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Anomeric composition and solid state properties of lactose Dwivedi, Sarvajna Kumar 1988

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ANOMERIC COMPOSITION AND SOLID STATE PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE By SARVAJNA KUMAR DWIVEDI B.Pharm., Banaras Hindu University, 1984 M.Pharm., Banaras Hindu University, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences) Division of Pharmaceutics We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 ® Sarvajna Kumar Dwivedi, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PHARMACEUTICS The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Lactose is a widely used excipient in capsules and tablets. It has two anomeric forms, a (usually a monohydrate) and £ (anhydrous). Lactose NF XVI is usually a-lactose monohydrate. Physical properties, such as thermal behavior, x-ray diffract ion characteristics, and true density of the anomers are different and not clearly understood. Pure samples of each anomer are d i f f i cu l t to prepare and a l l commercial lactose samples, especially the direct ly compressible grades, contain a certain amount of each anomer. It is not clearly established in what physical form the two anomers are present in a commercial sample. The physical form, and also certain differences in the physical properties, may depend upon the anomeric composition. An accurate and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of anomeric composition was developed. It involved derivatization of the lactose samples using trimethylsilylimidazole (TSIM). A mixture of TSIM in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and pyridine (PYR) was used. DMSO dissolved the samples and PYR stabil ized the solutions by preventing a phase separation which occurred i f only TSIM and DMSO were used. Alpha-rich samples were dissolved direct ly into the mixture. Beta-rich samples were f i r s t dissolved in DMSO and then derivatized using a mixture of TSIM and PYR. An OV-225 column with helium as carr ier gas was used for separating the anomers. The relative response of the anomers at a flame ionization detector was equal. Thus, the relat ive anomeric peak areas could be used as relative anomeric i i i amoun t s . T h i s a v o i d e d t h e use o f an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d . The a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f a number o f l a c t o s e samp les was d e t e r m i n e d and was f o u n d t o v a r y f r o m 1.9 t o 98 .4% a . A s t u d y o f t h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f c o m m e r c i a l l a c t o s e samp les u s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t r y and t h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p y showed t h a t a l l a - l a c t o s e monohydra te r i c h samp les e x h i b i t e d a d e h y d r a t i o n peak f o l l o w e d by a m e l t i n g peak when h e a t e d i n an open p a n . In s e a l e d p a n s , t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak s p l i t i n t o two components b e c a u s e o f an o v e r l a p o f an e x o t h e r m (due t o d i s s o l u t i o n o f a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e i n t h e l i q u i d w a t e r f o rmed i n t h e s e a l e d p a n , and r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f / J - l a c t o s e f r om t h e s o l u t i o n ) w i t h t h e e n d o t h e r m i c d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k . The e x t e n t o f t h e s p l i t v a r i e d w i t h t h e h e a t i n g r a t e (wh i ch c o n t r o l s t h e e x t e n t o f d i s s o l u t i o n ) . Two new p e a k s , an endo the rm and an e x o t h e r m , a l s o a p p e a r e d a f t e r t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k . The endo the rm i s due t o a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n ( d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e GC method) r a t h e r t h a n m e l t i n g , and t h e e x o t h e r m i s due t o r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n t o a new c r y s t a l l a t t i c e as t h e samp le became / J - r i c h . S i n c e 0 - r i c h samp les n o r m a l l y have a h i g h e r m e l t i n g p o i n t t h a n a - r i c h s a m p l e s , t h e m e l t i n g peak s h i f t e d t o a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e when s e a l e d pans were u s e d . An u n s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e samp le a l s o showed t h e endo the rm ( a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n ) and t h e e x o t h e r m ( r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e / } - r i c h f o r m ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , t h e l a c t o s e samp les can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e t y p e s : 1. a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te r i c h , 2 . / 3 - r i c h , a n d , 3 . samp les show ing peaks o f b o t h a -i v lactose monohydrate and /3-lactose. It was shown using quantitative x-ray di f fract ion that samples did not contain their anomeric impurity as a simple physical mixture. The true density of the lactose samples also varied with their anomeric composition. Beta-rich samples had greater true density than a-rich samples. This can be attributed to: 1. a simple physical mixture of a-lactose monohydrate and /J-lactose crystals, 2. a continuous substitutional solid solution, 3. an in ters t i t i a l solid solution, or, 4. a mixture of two solid solutions. The f i r s t poss ib i l i ty was ruled out using quantitative x-ray diffract ion because the relative anomeric x-ray peak intensities did not match the anomeric composition determined by GC. The second poss ib i l i ty was ruled out because there was no gradual shi ft of peaks in the x-ray diffract ion patterns with the anomeric composition. The formation of an in ters t i t i a l solid solution was not possible because this occurs only i f the solute and solvent have very different molecular sizes. The quantitative x-ray di f fract ion experiments suggest that most samples contain a mixture of two solid solutions. Sorbed-moisture and surface area are important factors in tabletting. Various commercial lactose samples had specif ic surface areas ranging from 0.108 to 0.574 m2/g- Moisture-desorption and sorption were found to depend more on the relative c rys ta l l in i t ie s of the samples than on their surface areas. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES x i i LIST OF SCHEMES xiv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xv LIST OF APPENDICES xvi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xvii 1. INTRODUCTION Types of lactose 1 Preparation of different types of lactose 3 Other types of lactose 4 Pharmaceutical ut i l izat ion of lactose 4 Presence of a and 0-anomers in a given type of lactose 5 Physical properties of lactose anomers 6 A. Differences in thermal behavior of lactose 6 B. Differences in x-ray diffract ion characteristics of lactose 8 C. Differences in true density of lactose 9 D. Other properties of lactose 11 Quantitative determination of anomeric composition of lactose 11 Methods of quantitative analysis of lactose anomers 12 vi Goal of the present research 15 Specific objectives of the present research 16 2. EXPERIMENTAL 2.1 APPARATUS 17 2.2 MATERIALS 18 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LACTOSE-ANOMERS 20 Required features of the procedure 20 Selection of a derivative 20 Selection of a TMS reagent 21 Selection of a solvent 22 Formulation of the derivatization mixture 23 Optimization of the gas chromatographic conditions 24 A. Stationary phase 24 B. Column temperature and carrier gas flow 25 C. Injection port temperature 26 D. Detector temperature 26 Sample processing 26 Use of an internal standard 31 Relative FID response of lactose anomers 32 Optimization of derivatization time 35 Mutarotation in solution and derivatized state 35 Determination of anomeric composition of lactose samples 38 V I 1 2.4 STUDY OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LACTOSE 39 D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t r y 39 C a l i b r a t i o n o f DSC 39 T h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p y 39 P r e p a r a t i o n o f UANL and SANL 40 Change i n a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n d u r i n g DSC r u n s 40 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f w e i g h t l o s s d u r i n g DSC r u n s 41 2.5 STUDY OF POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE 41 Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 41 Q u a n t i t a t i v e u s e o f t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n 42 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and p e a k i n t e n s i t i e s 42 2.6 DETERMINATION OF TRUE DENSITY OF LACTOSE SAMPLES 43 D e t e r m i n a t i o n by p y c n o m e t r y 43 A. S e l e c t i o n o f s a m p l e c e l l s i z e 43 B. O u t g a s s i n g o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 44 D e t e r m i n a t i o n by s u s p e n s i o n d e n s i t y m ethod 45 2.7 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE-DESORPTION AND SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTOSE SAMPLES 46 M o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 46 M o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n o f L a c t o s e S a m p l e s 47 2.8 CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTOSE SAMPLES BASED ON THEIR SURFACE AREA 47 C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s u r f a c e a r e a 47 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s u r f a c e a r e a o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 48 v i i i 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 ANOMERIC COMPOSITION OF LACTOSE SAMPLES 49 3.2 SOME COMMENTS ON THE GC METHOD OF LACTOSE ANOMER ANALYSIS 49 3.3 THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LACTOSE 51 O b s e r v a t i o n s on l a c t o s e t h e r m o g r a m s 51 P r e s e n c e o f new p e a k s when s e a l e d p a n s a r e u s e d 54 S h i f t i n g o f m e l t i n g p e a k t o a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e i n s e a l e d p a n s 56 D e p e n d e n c e o f a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n on o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s 58 F o r m a t i o n o f / J / a - l a c t o s e compound d u r i n g DSC r u n s 58 S p l i t t i n g o f d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k i n s e a l e d pan 61 O t h e r c a u s e s o f s p l i t t i n g o f d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k 63 D i s s o l u t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n s e a l e d p a n s d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s 63 Components o f t h e s p l i t p e a k 65 T h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f UANL 65 W e i g h t l o s s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s d u r i n g DSC r u n s 67 3.4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE SAMPLES 71 G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s 71 C h a n g e i n powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s w i t h a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n 75 Q u a n t i t a t i v e u s e o f powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n 83 A. S e l e c t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s i z e 83 B. A v o i d i n g m i c r o a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t 84 C. Use o f L i F as an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d 85 Th e i n t e n s i t y r a t i o v s a - c o n t e n t p l o t f o r t h e m i x t u r e s 85 i x 3.5 DETERMINATION OF TRUE DENSITY OF LACTOSE SAMPLES 93 D e t e r m i n a t i o n by p y c n o m e t r y 93 T r u e d e n s i t y and a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a c t o s e 94 3.6 MOISTURE-DESORPTION AND SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTOSE 102 O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n and s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e 107 3.7 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LACTOSE SAMPLES ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SURFACE AREA 109 C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e a r e a 109 S u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 109 4. SUMMARY 112 5. REFERENCES 115 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I M e l t i n g p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . 7 I I D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e l a t t i c e p a r a m e t e r s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e . 10 I I I D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f a - L and DCL-21 by GC u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s o f s a m p l e p r o c e s s i n g . 30 IV D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e FID r e s p o n s e o f t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . 33 V M u t a r o t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n DMSO s o l u t i o n and d e r i v a t i z e d s t a t e . 36 VI A n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e . 50 V I I T e m p e r a t u r e s o f d e h y d r a t i o n and m e l t i n g p e a k s o f d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s o f l a c t o s e ( h e a t i n g r a t e 1 0 ° C / m i n ) . 53 V I I I Change i n a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n d u r i n g DSC r u n s . 57 IX A n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n and w e i g h t l o s s o f L80S. 66 X A n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s o f UANL. 69 XI W e i g h t l o s t by l a c t o s e s a m p l e s a f t e r t h e p e a k o f d e h y d r a t i o n . 72 X I I C o m p a r i s o n o f e x p e c t e d and a c t u a l w e i g h t l o s s a f t e r t h e p e a k o f d e h y d r a t i o n . 74 X I I I M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f L 8 0 S . 76 XIV M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f 0-BAK. 77 XV M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f j8-CCF. 78 XVI M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f SANL. 79 Table X V I I M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f UANL. X V I I I R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e a k - i n t e n s i t y r a t i o and t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a c t o s e . X IXA C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n as o b t a i n e d f r o m powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n and GC m e t h o d s . XIXB C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e amount o f t h e m i n o r a n o m e r i c c o m p o n e n t as o b t a i n e d f r o m powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n GC m e t h o d s . XX T r u e d e n s i t y o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s d e t e r m i n e d by a m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r . XXI I n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o some common p e a k s i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f some a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . X X I I M o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . X X I I I M o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . XXIV S p e c i f i c s u r f a c e a r e a o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . XI 1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Representat i ve gas chromatogram of l a c t o s e anomers. 27 2 V a r i a t i o n of anomeric composit ion as a f u n c t i o n o f FID and i n j e c t i o n por t temperatures. 28 3 P l o t of r e l a t i v e anomeric response (/?/a area r a t i o ) at FID aga ins t fl/a c oncen t ra t i on r a t i o . 34 4 Extent o f d e r i v a t i z a t i o n (% o f t o t a l l a c t o s e , based on t o t a l area o f the anomeric peaks) as a f u n c t i o n of t ime. 37 5 DSC thermograms of r ep re sen t a t i v e samples of l a c t o s e . 52 6 Dependence of s p l i t t i n g of l a c t o s e dehydrat ion peak on heat ing r a t e . 62 7 DSC thermogram of UANL. 68 8 DSC thermograms of l a c t o s e samples showing dependence of dehydrat ion peaks on a -content . 73 9 Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n pa t te rn showing major peaks o f an a - r i c h sample (L80S). 76 10 Powder x - ray d i f f r a c t i o n pa t te rn showing major peaks o f a sample con ta i n i ng s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of both anomers (/3-BAK). 77 11 Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n pa t te rn showing major peaks o f a 0 - r i c h sample (0-CCF). 78 12 Powder x - ray d i f f r a c t i o n pa t te rn showing major peaks o f s t a b l e anhydrous a - l a c t o s e (SANL). 79 13 Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n pa t te rn showing major peaks of unstab le anhydrous a - l a c t o s e (UANL). 80 14 Changes i n powder x - ray d i f f r a c t i o n pat te rns w i th anomeric compos i t ion o f s e l e c ted l a c t o s e samples. 81 15 P l o t of l a c t o s e / L i F x - ray peak i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s w i th anomeric compos i t ion . 87 16 Weight l o s s of some l a c t o s e samples as a f u n c t i o n of t ime upon d ry i ng in vacuo at 60°C. 104 X I 1 1 Figure Page 17 Weight gain of some lactose samples after moisture-sorption for 76 h at 25°C as a function of % relative humidity. 106 18 Calibration curves for surface area analysis of lactose samples using Quantasorb. 110 x i v LIST OF SCHEMES Scheme P a g e I L a c t o s e anomers 2 I I T h e r m a l t r a n s i t i o n s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s on a DSC 70 X V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations for lactose samples: Name A b b r e v i a t i o n a - L a c t o s e M o n o h y d r a t e a - L o r A-L NF L a c t o s e H y d r o u s g r a d e 60S L60S NF L a c t o s e H y d r o u s g r a d e 80S L80S NF L a c t o s e H y d r o u s g r a d e 80M L80M NF L a c t o s e H y d r o u s C a p s u l a t i n g g r a d e LCAPS NF L a c t o s e H y d r o u s I m p a l p a b l e I P L - S NF L a c t o s e A n h y d r o u s ANL I m p a l p a b l e L a c t o s e I P L - F S p r a y P r o c e s s L a c t o s e SPL F a s t F l o L a c t o s e F F L D C L a c t o s e 11 DCL-11 D C L a c t o s e 21 DCL-21 D C L a c t o s e 30 DCL-30 C r y s t a l l i n e ^ - L a c t o s e 0-DMV o r B-DMV ^ - L a c t o s e ' B a k e r ' jS-BAK o r B-BAK ^ - L a c t o s e 0-CCF o r B-CCF S t a b l e A n h y d r o u s L a c t o s e SANL U n s t a b l e A n h y d r o u s L a c t o s e UANL Other abbreviations: ACN A c e t o n i t r i l e L i F L i t h i u m f l u o r i d e DMF D i m e t h y l f o r m a m i d e mA M i l i a m p e r e s DMSO D i m e t h y l s u l f o x i d e P 2 ° 5 P h o s p h o r u s p e n t o x i d e FID F l a m e i o n i z a t i o n d e t e c t o r PYR P y r i d i n e GC Gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h y TMCS T r i m e t h y l c h i o r o s i l a n e h H o u r ( s ) TMS T r i m e t h y l s i l y l HMDS H e x a m e t h y l d i s i 1 a z a n e TSIM T r i m e t h y l s i l y l i m i d a z o l e kV K i l o v o l t s x v i LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A C a l c u l a t i o n o f l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f l a c t o s e a nomers 122 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am t h a n k f u l t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : D r . A.G. M i t c h e l l f o r h i s h e l p f u l s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . D r . K.M. M c E r l a n e f o r p e r m i t t i n g t h e p r o l o n g e d u s e o f t h e GC f a c i l i t i e s i n h i s l a b o r a t o r y and g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e GC work. D r . A.H.L. Chow, D r . K.M. M c E r l a n e , D r . S. N a k a i , and D r . J . G . S i n c l a i r f o r t h e i r h e l p as t h e members o f my s u p e r v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e . Ms. S a n d y Hsu and Ms. P a r k a s h G r e w a l f o r t h e i r s i n c e r e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . Mr. R o l a n d B u r t o n , Ms. G r a c e Chan, Mr. J o h n J a c k s o n , Mr. D a v i d Kwok, Mr. Wayne R i g g s , and M r s . Radana Vaughan f o r t h e i r h e l p a t v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s work. 1. INTRODUCTION L a c t o s e i s a d i s a c c h a r i d e [ 4 - ( / J - D - g a l a c t o p y r a n o s y l ) - D - g l u c o s e ] . I t e x i s t s i n two a n o m e r i c f o r m s , d e s i g n a t e d as a - l a c t o s e and / J - l a c t o s e (Scheme I ) . M o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers a r e c l o s e l y a n a l o g o u s t o t h e i s o m e r i c a and y S - g l u c o s e . The a n o m e r i c d e s i g n a t i o n s r e f e r t o t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f s u b s t i t u e n t s on t h e c a r b o n - 1 o f t h e g l u c o s e m o i e t y . Types of lactose A number o f d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e c a n be p r o d u c e d by v a r i o u s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and d r y i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e t y p e s c a n v a r y i n t h e i r c o n t e n t o f a and / J - l a c t o s e , c r y s t a l l i n e and amorphous l a c t o s e , and i n t h e i r c h e m i c a l s t a t e , i . e . , h y d r a t e d o r a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e ( H a ndbook o f P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E x c i p i e n t s , 1 9 8 6 ) . L e r k e t a / . (1984) d e s c r i b e l a c t o s e as a s o l i d w h i c h o c c u r s i n one o f f o u r c r y s t a l l i n e f o r m s o r i n an amorphous s t a t e . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s a r e as f o l l o w s . i . C r y s t a l l i n e a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e : t h e most common f o r m , i i . C r y s t a l l i n e s - l a c t o s e , i i i . U n s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e : a v e r y h y g r o s c o p i c f o r m , i v . S t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e : a n o n h y g r o s c o p i c f o r m . v . Amorphous l a c t o s e : a l s o c a l l e d a morphous l a c t o s e g l a s s . a - L A C T O S E p- L A C T O S E SCHEME I Preparation of different types of lactose 3 The c r y s t a l l i n e f o r m s o f l a c t o s e a r e p r e p a r e d by r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n f r o m a q u e o u s s o l u t i o n s . In aq u e o u s s o l u t i o n s , t h e l a c t o s e anomers e x i s t i n a m u t a r o t a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m . The a q u e o u s s o l u b i l i t y o f t h e anomers i s t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d e n t . B e l o w 9 3 . 5 ° C , t h e a-anomer i s t h e l e s s s o l u b l e f o r m . T h e r e f o r e , i t r e c r y s t a l l i z e s f r o m t h e a q u e o u s s o l u t i o n s b e l o w t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e . A b o v e 9 3 . 5 ° C , i t becomes t h e more s o l u b l e f o r m , a l l o w i n g t h e /?-anomer t o r e c r y s t a l l i z e ( W h i t t i e r , 1944; V i s s e r , 1982; O l a n o e t al., 1 9 8 3 ) . Due t o t h e m u t a r o t a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n one anomer c o m p l e t e l y f r e e f r o m t h e o t h e r . However, a - r i c h o r / J - r i c h s a m p l e s c a n be p r e p a r e d . The h y g r o s c o p i c u n s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e i s p r e p a r e d by h e a t i n g a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e , in vacuo, a t t e m p e r a t u r e s o f 1 1 0 - 1 3 0 ° C . The n o n - h y g r o s c o p i c s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e i s p r e p a r e d by h e a t i n g a -l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e i n a m o i s t a t m o s p h e r e a t t e m p e r a t u r e s a b o v e 1 1 0 ° C ( S h a r p , 1943) o r by d e s i c c a t i o n w i t h s u i t a b l e l i q u i d s , s u c h a s d r y m e t h a n o l ( L i m and N i c k e r s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) . D e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t h e r m a l d e h y d r a t i o n , p r o d u c t s w i t h a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n i t i a l a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e c a n be o b t a i n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , O l a n o et al. (19 8 3 ) p r e p a r e d up t o 9 5 % / 3 - l a c t o s e by t h e r m a l t r e a t m e n t o f a -l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r v a p o r . Th e amorphous l a c t o s e i s p r o d u c e d by r a p i d d r y i n g o f a l a c t o s e s o l u t i o n . Due t o t h e r a p i d d r y i n g , t h e v i s c o s i t y o f t h e s o l u t i o n 4 i n c r e a s e s q u i c k l y such t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c r y s t a l s does no t o c c u r ( N i c k e r s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s fo rm i s a l s o c a l l e d amorphous ( n o n - c r y s t a l l i n e ) l a c t o s e g l a s s , and i s a c o n s t i t u e n t o f s p r a y d r i e d , f r e e z e d r i e d o r r o l l e r d r i e d l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . Other types of lactose A p a r t f r om t h e t y p e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , some n o v e l t y p e s o f l a c t o s e , so c a l l e d " m o l e c u l a r c o m p l e x e s " o f anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e and ^ - l a c t o s e , have a l s o been r e p o r t e d . R e p o r t s by O l a n o e t al. ( 1 9 7 7 ) , P a r r i s h and Brown (1982) and S impson e t al. (1982) d e s c r i b e a/fl m o l e c u l a r c o m p l e x e s w i t h a / $ anomer r a t i o s o f 5 / 3 , 3 / 2 and 4 / 1 . L e r k e t al. (1984) r e p o r t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a " ^ / a - l a c t o s e compound" w i t h 1:1 a : / J r a t i o d u r i n g a DSC a n a l y s i s o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e . Pharmaceutical utilization of lactose V a r i o u s t y p e s o f l a c t o s e have found a p p l i c a t i o n s i n p h a r m a c e u t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . The Handbook o f P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E x c i p i e n t s (1986) g i v e s an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t i n g o f t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t l a c t o s e t y p e s c a l l e d P h a r m a - L a c t o s e - T y p e s . These a r e u s e f u l i n s o l i d dosage f o rm m a n u f a c t u r e , f o r e x a m p l e , as d i l u e n t s f o r c o m p r e s s e d and mo lded t a b l e t s and c a p s u l e s . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d use o f t h e d i r e c t c o m p r e s s i o n method o f t a b l e t p r e p a r a t i o n , v a r i o u s d i r e c t c o m p r e s s i o n t y p e s o f l a c t o s e have been 5 p r e p a r e d and used under such names as anhyd rous l a c t o s e , i m p a l p a b l e l a c t o s e , s p r a y p r o c e s s l a c t o s e , s p r a y d r i e d l a c t o s e , f a s t - f l o l a c t o s e , o r l a c t o s e b e a d l e t s ( B a t u y i o s , 1966 ; F e l l and Newton , 1970 ; Hende rson and B r u n o , 1970 ; Vromans et al., 1 9 8 5 ) . Presence of a and fi-anomers together in a given type of lactose I t i s c l e a r f r om t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e , and t h e i r methods o f p r e p a r a t i o n , t h a t a l l samp les o f l a c t o s e can be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n bo th anomers t o g e t h e r . T h i s i m m e d i a t e l y r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n . How i s one anomer i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p r o d u c t c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f t h e o t h e r anomer , o r i n what p h y s i c a l s t a t e a r e t h e l a c t o s e anomers i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a p r o d u c t c o n t a i n i n g bo th o f them? Such q u e s t i o n s a r e y e t t o be answered c o m p l e t e l y . In o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e a l a c t o s e p r o d u c t w h i c h c o n t a i n s bo th anomers , t e r m s l i k e " c o m p l e x " , "compound" o r " m i x t u r e " have been f r e q u e n t l y used (S impson et al., 1982 ; O l a n o et al., 1 9 8 3 ; L e r k et al., 1 9 8 4 ) . A l t h o u g h some e v i d e n c e s have been p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such t y p e s , t h e p r o b l e m s t i l l l a c k s a c o m p l e t e a n s w e r . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r t h e two anomers e x i s t as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e , s o l i d s o l u t i o n , e u t e c t i c m i x t u r e , o r an a l t o g e t h e r new compound ( o r c o m p l e x ) . F o r m a t i o n o f new compounds between t h e two anomers under c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s has been m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . To c o n f i r m t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as t r u e l y new p h a s e s , t h e s e compounds wou ld have t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d f u l l y 6 and i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e t h a t t h e y a r e no t m e r e l y a r t i f a c t s o f a g i v e n s p e c i f i c s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The b e s t s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m w o u l d be t o e s t a b l i s h a two component phase d i a g r a m o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers . T h i s wou ld be c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a - l a c t o s e i s a monohyd ra te w h i l e fl i s a n h y d r o u s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n can be o b t a i n e d i f p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , such as t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r , powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e t r u e d e n s i t i e s , o f a number o f l a c t o s e samp les w i t h d i f f e r e n t a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e s t u d i e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . Physical properties of lactose anomers A s u r v e y o f t h e e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on l a c t o s e p o i n t s t o a l a c k o f ag reement between v a r i o u s r e p o r t s on i t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . These p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r , x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t r u e d e n s i t y o f t h e anomers . An o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e d i s a g r e e m e n t s i s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f l a c t o s e A summary o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I. T h i s s t r e s s e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n m e n t i o n e d above t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e l a c k s agreement r e g a r d i n g t h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f l a c t o s e . B e s i d e s t h o s e m e n t i o n e d i n T a b l e I, o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e p o r t s on t h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f l a c t o s e i n c l u d e t h o s e by B e r l i n e t al. ( 1 9 7 1 ) , I t o h e t al. ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Ross ( 1 9 7 8 ) , K r y c e r and H e r s e y T a b l e I . M e l t i n g p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . L a c t o s e t y p e m . p . ( ° C ) R e f e r e n c e a - h y d r a t e 201.6 O l a n o et al. (1983) 217 S i m p s o n et al. (1982) 210 L e r k et al. (1984) U n s t a b l e a - a n h y d r o u s 222.8 O l a n o et al. (1983) 210 L e r k et al. (1984) S t a b l e a - a n h y d r o u s 216 S i m p s o n et al. (1982) 210 L e r k et al. (1984) ^ - l a c t o s e 229.5 I t o h et al. (1978) 252 O l a n o e t al. (1983) 232 S i m p s o n e t al. (1982) 237 L e r k e t al. (1984) 8 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , and L e r k e t al. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . B e r l i n et al. (1971) and L e r k et al. (1980) b o t h r e p o r t e d changes i n t h e thermograms o f l a c t o s e when t h e s a m p l e s were h e a t e d i n s e a l e d p a n s . The d e h y d r a t i o n peak was r e p o r t e d t o s p l i t i n t o two p a r t s and some new peaks were r e p o r t e d t o a r i s e . These were l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d . F e r n a n d e z - m a r t i n et al. (1980) and L e r k et al. (1984) r e p o r t e d a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e t h e r m a l t r e a t m e n t o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te on a DSC. The two r e p o r t s d i s a g r e e i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e t h e r m a l t r a n s i t i o n s and a t t r i b u t e s i m i l a r peaks t o d i f f e r e n t c a u s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e peak t h a t F e r n a n d e z - m a r t i n e t al. (1980) b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r due t o a n o m e r i z a t i o n was r e p o r t e d by L e r k e t al. (1984) t o o c c u r due t o m e l t i n g . I t i s c l e a r f r om t h e s e d i s a g r e e m e n t s t h a t t h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f l a c t o s e l a c k s a c o m p l e t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e q u i r e s an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e i t can be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . B. D i f f e r e n c e s i n x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a c t o s e X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e o f v a r i o u s c r y s t a l l i n e t y p e s o f l a c t o s e have been s t u d i e d by S e i f e r t and L a b r o t ( 1 9 6 1 ) , Knoop and Samhammer ( 1 9 6 2 ) , Buma and W e i g e r s ( 1 9 6 7 ) , B e e v e r s and Hansen ( 1 9 7 1 ) , F r i e s e t al. (1971) and H i r o t s u and Sh imada ( 1 9 7 4 ) . W h i l e a l l o f t h e s e r e p o r t s a g r e e t h a t t h e l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s ( b o t h a and /5) b e l o n g t o t h e m o n o c l i n i c c r y s t a l s y s t e m , t h e r e i s a d i s a g r e e m e n t 9 between t h e r e p o r t e d l a t t i c e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s ( T a b l e I I ) . H e n c e , t h e c a l c u l a t e d x - r a y d e n s i t i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t l a c t o s e samp les a l s o d i s a g r e e d between t h e s e r e p o r t s . Buma and W e i g e r s (1967) f o u n d t h e x -r a y d e n s i t y o f 0 - l a c t o s e t o be 1.63 g /cm , w h i l e H i r o t s u and Sh imada (1974) r e p o r t e d i t t o be 1.586 g / c m 3 . S i m i l a r l y , t h e x - r a y d e n s i t y o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te was f o u n d t o be 1.52 ( B e e v e r s and H a n s e n , 1971) and 1 .540 g / c m 3 ( F r i e s e t a 7 . , 1 9 7 1 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e a u t h o r s used l a c t o s e samp les o f d i f f e r e n t a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s . D e p e n d i n g on t h e p h y s i c a l f o rm i n w h i c h t h e two anomers were a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e s e s a m p l e s , t h e i r x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n b e h a v i o r wou ld be e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r . C . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t r u e d e n s i t y o f l a c t o s e B e s i d e s t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t s between t h e i r x - r a y d e n s i t i e s , t h e l a c t o s e samp les d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t r u e d e n s i t i e s as w e l l . The t r u e d e n s i t y o f ^ - l a c t o s e was f o u n d t o be 1.59 by Buma and W e i g e r s ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 .570 by H i r o t s u and Sh imada ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and 1.62 g / c m 3 by Buma ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y t h e t r u e d e n s i t i e s o f a - l a c t o s e s a m p l e s were f o u n d t o be 1.497 ( S e i f e r t and L a b r o t , 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 .545 (Buma, 1 9 6 5 ) , 1 .53 ( B e e v e r s and H a n s e n , 1 9 7 1 ) , and 1.537 g / c m 3 ( F r i e s e t a 7 . , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s a g a i n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l a c t o s e samp les were p r o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and c o n t a i n e d t h e two anomers i n d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l f o r m s . T h u s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e t r u e d e n s i t y wou ld change as t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e t r u e d e n s i t y , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p h y s i c a l 10 T a b l e I I . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e l a t t i c e p a r a m e t e r s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a c t o s e . L a c t o s e L a t t i c e P a r a m e t e r s R e f e r e n c e Type a (A ) b (A) c ( A ) p° a - h y d r a t e 7 . 8 6 4 2 1 . 8 9 4 4 . 8 9 7 1 0 5 . 9 7 S e i f e r t and L a b r o t (1961) 7 . 9 6 2 1 . 8 0 4 . 8 1 109 .11 Knoop and Samhammer (1962) 7 . 9 8 2 1 . 6 8 4 . 8 3 6 1 0 9 . 7 8 Buma and W e i g e r s (1967) 7 . 8 1 5 2 1 . 5 6 7 4 . 8 4 4 1 0 6 . 2 B e e v e r s and Hansen (1971) 7 . 9 8 2 2 1 . 6 5 2 4 . 8 2 4 109 .57 F r i e s e t al. (1971) ^ - l a c t o s e 1 0 . 8 1 1 3 . 3 4 4 . 8 4 9 1 . 2 5 Buma and W e i g e r s (1967) 1 0 . 8 3 9 1 3 . 3 4 9 4 . 9 5 4 9 1 . 3 1 H i r o t s u and Sh imada (1974) 11 p r o p e r t i e s can be e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f t h e two anomers i f t h e y a r e p r e s e n t t o g e t h e r i n a g i v e n samp le o f l a c t o s e . D. O t h e r p r o p e r t i e s o f l a c t o s e As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , l a c t o s e i s a commonly used e x c i p i e n t i n t a b l e t t i n g . L i k e many o t h e r e x c i p i e n t s , l a c t o s e s a m p l e s a r e a l s o e x p e c t e d t o p o s s e s s s o r b e d m o i s t u r e w h i c h can a f f e c t t h e i r t a b l e t t i n g b e h a v i o r (Umprayn and Mendes , 1 9 8 7 ) , and p r o c e s s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r i o r t o t a b l e t t i n g ( T a b i b i and H o l l e n b e c k , 1 9 8 4 ) . The s o r b e d m o i s t u r e a l s o a f f e c t s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e h e a t o f s o l u t i o n ( P i k a l e t al., 1 9 7 8 ; S u r y a n a r a y a n a n and M i t c h e l l , 1 9 8 5 ) , an i m p o r t a n t p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y i n s t u d y i n g t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s o l i d s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f s o r b e d m o i s t u r e p r e s e n t i n a g i v e n samp le o f l a c t o s e . S i n c e s u r f a c e a r e a i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g m o i s t u r e s o r p t i o n ( Z o g r a f i e t al., 1984) and t a b l e t t i n g b e h a v i o r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e v a r i o u s s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e . Quantitative determination of anomeric composition of lactose I t i s c l e a r f r om t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d above t h a t a l l l a c t o s e t y p e s can be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n b o t h anomers , and t h a t t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n can be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t t h e i r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r any s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e v a r i o u s l a c t o s e 12 t y p e s i s an a n a l y t i c a l m ethod t h a t c a n be u s e d t o a c c u r a t e l y and s p e e d i l y d e t e r m i n e t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . A b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a c t o s e anomers i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Methods of quantitative analysis of lactose anomers The l a c t o s e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n c a n be d e t e r m i n e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y by f o u r m a i n t y p e s o f m e t h o d s . T h e s e m e t h o d s a r e b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i q u e s : i . S o l u b i l i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i i . P o l a r i m e t r y , i i i . D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t r y , and i v . C h r o m a t o g r a p h y . The s o l u b i l i t y m e thod ( C h o i et al., 1949) u t i l i z e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o l u b i l i t y b e h a v i o r o f t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . The p o l a r i m e t r i c m ethod ( T r o y and S h a r p , 1930; S h a r p and Doob, 1941) i n v o l v e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e o p t i c a l r o t a t i o n o f a q u e o u s l a c t o s e s o l u t i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e m u t a r o t a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m has b e e n a t t a i n e d . B o t h , t h e s o l u b i l i t y and p o l a r i m e t r i c , m e t h o d s a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r r a p i d a n a l y s i s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s , b e c a u s e t h e s e i n v o l v e p r o l o n g e d e q u i l i b r a t i o n o f l a c t o s e s o l u t i o n s . The DSC m ethod ( R o s s , 1978) i s b a s e d on t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t s o f t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . I t c a r r i e s l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y 13 c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t l a c t o s e unde rgoes a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e t h e r m a l a n a l y s i s by DSC ( F e r n a n d e z - m a r t i n et al., 1 9 8 0 ) . The most u s e f u l a r e t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c m e t h o d s . B o t h , LC and GC, have been a p p l i e d t o l a c t o s e anomer d e t e r m i n a t i o n . A number o f LC methods f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a c t o s e f r o m o t h e r c a r b o h y d r a t e s have been r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , bu t t h e r e i s o n l y one (Beebe and G i l p i n , 1983) t h a t d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e s e p a r a t i o n and q u a n t i t a t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers . I t i n v o l v e s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e anomers f r om a t o t a l l y aqueous m o b i l e phase u s i n g two co lumns c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s . The co lumns have t o be m a i n t a i n e d a t ~4°C i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e m u t a r o t a t i o n , w h i c h makes t h e method somewhat i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r l a c t o s e anomer a n a l y s i s . The GC methods o f l a c t o s e anomer a n a l y s i s a r e based on t h e method o f S w e e l y et al. (1963) w h i c h i n v o l v e s s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e c a r b o h y d r a t e s , and r e l a t e d p o l y h y d r o x y compounds, a f t e r c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e i r TMS d e r i v a t i v e s . The t r i m e t h y l s i l y l a t i o n was c a r r i e d ou t i n PYR u s i n g HMDS and TMCS. R e i n e c c i u s et al. ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Newstead and Gray (1972) and Roetman (1982) used t h i s p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n o f l a c t o s e anomers i n PYR s o l u t i o n s . Newstead and Gray (1972) r e p o r t e d m u t a r o t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n PYR, a n d , t h e r e f o r e , p r o p o s e d t h e use o f r i g o r o u s l y d r i e d PYR be low room t e m p e r a t u r e and d e r i v a t i z a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r d i s s o l u t i o n . T h i s made t h e method v e r y t e d i o u s . To a v o i d t h i s p r o b l e m , Roetman (1982) r e p l a c e d a p a r t o f PYR w i t h DMSO, i n w h i c h m u t a r o t a t i o n does no t o c c u r , bu t r e t a i n e d t h e same d e r i v a t i z i n g 14 r e a g e n t s . These r e a g e n t s c a u s e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a p r e c i p i t a t e w h i c h has t o be removed by c e n t r i f u g i n g , o r t h e d e r i v a t i z e d l a c t o s e anomers have t o be e x t r a c t e d u s i n g a s e p a r a t e s o l v e n t l i k e hexane (De N e e f , 1 9 6 9 ) . These a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s make t h e method l e n g t h y . More r e c e n t l y , G i a n e t t o et al. (1986) used a new TMS r e a g e n t , n a m e l y , T S I M , w h i c h p r o v i d e s a s i n g l e s t e p d e r i v a t i z a t i o n o f l a c t o s e . These a u t h o r s were i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o t a l amount o f l a c t o s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e ch romatograms were c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f m u l t i p l e peaks r e s u l t i n g f r om a n o m e r i c s e p a r a t i o n . Gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h y o f f e r s t h e most r a p i d method o f l a c t o s e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n a n a l y s i s . The t o t a l a n a l y s i s t i m e s r e q u i r e d a r e r o u g h l y o f t h e o r d e r o f 30 m i n u t e s . The d e t e c t i o n ( u s u a l l y by f l a m e i o n i z a t i o n ) i s s i m p l e . The s i g n a l s f r om t h e d e t e c t o r can be e a s i l y p r o c e s s e d u s i n g t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d e l e c t r o n i c i n t e g r a t o r s a v a i l a b l e w i t h most o f t h e modern gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h s . These a d v a n t a g e s make t h e GC method t h e method o f c h o i c e f o r l a c t o s e anomer a n a l y s i s . 15 Goal of the present research I t i s c l e a r f r om t h e b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e v a s t l i t e r a t u r e on l a c t o s e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l a s t few pages t h a t t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s l a c k o f ag reement between v a r i o u s r e p o r t s on i t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s l a c k o f ag reement g a i n s i m p o r t a n c e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t l a c t o s e , i n i t s v a r i o u s t y p e s , i s a commonly emp loyed e x c i p i e n t i n t a b l e t t i n g . S i n c e t h e t a b l e t t i n g b e h a v i o r o f a s o l i d i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o i t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f l a c t o s e . The g o a l o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s t o p r o v i d e such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e f o rm i n w h i c h t h e two anomers a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a g i v e n p r o d u c t i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d r e s e a r c h . A number o f c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e , and some s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d , l a c t o s e samp les were a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and some p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . 16 Specific objectives of the present research 1. To d e v e l o p a gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t samp les o f l a c t o s e . 2 . To e s t a b l i s h i n what p h y s i c a l f o rm one anomer i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p r o d u c t c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f t h e o t h e r anomer . 3 . To s t u d y and e x p l a i n t h e comp lex and no t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers . 4 . To s t u d y such p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o m m e r c i a l g r a d e s o f l a c t o s e as t r u e d e n s i t y and powder X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and c o r r e l a t e them w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n ; 5 . To c h a r a c t e r i z e v a r i o u s c o m m e r c i a l samp les o f l a c t o s e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s u r f a c e a r e a and m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n and s o r p t i o n p r o p e r t i e s . 17 2. EXPERIMENTAL 2.1 APPARATUS Cahn Gram e l e c t r o b a l a n c e , Cann D i v i s i o n , V e n t r o n I n s t r u m e n t s C o r p o r a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t e r (model 910) w i t h a t h e r m a l a n a l y z e r ( s e r i e s 9 9 ) , Du P o n t I n s t r u m e n t s . Gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h (model 5830A) w i t h a f l a m e i o n i z a t i o n d e t e c t o r , and a GC t e r m i n a l (model 1 8 8 5 0 A ) , H e w l e t t P a c k a r d . Gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c s y r i n g e , H a m i l t o n Co. G a s t i g h t s y r i n g e , H a m i l t o n Co. H o t s t a g e , model FP2, M e t t l e r . I n c u b a t o r , I s o t e m p , F i s h e r S c i e n t i f i c Co. M i c r o s c o p e , model S - K t , N i k o n . P y c n o m e t e r , M u l t i p y c n o m e t e r , Q u a n t a c h r o m e C o r p o r a t i o n . R e f r i g e r a t e d c i r c u l a t o r b a t h , model 2376, Forma S c i e n t i f i c . S u r f a c e a r e a a n a l y z e r , Q u a n t a s o r b , Q u a n t a c h r o m e C o r p o r a t i o n . Vacuum o v e n , model 5831, N a t i o n a l A p p l i a n c e Co. Vacuum pump, G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c . V i a l s ( p o l y t e t r a f l u o r o e t h y l e n e - 1 i n e d , s c r e w - c a p p e d ) , R e a c t i - V i a l s , P i e r c e C h e m i c a l Co. X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n s e t u p c o n s i s t i n g o f an x - r a y g e n e r a t o r (model 1 7 1 0 ) , x - r a y d i f f r a c t o m e t e r (model 1 7 2 9 ) , and an x - r a y d e t e c t o r (model PW 1 7 1 1 / 1 0 ) , P h i l i p s . 18 2.2 MATERIALS A c e t o n i t r i l e , BDH C h e m i c a l s . A l p h a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e , BDH C h e m i c a l s . B e t a - l a c t o s e x B a k e r ' , J . T . B a k e r C h e m i c a l Co. ( t h r o u g h E l e c t r o n M i c r o s c o p y S c i e n c e s ) . B e t a - l a c t o s e , C o o p e r a t i v e C o n d e n s f a b r i e k F r i e s l a n d . B e t a - l a c t o s e , c r y s t a l l i n e , De M e l k i n d u s t r i e V e g h e l . C a r b o n t e t r a c h l o r i d e , BDH a s s u r e d , BDH C h e m i c a l s . C h r o m o s o r b W(HP) 80-100 mesh, A p p l i e d S c i e n c e L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . C y a n o p r o p y l p h e n y l m e t h y l s i l i c o n e ( 0 V - 2 2 5 ) , A p p l i e d S c i e n c e L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . D C L a c t o s e 11, D C L a c t o s e 21, and D C L a c t o s e 30, De M e l k i n d u s t r i e V e g h e l . D i m e t h y l f o r m a m i d e , s i l y l a t i o n g r a d e , P i e r c e C h e m i c a l Co. D i m e t h y l s u l f o x i d e , s i l y l a t i o n g r a d e , P i e r c e C h e m i c a l Co. E t h y l b r o m i d e , B a k e r a n a l y z e d , J . T . B a k e r C h e m i c a l Co. F a s t f l o l a c t o s e , p r o d u c t # 316, F o r e m o s t Whey P r o d u c t s . Gas Chrom P, 100-120 mesh, A p p l i e d S c i e n c e L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . I m p a l p a b l e l a c t o s e , p r o d u c t # 312, F o r e m o s t Whey P r o d u c t s . I n d i u m , C a l i b r a t i o n s a m p l e k i t , P e r k i n E l m e r C o r p o r a t i o n . L i t h i u m f l u o r i d e , e x t r a p u r e , BDH C h e m i c a l Co. M e t h y l s i l i c o n e ( 0 V - 1 0 1 ) , A p p l i e d S c i e n c e L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . NF l a c t o s e a n h y d r o u s , S h e f f i e l d P r o d u c t s . NF l a c t o s e h y d r o u s , g r a d e s 60S, 80S, 80M, c a p s u l a t i n g , and i m p a l p a b l e , S h e f f i e l d P r o d u c t s . 