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Moral and social constraints on femininity in the comedie larmoyante Leith, Hope Mary 1988

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MORAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON FEMININITY IN THE COMEDIE LARMOYANTE By HOPE MARY LEITH B . A . ( H o n s ) , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment o f F r e n c h ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l (c) Hope Mary BRITISH COLUMBIA 1988 L e i t h , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of French  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 26, 1 988 ABSTRACT MORAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON FEMININITY IN THE COMEDIE LARMOYANTE This study has attempted to show that the plays of La Chauss6e, which were popular in France in the middle to l a t eighteenth century, were popular because they appealed to s o c i a l values of the per iod , and p a r t i c u l a r l y because they expressed a conservative view of soc ie ty and of the ro le of women in that soc ie ty . The introduct ion sets for th the h i s t o r i c a l and biographica l background of La Chauss6e, the extent of the success achieved by his "comedies larmoyantes" in performance and in pub l i ca t ion during the eighteenth century, and the reasons for se l ec t ing the f ive plays on which th i s study concentrates. The focus on,female characters is explained by the number of plays "about" women: M61anide, La Gouvernante, L 'Eco le des m&res and by the tendency in l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m to consider eighteenth-century French tastes in theatre d ic tated by women. Chapter I presents a content analys is of the f ive p lays . This technique, taken from Goodlad, A Sociology of  Popular Drama# provides plot summaries of these now unfamil iar plays which are used as a basis for chapter I I . Furthermore i t permits determination and comparison of thes themes, s e t t ings , areas of c o n f l i c t explored and types of r e s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d i n the plays under examination. La Chauss6e most f r e q u e n t l y presents the problems of m a r i t a l and f a m i l i a l l o v e , and r e s o l v e s c o n f l i c t s with r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , marriage, or another form of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Goodlad b r i n g s out the r e l a t i o n s h i p between popular success and a p l a y ' s a t l e a s t i m p l i c i t d i d a c t i c i s m and i t s c o n s e r v a t i s m i n form and content. Chapter II uses n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s techniques from Bremond, Logique du r 6 c i t . The plays are con s i d e r e d as t e x t s . The purpose here i s to b r i n g to l i g h t the s t r u c t u r e of p l o t : how r e s o l u t i o n i n delayed or achieved, what r o l e s — v i c t i m , b e n e f i c i a r y , a s s i s t a n t , f r u s t r a t o r -- female c h a r a c t e r p l a y i n that s t r u c t u r e . Heroines are found to be pa s s i v e v i c t i m s , b e n e f i c i a r i e s , or even f r u s t r a t o r s . Secondary female c h a r a c t e r s p l a y minor a s s i s t a n t r o l e s , or act as f r u s t r a t o r s f o r the h e r o i n e s . R e s o l u t i o n i s achieved by male c h a r a c t e r s . Chapter I I I turns to d i s c o u r s e , how much and what i s s a i d about the female sex and/or by female c h a r a c t e r s . I t Examines the q u a n t i t y , content and s i t u a t i o n of female d i s c o u r s e i n these p l a y s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the s o c i a l and s i t u a t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s on d i s c o u r s e . A female c h a r a c t e r u s u a l l y o n l y has one scene with male c h a r a c t e r s i n which she speaks h a l f or more of the t o t a l l i n e s , unless she i s alone with someone over whom she has a f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e , and not her husband. Maids are used to express g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the s i t u a t i o n of women i n s o c i e t y , and sympathy f o r i v the h e r o i n e . The d i s c o u r s e o f h e r o i n e s c e n t r e s on the s t a n d a r d s of v i r t u e t o w h i c h s o c i e t y h o l d s them: p a t i e n c e , e n d u r a n c e , c h a s t i t y , o b e d i e n c e . In the c o n c l u s i o n , c r i t i c a l judgments on La Chauss6e f rom the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o the p r e s e n t a r e r e v i e w e d and e x a m i n e d . Doubt i s c a s t on the e x t e n t t o w h i c h La Chauss6e s h o u l d be seen as p r o m o t i n g t h e a t r i c a l or s o c i a l r e f o r m , and i n c r e a s e d emphas is i n p l a c e d on the n a t u r e of h i s d i d a c t i c i s m , and the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m . TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I -- CONTENT ANALYSIS CHAPTER II -- NARRATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER I I I -- TEXTUAL ANALYSIS CONCLUSION -- CRITICAL SURVEY BIBLIOGRAPHY v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To O l g a C r a g g , f o r s p e n d i n g t ime g e n e r o u s l y ou t o f a h e c t i c s c h e d u l e and f o r h o l d i n g me t o c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n ; t o H a r o l d K n u t s o n , f o r b a l a n c e d c r i t i c i s m and u n e x p e c t e d p r a i s e ; t o V a l e r i e and R i c h a r d from whom I have l e a r n e d f a r more t h a n c r i t i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y ; t o D r . L . L . B o n g i e f o r a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e , and encouragement i n r e s e a r c h ; t o J o h n , D a r l e n e , A n i t a , P e i g , and above a l l E l i s a b e t h f o r l i s t e n i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g , t o B r i a n and E l i s a b e t h f o r p r o o f - r e a d i n g above the c a l l o f d u t y , m i l l e e t  m i l l e r e m e r c i e m e n t s . 1 MORAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON FEMININITY IN THE COMEDIE LARMOYANTE L'approche e s t h e t i q u e a t o u t & gagner de l a connaissance du contexte, des mediations avec l e f a i r e , l e toucher, avec 1'analyse de l ' a t t e n t e ou du r e f u s du p u b l i c . Suzanne Lamy, "A cou l e u r s rompues" [1] A P a r i s , 2 mai [1736] On m'a p a r l e aujourd'hui d'une place k l'Academie f r a n g a i s e ; mais n i l e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s ob je me trouve, n i ma sante, n i l a l i b e r t y , que je p r e f e r e b, t o u t , ne me permettent d'oser y penser. J ' a i repondu que c e t t e place d e v a i t vous e t r e d e s t i n e e , et que je me f e r a i s un honneur de vous ceder l e peu de s u f f r a g e s sur l e s q u e l s j ' a u r a i s pu compter, s i vo t r e merite ne vous a s s u r a i t de toutes l e s v o i x . J ' a i l'honneur d ' e t r e , monsieur, avec toute l'estime que vous m e r i t e z , v o t r e , e t c . V o l t a i r e [2] The "monsieur" i n q u e s t i o n , P i e r r e Claude N i v e l l e de La Chaussee, was indeed e l e c t e d , unanimously, to the Academie f r a n g a i s e i n June 1736, on the s t r e n g t h of one 2 verse e p i t r e (1730), two p l a y s i n verse (1733 and 1735) [3], and h i s e x c e l l e n t f a m i l y connections, being the grandson of a f e r m i e r - g e n e r a l and the only c o u s i n of the count d ' H e r r o u v i l l e [ 4 ] . His successes as a playwright place him t h i r d , behind V o l t a i r e and Destouches, among those who wrote for the Comedie Frangaise between 1715 and 1750 [ 5 ] . The number of p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n s of h i s p l a y s suggest t h a t h i s p o p u l a r i t y l a s t e d at l e a s t u n t i l the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y [ 6 ] . The f i v e plays i n t h i s study had from s i x to f i f t e e n e d i t i o n s each, not counting t h e i r frequent i n c l u s i o n i n c o l l e c t i o n s , and were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o I t a l i a n , Dutch, Spanish, German and E n g l i s h [ 7 ] . However, La Chaussee's p o p u l a r i t y d e c l i n e d i n t o o b s c u r i t y , with o n l y three p l a y s e d i t e d and two t r a n s l a t e d r e c e n t l y (and a corresponding lack of recent s c h o l a r s h i p , as we w i l l s e e ) . The most thorough study of La Chaussee, by Gustave Lanson, i s a c e n t u r y o l d now, yet i t forms the major [ 8 ] , and on o c c a s i o n the o n l y secondary source f o r l a t e r s t u d i e s [ 9 ] . Some recent h i s t o r i e s of comedy or of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e accord o n l y a b r i e f glance to La Chaussee [10], or n e g l e c t him completely [11]. Yet h i s importance at l e a s t as a popular d r a m a t i s t seems great enough to deserve renewed study. The p l a y s chosen: La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e (1733), Le  Prejuge £ l a mode (1735), Melanide (1741), L'Ecole des meres (1744), and La Gouvernante (1747), span La Chaussee's c a r e e r , and make up the more popular and s e n t i m e n t a l p o r t i o n 3 of h i s dramatic p r o d u c t i o n (a t o t a l of 20 works, i n c l u d i n g two t r a g e d i e s and one parade). La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e , while not as popular as the others when judged by number of s p e c t a t o r s and performances, was a r e s p e c t a b l e success e s p e c i a l l y f o r a f i r s t p l a y [12]. I f t h i s i n i t i a l s tep towards s e r i o u s , "larmoyante", comedy had f a i l e d on opening n i g h t , La Chaussee might not have continued. As w e l l , the p l a y serves to introduce f e a t u r e s (theme, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , vocabulary) which w i l l become t y p i c a l of the "comedie larmoyante." The other four p l a y s were c o n s i d e r a b l e popular successes [13], with r e s p e c t a b l e l i v e s i n the r e p e r t o r y [14], and each has been termed La Chaussee's chef d'oeuvre [15]. I t has long been accepted t h a t La Chaussee's continued popular r a t h e r than c r i t i c a l success -- V o l t a i r e , C o l l e and P i r o n a l l c r i t i c i z e d h i s plays [16] -- came from h i s appeal to women: La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e a v a i t p l u s u r t o u t aux femmes, to u j o u r s s e n s i b l e s & l a nouveaute, ne c r a i g n a n t que l ' u n i f o r m i t e et 1'ennui, peu preoccupees des t r a d i t i o n s et des r e g i e s , et plus capables que l e s hommes de p l e u r e r avec p l a i s i r et sans emotion profonde. On d e s i r a d'autres p i e c e s dans l e meme genre. [17] Thi s study w i l l focus on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of women i n these f i v e p l a y s . As w e l l , i t w i l l c o n s i d e r t h i s widely held b e l i e f t h a t La Chaussee wrote f o r and was p o p u l a r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by women (and g e n e r a l l y bourgeois women), and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s b e l i e f f o r c r i t i c i s m of these p l a y s . I t seems worthwhile to begin t h i s study with content a n a l y s i s . T h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l technique uses p l o t resumes and h i g h l i g h t s the gen e r a l types of theme, s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r , and p l o t used. The method i s taken from Goodlad, A S o c i o l o g y of Popular Drama (1971) [18], and seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n the study of what are now g e n e r a l l y u n f a m i l i a r works. Then the p l o t s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f w i l l be analyzed, a c c o r d i n g to the schema developed by Bremond from Propp and Greimas [30]. T h i s method, which produces a diagram of the p r o g r e s s i o n from an i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n to i t s r e s o l u t i o n , f i t s the general p a t t e r n of these p l a y s ; even "comedies larmoyantes" have happy endings. But more im p o r t a n t l y , i t serves to b r i n g out the r o l e assigned to any female c h a r a c t e r i n the p l o t — w h e t h e r she i s a c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about the happy ending or works a g a i n s t i t or i s simply a o b j e c t c o n t r o l l e d and rescued by o t h e r s . Then we w i l l move to d e t a i l e d examination of the female c h a r a c t e r s , l o o k i n g beyond t h e i r r o l e i n the p l o t to the kind or kinds of women they are supposed to r e p r e s e n t , and the place accorded to them i n the s o c i e t y La Chaussee puts on stage. D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n w i l l be con s i d e r e d as to the degree of i n f l u e n c e they have on c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n — does g r e a t e r rank or age impose higher standards or grant more p r i v i l e g e s ? As w e l l , comparisons w i l l be drawn between these c h a r a c t e r s and women i n the r e a l world of P a r i s i n the 5 1730's and 1740's. F i n a l l y , c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s to these p l a y s , from the ei g h t e e n t h century to the present, w i l l be reviewed. Again the focus i s on women, not only those i n the plays but a l s o those i n the audience. The study w i l l examine c r i t i c a l judgements of La Chaussee's female c h a r a c t e r s and of the s i t u a t i o n s i n which he pl a c e s them, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the c r i t e r i a behind those judgements. The d i s t i n c t i o n between popular and l i t e r a r y success which was so marked i n the case of La Chaussee o f f e r s scope f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The qu e s t i o n of why La Chaussee was so widely performed, read and d i s c u s s e d i n the mid- to l a t e - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y u s u a l l y r e c e i v e s the answer that t h e a t r i c a l t a s t e s i n t h i s p e r i o d were d i c t a t e d by feminine d e l i c a c y : "A 1*image de l a s o c i e t e du temps, l e p u b l i c e s t domine par l a s e n s i b i l i t e f eminine...sa l e g e r e t e , ses c a p r i c e s . . . . V i t e emou, i l e s t non moins aisement b l e s s e ou choque." (Lagrave, p. 665). I t h a r d l y needs to be c l a r i f i e d t h a t t h i s feminine i n f l u e n c e was a degrading: "C'est de 1 ' a p p a r i t i o n du Prejuge...que datent l a grande vogue des drames et l a decadence de l a v r a i e comedie." (Geoffroy, p. 202) Th i s study w i l l compare the c r i t i c s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y when t h a t p u b l i c d i s a g r e e d with them, to more o b j e c t i v e s t u d i e s on the s o c i a l and sexual composition of P a r i s t h e a t r e audiences, i n order to i n d i c a t e to what extent these c r i t i q u e s can be t a i n t e d with i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and/or sexual e l i t i s m . Is the p u b l i c as bourgeois, 6 as "feminine", as uneducated as a c r i t i c c l a i m s ? Can t h i s e x p l a i n t h e i r fondness f o r a p l a y or a genre he d e t e s t s : "Dans t o u t l e s l i e u x od i l y a peu de l i t t e r a t u r e , l e drame triomphe." (Geoffroy, p. 198) P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d i r e c t e d to the a n a l y s i s of Lanson, whose assessment of La Chaussee has been widely accepted as a u t h o r i t a t i v e by l a t e r cr i t i c s . T h i s " s e n s i b i l i t e " , which made the "comedie larmoyante" so up to date f o r an ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y audience, seems to be why modern readers f i n d the genre so d i s t a n t and melodramatic: La p a r t i e l a plus i n s u p p o r t a b l e du t h e a t r e de La Chaussee p a r a i t bien e t r e aujourd'hui l e s t y l e d ' e x pression de c e t t e s e n s i b i l i t e : emphatique et p l a t , p l e i n de formules....Ma i s i l e st bien evident que ce c a r a c t e r e de fadeur ne d e r o u t a i t pas l e s p e c t a t e u r , encore moins l u i d o n n a i t - i l envie de s o u r i r e . On retrouve l a l a p r e s s i o n des conventions elaborees par l e groupe s o c i a l , en p a r t i c u l i e r dans l ' e x p r e s s l o n des sentiments." (Descotes, pp. 205-6) Some i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s s o c i a l phenomenon i s necessary to understand not only La Chaussee's p r e s e n t a t i o n of women, but a l s o the audience's r e a c t i o n to h i s c h a r a c t e r s . The s e n s i b i l i t y expressed i n La Chaussee i s the f a s h i o n a b l e p h i l o s o p h y of h i s day, a loose p o p u l a r i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Locke's s e n s a t i o n theory a c c o r d i n g to Jo u r d a i n [203. 7 V i r t u e was c u l t i v a t e d f o r the p l e a s u r a b l e s e n s a t i o n s i t produced, and demonstrated more by i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g than by a c t s of c h a r i t y (Descotes, p. 204) This appeal to the p u b l i c ' s sense of compassion, of p i t y , was e s s e n t i a l f o r the popular success of a p l a y j u s t as f o r t h a t of a novel ( J o u r d a i n , p. 183; Descotes, p. 205; Lagrave, p. 506). Furthermore, La Chauss6e was adept at c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s of underserved d i s t r e s s or misfortune to evoke the audience's sympathy; t h e i r now-apparent i m p l a u s i b i 1 i t y and a r t i f i c i a l i t y seems to have mattered l i t t l e . In t h e i r p e r i o d , these p l o t s were n e i t h e r f a n t a s t i c nor hackneyed i n t h e i r premises [21]. La Chauss6e combined i n n o v a t i o n with a knowledge of contemporary c o n d i t i o n s . According to the Goncourt b r o t h e r s , the p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t c o n j u g a l l o v e , as i n La Chaussee's Pr6jug6 & l a mode, was widespread i n f a s h i o n a b l e s o c i e t y , M and Mme d'Epinay being a well-known example [22]. I t was perhaps r e l a t e d to the prevalence of marriages of pure i n t e r e s t or convenience i n t h i s c l a s s , as i n l a Fausse a n t i p a t h i e . Divorce was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , and l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a woman to o b t a i n [23]. Marriages between minors or without p a r e n t a l p e r m i ssion, as i n M61anide, were of no l e g a l f o r c e ( l e s Goncourt, pp. 260-3). Daughters of w e l l - t o do parents were o f t e n r a i s e d i n convents ( l e s Goncourt, pp. 14-15), and might be l e f t there permanently (as Marianne i s threatened i n L'Ecole des mdres [24]) f o r the f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t of the son: "Dans l e s grandes maisons on s a c r i f i e l e s f i l l e s et 8 l e s c a d e t s a l a v a n i t e d ' e l e v e r une b ranche un ique e t p u i s s a n t e . " ( F r e r o n , 1754 I I I : 147) The son i n h e r i t e d the b u l k o f the e s t a t e i n most c a se s ( A b e n s o u r , p . 27) La  Gouvernan te was based on an a c t u a l case of a judge making r e p a r a t i o n f o r l o s s e s caused by h i s n e g l i g e n c e ( L a n s o n , p . 1 6 7 ) . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f o r i g i n a l i t y and a c e r t a i n r e a l i s m i n h i s p l o t s i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the s o u r c e of La C h a u s s e e ' s s u c c e s s and i m p o r t a n c e : Q u e l q u e f o i s La Chaussee a c h o i s i d ' a u t r e s s i t u a t i o n s p a t h e t i q u e s ou t e r r i b l e s de l a v i e p r i v e e : i l a r e g a r d e l e s r e l a t i o n s des p a r e n t s e t des e n f a n t s , e t l e s c r i s e s q u ' y amenent l e s p e r v e r s i o n s ou l e s r e v o l t e s des a f f e c t i o n s n a t u r e l l e s au c o n t a c t des p r e j u g e s ou des i n s t i t u t i o n s de l a s o c i e t e ; i l a p l a c e 1 ' h o m m e . . . d e v a n t l e s d e v o i r s e t dans l e s s o u f f r a n c e s que l u i impose sa c o n s c i e n c e aux p r i s e s avec sa c o n d i t i o n . Tous ces s u j e t s s o n t p r i s dans l e v i f de l a v i e r e e l l e . ( L a n s o n , p . 174) The c o n c e r n s o f h i s s o c i e t y were b a s i c , however s u p e r f i c i a l or outmoded t h e y now seem i n t h e i r d e t a i l s : r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , m a r i t a l , f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l ; f reedom of the i n d i v i d u a l as opposed t o s o c i a l o r d e r . N i k l a u s i n f a c t a rgues t h a t any p l a y w h i c h d e a l s w i t h s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n t e m p o r a r y p rob lems runs t h i s r i s k o f t r a n s i e n c e : "Toute propagande s ' e x p o s e a 9 ce danger, car e l l e e s t n6cessairement du j o u r . " [25] In Chapter One, content a n a l y s i s of t h i s p l a y s w i l l b r i n g out more p r e c i s e l y the nature of these concerns as they r e l a t e to the r o l e of women i n s o c i e t y . The q u e s t i o n of whether the plays merely express the s o c i e t y ' s b e l i e f s about t h a t r o l e , or serve as a means to encourage women to f o l l o w , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Then the nature of the s o l u t i o n s proposed to and f o r women, La Chauss6e's p a r t i c u l a r "propagande", w i l l be examined. In a l l chapters the pl a y s w i l l be con s i d e r e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, i n order to see which elements of p l o t and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n are repeated or e l i m i n a t e d or re v e r s e d , and to examine any c o n t r a s t s i n treatment of women between e a r l y and l a t e p l a y s . Chapter Two w i l l c o n t a i n the n a r r a t o l o g i c a l p l o t a n a l y s i s of each p l a y . Again we w i l l be l o o k i n g f o r the r o l e assigned to women, the degree of a c t i v i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y La Chauss6e allows them. As w e l l , any changes or r e p e t i t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . In Chapter Three, the female c h a r a c t e r s w i l l be s t u d i e d i n depth, and with r e f e r e n c e to the r o l e s , f u n c t i o n s , and c o n s t r a i n t s e x i s t i n g i n French s o c i e t y f o r women of comparable s o c i a l s t a t u s . Does La Chauss6e o f f e r more or l e s s freedom, a c o n s e r v a t i v e or a r e f o r m i s t p o r t r a y a l , a r e a l i s t i c or an i d e a l i s t i c one? The c o n c l u s i o n w i l l review c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s to the f i v e comedies larmoyantes, paying p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the presumptions u n d e r l y i n g those judgements. Such elements 1 0 as the supposed s o c i a l and s e x u a l s t a t u s of the a u d i e n c e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a r i t y and m e r i t , and the degree of r e l e v a n c e t o r e a l i t y a t t r i b u t e d t o the c h a r a c t e r s and p l o t s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . 11 NOTES 1. In Quand je l i s , je m'invente (Montreal: L'Hexagone, 1984), p. 53. 2. V o l t a i r e , Oeuvres completes, v o l 34 ( P a r i s : G a m i e r f r e r e s , 1880), pp. 70-71. 3. G. Lanson, N i v e l l e de La Chaussee et l a comedle  larmoyante ( P a r i s : Hachette, 1887), p. 141. Fu r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 4. E. C. F r e r o n , Annee l i t t e r a i r e (1763) I: 314-315. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n the body of the t e x t . In t h i s and a l l other q u o t a t i o n s from works p u b l i s h e d before 1835, the s p e l l i n g and punctuation of the o r i g i n a l w i l l be kept. 5. H. Lagrave, Le Theatre et l e p u b l i c a P a r i s de 1715  a 1750 ( P a r i s : K l i n s i e c k , 1972), p. 600. Furth e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n the body of the t e x t . 6. The Catalogue generale de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e Volume 84, 1925; the B r i t i s h Museum G e r e r a l Catalogue, Pre-1956 volume 310; 1956-1967 volume 65; 1972-77 volume 65; 1978 volume 9; and the N a t i o n a l Union C a t a l o g to 1955, volume 18 l i s t f i v e e d i t i o n s of h i s complete works: 1762 P r a u l t f i l s ; 1763 C h a r p e n t i e r ; 1763 David; 1777 LeJay; 1970 r e p r i n t of the 1777. There are a l s o seven incomplete c o l l e c t i o n s : 1741-1747 r e c u e i l f a c t i f P r a u l t ; 1752 P a r i s no 1 2 pub; 1754 Amsterdam no pub; 1810 and 1813 Didot f r e r e s ; 1822 Didot; 1823 Dabo-Butshert. P l a y s by La Chaussee appear In s i x d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n s of French r e p e r t o r y : 1803 P e r l o t ; 1813 Menart & Raymond; 1817 F o u c a u l t ; 1821 Dabo, 1821 B e l i n ; 1824 Dabo; and i n v a r i o u s a n t h o l o g i e s : 1845 F i r m i n - D i d o t ; 1927 Brenner & Goodyear; 1959-60 F a l l C i t y P r e s s , Kentucky. 7. Le Prejuge: 1734 — 3, 1741, 1755, 1757, 1768, 1770, 1773, 1776, 1777, 1778 1878, 1920, 1962 [15]; La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e : 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1752, 1754 [ 6 ] ; L'Ecole des meres: 1745--2, 1750, 1770, 1878. 1982 [ 6 1 ; La Gouvernante: 1747--4. 1767--2. 1773. 1777, 1789, 1808, 1879 [11]; Melanide: 1741 — 3, 1758, 1775, 1783, 1878, 1973 [ 8 ] . Le Prejuge (1762, 1799), La Gouvernante (1796), L'Ecole des meres (1796, 1804), and Melanide (1762, 1799, 1976) i n t o I t a l i a n ; Le Prejuge (1762) and Melanide (1759, 1762) i n t o Dutch; L'Ecole (1750) and Le Prejuge (1757) i n t o Spanish; Le Prejuge (1772) i n t o German; La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e i n t o E n g l i s h (1962). 8. H. Mason, French W r i t e r s and t h e i r S o c i e t y 1715-1750 (London: Macmillan, 1982): "The c l a s s i c study remains G. Lanson." (p. 166, note 44) See a l s o M. Descotes, Le P u b l i c  du t h e a t r e et son h i s t o i r e ( P a r i s : PUF, 1964), p. 191 note 5; and M. L i o u r e , Le Drame de Did e r o t a Ionesco ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1973), p. 15. Further r e f e r e n c e s to these works w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 9. I. Bernard i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n to L'Ecole des meres (Geneve: Droz, 1982) and M. L i o u r e (1973) c i t e o n l y Lanson. 13 10. For example, R. N i k l a u s , A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of  France: The Eighteenth Century 1715-1789 (London: E r n e s t Benn and New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970) devotes a page to La Chaussee. J . Ehrard, Le XVIIIe s i & c l e : 1720-1750 ( P a r i s : Arthaud, 1974) g i v e s La Chaussee f i v e pages, Destouches s l i g h t l y l e s s , when d i s c u s s i n g the t h i r t y years i n which the two p l a y w r i g h t s were a c t i v e and popular. E. L i n t i l h a c , H i s t o i r e q6n£rale du t h e a t r e en France, tome IV La Com6die: Dix-huiti£me s i & c l e ( P a r i s : Flammarion, [n.d.l preface dated 1909) gi v e s La Chaussde a few sentences, promising to come back to him i n volume VIII (p. 300), but never p u b l i s h e s beyond volume V. Further r e f e r e n c e s to L i n t i l h a c w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 11. E. H e n r i o t , C o u r r i e r litt£raire: XVIIIe s i & c l e 2 v o l s ( P a r i s : A l b i n M i c h e l , 1961-62) has nothing; P. V o l t z , La Com6die ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1964) on l y mentions La Chaussee's name i n p a s s i n g , although he d i s c u s s e s Destouches; M. L i o u r e , Le Drame ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1964) does not mention La Chaussee i n t h i s e a r l i e r work. 12. Lagrave, p. 600: 22 performances, 9612 s p e c t a t o r s t o t a l to 1750. 13. Loc. c i t . : Le P r 6 j u g 6 — 5 1 performances, 30,728 s p e c t a t o r s ; M61anide--42 performances, 20,794; L'Ecole des  mferes—34, 23,504; La Gouvernante—17, 15,269 to 1750. See a l s o Descotes, p. 194; and J . Lough, P a r i s Theatre Audiences  i n the Seventeenth and E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s (London: Oxford u U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 179 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o Lough w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of t he t e x t . 1 4 . H . C . L a n c a s t e r , " L a Comddie F r a n g a i s e 1701 -1774 . P l a y s , A c t o r s , S p e c t a t o r s , F i n a n c e s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t he  A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y 41:4 (1951) : 593-849 pass i m . 1 5 . A . B e l l e s s o r t , X V I I I e s i e c l e e t romant i sme ( P a r i s : Artheme F a y a r d , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 82—Le P r e j u g e ; D e s c o t e s , p . 1 9 7 — M e l a n i d e ; G e o f f r o y , Cours de l i t t e r a t u r e d r a m a t i q u e ( P a r i s : B l a n c h a r d , 1 8 2 5 ) , p . 2 0 2 — L ' E c o l e des meres ; l e  Mercu re de F r a n c e , j a n 1747 , p . 1 3 9 - - L a G o u v e r n a n t e . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o B e l l e s s o r t , t o G e o f f r o y and t o l e  Mercu re w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 1 6 . D e s c o t e s , p . 192 : " L a p l u p a r t des g rands 6 c r i v a i n s se m o n t r ^ r e n t , de fagon p l u s ou moins d 6 c l a r 6 e , h o s t i l e s au nouveau g e n r e . " 1 7 . L a n s o n , p . 141 ; see a l s o L a g r a v e , p p . 664-5 and D e s c o t e s , p . 189 . 1 8 . L o n d o n : Heinemann, 1971 , p p . 1 0 5 - 1 0 9 . 1 9 . J . Adam, Le Tex te n a r r a t i f ( P a r i s : N a t h a n - - U n i v e r s i t 6 , 1 9 8 5 ) , p p . 2 0 - 3 6 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 2 0 . E l e a n o r F . J o u r d a i n , D r a m a t i c Theo ry and P r a c t i c e  i n F r a n c e 1690 - 1808 (London : Longmans G r e e n , 1 9 2 1 ) , p . 74 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s 1 5 i n the body of the t e x t . 21. P i e r r e Fauchery, La Destinee feminine dans l e roman  europeen du dix - h u i t i e m e s i e c l e 1713-1807 ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1972), p. 43. Fu r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 22. Edmond and J u l e s de Goncourt, La Femme au  dix - h u i t i e m e s i e c l e ( P a r i s : C h a r p e n t i e r , 1912; 2 ed, o r i g pub 1862), pp. 231, 233. Furth e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 23. Leon Abensour, La Femme et l e feminisme avant l a r e v o l u t i o n ( P a r i s : Leroux, 1923), p. 11. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n the body of the t e x t . 24. La Chaussee, L'Ecole des meres i n R e p e r t o i r e du  th e a t r e f r a n g o i s ( P a r i s : F o u c a u l t , 1817), tome 13, pp. 453-454. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to L'Ecole des meres, Le  Prejuge a l a mode, Melanide, and La Gouvernante w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , and w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 25. Robert N i k l a u s , "La Propagande p h i l o s o p h i q u e au th e a t r e au s i e c l e des lu m i e r e s , " SVEC XXVI (1963), p. 1251. Fur t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s a r t i c l e w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . CHAPTER I -- CONTENT ANALYSIS 16 T h i s chapter w i l l d e a l with the f i v e p l a y s as popular t h e a t r e , f o c u s s i n g on the elements which seem to f a c i l i t a t e or i n c r e a s e t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l ( r a t h e r than c r i t i c a l ) s uccess. T h i s i n v o l v e s a n a l y s i n g the thematic and moral p a t t e r n s expressed i n the p l a y s , the " s t o r i e s " t o l d . I w i l l be borrowing and adapting my c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s methodology from J.S.R. Goodlad's S o c i o l o g y of Popular Drama [ 1 ] . Although t h i s i s a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y study of contemporary drama, the approach i s s u f f i c i e n t l y g eneral and the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d has enough resemblance to 18th-century drama t h a t the work can provide an a p p r o p r i a t e framework f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Goodlad's i n t e r e s t was not l i t e r a r y merit but the s o c i a l phenomenon of p o p u l a r i t y measured i n audience s i z e (p. v i i ) . He posed the qu e s t i o n of whether popular drama " i s merely an e x p r e s s i v e aspect of c u l t u r e - - r e f l e c t i n g people's b e l i e f s about t h e i r community, or whether i t i s an inst r u m e n t a l aspect of c u l t u r e — s h o w i n g people how they should behave." (p. 4) Fun c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to myth and r i t u a l which seem to have passed to popular drama ar e : an emphasis on s t e r e o t y p e s and on the most common and p e r s i s t a n t s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s , the need f o r a s o c i e t y to c o n t r o l i t s members, and a c o n s e r v a t i v e outlook i n content and form (p. 28). Role theory adds to these f u n c t i o n s t h a t of p r o v i d i n g models of accept a b l e s o c i a l behaviour (p. 39). In l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s , popular drama 17 emphas izes the d i d a c t i c or m o r a l i z i n g r o l e o f t h e a t r e ; r a t h e r t h a n o f f e r i n g change , i t t ends t o c o n f i r m or promote e x i s t i n g s o c i a l norms (pp . 4 9 - 5 1 ) . P o p u l a r drama may w e l l a c t as a means of m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e by p r o v i d i n g a method f o r h a r m l e s s , v i c a r i o u s r e l e a s e o f t h r e a t e n i n g or d i s r u p t i v e i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s (p . 5 9 ) . Comedy i s p a r t i c u l a r y l i k e l y t o d e a l w i t h r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of c o n f l i c t s and i n t e g r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o s o c i e t y (p . 6 0 ) . G o o d l a d ' s summary o f a u d i e n c e s t u d i e s ( c h a p t e r 6) s i m p l y r e i n f o r c e s the c o r r e l a t i o n between p o p u l a r i t y i n t e rms of a u d i e n c e s i z e and c o n s e r v a t i s m - - s o c i a l , m o r a l and l i t e r a r y (pp . 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 ) . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t he found no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l c l a s s and t a s t e s f o r or a p p r e c i a t i o n of drama (p . 1 2 4 ) . Good lad c o n s i d e r s t o t a l a u d i e n c e s i z e as a v a l i d measure f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p o p u l a r i t y o f a p l a y (pp . 1 3 8 - 1 3 9 ) . Fo r the pu rposes of my s t u d y , a u d i e n c e s i z e i s no t t he o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s p o p u l a r i t y . The number of p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s , the l i f e o f the p l a y i n the r e p e r t o r y , and the i n a b i l i t y o f a d v e r s e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t o d i s c o u r a g e a t t e n d a n c e a l l p l a y a r o l e i n d e f i n i n g the com^die l a r m o y a n t e as a " p o p u l a r " genre and the f i v e p l a y s chosen as the most " p o p u l a r " w r i t t e n by L a C h a u s s e e . I n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e was s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d . W i t h i n the s t r a t u m of F r e n c h s o c i e t y w h i c h a d r a m a t i s t had t o p l e a s e i n o r d e r t o s u c c e e d - - u p p e r - c l a s s , l i t e r a t e , amateurs o f t h e a t r e — the 18 i n f l u e n c e of the c h u r c h was a r g u a b l y as s l i g h t as Good lad found i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y 1956-1965 [21. C r S b i l l o n f l i s , Manon L e s c a u t (1731), the a n t i - c l e r i c a l Z a i r e (1732) were a l l p o p u l a r s u c c e s s e s when La Chaussee began h i s c a r e e r . L i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l was p e r c e i v e d as the i d e a l means f o r p r o v i d i n g mora l i n s t r u c t i o n [ 3 ] . T h e a t r e seemed t o become the p r i m a r y medium by w h i c h a w r i t e r sough t t o i n s t r u c t and " i m p r o v e " the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e a u d i e n c e [4]. I ndeed , V o l t a i r e was L a C h a u s s e e 1 s major r i v a l a t the Com6die f r a n g a i s e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Other p h i l o s o p h e s , n o t a b l y D i d e r o t and R o u s s e a u , wro te f o r the t h e a t r e . D e s p i t e a l i c e n t i o u s p r i v a t e l i f e , L a Chaussee was welcomed t o the Academie f r a n g a i s e by the a r c h b i s h o p of Sens w i t h p r a i s e f o r the m o r a l v a l u e o f h i s p l a y s : " l e s s e n t i m e n s de v e r t u , de s a g e s s e , e t de decence que l e n o u v e l a c a d e m i c i e n a v a i t mis s u r l a s c e n e . " [5] I n v i e w of t h i s m o r a l f u n c t i o n o v e r t l y a s c r i b e d t o a p l a y w r i g h t i n 1736, i t i s o f t e n a rgued t h a t the w r i t i n g s o f D i d e r o t on the t h e a t r e s i m p l y a r t i c u l a t e what was a l r e a d y common p r a t i c e i n the F r e n c h t h e a t r e of the p e r i o d [6]. G a i f f e even a rgues t h a t t h i s m o r a l l y d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n was not imposed on t h e a t r e by the p h i l o s o p h e s , but r e f l e c t e d the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a u d i e n c e , t h a t v i r t u e be rewarded and v i c e p u n i s h e d [ 7 ] . G o o d l a d ' s s t u d y seems t o demons t r a t e t h a t a u d i e n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s have no t changed g r e a t l y i n t h i s r e g a r d . Thus , the f i v e p l a y s chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e p o p u l a r i n the sense used by G o o d l a d ; t h e y a p p e a l e d t o a l a r g e 1 9 p r o p o r t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e audience, which was however a s o c i a l l y d e l i m i t e d group. T h e r e f o r e , when they are examined, we may expect to f i n d not onl y a m o r a l i z i n g purpose, which was o v e r t l y a s c r i b e d to t h e a t r e i n the 18th century, but a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n of then-common s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s , the use of t y p i c a l r a t h e r than markedly i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s , and a c o n s e r v a t i v e approach i n form as w e l l as i n content. We can deduce the s o c i a l b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p e r i o d , as w e l l as the problems a s s o c i a t e d with these. The p l o t s are l i k e l y to show c o n f i r m a t i o n or r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order; t h e i r emphasis i s on r e s t r a i n i n g u n r u l y behaviour or d e s i r e s , on r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t and i n t e g r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the s o c i e t y . The types of behavior r e s t r i c t e d and the methods of r e s o l u t i o n r e v e a l much about the valu e s of the s o c i e t y at t h i s time. The " v i c e " which i s punished i s as much a n t i - s o c i a l as i t i s immoral; the two words o v e r l a p g r e a t l y i n meaning. The s o l u t i o n s proposed are as p e r t i n e n t to our purpose of examining the r o l e of women as are the nature of the c o n f l i c t s they experience or the types of behaviour which i s discou r a g e d . Content a n a l y s i s begins with a shor t resume of each p l a y ' s p l o t , a l l the more necessary here as the p l a y s are v i r t u a l l y unknown today. Furthermore, i t w i l l provide the founda t i o n f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n chapter 2. Goodlad's approach excludes performance, except as a measure of p o p u l a r i t y [81. One begins with the 20 d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the b a s i c themes of the p l o t . Goodlad uses the t y p o l o g y of themes d e f i n e d by McGranahan and Wayne i n t h e i r 1947 study: l o v e , m o r a l i t y , i d e a l i s m , power, c a r e e r , o u t c a s t [ 9 ] . A b a s i c theme must be " e s s e n t i a l to the s t r u c t u r e " and "present throughout", but a p l a y can have more than one (Goodlad, p. 113). The love theme, a c c o r d i n g to McGranahan and Wayne, i s l i m i t e d t o heter o s e x u a l l o v e , before or a f t e r marriage (Goodlad, p. 105). I t ovelaps with the ou t c a s t theme to the extent t h a t love i s a primary means of r e i n t e g r a t i n g o u t c a s t s (p. 154). This d e f i n i t i o n must be expanded f o r La Chaussee's p l a y s , which add f a m i l i a l ( p a r e n t / c h i l d , c h i l d / c h i l d ) love and f r i e n d s h i p . U s u a l l y the love theme i n v o l v e s the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t o b s t a c l e s : parents, an "unwholesome l o v e " , misunderstandings, r i v a l r i e s (p. 152). The i d e a l i s m theme a l s o p l a y s a r o l e here, e i t h e r as the o b s t a c l e to lo v e , or as the f a c t o r which p i t s a couple a g a i n s t s o c i a l norms (p. 154). As w e l l , the m o r a l i t y theme can be r e l a t e d to love--the c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from immoral l o v e , or from immoral parents opposing true love (p. 157). The love theme can nonetheless be d e f i n e d by i t s e n d — t h e establishment or r e s t o r a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . M o r a l i t y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i d e a l i s m i n t h a t " m o r a l i t y " means " c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s o n a l morals" l i k e honesty, kindness, true l o v e , the s o c i a l l y accepted norms (p. 105). I d e a l i s m transcends s o c i a l norms; i t i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l ( s o c i a l ) or i n t e r n a l ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) o b s t a c l e s (pp. 154-5). 21 G o o d l a d t h e n t u r n s t o a d i s c u s s i o n of t he manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , or l o o s e l y " g e n r e " , as a second h e a d i n g under w h i c h t o c l a s s p l a y s . He s e t s up a range f rom s e r i o u s t o f a r c i c a l . Here i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e h i s work t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e a t r e . He has no c a t e g o r y " t r a g e d y " , and i n c l u d e s a number o f more modern c a t e g o r i e s : d e t e c t i v e s t o r y , s c i e n c e f i c t i o n , documenta ry ( p . 1 5 9 ) . By d i s t i n g u i s h i n g " s t r a i g h t / p s y c h o l o g i c a l " f rom "comedy", G o o d l a d i m p l i e s a na r row d e f i n i t i o n o f comedy, bounded on one s i d e by the the p r e s e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f c h a r a c t e r , and on the o t h e r by f a r c e . A l l o f t he p l a y s i n t h i s s t u d y would have t o be c l a s s e d as v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f the " s t r a i g h t " and the "comedy" c a t e g o r i e s . L a Chaussee h i m s e l f d e f i n e s two c a t e g o r i e s i n the C r i t i q u e t o L a Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e : t r a g e d y , where eve ryone d i e s a t the e n d , and comedy, where eve ryone g e t s m a r r i e d a t the end ( E p i l o g u e , scene v ) , and t h e r e a rgues f o r a new, i n t e r m e d i a t e t y p e w h i c h wou ld i n h i s case be l a b e l l e d the com6die l a r m o y a n t e [ 1 0 1 . G o o d l a d f u r t h e r c l a s s e s the p l a y s i n h i s s t u d y by the t y p e o f g o a l pu r s ued (pp . 1 6 1 - 6 5 , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h o s e o f he roes from t h o s e of v i l l a i n s ) , by t y p e of s e t t i n g (pp . 1 6 5 - 6 , u p p e r , m i d d l e , l o w e r c l a s s ) , and by t y p e of e n d i n g ( p . 166 , happy , u n h a p p y / t r a g i c , a m b i g u o u s / u n r e s o l v e d , j u s t whether happy or n o t ) . G o o d l a d found t h a t p o p u l a r p l a y s had l o v e themes or m o r a l i t y themes or b o t h , and t h a t b o t h the m o r a l i t y and the i d e a l i s m themes i n v o l v e d the p r o t e c t i o n or improvement o f 22 s o c i e t y (p. 167). The love theme was almost e x c l u s i v e l y concerned with the problems of monogamy (p. 167). There was a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of middle- to upp e r - c l a s s s e t t i n g s (p. 168). The goals which were v a l o u r i s e d were l o v e , marriage, p r o t e c t i o n , and i d e a l i s m ; those punished were the ex c e s s i v e p u r s u i t of power, wealth, s o c i a l s t a t u s , revenge, and i l l i c i t love (p. 169). More than three q u a r t e r s of the pla y s had endings t h a t were happy or j u s t or both (p. 169). The m o r a l i t y presented i s " s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , c o n v e n t i o n a l , and simple, even i f s l i g h t l y crude." ( l o c . c i t ) [11] Now t h a t we have e s t a b l i s h e d how Goodlad's approach i s r e l e v a n t to e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e a t r e , what m o d i f i c a t i o n s have be to made i n order to in c r e a s e i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n t h i s study, and what kind of r e s u l t s can be expected, we can t u r n to the plays themselves. La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e (1733) 3 a c t s , v e r s e . S l l v i e was married a g a i n s t her w i l l to S a i n f l o r e twelve years before the p l a y opens. She never met him before the wedding, and has not seen him s i n c e the ceremony, because he was c h a l l e n g e d to a duel immediately a f t e r w a r d s , k i l l e d h i s r i v a l , and had to f l e e the country. At the time she r e t i r e d to a convent. She has r e c e n t l y been persuaded to l i v e i n the c o u n t r y with her uncle Geronte and h i s wife Orphlse, under the name of Leonore. She b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f to be a widow. Orphise, j e a l o u s and s p i t e f u l , asks her to a c t as go-between i n a r r a n g i n g the marriage of Damon, a new a r r i v a l 23 in the neighbourhood, and J u l i e , Orphise's young daughter. Damon and Leonore are in love, but hesitate to admit i t . Nerine and Frontin a c t i v e l y encourage them. Then we learn that Damon is married already, which information Orphise uses to make Leonore f e e l adulterous. He is seeking to annul that marriage, but Leonore sympathizes with the abandoned wife. Then we learn that Leonore's husband is not dead; Geronte advises her to have her marriage annulled as non-consummated. Leonore decides to go back to her husband; duty prevails over love. But Damon figures out that Leonore is S i l v i e , his wife, and they reunite in married love : "0 sort trop fortune! C'est mon epoux que j'aime." ( I l l , vi) Providence, as so often in comedy, brings about the happy ending. The love theme is predominant here: a young couple overcoming the obstacles of unfavourable r e l a t i v e s (Orphise) and s o c i a l norms (attractiveness and marriageability t i e d to youth for women; arranged marriages). It is at the same time a married couple overcoming misunderstandings in order to restore their r e l a t i o n s h i p . Conventional morality appears in the duty of a wife to her husband, the retirement and the dependance on male r e l a t i v e s required of single women, and the concern of Leonore for protecting her reputation. Idealism plays the role of internal obstacle--Leonore's counselling Damon not to get his marriage annulled even though she loves him, her refusal of the legal option of annulment for herself, her decision to go back to the 2 U husband who abandoned h e r . The r e i n t e g r a t i o n of an o u t c a s t a l s o appea r s i n t h i s p l o t . Leonore has s p e n t t w e l v e y e a r s i n s o c i a l l i m b o — n e i t h e r widow nor w i f e nor e l i g i b l e woman—and most o f t h a t t i m e i n the i s o l a t i o n of a c o n v e n t . The e n d i n g of the p l a y s g i v e her back a s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , Damon's w i f e . The p l a y has a number o f p u r e l y comedic e l e m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r y a scene where Geron te and O r p h i s e d e l u g e Damon w i t h e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e a d v i c e ( I I I , i i i ) . As w e l l , t he use of s e r v a n t s t o promote the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' l o v e a f f a i r i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o m e d i c , a l t h o u g h the absence o f a p a r a l l e l l o v e a f f a i r i s u n e x p e c t e d . But the p l a y has c e r t a i n s e r i o u s e l e m e n t s . Leonore does no t d e s c r i b e h e r s e l f i n the l anguage of a t y p i c a l comedy h e r o i n e : Q u o i , de f o i b l e s a t t r a i t s f l e t r i s par l e s d o u l e u r s Ces yeux accoutumes a p l e u r e r mes m a l h e u r s . ( I , i i i ) As w e l l , t he pa thos o f L e o n o r e ' s s i t u a t i o n and the sympathy she has f o r any woman s i m i l a r l y abandoned ( I I , v i i ) a r e p a r t of t h i s new s t y l e or genre w h i c h s eeks l e s s t o p rovoke l a u g h t e r f rom the a u d i e n c e t h a n c o m p a s s i o n . The g o a l sough t by a l l the c h a r a c t e r s i s m a r r i a g e . G e r o n t e , N e r i n e , and F r o n t i n work f o r the m a r r i a g e of Damon and L e o n o r e . O r p h i s e opposes t h i s g o a l by s e e k i n g t h a t o f Damon and J u l i e , but t h i s i s so u n l i k e l y a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t J u l i e nevers , appea r s on s t a g e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , O r p h i s e and G e r o n t e a r e no t p r e s e n t e d as a model m a r r i e d c o u p l e , but as i n d i f f e r e n t husband and s h r e w i s h w i f e , pe rhaps as c o n t r a s t 25 t o the p e r f e c t l o v e between Leonore and Damon. F u r t h e r m o r e , Leonore wants t o m a i n t a i n her i d e a l s o f honour and d u t y , whether or no t t h e y a r e r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h l o v e . The s e t t i n g i s haute b o u r g e o i s i e — p e t i t e n o b l e s s e , w i t h the a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s and d u e l s o f t he a r i s t o c r a c y i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z e d not so much from a p e r s p e c t i v e o f " b o u r g e o i s " m o r a l i t y as f rom t h a t o f s e n s i b i l i t y and " t r u e l o v e " , the same t y p e of c r i t i q u e we f i n d i n M a r i v a u x and i n the E n g l i s h d r a m a t i s t s o f t h i s p e r i o d [ 1 2 ] . L e o n o r e ' s i d e a l s a r e t h o s e o f a r i s t o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n : honneur , g l o i r e ( I , v ) . Le P r e j u g 6 a l a mode (1735) 5 a c t s , v e r s e Cons t ance and D u r v a l a r e an u n h a p p i l y m a r r i e d c o u p l e . D u r v a l has gone back t o p h i l a n d e r i n g a f t e r t h e i r honeymoon. C o n s t a n c e , who l o v e s h i m , t r i e s l o y a l l y t o h i d e her d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and s o r r o w . Her c o u s i n Soph ie i s r e f u s i n g t o mar ry Damon, who l o v e s h e r , because she f e a r s t o f i n d h e r s e l f i n C o n s t a n c e ' s s i t u a t i o n . D u r v a l has come home w i t h two young marqu i s f o r a house p a r t y . But we d i s c o v e r t h a t D u r v a l i s s e c r e t l y s e n d i n g Cons t ance p r e s e n t s , and he c o n f e s s e s t o Damon t h a t he has f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h h e r . But he h e s i t a t e s t o a d m i t i t , f e a r i n g the u n m e r c i f u l mockery of h i s f r i e n d s f o r such a c r i m e a g a i n s t f a s h i o n a b l e moeurs . But h i s j e a l o u s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t one of the two marqu i s has succeeded i n s e d u c i n g C o n s t a n c e , c o u p l e d w i t h h i s r e p e n t a n c e on l e a r n i n g from Damon t h a t she i s c o m p l e t e l y f a i t h f u l , 26 c o n v i n c e h im t o d e c l a r e h i m s e l f t o her and t o h i s g u e s t s . On h e a r i n g i t , Soph ie r e l e n t s t o Damon. The e s s e n t i a l themes of Le P r e j u g e a r e the v i c t o r y o f i d e a l i z e d l o v e ove r s o c i a l norms, namely t h a t summed up by La R o c h e f o u c a u l d : " I l y a de bons m a r i a g e s , mais i l n ' y en a p o i n t de d e l i c i e u x . " [ 1 3 ] , and the r e p e n t a n c e of an u n f a i t h f u l husband . W i t h i n t h e s e themes , the o p p o s i t i o n does no t come f rom p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s ; A r g a n t , C o n s t a n c e ' s f a t h e r , i s b l u f f and u n s e n t i m e n t a l , bu t not u n s y m p a t h e t i c . Nor does the a s s i s t a n c e come from the two s e r v a n t s . Damon p l a y s the most a c t i v e r o l e i n p u r s u i n g the g o a l of m a r r i a g e , a c h i e v i n g i t f o r h i m s e l f and S o p h i e by r e c o n c i l i n g D u r v a l and C o n s t a n c e . The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a m i x t u r e o f s e r i o u s and comic e l e m e n t s : A r g a n t * s c o a r s e humour and b l u s t e r i n g ; the m a r q u i s ' a t t e m p t s a t w i t t y s e d u c t i o n , F l o r i n e the s u i v a n t e ' s p e r t r e t o r t s . There i s one comic coup de t h e a t r e : the l e t t e r s D u r v a l t h i n k s c o n v i c t Cons t ance of a d u l t e r y a r e h i s own t o a m i s t r e s s ( I V , x i i i ) . The s e t t i n g i s t h a t ambiguous u p p e r - c l a s s s o c i e t y we found i n La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e . D u r v a l owns a c h a t e a u l a r g e enough f o r h u n t s , b a l l s , and amateur t h e a t r i c a l s . He has t i t l e d f r i e n d s , and s a y s , "Mon r a n g m ' a t t i r e i c i m i l l e r e s p e c t s g e n a n s . " ( I I , i ) Y e t the main c h a r a c t e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d by and use o n l y t h e i r f i r s t names, no t t h e i r t i t l e s i f a n y . A r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s do not o c c u r . Cons t ance m a r r i e d f o r a f f e c t i o n ( I , v i ) . A r g a n t , aware t h a t Soph ie a t l e a s t l i k e s Damon, i s i r r i t a t e d by her r e f u s a l t o mar ry h i m , but shows no i n c l i n a t i o n t o f o r c e the match ( I , i i i ) . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f rank and w e a l t h a r e no t d i s c u s s e d ; Damon i s a welcome a l l i a n c e because he i s D u r v a l ' s b e s t f r i e n d . The i d l e , f a s h i o n a b l e P a r i s i a n s o c i e t y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the two m a r q u i s , who g o s s i p , m a l i g n , pursue C o n s t a n c e , and mock any s i n c e r e f e e l i n g : " l i s s o n t a l l e s s ' a i m e r , e t b i e n t o t se h a i r . " ( I I , i v ) . T h i s c y n i c i s m i s opposed by the m o r a l s u p e r i o r i t y , the s e n s i b i l i t e o f C o n s t a n c e , Damon, and S o p h i e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s no more b o u r g e o i s here t h a n i n L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . "Epouse v e r t u e u s e a u t a n t q u ' i n f o r t u n e e ! " ( I , i ) c o u l d a p p l y t o e i t h e r h e r o i n e . M e l a n i d e (1741) 5 a c t s , v e r s e . E i g h t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e the p l a y b e g i n s , M e l a n i d e had s e c r e t l y m a r r i e d the comte d 'Ormance . When t h e i r f a m i l i e s d i s c o v e r e d i t , t h e y had the m a r r i a g e a n n u l l e d . M 6 1 a n i d e , p r e g n a n t , was d i s i n h e r i t e d and s e n t away t o B r i t t a n y . She has no t seen the comte s i n c e . She has now come t o P a r i s , f r e e d by the d e a t h of her p a r e n t s , t o watch over her son D a r v i a n e , who b e l i e v e s h i s p a r e n t s dead and M e l a n i d e h i s g u a r d i a n . D a r v i a n e , a young army o f f i c e r , i s i n l o v e w i t h R o s a l i e , t he d a u g h t e r o f D o r i s e e , w i t h whom M e l a n i d e i s s t a y i n g . But the w e a l t h y , m i d d l e a g e d marqu i s d ' O r v i g n y i s a l s o p u r s u i n g R o s a l i e . D o r i s e e , Theodon (her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w and g e n e r a l c o n f i d a n t ) , and M e l a n i d e agree t h a t he i s much more e l i g i b l e t h a n D a r v i a n e w i t h obscu re o r i g i n s and no 28 f o r t u n e . But D a r v i a n e and R o s a l i e a r e madly i n l o v e . He r e f u s e s t o l e a v e the house , and t h r e a t e n s t o c h a l l e n g e the marqu i s t o a d u e l . M e l a n i d e t e l l s h im t h a t t e c h n i c a l l y he i s i l l e g i t i m a t e . She t h e n c o n f e s s e s t h a t she i s h i s m o t h e r . Theodon f i n d s out e a r l y ( A c t I I ) t h a t the marqu i s i s the m i s s i n g husband , and t e l l s h im abou t M e l a n i d e ( A c t I I I ) . But the ma rqu i s h e s i t a t e s t o g i v e up R o s a l i e , even t o h i s own s o n : "Comment p a r v e n i r a c e t e f f o r t supreme?" ( V , i ) D a r v i a n e c h a l l e n g e s the marqu i s e i t h e r t o k i l l h im or t o acknowledge h im as h i s son ( V , i i ) . The m a r q u i s , f a c e d by h i s son and M e l a n i d e , r e p e n t s and acknowledges them, p e r m i t t i n g R o s a l i e and D a r v i a n e t o m a r r y . Here the l o v e theme i s expanded t o f a m i l i a l l o v e . The i d e a o f young l o v e f r u s t r a t e d by p a r e n t s appea r s no t o n l y i n D a r v i a n e and R o s a l i e , bu t a l s o i n M e l a n i d e and the m a r q u i s . These two a re a t the same t i m e s e p a r a t e d l o v e r s and o b s t a c l e s D a r v i a n e and R o s a l i e must overcome. F a m i l i a l l o v e i s Impor t an t not o n l y as the means of o v e r c o m i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o young l o v e - - p e r s u a d i n g the marqu i s t o g i v e up R o s a l i e and acknowledge them—but a l s o as the means of r e i n t e g r a t i n g an o u t c a s t . In the f i n a l s c e n e , the ma rqu i s no t o n l y g i v e s M e l a n i d e a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n by c l a i m i n g her as h i s w i f e , he g i v e s l e g i t i m a c y and rank t o D a r v i a n e , w i t h o u t w h i c h D a r v i a n e wou ld no t be a b l e t o mar ry R o s a l i e . The r e s t o r a t i o n of f a m i l i a l t i e s between M e l a n i d e and D a r v i a n e has l i t t l e s o c i a l b e n e f i t ; i n d e e d , M e l a n i d e t h e r e b y pu t s h e r s e l f i n a more v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n . But i t g i v e s 2 9 emotional c o n s o l a t i o n . There i s , furthermore, a r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n of love being threatened by misunderstandings: Darviane and R o s a l i e ' s passionate q u a r r e l s , the marquis' b e l i e f t h a t Melanide i s dead. U s u a l l y Theodon a c t s to r e s o l v e these through p e r s u a s i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n . Theodon has everyone's c o n f i d e n c e , and a good d e a l of i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y over Dorisee and Melanide. We a l s o see the c o n f l i c t between an i d e a l i z e d standard of l o v e : Melanide's e i g h t e e n years of f i d e l i t y t o an a n n u l l e d marriage vow, Darviane's and R o s a l i e ' s i m p r a c t i c a l p a s s i o n ; and the s o c i a l norms by which rank and fortune make a husband e l i g i b l e to Dorisee, and by which the marquis b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f f r e e to remarry, and to c o n s i d e r r e f u s i n g Melanide ( I I I , v i ) . I d e a l i s m triumphs; the marquis repents: En me rendant a vous je me rends a moi-meme Mon coeur et mon amour vont se r e n o u v e l e r . (V, i i i ) Duty and v i r t u e are presented as r e c o n c i l i a b l e with l o v e . As s t a t e d above, the goal of f a m i l y u n i t y i s in s e p a r a b l e from t h a t of marriage. There are no "punished" g o a l s . Dorisee simply wants to see R o s a l i e both happy and e s t a b l i s h e d i n marriage, and i n s i s t s she accept the marquis f o r those reasons. When she d i s c o v e r s that Darviane can give her as much, she w i l l i n g l y concedes. There are no comic c h a r a c t e r s i n Melanide. Indeed the se r v a n t ' s r o l e i s reduced to a v a l e t with a couple of l i n e s . The major scenes are h i g h l y s e r i o u s and dramatic: when Melanide e x p l a i n s to Darviane, when Darviane c h a l l e n g e s the 30 marquis, and when the marquis acknowledges them. The s o c i a l m i l i e u i s more c l e a r l y a r i s t o c r a t i c than i n the p r e c e d i n g p l a y s . Melanide's f a m i l y i s c l e a r l y so: caught up i n l a w s u i t s and feuds with the marquis' f a m i l y , s u f f i c i e n t l y wealthy and powerful to keep her i n e x i l e i n B r i t t a n y f o r seventeen years ( I I , i i i ) . The marquis has two t i t l e s . The s o c i a l s t a t u s of Dorisee and Theodon are not s t a t e d , but the marquis i s c e r t a i n l y not pursuing R o s a l i e as a bourgeois fortune to support h i s impoverished n o b i l i t y ( I I , i ) . Marriage, i f not arranged by parents, r e q u i r e s t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n ; i t i s a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , where love and socio-economic s t a t u s are i n s e p a r a b l e : II veut b i e n partager sa fortune avec vous C'est l e plus tendre amour qui vous o f f r e un epoux. ( I I , v i ) A woman's f u t u r e i s presented as the c l o i s t e r or the a l t a r ( l o c . c i t ) ; each r e q u i r e d a dowry [14]. Even Darviane's m i l i t a r y post betrays an a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e ; an 18-year-old has a c e r t a i n rank and the a b i l i t y to extend leave i n d e f i n i t e l y ( I , i i ) . The high i d e a l s of love and f i d e l i t y are presented as those maintained by t h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Theodon, f o r example, has no doubt t h a t the Marquis w i l l choose Melanide over R o s a l i e : " I l e s t t r o p vertueux pour n'etre pas f i d e l e . " ( I I , v) The marquis f e e l s g u i l t y f o r even h e s i t a t i n g ( V , i i i ) . 