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The Metis people of St. Laurent, Manitoba : an introductory ethnology Lavallée, Guy Albert Sylvestre 1988

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THE  METIS PEOPLE OF ST.LAURENT. MANITOBA AN INTRODUCTORY  ETHNOGRAPHY  By BUY ALBERT SYLVESTRE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  LAVALLEE  o f O t t a w a . 1963  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT t THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  STUDIES  ANTHROPOLOGY  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1988  ©  Guy A l b e r t  Sylvestre  L a v a l l e e , 1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  that the  her  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  ii  This or  thesis  examines the  t h e M i c h i f s as t h e y  M a n i t o b a . The off-springs during  the  Metis people  of the N a t i v e  themselves  enjoyed  that  was  a t Red  hundred  and  of the  the  at the  'New  l a n d and  time,  Nation'.  to  1870,  leader Louis Riel,  was  e x p e l l e d from  M e t i s g r a d u a l l y became, o v e r economically marginalized The by  thesis  Metis  community a t moved f r o m  a p p e a r more g e n e r a l l y ' C a n a d i a n ' to the p r o c e s s e s find  c r o s s r o a d . They f a c e t h e becoming social,  'Canadian'. cultural  decision.  I will  and  the  and  being a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  than  today  of  at a  choice of remaining  and  implications  seculari-  cultural Metis  Data r e v e a l s t h a t there are economic  their  specifically  of modernization  themselves  process  St.Laurent,  t o a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h some a s p e c t s  many M e t i s  their  i s t o document t h e  community  zation,  and  seeing  a socially  i s moving o r has  M e t i s . Due  race  after  Manitoba,  lives  life  people.  purpose of t h i s  which a p a r t i c u l a r  of  h i s homeland and  the y e a r s ,  ago,  the  were a p r o u d In  the  Europeans  t h i r t y years  M a n i t o b a become a p r o v i n c e w i t h i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n , I  t o as  R i v e r a s u c c e s s f u l e c o n o m i c way  Metis,  themselves  St.Laurent,  I n d i a n women and  h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d to the  e n v i r o n m e n t . The  at  t h e Metis.,  were g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d  f u r t r a d e e r a . One  they  called  call  l i v e s of a people,  or  some  i n making s u c h  argue the p o i n t t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to  a  retain the  a s t r o n g and  same t i m e  Metis  than  f o r m e r l y was  constituents  of Metisness,  undergone w i t h i n the  of b e i n g M e t i s w h i l e  and,  presumably,  research relate both  core  and  o f change t h e s e of the  to  society.  Others  Metisness  as  as t h e y j o i n e d  the  cultural  values  informants.  to s t r u g g l e to r e t a i n  they  former  cultural  Metis  'Canadian'  some  result,  Metis  However, who  i n the p r o c e s s ,  and  cultural  ways, s o c i a l l y ,  structing  new  technological  we  encounter  family origins,  and  politically  e x p r e s s i o n s of M e t i s n e s s world.  their  in  As  a  past. today,  historical  are,  in  recon-  today's  by  are  many M e t i s  h e r i t a g e . These people  culturally  aspects  t h a t many  'Canadian'.  a r e n o t what t h e y were i n t h e  are r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r  traditions own  today  have become  of  ways a b s o r b e d  at the expense of b e i n g M e t i s ,  have a s s i m i l a t e d and  have  their  t h e modern c u r r e n t . In many i n s t a n c e s , M e t i s p e o p l e becoming  We  D a t a shows  the mainstream  continue see  less  surface values.  some M e t i s , u n d e r e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e , made rather quickly  at  case.  life-span  decision  of  the  of t h i s  f o l l o w the p r o c e s s  that  sense  becoming a Canadian  Some f i n d i n g s  will  definitive  their  iv  Abstract Table  i i  of Contents  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  iv v i i viii  Acknowledgements INTRODUCTION: P e r s o n a l B a c k g r o u n d Aim and P u r p o s e o f T h e s i s Methodology L o c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h Methods CHAPTER 1: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: The word ' M e t i s ' Historiography CHAPTER 2: ST.LAURENT: The g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g Land and S o i l Climate E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t and H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t . . M a t e r i a l Aspects of Metis c u l t u r e : Shelter Food Clothing CHAPTER 3: GROWING UP IN ST.LAURENT: D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms B i r t h and I n f a n c y Childhood Education A M e t i s view o f E d u c a t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n of Formal Education C o u r t s h i p and M a r r i a g e A Wedding F e a s t Adult Years . The War Y e a r s The S e n i o r Y e a r s Wake and B u r i a l  ix 1 4 6 9 11 11 14 22 22 26 27 27 30 34 37 49 50 52 53 57 59 60 62 64 70 72 74 76  V  CHAPTER 4: MAKING A LIVING IN ST.LAURENT: SOURCES OF LIVELIHOOD D i v i s i o n o f Labor The Work o f M e t i s Women The Work o f M e t i s Men CHAPTER 5: SOCIAL L I F E ,  RELIGION AND POLITICS  87 87 88 102 120  SOCIAL L I F E : A s e n s e o f I n d e p e n d e n c e combined w i t h a s p i r i t o f community l i f e 121 Home e n t e r t a i m e n t and games 121 House S o c i a l s 124 A l c o h o l - r e l a t e d events 125 The Community P i c n i c 127 The P a r i s h - H a l l : C e n t r e o f S o c i a l L i f e 127 The New R e c r e a t i o n C e n t r e 129 New S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 130 RELIGION f r o m t h e L e a d e r s h i p P e r s p e c t i v e . . . . R e l i g i o n : 'La M i s s i o n ' R e l i g i o u s P r a c t i c e s and o b s e r v a n c e s Major R e l i g i o u s Events Sacraments o f I n i t i a t i o n New A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  136 136 138 141 142 144  POLITICS from t h e L e a d e r s h i p p e r s p e c t i v e ... 150 H i s t o r i c a l Aspects 150 The A d v i s o r y B o a r d : New Awareness 151 Municipal Organizational Structure 153 R e - e l e c t i o n o f Reeve and C o u n c i l 153 People Involvement 155 Campaigning 157 Some D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e work of t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y 160 Manitoba Metis Federation l o c a l 163 CHAPTER 6: METISNESS: The M i c h i f F r e n c h L a n g u a g e : Aspects of L i n g u i s t i c H i s t o r y Metis Construction of the Origin of Michif French Bilingualism Community R e c o l l e c t i o n o f I n i t i a l Language C o n t a c t The B r e t o n s The New H i g h S c h o o l i n 1939 L i n g u i s t i c Acculturation outside of St.Laurent M i c h i f F r e n c h as a symbol o f Metis Identity  170 170 173 174 175 176 181 181 182 184  vi  CHAPTER 7: Summary Conclusion  1  8  7  191  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  9  7  FIGURES  2  1  0  vii  Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  1. M a t e r i a l Shelter,  Aspects of Metis C u l t u r e Food and C l o t h i n g  2. M a r r i a g e Customs and F a m i l y P r e - 1 9 5 0 and Today  Life  3. M e t i s n e s s : C o r e and S u r f a c e F o r E l d e r s and. Y o u t h  Values  4.  Sources of L i v e l i h o o d P r e - 1 9 5 0 and Today  5. S o u r c e s o f l i v e l i h o o d P r e - 1 9 5 0 and Today  42 68 83  f o r M e t i s Women 100 f o r Metis  Men 117  6. Community G r o u p s P r e - 1 9 5 0 and Today  132  7. L e a d e r s h i p i n t h e C h u r c h P r e - 1 9 5 0 and t o d a y .  145  8. Some R e l i g i o u s P r a c t i c e s P r e - 1 9 5 0 and t o d a y  146  9. C h r o n o l o g y o f P o l i t i c a l From 1881 t o 1988  Leadership  10. M e t i s P o l i t i c a l L e a d e r s h i p Power, I n f l u e n c e and P a r t i c i p a t i o n  166 167  viii  Figure  1. Map  of Manitoba showing I n t e r l a k e Region  210  Figure  2.  of St.Laurent  211  Figure  3. Map  of St.Laurent:  References  Figure  4.  of S t . L a u r e n t :  River  Map  Map  l o t system,  212 1875  ....  213  i x  Acknowledgements I wish to acknowledge the t h o u g h t f u l a s s i s t a n c e of my a d v i s o r , conducting t h i s  D r . Kenelm 0.  to the Metis people of  Manitoba f o r t h e i r many kindnesses and  understanding.  Without t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n ,  would not have been p o s s i b l e . Manitoba Metis F e d e r a t i o n Inc. a s s i s t a n c e and f o r sponsoring Chartrand,  L . B u r r i d g e in  research.  I want to express my g r a t i t u d e St.Laurent,  and s c h o l a r l y  this  thesis  I a l s o want to thank for their  the  financial  t h i s research,  Yvon Dumont and Audreen H o u r i e .  especially  Paul  1  IntrjQduc.jbiQ.a  I  was  Manitoba River  born  and  i n 1939  can  (Sprague:  t r a c e my 1983,  great-grandfather, f a c o n du  pays',  Josephte  Cree,  1968,  I was  village. eastern  born  dangling  close  silver I my  a boy,  the cabooses  The  the  hovered  i n my  in July  i n my  home  situated  on  I remember w a t c h i n g , of fishermen,  lake, with a load  a  the  w i n t e r a i r . The  full  on  lantern  of f r e s h  smoke c u r l e d  way  back  pickerel  s o u n d s on out  of  the  the  moon, l i k e  a  over  the Metis  settlement.  a l w a y s dreamed o f d o i n g  some t y p e  o f r e s e a r c h on  Many o f my  mind: t h e  boyhood memories s t i l l  hunters,  the t r a p p e r s , the  women's work, t h e c h i l d r e n ,  the s o c i a l  of  i t s promises.  life,  country)  window, c r e a k i n g t h e i r  brightly  'a l a  some n i n e t y k i l o m e t r e s  h o r s e s would make t h u d d i n g  i n the c o l d  disk,  married  later,  priest  Red  great-great-  1760,  i s a small Metis v i l l a g e  a week on  had  born  Five generations  to the f r o n t  home v i l l a g e .  vivid  Lavallee,  f r e s h snow as heavy w h i t e  chimneys  1700's a t  1818-1870). My  of Lake Manitoba,  evenings,  crisp  1786.  o f W i n n i p e g . As  jack fish.  i n St.Laurent,  ( a c c o r d i n g t o the custom of the  Saturday  and  1,  o r d a i n e d a Roman C a t h o l i c  shores  home f r o m  o l d log-house,  a n c e s t o r s to the  Table  Ignace  St.Laurent  northwest  i n an  i t s c h a l l e n g e s and  life,  remain  fishermen,  the M e t i s  So when t h e  way time  2 came t o c h o o s e a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a f o r my f i e l d - w o r k , I chose S t . L a u r e n t . connections  Having  and a c q u a i n t a n c e s  w i t h me and f a c i l i t a t e more, h a v i n g I  was a l s o  been b o r n who,  I felt,  t h e r e , I had  would c o l l a b o r a t e  my f i e l d - w o r k and r e s e a r c h . F u r t h e r -  been away f r o m  l o o k i n g forward  b a c k and r e c o n n e c t  and r a i s e d  home f o r more t h a n  thirty  years,  t o t h e moment when I would go  w i t h my v i l l a g e  r o o t s and t r a d i t i o n s .  I  was n o t d i s a p p o i n t e d ! A M a n i t o b a f r e e - l a n c e w r i t e r once dubbed S t . L a u r e n t , village no  like  townsite,  people,  no o t h e r . ' T h e r e a r e no s t r e e t s , no i n d u s t r i e s .  Yet, t h e r e a r e over  t h e m a j o r i t y o f them b e i n g M e t i s  sparsely  highways. In s i m i l a r  manner, I o f t e n l o o k e d  people  as unique,  were t h e o n l y p e o p l e French  dispelled who a l s o  spoke t h e same  Since hectic, tions  t h a t time,  from  z a t i o n s both in  doing  interest life.  this  studies  a c r o s s Canada,  settings  with Metis  at the U n i v e r s i t y  Metis  v a r i e d and  and i n n e r - c i t y  social  and n a t i o n a l  and p o l i t i c a l levels.  r e s e a r c h was prompted p a r t l y  i n the f a l l  quickly  I met o t h e r  my m i n i s t r y has been b o t h  at the l o c a l  t h a t we  t h a t n o t i o n was  i n l e a r n i n g more a b o u t M e t i s  Hence,  upon t h e M e t i s  language.  intercultural  t o involvment  t h e new and o l d  who spoke t h e M i c h i f  Of c o u r s e ,  a s , i n my t r a v e l s  thousand  i n homes  because I thought  i n the world  language f l u e n t l y .  sidewalks, one  living  scattered f o r four kilometres along  o f my v i l l a g e  no  'a  organi-  My m o t i v a t i o n  by my  history  condi-  academic  and way o f  o f 1985, I s t a r t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Specifically,  3 I was l o o k i n g f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s e s s and e v a l u a t e my work and m i n i s t r y sciences.  from  My p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s  social  and p o l i t i c a l  people  from  and  the p e r s p e c t i v e of the s o c i a l  dimensions  on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f my m i n i s t r y  with  of the  Metis  1968 t o 1978 l e d me t o make some o b s e r v a t i o n s  formulate  certain  questions:  Metis people have d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e r t i n g themselves as a d i s t i n c t people, as an e t h n i c group, as an a b o r i g i n a l people i n t h e i r home p r o v i n c e s and i n Canada. Why? In g e n e r a l , the p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g the government, members o f c o r p o r a t i o n s , union l e a d e r s , the churches and s c h o l a r s l a c k a thorough knowledge o f M e t i s h i s t o r y and way o f l i f e , and e s p e c i a l l y on the r o l e the M e t i s played i n the development o f Western Canada. What a r e some o f the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b e i n g a M e t i s in, .Canada today? Have modernization and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n had any e f f e c t s on M e t i s c u l t u r e and way o f l i f e ? I f so, i n what ways?  It  i s not w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s  a n s w e r s t o a l l t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . We w i l l and  allude  course  t o many r e l a t e d  of our d i s c u s s i o n  St.Laurent,  Manitoba.  thesis  to provide  nonetheless  i s s u e s and t o p i c s  t o u c h on  throughout the  with the Metis people at  4  Aim  and P u r p o s e o„f T h e s i s The  aim o f t h i s  ethnography that descriptive pretend life.  will  study  to cover  thesis  i s t o p r o d u c e an  serve mainly  of the people and d e p i c t  I t has n e i t h e r  as a p r e l i m i n a r y and  and a r e a . I t d o e s n o t  a l l aspects  an e x c l u s i v e  to prove.  to  and examine some a s p e c t s  and  culture  people version life.  of t h e i r  I am i n t e r e s t e d  story,  Our a n a l y s i s w i l l  factors  constitutive  address  the f o l l o w i n g  Does t h e M e t i s within  of t h e i r  this  r e s e a r c h wants  o f t h e M e t i s way o f and l i v e d  history  life  by t h e M e t i s  i n documenting  focus p r i m a r i l y  their  and o f t h e i r on some  way o f  cultural  o f contemporary Metisness.  We  will  questions:  life  the l i f e - s p a n  understanding add  and f o r e m o s t ,  as p e r c e i v e d , e x p e r i e n c e d  themselves.  o f t h e M e t i s way o f  theory nor a p a r t i c u l a r  hypothesis capture  First  introductory  experience  at St.Laurent,  of the informants  of Metisness  t o our understanding  to-day?  contribute  And d o e s s u c h  Manitoba, t o our  experience  of 19th century Metisness?  I f so,  how? As is  was s t a t e d  above, t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s  t o document t h e p r o c e s s  by w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r  community,  at St.Laurent  from  a self-contained  being  Manitoba,  Metis  i s moving o r has moved  community  of Metis  condition  i n w h i c h some a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  generally  'Canadian'  (participating  life  to a a p p e a r more  i n a way o f l i f e  common t o most C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s ) t h a n  specifically  separate  hegemony).  community w i t h i n  thesis  the Canadian  that i s Metis (a  5 In p a r t , t h e p r o c e s s called  modernization  subsumed story centre  i n what has  i s subsumed  i n what have been  and/or s e c u l a r i z a t i o n . been c a l l e d  of the Manitoba M e t i s t o t h e p e r i p h e r y . The  It i s also  marginalization, since  i s one  o f movement f r o m  specific  problems  the  the  addressed  are: M e t i s p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e i r own h i s t o r y . A r e t h e M e t i s becoming 'Canadian' a t the expense of b e i n g Metis? The i s s u e o f M e t i s n e s s . What do members r e c o g n i z e as c o n s t i t u t i v e v a l u e s o f M e t i s c u l t u r e i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ? Among t h e s e v a l u e s , w h i c h ones a r e c o n s i d e r e d ' c o r e ' , w h i c h ones a r e c o n s i d e r e d 'surface' values? I s i t p o s s i b l e t o r e t a i n t h e same M e t i s n e s s w h i l e b e c o m i n g s o m e t h i n g o t h e r ? S u r e l y no. Then, i s i t p o s s i b l e t o r e t a i n a s t r o n g and d e f i n i t i v e s e n s e o f b e i n g M e t i s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e c o m i n g s o m e t h i n g o t h e r and, p r e s u m a b l y , l e s s M e t i s t h a n f o r m e r l y was t h e c a s e ? P r o b a b l y y e s . Are i d e n t i t i e s f i n i t e or, i n p r i n c i p l e , not f i n i t e ? T h a t i s , w h i l e i n a d d i n g t o what one was one d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l o s e a n y t h i n g o f what one was, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , b u t what one was c l e a r l y d o e s n o t e x h a u s t what one i s . A d i f f e r e n c e i s entailed. If identity i s finite, gaining a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r i l y means l o s i n g others l e a d i n g l o g i c a l l y to the w h o l l y different. I f i d e n t i t y i s n o t f i n i t e , on t h e o t h e r hand, as seems t h e c a s e f o r t h e M e t i s , i t a l l o w s f o r additional q u a l i t i e s : a difference i s implied w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y l o s i n g what had e x i s t e d before. W i l l the M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t r e t a i n t h e i r M e t i s n e s s w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l meaning o f b e i n g C a n a d i a n o r w i l l t h e y become amorphous C a n a d i a n s ? Is a s s i m i l a t i o n to mainstream Canadian behaviours n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e - l a d e n f o r members o f t h e M e t i s community a t S t . L a u r e n t ? Does t h e c o n c e p t o f M e t i s n e s s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y need t o be changed?  6  According systematic  study of the p r i n c i p l e s  investigation cation;  and  i t i s an  approach sition  t o R . F . E l l e n (1984: 9)  "Methodology  guiding anthropological  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e o r y f i n d articulated,  i s the  theoretically  informed  to the p r o d u c t i o n of d a t a . A t h e o r y  o r a body o f s u p p o s i t i o n s d e s i g n e d  i t s appli-  to  i s a suppoexplain  phenomena o r d a t a " . In  o t h e r words, m e t h o d o l o g y  i s the  theoretical  framework o r model from w h i c h we  process, analyze  interpret  d a t a . F o r our p u r p o s e ,  h e r e , we  cognitive  a n t h r o p o l o g y model. I t i s one  in  ethnography.  discovering attempts  things, The  different  to understand  behaviour. system  how  Cognitive anthropology  and  o b j e c t of the study but  t h e way  and  significant do  on culture.  It  each people  has  a  unique  emotions  (Goodenough  these m a t e r i a l  1957).  phenomena  t h e y a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t h e minds o f are not  phenomena; t h e y a r e c o g n i t i v e  answer two  focuses  used  o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l phenomena  i s not  the p e o p l e . C u l t u r e s then  phenomena. In e s s e n c e ,  o f many m o d e l s  the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g  events, behaviour  themselves,  be u s i n g t h e  peoples organize t h e i r  I t i s assumed t h a t  for perceiving  will  and  seen  as  material  o r g a n i z a t i o n s of  cognitive  anthropology  material seeks  to  q u e s t i o n s : What m a t e r i a l phenomena a r e f o r the people  of a p a r t i c u l a r  t h e y o r g a n i z e t h e s e phenomena ( S t e p h e n  culture; Tyler  and,  1986:  3)?  how  7 In  a g e n e r a l way,  ethnography  the s t u d y - d e s c r i p t i o n of a c u l t u r e , a people, both  t h e o r y and  essence of  based  on  first-hand  culture,  but  i s not  and  broadly defined  o r an a s p e c t  accounts.  method, p r o c e s s  of ethnography  can be  t h e r e o f , of  Ethnography i m p l i e s  product.  to produce  However,  a mere  to c o n t e x t u a l i z e elements  a theory of c u l t u r e  of c u l t u r e  ethnography  ( S p r a d l e y 1979:  i s a collaborative  and  and  shaped by  always  5 ) . Hence,  the a c t i v e  an  to  an and  ethnography  is  i n t e r p l a y between r e s e a r c h e r  informant. Within  the c o g n i t i v e  ethnography  anthropology  model,  then,  i s the s t u d y - d e s c r i p t i o n of a c u l t u r e  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p o i n t of view. Each a n t h r o p l o g i c a l carries within i t s e l f  certain  t h e model o f c o g n i t i v e  model,  and  they  techniques w i l l keep us  from  cultural  and  i n my scene.  i s no  the  model and  exception. principles  of a  d e c i d e what  i n o b t a i n i n g t h e d a t a and  thereby  logic.  accurate d e f i n i t i o n  study  from  assumptions;  g i v e n s or b a s i c  t o d e f i n e d a t a and  useful  circular  A simple use  h e l p us be  theoretical  anthropology  Assumptions are the primary  will  and  a c t between r e s e a r c h e r  i n f o r m a n t . From t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end, formed  the  description  make s y s t e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n s among them. E t h n o g r a p h y implies  as  of the d a t a  i s t h e knowledge p e o p l e  A c c o r d i n g to the  model, t h e d a t a o f a c u l t u r e  cognitive  i s something  have o f  I  their  anthropology the  informant  knows. C o g n i t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g y  i s a m e n t a l i s t and  approach  of c u l t u r e ,  t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that  ideational  as compared  to  the  8 materialist sees  a p p r o a c h w h i c h d e f i n e s d a t a as s o m e t h i n g one  and o r o b s e r v e s . It  f o l l o w s t h a t our assumptions not o n l y a s s i s t i n  recognizing data  r e p r e s e n t i n g the informant's  (EMIC v i e w p o i n t ) , b u t t h e y conducive  p o i n t o f view  also provide certain  to obtaining data.  techniques  Some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s  that I  employed d u r i n g my f i e l d - w o r k p e r i o d were p a r t i c i p a n t obervation  and e t h n o g r a p h i c  Since the primary analyze  interview.  goal of c o g n i t i v e anthropology  and d e s c r i b e a c u l t u r e  from  the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  o f v i e w , my g o a l has been t o p r e p a r e of M e t i s  culture  assumption  to  o f t h i s model i s t h a t c u l t u r e  behaviour approach the  during The  from  to the c o g n i t i v e anthropology  experience  and t o g e n e r a t e  t h a t i s , an h y p o t h e s i s  f o r m u l a t i o n of the t o p i c ;  the middle  stages  i s from  of data  the s p e c i f i c  t o t h e known, w h i l e  unknown. An h y p o t h e s i s , explanation, falsified,  based  proven  collection  or disproven.  i s that i t s i s n o t used i n  and  play  analysis.  t o t h e g e n e r a l , from t h e  from  on t h e o t h e r  on d a t a , w h i c h  model,  social  i t comes i n t o  the deductive  the g e n e r a l to the s p e c i f i c ,  as  a c q u i r e and u s e  1979:5). A n o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n  i s inductive,  process  unknown  their  (Spradley  initial  an a n a l y s i s  i s understood  i s d e f i n e d as t h e knowledge p e o p l e  interpret  point  i n t e r m s o f members' knowledge. Our main  knowledge. A c c o r d i n g culture  and p r e s e n t  i s to  approach  proceeds  t h e known t o t h e  hand,  is a  tentative  i s t o be v a l i d a t e d o r  9 In t h i s themselves general  thesis,  I allow  r e s p o n d e n t s t o speak f o r  ( e m i c ) and a t t e m p t  t o f i t what t h e y  framework ( e t i c ) where t h e main  modernization  and/or s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  say into a  landmarks a r e  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n and  identity.  Lac„ajLim„^  Method  While' m e t h o d o l o g y informed general this  i s an a r t i c u l a t e d ,  approach t o the production mode o f y i e l d i n g d a t a  r e s e a r c h was c o m p i l e d  of data,  (Ellen  i n St.Laurent,  local  participant  Municipal  observation,  i n September and ethnographic  some a r c h i v a l  and C h u r c h o f f i c e s ,  o f M a n i t o b a and t h e H i s t o r i c a l  i s the  Manitoba, d u r i n g a  1987. The f i e l d - w o r k methods i n c l u d e d  interviewing, the  method  1984; 9 ) . The d a t a f o r  two-month p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e f i e l d - w o r k October  theoretically  the P u b l i c  work a t  Archives  Society of St.Boniface,  Manitoba. I four  interviewed  hours,  fifty-one  people  fora total  t w e n t y - s e v e n men and t w e n t y - f o u r  from seventeen  to n i n e t y - s i x years  women,  ranging  old, twenty-five  o f whom  were s e n i o r s . A l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e conducted The  i n the M i c h i f French  as  interviews, structured  and t h e o t h e r like  any o t h e r  by b o t h  and were  t h e way i n w h i c h ;  i n t e r v i e w e r s ask q u e s t i o n s  i s sometimes s u g g e s t e d ,  'structured'  recorded  language.  main d i f f e r e n c e between  e t h n o g r a p h e r s and s u r v e y  of s i x t y -  i s not,  t h a t one f o r m o f i n t e r v i e w i n g i s i s 'unstructured'.A l l kind of s o c i a l  researcher  i n t e r a c t i o n , are  and i n f o r m a n t .  The  important  10 distinction  t o be made i s between  interviewing  (Hammersley  Consequently, decide beforehand ask. and  Rather, areas  the t h e s i s . initial  and A t k i n s o n  a l l the s p e c i f i c  I wanted t o  a list  their  of issues  and w h i c h I wanted  to include i n  Upon r e f l e c t i o n  on t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s  a n s w e r s t o my  f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . Some o f  setting  of St.Laurent;  The g e o g r a p h i c a l and  people's  perception of  g r o w i n g up and making a l i v i n g i n S t . L a u r e n t ; of  I d i d not  t o cover  and i s s u e s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g :  historical  reflexive  113).  questions  the interviews with  questions, I formulated  the areas  1986:  a s an a p p r e n t i c e e t h n o g r a p h e r ,  I entered  I wanted  s t a n d a r d i z e d and  knowledge  on s o c i a l  life,  religion,  some a s p e c t s p o l i t i c s and  language. Finally, two-fold:  because temporal  Ethnographic,  culture  experienced  forthis  research i s  or ethnohistory.  parameters are c e n t r a l  the r e s e a r c h covers  informants. Metis  context  h i s t o r i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c  Historical analysis,  the d i s c i p l i n a r y  the l i f e - s p a n  to the  of the  because the r e s e a r c h c i r c u m s c r i b e s  and way o f l i f e  a s p e r c e i v e d , l i v e d and  by t h e M e t i s p e o p l e  themselves.  11  CJiapjterl  Background  As  r e l e v a n t t o our  chapter  deals  history  especially  second  i n the  p a r t , we  to Metis  H 3» Si..t C3  will  portrayal  C* 8>.l  ^^..8. C  jjj y  part, with  i t refers review  and  Historiography  g e n e r a l theme o f M e t i s n e s s ,  first  as  and  some a s p e c t s  to the  of  term, M e t i s .  some o f t h e  literature  the  term  refers  is d i f f i c u l t refer  o f mixed  Add  other  and  issue  identity  factors and  really Prior  what we  call  I n d i a n and  agree  some p e o p l e ,  and  such  sense,  t h a t the  European  the  term  use term  ancestry, i t Metis  also  can  l i e in  includes  t h e word c o n v e y s a meaning  i n another  a quasi-legal status.  as b i o l o g i c a l ,  constitutional  gets  the  c o m m u n i t i e s whose o r i g i n s  I n d i a n . In one  historical  most p e o p l e  t o o b t a i n a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n .  t h e p r e - 1 8 7 0 West. To  of c u l t u r a l  the  X\  to i n d i v i d u a l s  non-status  In  identity.  'Metis'. While  to persons  Metis  relevant  In t h e C a n a d i a n West much c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d s of  this  social,  regional,  to the d e f i n i t i o n  and  the  confusing.  t o 1870,  t h e r e would a p p e a r t o be  the c l a s s i c a l  image o f t h e M e t i s  agreement as  on  shown i n  12 some o f P a u l Catholic,  Kane's p a i n t i n g s . The  French-speaking,  non-Indian native b u f f a l o - h u n t e r s  settlement  emerge as d i s t i n c t  from the  the  and  most o f  period  strong  Riel  of  f i t the  find  the  Prairie  the  of P r i n c e  seems t h a t t h e  the  Metis.  Cree-speaking,  scrip  rather  u s e d by or  to  the  than  government  River  of  the  people  of  them c o n s t i t u t i n g a problems of  Metis? Metis  termino-  find  did  Among them, of P o r t a g e  the  appear to  'fit'  French  i n the  were a l s o t h e  Peace R i v e r  and  we  la and  some I r o q u o i s  d e s c e n d a n t s would demand  that  entitled  to Sealy  "Metis  c h i l d r e n born before  choice  between a money s c r i p them t o c h o o s e 240  and  July  Metis  1870,  a piece people  Rivers,  of  paper  t o money 135)  were g i v e n  of unoccupied  of  halfbreed  w o r t h $240 o r a l a n d  acres  of  trapper-  L u s s i e r (1975:  15,  of  image  people  Athabasca  t r e a t y s t a t u s . S c r i p was  land. According  allowed  we  Roman C a t h o l i c and  Many o f t h e i r  Red  Cree-speaking buffalo-hunters  Then, t h e r e the  the  of Manitoba's I n t e r l a k e . A l s o i t  F r e n c h and  Northern A l b e r t a , of  hunters.  Protestant  A l b e r t ; and  Metis  of  n o n - I n d i a n n a t i v e p e o p l e who  S a s k a t c h e w a n would  classical  are  image o f t h e  English-speaking  Saulteaux-speaking  there  other  'classical'  and  Northern  region,  f o l l o w i n g . Yet  l o g y . What a b o u t not  the  rest  Roman  a  scrip  that  Dominion  lands". Scholars accept and  two  d e a l i n g with  entities  and  p r e - 1 8 7 0 West g e n e r a l l y  o f mixed a n c e s t r y : B r i t i s h - P r o t e s t a n t  French C a t h o l i c Metis.  Bois-Brules  the  Halfbreed,  O t h e r t e r m s t h a t were u s e d Country-born  and  were  Rupertslander.  13 According St.Lawrence  to John  Euro-Canadian  hunters, their and  the  Catholic  the  and  Euroand  the f u r t r a d e of mixed-bloods  River  successful.  to j o i n  Some  late  the  emphasized  others t h e i r B r i t i s h  Iroquois,  O t t a w a and  Iroquois especially  as w e l l  among t h e C r e e  as h u n t e r s and  and  o f t h e c e n t u r y , a number o f d e s c e n d a n t s scrip  rather  than t r e a t y .  t o be  became  trappers.  t h e merger o f t h e c o m p a n i e s  into  Saulteaux  proved  t h e y e n j o y e d w i t h the North-West  chose  plains  1790's, t h e N o r t h - W e s t Company b r o u g h t  They t o o k w i v e s  after  of  ways.  traders  relationship  freighters.  orientation,  i n t e r i o r as many as 200  families  emerged  of mixed-blood  Following  numerous f a m i l i e s  t r a p p e r - v o y a g e u r s . The  end  first  i n the  a r e s u l t , many images o f t h e M e t i s emerged:  Protestant  continued  entity  i t was  1820's, t h e words M e t i s  fishermen, voyageurs,  effective  a term  a r e a j o u r n e y e d t o Red  F r e n c h and  In the  i n 1820,  St.Lawrence  M e t i s . As  77),  a n c e s t r y f r o m b o t h t h e I n d i a n and  were commonly u s e d .  competition the  a socio-cultural  i n t h e West. In t h e  Halfbreed  (1983:  f u r trade t r a d i t i o n that  distinguishing  Canadian  E. F o s t e r  The  Company  i n 1821.  At  the  of these  They r e g a r d e d  t h e m s e l v e s n o t as I n d i a n s b u t as H a l f b r e e d s and M e t i s . In  t h e Hudson's Bay  word d i s t i n g u i s h i n g "Indians' or contrast  tradition  i n the e a r l y  1800's, a  a t h i r d community, d i s t i n c t f r o m  'Natives' or  'Whites',  to the St.Lawrence  d i d not a r i s e .  tradition  i n which  the  the  In term  14 ' M e t i s ' and in  t h e Bay  1983:  i t s English tradition  79). A f t e r  moved t o Red  1820,  and  that  w i t h way I t was  here,  the French  l o t farmers,  merchants.  of  their  life, role  the nature  Catholic  of t h e i r  tradition  tripmen  to  79).  socio-culturally biological  respective traditions  the M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t  and  'English'  ( F o s t e r 1983:  not n e c e s s a r i l y in their  people  'English'. (Foster  o f mixed a n c e s t r y were  would d e t e r m i n e  purpose  ' N a t i v e ' or  a number o f Hudson's Bay  private  Thus, p e r s o n s  heritage.  remained  R i v e r t o become r i v e r  the York Boats  identified  equivalent 'Halfbreed' arose,  culture.  For  our  are the d e s c e n d a n t s  o f Red  of  River.  Historiography This  section  Metis people  literature  address  with s p e c i a l  have d e f i n e d and In t h e  will  last  few  years,  on M e t i s p e o p l e .  of L o u i s R i e l .  Metis organizations also people  r e f e r e n c e as  portrayed Metis  Metis n a t i o n a l i s m sparked the death  made e f f o r t s  aboriginal  and  by The  literature  t o how  some  been an  the centenary various social  added v i t a l i t y their  to a  Researchers  today  will  find  archives, university  and  new  of Batoche and  and  political  to Metisness  as many  r o o t s t o Canada's  f u r trade past while others enjoyed  of Metis h i s t o r i c a l  authors  e x p l o s i o n of  T h i s i s i n p a r t due  to retrace  on  people.  t h e r e has  renaissance  church  some o f t h e  political  a  awareness.  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on M e t i s i n and  public  libraries,  Metis  15 organizations  and  i n the  Hudson's Bay  Company f i l e s  19th  portray  in  W innipeg. Some w r i t e r s o f t h e obstacles  to the  social  and  River  e v e n t s of  Resistance  of  1885  characteristic and  the  troubles. various the  frontier  At  the  kinds,  This  lost  living  study  time, the  economy o f t h e M e t i s , well  the  the hunting  of  integrated  to  much more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n . t h e S c o t s  who  tried  the  Metis  and  the  f e a r of  environment  neglects  highly successful,  River  to the  cause of  t r a p p i n g , was  civilized  c o n d i t i o n s of  as  and  real  a  all its  perceived  fishing  the  of  c l a s h between  today. His  economic  the  was  the  and  and  colony.  Saskatchewan  a p p r o a c h has  circles  as  and  For  land  the  problem: the  within Metis  which they  the  were p r i m a r i l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  appalling social  Metis  of  Metis  (1936). H i s view i s t h a t  1869-1870 and  p r i m i t i v e peoples.  credibility  the  economic p r o g r e s s  Among them i s G e o r g e S t a n l e y Red  century  people,  the  ' i n s u r r e c t i o n s ' of  'rebellion'  losing  their  economy. C o n f e d e r a t i o n  of  1885  at  Red  c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the  as u n d e r s t o o d by  the  by  existing  MacDonald  Metis,  cut  o f f from  economy. For  W.L.  1869  a t B a t o c h e , were c a u s e d  government meant m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n t o t h e their  farming!  a thorough a n a l y s i s of the  Morton  (1956:  1-148) s u g g e s t s  tjQ_„iLhjL^s^ settlement  Red  River  i n h i s LritxMu..C.t.i..Q.a  that was  a civilized  situation,  s o c i e t y , thereby  the  Red  to  River  r e j e c t i n g Stan-  16 ley's that  cultural Riel's  extension central  conflict  resistance  interpretation.  t o t h e f e d e r a l government was  of the s o c i a l  and  Other  western writers  t h e M e t i s . One  Morton's view  and  religious  is an  t e n s i o n between  Canada. t r y t o show a l i t t l e  s u c h book i s A.H.  more sympathy f o r  de Tremaudan's H i s t o I r e  de  lA_Jiaiio.a..JleJtis.sje.. ( 1 9 3 5 ) and t r a n s l a t e d as HjaMJHi£Ji_y.avir. Heads ( 1 9 8 2 ) b y  E i z a b e t h Maguet. W r i t t e n i n 1920,  maudan s t u d i e d  documents,  challenges t r a d i t i o n a l views  of Metisness  F r e n c h and and  interpretations.  as one  been a s e c o n d  been  Quebec  left  alone  i n 1870,  "There  in nationality  mind, h e a r t , word and In of  t h e same v e i n  of thought  e m p h a s i s on  and  the I n d i a n  Perhaps historical  and  have  the  than  a  he i s  head t o t o e  in  x-xii).  i s TJhjS-jCjal^^ The  WjdLtings  p r e s e n t R i e l ' s view Catholic  of  in orientation  agree  with  Metisness with  little  component.  t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  s t u d y on  the  i f Riel  identity,  religion  i s F r e n c h from  Louls_J8jLe_I ( S t a n l e y e t a l . 1985).  as r e s o l u t e l y F r e n c h  Riel's  t h e r e would  d e e d " . ( d e Tremaudan 1982:  de Tremaudan's t h e s i s  his  he  Metis  that  i s none more C a t h o l i c  M e t i s t h e r e i s none more F r e n c h . . . I n Catholic,  and  presents  i s paramount and  i n t h e West. On  i s v e r y clear.:  He  Tre-  where t h e c o n n e c t i o n between  Roman C a t h o l i c i s m  t h e M e t i s had  author  interviewed witnesses  de  t h e M e t i s was  ethnographic  done by M a r c e l G i r a u d i n  two-volume work: Lfi_M,e.tjs_C_anadjLejQ, ( 1 9 4 5 ) and  by G e o r g e Woodcock i n 1986  and  as IJke_Jttje^^  translated  17 (Woodcock 1986). G i r a u d distinct  g r o u p who  from both all  whites  stress  Metis  considered  and  but  Giraud  his  'northern  Indian  era;  Giraud  Tremaudan and  constituted Riel  a tendency to t r e a t  tend makes  the  way.  Like  Stanley's, Giraud's  they  are both  early  book comes out  models o f a p e r i o d  was  an  u n d e r l y i n g assumption. E v e r y t h i n g  the  framework o f c i v i l i z e d  grew up  a  apart  h e r i t a g e of the M e t i s , G i r a u d  in a negative  as  when d e f i n i n g t h e  Company f a m i l i e s who  a c o n t i n u i n g theme, h a v i n g  Indians  'nation*  Tremaudan, and  affinities  c u r r e n t ' . Whereas de  the  de  of the M e t i s  a l s o i n c l u d e s the E n g l i s h r o o t s ,  a n g l o p h o n e Hudson's Bay  it  Riel,  bonds and  the  to minimize  themselves a  Indians.  the F r e n c h  people,  p o r t r a y s the b i r t h  and  primitive  of the  1930's  i n which  i s debated cultures.  i n a m e n t a l i t y of European expansion  and  racism within  Both  men  historical  tradition. There  have been some b i o g r a p h i e s on  particularly Joseph Kinsey Riel far  on  Louis  Riel.  Such a s t u d y  Howard's S t r a n g e E m p i r e  Metis  people  of R i e l  (1965).  He  but  i s found presents  as a l e a d e r o f t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n p l a i n s whose p l a n s more p o l i t i c a l  depicts time,  he  Riel was  than  military.  as a m y s t i c ,  almost  insane  least  or at  doubts h i s i n s a n i t y .  He  were many p e o p l e  thought  quality  of  who  spent  In  these  l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e man,  the  fanatic.  were  author At  one  u n s e t t l e d even t h o u g h Howard  months i n an he  pages,  a religious  in  was  asylum,  c r a z y . But  there  t h e r e was  o f wisdom, o f h u m i l i t y  a  18 and  of moderation  personality. individual  in spite  of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h i s  Howard p r e s e n t s  than  as an  honest  Riel and  less pious  a  bloodthirsty  figure  of  political  aspirations. Another biography  i s The  Qne-And-A-Half-Men: The  Stpry  o£..JJL©__..JB£.a.d^ Twentieth C e n t u r y  < Dobbins,  a l s o p r o v i d e s a unique  p e r s p e c t i v e on  history,  Indian  40's  the r o o t s of contemporary  and  portrayed  and  1981). T h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l book  Metis  as p e o p l e  discrimination  and  who  The  on  St.Laurent  opportunities.  i s probably  the  on:  h e a l t h and community An account  Within  The  by HKL  & Associates  study  on  from  tourism in  r e p o r t i n c l u d e s an u p d a t e d p r o f i l e by  education  S a n d r a Funk ( 1 9 8 7 ) .  services,  of  the  It contains  natural resources,  economic s e c t o r s  and  infrastructure. study  of S i s t e r  the  abound.  Touxi^^  population, labour force,  earlier  r i c h with  does not  makes some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t o u r i s m  community c o m p i l e d sections  are  a t t h e hands o f  report i s a f e a s i b i l i t y  and  and  powerlessness,  at St.Laurent  O p p o r t u n i t y Study ( 1 9 8 7 ) c o n d u c t e d W i n n i p e g . The  1930's  land s p e c u l a t o r s .  the Metis  most r e c e n t one  Metis  organizations. Metis  have s u f f e r e d  and  century  o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the  economic h a r d s h i p s  government e x p l o i t e r s Literature  20th  local  on  i s the  missionary  P a u l i n e M e r c i e r , F.M.M. ( 1 8 7 6 - 1 9 7 6 ) . I t i s  anecdotes  context  the v i l l a g e  and  historical  dates  and  events.  of the M e t i s O r a l H i s t o r y P r o j e c t  19 sponsored  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v e s of Manitoba,  Onge d e s c r i b e s t h e S t . L a u r e n t  community  in CanadianOral  Hl^JLQJCi™^^iaoAai..l9.n.  : "St.Laurent, Manitoba:  a M e t i s Community".  (St-Onge:  "oral  history  social and  as a t o o l  structure  Nicole St-  1984). St-Onge  f o r understanding  Oral History of uses  the e v o l v i n g  o f a community... and f o r i n d i c a t i n g  when c h a n g e s had o c c u r r e d o v e r  the l a s t  fifty  where  or s i x t y  y e a r s and how r e s i d e n t s r e a c t e d t o them". ( S t - O n g e  1984: 2-  3). One l a s t by  developed  as t h e i r  competition their  poverty.  every  biological  with the whites,  In b r i e f ,  backward  appear as i n c o m p l e t e l y composition....In they  a r e handicapped  steady w i l l ,  they are f i t t e d  providence  intellectual  discipline  exertion... his qualities  i n a complete  (1937:  541-549).  A review  i s required...[He]  disintegration  of the l i t e r a t u r e  result  o f moral  shows t h a t  had a h i g h e s t e e m f o r t h e M e t i s p e o p l e .  M e t i s were a n u i s a n c e  a s soon gives  g r a d u a l l y p a r a l y z e d by a  w h i c h may u l t i m a t e l y  adults  and...  f o r manual and c l o s e l y  work, b u t n o t f o r s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t y . . .  lack of will-power  not  traits  lack of i n i t i a t i v e ,  supervised as s e v e r e  mental  i s provided  half-breed villages,  a s ... S t . L a u r e n t . . . a r e now o c c u p i e d by v e r y  people... t h e i r  up  of Metis of St.Laurent  M a r c e l G i r a u d . He w r i t e s : . . . " t i n y  such  by  portrayal  t o t h e development  among t h e  principles".  most w r i t e r s  have  In a n u t s h e l l ,  and p r o g r e s s o f t h e  20 oncoming w h i t e  'civilization'.  something p o s i t i v e  to say  about  In r e c e n t y e a r s , due and  more p o s i t i v e  coming  into  pretations being  to access  i n the  keep s u r f a c i n g .  T h u s , new nothing  t h e new who  are  One  rary Metis way  Metis  after  community  of  life  D r i b e n 's We  only before  of Batoche  the death  of L o u i s R i e l .  ethnographers  traditions.  