80  rhythms  three  octaves).  repetitive  harks  subject  clear  two  example  movements,  "an u n e x p e c t e d  Quintilian) describing hesitation  once  under  or  i n a broader sense,  o n l y be  (after  and  with musical-rhetorical  juxtaposing  expected  a feeling  development  frequent  an  of  rather d i s j u n c t melodic  evokes  example--see  spanning  two  second  practice  an i n t e r v a l l i c  that  and  associated  s t r u c t u r e d on the  articulating  Bach's  devices  specifically,  has  Furthermore  minor  be  general  more  style  motion  said  the  that  musical  found.  to  passages,  certain  in  is both  direct  87 CONCLUSIONS  The  present  interconnections has  been  - and,  between  Prussian  city.  required  for  and  both music  an  a l l natural  expressive  purpose  on the  In  has  basis  phenomena, i n the  technique.  Of  a n d p o e t r y were political,  literature reason, of  be  asserted.  style  particular Both  intellectually  examined  by  of  here  standards--from  the  its  in  it  the  cannot  literary  of  that  thought,  In t h i s  sense,  media,  analogous  used  effects.  development,  features  for  denied of  a more c a u s a l  awareness  source  be  different  produce  were  a logicality  movement  through to  a  conditions.  musicians,  critical  period  and  the  influence  can,  for  and u n c o n s c i o u s  by  this  imitation  composers.  Quantz  to  analysed  in this  poetic  trends  s t u d y were at  the  chosen time  and Emanuel Bach r e c e i v e d c r e a t i v e  environment  reflects the  themes  the  It  characterizing  found  broader  Analogous s t y l i s t i c  affinity  rich  working  role  two m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s  composition. the  Berlin's  a t t r i b u t e d to  German p o e t i c  their  and  working conditions  The of  imagery  c a n be  again,  and s o c i a l  similar intentions,  particular  once  economic  with  century B e r l i n .  which o f f e r e d  to  artists  of  composers  subject  of  stylistic  when r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s  arts,  a  the  philosophy of  atmosphere  Berlin  verbal  define  aesthetic  age  course,  out  because  the  to  i n eighteenth  unique c r e a t i v e  arising  However,  of  enlightened  theories  culturally-shared  sought  music and p o e t r y  f o r m u l a t e d on the  in particular,  their  study  pervasive  an  in  which  intelligent  affective  ethos  they  a  of  their  impetus  lived.  comprehension of  because  particular  The of  from music  poetic style  to  88 specific  techniques  say  that  t h e s e m u s i c i a n s were  in  their  judgement. Bach  and  capture  its  own  used  medium  There Quantz spirit  is  is,  by poets  of  to  in their  emotional  s i m p l y d u p l i c a t i n g the course,  enough e v i d e n c e ,  recognized  invigorate  the  music.  over-stepping however,  to  power o f p o e t i c  expression.  current the  poetic  limits  demonstrate expression  of  To style  critical  that  both  and sought  to  89  FOOTNOTES  - CHAPTER  1-Abbe D u b o s , Critical Reflections trans. Thomas N u g e n t , R e p r i n t e d f r o m t h e AMS P r e s s I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) , V o l . 1, p . 372. The Muses' p. 29.  2 James Jenson, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), H  on 1748  Concord,  I  Poetry, London  Painting edition  (Bloomington,  and (New  Indiana:  Music, York:  Indiana  ^ J o h a n n G . S u l z e r , Allgemeine Theorie der schSnen Kunste (1st B e r l i n , 1771-7'4), 2nd ed., 4 vols. (Lepzig, 1792; facsimile H i l d e s h e i m : G e o r g e 01ms, 1 9 6 7 ) , s . v . "Instrumental music."  ed. ed.,  ^Although C h r i s t o p h W o l f f notes that the t r a d i t i o n o f musica poetica and m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c was d e e p l y i n g r a i n e d i n B a c h ' s m u s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c o m p o s e r was more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r a p u n t a l procedures than i n creating musical discourse. See W a l t e r Emery a n d C h r i s o p h W o l f f , " J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n B a c h , " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians  (1980),  2, p p .  785-840.  5 R . H . T h o m a s , Poetry and Song in the German Baroque, (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1963), p. 99. Thomas states that Hagedorn's collection of a n a c r e o n t i c p o e t r y , Oden und Lieder (1740) marks a p o i n t o f c r i t i c a l change i n German p o e t r y . S i m i l a r l y , D a v i d Sheldon notes t h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f an actual galant phase in music occurs at mid-century i n correspondence to German R o c c o c o p o e t r y . See "The G a l a n t S t y l e R e v i s i t e d a n d R e - e v l a t u a t e d , " Acta Musicologica 47 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 2 6 9 . S e e L . A . W i l l o u g h b y , The Classical Age (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.16.  