3 % p h e n y l m e t h y l s i l i c o n e (OV-17) on C h r o m o s o r b W(HP) 80-100 mesh, W e s t e r n C h r o m a t o g r a p h y S u p p l i e s . P y r i d i n e , s i l y l a t i o n g r a d e , P i e r c e C h e m i c a l Co. S p r a y p r o c e s s l a c t o s e , p r o d u c t # 315, F o r e m o s t Whey P r o d u c t s . T i n , C a l i b r a t i o n s a m p l e k i t , P e r k i n E l m e r C o r p o r a t i o n . T r i m e t h y l s i l y l i m i d a z o l e , S i g m a C h e m i c a l Co. T r i m e t h y l s i l y l i m i d a z o l e i n p y r i d i n e ( T R I - S I L Z ) , P i e r c e C h e m i c a l 20 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LACTOSE-ANOMERS Required features of the procedure C a r b o h y d r a t e s a r e n o n - v o l a t i l e compounds w h i c h c a n n o t be a n a l y z e d by GC u n l e s s t h e i r v o l a t i l e d e r i v a t i v e s a r e f i r s t f o r m e d ( L a k e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . Th e f i r s t t a r g e t was t h u s t o s e l e c t a s u i t a b l e d e r i v a t i v e f o r t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . S e c o n d l y , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h a d e r i v a t i z a t i o n m ethod w h i c h w o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . L i k e most d e r i v a t i z a t i o n m e t h o d s , t h i s m ethod w o u l d a l s o r e q u i r e a s o l v e n t f o r i n i t i a l d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e s o l i d s a m p l e s . The s o l v e n t s h o u l d n o t i n d u c e m u t a r o t a t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . F o r t h e method t o be s u i t a b l e f o r r o u t i n e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , t h e d i s s o l u t i o n and d e r i v a t i z a t i o n s t e p s w o u l d h a v e t o be r a p i d and r e p r o d u c i b l e . C o n d i t i o n s , s u c h as t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r and a p p l i c a t i o n o f h e a t , w h i c h f a v o u r m u t a r o t a t i o n , w o u l d h a v e t o be a v o i d e d . Selection of a derivative C a r b o h y d r a t e s c a n be made v o l a t i l e by c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e i r m e t h y l , a c e t y l , t r i f l u o r o a c e t y l o r TMS d e r i v a t i v e s ( R o b a r d s and W h i t e l a w , 1 9 8 6 ) . The f i r s t t h r e e d e r i v a t i v e s a r e p r e p a r e d by m e t h o d s w h i c h do n o t meet one o r more o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . T h e s e i n v o l v e e i t h e r l e n g t h y s a m p l e p r e p a r a t i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n o f h e a t o r c o n v e r s i o n o f 21 t h e c a r b o h y d r a t e s t o f o r m s l i k e o x i m e s w h i c h do n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n i s o m e r s ( B i s h o p , 1962; B o u r n e e t al., 1950; G u n n e r e t al., 1961; S a w a r d e k e r e t al., 1 9 6 5 ) . The TMS d e r i v a t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r h and, c a n be p r e p a r e d e a s i l y and u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e i n i t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e i s o m e r i c c a r b o h y d r a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e w e r e t h e d e r i v a t i v e s o f c h o i c e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . Selection of a TMS reagent E a r l i e r t r i m e t h y l s i l y l a t i o n m e t h o d s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a c t o s e i n v o l v e d t h e u s e o f m u l t i p l e s i l y l a t i n g r e a g e n t s , n a m e l y , HMDS and TMCS ( S w e e l y e t al.., 1963; N e w s t e a d and G r a y , 1972; O i l i n g , 1 9 7 2 ) . The r e a c t i o n c a u s e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a p r e c i p i t a t e w h i c h had t o be r e m o v e d by c e n t r i f u g a t i o n , o r , t h e d e r i v a t i v e s had t o be e x t r a c t e d u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t s o l v e n t , s u c h as h e x a n e , l e a d i n g t o t i m e - c o n s u m i n g and t e d i o u s s a m p l e p r o c e s s i n g (De N e e f , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y was o v e r c o m e by u s i n g a t r i m e t h y l s i l y l a t i n g r e a g e n t , TSIM, w h i c h o f f e r e d a r a p i d and s i n g l e s t e p d e r i v a t i z a t i o n a t room t e m p e r a t u r e f o r most c a r b o h y d r a t e s a m p l e s ( B r i t t a i n , 1 9 7 1 ) . A f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s r e a g e n t , T R I - S I L Z, i s c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e . T R I - S I L Z was s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c a l c i u m g l u c o h e p t o n a t e e p i m e r s ( S u r y a n a r a y a n a n and M i t c h e l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . A s i d e f r o m one r e p o r t ( G i a n e t t o e t al., 1 9 8 6 ) , w h i c h was c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l amount o f l a c t o s e , t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . T h u s , i t was d e c i d e d t o u s e T R I - S I L Z 22 f o r t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . Selection of a solvent P r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t , a t room t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s d i d n o t d i s s o l v e e q u a l l y r a p i d l y i n T R I - S I L Z. Upon v o r t e x - m i x i n g , t h e a - l a c t o s e r i c h s a m p l e s d i s s o l v e d w i t h i n 1-2 m i n u t e s , w h i l e t h e / J - r i c h s a m p l e s r e q u i r e d more t h a n 30 m i n u t e s . T R I - S I L Z c o n t a i n s PYR w h i c h i s known t o c a u s e m u t a r o t a t i o n ( H i n e , 1 9 5 6 ) . A l t h o u g h d e r i v a t i z a t i o n i s a much f a s t e r r e a c t i o n t h a n m u t a r o t a t i o n ( O a t e s and S c h r a g e r , 1967; Co w i e and H e d g e s , 1 9 8 4 ) , t h e s l o w d i s s o l u t i o n o f / J - r i c h s a m p l e s i n T R I - S I L Z p r e s e n t e d a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s u f f i c i e n t m u t a r o t a t i o n t o i n d u c e e r r o r s i n t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s c o u l d n o t be r u l e d o u t . To o v e r c o m e t h i s p r o b l e m , ACN, DMF, and DMSO were t r i e d a s o t h e r s o l v e n t s . T h e r e was no i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e d i s s o l u t i o n u s i n g ACN and DMF. In DMSO, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f b o t h , a and / J - r i c h , s a m p l e s was s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d ; a - r i c h s a m p l e s d i s s o l v e d i n l e s s t h a n 1 m i n u t e , w h i l e t h e / J - r i c h s a m p l e s t o o k 5-10 m i n u t e s o f v o r t e x - m i x i n g t o d i s s o l v e c o m p l e t e l y . The s o l u t i o n s , when s t o r e d i n a d e s i c c a t o r f o r up t o a week, r e m a i n e d s t a b l e (no p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n ) . DMSO has been u s e d b e f o r e t o i m p r o v e t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s p r i o r t o t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n by HMDS and TMCS (Roetman, 1982; V i s s e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . To a v o i d m u t a r o t a t i o n d u e t o t r a c e s o f w a t e r , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o u s e r i g o r o u s l y 23 d r i e d o r s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d s i l y l a t i o n g r a d e o f t h e s o l v e n t . A c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e s i l y l a t i o n g r a d e DMSO ( P i e r c e ) was t h u s s e l e c t e d as t h e i n i t i a l s o l v e n t . The n e x t s t e p was t o f o r m u l a t e a m i x t u r e o f DMSO and TSIM w h i c h w o u l d d i s s o l v e and d e r i v a t i z e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Formulation of a derivatization mixture T R I - S I L Z i s a 2 1 % w/v (* 2 2 % v / v ) m i x t u r e o f TSIM i n PYR. T h e r e f o r e , t h e f i r s t d e r i v a t i z a t i o n m i x t u r e t r i e d was a 2 2 % v / v m i x t u r e o f TSIM i n DMSO. W h i l e t h e a - r i c h s a m p l e s d i s s o l v e d i n t h i s m i x t u r e as r a p i d l y as i n p u r e DMSO, t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e / J - r i c h s a m p l e s was c o n s i d e r a b l y r e t a r d e d (more t h a n 30 m i n u t e s ) . A l t h o u g h t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f a - r i c h s a m p l e s was q u i c k , t h e s o l u t i o n s s e p a r a t e d i n t o two p h a s e s when k e p t a t t h e room t e m p e r a t u r e . S u c h a p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n w o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e i f i t d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . To t e s t t h i s , t h e two p h a s e s were i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC s e p a r a t e l y . T h e r e l a t i v e p e a k a r e a s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e two p h a s e s were d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r and a l s o f r o m t h e r e l a t i v e p e a k a r e a o f t h e s o l u t i o n b e f o r e t h e p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l r e l a t i v e p e a k a r e a s c h a n g e d a f t e r t h e p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n , a p p a r e n t l y due t o m u t a r o t a t i o n . The m u t a r o t a t i o n p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a c t o s e r i c h p o l a r p h a s e w h i c h was a l s o e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n f r o m t h e a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e c r y s t a l s . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t w a t e r c a u s e s 24 m u t a r o t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e amount o f TSIM on t h e p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n , m i x t u r e s o f TSIM i n DMSO r a n g i n g f r o m 10 t o 2 2 % v / v we r e p r e p a r e d and u s e d . The s o l u t i o n s were s t a b l e a t l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f TSIM, b u t y i e l d e d m u l t i p l e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c p e a k s i m p l y i n g i n c o m p l e t e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a m i x t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f 2 2 % v / v TSIM i n DMSO was r e t a i n e d and i t was d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h an a l t e r n a t i v e m ethod t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n . A p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n was r e p o r t e d a l s o when HMDS and TMCS were u s e d t o d e r i v a t i z e l a c t o s e d i s s o l v e d i n DMSO (Roetman, 1 9 8 2 ) . PYR was ad d e d t o k e e p t h e two p h a s e s t o g e t h e r . T he a d d i t i o n o f PYR t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n TSIM-DMSO m i x t u r e a l s o y i e l d e d s t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . S i n c e PYR f a v o u r s m u t a r o t a t i o n , t h e minimum amount o f PYR t h a t w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e p h a s e s e p a r a t i o n was s e l e c t e d by v a r y i n g i t s r e l a t i v e amount w i t h DMSO, k e e p i n g t h e TSIM c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t 2 2 % v / v . T h i s amount was f o u n d t o be 58.5% . T h u s , t h e f i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n f o r d e r i v a t i z a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 19 . 5 % DMSO, 2 2 % TSIM and 5 8 . 5 % PYR ( v / v ) . Optimization of the gas chromatographic conditions A. S t a t i o n a r y p h a s e T h r e e s t a t i o n a r y p h a s e s o f i n c r e a s i n g p o l a r i t i e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r us e i n GC e x p e r i m e n t s : 25 i . 3% OV-101 on 100-120 mesh Gas Chrom P, i i . 3% 0V-17 on 80-100 mesh C h r o m o s o r b W, and i i i . 3% 0V-225 on 80-100 mesh C h r o m o s o r b W. T h e s e were p a c k e d i n t o s i l a n i z e d g l a s s c o l u m n s (4mm i . d . X 0.9m l e n g t h ) . H e l i u m (30 mL/min) was u s e d as t h e c a r r i e r g a s f o r a l l t h r e e c o l u m n s . The d e t e c t o r u s e d was an F I D . The t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e i n j e c t i o n p o r t and FID were s e t a t 2 5 0 ° C . The c o l u m n t e m p e r a t u r e s were t y p i c a l l y a b o u t 2 2 5 ° C , and were v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , when m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s w e r e t r i e d as i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s , t h e i n i t i a l c o l u m n t e m p e r a t u r e s had t o be d e c r e a s e d i n o r d e r t o s e p a r a t e t h e i r p e a k s f r o m t h e s o l v e n t p e a k . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e r e t e n t i o n t i m e s o f l a c t o s e p e a k s . So, t o k e e p t h e l a c t o s e anomer p e a k s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t t h e i r e a r l i e r r e t e n t i o n t i m e s , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e i n c r e a s e d a t programmed r a t e s t o t y p i c a l l y a b o u t 2 5 0 ° C f o l l o w i n g t h e e l u t i o n o f t h e m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s . O f t h e t h r e e s t a t i o n a r y p h a s e s t r i e d , 0V-225 p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e a n o m e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t a t i o n a r y p h a s e was u s e d f o r f u r t h e r o p t i m i z a t i o n o f t h e GC c o n d i t i o n s . B. Column t e m p e r a t u r e and c a r r i e r g a s f l o w The c o l u m n t e m p e r a t u r e was v a r i e d f r o m 175 t o 2 2 5 ° C . A l s o , t h e h e l i u m f l o w r a t e was v a r i e d f r o m 20 t o 50 mL/min. The most s a t i s f a c t o r y s e p a r a t i o n was o b t a i n e d a t a c o l u m n t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 1 5 ° C and a h e l i u m 26 f l o w r a t e o f 40 mL/min. The p e a k s were s h a r p and s y m m e t r i c . T o t a l r u n t i m e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 m i n u t e s w i t h a s e p a r a t i o n f a c t o r o f 1.51 b e t w e e n t h e two a n o m e r i c p e a k s ( F i g . 1 ) . C. I n j e c t i o n p o r t t e m p e r a t u r e A v a r i a t i o n o f i n j e c t i o n p o r t t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m 225 t o 2 9 0 ° C d i d n o t c a u s e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a n o m e r i c p e a k s and t h e i r t o t a l a r e a c o u n t s ( F i g . 2 ) . The i n j e c t i o n p o r t t e m p e r a t u r e was t h u s s e t a t 2 7 5 ° C . D. D e t e c t o r t e m p e r a t u r e A v a r i a t i o n i n t h e FID t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m 250 t o 3 2 5 ° C d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e a n o m e r i c p e a k s and t h e i r t o t a l a r e a c o u n t s ( F i g . 2 ) . T h e FID t e m p e r a t u r e u s e d was 2 7 5 ° C . Sample processing Once t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n were s e l e c t e d i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e s e were t o be a d d e d t o o b t a i n t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n a s h o r t t i m e o f a n a l y s i s k e e p i n g a minimum s a m p l e p r o c e s s i n g t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g were t h r e e p o s s i b l e ways o f p r o c e s s i n g t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . A B F i g . 1. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e gas ch roma tog ram o f l a c t o s e anomers ( s a m p l e u s e d : D C L - 1 1 ) . A : a b l a n k c h r o m a t o g r a m ; B: ch roma tog ram show ing l a c t o s e peaks a t r e t e n t i o n t i m e s o f 5 . 5 2 min ( a - l a c t o s e , peak 1) and 8 . 5 4 min ( / J - l a c t o s e , peak 2) C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s : s t a t i o n a r y p h a s e , 3% OV-225 on Chromosorb W (HP) i n a c o i l e d g l a s s co lumn (4mm i . d . x 0.9m l e n g t h ) ; i n j e c t i o n p o r t t e m p e r a t u r e , 275°C ; co lumn t e m p e r a t u r e , 215°C ; FID t e m p e r a t u r e , 275°C ; c a r r i e r gas ( h e l i u m ) f l o w r a t e 4 0 m L / m i n . 28 100 -i 97.5 O--95 -92.5 -90 225 250 275 TEMPERATURE (°C) 300 325 - e - FID Temp. -o- INJ Temp. F i g . 2. V a r i a t i o n o f a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f FID and i n j e c t i o n p o r t t e m p e r a t u r e s ( t h e p l o t s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h two d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s o f l a c t o s e ) . 29 1. Sample + DMSO + TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e , 2 . Sample + DMSO-TSIM m i x t u r e + PYR, and 3 . Sample + TSIM-DMSO-PYR m i x t u r e . To t e s t w h e t h e r t h e t h r e e methods l e a d t o t h e same a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n , two s a m p l e s , a - L ( a - r i c h ) and DCL-21 ( / 3 - r i c h ) , were p r o c e s s e d by e a c h me thod . The s o l u t i o n s were l e f t unde r amb ien t c o n d i t i o n s and i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . T a b l e I I I shows t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e t h r e e methods and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . ANOVA and T u k e y ' s m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e s t s showed t h a t t h e methods 2 and 3 p r o d u c e d a v e r a g e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om each o t h e r ( p = 0 . 0 5 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , method 1 p r o d u c e d a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p r o d u c e d by bo th methods 2 and 3 . F o r bo th o f t h e samp les u s e d , t h e a - c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n e d by method 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t d e t e r m i n e d by t h e methods 2 and 3 . T h i s c o u l d be due t o m u t a r o t a t i o n . M u t a r o t a t i o n wou ld r e s u l t i n t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f a -anomer t o /J i n t h e c a s e o f a - L , and o f /J-anomer t o a i n t h e c a s e o f D C L - 2 1 . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n t h e c a s e o f a - r i c h samp les l i k e a - L , c o n c u r r e n t d e r i v a t i z a t i o n and d i s s o l u t i o n were i m p o r t a n t o t h e r w i s e t r a c e s o f w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n r e l e a s e d i n t o t h e s o l u t i o n f r om t h e c r y s t a l s wou ld c a u s e m u t a r o t a t i o n b e f o r e TSIM was a d d e d . T h u s , t h e methods o f c h o i c e f o r a - L , and o t h e r a - r i c h s a m p l e s , were 2 and 3 . Method 3 , b e i n g more c o n v e n i e n t , was s e l e c t e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g a l l a - r i c h s a m p l e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n t h e c a s e o f / 3 - r i c h samp les l i k e D C L - 2 1 , i t seemed 30 T a b l e I I I . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f a - L and DCL-21 by GC u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t methods o f samp le p r o c e s s i n g . M e t h o d 3 % a c o n t e n t (± 1 s . d . ) b a - •L DCL-•21 1 96. .5 ( 0 . 2 ) 2 3 . 1 ( 0 . 1 ) 2 98 . .0 ( 0 . 2 ) 2 3 . 9 ( 0 . 4 ) c 3 98. .3 ( 0 . 2 ) 2 3 . 8 ( 0 . 1 ) S t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n : A. ANOVA T o t a l SS Group SS E r r o r SS D . F . : T o t a l Group E r r o r 10 .0156 9 . 7 2 6 6 0 .2891 11 2 9 151 .4189 1.184 1 .458 0 . 3 5 6 10 2 8 16 .3841 C o n c l u s i o n : The mean a - c o n t e n t s o b t a i n e d f r om t h e t h r e e methods f o r bo th samp les were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om each o t h e r ( p = 0 . 0 5 ) . B. Tukey's multiple comparison test for difference between the different average alpha-contents (p=0.05) Compar i s o n s : Method 3 Vs 1 Method 2 Vs 1 Method 3 Vs 2 S i g n i f i c a n t S i g n i f i c a n t Not S i g n i f i c a n t S i g n i f i c a n t S i g n i f i c a n t Not S i g n i f i c a n t a . See page 29 f o r d e t a i l s . b. A v e r a g e o f f o u r i n j e c t i o n s o f one sample e a c h . c . A v e r a g e o f t h r e e i n j e c t i o n s o f one s a m p l e . 31 i m p o r t a n t t o o b t a i n a r a p i d d i s s o l u t i o n p r i o r t o d e r i v a t i z a t i o n . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n c e o f TSIM i n DMSO (as i n methods 2 and 3) s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e t a r d s t h e d i s s o l u t i o n , a l l o w i n g t h e anomers enough t i m e t o m u t a r o t a t e . T h e r e f o r e , method 1 was t h e method o f c h o i c e f o r samp les w h i c h were known t o be j 3 - r i c h . Use of an internal standard An i d e a l i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers w o u l d be a s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r compound ( e . g . , a c a r b o h y d r a t e o r a p o l y h y d r i c a l c o h o l ) w h i c h c o u l d be d e r i v a t i z e d w i t h TSIM and w o u l d e l u t e a t a r e t e n t i o n t i m e p r e f e r a b l y s h o r t e r t h a n l a c t o s e . I n i t i a l t r i a l s w i t h t h e s e compounds d i d no t p r o v e s u c c e s s f u l . Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y s e p a r a t i o n o f l a c t o s e anomers , m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s ( g l u c o s e , mannose) and p o l y h y d r i c a l c o h o l s ( s o r b i t o l , m a n n i t o l ) had s h o r t r e t e n t i o n t i m e s and a l m o s t c o -e l u t e d w i t h t h e s o l v e n t . D i s a c c h a r i d e s ( s u c r o s e , m a l t o s e , c e l l o b i o s e , m e l i b i o s e ) p r o d u c e d peaks o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h t h e l a c t o s e p e a k s . T r i s a c c h a r i d e s ( r a f f i n o s e , m a l t o t r i o s e ) had l o n g r e t e n t i o n t i m e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n b r o a d peaks u n s u i t a b l e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e w o r k . An added c o m p l i c a t i o n was t h e p r e s e n c e o f m u l t i p l e peaks i n t h e ch romatog rams o f i s o m e r i c c a r b o h y d r a t e s l i k e g l u c o s e and m a l t o s e . T h i s wou ld n e c e s s i t a t e t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e m u t a r o t a t i o n o f no t o n l y t h e l a c t o s e anomers , bu t a l s o t h e i s o m e r s o f t h e i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d . 32 Relative FID response of lactose anomers I f i t c o u l d be shown t h a t FID r e s p o n s e s o f t h e two anomers were e q u a l , t h e n t h e r e l a t i v e peak a r e a s c o u l d be used as t h e i r r e l a t i v e amounts i n a g i v e n l a c t o s e s a m p l e . T h i s wou ld a v o i d t h e p r o b l e m o f i n c l u d i n g an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d . The e q u a l i t y o f FID r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be e a s i l y p r o v e d by i n j e c t i n g e q u a l amounts o f 100% p u r e a and /5 anomers . Howeve r , such p u r e fo rms were no t a v a i l a b l e . In such a s i t u a t i o n t h e r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s e was d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. - i t was assumed i n i t i a l l y t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s e s were e q u a l , - based on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , t h e a n o m e r i c r a t i o s o f an a and a / J - r i c h samp le were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e peak a r e a r a t i o s , - m i x t u r e s o f t h e s e two samp les i n d i f f e r e n t r a t i o s were p r e p a r e d and t h e r e s u l t a n t anomer r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d , c o r r e c t i n g t h e amount o f a - l a c t o s e f o r t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , - t h e m i x t u r e s were d e r i v a t i z e d and i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC, - peak a r e a r a t i o s o f t h e s e m i x t u r e s were d e t e r m i n e d , - t h e a r e a r a t i o s were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e c a l c u l a t e d anomer r a t i o s , I f t h e i n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n was c o r r e c t , t h e n t h e p l o t w o u l d be a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h a s l o p e o f 1. T h i s was f o u n d t o be t r u e ( T a b l e I V , F i g . 3 ) . Thus t h e r e l a t i v e a r e a c o u n t s can be used as r e l a t i v e anomer amounts f o r each l a c t o s e s a m p l e . 33 T a b l e IV . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s e o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers u s i n g m i x t u r e s o f an a - r i c h sample ( a - L ) w i t h / } - r i c h s a m p l e s ( / J - B A K and 0 - C C F ) . / J / a C o n c e n t r a t i o n ft/a Peak A r e a R a t i o U s i n g R a t i o 0 -BAK 0 -CCF 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 8 ± 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 2 8 0 0 . 2 8 0 ± 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 4 6 5 0 . 4 9 9 ± 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 5 3 9 0 . 5 1 3 1 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 6 8 4 0 . 6 8 5 ± 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 7 8 6 0 . 7 8 2 ± 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 9 6 2 0 . 9 0 3 + 0 . 0 1 5 1 .049 1 .039±0 .003 R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s : r 2 0 . 9 9 3 6 1.0 S l o p e 0 .9501 0 . 9 9 0 8 95% C . I . f o r t h e s l o p e 0 .8091 t o 1.0911 0 . 9 7 5 4 t o 1.0061 I n t e r c e p t 0 . 0 2 3 3 0 . 0 0 2 C o n c l u s i o n : The two s l o p e s were no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om 1 when t e s t e d by t h e S t u d e n t ' s t - s t a t i s t i c (p=0 .05) u s i n g a t w o - t a i l e d n u l l h y p o t h e s i s [ H Q : s l o p e = l ] i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h A N O V A . 34 0 0.2 0.4 0 .6 0 .8 1 C O N C E N T R A T I O N R A T I O F i g . 3 . a g a i n s t P l o t o f r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c r e s p o n s e ( /J /a a r e a r a t i o ) a t FID P/a c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a t i o . 35 Optimization of derivatization time A s o l u t i o n o f a - L i n DMSO was d i v i d e d i n t o two p o r t i o n s . One p o r t i o n was d e r i v a t i z e d u s i n g TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e , and i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC a t 5, 15, 25 and 35 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e m i x t u r e . T he s e c o n d p o r t i o n was s i m i l a r l y d e r i v a t i z e d , and i n j e c t e d 10, 20, and 30 m i n u t e s a f t e r a d d i t i o n o f t h e TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e t o i t . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l a r e a c o u n t o f t h e anomer p e a k s a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i n u t e s i n d i c a t i n g c o m p l e t e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s t i m e ( F i g . 4 ) . T h u s , t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n t i m e was f i x e d a t 20 m i n u t e s . Mutarotation in solution and derivatized state A s o l u t i o n o f DCL-21 i n DMSO was k e p t i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r a t room t e m p e r a t u r e . A l s o , a s a m p l e e a c h o f s o l u t i o n s o f a - L and ANL was d e r i v a t i z e d and t h e s o l u t i o n s were s t o r e d a t 4 ° C . I n t e r m i t t e n t l y , a l i q u o t s o f t h e DCL-21 s o l u t i o n w ere r e m o v e d and d e r i v a t i z e d u s i n g a TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e . P o r t i o n s (3 /zL) o f t h i s , and t h e d e r i v a t i z e d a - L and ANL s o l u t i o n s , w ere i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC o v e r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n f o l l o w i n g e a c h i n j e c t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ( T a b l e V) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e amount o f m u t a r o t a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 h i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . One h o u r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y o u t t h r e e GC r u n s and, t h u s , o b t a i n a s t a t i s t i c a l e s t i m a t e o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . 36 T a b l e V . M u t a r o t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n DMSO s o l u t i o n and d e r i v a t i z e d s t a t e . S o l u t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n % Change S t o r a g e B e f o r e A f t e r D C L - 2 1 , room temp, 23 .3% a 24 .0% a 0 .7% 96 h , i n DMSO a - L , 4 ° C , 28 h , 98 .2% a 97 .8% a 0.4% d e r i v a t i z e d ANL , 4 ° C , 67 h , 2 6 . 1 % a 26 .6% a 0 .5% d e r i v a t i z e d 37 F i g . 4. E x t e n t o f d e r i v a t i z a t i o n (% o f t o t a l l a c t o s e , b a s e d on t o t a l a r e a o f t h e a n o m e r i c p e a k s ) as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . 38 Determination of anomeric composition of lactose samples A p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 /zg o f a - r i c h l a c t o s e s a m p l e s w e r e d i s s o l v e d i n 225 fil o f t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n m i x t u r e by v o r t e x - m i x i n g i n a R e a c t i - V i a l . T h e s o l u t i o n s w ere l e f t a t room t e m p e r a t u r e i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r u n t i l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d e r i v a t i z a t i o n r e a c t i o n . U s i n g a GC s y r i n g e , 3 ill a l i q u o t s o f t h e s o l u t i o n s w ere i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC. The / } - r i c h s a m p l e s were p r o c e s s e d by a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e (method 1, page 2 9 ) . The d e r i v a t i z a t i o n m i x t u r e was d i v i d e d i n t o two c o m p o n e n t s , n a m e l y , DMSO and TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 jug o f t h e s a m p l e s were d i s s o l v e d i n DMSO by v o r t e x - m i x i n g . T he TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e was t h e n a d d e d t o d e r i v a t i z e t h e d i s s o l v e d l a c t o s e . T h e t o t a l amount o f DMSO and TSIM-PYR m i x t u r e was m a i n t a i n e d a t 225 ill. The d e r i v a t i z a t i o n r e a c t i o n was a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d t o c o m p l e t i o n i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h 3 ill a l i q u o t s o f t h e s o l u t i o n s w e r e i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e GC. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a s t a t i s t i c a l e s t i m a t e , t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f e a c h l a c t o s e s a m p l e was o b t a i n e d by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a v e r a g e r e l a t i v e p e a k a r e a c o u n t s o f t h r e e i n j e c t i o n s e a c h o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s o f e a c h s a m p l e ( t o t a l n i n e i n j e c t i o n s o f e a c h s a m p l e ) . 39 2.4 STUDY OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LACTOSE Differential scanning calorimetry A DSC c o u p l e d w i t h a t h e r m a l a n a l y z e r was u s e d t o s t u d y t h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e . M o s t DSC s c a n s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h 1 t o 5 mg s a m p l e s u n d e r a f l o w i n g s t r e a m o f n i t r o g e n a t 20 p s i . The s a m p l e s were w e i g h e d o u t d i r e c t l y i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s a m p l e - p a n s u s i n g an e l e c t r o b a l a n c e . The p a n s a r e d e s i g n a t e d as f o l l o w s : A - Open pan ( s t a n d a r d pan w i t h c r i m p e d e d g e s ) . B - S e a l e d pan ( v o l a t i l e p a n ) . C - S e a l e d pan w i t h a s m a l l p i n h o l e . The h e a t i n g r a t e e m p l o y e d i n most s c a n s was 1 0 ° C / m i n . A t t i m e s , i t was c h a n g e d t o 2.5 o r 2 0 ° C / m i n t o o b t a i n b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t h e r m a l t r a n s i t i o n s . Ca 7/brat ion of DSC T h e DSC was c a l i b r a t e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d s a m p l e s o f I n d i u m (m.p. 1 5 6 ° C ) and T i n (m.p. 2 3 1 ° C ) . Thermal microscopy A m i c r o s c o p e w i t h a h o t s t a g e was u s e d f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e t h e r m a l t r a n s i t i o n s o f l a c t o s e . 40 Preparation of UANL and SANL The u n s t a b l e anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e was p r e p a r e d by h e a t i n g an a c c u r a t e l y w e i g h e d L80S samp le in vacuo a t 110-112°C i n a p e t r i d i s h and c o n c u r r e n t l y r e m o v i n g t h e w a t e r v a p o r by P2O5 k e p t i n s i d e t h e vacuum o v e n . The d e h y d r a t i o n was c o m p l e t e a f t e r abou t 5 h as i n d i c a t e d by a w e i g h t l o s s o f more t h a n 5%. No f u r t h e r w e i g h t l o s s was r e c o r d e d a f t e r t h i s t i m e . The s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e was p r e p a r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f S h a r p ( 1 9 4 3 ) . An a c c u r a t e l y w e i g h e d samp le was h e a t e d a t «140°C i n a c o v e r e d p e t r i d i s h i n a ho t a i r oven a t a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . The samp le w a s , t h u s , h e a t e d i n a more o r l e s s m o i s t a tmosphe re i n s i d e t h e c o v e r e d p e t r i d i s h . I t l o s t t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 h (more t h a n 5% w e i g h t l o s s ) t o y i e l d SANL. A samp le o f t h i s p r o d u c t was e x p o s e d t o amb ien t c o n d i t i o n s f o r abou t 1 week t o v e r i f y i t s s t a b i l i t y . The exposed samp le d i d no t show any d e h y d r a t i o n peak when a DSC run was c a r r i e d ou t a f t e r t h i s t i m e , w h i c h a f f i r m e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e anhyd rous p r o d u c t . Changes in anomeric composition during DSC runs F e r n a n d e z - M a r t i n et al. (1980) and L e r k et al. (1984) r e p o r t e d changes i n t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a c t o s e d u r i n g DSC r u n s . In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e dependence o f t h e changes i n t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n on DSC c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e e f f e c t t h e s e changes wou ld have 41 on l a c t o s e t h e r m o g r a m s , t h e s a m p l e s p a n s were r e m o v e d f r o m t h e DSC c e l l a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s on t h e t h e r m o g r a m s and s t o r e d i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r . When c o o l e d down t o t h e room t e m p e r a t u r e , s m a l l amounts o f t h e s a m p l e s w ere r e m o v e d f r o m t h e p a n s , and t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e GC method d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 2.3. Determination of weight loss during DSC runs In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e w e i g h t - l o s s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s due t o m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n a n d / o r d e h y d r a t i o n , d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s , t h e s a m p l e p a n s w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e DSC c e l l , a l l o w e d t o c o o l down t o room t e m p e r a t u r e i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r , and w e i g h e d on an e l e c t r o b a l a n c e . T he d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e w e i g h t s b e f o r e and a f t e r h e a t i n g was e x p r e s s e d as % w e i g h t l o s s d u e t o t h e t h e r m a l c h a n g e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . 2.5 STUDY OF POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE Powder x-ray diffraction patterns of lactose samples D i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e were m i x e d w i t h an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d , L i F , i n 1:1 r a t i o . T he m i x t u r e s were p a c k e d i n t o s a m p l e - h o l d e r s o f an x - r a y d i f f r a c t o m e t e r and t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s w e r e r e c o r d e d f r o m 9 t o 5 0 ° 2 6 a t a s c a n s p e e d o f 0 . 0 2 ° 2 9 / s e c . The x - r a y s o u r c e was m a i n t a i n e d a t 40 kV and 20 mA. N i - f i l t e r e d CuKa x - r a y s ( w a v e l e n g t h 1.54178 A) w e r e u s e d t h r o u g h o u t . P a r a m e t e r s o f t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s s u c h as p e a k p o s i t i o n s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g s , and 42 peak i n t e n s i t i e s were r e c o r d e d on a compu te r t e r m i n a l i n t e r f a c e d w i t h t h e x - r a y d e t e c t o r . Quantitative use of the powder x-ray diffraction The p u r e s t a v a i l a b l e c r y s t a l l i n e g r a d e s o f l a c t o s e anomers , n a m e l y , L80S (98 .4% a ) and 0-DMV (94 .9% 0), were s e l e c t e d f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n w o r k . M i x t u r e s o f t h e two i n known w e i g h t r a t i o s were made t o o b t a i n a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s f r om abou t 14 t o 89% a . The m i x t u r e s were t h e n m ixed w i t h L i F i n 1:1 r a t i o . The r e s u l t a n t m i x t u r e s were g round j u s t enough t o p a s s them c o m p l e t e l y t h r o u g h s i e v e #200 ( p a r t i c l e s i z e 75 /xm). Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t m i x t u r e s were r e c o r d e d . R a t i o s o f i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c peak o f t h e a - l a c t o s e monohydra te ( 2 0 . 2 1 6 ± 0 . 0 1 9 ° 2 9 , n=5) t o t h a t o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and n o n -i n t e r f e r i n g peak o f L i F ( 4 5 . 2 2 4 ± 0 . 0 4 3 ° 2 8 , n=42) were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e p e r c e n t a - c o n t e n t f o r each m i x t u r e . Each m i x t u r e p r e p a r e d above was s c a n n e d a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s t o o b t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l a v e r a g e a t each p o i n t on t h e p l o t . The s u r f a c e o f t h e p a c k i n g i n t h e samp le c e l l s was d i s t u r b e d and r e l e v e l l e d each t i m e t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n on peak i n t e n s i t i e s . Relationship between anomeric composition and peak intensities M i x t u r e s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l g r a d e s o f l a c t o s e as r e c e i v e d f r om t h e s u p p l i e r s were p r e p a r e d w i t h L i F i n 1:1 r a t i o . X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n 43 p a t t e r n s o f e a c h m i x t u r e were r e c o r d e d and t h e r a t i o s o f t h e p e a k i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e a k s o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e ( a b o u t 2 0 . 1 ° 2 8 ) and 0-anomer ( a b o u t 21.1"29) - i f b o t h p e a k s were p r e s e n t i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s - t o t h a t o f L i F were o b t a i n e d . T h e r e l a t i v e a m ounts o f t h e two anomers c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by t a k i n g t h e r a t i o s o f t h e s e two r a t i o s . S i n c e t h e p e a k i n t e n s i t y o f L i F w o u l d be c a n c e l l e d o u t by t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e l a t i v e amounts w e r e a c t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by t a k i n g t h e r a t i o s o f t h e p e a k i n t e n s i t i e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e two a n o m e r s o n l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d , L i F , was r e t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o n e g a t e any i n s t r u m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s . 2.6 DETERMINATION OF TRUE DENSITY OF LACTOSE SAMPLES Determination by pycnometry A m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r was u s e d f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t r u e d e n s i t y o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . P r e p u r i f i e d h e l i u m g a s was u s e d as t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t f l u i d . L a c t o s e s a m p l e s were a c c u r a t e l y w e i g h e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e s a m p l e c e l l o f t h e p y c n o m e t e r . A l l s a m p l e s were o u t g a s s e d p r i o r t o t h e t r u e d e n s i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The s a m p l e c e l l s i z e and t h e o u t g a s s i n g p r o c e d u r e w e r e s e l e c t e d as f o l l o w s . A. S e l e c t i o n o f s a m p l e c e l l s i z e T h e m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r a l l o w s t h e u s e o f t h r e e s a m p l e c e l l s i z e s . T h e s e a r e , l a r g e , s m a l l and m i c r o ( v o l u m e s : 149.59, 28.25 and 12.29 cm 3, 44 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The t h r e e c e l l s y i e l d e d t r u e d e n s i t y v a l u e s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om each o t h e r (ANOVA, p = 0 . 0 5 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t r u e d e n s i t y v a l u e s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e , n a m e l y , a - L , as o b t a i n e d f r om t h e l a r g e , t h e s m a l l and t h e m i c r o c e l l , were 1 . 5 3 8 , 1.524 and 1 .502 g / c m 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . In o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h w h i c h samp le c e l l y i e l d e d t h e most r e l i a b l e v a l u e , t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f a - L was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d s u s p e n s i o n d e n s i t y method ( S u r y a n a r a y a n a n and M i t c h e l l , 1 9 8 5 ) . The t r u e d e n s i t y o b t a i n e d f r om t h i s method ( 1 . 5 3 8 5 ± 0 . 0 0 0 6 , n=3) was c l o s e t o t h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e l a r g e c e l l ( 1 . 5 3 8 ± 0 . 0 0 1 , n=6 ) . T h u s , t h i s c e l l was used f o r a l l f u r t h e r d e n s i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . S i n c e /5-CCF i s a s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d samp le and i s u n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e amount (~90g) r e q u i r e d by t h e l a r g e c e l l , i t s t r u e d e n s i t y was d e t e r m i n e d o n l y by t h e s u s p e n s i o n d e n s i t y me thod . B. O u t g a s s i n g o f l a c t o s e samp les The s a m p l e s have t o be p r o p e r l y e q u i l i b r a t e d w i t h h e l i u m b e f o r e t h e t r u e d e n s i t y can be d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r . T h r e e methods o f o u t g a s s i n g were i n i t i a l l y t e s t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e : i . p u r g i n g o f t h e samp les w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f h e l i u m f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m i n u t e s , i i . a p p l y i n g vacuum t o t h e samp les t o remove t h e a d s o r b e d g a s e s f r o m t h e s a m p l e , and r e l i e v i n g t h e vacuum by i n t r o d u c i n g h e l i u m i n t o t h e samp le c e l l ; r e p e a t i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e u n t i l 45 e q u i l i b r a t i o n . i i i . p r e s s u r i z i n g t h e samp les w i t h h e l i u m and s u b s e q u e n t l y d e p r e s s u r i z i n g i t ; r e p e a t i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e u n t i l e q u i l i b r a t i o n . The t h r e e methods y i e l d e d t r u e d e n s i t y v a l u e s no t d i f f e r e n t f r om each o t h e r . The l a s t method was e s s e n t i a l l y a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e d e n s i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i t s e l f . I t was a u s e f u l method b e c a u s e t h e t r u e d e n s i t i e s o f t h e samp les c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d a f t e r each p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n c y c l e , and w h e t h e r t h e samp les were e q u i l i b r a t e d o r no t c o u l d be v e r i f i e d by t e s t i n g w h e t h e r t h e d e n s i t y v a l u e s were c o n s t a n t o r no t a f t e r r e p e t i t i v e o u t g a s s i n g c y c l e s . T h i s method was q u i c k e r t h a n t h e o t h e r two methods and was used f o r f u r t h e r d e n s i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . Determination by suspension density method The s u s p e n s i o n f l u i d f o r a - r i c h samp les c o n s i s t e d o f a m i x t u r e o f e t h y l b r o m i d e and c a r b o n t e t r a c h l o r i d e . F o r t h e /J -CCF s a m p l e , o n l y c a r b o n t e t r a c h l o r i d e was used as t h e s u s p e n s i o n f l u i d . The method was imp roved o v e r t h a t used by S u r y a n a r a y a n a n and M i t c h e l l (1985) by u s i n g a r e f r i g e r a t e d c i r c u l a t i n g b a t h w h i c h a f f o r d e d a p r e c i s e (± 0 . 0 5 ° C ) c o n t r o l and a r a p i d change and r e e q u i l i b r a t i o n o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s u s p e n s i o n f l u i d s . 46 2.7 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE-DESORPTION AND SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTOSE SAMPLES Moisture-desorption of lactose samples I n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s , i n v o l v i n g h e a t i n g a t 80 and 1 0 0 ° C in vacuo, l e d t o a l o s s o f w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by w e i g h t l o s s o f 5% o r more. In a p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d method ( T a b i b i and H o l l e n b e c k , 1984) on t h e m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n o f a d i r e c t c o m p r e s s i o n f o r m o f s u c r o s e , a d i s a c c h a r i d e l i k e l a c t o s e , a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 7 0 ° C was u s e d in vacuo. In o r d e r t o a v o i d d e h y d r a t i o n , a c c u r a t e l y w e i g h e d s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e w e r e k e p t i n a vacuum o v e n a t a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e ( 6 0 ° C ) f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n t e r m i t t e n t l y , t h e s a m p l e s w e r e t a k e n o u t o f t h e o v e n and w e i g h e d . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a s t a b l e w e i g h t b e c a u s e t h e s a m p l e s w o u l d s t a r t s o r b i n g m o i s t u r e f r o m t h e a t m o s p h e r e and g a i n i n g w e i g h t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e w e i g h t g a i n was f o l l o w e d o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e ( 2 - 3 m i n u t e s ) and p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t i m e . T h e c u r v e o b t a i n e d was f i t t e d u s i n g a p o l y n o m i a l f i t t i n g p r o g r a m . T h e i n i t i a l p a r t s o f t h e c u r v e s were l i n e a r and were e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t i m e z e r o t o o b t a i n t h e w e i g h t a t t h e moment t h e s a m p l e s were t a k e n o u t o f t h e o v e n . D i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i n i t i a l w e i g h t and t h e w e i g h t a f t e r d r y i n g was e x p r e s s e d as % w e i g h t l o s s due t o d r y i n g . 47 Moisture-sorption of lactose samples L a c t o s e s a m p l e s d r i e d as a b o v e were t r a n s f e r r e d t o c h a m b e r s a t r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t i e s o f 15, 32 and 5 2 % ( m a i n t a i n e d u s i n g d i f f e r e n t s a t u r a t e d s a l t s o l u t i o n s ) a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 5 ° C i n an i n c u b a t o r . R e l a t i v e h u m i d i t i e s g r e a t e r t h a n 5 2 % a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o be e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t a b l e t m a n u f a c t u r i n g a r e a . The s a m p l e s were r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c o n s t a n t h u m i d i t y c h a m b e r s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y and w e i g h e d . The w e i g h t s were f a i r l y c o n s t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e e x t r a p o l a t i o n m ethod was n o t r e q u i r e d . D i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i n i t i a l w e i g h t s and t h e w e i g h t s a f t e r t h e e x p o s u r e t o m o i s t u r e was e x p r e s s e d as % w e i g h t g a i n due t o m o i s t u r e -s o r p t i o n . 2.8 CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTOSE SAMPLES BASED ON THEIR SURFACE AREA S p e c i f i c s u r f a c e a r e a s o f d i f f e r e n t l a c t o s e s a m p l e s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m u l t i p o i n t BET m ethod u s i n g a s u r f a c e a r e a a n a l y z e r ( L o w e l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( 0 . 0 3 4 7 , 0.0720 and 0.1093%) o f k r y p t o n ( a d s o r b a t e ) i n h e l i u m ( c a r r i e r ) w e r e u s e d . N i t r o g e n was u s e d as t h e c a l i b r a t i o n g a s . Calibration curves for determination of surface area V o l u m e s o f n i t r o g e n r a n g i n g f r o m 2 t o 35 uL were i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e f l o w i n g s t r e a m o f K r /He m i x t u r e u s i n g a g a s t i g h t s y r i n g e . The d e t e c t o r s i g n a l s so o b t a i n e d w e r e r e c o r d e d as p e a k s on a s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r . 48 The peak h e i g h t s were m e a s u r e d , and t h e peak a r e a s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t r i a n g u l a r a p p r o x i m a t i o n . The peak h e i g h t s and peak a r e a s were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e vo lume o f n i t r o g e n i n j e c t e d . The p l o t s were used as c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s u r f a c e a r e a o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . The p r e c i s i o n o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s was t e s t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y by i n j e c t i n g known vo lumes o f n i t r o g e n . Determination of surface area of lactose samples L a c t o s e samp les (abou t 100-250mg) were w e i g h e d ou t a c c u r a t e l y i n t h e samp le c e l l o f t h e s u r f a c e a r e a a n a l y z e r . The h e i g h t s and a r e a s o f t h e d e s o r p t i o n peaks o f l a c t o s e were d e t e r m i n e d . Vo lumes o f n i t r o g e n t h a t w o u l d p r o d u c e peaks o f t h e same h e i g h t s and a r e a s were d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s . The peak h e i g h t s , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g vo lumes o f n i t r o g e n , and t h e amb ien t t e m p e r a t u r e and a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e were f e d i n t o a compu te r p rog ram ( O r r , 1 9 8 3 ) , based on t h e BET e q u a t i o n , w h i c h c a l c u l a t e d t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f each l a c t o s e s a m p l e . 49 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 ANOMERIC COMPOSITION OF LACTOSE SAMPLES Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e by t h e GC met h o d d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 2.3 r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l s a m p l e s c o n t a i n b o t h a n omers i n d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i v e a m o u n t s . The a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f e a c h s a m p l e o f l a c t o s e i s shown i n T a b l e V I . 3.2 SOME COMMENTS ON THE GC METHOD OF LACTOSE ANOMER ANALYSIS The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h e GC method h a v e a h i g h d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n as i s e v i d e n t by t h e l o w c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n ( T a b l e V I ) . T he p r e c i s i o n and s h o r t s a m p l e p r o c e s s i n g and GC r u n t i m e s make t h e method s u i t a b l e f o r r o u t i n e a n a l y s i s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . The s a m p l e h a n d l i n g i n v o l v e s a s i n g l e - s t e p d e r i v a t i z a t i o n u s i n g o n l y one d e r i v a t i z i n g r e a g e n t . E a r l i e r m e t h o d s u s e d m u l t i p l e r e a g e n t s ( S w e e l y et al., 1963; N e w s t e a d and G r a y , 1972; O i l i n g , 1972; Roetman, 1 9 8 2 ) . Th e e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t GC met h o d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l a c t o s e anomers h a v e e q u a l FID r e s p o n s e s . T h u s , a s i m p l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e a r e a s o f t h e a n o m e r i c p e a k s g i v e s t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c a m o u n t s . T a b l e V I . A n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e . L a c t o s e a S a m p l e s % /} % ± l s . d . a % C o e f f . o f V a r . a a - L 98.2 + 0.1 0.12 1.8 L60S 98.0 + 0.1 0.10 2.0 L80S 98.4 ± 0.1 0.10 1.6 L80M 98.1 + 0.2 0.20 1.9 LCAPS 98.2 + 0.1 0.14 1.8 I P L - S 98.2 + 0.1 0.14 1.8 ANL 26.1 + 0.4 1.56 73.9 I P L - F 96.9 + 0.1 0.10 3.1 SPL 96.8 + 0.1 0.14 3.2 F F L 94.6 + 0.3 0.34 5.4 DCL-11 89.8 + 0.3 0.25 10.2 DCL-21 23.3 + 0.4 1.74 76.7 DCL-30 85.2 + 0.6 0.67 14.8 0-DMV 5.1 + 0.2 4.07 94.9 0-BAK 30.6 ± 0.2 0.78 69.4 0-CCF 1.9 + 0.1 4.40 98.1 S A N L ° 92.0 + 0.3 0.31 8.0 U ANL b 92.9 + 0.1 0.10 7.1 a. B a s e d on 3 i n j e c t i o n s e a c h o f 3 s a m p l e s . b. B a s e d on 3 i n j e c t i o n s e a c h o f 1 s a m p l e . 