Metis people on  up  and  i s most contempo-  have examined  What happened  to  the the  historical Paul  e t h n o g r a p h y o f a ..half-breed  there are  Why  in doing  and  is this simple  r a t h e r than  Philip  actually  few  Spaulding's writings that  communities  so?  Perhaps  archival  have p r e f e r r e d t o s t u d y  cultures'  out  people  keep p o p p i n g  :1870-1910 ( 1 9 8 3 ) and  contemporary M e t i s people  a r e more i n t e r e s t e d  aboriginal  r o o t s and  ( 1 9 8 5 ) and (1970),  century i s  of t h a t t r e n d .  on  1885.  up  inter-  the Metis  o f D i a n e Payment's  a r e M e t i s ; Xhe  Ile-a-la-Crosse with  by  Most h i s t o r i a n s  ejamjaujQ..L^^  deal  and  literature  19th  is  scholars carrying  a reversal  1885? O u t s i d e  study  by  new  t o sum  as new  i s a d e a r t h of ethnographies  communities.  Metis  both  a  lifestyle  of the  of M e t i s n e s s  indicate  there  sources,  century  rediscovering their  f e a t u r e of the  noticeable:  19th  had  traits.  i t is difficult  a v a i l a b l e data  interpretations  seems t o  character  t o new  Metisness  r e c o n s t r u c t e d everyday  themselves  their  that reason  of M e t i s n e s s  r e s e a r c h on  writers actually  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the M e t i s  being. For  the concept  Few  historians  research,  'traditional  hybrid  ones.  after  while  21  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s a modest void.  Specifically,  experience  I hope t h a t  of the Metis  of Metisness  century;  i twill  differ  from  raise  of t h e i r  life  i n the 20th  and  identity  and how t h e p r o c e s s o f I hope  of Metis people  own h i s t o r y  s e r v e as a c u l t u r a l  of the  identity  i t . Furthermore,  of consciousness  that  c o n t r i b u t e t o our  show how s u c h M e t i s n e s s  has i n f l u e n c e d  the l e v e l  understanding will  and o f M e t i s  19th c e n t u r y concepts,  modernization  to f i l l  the d e s c r i p t i o n  at St.Laurent w i l l  understanding that  attempt  and c u l t u r e .  i t will  in their I hope i t  r e s o u r c e f o r M e t i s p e o p l e and  s c h o l a r s who have a c o n c e r n  f o r Metis culture,  h i s t o r y and  language. Finally, has  never  much  like  been r e c o r d e d  native history, from  v i e w and mode o f t h o u g h t .  written  material regarding their  for  of o r a l  tradition, past  and document  perspective.  left  life.  Metis  very  little  Consequently,  I  a c t as a s t i m u l a n t and an e n c o u r a g e m e n t  other researchers, p a r t i c u l a r l y  record  point of  S c h o l a r s r e m i n d us t h a t  being a people  study w i l l  of the Metis  the Metis person's  people,  hope t h i s  that  Metis culture  Metis scholars, to  and h i s t o r y  i n a Metis  22  2  Chapter  St.Laurent,  Wan i t o b a  id^i,st.Q.ri..s..al.„,S..e..tUblag  This the  chapter  first  p a r t , we w i l l  location,  I will  their  history,  culture time, in  look at i t s geographical  present  a review  and a l s o  of the people's  a descriptive  such  I will  as s h e l t e r ,  food  perception of  account  and c l o t h i n g .  setting,  In the second  of the  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f some m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s  their  since  t o S t . L a u r e n t . In  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n and t o p o g r a p h y .  part,  people's  introduces the reader  of t h e i r  A t t h e same  document some o f t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have  cultural  understanding  occurred  of these m a t e r i a l aspects  the turn of the century.  geographical .Setting St.Laurent, St.Laurent, Interlake on  M a n i t o b a , n o t t o be c o n f u s e d  Saskatchewan,  i s a Metis  i n the  region of the province of Manitoba. I t i s s i t u a t e d  the eastern shores  o f Lake M a n i t o b a o r o f " L ' G r a n d L a c  Manitoba",  as one e l d e r c a l l e d  north-west  of Winnipeg.  Some t w e n t y y e a r s  i t , some n i n e t y k i l o m e t r e s  (Fig. 1). ago, most E n g l i s h v i s i t o r s  a r e a would be somewhat p e r p l e x e d . village  village  with  from  the south  As t h e y  end by p r o v i n c i a l  to the  entered the highway number s i x ,  23 (Fig. bold  1 and  Fig.2),  letters:  t h e y would  St.Laurent.  But  house. T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e French-Canadian The is  a green  t h e y would n o t  i s no  the  town-site.  After  driving  n o t i c e s the  old  new  highway, a l o n g s i d e r o a d s ,  and  along the  1  approximately dwellings  five  by  are b u i l t  distances,  a  single  o u t s i d e r upon a r r i v a l  one  road",  see  white  its  roots.  awhile, and  sign with  settlement pattern r e f l e c t s  thing that s t r i k e s  that there  read  while  here  i n the a r e a f o r  houses randomly s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the  r a i l w a y t r a c k over  the  "fascinage  an  area  of  t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s . ( F i g . 2 ) . Many  c l o s e t o t h e main r o a d s ,  at v a r y i n g  o t h e r s are n e s t l e d i n the bushes of  the  wooded g r a s s l a n d . According lots,  two  miles  t o an  elder,  l o n g by  were g i v e n more, o t h e r s holding  system  established  people  twenty to f i f t y less.  in St.Laurent  earlier  were g i v e n  i n Red  Canada e x p l a i n i t i n t h i s  yards  lake  w i d e . Some  In o t h e r words, t h e was  patterned  front  land  on  the  system  River. Researchers  for  Parks  way:  Land tenure i n the Red R i v e r Settlement was based on the s e i g n e u r i a l system of New F r a n c e . U n l i k e the E n g l i s h (and American) system which employed the square township survey, the F r e n c h system was based on l o n g narrow r i v e r l o t s . Each l o t was up t o 3km deep but had a r i v e r f r o n t a g e of o n l y 8-12 c h a i n s (150 - 250m). In Red R i v e r , t h i s long narrow p a t t e r n s u i t e d the s e t t l e r s needs f o r b o t h access t o the r i v e r and t o t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . I t gave each f a m i l y a share of f e r t i l e b l a c k r i v e r s o i l f o r c r o p s such as wheat, o a t s , b a r l e y and v e g e t a b l e s , as w e l l as space f u r t h e r back f o r some hay and p a s t u r e " . 2  24 In a f a s h i o n had  access  fishing,  like  t o water  Red R i v e r ,  and t o t h e l a n d  road;  present road.  (Figures The  land  according by  was d i v i d e d  and hay  into twenty-four  Road S.; and t o t h e e a s t ,  the "fascinage"  2 and 3 ) . outside  t h e l o t s y s t e m b o u n d a r i e s was  t o the square  area  t h e Twin  to the north, the  t o w n s h i p and r e c t a n g u l a r  t h e C a n a d i a n Government a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  long  lots.  to the south,  t o t h e west, Lake M a n i t o b a ;  Chartrand  St.Laurent  f o r needed c u l t i v a t i o n  boundaries of the l o t system are:  lake  of  ( L a k e M a n i t o b a ) f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  m a k i n g . The s e t t l e m e n t The  the Metis  resident  c o n t e n d s t h a t many  surveyed  grid One  system life-  l o t s were n o t p r o p e r l y  surveyed. The  same i n f o r m a n t  1870's, e s t a b l i s h e d individual  title.  states that  a s o r t of reserve  M a n i t o b a A c t o f 1870 p r o v i d e s Up t o t h i s d a y , t h e r e received  people constructed respective  lots  Furthermore, close  town, a s t h e y  their  land  granting  that  understanding, the  to street  their  designs.  "People could  not stay  homes c l o s e t o e a c h o t h e r  had cows and f a r m s t o l o o k  children.  the Metis at  house h a p h a z a r d l y on  explains:  e a c h . The  f o r the Metis  With t h i s  and n o t a c c o r d i n g  their  so many a c r e s  i s no e v i d e n c e  the land.  an e l d e r  and b u i l d  land without  i n the  The c h i l d r e n o f t h e r e g i s t e r e d heads o f  f a m i l i e s were s u p p o s e t o r e c e i v e  St.Laurent  t h e government  after".  as i n a  25 Two  s e n i o r women p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t  the sentiments  many l o c a l  M e t i s r e s i d e n t s when t h e y s a y  that  settlement  pattern i s fine  i t i s more  compatible  w i t h t h e M e t i s way  As  they remarked:  independence, the  "We  instead  w i t h them, as of t h i n k i n g  e n j o y more f r e e d o m  and  way  type  of  life.  o f movement  o f b e i n g crammed c l o s e  of  and  t o g e t h e r as i n  cities". B e f o r e t h e new  number s i x was  travelled  pulled  by  sisting  one  by  built,  cutters  (a small,  people  he  every rabbit  c o n t i n u e s , the r a i l r o a d  to  p a s s by Norman G a u d r y ' s p l a c e , and scheduled  t o be  neither built  built  near  usually con-  equipped i n the  h o r s e - d r a w n wagons.  trail  then  "L'Grand  including  i n the  t r a c k was  i n 1904  supposed  another r a i l w a y  Mash-keg",  always  ( M e r c i e r : 1976)  and  i t has  been a t t h a t  horse  and  buggy d a y s t o t h e f o u r - w h e e l of St.Laurent, l i k e  a very h i g h l y mobile p o p u l a t i o n .  one  as  bush!  3  (Fig.  of these p r o j e c t s ever m a t e r i a l i z e d .  today  Metis people  and  knew t h e a r e a v e r y w e l l ,  hunter quipped,  r a i l w a y was  sleigh  horse-drawn s l e i g h s  first,  But,  light  runners  At  2).  ( F i g . 2).  i n t h e summer by buggy, and  Some l o c a l a former  a s t o v e ) and  road,  ( a horse-drawn v e h i c l e  o f a s m a l l c a b i n mounted on  and  t h e o l d highway  a narrow g r a v e l  h o r s e ) , cabooses  w i t h b e n c h e s and winter,  r o a d was  merely  People  was  this  of  The  where i t s t a n d s  p l a c e . From  drive  the  of today,  most M a n i t o b a n s ,  the  have been  26  The  l a n d around  St.Laurent  has many  A g r i c u l t u r e Canada d e s c r i b e s t h e s o i l  characteristics.  as f o l l o w s :  "The a r e a has a l a y e r o f t i l l which i s e i t h e r covered w i t h w a t e r - s o r t e d sediments o r i s m o d i f i e d on the s u r f a c e by the lake waters t h a t occupied the Manitoba lowlands f o r a p e r i o d o f time a f t e r the m e l t i n g o f g l a c i a l age. The t i l l , strongly c a l c a r e o u s i n c o m p o s i t i o n , i s d e r i v e d from the l i m e s t o n e a r e a o f the Manitoba lowlands and the g r a n i t o i d r e g i o n o f the Precambrian S h i e l d . The w a t e r - s o r t e d d e p o s i t s , mainly o f moderately c a l c a r e o u s c o m p o s i t i o n , a r e dominantly from the western u p l a n d s . " 4  In sum, t h e s o i l s glacial  tills  agricultural  on t h e S t . L a u r e n t  and l a k e d e p o s i t s and have potential.  St.Laurent  area,  conditions  of the s o i l ,  pastureland A  local  quality  simply kinds the  f o r haying farmer  except  i s some a r a b l e  corn  and r a i s i n g  i s good.  "We  Corn  says  and c a l c a r e o u s  that the s o i l  There are,  and s u n f l o w e r s  I t i s also arid  surrounded  by l o t s  s e r v e as  can produce j u s t  o f rows f o r c l e a n up and s t o n e s  of being  i nthe  cattle.  and s u n f l o w e r s .  t o o many s t o n e s .  land  most o f t h e l a n d c a n b e s t  f o r many y e a r s  cleaning-machine".  spite  There  limited  but because o f the stony  of St.Laurent  anything  area c o n s i s t of  about  however,  need  special  would be i n t h e way o f l a n d , he a d d s , i n  o f water.  "That  i s because  27 there lot  i s lots  of r a i n  of  to  A cattle pastureland, cautions,  limestone i n the I n t e r l a k e  farmer  observes  h a y i n g and  Another  respondent  another  b u s i n e s s because  of  that  raising  tried  operate. Nonetheless,  The  he  and  the s o i l  cattle,  he  found  t o grow  switched  i t was  acknowledged  he grain.  to  too expensive  that  the s o i l  to  produced  alfalfa.  are t y p i c a l  Summers a r e v e r y hot  winters are extremely  plunging  -40  t o -35  degrees  c o v e r between November and l a t e November and  inhabitants  i n i t i a l European  Assiniboine  Celsius. March and  early  of the  (temperatures  35 C e l s i u s ) and  the  then,  c l i m a t e i n the St.Laurent area i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  prairies.  The  i s good f o r  but  too s a l t y  farming but  the s e a s o n a l extremes t h a t  between  i t needs a  produce".  i t i s too stoney  good y i e l d s  soil,  cold There the  central r e a c h i n g 30  with  -  temperatures  is usually  a snow  lake i s frozen  over  May.  of the S t . L a u r e n t area at the influence  by  were p r o b a b l y C r e e  I n d i a n s . A c c o r d i n g t o A r t h u r J . Ray,  time  of  and (1974: 3 ) :  "Throughout most of the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , the Siouan-speaking A s s i n i b o i n e and the A l g o n q u i a n s p e a k i n g Western Cree I n d i a n s were the p r i n c i p a l i n h a b i t a n t s of c e n t r a l and southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and they f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n the f u r t r a d e of the Canadian West".  28  La Verendrye Manitoba" As to  in  1733.  early  as  1824,  1826  also  area,  and  the  settled  shortly  been abandoned o r  1850,  twelve  several  families  new  predecessors,  after.  Red  Lake  River  flood  It i s unclear i f  5  i f people  on  resided  Metis families  i n the  Metis  arrived  resided  i n the  had  the Ducharmes.  moved  into  t h e y were a t t r a c t e d  By  6  1863,  the area. L i k e  by  the f i s h i n g  the  their  on  "L'Grand  Manitoba". Between  1863  and  1881,  rapidly.  Father Laurent  resident  priest.  south-end baptism, a r e as born  May  Marie  Genaille,  S i m o n e t , OMI,  f o r many y e a r s was  follows:  on  the s e t t l e m e n t  Apparently  7  marriage  marriage  of  Pembina moved  the f i s h i n g the  Lac  o f S t . L a u r e n t . Among them were t h e L a m b e r t s , t h e L a v a l l e , e s and  and  "L'Grand  t h e y were, when t h e f i r s t  Chartrands,  Lac  by  d r i v e n o u t by  here  i f s o , who  on  a group of M e t i s from  group,  1820's. By  vicinity  travelled  area attracted  Another  t h e a r e a had  in  h i s sons a l s o  the S t . L a u r e n t  Manitoba. of  and  25,  and  the baptism 1864.  Chaboyer, i s that  She  and  the s c h o o l that  recorded i s that  was  was  i n 1861  named a f t e r  burial  developed  him.  was  stood The  of Amelie  the daughter  b a p t i z e d here  Goulet  of P i e r r e on May  Suzanne L a u r e n t  5th,  1865,  and  on December 2 4 t h ,  the b u r i a l 1864.  8  first  at  the  first  i n the p a r i s h  o f between L o u i s o n C o m p t o i s and  on F e b r u a r y  the  27;  register who  was  Goulet the  Marie service  that  29 In  1870,  St.Laurent lature this  had  time,  arrived  in  first  i t s own  c r e a t e d the  of 5 0 .  i n 1896  s c h o o l was government  opened as  had The  1 0  and  32  Metis  and  by  families  and  s e v e r a l Breton followed  by  1950's.  families  later,  1950's. Most o f t h e s e  people  farming  moved  or to operate  the p o p u l a t i o n of S t . L a u r e n t t h r e e q u a r t e r o f whom a r e  In summary, some M e t i s  Metis people different come and  nationalities,  came t o f i s h ,  i n the  families  Metis  settled  some t o r a i s e  here  cattle  early  stores. 1,100,  1 3  have l i v e d  here.  and  1930's.  i n the  general  1820's. O v e r t h e y e a r s ,  gone. P e o p l e  T h e y were  1 2  i s approximately  Metis.  have a l w a y s r e m a i n e d  1910,  i n t h e a r e a t o c a r r y on  Today,  s i n c e the  and  France.  convent  o f them were  a l s o moved t o t h e a r e a  and  vicinity  1905  families  cattle  about  dairy  from  Canadian  Some M e n n o n i t e f a m i l i e s  a school  a three-storey  Between  1 1  arrived  some F r e n c h  By  9  F r a n c i s c a n M i s s i o n a r i e s o f Mary  s i x years  i n the  Legis-  of S t . L a u r e n t .  c o n s t r u c t e d t o house t h e nuns; t h i r t y - f i v e residence  1881,  the P r o v i n c i a l  Rural Municipality  St.Laurent  population  was  the  i n the  a s t r o n g core  Many w h i t e  people  non-Metis a l i k e ,  of  have  f o r v a r i o u s reasons. and  of  Some  engage i n d a i r y  farming. Thus, mainly  the e a r l y  of Metis  settlement  of St.Laurent  was  comprised  people  but,  over  settlement with people  with  h e t e r o g e n e o u s b a c k g r o u n d . More  recently,  resorts  dwellers,  also  at the  o f many  t h e y e a r s , became a  l a k e have drawn  nationalities.  i n many  city-  30  SiieJLkex According the  Metis  t o an i n f o r m a n t ,  people  during  the t y p i c a l  the f i r s t  part of the twentieth  century  was a l o g - h o u s e .  brought  i n from t h e Stony Ridge area,  had  h a b i t a t i o n of  Constructed  from t h e l o c a l  poplar  most o f t h e  log-houses  one o r two s t o r e y s . The a s p e n t r e e s were n o t u s e d  because  they  were c o n s i d e r e d  a s h o r t time. French  s t r u c t u r e and n o t v e r t i c a l l y  the E n g l i s h  over  outside.  with  Another  moss t o f i l l was c o v e r e d prevent people  the r a i n  mud  mortar, p l a s t e r respondent  noted  was  straw  and l i m e b o t h  were  i n s i d e and  t h a t some p e o p l e  a l s o used  through.  over  t h e hay t o  In w i n t e r ,  I  recall  b a l e s and hay o r p a c k t h e snow  h i g h around  and i n some c a s e s ,  they  i n t h e w a l l s ; sometimes, t h e r o o f  from s e e p i n g  would p l a c e  which  and g r a s s ,  hay and w i t h b l a c k d i r t  three or four feet heat,  gumbo,  i n the cracks with  according to  tradition.  Covered with yellow painted  and s u b j e c t t o r o t i n  The l o g s were s e t h o r i z o n t a l l y  Canadian  considered  too s o f t  t h e house t o c o n t a i n t h e  t h a t was t h e e x t e n t  of the  insulation. The  size  of the d w e l l i n g s v a r i e d o f t e n a c c o r d i n g t o the  size  o f t h e f a m i l y . F o r example,  that  their  an e l d e r l a d y  house was n o t b i g . O f t e n ,  informs  us  t h e r e were no w a l l s  31 upstairs,  just  drapes  some h o u s e s had used  no  to separate  stairs  log-house.  would  As  lead  I was  to the  pot-bellied  told  informant  halls  on  they  as  t h e main e n t r a n c e  i n the middle  linen".  served  f o r both  cooking  hot  bread  and  the  the  Later,  lamp was  tried one  informant  said  entire i t became  when and  baking coal-oil  f o r t h e v a r i o u s rooms.  a welcome improvement  in spite  of  mantles.  t h e whole house, e s p e c i a l l y  the  stove  pot-bellied  However,  kerosene  we  only  kitchen  the  especially  "but  chairs,  warmth f o r t h e  The  light  i c e when p e o p l e  to get  t h a t the  heating, while  easy-to-break  In t h e w i n t e r , as  as  dance-  s t o v e s were t h e  said  kitchen stove  a r a t h e r dim  were as c o l d  And  spacious  another,  the  area u p s t a i r s .  lamps p r o v i d e d  and  relates  As  d u r i n g t h e month o f J u l y .  fragile  a big  made good  needed: t a b l e s ,  s e n i o r man  including  t h e gas  this  floor.  those  we  living-room provided  around  and  find  of the  feet,  nothing fancy",  one  very  would  " I n t h e good o l d d a y s ,  of heat,  household,  to a large  nights".  b e d s and  i n the  the door  serve  a l l the b a s i c f u r n i t u r e  stove  two-storey  elder,  source  so,  so  larger  an  some o f them 24 X 24  house was  cupboards,  the  l i v i n g - r o o m where one  said:  Saturday  "Our  they  adds t h a t  cellar,  by  stove u s u a l l y  living-rooms,  its  to the d i r t  i n t h e a r e a was  k i t c h e n would u s u a l l y  had  rooms. She  a home-made s t e p - l a d d e r . . A common s i g h t  one  t o go  the  the  floors  woke i n t h e m o r n i n g s .  stove going  as f a s t  as p o s s i b l e .  t h a t , the n i g h t b e f o r e ,  So, To  t h e y made  do  32 "les  rippes",  small,  fire-starters. starting  d r y p i e c e s o f wood s h a v i n g s  I f one  the f i r e ,  flames  crackling,  coffee  would be  d i d not  one and  have t o o much  c o u l d hear, soon  whistling  and  their  first  recalled, 16.  few  some w i t h p l a n k c o n s t r u c t i o n Some l a r g e  clean  and  told  t o make l y s o l  wash t h e w a l l s and floor-brush. had  also  tied  hay  brooms and One follows:  into  covered with  "Our  and  clean  soap  We  would  bricksiding.  and  and  c o z y . As  would  and  inspect  a  to  w i t h the ashes  be from  then with a  t o make  c l e a n i n g between  have t o s t a r t  n o t done t o her s a t i s f a c t i o n .  and/or  X  section,  scrub the f l o o r s  come a r o u n d  16  more  m o t h e r s t a u g h t us  own  lady  housing.  done a good j o b , e s p e c i a l l y  i f i t was  b i g g e r than  woman e x p l a i n e d : "We  c r a c k s o f t h e wooden f l o o r . again  our  the c e i l i n g  M o t h e r would  elderly  t h e homes were s m a l l  me:  and  the wood-stove". Another  s u r e we  and  t h e y were, n o n e t h e l e s s , k e p t  woman i n her e i g h t i e s  One  log-house  to the o r i g i n a l  f a m i l i e s d i d l a c k adequate  g e n e r a l , even t h o u g h  crowded,  life.  t o o b i g , t h e y moved on  t e a or  the o l d wood-stove.  some o f t h e s e d w e l l i n g s were no  s p a c i o u s q u a r t e r s o r t h e y added  the  o f hot  i n a one-room  years of married  Once t h e f a m i l y g o t  In  a moment,  d a n c i n g on  as  difficulty  a f t e r w a r d s , a pot  Many newly-wed c o u p l e s s t a y e d for  after  to serve  over  Some p e o p l e  g r a s s to a s t i c k which they used  brushes".  of the e l d e r s d e s c r i b e d a t y p i c a l  k i t c h e n as  as  the  33  "To be happy i n her k i t c h e n , a woman must have a good stove and I had a good s t o v e . I t provided heat, yes, but I used i t mainly f o r cooking. Of course, we had no e l e c t r i c i t y and no r e f r i g e r a t o r then. So we wrapped the meat and other p e r i s h a b l e s l i k e head cheese and b u t t e r , put i t i n a p a i l and lowered them i n t o the water down the w e l l to keep f r e s h . At the c e n t r e of the k i t c h e n would be the t a b l e . Since t h e r e were seven of us at one time f o r the meals, i t had to be a b i g and s t r o n g t a b l e . He had c h a i r s and benches, too. Beside my stove, t h e r e would be a b i g box. I would make sure t h a t the boys kept i t always f u l l with dry wood. In the corner, b e s i d e the window, t h e r e would be a stand w i t h a water b a s i n and towel with a m i r r o r hanging on the w a l l i n f r o n t of you. We would throw our d i r t y water e i t h e r o u t s i d e or i n the s l o p - p a i l by the stand".  She She on  said  t h a t she  spent  remembers p r e p a r i n g the  food  lake  like  in wintertime.  beef  a l s o be  Sitting with  at the  table  treasured  According  one  can  The  pots  a gallery  t o an  log-house  going  of p o t a t o e s  bannock. My  and  and  k i t c h e n , she  live  informant,  in St.Laurent  readily  observe  would  talk  p a n s , odds and  she  o f f a m i l y and  longer  to  and  like  the  related  visitors.  drink  was  last i n the  t h a t new  she  Metis late  in  tea of  living-  chairs, kept  h o l y p i c t u r e s on  in log-houses the  how  the  recollected  e n d s . Her sofa,  fish  some  c u p b o a r d s were u s u a l l y f u l l  dressers. Finally,  P e o p l e no  a  lots  a l l the b a s i c f u r n i t u r e  and  men  kitchen.  would p r e - c o o k most o f  k i t c h e n t a b l e , we  utensils,  room had  She  f o r the  i n her  t h e p l a c e where I would welcome t h e  cake or c o o k i e s .  dishes,  food  or pork r o a s t ,  home-made p a s t r i e s and would  the  a l o t of time  and  the  St.Laurent.  f a m i l y to sixties.  live  in  Today,  homes, i n some c a s e s  with  34  attached do now In  not  car garages,  see  enjoy  h o r s e - d r a w n wagons o r s l e i g h s the commodities  the e a r l y  1970's, t h e  instrumental to  build  Metis  34  and local  in persuading new  units  utilities  and  anymore.  Visitor People  o f modern  life.  M e t i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was  the Manitoba  Housing  Corporation  a S e n i o r C i t i z e n ' s Home.  Food The  diet  influenced  by  o f t h e M e t i s o f S t . L a u r e n t was  strongly  the  t r a p p i n g eco-  nomy. J a c k f i s h , but  have r e p l a c e d t h e o l d h o u s e s .  the  local  fishing,  saugers  and  real delicacies  Some p e o p l e  ate f i s h  of  them, e s p e c i a l l y  eat  a l o t of f i s h ,  According  h u n t i n g and  tullibees  were t h e p i c k e r e l  many t i m e s  not  to a fisherman's  y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n has  and  a week and  the p i c k e r e l . but  were t h e common  Today,  the  never  whitefish got  tired  the r e s i d e n t s s t i l  as much as t h e y u s e d wife, t h i s  fish,  to.  i s simply because  the  become somewhat f u s s y as t o i t s  taste. In diet.  the p a s t , water  Also wild  important. to  call  animals.  fowl f i g u r e d  meat p a r t i c u l a r l y  St.Laurent  lies  "Muskrat Country". Until  the household generation  recently, table.  and  rabbit,  The  l a n d teemed w i t h  m u s k r a t meat was  were  any  these  a common i t e m  P r e s e n t l y , however t h e  eat muskrat  i n the  w i t h i n t h e zone f u r t r a d e r s u s e d  t r a p the muskrat  young p e o p l e  deer  prominently  younger  only f o r i t s fur value. longer.  Few  on  35  Besides their  'country  gardens.  (carrots,  beet,  t o m a t o e s ) and u s u a l l y told  they  cellars  ones f o r t h e v e g e t a b l e s t h e canned  canning  pabbinans"  purposes  strawberries d'Wilson".  in their  Besides beef  berries  also  are called  these  locally,  various vegetable  and d a i r y  cattle  animals.  s a u s a g e . M e t i s women p r o d u c e d  Metis  preparation taught  and choke  gooseberries  foods,  the Metis  kept  their  each other i n  t o make b l o o d  own b u t t e r f r o m fresh  t h e farm  everyday.  with vegetables,  Thus,  assorted  berries.  women have a l w a y s p l a c e d a premium on f o o d  and c o o k i n g .  n o t t o waste;  the C r e a t o r  " l a couli  saskatoons  the t r i p e s  was w e l l b a l a n c e d  game meats and w i l d  r a s p b e r r i e s and  men h e l p e d  cream. Eggs and m i l k were a l s o diet  popular  a s w e l l a s cows, p i g s and  Women u s e d  The  abounded. Most  too, but i n s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n .  butchering  local  and a s m a l l e r one  i n abundance. P i n c h e r r i e s ,  t o an e l d e r ,  the  have a s many a s  t h e lake near  chickens. According  fresh  f i e l d . An  basement: two l a r g e  and t h e p o t a t o e s  h a z e l n u t s were p r e s e n t  cattle  dirt  A l s o , t h e h i g h l y esteemed  c h e r r i e s were a l w a y s and  had a l a r g e p o t a t o  t h a t grew a l o n g  1 5  c a b b a g e s and  were h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r i e s o r " l i  as t h e y  1 4  cucumber,  preserves.  Many k i n d s o f w i l d for  turnips,  vegetables  me t h a t some f a m i l i e s would  three d i f f e r e n t  for  a l w a y s depended on  F a m i l i e s grew a l l t h e b a s i c  lettuce,  informant  food' the Metis  A t an e a r l y  age, c h i l d r e n  f o o d was c o n s i d e r e d  and a r e w a r d  f o r a person's  were  t o be a g i f t honest  from  d a y ' s work.  36 Many women r o u t i n e l y loaves of bread, bannock and  and  au S a c " , served  once o r t w i c e a week, n o t  r e c i p e s such  s t e a k and  carrots  onions,  and  and  fruit  former  Addendum: p.44  the  c a k e and  sauce, chopped  " l a Poutchine  Metis foods  and  especially during  New  were the  Year.  r e s i d e n t s have p r o v i d e d r e c i p e s o f some o f more p o p u l a r  ). Some o f t h e s e  back t o t h e  1920's and  mother, Mrs.  Madeleine  elder  and  tomato  d u c k stew w i t h  to guests,  of Christmas  the M e t i s p e o p l e ' s  An  as m e a t b a l l s  bannock, C h r i s t m a s  seasons  counting  prepared.  a l l were c o n s i d e r e d t y p i c a l  l s  Two  she  rabbit  with great d e l i g h t  festive  as many as t w e n t y o r t w e n t y - f i v e  other p a s t r i e s  Various deer  baked  and  favourite  recipes,  were p a s s e d  on  foods.  they  (See  admitted,  t o them by  date  their  Lavallee.  explained i t rather well  as she  succinctly  remarked:  "There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t our mothers were v e r y good cooks w i t h the l i t t l e conveniences t h a t they had" .  Many f a m i l i e s An her of  enthusiastic  remember t h e autumn d a y s o f  grandmother  f a m i l y , t h e y would vegetables, f r u i t s ,  Washing, c l e a n i n g and was  the c o o k i n g of the  have e l e c t r i c a l  o r gas  can wild  recalls  when, w i t h  as many as one berries,  boiling  fish  t h e j a r s was  then.  the help  of  thousand  quarts  and  meat.  wild  q u i t e a chore  food c o n s i d e r i n g that stoves  canning.  they d i d not  as  3 7  However, n o t food.  One  rabbits,  a l l families  woman e x p l a i n e d p a r t r i d g e s and  was  "Only  Sundays", r e p l i e d  e a t i n g beaver, Pemmican was melted  f a t and  the u s u a l  food  for  a l o n g time  and  The  under almost  the M e t i s its  an  any  will  of food  people  has  snare  to feed  her  Fresh  meat?  Some e l d e r s a l s o own  into  awhile  recall  pemmican.  a paste  with  i t hardened i t would  and i t keep  conditions.  oldtimer,  t o w i l d meat and  source  had  making t h e i r  After  of  t o make ends meet.  of the voyageurs because  younger g e n e r a t i o n  seafood  and  supply  and  bologna.  l e a n meat pounded  Nowadays, remarked of the  t o go  chicken  another.  some b e r r i e s .  was  had  m a c a r o n i and  lynx, bear  dried,  a plentiful  o f t e n , a l l she  children on  she  prairie  A widow s t a t e d t h a t , t o o potatoes,  how  had  i t seems t h a t  members  sometimes p r e f e r Safeway meat  fish thus  of S t . L a u r e n t  f r o m Lake changed  i n the  Manitoba.  considerably for  last  few  years,  and  preparation, accordingly.  Metis Clothing In t h e p a s t , diligent of the that  i n making t h e  year.  One  and  would n e v e r clothes,  parkas  people  had  c l o t h e s they  of the  women e s p e c i a l l y  mittens  coats  Metis  were a d e p t  from deer,  them a p a r t  or j a c k e t s .  needed  c r e a t i v e and f o r each  season  e l d e r member o f t h e community in designing  moose and  throw away o l d c l o t h i n g ,  take  t o be  and  put  we  rabbit would  them t o g e t h e r  noted  moccasins, hide; take  we  old  again  in  new  38 A women's s e w i n g village.  club operated  A c c o r d i n g t o a woman who  belonging  to such  a group,  would meet a t t h e c o n v e n t afternoon woollen was  and  socks,  very  mittens  important  of a l a r g e Eaton  alternate  said  on  that  sweaters  especially  o t h e r ' s p l a c e i n the Knitting  f o r the e n t i r e  household  c h o r e s . Of  could  some. P e o p l e  get  dark  grey  Manitoba".  course,  In t h e w i n t e r ,  fresh  and  c l e a n snow i n t o  carry  i n t h e house and  young  lad, I recall elder  and  a tub  that  whenever  as much r a i n  or b o i l e r  "L'Grand l a c and/or  water  as  to s h o v e l  which they  the s t o v e to melt.  would  As  a  often.  f o r many y e a r s , most women u s e d  home-made soap  t o wash c l o t h e s .  the manually  operated  are recent a c q u i s i t i o n s .  work i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  i f she they  the eavestroughs  myself  twice  her water  t h e b o y s were e x p e c t e d  doing  washing-machine, e i t h e r one,  soft  the r a i n  s e t up  p l a c e on  observed,  t u b , wash-board  electric  preferred  c o n t a i n e r to get  possible.  An  she  the  time.  c l o u d s g a t h e r i n g i n t h e West o v e r  imaginable  A mother  t o once o r  c l o t h e s as a p a r t o f  anticipated  A c c o r d i n g l y , they  family  o r d e r s of c l o t h e s from  at E a s t e r or C h r i s t m a s  women washed t h e i r  of  f o r economic r e a s o n s .  that  mother  t h e M e t i s women  a weekly b a s i s .  and  i n the  remembers h e r  o r Simpson c a t a l o g u e were r e s t r i c t e d  The  every  still  or at each  f a m i l y remarked  a year, u s u a l l y  saw  she  f o r many y e a r s  way:  She  or  The  the  d e s c r i b e s her  a  39  " I t would u s u a l l y . t a k e a day or two t o wash the heavy b a t c h spread out on the f l o o r a c c o r d i n g t o c o l o r and v a r i e t y , b e s i d e s , the women had t o be h e a l t h y and s t r o n g t o wring the c l o t h e s by hand, e s p e c i a l l y the men's c o v e r a l l s and working c l o t h e s . O f t e n , my f i n g e r s would h u r t a t the end of the day".  A woman s t a n d i n g on a b e n c h , c l o t h e s p i n s and on  a basketfull a line  familiar  that sight  o f wet c l o t h e s b e s i d e h e r ,  clothes was a  i n the v i l l a g e .  then  the heavy-laden  ideal  condition  line  With  a p o l e , s h e would  f o r the clothes  to dry.  The  to dry clothes  i s a sunny and b r e e z y d a y .  a c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t ,  i n the winter, the clothes  would so  hanging  she had p r o b a b l y p u t t o g e t h e r h e r s e l f ,  raise  But  i n h e r mouth  freeze  and become s t i f f  i n t h e house, u s u a l l y  c l o t h e s would  soften  on a s o f a ,  sprinkling  By t h i s  chair  after  time,  w a t e r and were now r e a d y  and f r e s h on t o  had been h u m i d i f i e d w i t h f o r ironing.  M e t i s woman u s e s  a wash-board t o  wash c l o t h e s .  Everyone  conveniences.  The o b v i o u s change a s f a r a s c l o t h i n g i s  concerned people, and from  modern u t i l i t i e s and  i s i n the manufacturing  i n g e n e r a l , made t h e i r  fortheir  families.  a department To  uses  the  on t h e s t o v e and c l i p p e d  the clothes  Today, n o t a s i n g l e  a h hour o r  o r bed,  a g a i n and exude a c l e a n  aroma. The i r o n s were h e a t e d a handle.  as a board;  conclude  store this  of clothes.  own c l o t h e s  T o d a y , most p e o p l e o r from  chapter,  In the past,  f o r themselves buy t h e i r  a boutique. like  many o t h e r  people  clothes  40 of  t h e r e g i o n and o f t h e p r o v i n c e ,  St.Laurent cultural  have u n d e r g o n e c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e i r  understanding  their  culture.  style  from  traditional  traditional experience that  i s due p r i m a r i l y  modern  life  Metis  The fact  Metis  foods.  of the Metis  difference  that the Metis  time,  except  economy.  many m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s  p e r h a p s f o r some  i s not unique  settlers  and no d i f f e r e n t  i n t h e r e g i o n , a s most  from people  economy.  i n the s i t u a t i o n ,  however,  a r e an a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e  t o t h e l a n d . T h e i r economic  lies  with  life-style,  i n the  a special at the  was s u c c e s s f u l and h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d t o t h e l a n d and  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Whereas,  government p e o p l e ,  t o most w h i t e  modernization  progress,  to the Metis,  was b a s e d  on t h e f e a r  the  life-  I n many r e s p e c t s , t h e e c o n o m i c  on a s u b s i s t e n c e  attachment  t o a change o f  has a b s o r b e d  culture,  of other pioneer  depended  to  This  r e g a r d i n g some m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f  a s u b s i s t e n c e t o a more complex and c a s h  Consequently, of  the Metis people of  their  s e t t l e r s and  meant p r o s p e r i t y and  understanding  of l o s i n g  their  of modernization  central  economy. I t meant t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  of t h e i r  e c o n o m i c s y s t e m and m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r Metis,  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n was t h e b y - p r o d u c t  Table St.Laurent contained  1 (below) r e v e a l s g r a p h i c a l l y have moved from  being  position in thriving  people.  To many  of modernization.  how t h e M e t i s o f  a close-knit  and  self-  community f o r t h e most p a r t e x p l o i t i n g t h e  r e s o u r c e s o f t h e immediate e n v i r o n m e n t  and engaged  in,mutual  41 intra-community  relations  and o b l i g a t i o n s  with a minimal  d e p e n d e n c e on t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e e x t e r i o r one  i n which  exclusively.  t h e y have come t o r e l y And t h i s  access t o cash which wage l a b o u r , p a i d  requires, means t h a t  employment,  on t h e l a t t e r  under  t h e column  or small businesses. prior  t o 1950, we  find  t h e column f o r g o o d s  that  w h i l e t o - d a y we f i n d  ( c ) , bought  most o f t h e s e marks  f o r c a s h . The l o g - h o u s e and  o t h e r goods s u c h a s home-made  carpets,  clothes,  and c a b o o s e s  not e x i s t today,  wood-stoves, buggies  anymore. Many i t e m s t h a t  very  and c a r g a r a g e s  few i t e m s were bought  today,  o n l y a few a r t i c l e s  This drastic objective  sense  f o r cash p r i o r  whatever  Metis, if  i n thus becoming  the Metis s t i l l  t h e y do, on what  f o r cash and e l e c t r i c a l  b e f o r e 1950. T h u s , t o 1950, w h i l e  change  indicates  i n an  t h e M e t i s were i n t h e p a s t I t also  raises  the questions  i n so many ways more C a n a d i a n  retain  basis.  do  a r e made a t home.  t h e y a r e n o t t h e same t o d a y . whether,  practically  hydro  d i d not e x i s t  socio-economic  that  m o c c a s i n s and  a r e bought  s u c h as s k i d o o s and b o m b a r d i e r s ,  appliances,  almost  t h e y have come t o depend on  marks ( X ) u n d e r  were s e l f - m a d e ( s m ) ,  to  above e v e r y t h i n g e l s e ,  Two c o l u m n s d o m i n a t e t h e t a b l e : most o f t h e c h e c k  environment  their  identity  than  a s M e t i s and,  42  IabJLa_l Abr . : Sja: s e l f - m a d e ;  e.: c a s h ;  £/N-e: E x i s t ing, N o n - e x i s t i n g .  MjLt.ejdLSl._J^  la-day.  Pxe.-1.9.50. Items.  L-SSLJ.  L_c.-J  L_E^a!__Sm-J  L-fi__l  M&^&  Sj3je_li..e_r.: Log-house Floor-brush Carpets Insulation Furniture Electricity Heating Water Works Car garage S e n i o r Home Housing  x x x x x x x x  x  E E E E E N-e E E N-e N-e N-e  x x x  x x x x x x x x x  N-e N-e E E E E E E E E E  CJLoJthjLiig Moccasins Socks Mittens Sweaters Parkas Gloves Sewing C l u b Washboard WashingMachine Dryer Ironing Soap  X  E E E E E E E E  X  N-e N-e E E  X X  X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X X X X X  X X X X X X  N-e E E E E E N-e E E E E E  43  Fflsd. Fishing Trapping Hunting Produce Dairy Wildberries  X  X  x x  X  X X  X  X  E E E E E E  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X X  E E/NE E E E/N  Transport Buggies Sulky Wagon Democrats Cabooses Sleighs Cutters Tractors Ski-doos Bombardiers Horses Train Bus Car Trucks 3-wheelers Plane Boat  X X X X X X X  X X X X X  X  E E E E E E E N-e N-e N-e E E E E/N-e N-e N-e N-e E  X X X  X X X X X X  N-e N-e N-e N-e N-e N-e N-e E E E N-e N-e E E E E E E  44  Addendum,  2 cups b u t t e r ,  2 c u p s brown  1 cup m o l a s s e ,  5 cups  1 cup stir  of f l o u r ,  8 eggs w e l l  1 pound s e e d e d  1 teaspoon  c u r r a n t s washed and  cinnamon,  teaspoon  1/2  pound mixed  1/2  mace, 1/2  teaspoon  o f nutmeg,  pound b l a n c h e d s l i c e d  225  degrees  f o r 2 to 3 hours  j n _ a J b a g , , (Poutchin^_aji__sjLfijL . J  1/2  cup b e e f s u e t , chopped  fine  1/2  cup brown s u g a r ,  raisins,  1 teaspoon  pastry  1 cup  spice,  2 cups  t e a s p o o n s b a k i n g powder, 3/4 a l l dry ingredients  1-pt. Fill  depending  pans. 2=—E M d i n g  mixture  almonds,  peel.  Bake i n s l o w oven  Mix  dried,  chopped,  1/2  of  1 pound  as u s u a l and  raisins,  1 pound d a t e s  4  beaten,  s o u r m i l k , 1 t e a s p o o n b a k i n g s o d a , mix i n at the l a s t ,  size  sugar,  jars  and  steam  half-full.  free 1/2  flour,  from cup  1/2  skin,  currants, teaspoon  bag  2 1/2  o r 2,  1-qt.  t o 3 1/2  Serve w i t h  sealer  Pour or 4  hrs.  sauce.  Sauce 1/2  white  sugar,  1 tablespoon cornstarch,  1 cup b o i l i n g  water,  2 tablespoons butter,  1/2  cup  teaspoon  lemon e x t r a c t ,  1/2  salt,  cup m i l k ,  t o g e t h e r , t h e n add m i l k .  in 5 l b s . cotton  sealer  and  teaspoon  vanilla,  45 1/4  teaspoon  Mix  sugar  boil  nutmeg.  and  corn  5 minutes,  starch,  stir  take from f i r e , 3-  4  cups of  flour,  in b o i l i n g  water,  add  and  butter  Bannock  2 teaspoon  salt,  3 t e a s p o o n b a k i n g powder,  1 cup  Mix  well,  stir  i n enough w a t e r  i n h a l f and  roll  out  dry  ingredients  dough, d i v i d e desired  thickness,  degrees f o r  1/2  15  lb. salt  i n pot  1 small  p r i c k with 20  up  in  water,  to  bake i n hot  pieces, add  1 carrot  sliced,  thicken.  ducks, ducks are  singe  them on  plucked  an  ducks  up  in serving pieces  put  i n pot  add  1 teaspoon s a l t ,  one  small  of b o i l i n g  carrot  simmer f o r 2 t o  and  cleaned,  open f l a m e o r wood  cut  flour  Wild  mallards,  After  t h e n add  and  pin  tender.  52 wild  with r o l l i n g  chopped.  Stew f o r 2 h o u r s o r u n t i l Flour  fork  t o make  pieces,  in serving  of b o i l i n g  onion  lard.  minutes.  pork cut  2 r a b b i t s cut Put  to  flavoring.  and  water to 1/2  sliced,  cover,  teaspoon black one  thicken.  pepper,  medium o n i o n  3 hours or u n t i l to  fire,  meat  chopped,  i s tender,  soft  to oven  400  46 6- M u s k r a t Boil  i n 4 cups o f water,  until  t e n d e r . Or r o a s t  lard,  season to t a s t e  1 teaspoon s a l t  i n oven  1 1/2 t e a s p o o n s a l t , 1/2 cup f l o u r mix w e l l , into  into  1/2 t e a s p o o n b l a c k  2-3 i n . b a l l s  and  i n cold  fine,  pepper, together,  roll  of b o i l i n g  and l e t simmer g e n t l y  Wash 4 p o r k h o c k s  water,  f o r one h o u r .  water,  i n large pot,  cover with cold boil  water,  f o r 30 m i n u t e s ,  rinse  drain,  h o c k s and p o t ,  return  t o p o t and add h a l f  S t i c k 4 t o 6 whole c l o v e s , 1 bay l e a f , Salt  1 med. o n i o n chopped  again. Put i n quart  1 teaspoon s a l t ,  put  and p e p p e r .  t o mix i n t h e meat t o h o l d  roll  flour  f o r 2 hours w i t h a l o t o f  with s a l t  2 pounds g r o u n d b e e f , l e a n ,  f o r 1 1/2 hour o r  amount o f w a t e r . 1 small onion,  1 tablespoon vinegar.  and p e p p e r  to taste,  cook u n t i l  tender,  Remove meat f r o m b o n e s . C u t i n s m a l l p i e c e s o r wood-chopper. Add  strain  liquid  and p u t i n t o molds t o s e t .  47  KLfiteja  1- F r e n c h w o r d . The r o a d s e r v i n g as the  lot  people  system  is  known as  believe  it  was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t  2-  P a r k s Canada,  3-  "L'Grand Mash-Keg",  big  muskeg.  situated  the  the  'fascinage'  Qs-R103-000BB-A2,  A famous  French Michif  five  as  road,  some  of  local  a fire-guard  road.  1981.  hunting-ground  approximately  e a s t e r n boundary  pronunciation  for  for Metis people,  kilometres  southeast  of  the it  is  the  village. 4 - A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Winnipeg,  ARDA, map 6 2 - 1 . Q u e e n ' s  printers,  Manitoba.  5- A r c h i v e s of the  St.Boniface Historical  Society,  i n Ajni.  St.Boniface Historical  Society,  ibidem p.  St.Boniface Historical  Society,  ibidem  d.u.„E..QXSX, S e p t e m b e r , 6- A r c h i v e s of the  1961, p . 5.  67- A r c h i v e s of the p.  5.  8-  St.Laurent  Parish Register,  N o . 1,  December  25th,  1864.  9- S t . L a u r e n t  Parish Register,  quoted  in St.Laurent:  1876~  1976, 10-  by S i s t e r  Rural Municipality  by-law no. Hutton, 11-  P a u l i n e M e r c i e r , Fmm. p .  1 s i g n e d by J .  clerk,  January  J o u r n a l of the  ibidem p.  of S t . L a u r e n t  12.  21,  Mulvihill,  8.  Records.  ' Letter-head  w a r d e n and b y N .  1882.  Franciscans  Sisters,  quote by M e r c i e r ,  of  48 12- A r c h i v e s of S t . EflYfir, 13-  October  1961,  Boniface H i s t o r i c a l Society, p.  5.  