of  ^ B r e w s t e r R o g e r s o n , "Ut musica poesis: Poetry in Eighteenth century Criticism" University, 1945).  The Parallel of Music and (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Princeton  6  German Literature  1748-1805  8 B e l l a m y H o s i e r , Changing Aesthetic Views of Instrumental 18th-century Germany ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , ^Glor i a Flaherty, ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : l For a brief Locke, "Descartes (1935): 423-431. u  study and  Opera in the Development of Princeton University Press,  Music 1981).  German Critical 1978).  o f the mathematical basis to music Seventeenth Century M u s i c , " Musical  in  Thought  see Arthur Quarterly 21  lip Co.  Inc.,  . H . L a n g , Music in 1941), p. 131.  12see Aesthetics,"  Western  John Alexander, English Miscellany  "Ut 24  Civilization  (New Y o r k :  musica poesis (1973-74), p.  in 131.  W.W.  Eighteenth  Norton  &  Century  90  13 os l e r ,  op.  cit.,  p.  45.  i^jensen,  op.  cit.,  p.  45.  H  1 5  Dubos,  op.  cit.,  p.  l ^ E . R . H a r r i s s , Johann Revised Translation with Research Press, 1981), p. l^Benito Rivera, Treatises of Johannes 1974), p . 170.  182. Mattheson's Critical 13.  German Music Lippius  "Der vollkommene Commentary (Ann A r b o r ,  Theory in the Early 17th Century--The ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s ,  1&H.M. S c h e u l l e r , "Correspondences According to 18th Century Aesthetic (1952/53): 334-359.  Music  !9see George and Musicians  Capellmeister"--A M i c h i g a n : UMI  Between M u s i c and the S i s t e r Theory," Journal of Aesthetics  B u e l o w , " R h e t o r i c a n d M u s i c , " The (1980), 15, p p . 793-803.  2 0 r i s t o t l e , The Politics, trans. M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . A  New Grove  T.A. Sinclair 308-309.  Arts, 11  Dictionary  of  (Harmondsworth,  21B . H . Bronson, "Some A s p e c t s o f M u s i c a n d L i t e r a t u r e ' " i n Facets the Enlightenment (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 108.  of p.  22R.M. Seventeenth 70.  the p.  Theory  Isherwood, Music in the Service of the King--France Century ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  23rjean Mace, "Marin Mersenne 14 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 .  on Language  a n d M u s i c , " Journal  in 1973),  of  Music  2 4 F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n o n the nature of the 17th century French academies s e e F r a n c e s Y a t e s , The French Academies in the Sixteenth Century (London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1947), p p . 275-316. 25Flaherty,  op.  26nubos,  op.  27ibid.,  p.  11.  28ibid.,  p.  21.  29ibid.,  V o l . 1,  30ibid.  cit.,  cit.,  p.  p.  V o l . 3,  386.  190. p.  2.  91  31lbid.,  p.  32ibid.,  p.  33ibid.,  Vol.  3AHarriss,  61. 362. 3,  op.  p.  35.  cit.,  p.  35ibid.,  p.  406.  36ibid.,  p.  291.  37ibid.,  p.  170.  38ibid.,  p.  451.  39ibid.,  p.  344.  4  0  H.J.  Serwer,  Galant Age,"  (Ph.D.  " F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Marpurg dissertation,  ^lRene Welleck, Jonathan Cape, 1955),  1980),  p.  Portnoy, 150.  250.  History p. 39. The  of  Philosopher  Modern  1969),  Criticism:  and  Music  ^ A l e x a n d e r A l t m a n n , Moses Mendelssohn--A U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama P r e s s , 1973), p. 129. 44Mendelssohn Wolfgang Suppan, J a h r h u n d e r t s , " Die  (1718-95):  Yale University,  Music C r i t i c p.  1750-1950  (New Y o r k :  Biographical  in  a  186. (London:  Da C a p o  Study  Press,  (Alabama:  a l s o wrote an a r t i c l e on keyboard temperament. "Moses Mendelssohn und Die Musika'sthetik des Musikforschung X V I I ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 24.  See 18.  4 5 i b i d . , p. 122. "Die Musik kann geradezu m i t der Poesie verbunden werden, j a i h r e r e r s t e n Bertimmung nach s o i l s i e e i g e n t l i c h n u r d i e P o e s i e zur Unterstutzung dienen. D a h e r muss d i e K u n s t d e r M u s i k n i e m a l s so sehr ubertrieben werden, dass sie d e r P o e s i e zum N a c h t t e i l g e r e i c h e , u n d w i r t a d e l n d i e neuere Musik mit Recht, dass i h r e K u n s t e l e i e n sich mit keiner wohlklingenden Poesie vertragen." 4 6 i b i d . , p. besides a beautiful 49james University of 50in Flaherty,  120. "What instrumental  Upton, "Lessing Texas at A u s t i n ,  Hamburgische op. c i t . , p.  is opera anyway composition?"  as Music 1968), p.  Dramaturgie 228.  for  Critic," 25.  (July  31,  most o f  (Ph.D.  1767):  V,  the  audience  dissertation,  127,  cited  from  5 1  See  Hosier,  52ibid.,  p.  53upton,  op.  54ibid.,  p.  op.  cit.,  p.  p.  25.  140. cit., 30.  139.  