51 3.3 THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LACTOSE Observations on lactose thermograms A l l a - r i c h l a c t o s e s a m p l e s e x h i b i t a d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k b e t w e e n 140-1 4 5 ° C , f o l l o w e d by a m e l t i n g p e a k b e t w e e n 2 1 0 - 2 2 0 ° C , when h e a t e d i n open p a n s ( F i g . 5, T a b l e V I I ) . In s e a l e d p a n s , t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k s h i f t s t o a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e m e l t i n g p e a k i s s h i f t e d s i m i l a r l y b u t more s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( b y = 1 0 ° C ; F i g . 5 ) . A l s o , two new p e a k s a p p e a r i n t h e t h e r m o g r a m s and t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k s p l i t s i n t o two c o m p o n e n t s when s e a l e d p a n s a r e u s e d . A l l ^ - r i c h s a m p l e s m e l t t y p i c a l l y a r o u n d 2 3 5 ° C ( F i g . 5 ) . Some Zu-r i c h s a m p l e s (/J-BAK, ANL and DCL-21) a l s o show a d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k r e v e a l i n g t h a t t h e a - l a c t o s e p r e s e n t i n t h e s e s a m p l e s i s h y d r a t e d . Two s a m p l e s , UANL and /3-DMV, ha v e m e l t i n g p o i n t s l o w e r t h a n e x p e c t e d . UANL was p r e p a r e d by a r a p i d d e h y d r a t i o n o f L80S ( S e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e d e h y d r a t i o n l e f t t h e c r y s t a l s i n a p o o r l y c r y s t a l l i n e f o r m w h i c h h a v e a l o w e r m e l t i n g p o i n t . The u n e x p e c t e d l y l o w m e l t i n g p e a k t e m p e r a t u r e o f /J-DMV c a n be e x p l a i n e d on s i m i l a r l i n e s . T h i s s a m p l e c o n t a i n s 5.1% a - l a c t o s e as an i m p u r i t y . As s u g g e s t e d l a t e r ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) , t h i s i m p u r i t y i s p r o b a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n s i d e t h e fi-l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s . T h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n may l e a d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e c r y s t a l l a t t i c e c a u s i n g i t t o m e l t a t a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n e x p e c t e d . 52 60 100 150 200 250 T E M P E R A T U R E ( ° C ) Fig. 5. DSC thermograms of representative samples of lactose (heating rate 10°C/min). A: an a-rich sample (L80S, open pan); B. a 0-rich sample (/5-CCF, open pan); C. an a-rich sample (L80M, sealed pan). 53 Table V I I . Temperatures of dehydrat ion and me l t i ng peaks of d i f f e r e n t grades of l a c t o s e (heat ing r a te 10°C/min). Temperature (°C) at Lactose Grade dehydrat ion peaks me l t i n g peaks PANS 3: A B C A B C a-L 144 u 1 4 8 u 146 c 215 224 216 L60S 145 b 149 b 148 218 222 220 u L80S 145 c 150 148 218 227 211 b L80M 145 1 4 8 5 145 217 228 220 b LCAPS 145 148° 145 217 230 221 b IPL-S 144 146 d 144 216 226 218 IPL-F 144 147 d 145 217 228 219. SPL 144 c 1 4 4 H 145c 216 e 229 219 b FFL 144 1 4 7 H 144 J 215 226 218b DCL-11 140<; 145 d 146 d 217 226 219 DCL-30 145 d 146 146 d 219 215 220 DCL-21 127 e 133 e 128 e 236 234 237 ANL 133 e 135 e 134 e 235 234 236 0-BAK 129 e 131 e 132 e 235, 232, 236, 0-DMV - - - 213 b 214 b 214 b 0-CCF - - - 235 236 236 SANL - - - - - 219 UANL - - - 211 207 -a. A- open pans; B- sea led pans; and C- sea led pans w i th a small p i n h o l e . b. Shoulder at the l ead ing edge of the peak. c. Shoulder at the l agg ing edge of the peak. d. S p l i t s i n t o two peaks. e. Very broad peak. 54 Presence of new peaks when sealed pans are used A f e a t u r e no t r e f e r r e d t o i n T a b l e V I I i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a second e n d o t h e r m i c peak i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by an o c c a s i o n a l e x o t h e r m i c peak between t h e d e h y d r a t i o n and t h e m e l t i n g peaks when s e a l e d pans a r e u s e d . In an e a r l i e r r e p o r t , L e r k e t al. (1984) t h o u g h t t h a t t h e peaks were due t o m e l t i n g ( e n d o t h e r m i c ) o f u n s t a b l e anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e ( f o rmed due t o d e h y d r a t i o n ) and i t s s u b s e q u e n t r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n ( e x o t h e r m i c ) i n t o a new fo rm t h a t m e l t e d a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e . T h i s was s u p p o r t e d by an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e two new peaks were i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t i n t h e c a s e o f an u n s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e samp le i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e pan t y p e e m p l o y e d . However , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p y o f a -l a c t o s e monohyd ra te d i d no t r e v e a l such a m e l t i n g . T h u s , t h e endo the rm must be due t o some o t h e r r e a c t i o n . I t i s known t h a t l a c t o s e unde rgoes a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s ( F e r n a n d e z - M a r t i n e t a / . , 1980 ; L e r k e t al., 1 9 8 4 ) . I t i s a l s o known t h a t t h e m u t a r o t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n aqueous s o l u t i o n s i n v o l v e s a bond b r e a k i n g i n t h e g l u c o s e m o i e t y o f t h e l a c t o s e m o l e c u l e and r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e h y d r o x y l g r o u p a t c a r b o n - 1 t o a new a n o m e r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( H i n e , 1956 ; M o r r i s o n and B o y d , 1 9 8 7 ) . Such a b r e a k up o f a bond r e q u i r e s a b s o r p t i o n o f e n e r g y , and i f i t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s , t h e n i t wou ld a p p e a r as an endo the rm on t h e t h e r m o g r a m s . The s e c o n d e n d o t h e r m i c peak can be a t t r i b u t e d t o such an a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n m e l t i n g , based on t h e f o l l o w i n g e v i d e n c e s : 55 i . A n a l y s i s o f an a - r i c h samp le ( L 8 0 S , p a r t i c l e s i z e 106 -149 /im, h e a t i n g r a t e 10 °C /m in ) b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e e n d o t h e r m i c peak d i s c l o s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n ( f r om t h e i n i t i a l 98 .4% a t o 8 .9% a a f t e r t h e p e a k ) , i i . L a c t o s e unde rgoes d e g r a d a t i o n t o m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s when i t m e l t s . These m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s have been r e p o r t e d t o a p p e a r as s e p a r a t e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c peaks i f a GC a n a l y s i s o f t h e m o l t e n samp les i s c a r r i e d ou t ( F e r n a n d e z - M a r t i n et al., 1 9 8 0 ) . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , no such peaks were seen d u r i n g t h e GC a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a c t o s e samp les a f t e r t h e s e c o n d e n d o t h e r m i c p e a k . i i i . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e t h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p y d i d no t r e v e a l any m e l t i n g a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e s e c o n d e n d o t h e r m . The f a c t t h a t t h e e x o t h e r m i s o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y o b s e r v e d can be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e r r a t i c n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . R e c r y s t a l 1 i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e i n i t i a l f o r m a t i o n o f n u c l e i . N u c l e a t i o n i s dependen t on e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . In t h e c a s e o f l a c t o s e , one such c o n d i t i o n wou ld be t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t /5-anomer b e f o r e t h e i n i t i a l samp le ( a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te ) can r e c r y s t a l l i z e i n t o t h e new c r y s t a l s o f ^ - l a c t o s e . Even i f enough a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n has o c c u r r e d , t h e n u c l e i f o r m a t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t c r y s t a l g r o w t h may no t o c c u r , b e c a u s e t h i s i n v o l v e s r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e l a c t o s e m o l e c u l e s i n t o a new c r y s t a l l a t t i c e . In t h e s o l i d s t a t e , such a r e a r r a n g e m e n t wou ld be r e s t r i c t e d , and t h e r e c r y s t a l 1 i z a t i o n wou ld be o n l y a m a t t e r o f c h a n c e l e a d i n g t o o n l y an o c c a s i o n a l e x o t h e r m i c p e a k . 56 Shifting of melting peak to a higher temperature in sealed pans A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l a c k o f agreement between t h e l i t e r a t u r e v a l u e s o f t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l l a c t o s e anomers , i t i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t o f ^ - l a c t o s e i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f a - l a c t o s e (01ano e t al., 1 9 8 3 ) . T h i s f a c t i s documented by t h e d a t a i n T a b l e V I I ( e x c e p t f o r 0 -DMV). The p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d o b s e r v a t i o n ( F e r n a n d e z - m a r t i n e t al., 1980 ; L e r k et al., 1984) t h a t l a c t o s e u n d e r g o e s a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s has now been c o n f i r m e d by t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t s . The d a t a i n T a b l e V I I I show t h a t t h e c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e i n a s e a l e d pan (where w a t e r v a p o r c a n n o t e s c a p e f r om t h e pan) t h a n i n an open pan (where t h e w a t e r fo rmed due t o d e h y d r a t i o n i s l o s t by v a p o r i z a t i o n ) . T h u s , t h e c o n v e r s i o n a p p e a r s t o r e q u i r e t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r v a p o r fo rmed upon d e h y d r a t i o n o f t h e a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e . As t h e samp le i n a s e a l e d pan becomes r i c h e r i n ^ - c o n t e n t , i t m e l t s a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e g i v i n g r i s e t o a s h i f t o f t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t o f t h e s t a r t i n g a - r i c h l a c t o s e sample (as d e t e r m i n e d i n an open pan) t o a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e ( T a b l e V I I ) . T h i s i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t one o f t h e s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d samp les o f l a c t o s e , /3-CCF (98 .1% 0 ) , m e l t s a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n t h e a - r i c h s a m p l e s . The samp le was p r e p a r e d by h e a t i n g an a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te samp le i n a s t e e l - b o m b i n an oven f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d ( V i s s e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . The bomb p r e v e n t e d e s c a p e o f w a t e r due T a b l e V I I I . Change i n a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n d u r i n g DSC r u n s ; i n i t i a l s a m p l e : L80S (98 .4% a). H e a t i n g P a r t i c l e Pan T e m p e r a t u r e 3 R a t e S i z e Type CC) C o n t e n t " ( • C / m i n ) (/an) 2 . 5 < 75 B 157 6 . 6 ± 0 . 2 75 -106 B 162 6 . 6 ± 0 . 3 106 -149 B 160 6 . 6 ± 0 . 3 149 -180 B 160 7 . 5 ± 0 . 3 180-250 B 160 7 .2 ± 0 .1 106-149 A 165 8 2 . 9 ± 0 .1 10 106-149 B 156 4 6 . 0 ± 0 .1 20 106 -149 B 159 7 7 . 0 ± 0 .1 a . The t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h samp les were removed f r om t h e DSC c e l l f o r GC a n a l y s i s . b . D e t e r m i n e d by GC me thod ; a v e r a g e ± 1 s . d . , 3 i n j e c t i o n s o f one samp le e a c h . 58 t o v a p o r i z a t i o n and p r o v i d e d an a n a l o g o u s s i t u a t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e s e a l e d p a n s . Dependence of anomeric conversion on other experimental conditions A p a r t f r om t h e t y p e o f pan u s e d , t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f a t o / J - f o rm i s e x p e c t e d t o depend on o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l . These c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g . i . I n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e : s i n c e t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n r e q u i r e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r v a p o r , i t i s e x p e c t e d t o depend on t h e e x p o s e d s u r f a c e a r e a , and hence t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e , o f t h e l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s , i i . H e a t i n g r a t e : s i n c e t h e h e a t i n g r a t e c o n t r o l s t h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r t h e c r y s t a l s t o s t a y i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w a t e r v a p o r , i t i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n . The r e s u l t s ( T a b l e V I I I ) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e (as i n a s e a l e d pan) and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n c e (dependen t on t h e h e a t i n g r a t e ) o f w a t e r v a p o r a r e more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a n t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s . Formation of a p/a-1actose compound during DSC runs L e r k et al. (1984) r e p o r t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a / } / a - l a c t o s e compound c r y s t a l a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200°C when an a - l a c t o s e monohydra te 59 samp le was h e a t e d i n a DSC pan a t 2 ° C / m i n . The "compound c r y s t a l " was shown t o have an a/fl r a t i o o f 1 : 1 . The pan t y p e used was no t s p e c i f i e d . Thermograms s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s were o b t a i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y o n l y i n t h e s e a l e d p a n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t L e r k et al. (1984) used s e a l e d pans i n t h e i r s t u d y . The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I I show t h a t , a t a s i m i l a r h e a t i n g r a t e o f 2 . 5 ° C / m i n i n a s e a l e d p a n , t h e c o n v e r s i o n t o / i - l a c t o s e i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e ( o n l y -7% a r e m a i n i n g ) a t a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e (~\60°C) t h a n 200°C r e p o r t e d by L e r k et al. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The c o n v e r s i o n i s no t as c o m p l e t e (as much as 82 .9% a r e m a i n i n g ) when an open pan i s used a t 2 . 5 ° C / m i n . An a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:1 / l / a r a t i o i s o b t a i n e d a t a h e a t i n g r a t e o f 10°C /m in i n a s e a l e d p a n , a g a i n a t a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e ( 1 5 6 ° C ) . The c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e a t o j 8 - l a c t o s e i s even l o w e r (77% a r e m a i n i n g a t 159 "C) a t 2 0 ° C / m i n . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a ^ / a - l a c t o s e compound c r y s t a l as r e p o r t e d by L e r k et al. (1984) i s m e r e l y an a r t i f a c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , s i n c e o t h e r anomer r a t i o s can be o b t a i n e d by c h a n g i n g t h e pan t y p e and h e a t i n g r a t e . L e r k e t al. (1984) d e s c r i b e d t h e l a c t o s e samp le w i t h 1:1 a / / J r a t i o as a " A / a - l a c t o s e compound" based on t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h i s samp le and o f a - l a c t o s e monohydra te (4% ft), ^ - l a c t o s e , s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e (20% /?) and u n s t a b l e anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e (18% / ? ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s p u b l i s h e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t / i / a l a c t o s e compound c r y s t a l s have some m a t c h i n g peaks w i t h each o f t h e above s a m p l e s . The r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e p e a k s a r e , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n t . S impson e t al. (1982) i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r match up between t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n peaks o f two a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e s a m p l e s , 5 : 3 and 4 :1 a:/3 compounds ( p r e p a r e d by me thano l d e h y d r a t i o n ) , w h i l e t h e r e l a t i v e peak i n t e n s i t i e s d i f f e r e d . They a t t r i b u t e d t h e match up o f t h e peaks t o e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l u n i t c e l l o f t h e two s a m p l e s , and t h e i n t e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s p a t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e u n i t c e l l s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s a m p l e s s t u d i e d by L e r k et al. (1984) had t h e same u n i t c e l l , and t h e i n t e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s were due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s p a t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c r y s t a l l a t t i c e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p a r t i a l c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e sample t o t h e yS- form, as f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k , may g i v e r i s e t o more t h a n one a n h y d r o u s phase i n t h e 1:1 a / / J l a c t o s e s a m p l e . T h i s a l s o wou ld e x p l a i n why t h e p e a k s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t samp les matched up and why t h e peak i n t e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t be r u l e d ou t on t h e b a s i o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by L e r k e t al. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . In such a s i t u a t i o n t h e samp le p r o d u c e d by t h e t h e r m a l t r e a t m e n t on t h e DSC s h o u l d no t be c a l l e d a new "compound" as a new compound wou ld be e x p e c t e d t o p o s s e s s c o m p l e t e l y new c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e a n d , h e n c e , a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t x -r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , S impson e t al. (1982) showed , u s i n g a d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t c o l u m n , t h a t t h e 5 : 3 o r 4 :1 compounds fo rmed o n l y one band i n t h e co lumn i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e samp les c o n s i s t e d o f o n l y one homogeneous c r y s t a l l i n e phase e a c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e two samp les had m a t c h i n g peaks i n t h e i r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y were n o t two d i f f e r e n t compounds. 61 Splitting of dehydration peak in a sealed pan In a s e a l e d pan t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak s p l i t s i n t o two d i s t i n c t c o m p o n e n t s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r ( L e r k e t al., 1980 ; B e r l i n e t al., 1 9 8 1 ) , bu t was l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d . In o u r v i e w , t h i s was an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e l a c t o s e t h e r m o g r a m s . In a s e a l e d pan t h e w a t e r l o s t by t h e sample due t o d e h y d r a t i o n i s r e t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p a n . The pan b e i n g a h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d s y s t e m , t h e w a t e r c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y v a p o r i z e a n d , an e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l e x i s t between l i q u i d w a t e r and w a t e r v a p o r . When l a c t o s e d e h y d r a t e s , i t l e a v e s an a n h y d r o u s s o l i d . T h i s wou ld d i s s o l v e i n t h e l i q u i d w a t e r . I t i s known t h a t t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f an anhyd rous s o l i d i s e x o t h e r m i c . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f anhyd rous l a c t o s e w o u l d g i v e r i s e t o an e x o t h e r m i c p e a k . S i n c e t h i s wou ld happen a t t h e same t i m e as t h e d e h y d r a t i o n , t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t wou ld be an o v e r l a p p i n g o f an e x o t h e r m i c peak and an e n d o t h e r m i c p e a k . T h u s , t h e e x o t h e r m i c peak o f d i s s o l u t i o n a p p e a r s as a s p l i t i n t h e e n d o t h e r m i c peak o f d e h y d r a t i o n . I t i s a l s o t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e p a r t o f t h e s a m p l e , w h i c h i s s t i l l a m o n o h y d r a t e , w o u l d a l s o d i s s o l v e and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e n d o t h e r m i c p e a k , b e c a u s e t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f a - l a c t o s e monohydra te i s e n d o t h e r m i c . The e x t e n t o f s p l i t t i n g i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e as t h e e x t e n t o f d i s s o l u t i o n i n c r e a s e s . The e x t e n t o f d i s s o l u t i o n can be c o n t r o l l e d by v a r y i n g t h e h e a t i n g r a t e s . T h i s was i n d e e d t h e c a s e as d e m o n s t r a t e d by F i g . 6 . The peak s p l i t t i n g became more s i g n i f i c a n t a t s l o w e r h e a t i n g 62 F i g . 6 . Dependence o f s p l i t t i n g o f l a c t o s e d e h y d r a t i o n peak on h e a t i n g r a t e ( s a m p l e : L 8 0 S ; p a r t i c l e s i z e : 106-149Mm; s e a l e d p a n ) . Numbers on t h e the rmograms r e f e r t o T a b l e I X . These numbers a r e p l a c e d t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e p o i n t s on t h e thermograms where t h e DSC r u n s were s t o p p e d f o r r e m o v i n g s a m p l e s f o r GC a n a l y s i s and do no t n e c e s s a r i l y show t h e l o c a t i o n o f s i m i l a r p o i n t s on t h e d i f f e r e n t t h e r m o g r a m s . 63 r a t e s . A t 2 0 ° C / m i n , t h e r e o c c u r r e d o n l y a s h o u l d e r ; a t 1 0 6 C / m i n t h e s h o u l d e r became p r o m i n e n t o r , i n some c a s e s , even d e v e l o p e d i n t o a s p l i t ( T a b l e V I I ) , and a t 2 . 5 ° C / m i n t h e s p l i t was a l m o s t up t o t h e b a s e l i n e . Other causes of splitting of dehydration peak D i s s o l u t i o n a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak o f a -l a c t o s e monohyd ra te wou ld f a v o u r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e /3-anomer. T h i s anomer i s a n h y d r o u s , t h e r e f o r e , i t s d i s s o l u t i o n a l s o w i l l be e x o t h e r m i c . I f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f a s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n o f a s o l i d w i t h an e x o t h e r m i c h e a t o f s o l u t i o n i s r a i s e d , t h e s o l i d r e c r y s t a l l i z e s f r o m t h e s o l u t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e Le C h a t e l i e r ' s p r i n c i p l e ( M u l l i n , 1 9 7 2 ) . D u r i n g t h e DSC s c a n , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e sample i s i n c r e a s e d a t a c o n s t a n t r a t e , w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e )8-anomer f rom i t s s o l u t i o n due t o t h e above r e a s o n . S i n c e r e c r y s t a l 1 i z a t i o n i s a l s o an e x o t h e r m i c p r o c e s s , i t wou ld a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e x o t h e r m i c s p l i t i n t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k . Dissolution of lactose in sealed pans during the DSC runs The d i s s o l u t i o n o f l a c t o s e d u r i n g t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak was c o n f i r m e d by a v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s t a k e n ou t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e e x o t h e r m i c s p l i t . The c r y s t a l s were bonded t o g e t h e r by an a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n u o u s and g l a s s - l i k e p h a s e . When t h e samp le was removed f r om t h e DSC samp le pan and p r o c e s s e d f o r i t s GC a n a l y s i s , t h i s p h a s e , l i k e / J - r i c h p r o d u c t s , d i d no t d i s s o l v e i n DMSO as 64 r a p i d l y as t h e b u l k o f t h e c r y s t a l s w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was a / i - r i c h p h a s e . S i n c e m e l t i n g a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e DSC r u n s was r u l e d ou t based on t h e GC and t h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p i c e v i d e n c e s as b e f o r e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e phase was fo rmed due t o r a p i d c o o l i n g o f a m e l t when t h e pan was removed f r om t h e DSC c e l l d i d no t e x i s t . T h u s , t h i s phase c o u l d o n l y be fo rmed f r om a s o l u t i o n . The s o l u t i o n r e c r y s t a l l i z e d v e r y q u i c k l y due t o t h e r a p i d c o o l i n g g i v i n g a g l a s s - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e p r o d u c t . D i s s o l u t i o n o f l a c t o s e a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak wou ld c a u s e a c c e l e r a t e d m u t a r o t a t i o n o f a t o t h e / J -anomer , hence t h e g l a s s - l i k e phase wou ld be r i c h i n t h e /J-anomer and w o u l d d i s s o l v e s l o w l y i n DMSO d u r i n g t h e GC a n a l y s i s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t t h e amount o f l a c t o s e d i s s o l v e d and t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o v e r t h e s h o r t r a n g e («5°C) o f t e m p e r a t u r e s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e e x o t h e r m i c s p l i t a r e e x p e c t e d t o be v e r y s m a l l . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i n a f f e c t i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e l a c t o s e thermograms can be e s t a b l i s h e d by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e n e r g y changes i n v o l v e d i n each p r o c e s s . T h i s w o u l d be c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e h y d r a t i o n , t h e d i s s o l u t i o n and t h e r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , a l l o c c u r a t t h e same t i m e . H e n c e , i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f each p r o c e s s t o t h e t o t a l e n e r g y c h a n g e . 65 Components of the split peak The s p l i t peak has t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s , an i n i t i a l endo the rm c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d e h y d r a t i o n , an e x o t h e r m i c componen t , and a t h i r d e n d o t h e r m i c componen t . The r e a s o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o t h e f i r s t two components have been m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e . The l a s t endo the rm c o u l d be due t o a s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g d e h y d r a t i o n a n d / o r a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n i n t h e s o l i d s t a t e as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r . F i g u r e 6 and t h e d a t a i n T a b l e IX i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e samp les l o s t w e i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e s p l i t p e a k . M o r e o v e r , most o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r r e d a t t h i s l a s t e n d o t h e r m , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e h e a t i n g r a t e was 2 . 5 ° C / m i n . T h u s , t h i s l a s t endo the rm was due t o bo th d e h y d r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t o f t h e samp le t h a t was s t i l l h y d r a t e d , and a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n . The endo the rm c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n does no t a p p e a r as a s h a r p p e a k . The c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r s o v e r a r a n g e o f t e m p e r a t u r e . T h u s , i t a p p e a r s o n l y as a s h i f t i n t h e b a s e l i n e . The s h i f t i s most a p p a r e n t a t t h e h e a t i n g r a t e o f 1 0 ° C / m i n . A t t h e h e a t i n g r a t e s o f 2 . 5 and 2 0 ° C / m i n , t h e s h i f t i s a b s e n t a l t h o u g h t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n does o c c u r . Thermal behavior of UANL The u n s t a b l e anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e was p r e p a r e d by r a p i d d e h y d r a t i o n o f L80S by h e a t i n g in vacuo, and c o n c u r r e n t remova l o f w a t e r v a p o r f rom t h e vacuum oven by P2O5 ( S e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) . T h i s samp le p r o d u c e d an 66 T a b l e I X . A n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n and w e i g h t l o s s o f L80S ( 1 0 6 - 1 4 9 nm, i n i t i a l a - c o n t e n t , 9 8 . 4 % ) . H e a t i n g R a t e ( ° C / m i n ) Pan Type O b s e r v a t i o n P o i n t 3 ( T e m p e r a t u r e b , °C) 1 2 3 4 % a-anomer contentc 2 . 5 B -- 8 0 . 7 ( 1 4 0 ) 6 4 . 8 ( 1 4 2 ) 6 . 6 ( 1 6 0 ) 10 B 9 3 . 3 ( 1 4 5 ) 7 4 . 8 ( 1 5 4 ) 4 6 . 0 ( 1 5 6 ) -- 8 . 9 ( 1 8 0 ) 20 B 7 8 . 2 ( 1 5 2 ) 7 7 . 3 ( 1 5 9 ) % weight loss 6 3 . 2 ( 1 8 0 ) 2 . 5 A C --2 . 9 8 2 . 9 0 3 . 8 5 3 . 4 7 5 . 3 7 a . R e f e r t o F i g . 6 . b. The t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h samp les were removed f r om t h e DSC c e l l f o r GC a n a l y s i s . c . As d e t e r m i n e d by t h e GC me thod . 67 i n t e r e s t i n g thermogram ( F i g . 7) i n w h i c h an e n d o t h e r m i c peak (160 -170°C) was i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by an e x o t h e r m ( ~ 1 7 7 ° C ) . The endo the rm was r e p o r t e d ( L e r k e t al., 1984) t o be due t o m e l t i n g o f t h e u n s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e , f o l l o w e d by i t s r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n ( t h e exo the rm) i n t o a n o t h e r f o r m w h i c h m e l t e d a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 1 1 ° C ) . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , no m e l t i n g was o b s e r v e d when t h e r m a l m i c r o s c o p y o f UANL was p e r f o r m e d . M o r e o v e r , GC a n a l y s i s o f t h i s samp le a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on t h e f i r s t endo the rm ( T a b l e X) i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e o f a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n f rom t h e i n i t i a l a t o t h e / 3 -anomer i c f o r m . A b s e n c e o f new GC peaks due t o t h e p r o d u c t s o f d e g r a d a t i o n ( m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s ) a l s o r u l e d ou t m e l t i n g . The endo the rm s h o u l d t h u s be a t t r i b u t e d t o a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n ( s e e page 55) r a t h e r t h a n t o m e l t i n g . S i n c e t h e r e was a m a j o r change i n t h e i n i t i a l a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n , r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f l a c t o s e i n t o a new fo rm was e x p e c t e d . T h i s a p p e a r e d as t h e e x o t h e r m . However , t h e d e g r e e o f a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n was no t as marked as i n t h e c a s e o f c r y s t a l l i n e a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te and t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t d i d no t s h i f t t o a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e ( T a b l e V I I ) . A s h o r t summary o f v a r i o u s r e a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g t h e t h e r m a l t r a n s i t i o n s o f l a c t o s e i s p r e s e n t e d i n Scheme I I . Weight loss of lactose samples during DSC runs The t o t a l e x p e c t e d w e i g h t l o s s f o r an a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te sample Fig. 7. DSC thermogram of UANL (open pan, 10'C/min). Numbers on the thermogram refer to Table X. T a b l e X . A n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s o f UANL ( i n i t i a l a - c o n t e n t , 9 2 . 9 % ) . Pan Type O b s e r v a t i o n Tempera tu re * 3 P o i n t 3 C C ) A 1 159 9 0 . 5 A 2 173 7 2 . 4 A 3 174 6 3 . 7 A 4 177 6 4 . 1 A 5 183 6 3 . 2 a . R e f e r t o F i g . 7 . b. The t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h samp les were removed f r om t h e DSC c e l l f o r GC a n a l y s i s . c . As d e t e r m i n e d by t h e GC m e t h o d . 70 Scheme II Therma l t r a n s i t i o n s o f l a c t o s e samp les on a DSC Pan Peak T y p e 3 R e a c t i o n s " Maxima ( D C ) A 1 a - L . M — > a - L + H 2 0 ( 1 ) 140 -145 (98.4%a) —=> a - L + P-L + H 2 0 ( v ) (82.9%a) a - L + p-l —> m e l t 2 1 3 - 2 1 9 B 1 a - L . M > a - L + H 2 0 ( 1 ) 144 -150 (98.4%a) ( d i s s o l u t i o n ) — > a - L + 0-L + H 2 0 ( v ) a - L — > a - L + 0-L =170 ( a n o m e r i z a t i o n ; 7%a) a - L + jS-L > a - L + a-L.fi-L =180 ( r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n ) a - L + a-l.p-l —> m e l t 2 2 2 - 2 3 0 A , B 2 jS-L + a - L . M —> fi-L + a - L + H 2 0 ( 1 ) > P-l + a - L + H 2 0 ( v ) 1 2 7 - 1 3 5 p-l + a - L > m e l t 2 3 2 - 2 3 4 A , B 3 p-l — » m e l t 2 3 5 - 2 3 6 a . A = open p a n ; B = s e a l e d p a n . b . a - L . M = a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e ; 1 = l i q u i d ; v = v a p o r . 1. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e s : L 8 0 S , a - L , L80M, L 6 0 S . 2 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e s : D C L - 2 1 , ANL , 0-BAK. 3 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e : 0-CCF. 71 upon c o m p l e t e remova l o f t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i s abou t 5%. I f s o r b e d m o i s t u r e i s a l s o p r e s e n t t h e n t h e t o t a l w e i g h t l o s s wou ld be more t h a n 5%. Mos t a - r i c h samp les showed a w e i g h t l o s s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t e n t o f a - l a c t o s e monohydra te ( T a b l e X I ) . In t h e c a s e o f ANL , 0 - B A K , D C L - 1 1 , DCL-21 and D C L - 3 0 , w h i c h c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f bo th o f t h e anomers , t h e l o s s i n w e i g h t s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e amount o f a - l a c t o s e p r e s e n t i f a l l o f i t was assumed t o be a m o n o h y d r a t e . W h i l e t h e a s s u m p t i o n was f o u n d t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f D C L - 1 1 , DCL-21 and D C L - 3 0 , t h e ANL and /J-BAK showed w e i g h t l o s s e s l e s s t h a n e x p e c t e d ( T a b l e X I I ) . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r two d i d show t h e d e h y d r a t i o n peak ( F i g . 8 ) , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a - l a c t o s e p r e s e n t i n them was o n l y p a r t i a l l y h y d r a t e d . The r e s u l t s show c l e a r l y t h a t D C L - 3 0 , DCL-21 and ANL a r e no t a n h y d r o u s p r o d u c t s as c l a i m e d by Vromans et a 7 . (1985) and S h e f f i e l d P r o d u c t I n f o r m a t i o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) . P a r t o f t h e w e i g h t l o s s shown i n T a b l e s XI and X I I i s p r e s u m a b l y due t o t h e l o s s o f s o r b e d m o i s t u r e . The amount o f s o r b e d -m o i s t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y and i s d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 3 . 4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE SAMPLES General Observations The d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and t h e peak p a r a m e t e r s o f an a - r i c h samp le ( L 8 0 S , 98 .4% a ) , a sample c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f each T a b l e X I . We igh t l o s t by l a c t o s e samp les a f t e r t h e peak o f d e h y d r a t i o n ( d e t e r m i n e d by w e i g h i n g t h e samp les i n pan C ) . L a c t o s e Grade We igh t L o s t % a - L 5 . 7 2 L60S 4 . 7 3 L80S 4 . 4 4 L80M 5 . 4 6 LCAPS 5 . 1 5 I P L - S 6 .11 I P L - F 5 . 8 0 SPL 6 . 7 7 FFL 5 . 6 8 DCL-11 5 .77 DCL-30 2 . 6 0 DCL-21 1.56 ANL 1.16 jS-BAK 1.19 0-DMV 0 . 4 0 0 -CCF 0 . 9 0 S A N L 3 U A N L a a . Samp les p r e p a r e d and s t o r e d i n a P2O5 d e s i c c a t o r . 73 F i g . 8 . DSC thermograms o f l a c t o s e samp les show ing dependence o f d e h y d r a t i o n peaks on a - c o n t e n t ( s e a l e d p a n s , 1 0 ° C / m i n ) . R e f e r a l s o t o T a b l e X I I . T a b l e X I I . C o m p a r i s o n o f e x p e c t e d and a c t u a l w e i g h t l o s s a f t e r t h e peak o f d e h y d r a t i o n . L a c t o s e % a We igh t L o s s (%) Grade E x p e c t e d 3 A c t u a l 0 DCL-21 2 3 . 3 1.17 1.56 ANL 26 .1 1.31 1.16 jS-BAK 3 0 . 6 1.53 1.17 DCL-30 8 5 . 2 4 . 2 6 5 . 6 0 DCL-11 8 9 . 8 4 . 4 7 5 . 7 7 a . D e t e r m i n e d a s s u m i n g t h a t a l l o f t h e a - l a c t o s e i s i n monohyd ra te f o r m . b . D e t e r m i n e d by w e i g h i n g t h e samp les i n pan C a f t e r t h e peak o f d e h y d r a t i o n . 75 anomer (/5-BAK, 69 .4% a ) , and a 0 - r i c h samp le ( jS-CCF, 9 8 . 1 % 0) a r e g i v e n i n F i g s . 9 -11 and t h e accompany ing T a b l e s X I I I t o XV . A l l a - r i c h s a m p l e s p r o d u c e d d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s r e s e m b l i n g t h a t o f L 8 0 S . The /}-r i c h s a m p l e s showed p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f / 3 -CCF . Samp les c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f bo th anomers (DCL-21 and ANL) had d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f / J - B A K . Samp les SANL and UANL have d i f f e r e n t c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e s f r om L80S ( f r o m w h i c h t h e s e were p r e p a r e d ) and o t h e r samp les as i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f some new peaks i n t h e i r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s ( T a b l e s XVI and X V I I and F i g . 12 and 13 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The m a j o r peak i n t h e powder x -r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f SANL i s a t 1 9 . 6 ° 2 9 , w h i l e t h e m a j o r peak o f UANL i s a t a much l o w e r a n g l e o f 1 1 . 9 ° 2 9 . However , t h e r e i s some match up o f peak p o s i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r samp les o f l a c t o s e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e t h e r m a l d e h y d r a t i o n changes t h e c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te t o some e x t e n t , bu t a p p a r e n t l y t h e u n i t c e l l r e m a i n s t h e same. A l s o , t h e change i n t h e c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e i s dependen t on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f d e h y d r a t i o n ( s e e t h e methods o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f UANL and SANL, page 4 0 ) . Change in powder x-ray diffraction patterns with anomeric composition F i g u r e 14 shows t h e changes i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f some s e l e c t e d s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e w i t h t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a t l e a s t t h r e e t y p e s : 76 T a b l e X I I I . M a j o r peaks i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f L 8 0 S . 29 d ( A ) I / I 1 0 0 (%) 1 2 . 7 0 6 . 9 7 2 6 . 9 1 6 . 6 5 5 .32 3 0 . 9 1 9 . 2 8 4 . 6 0 1 1 . 2 1 9 . 7 5 4 . 4 9 1 7 . 8 2 0 . 1 4 4 . 4 1 1 0 0 . 0 2 1 . 3 9 4 . 1 5 2 2 . 4 3 6 . 4 1 2 . 4 7 1 7 . 2 3 7 . 1 1 2 . 4 2 2 0 . 0 3 7 . 6 7 2 . 3 9 10 .1 3 8 . 4 0 2 . 3 4 1 7 . 8 100 % RELATIVE INTENSITY 12.7 16.7 19.3 193 20.1 21.4 36.4 37.1 37.7 38.4 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (26) F i g . 9 . Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s h o w i n g m a j o r p e a k s o f an a - r i c h samp le ( L 8 0 S ) . 77 T a b l e X I V . M a j o r p e a k s i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f /5-BAK. 29 d(A) i/iioo W 1 0 . 6 9 8 . 2 7 2 7 . 8 1 9 . 2 5 4 . 6 1 5 4 . 8 19 .71 4 . 5 0 2 3 . 9 2 0 . 0 9 4 . 4 2 1 9 . 2 2 0 . 8 1 4 . 2 7 3 6 . 5 2 1 . 1 3 4 . 2 0 1 0 0 . 0 2 3 . 8 3 3 . 7 3 1 8 . 7 2 5 . 6 8 3 . 4 7 2 1 . 2 3 1 . 8 4 2 .81 1 9 . 8 3 6 . 6 7 2 . 4 5 1 9 . 0 100 % RELATIVE INTENSITY 10.7 19.3 19.7 20.1 20.8 21.1 23.8 26.7 31.8 36.7 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (20) F i g . 10 . Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n show ing m a j o r p e a k s o f a samp le c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f b o t h anomers ( /3 -BAK) . 78 T a b l e X V . M a j o r peaks i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f / 3 -CCF . 29 d(A) i/iioo W 1 0 . 7 0 8 . 2 7 3 0 . 6 1 9 . 2 9 4 . 6 0 5 2 . 1 2 0 . 8 4 4 . 2 6 3 9 . 7 2 1 . 1 4 4 . 2 0 1 0 0 . 0 2 3 . 8 6 3 . 7 3 1 9 . 5 2 4 . 1 4 3 . 6 9 1 5 . 7 2 5 . 6 9 3 . 1 6 2 5 . 5 2 8 . 2 2 3 . 1 6 1 4 . 8 3 1 . 7 2 2 . 8 2 15 .1 3 6 . 7 2 2 . 4 5 1 8 . 8 100 % RELATIVE INTENSITY 10.7 19.3 20.8 21.1 23.9 24.1 26.7 28.2 36.7 37.7 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (26) F i g . 1 1 . Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s h o w i n g m a j o r peaks o f a / J - r i c h samp le ( 0 - C C F ) . 79 T a b l e X V I . M a j o r peaks i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f SANL. 29 d(A) i / i i o o (*> 12.55 7.05 17.8 18.22 4.87 19.6 18.73 4.74 21.4 19.24 4.61 60.9 19.61 4.53 100.0 20.15 4.20 39.4 21.38 4.16 21.6 23.39 3.80 34.5 27.25 3.27 20.5 36.07 2.49 25.5 % RELATIVE INTENSITY 12.6 18.2 18.7 19.2 19.6 212 214 23.4 27.3 36.1 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (26) F i g . 12. Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n show ing m a j o r peaks o f s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e ( S A N L ) . T a b l e X V I I . M a j o r peaks i n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f UANL. 20 d(A) Viioo W 1 1 . 8 6 7 . 4 6 1 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 6 9 6 . 9 8 8 0 . 4 1 8 . 1 4 4 . 8 9 4 6 . 0 1 9 . 2 8 4 . 6 0 6 2 . 2 2 0 . 1 0 4 . 4 2 1 7 . 9 2 0 . 8 1 4 . 2 7 3 0 . 8 2 1 . 6 1 4 . 1 1 3 5 . 6 2 4 . 0 8 3 . 6 9 1 6 . 6 2 5 . 5 8 3 . 4 8 1 7 . 2 3 6 . 1 3 2 . 4 9 1 8 . 0 100 % RELATIVE INTENSITY 11.9 12.7 18.1 19.3 20.1 20.8 21.6 24.1 25.6 36.1 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (29) g . 1 3 . Powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n show ing m a j o r peaks o f s t a b l e a n h y d r o u s a - l a c t o s e ( U A N L ) . 81 CO z LU z LU > _ l LU cr 100 10 20 30 ANGLE OF DIFFRACTION (29) I I ., i 11.1 1 1 1 ii i . i i L i • i i . i i L i i i i i i J U ii i i , i i SAMPLE (% BETA) L80S ( 1.6) DCL-11 (10.2) ANL (73.9) DCL-21 (76.7) 0-CCF (98.1) 40 F i g . 1 4 . Changes i n powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s w i t h a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n ( d e t e r m i n e d by GC) o f s e l e c t e d l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . 82 i . p a t t e r n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a - r i c h samp les (L80S) w i t h t h e m a j o r peak a t a round 2 0 . 1 ° 2 8 ; i i . p a t t e r n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o samp les c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f bo th anomers (/3-BAK, ANL , and DCL-21 ) show ing t h e m a j o r peak a round 2 1 . 1 ° 2 8 w i t h l e s s i n t e n s e p e a k s a t 1 9 . 3 ° 2 9 and 2 0 . 1 ° 2 9 w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o a - r i c h s a m p l e s ; i i i . p a t t e r n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o / } - r i c h samp les w i t h t h e m a j o r peak a t 2 1 . 1 ° 2 0 ( 0 - C C F ) . The s h i f t o f t h e m a j o r peaks f r om l o w e r t o h i g h e r 29 v a l u e s ( i . e . , t o l o w e r i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g s ) f o r l a c t o s e s o f h i g h e r / ^ - c o n t e n t t h a n a -r i c h s a m p l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c r y s t a l l a t t i c e o f / 5 - l a c t o s e i s more c o n s t r i c t e d t h a n a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s i z e o f t h e / 3 - l a c t o s e m o l e c u l e s i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te m o l e c u l e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f / J - l a c t o s e samp les s h o u l d be g r e a t e r t h a n a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e t r u e d e n s i t y d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XX ( S e c t i o n 3 . 5 ) . As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , 0 - B A K , ANL and DCL-21 show peaks i n t h e i r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a and /} anomers . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e samp les c o n t a i n t h e two anomers as a s i m p l e m i x t u r e . I f t h i s were t r u e , t h e n t h e r e l a t i v e peak r a t i o s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c amounts p r e s e n t i n t h e s a m p l e s . T h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n . 83 Quantitative use of powder x-ray diffraction In o r d e r t o t r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t e i n w h i c h one anomer i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p r o d u c t c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f t h e o t h e r anomer , i t was d e c i d e d t o use t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n o f l a c t o s e q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . I t i s known t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f a m i x t u r e o f two c r y s t a l l i n e s u b s t a n c e s , t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n i s a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e two s u b s t a n c e s . A q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e r e l a t i v e p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s and t h e r e l a t i v e amounts o f t h e two components ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 a ) . I f , i n a g i v e n l a c t o s e s a m p l e , t h e two anomers a r e p r e s e n t as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e , t h e n t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e samp le wou ld show p e a k s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e two anomers . The r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e s e p e a k s w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e amounts o f t h e two a n o m e r s . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , howeve r , i t wou ld be n e c e s s a r y t o f i r s t o b t a i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f 100% p u r e a n o m e r i c s a m p l e s . Such s a m p l e s a r e no t a v a i l a b l e . The q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s and a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s was t e s t e d by a p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 5 . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d c e r t a i n p r e c a u t i o n s w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d as f o l l o w s . A . S e l e c t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s i z e In a s i t u a t i o n where a g i v e n p r o d u c t i s s u s p e c t e d t o c o n s i s t o f d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s i n t h e s o l i d s t a t e , as was t h e c a s e f o r l a c t o s e ( t h e 84 s u s p e c t e d p h a s e s b e i n g a - l a c t o s e monohydra te and / J - l a c t o s e ) , t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e s e l e c t e d f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n i s o f i m p o r t a n c e . G r i n d i n g and s u b s e q u e n t s i e v i n g o f t h e s a m p l e s t o o b t a i n j u s t enough m a t e r i a l o f a g i v e n p a r t i c l e s i z e f o r r e c o r d i n g an x - r a y s c a n i s p r o n e t o e r r o r s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e a p a r t i c u l a r phase may be more b r i t t l e t h a n t h e o t h e r ( s ) , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , wou ld be p r e s e n t i n a g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y i n t h e u n d e r s i z e s i e v e - f r a c t i o n t h a n i n t h e o v e r s i z e f r a c t i o n . T h i s w o u l d l e a d t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t r e l a t i v e p e a k -i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s . To a v o i d such an e r r o r , t h e l a c t o s e samp les were f i r s t w e i g h e d , m i x e d w i t h L i F , and t h e n g round j u s t enough t o c o m p l e t e l y p a s s them t h r o u g h t h e s i e v e #200 ( p a r t i c l e s i z e 75 nm). T h i s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e w h o l e s a m p l e , no t j u s t a p a r t , was u s e d . B. A v o i d i n g m i c r o a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t The m i c r o a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t a r i s e s when t h e l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e components o f a m i x t u r e , o r t h e i r p a r t i c l e s i z e s , a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t l e a d s t o e r r o r s i n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s due t o i n c o r r e c t i n t e n s i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 b ) . The l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (M ) o f t h e l a c t o s e anomers a r e v e r y c l o s e t o each o t h e r ( ^ a H 2 0 = H * ^ ^ c m ~ * a n d M 0 = H - 8 5 7 9 cm" * ) ( A p p e n d i x A ) . T h u s , t h i s f a c t o r i s no t e x p e c t e d t o c a u s e e r r o r s i n t h e i n t e n s i t y r a t i o c a l c u l a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t m i x t u r e s was t h e same, t h e m i c r o a b s o r p t i o n e f f e c t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o have been a v o i d e d . 85 C . Use o f L i F as an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t o f amorphous s c a t t e r i n g and i n s t r u m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s such as f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e x - r a y s o u r c e , an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d was e m p l o y e d . L i t h i u m f l u o r i d e i s a s u i t a b l e i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d f o r l a c t o s e as i t b e l o n g s t o t h e h i g h l y s y m m e t r i c a l c u b i c c r y s t a l s y s t e m w h i c h has o n l y a few i n t e n s e and n o n - i n t e r f e r i n g p e a k s . L a c t o s e b e l o n g s t o t h e m o n o c l i n i c c r y s t a l s y s t e m ( B e e v e r s and H a n s e n , 1 9 7 1 ; H i r o t s u and S h i m a d a , 1 9 7 4 ) . A l s o , L i F i s b e l i e v e d t o d i l u t e t h e s a m p l e s unde r s t u d y a n d , t h u s , a v o i d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i r p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n ( O t s u k a and K a n e n i w a , 1 9 8 3 ) . In t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n (50% w/w) o f L i F used i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f l a c t o s e samp les can be assumed t o be n o m i n a l . T h i s i s a l s o e v i d e n t f r om t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X V I I I ( s e e be low f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) . The intensity ratio vs a-content plot for the mixtures The p l o t o f t h e maximum p e a k - i n t e n s i t y r a t i o ( l a c t o s e / L i F ) a g a i n s t t h e c a l c u l a t e d a - c o n t e n t was a s t r a i g h t l i n e ( T a b l e X V I I I , F i g . 