Annex A , u p d a t e d Community p r o f i l e ,  Funk,  AmJL_jiu.  c o m p i l e d by  Sandra  1987,  14- L o c a l M i c h i f  French pronunciation  for  15-  French pronunciation  for Wilson  Local Michif  situated  one m i l e n o r t h  16- French M i c h i f literally  of the  cranberries.  v i l l a g e along the  words d e s c r i b i n g C h r i s t m a s  means ' p u d d i n g  in a  bag'.  Creek, lake.  pudding,  49  GRfJWINGUP . ^ S T L L A U R F J I I  In of  the  second c h a p t e r ,  S t . L a u r e n t were,  we e x a m i n e d how t h e  i n the p a s t ,  generally reliant  environment e c o n o m i c a l l y , l i v i n g and n a t u r a l how,  resources  from the  from t h e moment t h e y ,  perforce,  l a n d and on t h e  resources  for  their  This chapter development look at  adult  describes  in a person's  experiences  drastic  customs. changes  secularization,  as t h e b a s i s  life  economic dependence  on  the  and t h e y had  to  outside  at  s c h o o l , c o u r t s h i p and  and f i n a l l y  We w i l l  in this  marriage,  some o f t h e wake and chapter  reveals  the  i n r e l a t i o n to modernization, life.  respondents i n the the  stages of  from b i r t h t o b u r i a l .  e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y  experience  Most o f the  field  and w i l l  I will  present  p o i n t o f v i e w and  these  perception.  data  serve  of Metis people  S t . L a u r e n t . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  cognitive anthropology, from the M e t i s '  the  and c h i l d h o o d b e h a v i o u r ,  in Metis l i f e  to d e s c r i b e  t h e y grew up a t  in  some a s p e c t s o f t h e  The m a t e r i a l  was p r o v i d e d by t h e  saw  livelihood.  and s e n i o r y e a r s ,  burial  local  We a l s o  e x t e r i o r e n v i r o n m e n t and  some b i r t h p r a c t i c e s  socializing  the  became e n g a g e d  e n v i r o n m e n t was d e c r e a s e d  r e l y more and more on t h e  people  on  abundantly o f f the  l a n d and w a t e r .  c o m p l e x and c a s h economy, t h e i r  Metis  model o f  experiences  as  50 In  the p r o c e s s ,  cultural  elements  life-span cultural  of the  I will  attempt to  that constitute informants.  elements  i n the  i d e n t i f y some o f  Metisness throughout  I will  l i v e s of the  elders  and t h e  i n d i c a t e whether  Finally,  t h e components a r e  The  main p r o b l e m s a d d r e s s e d  -To  what e x t e n t  the  table  'surface'  or  the  youth,  these  components have been d r o p p e d o r r e t a i n e d  ones t h a t have been a d o p t e d .  the  do so by c o n t r a s t i n g  t h e n and now. I a l s o want t o p o i n t o u t w h i c h o f cultural  the  and i f new will 'core'.  are:  has m o d e r n i z a t i o n and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n  occurred? -Has  the Church l o s t  -How  has e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y  the  influence? life  changed s i n c e t h e  In  of  terms  i t s most g e n e r a l u s a g e i n t h e  d e n o t e s any o b j e c t  o f any n e e d ,  social  attitude,  an a d d i t i o n a l u s a g e w h i c h i s p e r h a p s  sciences,  denote  shared  relevance  moral, aesthetic,  attitudes,  (Becker  c u l t u r a l standards  desires,  to  according to which  or c o g n i t i v e  of the  the  objects  and n e e d s can be compared and j u d g e d  1964:744).  By c o r e v a l u e s , elements  I mean t h e  c e n t r a l and  o f a c u l t u r e as opposed t o s u r f a c e  m i n o r and s e c o n d a r y o n e s . Weber,  There  t h e one most  f o u n d i n a n t h r o p o l o g y . The t e r m has come  the  value  or d e s i r e .  frequently  of  turn of  century?  Definition  is  its  Ever s i n c e ,  constitutive which are  the  l a r g e l y t h r o u g h Max  ' v a l u e ' was drawn o u t o f i t s p u r e l y e c o n o m i c  context  51 to  i n c l u d e the  e m o t i v e and c u l t u r a l , emic and e t i c ,  become a u s e f u l  i f flexible  Steward used the  t o o l of d e s c r i p t i o n .  term " c o r e '  a c t i v i t i e s and e c o n o m i c a r r a n g e m e n t s . political  determined (Steward  has  Julian  to m e a n " . . . t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n of  f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  social,  it  to  subsistence  The c o r e  i n c l u d e s such  and r e l i g i o u s p a t t e r n s as a r e  t o be c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s e 1 9 5 5 : 3 7 ) . F o r our purpose  here,  empirically  arrangements  we may r e g a r d  core  v a l u e as t h o s e w h i c h t h e M e t i s o f S t . L a u r e n t r e g a r d as n o n optional for being Metis, surface  f o r example s p e a k i n g M i c h i f ,  v a l u e s as t h o s e M e t i s p e o p l e r e g a r d  Sometimes,  however,  as o p t i o n a l .  an i n v e s t i g a t o r may n o t i c e v a l u e s  which  seem t o be n o n - o p t i o n a l b u t a r e n o t s a i d t o be so by p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d . These w o u l d s t i l l  be,  on t h e  other  hand,  in this perspective  be t h o s e w h i c h seem t o be o p t i o n a l i n s p i t e to the c o n t r a r y to the people  as t h e y live of  lived  it  (etic),  of  to Metis  t o t a l way o f l i f e  it  includes their  culture,  of the M e t i s  in their  lives  today.  people  to t r y  and s o c i a l  organization, their  folklore.  B u t , s i n c e the p r i m a r y g o a l of the  traditions  p o i n t of view,  their  and  cognitive  a n t h r o p o l o g y model i s t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e a c u l t u r e informants'  to  T h i s t o t a l way  h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s and c u s t o m s ,  languages  the  would  declarations  i n t h e p a s t and as t h e y c o n t i n u e  and r e c o n s t r u c t  life  Surface  involved.  I n a g e n e r a l way, M e t i s n e s s r e f e r s and i s d e f i n e d as t h e  the  i n an  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , considered core v a l u e . values,  and  f o r our p u r p o s e ,  from  Metis c u l -  52 t u r e h e r e i s d e f i n e d as t h e and u s e  to  interpret  their  knowledge M e t i s people experience  acquire  and t o g e n e r a t e  social  behaviour. M o d e r n i z a t i o n c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e p r o c e s s  of c u l t u r a l  and s o c i o e c o n o m i c change w h e r e b y d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t i e s a c q u i r e some o f t h e  characteristics  trialized  (Haviland  1974: 5 6 6 ) .  mean t h a t  life,  societies  secularization divorced  from  will its  institutionalized  former o v e r a l l  of Western  at  on t h e  It  Stony Ridge area or today  (Fig.2).  Metis families,  or t h a t  that  connections  babies  gave  on a t r i p ,  either  An i n f o r m a n t  told  ' L e P ' t i t L a c de R o c h e s ' ,  A small settlement  with their  s i x m i l e s east of S t . L a u r e n t  village  d o e s n o t mean  t r a p - l i n e o r a h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n . Some were b o r n  is called  fifteen  become  the m a j o r i t y of mothers  home, w h i l e some had t h e i r  around the it  has  severed.  A c c o r d i n g t o an e l d e r , birth  context,  o r g a n i z a t i o n b y an  church or r e l i g i o n .  c h u r c h have been  In t h i s  in general,  no one i s r e l i g i o u s , f o r many r e m a i n s o , w i t h the  indus-  i n the  of close  own s c h o o l , e x i s t e d early nineteen  F a m i l i e s were l a r g e ,  to Stony Ridge  care  p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent  at  some  the  afterwards.  and v e r y few homes had l e s s  s i x or eight c h i l d r e n . Pre-and p o s t - n a t a l  to  hundreds.  me t h a t some m o t h e r s w o u l d come t o  t o g i v e b i r t h and r e t u r n  as  than  were  the  time and,  as a r e s u l t ,  some  women e x p e r i e n c e d m i s c a r r i a g e s .  The o l d e r  l a d i e s who a c t e d  53  as m i d w i v e s p e r f o r m e d  their duties  i n g e n u i t y c o n s i d e r i n g the little  means t h e y  me t h a t , tion  had a t  among o t h e r s ,  with resourcefulness  precarious their  circumstances  and  the  d i s p o s a l . One i n f o r m a n t  Mrs. Jos.  C h a r t r a n d had t h e  o f b e i n g a v e r y good m i d w i f e and t h a t  mothers,  and  she  told  reputa-  h e l p e d many  b o t h M e t i s and n o n - M e t i s i n d e l i v e r i n g  their  babies. Sometimes, problems. than the  the  Lack of space  two t o a b e d . foot  sleeping conditions created  of the  necessitated  Some o f t h e  for  the  l i v i n g - r o o m also served  the  sofa  of seven,  crossways  but  meanwhile,  as s l e e p i n g  quarters  was a c h o r e e v e r y n i g h t  fancy,  Many M e t i s c h i l d r e n were  into already  but  under g r e a t p a r e n t a l birth  in hospitals  considerably. four  t h e y grew u p ,  l o v e and c a r e .  and t h e  In f a c t ,  the  said a  a n y t h i n g w o u l d do f r o m a  hammock t o a homemade c r i b . c r o w d e d homes,  to  the process  t h e b a b y was n o t  functional,  at  I n some i n -  i n t o a bed and t o r e v e r s e  n e x t m o r n i n g . The c r a d l e f o r mother  boys would s l e e p  room t o t h e m s e l v e s .  two o r t h r e e c h i l d r e n . I t  transform  c h i l d r e n s l e e p i n g more  bed t o make more r o o m . The g i r l s ,  w o u l d u s u a l l y have t h e i r stances,  some  born  nonetheless,  Today, mothers  number o f c h i l d r e n has  few f a m i l i e s have more t h e n  give decreased three  or  children.  CJai.lajiQ.Qd. Most c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d parents.  The b o y s w o u l d  i n the  footsteps  l e a r n to hunt,  fish  of  their  and t r a p as  they  54 accompanied t h e i r  fathers  chores  on t h e  garden  or around the  s m a l l farms,  keep them b u s y . at  on many e x p e d i t i o n s .  house were u s u a l l y more t h a n  Thus,  various  i n summer and i n w i n t e r ,  t h e b o y s were b r o u g h t  home as much as p o s s i b l e ,  barn,  The  whether  in  the  enough  up t o h e l p  i t was c l e a n i n g  to  out  the  f e e d i n g t h e p i g s o r h a y i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i f one o f  younger  c h i l d r e n was s i c k o r d i s a b l e d .  school,  some b o y s w o u l d make $ 1 . 2 5 s a w i n g a wagon l o a d o f  wood f o r t h e n e i g h b o r s , and s e l l  it  at  of  house-keeping,  store,  t h e g i r l s w o u l d be l e a r n i n g t h e  younger b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s ,  cially  i f one o f t h e  p a r e n t s happened  t o be s i c k o r  died.  One r e s p o n d e n t  older  ones t o p a s s t h e i r and s i s t e r s . at  contribute family  to the  clothes  strengthening household.  like  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e interdependence  espehad  i t was common f o r  on t o t h e i r  the  younger  t h r o u g h s h a r i n g and c a r i n g ,  provided appropriate  develop q u a l i t i e s  that  their  B o t h M e t i s b o y s and g i r l s i n t h e  an e a r l y a g e ,  and o f t h e  contexts  reported  dry. arts  c o o k i n g and s e w i n g . T h e y w o u l d h e l p  b r i n g up t h e  learned  root  f o r 5 c e n t s a pound,  mothers  brothers  after  w h i l e o t h e r s would d i g seneca  the g e n e r a l  In the meantime,  For example,  the  and t o t h e  Hence,  the  settings  self-reliance one h a n d ,  w i t h a l l the  closeness  family  and  past  to of  the  outdoor  for Metis youth  to  and communal  and on t h e  members o f t h e  other,  a sense of  family.  F a m i l y o u t i n g s were a l s o a p o p u l a r p a r t o f g r o w i n g up for  the  Metis c h i l d r e n of S t . L a u r e n t .  t h e s e e v e n t s as t h e y were ways t h e  The p a r e n t s v a l u e d  child  or  adolescent  55  participated  in family  families  would get  w i t h the  horses  raspberries w i t h the enjoyed  life.  In the  together,  old days,  pack a d a y ' s  and b u g g i e s e i t h e r  to the  and wash c l o t h e s p e r h a p s ,  two o r  l u n c h and  have a  c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n . A g r a n d m o t h e r such outings s a i d that d i g g i n g seneca  sistence  t o o many c o u l d d i g more t h a n  d u r i n g the whole day.  Nonetheless,  local general store.  c h i l d r e n would a t t e n d With the  advent  who  to  more f o r f u n t h a n a s a s u b -  d i g as much as t h e y c o u l d b e c a u s e the  picnic  among t h e m s e l v e s  most,  as n o t  up  r o o t was a  s e e who w o u l d d i g t h e task,  travel  lake to p i c k  or j u s t  common a c t i v i t y . C h i l d r e n w o u l d compete  three  she a d d e d ,  the boys would  they could then  For those  a pound  sell  who c o u l d a f f o r d  the weekly movie at  at  it,  the p a r i s h  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n , the  it  hall.  l i f e - s t y l e of  M e t i s y o u t h has c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . N o w a d a y s , few b o y s have t o do c h o r e s school, of  one w i l l  at  home o r any t y p e o f m a n u a l l a b o r .  probably find  a c o a c h , p l a y i n g on t h e  computer  them,  soccer  under  field  i n a c l a s s - r o o m . Meanwhile,  the w a t c h f u l  the g i r l s  could  be  s u c h as r e g i o n a l s p o r t s  i s common p r a c t i c e  village  the  B e s i d e s , M e t i s y o u t h e n j o y many e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities It  eye  o r p r a c t i c i n g on a  t a k i n g a t y p i n g course or p r a c t i s i n g f i g u r e s k a t i n g at arena.  After  and t o  the  for  city  and a c a d e m i c f i e l d - t r i p s .  them t o make t r i p s o u t s i d e  f o r s h o p p i n g and f o r  of  the  socializing  purposes. I n sum, v a l u e s of the  i n the p a s t ,  the M e t i s  home and f a m i l y  life.  i d e n t i f i e d more w i t h According to  an  the  56 informant,  the  collection  of f a m i l y u n i t s ,  together. knitted.  t r a d i t i o n a l extended related  The f a m i l i e s , as a r u l e , T h e r e were more l o c a l  neighborhoods.  Family  life  f a m i l y was p o p u l a r : by t i e s  of blood  were c l o s e and  family  a  lived  well-  and k i n t i e s  within  was i n w a r d - l o o k i n g and  self-  contained, Today,  the  y o u n g p e o p l e seem t o  traditional  structure  socializing  has  they belong to family  o f home and f a m i l y .  i n and o u t s i d e  has  (1977:55) In p l a c e nuclear  replaced  remarks of the  family  new m i l i e u " .  the  father,  the  c o m m u n i t y . The mother  extended  of modernization:  traditional, arises  ties  l o o s e n e d t o become more open t o t h e i n the process  have become  Furthermore, seems t h a t  the  of M e t i s s o c i a l family day's  due t o t h e  family  neighbors,  Secularization people.  small the  have  environment  it  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n ,  the  c o r e and t h e  once was,  but  to economic p r o g r e s s .  and  the  it  center  rather,  the  "...In  to-  family,  or  faceless  1977:55).  has a l s o had i t s  F o r many y e a r s ,  the  St.Laurent  i s governed n o t . . . b y  (Spindler  environment...  in  o r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , but by  bureaucracies"  dependent  and a d a p t i v e  exterior  effects  i s no l o n g e r  has become s e c o n d a r y  at  nuclear  other-reliant.  o r g a n i z a t i o n as  society... life  family,  a s more f l e x i b l e  groups  As S p i n d l e r  "In t h i s  extended  Thus, M e t i s f a m i l y  and t h e  family.  the  T h e i r base of  a l s o w i d e n e d and now i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s  c o n s i s t i n g of the  children  identify less with  effects  the p a r i s h h a l l  on t h e  local  was o n c e p r a c t i c a l l y  57  the  o n l y c e n t e r o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t and o f s o c i a l  For the week,  youth,  activities.  t h e r e were m o v i e s and r o l l e r - s k a t i n g once  r u n by t h e  parish  hall.  social  activities  people  go t o  local parish priest.  The p r i e s t  the  for  and t h e  the  Today,  n u n s no l o n g e r  l o c a l Metis youth.  community r e c r e a t i o n  and s p o r t s g r o u n d ,  there  and t o  the  no  conduct  Instead,  centre,  gymnasium a t  is  to  the  a  young  the  arena  school  for  entertainment. Thus,  the  s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l  y o u t h have s h i f t e d parish-centred operations  considerably  i n the  and c h u r c h - o r g a n i z e d  with considerable  activities  of  v i l l a g e from  to  the being  community-based  involvement  outside  the  village.  Education For a long time, ( F i g 2 ) , Simonet s c h o o l at  the  t h e r e were two s c h o o l s  s c h o o l at  north end.  the  s t u d e n t s from the  far  to walk to the  the  south  end and t h e  S i m o n e t s c h o o l was t o  south  end o f t h e  C o n v e n t s c h o o l . Nuns o f t h e  places.  A senior  who a t t e n d e d S i m o n e t  recalls  that  s c h o o l was o f t e n  wintertime,  do g y m n a s t i c s heated  up.  to  i n the  morning,  keep warm b e f o r e  Convent accommodate  order  taught at  school for  crowded,  being  he a d d e d , class  as  six  three or  g r a d e s i n one c l a s r o o m w i t h one t e a c h e r n o t In the  village,  v i l l a g e who had  F r a n c i s c a n M i s s i o n a r i e s o f M a r y f r o m Quebec  the  i n the  too  of  the  both years four  uncommon.  s t u d e n t s had  the  wood-stove  to  58 The C o n v e n t s c h o o l was much b i g g e r , high s c h o o l grades  were a l s o b e i n g t a u g h t .  s t u d e n t s and more t e a c h e r s . s o u t h end a t t e n d e d it  s t u d e n t s from  dipped below the  many s t u d e n t s s t i l l  the  the Convent;  to walk, e s p e c i a l l y i n winter  temperatures  Nonetheless,  Some f e m a l e  1939 onward  T h e r e were more  h i g h s c h o o l and b o a r d e d a t  was s i m p l y t o o f a r  when t h e  as from  time  f r e e z i n g mark.  w a l k e d two o r t h r e e  miles  in reading,  and  t o go t o s c h o o l e v e r y d a y . Students arithmetic. in  the  the  learned the  A respondent  describes  on a b i g c h a r t :  b o a r d t o w r i t e on as scribbler.  b-a=ba,  i t was e a s i e r  or used  little  another  respondent  mothers  describes  a classroom:  s i n g l e desks,  on t h e  other;  In grade  live  too f a r  "In the  o v e r s c r u p u l o u s at  diffefingers  f o r example,  school  pupils  they would  c l a s s r o o m and time:  The n u n s  a c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t ,  times,  school.  lower grades,  own p l a y i n g a r e a " .  count  their  from the  seven or e i g h t ,  slate  o f w i r e " . As  starting  t h i s would a l s o a p p l y to r e c e s s  and,  and  g o i n g t o s c h o o l as  b o y s on one s i d e o f t h e  g r o u p w o u l d have t h e i r usually strict  to pieces  home b e f o r e  who d i d n o t  i n double desks.  consonants  of  in a  me, some c h i l d r e n knew how t o  w o u l d t e a c h them a t  A grandmother  at  to wipe o f f than  wooden b a l l s a t t a c h e d told  class  letters  we c o u n t e d w i t h o u r  and do b a s i c r e a d i n g even b e f o r e  sat  f i r s t days of  m-a=raa. We u s e d a  We l e a r n e d t h e v o w e l s , t h e  s y l l a b l e s . For a r i t h m e t i c ,  then,  the  writing  f o l l o w i n g way: "The p u p i l s w o u l d r e a d t h e  alphabet  rent  basics  sit  girls  each were  "somewhat  they would not  allow  59  t h e b o y s and g i r l s mission".  to t a l k to each other w i t h o u t t h e i r  B u t as one f o r m e r s t u d e n t  aged t o e x c h a n g e  little  the v e s t i b u l e or at  notes  recess.  r e c a l l s : "We s t i l l  to the  home u n d e r  the  man-  as we c r i s s - c r o s s e d p a t h s  Then i n h i g h e r g r a d e s ,  light  of the  in  we  l e a r n e d a b o u t grammar and c o m p o s i t i o n . S t u d e n t s d i d home-work a t  per-  coal-oil  their  lamp and  h e a t o f l o g s b u r n i n g away i n t h e w o o d - s t o v e " . A p o i n t  t o be made h e r e youth at  is that  the  s o c i a l i z i n g process  s c h o o l was b a s e d on t h e s e p a r a t i o n  of  of the  Metis sexes.  A...Jia£±s_.ZiejH_o^ The  following data  r e v e a l some o f t h e M e t i s  v i e w on e d u c a t i o n . One e l d e r s t a t e d :  " I n my t i m e , we d i d n o t  t h i n k t o o much a b o u t g o i n g t o s c h o o l ; and  p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h making a l i v i n g  our  families  as  we were more c o n c e r n e d f o r o u r s e l v e s and  t h a n s e n d i n g o u r s o n s and d a u g h t e r s  to  for  school;  l o n g as t h e y knew how t o r e a d and w r i t e , we t h o u g h t  t h a t was good e n o u g h f o r t h e m " . another, and  people's  put  family,  "for parents  to take  them t o w o r k a t  "It  was n o t u n u s u a l " ,  t h e i r boy or g i r l  home o r e l s e w h e r e  e s p e c i a l l y i f y o u happened  that added  from s c h o o l  to help r a i s e  t o be one o f t h e  the  older  ones". "Forty years successful trapper  r e c a l l e d a former t r a p p e r ,  "A  M e t i s man was one who was a good f i s h e r m a n ,  and h u n t e r  adequate food, family".  ago",  and who, a s a r e s u l t ,  shelter  was a b l e t o p r o v i d e  and c l o t h i n g f o r h i m s e l f  " I h a r d l y knew how t o r e a d and w r i t e " ,  and f o r retorted  his  60 another, family,  "and I t h i n k I d i d r a t h e r they are  good j o b s ,  a l l well  concluded:  besides,  hunt  B a s e d on t h e  in l i f e the  or t r a p " .  on t h e  above d a t a ,  of t h e i r  subsistence  with  s c h o o l d i d not  Another  respondent  if it  helped  some M e t i s p e o p l e d i d n o t life.  Within  economy w h i c h made them  dependent  on t h e  education  a d i r e c t means o f s u b s i s t e n c e .  education  t h a t d i d not  l a n d and i t s  resources,  contribute  the  con-  Activities  see  in  like  economic w e l f a r e  e d u c a t i o n d i d not  t h e i r understanding of a s u c c e s s f u l  look  heavily  they d i d not  to t h e i r  were s i m p l y d i s c a r d e d . A s a r e s u l t , in  today  table".  e d u c a t i o n as a c o r e v a l u e i n t h e i r  text  i n r a i s i n g my  " E d u c a t i o n was i m p o r t a n t t o me o n l y  p u t b r e a d and b u t t e r  at  established  a home and f a m i l y ;  t e a c h anyone how t o f i s h ,  well  figure  person.  InJ^,,r^d.ujS±ijoD 0f_F^jaa.L..J.djyLSjUb.io.D. With the  f o u n d i n g of the  J e a n Methe, OMI, the the  impetus needed  An e l d e r of  remarked:  e d u c a t i o n as  "Their  h i g h s c h o o l i n 1939 b y F a t h e r  local parish priest,  to develop i n t o a f u l l - s c a l e  operation.  " I g u e s s we n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d  the  t h e n u n s and t h e p r i e s t s  rationale",  e d u c a t i o n one h a d ,  she a d d e d ,  life  were r e a l l y  understood  "seemed t o be t h a t  t h e b e t t e r j o b one c o u l d  money one c o u l d make and one c o u l d a better  education received  than at  present".  s u g g e s t i n g was t h a t  live,  meaning it".  the  have,  more  the  more  according to  What t h e p r i e s t s i f Metis people  and  them, nuns  became  61 educated,  t h e y w o u l d become l i k e  b e t t e r way o f l i f e Gradually,  than  other  t h e y d i d as  C a n a d i a n s and e n j o y  Metis.  many p a r e n t s t o o k t h e w o r d s o f t h e n u n s  priests  s e r i o u s l y and e n c o u r a g e d  school.  B u t , as a f o r m e r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t  s y s t e m d i d not work too w e l l a t Metis students attended a c t u a l l y graduated Over the  years,  the  l o c a l C o l l e g i a t e has s e e n  t o go t o s c h o o l as f a r will  find  university can".  So much s o t h a t  stated:  i n the  last  few  and g r a d u a t e .  We w i l l  years,  o f many M e t i s our c h i l d r e n them we  i f t h e y want t o go  to  b a c k them up as much as we  c o n c l u d e d : " I hope t h e y o u n g p e o p l e it  helps develop t h e i r  like  standard  get  mind,  h e l p i n g them g e t  make a l o t o f money and e n j o y a b e t t e r  a good of  t h a n we h a d " .  Thus,  e d u c a t i o n has become a v a l u e f o r many M e t i s  p e o p l e now l i v i n g w i t h i n  the  c a s h economy. E d u c a t i o n i s  by many M e t i s as a s t e p p i n g - s t o n e  an i m p o r t a n t  zation.  D.Bruce Sealy (1980:  As M e t i s e d u c a t o r ,  "To a g r e a t e x t e n t  education w i l l  a l l o w s Metis people to enter  seen  t o make money, as a way t o  a c h i e v e economic p r o g r e s s ,  said:  percentage  as t h e y want t o g o , we t e l l  e d u c a t i o n c a n be good f o r t h e m ,  living  "The  e v e n t h o u g h many  "We now e n c o u r a g e  t h e money i f n e c e s s a r y  A grandmother  remarked:  the g r a d u a t i o n  as much e d u c a t i o n as t h e y c a n ,  job,  first,  attend  e d u c a t i o n became a v a l u e f o r some o f  St.Laurent Metis.  As one p a r e n t  c h i l d r e n to  and  years".  the  youths.  their  h i g h s c h o o l , o n l y a low  over the  a  facet  be t h e  of moderni1-37) key  i n t o the mainstream of  has  that society  62 and o p e r a t e w i t h i n chosen complete inherent  it  as e q u a l s .  The M e t i s a s a g r o u p ,  integration despite  the  have  difficulties  in achieving i t " .  C o u r t s h i p and Marriage The c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e c u s t o m s o f t h e M e t i s have u n d e r g o n e We w i l l family  many c h a n g e s  look at ties  issues  s i n c e the  t u r n of the  century.  l i k e m o r a l i t y , s e c u l a r i z a t i o n and  as t h e y a f f e c t  marriage  and f a m i l y  life.  The r o m a n c e s o f many M e t i s c o u p l e s w o u l d s t a r t back t h e n ' , perhaps  as an e l d e r  stated,  when t h e y f i r s t  parents'  places.  gatherings  met  Often,  'way  way b a c k i n c h i l d h o o d d a y s ,  i n s c h o o l o r when v i s i t i n g  t h e y w o u l d a l s o meet  or community e v e n t s  One w o u l d c a t c h t h e  eye o f t h e  at  other  and t h e  parties.  relationship  I n some i n s t a n c e s ,  man and t h e woman were n o t a l l o w e d t o s p e a k t o e a c h They w o u l d t h e n w r i t e n o t e s .  about  each other  third  party.  crucial  An i n f o r m a n t  c o u p l e who s h a r e d  This lasted  their  hand o r  f o r about  " t o a s k a man f o r  "faire  s i x months.  l a d'mande",  h i s daughter  ex-  feelings  handed t o them t h r o u g h a  t i m e came f o r t h e y o u n g man t o a s k t h e  his daughter's  the  other.  r e c a l l e d the  and e x p r e s s e d  through l e t t e r s  their  house  l i k e p i c n i c s or card  w o u l d d e v e l o p and b l o s s o m f r o m t h e r e .  ample o f t h e  people  Then father  (Michif  in marriage"),  the for  French:  a custom  that  has p r a c t i c a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d .  Most c o u r t s h i p s d i d not  last  too l o n g .  have a c h a n c e t o go o u t  too  The c o u p l e d i d n o t  63 much as t h e y o f t e n  had a l i t t l e  a l o n g to chaperone  them.  brother  or s i s t e r  The p a r e n t s were u s u a l l y v e r y s t r i c t . related:  late,  go t o a d a n c e .  E v e n when I v i s i t e d  whether  I could not stay too  Informants "arranged"  her at  friends  her p l a c e  or  long". that  were  whose mate w o u l d be s e l e c t e d  and o f y o u r own C a t h o l i c f a i t h  Few m a r r i e d o u t s i d e r s a year after  to  at  Endogamy o r m a r r i a g e w i t h someone w i t h i n  own g r o u p o r v i l l a g e  within  i t was t o v i s i t  were n o t aware o f any m a r r i a g e s  by t h e p a r e n t s ,  the p a r e n t s .  rule.  respondent  " Y o u had t o be i n a c e r t a i n t i m e , o r e l s e . . . ! And  t h a t was n e v e r  night,  One  tagging  then.  they s t a r t e d  by  your  was  the  And t h e y u s u a l l y m a r r i e d their  courtship.  Older  p e o p l e a r e somewhat a p p a l l e d a t y o u n g p e o p l e t o d a y who go out t o g e t h e r observed,  f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e  "They even s t a y  unheard of i n our t i m e , against  together  the p r i e s t  s u c h b e h a v i o u r from t h e  Overall,  m a r r i a g e and as before  i n the past the M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t married  stated  that  some p e o p l e  early twenties.  rules.  married in their  late  An i n f o r m a n t teens  or s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d . Today, people marry a  stability  or  A few women s a i d t h e y m a r r i e d when t h e y  f o r economic reasons,  were  little  t h e y want some e c o n o m i c  before marrying.  Similarly, marital  loudly  pulpit".  a l t h o u g h t h e r e were no s p e c i f i c  older  m a r r i a g e ! T h a t was  would p r e a c h  young,  fifteen  one  t h e r e were no s p e c i f i c  residence.  r u l e s as t o  A c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t ,  post  i t was common  64 forty for  years  f o r newly-weds to stay w i t h e i t h e r  economic reasons or at  born. the  ago,  Many c o u p l e s ,  i d e a l post  of  in their  r e p l a c e d the  St.Laurent,  preferred  the  until  time,  considered t h i s  marital residence  modernization set gradually  at  least  today,  pattern  The p r i e s t  groom,  But,  the n u c l e a r  family.  Thus,  of post  marital  child  the  ring-bearer.  as family f o r the  has become  the  time f o r  the  b r i d e s m a i d s and,  sometimes,  In the  n o t e d an e l d e r ,  years,  t a s t e f u l l y decorated  after  the  i n the  a flower-girl  them. P a r e n t s ,  relatives  occasion.  the  bridal They would  and  people  friends  w o u l d p r e s e n t t h e new c o u p l e w i t h c o l o u r f u l l y - w r a p p e d g i f t s and o f f e r married  them t h e i r b e s t w i s h e s f o r a h e a l t h y and  happy  life.  Following  i s a d e s c r i p t i v e account  p r o v i d e d by a s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r Metis people celebrated  of a wedding  old informant.  a  church i n  f o r the  church ceremonies,  and  i t was q u i t e  e a r l y e v e n i n g t o a house where a l l t h e  w o u l d be w a i t i n g f o r  and  the  p a r t y m i g h t m o t o r t o W i n n i p e g t o be p h o t o g r a p h e d . return  local  ceremony  6 : 0 0 am and 4 : 0 0 pm. B e s i d e t h e b r i d e  horse-drawn buggies  the  residence.  t o w a t c h the b r i d a l p a r t y d e p a r t from the  In recent  Metis  conducted the marriage r i t u a l i n the  old days,  was  situation  the wedding p a r t y would u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of  bestmen,  sight  first  the n e o - l o c a l r e s i d e n c e  C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . Over the y e a r s , v a r i e d between  pattern..  lives,  extended  the  parents  feast  He s a i d  that  w e d d i n g s t h i s way f o r many y e a r s .  65 One c a n r e a d i l y s e n s e s o c i a l core value for Metis people "Weddings,  On t h e  in this  i n the p a s t ,  the M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t , days.  relations  first  w o u l d be huge c e l e b r a t i o n s f r o m one t o  w i l d meat,  home-made p a s t r i e s ,  c a k e s and p i e s .  The f a t h e r  would u s u a l l y serve  his choicest  meal, the  bride,  Finally, for  the  often  of the  would o f f e r  end o f  a toast  of the  the to  would g i v e  as t o how t o c a r e  j o y and l a u g h t e r  bride  anything  At the  u s u a l l y an e l d e r ,  instructions  much t o t h e  three  vegetables,  w i n e made from  an u n c l e ,  while another,  new groom p e r t i n e n t new b r i d e ,  roast  or p o t a t o e s to rhubarb.  one r e l a t i v e ,  for  t h e r e w o u l d be a b i g f e a s t . Women pork,  from c h o k e c h e r r i e s  a  account.  l a s t i n g anywhere  night,  would s e r v e m e a t - b a l l s ,  as b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d  the  for  his  guests.  someone w o u l d s i n g a few humorous s o n g s  appropriate  occasion".  A n o t h e r man, who p r o v i d e d m u s i c f o r some o f t h e s e w e d dings,  continues:  "By t h i s  time,  m e r r y mood and o u t w o u l d go t h e niture  t h a t w o u l d be i n t h e  t h e n be s e t  a l l around the  e v e r y o n e w o u l d be tables  humming w i t h o l d t i m e w a l t z e s ,  rose the  h e e l and t o e ,  furwould  l i v i n g - r o o m c l o s e to the w a l l  a c c o r d i o n and s p o o n s .  two-steps,  and any o t h e r  way o f d a n c i n g . The c h a i r s  i n w o u l d come t h e m u s i c i a n s w i t h t h e i r guitars,  in a  f i d d l e and bow,  I n no t i m e t h e p l a c e w o u l d fox-trots,  schottisches. the  be  waltz-quadrille,  A caller,  whose v o i c e  above a l l t h e  noise,  directed  ' d i p and d i v e '  to the  ' l i t t l e w i l d h a n d ' . Cheers  and  the  and  shouts of j o y would g r e e t  and  square-dancing  Red R i v e r j i g d a n c e r s  from  the  66  c o u p l e s who w o u l d l i n e up f o r  the  " L a d a n s e de C r o c h e t s ' ,  is  popular  as  it  dances would i n c l u d e the  handkerchief  dance,  mouchouaire,'  respectively.  c r o w d as one w o u l d o b s e r v e of the  planks.  w o u l d become u n b e a r a b l e ,  broom d a n c e and  the  By t h i s  the  moonshine.  Then, back  p'tit  et  beyond";  encore'.  je p ' t i t  for  their  .1'grand j o u r which r e f e r s immediately after The n e x t bridesmaids last  time t h i s  daybreak,  game o r w a t e r f o w l ;  people  house  people would  "jusqu'au  dawn and  u s u a l l y at when t h e their  the  Metis  home  or  as o p p o s e d  to  p e r i o d of the  would c e l e b r a t e  b e s t men.  a third night night  the  day  sunrise).  night,  and t h e  dancing  i n the  dancing  "until  time of day,  to the  floor  famous L a k e M a n i t o b a  h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s w o u l d l e a v e  camp i n s e a r c h  would  heat  continue  s h o r t l y before  old  or  de  c o m i n g up b e t w e e n  French:  . i o u r was t h e  b e g i n n i n g o f dawn, fishermen,  to  (Michif  the  to c o o l o f f ,  and s h a r e a d r i n k o f t h a t i n again  ' L a danse  s t e p s of the  a w h i l e , the  go o u t s i d e  jour  or  time,  to  and s o ,  dance  Other  some d u s t  After  of brandy'  known l o c a l l y .  " L a d a n s e de b a l a i '  w o u l d be t r e m b l i n g and s q u e a k i n g  cracks  "drops  was o v e r ,  r e a l l y n o t h i n g t o dampen  to  honour  I n some i n s t a n c e s ,  to cut  the  the  wedding cake.  another wedding c e l e b r a t i o n  jolly  of the  spirits.  wedding  By t h e  t h e r e w o u l d be many t i r e d their  the  feet  but  T h u s w o u l d end  Metis people  at  St.Laurent. B u t t h a t was n o t baby w i t h i n  the  first  a l l . If year,  the  new c o u p l e d i d n o t  p a r e n t s and o t h e r  have  relatives  a  and  6 7  the p r i e s t  would s t a r t  w o n d e r i n g what was w r o n g w i t h  and t h e y w o u l d d i s c r e e t l y g i v e them h i n t s natal that the  and b a b y c a r e .  and as t o  ignored i t  after  awhile. Contrary  o l d w a y s , y o u n g c o u p l e s nowadays s i m p l y do n o t interfere  effects  in t h e i r married l i f e .  o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n . Whereas,  encouraged influence  pre-  The y o u n g c o u p l e u s u a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d  kind of a d v i c e but  anyone  This  i s one o f the  c o u p l e s t o have many c h i l d r e n , t o d a y ,  the  c h u r c h i n t h a t a r e a s i m p l y does not  anymore.  It  i s the  c o u p l e who now s o l e l y d e t e r m i n e s  children  t h e y want t o  have.  to  let  i n the p a s t ,  of the  them  the  Church  exist how many  68  Table 2 (below) i l l u s t r a t e s  some o f t h e  changes  have o c c u r r e d i n t h e m a r r i a g e c u s t o m s and f a m i l y the M e t i s at informants.  S t . L a u r e n t d u r i n g the The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e  a n a l y s i s of the d a t a because  of t h e i r  frequencies  Xaa Morality  i n the  categories  data.  and  x x  x  x  and  Separations  x  Endogamy  x  x  x  x  x  Exogamy  x  x  Mixed M a r r i a g e s  x  x  x  x  Marriages  outside  the Church Large f a m i l i e s  x  Small f a m i l i e s Close family  ties  Loosened f a m i l y  ties  x x  x  x  x  x x  among  i s b a s e d on  Ha  x  Church i n f l u e n c e  life the  x  Open M o r a l i t y  Divorce  tables  and I have c h o s e n t h e s e  M a r r i a g e Customs  Strict  l i f e - s p a n of  that  x  x  the  69  The t a b l e  i n d i c a t e s how s e c u l a r i z a t i o n has t a k e n  in St.Laurent.  In the pre-1950 e r a ,  t h e r e were f i v e  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d m a r r i a g e c u s t o m s and f a m i l y morality,  church influence,  close family  ties.  endogamy,  Endogamy i s t h e  place  issues  life:  Strict  l a r g e f a m i l i e s and  o n l y marriage custom  that  has r e m a i n e d from t h e p r e - 1 9 5 0 e r a b u t p r a c t i s e d t o a much l e s s e r degree  today.  Whereas m o r a l i t y was s t r i c t  i n the  past  e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g t h e c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e c u s t o m s , morality  i s now more open and p e o p l e t o d a y a r e more  from t h e  s u p e r v i s i o n o f p a r e n t s and from t h e  t h e C h u r c h . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d one a s p e c t  the  free  i n f l u e n c e of  of the e f f e c t s  of  secularization. People c o n t i n u e to marry w i t h i n  the Church,  n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h someone o f t h e i r own f a i t h . is  less  years  a factor  ago.  predominant  A l o n g w i t h c o m p a t i b i l i t y , the w i l l  factor  i n the  new c u s t o m s have s u r f a c e d , family  faith forty  establish  seems t o have become a s e l e c t i o n o f a mate. f o r example,  r e p l a c e d the extended  family,  original  the  ties:  i t was  to  the  Furthermore,  s i z e of  has d i m i n i s h e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , t h e n u c l e a r  family  not  Religious  t o d a y f o r c h o o s i n g a mate t h a n  economic s e c u r i t y t o g e t h e r  but  the  family  causing a loosening of  i n f l u e n c e of m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  has  the  70  D e s p i t e the presence  o f v a l u e s s u c h as c l o s e  ties  and e c o n o m i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ,  live  as an a d u l t  drawbacks. garden",  farmer,  "some p e o p l e r e a l l y  t o h e l p them o u t .  a loaf,  shortening fifteen c o s t you f i f t e e n  "I  parts  butter cents  cents.  to share  thirty-five  a dozen,  cents  to help each other  can o f  A grandmother  lysol  Some f a m i l i e s  stayed they  other.  And t h e n t h e r e were t h e D e p r e s s i o n Y e a r s , f i s h e r m a n . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o t  closely  out t h a t  burden to each  into  remembers:  following  out o n l y to f i n d  had become more o f a f i n a n c i a l  retired  bread  A t home, an a p p l e was d i v i d e d  the p a t t e r n s from E a t o n ' s c a t a l o g u e " .  his  a pound,  a pound and a l i t t l e  with others".  and  I know a man who s o l d  sewed a l l my c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g t h e n ,  together  had a  t h e y w o u l d come t o us f o r money o r c l o t h i n g  cow f o r t e n d o l l a r s . E g g s were t w e n t y c e n t s  four  its  "We were l u c k y t o have cows and c h i c k e n s and a  we d i d o u r b e s t  seven cents  to  in St.Laurent.  e c o n o m i c s y s t e m was n o t w i t h o u t  recalls a retired  hard time,  i t was n o t a l w a y s e a s y  and t o b r i n g up a f a m i l y  The s u b s i s t e n c e  family  said a  t o o much money  was m o v i n g o r r o l l i n g ,  men w o u l d t r a v e l b y b o x - c a r s a l l o v e r  Western Canada to f i n d  w o r k , wages were l o w . You were  fussy took  as t o what k i n d o f a j o b y o u were o f f e r e d , i t because  that,  at  least,  assured  you  you o f a r o o f  not just over  y o u r head and o f t h r e e s q u a r e m e a l s a d a y . But t h e n ,  life  w a n t e d t o make i t  had a l s o i t s good s i d e s .  in l i f e ,  and many d i d s o ,  I f a couple t h e r e was  only  71 one way and t h a t was t o go o u t and w o r k . T h e r e were relief,  no w e l f a r e ,  allowance then. married, little  no unemployment  As one i n f o r m a n t  I started  r a i s i n g the  What t h i s  e c o n o m i c means,  a time,  to s t a r t  i n those days health  life  Obviously,  hand-outs  d i d not  transition the  The moment money came i n t o t h e  for  t h e week e i t h e r  p a r t s of the  fifty-two  values of h i s  still basic  time,  to the  w e l f a r e money,  figure  and a  land  relief  high in his  he was n o t g o i n g  aid  economic to  from a s u b s i s t e n c e  economy  community i n v a r i o u s ways. community, the p e o p l e  The men were o f t e n  away f r o m home,  t o work on v a r i o u s j o b s  e v e n gone f o r a few m o n t h s , thern  the  minds o f h i s c h i l d r e n .  t o a c a s h economy a f f e c t e d  it.  farm.  family-directed self-reliance  And he made s u r e t h a t  w a n t e d more o f  I  and t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o w o r k . I n many  environment.  the  had  My w i f e  i f he had some o f t h e  and t o t h e  Furthermore,  I  a l l o v e r a g a i n and w i t h  economy t h a t was h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d  i n c u l c a t e these i n the  the  and w o r k i n g on t h e  successful  priorities.  with  man i s s a y i n g i s t h a t one c o u l d  resourcefulness,  and g o v e r n m e n t  was  time I got m a r r i e d ,  family  he e p i t o m i z e s t h e M e t i s  namely,  "Before I  t o whom I have been m a r r i e d now f o r  a good l i f e  ways,  family  and a few cows and I w o r k e d h a r d .  And I w o u l d be w i l l i n g  years".  no  and a f i s h e r m a n f o r most o f my l i f e .  worked hard t o o ,  same w i f e  it,  one a t  money I was m a k i n g . By t h e  was a t r a p p e r  live  put  buying c a t t l e ,  a few h e a d s o f c a t t l e  insurance,  no  making a bonanza  province. This created  simply gone  i n Winnipeg or i n some  nor-  some c o n f l i c t  in  72 some f a m i l i e s . Family values  Traditional family  were o f t e n  pragmatic  and i n s t a n t l y e f f i c e n t ,  economic p r o g r e s s  relegated  bureaucracy.  of the  (1977:55) puts are of  and r e p l a c e d by what was  The a c c e s s often  a l l i n t h e name o f  to cash,  often  t r a d i t i o n a l family it:  "In today's  "works', rather  or j u s t i c e . rapid  pace  of pragmatic  i s geared  family the  As S p i n d l e r  urbanized society,  t h a n on t h e b a s i s  The a c c e l e r a t e d  and  o f m a k i n g money  occurred at  values.  i n c r e a s i n g l y made on t h e b a s i s what  unnamed  became f o r t h e M e t i s  number one p r i o r i t y and t h i s  expense  disrupted.  d i c t a t e d by some o u t s i d e ,  and o f e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s the  were  l i k e m u t u a l c o n s u l t a t i o n and m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s  together,  faceless  ties  decisions efficiency,  of e t h i c s , to  values  'progress'  and  achievement".  T.h.e„.Jtar__.yg..ajc:.a A few i n f o r m a n t s war y e a r s . fought of  a l s o shared  Metis veterans  their  experiences  were p r o u d t o s a y t h a t  S t . L a u r e n t fought  Highlanders,  i n b o t h W o r l d W a r s , some i n t h e  t h e W i n n i p e g G r e n a d i e r s and t h e  P a t r i c i a Canadian L i g h t Italy.  Infantry.  Some f o u g h t  Some were t a k e n as p r i s o n e r s  i n E u r o p e , and o t h e r s died  they  the had  as C a n a d i a n s i n t h e w a r . A good number o f M e t i s men  War. T h e y were members o f t h e W i n n i p e g R i f l e s ,  in  of  in action for  Q u e e n ' s Own Princess i n F r a n c e and  o f war b y t h e  by t h e J a p a n e s e i n Hong K o n g .  