93  FOOTNOTES  Icharles 1746),  Batteux,  Part  Day,  ed.,  33, Music  and  Early-Nineteenth p.  beaux-arts 3,  reduits  Chapter  Aesthetics  Centuries  II  3.  a un  Cited  in  the  (Cambridge:  meme  principe  from P e t e r  le  Eighteenth  Cambridge  (Paris,  H u r a y a n d James Centuryu  University  and  press,  1981),  52. 2  Flaherty,  op.  Szenczi, Criticism," Akademiai  cit., "The  in  Kiado,  1974),  (New Y o r k :  ^Hosier, ^H.M. According (1952/53):  cit.,  in  Later  Century  Eighteenth  Literature  Century  (Budapest:  23.  Discourse  on Method,  p.  Press,  and  Meditations,  trans.  L.A.  1960).  73.  "Correspondences between Music  18th Century  Waite,  Aesthetic  " B e r n a r d Lamy,  Century  (London:  Ibid.,  9j.P. Beech  p.  Principle Eighteenth  Theory,"  and the  Journal  of  Sister  Arts,  Aesthetics  11  334-35.  7w.G.  8  in  Liberal Arts  op.  Eighteenth  Landon  217.  Mimetic  Schueller, to  p.  Studies  ^Rene D e s c a r t e s , Lafleur  in  Les  Section  - CHAPTER  Music--A  George  p.  Allen  to  of  Karl  the  Passions,"  Geiringer,  and Unwin L t d . , 1970),  p.  ed.  in  Studies  H . C . Robbins  390.  392.  Kirnberger,  and  Rhetorician  Tribute  Jurgen  The  Thym  Art  of  (New  Strict  Haven:  Musical Yale  Composition,  Univers'ityh  Trans. Press,  1982),  D. p.  347-48. 1°L Lipking. (Princeton, Hp p.  The  Ordering  New J e r s e y :  Mallam,  of  Princeton  A n Approach  to  the  Arts  in  University  Poetry  Eighteenth-Century  Press,  (London:  1970),  Methuen  England  p.  222.  & Co.  L t d . , 1929),  13. 12J.G.  cit.,  p.  Sulzer,  13john R. Berlin  op.  cit.,  s.v.  "Melodie,"  cited  from B . H o s i e r ,  op.  153.  Song  Edwards, School,"  "Christian Gottfried (Ph.D.  dissertation,  70. rnberger, 15ibid.  op.  cit.,  p.  375.  Krause:  Mentor  University  of  of Iowa,  the  First  1973),  p.  94  1 6  Ibid.,  p.  404.  1 7  Ibid.,  p.  410.  l ^ F . W . M a r p u r g , Kritische of B e r l i n 1760 ed. (New 494-96. l^ibid.,  p.  496.  Briefe York:  uber die Tonkunst, 2 Vol., facsimile Georg 01ms V e r l a g , 1974), V o l . I, p.  "eine verzognen  Dactylus."  20xh e B e r l i n c o m p o s e r Q u a n t z , who d e v o t e d a c h a p t e r o n o r n a m e n t a t i o n in h i s t r e a t i s e o n t h e f l u t e , saw t h a t d e c o r a t i v e f i g u r e s o r " g r a c e s " w e r e e s s e n t i a l f o r m u s i c t o become p a s s i o n a t e e x p r e s s i o n : "Since music should now r o u s e t h e p a s s i o n s , now s t i l l them a g a i n , t h e u t i l i t y a n d n e c e s s i t y o f these graces i n a p l a i n and unadorned melody is self-evident." J.J. Q u a n t z , On Playing the Flute, trans, by Edward R e i l l y (London: F a b e r & Faber L t d . , 1966), p. 98. 21See f o r example H. Unger, Rhetorik im 16. 18. Jahrhundert 1941). 22Mallam,  op.  cit.,  2 3 c a l v i n Brown, Quarterly 30 ( 1 9 4 4 ) ; 24james between Poetry 215.  0  Bach  Jr., 87.  A. Winn, and Music  25R gerson,  p.  op.  Beziehungen (Wurzburg:  zwischen Musik und Konrad T r i l t i s c h V e r l a g ,  11.  "The  Poetic  Unsuspected (New Haven:  cit.,  Die  pp.  Use  of  Musical  Eloquence: A History Yale University  Brown,  op.  28ibid.,m p. , p. 3 u  Jones,  op.  cit.,  pp.  of the Relations Press, 1981), p.  Music  and  Poetry:  93-100.  92. 93-94. cit.,  p.  224.  ^ B e r n a r d Frum, "An E a r l y C e n t u r y K e y b o a r d M u s i c , " Musical 32ibid.,  p.  232.  Ibid.,  p.  235.  3 3  Musical  57-58.  26john A . J o n e s , "The A n a l o g y o f E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y a n d P o p e , " Centennial Review 21 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 2 2 3 - 2 4 . 2 7  Forms,"  Example Quarterly  of 56  Dramatic (1970):  Procedures 230-246.  in  18th  95  3 Ibid., 4  35ihomas Life  and  37G.L. as  230.  Hinton,  Letters  36firown,  Music  p.  13 op.  cit.,  Raymond, a  "Fugal  (1959): p.  Rhythm  Principles  and  Harmony  Art  39ibid.,  p.  111.  ^Oibid.,  p.  405.  l b i d . ,  p.  404.  4  i  cit.,  p.  in  Poetry  (New Y o r k :  170. op.  Poetry,"  German  89.  Representative  38Kirnberger,  a n d German B a r o q u e  126.  109.  and  Music--Together  G . P . Putnam's  Sons,  with 1904),  p.  96  FOOTNOTES  Iwilloughby,  The  2lbid.,  p.  3victor  Lange,  Arnold  Classical  Age  - CHAPTER  III  of  Literature,  German  L t d . , 1982),  The  Classical  p.  45.  Age  of  German  5R.M. Browning, German Poetry in the Brockes to Klopstock ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : The P r e s s , 1978) , p . 85. ^Willoughby,  op.  cit.,  p.  ^Theodore Ziolkowski, Sampson," The Germanic Review 8willoughby,  op.  9Lange,  cit.,  op.  l^Browning, Hexcerpt 56.  taken  14-Flaherty, 15Edwards, Ibid.,  p.  64.  l?Ibid.,  p.  58.  18R Claredon  Hinton Press,  l^Edwards,  text  op.  cit., cit.,  Thomas,  Age of the Enlightenment Pennsylvania State  - From University  in Lessing's  Miss  Sara  18.  Messias  p.  (Berlin:  Walter  der  Gruyler,  1974),  203.  p. p.  122. 167 47.  