15) w i t h an i n t e r c e p t on t h e x - a x i s . T h i s p r o v e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d i n d e e d e x i s t a q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e x - r a y peak i n t e n s i t i e s i f a g i v e n l a c t o s e samp le c o n t a i n e d t h e two anomers as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t i t ou t a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t , i n q u a n t i t a t i v e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n s t u d i e s , a p l o t o f i n t e g r a t e d p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s i s more r e l i a b l e t h a n a p l o t o f maximum p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s . However , i f t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f t h e samp les i s no t T a b l e X V I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p between p e a k - i n t e n s i t y r a t i o and t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a c t o s e . % a - c o n t e n t a L a c t o s e / L i F I n t e n s i t y R a t i o (± 1 s . d . , n=3) 1 4 . 4 8 0 . 1 0 4 + 0 . 0 1 6 2 3 . 7 4 0 . 1 6 6 + 0 . 0 1 0 3 3 . 0 3 0 .331 + 0 . 0 2 7 4 2 . 4 1 0 . 4 4 5 + 0 . 0 1 0 5 1 . 7 4 0 . 4 9 3 ± 0 .021 6 1 . 1 8 0 . 5 9 0 + 0 . 0 1 4 7 0 . 4 7 0 . 6 8 3 + 0 . 0 2 9 7 9 . 7 2 0 .871 + 0 . 0 2 6 8 9 . 0 3 0 . 9 6 9 + 0 . 0 3 8 Regression analysis: r 2 : 0 . 9 8 7 S l o p e : 0 . 0 1 1 5 S t a n d a r d E r r o r : 0 . 0 0 0 5 95% C . I . : 0 . 0 1 0 3 t o 0 . 0 1 2 6 I n t e r c e p t : - 0 . 0 7 7 S t a n d a r d E r r o r : 0 . 0 2 8 4 95% C . I . : - 0 . 1 4 4 t o - 0 . 0 0 9 9 a . The amount o f L i F was m a i n t a i n e d a t 4 9 . 9 7 ± 0 .04%; t h u s % a c o u l d be p l o t t e d i n s t e a d o f L a c t o s e / L i F amount r a t i o . Samp les used t o p r e p a r e t h e m i x t u r e s : L80S and 0-DMV. 87 ANOMERIC COMPOSITION «- % ALPHA --B-- % BETA F i g . 15. P l o t o f l a c t o s e / L i F x - r a y p e a k i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s w i t h a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n ( d e t e r m i n e d by G C ) . 88 v a r i a b l e , as i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , t h e p l o t o f maximum p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s c a n be r e l i a b l y u s e d ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 c ) . F i g u r e 15 shows t h e p l o t s o f t h e p e a k i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s ( a n o m e r i c p e a k / L i F p e a k ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e % a and % / } - c o n t e n t . The x - a x i s i n t e r c e p t s o f t h e p l o t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p=0.05) f r o m 0%. The i n t e r c e p t o f 5% a f o r t h e p l o t o f a - L / L i F p e a k i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s a g a i n s t % a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e 5.1% a (GC d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; T a b l e V I , p a ge 50) i n /J-DMV i s p r o b a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n s i d e t h e / 3 - c r y s t a l s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n t e r c e p t o f 9% fi f o r t h e p l o t o f / J - L / L i F p e a k i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s a g a i n s t % /J i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e 1.6% /} i n L80S i s p r o b a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n s i d e t h e a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e c r y s t a l s . A l t h o u g h t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n d o e s n o t r e v e a l t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , i t c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a n o m e r i c i m p u r i t i e s i n t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s ( L 8 0 S and /J-DMV) a r e n o t p r e s e n t as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e . To t e s t t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e x - r a y p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e , m i x t u r e s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s as r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e s u p p l i e r s were p r e p a r e d w i t h L i F i n 1:1 r a t i o . T h e i r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s were r e c o r d e d and t h e r e l a t i v e amount o f t h e a nomers i n e a c h s a m p l e was o b t a i n e d by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e a k o f e a c h anomer ( S e c t i o n 2 . 5 ) . The d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f some s a m p l e s ( L 6 0 S , SPL, F F L , and DCL-30) d i d n o t show one o r o t h e r o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n o m e r i c p e a k s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r r e l a t i v e anomer amounts c o u l d n o t be d e t e r m i n e d by t h i s m e t h o d . 89 A l t h o u g h o n l y t h e l a c t o s e p e a k - i n t e n s i t i e s were used f o r t h e r e l a t i v e anomer c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n , L i F was r e t a i n e d i n each m i x t u r e i n o r d e r t o t e s t f o r any i n s t r u m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n . The L i F peak i n t e n s i t i e s showed a c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a b i l i t y o f 6 .7% (n=18) , w h i c h i s a good d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l a r g e number o f f a c t o r s t h a t can a f f e c t t h e peak i n t e n s i t i e s . Such f a c t o r s i n c l u d e p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n , powder p a c k i n g u n i f o r m i t y between d i f f e r e n t x - r a y s c a n s , h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e m i x t u r e s p r e p a r e d and i n s t r u m e n t a l s t a b i l i t y . The l a c t o s e amounts d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g t h e x - r a y peak i n t e n s i t i e s as above were compared w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d e a r l i e r by t h e GC m e t h o d . The d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X IXA and X I X B . S i n c e ANL , DCL-21 and j3-BAK c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f each anomer , t h e i r x - r a y p a t t e r n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f t h e two anomers . I t a p p e a r s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s do c o n t a i n peaks t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d s e p a r a t e l y t o t h e two anomers , t h e p e a k - i n t e n s i t y r a t i o s do no t r e f l e c t t h e t r u e anomer r a t i o (GC d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) . On an a v e r a g e , t h e amount o f y3-anomer e s t i m a t e d by t h e x - r a y method i s 12.8% l e s s t h a n t h a t e x p e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e GC r e s u l t s . The u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e amount o f / 3 - l a c t o s e by t h e x - r a y method i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n / 3 - c o n t e n t i s p o s s i b l y due t o a p a r t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e /5-anomer i n s i d e t h e c r y s t a l l a t t i c e o f a - l a c t o s e . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s o b t a i n e d by t h e x - r a y and T a b l e X I X A . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n as o b t a i n e d f r om powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n and GC m e t h o d s . L a c t o s e Samp les A n o m e r i c C o m p o s i t i o n (% a) GC method x - r a y method ANL 26 .1 1 2 . 7 DCL-21 2 3 . 3 1 2 . 8 0 -BAK 3 0 . 6 16 .1 T a b l e X I X B . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e amount o f t h e m i n o r a n o m e r i c component as o b t a i n e d f r om powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n and GC m e t h o d s . L a c t o s e M i n o r Component (% /J o r a ) S a m p l e s 3  GC method x - r a y method a - L 1.8 5 . 9 L80S 1.6 8 . 8 L80M 1.9 7 . 7 I P L - S 1.8 7 . 7 I P L - F 3 .1 7 . 5 LCAPS 1.8 5 . 5 DCL-11 1 0 . 2 1 4 . 7 0 - C C F 1.9 1 0 . 9 0-DMV 5.1 1 1 . 0 92 GC methods f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g samp les shows t h a t t h e x - r a y method o v e r e s t i m a t e s t h e amount o f t h e m i n o r component ( T a b l e X I X B ) . In such a s i t u a t i o n , t h e o v e r e s t i m a t i o n may o c c u r due t o t h e p r e s e n c e (and o v e r l a p p i n g ) o f a peak f r om t h e m a j o r component i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n where t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c peak o f t h e m i n o r component i s e x p e c t e d t o be p r e s e n t . As f a r as t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e amounts o f a g i v e n phase i n a p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d , i t has been used t o d e t e c t as l ow as 1% o f a g i v e n phase i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a n o t h e r phase as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 d ) . However , t h i s r e q u i r e d v e r y c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n o f s a m p l e s . The f a c t t h a t t h e l a c t o s e samp les i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y have been o b t a i n e d f r om d i f f e r e n t m a n u f a c t u r e r s s h o u l d be bo rne i n m ind when t h e c o m p a r i s o n s as i n T a b l e X IX a r e d r a w n . D i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s used i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e samp les w i l l r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r y s t a l p r o p e r t i e s . Such d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t when t h e amount o f a g i v e n anomer t o be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e x - r a y method i s s m a l l . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l a c t o s e anomers i n a g i v e n sample a r e no t p r e s e n t as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t w h i l e , a t t h i s s t a g e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d raw any f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f t h e anomers i n c o m m e r c i a l l a c t o s e s , i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n by a c a r e f u l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e x - r a y and GC methods and o t h e r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , such as t r u e d e n s i t y . A s t u d y o f changes 93 i n c r y s t a l l a t t i c e p a r a m e t e r s w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n c o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h e n a t u r e o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e anomers i n each o t h e r . T h i s w o u l d , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e c a r e f u l r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s . F a c t o r s such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p a r t i c l e s i z e s wou ld have t o be a v o i d e d . The p r o b l e m o f o v e r l a p o f t h e a n o m e r i c peaks wou ld have t o be e l i m i n a t e d by a p r o p e r c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n o m e r i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i n t e n s i t i e s o f peaks i n t h e r e g i o n s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n has been used t o i n t e r p r e t d i f f e r e n t phases i n a g i v e n samp le ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 d ) , and seems t o be a p o t e n t i a l t o o l f o r t h i s p u r p o s e i n t h e c a s e o f l a c t o s e . 3 . 5 DETERMINATION OF TRUE DENSITY OF LACTOSE SAMPLES Determination by pycnometry A m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r was used f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . The i n s t r u m e n t uses an a i r - d i s p l a c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e ( F r a n k l i n , 1949) w h i c h i s based on t h e A r c h i m e d e s ' p r i n c i p l e o f f l u i d d i s p l a c e m e n t , t h e f l u i d i n t h i s c a s e b e i n g p r e p u r i f i e d h e l i u m g a s . The i n s t r u m e n t has a samp le c e l l o f a c c u r a t e l y known v o l u m e . The c e l l i s f i l l e d w i t h a known w e i g h t o f t h e powder samp le unde r s t u d y . Any a d s o r b e d g a s e s a r e removed f r om t h e powder by an o u t g a s s i n g p r o c e d u r e . A known q u a n t i t y o f h e l i u m under p r e s s u r e i s a l l o w e d t o f l o w i n t o t h e c e l l f r om a p r e c i s e l y known r e f e r e n c e v o l u m e . T h i s c a u s e s t h e gas t o expand and t h e p r e s s u r e t o d rop t o a l o w e r v a l u e . By a p p l y i n g 94 t h e gas l a w s t o t h e s e p r e s s u r e s , t h e vo lume o f h e l i u m s u r r o u n d i n g t h e powder p a r t i c l e s and p e n e t r a t i n g i n t o t h e p o r e s and c r a c k s i s c a l c u l a t e d ( M a r t i n et al., 1 9 6 9 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s vo lume and t h e vo lume o f t h e empty c e l l i s t h e vo lume o f t h e powder . Knowing t h e powder v o l u m e , t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f t h e sample can be d e t e r m i n e d , s i n c e t h e w e i g h t o f t h e powder i s known. H e l i u m i s t h e gas o f c h o i c e b e c a u s e i t s s m a l l a t o m i c s i z e a s s u r e s i t s e a s y p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o s m a l l c r a c k s and p o r e s . I t s b e h a v i o r as an i d e a l gas i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e s i n c e i d e a l gas l a w s a r e used i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e powder v o l u m e . True density and anomeric composition of lactose T r u e d e n s i t i e s o f t h e l a c t o s e samp les a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X X . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f l a c t o s e v a r i e s w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e s . The t r u e d e n s i t y o f a - r i c h l a c t o s e samp les i s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e / J - r i c h samp les and a p p e a r s t o i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e / J - c o n t e n t o f t h e s a m p l e s . T h i s wou ld be t r u e i n each o f t h e f o u r f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : i . t h e two anomers a r e p r e s e n t as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c r y s t a l s ; i i . one anomer fo rms a c o n t i n u o u s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n i n t h e o t h e r ; i i i . t h e /J-anomer fo rms an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n i n a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e ; T a b l e X X . T r u e d e n s i t y o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s 3 d e t e r m i n e d by a m u l t i p y c n o m e t e r . L a c t o s e Grade %/J T r u e D e n s i t y ± l s . d . n a-rich samples: L80S 1.6 1 .538 + 0 . 0 0 0 5 8 a - L 1.8 1 .538 ± 0 . 0 0 0 7 6 LCAPS 1.8 1.540 + 0 . 0 0 0 3 8 I P L - S 1.8 1.541 + 0 .0011 8 L80M 1.9 1.540 + 0 . 0 0 0 5 8 L60S 2 . 0 1.536 + 0 . 0 0 0 3 8 I P L - F 3 .1 1.539 ± 0 . 0 0 1 0 6 SPL 3 . 2 1 .538 + 0 . 0 0 0 3 8 FFL 5 .4 1 .533 + 0 . 0 0 0 4 8 DCL-11 1 0 . 2 1 .535 + 0 . 0 0 0 5 8 DCL-30 1 4 . 8 1.492 + 0 . 0 0 0 7 8 Samples containing significant amounts of both anomers: 0-BAK 6 9 . 4 1.561 + 0 . 0 0 0 3 5 ANL 7 3 . 9 1.564 + 0 . 0 0 1 3 8 DCL-21 7 6 . 7 1.561 ± 0 . 0 0 0 8 8 fi-rich samples: 0-DMV 9 4 . 9 1.589 ± 0 . 0 0 0 4 8 0 -CCF 98 .1 1.589 a . T r u e d e n s i t i e s o f SANL and UANL were no t d e t e r m i n e d by t h i s me thod . b. D e t e r m i n e d by s u s p e n s i o n d e n s i t y me thod . 96 i v . f o r t h e samp les w h i c h c o n t a i n more t h a n 9% /J i n a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te o r more t h a n 6% a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te i n / J - l a c t o s e , t h e y may be a m i x t u r e o f two random s o l i d s o l u t i o n s , one a - r i c h and t h e o t h e r / J - r i c h . Each o f t h e above f o u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . i . F o r m a t i o n o f a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by a q u a n t i t a t i v e x - r a y method d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 4 . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a g i v e n samp le o f l a c t o s e does no t c o n t a i n c r y s t a l s o f each anomer as a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e , b e c a u s e t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om t h e x -r a y method does no t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e a c t u a l a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e GC me thod . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by an o b s e r v a t i o n by Buma and Van d e r Veen (1974) t h a t t h e / J - a n o m e r i c i m p u r i t y i n an a -l a c t o s e samp le was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n s i d e t h e a - c r y s t a l s . The e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n was no t i n v e s t i g a t e d . However , i t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t y S - l a c t o s e m o l e c u l e s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t a k e n up by c e r t a i n f a c e s o f t h e a - l a c t o s e monohydra te c r y s t a l s when t h e l a t t e r a r e grown f r om a m o t h e r l i q u o r c o n t a i n i n g bo th anomers ( V i s s e r and Bennema, 1 9 8 3 ) . The p r e s e n t work i n d i c a t e s t h a t up t o 9% / J - l a c t o s e can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te c r y s t a l s . T h i s v a l u e i s i n good agreement w i t h a v a l u e o f 7% / J - l a c t o s e i n a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te d e t e r m i n e d by F r i e s et al. (1971) i n a p r e v i o u s s t u d y . 97 The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f s m a l l amount o f a - i m p u r i t y i n t h e / 3 - r i c h s a m p l e s can be e x p l a i n e d i n a s i m i l a r manner . The / j - l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s can be grown f r o m aqueous s o l u t i o n s o f l a c t o s e above 9 3 . 5 ° C ( I t o h et al., 1 9 7 8 ) . A t t h e end o f t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , when t h e /}-l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s a r e s e p a r a t e d by f i l t r a t i o n , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p s be low 9 3 . 5 ° C , w h i c h f a v o u r s t h e r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te f r om t h e t r a c e s o f t h e mo the r l i q u o r a d h e r i n g t o t h e 0-l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s . Thus s m a l l amounts o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e ^ - l a c t o s e c r y s t a l s , and n o t as s e p a r a t e d i s t i n c t c r y s t a l s . In t h e c a s e o f samp les l i k e / J - C C F , p r e p a r e d by t h e r m a l d e h y d r a t i o n o f an a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te sample i n a s t e e l bomb, t h e d e h y d r a t e d c r y s t a l l a t t i c e r e a r r a n g e s i t s e l f i n t o a more compact f o r m . T h i s e x p l a i n s why t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f 0 - r i c h samp les i s g r e a t e r t h a n a - r i c h s a m p l e s and why t h e m a j o r peaks i n t h e i r x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s a r e p r e s e n t a t h i g h e r 28 v a l u e s . The p r e s e n c e o f 1.9% a - l a c t o s e as an i m p u r i t y i n /J -CCF can be a c c o u n t e d f o r by assum ing t h a t t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f a t o t h e /3-anomer was i n c o m p l e t e . T h i s amount o f i m p u r i t y i s p r o b a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e new c r y s t a l l a t t i c e where i t i s u n l i k e l y t o be d e t e c t e d by t h e x - r a y me thod . The d e n s i t y o f D C L - 3 0 , a p a r t i a l l y anhyd rous l a c t o s e samp le ( S e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) i s , h o w e v e r , a n o m a l o u s . T h i s samp le has been a p p a r e n t l y p r e p a r e d by t h e r m a l d e h y d r a t i o n o f an a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te s a m p l e . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f DCL-30 w i t h o t h e r a - r i c h 98 s a m p l e s shows a marked r e d u c t i o n i n t h e peak i n t e n s i t i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e samp le i s l e s s c r y s t a l l i n e . I t i s known t h a t t h e t r u e d e n s i t y o f a s o l i d d e c r e a s e s as i t s c r y s t a l l i n i t y d e c r e a s e s ( H u t t e n r a u c h , 1 9 7 8 ) . i i . F o r m a t i o n o f a c o n t i n u o u s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n I f one anomer fo rms a c o n t i n u o u s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n i n t h e o t h e r anomer , i t wou ld be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t o f t h e o t h e r anomer i n a c o n t i n u o u s manner , g i v i n g r i s e t o a c o n t i n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t . T h a t i s , i f t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t s o f t h e l a c t o s e samp les a r e p l o t t e d as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n , a smooth c u r v e s h o u l d r e s u l t ( F i n d l a y , 1 9 5 1 ) . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te and / J - l a c t o s e c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d , b e c a u s e , as m e n t i o n e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 3 , t h e a -anomer u n d e r g o e s c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e /J-anomer when h e a t e d , f o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e DSC r u n s . S i n c e t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n i t i a l samp le i s l o s t d u r i n g h e a t i n g , i t i s no t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e - c o m p o s i t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e c a s e o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . A n o t h e r p r o p e r t y t h a t can be made use o f i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s t h e d i f f r a c t i o n o f x - r a y s by d i f f e r e n t l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . I f t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s fo rmed a c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n , t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o change g r a d u a l l y w i t h a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s i s no t t h e c a s e as i s e v i d e n t f r om t h e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f l a c t o s e samp les p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 4 . The d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t t y p e s : ( i ) t h o s e due t o 99 t h e a - r i c h s a m p l e s , ( i i ) t h o s e due t o t h e samp les c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f bo th anomers , and ( i i i ) t h o s e due t o t h e / 3 - r i c h s a m p l e s . T h u s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n be tween a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te and ^ - l a c t o s e can be r u l e d o u t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f one anomer can be s u b s t i t u t i o n a l ^ i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c r y s t a l l a t t i c e o f t h e o t h e r w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g i t s l a t t i c e , a n d , h e n c e , i t s x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a 6% i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a - l a c t o s e i n t o 0 - l a c t o s e and 9% / J - l a c t o s e i n a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te (7% a c c o r d i n g t o F r i e s e t a 7 . , 1971) was o b s e r v e d by q u a n t i t a t i v e x - r a y t e c h n i q u e ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r m a t i o n o f a c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n i f t h e s a m p l e s c o n s i s t o f anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e and / l - l a c t o s e can be d i s c u s s e d s i m i l a r l y . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e 1:1 a//3 " c o m p o u n d , " as d e s c r i b e d by L e r k et a 7 . ( 1 9 8 4 ) , may no t be one homogeneous phase ( S e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) . The 1:1 a/fi compound i s more l i k e l y t o be a m i x t u r e o f a n h y d r o u s p h a s e s t h a n one o f t h e s e r i e s o f c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n s . S impson e t a 7 . ( 1 9 8 2 ) , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e s c r i b e d each o f t h e 5 : 3 and 4 :1 a/jS l a c t o s e s as b e i n g one homogeneous phase ( S e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e s a m p l e s b e l o n g t o a c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n s y s t e m . I f t h i s were t r u e , a g r a d u a l s h i f t i n t h e peak p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s wou ld be o b s e r v e d w i t h t h e change i n t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n . As shown by t h e d a t a i n T a b l e X X I , t h i s does no t a p p e a r t o be t h e c a s e . Samp les r i c h i n anhyd rous a - l a c t o s e (SANL and UANL, bo th 92 -95% a ) , t h e s a m p l e s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e c o m p o s i t i o n s ( 5 : 3 and 4 :1 a/fi s a m p l e s ) , and t h e 0 - r i c h samp les (/3-CCF, 98 .4% 0), a l l show m a t c h i n g 100 T a b l e X X I . I n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o some common peaks i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f some anhyd rous l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . Sample I n t e r p l a n a r S p a c i n g s 3 (A) R e f e r e n c e UANL 3 . 1 9 , 4 . 8 9 , 3 . 4 1 , 6 . 9 7 , 3 . 4 8 , 4 . 1 1 , 4 . 2 7 , 7 . 4 6 4 . 4 2 , 4 . 6 0 , T h i s s t u d y . 3 . 2 0 , 3 . 8 2 , 4 . 1 3 . 4 . 4 2 , 4 . 6 3 , 4 . 9 3 , 7 . 0 B u s h i l l et al., 1 9 6 5 . 3 . 4 1 , 3 . 4 8 , 4 . 1 3 , 4 . 3 1 , 4 . 6 7 , 4 . 9 3 , 7 . 6 3 Buma and W e i g e r s , 1967 . SANL 3 . 1 3 , 7 . 0 5 3 . 8 0 , 4 . 0 1 , 4 . 2 0 , 4 . 5 3 , 4 . 6 1 , 4 . 8 7 , T h i s s t u d y . 3 . 4 1 , 4 . 9 3 , 3 . 7 4 , 7 .14 3 . 8 3 , 4 . 0 2 , 4 . 2 5 , 4 . 5 8 , 4 . 6 5 , Buma and W e i g e r s , 1967 . 3 . 2 , 3 . 8 2 , 4 . 2 1 , 4 . 5 6 , 4 . 6 5 . 4 . 9 , 7 .2 B u s h i l l et al., 1 9 6 5 . 4 . 1 a/0 Sample 3 . 1 9 , 3 . 7 9 , 4 . 0 0 . 4 . 1 8 . 4 . 5 4 . 4 . 8 8 , 7 . 1 3 S impson et al., 1982 . 5 : 3 a/p Samp les 3 . 2 , 3 . 