their  Korean  c o u n t r y . Others s u r v i v e d to  Germans Many tell  73  their  friends  about  the  atrocities  c o n d i t i o n s of the p r i s o n e r  o f war and t h e  o f war c o n c e n t r a t i o n  inhuman  camps.  Some men p r o u d l y d i s p l a y t h e m e d a l s t h e y had won f o r their talk  heroic acts about  the  in saving their  "tortures"  mention the p a r c e l t h e i r mittens,  socks,  they never recalled: alize  they s u f f e r e d family  cigarettes  " A t the  killed.  Some  but  A burly  which  veteran  you dont  re-  happening to y o u . E i t h e r you k i l l  only  later  camps.  and c h o c o l a t e b a r s , of.  to  sweaters,  t i m e o f war and f i g h t i n g ,  It's  home a few y e a r s  A l l refuse  i n the  s e n t them,  r e c e i v e d n o r even h e a r d  everything that's  you g e t  comrades.  i n peace  that  the  t i m e , when y o u ' r e  or  back  r e a l i t i e s o f war r e a l l y  hits  y o u and we become aware o f i t s u g l i n e s s and i t s  inhumanity  i n our n i g h t m a r e s " .  on one  thing:  A l l t h e war v e t e r a n s  t h e n e x t w o r l d war w o u l d d e s t r o y The war e x p e r i e n c e  " F o r most o f u s " ,  affected  experience.  F o r some,  out  country".  An army v e t e r a n  discipline of  of the  i n our  the d e p r e s s i o n .  lived,  t h a t we,  " j o i n i n g the  first  added:  "Army l i f e  especially after  made u s s e e  in St.Laurent,  how t h e  were n o t  let  put  you d i d not  background,  our vagabond rest  the  t h i n k t o o much o f y o u r  whether U k r a i n i a n ,  alone  the  a l o t of  of the  o n l y ones  a h a r d t i m e . And when we l i n e d up f o r combat w i t h soldiers,  forces  t i m e t h a t we  area or of the p r o v i n c e ,  lives, It  planet.  an e d u c a t i o n and a l e a r n i n g  i t was t h e  travelled  the  e a c h man d i f f e r e n t l y .  explained a veteran,  and g o i n g t o war was q u i t e  agreed  days world having  other  racial  F r e n c h , E n g l i s h o r M e t i s . You  74 were a C a n a d i a n f i r s t ,  and y o u f o u g h t  emblem on o u r u n i f o r m s a i d s o . up b e i n g a M e t i s n e v e r fighting Today,  I am p r o u d t o there  The l i f e  i n the  have f o u g h t  f o r Canada i n the  i n the city,  has p a s s e d  last  twenty y e a r s .  o n . They w i l l  Senior C i t i z e n ' s  it  live  live  Most o f t h e  much n o i s e  i n the  time,  alone or  c l o s e to t h e i r  social  it  life,  if  s e n i o r s who c h o s e  it:  the "I  a c t i v i t i e s and  here,  while there  own p r o b l e m s ,  too.  too  it particularly difficult  to  Widows and live  alone,  same p e r s o n  for 40-45 y e a r s .  i s hard to bear.  "The p a i n o f s e p a r a t i o n  But our spouses c o n t i n u e to  i n o u r memory, t h e y n e v e r seem t o they are  or-  is  as one s a i d , when y o u have been m a r r i e d t o  way,  en-  say  especially,  death  one  children  comes i n e v e r y d a y t o  is quiet  have  city".  S e n i o r s have t h e i r widowers f i n d  Some s e n i o r s  Home. As an i n f o r m a n t p u t  here because of the  object  i n the L a u r e n t i a n Lodge,  g a n i z e d o u t i n g s and t h e p r i e s t mass.  war".  has a l s o been t h e  e s p e c i a l l y i f they are  to remain i n S t . L a u r e n t  joy  giving  soldier.  b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h t h e m . Many o f t h e  local  issue of  came up when I was a s o l d i e r ,  as a s e n i o r c i t i z e n  many c h a n g e s  spouse  the  i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n b e i n g a M e t i s and a  Canadian for t h i s  retired  But then,  the  as a C a n a d i a n d i d n o t make me l e s s o f a M e t i s .  Obviously,  of  as a C a n a d i a n ,  always w i t h us.  due  live  l e a v e us c o m p l e t e l y ,  Nonetheless,  the  the to on in a  l o n e l i n e s s of  75 living  alone  admitted:  1B d i f f i c u l t " .  I have  start  t h i n k i n g of her  to  l e a r n t o c o o k and c l e a n h o u s e .  brooding deeply)  miss her  too  and f a l l s .  However, today  to a wheel c h a i r :  i n my c a r  is  Whenever  (Michif  and I go f o r  I  French  a ride,  share of i l l n e s s e s ,  I  it  is easier  t o see  accidents  the d o c t o r  husband  " I ' l l keep h i m h e r e w i t h me a t  years;  Ducharme f a m i l y  him, a f t e r  h e r e on o u r  land,  home  as  married  reunion of  300 p e o p l e  for  and  confined  a l l , w e ' v e been  i n 1 9 8 2 , we had a f a m i l y  the  three  days.  wonderful!"  Becoming a s e n i o r tionships  in St.Laurent  i n many w a y s .  choice of remaining at both s i t u a t i o n s , and c o m f o r t .  If  the  there  is  As a widow o r w i d o w e r ,  the  c h i l d r e n might  not n e c e s s a r i l y  stated:  on a n y o n e ;  self,  at  the  seniors  f r o m my r e l a t i v e s ! "  In other  be t o t a l l y s e p a r a t e d t o keep  to  " I f I can h e l p  same t i m e ,  live it,  from t h e i r  seniors  security want  on  they  their  I do n o t for  want my-  independent  do n o t want  c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y ,  i n t o u c h w i t h them t h r o u g h  In  Unless  independence  I a l s o want t o be words,  of  w i t h them.  prefer  I want r e l a t i v e  a  L a u r e n t i a n Lodge. values  t o depend  want  as a c o u p l e ,  rela-  the  own. As one s e n i o r  search  changes f a m i l y  for  are p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d ,  but  living  home o r a t  seniors  y o u t o move c l o s e b u t  still  "jongler'  One l a d y s p e a k s o f h e r  I can l o o k a f t e r  over f i f t y  was  I get  had t h e i r  obtain medication.  It  t o o much o r  years  much".  Many s e n i o r s  l o n g as  widower c a n d i d l y  " I ' m a l o n e now, my w i f e o f f o r t y - f o u r  gone.  for  An e l d e r  to  they  telephone  76 calls  and o c c a s i o n a l home v i s i t s .  n o t want t o be so c l o s e t o t h e i r all  the  On t h e  i n the  eyes of the  hand,  seniors,  as an e s s e n t i a l  them  on t h e m . independence  p e r c e i v e d n o t as a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o c o m m u n i t y l i f e interdependence  t h e y do  c h i l d r e n as t o be w i t h  t i m e and t o become d e p e n d e n t  Thus,  other  ingredient  is but  like  o f community  life.  Wake and The  Burial last  some o f t h e burial will  chapter  will  c u s t o m s and r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s  describe  as p e r c e i v e d by t h e M e t i s p e o p l e a t  of the people p a r t i c u l a r l y because  psychological social  functions.  On t h e  St.Laurent.  the  the  o l d stone  social  they p r o v i d e  f o r members o f  and  for the  the  c h u r c h b u r n e d down i n May, 1 9 6 1 ,  many l o c a l p e o p l e c a n s t i l l bell,  recall  v i v i d l y when t h e  s n u g l y lodged i n the  p o i n t i n g two h u n d r e d  feet  knell  of another  departed  elder  remembered  it  their  a c t i v i t i e s whether  church steeple,  huge finger-  skyward, would s o l e m n l y t o l l l o v e d one f r o m t h e v i l l a g e .  the One  t h i s way: " P e o p l e w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y s t o p i n the  house  a t t e n t i v e l y t o t h e number o f s t r o k e s : seven f o r  the  family.  Before  cast-iron  It  c o m m u n i t y , and on  f o r e m o t i o n a l c o m f o r t and s u p p o r t  bereaved  have i n  of t h e i r  one h a n d ,  c o h e s i o n and s o l i d a r i t y f o r  briefly  r e g a r d i n g wake and  show t h e d e e p s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e s e e v e n t s  lives  other  p o r t i o n of t h i s  or o u t s i d e  and  listen  n i n e f o r a man and  a woman. T h e y w o u l d a s k e a c h o t h e r  inquisitively  7 7  who c o u l d  it  be? I n a few h o u r s ,  t h e word w o u l d g e t  and s o o n e v e r y o n e w o u l d p r e p a r e f o r according to three  l o c a l M e t i s customs,  the  it  lasted  Normally,  three days  and  nights". A former midwife p r o v i d e d the  the  wake.  around  Metis people cared  and c l o t h e d t h e transformed  for  the body:  body o f t h e  i n a temporary  f o l l o w i n g account "Close friends  deceased. funeral  o f how  washed  The house w o u l d  home w i t h w h i t e  be  drapes  h a n g i n g on t h e w a l l s where t h e body w o u l d be p l a c e d .  They  would set  sheets  until of  t h e b o d y on p l a n k s and c o v e r  they would b r i n g i n the  the  body,  casket  a white covered t a b l e  i t with white  from the  a crucifix  and a d i s h o f h o l y w a t e r  branches  beside  In the  and n e i g h b o r s and t o o f f e r gas  their  ling  in front  clusters  People sat  of three or f o u r ,  come and g o ,  deceased  K e r o s e n e and  t h e m a i n a c t i v i t y was a person  lead the v i s i t o r s , q u i e t l y together,  coffee  some w o u l d s t a y  and s a n d w i c h e s . for  would s t a y p r a c t i c a l l y a l l n i g h t .  the  People  rosary while  knee-  also  men i n  and i f t h e y had t o s p e a k ,  s o i n low and h u s h e d v o i c e s . Once i n a w h i l e ,  w o u l d h e l p and s e r v e  friends  household".  E v e r y hour or s o ,  of the body, would  in prayer.  to the  to the bereaved.  l i g h t f o r the  rosary.  front  w i t h palm  relatives,  respect  by a r e s p o n d e n t ,  r e c i t i n g of the  kneeling,  did  condolences  lamps p r o v i d e d t h e As I was t o l d  the  early evening,  a r r i v e d t o pay t h e i r  In  s t o o d w i t h two b u r n i n g  candles,  it.  city.  they  neighbors would others  And t h e y w o u l d s t a r t  over  78 again the children  following stopped  On t h e bearers,  evening.  by t o p r a y  morning of the  A horse-drawn it  carriage  to church.  funeral,  she  c a r r y the  A democrat  p u l l e d by two h o r s e s .  in cutter,  people  w a l k i n g i n the  i n a devout  continued,  cabooses,  c a s k e t out  church,  s o n a l l y r e c a l l the h o u r and a h a l f .  wagons  the  hyms,  the  the  body was p l a c e d  or  to  season, buggies, the  body  funeral  on h i g h r o l l e r s  b l a c k and w h i t e p a l l .  The c h o i r w o u l d open w i t h t h e  seated  pall-bearers  front  relatives  The p r a y e r s o f c o m m e n d a t i o n  starting  of the  members t r i e d  to comfort  church following the  procession  the  knell  perlast  the  with  mass,  an  would occupy the  the  the  pews on one s i d e ,  while  other  and f a r e w e l l w o u l d s i g n a l  to the  each o t h e r ,  casket.  and  traditional  D i e s I r a e and f i n i s h  i n the  and t h e  I  Mass, which would u s u a l l y  K y r i e and t h e  remained  would t o l l  house.  open  w o u l d accompany  L±b^X.a_Jlei and t h e InJParjLdi^jyLBl^.. T h r o u g h o u t  side.  bou-  w o u l d be w a i t i n g  D e p e n d i n g on t h e  snow o r r a i n ,  pall-  of the  i s a four-wheeled  sleighs,  covered with a cross-shaped  the  the  procession.  In the  family  some s c h o o l  briefly.  s l e i g h or e x p r e s s democrat  people  latin  day,  w e a r i n g b l a c k arm b a n d s and b l a c k and w h i t e  t o n n i e r e s would c a r e f u l l y  carry  During the  cemetery. they  One l a s t  As f a m i l y  filed  time,  of the d e p a r t e d to the  the  out  of  church  entire  the bell  country-  side. At the  graveside,  b e a r e r s would set  the  an i n f o r m a n t  recalled,  the  pall-  c a s k e t on t h r e e b a r s l y i n g a c r o s s  the  79 open g r a v e . for  After  the  the deceased,  b l e s s i n g of the  the p a l l b e a r e r s  bars and,  u s i n g heavy r o p e s ,  lower the  casket  grave  and t h e  w o u l d remove t h e  from the  member o f t h e  family.  Members o f t h e would s t a r t  top of the  and hand i t  He w o u l d t h e n n a i l  family,  filling  casket  p e o p l e would remain at  the  grave.  In the  the g r a v e s i t e  until  over to  a  firmly.  bare  past,  ground.  the  box  u s i n g a s h o v e l or t h e i r  i n the  carefully  i n t o the  One o f t h e w o r k e r s w o u l d t h e n go down and remove crucifix  cross-  t h e y w o u l d s l o w l y and  in i t s double-box s i x feet  prayers  hands  most o f  the  t h e b u r i a l was  complete. Mourning would one y e a r  for  last  a brother  a year  and a h a l f  or s i s t e r .  f o r a spouse  During that  time,  w o u l d be no d a n c i n g , no l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c , no F a m i l y members and c l o s e r e l a t i v e s Today,  mourning customs  have a l l b u t d i s a p p e a r e d . mass i n t h e  language  h i s vestments victory  of  as t h e y were known i n t h e  said  exist  i n the  before  the  anymore.  now s a y i n g  has c h a n g e d  the  at  his  church or  funeral  service.  the  c o l o r of  Christ's  Resurrection.  in private  i n the  homes  funeral  in  St.Laurent  home,  the  of the  a  arrange-  i n the p a s t , , took sometimes  t h r e e d a y s t o d i g w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s ,  are  night  A funeral director driving  b o d y i s now i n c h a r g e  The g r a v e w h i c h ,  past,  T o d a y , wake s e r v i c e and p r a y e r s  local  hearse c a r r y i n g the ments.  priest,  of the p e o p l e ,  The c u s t o m o f wake v i g i l does not  wore b l a c k .  Even the  over death  there  gramophone.  f r o m b l a c k t o w h i t e as a s y m b o l o f  life  and  two o r  especially in  the  80 w i n t e r t i m e when t h e g r o u n d was f r o z e n , hour b e f o r e prayers  t h e mass w i t h a b a c k - h o e .  are o v e r ,  and r e f r e s h m e n t Religion  the  at  the  family local  i s now dug h a l f  After  the  It  and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s by w h i c h p e o p l e  control  the  their  c o n t r o l . As H a v i l a n d s a y s  gatherer peoples life.  religion  that  is a basic  try  i s otherwise  (1985:  lunch  consists  beliefs  of the u n i v e r s e  for  centre.  i s a p a r t of a l l c u l t u r e s .  area  graveside  i n v i t e s the people recreation  587),  of  to beyond  "Among  ingredient  of  As s o c i e t i e s become more c o m p l e x , r e l i g i o n  is  hunter-  everyday less  p a r t o f d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and t e n d s t o be r e s t r i c t e d special  an  a  to  occasions".  B a s e d on t h e above e v i d e n c e ,  w e d d i n g s and f u n e r a l s  have  a l w a y s r e m a i n e d two r e l i g i o u s e v e n t s t h a t had deep significance  f o r the people at  t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l social  s o l i d a r i t y and a r e  St.Laurent, functions.  m a i n l y because of They p r o v i d e  occasions for s o c i a l  for  relations  t h a t have a l w a y s been c o n s i d e r e d a c o r e v a l u e s o f t h e  Metis  way o f l i f e .  They a l s o p r o v i d e d c o m f o r t  that  supernatural  a i d was a v a i l a b l e i n t i m e s o f  i n the b e l i e f crisis.  Weddings were c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y a f a m i l y a f f a i r . ceremony a t  the  c h u r c h was and i s s t i l l  m o s t l y by i m m e d i a t e r e l a t i v e s c e p t i o n and d a n c e to a l l r e l a t i v e s both far  i n the  usually  however,  The  re-  a r e u s u a l l y open  and t o t h e many a c q u a i n t a n c e s  and n e a r .  attended  and by c l o s e f r i e n d s .  evening,  The  who come from  81 Funerals truly  at  St.Laurent  community e v e n t s .  have a l w a y s been  Former r e s i d e n t s  t r a v e l l i n g many m i l e s t o g e t background  of the  participates capacity.  deceased,  and t h e  all  the  residents  gathering provides the  at the  members  have been the  less  of the  racial  to  denominational  Furthermore,  reinforced  following  emotional comfort  bereaved  rituals,  than  often  community u s u a l l y  r a c i a l and  Recreation Centre  the  the  social burial  and s u p p o r t  Through these  s o c i a l bonds  for  weddings  of the M e t i s  e v e n t h o u g h somewhat  people  lessened  because  Religious rituals  l i v e s of a people  i n the  the  family.  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n .  i m p a c t on t h e  setting  cross  St.Laurent.  much n e e d e d  effects  Regardless  entire  is r e l i g i o n in action.  and f u n e r a l  attend,  c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t and s o l i d a r i t y among  at  of the  Ritual  of  the  the  will  be  church i s p r a c t i c a l l y always f u l l  Funeral services  l i n e s and r e i n f o r c e  there.  known t o  have  in a secularized  t r a d i t i o n a l context  of the  l i v e s of  a  people.  I n summary, describe covered  the the  courtship, sections,  the  purpose  experience  of t h i s  chapter  was,  the  senior  and f a m i l y  life.  y e a r s and t h e  Our a n a l y s i s b r o u g h t and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n were  to  o f g r o w i n g up i n S t . L a u r e n t . We  e a r l y y e a r s f r o m b i r t h and c h i l h o o d marriage  in part  to  We ended w i t h two  wake and f u n e r a l  customs.  us t o e x a m i n e how m o d e r n i z a t i o n  instrumental  in effecting  change i n  82 the f a m i l y  life,  e d u c a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m s o f  the  Metis. In the p r o c e s s , some o f t h e c u l t u r a l  t h i s chapter  identify  then,  accor-  and now, a c c o r d i n g t o  p e r c e p t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , a t t e m p t s were made  d e t e r m i n e w h i c h components are The c a t e g o r i e s because  out to  elements of Metis people,  d i n g to the e l d e r s p o i n t of view, youths'  also set  "surface'  i n the d a t a .  what c o n s t i t u t e M e t i s n e s s .  The t a b l e  to  value.  i n t a b l e 3 ( p a g e 8 3 ) were c h o s e n  of t h e i r frequencies  illustrate  " c o r e ' or of  the  will  83  Tabled  Abr: C: core Value; S_L s u r f a c e value  VjLLiiejs  C  Close f a m i l y t i e s  x  Close k i n t i e s  x  Education  £  Q  St  x  x x  x  x  x  Resourcefulness  x  x  Independence  x  x  x  Environment  x  x  x  Community-minded  x  x  x  Dependence on  Cash/Money  x  x  Rigorous Morals  x  x  Church p r a c t i c e s  x  x  Social relations  x  x  84  The t a b l e drastic  shows t h a t M e t i s n e s s has u n d e r g o n e  changes  transition  in recent  years,  from a s u b s i s t e n c e  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  namely i n terms  some of  t o a c a s h economy,  church,  from a s t r i c t  more open m o r a l i t y and i n e d u c a t i o n .  their  m o r a l i t y to a  The i m p a c t o f  m o d e r n i z a t i o n and o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n c o m p e l l e d some people to drop c e r t a i n v a l u e s ,  the  retain  others  Metis  and a d o p t  new  ones. In g e n e r a l , values:  Metisness for  close family  independence, mindedness,  and k i n t i e s ,  dependence  The o n l y v a l u e t h a t of the  relations.  This  w e d d i n g s and Of t h e of  them,  i m p l i e d many c o r e  resourcefulness,  and s o c i a l  community-  relations.  The  o r d r o p p e d some o f  some new  'core'  i s that of t h e i r  i s m a i n l y because  social  throughout  the  social  relations  by c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s  such  have  as  funerals. values that  elders  resourcefulness,  c o n s i d e r e d as  "core',  v a l u e s by t o d a y s '  We n o t i c e t h a t  are  youth.  M o d e r n i z a t i o n and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n have c o m p e l l e d t h e to drop these  three  m o r a l i t y and C h u r c h p r a c t i s e s  now l o o k e d upon as s u r f a c e  generation  these  ones.  has r e m a i n e d  informants  been c o n s t a n t l y n u r t u r e d  elders  environment,  have r e t a i n e d  v a l u e s and have a d o p t e d  life-span  on t h e  Church p r a c t i c e s  younger g e n e r a t i o n  the  younger  values.  there are  five  and y o u t h c o n s i d e r e d as c o r e a t  values that both  one t i m e ,  elders  close family  ties,  85 close kin ties,  independence,  community-mindedness. these values  as  Education It the  Today, however,  on e n v i r o n m e n t  young p e o p l e  elders  considered  younger g e n e r a t i o n .  while for value.  Finally,  between  the  young p e o p l e ,  two g r o u p s g o e s t o  cash/money  Obviously this difference  area  of Metis  life  i n recent  years:  subsistence  to a cash  economy.  B a s e d on t h e constitutive  only value that values  have r e m a i n e d  independence,  fulness  once c o n s i d e r e d  surface  values  for  has become a  core  the  economy  from  following  social  is  are  values  are  over the y e a r s .  church p r a c t i c e s  the Other  communityand  resource-  now c o n s t i t u t e  the m a j o r i t y of the  most  a  relations  and k i n t i e s ,  core values,  the  have o c c u r r e d t h e  the  'core'  is  value,  transition  above e v i d e n c e ,  s u c h as c l o s e f a m i l y  mindedness,  the  of Metisness today:  v a l u e by  a surface  indicates  where c h a n g e s  drastically  surface.  t h e v a l u e where t h e r e  E l d e r s c o n s i d e r e d cash/money  the  label a l l  as  i s now l o o k e d upon as b o t h a c o r e and s u r f a c e  cash/money.  and  surface. i s a value that  most d i f f e r e n c e  the  dependence  Metis today.  the The  i m p a c t o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n has c o m p e l l e d them t o change in St.Laurent values  their  life-style,  i s no l o n g e r what  of Metisness are  the p r o c e s s ,  not  it  was i n t h e  Metisness  past.  a s s t r o n g as t h e y u s e  with their  Does t h i s mean t h e  The  In  some  Metis heritage  end o f M e t i s n e s s o r  core  to be.  many y o u n g M e t i s have become C a n a d i a n ,  w i t h no a p p a r e n t a f f i l i a t i o n traditions.  so much so t h a t  the  and  86 break-up  of the  at  not  least  for  M e t i s community at the  immediate  however t h a t M e t i s n e s s h e r e i s , affected  in its  roots.  S t . L a u r e n t ? Perhaps  future.  It  does  i n some w a y s ,  signal severely  not,  87  M.aj£jing_a_j^  The l a s t  chapter  showed us t h a t many M e t i s  traditional  v a l u e s have been a b s o r b e d b y m o d e r n i z a t i o n and s e c u l a r i zation  and t h a t  those  being expressed  values that  have been r e t a i n e d  d i f f e r e n t l y today.  We a l s o n o t e d  many p e o p l e g r o w i n g up i n S t . L a u r e n t t h i s easy e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e f o r o t h e r s they  l i v e d d e p e n d i n g on t h e The p r e s e n t  chapter  life  point  of l i v e l i h o o d  sources  at  I want t o d e s c r i b e  over the years  as  environment.  St.Laurent.  the  ways  I want  At the  the v a r i o u s j o b s p e o p l e worked  and how t h e p e o p l e t h e r e  to  o f b o t h men and  women from a t r a d i t i o n a l and modern p e r s p e c t i v e . time,  an  long  i s an a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e living  for  had n o t been  of the  t h e M e t i s p e o p l e make t h e i r out the major  that  was good as  resources  are  same at  adapted  economically.  DJ.yJ.§-ioji...M.„lAbjQ.r I n a g e n e r a l way, t h e r e was a c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n l a b o r b e t w e e n M e t i s men and women a t carried  out the  providers,  b u l k of the  and t h e s e  S t . L a u r e n t . The men  heavier p h y s i c a l jobs  included hunting,  f a r m i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . On t h e  of  other  fishing, hand,  as  trapping,  t h e women d i d  88 all  the  domestic  clothes  jobs  of cooking, c l e a n i n g ,  and r a i s i n g t h e  family.  b o t h men and women t e n d e d t h e absence of her help, cut  husband  and  women w o u l d a l s o  gardens.  i f the  as a r e s p o n d e n t t o l d me,  no r u n n i n g w a t e r ,  however,  In a d d i t i o n ,  some o f t h e  i n the  that  springtime,  washing  in  the  c h i l d r e n were t o o s m a l l  look after  and chop wood and h a u l  plumbing,  In the  sewing,  farm  w a t e r . One must  chores, remember,  t h e r e was no e l e c t r i c i t y ,  no t e l e p h o n e and no  to  no  television,  then. Few women were informant the  t o l d me,  farm at  either  i n v o l v e d i n heavy work, but t h e r e were  summer.  known t o  on t h e  due  to  fish  the  barn,  As a r u l e , lake  extreme c o l d  p r o b a b l y be i n t h e trip  would l a s t  and t h e  fish  This is  here.  If  been  probably  conditions.  one o b s e r v e s a  lake today,  it  would  of a heated bombardier  that  and  M e t i s women have n o t  harsh working  on t h e  comfort  only for  m i l k i n g cows  in wintertime.  A g a i n t h e r e c o u l d be e x c e p t i o n s M e t i s woman g o i n g t o  one  some who r e g u l a r l y w o r k e d on  c l e a n i n g the  h a y i n g i n the  as  and  the  day.  The work o f M e t i s Women In the  v i l l a g e , f o r many y e a r s ,  M e t i s women was done i n and a r o u n d had p a y i n g j o b s beaches.  Most o f the  shing floors, ting.  worked f o r  An e l d e r  most  their  of the  work o f  own home.  cottage-owners at  the  work i n v o l v e d h o u s e c l e a n i n g ,  window c l e a n i n g , informant  said:  washing c l o t h e s "See my h a n d s ,  T h o s e who local from wa-  t o baby they  the  are  sitnot  89 smooth,  they are  and t h a t life". or at  r o u g h - l o o k i n g , but at  i s because  I have k e p t  least  the  their  convent  s c h o o l , a g a i n f o r h o u s e c l e a n i n g even though  w o r k e d as c l e r k s a t C o u t u owned t h e  the  local  in their  stores.  h o t e l f o r many y e a r s m a i d s and  A c c o r d i n g t o one i n f o r m a n t ,  than n o t h i n g " ,  you d i d n o t  i n those days,  or mother's  a l l o w a n c e " . Another respondent  she  have f a m i l y  on a w e e k l y b a s i s  how t o sew and mend  in  r e l y on them  "especially  together  and e m p l o y e d  most o f t h e s e j o b s  " B u t i t was b e t t e r  women w o u l d g e t  Alexandre  dishwashers.  were t e m p o r a r y and one c o u l d n o t  make a l i v i n g ,  some  huge k i t c h e n . Some a l s o  local general  M e t i s women as w a i t r e s s e s ,  village  clean  them i n w a t e r most o f my  A few women a l s o w o r k e d f o r t h e nuns a t  w o r k e d as c o o k s and b a k e r s  other  they are  related  the to  added,  allowance how some  and t e a c h  each  clothes.  One i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b e d h e r d a y w h i l e h e r h u s b a n d away w o r k i n g i n t h e morning,  do t h e  make b u t t e r , see  city.  chores,  She w o u l d g e t  wake up t h e  housework w h i c h c o n s i s t e d  hand.  family's  5:30  every  m i l k 2 or 3 cows, s e p a r a t e the c h i l d r e n , feed  them o f f t o s c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e d a y ,  d a i l y and t h e  up a t  them b r e a k f a s t she w o u l d do  i n washing the b a b y ' s  clothes  every second day,  was  milk, and  her  clothes a l l by  " T h e r e w o u l d a l w a y s be t h e m e n d i n g and s e w i n g o f  clothes", batches  she a d d e d ,  "but  the  r e a l t h i n g was t o b a k e  of twenty or t w e n t y - f i v e ,  once o r t w i c e a week,  a l o n g w i t h t h e b a n n o c k and o t h e r  pastries,  a l s o had t o f i n d  the  time to prepare  bread,  i n between,  family meals;  I  by n i g h t  90 time,  the  sooner the  c h i l d r e n were i n b e d ,  the  sooner  I  w o u l d have some t i m e t o m y s e l f " . As a r e s u l t ,  many M e t i s women were e a g e r  S a t u r d a y come as t h e y knew t h e y c o u l d of  e i g h t d e s c r i b e d how she f e l t  " H a p p i n e s s t o me meant family of  at  t o be c o m f o r t a b l y s e t t l e d  permeates the kerosene see.  lamp on t h e  they take stove  turns  i n the  cold  and c l e a n l i n e s s the  c u p b o a r d s h e d enough l i g h t  to  for a l l  and e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s  as  b a t h i n g i n a tub beside the p o t - b e l l i e d f o r b e d . My h u s b a n d  t h e m i n k s and w e a s e l s he c a u g h t  The f i r e  w i t h my  h o u s e h o l d . The f l u t t e r i n g f l a m e o f  are p l a y f u l  as t h e y p r e p a r e  carefully  week:  f l o o r s s c r u b b e d and  an aroma o f f r e s h n e s s  entire  The c h i l d r e n  the  A mother  end o f t h e  i n t h e o l d l o g - h o u s e on a S a t u r d a y n i g h t  c l o t h e s washed,  see  relax then.  the  t h e w i n t e r . The c h o r e s a r e d o n e ,  the  to  hangs t h e  furs  earlier  i s busy  skinning  i n t h e d a y and he  on r a c k s t o d r y b e h i n d t h e  stove.  c r a c k l e s i n my k i t c h e n - s t o v e as I b a k e b a n n o c k and  p i e s f o r the a blizzard  Sunday m e a l . O u t s i d e ,  i s b r e w i n g , the  i n the  snow s t a r t s  cold winter  to f a l l  night,  carelessly  and t h e w i n d h o w l s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a s t h e d o g b a r k s away some d i s t a n t peacefully  object.  f o r the  B a s e d on t h e much  the  Locally,  limited  a light  snack,  the  family  retires  night". above,  resourcefulness  family.  After  at  M e t i s women, i n t h e p a s t ,  showed  i n t h e i r w o r k and d e d i c a t i o n t o  they survived  e c o n o m i c means t h a t  their  t h e b e s t ways t h e y c o u l d they  had.  with  Most women who l o o k e d f o r p e r m a n e n t outside would  the v i l l a g e .  l e a v e home t o  most common j o b s ,  at  l o o k f o r work i n W i n n i p e g . the  Among  t i m e , were w a i t r e s s e s  c h a n c e t o go t o h i g h s c h o o l ,  j o b s s u c h as c l e r k s , t y p i s t s , work f i v e  d a y s a week i n t h e  the  h o u s e m a i d s and b a b y -  stores.  with  F o r t h o s e who had  t h e r e were u s u a l l y  or s e c r e t a r i e s . city  many  in  i n p r i v a t e homes, m a n u a l and l a b o r j o b s  m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m s and d e p a r t m e n t the  jobs  As s o o n as t h e y were o l d e n o u g h ,  r e s t a u r a n t s or f o r c a t e r i n g s e r v i c e s , sitting  work had  other  They would  and many r e t u r n e d  home by  bus e v e r y w e e k - e n d . O t h e r s w o u l d move p e r m a n e n t l y t o t h e mainly,  an i n f o r m a n t s t a t e d ,  economic f u t u r e  for themselves  seeking paying jobs outside of  the  "because  city  or  elsewhere,  they d i d not  i n the v i l l a g e " .  see  any  Thus,  t h e v i l l a g e marked t h e b e g i n n i n g  t r a n s i t i o n from a s u b s i s t e n c e  economy t o a c a s h  economy f o r many M e t i s women o f S t . L a u r e n t .  HojjejDL^  Today,  a c c o r d i n g t o some women, t h i n g s have  i m p r o v e d a l o t . One i n f o r m a n t s a i d : n o t much b e t t e r them h e r e ,  not  "Nowadays, l i f e  here  f o r t h e women, t h e r e a r e no j o b s t o  keep  is  most o f them l e a v e and go t o work i n W i n n i p e g o r  they c o l l e c t  Unemployment I n s u r a n c e ,  i n t h i s d a y and a g e ,  it  some women s t i l l  to day". Another respondent  stated:  is a disgrace  have t o  live  that  from d a y  " T h e r e a r e no j o b s  nor  92 any i n d u s t r i e s fifteen  h e r e f o r women; a t  on s t a f f ,  all  an e d u c a t i o n move t o t h e  i s a b s o l u t e l y no work t o keep them On t h e  true.  other  hand,  One i n f o r m a n t  some women w i l l explained i t  do s t a y  h e r e and make a d e c e n t  started  a business  on t h e i r  while others  city  as  here". say t h a t  that  some have  own and a r e  have  there;  is  not  t h i s way: "Some women  living,  Some have become s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , hairdressers  about  and o n l y two l o c a l M e t i s women w o r k  most y o u n g p e o p l e who g e t there  s c h o o l , there are  store  even  s u c c e s s f u l at owners,  it".  and  i n i t i a t e d a day-care  centre  and a women's c l o t h i n g b o u t i q u e and one c o n d u c t s a D r i v e r ' s E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m . T h e r e was a t i m e when most o f t h e  stores  and b u s i n e s s e s  "but,  that  i s not In  so t o d a y " ,  i n S t . L a u r e n t . The women w o r k e d i n an  and p r o d u c e d a l l - s e a s o n s  jackets  who w o r k e d t h e r e t h r o u g h o u t  operation  said that  St.Laurent.  family  informant.  e m p l o y i n g as many a s  informant  of  by n o n - M e t i s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o one  1966, a c l o t h i n g f i r m ,  women, opened line  were owned and o p e r a t e d  "It  assembly  f o r men and women. One the  entire  t h e j o b s t h e r e were good f o r was a r e g u l a r  thirty  years the  of  economy  s o u r c e o f income f o r  the  and u n d e r good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Some women w o u l d  cut out assemble together.  the p i e c e s of the them,  cloth material,  while others  would  y e t w o u l d sew them arid p u t  Some w o r k e d b y hand b u t  sewing-machine.  others  them  the m a j o r i t y worked at  We w o r k e d f o r t y h o u r s a week,  two t h i r d s o f  t h e women w o r k i n g t h e r e were M e t i s from S t . L a u r e n t , was a l o c a l M e t i s man who u n d e r s t o o d  the  his job very  our  well.  boss  93 Then,  i n 1 9 8 0 , we were i n f o r m e d b y t h e  g o i n g t o c l o s e down, and t h e  Some o f u s ,  w h e t h e r we were t o l d t h e r e was a change the  the  the j a c k e t s  to t h i s day, truth  are  or not,  o f government  at  was  that  t h a t we still  wondering  a l l I know i s  the p r o v i n c i a l  that  level  at  time". The  above i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t  opportunities St.Laurent.  created  Nonetheless,  new j o b s  for  the development  manufacture  it  g i v e n the  of the  in their  local  also  and,  on o u t s i d e  policies  as a n y b o d y e l s e  and, equally.  local  e n v i r o n m e n t and  resources,  they  adopt  can  j o b s t a k e n away from them and t h e y  to say about  when p e o p l e a r e n o t  contributed  t h e p o i n t t h a t when p e o p l e  a c a s h economy d e p e n d e n t  little  have  t h e y can c o n t r i b u t e  on t h e  very  thus,  economy. The c l o t h i n g  j o b s as w e l l  i t underlines  t o have t h e i r  will-  some M e t i s women have  g i v e up an economy b a s e d  expect  in  i n d i c a t e s t h a t M e t i s women c a n  economic o p p o r t u n i t y ,  Furthermore,  limited  has been shown t h a t w i t h  themselves  experience  be p e r s i s t e n t  t h e r e were  f o r M e t i s women t o make a l i v i n g  power and a s e n s e o f i n i t i a t i v e ,  to  it  r e a s o n g i v e n t o u s was  t h e r e was n o t e n o u g h m a r k e t f o r manufactured.  company t h a t  it.  Specifically,  i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r  t h e s e same means c a n be swept  i t shows  that  e c o n o m i c means from u n d e r  have  at  and  any  moment. Following then, strate  are  examples which w i l l  how t h r e e M e t i s women, among o t h e r s ,  create jobs for  themselves  i n the  context  serve  to  were a b l e  of the  illuto  modern  eco-  94 nomy. The f i r s t  informant  teacher at  the  interested  i n t e a c h i n g at  after  l o c a l C o l l e g i a t e . She t o l d  at  the  accepted.  It  practical  St.Laurent.  w i t h a p r a c t i c u m both at  w i t h the  full  year  and l a t e r  subject  expression  oil  pastel,  at  concerned d r a m a and  St.Laurent  art,  in  "I  1978,  learned  I t h i n k I would  f l o w e r arrangement,  was  have and  B u t my f a v o r i t e  because i t  through such t h i n g s  art  Manitoba.  I a l s o taught grade four  g r a d e s e v e n and e i g h t .  has a l w a y s been  and  was c h a l l e n g i n g , as t h e r e  w i t h them.  an o f f i c e j o b .  she  there  some  Rivers,  g r a d e o n e s and t e a c h i n g a l l s u b j e c t s .  been b o r e d a t five  and a t  o f t e a c h i n g was a t  to d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n . I t  Then  and  was  s u c h as s c i e n c e ,  St.Laurent  always something d i f f e r e n t  of  she c o n t i n u e s ,  courses  married  she s a i d . F i r s t ,  St.Ambroise, St.Eustache  The s e c o n d y e a r ,  became  teaching.  s u c h as r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ,  more w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l  first  me s h e  is a  B r a n d o n U n i v e r s i t y and was  was a t w o - y e a r p r o g r a m ,  t e a c h i n g at  o l d and  She g o t  substitute  Impact Program at  were s t u d y s k i l l s  how  an e a r l y a g e .  h i g h s c h o o l and s t a r t e d  applied  Her  i s t h i r t y - f i v e years  allows for  as c e r a m i c s ,  d r a w i n g and  freedom  o i l painting,  picture-  framing" . In  general,  students  liked  t h e y c a n be more c r e a t i v e " . ceramics: like  "Some o f t h e  a baking oven,  We s t a r t  mold.  to stay  has  She d e s c r i b e d  t o o l s we need a r e  cleaning tools,  and b r u s h e s . It  ceramics best:  w i t h the at  least  "They f e e l  the p r o c e s s the molds,  b u f f i n g pads,  liquid a week,  a  kiln,  sponges  c l a y and p o u r t h e n we t a k e  of  it the  in a art  95 mold,  clean i t  and p u t  morning,  it  students  l e a r n about  for  in a kiln  i s ready to p a i n t .  example, the  processes  it  t o bake o v e r n i g h t .  At the  same t i m e ,  the v o c a b u l a r y i n v o l v e d  types of p a i n t s ,  different  from t h e p o u r i n g t o t h e  finished  Next  the  i n the  process,  molding p r o d u c t and  that  c a n be a n y t h i n g from a cup t o a v a s e " . When I a s k e d h e r what g o t h e r first  place,  my m o t h e r ,  she r e p l i e d :  Alice  interested  in arts  "When I was g r o w i n g u p ,  R o u l e t t e , was v e r y good a t m a k i n g q u i l t s that  e v e n made h e r own f l o w e r  for  b o u q u e t and a r r a n g e m e n t  w e d d i n g d a y i n 1 9 3 7 , my Dad has a p i c t u r e o f t h a t . i n a r t s comes from  What a b o u t experience,  the  I feel  a r e now i n s c h o o l ,  future?  I  she her guess  her".  I asked.  " B e c a u s e o f my p r e s e n t  t h e need f o r more s t u d y . My own c h i l d r e n so I have some t i m e t o m y s e l f . I t a k e  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e s from the U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , i n Human g e o g r a p h y and t h e concluded with: for  students  special  other  "I would l i k e  in Psychology.  t o go i n t o s p e c i a l  who have l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s  she became i n t e r e s t e d  one  She Education  and who r e q u i r e  She i n f o r m e d me t h a t  i n h a i r d r e s s i n g as a g i r l  w h i l e e x p e r i m e n t i n g on h e r y o u n g e r s i s t e r s p i c t u r e s taken at  she a t t e n d e d College  two  attention".  Another example i s a h a i r d r e s s e r .  their  the  I noticed  and r u g s w i t h o l d r a g s and s t o c k i n g s . I was t o l d  my i n t e r e s t  in  school.  After  a t e n month c o u r s e a t  i n Winnipeg.  "The f i r s t  at  home  who had t o  she f i n i s h e d  Red R i v e r  have  school,  Community  month", she r e c a l l s ,  "was  96 all  about  human b i o l o g y :  m u s c l e s and r e l a t e d  nails,  head,  i l l n e s s e s . After  texture that,  of h a i r ,  skin,  we w o r k e d on  mannequins e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h f i n g e r waves, p i n c u r l s , ringlets, start  s e t s and perm r o d s .  t h r e e months,  we do w e l l , licence  we g e t  by t h e o r y and p r a c t i c u m exams.  If  from t h e g o v e r n m e n t and w o r k i n a S a l o n " .  years.  rience.  1,400  a d i p l o m a w i t h w h i c h we c a n o b t a i n a  Her f i r s t j o b was a t  the Bay i n W i n n i p e g ,  Then on t o E a t o n ' s  and t e l e v i s i o n  f o r one and a  i n Edmonton f o r more  " T h i s was a v e r y good j o b " ,  demonstrations  she s a i d ,  "it  expe-  included  c o m m e r c i a l s , I was e v e n  t o C h i c a g o f o r an a d v a n c e d h a i r d r e s s i n g c o u r s e . years  do we  w o r k i n g w i t h r e a l p e o p l e . T h e r e i s a minimum o f  hours of s c h o o l f o l l o w e d  half  Only after  sent  I spent  four  i n E d m o n t o n " . Then I a s k e d h e r what made h e r come t o  work and s e t t l e  in St.Laurent,  game h e r e " ,  she s a i d ,  t h e y needed  a hairdresser  change o f s c e n e r y  " I remember a t t e n d i n g a b i n g o  " I o b s e r v e d t h e p e o p l e and I c o n c l u d e d here and,  i n my l i f e .  besides,  I needed  a  The l o c a l p e o p l e were v e r y  r e c e p t i v e and e n c o u r a g i n g " . I had t o a d m i t t o t h i s b r i g h t and i n t e l l i g e n t l a d y t h a t I was n o t t o o k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n m a t t e r s o f c u t t i n g h a i r , a s k e d h e r what a r e  some o f t h e b a s i c t h i n g s one has t o know  t o be a h a i r d r e s s e r . how t o c u t h a i r , has  t o know t h a t .  specialize scalp  so I  it  "Well",  she s t a r t e d ,  seems r a t h e r  That  "one h a s t o know  o b v i o u s , but  i s my s p e c i a l t y , o t h e r s  i n perms o r i n h a i r d y i n g ;  i s a l s o b a s i c . And t h e n ,  it  a  hairdresser can  t o know how t o  i s not j u s t  judge  a q u e s t i o n of  97  c u t t i n g one's  hair,  p e r s o n a l i t y of the his/her  age,  the  individual,  way o f l i f e  c u t must be d e s i g n e d suggestions their  to s u i t  appropriate  shape o f t h e i r  w h i l e the "I  rest  work-load  here,  the  their  Other people are  same h a i r - d o f o r t h e  three q u a l i f i e d  offer  color  hair  of  style face  simply in a last  now",  ten  years  she  hairdressers  reluctant  here,  come f r o m a f o r t y ,  50% a r e women, 50% a r e men. When I  men were somewhat  I  the  changed"!  i s h e a v y . Our c u s t o m e r s  mile radius,  words,  Sometimes,  t o them t h a t  o f t h e i r body has  "We a r e  dresses,  In other  o f h a i r dye t o s u i t  have been h e r e f o r e l e v e n y e a r s ,  continued,  the  b a s e d on t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e i r  head.  T h e y have had t h e  way t h e p e r s o n  the person.  eyes or I can p o i n t out  or the  the  has t o s u i t  and p r o f e s s i o n .  s u c h as a c o l o r  i s not q u i t e  rut.  type of h a i r c u t  our fifty  arrived  and s h y t o have  their  h a i r c u t done b y a woman. T o d a y , t h e y a s k u s t o g i v e them perms. " I was a l s o community l e v e l . charge  involved  i n some e v e n t s  For example,  the  a c o m m i t t e e a s k e d me t o be i n  of the Miss S t . L a u r e n t Pageant  expression  here at  promoting  talent  and a f a s h i o n show. I e n j o y a r r a n g i n g h a i r  make-up and c l o t h i n g f o r y o u n g p e o p l e . show c a l l e d C _ e j a £ u r x . . ^  One y e a r ,  we had a  Some p e o p l e a l s o come  a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g an u p c o m i n g w e d d i n g i n t h e i r  do's,  family,  for about  h a i r - d o and c l o t h i n g . Someday, I w o u l d l i k e  t o be a c l o t h i n g  designer.  i n a Fantasy  I was a l s o  invited  to p a r t i c i p a t e  P r o g r a m on F u t u r i s t i c Ways o f H a i r  S t y l e s i n W i n n i p e g . And  98 then,  the  M a n i t o b a G o v e r n m e n t made a 5 - m i n u t e  w o r k h e r e as p a r t Then she psychiatrist, conclude, work",  o f C a r e e r Week f o r M a n i t o b a H i g h S c h o o l s " .  added:  said.  and t o f i n d  "Sometimes  we have t o  I asked  she  out  m o v i e on my  l i s t e n to p e o p l e ' s  t o what she "It  was a l s o  how t h e  return  here.  wanted  t o change the  a hairdresser  rest  I d i d n o t want  attributed important of the  like  a  problems".  