Poetry  p.  cit.,  and Freedom - Literature and Weidenfeld and Nicolson,  197.  p.  cit.,  1963), op.  p.  cit.,  op.  Edward  33.  p.  f r o m Der  op.  -  (London:  48.  cit.,  op.  13Menhennet,  p.  Literature  "Language and Mimetic (November 1 9 6 5 ) : 2 7 1 .  cit.,  op.  12Browning,  1 6  31.  13.  ^excerpt taken f r o m A . M e n h e n n e t , Order Society in Germany from 1720 to 1805 ( L o n d o n 1973), p. 94.  p.  p.  and  Song  in  the  German  Baroque  (Oxford:  109. p.  20Music and t r a n s l a t i o n translated, p. 220.  70. taken  from Edwards,  op.  cit.,  music,  p.  172,  97  2lThe  reference  Christoph being  Ursin  theologians  and n a t u r a l Imprints,  who w r o t e  626  22Mattheson, relationship, the  possible, might p.  419.  20  flute  to  23NO  is  in  the  Deutsche  Quantz.  Inc.,  work.  a part  and  1956  mother-daughter instrumental. precepts so  as that  op.  one cit.,  Frederick's  and at  He best  Quantz wrote  of  Staatsbibliothek  Pre  the  over music Stiftung  Berlin.  Anweisung  Edward R e i l l y ,  a  and f l o w i n g ,  on t h i s  both  living  196-199.  Capellmeister,  most b e i n g  On Playing  Schafke, VI (1924):  Society-Studies  of  motherly  singeable  -  p.  latter  the  Flute  Introduction  (London: Faber & Faber L t d . , 1966), einer  u  her  vollkommene  available  and housed  26R dolf Musikwissenschaft  S  Der  Catalogue  analogy  Theadore  Christian  1976),  and the  after  beautifully  Major,  in  the  either  (1608-1667),  of  Union  music  herself  G  Versuch  2 7 ee  uses  in  J . J .  S  Society  information  aspects  National  vocal  is."  Kulturbesitz  24 ee  the  adjust  everything  Ursin  on v a r i o u s  concertos  Edward R e i l l y  25 1752).  "to  means  Heinrich  Mansell Publishing,  example,  c h i l d she  further  collection  See  2 possibly  Johann  books  former b e i n g  make  whose  Preussischer  by  for  the  i n Verse or  (New Y o r k :  daughter  hear  "Ursin"  religion.  Vol.  urged  to  (1702-1748)  die  FTote  "Quantz 213.  Quantz  and  Documents  traversiere  als  his  No.  5  and  zu  spielen  Asthetiker,"  *Versuch ,  (New Y o r k :  (Berlin,  Archiv  American  y  translation  xxvii.  fur  Musicological  The A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l  1971).  2 8 s e e R e i l l y , Quantz and h i s *Versuch\ Q u a n t z ' s use o f the r i t o r n e l l o form. 2 9 D a v i d S h e l d o n , "The G a l a n t S t y l e Musicologica 47 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 251.  for  Revisited  a more  detailed  account  and  Re-evaluated,"  here  of  of  Acta  30ibid., p . 269. 3 1  Reilly,  32xhis derived  Quantz  example  and  (London:  Editio  Musica  3^H L e n n e b e r g , of  Music  in  edited  33see Q u a n t z ,  his  and a l l  f r o m Concerto  arranged  Journal  and  y  Versuch ,  other  sol  Nagy,  Budapest,  259.  examples used  maggiore  by O l i v e r  On Playing  p.  1  per Boosey  flauto,  & Hawkes M u s i c  II  concerto e  are  continuo,  Publishers Ltd.  1969.)  the  Flute;  p.  125.  "Johann Mattheson on A f f e c t  Theory  this  archi  (1958):  235.  and  Rhetoric  in  Music,"  98  3 5 ee Principles University S  from  for example Leopold Mozart, A Treatise on the Fundamental of Violin Playing, trans, by Editha Knocker (London: Oxford P r e s s , 1948): 50.  36A  Menhennet,  1720  to  1805  Order  and  Freedom--Literature  (London: Weidenfeld  and  and N i c o l s o n ,  3 7 L a w r e n c e K r a m e r , Music and Poetry: The Nineteenth ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1984): 10. 38see the (1759) quoted Versuch," Journal 39Frum., 40  in  op.  cit.,  p.  Germany  97.  Century  and  introduction t o Q u a n t z ' s Sei Duetti a due Flauti in E. Reilly, "Further Musical Examples for of the American Musicological Society 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) :  Ratner, Quarterly  After  Traversi Quantz's 160.  232.  "Eighteenth-Century No. 4 (1956): 441.  Theories  41-For M a t t h e s o n , t h e i a m b i c f o o t f l i g h t y nor of a running quality." 42Browning, 43jones,  op.  44Lenneberg, 45q  U O  ^New  ted  op.  cit.,  cit., op.  p.  cit.,  i n Ratner,  Grove  p.  ^New 795-796. 49D.  Grove  p.  Schulenberg,  p.  Music  50Eugene Helm, Music and Musicians  of  op.  gay. op.  It is neither c i t . , p. 233.  of  233.  cit., of  Dictionary  i s "moderately See L e n n e b e r g ,  Structure,"  213.  op.  Dictionary  of Musical Period  101.  cit.,  440.  and  47see L e e S o n n i n o . A Handbook Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1968).  of  p.  L  Musical a  Society  1973),  to  (1980),  Sixteenth-Century  Music  p.  Musicians  and  15,  p.  Rhetoric,  Musicians  (1980),  802. (London:  15,  p.  16.  " C a r l P h i l i p p E m a n u e l B a c h , " The ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 1, 8 4 4 - 8 6 3 .  New Grove  Dictionary  51lbid. 52Q. 5 3 ee S  Bach-Jahrbuch  Schulenberg,  op.  Hans Meersman, 14  (1917):  cit.,  p.  10.  " E i n Programmtrio K a r l 137-170.  Philipp  Emanuel  Bachs,"  99  54see Bach,"  Philip Barford's analysis  Monthly  Musical  55schulenberg, 56This from  Six  Record op.  and a l l  cit.,  subsequent  Sonatas  for  5  9  House  P.  1965),  The p.  60schulenberg,  2  Ibid.,  House  4  P.  p.  of  Bach's Bach,  in the 1963), pp.  Keyboard  cit.,  op. The  1965),  65srowning,  C.P.E.  sonata edited  have  been  taken  by P h i l p F r i e d h e i m ,  Classic Era 420-21.  (Chapel  Hill:  Music  of  C.P.E.  Bach  (New Y o r k :  October  p.  11. cited  i n Newman,  op.  cit.,  p.  422.  428.  Barford,  Inc.,  C.P.E.  Sonata Press,  autobiography,  63schulenberg, 6  "A F a n t a s i a b y  107.  op.  61from B a c h ' s 6  work i n  144-150.  428.  Barford,  Inc.,  examples 1967).  W. Newman, The of North Carolina  this  140.  Corp.,  See University  p.  p.  by  Galaxy Music  58ibid.,  of  (1955):  Keyboard  (New Y o r k : 5 7  85  cit.,  p.  Keyboard  p.  18.  Music  of  C.P.E.  Bach  (New  York:  October  107.  German  Poetry,  p.  283.  6 6 n i e Gegenwart der Abwesenden cited from Browning, op. cit., p. 225; Die Fruhen Graben and t r a n s l a t i o n was cited from A n Anthology of German Poetry Through the 19th Century, 2 n d e d i t i o n A l e x a n d e r Gode a n d F r e d e r i c k U n g a r . (New Y o r k : F . U n g a r P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 32. 67fiarford calls it the "generation-extension" principle, where generation refers to focal p o i n t o f f e e l i n g s i n the music and e x t e n s i o n comes w i t h " E l a b o r a t i o n s " o r c o n t r a s t s o f theme o r k e y w h i c h surround the points of generation. See B a r f o r d , " F a n t a s i a " , o p . c i t . , p. 148. 68see p .  39.  69schulenberg,  op.  70from C . Rosen,  The  71see B r o w n i n g , op. 72schulenberg, 73  s e  e  p.  90  of  op. this  cit.,  p.  Classical cit., cit., study  18. Style,  p. p.  201. 57.  (New Y o r k :  Viking  Press,  1971).  100  74  B r  owning,  verse  op.  cit.,  p.  250.  ?5For a detailed analysis see I b i d . , p . 251-52.  of metrical relationships  in Klopstock's  76Q intilian defines conformatio as a trope where "effects extraordinary sublimity are p r o d u c e d when t h e theme i s e x a l t e d b y a and a l m o s t h a z a r d o u s metaphor and i n a n i m a t e objects are given life action." See S o n n i n o , o p . c i t . , p. 54. u  7> Exclamatio, according to Q u i n t i l i a n , are i m u l a t e d and a r t f u l l y d e s i g n e d . . . " I b i d . , p. 1  are  7 8 . Mason, 1961) , p . G  Ltd.,  From 50.  Gottsched  to  Hebbel  (London:  those 87.  exclamations  °°see Dictionary  George of Music  "which  George G. Harrop  79ooris Tishkoff, "Sensibility i n the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y as t h e F a n t a s i a s f r o m Fur Kenner und Liebhaber o f C a r l P h i l i p p Emanuel (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i c h i g a n State U n i v e r s i t y , 1983), p. 74. Buelow's article on rhetoric and music and Musicians ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 15, p . 797.  of bold and  &  Co.  Seen i n Bach,"  i n New  Grove  101  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Alexander, English  and  Articles  J o h n N . "Ut Miscellany  Musica Poesis 24 ( 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 ) :  in Eighteenth 129-152.  Altmann, Alexander. Moses Mendelssohn A l a b a m a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama Aristotle. The Middlesex: Bach,  Aesthetics."  Study.  University,  - A Biographical Press, 1973.  Politics. Translated by P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1962.  T.A.  Sinclair.  Harmondsworth,  Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the True Art of Playing Instruments (1753). T r a n s l a t e d and E d i t e d by W.J. Mitchell. C a s s e l a n d Company L t d . , 1949.  Barford, P h i l i p T . "A F a n t a s i a (1955): 144-150.  by  C.P.E.  The Keyboard Music of C.P.E. his musical aesthetic and the Y o r k : October House, 1961. Barr,  Century  Raymond A . " L i e d - l s t Music and Musicians P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1980  Bronson, Bertrand H a r r i s . of the Enlightenment. 91-118.  Music  -  Record.  considered in relation of the sonata principle.  85  to New  "Some A s p e c t s o f M u s i c a n d L i t e r a t u r e " i n Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press  Poetic  Browning, Robert M. German Brockes to Klopstock. University Press, 1978. Buelow, George. Musicians 1980 ( v o l .  Bach rising  Musical  B e r l i n School." The New Grove Dictionary of Edited by Stanley Sadie, London: MacMillan (vol. 1 0 , pp 8 3 4 - 8 4 7 ) .  Brown, Calvin S. Music and G e o r g i a : The U n i v e r s i t y B r o w n , C a l v i n J r . "The (1944): 87-101.  B a c h . " Monthly  Keyboard London:  Literature of Georgia Use  of  - A Comparison Press, 1948.  Musical  Poetry in University  Forms."  