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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Noise impacts of Automated Light Rail Transit in the Broadway and Nanaimo station areas of Vancouver McLean, Hugh Dundas 1988

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NOISE IMPACTS OF AUTOMATED LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT IN THE BROADWAY AND NANAIMO STATION AREAS OF VANCOUVER By HUGH DUNDAS McLEAN B . E . S . , The U n i v e r s i t y of W a t e r l o o , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ie S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1988 © Hugh Dundas M c L e a n , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive " copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Re g i o n a l Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e 28 A p r i l 1988 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s a n a l y z e s the impac t o f w a y s i d e n o i s e p r o d u c e d by Au toma ted L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t (ALRT) i n the Broadway S t a t i o n and Nanaimo S t a t i o n A r e a s of V a n c o u v e r . The h y p o t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . F i r s t , a s e m i - l o g a r i t h m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between ALRT n o i s e and the d i s t a n c e from the guideway i s a n t i c i p a t e d , y e t a t the same d i s t a n c e a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n the s t udy a r e a , n o i s e l e v e l s can v a r y m a r k e d l y . S e c o n d , i n the a r e a where ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s exceed a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s , r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e measured i m p a c t . T h i r d , a t g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s f rom the f a c i l i t y where the n o i s e i s a c c e p t a b l e , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e measured n o i s e . The p u r p o s e s of t h i s t h e s i s a re t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o i s e l e v e l s and d i s t a n c e from the ALRT g u i d e w a y , t o d e f i n e the zones o f h i g h and low n o i s e i m p a c t , and t o a n a l y z e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e based upon the measured n o i s e l e v e l w i t h i n each zone o f i m p a c t . P r i m a r y d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s came from t h r e e s e p a r a t e s o u r c e s . ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s f o r e c a s t f o r 1986 were o b t a i n e d from a c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r B . C . T r a n s i t i n 1983. The E a s t V a n c o u v e r Ne ighbourhoods S tudy s u r v e y e d r e s i d e n t s i n the Broadway and Nanaimo S t a t i o n A r e a s , and e l s e w h e r e , d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t he ALRT i n 1984. In A p r i l 1986, measurements of w a y s i d e ALRT n o i s e and a s u r v e y of r e s i d e n t s were u n d e r t a k e n by the UBC t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s . A 2 4 - h o u r e n e r g y - e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l (L eq) was c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r background n o i s e and f o r w a y s i d e ALRT n o i s e . The i i i t o t a l 24 -hour L eq was c a l c u l a t e d by c o m b i n i n g t he se two L e q . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o i s e and d i s t a n c e was then computed u s i n g r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Where a p p l i c a b l e , an ad jus tmen t was made t o t h e L eq based on e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a f o r p r e v i o u s communi ty e x p o s u r e and b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e , i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e the zones o f i m p a c t . The zone of h i g h impac t was d e f i n e d as t h e a r e a i n w h i c h n o i s e l e v e l s a r e h i g h e r t han a c c e p t a b l e , a 24-hour L eq of 55 dB or more . P e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e and n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e were a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the a d j u s t e d L eq and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . A p r e - A L R T o u t l o o k on the A L R T ' s i n f l u e n c e on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e was a n a l y z e d i n t e rms of the a n t i c i p a t e d zones of i m p a c t , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of n o i s e and d i s t a n c e i s s e m i - l o g a r i t h m i c . G i v e n t h e same d i s t a n c e from the ALRT g u i d e w a y , n o i s e l e v e l s v a r y n o t i c e a b l y a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s between the two S t a t i o n s . The zone of h i g h impac t r anges from 50 t o 200 f e e t from the ALRT g u i d e w a y . I n the h i g h - i m p a c t z o n e , t he p e r c e p t i o n s t oward ALRT n o i s e and n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e ( 2 4 - h o u r L e q ) . However , p e r c e p t i o n s o f n o i s e i n the zone of low impac t do not appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e l e v e l s . In t h e p r e - A L R T s t u d y , r e s i d e n t s i n the h i g h -impac t zone t ended t o have a n e u t r a l o u t l o o k on a n t i c i p a t e d ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s . I n the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e , n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s t o w a r d ALRT n o i s e appear t o be r e l a t e d t o a n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n of t r a f f i c n o i s e . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i L I S T OF MAPS v i i i DEFINITIONS i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 1 .1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1 .2 . T h e s i s C o n t e x t 2 1 .3 . H y p o t h e s i s 4 1 .4 . M e t h o d o l o g y 5 1 . 4 . 1 . A s s u m p t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s 10 1 .5 . C o n t e n t s o f the T h e s i s 12 2 . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 2 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n : A s s e s s i n g the Q u a l i t y o f L i f e 14 2 . 2 . N e i g h b o u r h o o d P e r c e p t i o n s of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y 16 2 . 3 . Impact of N o i s e on the R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t . . 20 2 . 3 . 1 . Measured N o i s e Impac t s 20 2 . 3 . 2 . P e r c e i v e d N o i s e Impac ts 24 2 . 4 . R a p i d T r a n s i t S t u d i e s 40 2 . 4 . 1 . The BART E x p e r i e n c e 40 2 . 4 . 2 . S c a r b o r o u g h LRT 41 2 . 5 . Summary 44 3 . LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT IN VANCOUVER 47 3 . 1 . E a r l y R a p i d T r a n s i t P l a n s 47 3 . 2 . The Broadway S t a t i o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d 50 3 . 3 . Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 57 4 . DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 60 4 . 1 . T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s 60 4 . 2 . Da ta S o u r c e s 61 4 . 3 . M e t h o d o l o g y 63 4 . 3 . 1 . N o i s e Measurements 64 4 . 3 . 2 . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 70 4 . 4 . F i n d i n g s : Ways ide ALRT N o i s e 80 4 . 4 . 1 . P r e l i m i n a r y N o i s e Impact Assessment 80 4 . 4 . 2 . Ways ide N o i s e L e v e l s 80 4 . 4 . 3 . Impact Zones 103 4 . 5 . R e s i d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n s 107 4 . 5 . 1 . 1986 UBC S tudy 107 4 . 5 . 2 . E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy 116 4 . 6 . Summary of t he F i n d i n g s 122 V 5. PLANNING IMPLICATIONS 127 5 . 1 . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y 127 5 . 2 . R e l e v a n c e t o P l a n n i n g P o l i c y 129 5 . 3 . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 APPENDIX A : I n t e r v i e w Form, 1986 UBC S tudy 141 APPENDIX B : D i c t i o n a r y of V a r i a b l e s - 1986 UBC Study and E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy 150 APPENDIX C : S c a t t e r g r a m s and C e l l F r e q u e n c i e s 157 v i L I S T OF TABLES 2 . 1 . A d a p t a t i o n s . "Which do you do because o f t r a f f i c a n d / o r n o i s e ? " 39 3 . 1 . T r a f f i c i n the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a 52 3 . 2 . Measu red L e v e l s of Community N o i s e P r i o r t o C o n s t r u c t i o n of ALRT 55 4 . 1 . V a r i a b l e s o f Measured ALRT N o i s e Impact 66 4 . 2 . V a r i a b l e s o f the 1986 S u r v e y 72 4 . 3 . R e c o d i n g of 1986 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s 75 4 . 4 . V a r i a b l e s Chosen from the E a s t Vancouve r Ne ighbourhoods S tudy 77 4 . 5 . R e c o d i n g of E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s 78 4 . 6 . Example o f Changes i n E v e n i n g and N i g h t t i m e N o i s e L e v e l s 86 4 . 7 . Peak dB(A) N o i s e L e v e l s from ALRT P a s s - B y s and Backg round N o i s e L e v e l s on C r o s s - S t r e e t s 87 4 . 8 . S i n g l e - E v e n t ALRT P a s s - B y N o i s e L e v e l s and 24-Hour L eq 88 4 . 9 . T o t a l 24-Hour L eq on C r o s s S t r e e t s 91 4 . 1 0 . Ou tdoor 24-Hour L eq a t R e s i d e n t i a l S i t e s 93 4 . 1 1 . R e l a t i o n s h i p of N o i s e and Log o f D i s t a n c e 99 4 . 1 2 . Means and Medians o f P e r c e i v e d and Measured N o i s e Impacts 107 4 . 1 3 . K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Measured and P e r c e i v e d N o i s e Impac t s 109 4 . 1 4 . K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r 1986 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s 115 4 . 1 5 . K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r O r d i n a l V a r i a b l e s - E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy 119 4 . 1 6 . K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r E a s t Vancouve r Ne ighbourhoods S t u d y S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s 121 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES 2 . 1 . A c t i o n of N o i s e on the Community 18 2 . 