her to  is  To  success,  leave  "Hard  St.Laurent  world  lives,  and  to change the  people  here,  way t h e y  l o o k e d and I t h i n k I  then but  I  have  succeeded". The l a s t Centre  Inc.  example  i n v o l v e s the  The i n f o r m a n t  t o l d me t h a t b a c k i n 1969  were g r a n t s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the  St.Boniface-based  was p a s s e d  stating  S t . L a u r e n t C o - o p Day C a r e  the  Union N a t i o n a l e M e t i s s e ,  French Metis organization.  the  need o f a c o - o r d i n a t o r  for  an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m .  got  the  job.  "In  1970-71",  school b u i l d i n g for P e o p l e were  We s t a r t e d  the  the  up t o t e n  "we u s e d  Summer J o b s 7:00  the  old six.  the  We o p e r a t e d  the  parents  four days  a  a day.  drawing,  music, puzzles,  periods,  snacks,  educational  some f i e l d  diapers  and  a g e s one t o  am, e s p e c i a l l y f o r  sewing f a c t o r y .  hours  village  and W i n t e r Works P r o g r a m .  "The p r o g r a m was c o m p r i s e d o f v a r i o u s  change the  i n the  She a p p l i e d  our p r e - s c h o o l program,  as e a r l y as  who w o r k e d a t week,  she went o n ,  A motion  i n v o l v e d i n r e m o d e l l i n g and f u r n i s h i n g  b u i l d i n g through  there  of the  trips,  younger  films  and a t ones".  activities  from  and w a l k s ,  rest  t i m e s we had  to  She a d d e d :  "grants  99 are  available for  the  opportunity?  child the  in his/her  early childhood education,  S u c h f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s e a r l y development".  advantages of such a program,  program f o r  There  is also special consideration  than  the  a child  i s wise at  program  is s t i l l  years ago". start that  w i t h the  needs s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n ,  affection  off, they  others. two,  Such  the  child  one-parent  Basically,  we must  remember  I quit  working there  organization?  reaction  on f u l l  I asked.  staff  remember  and we o p e r a t e  under  Annual Meeting w i t h e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s , B e s i d e s b e i n g good f o r  We have  financial the  an  reports  c h i l d r e n , Day-  c o m m u n i t y and p r o v i d e s  f o r M e t i s women".  to  there  M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t .  the  two  c h i l d per day;  the  employment  that  "Well,  was g o o d . We must  three or four people  i s a l s o good f o r  adults.  slow l e a r n e r s .  are  care  of  p e r h a p s more l o v e and  have t o pay n i n e d o l l a r s p e r  and new b u s i n e s s .  "Such a  k i d s and  for  a  about  good e f f e c t s  parents;  g o i n g on t o d a y ,  parents'  can h e l p  t h r e e and f o u r y e a r s o l d . The  What a b o u t t h e the  the  take  inquiries  replied:  s o c i a l i z i n g with other  matters are d i s c u s s e d often  As t o  she  c h i l d r e n c e n t r e s around  early supervised  why n o t  some  100  Abjci  E_L p e r m a n e n t ;  £_L s e a s o n a l ;  Ex.e„-.....ia5.0_ JE_1_S_1  JjQbs„.  Ll local;  L_J_IL  lardjLz" L  Mother's Allow. Housewife  0_i o u t s i d e ;  LIJLJJLJJI x  x  x  x  x  x  Household chores x  x  x  , x  Hired domestic  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  Hunt s m a l l game  x  x  Casual jobs  x  x  x  x  x  x  Housemaids  x  x  x  Waitresses  x  x  x  x  x  x  Clerks  x  x  x  x  x  x  Farm c h o r e s  x  Day-Care  x  x  Teacher  x  x  Hairdresser  x  x  Custom p l a n t  x  x  Clothing factory  x  x  The  table  women t h e n  and now. I t  were s e a s o n a l Today,  shows t h e  of  livelihood  for  i n d i c a t e s t h a t most j o b s ,  and l o c a l .  there are  sources  pre-1950,  T h e r e were few p a y i n g j o b s  some j o b s t h a t  are permanent  t h e y e m p l o y o n l y a few women. T h o s e who g e t  Metis  then.  and l o c a l ,  but  p a y i n g j o b s work  101 mostly outside opportunities the v i l l a g e .  the v i l l a g e .  In the p a s t ,  f o r M e t i s women t o w o r k o u t s i d e  life.  accomplished a l l kinds of tasks f a r m . T h i s was o f t e n  difficulties displayed  and h a r d s h i p s .  The c h a r t s  i n c a r r y i n g out  was a n y t h i n g b u t Today, specialized  with  Nonetheless,  they  house  heavy p h y s i c a l work w i t h  their  and  great  M e t i s women  industriousness  laborious tasks.  and  T h e i r work  career-oriented.  t h e w o r k o f M e t i s women has become more and c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d .  to a d i v e r s i t y of jobs that definitely  home and  show t h a t  i n and a r o u n d t h e  a l o t of resourcefulness,  initiative  the  few  Most o f t h e i r w o r k was m a i n l y d o m e s t i c  great d e d i c a t i o n to family  on t h e  t h e r e were  marks the  they d i d not  access  have b e f o r e .  t r a n s i t i o n from a s u b s i s t e n c e  economy. The Day C a r e p r o j e c t women i n t e r e s t e d  M e t i s women now have  i s s u c h an e x a m p l e .  in s p e c i a l i z e d education for  made t h e most o f a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  This  to a cash Metis  youngsters  I n some  cases,  M e t i s women make p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s o f what t h e y want t o do s u c h as t e a c h i n g and h a i r - d r e s s i n g and work l o c a l l y , majority jobs  have moved t o  city  and have t a k e n  the  permanent  there. With e a s i e r  their At the their  the  but  job opportunities,  own l i v e l i h o o d ,  a r e more i n d e p e n d e n t  same t i m e h o w e v e r ,  from f a m i l y  earn ties.  t h e y have become more d e p e n d e n t  e m p l o y e r and t h e w a g e - s c a l e  the process  M e t i s women t o d a y  of becoming Canadian.  economy. I t  i s a l l part  on of  102  The t r a d i t i o n a l economy o f most M e t i s men i n has a l w a y s been c o n c e r n e d w i t h o u t d o o r cluded hunting,  fishing,  trapping,  a c t i v i t i e s . These  d i g g i n g seneca  t i n g wood, some f a r m i n g f o r o n e s e l f  city  or around the p r o v i n c e i n the  ning to St.Laurent on  "L'Grand  i n the  fall  m a t t e r where y o u a r e b a c k h e r e on t h e  fisherman,  "it  cut-  construction jobs summer,  is  in-  A good  always  in  retur-  to prepare for winter  lac Manitoba". "Fishing  q u i p p e d an e x p e r i e n c e d  root,  or f o r o t h e r s .  number o f M e t i s men w o r k e d on d i f f e r e n t the  St.Laurent  fishing  in Metis blood", is  like  w o r k i n g , some men j u s t  lake to f i s h  every  i n September  a common s i g h t  a bug,  have t o  no come  winter".  F i sixiilg As e a r l y as is the  the  preparations  countryside,  he w i l l  and s e a m i n g t h e i r them.  After  for  nets,  they f i n i s h ,  24 X 16 b o x e s ,  fishing.  St.Laurent  As a v i s i t o r d r i v e s  r e a d i l y observe attaching  and s i n k e r s  neatly  ready  around  men d i s e n t a n g l i n g  floats  they w i l l  two n e t s p e r b o x ,  in  set  them i n 12 X  to cast  N e t s a r e made o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l f r o m c o t t o n  to  i n the  lake.  to nylon  and  plastic. The f a m i l i a r was s t i l l  dark,  sight  on e a r l y Monday m o r n i n g s ,  was a t r a i n  w i t h p r o v i s i o n s and hay f o r of  their  towards  stove  pipe chimney,  "L'Grand  of cabooses t h e week,  while  of fishermen,  it  loaded  w i t h smoke c u r l i n g  slowly starting  l a c M a n i t o b a " . Once on t h e  their lake,  trek the  ca-  out  103 boose  could also serve  good d i s t a n c e fifteen  on t h e  few f i s h e r m e n  f r o z e n and b a r r e n  from a c r o s s  open w a t e r  the  some t e n  l a k e g o i n g the  Any p l a c e w o u l d d o ,  a  and  the n o r t h wind,  way. A  S e t t i n g up camp was  w o u l d be w e l l  and s h e l t e r e d  by t h e  shack  stated  that  they got  lost  way and w e l l  enough,  the  from  for  coming back  S o , what d i d t h e y d o ? They w o u l d l e t  l e a d the  looked  t h e r e w o u l d be p l e n t y o f hay and o a t s  One i n f o r m a n t  home one d a y .  other  p r o v i d i n g t h e r e was no  c l o s e b y . The team o f h o r s e s  Covered w i t h b l a n k e t s  horses  lake,  a l s o t r a v e l l e d by d o g s l e d .  not d i f f i c u l t .  them.  They w o u l d t r a v e l  m i l e s w h i l e o t h e r s w o u l d go t w e n t y m i l e s . Some w o u l d  meet f i s h e r m e n  after.  as a b u n k h o u s e .  horses  the  found  their  way home. In the p a s t , basic  tools  thickness  c h i s e l and t h e n e e d l e  t o make a h o l e  from s i x i n c h e s  one t o two f e e t water.  the  The n e t  i n the  itself  one h u n d r e d y a r d s  i c e . The i c e v a r i e d  to four f e e t .  i n diameter,  enough t o  cast  a net,  i n the  call  fisherman A, the  he d e s c r i b e s  it  following  A jigger  a net.  It  i s the  main  right  way:  in  the to  through the p l a n k .  to  "Let's one  instrument  i s a p l a n k 12 f e e t About a f o o t  and down t h e m i d d l e , we make a 3 f o o t  wide cut  about  t a k e s two men  c o r d p u l l e r and f i s h e r m a n B t h e  the j i g g e r . to cast  it  10 i n c h e s w i d e and by 2 i n c h e s t h i c k . front  lower the net  in  long. fisherman,  f i s h e r m e n use  The h o l e was  the  w o u l d v a r y i n l e n g t h from s e v e n t y  According to a veteran  who f o l l o w s  b a r were  l o n g by from  l o n g by 3  Covering this  area  the  inches would  104 be a s m a l l e r p l a n k w i t h a 2 i n c h c h i s e l a t t a c h e d Underneath fishing  the  p l a n k w o u l d be a f l a t - i r o n b a r  c o r d w o u l d be t i e d .  At the  the  water  fisherman itself  under  at  to the  entire the  ice,  fisherman  make a h o l e  end,  In the  meantime,  the  net  at  end o f t h e  the  c o r d and n e t  the  to  fisherman  fishermen nets  it.  fifteen  i n a day.  for  a big catch. at  Fifty  first,  and a c e n t and a h a l f A fisherman he w o u l d f r e e z e , cold  it  was,  about f o u r  Then,  this  the  feet until  fisherman B,  yards  away w o u l d  other  net  the  end  is set.  fish we g o t for  had t o  On t h e  it  ties  They  per net  would take  t o c a s t one n e t it  they would p u l l  set it  and  hoping  an e x c e l -  pickerel  jackfish".  keep  i n m o t i o n on t h e "It  lake or  d i d not  50 b e l o w F a h r e n h e i t ,  us s t o p w o r k i n g . The o n l y t i m e s we s t o p p e d  it  up  there  out  was c o n s i d e r e d  5 c e n t s a pound f o r  s a i d a respondent.  sometimes  average,  They w o u l d l e t  two o r t h r e e d a y s and t h e n  catch,  and t h e  minutes  for  lent  as  h o l e s w i t h i c e and snow w i t h an  picket beside  twenty-five  rope  f i s h i n g c o r d from A, at  in  f i s h i n g c o r d . Fisherman B p u l l s  up t o h i s p o i n t  cover the  experienced  was c o v e r e d .  i c e and g r a b t h e  plank,  c h i s e l hooking  maybe e i g h t y o r a h u n d r e d  i n the  identifiable  the  the  jigger  the  r o p e was p u l l e d . T h e y w o u l d r e p e a t  puller.  would then  l o w e r i n g the  i c e . The j i g g e r w o u l d a d v a n c e  length of the net  other  larger  A would p u l l  B would l i s t e n c l o s e l y to  each time the the  the  it.  to which  end o f t h e  t h e r e w o u l d be a s m a l l p u l l e y . A f t e r  to  else  m a t t e r how s e l d o m made  was when a  105 blizzard see  caused  so much i n v i s i b i l i t y  longer  what we were d o i n g o r where we were g o i n g " . At the  their  end o f t h e d a y ,  caboose  or shack,  most o f t h e  supper.  food,  i t up.  s u c h as r o a s t  potatoes,  vegetables,  cranberry  jam and o f c o u r s e ,  To p a s s t h e repair  bannock,  As one  any e q u i p m e n t  operated  that  fishing  to rescue  or  the  fishermen early  neighbors,  would  again  others  would to  and s t i l l  after are  sometimes  the  Some w o u l d f o r hours lost  get  with and  s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n . One o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g town  he had g o t  lost  c o m i n g home.  a few i n c i d e n t s o f men and  c l a i m e d the  explained:  l a k e reminded  O t h e r s would get  losing their  hours  on t h e  c o u l d become.  them.  b r e a k i n g through the  As one w i f e  raspberry  to s t a r t  their  happened  s u c h man was f o u n d b y f i s h e r m e n  s u c h an a c c i d e n t  of  radios.  w a l k and w a l k a f t e r  equipment  lots  of  tea".  on a d r i f t i n g p i e c e o f i c e ,  There were,  me,  home.  w h i l e o t h e r s w o u l d t r y and l i s t e n  c o m m u n i t y how d a n g e r o u s  some t w e n t y - f o u r  told  wives back  pork or beef,  so t o be r e a d y  A few i n c i d e n t s  no one i n s i g h t  informant  to  old  The g r u b - b o x was f u l l  long winter evenings,  read or p l a y c a r d s ,  caught  h e a t up t h e  home-made  n e x t m o r n i n g . Some w o u l d v i s i t  battery  f i s h e r m e n w o u l d come b a c k  f o o d was p r e - c o o k e d b y t h e i r  we had t o do was h e a t  good h e a r t y  the  light a lantern,  w o o d - s t o v e and p r e p a r e f o r  "All  t h a t we c o u l d no  ice.  In the  nineteen  l i v e s o f two l o c a l  " I am a l w a y s w o r r i e d a b o u t  forties,  fishermen. my h u s b a n d  106 w o r k i n g on t h e  l a k e , you n e v e r  know when an a c c i d e n t  can  happen". On S a t u r d a y , more f i s h their  i t was t h e j o u r n e y b a c k home,  than o t h e r s .  fish  to  For a long time the  l o c a l buyers.  the p i c k e r e l ,  jackfish,  some  with  fishermen  sold  Among t h e most p o p u l a r f i s h  sauger  and w h i t e f i s h . T h e y w o u l d  them i n 80 pound b o x e s and s h i p them t o W i n n i p e g v i a local  were put  the  transfer. By t h e  replaced bardier  early 1950's,  some o f t h e  a few t r a c t o r s  cabooses  and b o m b a r d i e r s  and s h a c k s on t h e  i s a l a r g e covered v e h i c l e used f o r  had  l a k e . A bom-  t r a v e l l i n g over  snow and i c e , u s u a l l y e q u i p p e d w i t h t r a c k e d w h e e l s a t  the  rear  name  for  and a s e t  of s k i s at  the  snowmobile, i s a s m a l l ,  front.  Ski-doo,  another  open m o t o r v e h i c l e  for  t r a v e l l i n g o v e r snow and i c e , e q u i p p e d w i t h s k i s a t front,  by w h i c h i t  beneath  is steered,  and a c a t e r p i l l a r  track  t h e b o d y . T h e y a r e u s e d m a i n l y as a means o f  transportation, bombardiers  and a l s o f o r s p o r t .  have r e p l a c e d t h e  T o d a y , s k i - d o o s and  horse-drawn cabooses.  more a m b i t i o u s s t a y o v e r n i g h t on t h e now come home e v e r y n i g h t . chisel,  the  t h e y now u s e  to d r i l l  the  holes  the  i n the  Few u s e  l a k e . Most  ice. Efficiency  the  fishermen  the needle bar  e l e c t r i c h u g g e r on t h e  Only  and  bombardier  i s t h e name o f  the  game! A c c o r d i n g t o one i n f o r m a n t , fishermen  there are  about  and as many as 30 own t h e i r b o m b a r d i e r s  F i s h e r m e n f r o m S t . L a u r e n t and some f r o m t h e  50 l i c e n s e d today.  surrounding v i i -  107 lages  have f o r m e d a f i s h i n g  F i s h i n g Co-op L i m i t e d . were p r i v a t e companies  fish  co-operative,  "In the p a s t " ,  at  times,  some g e t  and a b o o k e e p e r , then,  we s e l l  is divided  an a n n u a l r e b a t e .  our f i s h  quite  the  before  p r i c e of f i s h  "Our C o - o p s t a r t e d  i n 1969",  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s f i s h e r m e n w i t h the  The f i s h e r m e n g e t  various  profit.  among t h e We h i r e  members packers fees;  that,  is that  Co-op,  most o f them s t i l l  Another popular source S t . L a u r e n t was t r a p p i n g .  of  their  fish  livelihood  helps  a  and we g e t Marketing Board.  amount  of f i s h  they  Fishing  there".  for  the  Metis  S u c h men were  at  lake Ludovic  Chartrand,  J e a n L a r e n c e and J e r o m e L a v a l l e e . A c c o r d i n g t o  informant,  t h e y were c a l l e d S e n i o r T r a p p e r s ,  under  the  s u p e r v i s i o n of the  game w a r d e n .  to  We d i s c u s s  Most men who f i s h e d on t h e  were a l s o known t o be a v i d t r a p p e r s .  for  never  a l l fishermen belong to the sell  Fish  "We have  times a year.  money a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  Even though not  it  but  be.  he c o n t i n u e d .  encounter  fish  we were  new d i r e c t i v e s f r o m t h e  catch.  the  was g o i n g t o  b o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s t h a t meets f o u r  acquainted  to  the  c l e a n and s e l l  marketing board  p r i c e of f i s h ;  s u r e what t h e  "there  d i r e c t l y t o t h e F r e s h W a t e r and  One a d v a n t a g e o f t h e  stabilize  fish  so we do pay some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  M a r k e t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n who b u y , us.  the  buyer would get  Now w i t h t h e C o - o p t h e p r o f i t and,  he e x p l a i n s ,  b u y e r s who w o u l d s e l l  i n W i n n i p e g and t h e  the Lake Manitoba  t h e y worked  E a c h one had a  an  108 z o n e he was r e s p o n s i b l e look a f t e r . report  it  f o r and e a c h had e i g h t  H i s r o l e was t o r e c o r d t h e i r  c a t c h i n a book and  Roy C h a r t r a n d ,  i n f o r m e d me t h a t  t r a p p i n g m u s k r a t when he was n i n e y e a r s  remember",  he r e c a l l e d ,  " t h r e e teams o f h o r s e s  old. and  approximately s i x t y  village  around the  kilometres south-west  lake ( F i g . 2).  t h a t was i n 1 9 3 5 . T h a t was a good y e a r . home w i t h f o u r forty that  to f i v e  and L a k e S t . G e o r g e . muskrat under  houses",  the  racks. for  each".  t h e y h u n t e d m u s k r a t as f a r  many  c a n d l e - l i g h t i n the  area,  a  b a c k home,  selling  came  them  Another informant  "set  traps,  tent  skin  the  and t h e n s e t  for said  for  muskrats  them up on  f o r t h r e e o r f o u r weeks e v e r y S p r i n g t i m e  years". S t o n y R i d g e and Jimmy L a k e  some s i x m i l e s e a s t o f S t . L a u r e n t . C l o s e r  village,  spent  N o r t h as The P a s , C e d a r L a k e  A n o t h e r p o p u l a r a r e a was t h e area,  the  "We w o u l d s p e n d t h e d a y l o o k i n g  he r e l a t e d ,  We d i d t h a t  of  Each t r a p p e r  hundred m u s k r a t s ,  to s e v e n t y - f i v e cents  "I  trapping  Fifteen trappers  month t h e r e and I had t o d r i v e a team o f h o r s e s  he  sleighs  g o i n g t o t h e D e l t a M a r s h e s , a p o p u l a r h u n t i n g and area,  to  t o t h e game w a r d e n .  Our m a i n r e s p o n d e n t , started  trappers  some good s p o t s  to  were L a k e F r a n c i s and t h e  l o c a l people pronounce  it  the  the "Dredge"  "Drudge" ( F i g . 2 ) .  was a c a n a l b u i l t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d y a r d s L a k e M a n i t o b a s o t h a t b o a t s and b a r g e s  inland  t r a v e l l i n g from  R e a b u r n t o C a m p e r v i l l e ( F i g . 2 ) w o u l d be a b l e t o  This  turn  off  109 around. in  When t h e  r a i l w a y t r a c k was c o n s t r u c t e d  1904 ( M e r c i e r :  1 9 7 6 ) , t h a t marked t h e  I was c u r i o u s t o know j u s t trapper "First clean  made f o r a d a y ' s w o r k . Our m a i n i n f o r m a n t  them,  hold trap, increase  b r u s h t h e m , wax them and c h e c k them w e l l  to  the 1,  that  get  the  1 1/2,  f o x e s and t h e  trap.  When t h e its  rat  shape rat  gets caught,  the  of a square,  fur,  We w o u l d s e t  when i t  became opens  the mid s e c t i o n of such a  rat  does  not  loss.  t h e r e would  be  i n s i d e . W e a t h e r p e r m i t t i n g , we  we w o u l d n o t g o , b u t tent  the  and  up o u r t e n t w i t h h e a v y hay  and a warm s t o v e  o u t s i d e the  a spring  l e a v e f o r a week o r f o r a month some-  w o u l d g e t up e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g . I f freezing,  at  i s no b l o o d  w i t h horse-drawn s l e i g h s . U s u a l l y ,  underneath  first  conibear trap  gets caught  have t i m e t o f i g h t b a c k and t h e r e  three of us.  the  l e g so as n o t t o chew i t  i t does not d e s t r o y the  " T h e n , we w o u l d  s i z e would  raccoons,  c h o k e s up i n s t a n t l y . The a d v a n t a g e s  i s that  times,  and t h e  leg-  c o y o t e s . There i s a  the s t o p - l o s s t r a p ,  i s made i n t h e  rat  we had t h e  t h e number 2 f o r m i n k s and  t h e w h o l e body o f t h e  and t h e trap  It  "At f i r s t ,  He t h e n d e s c r i b e d  2 , and so o n . We w o u l d u s e  away from  away. A f t e r  popular. up,  on t h e rat  he u s e d :  s m a l l e r w o u l d be s i z e 0 ,  3 and 4 f o r t h e  pushes  traps,  i n proper working order".  three for muskrats,  "stop-loss"  the  a  reported: to  traps  to  Dredge.  we have  they are  some o f t h e  size  end o f t h e  what k i n d o f p r e p a r a t i o n  o f a l l , we have t o p r e p a r e  ensure  in St.Laurent  i t was t o o c o l d  and  i f we h e a r d w a t e r d r i p p i n g  a r o u n d 5 : 0 0 am, t h e n we w o u l d be up and  110 away. U s u a l l y , s e t t i n g about  we w o u l d go f o r h a l f twenty-five  At t h i s p o i n t , to set  his traps.  houses  first  t h a t the  spear  the  and  traps".  He e x p l a i n e d : " I had t o f i n d  rat  u s i n g a spear house.  If  the  d i d n o t go t h r o u g h ,  t h e r e were no r a t s  in there.  enough w a t e r ;  themselves.  or e l s e  But i f the  spear  went  rats w i l l  traps". and d i e  w a t e r and o f f o o d .  He a l s o i f there  after  t h i n k the a floor  rat  just  Normally,  house. and  will  where t h e  trap  set  t y i n g the  it  trap  lack  farmlands.  to a p i c k e t , you s e t I n s i d e the  rat  comes t o s l e e p  I would l e a v e the  trap  house,  and r e s t .  overnight,  a g a i n . There are about rat  n o t come c l o s e t o t h e  smart  of  rat  house  i t where you there  is  I would  above t h e w a t e r where h i s r e s t i n g p l a c e  Sometimes, the  their  The t h i n g i s p e o p l e d r a i n t o o much  dive. rat  is  they d i g f o r  " U s i n g a s h o v e l , y o u t h e n make a h o l e i n t h e and,  inside,  some 4 0 , 0 0 0 r a t s d i e d b e c a u s e  w a t e r by m a k i n g c a n a l s f o r  and  through  s i m p l y move o u t o f  i n a hole i n the ground t h a t  "One y e a r ,  I  then I concluded t h a t  I h e a r d r a t s j u m p i n g and s p l a s h i n g i n t h e w a t e r  h o u s e and l i v e  the  rat  house was f r o z e n so h a r d •  m e n t i o n e d how r a t s c a n s o m e t i m e s f r e e z e  of  the  w h i c h I made m y s e l f ,  t h e n I knew t h i s was a good p l a c e t o s e t  not  noon,  I was c u r i o u s t o know how he knew where  and t h e n ,  would p i c k at  a day u n t i l  eight  the  r a t s t o one  c a n come t o s t a y trap.  take  i n the  set is.  rat  can d e t e c t  out  rat  rat  house  I n t h e i r own way, t h e y  and o n l y an e x p e r i e n c e d t r a p p e r  like  that".  are  Ill I a s k e d my i n f o r m a n t muskrat  hunting.  H i s r e p l y was t o t h e  I w a n t e d and l i k e d  to t r a p muskrats  and f o x e s and c o y o t e s .  S i n c e the  to the marshes,  I enjoyed  daybreak,  i n the  air  early  and t h e  the  point:  most  about  "From day  the M e t i s at  t i m e I was o l d enough t o  b e i n g i n the wide-open spaces.  morning, I enjoyed  o r t o do t h a t " .  the  clean  This attitude  hey-days  of the  buffalo  go At  fresh telling  reflects  Red R i v e r and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s a  d u r i n g the  one,  and m i n k s and b a d g e r s  f r e e d o m o f b e i n g my own b o s s w i t h no one  me t o do t h i s  earlier  what he e n j o y e d  that of  century  hunt.  GjaidjLag_..a^ Another source  of  livelihood  S t . L a u r e n t was g u i d i n g f o r travel but  to v a r i o u s p o i n t s  hunters i n the  one s u c h g u i d e ,  consecutive years g u i d i n g at  Interlake  Tom L a m b e r t , w i l l  of g u i d i n g f o r  the  law found the  the  age o f t w e n t y " ,  have good b o a t s , t o empty t h e  I  water.  In  fifty "I  started  14 m i l e s f r o m  Portage  "My f a t h e r - i n -  a duck-hunter  learned q u i c k l y .  some were  area.  celebrate  he s a i d .  j o b f o r me. H a v i n g been  age o f f o u r t e e n ,  Some w o u l d  same p e o p l e .  M a l l a r d Lodge, D e l t a Marsh,  La P r a i r i e , at  fall.  i n M a n i t o b a or N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o ,  a good number w o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e  1988,  the  f o r the M e t i s of  At f i r s t ,  since  we d i d  l e a k i n g and we had t o b r i n g a c a n  O n c e , we g o t  caught  i n a s t o r m and we  had a h a r d t i m e g e t t i n g b a c k t o camp. T o d a y , we l e a v e 5:00  am, we b r i n g a b o u t  calls.  We d i d n o t  not  sixteen decoys,  have d o g s t h e n ,  but  d u c k and  today,  at  goose  we have  well-  112 trained since go  Golden  R e t r i e v e r s w i t h u s . We u s e d  motors a r e n o t a l l o w e d  row b o a t s  i n marshes. At f i r s t ,  only  we would  two o r t h r e e m i l e s and come b a c k by noon. The h u n t e r s  would s h o o t  o n l y t h e M a l l a r d and c a n v a s b a c k  would n o t even then  look at the b l u e b i l l s  ducks,  and t h e r e was no  as t o t h e number o f d u c k s one c o u l d k i l l  Today, we r e t u r n  by t e n a.m.  because  they  the l i m i t  limit  i n a day. i s down t o  s i x ducks a day p e r h u n t e r " . My n e x t q u e s t i o n was how d i d t h e y come t o c h o o s e spot  over  blows", will  he r e l a t e d ,  then  Manitoba lake  another.  land  " T h a t d e p e n d s on t h e d i r e c t i o n  t h e wind  " b e t t e r winds a r e northwinds,  i n t h e marsh, o t h e r w i s e  they  o u t s i d e o u r r e a c h . The n o r t h w i n d  t o o heavy w i t h waves, t h e n  t h e m a r s h e s . We p u t t h e d e c o y s t h e shade o f t h e wind  land  also  and we b u i l d  a blind,  the ducks on L a k e  makes t h e  the ducks p r e f e r where t h e w a t e r  one  to land i n  i s calm i n  t h e p l a c e where  hunters  h i d e . I t i s made o f weeds and r e e d s , we h i d e t h e r e  dressed  i n y e l l o w and g r e e n  camouflage. t h e n we c a l l  c l o t h e s which s e r v e as  Some h u n t e r s b r i n g the ducks;  so we move t o a n o t h e r  mostly  from  blind.  not overhead,  mph. D e p e n d i n g on t h e wind v e l o c i t y , to shoot it.  up t o t e n f e e t  The h u n t e r s u n l o a d  stool  t o s i t on and  sometimes t h e y come, sometimes  don't,  the s i d e s ,  a little  they  Ducks come f l y i n g i n sometimes a s f a s t  a s 75  sometimes a h u n t e r has  ahead o f t h e d u c k i f he wants t o h i t their  shotguns,  t h e dog r e t r i e v e s t h e  d u c k s and b r i n g s them b a c k t o t h e b l i n d " .  113  Thus,  f o r M e t i s men i n S t . L a u r e n t ,  the  traditional  economy was many y e a r s  concerned w i t h outdoor  like  g u i d i n g and t r a p p i n g and  hunting,  fishing,  werehighly s u c c e s s f u l at  Sources of  they  it.  Livelihood  T h e r e have been many o t h e r the M e t i s at  activities  St.Laurent  sources  i n the p a s t .  of l i v e l i h o o d  Locally,  activities  s u c h as d i g g i n g s e n e c a r o o t ,  f a r m i n g and h a y i n g ,  wood and h a y ,  railway track for  section  w o r k i n g on t h e  o r on t h e  grader  v e r y e x p e n s i v e f o r a young p e r s o n business  today,  fertilizer yet.  the  cost  can g e t  w i t h the  loan back,  little  l o c a l d a i r y farmers government  for  profit  "It  is  farming  l a n d , o f t h e m a c h i n e r y and  government. it  started small  H o w e v e r , by  i s hardly worth a l l  that  do b e t t e r  their  The f o l l o w i n g  t h e y make. The  as t h e y g e t  the that  three  subsidies  from  i s an e x a m p l e o f how one  way. H i s b u s i n e s s  local  individual,  resources  i s p i c k i n g frogs  M a n i t o b a and s h i p p i n g them by p l a n e  in a  around  Lake  to various p o i n t s  in  N o r t h A m e r i c a s u c h as T o r o n t o , P h i l a d e l p h i a , C a l i f o r n i a North Carolina.  the  milk".  C l a u d e L a m b e r t i s m a k i n g use o f t h e profitable  me:  s u r v i v e , even though the  l o a n s from t h e  time t h e y pay t h e i r effort  t o go i n t h e  Municipality  i s way s k y - h i g h and y o u have n o t e v e n  Only the b i g farmers  farmers  of the  told  selling  t h e CNR  and s n o w p l o u g h f o r t h e  were a l w a y s common. B u t , as one i n f o r m a n t  for  A t t h e moment,  he i s t h e  only  licensed  and  114 person  i n M a n i t o b a and t h e  sell  (export)  "two  months,  most o f i t , frogs  frogs.  "The s e a s o n  September  for a year  informant  and o f c o u r s e ,  leopard frog.  frogs  the  frogs  the b u l l - f r o g  are  and g r e e n  f o u n d 1/2 1st  to  and  started  i n 1982",  inches  in  o r brown i n  and by S e p t e m b e r  lake  15th,  low-level  water  "winter  so I go where t h e r e  he c o n t i n u e d ,  I d i d not It  c a n n o t d e p e n d o n l y on t h a t I do o t h e r  like  "as  a way t o  i s no  t o make a l i v i n g .  in winter, In  j o b s s u c h as f e n c i n g and i n t h e  The l a t t e r  stay  t o t r a v e l m o r n i n g and  i s f i n e to f i s h  We a l s o p i c k up s n a k e s ,  red-bellied.  the  land".  t o work i n W i n n i p e g .  guiding.  frogs  "The  1 m i l e from the  l a k e . F r o g s m i g r a t e from  and w o r k i n S t . L a u r e n t ,  time,  research  as a d e l i c a c y i n r e s t a u r a n t s .  Farm f e r t i l i z e r s k i l l  agricultural  I  stores  the  and  l a k e s and s l o u g h s t o L a k e M a n i t o b a t o a v o i d t h e  night  up  are used m a i n l y  in school laboratories  m i l e on S e p t e m b e r  c l o s e to the  "I  the  tons".  t o t i p o f the nose  Normally,  kill'.  in  frogs,  T h e y have t o be a minimum o f t h r e e  A u g u s t , 1/2  right  is eight  t h a t we p i c k a r e  from v e n t  color.  I p u t up n o t i c e s  also said that  specimens  kinds of frogs  size  lake.  l a k e t w i c e a week t o p i c k up t h e  as b i o l o g i c a l centres,  so we have t o make  I have as many as t h r e e h u n d r e d men p i c k i n g  pick  The  he e x p l a i n s ,  o f f i c e s and p e o p l e come o u t and w o r k . I d r i v e  around the average  is short",  and O c t o b e r ,  f o r me a l l a r o u n d t h e  and p o s t  in  s e c o n d one i n C a n a d a t o buy and  the p l a i n g a r t e r  spring fall, and  i s p o p u l a r and u s e d as a p e t  the in  but  115 California as f o r  homes.  We o r g a n i z e o u r s e l v e s  frog-picking.  50,000 snakes,  but  Five years  o n l y 8,000  ago,  last  P e r h a p s one p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t made t h e i r  living  step-ladder  along the  we p i c k e d c l o s e  I n 1970,  the  establishment  building.  e m p l o y e d as many as f o u r t e e n  dustrial  of a vacant men a t  a l s o handled h e a v i e r - d u t y  u s e and o f f i c e  facturing In  the purchase  later  firm  d e s k s and c h a i r s .  shipped i t s  years,  it  first  had o r d e r s  one  products  from as f a r  ladders  10,000 i n 1973. E i g h t y e a r s  factory  closed i t s doors.  later,  c l o s u r e of the  upon as an e c o n o m i c s e t b a c k s just  due t o  " a change  p o i n t made e a r l i e r community  made t h e  traditional  at  ladder f o r the  of government".  that  as  the  British ladders  factories interests.  in  the p r o v i n c i a l  environment.  this  f a c t o r y c a n be l o o k e d c o m m u n i t y , i t was It  reiterates  not  the  St.Laurent  subsistence  The c l o t h i n g and  were n o t owned b y t h e  1971  level.  economy t o a c a s h and more c o m p l e x o n e ,  exterior  1971.  step-ladder  from t h e moment t h e  t r a n s i t i o n from a  in-  manu-  in January,  became d e p e n d e n t on an u n r e l i a b l e , w h i m s i c a l , hostile  for  A c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t ,  was due t o a change o f g o v e r n m e n t While the  time. made o f  The s m a l l  C o l u m b i a and O n t a r i o . S a l e s grew f r o m 4 , 2 0 0 to  the  school  c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t was t h e d o m e s t i c s t e p l a d d e r s  hemlock wood. I t  of  l o c a l Metis organization  negotiated  Its  to  r e g a r d i n g t h e way p e o p l e  successfully It  line  year".  i n S t . L a u r e n t was t h e  factory.  same  l o c a l people,  it  and e v e n ladder b u t by  L o c a l p e o p l e and t h e w o r k e r s had l i t t l e  outside  to say  in  116 their  management,  Hence,  their  t h e y p r o v i d e d manpower and t h e  j o b s e c u r i t y was a l w a y s u n p r e d i c t a b l e  were no u n i o n s t o n e g o t i a t e future  of these f a c t o r i e s  policies  formulated  idiosyncracies officials  of  its  the  depended  outside  and c a p r i c e s  point  and  The o p e r a t i o n  o f company o w n e r s ,  t h a t when a c o m m u n i t y i s n o t  on  Table 5 (next  p a g e ) shows t h e  M e t i s men, b o t h t h e n  and  to-day.  is  the  It in control  have v e r y l i t t l e t o s a y  an e a s y n o r a j o y f u l  the  government  financiers.  Thus, becoming Canadian f o r M e t i s people  necessarily  there  e n t i r e l y upon e c o n o m i c  o f S t . L a u r e n t and b a s e d  any t i m e and t h e y  only.  and  e c o n o m i c means and p o l i c i e s t h e s e c a n be t a k e n  f r o m them a t it.  contracts.  and u l t i m a t e l y o f c o r p o r a t e  reiterates  labor  away in  not  process. sources  of l i v e l i h o o d  for  117  Sje.u..rjsjej§...j?X._lixa.liMQ.di ISULJ&S&ISL Hsu AJbjc.j. P_j_ p e r m a n e n t ;  L_L l o c a l ;  S_L s e a s o n a l ;  Ex.e.-ia.M  Jflbs  E......1  Fishing Hunting Trapping Guiding Gardening Farming: -Cattle -Grain -Haying  x  Cut/haul/wood/hay Dig Sen./root Cheese f a c t o r y x CNR s e c t i o n Munic.  iQrAsjL  S_.I„L_...L-_.Q x x x x x  Qj. o u t s i d e .  x x x x x  Z.._...JZ..J...._..§..._..1  x x  x  x x x x x  x x x x x  x x  x x x  x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x x  x  L_!  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  Q'  x x  x  Roads  maintenance Construction  x  x  x  x  x x  x x x x  x  Taxi-driver -1950's  x  x  Ladder f a c t o r y -1970's Tourism Frog-picking Custom P l a n t  x x  In g e n e r a l , livelihood  are  the  local  table  and s e a s o n a l .  some o u t s i d e j o b s w h i c h a r e rely  reveals  This  b e i n g the main s o u r c e .  of  i s complemented by  also seasonal.  on two o r t h r e e j o b s f o r t h e i r  fishing  t h a t most s o u r c e s  M o s t M e t i s men  livelihood,  Whereas h u n t i n g ,  with  winter  t r a p p i n g and  118 g u i d i n g were i n t h e p a s t m a j o r s o u r c e s have become i n r e c e n t modernization  less  y e a r s due t o t h e p r o c e s s  so f o r most p e o p l e .  these t r a d i t i o n a l sources recreation  of subsistence  and s p o r t  they  of  F o r many p e o p l e ,  of l i v e l i h o o d  have now become  activities.  C.QHCJL.MMQ.11  This chapter livelihood  to d e s c r i b e  Data reveals  dramatically  the  sources  of l i v e l i h o o d  economy,  l a n d and t o  of years  is rather  clear  integrated  e n v i r o n m e n t t o a more c o m p l e x c a s h  r e l y i n g on two o r more s e a s o n a l  operation  of modernization serves t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence  jobs.  the  The w h o l e  t o move M e t i s p e o p l e  of  their  of  s o c i e t y and modern economy b a s e d on a w a g e - s c a l e  work-day schedule the market-place better  nal  economy. No o t h e r  a l l factors  out  mainstream system,  related  to  p l a c e was t h i s  transition  e x p e r i e n c e of the  clothing  factories.  Finally, perhaps  economy i n t o t h e  and s a l a r i e d j o b s ,  i l l u s t r a t e d than w i t h the  and l a d d e r  the  t r a n s i t i o n from a  economy. Most p e o p l e t o d a y have p a y i n g j o b s w i t h majority  people  is that  a s u c c e s s f u l economy h i g h l y  its  at  changed  of the M e t i s  S t . L a u r e n t have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e  subsistence to the  sources  t h a t m o d e r n i z a t i o n has  S t . L a u r e n t . One p o i n t t h a t  Metis at  the  o f b o t h M e t i s men and women o v e r t h e  St.Laurent.  at  sought  the d a t a  some s t i l l  do,  indicates  that  the  elders  have,  e x p e r i e n c e d a t e n s i o n between  c o m m u n i t y v a l u e s and t h e demands  and t h e  and inter-  temptations  of  119 the  e x t e r i o r environment.  exterior life,  the  friendly. exterior  outside  They w i l l  themselves The  financially to outside local  ideas  resources  rest  return,  of the  little less  the  and  elders  a l s o show t h a t y o u n g M e t i s p e o p l e who S t . L a u r e n t t o d a y have been  and o f t e n m o t i v a t e d by them t o whether  that  is teaching,  jobs  more r e a d i l y  c h i l d r e n than t h e i r  did.  are exposed  exploit  hairdressing  world  lives.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , upon  t h e y saw p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f b u s i n e s s e s  that  the  or  T h e s e p e o p l e have t r a v e l l e d and have s e e n how  monetary g a i n s , is  their  to  opportunities  c a s h economy as a way o f l i f e  to  and  more w i l l i n g l y  seeking outside  s u c c e s s f u l at  frog-picking. the  g i v e themselves  and f o r  charts  t h e M e t i s y o u t h o f t o d a y seem  e n v i r o n m e n t as more a g r e e a b l e  environment,  and a c c e p t i n g t h e for  the  e n v i r o n m e n t as somewhat c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r way o f  e v i d e n c e shows t h a t  look at  Whereas some e l d e r s p e r c e i v e d  tried  it  and a r e  their  locally  s u c c e s s f u l at  it.  with  The p o i n t  t r a d i t i o n a l M e t i s v a l u e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y mean  t o many M e t i s y o u t h o f t o d a y and w i l l  p r o b a b l y mean  for their children. Thus,  f o r some p e o p l e a t  becoming or a l r e a d y  and a c c e p t e d plicitly  L a u r e n t , M e t i s n e s s may be  i s an h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e ,  While r e t a i n i n g personal p r i d e and t r a d i t i o n s ,  St.  in their  of the  past.  historical origins  many M e t i s o f S t . L a u r e n t have a l r e a d y  t h e C a n a d i a n way o f l i f e ,  o p t i n g for or being f o r c e d ,  i n t o becoming C a n a d i a n s .  chosen  while others are  f o r economic  im-  reasons,  120  SjojiiaJLJj.i^  In  the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ,  L a u r e n t made t h e i r In  this  life: will  chapter,  social  contributed  we w i l l  life,  look at  living  the  to the  to personal  some o f t h e i r leadership  throughout will  follow  political they  the  people.  social  of the  life.  was e x p r e s s e d  l i f e - s p a n of the  in  the  M e t i s at will  give  as a b a s i c  S e c o n d , we  be l e a d e r s h i p  The s o u r c e s  i n the  and has  informants.  changed And t h i r d , we  to a p p r e c i a t e  St.Laurent,  the  u n d e r l y i n g how  and l e a d e r s h i p .  The and  as p e r c e i v e d and e x p e r i e n c e d  of data for  observation  field.  will  and e x a m i n e how  framework f o r our i n q u i r y i n t o r e l i g i o n  from b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t informants  have  religious practices  exercized p o l i t i c a l  politics will the  and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l order  life  theoretical  will  and c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s  of t h e i r  Metis  F i r s t , we  a t t e m p t t o show how M e t i s p e o p l e  constitutive  religious  and p o l i t i c s .  St.  perspective.  community f o r m a t i o n and,  priority  M e t i s at  examine t h r e e a s p e c t s o f  v a r i o u s groups  I will  look at  f r o m an e c o n o m i c  religion  process,  fibre  we saw how t h e  this  chapter  are  and f r o m i n t e r v i e w s  by  derived with  121  Eairie__ejOLt£jd;  In  the p a s t ,  the  u s u a l l y took p l a c e the  boundaries  i n the  of the  h o c k e y and b a s e b a l l in  social  life  homes,  of the M e t i s at the  v i l l a g e area.  parish hall  and  within  E x c e p t i o n s w o u l d be  teams who w o u l d compete  in  the  tournaments  surrounding v i l l a g e s . A t home, p e o p l e  elder  created  family,  own e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  long winter nights.  p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n s a t  s p e n d two h o u r s for  their  r e c a l l e d how c a r d - p l a y i n g was a f a v o u r i t e  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the  at  casino bandits)  games s u c h as and  around the  "hot  and c o l d ' :  locate  it  object,  one h i d e s  an o b j e c t  "forfeits'  either  and t h e  hot or c o l d .  past-time,  and w o u l d (French  own s u c h other  they are  as  tries to  to  the  "La P e n i t e n c e ' ,  i n E n g l i s h was a p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r  game i f t h e r e were many t o p l a y i t .  the  (war).  and d e p e n d i n g on t h e d i s t a n c e  they are  table  "casino v o l e u r s '  "la bataille'  An  Members o f  C h i l d r e n w o u l d a l s o have games o f t h e i r  to  St.Laurent  similar card-  The a s p e c t o f t h e  game  t h a t made i t  i n t e r e s t i n g was who was g o i n g t o come up  with  the  penance.  weirdest  A loser  c o u l d be a s k e d t o go and  a k i s s on a v i s i t o r ' s b a l d - h e a d house  i n the dark of the n i g h t  clasped of  i n o n e ' s hands.  spades represented  or s l o w l y walk around w i t h the  ace o f s p a d e s  I n t h e m i n d s o f some p e o p l e ,  the  f o r k of the  devil!  plant the firmly  the  ace  122  In the w i n t e r ,  boys would p l a y i n the  snow w i t h a home-  made s l e i g h o r p l a y h o c k e y on a f r o z e n d i t c h w i t h made from s t u r d y w i l l o w b r a n c h e s manure.  Some w o u l d s k a t e  An a v i d  outdoorsman  friends  skated  face  a stiff  many y e a r s ,  skate  remembered  f o r about  five  and p u c k o f f r o z e n l a k e i f i t was n o t  the  we d i d n o t like  m i l e s on t h e  have a h o c k e y r i n k  they  have t o d a y ,  were on d u g - o u t s ,  horse too  cold.  t i m e when he and h i s lake,  n o r t h w i n d on t h e i r way b a c k .  a l o n e an a r e n a could  on t h e  sticks  "Besides,  to for  in St.Laurent,  so t h e  ditches  only  two  let  o n l y p l a c e s we  or "L"Grand Lac  Manitoba". During the  summer e v e n i n g s ,  c h i l d r e n of a neighborhood  would p l a y b a l l  among t h e m s e l v e s  until  was w i t h a sponge b a l l ,  a l l put  as p o s s i b l e p r o v i d e d  "out'.  "safe'  p l a y e r s to d e l i v e r the  "safe'  p l a y e r s were  "out',  Then, "out'  the  players.  other  sometimes  rough,  area defended  related  that  the  of  the  the  sometimes  latter  This  object  the  the  team w o u l d come t o  bat.  more.  "pom-pom game was  as p l a y e r s w o u l d t r y and r u n t h r o u g h an  b y two o r t h r e e o t h e r s .  T h o s e who were  were h i t on t h e b a c k t h r e e t i m e s by t h e d e f e n d e r "one-two-three  The  When a l l  O t h e r p o p u l a r games were h i d e and s e e k and An i n f o r m a n t  in.  i t w o u l d be up t o  As many as t e n p l a y e r s p l a y e d on e a c h s i d e ,  pull-away'.  set  remarked a former p l a y e r .  was t o b r i n g i n as many r u n s p l a y e r s were n o t  darkness  pom-pom p u l l - a w a y ' , and t h e  game and had t o s t a n d  on t h e  stopped  who s a i d :  i n t r u d e r was  sidelines.  out  123 A s e n i o r woman r e l a t e d p l a y i n g the  " k n i f e game'.  "We u s e d a p o c k e t k n i f e " , knife of  would do,  one h a n d ,  too.  It  involved  she s a i d ,  "but  hand,  i n sequence,  down and s t i c k i n t h e your t u r n " .  two o r more  ground.  enjoyed  players.  sometimes  One w o u l d p l a c e t h e  on t h e b a c k o f t h e  e l b o w and s h o u l d e r ,  one's  how she and h e r f r i e n d s  a kitchen  k n i f e i n the palm  on t h e w r i s t ,  the  and t r y t o make i t  If  i t d i d not  The game w o u l d end w i t h a f i n a l  come  s t i c k , you  lost  throw behind  back. Adults also created  their  own e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  The most  p o p u l a r was c a r d - p l a y i n g . The more p o p u l a r games a f t e r war I I w e r e : "Whist',  "Charlemagne',  "Le M a j o r ' ,  "The f o u r T e n s '  t h e s e games w o u l d go on l a t e finish  "Five hundred',  traditions  "Le p i t r o u ' ,  and " Y o k e r ' .  Many o f  i n t o t h e n i g h t and w o u l d  o f f w i t h a b i g l u n c h . A l a d y whose  grandparents,  World  parents,  u n c l e s and a u n t s had e n t e r t a i n e d  f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s  often  observed:  such  "Sometimes  the  c a r d - p l a y e r s w o u l d have a f u l l - c o u r s e m e a l o f m e a t - b a l l s pickerel  fish  i n t h e wee h o u r s o f t h e m o r n i n g " .  She g o e s on t o d e s c r i b e w o u l d be f o u r p l a y e r s , wives,  "Le M a j o r '  u s u a l l y the  "brices"  Ace) before  your opponent  successful,  t h i s would e n t i t l e  cards  (French for pancake,  the  "There  against  The o b j e c t  the of  the  ( F r e n c h f o r a t e n o r an  i n one r o u n d .  o v e r and a d m i n i s t e r  c a r d game:  husbands  each p l a y e r r e c e i v e d t h r e e c a r d s .  game was t o c o l l e c t f i v e  of  or  I f you were  you to t u r n  the  "La Crepe" to your  t u r n i n g of the deck of  entire  deck  opponent cards  124 corresponds  to the  would s c o r e p o i n t s other  t u r n i n g of pancakes  the  syrup for  language  to-night.  arguments,  t h e men o f c h e a t i n g ,  able to understand most o f t h e  t h e game by a s k i n g who had  "La crepe"  w o u l d be some r e a l h e a t e d women a c c u s e d  and y o u  a c c o r d i n g l y . Many p l a y e r s w o u l d k i d e a c h  as t h e y a r r i v e d t o s t a r t  brought  i n the pan)  At times,  there  e s p e c i a l l y when  but  the  I r e a l l y would not  what t h e y were s a y i n g t o e a c h o t h e r  time the  elders  among t h e m s e l v e s .  would speak  i n the  as  Saulteaux  I guess the main t h i n g i s  that  t h e y seemed t o have a l o t o f f u n " . O t h e r s e n i o r s w o u l d hours p l a y i n g c h e c k e r s , smoke r i s i n g  House  s i t t i n g q u i e t l y , with a cloud  above t h e i r  be  spend of  heads.  socials Home s o c i a l s were a l s o common, r e p o r t e d  another  "We w o u l d have b i r t h d a y and a n n i v e r s a r y d a n c e s homes,  nothing fancy.  need t o g e t  E v e r y b o d y was i n v i t e d ,  a formal i n v i t a t i o n l i k e  t h e r e were enough p e o p l e , Everyone enjoyed  the  we w o u l d have a  fiddle  private  one d i d n o t and as s o o n  as  square-dance.  and g u i t a r m u s i c . I f  were u n a v a i l a b l e , we w o u l d c r a n k t h e dance  today,  in  senior:  musicians  o l d gramophone up and  t o 78 rpm r e c o r d s " . C h r i s t m a s and New y e a r s was a s p e c i a l t i m e f o r  sits.  A respondent  stated  that  t h i s was c a l l e d :  "faire  j o u r de l ' A n " ( l o c a l F r e n c h e x p r e s s i o n m e a n i n g t o friends them).  and r e l a t i v e s  and c e l e b r a t e  home v i son  visit  t h e New Y e a r s w i t h  People t r a v e l l i n g i n horse-drawn  sleighs,  cabooses  125  and c u t t e r s w o u l d wave a t  each other  w i s h e s as t h e y met on t h e  road.  visiting  house  traditional .sometimes the  The e n t i r e  three or four  (French for:  The l o c a l  sittings.  dawn and  the  the  h o t e l at  t r u c k or c a r .  When t h e  the  the  o l d days,  and s o m e t i m e s  basic necessities  their  beer-parlor  of  s h o c k e d and h o r r i f i e d t h e and f o r some,  like  train",  (as  years,  husband  c l o s e d at  ten  the  told  outside  in  me, the  o'clock in  be p a c k e d on  Saturday  fights. and  that  i n v o l v i n g deaths  c o m m u n i t y f o r many  whenever  these  p e o p l e were k i l l e d  i t was c a l l e d b e c a u s e i t s  gypsum r o c k f r o m G y p s u m v i l l e ,  only  the  f o o d and c l o t h i n g . T h e r e  entire  up t o t h i s d a y ,  For example,  encore",  sometimes d e p r i v i n g f a m i l i e s of  life  in  social-gathering  a l c o h o l , she c o n t i n u e d ,  a l s o some a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d a c c i d e n t s  mentioned.  j o u r et  recent  t h e r e w o u l d be some  some p r o b l e m s ,  early  S t . L a u r e n t was t h e  Until  p l a c e would often  Some p e o p l e a b u s e d created  visitors,  was open o n l y t o men. As an i n f o r m a n t  women u s u a l l y w a i t e d f o r  nights  the  beyond).  one on h i g h w a y s i x f r o m W i n n i p e g . beer-parlor  spent  They w o u l d s t a r t  h o t e l was a l s o a f a v o u r i t e  For a long time,  d a y was  for  and u s u a l l y end up "au p ' t i t until  good  T h e r e w o u l d a l w a y s be p l e n t y o f  M e t i s f o o d and r e f r e s h m e n t s  afternoon  place.  to house.  and e x c h a n g e  cars  that years  incidents  by t h e  are  "rock  carried  a mine l o c a t e d one  were  only  hundred  m i l e s n o r t h o f S t . L a u r e n t on t h e CNR l i n e ) o r by some  other  126 kinds of v i o l e n t deaths, a result,  i n c l u d i n g h o m i c i d e and s u i c i d e . As  St.Laurent developed a reputation  rough p l a c e  to  live  i n o r even t o v i s i t ,  of b e i n g a very  w i t h a severe  h i g h r a t e o f a l c o h o l i s m and v i o l e n c e among i t s much so t h a t f o r a w h i l e many o u t s i d e r s the  v i l l a g e and d i d t h e i r  stigma attached  thirties  to the  T h i s s t i g m a has n o t  has p r o d u c e d a n e g a t i v e  involved  community. T h i s ,  to n e g l e c t ,  outside  To e a s e t h e i r  that  aggravated  And o f c o u r s e ,  the m a j o r i t y of people situation.  way o f  their  last  f a m i l i e s . For the  has somewhat world:  stifled  some w i t h d r e w  others refused  to  to themselves,  pain,  the  situation. pain,  for  hoping i t  themselves  twenty years  surrounding  in St.  area.  they  the  to  Some t r i e d  seem t o have done  life  get  while  some t u r n e d  t h a t d i d n o t work  A l c o h o l i c Anonymous has been a c t i v e c o m m u n i t y and t h e  among some mem-  Many q u i t d r i n k i n g a l t o g e t h e r  developed a responsible  the  a c c o r d i n g to  and s t a t e o p e n l y t h a t  ignore or minimize t h e i r  go away b y i t s e l f .  the  in turn,  t o o s h y t o go o u t  more a l c o h o l , b u t  However,  self-image  a c t i v i t i e s for a while,  were f r o m S t . L a u r e n t .  sadly,  t h e p o p u l a t i o n so much  i n c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s and k e p t  some became  about  has a f f e c t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the  from o u t s i d e  the  "Those  recalled  t o t a l l y disappeared,  that  their  s u c h was  fifties".  This stereotype  bers of the  she  So  avoided coming to  elsewhere,  Laurent",  senior. it  people.  t o t h e v i l l a g e and t o t h e p e o p l e .  were t h e d a r k d a y s o f S t . "from the  business  and  would either.  something and and  f e l l o w s h i p of  Laurent  serving  a  127  T_he.....Cjpjm F o r many y e a r s , summer was t h e  the  community p i c n i c .  w o u l d w o r k and p r e p a r e of  the b e s t b a s e b a l l  races  b i g annual s o c i a l  for  lunches a l l day.  situated place.  west  ( F i g . 2).  the  line,  maybe a h a l f  " F o r m e r l y , the  There would  at  the  time  a m i l e or so.  horses  would run i n a  In l a t e r  b o l t e d i n t o the  at  years,  times,  were  trotters  we b u i l t  a l s o raced  today,  but  is fine,  I would say t h a t  the  straight  c r o w d . Some p e o p l e  what t h e y o u n g p e o p l e a r e  surrounding  tents for  those  three or f o u r s days  there.  in  I  organizing were  the and  the  area".  The c h u r c h p a r i s h - h a l l o r p a r i s h h a l l ) was f o r many y e a r s  'Le Cercle' the  p e o p l e o f S t . L a u r e n t . One i n f o r m a n t practically  an  were  " M e t i s D a y s " , as p e o p l e w o u l d come f r o m a l l o v e r  camp i n t h e i r  be  especially i f  have n o t h i n g a g a i n s t  real  foot  c h i l d r e n . Women w o u l d  horses  And f o r a few y e a r s ,  that  some  and  r e c a l l e d the p o p u l a r i t y of  t r a c k w h i c h became d a n g e r o u s  injured.  people  featured races  and t u g - o - w a r .  The p i c n i c g r o u n d s  An e l d e r  races:  one o f t h e  the  o f h i g h w a y number s i x a c r o s s F r a n k D u c h a r m e ' s  horse  oval  It  i n the p r o v i n c e , horse  games and a m e r r y - g o - r o u n d f o r  in  F o r d a y s and w e e k s ,  the great day.  f o r people of a l l ages,  serve  event  a l l social  social  (French centre  reported  for for  the  that  a c t i v i t i e s were h e l d t h e r e :  from  card  128 parties  and b i n g o s ,  actees", church. whist  (acted  to bazaars  songs).  as t h e r e was a f r i e n d l y  socials friend bid  raise  and b a s k e t one t i m e ,  the  rivalry  socials.  related  sit  and e a t  for  like  late  moved o u t o f t h e  an e l d e r  liquor.  result,  and I had p u t  he d i d  not  i n so much  I had t o go and  it  and he was one  f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , w e d d i n g s and  socials  homes and i n t o c o m m u n i t y h a l l s where In S t . L a u r e n t ,  liquor  some p a r i s h -  f o r the use o f the  was " t h e i r '  noted  The p r i e s t  refused  to  lend the  some p a r i s h i o n e r s became somewhat  s t a t u s of the  that  St.Laurent.  their  especially after  parish hall!  That,  moment i n t h e  themselves  hall,  the p r i e s t  the m a t t e r .  all  pie  parish  f o r a f a m i l y w e d d i n g r e c e p t i o n w h i c h w o u l d have i n -  cluded  at  to  too much".  i o n e r s once a s k e d t h e p r i e s t  it  l a d y , because  h i m ! And w o r s e y e t ,  l i c e n s e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  hall  s o u t h end  " I r e a l l y g o t mad a t my b o y  w i t h t h e man who had b o u g h t  whom I d i d n o t In the  it  the  between  most money. T h e n , t h e r e were  h i g h e n o u g h t o buy my b a s k e t  time p r e p a r i n g  the  t h e p l a c e w o u l d be p a c k e d f o r  t h e p a r i s h i o n e r s o f t h e n o r t h end and o f t h e s e e who c o u l d  chansons  A l l o f t h e money w o u l d go t o  On Sunday n i g h t s ,  card-parties  and p l a y s o r " l e s  other  As a as t o  them  the  that  parishioners  exceeding his authority  in  a c c o r d i n g t o one i n f o r m a n t was a d e c i s i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between From t h e n o n ,  the  c h u r c h and t h e  he c o n t i n u e d ,  a community r e c r e a t i o n social  confused  he had t o l d  Furthermore,  was p e r h a p s  hall.  centre  the  people  people built  where t h e y now have  a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r i s h h a l l  deteriorated  129 and was e v e n t u a l l y t o r n down as t h e r e was no u s e f o r  it  anymore.  lke.JtLejLM The new c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n i t s beginnings  i n the  informant,  local  the  and s t o r a g e  area,  lowed a c a r p e n t r y found  their  centre  early seventies.  at  St.Laurent  According to  f i s h e r m e n wanted t o b u i l d  which they d i d a f t e r course.  But then,  b u i l d i n g somewhat  had  one  a fish  co-op  some o f them had  he c o n t i n u e s ,  fol-  they  too s m a l l f o r t h e i r  purpose.  So t h e y d e c i d e d t o t u r n t h e b u i l d i n g o v e r t o a c o m m i t t e e o f l o c a l people which, Committee.  The m o n i e s f o r  through a grant government, raised  the  Recreation Centre  completion of the p r o j e c t  o f t h e Manpower D e p a r t m e n t the  of the  l o c a l people  themselves  years  of hard work, the  Incorporated the  p l e who a r e  and t h e  elected  After  some  can-  fif-  St.Laurent Recreation Centre  was f o r m e d t o manage  arena  fund-  and a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g d o o r t o d o o r of l o t t e r y t i c k e t s .  came  provincial  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f money t h r o u g h l o c a l  v a s s i n g and s e l l i n g  hall,  became t h e  b u t more i m p o r t a n t ,  r a i s i n g s events  teen  in turn,  sports  the  recreation  grounds.  It  f o r a two-year term at  centre,  consists the  of  the peo-  annual p u b l i c  meeting. Today, centre. basis. ness:  different  g r o u p s make u s e o f t h e  S o c i a l s and w e d d i n g s a r e  h e l d t h e r e on a  V a r i o u s c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s meet f i s h e r m e n and t r a p p e r s  recreation  there for  reunions,  regular  their  political  busi-  rallies,  130 Manitoba Metis Federation  local gatherings,  women g r o u p s ,  and as one  not  forget  the  the L e g i o n ,  sports  informant  tournaments,  tournament  i n the  m i n o r and s e n i o r the  tractor  pull  summer.  In the  they used to f l o o d and b a r r e l s  the  snow o f f t h e  the  of  the  community  at  from the ctors  One e l d e r  r i n k i n the  hoses.  i c e w i t h wooden s c r a p e r s .  with  Today,  had t o  clean  The R e c r e a t i o n  the  catering  life  of the  to  service  events.  S t . L a u r e n t was t h e  i n the  transition  of the  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h government  trustees.  many nuns  not qua-  and  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r many v o l u n t e e r s  c o n c e s s i o n s t a n d s and f o r  As one i n f o r m a n t  school d i v i s i o n  added,  o l d days  Formerly, they  told  end o f t h e N u n s ' s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the  on-going  r e c a l l e d how  lified.  took over  c o u l d not  i n the  teach  who had t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s  school  me,  system  inspe-  through  t h a t marked  the  i n S t . L a u r e n t . When  early seventies,  h e r e anymore as  The s c h o o l d i v i s i o n  Metis  appointed  to s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  elected  horse-shoe  there are  and s m a l l w a t e r  Another s i g n i f i c a n t event people  winter,  arena.  sweeper.  Centre a l s o p r o v i d e s the work at  S p o r t s D a y s and  and p r o v i n c i a l  outdoor  of water  t h e y have an a u t o m a t i c the  " L e t us  h o c k e y and F i g u r e I c e S k a t i n g p r o g r a m s  annual c a r n i v a l , at  pails  said:  four weekly bingos!"  O t h e r community a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e the Ball  banquets,  accepted  they  only  r e c o g n i z e d by the  he were  teachers  P r o v i n c e . As  131 a result,  many o f t h e nuns g r a d u a l l y r e t u r n e d  n a t i v e province of A former wards the  year  school trustee reported  i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l d i v i s i o n .  ago, at  he c o n t i n u e d ,  s c h o o l . Today,  government  their  Quebec.  same a l l o v e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e  years  to  it  it  cost  that  there are  The s c h o o l p r o g r a m  adaptations  $1,500.00 per  locally.  i s more l i k e $ 4 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 w i t h  per the  p a y i n g 60% and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n t r i b u t i n g  Following  is table  community groups  6 with a l i s t  w h i c h have o p e r a t e d  in St.Laurent  today:  o f some o f and/or  are  the still  is Ten  student  r e m a i n i n g 40%.  operating  six  the  132  IabJLa_a Ahr.^: E : E x i s t ;  N.E.L. N o n - e x i s t i n g  E Lake Manitoba F i s h i n g Co-op Manitoba Metis Federation l o c a l Day C a r e C e n t r e , I n c . The S t . L a u r e n t R e c r e a t i o n C e n t r e A l c o h o l i c Anonymous M i n o r and S e n i o r h o c k e y Figure Skating Club Baseball D r i v e r s E d u c a t i o n Program  Inc  :  NJE  E :  x x x x x x x  x x x x x x x x x  x x  F o u r s t o r e s , two M e t i s owned T h r e e r e s t a u r a n t s , one M e t i s owned T h r e e g a r a g e s , none M e t i s owned One h o t e l , n o t M e t i s owned H a i r d r e s s e r and B o u t i q u e C r e d i t Union Municipal office  x  Parish Hall Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h E v a n g e l i c a l Church S e n i o r C i t i z e n ' s Lodge I n t e r l a k e Packers T o u r i s t B u r e a u and C r a f t s s h o p Collegiate Convent s c h o o l Simonet s c h o o l N un"s C o n v e n t Nun's residence Oblate F a t h e r ' s N o v i t i a t e Oblate Father's Rectory The S t . L a u r e n t A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t Volunteer F i r e Brigade Housing development  x x  x x  x x x x  x x x x x x x x x Corp.  IE  x x x x x x x x x x x x x  x  x  x x x x  x x x x  x  x x x x  133 Furthermore, the  St.  Laurent  t h e r e are  interests  l o c a l p e o p l e who now r e p r e s e n t  r e g u l a r l y on r e g i o n a l  committees  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Some o f t h e s e g r o u p s  1.  The I n t e r l a k e  Development Board  2.  The W e s t e r n I n t e r l a k e  3.  The Day C a r e C e n t r e  4.  The L a k e M a n i t o b a F i s h e r m e n and T r a p p e r A s s o c i a t i o n  5.  The L a k e M a n i t o b a R e c r e a t i o n D i s t r i c t C o m m i t t e e  6.  The L a k e M a n i t o b a F i s h i n g C o - o p  7.  The W h i t e H o r s e P l a i n  8.  The M a n i t o b a M e t i s F e d e r a t i o n  9.  The S t . L a u r e n t  Inc.  I n sum, d a t a r e v e a l s  in St.Laurent. activities  Planning D i s t r i c t  School D i v i s i o n Inc.  A r e a Development  a c t i v i t i e s nurturing  that  Corporation  family  and c o m m u n i t y  social relations  However,  are:  have a l w a y s  in recent years,  Sports days,  organized baseball  extended-family  gatherings  all  but d i s a p p e a r e d .  the  f a m i l y get  at  such  indicates progress  that  the  last  have f l o u r i s h e d needs.  Thus,  t h i r t y - f i v e years.  l o c a l people  in bettering  The  themselves  have of  events.  a l o t o f changes i n community f o r m a t i o n i n the  like  i m m e d i a t e members  c o m m u n i t y t o meet t h e new r e c r e a t i o n a l  in St.Laurent  have  C h r i s t m a s and New Y e a r s  Today, o n l y the  together for  events  and m i n o r h o c k e y .  D a t a shows t h a t many new g r o u p s  life  family-centered  s u c h as c a r d - p l a y i n g and c h i l d r e n ' s games  g r a d u a l l y g i v e n way t o c o m m u n i t y s p o n s o r e d  have been  abounded  in  the  there  and  social  The  table  have made s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e i r  community.  This  134 is  e s p e c i a l l y evident  development and  areas:  i n the  housing,  recreation  S e n i o r ' s Home, R e c r e a t i o n  Centre  arena. Another v i t a l  aspect of growth that  and more a p p a r e n t has been t h e residents Thus,  on c o m m i t t e e s  the people  isolated tatives the  and c o m m u n i t y  of the  research,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  affecting  the  of S t . L a u r e n t are  from the  rest  of the d i s t r i c t ,  f o r m u l a t i n g and t h e  local  r e g i o n as a w h o l e .  no l o n g e r  v i l l a g e now c o n t r i b u t e the  i s b e c o m i n g more  left  but  out  represen-  t o and p a r t i c i p a t e  o n l y the  v i l l a g e but  the  negative  self-image  themselves over the  life  thus overcoming the and o f t h e  v i l l a g e that  As a r e s u l t ,  the b a s i s  has e x p a n d e d  from b e i n g c e n t e r e d  of S t . L a u r e n t ,  environment  of the  the  of operation  had  of developed  to  the d a t a d i s c l o s e s t h a t  m i n d e d p e o p l e who, a t independence.  Thus i n the  community l i f e opposition,  but  complementary.  the  and  i n c l u d e now t h e w i d e r  exterior  region.  In the  pro-  t o m a i n t a i n and d e v e l o p  community r e l a t i o n s . the M e t i s are  M e t i s way o f l i f e are  values  r a t h e r t h e y go t o g e t h e r , in spite  a  Further-  a community-  same t i m e c h e r i s h t h e i r  independence  I n sum,  social interior  M e t i s have c o n t i n u e d their  of t h e i r  s o l e l y on t h e  d i s t r i c t and o f t h e  core c u l t u r a l element, more,  some p e o p l e  also  years.  environment  cess,  in  implementing of s o c i o -  economic p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g not region,  or  at  sense of  St.Laurent,  that are  they  not  in  are  o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n , many M e t i s  135 at  S t . L a u r e n t were a b l e t o r e t a i n  Metisness,  as m e n t i o n e d  above.  some v a l u e s o f  their  136  The  Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n  influence  on t h e  preliminary, presence  lives  we w i l l  has a l w a y s had a  of the M e t i s at  look b r i e f l y  of the p r i e s t s  at  St.Laurent.  the  and nuns t h e r e .  e x a m i n e some o f t h e  religious practices  the people at  at  home,  c h u r c h and i n t h e  the  l i f e - s p a n of the  the  e x e r c i s e of leadership  Metis played  informants. i n the  large As a  h i s t o r y of T h e n , we  the  will  and o b s e r v a n c e s school  of  throughout  Our a n a l y s i s w i l l c h u r c h and t h e  f o c u s on  role  the  therein.  ,!.!..L..a.JtI.iss.i.Q.n..l In  the  first  chapter  i t s unsual settlement  i t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t ,  pattern,  house  the n o r t h , left  in sight.  If  i n a moment,  the  pound.  to t h i s  (Fig. 2).  area  huge g r e y s t o n e  as  There  rose  the  c o n v e n t was t h e  to  t h e n o r t h was t h e  steeple elder.  "La M i s s i o n '  b u i l d i n g s on  school operated  Many an  or the  another,  towards the elder  by t h e m .  Richard,  c h u r c h was t h e  the  attached  A c r o s s the  c h u r c h whose two h u n d r e d f o o t  n o r t h of the  a  m i s s i o n com-  one t o house  one t i m e ,  was once p a i n t e d by C a l i x t e Then, j u s t  continued  a  s p l e n d o r and g r a n d i o s i t y  structures:  t o 30 a t  south end: not  attention.  in a l l their  stood four g i g a n t i c stone whose numbers  from the  same v i s i t o r  hand s i d e w o u l d c a t c h o n e ' s  referred  of  v i s i t o r s were s o m e t i m e s a t  l o s s when a p p r o a c h i n g t h e v i l l a g e single  because  nuns to road  high  a local  Metis  four-storey  137 Oblate Fathers' that  i t was,  N o v i t i a t e and r e s i d e n c e .  to say the  imposing s i g h t , w i t h the tecture  rest  least,  a most  An e l d e r  i m p r e s s i v e and  e s p e c i a l l y i f one compared t h e s e b u i l d i n g s  of the  residences  i n the v i l l a g e ,  o f w h i c h were f a r more m o d e s t .  feel  overwhelmed at  of the  t i m e s by the p r e s e n c e  power was s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e s e b u i l d i n g s .  to the  related  the  somewhat c h u r c h , whose  Yet  another  how v i s i t o r s w o u l d p a s s r e m a r k s a t  l o c a l people:  who r u n y o u r l i v e s  "I guess i t  here'  i s the p r i e s t s  they would say,  or  fact did  d i d t h e y n o t buy most o f t h e  was,  as one i n f o r m a n t s a i d ,  own a l o t o f l a n d .  example,  they bought  t h e y needed the  How e l s e  "these  w o r k e d f o r them f o r Today,  become o b s o l e t e . sixties. another  that, The  nuns  could they s u r v i v e ? For tracks  f o r the  l a k e was f o r t h e i r  wood  land west of  pastureland.  I k n o w " , he a d d e d ,  "because  I  two s u m m e r s " .  a l l t h e s e b u i l d i n g s have d i s a p p e a r e d .  d e s t r o y e d by f i r e ,  people  and t h e  t o h e a t a l l t h e i r b u i l d i n g s and t h e  " T h e y d i d have b i g f a r m s ,  nuns  land around h e r e ? '  the p r i e s t s  land east of the  highway towards the  times  and t h e  must have a l o t o f money t o have b u i l d i n g s l i k e besides,  archi-  Another elder  a d m i t t e d t h a t one c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t  informant  remarked  others  were t o r n down b e c a u s e  A new c h u r c h was c o n s t r u c t e d  Some were t h e y had  i n the  early  The o l d s c h o o l was r e p l a c e d b y t h e C o l l e g i a t e a t location.  The O b l a t e F a t h e r ' s  as many as t w e n t y - f i v e p e o p l e a t  N o v i t i a t e which  one t i m e ,  housed  i n c l u d i n g many  t r a i n i n g f o r t h e p r i e s t h o o d , moved o u t o f t h e v i l l a g e  in  138 1950.  No e x p l a n a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e p e o p l e  one r e s p o n d e n t formant  said,  b l u n t l y asked the q u e s t i o n :  entirely careless about  the  two t e a c h  what  about  what t h e  Novitiate closing its  Today,  priest  and n o b o d y e v e r  f o u r n u n s now l i v e  at  the  move,  knew why. One e l d e r "Were t h e O b l a t e  l o c a l people might  i n the  i t used to be",  rectory. stated  once w a s ; many p e o p l e  in-  Fathers feel  doors?" in a motel-style  residence,  t h e C o l l e g i a t e and one w o r k s i n t h e p a r i s h .  resides  b u t we l i v e  for  "The m i s s i o n compound  an e l d e r .  "It  i s not  One  ain't  like  it  have f o n d m e m o r i e s o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s ,  i n new t i m e s n o w " .  ReJLigJLQjyLS—^ The r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s people  at  catholic home,  St.Laurent  i n the  prayers,  like  the  of the  m e n t a l i t y and  the main d e v o t i o n  the Mother of God, w i t h the  the  l i t a n y of the  saints  centred  r e c i t a t i o n of  f a m i l i e s p r a c t i c a l l y every n i g h t . the  Metis  t i m e : d e v o t i o n a l and l e g a l i s t i c . A t  r e c a l l e d a respondent,  rosary  dead,  reflected  theology of the  around Mary,  and o b s e r v a n c e s  Other  and p r a y e r s  for  were a l s o common. The w a l l s were u s u a l l y c o v e r e d  many h o l y p i c t u r e s ,  sometimes,  her  to pray t o .  favourite  crucifixes  saint  and p a l m b r a n c h e s  prominent place "Of senior.  course,  i n the  the with  e a c h p e r s o n w o u l d have h i s One w o u l d a l s o  t a c k e d on t h e  or  notice  walls in a  house.  h o l y w a t e r was a l w a y s p l e n t i f u l " ,  "We w o u l d u s e  the  it  related  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g thunderstorms  a  and  139 lightning.  My w i f e w o u l d go a r o u n d t h e  the bedrooms,  before  that  i t was p r o t e c t i n g u s a g a i n s t the n i g h t ,  s i g n of the  w o u l d make t h e i r  prayers  People s t i l l  events  or F a t h e r P e y t o n ' s Crusade of the  in  them,  learned  rigidly  adhered  related  to.  the  atmosphere.  later  homes.  shrines',  in their  he had  as  they  backyards. were  habit  also  or  one f r o m t h e  sombre  the p a r i s h p r i e s t  would  o p p o r t u n i t y t o make h i s p a r i s h v i s i t s i n t h e  homes  during that  time.  of  and c l o t h i n g f a s h i o n s  the  fads  s u c h as the opening at  short the  He w o u l d r e m i n d t h e p a r i s h i o n e r s  cut  collar.  of one's  food  T h e r e w o u l d be no d a n c i n g n o r  to d i s t r a c t  Very o f t e n ,  Cape  t h a t a few f a m i l i e s  G i v i n g up y o u r f a v o u r i t e  any t y p e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t  rin-  R o s a r y . One man was p r o u d  how L e n t e n p r a c t i c e s  was u s u a l l y t h e m a i n p e n a n c e .  lenten  in their  of our Lady o f the  "family  i n a secluded spot  One i n f o r m a n t  convent b e l l  to the B l e s s e d Mother t h a t  S t . L a u r e n t had b u i l t s u c h  called  people  o r s t a t u e t t e s as s o u v e n i r s o f  s u c h as t h e v i s i t  in his backyard. I  Other  to  5:30 pm".  keep r e l i g i o u s a r t i f a c t s  t o show me a s m a l l g r o t t o  Also,  i t was a common p r a c t i c e  c o i n c i d e w i t h the  Many p e o p l e c h e r i s h c r o s s e s  built  place  the danger.  cross with holy water.  g i n g the Angelus P r a y e r at  religious  entire  in  e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d t h e w i n d o w s . We r e a l l y  r e t i r i n g for  make t h e  upstairs,  and d o w n s t a i r s and s p r i n k l e t h e  with holy water, believed  house,  that  sleeves  Of c o u r s e ,  of  take  some  s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , o r o f t o o much  no w a t e r n o r f o o d  could  be  140 taken after next  m i d n i g h t i f one w a n t e d t o go t o communion t h e  day. A t c h u r c h , t h e mass w o u l d be t h e most o b s e r v e d  ice.  Each f a m i l y p a i d f o r t h e i r  good r e a s o n  pew, and one had t o have a  t o m i s s mass on S u n d a y s . B e s i d e s , a t  t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n o f work on S u n d a y s as t h a t considered  t o be a s e r i o u s  An i n f o r m a n t in  the  last  religion  T h e r e was a t i m e ,  we knew what s i n w a s . The l a w made i t "But today, is  right.  I am n o t  P e o p l e seem t o do t h e i r  my m o t h e r  me my p r a y e r s ,  y o u n g p e o p l e do n o t It  the  changes  understanding  appealed  from t h e  religion  vocabulary.  only that,  they  " I n my d a y s ,  was s t r o n g a t  e v e n know t h e b a s i c  were n o t  home.  prayers to  at  people,  meat on F r i d a y s now?" A n o t h e r s e n i o r  a l l those  p e o p l e who s t i l l  " I have a h a r d  changes,  t h o u g h I have  time nothing  attend".  through t h e i r prayers  to the  had happened  e x p l a i n e d enough t o t h e  s i m p l y g a v e up g o i n g t o c h u r c h .  Thus,  everyone.  i s d i s t u r b i n g , many do n o t go o r do n o t want  " l i k e why c a n we e a t  against  for  i t ! " Another s a i d :  go t o c h u r c h on S u n d a y . Too many c h a n g e s once,  lot  one r e c a l l e d , when  own t h i n g , b u t n o t  away w i t h  anymore.  was  has c h a n g e d a  clear  has d i s a p p e a r e d  a l s o seem t o g e t  Today,  time,  t o o s u r e what s i n i s a n y m o r e . E v e r y b o d y  Good and e v i l  taught  that  sin.  observed that  few y e a r s .  pract-  supernatural  and r i t u a l s ,  world  f o r a i d and  Metis  people  protection.  141 Furthermore, the  religion  l i v e s of the  sanctioned  a wide range of conduct  M e t i s by p r o v i d i n g n o t i o n s o f r i g h t  in  and  wrong.  T h e r e were o t h e r Sometimes, priests elder. stir  t h e r e w o u l d be a p a r i s h r e t r e a t .  would preach The v i s i t  up t h e  i n the  of the  fervor  C h r i s t m a s and t h e spiritual  r e l i g i o u s events throughout  fervor  night  at  the  all  religion This  Mary,  or Cadets,  high school g i r l  as  good c o n d u c t  case today at related,  o f t h e y e a r was t h e  the  the  the  The  Croises  h e r e by t h e  o l d convent  movements nuns.  For  school,  and c a t e c h i s m were t a u g h t t h e r e on a r e g u l a r the  the  throughout  w h i c h were C a t h o l i c A c t i o n  i n the  there  a l o n g w i t h many s c h o o l  i n Quebec and b r o u g h t  As one e l d e r event  day o f the month,  as f o r m i n g h e r e n t o u r a g e .  t i m e t h e n u n s were  i s not  at  B e n e d i c t i o n every  of these s t u d e n t s belonged to the  originated the  the M i d n i g h t masses  last  crowning of a l o c a l  y e a r were now r e w a r d e d  that  would  t i m e when, d u r i n g t h e month o f  c h i l d r e n who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r  (crusaders)  r e c a l l e d an  Blessed Virgin  everyone would a t t e n d  Queen o f May, r e p r e s e n t i n g  majority  language,  the  prayer.  7 : 3 0 pm. T h e n , on t h e  w o u l d be t h e  Some o f  years.  H o l y Week s e r v i c e s were a l l t i m e s o f deep and  as a f a m i l y ,  s t a t u e of the  o f many p e o p l e ,  A woman remembers May,  Saulteaux  the  basis.  collegiate.  most b e a u t i f u l  religious  annual p r o c e s s i o n of the  Blessed  142  Sacrament  on t h e  feast  p r o c e s s i o n would s t a r t associations  of Corpus C h r i s t i i n s i d e the  of the p a r i s h ,  church with  T h e r e w o u l d be t h e  children  a l l dressed  casion. boys,  Then t h e mens g r o u p s ,  poplar  the  the  altar  congregation,  the  c h o i r , and f i n a l l y The p r o c e s s i o n  s a n g hymns and r e c i t e d t h e  The w h o l e a t m o s p h e r e  would  c o m m u n i t y . The a l t a r ,  decorated  and  as  peo-  l i t a n y of piety  temporary  where t h e r e w o u l d be B e n e d i c t i o n and s p e c i a l  the  oc-  the  w o u l d be one o f  The p e o p l e w o u l d w a l k t o a s p e c i a l  the  altar  a l l a l o n g the p r o c e s s i o n r o u t e ,  rosary,  Sacred Heart.  and r e v e r e n c e .  for  f o r the  a m i l e and t h e r e w o u l d be b r a n c h e s  trees planted  p l e r e c i t e d the the  l a d i e s of St.Anne,  c a r r y i n g the B l e s s e d Sacrament.  cover close to half  banner,  in special attire  t h e C r u s a d e r s and C a d e t s ,  priest  The  different  each w i t h t h e i r group  walking in order. of Mary,  held i n June.  prayers  with multicoloured  f l o w e r s was c o v e r e d w i t h an a r c h made o f l o c a l  trees  and  branches.  The s a c r a m e n t s events  i n the  life  of i n i t i a t i o n of the  were c o n s i d e r e d  individual  and o f t h e  b a p t i s m o f a b a b y was h e l d on Sunday a f t e r n o o n s , sacristy  of the  church. It  the  passage of the  child  the  new s t a t e o f a c h i l d  was a f a m i l y  from the  the  ceremony,  family. in  The  the  underlining  s t a t e of o r i g i n a l  sin  of God. S p e c i a l dresses f o r  b a b y were c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n f o r t h e After  affair,  important  to  the  occasion.  the g o d f a t h e r  was a l l o w e d t o  ring  143 the  church b e l l s  people the  and t o c e l e b r a t e t h a t  years o l d ,  first  h e l d at the  regular  was t w e l v e ,  for  as  marriage  the  child  reached  first  confession  recognized  that.  incorporated  reponsibilities  the  reception  informant  concluded,  of  the  priest sicki  an a s s u r a n c e o f g o i n g t o  the  sick.  ce-  to  it.  prepain  pre-  sacraments. people  i n these sacraments,  sacrament of the  sacrament of the  time  person  attached  of these  or  and  a  The nuns u s u a l l y p l a y e d a b i g r o l e  I know, t h e  would rush to get  seven  usually  B i s h o p , and t h e r e was a l o t  children for  and t h e  and  the  gave  Sunday m a s s e s . T h e n , by t h e  have a l w a y s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d  the  for  Church a l o n g w i t h the  p a r i n g the As f a r  "When t h e  An i n f o r m a n t  i t was t i m e f o r C o n f i r m a t i o n , t h e  officially  T h i s was done by t h e ration  a way t o n o t i f y  transition.  he p r e p a r e d  one o f t h e  child  the  as  communion. T h i s was a c o m m u n i t y e v e n t ,  remony t h a t in  l o n g as he w a n t e d  following description:  eight the  as  here,  along with  How o f t e n  people  t o come and g i v e an i l l p e r s o n  In the  heaven,  e y e s o f many, i f the  person  i t w o u l d be was  not  cured". Most M e t i s p e o p l e important  looked at  these r e l i g i o u s events  s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s  On one h a n d ,  they provided comfort  supernatural  a i d was made a v a i l a b l e  t i m e o f c r i s i s . On t h e in  fostering  cohesion  o t h e r hand,  social relations  i n the to  in their  belief  them,  and s o l i d a r i t y among t h e  lives.  that  especially  they played a large  and i n m a i n t a i n i n g Metis  people.  as  social  in role  144 administration A long time r e s i d e n t years,  t h e r e have been  administration St.Laurent. trustees, the  introduced. members  past,  who a s s i s t e d Then,  sixties,  said.  finances  "And I  the  same p e o p l e , that  learned  and m a i n t e n a n c e  a l o t about  parish.  of the  Now we have e l e c t i o n s church matters are are  o n l y by t h e attendance  more in  i n the  the  are  past.  prayer,  c h i l d r e n ; we work o f  on t h e  the  parish  more o p e n l y now, council,  open t o t h e  the  parish  accepted",  i n the  of the  a channel for people  administration  the  members  members  a l l meetings  "I  l i t u r g y and  priest  i s u s u a l l y 100%". T h u s ,  structure provides  of  exceptions.  know what a  administered  made by a l l t h e  priest,  w i t h some  and c a t e c h i s m f o r the  decisions  male  administration  t o be on i t .  met o n c e a month and a s s i s t e d  council,  at  p a r i s h c o u n c i l was  she d i d n o t  c o u n c i l was when she was phoned she  C a t h o l i c church  i n the  few  i t was m o s t l y n o n - M e t i s who were  and u s u a l l y t h e  A M e t i s woman r e p o r t e d  priest  last  the  t h e r e were two o r t h r e e  the  i n the  At f i r s t ,  i n the  some m i n o r c h a n g e s i n  and management o f t h e  In the  parish.  i n f o r m e d me t h a t  not  p u b l i c and  parish council today  to  and management o f t h e  participate church  than  145  Table 7 i l l u s t r a t e s place  i n the  leadership  some o f t h e  changes t h a t  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  have  of the  taken  parish.  TjaLhle_Z.  Power/Influence Admin1strat ion Decision-making Trustees Parish Council Religious Education Liturgy  Table 7 indicates power and i n f l u e n c e the  is  expressed  Ifldaz  Priests Priests Priests Yes No Priests/Nuns Priests/Nuns  Priest/People Priest/People Priest/People No Yes Priest/Nuns/People Priest/Nuns/People  that Metis people  i n the  C a t h o l i c Church at  This  Era=iaSfl  St.Laurent  by t h e i r  making process  at  also belong to  committees  Education their  the  and t h e r e b y  lives.  leadeship  the  participate  more  this  area.  that  church i s  there  pre-1950  s u c h as  more f u l l y  lay people-centered.  nevertheless  period.  decision-  Other  policies  only people  Metis people  the  pre-1950  i n the  level.  help formulate  t o new m e c h a n i s m s  Hence,  the  of  people  s u c h as L i t u r g y and R e l i g i o u s  Nowadays due  church.  than  parish council  in effect  more  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  participation  I n sum, d u r i n g t h e  and n u n s were  now e x e r c i s e  less  lots  the  priests  r u n n i n g the the  i n the  parish life  of  clergy-centered  Some p e o p l e is  era,  affecting  still  o f room f o r  parish.  council, the to-day  and  feel improvement  in  146  T a b l e 8 shows some o f t h e Metis people at  religious practices  of  the  S t . L a u r e n t , t h e n and now.  £xe.rl£L5ja  E A t home Family rosary Individual rosary Holy water Crucif ixes Holy P i c t u r e s Family grottos Priest visit A.t s.QhjpjpJL Daily catechism Catholic Action  X x  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X  At Church Sunday Mass Sacraments Processions Grotto M o n t h o f Mary Lenten Observances C h i l d r e n o f Mary Parish Retreats B i b l e study  The t a b l e s  X X  X X X X X X X X  X  X X  i n d i c a t e t h a t M e t i s people at  t r a d i t i o n a l peoples,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b e l i e f  religion  in supernatural  and t h r o u g h p r a y e r and r i t u a l  X X X X X X X X  X  have had a t r a d i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s As f o r o t h e r  M  E  Kfi  St.Laurent  for a long  time.  f o r the M e t i s b e i n g s and  is  forces  p r a c t i c e s people appeal to  the  s u p e r n a t u r a l world f o r a i d . Through the presence  and  influence  sanctioned  of the p r i e s t s  and n u n s ,  religion  also  the  147 a wide range of conduct of  right  for  the  p e o p l e by p r o v i d i n g n o t i o n s  and w r o n g .  D a t a shows t h a t many o f t h e i r practices  have b u t  catechism, lenten  know,  a l l disappeared:  catholic action,  observances,  observances  the  these p r a c t i c e s  l i v e s i s the  exist  The  process  influence secular  it  been d e f i n e d  secular  have  is possible  Sunday pictures  degree.  introduced  t h e nuns  and s e p a r a t e d  to  replaced.  holy  and t h e r e a r e  The in  o n l y few o f  also  study. taken place  l i v e s of the p e o p l e .  r e l i g i o u s spheres of the  in  The  Metis people  and e a c h o p e r a t e s f r o m  the  have  its  domain. also raises  the  issue  r i t u a l is a unifying  element  i s hereby c h a l l e n g e d by  are  equivalent  is  r o l e of  religion  of group  o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n  rituals  of the  The D u r k h e i m i a n v i e w t h a t  a traditional society) phenomenon  people  years,  once d i d o v e r t h e  in society.  religious  sacramental  to a lesser  o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n has  Secularization ritual  it  the  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h u r c h no l o n g e r e x e r c i s e s  and t h e  respective  the  Over the  a weekly B i b l e  St.Laurent.  as  daily  most o f  have n o t been  today but  family grotto  those i n existence.  rosary,  s u c h as p a r i s h r e t r e a t s and  o n l y new r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e  intiatiated  As f a r  u s e o f i t e m s s u c h as h o l y w a t e r ,  and c r u c i f i x e s s t i l l  their  family  month o f M a r y and some  and r i t u a l s  Other r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s  the  ritual  parish processions,  s u c h as c o n f e s s i o n s .  mass and t h e  traditional  or  identity the  whether  to r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s  o r do  (in  148 religious i.e.  r i t u a l s do t h e  unifying  element,  same t h i n g , p r o d u c e t h e  in a secular  context  to t h i n k that r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s p o i n t anything in a secular was t h a t  simply detracts St.Laurent,  to very l i t t l e  What D u r k h e i m f o r g o t  context.  the v a l u e of r i t u a l .  religion,  and i n t e g r a t e d  unifying data  in a secular  element).  i n the p a s t ,  their  life  With the  at  lives  disappeared religion  or t h a t  has become j u s t  have  before, terms  affairs  f o r example,  stronger church.  the  it  i s at  that of  constructive  o f the p a r i s h community than  ever  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n i n R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n and  some p e o p l e have d e v e l o p e d a  those  who a t t e n d  more o u t o f p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n or to  has  l e a d us t o b e l i e v e .  As a r e s u l t ,  For example,  or  a s t a n d s t i l l or  s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  sanctions  their  p r i v a t i z e d , as some p r o p o n e n t s  o f t h e p a r i s h as a w h o l e ,  in Liturgy.  lost  the  and o n l y a few new o n e s  T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e o p l e p l a y a more i n the  their  o f t h e M e t i s p e o p l e has d i s i n t e g r a t e d  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n would  role  in  (i.e.  H o w e v e r , t h a t d o e s n o t mean t h a t  altogether  o r no  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  v a l u e w h i l e some have been r e t a i n e d  religious  say  Metis of  same t i m e  c o n f i r m s t h a t many r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s  have s u r f a c e d .  to  little  was i n t e g r a t e d  advent  if  Secularization  For the  the  effect  ? I am i n c l i n e d  r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s s i m p l y l o s e o r have  meaning ( o r f o r c e )  life  context.  