31 L ' E c o l e des meres (1744) 5 a c t s , v e r s e M o n s i e u r and Madame A r g a n t have two c h i l d r e n . Mme A r g a n t has an e x c e s s i v e p r e f e r e n c e f o r her s o n . Her d a u g h t e r went f rom t h e i r home i n M a r t i n i q u e t o a conven t i n F r a n c e ; Mme A r g a n t has no t seen her s i n c e she was t w o . M A r g a n t has s e c r e t l y t a k e n M a r i a n n e f rom the c o n v e n t and i n t r o d u c e d her t o the h o u s e h o l d as h i s n i e c e , w h i c h eve ryone e l s e b e l i e v e s her t o b e . He canno t i n s i s t t h a t h i s w i f e t a k e her b a c k , because t h e i r f o r t u n e was o r g i n a l l y a l l h i s w i f e ' s ( I I I , i ) . Mme A r g a n t and her s o n , n e w l y r e t u r n e d t o F r a n c e , a r e caugh t up i n i m i t a t i n g the e x t r a v a g a n c e o f P a r i s i a n s o c i e t y . Mme A r g a n t i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o l e a v e M a r i a n n e i n the c o n v e n t so t h a t the e n t i r e e s t a t e can go t o her s o n , t o buy h im an a p p r o p r i a t e l y n o b l e w i f e and a p o s i t i o n a t c o u r t . The son i s o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c a j o l i n g money ou t o f h i s mother f o r f i n e c l o t h e s and l i a i s o n s . M A r g a n t has p r o m i s e d h i s d a u g h t e r t o h i s b e s t f r i e n d ' s s o n ; D o l i g n i f i l s i s i n l o v e w i t h M a r i a n n e w h i l e b e l i e v i n g her t o be the n i e c e . M A r g a n t t r i e s t o persuade h i s w i f e , t o no a v a i l . The son i s f i r m l y on h i s m o t h e r ' s s i d e , though he does no t h e s i t a t e t o use her diamonds t o f i n a n c e h i s e lopement w i t h A r t h e n i c e . He f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s t o t u r n h i s mother a g a i n s t M a r i a n n e by s u g g e s t i n g M a r i a n n e i s M A r g a n t ' s m i s t r e s s . M A r g a n t has t o e x p l a i n t o Mar i anne her t r u e i d e n t i t y . The s o n ' s e lopement opens h i s m o t h e r ' s e y e s ; she t h r e a t e n s t o d i s i n h e r i t h i m , even a f t e r she l e a r n s he was duped and r o b b e d . D o l i g n i pere a c t s t o hush the a f f a i r 32 up. Marianne confesses to Mme Argant that she i s her daughter. Mme Argant asks f o r g i v e n e s s of her husband and daughter. They plead f o r the son's f o r g i v e n e s s , i n the hope of r e f o r m a t i o n . Mme Argant agrees, but i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n D o l i g n i f i l s marrying Marianne. In t h i s p l a y the goal of marriage i s almost i n c i d e n t a l to t h a t of r e s t o r i n g the f a m i l y . Indeed, the marriage of D o l i g n i f i I s and Marianne i s a means to i n c l u d e him i n the Argant f a m i l y : Vous, recevez ma f i l l e et v i v e z avec nous: Je ne puis me resoudre a me separer d ' e l l e . (V, x) He w i l l i n a sense r e p l a c e the u n g r a t e f u l son, who does not reappear on stage. The o p p o s i t i o n to be overcome i s f i r s t e x c e s s i v e or unwholesome love on Mme Argant's p a r t , which i s accomplished n e i t h e r by p e rsuasion nor e x p l a n a t i o n but by the son's s e l f i s h n e s s . He runs away with A r t h e n i c e r a t h e r than go to dinner with h i s intended in-laws, thereby p u b l i c l y h u m i l i a t i n g h i s mother. There i s a l s o greed and s e l f i s h n e s s on the son's p a r t i n encouraging h i s mother not to b r i n g Marianne out of the convent. Both Mme Argant and the son s u f f e r and repent. There are a l s o the misunderstandings of concealed i d e n t i t y to be r e s o l v e d ; D o l i g n i f i l s r e f u s e s to marry the daughter because he i s i n love with the n i e c e . F i n a l l y , there are, as i n Melanide, f i n a n c i a l o b s t a c l e s . M Argant was p e n n i l e s s when he married Madame; t h e r e f o r e he cannot i n s i s t t h a t Marianne be r e s t o r e d to the f a m i l y . Marianne cannot marry unless 33 she has a s u f f i c i e n t dowry , s e t by M A r g a n t and D o l i g n i pere a t "douze m i l l e ecus de r e n t e " ( I I I , i ) [ 1 5 ] . I n s t y l e , L ' E c o l e i s more comedic t h a n the p l a y s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d [ 1 6 3 . The p l a y a l s o uses a t r a d i t i o n a l comedy v a l e t , La F l e u r , who d r i n k s t oo much, s t e a l s from h i s mas te r because he does no t ge t p a i d , a d v i s e s h i m , runs h i s e r r a n d s , a r r a n g e s h i s r e n d e z - v o u s and f l i r t s w i t h the s u i v a n t e . R o s e t t e ( e x . I , v i ) . She i s no t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i m ; she s e r v e s more as a c h a n n e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and encouragement f o r Mar i anne and D o l i g n i f i l s , t hough she de fends h e r s e l f p e r t l y a g a i n s t b o t h La F l e u r and the son ( e x . I , i v ) . There a r e a l s o some w h o l l y comic s c e n e s , f o r example t h a t i n w h i c h M A r g a n t a r r i v e s home o n l y t o be a l m o s t t h rown out by the s u i s s e a t h i s own door ( I I , i v ) . The s e r i o u s e lement comes p r i m a r i l y i n the r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s c e n e s . But no one i s s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d or unhappy. The s e t t i n g appea r s t o be among w e a l t h y bu t u n p r e t e n t i o u s haut b o u r g e o i s . M A r g a n t b u i l t h i s f o r t u n e on h i s w i f e ' s , i n M a r t i n i q u e ( I I I , i ) ; he i s much more i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g good f a r m l a n d t h a n a t i t l e ( I I , v i ) . N o n e t h e l e s s , he concedes t h a t h i s son i s "ne g e n t i l h o m m e . " ( I I , v ) . Mme A r g a n t ' s a m b i t i o n s f o r her son r e a c h towards the h i g h e s t n o b i l i t y : "Une e n t r e e a l a c o u r , avec un r e g i m e n t . " ( I I , v i i ) . The a t t i t u d e b e h i n d t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r i s t o c r a t i c and c o n s e r v a t i v e : a r i g i d s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y w h i c h r e s p e c t s no t o n l y the c l a s s e s 34 but the l e v e l s w i t h i n each c l a s s , the d i s t i n c t i o n s between noblesse de robe and noblesse de cour. We f i n d no c r i t i q u e of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order, merely of widespread extravagance and v a n i t y , which i s f u r t h e r tempered by the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t to any parent the c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i e t y appears decadent: Nous sommes vieux; l e s temps amenent d'autres moeurs. Avions-nous conserve c e l l e s de nos an c e t r e s ? ( I l l , i ) In a d d i t i o n , the punishment the son s u f f e r s i s more because of h i s s t u p i d i t y than h i s s o c i a l ambition: Votre f i l s , comme un s o t , a donne tout de s u i t e Dans un piege g r o s s i e r tendu par des f r i p o n s . (V, v) La Chaussee presents s o c i a l c l i m b i n g as l e s s e v i l than f o o l i s h : "un marquisat n'a pas l e sens commun." ( I I , v i i ) Even the obsessed Mme Argant concedes t h a t changing one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s luck and expense i n t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y h i e r a r c h i c a l order. La Gouvernante (1747) 5 a c t s , verse Angelique grew up an orphan i n a convent, and now l i v e s with a baronne she b e l i e v e s to be her aunt. S i x months ago, the gouvernante came to l i v e with them; she i s now deeply re s p e c t e d by both. Angelique i s i n love with S a i n v i l l e , the son of a p r e s i d e n t de Parlement r e l a t e d to the baronne. The gouvernante i n s i s t s t h a t Angelique no longer see S a i n v i l l e , because she i s too s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r to marry him. Love can only lead to dishonour ( I I , i i ) . The gouvernante a d v i s e s A n g e l i q u e t o ask the b a r o n n e , who i s no t her a u n t , t o r e - e s t a b l i s h her i n the c o n v e n t , where t h e y can l i v e t o g e t h e r . A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e q u a r r e l ; she t e l l s h im she i s benea th h i m . He i n s i s t s he w i l l mar ry her d e s p i t e h i s f a t h e r ' s p r o b a b l e d i s a p p r o v a l . They a r e s u p p o r t e d by the b a r o n n e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y by the s u i v a n t e J u l i e t t e , who i s j e a l o u s o f the g o u v e r n a n t e . S a i n v i l l e , on l e a r n i n g t h a t h i s f a t h e r was t r i c k e d by f a l s i f i e d e v i d e n c e i n t o an u n j u s t d e c i s i o n , i n s i s t s on r e s t i t u t i o n even i f i t c o s t s h i s own i n h e r i t a n c e . He r e f u s e s t o r ecoup h i s l o s s e s w i t h the r i c h w i f e h i s f a t h e r o f f e r s . The baronne d i s c o v e r s the g o u v e r n a n t e ' s i d e n t i t y , no t o n l y as A n g e l i q u e ' s mother but as the comtesse d ' A r s f l e u r s , r u i n e d by t h a t u n j u s t d e c i s i o n . But the g o u v e r n a n t e does no t want A n g e l i q u e t o l d , and she r e f u s e s the p r e s i d e n t ' s r e s t i t u t i o n because he i s no t l e g a l l y l i a b l e . She i n f o r m s A n g e l i q u e o f S a i n v i l l e ' s supposed m a r r i a g e , and p r e d i c t s d i s i n h e r i t a n c e and d i s g r a c e i f he d i s o b e y s h i s f a t h e r . Then she t e l l s h i s f a t h e r abou t t h e i r p l a n s . She pe r suades A n g e l i q u e t o l e a v e w i t h h e r , by t e l l i n g her she i s her m o t h e r . S a i n v i l l e p l e a d s w i t h them, and w i t h h i s f a t h e r . The p r e s i d e n t i n s i s t s t h a t the m a r r i a g e a t l e a s t w i l l compensate the g o u v e r n a n t e . The baronne adds t o t h i s t h a t she w i l l l e a v e a l l her money t o the c o u p l e , so t h a t eve ryone w i l l g a i n . 36 To sum up , each o f t h e s e f i v e p l a y s t r e a t s the theme o f l o v e , and a l s o m o r a l i t y or I d e a l i s m or b o t h . The e n d i n g i s a l w a y s happy; and as i s t r a d i t i o n a l f o r comedy, the g o a l a c h i e v e d i s m a r r i a g e ( f i v e c o u p l e s t o t a l ) , or l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the r e s t o r a t i o n of a happy m a r r i a g e ( f o u r c o u p l e s t o t a l ) . O the r g o a l s i n c l u d e s o c i a l r e i n t e g r a t i o n : L e o n o r e , M e l a n i d e , the g o u v e r n a n t e ; r e f o r m a t i o n : D u r v a l , Mme A r g a n t and her s o n , t he ma rqu i s d ' O r v i g n y ; and i d e a l s o f h o n o u r , v i r t u e , and p r o b i t y : L e o n o r e , C o n s t a n c e , M e l a n i d e , the g o u v e r n a n t e , the p r e s i d e n t . The p l a y s v a r y c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n or i n s e t t i n g . M e l a n i d e and L a Gouvernan te a r e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s e r i o u s ; L ' E c o l e des meres more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s the t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h comedy, w h i c h may be r e l a t e d t o i t s s l i g h t l y more b o u r g e o i s s e t t i n g . O n l y L ' E c o l e has no t i t l e d c h a r a c t e r s , but the degree of w e a l t h i n t h a t f a m i l y pu t s them i n the hau te b o u r g e o i s i e . The o t h e r p l a y s a r e s e t i n t h a t mixed b o u r g e o i s - n o b l e s o c i e t y , be low the C o u r t bu t f a r above the p e o p l e , w h i c h we p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d as the p r i m a r y a u d i e n c e f o r the Comedie f r a n g a i s e . The t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t c e n t r e a round r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o f w h i c h m a r r i a g e i s the p r edominan t bu t no t the o n l y one . W i t h r e g a r d t o m a r r i a g e , the p l a y s d e a l w i t h : a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s , t he need f o r a s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t n e r , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f m a i n t a i n i n g a f f e c t i o n and f i d e l i t y a f t e r m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h f o r c e d m a r r i a g e s a r e seen as wrong , La Chaussee i s e q u a l l y l o t h t o 37 The l o v e theme i s l i m i t e d t o one c o u p l e , and a g a i n the o b s t a c l e s a r e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f i n a n c e s . The p r e s i d e n t , who would not have welcomed A n g e l i q u e as a p e n n i l e s s o r p h a n , i s happy f o r S a i n v i l l e t o mar ry the comtesse d 1 A r s f l e u r s ' s d a u g h t e r i n s t e a d of the w e a l t h y g i r l he had c h o s e n . The g o u v e r n a n t e ' s r e s i s t a n c e comes from her f e a r t h a t S a i n v i l l e w i l l o n l y make A n g e l i q u e h i s m i s t r e s s , because she i s poor and w i t h o u t f a m i l y . True l o v e has t o be accompan ied by r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . I d e a l i s m i s a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t a theme as l o v e i n t h i s p l a y . P e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y , no t the l a w , pushes the p r e s i d e n t t o p e r s i s t i n a t t e m p t i n g r e s t i t u t i o n . S a i n v i l l e i n s i s t s h i s f a t h e r do so d e s p i t e t he c o s t o f h i s own f o r t u n e . T h i s s t r i c t p r o b i t y i s seen as " c o n t r a i r e aux moeurs du temps" ( I I I , i v ) . The g o u v e r n a n t e ' s r e f u s a l o f r e s t i t u t i o n i s e q u a l l y grounded i n i d e a l i s m , a sense of honour t o o f i n e t o a l l o w the p r e s i d e n t t o b a n k r u p t h i m s e l f , and s e n s i b i l i t i e s t oo wounded by the h u m i l i a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l r u i n t o r e q u i r e i t o f someone e l s e . The d i f f i c u l t y i s t o r e s o l v e t h o s e i d e a l s : " J ' a d m i r e e n t r e e l l e e t vous ces genereux c o m b a t s . " ( I l l , i x ) The g o u v e r n a n t e 1 s g o a l i s a r e s p e c t a b l e p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y f o r h e r s e l f and her d a u g h t e r ; i n i t i a l l y she sees the c o n v e n t or t he c o u n t r y s i d e as the o n l y p o s s i b i l i t i e s . S a i n v i l l e and A n g e l i q u e , encouraged by the baronne and J u l i e t t e , want t o m a r r y . The p r e s i d e n t wants t o make r e s t i t u t i o n t o the f a m i l y he r u i n e d , and t o h i s son whose 38 i n h e r i t a n c e i s b e i n g used f o r t h a t r e s t i t u t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y t h e s e d i v e r s e g o a l s a r e r e c o n c i l e d ; t h e r e a r e no pun i shmen t s or r e p e n t a n c e s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a l m o s t l y c o m p l e t e l y s e r i o u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c h a r a c t e r o f the g o u v e r n a n t e . J u l i e t t e has a c e r t a i n comic v a l u e by her f r a n k n e s s : " O u i , v o t r e t a n t e a f a i t une f o r t b e l l e e m p l e t t e ! " ( I , i ) , bu t she s e r v e s p r i m a r i l y as c o n f i d a n t e t o A n g e l i q u e . There a r e many d r a m a t i c e m o t i o n a l s c e n e s : the g o u v e r n a n t e ' s r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t r e s t i t u t i o n , the r e c o g n i t i o n s c e n e , S a i n v i l l e p l e a d i n g w i t h the g o u v e r n a n t e and h i s f a t h e r . The s e t t i n g mixes n o b l e s s e de r o b e : the p r e s i d e n t de S a i n v i l l e and h i s s o n , w i t h n o b i l i t y : the b a r o n n e , r e l a t e d t o the p r e s i d e n t , and the comtesse d ' A r s f l e u r s , t r u e name of the g o u v e r n a n t e . As i n L ' E c o l e des meres , t h e r e i s a c r i t i q u e o f f a s h i o n a b l e s o c i e t y ' s f r i v o l i t y and a r t i f i c i a l i t y : " L ' i m p u d e n c e e s t l a r e i n e du monde." ( I , i i i ) , t empered by a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t compromise , p o l i t e n e s s and p l i a b i l i t y a r e n e c e s s a r y t o h o l d s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r ( I , i i ) . A r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s s t i l l e x i s t , bu t t h e y a r e no t imposed ; the p a r e n t o f f e r s the c h i l d a c h o i c e among e l i g i b l e c a n d i d a t e s ( I , i i ) . The g i r l the p r e s i d e n t w i s h e s f o r S a i n v i l l e i s a t once "de meme r ang que nous" and "un des m e i l l e u r s p a r t i s . . . e n F r a n c e " ( I I I , i v ) . No c l e a r l i n e seems t o e x i s t here between what i s o f t e n c a l l e d the haute  b o u r g e o i s i e and the a r i s t o c r a c y ; the two c l a s s e s had been i n t e r m i n g l i n g s i n c e the 1 6 t h c e n t u r y . 3 9 promote m a r r i a g e s o f " t r u e l o v e " o n l y . There a r e no m e s a l l i a n c e s In t h e s e p l a y s [ 1 7 1 . But a l s o t h e r e a r e no few c e l i b a t e s ( o u t s i d e the s e r v a n t c l a s s ) , the o n l y s i n g l e h e r o i n e b e i n g the g o u v e r n a n t e , who i s a widow. Women a re d e f i n e d i n te rms o f f a m i l y — m o t h e r , d a u g h t e r , a n d / o r m a r r i a g e — f i a n c e e , w i f e , widow. The conven t i s the a l t e r n a t i v e t o m a r r i a g e , an e x i l e f o r a young woman ( L e o n o r e , M a r i a n n e , A n g e l i q u e ) bu t a s h e l t e r f o r the o l d e r woman ( the g o u v e r n a n t e ) . The p r i m a r y d i f f i c u l t y t o be overcome b e f o r e m a r r i a g e i s no t a h e s i t a t i o n t o c o n f e s s l o v e , a l t h o u g h t h i s mar ivaudesque t r a i t o c c u r s i n L a Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e and t o an e x t e n t i n S o p h i e ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o mar ry Damon [ 1 8 ] , bu t f a m i l y o p p o s i t i o n because o f the p o v e r t y or s o c i a l i n f e r i o r i t y o f one p a r t n e r . La Chaussee d e s c r i b e s the awkward consequences o f a dependant p a r t n e r i n M A r g a n t ' s s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o h i s w i f e . The major d i f f i c u l t i e s a f t e r m a r r i a g e come from i n f i d e l i t y as i n D u r v a l , o r f rom s e p a r a t i o n , w h i c h can be as ex t reme as e i g h t e e n y e a r s i n M e l a n i d e or o n l y a few months i n L ' E c o l e . These l o n g s e p a r a t i o n s can u s u a l l y be t r a c e d back t o f a m i l y i n t e r f e r e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n t o the p rob lems o f m a r r i a g e , t he p rob lems of a u t h o r i t y i n the f a m i l y a r e much d i s c u s s e d . A good f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n w h i c h d u t y and l o v e c o m b i n e , i s p r e s e n t e d or o b t a i n e d i n L ' E c o l e , M e l a n i d e . and La  G o u v e r n a n t e . A u t h o r i t a r i a n p a r e n t s a r e the p r i m a r y cause of u n h a p p i n e s s : La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e , M e l a n i d e , L ' E c o l e . Bu t 4 0 La Chaussee s u g g e s t s o b e d i e n c e and p a t i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n d e f i a n c e . The o n l y c o u p l e t o a c t i v e l y d e f y t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e M e l a n i d e and the m a r q u i s , who a r e p u n i s h e d w i t h an e i g h t e e n - y e a r s e p a r a t i o n . " U n n a t u r a l " p a r e n t s or s i b l i n g s a r e o v e r t l y c h a s t i s e d o n l y o n c e , i n L ' E c o l e . The d u t y of o b e d i e n c e t o p a r e n t s p r e v a i l s r e g a r d l e s s o f r e s p e c t i v e g e n d e r ; a mother has no l e s s r i g h t t o i n s i s t on i t , f rom a son or d a u g h t e r , t h a n a f a t h e r : M e l a n i d e and D a r v i a n e , the g o u v e r n a n t e and A n g e l i q u e . T h i s d u t y i n c l u d e s t h a t o f m u t u a l l o v e ; r e a l i z a t i o n or a c c e p t a n c e of a f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l w a y s accompan ied by an u p r u s h o f e m o t i o n ( L ' E c o l e , M e l a n i d e , La G o u v e r n a n t e ) . G e n e r a l l y , p a t i e n t v i r t u e i s p r e s e n t e d as b o t h i d e a l and f u n c t i o n a l f o r women. I f a woman keeps t h o s e i d e a l s , p e o p l e w i l l s y m p a t h i s e and t r y t o h e l p : Damon f o r C o n s t a n c e , Theodon f o r M e l a n i d e , the baronne f o r the g o u v e r n a n t e . Men, w h i l e a l l o w e d t o be more a c t i v e , a r e h e l d t o the same h i g h s t a n d a r d s of v i r t u e and f i d e l i t y , o r c r i t i c i z e d f o r f a i l i n g : M A r g a n t , the m a r q u i s d ' O r v i g n y , the p r e s i d e n t . The c o n s e r v a t i s m of t h e s e p l a y s i s f i r s t o f f o r m : f o u r a r e i n the c l a s s i c a l f i v e - a c t s t r u c t u r e , one i n the a c c e p t a b l e comedic t h r e e - a c t f o r m , a l l i n v e r s e [19 3. I n c o n t e n t and p r e s e n t a t i o n , the p l a y s do show a c e r t a i n i n n o v a t i o n by a d d i n g s e r i o u s e l e m e n t s , even t o the p o i n t o f o v e r w h e l m i n g t r a d i t i o n a l comedic a s p e c t s as i n M e l a n i d e . The degree of emphas is p l a c e d on the woman's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n - - h e r d u t i e s , her s u f f e r i n g s , her v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o 41 o s t r a c i s m — i s noteworthy. But the p l a y s o n l y show sympathy; they do not o f f e r s o c i a l reform. A woman's l i f e i s e i t h e r marriage and the convent, s o c i a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y or o b l i v i o n . The s o c i e t y presented i s r i g i d l y organized and s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d . The r o l e of s e r v a n t s , the onl y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the working c l a s s e s here, i s reduced. There are no servant love a f f a i r s , no t r a d i n g r o l e s between master and servan t ; La Chaussee's domestics do not have t h a t much independent l i f e . They are s t r i c t l y f u n c t i o n a l . I n t e r e s t i s conce n t r a t e d on c h a r a c t e r s of the same s o c i a l s t a t u s as the m a j o r i t y of h i s audience. The m o r a l i t y presented i s simple but s t r i c t and g e n e r a l . The exceptions to c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y are not c h a r a c t e r s who t r a n s g r e s s but those who go beyond convention to a more demanding per s o n a l standard. We f i n d c r i t i c i s m of contemporary behaviour as decadent, tempered by an acknowledgement t h a t the o l d days were probably no b e t t e r . The s o c i e t y may not be p e r f e c t , but i t can o n l y be avoided by becoming an o u t c a s t . Happiness here always means s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . "True l o v e " i s necessary to marriage, though i t may be i n s e p a r a b l e from duty as i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Leonore suggests t h a t a wife w i l l love her husband a f t e r marriage by v i r t u e of the m a r i t a l bond (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I I , i v ) . But the plays f r a n k l y acknowledge that true happiness l i e s not i n being an i s o l a t e d couple, but i n forming p a r t of s o c i e t y - - a s i n the marquis and Melanide's unhappy s e c r e t marriage demonstrates. U2 We have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t he h e r o i n e ' s r o l e was f a i r l y p a s s i v e — w a i t i n g i n l o n g s u f f e r i n g v i r t u e f o r someone e l s e or f o r F a t e t o change t h e i r unhappy c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e n d u r i n g b r a v e l y u n t i l t h a t r e s c u e . We a l s o no t ed t h a t v e r y o f t e n she was d e f i n e d by her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o men—as b e l o v e d , w i f e , m o t h e r , d a u g h t e r , widow. The maid of t r a d i t i o n a l comedy seems t o have a d i f f e r e n t and l e s s i m p o r t a n t r o l e . D e t a i l e d n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e s w i l l r e f i n e and c l a r i f y t he se p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e l a t i v e p a s s i v i t y and dependence i n the h e r o i n e s o f t h e s e p l a y s , o f how maids and o t h e r s e c o n d a r y female c h a r a c t e r s c o n t r i b u t e t o p l o t d e v e l o p m e n t , and of how female c h a r a c t e r s i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r — h e l p i n g or h i n d e r i n g . 4 3 NOTES 1. L o n d o n : Heinemann, 1971 . 2 . L . A b e n s o u r , La Femme e t l e femin isme avan t l a  r e v o l u t i o n ( P a r i s : L e r o u x , 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 285 f e e l s t h a t s i n c e r e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f was r a r e , and c o n f i n e d p r i m a r i l y t o the l o w e r c l a s s e s . 3 . C . L e n i e n t , La Comedle en F r a n c e au X V I I l e s i e c l e ( P a r i s : H a c h e t t e , 1 8 8 8 ) , I , 159 . 4 . E . J o u r d a i n , D r a m a t i c Theo ry and P r a c t i c e i n F r a n c e  1 6 9 0 - 1 8 0 8 , d i s c u s s e s t h i s w i d e s p r e a d f a i t h i n the d i d a c t i c v a l u e of l i t e r a t u r e , p p . 1 7 8 - 1 8 2 . 5 . d ' A l e m b e r t , " E l o g e de N i v e l l e de La Chaussee" i n Oeuvres (Geneve: S l a t k i n e : 1 9 6 7 ) , I I I , 399 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body o f the t e x t . 6. J o u r d a i n , p p . 6 8 - 7 2 ; D. D i d e r o t , " E n t r e t i e n s s u r l e  F i l s n a t u r e l " , Oeuvres ( P a r i s : P l e i a d e , 1 9 5 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e : "Toute a c t i o n d r a m a t i q u e e t a n t un o b j e t m o r a l . . . . Q u e l e s u j e t en s o i t i m p o r t a n t , e t 1 ' i n t r i g u e , s i m p l e , d o m e s t i q u e , e t v o i s i n e de l a v i e r e e l l e . . . . Q u e v o t r e m o r a l e s o i t g e n e r a l e e t f o r t e . " (pp . 1244, 1246 , 1 2 4 6 ) . A u e r b a c h , i n M i m e s i s ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1953) uses the t e r m "comedie l a r m o y a n t e " f o r a l l o f 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h " m i d d l e - c l a s s t r a g e d y " ( p . 4 3 7 ) , w h i c h I t a k e t o i n c l u d e what i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d "drame b o u r g e o i s " . A u e r b a c h t h e r e b y i m p l i e s t h a t the p l a y s of La Chaussee b e l o n g t o the same u genre, and t h e r e f o r e the same t h e o r e t i c a l bases, as those of Dider o t and h i s f o l l o w e r s . Further r e f e r e n c e s to Auerbach w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 7. F. G a i f f e , Le R i r e et l a scene f r a n g a i s e ( P a r i s : B o i v i n , 1931), p. 210. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 8. Goodlad d i s c o u n t s the i n f l u e n c e of mise en scene, a c t o r s , and a l l other e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s to p o p u l a r i t y . 9. Goodlad, pp. 103-107. D. V. McGranahan & I. Wayne, "German and American t r a i t s r e f l e c t e d i n popular drama," Human R e l a t i o n s (1947) I: 429-455. 10. La Chaussee, La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e i n Qeuvres, ed. S a b l i e r ( P a r i s : P r a u l t f i l s , 1762), tome I. A l l r e f e r e n c e s to La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n , and w i l l be found i n parentheses i n the body of the t e x t . 11. Goodlad found a c o r r e l a t i o n between u n p o p u l a r i t y , d e f i n e d as a p l a y not making back i t s p r o d u c t i o n expenses, and l i t e r a r y " s e r i o u s n e s s " ; the unpopular p l a y s of the p e r i o d he s t u d i e d i n c l u d e those by Chekhov, Brecht, Faulkner, Beckett, Tennessee W i l l i a m s , and Osborne. The most s u c c e s s f u l " s e r i o u s " p l a y , Long Day's Journey i n t o  Night, achieved " b a r e l y h a l f the audience of those . . . i n t h i s study." (p. 171) 12. For example, S t e e l e , The Conscious Lovers, 1722. 13. La Rochfoucauld, Maximes, no. 113. 14. That of Marivaux's daughter was paid by the Due d'Orleans; E.J.H. Greene, Marivaux (Toronto UP: 1965), p. U5 273 . Note the r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s m o t i f i n L ' E c o l e , and i n La Gouvernan te where the baronne would have t o pay f o r A n g e l i q u e ( I I , i i ) . 1 5 . T h i s i s i n i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t income t o be c o n s i d e r e d w e a l t h y i n P a r i s ; Haydn Mason (op . c i t . ) quo t e s T u r g o t t h a t 5 ,000 ecus a y e a r was the minimum f o r w e a l t h ( p . 9 2 ) . 1 6 . M a r i v a u x wro te a p l a y o f t he same t i t l e i n 1732 . C h a r a c t e r s domina t ed by one e m o t i o n or t r a i t pushed t o e x c e s s a r e f r e q u e n t i n F r e n c h comedy: L ' A v a r e , Le  M i s a n t h r o p e , Le G l o r i e u x . 1 7 . D i d e r o t shows a s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n i n Le Pe re de  f a m i l l e . 1 8 . A s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n t o mar ry based on o b s e r v a t i o n i s seen i n Le J e u de 1'amour e t du h a s a r d , M a r i v a u x , 1730 . 1 9 . A t t h i s p e r i o d , M a r i v a u x was w r i t i n g 3 a c t p ro se p l a y s . 