2 . A P r e d i c t e d R e l a t i o n s h i p Between L ( A ) , L eq and the P r o d u c t n l 22 2 . 3 . Sound L e v e l P r e s s u r e A t t e n u a t i o n W i t h D i s t a n c e f o r a F i n i t e S t r a i g h t - L i n e S o u r c e C o n s i s t i n g of a Row of I n d i v i d u a l D i r e c t i o n a l ( D i p o l e ) S o u r c e s . . . 25 2 . 4 . Common N o i s e L e v e l s and T y p i c a l R e a c t i o n s 27 2 . 5 . C o r r e c t i o n s t o be Added t o the Measured Community N o i s e E q u i v a l e n t L e v e l t o O b t a i n N o r m a l i z e d CNEL 28 2 . 6 . P e r c e n t a g e of Responden t s D i s t u r b e d by R a i l w a y N o i s e on E i g h t Q u e s t i o n s 31 2 . 7 . Community R e a c t i o n t o I n t r u s i v e N o i s e s o f Many Types as a F u n c t i o n o f the N o r m a l i z e d Community N o i s e E q u i v a l e n t L e v e l 33 2 . 8 . Response t o Community N o i s e L e v e l s : P e r c e n t a g e o f C o m p l a i n t s and P e r c e n t a g e H i g h l y Annoyed 34 2 . 9 . Impor tance o f S t r e e t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 36 2 . 1 0 . Annoyance W i t h S t r e e t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 37 4 . 1 . F l o w C h a r t o f N o i s e Impact Assessment Me thodo logy f o r the S t u d y A r e a 65 4 . 2 . Mode l o f B a c k g r o u n d N o i s e L e v e l s i n the Study A r e a . . 85 4 . 3 . C h a r t f o r C o m b i n i n g U n c o r r e l a t e d N o i s e L e v e l s 90 4 . 4 . S c a t t e r g r a m : N o i s e (24 -Hour L eq) and Log of D i s t a n c e 98 v i i i L I S T OF MAPS 1 .1 . R e g i o n a l ALRT Route 3 1 .2 . S tudy A r e a : Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a and Nanaimo S t a t i o n A r e a 6 2 . 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of H o u s e h o l d S u r v e y A r e a s , S c a r b o r o u g h LRT P r o j e c t 42 3 . 1 . Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a Land Uses 51 3 . 2 . T r a f f i c A r t e r i a l s and T r u c k R o u t e s , Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a 53 3 . 3 . T r a f f i c G e n e r a t o r s , Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a 54 4 . 1 . E x p e c t e d Impacts o f ALRT i n the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a 81 4 . 2 . P r e d i c t e d N o i s e C o n t o u r s ( E a s t o f ALRT A l i g n m e n t ) . . . 82 4 . 3 . P r e d i c t e d N o i s e C o n t o u r s (West o f ALRT A l i g n m e n t ) . . . 83 4 . 4 a . T o t a l 24-Hour L eq ( A l o n g C r o s s - S t r e e t s and a t S u r v e y e d R e s i d e n c e s ) 94 4 . 4 b . T o t a l 24-Hour L eq ( A l o n g C r o s s - S t r e e t s and a t S u r v e y e d R e s i d e n c e s ) 95 4 . 5 a . Zones of Impact Based on A d j u s t e d 24-Hour L eq 104 4 . 5 b . Zones o f Impact Based on A d j u s t e d 24-Hour L eq 105 ix DEFINITIONS ALRT; Au toma ted L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t , a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o the e x i s t i n g s y s t e m i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . L R T ; L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t , a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e t o r a p i d t r a n s i t , e i t h e r i n o t h e r c i t i e s , o r f u t u r e sys tems i n Vancouve r t h a t may or may no t be f u l l y a u t o m a t e d . L e q : The e n e r g y - e q u i v a l e n t n o i s e l e v e l . A c o n t i n u o u s A -w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l , e q u i v a l e n t i n terms o f n o i s e ene rgy c o n t e n t , t o the a c t u a l f l u c t u a t i n g n o i s e over the o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , u s u a l l y 24 h o u r s . Measured n o i s e i m p a c t : An A - w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l , e x p r e s s e d i n d e c i b e l s and c o n v e r t e d t o a 24-hour L e q , m e a s u r i n g sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s a c r o s s f r e q u e n c i e s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the r e sponse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he e a r . P e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t : The r e sponse of r e s i d e n t s t o the e x p e c t e d o r e x i s t i n g n o i s e l e v e l s from ALRT t r a i n s , dependent upon any number o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The response may a l s o depend upon the t y p e o f q u e s t i o n used i n the s u r v e y . Zone o f h i g h i m p a c t : The a r e a i n w h i c h o u t d o o r ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s , measured as a 2 4 - h o u r L e q , a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e based on CMHC s t a n d a r d s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ( i . e . L eq > 55 d B ) . A d j u s t m e n t s may a l s o be made t o the L eq based on U . S . EPA c r i t e r i a f o r p r e v i o u s community exposure t o the n o i s e i n q u e s t i o n and the n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e measured i n absence o f the i n t r u d i n g n o i s e . Zone of low i m p a c t : The a r e a i n w h i c h ou tdoo r ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s a r e a c c e p t a b l e based on CMHC s t a n d a r d s ( i . e . L eq < 55 d B ) . T h i s zone e x t e n d s t o the maximum d i s t a n c e from the ALRT a t w h i c h n o i s e measurements a n d / o r s u r v e y s were t aken f o r t he s t u d y i n q u e s t i o n . X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o my a d v i s o r , D r . V . S e t t y P e n d a k u r , f o r h i s d i r e c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks a r e a l s o due t o D r . Henry H i g h t o w e r f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and a d v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s t a t i s t i c a l me thods . M r . K e n n e t h B a r r o n , o f the a c o u s t i c a l c o n s u l t i n g f i r m B a r r o n and A s s o c i a t e s , p r o v i d e d e x p e r t a d v i c e t oward e s t a b l i s h i n g a model o f b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l s and e n s u r i n g t h e c o r r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e . F u r t h e r acknowledgements a r e t o the s t u d e n t s i n my t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g c l a s s a t the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n o i s e measurements and r e s i d e n t s u r v e y s , w h i c h p r o v i d e d much of the f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I wou ld l i k e t o thank the v a r i o u s members o f my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f my M a s t e r ' s s t u d i e s and t h i s t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n Over the p a s t d e c a d e , many N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s have c o n s i d e r e d some form o f r a p i d t r a n s i t as a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s . T h i s has e n c o u r a g e d the deve lopment and a p p l i c a t i o n of new t e c h n o l o g y such as l i g h t r a i l t r a n s i t ( L R T ) , i n c l u d i n g e l e v a t e d and f u l l y au tomated sys tems ( A L R T ) . W h i l e LRT may p roduce r e g i o n a l b e n e f i t s s u c h as improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y and fewer a u t o m o b i l e s on the r o a d , i t may a l s o impose many u n d e s i r a b l e i m p a c t s on a s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A common n e g a t i v e impac t i n c l u d e s n o i s e c a u s e d by p a s s i n g LRT t r a i n s , a l s o known as w a y s i d e n o i s e . The r e s u l t s may range from a n n o y i n g r e s i d e n t s t o a f f e c t i n g t h e i r s l e e p p a t t e r n s depend ing on the p r o x i m i t y o f t he LRT gu ideway and t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o n o i s e . T e c h n i c a l measurements o f i m p a c t s and management o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sys tems were t r a d i t i o n a l l y the e x c l u s i v e domain of e n g i n e e r s . P l a n n e r s , however , have r e c e n t l y t a k e n a more a c t i v e r o l e , i n t e r p r e t i n g measurements and s u r v e y i n g ; r e s i d e n t s . T h e i r s t u d i e s have r e v e a l e d r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s n o i s e s o u r c e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s i m p l i f i e d w i t h s t a n d a r d s t h a t d e f i n e the a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s o f such an i m p a c t . The complex d e c i s i o n s p l a n n e r s must make r e g a r d i n g w a y s i d e n o i s e demand an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the LRT t e c h n o l o g y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t e c h n i c a l measurements t o b o t h the s u r r o u n d i n g env i ronmen t and the i n d i v i d u a l s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . T h i s t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s o f n o i s e i m p a c t s g e n e r a t e d by 2 ALRT t r a i n s r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n V a n c o u v e r , e i t h e r on an e l e v a t e d gu ideway or a t g round l e v e l (Map 1 . 1 ) . 1 . 2 . T h e s i s C o n t e x t Common u n i t s o f measurement a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o e x p r e s s c e r t a i n i m p a c t s o f r a p i d t r a n s i t , i n c l u d i n g n o i s e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . In o r d e r f o r the n o i s e impac t t o be deemed a c c e p t a b l e or n o t , the u n i t s must be r e l a t e d t o s t a n d a r d s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l n o i s e l e v e l s t h a t e s t a b l i s h l i m i t s on the i m p a c t . T h i s a l s o r e q u i r e s the a n a l y s i s of s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h o s e who must c o n t e n d w i t h the i m p a c t s . T h u s , b o t h o b j e c t i v e measurements and s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n s remain i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n e r s t o c o n s i d e r . The w a y s i d e n o i s e l e v e l s a re measured i n u n i t s known as d e c i b e l s ( d B ) . T h i s