same  fulfill  than  the  c h u r c h t o d a y do so s i m p l y out of f e a r  a purely legal obligation.  of  149 Thus, the  religion  continues to p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e  l i v e s of the M e t i s  past,  but  today,  i n S t . L a u r e n t as  has done i n  the  w i t h new e x p r e s s i o n s and new d i m e n s i o n s . So  much so t h a t I w o u l d a r g u e remains understood Metis.  it  in  that  religion  has a l w a y s been and  as a c o r e c u l t u r a l v a l u e i n t h e  l i v e s of  150  The  aim of t h i s  s e c t i o n i s to d e s c r i b e  the p o l i t i c a l  life  of the M e t i s people at  with religion  i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ,  framework f o r our d i s c u s s i o n w i l l and e x e r c i z e d by t h e M e t i s . the  St.Laurent.  the  be l e a d e r s h i p  We w i l l  look at  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the M e t i s  process,  Metis people c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power and p o l i t i c a l extent  affected with  their  informants  archival  At  lives.  research  field,  1881.  peoples, such.  from t h e  Perhaps,  lives,  of data  which  how much  and t o  what  observation  leadership  of the  at  St.Laurent.  time they a r r i v e d there c i r c a that  like  (1985:  529)remarks:  internalized, b u i l t into  other  at  1824  to  traditional as  c o n t r o l s may  Built-in  r e l y on s u c h d e t e r r e n t s as p e r s o n a l shame and f e a r punishment".  records  organizations  "Social  individuals.  that  and  Metis people  t h e M e t i s had no f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l  supernatural  the  include interviews  participant  one c a n assume  As H a v i l a n d  to  the  In  we have no k n o w l e d g e o f e x i s t i n g  d e p i c t i n g the p o l i t i c a l St.Laurent,  extent  of the m u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s  t h e moment,  g i v e n to  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process  The s o u r c e s  i n the  h i s t o r y of  affairs.  i n f l u e n c e they possessed  they p a r t i c i p a t e d  as p e r c e i v e d  the  in its  I hope t o s h e d some l i g h t on t h e  As  theoretical  rural municipality with special attention  degree  be  some a s p e c t s o f  controls of  151 St.Laurent  has a l o n g h i s t o r y o f m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s .  The l o c a l m u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s first  incorporated  on M a r c h 2 5 ,  was h e l d on J a n u a r y  17,  O M I , was e l e c t e d  served  thirteen  Devlin,  years.  Pierre Richard,  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y was  1881 and t h e  1 8 8 2 . A man o f t h e  Mulvihill, for  show t h a t  first  c l o t h , Brother  Reeve b y a c c l a m a t i o n , The c o u n c i l l o r s were  Council of  the  for  Depression years,  H.W. C o n n e l l y ,  years  until  under  an I r i s h m a n ,  1975, or f o r  no e l e c t e d  Reeve and C o u n c i l  at  a Reeve and  financial  was r e e v e  the next  at  the  f o r t y - s i x years, St.Laurent,  In  1972,  the  to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r r e g a r d i n g  B o a r d had no p o w e r ,  people  take  much i n t h e  that  the  were  issues  local  recommenaffecting  the  the  administrator Many  power was c o n c e n t r a t e d  hands o f one i n d i v i d u a l .  of  an  A d v i s o r y Board s a i d .  political  there  o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The  s a i d an i n f o r m a n t ,  o r l e a v e what t h e  thought  affairs  that  government.  up t o a d v i s e and t o make  l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e  could  provincial  From  affairs  an A d v i s o r y B o a r d composed o f t h r e e  M e t i s p e o p l e was s e t dations  by the  eve  bankruptcy.  time.  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y were managed by one man o n l y , appointed  an  1 9 2 9 , when, on t h e  i t declared  year u n t i l  administrator  he  J e a n M o i s e D u c h a r m e , Damase B o y e r ,  the m u n i c i p a l i t y operated forty-eight  and  J.  Daniel  P i e r r e C h a b o y e r and P i e r r e L a v e r d u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o informant,  meeting  As one  informant  too  152 stated:  "The a d m i n i s t r a t o r  had a l l t h e power o f d e c i s i o n -  making,  one p e r s o n  entire municipality'.  ran the  Nonetheless, the  suggestion  council  administrator  at  the  time,  of c o n s i d e r i n g b r i n g i n g back the  system.  the d a r k '  the  "At f i r s t " ,  d e c i s i o n s were made and we were n e v e r have a s a y i n what Besides,  it  A respondent  Metis people brought Metis Federation  attributes  about  its  the  among t h e foundation  leadership  creation  an  Metis to  the  among  of the Manitoba  local. f r a m e w o r k where t h e r e was no  M e t i s sought  v i e w s w o u l d be h e a r d  government  by t h e  from a p o l i t i c a l  participation,  the  Council".  consciousness  growing awareness of p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l  their  i s going on.  A d v i s o r y B o a r d c a n be q u a l i f i e d as  o f a new p o l i t i c a l  St.Laurent.  Hence,  Now, we  was m o s t l y M e t i s p e o p l e w h i c h s t a r t e d  The work o f t h e  at  l i v e s and  consulted.  Reeve and  "in  St.Laurent.  our  i s g o i n g on and we know what  A d v i s o r y Board which l e d to the  indication  "We were  here i n  D i s c u s s i o n s t o o k p l a c e on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g  to  Reeve and  added an i n f o r m a n t ,  as t o what was g o i n g on r i g h t  was open  and d e a l t  which represented  B o a r d was a s t e p p i n g - s t o n e  t o c r e a t e mechanisms  them.  l i v e s through e f f e c t i v e  w i t h a c c o r d i n g l y by a  I n sum,  the  Advisory  to achieve a M u n i c i p a l  G o v e r n m e n t where t h e y w o u l d r e g a i n  whereby  the  c o n t r o l of  form of their  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  153  On M a r c h 1 9 , Council  the  in f o r t y - s i x years  presentative the  1975,  from the  erations  as a f o r m e r  oath.  to e x i s t thanked  f o r sound f i n a n c i a l  smooth t r a n s i t i o n  had assisted  i t s w o r k and  i n d e v e l o p i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g i t s  Administrator  He a l s o  c o u n c i l l o r t o l d me,  Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  A re-  of Municipal A f f a i r s  sworn under  The A d v i s o r y B o a r d c e a s e d the  St.Laurent.  in formulating guidelines for  and,  council  e l e c t i o n o f Reeve and  took p l a c e at  Department  Reeve and C o u n c i l l o r s  the C o u n c i l  first  op-  he h e l p e d  the  own b y - l a w s .  at  the  that point  and  out-going  management  and f o r  f r o m one f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t  to  a  another.  S t . L a u r e n t became once a g a i n a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y with  its  elected  Reeve and  Council.  IJmJ£uj3i..c^ There are  s i x wards  in St.Laurent, reported,  north,  they are  and M e t i s p e o p l e other  small hamlet, elected  s o u t h and c e n t e r ,  have a l w a y s r e p r e s e n t e d  the  s i x m i l e s n o r t h of the  first  informant  by M e t i s  people  these wards.  The  e a s t w a r d and t h e Oak P o i n t w a r d ,  representatives  the  three  composed m a i n l y o f n o n - M e t i s p e o p l e .  Municipal elections vals,  and as an  predominantly populated  t h r e e wards are  The b e a c h w a r d ,  i n the p r e s e n t M u n i c i p a l i t y ,  i n 1975,  village,  ( n o n - M e t i s ) on t h e have t a k e n . p l a c e the  second  a  have t h e i r own  Council. at  i n 1977,  regular the  inter-  third  in  154 1980,  the  person  fourth  was e v e r  i n 1983 and t h e elected  as  Housing,  under  the  as many as s e v e n  Reeve and C o u n c i l .  Transportation,  A m b u l a n c e and F i r e ,  Recreation,  The W e s t e r n  the  Interlake  the  percentage of the  i n 1986.  sub-committees  These  Social  Interlake  are  Assistance,  P l a n n i n g B o a r d and  people  of St.Laurent  Social Assistance,  who a r e  t h i r t y y e a r s ago,  the  the  percentage  the  same p o p u l a t i o n . interval,  the  than  for  Interlake  A respondent s t a t e d :  we h e l d h e a r i n g s land,  for  recreational, included  to set  example,  the  the  process  and  today,  v i l l a g e s with  and S i g l u n e s ,  to' f o r m  "We had a d e v e l o p m e n t  i n towns,  in r u r a l areas, z o n i n g of the  for  industrial,  the  beach areas i n  to plan  zoning of  residential  farm or r e s i d e n t i a l .  and the  and  This  also  St.Laurent".  in municipal p o l i t i c s , I  asked  what w o u l d be some a d v a n t a g e s and w e a k n e s s e s  p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l form of government  St.Laurent.  that,  B o a r d and r e p o r t e d  up g u i d e l i n e s  H a v i n g had no e x p e r i e n c e an i n f o r m a n t  any o t h e r  he  P l a n n i n g D i s t r i c t . Two c o u n c i l l o r s  f r o m e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y formed t h e Council.  on  M u n i c i p a l i t y j o i n e d w i t h two  neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Coldwell Western  but  p e r c e n t a g e was v e r y h i g h ,  i s no h i g h e r  about  he s a i d t h a t  was i n no p o s i t i o n t o d i s c l o s e s u c h f i g u r e s ,  the  the  D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n . When I e n q u i r e d  W e l f a r e and who r e c e i v e  In the  No M e t i s  Reeve. A former c o u n c i l l o r  i n f o r m e d me t h a t t h e r e a r e operating  fifth  "Heavy b u r e a u c r a c y " ,  and i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  for  he r e m a r k e d ,  the  people  at  " i s a slow  a drawback of t h i s  form of  in  155 government, for  the  but t h e n " ,  councillor  he c o n t i n u e d ,  "the  t o be c l o s e t o t h e  structure  allows  constituents,  he c a n  meet t h e p e o p l e o f h i s ward and c o n s u l t them e v e r y d a y i f he w a n t s t o . perfect,  The p r e s e n t  structure,  i s good t o a n s w e r o u r n e e d s a t  At f i r s t ,  practically  the  "I,  fully  for one,"  how a  stated  a  long-time resident  and f o r m e r c o u n c i l l o r ,  the people educate  t h e m s e l v e s on m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t .  example, the  how d o e s t h e  the g e n e r a l t a x or s p e c i a l t a x a levy, tax, or  "wanted t o  s y s t e m w o r k ? What i s t h e  f u n d i n g and t h e b u d g e t ? How d o e s t h e  an a s s e s s m e n t ,  like  important questions t h e y want t o v o t e  s c h o o l s ? What  i n the  s c h o o l or n o t .  These  of  age  are  t o w h i c h p e o p l e have t o have a n s w e r s  if  well". t h a t t h e r e was o n l y a b o u t  of the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t voted at  simply not  interested,  others  understand  the  I n many c a s e s ,  v o t e on w h e t h e r  is  where d o e s t h e money g o ? The s c h o o l  My i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l s percent  For  operate,  f o r e x a m p l e i s p a i d by a l l c i t i z e n s , r e g a r d l e s s  i f one has c h i l d r e n  help  structure,  tax system  f o r the  not  moment".  some p e o p l e d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d  m u n i c i p a l government f u n c t i o n e d .  though  issues. they  "liked'  first.  fifty  Some were  admitted they d i d not people based  a candidate  or not  their  rather  on  what t h e p e r s o n c o u l d a c t u a l l y d o . He c o n c l u d e d b y s a y i n g t h a t most p e o p l e p r e f e r  t o go d i r e c t l y t o t h e i r  councillor  156 to complain  i n s t e a d of speaking i n f r o n t  of the  entire  council. In the  c o u r s e o f my f i e l d - w o r k ,  some o f t h e p r e s e n t  I was f o r t u n a t e  and f o r m e r c o u n c i l l o r s .  o u t what made them d e c i d e t o r u n f o r t h e cillor  was u p p e r m o s t  i n my m i n d .  s p e a k t o one o r two b a s i c information.  said  anything to us.  other.  o u t how a  us or e x p l a i n e d  I  learned that  one m a n " . I a l s o  f o r the  lawyer to a s s i s t  he s t i l l  has t o be i n t e r e s t e d  sub-division the  c o u n c i l understand "After  this  operate i n the  the  first  future.  Municipal Affairs  are  asked  and be  of land,  legal  than  as  "For  we had t o h i r e  m u n i c i p a l i t y and t o make t h e  a  entire  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s u c h an i s s u e  experience,  .  we w o u l d know how t o  T o d a y , I have a good i d e a what a l l about,  and p r o b l e m s a f f e c t i n g t h e a little  run  t h o u g h he may s i t  k n o w l e d g e a b l e as he c a n on a l l a s p e c t s o f an i s s u e . example,  people's  i n one a r e a o f g o v e r n m e n t more  He r e p l i e d t h a t a c o u n c i l l o r ,  on a s u b c o m m i t t e e ,  the  of the m u n i c i p a l i t y are b e t t e r  by s i x e l e c t e d p e o p l e t h a n b y j u s t him i f he was i n t e r e s t e d  to  " I n e v e r knew b e f o r e " ,  "Nobody e v e r t o l d  affairs  find  of coun-  Now we p u b l i s h a l l t h e m i n u t e s o f  and t h e  meet  i n e x p e r i e n c e and l a c k o f  c o u n c i l meeting f o r everyone to see.  the  office  A l l s a i d t h e y were c u r i o u s t o f i n d  a respondent.  business  To t r y and  T h e i r a n s w e r s seemed  issues:  m u n i c i p a l government f u n c t i o n e d .  to  i t deals mainly with  c o m m u n i t y , and I am a l s o  b i t o f what t h i s game o f p o l i t i c s  is a l l  issues  learning  about".  157  Another c o u n c i l l o r i n s i d e the  council  said that  room and f i n d  he a l w a y s w a n t e d t o  get  o u t what was g o i n g on  there.  "We n e v e r g o t any i n f o r m a t i o n o f what was g o i n g on i n  there.  I guess  that wanting to f i n d  o u t what g o e s on a t  c o u n c i l m e e t i n g and w a n t i n g t o be p a r t interested  me t h e most  a  o f i t was what  i n w a n t i n g t o become a  councillor".  -Sr m -^n 3^ yi 3» n What a b o u t experience  c a m p a i g n i n g ? I e n q u i r i e d . He d e s c r i b e d  i n the  f o l l o w i n g way: " I was " g r e e n ' ,  know what I was g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d but  I n e v e r made any p r o m i s e s ,  do my b e s t  I d i d not  i n . I went d o o r t o  a l l I s a i d was t h a t  i f e l e c t e d and i t was up t o t h e p u b l i c  polities'.  informant,  " t h i s w o u l d be  One c a n make p r o m i s e s and t h e n  i s n o t e a s y t o c a r r y them o u t .  Because i t  find  door, I  to  I n e v e r s a i d , v o t e f o r me and I ' l l do t h i s o r t h a t According to another  his  would decide.  for you".  "petty out  that  i s one t h i n g  it to  s a y t o t h e p e o p l e t h a t y o u a r e g o i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g , b u t is a different room. F i r s t , your f e l l o w  y o u have t o s t a r t councillors'  an e a s y t a s k . like for  b a l l - g a m e once you get  b y c o n v i n c i n g and  support  There are p r e s s u r e  anywhere e l s e , or a g a i n s t  that  an i s s u e  inside that  and t h a t  i s not  groups w i t h i n  individual  councillors  i s normal procedure.  council getting necessarily  council take  s u g g e s t i o n or recommendation".  just  sides,  Furthermore,  C o u n c i l does not n e c e s s a r i l y or a u t o m a t i c a l l y approve councillor's  it  one  158 At e l e c t i o n t i m e , Some go d o o r - t o - d o o r , the  s t o r e s or at  king telephone times  they  councillors visit  the p o s t - o f f i c e ,  w h i l e o t h e r s get  c a l l s asking people  for  have t o w n - h a l l m e e t i n g s  especially for  admitted  that  the  their  support.  w i t h a l l the  e l e c t i o n campaign,  candidates candidate  friends.  mood o f t h e p e o p l e  an i n f o r m a n t  "Would y o u s a y t h a t "Yes t h a t  is  there  it",  i s some t e n s i o n  he r e p l i e d .  and a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e  during  s a i d that people  t o become s t r a n g e r s f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e d u r i n g an  tension  Some-  he d i d v e r y l i t t l e c a m p a i g n i n g , he s i m p l y  on h i s e x i s t i n g n e t w o r k o f  I asked.  at  b u s y ma-  p o s i t i o n o f R e e v e . One  To i n q u i r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e the  constituents.  o t h e r s r e l y m o s t l y on c a s u a l v i s i t s  present,  relied  their  "There  seemed  election.  i n the is a  air?",  certain  b u t w i t h no i l l f e e l i n g s  d u r i n g an e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n t h a t d e v e l o p s ,  even  between  friends". A younger c o u n c i l l o r r e p o r t e d receptive. didate  They a s k e d q u e s t i o n s  to support,  people got  involved  twenty-seven  years  subcommittees. again.  spend s u f f i c i e n t  i t was a b o u t  in local municipal p o l i t i c s . old then,  I worked a l o n e ,  b o r n and r a i s e d  t h e p e o p l e were  s u c h as w h i c h r e e v e  while others said  I would not  t h i n k I understood  that  the  here.  and was e l e c t e d  change  very  can-  time young "I  was  and s a t  on two  a n y t h i n g i f I were t o  run  I had no c o m m i t t e e w o r k i n g f o r me. p e o p l e o f my w a r d r a t h e r w e l l , When I f o u n d o u t  I c o u l d no  t i m e w i t h my c o n s t i t u e n t s ,  I  I was  longer  I p u l l e d out.  It  159 was a p e r s o n a l and e n r i c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e b e c a u s e ways d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Having myself t h i r t y years, g a r d i n g the  public".  been away from t h e v i l l a g e  s t a t e of p o l i t i c s  w o u l d seem,  rested  al-  f o r more  than  I a d m i t t e d my i g n o r a n c e t o my i n f o r m a n t s  they d e s c r i b e the It  we a r e  interest  of the  one r e l a t e d ,  more i n m u n i c i p a l  there,  so I s u g g e s t e d  l o c a l people  in  that politics.  that people g r a d u a l l y got  life,  for  the  re-  simple reason  intethat  t h e y a r e more i n f o r m e d o f what was g o i n g o n . T h e y c o u l d follow their  the development of p r o j e c t s lives.  T h i s was n o t t h e  "Metis people",  he s a i d ,  case under the  it  announces  the date of the  in  i s the  secretary  electors'  Following day at  called  if  n o t be  elections. Posters  are  returning  station  I started  consecutive years. polling  station,  started  at  misled".  that distributed  officers  d e s c r i p t i o n of a t y p i c a l at  voting  S t . L a u r e n t as p r o v i d e d b y a l a d y f o r many y e a r s .  A friend  h e r t o v o l u n t e e r as c l e r k on e l e c t i o n d a y ,  accepted.  given  list.  is a brief  a polling  administrator.  of the M u n i c i p a l i t y  who has w o r k e d t h e r e as a c l e r k  "I  they w i l l  t h e p o s t - o f f i c e and s t o r e s and t h e  r e v i s e the  affecting  "learn p o l i t i c s quickly  the o p p o r t u n i t y , people are smart, Normally,  and s t u d i e s  she  i n 1975 and I d i d my j o b f o r  The R e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e  said.  ten  would s e r v e as  a  L a u r e n t i a B e a c h w o u l d a l s o have t h e i r s . We  7 : 3 0 am u n t i l  boxes w i t h w i t n e s s e s  1 0 : 0 0 pm. We a r r a n g e d  to check the  t h e m . My main j o b was t o t a k e  the  ballot  empty b o x e s and t h e n  lock  t h e names o f t h e p e o p l e who  160 came i n t o v o t e and t o c h e c k i f t h e i r ion  list.  or around the  asked her  polling station said  to  supper  take  It  i f they encountered  any p r o b l e m s a t  and a s k e d h e r t o m e n t i o n t h e m ,  a l s o happened  an o a t h .  we c o u l d accommodate  p e o p l e who c o u l d n o t r e a d n o r w r i t e , physically  handicapped.  the  ballots.  all  over again,  At the  as w e l l  S o m e t i m e s , we made e r r o r s under  as  end o f t h e d a y ,  the  i f any.  refused  the  few  the we c o u n t e d  and we had t o  t h e w a t c h f u l eye o f  She  regis-  a few t i m e s t h a t one o r two  "Of c o u r s e ,  at  hour".  some p e o p l e came t o v o t e w i t h o u t h a v i n g f i r s t  tered.  elect-  M o s t p e o p l e come t o v o t e e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g ,  noon and a t I  name was on t h e  start  witnesses".  Sjojaei_dis^j^^ Some i n f o r m a n t s the work o f the stated,  expressed  m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the  " A s s o o n as someone w a n t s  municipality overtaxes  him f o r t h e  do n o t seem t o want t o s e e people develop t h e i r another  their dissatisfaction  informant  of Tourism to t e l l encourage  area.  to s t a r t least  respondent  a business,  little  "It  t h e p e o p l e t o do s o m e t h i n g .  and e v e n p u s h f o r d e v e l o p m e n t .  show i n i t i a t i v e and need t h e i r  local  W h y ? " . And a g a i n ,  i s n i c e f o r the  support,  the  t h i n g . They  S t . L a u r e n t develop or  own b u s i n e s s e s .  remarked:  One  with  as  Department They  B u t when  people  they are not  around  t o d e l i v e r . S t . L a u r e n t has had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f b e i n g i g n o r e d and n e g l e c t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s .  Why?"  .161 Another village  informant said  that  the wards w i t h i n  o f S t . L a u r e n t have o n l y f i v e  m i l e s of m u n i c i p a l  b u t r e c e i v e h a r d l y any p u b l i c s e r v i c e s w h i l e t h e wards i n the  rest  three  still like  l i g h t s and b e t t e r pay t a x e s  anyone e l s e .  he  roads,  and t h e p e o p l e o f S t . L a u r e n t  Why c a n ' t  as t h e s e o t h e r w a r d s o f t h e  Municipality  face  i t " , stated  an i n f o r m a n t ,  "the  a c c o r d i n g t o some r e s i d e n t s ,  municipality  because  t h e y do n o t want t h e i r t a x e s  do  simply  t o go u p . A c c o r d i n g  t h e Annex A , UPDATED COMMUNITY P R O F I L E ,  to  c o m p i l e d by S a n d r a  o f t h e HKL & A s s o c i a t e s L t d o f W i n n i p e g , states:  Further-  some b e a c h r e s i d e n t s  n o t want t o s e e S t . L a u r e n t d e v e l o p e c o n o m i c a l l y  report  just  the wards o f S t . L a u r e n t r e c e i v e  d o e s n o t work f o r t h e w a r d s o f t h e M e t i s p e o p l e " .  Funk,  pick-up,  asked?  "Let's  more,  other  f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s i n t h e s e o t h e r wards  t h e same b e n e f i t s do,  road  o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y have o v e r one h u n d r e d  m i l e s o f r o a d and t h e y have s e r v i c e s l i k e g a r b a g e street  the  1987,  the  "The c o m m u n i t y o f S t . L a u r e n t , l i k e many o t h e r  s m a l l r u r a l M a n i t o b a c o m m u n i t i e s has e x p e r i e n c e d a d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n over the was 1 , 6 7 6 , census  last  20 y e a r s .  i n 1981 i t was 1,114  and i n t h e most  t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t was 1 , 1 1 9 .  numbers do n o t  recent  These p o p u l a t i o n  i n c l u d e t h e s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s who l i v e  the v a r i o u s cottage population  I n 1968 t h e p o p u l a t i o n  developments i n the area.  I n summer  in the  i n c r e a s e s d r a m a t i c a l l y . The e s t i m a t e d number o f  available subdivision approximately  1,000  cottage  lots  have c o t t a g e s  i n 1987 i s  1,150  and  on t h e m . The S t . L a u r e n t  162 Municipal Office resident  1986 v o t e r s  eligible voters.  i n the  v a r i e s from  of changes  upon a t i m e , there,  for kid,  the beaches  told  affair. the  resident,  me,  i n the  the  case  f o r the  "The b e a c h e s  today.  ten y e a r s .  t o go and swim Access to  that  As an a  there.  anymore  Where as  I think",  he  a  con-  " i t i s m o s t l y c i t y p e o p l e who have p u r c h a s e d  the  and  they  them". Another informant p o i n t e d  the beach p e o p l e ,  anyone e l s e  pri-  I c a n n o t b r i n g my own  same p l a c e t o d a y .  make a l o t money s e l l i n g  like  the  l o c a l people today.  l a n d t h e r e and some have d e v e l o p e d l o t s f o r s a l e  out t h a t  Once  have become s t r i c t l y  I u s e d t o go and p l a y t h e r e ,  tinued,  last  T h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y no p u b l i c b e a c h e s  at  to  t h e r e have b e e n a  l o c a l p e o p l e who have no c o t t a g e s  grandchildren  and  1,119 y e a r r o u n d  l o c a l p e o p l e had e a s y a c c e s s  is very d i f f i c u l t  informant vate  at  which i s s i m p l y not  beaches  non-  summer m o n t h s " .  According to a l i f e - l o n g lot  i n c l u d e s 1,192  The c o m b i n e d p e r m a n e n t  seasonal population estimate over 3,000  list  nonetheless,  pay a l l the  taxes  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y even though t h e y  t h e r e o n l y d u r i n g the  summer months and on w e e k - e n d s .  pay the p r o p e r t y t a x ,  the  s c h o o l t a x and t h e  lived "They  a s s e s s m e n t . As  private  cottage-owners  and t a x - p a y e r s  t h e y have  elected  representative  on t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l  their and  as  members o f a w a r d i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t h e y c a n w e l l do what seems b e s t f o r t h e m s e l v e s j u s t  way:  like  anybody e l s e " .  A s e v e n t y - f i v e year o l d s e n i o r c a n d i d l y put  it  "The o l d g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e me f o u g h t  things  to get  this go-  163 ing of  and t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l .  l e t go and t h i n g s g o t bad h e r e f o r  years,  we d i d n o t  decisions for us.  administrator  made a l l  the  t u r n of the  t h e y had l e a d e r s h i p  at  Meanwhile,  p e r i o d between people at  the p e r i o d of  the  thirties  i n the  council, the  is  picking  This  senior  c e n t u r y up t o t h e the m u n i c i p a l  level  'his generation'  and s i x t i e s ,  s e c t i o n on S o c i a l  late  integrated  the  S t . L a u r e n t had no e l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l  was m e n t i o n e d  sort  as t h e M e t i s p e o p l e o f  t h e y e n j o y e d a p r o d u c t i v e economy h i g h l y land.  and  i s a v e r y good s i g n " .  "old generation'  St.Laurent before twenties:  reeve  Now, t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n  t h i n g s up a g a i n and t h a t r e f e r r i n g to  my g e n e r a t i o n  a w h i l e . F o r many  have o u r own e l e c t e d  the government-appointed  is  But then,  Life,  and to  is  the  the  t i m e when  the  l e a d e r s h i p . As t h e r e were many  social  and e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . When he  speaks  of the  people of the  "younger g e n e r a t i o n ' , seventies  able to express  he i s r e f e r r i n g t o  and e i g h t i e s who a g a i n have  their political  will  and  the  been  leadership.  Itajliijg.bj3.„^  Another form o f p o l i t i c a l people at ration. local  involvement f o r the  Metis  S t . L a u r e n t was t h r o u g h t h e M a n i t o b a M e t i s  I n 1970, the  M e t i s people at  Fede-  S t . L a u r e n t formed a  o f t h e M a n i t o b a M e t i s F e d e r a t i o n . The p e o p l e u s e d  vehicle  to express  their  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c n e e d s and  w i t h v a r i o u s departments of the government ectuate necessary  changes  in order  this  negotiate to  eff-  f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e comrau-  164 nity. for  In S t . L a u r e n t ,  the  the  establishment  Housing P r o j e c t "Metis days'  Metis  of the C r e d i t U n i o n ,  of the  and c o m m u n i t y p i c n i c s . As we c a n  i t s goals  cultural  and e c o n o m i c a s w e l l .  are  not  i s the p r o v i n c i a l  Manitoba.  It  Low-Cost  only " p o l i t i c a l '  the  readily  but  social,  The M a n i t o b a M e t i s  Federation  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the M e t i s of  was f o r m e d  seven r e g i o n s  responsible  and v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s s u c h as  observe,  Inc.  l o c a l was p a r t l y  operating  i n 1967 i n W i n n i p e g .  Today,  in Manitoba with a t o t a l  it  of  has  147  locals. In t u r n ,  the  Manitoba Metis Federation  the M e t i s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of  Canada's  alliance tis of  Metis people.  of f i v e  (MNC) w h i c h i s t h e n a t i o n a l F o u n d e d i n 1 9 8 3 , The MNC i s  Metis associations  from the  homeland i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a . A c c o r d i n g t o Fall  1 9 8 4 , MNC has  129 i n S a s k a t c h e w a n ,  Ontario.  Finally,  Indigenous  nization  the  cendants of the lived  original  t h e r e p r i o r to the  Indigenous  Newsletter 100 i n  Council orga-  i n the world to the  with des-  of a g i v e n c o u n t r y ,  a r r i v a l of the  of the  World  here r e f e r s  inhabitants  have r e m a i n e d t h e r e b u t who have n a t i o n a l government  its  i n Canada i n 1975. T h i s  r e p r e s e n t s over twenty c o u n t r i e s  indigenous populations.  an  147 i n M a n i t o b a and 26 i n  MNC i s a member o f t h e  P e o p l e s founded  voice  h i s t o r i c a l Me-  14 l o c a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  Alberta,  of  i s a member o f  c o l o n i a l powers  l i t t l e o r no v o i c e i n  s t a t e or s t a t e s  i n which  e x i s t i n g network of Indigenous  and the  they  live. Through the  who  organi-  165 zations,  many M e t i s p e o p l e o f S t . L a u r e n t now f e e l a  d a r i t y with other their  province,  Metis peoples  and t o a l e s s e r  C a n a d a and o t h e r  opportunity  C a n a d i a n way o f tically  life.  isolated  own p o l i t i c a l  and o f t h e i r  i n the  This p o l i t i c a l  the  region,  life  Metis.  their  St.Laurent  of the m u n i c i p a l i t y own o r g a n i -  t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e M e t i s at  of  their  country.  St.Laurent  r e g i o n a l l y and n a t i o n a l l y c o n f i r m s them as  b o t h C a n a d i a n and  the  poli-  M a i n l y because of  territorial limits  involvement of the  with to  M e t i s a r e no l o n g e r  in  The  p r o v i d e s them  p r o v i n c e . They a l s o have t h e i r  village  locally,  the  i n the p o l i t i c a l  only within  but  world.  and i n i t i a t i v e , t h e M e t i s o f  z a t i o n s not  Metis  i n and t o c o n t r i b u t e  as t h e y once w e r e .  will  now p a r t i c i p a t e  Thus,  around the  in turn,  to p a r t i c i p a t e  r e g i o n and o f  degree w i t h other  indigenous groups  m u n i c i p a l form o f government, the  of t h e i r  soli-  being  166  The R u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t y o f S t . L a u r e n t was f i r s t on M a r c h 2 5 ,  1881,  The f i r s t  p l a c e on J a n u a r y 17,  M e e t i n g of the  incorporated  C o u n c i l took  1882.  1824-1881:  Decentralized  and  informal  1861-1881:  Leadership  1881-1929:  Elected  1929-1975:  One man r u n s e n t i r e M u n i c i p a l i t y , an A d m i n i s t r a t o r a p p o i n t e d by p r o v i n c i a l no c o u n c i l l o r s .  1970  Formation  1972  F o r m a t i o n of A d v i s o r y Board to Reeve. T h i s A d v i s o r y B o a r d was g r e a t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e t r a n s f e r from g o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d Reeve t o e l e c t e d Reeve and C o u n c i l l o r s .  1975  F i r s t e l e c t i o n o f new Reeve and s i x C o u n c i l l o r s i n f o r t y - s i x y e a r s . A d v i s o r y Board cease to function.  1977  Second  1980  Third  1983  Fourth  1986  Fifth  influenced  by  political  structure.  missionaries.  Reeve and M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l .  of Manitoba Metis F e d e r a t i o n  election. election. election. election.  government, local.  167  Ishla-ISL  Abr:  M e t i s Power and I n f l u e n c e : M e / P o - I n . M e t i s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : Hs/R.S>z.D..SrJia^..  1881-1929:  Reeve and C o u n c i l  1929-1975:  Administrator  1970: M e t i s F e d e r a t i o n  iLg.ZEjQr.Ln  M^/Ea,.-D.fi.d!ia  yes  yes  x  local  1975:  x  Reeve and C o u n c i l  political  St.Laurent. lives  government people  the  Metis there.  structure i n the  has been  set  x x  to describe of the  leadership  1980's,  the  political see-saw  the  in  and  of the  informal  their  l i v e s of the  g r o w t h y e a r s seemed  y e a r s when t h e y were  an e l e c t e d  years of  Metis  experience. to  i n c o n t r o l of  Reeve and c o u n c i l f r o m 1881  1929 and a g a i n f r o m 1975 o n w a r d . T h e n , between  Metis people  the  i n 1824 t o a m u n i c i p a l f o r m o f  have c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e  years,  some o f  From a d e c e n t r a l i z e d  a continuous  l i v e s under  x x  h i s t o r y of  As s t a t e d b y an e l d e r ,  their  out  experiences  We c o v e r e d  of the  political  section  leadership  x  x x  this  no.  x  1972: A d v i s o r y B o a r d  I n sum,  ao.  1929 t o  for  some  1975, under  forty-six the  to  168 leadership lives  of a government-appointed  seemed t o s u f f e r  from e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  as b o t h c h u r c h and s e c u l a r unable  to bear  themselves. their  the  administrator,  a u t h o r i t y proved  instability  themselves  r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s t h e y had a r r o g a t e d  Marginalization  once more became t h e  organization  context  refers  (1985:  529),  t o t h e means b y w h i c h a s o c i e t y  i n t e r n a l l y and manages i t s  other  e x t e r n a l l y . The m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e  societies  St.Laurent  has f o r c e d t h e M e t i s p e o p l e t o interests  affairs  at  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s b u t  also  at  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g s v i l l a g e s and interests.  This  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . In the p r o c e s s ,  St.Laurent  acquired valuable p o l i t i c a l  A d v i s o r y Board e x p e r i e n c e t o w o r k i n g as a c l e r k a t  to the  questions  they are  w i t h the M u n i c i p a l i t y .  involved,  Also,  older  s u c h as t h e  get  out o f the  they  said:  afraid  to  dissatisfaction "There are  our f e e t  a  lot  resources  c o m m u n i t y . We g o t  house and g e t  the  generation  i n S t . L a u r e n t and we have a l o t o f i s a l o t t o do i n t h e  councillor  political  the younger people are not  One c o u n c i l l o r  the  maturity i n view of  The c o m p l a c e n c y o f t h e  a s k q u e s t i o n on b u r n i n g i s s u e s  h e r e and t h e r e  know-how, from  now a s k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e i r  has begun t o d i s a p p e a r ,  important  the M e t i s people of  a polling station.  have d e v e l o p e d a p o l i t i c a l  smart people  i s an  c a m p a i g n i n g as a  seemed t o  s t a t e and f u t u r e .  at only  own i n t e r n a l  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e i r  with  look not  their  get  of  political  maintains order  of  to  lives. According to Haviland  facet  their  to  wet".  169 This religion social with  chapter  has c o v e r e d  the i s s u e s of s o c i a l  and p o l i t i c s . I n t h e f i r s t  relations  i n which a sense  o r was c o m p l e m e n t a r y  l e a d e r s h i p s expressed  on s o c i a l  of independence  to a s p i r i t  emerged a s one o f t h e c o r e v a l u e s The  section  leaders advent  the p r i e s t s  i n the l i v e s  in religion  and p o l i t i c s  religious  world.  significant  role  Nonetheless,  influence  With the  l e a d e r s no l o n g e r e n f o r c e a as t h i s religion  i s impossible continues  in a  to play a  today  have g a i n e d  i n the r e l i g i o u s  some c o n t r o l and  and p o l i t i c a l  spheres of  lives. The  form  both  at St.Laurent.  i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e M e t i s . T h u s , due t o new  mechanisms, t h e M e t i s  their  Church  regime o f t h e people,  secularized  few y e a r s .  and t h e nuns were t h e o n l y  of the Metis  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  life,  culture.  have u n d e r g o n e c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e l a s t F o r many y e a r s ,  life,  combined  o f community  of Metis  both  life,  experience  o f government  some c o n t r o l  of the Metis people has g i v e n  of t h e i r  some w i s h e d . F i n a l l y ,  them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e g a i n  l i v e s though n o t as s a t i s f a c t o r i l y as the l o c a l Metis  them w i t h  another  cultural,  e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l  develop  organization provided  mechanism t o f o r m u l a t e  a new p r i d e i n t h e i r  traditions  i n the m u n i c i p a l  and e s t a b l i s h  their  social,  n e e d s and a s p i r a t i o n s and  cultural  h e r i t a g e and  a s o l i d a r i t y with other Metis  other parts of the province  and o f t h e c o u n t r y .  from  170  C_h.ap..t.eji......8. M..e...tis.n..e.s..s..  In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , leadership  we looked at some aspects of  i n the Metis community at S t . L a u r e n t . We saw how  the people p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process affected  their  lives.  T h i s chapter w i l l d e a l with M e t i s n e s s . to demonstrate  that  We w i l l  that Metis people at S t . L a u r e n t see  M i c h i f French language as a symbol of t h e i r group A f t e r reviewing some aspects of the  linguistic  attempt the  identity.  h i s t o r y of  the Metis at S t . L a u r e n t , we w i l l look at some community recollections experiences outside  of i n i t i a l language  by the  l o c a l people  of  contact  as w e l l as some  linguistic  acculturation  of S t . L a u r e n t .  While I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and observed some of  the  community events such as s o c i a l s and church s e r v i c e s ,  it  the  i n t e r v i e w e e s i n the f i e l d who p r o v i d e d most of the  for  this  chapter.  The data comes from the  interview  is  data  trans-  cripts .  IJie_J!i£ki^ This section its  w i l l d e a l with the M i c h i f  o r i g i n and h i s t o r i c a l development,  stic assimilation,  the  French  language:  i s s u e of  lingui-  and language as a d i s p l a y of  Metisness.  171 We w i l l  a l s o examine the  language.  latent  and m a n i f e s t  According to Spradley (1975:  any c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e t h e members o f t h e  refers  to the  39),  latent  function of it  has  for  to  anthropologist,  i d e n t i f i e s these consequences,  it  as  a  as an  outside  we r e f e r  t o them  as  functions.  In  June,  1985, the  was h e l d i n W i n n i p e g , final  of a  s o c i e t y . When t h e members o f a s o c i e t y  f u n c t i o n . When t h e  observer,  the  consequences  r e c o g n i z e a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n , we r e f e r manifest  functions  report,  one  f i r s t Michif  languages  M a n i t o b a . In the  conference  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  the  reads:  "The name "MICHIF' attempts t o e l i c i t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the word "Metis', as i t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y used i n wide r a n g i n g areas o f the M e t i s homeland. I t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s the s p e l l i n g adopted by a t l e a s t one r e s e a r c h e r , Dr. John Crawford, o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f North Dakota, t o d e s c r i b e the language o f some M i c h i f people. The languages o f the M e t i s people have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n by s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h e r s . Although some of the a b o r i g i n a l languages which a r e , i n f a c t , spoken by some M e t i s such as Cree and Saulteaux, have indeed been the s u b j e c t o f e x t e n s i v e s c h o l a r l y a n a l y s i s , l i t t l e , i f any r e s e a r c h has focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on these as w e l l as o t h e r languages which r e f l e c t and c a r r y the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l stamp of the M e t i s . The M e t i s moulded the a b o r i g i n a l and s e t t l e r languages i n t o coherent p a t t e r n s which r e f l e c t e d t h e i r own c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Over the g e n e r a t i o n s , grammatical s t r u c t u r e , accent and idiom t r a n s formed i n t o p e c u l i a r l y M e t i s usages. And what was p e c u l i a r l y M e t i s v a r i e d , o f course, from p l a c e t o p l a c e and from group t o group, r e f l e c t i n g as i t d i d the unique l i n g u i s t i c , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l antecedents o f each group". ( M i c h i f L a n g u a g e s C o n f e r e n c e : 1985: 1 ) .  172 The M i c h i f Michif-related  Language C o n f e r e n c e languages:  Michif  O j i b w a y and Swampy C r e e . M i c h i f the  M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t , The M i c h i f  dialect, As t h e is  it  form.  F r e n c h language  tongue  form o f  language  The d i f f e r e n c e  logy (sound system) adjustment  Similar  However, Michif at  Metis people at and n o t  between  the  it  (sentence  it  standard  structure)  which  speaking  language today, the  nor  include  people). is  it  s u c h as  the  provincial  usages  itself. to determine  But then,  the  exact  origin  One c a n assume i t  1 8 0 0 ' s due t o t h e i t may w e l l  origi-  influence of have been  i n the  1700's. area.  Further  in this  selves  by s a y i n g t h a t M i c h i f contact  not  is  S c h o l a r s c a n no l o n g e r s a t i s f y  between  French-speaking s e t t l e r s . beneficial  s c i e n t i f i c study  the  F r e n c h i s the Native Indians  product  o n l y to the d i s c i p l i n e but would  as  greatly themof  and t h e  Such l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s  the  spoken  S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r and a r o u n d t h e G r e a t L a k e s  needed  language  St.Laurent,  (meanings  exist  F r e n c h i n t i m e and p l a c e .  a l o n g the  language.  a misuse of the  i n c l u d i n g Cajun,  i n the  o f F r e n c h . As a  two l i e s m o s t l y i n p h o n o -  an e x c e p t i o n a l  is difficult  Red R i v e r  of  research.  is a dialect  French d i a l e c t s  French m i s s i o n a r i e s .  e a r l y as  of t h i s  form of the F r e n c h  i n F r a n c e and C a n a d i a n F r e n c h  nated  language  p e c u l i a r to M i c h i f - F r e n c h  many F r e n c h C r e o l e s ,  of  French i s the  w i t h some s y n t a c t i c  French i s not  unique.  French,  and s e m a n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s  understandings Michif  of the  Cree, Michif  focus  i s a non-standard  mother  a valid  the  i d e n t i f i e d f o u r main  early  would  be  contribute  173  immensely t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  Metis  languages,  cultures,  of the o r i g i n  h i s t o r y and w o r l d - v i e w .  As f a r a s i s p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n , is  and d e v e l o p m e n t  the sketch  an a t t e m p t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e l i n g u i s t i c  (below)  h i s t o r y of the  Metis people of St.Laurent:  An e r a o f t h e N a t i v e l a n g u a g e m o n o l i n g u a l i s m , o f n a t i v e Indian the  languages  Interlake  only.  The C r e e and A s s i n i b o i n e  populated  Region a t the t i m e .  