46 CHAPTER I I - - NARRATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS I n t h i s c h a p t e r a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y w i l l be made of the t y p e s o f r o l e s and the degree o f a c t i v e n e s s g i v e n t o women i n La C h a u s s e e ' s p l a y s . The t e r m ' r o l e ' i n d i c a t e s no t o n l y n a r r a t o l o g i c a l r o l e s such as r e c e i v e r , o b j e c t , v i c t i m , and b e n e f i c i a r y ( w h i c h w i l l be d e f i n e d ) , but a l s o the t h e a t r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s o f h e r o i n e , " jeune p r e m i e r e " , and s u p p o r t i n g c h a r a c t e r , and the s o c i a l r o l e s o f w i f e , mo the r , widow, and d a u g h t e r . A n a l y s i s o f t h e a t r i c a l and s o c i a l r o l e s w i l l be expanded i n c h a p t e r I I I . F u r t h e r t o t h e s e t y p e s , t he r o l e o f m o r a l commenta tor , o f " i n t e r p r e t e r " w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . We no ted the d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e p l a y s i n c h a p t e r I ( p . 1 8 ) , bu t the q u e s t i o n o f how and by whom the m o r a l l e s s o n i s e l u c i d a t e d t o the a u d i e n c e i s p a r t o f n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s (Adam, p . 1 5 ) . F o r t h i s c h a p t e r , I have chosen t o use the f o r m a l i s t a p p r o a c h e l a b o r a t e d by Bremond i n L o g i q u e du r e c i t . My a d o p t i o n o f Bremond i s n e i t h e r comple t e nor u n q u e s t i o n i n g . However , h i s a p p r o a c h p e r m i t s no t o n l y c o m p a r i s o n of s t r u c t u r e among the works s t u d i e d , but p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f the k i n d s o f r o l e s a s s i g n e d t o women i n t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s . I t does no t p ropose t o a f f o r d i n s i g h t i n t o c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I I . G o o d l a d ' s v i e w o f drama as a means of t e a c h i n g or l e a r n i n g s o c i a l r o l e s w i l l have some b e a r i n g on t h i s a n a l y s i s . F o r m a l i s t t e c h n i q u e s work b e s t when a p p l i e d t o a body of work [ 1 ] . T h i s s t u d y t a k e s up f i v e p l a y s by one a u t h o r w h i c h have a l l been put under the g e n e r i c l a b e l "comedie l a r m o y a n t e " . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s i m p l e r the m o r a l f ramework, the more a p p l i c a b l e f o r m a l i s m can be ( l o c . c i t . ) . C h a p t e r I b r o u g h t out the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m o r a l i t y , the c o n s i s t e n t happy r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t , i n t h e s e p l a y s [ 2 ] . F u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the use o f n a r r a t o l o g i c a l methods f o r the a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e p l a y s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d as t e x t s t o be r ead even i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Ceux q u i ont p r i s p l u s i e u r s f o i s du p l a i s i r a l a v o i r r e p r e s e n t e r en p rennen t enco re a l a l i r e . Vous s g a v e z que c ' e s t l a marque d ' u n bon Ouvrage en ce g e n r e . . . . L ' O u v r a g e se s o u t i e n t a l a l e c t u r e . . . J ' a j o u t e q u ' i l y gagne peu t e t r e en un s e n s . " [ 3 ] Indeed the comedie l a r m o y a n t e was o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r t o o c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g a s t o r y or n o v e l : "Un drame e s t un roman d i a l o g u e ; v o i l a son v i c e c a p i t a l . " ( G e o f f r o y , p . 198) The a d j e c t i v e "romanesque" i s r e p e a t e d l y a p p l i e d t o t h e s e p l a y s [ 4 1 . The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y men t ioned the l i n k between the p o p u l a r i t y o f s e n t i m e n t a l n o v e l s and La C h a u s s e e ' s d r a m a t i c s u c c e s s , and a l s o the l a r g e number o f e d i t i o n s o f h i s p l a y s (pp . 2 , 7 ) . Thus , t h e r e seems c o n s i d e r a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t r e a t i n g the p l a y s here no t as g u i d e s t o pe r fo rmance but as t e x t s i n t h e m s e l v e s . None o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s m e n t i o n any major 4 8 e d i t o r i a l changes between the performance and the p r i n t e d p l a y [51. The lack of stage d i r e c t i o n s i n La Chaussee, and the emphasis placed by reviewers such as Desfontaines and Prevost on r e t e l l i n g the p l o t r a t h e r than on d e s c r i b i n g the mise en scene and the a c t i n g make r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the performance v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . Bremond's approach i s an e l a b o r a t i o n of Propp's s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s , i n which the key p a t t e r n i s : D e s t i n a t e u r — > S u j e t — > O b j e t — > D e s t i n a t a i r e Adjuvant Opposant (Adam, p. 24) T h i s technique i s most o f t e n used i n the a n a l y s i s of s h o r t popular f i c t i o n [ 6 ] , and o f t e n of a l a r g e group of works, as i n Propp's a n a l y s i s of Russian f o l k - t a l e s . Nonetheless, Bremond cl a i m s i t i s a p p l i c a b l e to any genre, s i n c e the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s independent of the p r e s e n t a t i o n , and remains constant d e s p i t e changes i n genre [ 7 ] . To Bremond, the n a r r a t i v e i s not expressed by words, images, or g e s t u r e s , but by events, s i t u a t i o n s , and behavior ( l o c . c i t . ) . Bremond adopts Propp's theory t h a t events can be a s s i g n e d n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s ; while the number of p o s s i b l e events i s i n f i n i t e , the number and the order of f u n c t i o n s are d e f i n a b l e (p. 19). Bremond r e f i n e s on t h i s theory to s e t up a s e r i e s of a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r than a s i n g l e l i n e a r order of f u n c t i o n s . F u r t h e r , he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between l o g i c a l order: A r r i v a l i m p l i e s Voyage i m p l i e s Departure; and the order of frequency or p r o b a b i l i t y : S t r u g g l e and V i c t o r y o f t e n occur t o g e t h e r , but one does not 4 9 n e c e s s i t a t e the o t h e r (p . 2 5 ) . A c t i o n s have no i n t r i n s i c f u n c t i o n s ( p . 3 8 ) . Knowledge of the i n t e r e s t s and m o t i v e s o f the a c t o r or r e c e i v e r o f an a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h a t a c t i o n ' s f u n c t i o n (Bremond, p . 1 3 2 ) . Bremond c o n c e i v e s n a r r a t i v e as a ne twork of i n t e r - r e l a t e d sequences r a t h e r t h a n as a s i n g l e l i n e . Thus , an a c t i o n can s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p l a y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s i n d i f f e r e n t sequences of a s i n g l e p l o t s t r u c t u r e . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n f i t s v e r y w e l l w i t h the main p l o t / s u b - or p a r a l l e l p l o t p a t t e r n common i n t h e a t r e . Bremond p r o v i d e s two schemas f o r n a r r a t i v e : t he b a s i c "encha inemen t " or s e r i e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s -0 ( f a i l u r e ) and the " e n c l a v e " or i n s e t sequence ( p . 34) A p r o b l e m — B a t t e m p t t o s o l v e , a c t i o n D dependent p r o b l e m L i d e a 1 F a c t i o n ach i evemen t l — H r e s o l u t i o n of D I r e s o l u t i o n of A [ b o t h d i ag rams t a k e n f rom Bremond, p . 3 4 ] Bremond draws f rom Gre imas the i m p o r t a n c e o f c h o i c e , o f w h i c h p o s s i b l e outcome of the n a r r a t i v e i s chosen and when (p . 1 0 1 ) , as seen i n the "encha inemen t" s t r u c t u r e . The e s s e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n i n Bremond ' s me thodo logy i s " a g e n t / p a t i e n t " w h i c h I t r a n s l a t e as a c t o r / r e c e i v e r . Chatman c a l l s t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s n a r r a t i v e s u b j e c t and n a r r a t i v e o b j e c t (pp . 4 4 - 4 5 ) , t h e r e b y e m p h a s i z i n g the l i n k t o P r o p p . Bremond does no t s t r e s s the sequence of a c t i o n s , as P ropp d o e s , but the a r r a n g e m e n t , the o r d e r i n g of r o l e s . W h i l e t he two b a s i c r o l e s can be s u b - d i v i d e d a l m o s t e n d l e s s l y [ 8 1 , the major d i v i s i o n s a r e : (pp . 134-135) R e c e i v e r A c t o r i n f l u e n c e d i n f l u e n c e r b e n e f i c i a r y m o d i f i e r : i m p r o v e r / d e g r a d e r v i c t i m p r e s e r v e r : p r o t e c t o r / f r u s t r a t o r j u d g e : r e w a r d e r / p u n i s h e r The n o t i o n s o f b e n e f i c i a r y and v i c t i m i n c l u d e but a r e no t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e who d e s e r v e t o r e c e i v e a p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t . I t must be emphas ized t h a t r o l e s do not c o r r e s p o n d t o c h a r a c t e r s . Not o n l y can one c h a r a c t e r p l a y more t h a n 1 r o l e per n a r r a t i v e s equence , but a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r c an be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c t o r and r e c e i v e r o f an a c t i o n . T h i s i n t e r n a l " a c t o r " c o u l d be c o n s c i e n c e , or r e m o r s e , or v i r t u e (Bremond, p . 1 3 8 ) . 51 Adam (p . 27) d e f i n e s the e s s e n t i a l e l emen t s o f p l o t a c c o r d i n g t o Bremond : Improvement D e g r a d a t i o n i n p r o g r e s s and t o be a v o i d e d o f a v i c t i m by an a g r e s s o r a l s o c a l l e d i m b a l a n c e hoped f o r i n the s i t u a t i o n o f the v i c t i m H e l p t o be a s k e d o f an a d j u v a n t r e c e i v e d > improvement f a i l e d or no t r e c e i v e d > d e g r a d a t i o n e q u i l i b r i u m T h i s t r i p a r t i t e breakdown o f p l o t can be r e p r e s e n t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y (pp . 2 8 - 2 9 ) : D e g r a d a t i o n p o s s i b l e - p r o c e s s o f d e g r a d a t i o n Improvement t o be o b t a i n e d P r o c e s s o f improvement - H e l p r e q u e s t e d - P r o c e s s o f h e l p i n g - P r o c e s s a c h i e v e d I f a f a i l u r e i n any s t e p D e g r a d a t i o n p roduced Improvement o b t a i n e d D e g r a d a t i o n a v o i d e d In t h i s v i e w of p l o t , d e g r a d a t i o n c a l l s f o r improvement , m e r i t or s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d f o r r e w a r d , f a u l t f o r pun ishment a n d / o r f o r g i v e n e s s (Adam, p . 3 0 ) . We have a l r e a d y no ted t h i s p a t t e r n i n the p l a y s under d i s c u s s i o n , as p a r t o f the m o r a l d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n of t h e a t r e , e x p e c t e d by 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e s and s p e c i f i c a l l y encouraged by p h i l o s o p h e s and c r i t i c s (Chap te r I , p . 1 8 ) . Now t h a t t he a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the me thodo logy chosen 52 has been set out, and the schema by which the n a r r a t o l o g i c a l s tructure of each plot w i l l be represented has been explained, we can move to the plays themselves. La Fausse ant ipathie  Opening s i t u a t i o n : Leonore, af ter a forced marriage, has spent 12 years in a convent. She is now l i v i n g with an uncle and his wife, who is unkind to her. She loves Damon, but w i l l not admit i t , even though she bel ieves herse l f a widow. Degradation to be avoided: Leonore continuing in so l i tude and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . Improvement des ired: the marriage of Leonore and Damon. Help to be asked: of the servants (I , i ) and of Geronte the uncle . Towards Degradation Orphise asks Leonore to encourage the marriage of Damon to her daughter J u l i e , as a "widow" should. (I , iv) Leonore fears to see Damon, unwi l l ing to r i s k v i r tue for love. Towards Improvement Damon admits he is already Damon promises never to married marry J u l i e (I , v i ) The maid and valet discuss how to encourage Damon and Leonore (I , v i i i ) Orphise attacks Leonore as jealous of the young J u l i e . Leonore t e l l s her that Damon is already married. 53 O r p h i s e a c c u s e s her o f b e i n g Damon's m i s t r e s s ( I I , i i ) L e o n o r e f e a r s t o l o s e her r e p u t a t i o n ( I I , i i i ) Leonore f e e l s d i v o r c e an e t e r n a l - -d i s g r a c e f o r any woman, r e f u s e s t o see h im O r p h i s e t e l l s Leonore her husband i s s t i l l a l i v e , her d u t y i s t o r e t u r n t o h im ( I I , i x ) Leonore w i s h e s t o d i e . Damon r e s o l v e s t o a n n u l h i s f i r s t m a r r i a g e ( I I , v ) t r i e s t o pe r suade the maid i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r pe r suade Leonore ( I I , v i ) t e l l s Leonore h i s f i r s t m a r r i a g e was f o r c e d and t h u s n u l l ( v i i ) Ge ron te a d v i s e s L e o n o r e t o a n n u l her m a r r i a g e ( I I , x i ) Leonore r e f u s e s annulment ( I I I , i i ) O r p h i s e a d v i s e s h im t o f o r g e t G e r o n t e a d v i s e s Damon t o Leonore pu r sue L e o n o r e ( I I I , i i i ) Damon men t ions h i s f i r s t w i f e ' s name, S i l v i e Leonore d e c i d e s t o go back t o her husband ( I I I , i v ) G e r o n t e r eminds Leonore of her h u s b a n d ' s bad c h a r a c t e r ( I I I , v i ) Damon gusses t h a t Leonore i s S i l v i e Improvement a c h i e v e d ; t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r c e d vows now s i n c e r e . Not o n l y O r p h i s e but a l s o Leonore appear much more o f t e n i n the "Towards D e g r a d a t i o n " c o l u m n , b o t h w o r k i n g a g a i n s t the r e s o l u t i o n of L e o n o r e ' s s i t u a t i o n . 5k Le P r e j u q e a l a mode Open ing s i t u a t i o n : Cons t ance l o v e s her u n f a i t h f u l husband , D u r v a l . S o p h i e r e f u s e s t o mar ry Damon because C o n s t a n c e ' s m a r r i a g e i s so unhappy. D e g r a d a t i o n t o be a v o i d e d : A . C o n s t a n c e ' s u n h a p p i n e s s B . S o p h i e ' s c o n t i n u i n g a s p i n s t e r Improvement d e s i r e d : A . D u r v a l ' s r e f o r m B . the m a r r i a g e o f S o p h i e and Damon H e l p t o be a s k e d : C o n s t a n c e f o r Soph ie and Damon ( I , i i i ) Damon f o r Cons t ance and D u r v a l ( I I , i ) Towards D e g r a d a t i o n Cons t ance sees her d u t y as p r e t e n d i n g t o be happy , so she canno t admi t her need f o r h e l p [ A ] , or e x p l a i n why S o p h i e d o e s n ' t want t o mar ry Damon [B] ( I , i i i & i v ) Towards Improvement S o p h i e and the maid a d v i s e her t o s t o p p r e t e n d i n g ( I , v & v i ) bu t s e c r e t l y D u r v a l i s g i v i n g her p r e s e n t s [A] ( I , v i i ) C o n s t a n c e r e f u s e s t o p l a y a l o n g Her maid t e l l s her D u r v a l c o u l d n ' t be the s o u r c e [A] [ I , v i i ] D u r v a l t e l l s Damon he l o v e s Cons t ance [A] ( I I , i ) bu t w o n ' t t e l l her because he f e a r s r i d i c u l e ( I I , i i ) The two marqu i s v i s i t i n g D u r v a l m a l i g n an a c q u a i n t a n c e f o r t h i s faux pas ( i i i & i v ) 55 D u r v a l c o n t e n t t o a c t the l o v i n g husband i n amateur t h e a t r i c a l s (v) S o p h i e p e r s i s t s i n r e f u s i n g Damon [ B ] , because D u r v a l i s the t y p i c a l husband [A] ( I I I , i & i i ) the two m a r q u i s p ropose t o seduce Cons t ance [A] ( I I I , i v & v) D u r v a l p r o m i s e s t o d e c l a r e h i m s e l f [A12 ( I I I , v i ) but l o s e s courage ( v i i i ) sends a g i f t w i t h a no te and c a l l s them back ( i x , x) D u r v a l ' s l e t t e r s t o a m i s t r e s s s e n t by her t o Cons t ance [A] ( I V , i ) H i s g i f t a r r i v e s anonymous ly , she t h i n k s from the marqu i s ( I V , i i - i v ) who deny i t ( v i & v i ) t he m a r q u i s b o a s t i n f r o n t o f D u r v a l ; one has a p o r t r a i t o f Cons t ance ( v i ) D u r v a l s u s p e c t s Cons t ance of i n f i d e l i t y ( i x , x ) , a s k s Cons t ance f o r a s e p a r a t i o n ( x i ) the l e t t e r s f a l l f rom her p o c k e t ( x i i ) ; he d i s t r i b u t e s them ( x i i i ) — f r o m h i m s e l f C o n s t a n c e f a i n t s and i s Soph ie t e l l s D u r v a l what a t a k e n ou t f o o l he i s ( x i v ) D u r v a l s t i l l u n c o n v i n c e d (xv) Damon e x p l a i n s C o n s t a n c e ' s i n n o c e n c e and the m a r q u i s ' l i e s ( V , i ) D u r v a l r e p e n t s Damon t e l l s h im how t o meet Cons t ance s e c r e t l y a t the masked b a l l Cons t ance t e l l s a l l t o a masked D u r v a l she t h i n k s i s Damon ( V , v) D u r v a l c o n f e s s e s h i s l o v e t o her and t o the h o u s e h o l d 56 [ A ] ( v i ) S o p h i e a g r e e s t o mar ry Damon IB] ( v i ) Improvement a c h i e v e d : A . t he r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f Cons t ance and D u r v a l . B . the m a r r i a g e of Damon and S o p h i e . N e i t h e r Cons t ance nor S o p h i e a r e a c t i v e i n w o r k i n g towards improvement . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the b e g i n n i n g , C o n s t a n c e ' s a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o the p e r s i s t e n c e o f her own s i t u a t i o n of d e g r a d a t i o n . M e l a n i d e Open ing s i t u a t i o n : M e l a n i d e , i n P a r i s a f t e r y e a r s i n B r i t t a n y , l i v e s s e c r e t l y w i t h D o r i s e e and her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w Theodon i n o r d e r t o keep an eye on her nephew D a r v i a n e . He l o v e s R o s a l i e , D o r i s e e ' s d a u g h t e r , who i s b e i n g sough t by a w e a l t h y m a r q u i s . D e g r a d a t i o n t o be a v o i d e d : A . M e l a n i d e ' s i s o l a t i o n . B . R o s a l i e b e i n g f o r c e d t o mar ry the m a r q u i s . Improvement d e s i r e d : A . M e l a n i d e ' s r e t u r n t o s o c i e t y B . t he m a r r i a g e of R o s a l i e and D a r v i a n e H e l p t o be a s k e d : o f Theodon ( I , i ) Towards D e g r a d a t i o n Towards Improvement M e l a n i d e a s k s D a r v i a n e t o l e a v e [B] ( I , i & i i ) he r e f u s e s ( i i i ) 57 R o s a l i e t r i e s t o send h im away ( i v ) he p e r s i s t s (v) the m a r q u i s t e l l s Theodon abou t a p r e v i o u s unhappy m a r r i a g e [A?] and f e a r s t h a t R o s a l i e p r e f e r s Darv [B] ( 1 1 , 1 ) Theodon t e l l s h im D a r v i a n e i s no t a r i v a l [B] Theodon t e l l s M e l a n i d e she i s u n f o r g i v e n and d i s i n h e r i t e d by her dead p a r e n t s [A] ( I I , i i i ) M e l a n i d e e x p l a i n s the s e c r e t m a r r i a g e w h i c h p r o v o k e d t h e i r a n g e r , and l e d t o D a r v i a n e ' s b i r t h [ A ] . Husband the comte d 'Ormance no t the m a r q u i s who i s p u r s u i n g R o s a l i e [B] Theodon d o u b t s i f her husband would t a k e her back [A] ( I I I , v) D o r i s e e t e l l s M e l a n i d e and R o s a l i e t h a t the m a r q u i s has p r o p o s e d [B] ( I I , v i ) R o s a l i e t r i e s a g a i n t o send D a r v i a n e away; d u t y over romance [ B ] ( 1 1 1 , i i ) makes h im b e l i e v e she d o e s n ' t l o v e h im [ B l ( i i i ) Theodon r e c o n c i l e s D a r v i a n e and R o s a l i e ; p r o m i s e s h i s h e l p and money t o pe r suade D o r i s e e [ B ] ( i v ) M e l a n i d e r e c o g n i z e s the m a rq u i s as her husband [ A ] ( v ) Theodon t e l l s t he m a rq u i s h i s w i f e i s s t i l l a l i v e [ A , B ] ( v i ) the m a r q u i s h e s i t a t e s t o g i v e R o s a l i e up t A , B ] Theodon r e s o l v e s t o f i x e v e r y t h i n g ( w i t h o u t s a y i n g how) [ A , B ] ( v i i i ) 58 w i l l Melanide asks him to t e l l the marquis a l l [A] Melanide r e f u s e s to encourage Darviane and R o s a l i e ( I I I , i x ) b/c she does not wish to e x p l a i n to Dorisee ( I V , i ) t A, B ] Theodon doubts the marquis give up R o s a l i e ( I V , i ) Darviane and the marquis q u a r r e l ; a duel proposed [B] (IV, i i - i v ) i n order to persuade him to r e s p e c t the marquis and give up R o s a l i e [B] Melanide must t e l l Darviane that he i s i l l e g i t i m a t e and she i s h i s mother [A] (IV, v) Darviane guesses the marquis i s h i s f a t h e r [A] (IV, v i ) Theodon t e l l s the marquis Darviane i s h i s son [A,B] (V,i) Darviane f o r c e s the marquis to admit p a t e r n i t y [A] ( V , i i ) the marquis accepts Melanide and Darviane [A]; R o s a l i e to be h i s daughter-in-law [B] (V, i i i ) R o s a l i e ' s a c t i o n s seem o n l y to c o n t r i b u t e to her d e g r a d a t i o n , by r e p e a t e d l y r e p u l s i n g Darviane. The most a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r with regard to improvement i s n e i t h e r Melanide nor R o s a l i e , but Theodon. L'Ecole des meres Opening s i t u a t i o n : (which r e q u i r e s a l l of Act I to s e t up) Mme Argant wishes to d i s i n h e r i t her daughter ( l e f t i n a convent f o r 16 years) f o r her adored son who i s a fop. 59 M A r g a n t wants h i s d a u g h t e r t o mar ry D o l i g n i ' s s o n , but D o l i g n i f i l s wants t o mar ry M A r g a n t ' s " n i e c e " M a r i a n n e . D e g r a d a t i o n t o be a v o i d e d : A . Mme A r g a n t a b a n d o n i n g the d a u g h t e r t o o v e r i n d u l g e the son B . D o l i g n i f i l s p r e v e n t e d f rom m a r r y i n g M a r i a n n e Improvement d e s i r e d : A . Mme A r g a n t c u r e d o f her o b s e s s i v e l o v e ; r e s t o r a t i o n o f the d a u g h t e r B . the m a r r i a g e of D o l i g n i f i l s and Mar i anne H e l p t o be a s k e d : u n c l e a r o f whom; M A r g a n t i n t r o d u c e d as u n a b l e t o c o r r e c t h i s w i f e ( I , i & i i ) Towards D e g r a d a t i o n Towards Improvement Mme A r g a n t r e p e a t s her i n t e n t i o n t o l e a v e her d a u g h t e r i n the c o n v e n t , i n o r d e r t o buy her son a n o b l e w i f e d e s p i t e her h u s b a n d ' s o p p o s i t i o n [A] ( I I , i & i i ) t he ma rqu i s d o e s n ' t want t h i s advan tageous m a r r i a g e ; he i s p u r s u i n g A r t h e n i c e ( I I , i i ) M A r g a n t r e t u r n s home, c r i t i c i z e s the e x t r a v a g a n c e , has no t bought the m a r q u i s a t e f o r h i s son [A] ( I I , i v & v i ) Mme A r g a n t pe r suades h im t o buy t h e m a r q u i s a t e and r e f u s e s t o r e c o n s i d e r the d a u g h t e r ' s f a t e [A] ( v i i ) D o l i g n i pe re w i s h e s t o p e r m i t h i s son t o mar ry M a r i a n n e [ B l ; M A r g a n t t e l l s h im M a r i a n n e i s h i s d a u g h t e r [A] ( v i i i ) M a r i a n n e a s k s t o r e t u r n t o the 60 c o n v e n t [ A / B ] ( I I , i x & I I I / i ) M A r g a n t p r o m i s e s t o mar ry her [ B I ; d i s g u s t e d by how h i s son r u l e s the h o u s e h o l d [A] M A r g a n t e x p l a i n s why he c a n n o t o r d e r h i s w i f e - - i t ' s her money, he i s bound by l o v e and g r a t i t u d e [A] ( 1 1 1 , 1 ) D o l i g n i pe re w i l l a c c e p t M a r i a n n e w i t h l e s s dowry [ A , B ] ( I I I , i ) M a r i a n n e s e n t by Mme A r g a n t t o ask f o r t he s o n ' s m a r r i a g e w i t h a l l i n h e r i t a n c e , even i f she were the d i s i n h e r i t e d d a u g h t e r (A] ( I I I , i i ) Mme A r g a n t de fends l o v i n g o n l y one c h i l d [A] ( i i i ) t he son r e f u s e s t o t a k e h i s s i s t e r ' s s i d e ( i v ) M. A r g a n t pe r suades Mme t h a t a t h i r d or even a q u a r t e r wou ld s u f f i c e t o mar ry the d a u g h t e r [ A , B ] (v) p r e s e n t s D o l i g n i f i l s as the s o n - i n - l a w ( v i ) D o l i g n i f i l s r e f u s e s t o mar ry the " d a u g h t e r " [B] Mme A r g a n t t a k e s back her p r o m i s e CA] ( v i i i ) t h e son s t e a l s h i s m o t h e r ' s d iamonds t o fund h i s e lopement bu t b e l i e v e s M a r i a n n e t o be w i t h A r t h e n i c e [A] ( I V , i ) h i s f a t h e r ' s m i s t r e s s [A] ( i ) and t e l l s h i s mother so ( i i ) M a r i a n n e i s h e a r t b r o k e n by Mme A r g a n t ' s anger [A] ( v i - v i i i ) M A r g a n t b e l i e v e s Mme has d i s c o v e r e d M a r i a n n e ' s i d e n t i t y and i s a n g r y f o r h i s p l o y [A] ( v i i i ) D o l i g n i pe re e x p l a i n s the rumour M a r i a n n e demands t o know her o r i g i n 61 M A r g a n t s ays he i s her f a t h e r CA] M a r i a n n e wants t o go back t o the c o n v e n t [ A / B ] Mme A r g a n t d i s c o v e r s her s o n ' s t h e f t and f l i g h t ; the m a r r i a g e b r o k e n o f f , her l o v e f o r h im over CA] ( V , i - i v ) the son duped by A r t h e n i c e ; humbled and r e p e n t a n t (v) Mme A r g a n t r e f u s e s t o be c o r r e c t e d by M A r g a n t — h i s bad example (v) D o l i g n i pere s u c c e e d s i n p a y i n g A r t h e n i c e o f f [A] ( V , v & v i ) r e s o l v e s t o have i t out w i t h M a r i a n n e ( v i i & v i i i ) M a r i a n n e p r o t e s t s her i n n o c e n c e ( v i i i ) and c o n f e s s e s her i d e n t i t y ( i x ) Mme A r g a n t r e c o n c i l e s w i t h d a u g h t e r ( i x ) and husband ( x ) ; pe r suaded t o f o r g i v e the s o n , i n s i s t s on the m a r r i a g e of M a r i a n n e and D o l i g n i f i I s [B] Beyond the o b v i o u s o p p o s i t i o n of Mme A r g a n t t o improvement , l i k e t h a t o f O r p h i s e i n L a Faus se a n t i p a t h i e , we no te the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h M a r i a n n e e i t h e r r e f u s e s t o a c t t o h e l p h e r s e l f , o r a c t s t o worsen her s i t u a t i o n . L a Gouvernan te Open ing s i t u a t i o n : A n g e l i q u e b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f the b a r o n n e ' s n i e c e ; she l o v e s S a i n v i l l e , the p r e s i d e n t ' s s o n , but under the i n f l u e n c e of t he m y s t e r i o u s gouve rnan t e i s c o n s i d e r i n g a r e t u r n t o the c o n v e n t . The p r e s i d e n t i s t r y i n g t o make r e p a r a t i o n f o r a bad judgment w h i c h r u i n e d a n o b l e f a m i l y , 62 a t the c o s t o f h i s own f o r t u n e ; w i s h e s t o p r o v i d e f o r h i s son w i t h a r i c h w i f e . D e g r a d a t i o n t o be a v o i d e d : A . t he f a m i l y c o n t i n u i n g i n d i s g r a c e and p o v e r t y ; the p r e s i d e n t i n g u i l t B . A n g e l i q u e no t m a r r y i n g S a i n v i l l e ; r e t u r n i n g t o the c o n v e n t w i t h the gouve rnan t e Improvement d e s i r e d : A . R e s t i t u t i o n B . M a r r i a g e o f A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e H e l p t o be a s k e d : o f t he baronne f o r t he p r e s i d e n t o f J u l i e the maid f o r A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e Towards D e g r a d a t i o n Towards Improvement S a i n v i l l e r e t u r n s , s t i l l u n s p o i l t by s o c i e t y [B] ( I , i i i ) h i s f a t h e r s u g g e s t s the r i c h m a r r i a g e [B] bu t i n a monologue S a i n v i l l e r e f u s e s IB] ( i i i ) A n g e l i q u e b r e a k s o f f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , pe r suaded by the g o u v e r n a n t e ( I , v ) the g o u v e r n a n t e wants A n g e l i q u e t o send J u l i e t t e away, t o o f a v o u r a b l e t o S a i n v i l l e ; A n g e l i q u e no t the n i e c e , o n l y a poor o r p h a n , S a i n v i l l e a s e d u c t o r . Encourages r e t u r n i n g t o the c o n v e n t [B] ( I I , i i ) t h e gouve rnan t e s u g g e s t s she i s A n g e l i q u e ' s mother 63 J u l i e t t e g i v e s A n g e l i q u e a l e t t e r f rom S a i n v i l l e [ B l ( i i i ) A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e q u a r r e l ( i v ) ; t e l l s h im s h e ' s g o i n g t o the c o n v e n t (v) S a i n v i l l e i n s i s t s on the p u r i t y o f h i s m o t i v e s the g o u v e r n a n t e , a c t i n g f o r t he b e s t , i n s i s t s on d e p a r t u r e [B] ( v i i ) t he baronne s u c c e e d s i n making the g o u v e r n a n t e c o n f e s s she i s A n g e l i q u e ' s m o t h e r . J u l i e t t e encourages A n g e l i q u e t o r e s i s t the g o u v e r n a n t e [B] ( I I I , i ) A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e s i g n t h e i r vows ( i i ) A n g e l i q u e doub t s t h e i r l e g a l i t y ; s t i l l p l a n n i n g t o l e a v e the p r e s i d e n t e x p l a i n s h i s q u e s t f o r the f a m i l y ; S a i n v i l l e i n s i s t s on r e s t i t u t i o n a t a l l c o s t [A] ( I I I , l v ) but the p r e s i d e n t a l s o i n s i s t s on the r i c h m a r r i a g e ; S a i n v i l l e c anno t r e f u s e t o h i s f ace [B] A n g e l i q u e overwhelmed by f e a r s [B] (v) The baronne o b t a i n s p r o o f t h a t the gouve rnan t e i s t he comtesse the P r e s i d e n t i s l o o k i n g f o r [A] ( v i i ) the gouve rnan t e r e f u s e s t o a c c e p t r e s t i t u t i o n CA] and t o e x p l a i n t o A n g e l i q u e [B] ( v i i i i ) 64 t h e p r e s i d e n t guesses who the g o u v e r n a n t e i s ; t h e baronne p r o m i s e s h im c o n t i n u e d h e l p [A] ( i x ) the g o u v e r n a n t e p r e s s e s f o r the c o n v e n t ; S a i n v i l l e g o i n g t o mar ry the h e i r e s s ; vows i l l e g a l ; d i s i n h e r i t a n c e i f d i o b e d i e n t t o f a t h e r [B] ( I V , i ) S a i n v i l l e r e p e a t s h i s vows t o the g o u v e r n a n t e ( i i ) the g o u v e r n a n t e r e f u s e s t o t a k e t h e i r p a r t a g a i n s t t he p r e s i d e n t ( i i ) ; shows the w r i t t e n vows t o the p r e s i d e n t ( i i i ) A n g e l i q u e blames h e r s e l f and a s k s t o be s a c r i f i c e d ( i v ) A n g e l i q u e k e p t i n the house ( V , i ) A n g e l i q u e t h r e a t e n s t o break w i t h the g o u v e r n a n t e , f o r c i n g her t o c o n f e s s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p [ A , B ] ( i i ) the gouve rnan t e c o n t i n u e s t o see the m a r r i a g e as t o o u n e q u a l , u n a c c e p t a b l e t o the p r e s i d e n t [B] ( i v & v) A n g e l i q u e canno t r e f u s e t o l e a v e w i t h her mo the r ; S a i n v i l l e d e s p e r a t e ( v i ) t he p r e s i d e n t pe r suades the g o u v e r n a n t e t o a c c e p t the m a r r i a g e as r e p a r a t i o n [ A , B ] d e s p i t e her r e p e a t e d p r o t e s t s t he baronne p r o m i s e s her e s t a t e t o the c o u p l e , g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l e q u a l i t y [B] A n g e l i q u e ' s d o u b t s and h e s i t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f her s i t u a t i o n . But the gouve rnan t e works t h r o u g h o u t the p l a y t o p r e v e n t improvement no t o n l y o f her own s i t u a t i o n bu t a l s o o f A n g e l i q u e ' s , no t a l l o w i n g improvement t o be b rough t a b o u t , by the g e n e r o s i t y o f the P r e s i d e n t and the b a r o n n e , u n t i l the l a s t s c e n e . But the baronne and J u l i e t t e do c o n t r i b u t e t o improvement ; i t i s no t p u r e l y the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f male c h a r a c t e r s . Compar i son of the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s e f i v e p l a y s b r i n g s out f i r s t t he i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f p l o t and s u b - p l o t i n La C h a u s s e e . Even i n l e P r e j u g e , where much l e s s t ime i s spen t on r e s o l v i n g S o p h i e and Damon's s i t u a t i o n , t h i s r e s o l u t i o n i s the i n e v i t a b l e l o g i c a l consequence of r e c o n c i l i n g Cons t ance and D u r v a l . E v e n t s and a c t i o n s o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n b o t h n a r r a t i v e s a t the same t i m e , as i n the r e s o l u t i o n of M e l a n i d e , where the m a r q u i s ' acknowledgment o f M e l a n i d e and D a r v i a n e a l s o s e r v e s t o p e r m i t the m a r r i a g e of D a r v i a n e and R o s a l i e . La  Gouvernan te i s r e m a r k a b l e f o r the e q u a l i t y and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the two l i n e s o f n a r r a t i v e , w h i c h can h a r d l y be r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e u n l e s s one d e c i d e s a c c o r d i n g t o the p l a y ' s t i t l e . The p r e s i d e n t e x p l i c i t l y makes r e s t i t u t i o n t o the comtesse whom he r u i n e d t h r o u g h the m a r r i a g e o f h i s son t o her d a u g h t e r ( V , v i ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e whether the gouve rnan t e has more n a r r a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e as A n g e l i q u e ' s mother or as the r u i n e d comtesse ( L a n s o n , p . 