the Park:  of  the  Musical  Age of The  Arts.  Facets (1968):  Athens,  Quarterly  Enlightenment Pennsylvania  30  -  From State  " R h e t o r i c a n d M u s i c . " T h e New Grove Dictionary of Music and E d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e , London: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1 0 , pp 7 9 3 - 8 0 3 ) .  "Symposium o f S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y M u s i c Theory 16 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 3 6 - 4 9 .  Theory."  Journal  of  102  Cassirer, Press,  Ernest.  The  Philosophy  of  the  Enlightenment.  Boston:  Beacon  1955.  C o h e n , P e t e r . Theorie Bach. Hamburg: 1974.  und Praxis der Clavierasthetik Carl Philipp Verlag der Musikalien Handlung K a r l D i e t e r  Crickmore, Leon. " C . P . E . 39 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 2 2 7 - 4 1 .  Bach's Harpsichord Concertos."  Music  Descartes, Rene. Discourse on Method and Meditations. L a f l e u r . New Y o r k : L i b e r t a l A r t s P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 .  and  Reflections the 1748  byL . A .  Aesthetics."  on Poetry, Painting and Music. 3 Volumes. London E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s I n c . ,  Edwards, John R i c h a r d . " C h r i s t i a n G o t t f r i e d Krause: Mentor B e r l i n Song S c h o o l . " P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Emery, Walter Dictionary MacMillan  Letters  Translated  D r a p e r , J o h n W. "Poetry and Music in Eighteenth Century Englische Studien 67 ( J u l y 1 9 3 2 - M a r c h 1 9 3 3 ) : 7 0 - 8 4 . D u b o s , Abbe'. Critical Reprinted from 1978.  Emanuel Wagner,  and Wolff, C h r i s t o p h . of Music and Musicians P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1980  of the First Iowa, 1973.  " J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n B a c h . " The New Grove Edited by Stanley Sadie. London: ( v o l . 2, p p . 785-840).  Flaherty, Gloria. Opera in the Development of German Critical P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 . F r i e d l a n d e r , M a x . Das Deutsche Cottasche Buchhandlung,  Lied 1902.  Frum,  Example o f D r a m a t i c P r o c e d u r e s Quarterly 56 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 3 0 - 2 4 6 .  Bernard. "An E a r l y K e y b o a r d M u s i c . " Musical  Goldschmidt, Beziehungen Gradenwitz, Letters  Hugo. zu P. 18  Die seinem  im 18.  Musikasthetik Kunstschaffen.  "Mid-Eighteenth-Century (1937): 265-275.  Jahrundert.  des 18. Zurich::  2 vol.  Stuttgart:  i n 18th  Century  Jahrhunderts und Rasches & C o . , 1915.  Transformation  H e a r t z , D a n i e l . " E m p f i n d s a m k e i t . " The New Grove Musicians E d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e . London: 1980 ( V o l 6, pp 1 5 7 - 1 5 9 ) .  Thought.  of  Style."  Music  ihre  and  Dictionary of Music and MacMillan Publishers L t d . ,  Helm,  Ernest E . Music at the Court of Frederick Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1960.  the  Great.  Helm,  Eugene. "The 'Hamlet' Fantasy and the L i t e r a r y Element B a c h ' s M u s i c . " Musical Quarterly 58 ( 1 9 7 2 ) : 2 7 7 - 2 9 6 .  Norman,  in  C.P.E.  103  " C a r l P h i l i p p E m a n u a l B a c h , " The New Grove Dictionary of Music Musicians Edited by S t a n l e y S a d i e . London: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s  and Ltd.,  1980  (Vol.  1,  pp  844-863).  H e r t z , D a v i d M . The Tuning of the Word - The Musico-Literary Symbolist Movement. Carbondale: Southern Illinois 1987. Hinton,  Thomas.  "Fugal  and  Letters  13  Hoffman,  Hans.  De Nord  Graun Hosier,  und  Carl  Deutsche  Philipp  Triosonate  Emanuel  Changing  Germany.  Isherwood, Robert Seventeenth 1973.  a n d German B a r o q u e  Poetry."  Kiel: Views  Michigan:  in the Service Ithaca, New  Jensen, H. James. The Muses University Press, 1976.  des  Bach.  Aesthetic  Ann A r b o r ,  M . Music Century.  Concord.  Jones, John A. "The A n a l o g y o f a n d P o p e . " Centennial Review  Kreisum  W.G. Muhlau,  of  UMI R e s e a r c h  Bloomington,  Eighteenth 21 ( 1 9 7 7 ) :  Music  Classical 1982.  Douglas. "Some Musical Quarterly  in  Age  Civilization.  of  German  Embellished Versions 62 ( 1 9 7 6 ) 5 8 - 7 1 .  LeHuray, Peter. "The Role of Music in Nineteenth-Century Aesthetics." Proceedings Association 105 ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) : 9 0 - 9 9 .  Sonatas  Indiana  and P o e t r y :  to a W.W. N a t o n  and  W.W.  London:  by  Bach  Rhetoric & Co.,  Composition. University  Yale  Century  Literature.  18th  1981.  Indiana:  New Y o r k :  of  in  France in the University Press,  Philipp. The Art of Strict Musical D a v i d B e a c h a n d J o r g e n T h y m . New H a v e n :  Western  Lee,  -  Century Music 211-235.  Lang,  Gottlieb  Music  Press,  of the King York: Cornell  Poetry: The Nineteenth California Press, 1984.  L a n g e , V i c t o r . The Arnold L t d . ,  Life  1927.  