8 2 , 4 . 0 4 , 4 . 4 2 . 4 . 6 5 , 4 . 9 3 , 7 .1 B u s h i l l et al., 1 9 6 5 . 3 . 2 , 3 . 7 9 , 4 . 0 1 , 4 . 4 1 , 4 . 6 5 , 4 . 8 6 , 7 . 1 3 S impson et al., 1982 . /3-1 a c t o s e 3 . 1 6 , 8 . 2 7 3 . 4 7 , 3 . 6 9 , 3 . 7 3 , 4 . 2 0 , 4 . 2 6 , 4 . 6 0 , T h i s s t u d y . O C C F ) 3 . 2 3 , 4 . 6 2 , 3 . 4 8 , 8 . 4 3 3 . 7 4 , 3 . 9 7 , 4 . 2 3 , 4 . 2 9 , 4 . 5 3 , Buma and W e i g e r s , 1967 . a . U n d e r l i n e d i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e t h r e e most i n t e n s e peaks i n t h e d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . 101 p e a k s . The peaks a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 . 8 , 4 . 6 and 4 . 9 A r e m a i n a l m o s t unchanged t h r o u g h o u t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e samp les have e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same u n i t c e l l and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o a c o n t i n u o u s s o l i d s o l u t i o n s y s t e m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h o u g h , b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n t samp les were p r e p a r e d unde r d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . A s e r i e s o f c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d a n h y d r o u s samp les w i t h a r a n g e o f a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s wou ld have t o be s t u d i e d f o r t h e i r x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and t r u e d e n s i t i e s . A s t u d y o f changes i n t h e l a t t i c e p a r a m e t e r s w i t h t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n m i g h t be more f r u i t f u l . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t most o f t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l t y p e s o f l a c t o s e c o n s i s t o f a - l a c t o s e monohyd ra te and / 3 - l a c t o s e , and t h a t a n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e samp les a r e o n l y a s p e c i a l c a s e . i i i . F o r m a t i o n o f an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n by j 9 - l a c t o s e A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n . T h i s happens o n l y when t h e s o l u t e m o l e c u l e i s v e r y s m a l l compared t o t h e s o l v e n t m o l e c u l e , so t h a t i t can e n t e r t h e i n t e r s t i c e s o f t h e s o l v e n t l a t t i c e w i t h o u t c a u s i n g much d i s t o r t i o n ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 d ) . S i n c e t h e m o l e c u l a r s i z e o f / i - l a c t o s e i s no t c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n be tween t h e two anomers wou ld no t be e x p e c t e d . 102 i v . The p r e s e n c e o f two ( a - r i c h and 0 - r i c h ) random s o l i d s o l u t i o n s On t h e b a s i s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n r e s u l t s , i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t samp les c o n t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f b o t h a n o m e r s , s u c h as / J -BAK , ANL , and D C L - 2 1 , a r e no t s i m p l y m i x t u r e s o f t h e c r y s t a l s o f a - l a c t o s e monohydra te and / ? - l a c t o s e ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) . The t r u e d e n s i t y v a l u e s o f t h e s e samp les a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h o s e o f t h e a and / J - r i c h s a m p l e s . T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a m i x t u r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g two p h a s e s i n t h e s e s a m p l e s : (1) a s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f a i n /? , and (2) a s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f /? i n a . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e two p h a s e s seems l o g i c a l , as t h i s wou ld a l s o e x p l a i n why t h e p e a k s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e two anomers a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e p a r t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e two anomers i n each o t h e r wou ld a l s o e x p l a i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e x - r a y and t h e GC methods do no t a g r e e ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) . 3 . 6 . MOISTURE-DESORPTION AND SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTOSE The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f some l a c t o s e samp les was d e t e r m i n e d by d r y i n g t h e s a m p l e s a t 60°C in vacuo. The d r i e d samp les were t h e n e x p o s e d t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t h u m i d i t i e s a t 25°C. The w e i g h t changes i n each c a s e were f o l l o w e d f o r p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s X X I I and X X I I I , and F i g s . 16 and 17 . 103 T a b l e X X I I . M o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s ( a t 60°C , in vacuo). Time o f % We igh t L o s s o f D r y i n g (Days) I P L - F a - L 0 -BAK FFL SPL 0 . 2 5 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 7 0 . 3 8 0 . 4 3 0 .81 1 0 . 3 5 0 . 3 5 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 5 0 . 9 0 2 0 . 3 7 0 . 3 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 8 0 . 9 6 3 0 . 3 8 0 . 3 6 0 .41 0 . 4 6 0 . 9 5 4 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 7 0 . 3 9 0 . 4 6 0 . 9 9 5 0 . 4 2 0 . 3 8 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 1.03 6 0 .41 0 . 4 0 0 . 4 2 0 . 5 0 1.13 7 0 .41 0 . 3 9 0 .41 0 . 5 4 1.13 139 0 . 5 2 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 9 0 . 6 0 1 .18 S u r f a c e A r e a s ( m z / g ) : 0 .511 0 . 4 2 6 0 . 4 2 8 0 . 1 3 7 0 . 1 4 2 104 % WEIGHT LOSS TIME (DAYS) F i g . 1 6 . We igh t l o s s o f some l a c t o s e s a m p l e s as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e upon d r y i n g in vacuo a t 60°C . 105 T a b l e X X I I I . M o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n o f l a c t o s e samp les a f t e r 76 h (25°C) a t d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t i e s . % R . H . % We igh t G a i n o f I P L - F 0 -BAK FFL SPL 15 0 . 3 5 0 . 2 8 0 . 3 8 0 . 5 7 32 0 . 4 0 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 7 0 . 6 9 52 0 . 4 9 0 . 4 5 0 . 5 8 0 . 9 2 106 % WEIGHT GAIN % R.H. F i g . 1 7 . We igh t g a i n o f some l a c t o s e samp les a f t e r m o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n f o r 76 h a t 25°C as a f u n c t i o n o f % r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y . 107 Observations on the moisture-desorption and sorption of lactose L a c t o s e samp les a r e e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n s o r b e d m o i s t u r e a l o n g w i t h t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . L a c t o s e i s an e x c i p i e n t i n t a b l e t t i n g . The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f e x c i p i e n t s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g t h e i r f l o w and c o m p r e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e h a r d n e s s o f t h e i r t a b l e t s (Umprayn and Mendes , 1 9 8 7 ) . A l s o , m o i s t u r e i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r t h a t a f f e c t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s l i k e t h e h e a t o f s o l u t i o n and h e a t o f w e t t i n g o f a s o l i d samp le ( P i k a l e t al., 1978 ; H o l l e n b e c k e t al., 1978 ; S u r y a n a r a y a n a n and M i t c h e l l , 1 9 8 5 ) . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n s a m p l e s t h a t a r e d r y , i . e . , d e v o i d o f s o r b e d m o i s t u r e . I t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f s o r b e d m o i s t u r e i n l a c t o s e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t f r om t h e w a t e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . The m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n method d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 7 a p p e a r s t o a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e w e i g h t l o s s due t o d r y i n g t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s a t 60°C in vacuo (even f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f o v e r 4 . 5 months) does no t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e i r w e i g h t l o s s due t o d e h y d r a t i o n d u r i n g DSC r u n s (wh i ch i n c l u d e s bo th m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n and d e h y d r a t i o n ) . T h i s can be e a s i l y seen by c o m p a r i n g T a b l e s XI and X X I . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e l a c t o s e samp les l o s e most o f t h e i r s o r b e d - m o i s t u r e w i t h i n one day o f d r y i n g a t 60°C in vacuo w i t h f u r t h e r g r a d u a l w e i g h t l o s s o c c u r r i n g o v e r a p r o l o n g e d d r y i n g p e r i o d ( F i g . 1 6 ) . The s p r a y d r i e d p r o d u c t , S P L , c o n t a i n s a l m o s t two t i m e s as much m o i s t u r e as compared w i t h t h e o t h e r fo rms o f l a c t o s e . I t a l s o s o r b s a l a r g e r amount o f m o i s t u r e a t t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t i e s used 108 i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . I t i s known t h a t t h e s p r a y d r i e d samp les a r e p o o r l y c r y s t a l l i n e due t o r a p i d c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s p r a y - d r y i n g p r o c e s s , a n d , t h u s , a r e i n a h i g h e r e n e r g y , o r a c t i v a t e d , s t a t e . Such p r o d u c t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p o s s e s s g r e a t e r r e a c t i v i t y . T h i s e x p l a i n s why SPL t e n d s t o s o r b more m o i s t u r e t h a n t h e o t h e r l a c t o s e s a m p l e s a n d , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , l o s e g r e a t e r w e i g h t due t o m o i s t u r e - d e s o r p t i o n . These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e p o r t e d enhanced m o i s t u r e -s o r p t i o n by p o o r l y c r y s t a l l i n e ^ - l a c t a m a n t i b i o t i c s p r e p a r e d by s p r a y d r y i n g ( P i k a l e t al., 1 9 7 8 ) . S p e c i f i c s u r f a c e a r e a i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a t d e c i d e s t h e e x t e n t o f m o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n by a g i v e n s o l i d sample (Umprayn and Mendes , 1 9 8 7 ) . I t i s c l e a r f r om t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n T a b l e s X X I I and X X I I I t h a t t h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s u r f a c e a r e a and m o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e samp les s t u d i e d . In f a c t t h e r e l a t i v e l y n o n - c r y s t a l l i n e s a m p l e , S P L , d e s p i t e i t s l o w e r s u r f a c e a r e a , shows c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f m o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n t h a n t h e c r y s t a l l i n e l a c t o s e samp les ( a - L , I P L - F and / 3 - B A K ) . T h u s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c r y s t a l 1 i n i t y o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s i s a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a n s u r f a c e a r e a i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r m o i s t u r e - s o r p t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 109 3 . 7 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LACTOSE SAMPLES ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SURFACE AREA Calibration curve for the determination of the surface area The c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s o f t h e vo lume o f n i t r o g e n i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e f l o w i n g s t r e a m o f K r / H e m i x t u r e v e r s u s t h e peak h e i g h t s and peak a r e a s a r e shown i n F i g . 18 . Bo th c u r v e s have good c o r r e l a t i o n ( r 2 = 0 . 9 9 9 ) . The c u r v e s were i n t e r m i t t e n t l y c h e c k e d by i n j e c t i n g known vo lumes o f n i t r o g e n . The peak h e i g h t s and a r e a s were e s s e n t i a l l y i n v a r i a b l e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n d i c a t i n g a good d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e two c u r v e s . The i n t e r c e p t ( 2 . 4 8 mm 2) o f t h e peak a r e a c u r v e was no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p=0.05) f r om z e r o . The peak h e i g h t c u r v e had an i n t e r c e p t ( 2 . 7 mm) s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p=0.05) f r om z e r o . D e s p i t e t h i s , t h e c u r v e c o u l d be used f o r s u r f a c e a r e a d e t e r m i n a t i o n as t h e e r r o r w o u l d be common i n bo th t h e samp le and t h e c a l i b r a t i o n peak h e i g h t s . Surface area of the lactose samples The s u r f a c e a r e a v a l u e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t l a c t o s e s a m p l e s a r e shown i n T a b l e X X I V . The s u r f a c e a r e a s o f some s e l e c t e d samp les were c a l c u l a t e d by bo th t h e peak h e i g h t and t h e peak a r e a m e t h o d s . The v a l u e s a r e w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s o f each o t h e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t any one o f t h e two peak p a r a m e t e r s , n a m e l y , h e i g h t and a r e a , c o u l d be r e l i a b l y used f o r s u r f a c e a r e a c a l c u l a t i o n . 210 i 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 VOLUME OF NITROGEN INJECTED — ^ Peak Heights (mm) Peak Areas (mm2) F i g . 1 8 . C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s f o r s u r f a c e a r e a a n a l y s i s o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s u s i n g Q u a n t a s o r b . Bo th t h e peak h e i g h t s and peak a r e a s a r e shown . T a b l e X X I V . S p e c i f i c s u r f a c e a r e a o f l a c t o s e s a m p l e s . L a c t o s e S p e c i f i c S u r f a c e A r e a ( n r / g ) n Sample Peak h e i g h t method a - L 0 . 4 2 6 2 L60S 0 . 1 0 8 2 L80S 0 . 0 9 0 2 L80M 0 . 2 9 3 2 I P L - S 0 . 5 7 4 1 ANL 0 . 3 9 7 1 I P L - F 0 .511 1 SPL 0 . 1 4 2 1 FFL 0 . 1 3 7 1 DCL-11 0 . 1 8 5 ( 0 . 1 7 9 ) 3 2 DCL-21 0 . 3 0 7 ( 0 . 3 0 0 ) 3 2 DCL-30 0 . 1 6 8 ( 0 . 1 6 6 ) 3 2 /3-BAK 0 . 4 2 8 2 SANL 0 . 2 5 4 1 UANL 1.673 1 a . V a l u e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s show t h e s p e c i f i c s u r f a c e a r e a d e t e r m i n e d by peak a r e a me thod . 112 4. SUMMARY 1. F o u r t e e n c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e and f o u r s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e were a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . 2. An a c c u r a t e and r a p i d GC m ethod f o r s e p a r a t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a c t o s e anomers was d e v e l o p e d . I t was shown t h a t t h e l a c t o s e anomers h a v e e q u a l r e s p o n s e s on a FID d e t e c t o r . T h i s e n a b l e d t h e r e l a t i v e p e a k a r e a s t o be u s e d as r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a c t o s e s a m p l e s w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d . 3 . T h e t h e r m a l b e h a v i o r o f v a r i o u s s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e was s t u d i e d u s i n g a DSC. The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s w e r e d r a w n . i . In a s e a l e d p a n , t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e s p l i t s i n t o two p a r t s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e an e x o t h e r m i c p e a k (due t o d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e d e h y d r a t e d s a m p l e i n t o l i q u i d w a t e r and r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f / J - l a c t o s e f r o m t h e s o l u t i o n ) o v e r l a p s t h e e n d o t h e r m i c p e a k o f d e h y d r a t i o n , i i . A l p h a - l a c t o s e u n d e r g o e s an e n d o t h e r m i c a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e /J-anomer d u r i n g t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k and a l s o i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r i t ; t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e h e a t i n g r a t e and pan t y p e u s e d , i i i . T h e / J - r i c h m a t e r i a l f o r m e d i n ( i i ) r e c r y s t a l l i z e s i n t o a new c r y s t a l f o r m , e s p e c i a l l y i n a s e a l e d p a n , g i v i n g r i s e t o a new e x o t h e r m i n t h e t h e r m o g r a m s , i v . The m e l t i n g p e a k i n a s e a l e d pan s h i f t s t o a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e due t o t h e a n o m e r i c c o n v e r s i o n , v . A p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f o r m a t i o n o f a 1:1 j 3 / a - l a c t o s e compound i s an a r t i f a c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , s i n c e o t h e r a n o m e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s c a n be o b t a i n e d by v a r y i n g t h e DSC c o n d i t i o n s . v i . C e r t a i n c o m m e r c i a l s a m p l e s , c l a i m e d t o be a n h y d r o u s , a r e n o t t r u e l y s o b e c a u s e t h e y show t h e d e h y d r a t i o n p e a k . The powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e v a r i o u s s a m p l e s o f l a c t o s e c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o : i . a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e r i c h s a m p l e s w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e a k a t 2 0 . 1 ° 2 8 ; i i . / J - r i c h s a m p l e s w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e a k a t 2 1 . 2 ° 2 9 ; i i i . s a m p l e s s h o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e a k s o f b o t h t h e a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e and / J - l a c t o s e . Q u a n t i t a t i v e powder x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g . i . In a l a c t o s e s a m p l e c o n t a i n i n g a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m i x t u r e o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e and ^ - l a c t o s e , t h e r e l a t i v e a n o m e r i c amounts show a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e p e a k i n t e n s i t i e s . i i . A s m a l l amount o f ft o r a a n o m e r i c i m p u r i t y c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d 114 into the a-lactose monohydrate or /J-rich samples without being detected by the x-rays, i i i . Samples showing characteristic peaks of both anomers are probably made up of two phases, one a-rich and the other /J-rich, each containing a certain amount of the other anomer as impurity. 6 . The true density of lactose samples determined by a Quantachrome multipycnometer is rel iable only i f the largest cel l is used. 7 . An examination of the true density values in conjunction with the powder x-ray dif fract ion patterns revealed that, in a given sample, a-lactose monohydrate and /J-lactose do not exist as a continuous solid solution. Formation of an in ters t i t i a l solid solution is also not possible. It is possible that the lactose samples contain two solid solutions, one a-rich and the other /J-rich. 8. Along with the water of crysta l l izat ion, the lactose samples also contained sorbed moisture. The moisture-desorption and sorption appears to depend on the relative crystal 1inity of the samples rather than on their surface area. 9. Various samples of lactose obtained from different commercial sources had different surface areas, suggesting that their compaction behavior during a tabletting process may be different. 5. REFERENCES B a t u y i o s , N . H . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A n h y d r o u s l a c t o s e i n d i r e c t c o m p r e s s i o n . J . Pharm. Sci. 5 5 , 7 2 7 - 7 3 0 . B e e b e , J . 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I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and q u a n t i t a t i o n o f f r e e n a t u r a l c a r b o h y d r a t e s i n m i l k p r o d u c t s by g a s - l i q u i d c h r o m a t o g r a p h y and mass s p e c t r o m e t r y . J . Dairy Sci. 5 3 , 1 0 1 8 - 1 0 2 2 . R o b a r d s , K. and W h i t e l a w , M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Ch roma tog raphy o f m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s and d i s a c c h a r i d e s . J . Chromatogr. 3 7 3 , 8 1 - 1 1 0 . Roe tman , K. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Methods f o r t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c r y s t a l l i n e l a c t o s e i n m i l k p r o d u c t s . Neth. Milk Dairy J. 36 1 - 5 2 . R o s s , K . D . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . R a p i d d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a - l a c t o s e i n whey powders by d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t r y . J. Dairy Sci. 6 1 , 2 5 5 - 2 5 9 . 120 S a w a r d e k e r , J . S . , S l o n e k e r , J . H . and J e a n e s , A . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m o n o s a c c h a r i d e s as t h e i r a l d i t o l a c e t a t e s by gas l i q u i d c h r o m a t o g r a p h y . Anal. Chem. 3 7 , 1 6 0 2 - 1 6 0 4 . S e i f e r t , H. and L a b r o t , G . ( 1 9 6 1 ) . S t r u c t u r e o f a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e . Naturwissenschaften 4 8 , 6 9 1 ; t h r o u g h D a i r y S c i . A b s t r . 24 (1962) 1446 . S h a r p , P . F . and Doob, H . , J r . ( 1 9 4 1 ) . Q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a l p h a and b e t a l a c t o s e i n d r i e d m i l k and d r i e d whey . J . Dairy Sci. 2 4 , 5 8 9 - 6 0 2 . S h a r p , P . F . ( 1 9 4 3 ) . S t a b l e c r y s t a l l i n e anhyd rous a l p h a l a c t o s e p r o d u c t and p r o c e s s . U.S. Patent 2 , 3 1 9 , 5 6 2 . S h e f f i e l d P r o d u c t I n f o r m a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . NF Lactose. S h e f f i e l d P r o d u c t s , N o r w i c h , NY, USA. S i m p s o n , T . D . , P a r r i s h , F.W. and N e l s o n , M . L . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C r y s t a l l i n e f o rms o f l a c t o s e p r o d u c e d i n a c i d i c a l c o h o l i c m e d i a . J. Food Sci. 4 7 , 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 5 1 , 1954 . S u r y a n a r a y a n a n , R. and M i t c h e l l , A . G . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f c a l c i u m g l u c e p t a t e f r om aqueous s o l u t i o n s . J . Pharm. Sci. 7 3 , 7 8 - 8 2 . S u r y a n a r a y a n a n , R. and M i t c h e l l , A . G . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f two c o n c e p t s o f c r y s t a l l i n i t y u s i n g c a l c i u m g l u c e p t a t e as a model compound. Int. J . Pharm. 2A, 1 -17 . S w e e l y , C C . , B e n t l e y , R . , M a k i t a , M. and W e l l s , W.W. ( 1 9 6 3 ) . G a s - l i q u i d c h r o m a t o g r a p h y o f t r i m e t h y l s i l y l d e r i v a t i v e s o f s u g a r s and r e l a t e d s u b s t a n c e s . J. Am. Chem. Soc. 8 5 , 2 4 9 7 - 2 5 0 7 . T a b i b i , S . E . and H o l l e n b e c k , R . G . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n t e r a c t i o n o f w a t e r v a p o r and c o m p r e s s i b l e s u g a r . Int. J. Pharm. 1 8 , 1 6 9 - 1 8 3 . T r o y , H . C and S h a r p , P . F . ( 1 9 3 0 ) . a and fl l a c t o s e i n some m i l k p r o d u c t s . J . Dairy Sci. 1 3 , 1 4 0 - 1 5 7 . 121 Umprayn , K. and Mendes , R.W. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . H y g r o s c o p i c i t y and m o i s t u r e a d s o r p t i o n k i n e t i c s o f p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s o l i d s : a r e v i e w . Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1 3 , 6 5 3 - 6 9 3 . V i s s e r , R . A . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S u p e r s a t u r a t i o n o f a - l a c t o s e i n aqueous s o l u t i o n s i n m u t a r o t a t i o n e q u i l i b r i u m . Neth. Milk Dairy J. 3 6 , 8 9 - 1 0 1 . V i s s e r , R . A . and Bennema, P. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f a - l a c t o s e h y d r a t e . Ibid 3 7 , 1 0 9 - 1 3 7 . V i s s e r , R . A . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . C o o p e r a t i v e C o n d e n s f a b r i e k F r i e s l a n d , F r i e s l a n d , The N e t h e r l a n d s , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V romans , H . , De B o e r , A . H . , B o l h u i s , G . K . , L e r k , C . F . , K u s s e n d r a g e r , K. and B o s c h , H. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S t u d i e s on t a b l e t t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f l a c t o s e . P a r t 2 . C o n s o l i d a t i o n and c o m p a c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c r y s t a l l i n e l a c t o s e . Pharm. Weekblad., Sci. Ed. 7 , 1 8 6 - 1 9 3 . W h i t t i e r , E . O . ( 1 9 4 4 ) . L a c t o s e and i t s u t i l i z a t i o n : a r e v i e w . J . Dairy Sci. 2 7 , 5 0 5 - 5 3 7 . Z o g r a f i , G . , K o n t n y , M . J . , Y a n g , A . Y . S . and B r e n n e r , G . S . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S u r f a c e a r e a and w a t e r v a p o r s o r p t i o n o f m i c r o c r y s t a l 1 i n e l a c t o s e . Int. J . Pharm. 1 8 , 9 9 - 1 1 6 . 122 APPENDIX A Calculation of linear absorption coefficients of lactose anomers The l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , / i , o f a compound i s g i v e n b y : M =P2pe./xe/pe w h e r e , P = d e n s i t y o f compound, p e = p r o p o r t i o n by w e i g h t o f each c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t w i t h mass a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ne/pe. Ve/pe f o r CuKa r a d i a t i o n f o r C = 4 . 2 2 , H=0.391 and 0 = 1 1 . 0 c m 2 / g ( C u l l i t y , 1 9 7 8 e ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e l i n e a r a b s o r p t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r l a c t o s e can be c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : i . a - l a c t o s e m o n o h y d r a t e : p e f o r C=0. '40002, H=0.06714 and 0 = 0 . 5 3 2 8 4 . T h u s , uaH2Q = 1 . 5 4 { ( 0 . 4 0 0 0 2 x 4 . 2 2 ) + ( 0 . 0 6 7 1 4 x 0 . 3 9 1 ) + ( 0 . 5 3 2 8 4 x 1 1 ) } = 11 .6664 c m " 1 . i i . ^ - l a c t o s e : p e f o r C = 0 . 4 2 1 0 8 , H=0.06478 and 0 = 0 . 5 1 4 1 4 . T h u s , up = 1.59 { ( 0 . 4 2 1 0 8 x 4 . 2 2 ) + ( 0 . 0 6 4 7 8 x 0 . 3 9 1 ) + ( 0 . 5 1 4 1 4 x 1 1 ) } = 11 .8579 c m " 1 . 

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