2 . Qixsi&JL828LL  The  beginning of a b i l i n g u a l  Metis people at S t . L a u r e n t . other  people  the M e t i s . Indian  lived  language  and t h e M i c h i f  a Native  French. Unfortunately,  above,  i t presumably  to St.Laurent.  started  I t appears that the  M e t i s p e o p l e who a r r i v e d a t S t . L a u r e n t i n t h e 1 8 2 0 ' s  3.  I  any c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e as t o t h e o r i g i n o f  and was b r o u g h t  spoke M i c h i f  that  there permanently p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of  F r e n c h , but as s t a t e d  elsewhere  We do n o t have a n y e v i d e n c e  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , M e t i s people speak  could not find Michif  e r a with the a r r i v a l of  F r e n c h and p r e s u m a b l y l e a r n e d  already  i t a t Red R i v e r .  IQASLLsLziaSSLj^  G r a d u a l d e m i s e o f C r e e and S a u l t e a u x , languages  at St.Laurent.  4 . laSBLLsn.  the Native Indian  174 M e t i s p e o p l e no l o n g e r  speak  Native Indian  Beginning of Monolingualism for M e t i s people: speak M i c h i f  languages.  Metis  people  French only.  5. lM0_.'^-185J2Ll.s ... J  Attempts at discouragement on  l i n g u i s t i c a s s i m i l a t i o n , accompanied by  of speaking M i c h i f  F r e n c h and an  emphasis  l e a r n i n g Canadian French.  6 . lafigLls -iaZ£L&L New c o n s c i o u s n e s s speaking Michif  of Metisness,  F r e n c h at  reinforcement  of  St.Laurent.  13M1SLL  7.  Continuation referring use.  in this  of M i c h i f section  Most M e t i s are  Michif  F r e n c h and  French Monolingualism.  to N a t i v e languages  a c t u a l l y now b i l i n g u a l  and  We a r e dialect  speakers  of  English.  M,eti_^ilQn^jy;M,^ None o f t h e  elders  knew where  the  Michif  French  language  came f r o m . When I a s k e d an e i g h t y - s i x y e a r  elder  to  as  its  "We s p o k e  it  not  it,  speak  however, of  the  early one  at  origin,  he s i m p l y a d m i t t e d  home w i t h my p a r e n t s .  they  people contact  informant  agreed  that  between puts  he d i d n o t  it:  the  it  as t o  its  Other  origin.  i s p r o b a b l y the  Indians  know:  My g r a n d p a r e n t s d i d  s p o k e C r e e and S a u l t e a u x " .  d i d have some i d e a s  old  and t h e  The  result  elders, majority of  white people.  the As  175 "I have a theory about the o r i g i n o f our language t h a t we speak and i t goes t h i s way: " I t i s , say, i n the year 1800 a t Red R i v e r , t h i s French f u r t r a d e r who works f o r the Northwest Company meets t h i s b e a u t i f u l Indian woman. They g e t together and nine months l a t e r , I am born. My French f a t h e r has to leave the household t o hunt and t r a p the f u r s f o r the Company, sometimes he i s gone f o r two or t h r e e months a t a time. In the meantime, I am a t home alone w i t h my mother who does not understand a word o f French but who c o n t i n u a l l y speaks t o me i n her mother tongue, e i t h e r Saulteaux o r Cree. I grow up l e a r n i n g my mother's language. When my f a t h e r comes home from the hunt, he speaks t o me i n h i s language which i s French, he does not know e i t h e r Saulteaux or Cree. So, I grow up l e a r n i n g both an Indian language, and the French language, and as I i n t e r a c t and p l a y and speak w i t h other c h i l d r e n who were i n the same s i t u a t i o n as I was, we develop t h i s new language c a l l e d M i c h i f French". One i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t he s e e s M i c h i f stages,  of t h i s  elder's  F r e n c h as a s e p a r a t e l a n g u a g e .  M e t i s p e o p l e saw i t  as t h e i r  as an e t h n i c  is  In the  own l a n g u a g e  e m b r y o n i c way, f o c u s e d on i t a s t h e i r themselves  theory  that early  and,  own and r e l a t e d  i n an to  group.  BJJLlnguaJ^isja  A c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t , within  memory o f t h e  language  people s t i l l among  speak  in St.Laurent  i n t e r v i e w e e s p o k e b o t h an I n d i a n  (usually Saulteaux)  a handful of elders  most e l d e r s  and M i c h i f  s p e a k an I n d i a n the M i c h i f  F r e n c h . Today,  language,  French language  but at  only  a l l Metis home and  themselves. Many e l d e r s  language  recall  s p e a k i n g o n l y the  as t h e y grew up a t  home i n t h e  Saulteaux or Cree  early 1900's.  They  176 knew n e i t h e r  F r e n c h n o r E n g l i s h as t h e y  g u a g e s o n l y when t h e y s t a r t e d mitted speaking Michif their  learned  to attend  F r e n c h i n the  own c h i l d r e n w i t h M i c h i f  those  s c h o o l . They a d -  home a s a d u l t s ,  F r e n c h as m o t h e r  o n l y when t h e y d i d n o t want t h e  to understand  t h e y were t a l k i n g a b o u t !  St.Laurent,  a generation  French started  m a r r y i n g and h a v i n g t h e i r  monolingual Michif "The s p e a k i n g  i n the  Indian  added a f o r m e r  r e n c e r t a i n l y have n o t  Laurent,  taught  Saulteaux  Michif  it  it  stopped  trapper,  a t my  " I do n o t  speak  it  speak  and my c h i l d -  f r o m me, s i m p l y b e c a u s e my  t o me". F o r M e t i s p e o p l e a t language  St.  i s q u i c k l y becoming a  attribute  language  the disappearance  among t h e  and n u n s a t  S t . L a u r e n t and t o  They i n t r o d u c e d  were r e s p o n s i b l e  the  the  Thus,  i n or around  t i m e became t h e  status  t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an h i e r a r c h y o f  Canadian French, M i c h i f  F r e n c h and  of  a r r i v a l of  the Canadian F r e n c h language  community w h i c h i n a s h o r t language.  of  M e t i s to the presence  B r e t o n f a m i l i e s from B r i t t a n y , F r a n c e ,  prestige  at  past.  Some e l d e r s  priests  learned  s p e a k i n g an I n d i a n  t h i n g of the  children  own f a m i l i e s o f  language  my c o u s i n s who a r e my age do n o t  p a r e n t s never  and  French c h i l d r e n .  parent's generation" it,  Thus  o f M e t i s who knew o n l y  raising  tongue  speaking Saulteaux what  lan-  Saulteaux.  the the  1907.  in  the  or Bretons languages:  177 To t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e B r e t o n s , French  language  "proper'  was c o n s i d e r e d a s u p e r i o r  the  language.  C a n a d i a n F r e n c h was t o be s u p e r i o r  not  speak  did  not  it.  In t h e i r  have a s t a t u s  form o f the language,  eyes, in its  language,  Michif  own r i g h t .  evidence  of i n c a p a c i t y to  Teachers  apparently  "proper'  As a  language  To  language,  non-standard  bastardized usage,  and  l e a r n on t h e p a r t o f t h e  targeted  Michif  speak  t o t h o s e who d i d  F r e n c h , as a  i t was c o n s i d e r e d a  a c o r r u p t i o n of  Canadian  speaker.  F r e n c h i m m e d i a t e l y as  an  impediment to a s s i m i l a t i o n . And t h e M e t i s p e o p l e q u i c k l y became c o n s c i o u s their  language,  Michif  F r e n c h , was b e i n g p o r t r a y e d  as an i n f e r i o r l a n g u a g e . stigma attached especially for  in inter-ethnic  F r e n c h became the  t h e r e was a  a source  b e i n g M e t i s and s p e a k i n g  c o m m u n i t y had a n e g a t i v e  French i s not way  of t h i s  Thus,  Michif As a  m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e B r e t o n s first  language  i m p a c t on t h e M e t i s  section  i s to argue t h a t  an i n f e r i o r f o r m o f l a n g u a g e  o r an  pressure,  because,  the  I claim,  Canadian French usage.  Metis persisted it  improper were  encouraged Despite  in speaking Michif  had become a s s o c i a t e d  in  Michif  i t w a s . B i a s e d nuns and B r e t o n s  them t o s w i t c h t o s t a n d a r d  in  people.  o f s p e a k i n g F r e n c h . However t h e M e t i s o f S t . L a u r e n t  made t o f e e l t h a t  this  French  o f i n f e r i o r i z a t i o n and shame.  i n f l u e n c e of the  The p o i n t  them  social  c i r c l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s .  t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h C a n a d i a n F r e n c h as t h e the  to  t o b e i n g M e t i s and t o s p e a k i n g M i c h i f  some M e t i s p e o p l e ,  result,  Consequently,  that  with being  French Metis-  178  —it  was a new p a r t  speaks M i c h i f  of t h e i r  and  i d e n t i t y . One i s M e t i s  t e a c h e r s and o u t s i d e r s  St.  to b e l i e v e that  L a u r e n t were l e d b y they d i d not  good o r p r o p e r F r e n c h when t h e y s p o k e M i c h i f  of  speak  F r e n c h . These  s t r o n g group memories r e i n f o r c e d by o f t e n - r e t o l d t h e b i a s t h e y were s u b j e c t  dent  s a i d a nun t o l d  t o and i t s  effect.  her t h a t the M i c h i f  French  t h a t M e t i s p e o p l e s p o k e i n S t . L a u r e n t was an language".  "At school",  another  were s u p p o s e d t o s p e a k t h e that  respondent  language  "incorrect  continues,  As a r e s u l t ,  "proper' speaking.  French. Michif  we were t o l d  F r e n c h was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  And f o r a l l t h e y e a r s  have been a t  nun who l e a r n e d o u r l a n g u a g e  in  o u r own M i c h i f  Michif  that  S t . L a u r e n t , I do n o t  or  gave us the  impression that  French. I f it  in  correct  t h e nuns and  priests priest  to converse f l u e n t l y w i t h on t h e  contrary,  us  they  i f t h e y were t o l e a r n t o  speak  i t was as t h o u g h t h e y were d e g r a d i n g  themselves or something! That o n l y r e i n f o r c e d the inferiority  never  know o f one s i n g l e  French language;  French l i k e us,  to repeat  "we  Francais,  they  e n c o u r a g e d u s t o s p e a k o u r own l a n g u a g e o f M i c h i f it well,  stories  A respon-  " r e a l ' French, le v r a i  i s F r e n c h as t h e y s p o k e i t .  we d i d n o t s p e a k  one  vice-versa.  Over the y e a r s M e t i s p e o p l e at  are  if  f e e l i n g of  we a l r e a d y had r e g a r d i n g o u r l a n g u a g e " .  The  ef-  fect  o f t h i s b i a s was t o c r e a t e a g e n e r a l i z e d g r o u p s e n s i t i -  vity  to u s i n g M i c h i f  in interethnic  A former h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l personally against  the nuns,  groups.  said:  " I have n o t h i n g  I t h i n k t h e y were good  teachers  179 here.  B u t , one t h i n g I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  had t o t e l l am o f t e n of  us t h a t we d i d n o t s p e a k  shy to speak M i c h i f  French Canadians.  somewhat  speaker  speak M i c h i f  of t h i s  sensitivity  by m a k i n g an e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f o r t  t h e w o r d s i n ' g o o d ' F r e n c h , bon f r a n c a i s b u t most o f t h e "To  tell  time t h e i r  you the  Simonet s c h o o l , "the spoke M i c h i f myself  at  accent  truth",  from  i n f e r i o r w h e n e v e r we  i f we  I am even t o o ashamed  r e c e n t l y to  I was t o l d  ago,  that  the d i r e c t o r  me t o keep and c o n t i n u e and n o t  and be r i d i c u l e d  at  t h a n me? I  the  by  remember  S t . B o n i f a c e Museum  t o s p e a k my M i c h i f  French  to t r y to speak F r e n c h C a n a d i a n . There  a l l , no good o r bad l a n g u a g e s ,  s u p e r i o r or i n f e r i o r languages  the  affairs  I do n o t s p e a k good enough F r e n c h ,  who s u p p o s e d l y s p e a k F r e n c h b e t t e r  had n e v e r  be  on F r e n c h t e l e v i s i o n r e g a r d i n g c o m m u n i t y  because  So,  them".  i f t h e w o r d s we were u s i n g were r e a l w o r d s o r  language  I  say,  asked  a few y e a r s  after  they  pronounce  added a f o r m e r s t u d e n t  so why s h o u l d I go on p u b l i c TV t h e n  told  that  came t o t h e p o i n t where I  interviewed  those  to  The  as some p e o p l e  betrays  nuns made us f e e l  school. It  had made them u p .  here,  fact  feel  appear  people.  "Some e v e n t r y t o h i d e t h e  heard t h a t Michif  I  front  I become v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and  in speaking with non-Michif  continues:  them  "good" F r e n c h . Today,  in public especially in  i n f e r i o r " . The r e s u l t s  t o be d i s c o m f o r t  i s why some o f  he s a i d . T h e r e a r e  and t h a t  are, no  r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d me,  before!"  French language  had been p o r t r a y e d  t h e M e t i s o f S t . L a u r e n t as a d e f i c i e n t  language.  to  P e o p l e were  180 uncomfortable using i t remember  that  other  were a p p l i e d as In  outside  pressures  their  own g r o u p .  to a s s i m i l a t e  linguistically  well.  my g e n e r a t i o n ,  some f o r m e r s t u d e n t s r e c a l l  t h a t were made i n S t . L a u r e n t t o c h a n g e Most o f t h e p r i e s t s sought  But people  and nuns  o u r way o f  came f r o m Q u e b e c .  t o c h a n g e us from s p e a k i n g M i c h i f F r e n c h t o  Q u e b e c . They s t a r t e d TJie_TjQMa_..£.yatj!ffl  encouraging t h i s  i n the  early  e a c h week,  the  student  made o f t h i n c a r d b o a r d  The  to s t r e t c h  out  student w i t h the  follows.  about  the  at  the  Some s t u d e n t s t r i e d t h e i r  F r e n c h Canadian language  or three days.  s i z e of a dime. another  end o f e a c h week  that  t h i s was b e c a u s e  did  not  seems t h e  see  in  and some s u c c e e d e d .  Some o f them l o s t  It  picture  very best  had t o g i v e away a l l t h e i r  day!  ten  b y an e l d e r l y nun who had r e t i r e d  the  two  beginning  school  t h i s would e n t i t l e  most t o k e n s  convent.  however,  in  h i s hand and demand a t o k e n f r o m y o u .  the  majority,  it  At the  w o u l d be r e w a r d e d w i t h a p r i z e , u s u a l l y a h o l y personally decorated  their  a s s i m i l a t i o n by u s i n g  nuns g a v e e a c h s t u d e n t a t  Each time you spoke M i c h i f ,  they  1950's.  T h i s t o k e n s y s t e m w o r k e d as  tokens,  speaking.  Thus,  s t y l e o f s p e a k i n g F r e n c h C a n a d i a n as t h e y s p o k e  of  attempts  tokens  after  them a l l on t h e  first  the m a j o r i t y of the M e t i s  speak Canadian F r e n c h .  reason  learning  The  system d i d not work. Informants  any a p p a r e n t  in  relate  students  why t h e y s h o u l d l e a r n  to  181  T.hfi.JBxeiQ.n.s M e t i s p e o p l e remember t h a t M i c h i f - s p e a k i n g people by  around  1907,  attempts to  l e a r n C a n a d i a n F r e n c h were  some B r e t o n f a m i l i e s i n t h e  arrived  further  1930's.  to c u l t i v a t e the  The f i r s t  and t h e n u n s ,  the B r e t o n people promptly o r g a n i z e d  F r e n c h . The B r e t o n s ,  attending  added t h e  t h e m e e t i n g by t h e m s e l v e s  M e t i s p e o p l e showed u p .  how t h e priests  meetings  p e o p l e how t o  speak  informant,  ended  as none o f t h e  local  In S t . L a u r e n t ,  i r o n y t h a t the p r o j e c t  on  some B r e t o n  F r e n c h . E n c o u r a g e d by t h e  t o d e v i s e ways and means t o t e a c h M i c h i f  ber w i t h  families  were a b s o l u t e l y s h o c k e d when t h e y o v e r h e a r d  l o c a l p e o p l e spoke M i c h i f  "proper"  conducted  l a n d and t o f i s h  L a k e M a n i t o b a . A c c o r d i n g t o an i n f o r m a n t , families  have  Michif  people  up  remem-  seems t o have b a c k f i r e d  as  some c h i l d r e n and g r a n d - c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e same B r e t o n families  have,  and now s p e a k  over the y e a r s , the M i c h i f  acculturated  language  linguistically  as f l u e n t l y a s t h e  Metis.  !Lhe_iLejLM Some i n f o r m a n t s school  i n 1939 was y e t  speaking of the  bilingualism,  another  "proper"  Father Jean-Baptiste  the  factor  opening of the  in promoting  French language.  Its  ardent educator.  high  the  founder,  M e t h e , O M I , was an a v i d b e l i e v e r o f  C a n a d i a n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h f o r  F a t h e r Methe l e f t  pursue  also said that  its  graduates.  h i s mark on a l l p e o p l e o f S t . L a u r e n t as an He r e l e n t l e s s l y e n c o u r a g e d  young people  higher education which i n c l u d e d l e a r n i n g both  to  182 C a n a d i a n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h as a means t o g e t t i n g  a better  j o b and p o s i t i o n i n l i f e .  then,  F o r some M e t i s s t u d e n t s  h a v i n g a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n was e q u a t e d their  Michif  that.  Among t h e  St.Laurent,  language,  and many were j u s t  with giving not w i l l i n g  M e t i s s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d  o n l y a few s p e a k  Most o f them have r e t a i n e d  speak  language.  T h u s , M e t i s s t u d e n t s who o b t a i n e d  education  at  their  St.Laurent did not,  language.  symbol of t h e i r  They p r e f e r r e d identity,  to a higher  do  language.  their  Michif  a high school  i n the p r o c e s s ,  their  to  high school in  the Canadian F r e n c h  and s t i l l  up  g i v e up  own l a n g u a g e ,  as  a  education.  L..mgiJ.i&k;^ S t . L a u r e n t s c h o o l was n o t speaking students encountered Laurent Metis people to t h e i r d e f e c t i v e From t h e  the  l i n g u i s t i c problems.  have a l s o been e m b a r a s s e d  French usage o u t s i d e  end o f W o r l d War I I  s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d attend  French-speaking colleges,  institutions  in different  prairie provinces, St.Charles,  o n l y p l a c e where  at  Otterburne  until  MichifSt.  by  references  St.Laurent. 1960,  Michif-  by t h e p r i e s t s juniorates  and  and n u n s  to  convent  towns and c i t i e s a c r o s s  S t . B o n i f a c e f o r example or  the Ste.Agathe,  i n M a n i t o b a , and G r a v e l b o u r g i n  Saskatchewan. A few s t u d e n t s d i d w e l l graduated  there.  encountered  at  these i n s t i t u t i o n s  But the m a j o r i t y are  reported  d i f f i c u l t i e s in being accepted,  to  and have  primarily,  they  183  felt, two,  because  they spoke M i c h i f  t h e y abandoned  their  F r e n c h . So, a f t e r  studies  for speaking Michif  t h e y were j o k i n g ,  but  feeling  student  body f o r s p e a k i n g M i c h i f  socially  n o t p a y any a t t e n t i o n . feeling  thought So,  that  and t h a t  "As a r e s u l t ,  in front  of the others  What i s o f i n t e r e s t  here  which,  they r e c a l l ,  Michif  French. Thus, t h e i r  this their  "proper  the  staff  by t h e i r  Michif  It  not.  s a i d s h e was and  way'.  these Metis  them b e c a u s e  students  ridicule they  i d e n t i t y seems t o language.  actions,  language.  did  I  but they d i d  o f p r e j u d i c e and  entire  of race,  of t h e i r  language,  of  for not understanding  was d i r e c t e d a t  represented  t o them n o t b e c a u s e but because  really  I q u i c k l y ' d e v e l o p e d an  i s that  t h e y became o b j e c t s  been f o c a l l y  thought  t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h me.  p r o n o u n c i n g F r e n c h words i n the  that  rest  F r e n c h and t h e  I d i d n o t go b a c k " . A n o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t  felt  I  often  h u r t me". A n o t h e r  i s o l a t e d from t h e  t h i n g s would improve a f t e r w a r d s  laughed at  " I was  t h e n I r e a l i z e d t h e y were  related  odd  One s a i d :  French. At f i r s t  m a k i n g f u n o f my s p e a k i n g M i c h i f  or  and came b a c k home. A few  s t a y e d o n l y a few weeks o r m o n t h s . ridiculed  a year  dress,  People or  spoke  have reacted  appearance  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  F r e n c h has become so i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h  image o f t h e m s e l v e s ,  with their  identity.  184  CjMiue..^  What i s that  the  language  their  section  on l a n g u a g e  came t o s e e  point  here i s t h a t M i c h i f  and come t o be r e c o g n i z e d by t h e Metis identity.  The M i c h i f  1.  i s as  despite  St.Laurent persisted  missionaries  group Today,  intimately the  they  French  I argue t h a t , refused  to a s s i m i l a t e  to maintain M i c h i f  F r e n c h as  to  it  by  in  linguisti-  as a way o f  implicitly  at  lan-  from s p e a k i n g  pressure to a s s i m i l a t e  or  articumore  Canadian  a symbol of  i d e n t i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . the  M e t i s at  St.Laurent  continue  today,  y o u n g and o l d , c o n t i n u e i s not  From what  a language I gathered  among M e t i s p e o p l e but  is  Michif  F r e n c h . As a r e s p o n d e n t o b s e r v e d ,  it  has  The M e t i s p e o p l e  Michif  home,  French  Their persistence  have been p u r p o s e f u l ,  identity.  French in order  Bretons.  despite  self-consciously,  their  resistance.  in speaking t h e i r  and by t h e  appears to  lating their  an  Canadian  I n summary,  being a c t i v e l y discouraged  speaking Michif cally  F r e n c h as  follows:  Persistence  guage d e s p i t e  not  M e t i s as a s y m b o l  language  i n t e r w o v e n w i t h e t h n i c i t y and i d e n t i t y . evidence  Michif  is  o r as an i m p r o p e r way o f s p e a k i n g  The i m p o r t a n t  persisted of  in this  Metis of St.Laurent  inferior French.  important  switches:to  remains  English  that  to  "Most M e t i s  to speak M i c h i f is  speak  French  people at  disappearing".  from the  informants,  Michif  F r e n c h i n the  i f t h e y work i n the  the  language  work  city.  place  Metis  185 people  at  language  St.Laurent  realize  is deficient  that  and t h u s ,  outsiders  w h i l e t h e y use  symbol of M e t i s n e s s w i t h i n M e t i s s e t t i n g s , possible  i n mixed i n t e r e t h n i c  groups.  related:  "I t h i n k  learn  it  i s OK t o  another  n o t b e c a u s e we a r e  our  French,  2.  Michif  is  M e t i s s t u d e n t s who r e t u r n  to speak M i c h i f  mant c o u n t e d  have r e t a i n e d  it  A latent  i s the  the  Michif  construction  In  economy,  the  that  learned  elsewhere An i n f o r -  the  social role  exterior  M e t i s at  language  m i g h t be and t h e  But the  of M i c h i f ,  St.Laurent  principal  and  and o f t h e  French. Although stigmatized  their it  identity.  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n ,  continue  at  proposed,  is that  symbol of M e t i s  is  manifest  informants  environment  the  language.  Michif  of Metis c u l t u r e  focal  1945  Out o f t h e s e ,  French  a c c o r d i n g to the  most  p e r i o d between  of M i c h i f  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  of the  speak M i c h i f the  of the  i s the  spite  influence  having  symbol of M e t i s i d e n t i t y  function  carrier  of M i c h i f  certainly  even  or f e e l  i n a convent  v e h i c l e of a r t i c u l a t i n g that c u l t u r e . function  language,  ashamed  have g r a d u a t e d .  r e c o g n i z e d as a v a l u e - l a d e n  that  informant  home a f t e r  d u r i n g the  The above d a t a c o n f i r m s t h a t  St.Laurent.  if  as many as t w e n t y M i c h i f - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s who  1960. O n l y a h a n d f u l  majority  a  avoid i t  F r e n c h a g a i n upon r e t u r n i n g .  attended such i n s t i t u t i o n s and  as  inferior".  some C a n a d i a n F r e n c h i n a c o l l e g e o r start  their  it  they  As one  Canadian F r e n c h , but language,  feel  of cash  to r e t a i n and  and  in spite  h i g h e m o t i o n a l p r i c e many have had t o pay i n  the  of  speaking  186 their at  language,  St.Laurent  Michif  a source  French remains of p r i d e  and h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , solidarity.  f o r many M e t i s  in their  cultural  a symbol of group  people  heritage  identity  and  187  Clh.ap.tg.r_Z SjujLra.a_r^^  This thesis ethnography In chapter  set  out  ....  t o p r o d u c e an  on t h e M e t i s p e o p l e a t one,  we r e v i e w e d t h e  introductory  St.Laurent Manitoba.  general  h i s t o r i c a l back-  ground of the M e t i s people w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n v a r i o u s m e a n i n g s o f t h e word * M e t i s ' . m a j o r w r i t i n g s on M e t i s p e o p l e , Stanley, things,  e s p e c i a l l y those  there i s a dearth  Among of  this  research  i s to serve  of study  h i s t o r i c a l development pre-contact of  of  first  n o t i c e d the  Metis people.  effects  area  the  t h e r e from  We e x a m i n e d some namely,  of t h e i r  both  St.Laurent  t w o . We f o l l o w e d  the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e of the p e o p l e , was i n t h i s  for  anthropology.  early settlers  p e r i o d to the p r e s e n t .  and c l o t h i n g . I t  of  i n chapter of the  other  significance  The g e o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l ? - s e t t i n g o f object  Giraud,  as a. c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e  t h e M e t i s p e o p l e and f o r t h e d i s c i p l i n e  was t h e  of  the  ethnographies  on c o n t e m p o r a r y M e t i s c o m m u n i t i e s . H e n c e , t h e of  the  We c o v e r e d some o f  de T r e m a u d a n , Brown a n d / P a y m e n t . we n o t i c e d t h a t  to  features  food,  culture  the  shelter  t h a t we  m o d e r n i z a t i o n has had on t h e  Many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e  lives have  been a b s o r b e d b y m o d e r n i z a t i o n . Chapter three d e a l t  w i t h the  individual's life  cycle.  188 The d a t a  r e v e a l e d the d r a s t i c  relation  to m o d e r n i z a t i o n , s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , education  family  life.  progress within  Metis  To many M e t i s p e o p l e ,  in Metis  life  in and  money and e c o n o m i c  has become t h e number one p r i o r i t y i n t h e i r  the  brought  changes  context  o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n . S e c u l a r i z a t i o n has  some c h a n g e s  life  organized  lives  i n the M e t i s '  i s d i v o r c e d from the religion.  r e l a t i o n w i t h the  overall  From a s t r i c t  Church.  influence of  m o r a l i t y i n the  past,  M e t i s p e o p l e seem t o e n j o y a more open l i f e - s t y l e t o d a y . Regarding family  life  and c u s t o m s ,  more i d e n t i f i e d w i t h v a l u e s o f t h e young g e n e r a t i o n . disappeared  The e x t e n d e d  the  elders  home and f a m i l y  family  Thus,  t h e r e has been a l o o s e n i n g o f f a m i l y  fewer  c h i l d r e n as a r u l e .  and i s s t i l l  than  the  has a l l b u t  and has been r e p l a c e d by t h e n u c l e a r  At the  were much  family.  and k i n t i e s  same t i m e ,  education  p l a y i n g a dominant r o l e . F o r t y years  ago,  with  has Metis  people d i s c a r d e d e d u c a t i o n s i m p l y because i t d i d not contribute education enter  to the  economic w e l f a r e of the  family.  has become one o f t h e ways f o r M e t i s p e o p l e  t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y and a  stone to a c h i e v e economic As we saw i n c h a p t e r S t . L a u r e n t was n o t between  Today,  the  four,  making a l i v i n g  in  The d i v i s i o n  labor  s e x e s was u s u a l l y w e l l u n d e r s t o o d  the  family,  w h i l e the  the  breadwinners.  stepping-  progress.  always easy  and women. Women t e n d e d  to  of  b y b o t h men  t h e d o m e s t i c h o u s e w o r k and  men d i d t h e  raised  h e a v i e r p h y s i c a l w o r k as  189  Fifty  years  and f u l l  ago,  t h e d o m e s t i c w o r k o f women was  of h a r d s h i p s ,  Few had p a y i n g j o b s  as t h e r e were no modern  locally,  difficult conveniences.  most o f t h e w o r k was  T o d a y , M e t i s women l i v e w i t h i n  the  c a s h economy. T h e i r work  i s more c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d  a s some t a k e  education opportunities  t h a t a r e more a v a i l a b l e .  advantage  The w o r k o f M e t i s men has a l w a y s been o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as f i s h i n g , The t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c methods except perhaps seasonal  for  fishing  and l o c a l .  seasonal.  of  identified with  t r a p p i n g and  have a l l b u t  in winter.  the  hunting.  disappeared  Most o f t h e w o r k  is  The m a j o r i t y o f M e t i s men t o d a y have  r e l y on two o r more j o b s t o make a l i v i n g ,  including  outside  employment f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The c l o s u r e o f c l o t h i n g and l a d d e r of the  government'.  It  factories reiterates  were n o t j u s t  due t o  unreliable,  livelihood  has d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d t h e  of M e t i s people at  St.Laurent,  that  on an  w h i m s i c a l and even h o s t i l e e x t e r i o r  Modernization  environment.  sources from a  of subsistence  t o a more c o m p l e x and c a s h economy w i t h work s c h e d u l e s wages s c a l e s .  Thus, M e t i s n e s s i n the  economy has become o r a l r e a d y historical  value,  themselves  more r e a d i l y t o t h e  e x i s t perhaps  in it  i n the  and  o f a new  i s f o r many M e t i s  a t h i n g of the p a s t .  e l d e r s d i d . They s e e not  context  the  *a change  t h e p o i n t made e a r l i e r  S t . L a u r e n t c o m m u n i t y has become d e p e n d e n t  to  an  Metis youth gives  e x t e r i o r environment  economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s grandparents'days.  than  the  that did  190 The s u b j e c t s Social life  life,  of our i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n chapter  Religion  and P o l i t i c s .  five  The s e c t i o n on  d e p i c t e d the v a r i o u s groups t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d  as an  social to  c o m m u n i t y f o r m a t i o n . We saw how M e t i s p e o p l e g a v e t o p e r s o n a l and c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s  were  importance  element  c o n s t i t u t i v e o f t h e i r M e t i s n e s s . T h i s was e v i d e n c e d i n ways p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d part  of t h e i r  n o t i c e at to  the  in family  s o c i a l i z i n g process.  and c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s One c a n n o t  help  same t i m e how many o f t h e s e g r o u p s  f u n c t i o n due t o  the p r o c e s s  the as  but  have  ceased  o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and  secularization. The c o n t e x t leadership. exercize extent  for examining R e l i g i o n  How much power and i n f l u e n c e do M e t i s  i n these c r u c i a l  do t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e  affecting  and P o l i t i c s  their  areas of t h e i r  was  people  l i v e s ? To what  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g of  l i v e s ? We o b s e r v e d t h a t  issues  in Religion,  Metis  p e o p l e have a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s  and  customs  i n the C a t h o l i c  rituals  carried  significant social  the  church at  S t . L a u r e n t . These  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s  c o m m u n i t y , even t h o u g h many o f them have  today.  We r a i s e d  i m p a c t on t h e religious  the  lives  context  In P o l i t i c s , political  life  at  We r e v i e w e d t h e Municipality.  i s s u e whether of people  rituals  in a secular  and o u r a n s w e r was  in  disappeared  have t h e context  same as  in a  negative.  we s u r v e y e d t h e  h i s t o r i c a l background of  S t . L a u r e n t from  1824 t o t h e p r e s e n t  organizational p o l i t i c a l  However, i t  i s only  structure  in recent  years,  of  day. the  that  the  191 M e t i s have been a b l e t o o b t a i n a g a i n ( t a b l e government political  at  St.Laurent,  lives  9)  Municipal  thus r e g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of  and j o i n i n g  at  the  same t i m e t h e  mainstream  o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The M a n i t o b a M e t i s F e d e r a t i o n also  instrumental  i n c r e a t i n g a new s o c i a l  a w a r e n e s s among t h e p e o p l e . in meetings  and g r o u p s  expressing their way o f  and  participate  the v i l l a g e b o u n d a r i e s ,  w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e  was  thus  i n the Canadian  life.  Finally, language.  chapter  s i x i n t r o d u c e d us t o the M i c h i f  We c o v e r e d i t s  experiences  origin  of attempts at  acculturation  both at  language became  contact  linguistic  and o u t s i d e  and how t h e  intertwined with their identity,  French  and h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a s s i m i l a t i o n and  S t . L a u r e n t . Mention  a l s o made o f some c o m m u n i t y r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f  their  local  political  More and more p e o p l e  outside  their  Michif  French  initial  language  image o f t h e m s e l v e s ,  as a d i s p l a y o f t h e i r  was  with  Metisness.  Conclusion The g e n e r a l p u r p o s e process  of t h i s  thesis  was t o document  by w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r M e t i s c o m m u n i t y ,  St.Laurent,  the  at  M a n i t o b a , i s m o v i n g o r has moved f r o m b e i n g a  g e n e r a l l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d community o f M e t i s t o a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a r e more C a n a d i a n t h a n M e t i s .  In p a r t ,  process  modernization  i s subsumed  i n what has been c a l l e d  and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , and i t called  i s a l s o subsumed  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o m . The q u e s t i o n s  the  i n what has  addressed  were:  been  192 1.  What a r e  the  constituents  of Metisness?  2.  Are the M e t i s becoming Canadian at  the  expense  of being  Metis? 3.  Do/will  the M e t i s of S t . L a u r e n t r e t a i n  their  'Metisness'  within  the g e n e r a l meaning of b e i n g C a n a d i a n , or w i l l  become  'anonymous'  Canadians?  The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s  are:  Is  i t p o s s i b l e to  retain  same M e t i s n e s s w h i l e b e c o m i n g s o m e t h i n g o t h e r ? that question Then,  is  i t p o s s i b l e to r e t a i n  something other  and,  c a s e ? The a n s w e r The d a t a  the  The a n s w e r  to  i s s u r e l y No.  sense of b e i n g M e t i s w h i l e at  the  they  of t h i s  the  a s t r o n g and d e f i n i t i v e  same t i m e b e c o m i n g  presumably l e s s M e t i s than to that q u e s t i o n thesis  reveals  f o r m e r l y was  i s probably Yes. that drastic  changes  have o c c u r r e d i n M e t i s n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o money, modernization,  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y  Three a r e a s o f change  are:  Independence/Community  life.  Life;  I n t e r n a l / E x t e r i o r Environment; Metisness/Canadian. Modernization transition  has f o r c e d M e t i s p e o p l e  from a s u b s i s t e n c e  c a s h economy. As a r e s u l t , t o d a y what t h e y were material  the  economy t o a more c o m p l e x and  the M e t i s at  i n the p a s t .  aspects of t h e i r  t o make  culture  S t . L a u r e n t are  D a t a shows t h a t like  shelter,  some  food  c l o t h i n g have c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e  last  forty  Their sources  from  the  traditional  of l i v e l i h o o d  economy b a s e d  were m o d i f i e d  on t h e  local  environment  not  and years.  to a cash  193 economy w h i c h r e l i e s turn,  has a f f e c t e d  longer e x i s t s  on t h e  family  exterior  life  environment.  where t h e  This,  extended  family  and has been r e p l a c e d b y t h e n u c l e a r  w h i c h i s much s m a l l e r  i n s i z e as compared t o t h e  in no  family  f a m i l y of  yesteryears. After themselves  1885, the  M e t i s i n Western Canada found  e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y m a r g i n a l i z e d . W i t h  advent  o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , many M e t i s  joined  and e n j o y  not  the  today,  the  case f o r socially  mainstream  a l l , however.  of Canadian s o c i e t y . Many s t i l l  o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e of the  C h u r c h and o f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n . St.Laurent  many have r e m a i n e d from the strict  so.  It  life  T h a t d o e s n o t mean  that  have q u i t b e i n g r e l i g i o u s d o e s mean t h a t  is  institutionalized  their  life  for is  free  m o r a l i t y , M e t i s p e o p l e now seem t o e n j o y a more The q u e s t i o n  of the  has been r a i s e d .  r i t u a l s do n o t people  is  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C h u r c h . From a b a c k g r o u n d o f  morality. context  This  and e c o n o m i c a l l y .  from t h e  M e t i s people at  have  feel marginalized  Due t o t h e phenomenom o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , M e t i s divorced  the  have t h e  in a secular  Education mainstream  Metis are  And i t  of r i t u a l s  i s the  as  secular  a u t h o r ' s view  same i m p a c t on t h e  context  in a  l i v e s of  that the  i t does i n a r e l i g i o u s  one.  has become f o r many M e t i s a k e y way t o  join  society.  stepping-stone  force  open  I n so d o i n g , t h e y u s e  to a c h i e v e economic implicitly  opting for  education  as  a  progress. or b e i n g f o r c e d  becoming Canadian w h i l e r e t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l p r i d e  in  into their  194 historical  o r i g i n s . Perhaps  with their  language.  have b u t  this  situation  W h i l e many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  a l l disappeared,  including material  t r a d i t i o n a l means o f l i v e l i h o o d , customs, Michif spite  many o f t h e i r  Michif  that  has  So much s o ,  and it  their  marriage  is  their in  the  Metis  people  as we have s e e n ,  their  language  image o f  themselves.  F r e n c h has come t o be r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e M e t i s a s  Michif  and  finite  or,  Metis  vice  Finally,  identity.  one was b u t ,  we must a s k o u r s e l v e s  one d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y proportionately,  identity  attributes  If  limits,  then  Metis at  exhaust  gaining others,  which i s not  finite,  that  i s , without  allows for a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s without  Today,  what  the  St.Laurent.  i s not  the M e t i s at  to  entailed.  with  l o s i n g what had e x i s t e d b e f o r e . case f o r  i n adding  what one was d o e s n o t is  are  lose anything of  to the w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t ,  the M e t i s at identity  it  is finite,  is,  and q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r i l y means l o s i n g  leading logically case f o r  speaks  i f such i d e n t i t e s  f i n i t e . That  what one jL§.. Y e t a d i f f e r e n c e If  One i s M e t i s i f one  a  versa.  i n p r i n c i p l e , not  what one was,  Metis,  culture  remained a core v a l u e  intertwined with their  symbol o f t h e i r  then,  obvious  features,  family  many a t t e m p t s t o a s s i m i l a t e  linguistically. has become  most  religious practices,  French language of the  i s most  I argue t h a t  this  limits, necessarily is  the  St.Laurent. St.Laurent,  historically, socially  in general,  know t h e y  and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y .  are  Some M e t i s  195 will as:  best define " I am n o t  themselves  with a negative  a white person,  statement  such  I am n o t n o t an I n d i a n ,  I am  n o t a E u r o p e a n " . Many s i m p l y have a h a r d t i m e a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r Metisness. Furthermore,  data  shows t h a t many were  t o b e l i e v e t h a t b e i n g a M e t i s was t o be i n f e r i o r and As a r e s u l t , Metis.  many M e t i s do n o t  Historical  The p o i n t  events  is that  rapidly disappearing. themselves language opted, for  d i d not encourage  the M e t i s n e s s of the  either  to  are  them t o do  so.  elders  is  their  i d e n t i f y them as s u c h . T h e y have  by p e r s o n a l c h o i c e o r f o r economic  in calling  consider  and c u l t u r a l l y , e v e n t h o u g h  reasons,  j o i n i n g t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f s o c i e t y . T h e y do n o t  value  lazy.  they  T h e r e a r e M e t i s who no l o n g e r  Metis s o c i a l l y  continues  claim openly that  led  themselves  or t h e i r  see  children Metis  re-discovering their  Metisness today.  To t h e m ,  an h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e ,  a t h i n g of the p a s t .  a  i n of  Metisness  They a r e  is  satisfied  with being "Canadian'. Then t h e r e a r e themselves the p r e s e n t Metisness,  and t h e i r  the  f a m i l i e s as M e t i s .  generation, based  on t h e  A new i n t e r e s t  M e t i s who c o n t i n u e t o  we s e n s e t h e  identify  F o r some members o f  emergence  o f a new  following principles:  i n discovering one's  Metis roots  and  origins. A new s e n s e o f M e t i s H i s t o r y , brought  about  b y new s c h o l a r l y  personalities  interpretations.  and  events,  196 A new s e n s e o f brought  i d e n t i t y and a new s e n s e o f  a b o u t by t h e i r  and p o l i t i c a l  Metis  involvement  belonging  i n new s o c i a l ,  cultural  groups.  What a p p e a r s t o be o c c u r r i n g i s t h a t M e t i s i n St.Laurent identity  are  constructing  in today's  secularization, strong  it  world.  a new M e t i s n e s s and new M e t i s Despite modernization  seems p o s s i b l e  to  retain  and  and b u i l d  and d e f i n i t i v e s e n s e o f b e i n g M e t i s w h i l e a t  a  the  same  time becoming Canadian. Finally, contribution Canada. on  I hope t h i s towards  will  h i s t o r y and  will  our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  And as a c a s e s t u d y  a contemporary  findings  thesis  of the  M e t i s community,  encourage languages.  further  serve  a  of p l u r a l i s m i n  impact of it  as  modernization  i s my hope  research  on M e t i s  that  the  culture,  197  B±bJ,.i.Qg.r..a^..hx T h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n s a l l t h e w o r k s c i t e d as w e l l as o t h e r s the r e a d e r s might f i n d u s e f u l f o r M e t i s ethnography. 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San J u a n and New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k .  Watson 1985  L.C.  and M . B . W a t s o n - F r a n k e  Interpreting Life Histories: An .A.n.t.iir..Q.po.l.Q.gi.Q.a2.  Enquiry, New B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y : University Whittaker, 1986  Wilson,  Rutgers  Elvi " D i s c o v e r i n g t h e H a o l e : The Grammar o f t h e F i e l d w o r k E n c o u n t e r , " T_he ..Mam N . Y . : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . , pp. 48-73  Bryan  1982 Woodcock,  1975  Press.  Re. lig.i-Q.n in -SQe_i.Q.la^  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press.  London, p.  149  George  Gabriel l_uj_ont: The M.e_ti.s. .Chief and his Lest M..Qr.ld.,. E d m o n t o n :  Hurtig.  210  r  FIGURE 1.  MANITOBA INTERLAKE REGION  211  FIGURE 2. ST. LAURENT, MANITOBA. S c a l e : 1 m i . = 1.37 i n . FOR REFERENCES SEE FIGURE 3. p. 212.  212  Figure  References:  hap  1.  Old  highway number  6.  2.  New  h i g h w a y number  6.  3.. C a n a d i a n  National  4a.  C h a r t r a n d Road,  4b.  Lake  of S t . L a u r e n t  Railway. South.  Manitoba.  4 c . Twin L a k e  Road.  4d.  Road.  Fascinage  5.  Norman G a u d r y ' s  6.  L'Grand  7.  Stony  8.  Wilson  9.  C h a r t r a n d Road, north. .  Each  dot  3  Residence.  M a s h - k e g , 6 kms.  Ridge, Creek,  10  kms.  3 kms.  r e p r e s e n t s one  east.  east. north.  household.  (Fig.  2,  p.  211)  213  Chartrand  Rd.  South  

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