Instrumental  K r a m e r , L a w r e n c e . Music and Berkeley: University of Paul Henry. Co., 1941.  German  Johann  K e l l e r , H e r m a n n . Phrasing and Articulation - A Contribution of Music. Translated by L e i g h G e r d i n e . New Y o r k : Inc., 1965. Kirnberger, Johann Translated by Press, 1982.  of the Press,  (1959).  Bellamy.  Century  Principles  Poetics University  After.  Norton &  Edward  Franz  Benda."  Eighteenth and of the Royal  Early Musical  104  LeHuray, P. and Day, J . E d i t o r s . Early-Nineteenth Centuries. 1981. Lenneberg, Journal  Hans. of  "Johann  Music  Music and Aesthetics in Cambridge: Cambridge  Mattheson  Theory  II  on  (1958):  Affect  47-84,  and  the Eighteenth University  Rhetoric  and Press,  i n Music."  193-236.  L i p k i n g , L a w r e n c e . The Ordering of the Arts in Eighteenth-Century Princeton, New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . Locke, Arthur W. "Descartes and Quarterly 21 ( 1 9 3 5 ) : 4 2 3 - 4 3 1 . Mace,  Dean T . " M a r i n Mersenne Theory 14 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 - 3 4 .  Mallam,  P . An Approach  to  Seventeenth  on Langugage and  Poetry.  London:  Century  Music."  Methuen  M a s o n , G . R . From 1961.  Wilhelm. Kritische of Original Edition.  Gottsched  to  Hebbell.  Mattheson, J o h a n n . Der vollkommene c r i t i c a l commentary b y E r n e s t R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1981. M e n h e n n e t , A l a n . Order and 1720 to 1805. London: Mersmann, Hans. Bach-Jahrbuch  Briefe Berlin  London:  Capellmeister. C. Harris.  Mozart, Leopold. A Treatise Playing. Translated by P r e s s , 1948.  on the Editha  Karl  George  Neubauer,  John.  The Arts 1951. The  and  Emancipation  Their  of  Musical  of  Music  "Sturm u n d D r a n g ' Poesie." Music  Vol. I & Georg Olms  G. Harrop & Co. L t d . ,  Revised translation Ann A r b o r , Michigan:  Society 1973.  Philipp  in  Germany  Emmanual  with UMI  from  Bach's."  Fundamental Principles of Violin Knocker. London: Oxford University  M u l l e r , G u n t h e r . Geschichte des Deutschen Lieden von bis zur Gegenwart. Munchen: D r e i Masken V e r l o g , Munro, Thomas. Arts Press,  Journal  uber die Tonkunst. 1 8 6 0 ) . New Y o r k :  Freedom - Literature and Weidenfeld and N i c o l s o n ,  "Ein programmtrio 14 ( 1 9 1 7 ) : 1 3 7 - 1 7 0 .  Music."  & C o . , L t d . , 1929.  Marks, Paul F . "The R h e t o r i c a l E l e m e n t i n t h e M u s i c a l C h r i s t i a n Gottfried Krause's Von der musikalischen Review 33 ( 1 9 7 2 ) : 9 3 - 1 0 7 . Marpurg, F r i e d r i c h II ( F a c s i m i l e V e r l a g , 1974.  England.  Interrelations.  Music  from  Zeitaller 1725.  des  New Y o r k :  Language  -  Barock  The L i b e r a l  Departure  from  105  Mimesis Press, Newman,  in Eighteenth-Century 1986.  W i l l i a m S.  (1965):  "Emmanuel  New H a v e n :  Bach's Autobiography."  J . The  Philosopher  Classic  and  Era.  Ratner, Leonard G. S t r u c t u r e . " Musical Ruth H a l k .  Musical  University  Quarterly  Music.  New Y o r k :  "Some 1 8 t h C e n t u r y  Quarterly  University  51  Da Capo P r e s s ,  Translated  of  33  (1947):  Classifications  by Edward  of  North  1980. Reilly.  "Eighteenth-Century Theories of Musical Quarterly 42 N o . 4 ( 1 9 5 6 ) : 4 3 9 - 4 5 4 .  Raymond, G e o r g e L a n s i n g . Rhythm with Music as a Representative 1904. Reilly, of  Musical  Chapel H i l l :  Q u a n t z , J o h a n n J o a c h i m . On Playing the Flute. London: F a b e r & F a b e r L t d . , 1966.  Raven,  Yale  363-372.  The Sonata in the C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1963. Portnoy,  Aesthetics.  Period  Musical  Style."  90-101. and  Edward R. " F u r t h e r M u s i c a l the American Musicological  Harmony in Poetry Art. New Y o r k :  and Music G . P . Putnam's  Examples f o r Q u a n t z ' s V e r s u c h . " Society 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 1 5 7 - 1 6 9 .  "Quantz and his 'Versuch'." American Society-Studies and Documents No. 5. New York: M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y I n c . , 1971.  The  Together Sons,  Journal  Musicological American  "Johann J o a c h i m Q u a n t z . " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians E d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e . London: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1980 ( V o l . 1, p p . . . ) Richards, I . A . Principles 6c C o . , 1 9 4 5 .  of  Literary  Criticism.  Rivera, Benito. German Music Theory Treatises of Johannes Lippius. P r e s s , 1974.  in Ann  New Y o r k :  Harcourt,  the Early 17th Arbor, Michigan:  Brace  Century--The UMI R e s e a r c h  R o g e r s o n , B r e w s t e r . "Ut musica poesis: The P a r a l l e l o f M u s i c and P o e t r y in Eighteenth Century Criticism." Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton, University, 1945. Rosen,  Charles.  The  Classical  Style.  