i s the 'measured i m p a c t ' . The n o i s e l e v e l depends on many f a c t o r s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . I t does not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y ove r t ime a t any one l o c a t i o n u n l e s s the d e s i g n of t he s y s t e m or the f r equency and l e n g t h of t r a i n s i s a l t e r e d , o r new deve lopment o c c u r s t o b u f f e r the n o i s e . The ' p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t ' i s the s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e of r e s i d e n t s t o the e x p e c t e d or e x i s t i n g n o i s e l e v e l s from LRT t r a i n s . These p e r c e p t i o n s , however , a r e not as easy t o p r e d i c t as t he measured i m p a c t , and they a r e open t o w i d e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . They can v a r y over t i m e , and w i t h g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the s o u r c e , t hey may v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y among r e s i d e n t s , d e p e n d i n g on a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i s e d f a c t o r s . Fo r i n s t a n c e , r e s i d e n t s near a p r o p o s e d LRT l i n e may be i n f l u e n c e d by p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y or p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r 3 Map 1 . 1 : Regional ALRT Route 4 knowledge of the t r u e i m p a c t s i s l i m i t e d . L a t e r , when the f a c i l i t y i s i n o p e r a t i o n , and the r e s i d e n t s have e x p e r i e n c e d the i m p a c t s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n may c h a n g e . The p l a n n e r ' s t a s k i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t e c h n i c a l measurements , t o l e a r n from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s , and t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s can be i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s the n o i s e i t s e l f . Such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n m i n i m i z e t h e e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s of L R T , such as n o i s e , w h i l e s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s on new r a p i d t r a n s i t deve lopmen t s may be a p p r o a c h e d w i t h a sense of d i r e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o m i t i g a t e or e l i m i n a t e the i m p a c t . 1 .3 . H y p o t h e s i s One o f t he e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s imposed by the ALRT on a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i s the n o i s e from w h e e l - r a i l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s can be measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y as w e l l as i n te rms of r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . The h y p o t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . F i r s t , the g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between ALRT n o i s e and the d i s t a n c e from the t r a c k i s e x p e c t e d t o be s e m i - l o g a r i t h m i c , y e t g i v e n the same d i s t a n c e a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n the s t u d y a r e a , n o i s e l e v e l s can v a r y m a r k e d l y . S e c o n d , i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , where ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s exceed r e s i d e n t i a l n o i s e s t a n d a r d s , r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of ALRT n o i s e a r e e x p e c t e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e l e v e l s . T h i r d , i n the zone of low i m p a c t , where ALRT n o i s e i s p e r m i s s i b l e by e s t a b l i s h e d n o i s e s t a n d a r d s , r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of n o i s e l e v e l s a r e not a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the 5 measured n o i s e . 1.4. M e t h o d o l o g y The p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e measured ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s and d i s t a n c e from t h e g u i d e w a y , t o d e f i n e zones of h i g h and low i m p a c t , and t o r e l a t e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s t o the measured n o i s e f o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a and f o r each zone of i m p a c t . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e measurements , w h i l e i n the zone of low i m p a c t , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e no t a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t u d i e d i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a and a p o r t i o n of the N a n a i m o / 2 9 t h Avenue S t a t i o n A r e a west o f Nanaimo S t r e e t . T h i s i s an i n n e r - c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d l o c a t e d s o u t h - e a s t o f the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t (Map 1 . 2 ) . The ways ide ALRT n o i s e impac t s on a n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e d i s c u s s e d based upon Canada Mor tgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (1981) s t a n d a r d s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and U . S . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency (1972) c r i t e r i a f o r p r e v i o u s communi ty exposure t o the n o i s e i n q u e s t i o n and t h e g e n e r a l n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n absence of t h e i n t r u d i n g n o i s e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i s d i s c u s s e d as i t r e l a t e s t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s the u n i t s o f measurement o f n o i s e , t he a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s , any n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s , t h e s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f n o i s e and d i s t a n c e , and c a s e s t u d i e s of r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f n o i s e i m p a c t s . E x p e r i e n c e s from the BART sys tem i n San F r a n c i s c o and t h e Map 1.2: S tudy A r e a : Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a and Nanaimo S t a t i o n Area West of Nanaimo S t r e e t 7 S c a r b o r o u g h LRT i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The n o i s e measurements a r e e x p r e s s e d as the energy e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l , a b b r e v i a t e d as ' L e q ' . T h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m e a s u r i n g n o i s e s w h i c h p e r i o d i c a l l y su rge above the b a c k g r o u n d l e v e l s , s i n c e i t a v e r a g e s the n o i s e l e v e l over a s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d . The 24-hour L eq i s . u s e d . I t i s an a c c e p t e d method f o r m e a s u r i n g r a p i d t r a n s i t n o i s e and f o r r e l a t i n g the measured impac t t o the r e s i d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s (CMHC 1981 ) . Da ta i s drawn from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . N o i s e measurements were made by the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r (1983b) and by a c o n s u l t a n t f o r B . C . T r a n s i t ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d i 9 8 3 ) . In 1984, an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y of r e s i d e n t s i n t h e Broadway , N a n a i m o / 2 9 t h Avenue , and J o y c e S t a t i o n A r e a s was c o n d u c t e d by the C i t y o f Vancouve r ( 1 9 8 5 a ) , e n t i t l e d the E a s t V a n c o u v e r Ne ighbourhoods S t u d y . T h i s c o v e r e d a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e A L R T ' s i n f l u e n c e on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e l e v e l s and the c h a r a c t e r o f t he n e i g h b o u r h o o d . F i n a l l y , a s t u d y of measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s was c a r r i e d o u t i n A p r i l 1986 by the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s o f the S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o as the 1986 UBC S t u d y . The 1986 UBC Study measured s i n g l e - e v e n t n o i s e l e v e l s a l o n g s t r e e t s c r o s s i n g the gu ideway between the Broadway and Nanaimo ALRT S t a t i o n s a t 5 0 - f o o t i n t e r v a l s up t o 200 f e e t . There a re 40 o t h e r s i t e s where an a v e r a g e i s t a k e n o f up t o s i x o u t d o o r The a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s was a member o f t h i s s t udy g r o u p . 8 measurements of ALRT pass-by noise. For the purposes of thi s thesis, the ALRT and background noise levels are calculated independently as two 24-hour L eq, and then combined to produce a t o t a l 24-hour L eq. An equation for the relationship of noise and distance for the study area i s established by regression analysis using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-X). For evaluating the noise l e v e l s , zones of high and low impact are defined. The standard which defines the zone of high impact i s the 24-hour L eq of 55 dB or more (CMHC 1981). Where necessary, minor adjustments are made to the 24-hour L eq based on the background noise and the previous community exposure using U.S. EPA (1972) c r i t e r i a . Residents' perceptions from the 1986 UBC Study are compared to the measured 1986 ALRT noise impacts, while perceptions from the East Vancouver Neighbourhoods Study are compared to the projected noise, generalized in terms of a zone of high or low impact. These studies are analyzed separately, since they d i f f e r by the extent of the survey area, the zones of impact, the number of residents surveyed, the variables, and the c r i t e r i a for rating residents' perceptions of noise. In the 1986 UBC Study, residents were asked to l i s t the number of rooms in which ALRT noise could be heard, to state whether i t affected their sleep, to judge the noisiness of the neighbourhood, and to rank the ALRT noise against a l l other sources. The bivariate relationships between these three perceptions of noise and the adjusted 24-hour L eq for each zone of impact are computed using Nonparametric tests and 9 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n . A m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the L e q , a d j u s t i n g f o r the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e , i s p e r f o r m e d u s i n g the P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a r e a n a l y z e d u s i n g the N o n p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s f o r each zone of impac t i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h ones have a common i n f l u e n c e on r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . F o r t h e E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y , the C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e and N o n p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a n t i c i p a t e d change i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e due t o the ALRT and v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p o s t -ALRT change i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r and n o i s e l e v e l s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the a n a l y s i s o f t he 1986 UBC S t u d y . D e t a i l s of a l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r 4 . The c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l p r o v i d e s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g . F i r s t , t h e y a r e a b a s i s upon w h i c h t o a n a l y z e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t e d n o i s e i m p a c t s on f u t u r e r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e s i n the V a n c o u v e r a r e a , and pe rhaps i n o t h e r c i t i e s u s i n g s i m i l a r t e c h n o l o g y . S e c o n d , p l a n n e r s may use the knowledge of measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s t o improve c o n d i t i o n s i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d a f f e c t e d by the A L R T . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e may h e l p a v o i d a s i m i l a r impac t i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a d j a c e n t t o new ALRT l i n e s i f c a r e f u l l y d e v i s e d p l a n s and p o l i c i e s a re i n e f f e c t . F i n a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l show where improvements can be made t o w a r d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and r e s i d e n t s u r v e y s o f ways ide ALRT n o i s e i m p a c t s , and s u g g e s t t o p i c s f o r f u t u r e s t u d y . 1 0 1 . 4 . 1 . A s s u m p t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s N o i s e i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d depends upon the s o u r c e and the t ime of d a y . R a p i d t r a n s i t t r a i n s p a s s i n g a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s p roduce c o n s i s t e n t s u r g e s i n n o i s e l e v e l s , g e n e r a l l y f o r the same l e n g t h of t i m e . T h u s , measurements t a k e n of ALRT p a s s - b y n o i s e l e v e l s d u r i n g the d a y t i m e o p e r a t i n g hou r s a r e assumed t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the whole d a y . The i n d o o r 15-minute L eq i s e x c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s due t o the d i f f e r e n t t ime frames and the l a c k of a r e l i a b l e t e c h n i q u e to s t a n d a r d i z e the n o i s e under v e r y d i v e r s e i n d o o r c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s assumed t h a t an o u t d o o r 24 -hour L eq of 55 dBA or more w i l l p roduce u n a c c e p t a b l e i n d o o r n o i s e l e v e l s i n r e s i d e n c e s not a d e q u a t e l y i n s u l a t e d f o r ALRT n o i s e . In the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f the 1986 UBC S t u d y , t he 24-hour L eq i s based on o u t d o o r n o i s e measurements i n o r d e r t o compare the n o i s e measurements t a k e n a t the r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s t o t h o s e a l o n g c r o s s - s t r e e t s . The a n a l y s i s o f the measured ALRT n o i s e impac t i s l i m i t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o i s e and d i s t a n c e . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such as the h e i g h t of the ALRT gu ideway , t o p o g r a p h y , and the r e f l e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of the g round and b u i l d i n g s t h a t a f f e c t t he 24 -hour L e q . However , t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were no t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The boundary s e p a r a t i n g the zones o f h i g h and low impac t f o r the E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy canno t be d e f i n e d as p r e c i s e l y as i n the 1986 UBC S t u d y . P r o j e c t e d n o i s e measurements made by H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d (1983) were l i m i t e d t o t h r e e s i t e s a d j a c e n t t o the ALRT g u i d e w a y . T h u s , i t 11 i s assumed t h a t the h i g h - i m p a c t zone ex t ends t o a d i s t a n c e from the guideway e q u a l t o t h a t f o r the 1983 p r o j e c t i o n of 55 d B . The g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t o f the