1 7 9 ) . 66 I t i s noteworthy t h a t s u b p l o t s concern c h a r a c t e r s at the same s o c i a l l e v e l as the p r o t a g o n i s t s , and u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to them. Servants, while p l a y i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , do not have t h e i r own subordinate but p a r a l l e l p l o t - l i n e s as i s common i n Marivaux' comedies of t h i s p e r i o d . The s i t u a t i o n of deg r a d a t i o n and the improvement d e s i r a b l e are u s u a l l y made c l e a r i n the f i r s t scenes, although L'Ecole uses a l l of Act I. How and from whom the necessary help i s to be obtained i s o f t e n l e f t u n c e r t a i n . Circumstances, chance, f a t e p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n b r i n g i n g about r e s o l u t i o n — t h e l e t t e r s f a l l i n g out of Constance's pocket, Damon mentioning the name S i l v i e , Melanide c a t c h i n g s i g h t of the marquis and r e c o g n i z i n g him as her husband a f t e r 18 years. C h a r a c t e r s o f t e n guess s e c r e t s r a t h e r than reason out or prove them — Damon i n La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e , Darviane i n Melanide, the p r e s i d e n t i n La Gouvernante. A c t i v e i n t e f e r e n c e i n events to promote improvement u s u a l l y takes the form of per s u a s i o n -- Damon with Durval i n Le Prejuge, Theodon with the marquis or with Darviane and R o s a l i e i n Melanide. Only r a r e l y does a c h a r a c t e r go beyond v e r b a l means, but the baronne does i n t e r c e p t documents i n order to prove t h a t the gouvernante i s the comtesse d ' A r s f l e u r s . O p p o s i t i o n to improvement can be more d i r e c t - - A n g e l i q u e kept away from S a i n v i l l e . But very o f t e n i t i s v e r b a l — Orphise c r i t i c i z i n g or d i s c o u r a g i n g Leonore, the g o u v e r n a n t e d i s s u a d i n g A n g e l i q u e . Or i t may t a k e the fo rm of a r e f u s a l t o a c t - - Mme A r g a n t r e f u s i n g t o b r i n g her d a u g h t e r ou t o f the c o n v e n t , M a r i a n n e r e f u s i n g t o demand her r i g h t s , t he gouve rnan t e r e f u s i n g t o a c c e p t r e s t i t u t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d t o the n a r r a t i v e r o l e s a t t r i b u t e d t o women, women p l a y the r o l e o f r e c e i v e r more o f t e n t h a n t h a t o f a c t o r , and when a c t i v e t h e y a r e more o f t e n an " o p p o s a n t " , a f r u s t r a t o r , t h a n an " a d j u v a n t " . Beyond the t h e a t r i c a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l maid r o l e s , w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y l i m i t e d t o e n c o u r a g i n g the h e r o i n e , t he o n l y a c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e female a d j u v a n t i n La Chaussee i s the baronne i n La  G o u v e r n a n t e , who o b t a i n s the gouve rnan t e*s c o n f e s s i o n of m a t e r n i t y and p r o o f o f t he g o u v e r n a n t e ' s i d e n t i t y . One c o u l d see i n t h i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e and n a r r a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e i n L a C h a u s s e e , w h i c h w i l l be r e - e x a m i n e d when we c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l s t a t u s of the h e r o i n e s . The r o l e o f f r u s t r a t o r , hamper ing or d e l a y i n g the d e s i r e d improvement , i s f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n t o women: O r p h i s e i m p e d i n g L e o n o r e ' s a f f a i r w i t h Damon, D o r i s e e i n s i s t i n g t h a t R o s a l i e r e f u s e D a r v i a n e , Mme A r g a n t f a v o u r i n g her son over her d a u g h t e r , the gouve rnan t e r e f u s i n g r e s t i t u t i o n and p e r s u a d i n g A n g e l i q u e t o l e a v e S a i n v i l l e f o r the c o n v e n t . We have seen t h a t the f r u s t a t o r g e n e r a l l y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the improvement o f a n o t h e r woman's s i t u a t i o n : O r p h i s e > L e o n o r e , D o r i s e e > R o s a l i e , Mme A r g a n t > M a r i a n n e , the g o u v e r n a n t e > A n g e l i q u e . But the f r u s t a t o r can a l s o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h the v i c t i m o f d e g r a d a t i o n ; women d e l a y or impede the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r own d i f f i c u l t i e s : L e o n o r e , C o n s t a n c e , S o p h i e , M a r i a n n e , R o s a l i e , A n g e l i q u e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the g o u v e r n a n t e . The r e a s o n s f o r o p p o s i t i o n t o r e s o l u t i o n a r e u s u a l l y p e r s o n a l and m o r a l : 1. Obed ience t o c o n j u g a l ( L e o n o r e , C o n s t a n c e ) , p a r e n t a l ( the g o u v e r n a n t e ) or f i l i a l ( M a r i a n n e , A n g e l i q u e , R o s a l i e ) d u t y . 2 . F e a r o f l o s i n g v i r t u e or r e p u t a t i o n ( L e o n o r e , M e l a n i d e , the g o u v e r n a n t e ) . 3 . F e a r o f g r e a t e r u n h a p p i n e s s f rom b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h a man ( S o p h i e , the gouve rnan t e f o r A n g e l i q u e ) The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s v i r t u o u s o p p o s i t i o n i s s o c i a l a m b i t i o n or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y — t h e need t o p r o v i d e f o r o n e ' s c h i l d t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e ( O r p h i s e , D o r i s e e , Mme A r g a n t ) H e r e , e x c e s s i v e a m b i t i o n i s c o r r e c t e d , but the r e a s o n a b l e d e s i r e f o r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i s r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t r u e l o v e . No one i s e v e r e v i l , o n l y s e l f i s h ( O r p h i s e ) , m i s l e d (Mme A r g a n t ) , or m i s t a k e n ( D o r i s e e , t he g o u v e r n a n t e , S o p h i e ) . No one s u f f e r s more punishment w i t h i n the p l a y s t han t e m p o r a r y embarassment and h u m i l i a t i o n (Mme A r g a n t ) . U s u a l l y r e s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s no t c o r r e c t i o n bu t the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f a p p a r e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g g o o d s — d u t y vs h a p p i n e s s . I n d i s c u s s i n g the woman as r e c e i v e r , we f i n d a l l t h r e e major p a s s i v e r o l e s a t t r i b u t e d t o female c h a r a c t e r s . They a r e i n f l u e n c e d — a d v i s e d by maids i n a l l the p l a y s bu t 69 M e l a n i d e , C o n s t a n c e by S o p h i e , R o s a l i e and A n g e l i q u e by t h e i r m o t h e r s , but a l s o o f t e n by male f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s - - G e r o n t e , Damon, M. A r g a n t f o r M a r i a n n e , her son f o r Mme A r g a n t , Theodon. They a r e b e n e f i c i a r i e s , r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a n d / o r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s - - L e o n o r e and M e l a n i d e the p o s i t i o n and w e a l t h as w i v e s l o n g d e n i e d them t h r o u g h s e p a r a t i o n s , M a r i a n n e the s t a t u s of d a u g h t e r and the dowry t o m a r r y , the gouve rnan t e and A n g e l i q u e b o t h f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l r e s t i t u t i o n t o l i v e as b e f i t s t h e i r b i r t h - - a s w e l l as e m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and r e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n c o n j u g a l or f a m i l i a l t i e s , w h i c h a r e a l l C o n s t a n c e r e c e i v e s f rom the r e s o l u t i o n o f her s i t u a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e y d e s e r v e t h e s e b e n e f i t s , as r ewards f o r t h e i r o b e d i e n c e t o d u t y (wh ich we no ted as a major o p p o s i n g or d e l a y i n g f a c t o r ) , or t h e i r g e n e r a l e x a l t e d m o r a l i t y and p a t i e n t endurance of a d v e r s i t y . Even S o p h i e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o m a r r y i n g Damon can be seen as a m e r i t o r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e s e r v i n g recompense—a d e t e r m i n a t i o n no t t o exchange her v i r t u e f o r a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n i d e a l l o v e . But t he most i m p o r t a n t n a r r a t i v e r o l e a t t r i b u t e d t o women i n L a Chaussee i s t h a t o f v i c t i m . I n each n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e a woman i s put i n a d e g r a d i n g s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h no f a u l t o f her own — n a t u r a l enough s i n c e L a C h a u s s e e ' s e x p l i c i t g o a l was t o evoke the p i t y and c o m p a s s i o n of h i s a u d i e n c e . She i s no t o n l y a p a s s i v e v i c t i m r e s c u e d by men; she a c t i v e l y r e s i s t s r e s c u e i n o r d e r t o d e l a y r e s o l u t i o n , and has t o be pe r suaded t h a t she i s 70 a l l o w e d t o be b o t h v i r t u o u s and happy . ( T h i s i s s t a t e d o v e r t l y i n La G o u v e r n a n t e ; V , v ) O n l y i n Le P r e j u g e i s t h i s s i t u a t i o n p u r e l y e m o t i o n a l , and even t h e n the improvement o f C o n s t a n c e ' s p o s i t i o n has the s o c i a l consequence of p r o m o t i n g S o p h i e and Damon's m a r r i a g e . I n the o t h e r c a s e s , t he d e g r a d a t i o n i n p r o g r e s s and the improvement d e s i r e d a r e p r a c t i c a l and s o c i a l : 1. Lack o f s o c i a l s t a t u s and i n t e r a c t i o n — L e o n o r e , M e l a n i d e , M a r i a n n e , the gouve rnan t e and A n g e l i q u e . 2 . P h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , p a s t o r f u t u r e , i n the c o u n t r y or the c o n v e n t — L e o n o r e , M a r i a n n e , M e l a n i d e , t he gouve rnan t e and A n g e l i q u e . 3 . P o v e r t y — M e l a n i d e , M a r i a n n e , the gouve rnan t e and A n g e l i q u e . The woman has t o be r e s t o r e d or i n t r o d u c e d t o her p r o p e r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y - - a s a w i f e a n d / o r m o t h e r . But t h i s p l a c e i n v o l v e s a f a i r l y e x a l t e d s o c i a l s t a t u s i n L a C h a u s s e e . W h i l e L e o n o r e , C o n s t a n c e , and Mar i anne a r e no t e x p l i c i t l y p l a c e d w i t h i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , t h e y e n j o y w e a l t h and l e i s u r e and a t l e a s t t he a c q u a i n t a n c e of n o b i l i t y . M e l a n i d e , however , i s a m a r q u i s e , and the g o u v e r n a n t e a comtesse whose daugh te r m a r r i e s the son of a " p r e s i d e n t de p a r l e m e n t " r e l a t e d t o the b a r o n n e . The s o c i a l c o n t e x t i s h a r d l y the r i s i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s . F i n a l l y , l e t us examine the r o l e o f m o r a l i n t e r p r e t e r . T h i s r o l e canno t be d e f i n e d as the c h a r a c t e r who s t a t e s the m o r a l p r i n c i p l e t o be drawn from a p a r t i c u l a r scene or 71 c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n c e a l l La C h a u s s e e ' s c h a r a c t e r s make s u c h s t a t e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , R o s e t t e t he maid i n L ' E c o l e : Le bon sens f u t t o u j o u r s ami de l a v e r t u M a l g r e l e t r a i n q u i regne en ce s i e c l e commode ( I , i v ) M A r g a n t makes no l e s s t h a n fou r s u c h m o r a l c o n c l u s i o n s i n one 1 9 - l i n e speech ( L ' E c o l e des meres ; V , v ) So we must l o o k f o r a more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n . Adam ( p . 15) g i v e s an example o f t h i s r o l e i n the c h a r a c t e r who speaks a t the end o f t he s t o r y . T h e r e f o r e we w i l l l o o k a t t he c l o s i n g l i n e s of the p l a y s . There a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f c o n c l u d i n g speeches i n the f i v e p l a y s - - b e n e d i c t i o n s on the happy c o u p l e (Geron te i n La  Fausse a n t i p a t h i e , A r g a n t i n Le P r e j u g e ) , t h a n k s g i v i n g by the happy c o u p l e ( S a i n v i l l e i n La G o u v e r n a n t e ) , and t h e n the s t a t e m e n t s o f the m o r a l l e s s o n l e a r n e d : E n f i n vous me v o y e z au comble de mes voeux En a iman t ses e n f a n s , c ' e s t soi-meme q u ' o n aime M a i s , pour j o u i r d ' u n s o r t p a r f a i t e m e n t heureux I I f a u t s ' e n f a i r e a imer de meme Comptez q u ' o n ne p a r v i e n t a ce bonheur supreme Q u ' e n p a r t a g e a n t son ame ega lement e n t r e e u x . (M A r g a n t , L ' E c o l e ; V , x) [See a l s o D u r v a l , Le P r e j u g e , V , v i ; and l e m a r q u i s , M e l a n i d e , V , i i i ] Not o n l y i s t he m o r a l l e s s o n never spoken by a woman, the f i n a l l i n e s wha tever t h e i r c o n t e n t a r e a l w a y s spoken by a man. The ex t remes o f t h i s dominance a r e i n Le P r e j u g e , 72 where C o n s t a n c e does no t speak i n the l a s t a c t , and i n L a  G o u v e r n a n t e , where the gouve rnan t e r e s i s t s the happy e n d i n g u n t i l s e v e n l i n e s f rom the e n d , and t h e n g i v e s i n t o the p r e s i d e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y . The p a s s i v i t y and even r e s i s t a n c e t y p i c a l o f women's n a r r a t i v e r o l e s i n t h e s e p l a y s , d e s p i t e t he h i g h m o r a l i t y w h i c h t h e y a l l d i s p l a y , seem t o p r e v e n t them f rom e x p r e s s i n g , or b e i n g a l l o w e d t o e x p r e s s , f i n a l m o r a l j udgmen t s . We s h o u l d no te t h a t i n a l l c a s e s but one ( S a i n v i l l e ) , the f i n a l s p e a k e r i s t he husband or the f a t h e r or b o t h , the man i n a p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y . Even S a i n v i l l e speaks no t o n l y as the g r a t e f u l son bu t a l s o as the f u t u r e husband of A n g e l i q u e and f u t u r e h e i r o f the b a r o n n e . To c o n c l u d e , i n the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e p l a y s La Chaussee r e s t r i c t s the r e s o l u t i o n of p rob lems t o men. Women can be p a s s i v e o b j e c t s , s i m p l y r e s c u e d by men. But more o f t e n t h e y seek t o p r e v e n t or d e l a y the d e s i r e d r e s o l u t i o n , and a r e t hus c o n t i n u a l l y t h w a r t e d or c o r r e c t e d or pe r suaded t o c o m p l y . Female d e s i r e s f o r c o n t r o l , as i n O r p h i s e or Mme A r g a n t , or f o r r e t r e a t f rom s o c i e t y , as i n the gouve rnan t e or M a r i a n n e , a r e d e n i e d . W i t h i n t h e s e p l o t s , t he d e s i r e d improvement i n a woman's s i t u a t i o n a l w a y s means r e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y , as a w i f e or m o t h e r . There i s o n l y one e f f e c t i v e female a d j u v a n t , t he baronne i n La G o u v e r n a n t e , and o n l y one n o n - p a r e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n between women, t h a t o f Cons t ance and S o p h i e who a r e o n l y c o u s i n s . The " l a s t word" o f t h e s e p l a y s , b o t h f i g u r a t i v e l y i n te rms o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e and l i t e r a l l y i n te rms of d i a l o g u e , i s g i v e n t o men w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n . 74 NOTES 1. Seymour Chatman, S t o r y and D i s c o u r s e : N a r r a t i v e  S t r u c t u r e i n F i c t i o n and F i l m ( I t h a c a & L o n d o n : C o r n e l l UP , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 9 2 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 2 . To the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t i n c h a p t e r I , p p . 3 9 - 4 0 , I w i l l add d ' A l e m b e r t , who c a l l s La C h a u s s e e ' s p l a y s "une e c o l e de moeurs e t de p r i n c i p e s h o n n e t e s ; e l l e s r e s p i r e n t l a v e r t u e t l a f o n t a i m e r . " " E l o g e de N i v e l l e de L a C h a u s s e e , " I I I , 393 . 3 . P i e r r e - F r a n c o i s D e s f o n t a i n e s , O b s e r v a t i o n s s u r l e s  e c r i t s modernes (Geneva : S l a t k i n e , 1 9 6 7 ) , Volume I , tome 1, p p . 25 and 27 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 4 . D e s f o n t a i n e s , O b s e r v a t i o n s Volume I V , tome 25 , p . 28 ; F r e r o n , Annee l i t t e r a i r e 1754, I I I , 9 5 ; M . T o u r n e u x , e d , C o r r e s p o n d a n c e l i t t e r a i r e I I , 334; G e o f f r o y , " L a  G o u v e r n a n t e " op . c i t , I I I , 207; F . G a i f f e , Le R i r e e t l a  scene f r a n g a i s e ( P a r i s : B o i v i n , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 1 3 7 . 5 . D e s f o n t a i n e s men t ions as the o n l y v a r i a n t n o t i c e d by a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e c r i t i c t h a t A r g a n t was D u r v a l ' s f a t h e r i n the p r o d u c t i o n and C o n s t a n c e ' s f a t h e r i n the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n ( O b s e r v a t i o n s v o l I , tome 2 , p . 6 6 ) . I . B e r n a r d i n her c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of L ' E c o l e des meres (1982) f e e l s t h a t "Les v a r i a n t e s par r a p p o r t a l ' o r i g i n a l e [ P r a u l t f i l s , 1745] y s o n t i n s i g n i f i a n t e s . . . . T o u t e s l e s v a r i a n t e s s o n t men t ionnees en bas de l a p a g e . " ( p . 24) Of the 40 such 75 v a r i a n t s , h a l f d e a l w i t h o r t h o g r a p h y , p u n c t u a t i o n , and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s . The 1762 S a b l i e r e d i t i o n has the most v a r i a n t s ; S a b l i e r a c t e d as a modern e d i t o r , no t s i m p l y a p r o o f r e a d e r . 6 . A c c o r d i n g t o the examples g i v e n by Adam, p p . 2 7 - 2 9 . 7 . C . Bremond, L o g i q u e du r e c i t ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 1 2 . A d a p t i o n s f rom t h e a t r e t o f i l m or f rom s t o r y t o b a l l e t , f o r e x a m p l e . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o Bremond w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 8. R o b e r t S c h o l e s f i n d s t h i s a major f a u l t i n Bremond ' s a p p r o a c h : S t r u c t u r a l i s m i n L i t e r a t u r e : An  I n t r o d u c t i o n (New Haven & L o n d o n : Y a l e UP, 1 9 7 4 ) , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 . However , the same o b j e c t i o n can be made t o any f u n c t i o n a l l a b e l : a d v e r b , p r e p o s i t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n , e t c . C u l l e r , i n S t r u c t u r a l i s t P o e t i c s (London : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1 9 7 5 ) , does no t comment on Bremond ' s v o c a b u l a r y or s c h e m a t i c t e c h n i q u e . C u l l e r i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r g u i n g a g a i n s t Bremond ' s r e f u s a l t o d e t e r m i n e f u n c t i o n t e l e o l o g i c a l l y , f rom the end r e s u l t back t o the a c t i o n , i n s t e a d w o r k i n g f o r w a r d s , l o o k i n g a t w h i c h p o s s i b l e r e s u l t o f the a c t i s chosen (pp . 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 ) . C u l l e r c l a s s e s t h e s e u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f p l o t , moments i n the n a r r a t i v e where the f u n c t i o n of an a c t i o n i s u n c l e a r , as f a l l i n g under the " h e r m e n e u t i c " r a t h e r t h a n " p r o a i r e t i c " c o d e , under meaning r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r e (pp . 2 1 0 - 2 1 1 ) . 76 CHAPTER I I I - TEXTUAL ANALYSIS In t h i s chapter, we w i l l analyse the female c h a r a c t e r s of La Chaussee i n terms of d i s c o u r s e r a t h e r than of r o l e or f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e : how much i s s a i d by them and what i s s a i d about and/or by them. In the q u a n t i t a t i v e study, the s i t u a t i o n of d i s c o u r s e : monologue, a l l - f e m a l e d i a l o g u e , mixed d i a l o g u e w i l l be i n c l u d e d , as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of a l l - m a l e to a l l - f e m a l e scenes i n each p l a y . F u r t h e r , we w i l l look f o r the two extremes of female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n mixed d i s c o u r s e : the woman's s i l e n t presence and her domination of d i a l o g u e , with the s i t u a t i o n s i n which each occur. L a s t l y i n t h i s area, we w i l l seek to r e v e a l any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h a r a c t e r s which seems to a f f e c t the d i v i s i o n of d i a l o g u e l i n e s , i . e . m o t h e r / c h i l d , wife/husband, mald/mlstress. Then we w i l l t u r n to what i s s a i d about women--by themselves, each other, and male c h a r a c t e r s . Here d i s c o u r s e about women f a l l s i n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t i s the feminine s i t u a t i o n , t h a t i s , the p o s i t i o n of women i n the s o c i e t y presented with regard to marriage, motherhood and f a m i l y . S p e c i a l c a s e s — t h e unvirtuous woman, the u n - c h a r a c t e r i z e d female c h a r a c t e r , the " b l o c k i n g " c h a r a c t e r w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . The second i s the nature of the heroines themselves: c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , m o t i v a t i o n s , g o a l s . QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s i n d i c a t e l i n e s per scene per c h a r a c t e r . La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e (3 a c t s ) [1] A l l - f e m a l e scenes monologue I , 11 2 N e r i n e I I , i v 3 N e r i n e v i i 18 N e r i n e I I I , i 4 O r p h i s e d i a l o g u e N 6 r i n e Leonore O r p h i s e I , i i i 52 45 i v 2 8 .5 53 v 11 8.5 v i i 3 14 I I , i 2 . 5 1.5 i i 0 3 0 . 5 31 i i i 8 .5 2 8 . 5 i x .5 49 41 A l l - m a l e scenes - - monologue (no d i a l o g u e ) I I , v 19 Damon I I , x i 9 Geron te 78 M i x e d d i a l o g u e N e r i n e L e o n o r e O r p h i s e Ge ron te Damon F r o n t i n I i 4 3 . 5 24 v i 11 7 42 v i i i 6 .5 2 1 . 5 I I v i 1 5 . 5 1 0 . 5 v i i i 1.5 35 x 19 32 I I I i i 12 35 i i i 11 2 3 . 5 0 i v - v .5 52 8 11 1 9 . 5 1 v i 0 8 1 15 8 .5 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s There a r e many more a l l - f e m a l e t h a n a l l - m a l e s c e n e s . O r p h i s e ' s dominance i n d i a l o g u e over Leonore d e c l i n e s [ 1 ] . O r p h i s e i s a l w a y s domina ted i n number o f l i n e s by her husband G e r o n t e . Damon domina t e s i n h i s scenes w i t h Leonore e x c e p t I I I , i v - v , w h i c h i s her r e n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e . A f t e r t h i s s c e n e , L e o n o r e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i a l o g u e d r o p s o f f d r a m a t i c a l l y . N e r i n e the maid has 3 mono logues , and a good d e a l o f d i a l o g u e i n scenes w i t h Leonore a n d / o r Damon. T h i s p r o p o r t i o n d e c l i n e s as the p l a y p r o g r e s s e s , and f u r t h e r m o r e N e r i n e t ends t o be v i r t u a l l y s i l e n t w i t h O r p h i s e and / o r G e r o n t e , her e m p l o y e r s . L e o n o r e and Damon never have a scene a l o n e t o g e t h e r . 79 Le P r e j u g e a l a mode (5 a c t s ) A l l - f e m a l e scenes monologue I i , I V i i , V i v 26 Cons t ance IV i v , v , V i i i 50 F l o r i n e d i a l o g u e Cons t ance Soph ie F l o r i n e I , v 7 39 v i 1 2 . 5 1.5 17 v i i 6 .5 6 1 1 . 5 I V , i 5 1 i i i 17 43 A l l - m a l e s c e n e s , monologues and d i a l o g u e s : 22 scenes t o t a l l i n g 851 l i n e s 80 M i x e d d i a l o g u e A c t I I I I V i i i i i v v i i i i i i i i i x i x i i F l o r i n e 11 S o p h i e 36 1 4 . 5 5 6 . 5 C o n s t a n c e 16 34 0 1 9 . 5 1 3 . 5 10 19 5 .5 D u r v a l 45 35 . 5 2 17 10 Damon 40 2 . 5 3 . 5 106 1 A r g a n t 100 58 12 C l i t a n d r e 17 . 5 Damis 2 . 5 A c t I V V x i i i i i V v i F l o r i n e 7 .5 . 5 .5 S o p h i e 1 6 . 5 3 C o n s t a n c e 3 1 0 1 . 5 0 D u r v a l 9 . 5 108 6 Damon 0 6 2 A r g a n t 9 .5 8 .5 C I i t a n d r e Damis A n a l y s i s : There a r e h a l f the number o f a l l - f e m a l e as a l l - m a l e s c e n e s , w i t h l e s s t han o n e - t h i r d the number o f l i n e s . O m i t t i n g V , v , female c h a r a c t e r s speak l e s s t h a n h a l f 81 the l i n e s i n mixed d i a l o g u e . In her l o n g e s t s c e n e , C o n s t a n c e speaks j u s t l e s s t h a n h a l f t he t o t a l l i n e s . In the f o l l o w i n g s c e n e , she i s p r e s e n t but s i l e n t . Cons t ance i s a l m o s t a l w a y s domina ted i n p r o p o r t i o n of l i n e s , a l l - f e m a l e as w e l l as m i x e d . F l o r i n e the maid has more l i n e s o f monologue t h a n C o n s t a n c e , but her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i a l o g u e d e c l i n e s as the p l a y p r o g r e s s e s . M e l a n i d e (5 a c t s ) A l l - f e m a l e scenes monologue d i a l o g u e I I I , i 18 R o s a l i e 1,1 21 M e l a n i d e 79 D o r i s e e i i i 2 R o s a l i e I V , i v 6 M e l a n i d e A l l - m a l e s c e n e s , monologues and d i a l o g u e s : 14 scenes t o t a l l i n g 443 .5 l i n e s 82 M i x e d d i a l o g u e A c t I I I I I I i i i v i i i v v i i i D o r i s e e 2 6 . 5 R o s a l i e 53 2 38 M e l a n i d e 52 8 9 . 5 26 3 .5 D a r v i a n e 28 7 8 . 5 5 8 . 5 Theodon 42 6 1.5 the m a r q u i s A c t I I I IV V i v i i i i i i v i i i D o r i s e e 2 .5 R o s a l i e 8 0 M e l a n i d e 67 1 1 1 . 5 6 5 . 5 2 6 . 5 D a r v i a n e 24 19 1 Theodon 27 41 .5 5 .5 0 the m a r q u i s 27 .5 A n a l y s i s : There a r e l e s s t h a n one t h i r d as many a l l - f e m a l e as a l l - m a l e s c e n e s , h a v i n g j u s t over a q u a r t e r as many l i n e s . M e l a n i d e o f t e n has c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i n e s t h a n the male c h a r a c t e r i n a s c e n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h D a r v i a n e her son where i t i s t w i c e or t h r e e t i m e s the number. Even i n the l a s t s c e n e , she i s v i r t u a l l y e q u a l w i t h her husband the m a r q u i s . R o s a l i e i s a l w a y s d o m i n a t e d — b y D a r v i a n e , by her mo the r , by Theodon . She i s p r e s e n t bu t c o m p l e t e l y s i l e n t i n 8 3 the l a s t scene where her m a r r i a g e t o D a r v i a n e i s d e c i d e d . L ' E c o l e des meres (5 a c t s ) A l l - f e m a l e scenes monologue I V v i 3 M a r i a n n e V i v 1 0 . 5 Mme A r g a n t d i a l o g u e R o s e t t e M a r i a n n e Mme A r g a n t I I i i 55 .5 1 9 . 5 I V v i i 18 7 V i i i 5 58 .5 v i i i 4 1 . 5 3 8 . 5 A l l - m a l e : 9 s cenes t o t a l l i n g 575 l i n e s . 84 M i x e d d i a l o g u e A c t I I I i i i i i i v i i i i i i v - v i R o s e t t e 4 47 .5 40 .5 1 M a r i a n n e Mme A r g a n t 3 .5 64 9 .5 M A r g a n t 48 l e m a r q u i s 2 7 . 5 4 48 1 3 . 5 D o l i g n i f i l s 35 4 . 5 D o l i g n i pe re 7 A c t I I I I I v i i i x - x i i i i i i v v - v i R o s e t t e M a r i a n n e 3 8 . 5 2 9 . 5 2 0 Mme A r g a n t 32 40 4 1 0 . 5 M A r g a n t 12 29 17 4 5 . 5 20 .5 19 l e m a r q u i s 2 9 . 5 D o l i g n i f i l s 2 D o l i g n i pe re 85 R o s e t t e Mar i anne Mme A r g a n t M A r g a n t l e ma rqu i s D o l i g n i f i l s D o l i g n i pere A c t I I I v i i v m - i x 3 5 5 2 17 1.5 20 3 .5 IV V i i v v i i i - i x i i 7 3 .5 64 6 3 . 5 [ v a l e t , 8] 48 3 5 . 5 9 .5 A c t V i i i R o s e t t e M a r i a n n e [ v a l e t , 1 ] Mme A r g a n t 3 M A r g a n t l e ma rqu i s D o l i g n i f i l s D o l i g n i pere v l - v i i 3 0 . 5 .5 5 6 . 5 4 . 5 i x 6 .5 8 16 17 9 6 1 0 A n a l y s i s : A l l - m a l e s cenes s t i l l p r edomina t e o v e r a l l - f e m a l e , but by a l e s s e r d e g r e e . M a r i a n n e i s domina ted by her mo the r , her b r o t h e r , R o s e t t e , and D o l i g n i f i l s , bu t can be e q u a l or even dominant i n s cenes w i t h her f a t h e r . She a l s o has a r e c o g n i t i o n scene w i t h her mother where the p r o p o r t i o n o f d i a l o g u e i s a l m o s t e q u a l . 86 Mme A r g a n t i s dominant ove r her son i n a l l s c e n e s , bu t i n o n l y a t h i r d o f t h o s e w i t h her husband , a l t h o u g h he i s p r e s e n t e d as h e n - p e c k e d . A l t h o u g h R o s e t t e has fewer scenes (8 t o 1 4 ) , she has a h i g h e r ave rage number o f l i n e s t h a n M a r i a n n e . Her s i t u a t i o n of d i s c o u r s e i s a g a i n w i t h M a r i a n n e or w i t h D o l i g n i f i l s t he s u i t o r , no t i n f r o n t o f Mme A r g a n t . M a r i a n n e and D o l i g n i f i l s never have a scene a l o n e t o g e t h e r . L a Gouvernan te (5 a c t s ) A l l - f e m a l e scenes monologue I I i 16 the Gouvernan te V i i 6 J u l i e t t e d i a l o g u e J u l i e t t e A n g e l i q u e the gouve rnan t e the baronne I i 6 2 . 5 22 I I i i 52 .5 93 i i i 52 24 v i i 34 24 I I I i 12 11 v i 4 1 1 v i i 16 38 IV 1 5 8 . 5 109 V i i i 1.5 .5 i v 48 42 A l l - m a l e s c e n e s : 3 s c e n e s , monologue and d i a l o g u e , t o t a l l i n g 278 l i n e s . M i x e d d i a l o g u e A c t I I I I I I i i v i v v i i - i i i v J u l i e t t e 31 9 .5 1 1 . 5 baronne 1 7 . 