S c h a f k e , R u d o l f . Geschichte des S c h n e i d e r V e r l a g , 1964.  New Y o r k :  Musikasthetik  Viking Press, in  Umrissen.  1971. Tutzing:  Hans  106  Schafke, Rudolf. "Quantz (1924): 213-242.  als Asthetiker."  S c h e r i n g , A r n o l d . " C a r l P h i l i p p Emanuel der Musik." in Von Musikalischen Amelang, (1974): 213-245. S c h m i d , E r n s t F r i t z . Carl Kassel: Barenreiter  Philipp Verlag,  Archiv  fur  Bach und das Kunstwerk.  Emanuel 1931.  Bach  Musikwissenschaft  VI  'Redende Prinzip' Leipzig: Kuehler  und  seine  Kammermusik.  Schueller, Herbert M. "Correspondences between Music and the S i s t e r A c c o r d i n g t o 1 8 t h C e n t u r y A e s t h e t i c T h e o r y . " Journal of Aesthetics (1952/53): 334-366. Schulenberg, David. The Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n :  Instrumental UMI R e s e a r c h  Music Press,  of Carl 1984.  Philipp  Emanual  S e r w e r , Howard J . " F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m M a r p u r g ( 1 7 1 8 - 9 5 ) : M u s i c Galant Age." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Yale University, 1969. Sheldon, David Musicologica  A. 47  "The G a l a n t Style (1975): 240-270.  S o n n i n o , L e e . A Handbook Kegan P a u l , 1968.  to  Steblin, Rita. Nineteenth  of  A History Centuries.  Revisited  Sixteenth-Century  Key Characteristi cs Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n :  S t e i n , J a c k M . Poem and Music in the German Lied Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Stoljar, Margaret Mahony. Poetry Germany. L o n d o n : Croom H e l m . , Strunk, O l i v e r , E d i t o r . Norton & Co. I n c . ,  Source 1965.  and 1985.  Readings  Song  in  Music  Critic  London,  Arts, 11  Bach.  in  and R e - e v a l u a t e d "  Rhetoric.  in &  a  Acta  Routledge &  in the Eighteenth and Early UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 . from Gluck 1971. in  Late  History.  to  Hugo  Wolf.  Eighteenth  New  Century  York:  W.W.  Sulzer, Johann G. Allgemeine Theorie der schonen Kunste. (1st E d i t i o n , B e r l i n , 1 7 7 1 - 7 4 ) , 2nd E d i t i o n , 4 Volumes, f a c s i m i l e edition Leipzig, 1792. H i l d e s h e i m : G e o r g O l m s , 1967, s . v . , " I n s t r u m e n t a l M u s i c . " Suppan, Wolfgang. Jahrhunderts." Szabolcsi, Jolly  "Moses Mendelssohn und d i e Die Musikforschung XVII (1964):  Musikasthetik 22-33.  B e n c e . A History of Melody. T r a n s l a t e d from Hungarian by & Sara K a r i g . London: B a r r i e and R o c k c l i f f , 1965.  S z e n c z i , M . "The M i m e t i c P r i n c i p l e i n L a t e r E i g h t e e n t h in Studies in Eighteenth Century Literature. K i a d o , 1974.  des  18.  Cynthia  Century Criticism." Budapest: Akademiai  107  T i s h k o f f , D o r i s . " S e n s i b i l i t y i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century as F a n t a s i a s f r o m F u r Kenner und Liebhaber of Carl P h i l i p p Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan State University, 1983. T h o m a s , R . H . Poetry 1963.  and  Unger, Hans-Heinrich. 16.-18. Jahrhundert.  Song  in  the  " L e s s i n g as a M u s i c at A u s t i n , 1968.  Vrieslander,  Otto.  Wade,  Musik.  "Carl  Koln  Baroque.  Oxford:  Claredon  Press,  Die Beziehungen zwischen Musik und Rhetorik Wurzburg: Konrad T r i l t s c h V e r l a g , 1941.  Upton, James. o f Texas  Neuer  German  Seen in the Emanuel B a c h , "  Critic."  Philipp  am R h e i n :  Ph.D.  Emanuel  dissertation,  Bach a l s  F . J . Marcan-Verlag,  R a c h e l W. The Keyboard Concertos of A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s ,  im  University  Theoretiker."  in  Carl Philipp 1981.  Emanuel  Bach.  Ann  Waite, W.G. "Bernard Lamy, Rhetorician o f t h e P a s s i o n s . " i n Studies Eighteenth Century Music - A Tribute to Karl Geiringer. Edited H.C. Robbins Landon. London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1970. Wellek, Rene. History Cape, 1955.  of  Modem  Criticism:  1750-1950.  W e s s e l , F r e d e r i c k T . "The Affektenlehre d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y ,  i n the 1955.  Willoughby, L.A. York: Russell  of  Winn,  The Classical Age & Russel, 1966.  J a m e s A n d e r s o n . Unsuspected between Poetry and Music.  Ziolkowski, Sampson."  Literature  London:  - Four 1954.  Theodore. "Language The Germanic Review  of the Sixteenth London, 1947.  Eighteenth  Century  in by  Jonathan  Century."  Ph.D.  1748-1805.  New  Eloquence: A History of the New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Yates, Frances A. The French Academies The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Y o r k e - L o n g , A . Music at Court W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n ,  Eighteenth  German  Von  1925.  Relations 1981.  Century.  London:  Studies.  and Mimetic in Lessing's (November 1 9 6 5 ) : 2 6 1 - 2 7 6 .  London,  Miss  Sara  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items