5 A n g e l i q u e 6 .5 18 2 3 . 5 g o u v e r n a n t e S a i n v i l l e 41 1 2 . 5 4 4 . 5 81 1 p r e s i d e n t 59 i v 1 5 . 5 36 33 A c t V i v v i J u l i e t t e 1 2 . 5 baronne 5 .5 A n g e l i q u e 3 .5 .5 g o u v e r n a n t e 4 4 S a i n v i l l e 5 .5 1 1 . 5 7 p r e s i d e n t 13 A c t I I I v i i i J u l i e t t e baronne 2 A n g e l i q u e g o u v e r n a n t e 27 S a i n v i l l e p r e s i d e n t 1 7 . 5 I V i x i i i i i 5 14 0 19 4 49 4 .5 11 2 .5 A n a l y s i s : There a r e f o u r t i m e s as many a l l - f e m a l e as a l l - m a l e s c e n e s , w i t h about 2 .5 t i m e s as many l i n e s . A n g e l i q u e i s domina t ed i n a l l s c e n e s - - b y J u l i e t t e , the g o u v e r n a n t e and S a i n v i l l e — e x c e p t t he r e c o g n i t i o n scene w i t h her mother i n w h i c h she i s a l m o s t e q u a l . She has one scene of s i l e n t p r e sence and i s r educed t o h a l f a l i n e i n t he f i n a l s c e n e . J u l i e t t e domina t e s over A n g e l i q u e and S a i n v i l l e , bu t r a r e l y appea r s w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . The b a r o n n e , whose h e l p i s n e c e s s a r y t o p l o t r e s o l u t i o n , i s d o m i n a t e d i n d i s c o u r s e by b o t h the p r e s i d e n t and the g o u v e r n a n t e . T h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f d i s c o u r s e y i e l d s s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The " jeune p r e m i e r e " h e r o i n e , s u c h as R o s a l i e or M a r i a n n e , has on the whole l e s s t o s a y t h a n the o l d e r h e r o i n e who has the s t a t u s o f w i f e and or mo the r , s u c h as M e l a n i d e or t he g o u v e r n a n t e . W i v e s , even n o n - h e r o i n e s l i k e O r p h i s e or Mme A r g a n t , on the whole do not exceed e q u a l i t y i n d i s c o u r s e ; C o n s t a n c e a t t a i n s i t i n o n l y one s c e n e . The p o s i t i o n of mother g i v e s a female c h a r a c t e r the most dominance i n d i a l o g u e , as w i t h M e l a n i d e or t he g o u v e r n a n t e , but i n t e r e s t i n g l y so does t h a t o f d a u g h t e r - - M a r i a n n e w i t h M A r g a n t . M a i d s have a good d e a l o f d i a l o g u e , bu t i n monologue , a l l - f e m a l e d i a l o g u e , or w i t h the s u i t o r . They appear much more r a r e l y and speak l e s s i n o t h e r mixed s c e n e s , and l e s s i n l a t e r a c t s t h a n the o p e n i n g o n e s . Y e t t h e y s t i l l can have as many or more l i n e s per scene as a h e r o i n e . S i l e n t p r e s e n c e o f a h e r o i n e i s e s p e c i a l l y t y p i c a l 89 of the l a s t scene o f a p l a y . A h e r o i n e u s u a l l y has one s c e n e — r e c o n c i l i a t i o n or r e c o g n i t i o n — i n w h i c h she i s a t l e a s t e q u a l i n mixed d i a l o g u e . The e x c e p t i o n s here a r e M e l a n i d e , who a l w a y s domina t e s over her son D a r v i a n e , and M a r i a n n e , who can domina te over her f a t h e r . The o t h e r p a r e n t / c h i l d r e c o g n i t i o n s a r e s ame-sex : Mme A r g a n t and M a r i a n n e , t he gouve rnan t e and A n g e l i q u e . L o o k i n g a t the p l a y s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , t h e r e i s no t a n o t i c e a b l e d e c l i n e i n the number o f l i n e s g i v e n t o m a i d s . The o n l y p l a y w h i c h l a c k s t h i s t y p e of c h a r a c t e r i s M e l a n i d e ( 1 7 4 1 ) . L a Gouvernan te (1747) has J u l i e t t e , w i t h 10 s c e n e s , 26 .4 l i n e s / s c e n e a l l - f e m a l e and 1 3 . 4 i n m i x e d , p l u s 6 l i n e s o f monologue . [ A n g e l i q u e has 16 s c e n e s , 3 0 . 1 a l l - f e m a l e , 9 . 1 m i x e d , and no m o n o l o g u e ] . F l o r i n e i n Le  P r e j u g e has o n l y 7 s c e n e s , 1 8 . 1 l i n e s / s c e n e a l l - f e m a l e and 9 .1 mixed p l u s 50 l i n e s monologue . N e r i n e i n La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e has 11 s c e n e s , 10 l i n e s / s c e n e a l l - f e m a l e , 1 1 . 2 mixed and 22 l i n e s monologue . But t h e r e does seem t o be an i n c r e a s i n g number o f l i n e s per scene g i v e n t o women and an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l - f e m a l e t o a l l - m a l e s c e n e s . However , the s u b m i s s i o n of female c h a r a c t e r s t o male or female a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s — m o t h e r , " a d o p t e d " m o t h e r , m i s t r e s s or mas te r o f the hous e , husband , f a t h e r — r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t , as d e m o n s t r a t e d by l e s s e n e d speech or even s i l e n c e . The f i n a l scene i s u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no c o n t r i b u t i o n f rom the female c h a r a c t e r ( s ) whose f u t u r e i s b e i n g d e c i d e d . T h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r speech i s a p p a r e n t l y e x h a u s t e d by the p r e c e d i n g r e c o g n i t i o n or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s c e n e , w h i c h was t y p i c a l l y t h e i r one i n s t a n c e of c l e a r e q u a l i t y or dominance i n d i a l o g u e over t h a t c h a r a c t e r . 91 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS The second p a r t of d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s what i s s a i d by and about women. The two main c a t e g o r i e s of d i s c o u r s e a r e : (a) the s i t u a t i o n of women (which w i l l i n c l u d e the "adjuvant" and "opposant" female c h a r a c t e r s ) , and (b) the c h a r a c t e r of the he r o i n e . Not o n l y what i s s a i d but a l s o by whom becomes r e l e v a n t h e r e — s t a t e m e n t s and judgments by male c h a r a c t e r s w i l l be compared to how the female c h a r a c t e r s t a l k about themselves and each other, the judgments, defenses and behaviors they a t t r i b u t e to themselves. In a l l cases, i t must be remembered t h a t a male author i s w r i t i n g d i a l o g u e f o r h i s invented c h a r a c t e r s , male and female. T h i s can permit a more s u b t l e form of propaganda, a l l o w i n g the play w r i g h t to d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from the message he wishes to convey, or to make a d i d a c t i c statement more a p p e a l i n g to women to women by us i n g a female r a t h e r than male c h a r a c t e r to l e c t u r e . I f these p l a y s were w r i t t e n to appeal to women, as i s o f t e n argued, we should examine why and how d i d La Chaussee seek to accomplish t h i s g o a l , t h a t i s , what kind of heroine was thought to appeal to women as an i d e a l ? When male c h a r a c t e r s t a l k about the female sex as a whole, they are u s u a l l y unfavourable i n t h e i r judgment: La femme e s t une espece a qui r i e n ne ressemble. C'est tout bien ou tout mal, & tous l e s deux 92 e n s e m b l e . . . . C ' e s t t o u j o u r s a l ' e x t r e m e otii son penchan t l a g u i d e . . . . Une femme a t o u t age e s t un e n f a n t g a t e . ( G e r o n t e , La Faus se a n t i p a t h i e ; I I I , i i ) S p e c i f i c a l l y , women a re "des enfans m u t i n s e t v o l o n t a i r e s " ( D o l i g n i p e r e , L ' E c o l e des meres ; I I I , i ) . They a r e q u i c k t o f o r g e t p a s t b e n e f i t s i n f a v o u r o f p r e s e n t d i s c o n t e n t s (M A r g a n t , L ' E c o l e ; I I , v i i ) . A l t h o u g h t h e y d i s l i k e each o t h e r , p r e s u m a b l y i n c o n t r a s t t o male s o l i d a r i t y , t h e y w i l l band t o g e t h e r t o de fend a women a c c u s e d by a man ( A r g a n t , Le  P r e j u g e ; I V , x i v ) A woman i s a l s o prone t o s e l f - d r a m a t i z a t i o n ( F r o n t i n , L a Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i ) and u n r e a l i s t i c g o a l s ( G e r o n t e ; o p . c i t . ; I I , x i ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o a t t a c k i n g men who a c c u s e them, women l o v e t o to rmen t men over whom t h e y have power t h r o u g h a r o m a n t i c a t t a c h e m e n t (Le P r e j u g e ; I I , i v ) . D u r v a l sees h i s l o v e f o r C o n s t a n c e as an " a b a i s s e m e n t " , and f o r e s e e s her d o m i n a t i n g and h u m i l i a t i n g h i m : " P l u s j e v a i s employer de f o i b l e s s e e t d ' amour / E t p l u s son a s c e n d a n t c r o i t r a de j o u r en j o u r . " ( I I , i ) Not s u p r i s i n g l y men r e a c t w i t h d e n i a l o f t h i s power and contempt f o r women i n the game of romance: E l l e s n ' a l l u m e n t p o i n t de v e r i t a b l e s f eux E t l ' o n e s t l e u r amant sans en e t r e amoureux. ( l e m a r q u i s , L ' E c o l e ; I I , i i i ) [ E l l e ] aux depens de bon sens anime ses p r o p o s , E t s u r t o u t avec a r t d i s t r i b u e a p ropos Une o e i l l a d e t r a i t r e s s e , un s o u r i s i n f i d e l e . 93 ( S a i n v i l l e , L a G o u v e r n a n t e ; I , i i i ) The a l l e g e d l a c k of s o l i d a r i t y among women i s borne ou t t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . O r p h i s e t e l l s L e o n o r e , "Une femme, a v o t r e age , / N ' a i m e guere a j o u e r un second p e r s o n n a g e . " (La  Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , i i ) . J u l i e t t e w o r r i e s t h a t the baronne w i l l no t s u p p o r t A n g e l i q u e a g a i n s t t he g o u v e r n a n t e : "Souven t au d e c l i n des beaux j o u r s , / N o t r e sexe p rend moins l e p a r t i des a m o u r s . " (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; V , i ) . Love or l o y a l t y between women i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r , maid and m i s t r e s s . Even C o n s t a n c e and S o p h i e a r e r e l a t e d , and S o p h i e l i v e s under C o n s t a n c e ' s r o o f . The c a m a r a d e r i e o f women i s p r e s e n t e d , but as somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l : On p a r l e , on c a u s e , on j a s e , on c a q u e t t e , on b a b i l l e , E t 1 'on r i t b i e n souven t sans t r o p s a v o i r p o u r q u o i . ( R o s e t t e , L ' E c o l e ; I , i i i ) Female c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n b r i n g out the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f women t o u n h a p p i n e s s ( N e r i n e , Le Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , i i i & v i i ) , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o b e i n g made unhappy by men ( J u l i e t t e ; L a G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I , v ) . Women's supposed i n a b i l i t y t o be f a i t h f u l i s e x c u s e d as an i n n a t e f l a w : " E s t - c e que n o t r e coeur a des f o r c e s de r e s t e ? " ( J u l i e t t e , op c i t ; I , v ) . D u r v a l , on the o t h e r hand , sees t h i s weakness no t as e x c u s a b l e but as c r i m i n a l (Le P r e j u g e ; I I , i x ) . However , female c h a r a c t e r s do a l s o de fend t h e i r sex a g a i n s t a c c u s a t i o n s o f i n d i s c r e t i o n ( R o s e t t e , L ' E c o l e ; I , i i i ) , c o q u e t t r y : "Nous pouvons a bon t i t r e en d i r e a u t a n t 94 de v o u s . " ( l o c . c i t . ) , and s e l f - p i t y : On c r o i t nous f a i r e g r a c e en nous f a i s a n t p l e u r e r . On ne c o n v i e n t j a m a i s des c h a g r i n s q u ' o n nous donne . On c r o i t que dans nos c o e u r s l e p l a i s i r s ' e m p o i s o n n e . Que l e sexe se f a i t lu i -meme son t o u r m e n t . ( F l o r i n e , Le P r e j u g e ; I V , i i i ) I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s or d e f e n s e s o f the female c o n d i t i o n a r e spoken by the m a i d s , and t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e f e r e n c e s from M e l a n i d e w h i c h l a c k s a s u i v a n t e c h a r a c t e r . T h i s may be r e l a t e d t o c l a s s p r e j u d i c e s . A maid i s no t a l l o w e d t o t a l k abou t h e r s e l f on s t a g e , any more t h a n she would i n the r e a l w o r l d w h i l e w o r k i n g . But as a p u r e l y f u n c t i o n a l n o n - i n d i v i d u a l , she i s the p e r f e c t mou thp iece f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s abou t the female c o n d i t i o n . L a Chaussee by no means i n v e n t e d t h i s k i n d o f s u i v a n t e who comments on p e o p l e and s i t u a t i o n s ; Lanson s a y s i t i s a g e n e r a l deve lopment i n comic t h e a t r e a f t e r the d e a t h of L o u i s X I V ( p . 1 1 4 ) . When a male c h a r a c t e r d i s c u s s e s a s p e c i f i c female c h a r a c t e r r a t h e r t h a n the sex i t s e l f , he t ends t o be l e s s c r i t i c a l . Ge ron te does a t t a c k L e o n o r e ' s s c r u p l e s about a n n u l l i n g her m a r r i a g e as "un exces q u i me b l e s s e " (La  Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; 1 1 1 , 1 1 ) , and a c c u s e s her of w i l f u l l y r e f u s i n g h a p p i n e s s ( I I I , i i i ) . Damon p o i n t s out the i l l o g i c of her r e f u s a l , w h i c h w i l l no t p r e v e n t h im from a n n u l l i n g h i s m a r r i a g e ( I I , v i i i ) . Bu t o v e r t c r i t i c i s m does no t r e c u r u n t i l S a i n v i l l e c a l l s A n g e l i q u e ' s h e s i t i o n t o d e c l a r e h e r s e l f and s i g n the vow i n c o n s t a n c y (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I I , i i ) . A female c h a r a c t e r i s o f t e n no t d e s c r i b e d beyond her b e a u t y ( D a r v i a n e on M e l a n i d e — I V , v i ; M A r g a n t on M a r i a n n e - - L ' E c o l e ; I I , v i i i ) . We l e a r n n o t h i n g o f h e i g h t or c o l o u r i n g , but t he nouns used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e her a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f how men v i e w women. M A r g a n t c a l l s Mar i anne a dea r v i c t i m ( o p . c i t . ; I l l , i ) ; D o l i g n i f i l s c a l l s her " l ' o b j e t que j ' a d o r e " ( I I I , v i i i ) , a ph rase t a k e n up by S a i n v i l l e , "un o b j e t s i cha rmant" (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I V , i v ; c f a l s o Theodon on M e l a n i d e , I V , i and D u r v a l on Cons t ance " l ' o b j e t q u i l ' e n c h a n t e " Le P r e j u g e I I , i i ) . S a i n v i l l e a l s o l i k e s t o c a l l h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o A n g e l i q u e "une c h a i n e " ( o p . c i t . ; I l l , i i and I V , i v ) . Female p a s s i v i t y and male p o s s e s s i v e n e s s a r e made e x p l i c i t by D u r v a l : R e t r o u v e r a i - j e encor sa p r e m i e r e t e n d r e s s e , C e t t e c o n f o r m i t e , c e t t e meme f o i b l e s s e , Ce penchant n a t u r e l . . . (Le P r e j u g e ; I I I , v i i ) and S a i n v i l l e : "Le c i e l a p r i s p l a i s i r a l a former pour m o i . " ( M e l a n i d e ; I , i v ) As a p a s s i v e o b j e c t d e s i r e d and c o n t r o l l e d by men, a woman had few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r independence i n t h e s e p l a y s . L a Chaussee o f f e r s women the c h o i c e between the conven t and m a r r i a g e ( s t a t e d o v e r t l y by D o r i s e e , M e l a n i d e ; I I , v i ) . A woman's l i f e c o u l d h o l d b o t h , and b o t h a r e d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y . The c o n v e n t i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d as a d e s i r a b l e r e f u g e . M a r i a n n e a s k s r e p e a t e d l y t o go back t o 96 he r s ( L ' E c o l e ; I I , i x ; I V , v , v i i , v i i i , i x ) . Mme A r g a n t f e e l s a d a u g h t e r b rough t up t h e r e would p r e f e r t o s t a y ( o p . c i t . I I , v i i and I I I , i i i ) . She seems a l e s s d r a c o n i a n c h a r a c t e r when we r e a d i n F r e r o n t h a t her b e h a v i o u r was common i n w e a l t h y or a m b i t i o u s f a m i l i e s (1754 , I I I , 1 4 7 ) . A n g e l i q u e d e s i r e s t o r e t u r n when she b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f d e s e r t e d by S a i n v i l l e (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I , i ) . The gouve rnan t e o f t e n p r e s e n t s the c l o i s t e r e d l i f e as f a r s u p e r i o r t o the u n c e r t a i n t i e s and u n h a p p i n e s s o f l i f e i n s o c i e t y ( I I , i ; I V , i ) , as she c o u n s e l s A n g e l i q u e , "Dans l e s e i n de l ' o u b l l c h e r c h o n s un s o r t p l u s d o u x . / Abandonnons l e monde." ( V , i v ) . The conven t i s p r e s e n t e d here no t under the metaphor o f s h e l t e r o r home, but of a mother w e l c o m i n g her d a u g h t e r s . Note a l s o t h a t c o n v e n t l i f e i s no t p r e s e n t e d as a c t i v e and u s e f u l , the c l o s e s t many women c o u l d come t o a c a r e e r , bu t s i m p l y as w i t h d r a w a l f rom s o c i e t y . L a Chaussee o m i t s the h o s p i t a l s , t he s c h o o l s , the s o c i a l w e l f a r e work r u n by nuns t o m e n t i o n o n l y the c l o i s t e r and t o make i t a k i n d o f d e a t h - i n - l i f e . However , the conven t i s the o n l y r e s p e c t a b l e r e s i d e n c e f o r a woman w i t h o u t a husband or a f a t h e r t o s h e l t e r h e r , i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t her r e p u t a t i o n or v i r t u e . Leonore s e q u e s t e r e d h e r s e l f i n one a f t e r her husband f l e d ab road (La  Faus se a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i ) . O r p h i s e i n s i s t s she wou ld have t o r e t u r n t h e r e i f she r e f u s e d t o go back t o her husband ( I I I , i v ) . The gouve rnan t e i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t r e t r e a t t o a c o n v e n t i s t h e o n l y way t o p r o t e c t A n g e l i q u e ' s v i r t u e f rom 97 S a i n v i l l e ' s s e d u c t i o n , whether or no t she wou ld be happy t h e r e ( I I , i i and v i i ) . L e o n o r e , w h i l e no t w i s h i n g t o r e t u r n t o the c o n v e n t , sees r e t r e a t and s e c l u s i o n as her o n l y p r o t e c t i o n f rom her a t t r a c t i o n t o Damon ( I , v i i ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h a t f e e l i n g seems t o l e a d her i n t o a d u l t e r y ( I I , i x ) . Of c o u r s e , d e a t h i s the u l t i m a t e r e t r e a t f rom w o r l d l y c a r e s , no t found by any of t h e s e h e r o i n e s bu t o f t e n men t ioned as a l i k e l y r e s u l t o f t h e i r u n h a p p i n e s s ( L e o n o r e , op . c i t . , I , v i i ; C o n s t a n c e , Le  P r e j u g e ; V , v ; M e l a n i d e ; I I , i i i and I V , i ) . O n l y s u i v a n t e s d i s p a r a g e conven t l i f e as d e p r e s s i n g and f r u s t r a t i n g , s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r o l d or s o l i t a r y women: F l o r i n e i n Le P r e j u g e V , i i i and J u l i e t t e i n L a Gouvernan te I , i . The baronne r e c o i l s f rom f o r c i n g A n g e l i q u e i n t o one , bu t no t f rom the c h o i c e o f s u c h a l i f e ( op . c i t . , I I , v i i ) . However , t he o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e , m a r r i a g e , i s by no means i d e a l i z e d . L e o n o r e , f o r e x a m p l e , was f o r c e d by her mother t o wed p u r e l y out o f f a m i l y i n t e r e s t (La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i ) . Her supposed widowhood i s d e s c r i b e d as the end o f en s l avemen t ( l o c . c i t . ) . O r p h i s e d e s c r i b e s m a r r i a g e as a yoke t o w h i c h women a re c h a i n e d , and from w h i c h o n l y d e a t h f r e e s them ( o p . c i t ; I I , i x ) . S o p h i e r e f u s e s m a r r i a g e because i t i s "un engagement / Dont son sexe e s t l ' i n n o c e n t e v i c t i m e " (Le P r e j u g e ; I , i ) . The m a r q u i s f o r e s e e s h i s p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e as b e i n g b u r i e d a l i v e i n boredom ( L ' E c o l e ; I V , i ) . M a r r i e d l i f e i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d as the g r a d u a l r e p l a c e m e n t o f a f f e c t i o n by 9 8 q u a r r e l s : Ge ron te and O r p h i s e (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , x ) , A r g a n t (Le P r e j u g e ; I , i i i ) , M and Mme A r g a n t ( L ' E c o l e ; I I , v i i ) . R i d i c u l e i s d i r e c t e d towards t h o s e c o u p l e s who would seek t o p r e s e r v e a f f e c t i o n i n m a r r i a g e , and no t o n l y i n Le Pr6juge where t h i s i s the f a s h i o n a b l e p r e j u d i c e t o be ove rcome . Ge ron te r e p r o v e s O r p h i s e f o r b e i n g f o o l i s h l y a f f e c t i o n a t e a f t e r so many y e a r s o f m a r r i a g e (La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , x ) . Cons t ance and D u r v a l o n l y hope t h e i r example w i l l overcome the p r e j u d i c e : "Non , i l n ' e s t pas p o s s i b l e / Q u ' u n p r e j u g e s i faux s o i t t o u j o u r s i n v i n c i b l e . " ( V , v i ) . Le P r e j u g e i s v e r y c l e a r on the r a r e d e l i g h t s o f l o v i n g o n e ' s w i f e . But t he p l a y assumes the w i f e w i l l l o v e the husband s p o n t a n e o u s l y . She i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "ce penchan t n a t u r e l " ( I I I , v i i ) w h i c h draws her t o he r husband . D e s p i t e the c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t L e o n o r e ' s f o r c e d vows , i s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d as a f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t . L e o n o r e ' s b e a u t y and widowhood a r e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by the en t ang lemen t o f her b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i ) . To O r p h i s e , Damon's a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a husband f o r her d a u g h t e r l i e s i n h i s s u p e r i o r s o c i a l s t a t u s : "meme t i t r e " ( o p . c i t . ; 111,1). W e a l t h makes a g i r l an e l i g i b l e w i f e ( D o l i g n i p6re, L ' E c o l e I , i ; the p r e s i d e n t , La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I , i i & i i i ) . S o c i a l p o s i t i o n s h o u l d accompany i t ; the p r e s i d e n t l i s t s "nom", " r a n g " , and " o p u l e n c e " as the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t i e s f o r S a i n v i l l e ' s b r i d e ( I , i i i ) . But i f s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f her husband , rank can t a k e the p l a c e o f money: " q u i vous a p p o r t e r o i t en d o t / Le c r e d i t e t l ' a p p u i d ' u n e grande a l l i a n c e " ( Mme A r g a n t , L ' E c o l e ; I I , i i i ) . A poor g i r l , however , must mar ry the most advan tageous s u i t o r : Le marqu i s d ' O r v i g n y v i e n t de me f a i r e e n t e n d r e Q u ' i l v e u t b i e n p a r t a g e r sa f o r t u n e avec v o u s . C ' e s t l e p l u s t e n d r e amour q u i vous o f f r e un epoux ( D o r i s e e , M e l a n i d e ; I I , v i ) These s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s t o m a r r i a g e a r e n o t i g n o r e d but f u l f i l l e d i n the happy e n d i n g s . There a r e no m e s a l l i a n c e s among the c o u p l e s i n L a C h a u s s e e . N o n e t h e l e s s , a s s u r a n c e of b e i n g l o v e d by the woman i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t : A v a n t que j e l u i d i s e & mon nom & mon r a n g , P e n e t r o n s dans son c o e u r . C ' e s t d ' o d mon s o r t depend . (Damon, L a Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , v ) S a i n v i l l e e x p l i c i t l y r e f u s e s b o t h t o mar ry f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n , but because t h a t wou ld make h im h i s w i f e ' s s l a v e (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I I , i v ) , and t o dominante h i s w i f e : "Je ne veux p o i n t d ' e s c l a v e . . . . J ' e p o u s e pour a i m e r , pour e t r e aime de meme" ( l o c c i t ) . However , h i s b u l l y i n g o f A n g e l i q u e : [Ang] T e n e z , vous me t r a i t e z avec t r o p de r i g e u r . Vous me t r o u b l e z s i f o r t q u ' a p e i n e j e r e s p i r e . . . . [ S a i ] Je r e g n e , ou n o n , dans l e fond de v o t r e ame. Le temps nous p r e s s e . " (111 , i 1) c a s t s doub t on the s i n c e r i t y o f t h i s i n t e n t i o n . I n the same s c e n e , he c r i t i c i z e s A n g e l i q u e ' s weakness and t h e n o r d e r s 1 0 0 her t o s i g n the vows , i g n o r i n g her s c r u p l e s ( l o c . c i t . ) H a r s h e s t c r i t i c i s m i s r e s e r v e d f o r women who a re u n f a i t h f u l or l i b e r t i n e ; the s t a n d a r d of v i r t u e f o r women i s e q u a l l y h i g h w i t h i n or o u t s i d e m a r r i a g e . D u r v a l ' s p r e v i o u s m i s t r e s s i s a d u c h e s s ; however , he i s p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d i n d i s c a r d i n g her as l i g h t l y as a v a l e t would a s o u b r e t t e (Le  P r e j u g e ; I I I , x ) . Cons t ance c a l l s her "une r i v a l e i n d i g n e " ( I V , i i ) . A l t h o u g h D u r v a l does f e a r h i s p e r s i s t a n t i n f i d e l i t i e s c o u l d make C o n s t a n c e ' s l o v e fade i n t o mere d u t i f u l a f f e c t i o n ( I I I , v i i ) , he does no t h e s i t a t e t o condemn her f o r one a l l e g e d a f f a i r : E s t i m e , amour, i l f a u t t o u t changer en f u r e u r A h ! q u e l s u p p l i c e e n t r a i n e a p r e s l u i p l u s d ' h o r r e u r Que de se v o i r f o r c e de h a i r ce q u ' o n a i m e ? " ( I V , x ; see a l s o IV i x and xv) S a i n v i l l e s h a r e s t h i s s w i f t and s e v e r e judgment on female i n f i d e l i t y (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I , v ) . In l i g h t o f male i n t o l e r a n c e f o r any s l i p s i n v i r t u e , the i n t e n s e c o n c e r n female c h a r a c t e r s f e e l f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r honour or r e p u t a t i o n becomes r a t i o n a l ( L e o n o r e , La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i v and I I , i i i ; the gouve rnan t e f o r A n g e l i q u e ; I I , i i ; J u l i e t t e , o p . c i t . , I I , i i i ) . In c o n t r a s t t o the amount o f d i s c u s s i o n of the female sex i n g e n e r a l , t he s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s a r e o f t e n l e f t u n d e s c r i b e d . The m a i d s , who a re the most common s o u r c e f o r comments abou t t he female c o n d i t i o n , d e f e n s e s o f women, and c r i t i c i s m of c o n v e n t l i f e and male i n j u s t i c e , a r e v i r t u a l l y 1 01 f a c e l e s s . We l e a r n n o t h i n g o f t h e i r appearance or p r i v a t e l i f e ; t h e y do no t c a r r y on t h e i r own r o m a n t i c p u r s u i t s . Even t h e i r names a r e t h e a t r i c a l s t e r e o t y p e s : N e r i n e , F l o r i n e , R o s e t t e , J u l i e t t e . R o s e t t e , i n L ' E c o l e , d i s p l a y s more o f her i n d i v i d u a l i t y when the ma rqu i s f l i r t s w i t h her ( I , i v ) , bu t she i s summed up by h im as " l e c aque t amusant , m a i s . . . 1 * e s p r i t f a u x " ( l , v ) . T h i s may be a c l a s s p r e j u d i c e , r e f l e c t i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y t r e a t m e n t o f s e r v a n t s . Bu t D o r i s e e i n M e l a n i d e , and the baronne i n La Gouvernan te a r e a l s o b a r e l y d i s c u s s e d as i n d i v i d u a l s . We l e a r n l i t t l e more t h a n t h e i r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n — c o m p a r a t i v e l y poor or c o m p a r a t i v e l y r i c h and n o b l e , widowed, l i v i n g w i t h male r e l a t i v e s , e x e r c i s i n g a u t h o r i t y over r e a l o r " a d o p t e d " d a u g h t e r s . The baronne never even r e c e i v e s a name, a l t h o u g h she i s a c t i v e i n p l o t r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s s t r i c t f u n c t i o n a l i t y , g i v i n g the a u d i e n c e no more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h e y r e q u i r e t o u n d e r s t a n d the p l o t and the m o r a l l e s s o n , i s t y p i c a l o f La Chauss6e [3 1. On the o t h e r hand , t he p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the two b l o c k i n g c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l . O r p h i s e i n L a Fausse a n t i p a t h i e i s "une maud i t e prude / T o u j o u r s c o n t e n t e d ' e l l e - m e m e e t j a m a i s du p r o c h a i n / Dont l a v e r t u b r u y a n t e i n s u l t e au genre h u m a i n . " ( I , i ) . Damon s a y s o f her t h a t " j a m a i s on ne peut / Avec p l u s de m y s t e r e , e t r e p l u s i n d i s c r e t e . " ( I , v i ) , and p r e d i c t s t h a t O r p h i s e w i l l r e t a l i a t e a g a i n s t Leonore f o r h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o her d a u g h t e r ( l o c . c i t ) . Mme A r g a n t i s even more f u l l y f l e s h e d 1 02 o u t . To D o l i g n i pere she i s a sh rew ( I V , i x ) , whose p l a n s mean n o t h i n g b e s i d e her h u s b a n d ' s ( I , i ) . He a d v i s e s M A r g a n t , "Trompez sans r e g r e t v o t r e che re m o i t i e " ( I I , v i i i ) . M A r g a n t c a l l s her "une epouse a d o r a b l e " , but d w e l l s as f o n d l y on her " b i e n c o n s i d e r a b l e " , f r a n k l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g " j e l u i d o i s t o u t " ( I I I , i ) . H i s g r a t i t u d e and a f f e c t i o n seem more f o r t h i s w e a l t h "que des s u c c e s s i o n s ont augmente d e p u i s " t h a n h e r s e l f ( l o c . c i t ) . H i s i n a b i l i t y t o i n s i s t t h a t Mme A r g a n t r e t r i e v e t h e i r d a u g h t e r f rom the c o n v e n t b e a r s out what S a i n v i l l e s ays about r i c h w i v e s (La  G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I I , i v ) . Not o n l y i s she d e s c r i b e d , Mme A r g a n t a l s o speaks f o r h e r s e l f . She wants her son t o c o n s i d e r her h i s f r i e n d , no t h i s mother ( I I , i i i ) . She de fends her d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e her d a u g h t e r i n the c o n v e n t i n o r d e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on her son ( I I , v i i and I I I , i i i ) . She blames no t h e r s e l f but her son f o r h i s s e l f i s h n e s s : "Je v o i s q u ' i l a t o u j o u r s abuse de ma f o i b l e s s e " ( V , i v ) , and swears no t t o f o r g i v e h im ( l o c . c i t . ) . The c h a r a c t e r o f t he h e r o i n e i s i n many r e s p e c t s t he o p p o s i t e o f t h a t o f the b l o c k i n g c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h t h e i r h y p o c r i s y , s p i t e , r e j e c t i o n of due a u t h o r i t y , s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n and u n f o r g i v i n g n e s s . The s t e r e o t y p e of L a Chaussee i s a t e a r f u l h e r o i n e i n a p a t h e t i c s i t u a t i o n [ 4 1 . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e t e x t u a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s p o i n t e d ou t the d e g r a d i n g s i t u a t i o n s from w h i c h female c h a r a c t e r s had t o be s a v e d . Damon s a y s o f C o n s t a n c e , "Epouse v e r t u e u s e a u t a n t 1 0 3 q u ' i n f o r t u n e e " (Le P r e j u g e ; I , i ; c f S o p h i e , I I I , i i ) . Theodon pu t s t h i s v e r y c l e a r l y : "Que v o t r e s o r t e s t d i g n e de p i t i e ! " ( M e l a n i d e ; I I , i i i ) . Tea r s a r e commonly the l o t o f women. Damon demands o f D u r v a l , " I I f a u t done que C o n s t a n c e e x p i r e dans l e s l a r m e s ? " (Le P r e j u g e ; I I , i ) . M a r i a n n e has r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g from Mme A r g a n t but "des s u j e t s des l a r m e s " ( L ' E c o l e ; I I I , i ) . D a r v i a n e t e l l s M e l a n i d e t h e y w i l l s o f t e n t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e s "en l e s p l e u r a n t ensemble" ( I V , v ) . But t e a r s a r e a l s o a woman's weapon a g a i n s t men, one of v e r y few (Le P r e j u g e ; I I , i ) , bu t p o w e r f u l : Des l a rmes q u i pour l o r s vous p r e t e r e n t l e u r cha rmes . Tout f o r g a l a Baronne a vous r e n d r e l e s a rmes . (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I , i i ) Vous n ' i m a g i n e z pas q u e l l e p u i s s a n c e ext reme Ont l e s p l e u r s d ' u n o b j e t q u ' o n a t r o u v e cha rman t . ( M e l a n i d e ; I V , i ) Bu t more t h a n p a t h e t i c and t e a r f u l , t he h e r o i n e must be c o m p l e t e l y v i r t u o u s . Cons t ance and A n g e l i q u e a r e f a l s e l y a c c u s e d of i n c o n s t a n c y ; t h e y neve r a c t u a l l y f a i l . Female v i r t u e i n La Chaussee i s b o t h s t r i c t and i n c l u s i v e . I t i n v o l v e s d u t y t o o n e ' s husband , t o p a r e n t s , t o c h a s t i t y ; modes ty about o n e ' s a p p e a r a n c e ; r e t i c e n c e abou t o n e ' s p r o b l e m s , s w i f t p a r d o n . But we can see n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s t o t h e s e t r a i t s ; modesty l e a d s t o l a c k o f s e l f - w o r t h , r e t i c e n c e t o a g l o r y i n g i n s i l e n t s u f f e r i n g , pa rdon f o r o t h e r s t o b l a m i n g o n e s e l f . 1 ou T e x t u a l e v i d e n c e c o n f i r m s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . L e o n o r e ' s adhe rence t o c o n j u g a l d u t y r e q u i r e s her t o r e f u s e Damon; h i s a n n u l l i n g h i s vows t o mar ry her wou ld make her an a c c o m p l i c e i n a c r i m e a g a i n s t h i s w i f e (La Fausse  a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , v i i i ) . D u t y - a l s o f o r c e s her t o r e t u r n t o the unknown and d i s l i k e d husband . She g r a t e f u l l y a c c e p t s O r p h i s e ' s s p i t e f u l l y i n t e n d e d a d v i c e : "Vous a r r e t e z mes pas au b o r d du p r e c i p i c e . . . . J e v a i s l e r e t r o u v e r , e t r e m p l i r mon d e v o i r . " ( I l l , i v ) . In the end c o n j u g a l d u t y r e c o n c i l e s w i t h l o v e ( I I I , v i ) . F o r C o n s t a n c e , d u t y means a p p e a r i n g happy i n her m a r r i a g e d e s p i t e D u r v a l ' s n e g l e c t and i n f i d e l i t y (Le  P r e j u g e ; I , i ) , n e i t h e r c o m p l a i n i n g t o o t h e r s ( I , i i i ) nor a c c u s i n g her husband ( v ) . F o r M e l a n i d e as w e l l , d u t y s t i f l e s c o m p l a i n t . A f t e r e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f s e p a r a t i o n , she i s no t o n l y l o y a l but s t i l l i n l o v e w i t h her husband ( I I , v and I V , i ) . She c o n t e m p l a t e s but r e f u s e s t o accuse h im o f i n f i d e l i t y i n p r o p o s i n g t o R o s a l i e , and a s k s o n l y t h a t D a r v i a n e be a c k n o w l e d g e d , no t h e r s e l f ( I V , i ) . Even Mme A r g a n t , by no means an i d e a l w i f e , a s k s her h u s b a n d ' s pa rdon a t the end of the p l a y ( L ' E c o l e ; V , i x ) . E q u a l l y s t r i c t i s the d u t y of c h i l d r e n t o p a r e n t s . L e o n o r e had no c h o i c e but t o mar ry as her mother w i s h e d (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i ) . D o r i s e e i n s i s t s on " l a prompte o b e i s s a n c e " f rom R o s a l i e ( M e l a n i d e ; I I , v i ) and R o s a l i e c o m p l i e s . She d i s m i s s e s D a r v i a n e d e s p i t e t he c o s t t o her own f e e l i n g s : " F a i s o n s - n o u s v i o l e n c e / Pour l e p e r s u a d e r de 1 05 mon i n d i f f e r e n c e . " ( I l l , i ; see a l s o I , i v and I I I , i i i ) . T h i s d u t y i s accompanied by l o v e even from c h i l d r e n who do no t know the p e r s o n i s t h e i r p a r e n t . B o t h M a r i a n n e ( L ' E c o l e ; I I , i x ) and A n g e l i q u e (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I , i ) a r e drawn t o t h e i r mothers and f e e l o b l i g e d t o obey b e f o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e v e a l e d . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of d u t y i s as R o s a l i e ' s , o b e d i e n c e w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n , w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e i r own w i s h e s . M a r i a n n e p r e f e r s her m o t h e r ' s p l e a s u r e t o her own r i g h t t o i n h e r i t a n c e and m a r r i a g e ( o p . c i t . ; I l l , i i i and V , v i i i ) . She l i s t s t he p r a i s e w o r t h y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d a u g h t e r as no t b e a u t y but s u b m i s s i o n and r e s p e c t ( V , v i i i ) . A n g e l i q u e goes so f a r as t o bu rn S a i n v i l l e ' s l e t t e r s - - " J ' a i f a i t mon d e v o i r " ( I I , i i i ) - - and t o blame h e r s e l f f o r h a v i n g r e s i s t e d her m o t h e r ' s w i s h e s b e f o r e o b e d i e n c e was j u s t i f i e d by a f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ( V , i v ) . T h i s i m p l i c i t o b e d i e n c e o f A n g e l i q u e t o the gouve rnan t e i s d e p l o r e d by J u l i e t t e ( I , i & I I , i i i ) and S a i n v i l l e ( I I I , i i & V , v ) o n l y u n t i l the bond i s r e v e a l e d . The r e v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e , w i t h m a t e r n a l l o v e and g u i l t f o r f a i l u r e i n d u t y b e i n g awakened i n Mme A r g a n t by the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t M a r i a n n e i s her d a u g h t e r ( L ' E c o l e ; V , v i i i ) , a l t h o u g h she must be p r e s s u r e d i n t o f o r g i v i n g her son ( V , i x ) . The gouve rnan t e has so h i g h a r e g a r d f o r f a m i l i a l d u t y t h a t no t o n l y does she r e f u s e t o h e l p S a i n v i l l e d e f y h i s f a t h e r ' s w i s h e s ( I V , i i ) , she t e l l s the p r e s i d e n t o f S a i n v i l l e ' s p l a n s ( i i i ) . Her r e s i s t a n c e t o the m a r r i a g e ends i n her own s u b m i s s i o n t o the p r e s i d e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y : "Vous en e t e s l e 1 0 6 m a i t r e . " ( V , v i ) F e m i n i n e modesty b e g i n s w i t h d e p r e c a t i n g o n e ' s own a p p e a r a n c e : " f o i b l e s a t t r a i t s " (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e I , i i i ; M e l a n i d e I I I , i i ; L ' E c o l e V , v i i i ) , " f o i b l e s appas" ( M e l a n i d e I V , i ) . O n l y men can s ay a woman i s b e a u t i f u l : [ l e m a r q u i s on M e l a n i d e ] "Un coeu r e t des appas / D i g n e s d ' e t r e a d o r e s de t o u t ce q u i r e s p i r e . " ( V , i i i ) A h e r o i n e i s e q u a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o j e w e l s and adornments ( D u r v a l on C o n s t a n c e , Le P r e j u g e ; I I I , i x ) . Modes ty i s somet imes p r e s e n t e d as the major t r a i t i n a h e r o i n e ' s c h a r a c t e r : Damon on C o n s t a n c e ( I I I , i x ) , R o s e t t e on M a r i a n n e ( L ' E c o l e ; I , i v ) . But t h i s modesty can l e a d t o a p r o f o u n d l a c k of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , b o r d e r i n g on s e l f - a b a s e m e n t . L e o n o r e speaks o f her l o v e f o r Damon as a d e f e a t and a l o s s o f l i b e r t y (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I I , i x ) , and r e f u s e s t o a n n u l her m a r r i a g e because the c o u r t case would c o s t her "pudeur" ( I I I , i v ) . M a r i a n n e t e l l s D o l i g n i f i l s , whom she l o v e s and who w i s h e s t o mar ry h e r , "Vous devez p r e f e r e r ma c o u s i n e . " ( L ' E c o l e ; I I I , i i ) . D o r i s e e even r ebukes M e l a n i d e f o r t h i s s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n , "Vous m e r i t e z t r o p pour e s p e r e r s i peu" ( I , i ) . T h i s t e n d e n c y t o d e f e a t i s m r e c u r s i n J u l i e t t e s p e a k i n g of A n g e l i q u e : " L a c r a i n t e , l ' e p o u v a n t e , e t l a t i m i d i t e / T r iomphen t pour l e coup de sa f a c i l i t e . " (La  G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I I , v ) . The o b l i g a t i o n no t t o c o m p l a i n w h i c h C o n s t a n c e d e r i v e d f rom her c o n j u g a l d u t y (Le P r e j u g e ; I , i i i ) i s found as a g e n e r a l t r a i t among the h e r o i n e s . 1 07 L e o n o r e : "Je m'en p l a i n s t o u t l e moins que j e p u i s . " (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e ; I , i i i ) M e l a n i d e : " P o u r q u o i sans b e s o i n v o u l o i r s ' h u m i l i e r ? Repandre ses m a l h e u r s , c ' e s t l e s m u l t i p l i e r . " ( I V , i ) A n g e l i q u e : "Je ne p u i s que r o u g i r , me t a i r e , e t s o u p i r e r . " (La G o u v e r n a n t e ; I I I , i ) The g o u v e r n a n t e : " . . . A v e z - v o u x du pense r Q u ' i l peu t e t r e p e r m i s a c e t t e i n f o r t u n e e De r e l e v e r a i n s i sa t r i s t e d e s t i n e e E t de vous d e p o u i l l e r en c e t t e o c c a s i o n ? " ( I l l , v i i i ) The g o u v e r n a n t e , so f a r f rom a s k i n g r e s t i t u t i o n f rom the p r e s i d e n t who r u i n e d her f a m i l y , has t o be t r i c k e d i n t o r e v e a l i n g her i d e n t i t y , and o n l y a c c e p t s t he money as A n g e l i q u e ' s m a r r i g e s e t t l e m e n t . She t a k e s p r i d e i n her u n c o m p l a i n i n g endurance o f h a r d s h i p : "Dans son a b a i s s e m e n t l a i s s e z - l u i c e t t e g l o i r e . " ( I l l , v i i i ) . We r e c a l l t h a t men c r i t i c i z e d the female sex i n g e n e r a l as prone t o s e l f - p i t y and c o m p l a i n t . To be a h e r o i n e , p e r f e c t i n v i r t u e , one a l s o had t o be c o m p l e t e l y p a s s i v e . Not o n l y i s a c t i o n t o improve o n e ' s s i t u a t i o n c u r t a i l e d , even speech i s d i s c o u r a g e d . S i l e n t a c c e p t a n c e i s the i d e a l p r e s e n t e d h e r e . Where the b l o c k i n g female c h a r a c t e r s were u n f o r g i v i n g , t he h e r o i n e s r u s h t o p a r d o n : "Je s a i s t o u j o u r s e x c u s e r ce que j ' a i m e . " ( M e l a n i d e ; V , i i i ; see a l s o C o n s t a n c e , Le  P r e j u g e ; V , v ) . But the ease w i t h w h i c h t h e y f o r g i v e o t h e r s 1 08 does no t e x t e n d t o t h e m s e l v e s . They have a p r o p e n s i t y t o s e l f - b l a m e : " C ' e s t s u r moi q u i d o i t tomber l a b l ame . / On s e d u i t quand on p l a i t sans 1 ' a v o i r m e r i t e . " ( A n g e l i q u e , L a  G o u v e r n a n t e ; I V , i v ; see a l s o La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e I I I , i v ; Le P r e j u g e V , v ; M e l a n i d e I I , i i i ) . Male c h a r a c t e r s do no t h e s i t a t e t o blame them: Damon (La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e I I , v i i i ) , D a r v i a n e ( M e l a n i d e I , i v and I I I , i ) , t he ma r qu i s ( o p . c i t . V , 1 ) . Women blame o t h e r women out o f s p i t e ( O r p h i s e , La Fausse a n t i p a t h i e , I I , i x ) , or out o f a u t h o r i t y over them ( the g o u v e r n a n t e t o A n g e l i q u e ; , I V , i ) . Here a g a i n we see a t e n d e n c y t o s e l f - a b a s e m e n t , t o the woman b e i n g p r e s e n t e d as s c a p e - g o a t . F i n a l l y , La C h a u s s e e ' s h e r o i n e s e x p r e s s a good d e a l o f a m b i g u i t y abou t e a r t h l y h a p p i n e s s , d o u b t i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e u n t i l the f i n a l s c e n e . H a p p i n e s s i s no t t he r i g h t f u l s t a t e f o r women: "Tant de f e l i c i t e n ' e s t pas f a i t e pour n o u s . " ( D o r i s e e , M e l a n i d e ; I , i ) ; "Tant de f e l i c i t e ne nous e s t pas p e r m i s e . " ( the g o u v e r n a n t e ; V , v i ) . They canno t pursue t h e i r own h a p p i n e s s , but must put o t h e r s f i r s t ( the g o u v e r n a n t e t o A n g e l i q u e ; I V , i ) . Indeed female c h a r a c t e r s may o n l y f e e l h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h making o t h e r p e o p l e happy; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t y p i c a l o f m o t h e r s : " M o i q u i ne p u i s e t r e heureuse que par v o u s " ( the g o u v e r n a n t e t o A n g e l i q u e , I V , i v ; see M e l a n i d e t o D a r v i a n e , I V , v . ) Love i n p a r t i c u l a r seems not j u s t an u n c e r t a i n s o u r c e o f j o y but a s u r e s o u r c e o f u n h a p p i n e s s : "Nous e t i o n s t r o p h e u r e u x ; n o t r e amour nous t r a h i t . " ( M e l a n i d e ; I I , i i i ; see a l s o I I I , 1 0 9 i i i ; L e o n o r e , L a Fausse a n t i p a t h i e I I , i x ; L a g o u v e r n a n t e I , i s I I , i i & V , i i ) The h e r o i n e s o f L a Chaussee seems t o l i v e i n s t r a i t j a c k e t s . They a r e bound by t h e i r d u t y t o o t h e r s and t o s o c i a l l y imposed s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r . They a r e f o r c e d t o h o l d t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r own w i s h e s i n c o n t e m p t . So f a r f rom s e e k i n g h a p p i n e s s , t h e y d i s t r u s t and w i s h t o r e t r e a t f rom i t . Love f o r a man i s f r a u g h t w i t h p e r i l , l e a d i n g t o s e d u c t i o n or u n h a p p i n e s s . F o r most h e r o i n e s , t he happy e n d i n g comes t o them w i t h o u t t h e i r h e l p or d e s p i t e t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e . T h i s e n d i n g i s a l w a y s m a r r i a g e , t he c r e a t i o n or r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a m a r r i a g e w h i c h combines s o c i a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h mu tua l l o v e . B o t h e l emen t s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o h a p p i n e s s . A u t h o r i t y comes t o women o n l y t h r o u g h the r o l e o f mo the r , no t w i f e . Men r e f e r t o the b e l o v e d woman as an o b j e c t w h i c h t h e y seek t o b i n d t o t h e m s e l v e s . Widows a r e no t p r e s e n t e d as i n d e p e n d e n t ; D o r i s e e , the b a r o n n e , and the g o u v e r n a n t e seek the good o f o t h e r s , no t t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t m a r r i a g e i s e t e r n a l . Not o n l y i s a n n u l l m e n t r e p r e h e n s i b l e , but the o n l y s e c o n d m a r r i a g e i s t h a t o f Ge ron te and O r p h i s e , f u l l o f q u a r r e l s and mu tua l d i s r e g a r d . The s t a n d a r d s t o w h i c h h e r o i n e s a r e h e l d seem no t o n l y u n r e a l i s t i c , bu t o f f e n s i v e t o the modern r e a d e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t bu t n e c e s s a r y f o r us t o remember t h a t women s p e c t a t o r s e n j o y e d the women p o r t r a y e d i n t h e s e p l a y s , and d i d no t condemn them as s e l f - a b a s i n g , d e f e a t i s t , and so 1 1 0 completely bound by duty t h a t they cannot t r y to f i n d happiness, o n l y r e c e i v e i t . The female sex i n general i s presented i n a r a t h e r unfavourable l i g h t , with p a r t i c u l a r condemnation f o r the woman who seeks to please h e r s e l f through an a f f a i r or through pursuing her own g o a l s . The i d e a l i z e d heroine of La Chaussee i s p a s s i v e , r e c e p t i v e , and comp a r a t i v e l y s i l e n t who r e c e i v e s s o c i a l i d e n t i t y through marriage, power through maternity. Thus she i s always seen i n terms of men—husband, f a t h e r , s u i t o r , son. Nonetheless, she and her problems are the focus of the p l a y s . A woman sp e c t a t o r c o u l d see h e r s e l f e l e v a t e d to the s t a t u s of hero i n e , her l i f e and her d u t i e s presented i n a glow of v i r t u e and ad m i r a t i o n , and always given a happy ending, the j u s t i f i c a t i o n and the r e - i n t e g r a t i o n of the woman. The heroine was an o b j e c t , yes, but a c h e r i s h e d and respected o b j e c t who had obedient c h i l d r e n and a l o v i n g , f a i t h f u l husband. 111 NOTES 1. I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , "dominance" means h a v i n g more l i n e s i n a scene t h a n any o f the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h a t s c e n e ; " p r o p o r t i o n " r e f e r s t o the number o f l i n e s spoken by a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t o t a l number o f l i n e s i n the s c e n e . 2 . I have chosen t o omi t t he P r o l o g u e and the C r i t i q u e from t h i s a n a l y s i s because t h e y do no t i n v o l v e any of the c h a r a c t e r s f rom the p l a y i t s e l f , o n l y a l l e g o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s i n a n o n - r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . 3 . W. D. H o w a r t h , e d . M e l a n i d e , N i v e l l e de L a Chaussee ( B r i g h t o n : Sussex R e p r i n t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Sussex L i b r a r y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 14 of i n t r o d u c t i o n . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n by Howar th w i l l be found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body o f the t e x t . 4 . E . J o u r d a i n , D r a m a t i c Theo ry and P r a c t i c e i n F r a n c e  1690 - 1808 , p p . 47-48 and M . L i o u r e , Le Drame de D i d e r o t a  I o n e s c o , p p . 1 5 - 1 6 . 1 1 2 CONCLUSION - - A CRITICAL SURVEY C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o La C h a u s s e e ' s t h e a t r e were v a r i e d and numerous i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f rom the o u t s p o k e n o p p o s i t i o n of P i r o n t o the q u a l i f i e d de fense o f D e s f o n t a i n e s t o the e n t h u s i a s m of Le M e r c u r e , as we w i l l s e e . But even up t o the p r e s e n t t i m e , c r i t i c s a r e d i v i d e d no t o n l y on the q u e s t i o n of g e n r e , whether La C h a u s s e e ' s p r o d u c t i o n was comedy or t r a g e d y or a " b a s t a r d " m i x t u r e , bu t a l s o on t h o s e of the n a t u r e of the m o r a l l e s s o n i m p a r t e d and o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t he i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . Was L a Chaussee a l i t e r a r y i n n o v a t o r , a s o c i a l r e f o r m e r , a f e m i n i s t ? On the i s s u e o f l i t e r a r y i n n o v a t i o n , t he C o r r e s p o n d a n c e  l i t t e r a i r e sough t t o t ake the c r e d i t o f i n v e n t i o n w i d e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o L a Chaus see : "Rega rd^ en F r a n c e comme l ' a u t e u r d ' u n nouveau g e n r e . . . q u e M de La Chaussee n ' a pas i n v e n t e p l u s que moi pa r ce q u ' i l e t a i t connu des a n c i e n s . " (p . 332) The C o r r e s p o n d a n c e s t a t e s the genre had f a i l e d t o p roduce any good p l a y s , a l t h o u g h G a i f f e t e l l s us " l a r m o y a n t e " p l a y s r ema ined p o p u l a r i n r e p e r t o r y t h r o u g h the c e n t u r y [ 1 ] ; t h e y were a l l b a d l y w r i t t e n and uneven . T h e i r m i x t u r e o f t r a g i c and comic e l emen t s was u n a c c e p t a b l e ( p . 3 3 3 ) . G e o f f r o y c o n t i n u e s the a t t a c k not o n l y on the e x t e n t o f i n n o v a t i o n bu t a l s o on the q u a l i t y of t he p l a y s , a l t h o u g h he must admi t t h e i r p o p u l a r s u c c e s s ( p . 2 0 7 ) . He e x p l a i n s t h i s p o p u l a r i t y by d e f i n i n g the f a v o u r a b l e a u d i e n c e as f e m i n i n e a n d / o r uneduca ted ( p . 2 0 2 ) . These p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t m i x i n g the two genres a r e based on a c l a s s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of 11 3 t r a g e d y and comedy as e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n t h e a t r e ; a p l a y w r i g h t had t o f o l l o w the example o f Greek t h e a t r e , and i n comedy the example o f M o l i e r e , i n o r d e r t o be a c c e p t e d as l e g i t i m a t e . Any v a r i a t i o n or i n n o v a t i o n had t o be f o r t he w o r s e . I t i s w i t h the e x h a u s t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l s t u d y of Gus tave Lanson t h a t c r e d i t i s r e s t o r e d t o La C h a u s s e e . A c c o r d i n g t o L a n s o n , L a Chaussee gave "drame" , s e r i o u s t h e a t r e w i t h a happy e n d i n g , "une e x i s t e n c e independan te e t r e c o n n u e . " ( p . 82) He b roke new ground f o r t h e a t r e by making the s e n t i m e n t a l , the " l a r m o y a n t " , the e s sence and m a i n s p r i n g of h i s p l a y s ( p . 1 2 5 ) , i n s t e a d of an e x c e p t i o n as i t was i n the e a r l i e r p l a y s o f Des touches [ 2 1 . In a much more r e c e n t s t u d y , D e s c o t e s (p . 198) expands on L a n s o n by e m p h a s i z i n g La C h a u s s e e ' s i n n o v a t i v e use o f "romanesque" t e c h n i q u e s t o a r o u s e the emot ions o f t he s p e c t a t o r , as w e l l as the i n t e n t i o n t o p rovoke t e a r s and sympathy r a t h e r t h a n l a u g h t e r . L i n t i l h a c (1909) a g r e e s w i t h Lanson on the t h e a t r i c a l i n n o v a t i o n of the "comedie l a r m o y a n t e " , but emphas i zes t h a t i t passed q u i c k l y i n t o the "drame" ( p . 3 0 0 ) . I t i s t h i s l i n k t o D i d e r o t and the "drame b o u r g e o i s " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s L a C h a u s s e e ' s major i m p o r t a n c e i n F r e n c h t h e a t r e h i s t o r y , a c c o r d i n g t o Lanson (pp . 269-70) and G a i f f e (Le  Drame f p p . 3 1 - 3 2 ) . Bo th t he se c r i t i c s p o i n t ou t t h a t D i d e r o t h i m s e l f gave no c r e d i t t o La Chaussee f o r i n s p i r i n g the "drame b o u r g e o i s " , bu t t o a f a i l e d o n e - a c t p l a y by L a n d o i s , S i l v i e (2 pe r fo rmances i n 1 7 4 1 ) : " P e u t - e t r e 11 4 Diderot se f f i t - i l senti moins redevable a ce pauvre drame s ' i l eut r e u s s i . . . . I l n'a f a i t que t i r e r les consequences des innovations de La Chaussee." (Lanson, l o c . c i t . ) With regard to the composition of the intended audience, many nineteenth and twentieth-century c r i t i c s state that i t was feminine and/or bourgeois. The eighteenth-century c r i t i c s , however, do not seem to have held t h i s view: "ses personnages sont des hommes p o l l s , comme le sont l a plupart des spectateurs." (Freron, Lettres, p. 12) But in les Goncourt we find postulated the dominance of women in the eighteenth-century audience: "Voyez-la regner au theatre....C'est e l l e qui f a i t jouer les pieces." Lanson continues to stress the importance of pleasing women in order to succeed as a playwright, and emphasizes that La Chaussee's appeal to s e n s i b i l i t y was an ef f e c t i v e means of doing so (pp. 141 and 164). A century later than les Goncourt and Lanson, Descotes, Lagrave, and Moureau also believe that La Chaussee's dramatic success was due to his a b i l i t y to play on feminine emotions [3]. But i t must be kept in mind that no play could succeed i f the parterre was ho s t i l e — the accounts of plays whistled or laughed off the stage are legion [4] -- and the parterre held only men. Some c r i t i c s i n s i s t that an a l l i a n c e between women of the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie as a class formed the group supporting La Chaussee [51. But Fauchery and Hoffmann cast doubt on the p l a u s i b i l i t y of such an a l l i a n c e by bringing out the essential misogyny and moral double 11 5 s t a n d a r d of b o u r g e o i s v a l u e s [ 6 ] . F a u c h e r y sees i n 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e "une e n t e r p r i s e d e l i b e r e e de l a s o c i e t e a n d r o c r a t i q u e pour e n c h a i n e r l a femme a sa c o n d i t i o n . " ( p . 834) O t h e r s choose t o c o n c e n t r a t e on what t h e y see as the r i s i n g i m p o r t a n c e of the b o u r g e o i s i e as the a u d i e n c e t o p l e a s e , a r g u i n g t h a t the m o r a l d i d a c t i c i s m of L a Chaussee was meant t o a p p e a l t o b o u r g e o i s v a l u e s [ 7 ] . Fo r example : " I I se f a i t un d e v o i r a g r e a b l e de p r e c h e r par l a comedie b o u r g e o i s e e t s e n s i b l e . . . l e r e l e v e m e n t de l a m o r a l i t e f a m i l i a l e . " [8] L ' E c o l e des meres i s most o f t e n used t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , because i t has no t i t l e d c h a r a c t e r s [ 9 ] . But i t i s the o n l y s u c c e s s f u l comedy of L a Chaussee i n w h i c h the n o b i l i t y a r e a b s e n t , and even here M A r g a n t concedes t h a t h i s son i s "ne gen t i l homme" ( I I , v i ) . I t seems more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t L ' E c o l e p r e s e n t s a s o c i e t y where c l a s s b a r r i e r s a r e u n b r e a k a b l e , where the b o u r g e o i s a r e c o n t e n t t o be s u b o r d i n a t e t o and s e p a r a t e f rom the t r u e n o b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n b e l i e v i n g t h e m s e l v e s w o r t h y t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h the h i g h e s t c l a s s . Mme A r g a n t i s p u n i s h e d f o r t he v e r y b o u r g e o i s a m b i t i o n of s e e i n g her son a t C o u r t and a t t he head of a r e g i m e n t , h a v i n g the p r i v i l e g e s o f n o b i l i t y i n a d d i t i o n t o mere w e a l t h . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s more o f t e n c h a l l e n g e d t h a n t h a t o f the f e m i n i n i t y o f the a u d i e n c e . G a i f f e d e n i e s t o La Chaussee "ce c a r a c t e r e b o u r g e o i s e t ce r o l e s o c i a l q u i c o n s t i t u e n t . . . l e s c a r a c t e r e s e s s e n t i e l s du Drame" (Le Drame, 11 6 p . 3 2 ) . The q u e s t i o n o f whether the drame i t s e l f was t r u l y b o u r g e o i s i n t e rms of the s o c i e t y i t p o r t r a y e d or the a u d i e n c e i t a p p e a l e d t o i s the s u b j e c t o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a t u r e [ 1 0 ] . Lough i n r e s p o n s e t o G a i f f e r eminds us t h a t ( m o s t l y young male) a r i s t o c r a t s s a t on the s t a g e u n t i l 1759 (pp . 2 2 8 - 9 ) . He a rgues t h a t up t o the 1 7 7 0 ' s " the P a r i s t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e s had been drawm from a r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w s e c t i o n of s o c i e t y — from the a r i s t o c r a c y and the more c u l t u r e d s e c t i o n of the m i d d l e c l a s s e s " ( p . 2 1 8 ) . Haydn Mason and F r a n c o i s Moureau [11] agree w i t h Lough on the s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the a u d i e n c e . The s o c i e t y d e p i c t e d on s t a g e i s e q u a l l y e l e v a t e d , and " t r e s a n c i e n r e g i m e " i n i t s t a s t e s and v a l u e s [ 1 2 ] . La Chaussee seems t o be r e t r o s p e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i s m o r a l v i e w , a r g u i n g f o r a r e t u r n "au bon v i e u x temps" [13] as we see i n L ' E c o l e des meres ( I , i v ) . I n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e r m " b o u r g e o i s " u n d e r l i e s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c o n c i l i n g c r i t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The s o c i e t y on and o f f s t a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o u t s i d e the p a r t e r r e , had a t l e a s t a c e r t a i n w e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , and l e i s u r e . O n l y the l a c k of i n h e r i t e d t i t l e s , and the c o n v e n t i o n of r e s t r i c t i n g the a r i s t o c r a c y t o the n o b l e s s e de c o u r i n s t e a d o f i n c l u d i n g the n o b l e s s e de  robe p e r m i t i t t o be l a b e l l e d b o u r g e o i s . A c c o r d i n g t o Mason , even the p a r t e r r e was " b o u r g e o i s w i t h some degree of c u l t u r e , " and s e a t s i n the t h e a t r e i t s e l f were no t r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e by t h o s e o u t s i d e f a s h i o n a b l e s o c i e t y up t o the 1 1 7 end of the c e n t u r y ( p . 3 8 ) . I n the p l a y s d i s c u s s e d h e r e , o n l y L ' E c o l e des meres o m i t s the n o b i l i t y , and t h e y a l l t a k e p l a c e i n s e t t i n g o f l e i s u r e d w e a l t h . No one works f o r a l i v i n g ; c h a r a c t e r s own l a r g e houses and c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p e r t y . F a r f rom d e m o n s t r a t i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n i n the w r i t i n g s of La C h a u s s e e , t he l a s t p l a y , La G o u v e r n a n t e , put on s t a g e a c o u n t e s s and her d a u g h t e r , a b a r o n e s s and her r e l a t i v e a p r e s i d e n t de p a r l e m e n t . But i f we d e f i n e the s o c i e t y p r e s e n t e d as s u f f i c i e n t l y n a r r o w , i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the a u d i e n c e , and L a Chaussee can be de fended as a r e a l i s t i c p l a y w r i g h t . Lanson s t a t e s , "Tous ces s u j e t s s o n t p r i s dans l e v i f de l a v i e r e e l l e , " ( p . 174) and s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s c l a i m by d r a w i n g p a r a l l e l s between the themes and s i t u a t i o n s t r e a t e d by La Chaussee and t h o s e b e i n g t e a t e d by p l a y w r i g h t s o f h i s own t i m e . F a u c h e r y a l s o de fends the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f "romanesque" p l o t s t o the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e by means of c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a n e c d o t e s r e p o r t e d as f a c t u a l by the g a z e t t e s o f t he t i m e , f i n d i n g i n b o t h " l e s l e n t e u r s ou l e s i n i q u i t e s de l a j u s t i c e , l ' a r b i t r a i r e des p o u v o i r s , l e s i d e n t i t e s c o n t e s t e s , l e s m a r i a g e s r e n i e s " ( p . 4 3 ) , a l l o f w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o the s u b j e c t m a t t e r used by La C h a u s s e e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t l o v e i n m a r r i a g e i s g r a n t e d as a c t u a l by the M e r c u r e , l e s G o n c o u r t , L a n s o n , F o n t a i n e , and Abensour [ 1 4 ] , d e n i e d by D e s f o n t a i n e s and G e o f f r o y [ 1 5 ] . Abensour a l s o d i s c u s s e s the p r e v a l e n c e of 1 1 8 a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s , and the s i t u a t i o n of d a u g h t e r s abandoned i n c o n v e n t s [ 1 6 ] . Mme A r g a n t seems l e s s h e a r t l e s s i n her t r e a t m e n t o f M a r i a n n e when we r e a d i n F r e r o n ( 1 7 5 4 , 1 1 1 , 147) t h a t t he p r a c t i c e o f r e s t r i c t i n g i n h e r i t a n c e t o one c h i l d d i d e x i s t . L ' E c o l e des meres was b e l i e v e d a t the t i m e of i t s debu t t o a l l u d e t o an a c t u a l P a r i s i a n f a m i l y ( L a n s o n , p . 1 8 6 ) . Le P r e j u g e was c o n s i d e r e d so c l o s e t o l i f e t h a t i n 1739 Mme de G r a f f i g n y c o u l d d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n of f r i e n d s s i m p l y by c a l l i n g the p e r s o n "Damon" or " C o n s t a n c e " , a f t e r t he p r o t a g o n i s t s o f L a C h a u s s e e ' s p l a y . [ 1 7 ] . But r e a l i s m i n c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , w h i c h C h a p t e r I (pp . 1-2) n o t e d as t y p i c a l o f p o p u l a r drama, by no means r e q u i r e s r e a l i s m i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . La Chaussee t a k e s c o n t e m p o r a r y p rob l ems of m a r r i a g e and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , bu t e x p r e s s e s them i n v e r s e and by means o f a v o c a b u l a r y and s t y l e bor rowed f rom c l a s s i c a l t r a g e d y , r a t h e r t h a n i n e v e r y d a y language [ 1 8 ) . D e s p i t e what now seems a r t i f i c i a l and i m p l a u s i b l e i n h i s w r i t i n g , L a C h a u s s e e ' s adherence t o t h e s e l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s on the e x p r e s s i o n o f emot ions o n l y made h im more a c c e s s i b l e t o h i s e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e s ( D e s c o t e s , p . 2 0 5 - 6 ) . The genu ine t h e a t r i c a l i n n o v a t i o n o f L a C h a u s s e e ' s p l a y s l i e s no t i n b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y new, but i n c o m b i n i n g f a m i l i a r e l emen t s - - the l anguage o f t r a g e d y , t he s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r t y p e s o f comedy, the a p p e a l t o emo t ions and the complex p l o t - l i n e o f the c o n t e m p o r a r y n o v e l — i n t o a new, mixed t h e a t r e , and i n s e e k i n g t o p rovoke t e a r s r a t h e r t h a n l a u g h t e r f rom h i s 11 9 a u d i e n c e . Any s t a t e m e n t o f c r e a t i v i t y must be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m i n f o r m . He a l w a y s used v e r s e and u s u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d the f i v e - a c t s t r u c t u r e a t a t i m e when b o t h had been abandoned i n the e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l p l a y s o f M a r i v a u x a t t he T h e a t r e I t a l i e n . D e s p i t e h i s s e r i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , La Chaussee k e p t the happy e n d i n g s and the themes o f l o v e and m a r r i a g e of t r a d i t i o n a l comedy. H i s p o r t r a y a l of s o c i e t y was b o t h c o n s e r v a t i v e and n a r r o w , but t h i s can be a rgued as due t o the p r e s s u r e o f a l i m i t e d and e l i t i s t a u d i e n c e . H i s c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y , h i s a b i l i t y t o p l e a s e the "gout a c t u e l du s p e c t a t e u r " ( d ' A l e m b e r t , p . 396) i s made a major r e a s o n f o r L a C h a u s s e e ' s t h e a t r i c a l s u c c e s s : "Le X V I I I e s i ^ c l e , l u i , a 61eve au r a n g de r e g i e a b s o l u e ce s o u c i de p l a i r e , e t de p l a i r e en se confo rman t au gout p a s s a g e r du m o m e n t . . . . L a Chaussee a e t e t r e s exac tement c e t a u t e u r - l a . " [19] These t a s t e s were f o r s e n t i m e n t and v i r t u e , a t l e a s t on s t a g e : " I I ne f a u t pas c r o i r e que l e s i e c l e en a v a n c a n t se s o i t c o r r i g e . . . M a i s on f i n i t par se l a s s e r meme de l ' i n d e c e n c e , e t l ' e n n u i p o r t e a l a v e r t u " ( N i k l a u s , p . 1 2 4 4 ) , and f o r t he m i n g l e d s e n s i b i l i t y and e r o t i c i s m of t e a r s ( A u e r b a c h , p . 3 9 8 ) . La C h a u s s e e ' s s u c c e s s was i n s p i t e o f c r i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n [ 2 0 ] , and such t h a t on o c c a s i o n pe r suaded c r i t i c s t o change t h e i r m i n d s . L a n s o n , w i t h r e g a r d t o Melanide, s ays t h a t L a Chaussee had " c e t t e bonne f o r t u n e . . . d ' a p p r i v o i s e r l a c r i t i q u e , de l a r e u n i r au g r o s p u b l i c dans une commune a d m i r a t i o n . " ( p . 1 5 1 ) . 1 20 A l t h o u g h an awareness o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the a u d i e n c e f o r w h i c h t h e s e p l a y s were i n t e n d e d and of the p o p u l a r i t y t h e y a t t a i n e d i s i m p o r t a n t , t h i s s t u d y was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the k i n d s o f c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s p o r t r a y e d and o f m o r a l l e s s o n s expounded by t h e s e p l a y s . What s o r t of female c h a r a c t e r was p o p u l a r and p l a u s i b l e a t t h i s p e r i o d ? F o r w h i l e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s can seem i n c r e d i b l e t o l a t e r c r i t i c s ( J o u r d a i n , p . 7 4 ) , t h e y were much a d m i r e d by c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s and s p e c t a t o r s ( L a n s o n , p . 1 9 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , P r e v o s t s a y s o f Le P r e j u g e : "Pour C o n s t a n c e , Damon, S o p h i e , e t F l o r i n e , i l semble q u ' a l e u r a c t i o n comme a l e u r r o l l e on ne peut r i e n changer sans y p e r d r e . " [21] He has p a r t i c u l a r p r a i s e f o r C o n s t a n c e : "Tou te s l e s beau t6s de l ' a r t e t de l a n a t u r e y s o n t r e u n i e s . Q u e l l e n o b l e s s e de s e n t i m e n s ! Q u e l l e v e r t u e u s e d o u l e u r ! Q u e l l e p e r f e c t i o n de p a t i e n c e e t d ' a m o u r ! " ( p . 362) T h i s p r a i s e i s echoed by D e s f o n t a i n e s , F r 6 r o n , and l a t e r Lanson [ 2 2 ] . G e o f f r o y c o m p l a i n s o n l y t h a t she i s t o o v i r t u o u s , and t h e r e f o r e monotonous ( p . 2 0 6 ) . A d m i r a t i o n f o r the g r e a t e r independence o f Soph ie o c c u r s i n the 1817 R e p e r t o i r e du t h e a t r e f r a n g o i s e d i t i o n of the p l a y (tome 1 3 , p . 1 2 9 ) . Nancy O ' C o n n o r , i n 1973 , c o n t i n u e s t o see no t o n l y S o p h i e but a l s o Cons t ance as b o t h a p l a u s i b l e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y female c h a r a c t e r , and as a s t i l l a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y (pp . 52 and 5 8 ) . T h i s p r a i s e f o r t he c o m p l e t e p a s s i v i t y o f C o n s t a n c e , who i s so u n w i l l i n g t o a c t t o change her unhappy s i t u a t i o n t h a t she w i l l no t even ask 121 f o r h e l p , i s amaz ing i n a modern female c r i t i c . M e l a n i d e evoked l e s s p r a i s e f o r i t s female c h a r a c t e r s , a l t h o u g h i t was g r e a t l y admi red as a w h o l e . N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s l i k e G e o f f r o y emphas ize the i l l e g a l m a r r i a g e and i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d i n M e l a n i d e ' s p a s t i n o r d e r t o condemn h e r , and doubt the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f the m a r q u i s c h o o s i n g her faded charms (a t 36) over R o s a l i e ( G e o f f r o y , p . 1 9 9 ) . R o s a l i e h e r s e l f was seen as b o t h p l a u s i b l e and a t t r a c t i v e by Lanson ( p . 2 4 9 ) . In L ' E c o l e des  meres , Mme A r g a n t i s a d m i r e d no t so much as a b e l i e v a b l e c h a r a c t e r as a good r o l e f o r a c t r e s s e s ( F r e r o n , 1763 , I , 2 9 6 ) . La Chaussee b roke w i t h l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n making he r b o t h i n f a t u a t e d and i m p e r i o u s ( L a n s o n , p . 2 1 1 ) . M a r i a n n e i s s i m p l y the p e r f e c t f o r m u l a ingenue ( p . 2 4 8 ) . The g o u v e r n a n t e as w e l l i s more a m o d e l , o f v i r t u e and d e v o t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n an i n d i v i d u a l ( G e o f f r o y , p . 2 0 9 ) . L a n s o n c r i t i c i z e s her d e t e r m i n e d r e f u s a l o f h a p p i n e s s : " t a n t de r u s e s au s e r v i c e de t a n t de v e r t u , t a n t de f i n e s s e s pour f a i r e son malheur e t s u r t o u t c e l u i de sa f i l l e . " ( p . 197) A n g e l i q u e , however , i s p r a i s e d f o r her n a i v e t e , modesty and p l i a b i l i t y (Lanson p . 248; a l s o F r e r o n , l o c . c i t . ) . T h u s , L a C h a u s s e e ' s h e r o i n e s on the whole s u c c e e d i n m e e t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o r r e c t female b e h a v i o u r , as models i f no t as r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t s , and c o n t i n u e t o do so w e l l a f t e r t h e y f i r s t appea red on s t a g e . P r o t e s t s a r e u s u a l l y t h a t t h e y a r e t oo p e r f e c t ; c r i t i c i s m o f what La Chaussee p r e s e n t s as i d e a l female b e h a v i o u r i s r a r e even i n 122 modern s t u d i e s . The e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s p e c t a t o r s d i d no t f i n d the s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s were p l a c e d u n l i k e l y . The themes and p l o t - l i n e s used had a t l e a s t a c o n n e c t i o n t o s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s . The s e n t i m e n t a l l anguage and the e n d l e s s p l o t c o m p l i c a t i o n s were e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o c o n t e m p o r a r y s t a n d a r d s : "Les s u r c h a r g e s r o m a n e s q u e s . . . n ' o n t p o i n t n u i a son s u c c e s aup re s des c o n t e m p o r a i n s . outre l e gout q u ' i l s a v a i e n t pour ces i n t r i g u e s p l e i n e s de s u r p r i s e , l ' h a b i t u d e l e s l e u r r e n d a i t en que lque s o r t p l u s t r a n s p a r e n t e s . " ( L a n s o n , p . 186; see D e s c o t e s , pp . 2 0 5 - 6 ) . C r i t i c s o f the p e r i o d seem more c o n c e r n e d w i t h the t e c h n i c a l m e r i t o f p l o t c o n s t r u c t i o n , and c o n f i n e c o m p l a i n t s o f i m p l a u s i b i l i t y t o the v a r i o u s e x p e d i e n t s used t o d e l a y the denouement u n t i l the end of the f i f t h a c t ( D e s f o n t a i n e s , I I , 3 0 7 - 9 ; F r e r o n 1763 , I , 2 9 7 ) . They a l s o t e n d t o emphas ize the e f f e c t on the s p e c t a t o r . M e l a n i d e was a good p l a y no t p r i m a r i l y because of the q u a l i t y o f the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n or the w r i t i n g , but because " t o u t e s ces scenes p r o d u i s e n t 1 ' a t t e n d r i s s e m e n t l e p l u s d e c i d e " ( F r e r o n , 1763 , I , 2 9 5 ) . F r a n c e i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y had no h i g h e r p r a i s e f o r a work of l i t e r a t u r e t h a n t h i s , because " 1 ' a t t e n d r i s s e m e n t " was the b e s t method o f b o t h p l e a s i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g a t the same t i m e , w h i c h was the purpose o f l i t e r a t u r e . P r o v o k i n g sympathy was an end as w e l l as a means. C r i t i c s o f a l l p e r i o d s agree t h a t La Chaussee i n t e n d e d t o i n s t r u c t h i s a u d i e n c e ( L a n s o n , p . 201 ; O 'Connor p . 4 9 ) . 1 23 E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s a p p l a u d t h i s d i d a c t i c i s m : "Les d i f f e r e n t e s p i e c e s de M de La C h a u s s e e . . . o n t s u r t o u t l e m e r i t e p r o p r e e t d i s t i n c t i f d ' e t r e une e c o l e de moeurs e t de p r i n c i p e s h o n n e t e s : e l l e s r e s p i r e n t l a v e r t u e t l a f o n t a i m e r . " [23] Even V o l t a i r e , among the h a r s h e s t c r i t i c s o f t he "comedie l a r m o y a n t e " , c o n c e d e d , " i l y a du m e r i t e a s a v o i r t o u c h e r , a b i e n t r a i t e r l a m o r a l e . " [24] E v o k i n g sympathy and e n c o u r a g i n g m o r a l i t y were i n s e p a r a b l e i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h t hough t ( L a n s o n , p . 2 3 3 ) . La Chaussee wou ld no t have a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s i f he had no t p u n i s h e d f a u l t s and rewarded v i r t u e ( G a i f f e , Le R i r e , p . 2 1 0 ) . Beyond i n t e n d i n g t o t e a c h , La Chaussee i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have t a u g h t e f f e c t i v e l y : "Ces p e r s o n n a g e s , t a i l l e s au gou t du j o u r , s e r v i r e n t a l e u r t o u r de m o d e l e s . " ( L a n s o n , p . 272) I n p a r t i c u l a r , he i s f r e q u e n t l y c r e d i t e d w i t h weaken ing the p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t l o v e between spouses (Lanson c i t i n g L a H a r p e , p . 1 4 7 ) . L a C h a u s s e e ' s l e s s o n s c e n t r e on m a r r i a g e , no t as a g o a l bu t as the scene o f p rob lems ( L a n s o n , p . 1 7 3 ) . Lanson a rgues t h a t L a C h a u s s e e ' s v i e w of p s y c h o l o g y and m o r a l i t y i s based on f o u r s i m p l e p r e m i s e s : the e s s e n t i a l goodness o f n a t u r e and o f l o v e , t he " v o i x du s a n g " , and the omnipotence o f n a t u r e (pp . 2 3 8 - 9 ) . W h i l e Lanson c r i t i c i z e s the b a n a l i t y o f t h e s e p r e m i s e s , he does no t q u e s t i o n L a C h a u s s e e ' s f ocus on women's d u t i e s i n m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y . F e i l e r (1986) sees L a C h a u s s e e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h the p rob lems and o b l i g a t i o n s of women as p r o g r e s s i v e f e m i n i s m [ 2 5 ] , He pas se s over La 1 2U C h a u s s e e ' s use o f female c h a r a c t e r s t o o b s t r u c t t he h e r o i n e s (p . 1 1 ) , and of male c h a r a c t e r s t o r e s o l v e p rob lems ( p . 1 5 ) , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e seen by f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s l i k e Mary D a l y as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p a t r i a r c h a l o p p r e s s i o n of women [ 2 6 ] . The c o n s t a n t v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f female c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h was b rough t ou t b o t h by n a r r a t o l o g i c a l and by d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s i s p a r t o f the s o c i e t y i n w h i c h the p l a y s were w r i t t e n , d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r t h a n n o r m a t i v e t o F e l l e r . My own c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t La Chaussee i s as c o n s e r v a t i v e and e l i t i s t i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of women as he i s In h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o c i e t y as a whole and In h i s f i d e l i t y t o l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s . P a s s i v i t y i s imposed a t a l l l e v e l s . S o p h i e speaks out f o r women's f r eedom, p r o t e s t s the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of w i v e s , but ends up m a r r y i n g Damon. Women a r e p r e s e n t e d as i n c a p a b l e o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s : Ge ron te l o o k s a f t e r L e o n o r e ' s , Theodon a f t e r M e l a n i d e ' s , or o f knowing what i s b e s t f o r them. The d e c i s i o n s a r e made, the p rob lems s o l v e d , t he happy e n d i n g imposed by men. Female c h a r a c t e r s as a whole l a c k i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i n La Chaussee ; t h e y a r e s i m p l y b e a u t i f u l , v i r t u o u s , and d i s t r e s s e d . The happy e n d i n g c o n s i s t s o f female c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o m a l e - d o m i n a t e d s o c i e t y . The a l l - f e m a l e w o r l d o f t he c o n v e n t i s more a pun i shment t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e . I n the w o r l d o f L a C h a u s s e e ' s p l a y s , women do have r i g h t s - - t o the l o v e of t h e i r husbands and p a r e n t s , t o s o c i a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n , t o the o b e d i e n c e of t h e i r 125 c h i l d r e n . But t h e y a l s o have the o b l i g a t i o n t o obey t h e i r husbands , as Mme A r g a n t i s t a u g h t , t o be a d v i s e d by men, and t o l o v e t h e i r husbands and t h e i r c h i l d r e n u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y . There i s no room f o r p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n or t he p u r s u i t o f o n e ' s own h a p p i n e s s , nor f o r s e x u a l i t y o u t s i d e o f m a r r i a g e . No d e v i a t i o n f rom the s t a n d a r d s of d u t y - - t o f a m i l y , husband , c h a s t i t y , or s o c i e t y — i s t o l e r a t e d . P a s s i v i t y i s e x t e n d e d f rom a c t i o n t o s p e e c h . Bremond ' s n a r r a t o l o g i c a l schema s e r v e d t o make e x p l i c i t t h a t h e r o i n e s no t o n l y do no t a c t t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y t y p i c a l l y work a g a i n s t any improvement o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , as though t h e y took p l e a s u r e i n e n d u r i n g h a r d s h i p . F u r t h e r m o r e , h e r o i n e s a r e no t even p e r m i t t e d t o c o m p l a i n abou t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . They a r e f r e q u e n t l y domina t ed i n d i a l o g u e no t o n l y by men bu t a l s o by o t h e r female c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y a r e young and d e p e n d e n t . Among h i s h e r o i n e s , L a Chaussee g i v e s a u t h o r i t y o n l y t o mothers over t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The o n l y e q u a l i t y on w h i c h he i n s i s t s i s e q u a l i t y o f i n h e r i t a n c e , i n L ' E c o l e des meres , w h i c h was p o s s i b l e but not u n i v e r s a l i n F r e n c h l e g a l cus tom o f t he p e r i o d ( A b e n s o u r , p p . 2 6 - 2 8 ) . Women a r e no t g i v e n the f reedom t o mar ry w i t h o u t p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l , nor t o i g n o r e the f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on whom t o m a r r y . H a p p i n e s s i s no t a g o a l pu r sued by women, but the r e w a r d g i v e n by men t o women who meet a l l t he demands made on them, f o r p a t i e n c e , e n d u r a n c e , v i r t u e , o b e d i e n c e . B e f o r e d i s m i s s i n g t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s as s i m p l y p r o d u c t s o f 1 2 6 the p e r i o d , one s h o u l d r e c a l l t h a t La Chaussee moved i n the same s o c i e t y as Mme du C h a t e l e t and Mme du D e f f a n d . La C h a u s s e e ' s c h a r a c t e r s s h o u l d be seen as n o r m a t i v e , as models or i d e a l s o f female b e h a v i o u r shaped by a c o n s e r v a t i v e and f u n d a m e n t a l l y p a t r i a r c h a l v i e w of s o c i e t y . L a Chaussee c o u l d h a r d l y be more e x p l i c i t i n e x p r e s s i n g b o t h a t the l e v e l o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e and a t the l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e t h a t women s h o u l d be o b j e c t s d e s i r e d , c o n t r o l l e d or p r o t e c t e d by men. Any k i n d o f s u b m i s s i o n t o women, even a f f e c t i v e dependence , e x c e p t t o o n e ' s mo the r , i s c o n s t a n t l y d e r i d e d and f e a r e d . What i s s t r i k i n g i s t he w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e of t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of women, no t o n l y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y but i n c u r r e n t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m of L a C h a u s s e e . I t i s one t h i n g t o t a k e La Chaussee as r e p r e s e n t i n g as a c c u r a t e l y as he c o u l d the b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s p e r i o d ; i n t h i s r e g a r d he i s an e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n abou t e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y and i t s m o r a l s . But one i s s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s l i k e Moureau , F e i l e r , and O 'Connor c o n s i d e r i n g La C h a u s s e e ' s female c h a r a c t e r s no t o n l y as a c c u r a t e f o r t h e i r t ime but as f l a t t e r i n g r a t h e r t h a n n o r m a t i v e , as s t i l l a t t r a c t i v e and even as f e m i n i s t ; and t o f i n d B e r n a r d u p h o l d i n g h im as the p l a y w r i g h t o f t he r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e and e g a l i t a r i a n v a l u e s . There seems no a m b i g u i t y abou t La C h a u s s e e ' s a t t i t u d e t o women — p a t i e n t v i r t u e w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be r ewarded (by men), bu t even the appearance of f a i l u r e i n 1 27 p e r f e c t v i r t u e opens a women t o contempt and s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m . S i n c e r e a l women canno t be p e r f e c t , male s o c i e t y has no o b l i g a t i o n t o r eward them. As Lanson put i t , husbands do no t have t o a c t l i k e D u r v a l because t h e i r w i v e s a r e no t l i k e Cons t ance ( p . 1 4 5 ) . The e v i d e n c e of La C h a u s s e e ' s c o n d u c t t o women i n h i s p r i v a t e l i f e r e i n f o r c e s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . He l i k e d t o domina te h i s m i s t r e s s e s , a l a R i c h e l i e u , and p r e f e r r e d young g i r l s ( L a n s o n , p p . 3 - 5 ) . T h u s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o de fend La Chaussee as any more b o u r g e o i s or f e m i n i s t t h a n the f a s h i o n a b l e e l i t e t o whom he a p p e a l e d as a p l a y w r i g h t and w i t h whom he a s s o c i a t e d . He bases h i s p l a y s as much on the a u s t e r e and p a t r i a r c h a l m o r a l i t y o f the l a s t y e a r s o f L o u i s X I V as on c o n t e m p o r a r y mores ; h i s c h a r a c t e r s l o o k back no t f o r w a r d t o f i n d a more v i r t u o u s s o c i e t y . G o o d l a d found t h a t c o n s e r v a t i s m , w i t h an a b i l i t y t o meet a u d i e n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s t y l e and c o n t e n t and t o r e f l e c t c u r r e n t v a l u e s , were n e c e s s a r y t o p o p u l a r s u c c e s s . The p l a y s s t u d i e d c e r t a i n l y meet t h e s e c r i t e r a . C l o s e s t u d y l e a d s us t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s were f o r s e n s i b i l i t y and v i r t u e o n l y i n a c o n t e x t o f p a t r i a r c h a l and a r i s t o c r a t i c v a l u e s . E q u a l i t y between the sexes or m o b i l i t y among the s o c i a l l e v e l s i s a b s e n t . In the w o r l d o f La C h a u s s e e ' s s u c c e s s f u l p l a y s , p e o p l e a r e d e f i n e d and c o n f i n e d by t h e i r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n : man or woman, n o b l e s s e de c o u r or n o b l e s s e de r o b e , w i f e , mo the r , d a u g h t e r , or m a i d , w i t h no p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e i n s o c i e t y o u t s i d e t h o s e r o l e s . T h i s 1 2 8 p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l and m o r a l r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o women, i s no t u s u a l l y b rough t out by c r i t i c s , bu t c o n s t i t u t e s one o f the o n l y a s p e c t s o f La C h a u s s e e ' s t h e a t r e w h i c h can s t i l l i n t e r e s t modern r e a d e r s . I f t he p l a y s a r e seen no t so much as l i t e r a r y t e x t s i n t h e m s e l v e s , bu t as m o r a l l e s s o n s e x p r e s s e d by the medium of t h e a t r e , t h e n emphas is can s h i f t t o the l anguage and p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h made p a s s i v e female v i r t u e a t t r a c t i v e t o b o t h men and women i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e s , and made t h e s e p l a y s seem f e m i n i s t or a t l e a s t p r o - f e m a l e i n t h e i r p e r i o d . One can f u r t h e r ask whether t h e i r l o s s o f p o p u l a r i t y s i n c e the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s due t o changes i n the s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s on women, or m e r e l y i n t h e a t r i c a l t a s t e s , whether i t i s t he s t y l e or t he s u b s t a n c e w h i c h no l o n g e r a p p e a l s t o a u d i e n c e s . 1 2 9 NOTES 1. F . G a i f f e , Le Drame au X V I I I e s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1 9 1 0 ) , p p . 1 6 3 , 193 and 244; see a l s o J . L o u g h , P a r i s T h e a t r e A u d i e n c e s , p . 264. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o G a i f f e w i l l be made i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n the body of the t e x t . 2 . L a n s o n , p . 125 ; and E . L i n t i l h a c , H i s t o i r e g e n e r a l e  du t h e a t r e en F r a n c e , tome I V : La Comedie : D i x - h u i t i e m e  s i e c l e ( P a r i s : F l a m m a r i o n , [ n . d . , p r e f a c e d a t e d 1 9 0 9 ] ) , p . 282 . 3 . D e s c o t e s , p . 207; L a g r a v e , p p . 141 and 164; and F r . Moureau , "Les Larmes comiques de N i v e l l e de La C h a u s s e e , " Das Weinende S a e c u l u m : C o l l o q u i u m d . A r b e i t s s t e l l e , U n i v M u n s t e r , Ok tobe r 1981 ( H e i d e l b e r g : C a r l W i n t e r U n i v e r s i t a t s v e r l a g , W i n t e r 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 42 . 4 . F . H a w k i n s , The F r e n c h Stage i n the E i g h t e e n t h  C e n t u r y , v o l I (New York : Greenwood P r e s s , 1969 , f i r s t pub 1 8 8 8 ) , p . x i v . 5 . D e s c o t e s , p . 189 ; L a g r a v e p . 664. 6. P . Hoffmann, La Femme dans l a pensee des l u m i e r e s ( P a r i s : O p h r y s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 559-560 and P . F a u c h e r y , La D e s t i n e e f e m i n i n e , pp . 50 and 834 . 7 . L . F o n t a i n e , Le T h e a t r e e t l a p h i l o s o p h i e au X V I I I e  s i e c l e ( P a r i s : C e r f , n . d . , f i r s t pub 1 8 7 8 ) , p . 208; and L o u g h , p . 1 8 5 . 8. A . C h e r e l , De Telemaque a Cand ide ( P a r i s : D e l 130 Duca , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 103 . 9 . I . B e r n a r d , e d . L ' E c o l e des meres , N i v e l l e de L a Chaussee (Geneva : D r o z , 1 9 8 2 ) , i n t r o d u c t i o n p . 15 and F o n t a i n e , p . 175 . 1 0 . L o u g h , p p . 185-6 and 2 4 9 - 5 0 ; A n g e l i c a Goodden, A c t i o and P e r s u a s i o n : D r a m a t i c Pe r fo rmance i n  E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y F r a n c e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 78 . 1 1 . Haydn Mason , F r e n c h Writers and T h e i r society 1715  - 1800 , p . 38 ; and Moureau , p . 4 1 . 1 2 . L o u g h , p . 249; Moureau , p . 4 1 ; and B e l l e s s o r t , p . 8 3 . 1 3 . N . M . O ' C o n n o r , " L ' I n f l u e n c e de l ' o p i n i o n p u b l i q u e s u r l e s moeurs : La C h a u s s e e , D i d e r o t , L a c l o s , " d i s s e r t a t i o n ( C o r n e l l , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 84 . 1 4 . Le M e r c u r e , apr 1735 p . 768; l e s G o n c o u r t , p p . 2 2 1 - 3 ; L a n s o n , p . 147 ; F o n t a i n e , p p . 1 7 2 - 4 . A b e n s o u r , p . 74 , g i v e s the example o f M and Mme d ' E p l n a y as c o n f i r m a t i o n . 1 5 . D e s f o n t a i n e s , O b s e r v a t i o n s s u r l e s e c r i t s modernes I , 3 0 - 3 1 ; G e o f f r o y , p . 203 . 1 6 . L . A b e n s o u r , p p . 359 , 396 and 401 on a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s ; p . 278 on c o n v e n t s . 1 7 . Mme de G r a f f i g n y , C o r r e s p o n d a n c e e d . E n g l i s h S h o w a l t e r , volume I ( O x f o r d U P , 1 9 8 5 ) , p p . 470 and 5 1 1 . 18 . W.D. H o w a r t h , e d . M e l a n i d e , N i v e l l e de La Chaussee ( 1 9 7 3 ) , i n t r o d u c t i o n pp . 15 - 1 9 . 1 9 . D e s c o t e s , p . 1 9 1 ; see Howar th p . 19 and G a i f f e , Le R i r e . , p . 154 . 131 2 0 . L a g r a v e , p p . 6 4 7 - 8 ; D e s c o t e s , p p . 1 9 2 - 3 . 2 1 . P r e v o s t , Le Pour e t l e c o n t r e (Geneva : S l a t k i n e , 1 9 6 7 ) , tome V , p . 365 . 2 2 . D e s f o n t a i n e s , I , 32 ; F r e r o n , 1763 , I , 289; L a n s o n , p . 1 4 5 . 2 3 . d ' A l e m b e r t , p . 393 , see a l s o p . 398; Le Mercu re mar 1734, p . 575 and j a n 1747 , p . 139 . 24 . V o l t a i r e , Le S i e c l e de L o u i s X I V i n Oeuvres  c o m p l e t e s , v o l 10 ( P a r i s : G a r n i e r f r e r e s , 1 8 7 7 ) , p . 1 1 1 . 2 5 . D r . S. F e i l e r , " N i v e l l e de La C h a u s s e e : E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y F e m i n i n i s t , " u n p u b l i s h e d paper ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 4 . 26 . Mary D a l y , G y n / E c o l o g y : The M e t a e t h i c s o f R a d i c a l  F e m i n i s m ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , f o r example pages 1 6 4 - 5 . 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY TEXTS La C h a u s s e e , P . C . N i v e l l e d e . O e u v r e s , e d . S a b l i e r . P a r i s : P r a u l t f i l s , 1 7 6 1 - 1 7 6 2 , 5 v o l u m e s . L ' E c o l e des meres , e d . I s a b e l l e B e r n a r d . Geneve : D r o z , 1982 . M e l a n i d e , e d . W. D. H o w a r t h . B r i g h t o n : Sussex R e p r i n t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Sussex L i b r a r y , 1 9 7 3 . [ L a v a l ] Le P r e j u g e a l a mode ( 1 7 3 5 ) , M e l a n i d e ( 1 7 4 1 ) , L ' E c o l e  des meres ( 1 7 4 4 ) , e t La Gouvernan te ( 1 7 4 7 ) , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e tome 1 3 , tome 6 of Comedies i n R e p e r t o i r e du t h e a t r e  f r a n g o i s , ed P e t i t o t . P a r i s : F o u c a u l t , 1817 . WORKS CONSULTED X V I I I CENTURY D ' A l e m b e r t . 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