zone of h i g h impact i s assumed t o be r e s t r i c t e d where ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s a re exceeded by o t h e r s o u r c e s , such as t r a f f i c . The E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy and the 1986 UBC S t u d y use d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s by w h i c h r e s i d e n t s judge the e x p e c t e d or e x i s t i n g ALRT n o i s e , and d i f f e r e n t c o d i n g i s u s e d . The former c o n t a c t e d more r e s i d e n t s ove r a l a r g e r a r e a , w h i l e the l a t t e r a s k e d more d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n s . A few s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a r e found i n one and not the o t h e r . T h i s i s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 4 . A l t h o u g h the s t u d i e s d i f f e r , i t i s assumed t h a t each a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t s the p e r c e p t i o n s and t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p o r t r a i t i s fo rmed . However , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e by t h e m s e l v e s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n c o m p a r i s o n s . S i n c e the c o d i n g of the E a s t Vancouver Ne ighbourhoods S tudy by the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r s a t t r i b u t e d a r e sponse t o a b l o c k number r a t h e r t han an a d d r e s s , t he s u r v e y s i t e canno t a l w a y s be l o c a t e d p r e c i s e l y . F o r t h i s t h e s i s , i f two or more r e s i d e n c e s a r e s u r v e y e d i n one b l o c k , and p a r t o f t h a t b l o c k i s i n each z o n e , t hen i t i s e x c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s . S i n c e no n o i s e measurements were t a k e n w i t h the E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y , p e r c e p t i o n s canno t be a n a l y z e d as ' c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ' t h e 24 -hour L e q . R a t h e r , t hey a r e a n a l y z e d i n te rms o f the a n t i c i p a t e d zones of i m p a c t . 1 2 1 .5 . C o n t e n t s o f the T h e s i s C h a p t e r 2 a d d r e s s e s " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " as i t p e r t a i n s t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e on e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and n o i s e i n p a r t i c u l a r . A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e s the s t a n d a r d s used t o measure n o i s e and p a s t s t u d i e s o f measured and p e r c e i v e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i m p a c t s . C h a p t e r 3 b r i e f l y examines the deve lopment o f r a p i d t r a n s i t i n V a n c o u v e r , from e a r l y c o n c e p t s t o the f i n a l p l a n t o c o n s t r u c t t he ALRT. T h i s i n c l u d e s the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The a n a l y s i s of d a t a and f i n d i n g s a r e i n C h a p t e r 4 . T h i s p r e s e n t s the p r e l i m i n a r y 1983 n o i s e i m p a c t s and the 1986 ALRT n o i s e and background n o i s e l e v e l s i n the s t u d y a r e a , c o n v e r t e d t o a 24-hour L e q . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t he n o i s e impac t t o the d i s t a n c e from the f a c i l i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s a r e made t o t h e 24 -hour L e q . U s i n g s t a n d a r d s a p p l i c a b l e t o the s t u d y a r e a , t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s d e f i n e zones o f h i g h and low i m p a c t . The number o f r e s i d e n t s l o c a t e d i n the zone of h i g h impact i s e s t i m a t e d . A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the 1986 s u r v e y r e l a t e s the p e r c e p t i o n s t o the measured n o i s e impac t and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . F o r each zone o f i m p a c t , t h e p r e -ALRT o u t l o o k on r a p i d t r a n s i t n o i s e l e v e l s i s a n a l y z e d . The summary of f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e s an a s sessment o f the h y p o t h e s i s . C h a p t e r 5 r e v i e w s the r e l e v a n c e o f measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s of r a p i d t r a n s i t t o p l a n n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . I t summarizes the e f f e c t o f ALRT n o i s e on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r y t o m i t i g a t e n o i s e i m p a c t s i n the s t u d y a r e a , and t o a v o i d such i m p a c t s f o r 13 e x t e n s i o n s o f t he ALRT l i n e o r a new r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e . T h i s c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g measurements and s u r v e y s o f f u t u r e ALRT n o i s e i m p a c t s , and d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 1 4 CHAPTER 2 ; REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n : A s s e s s i n g the Q u a l i t y o f L i f e The g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s synonomous w i t h o t h e r terms such as w e l l - b e i n g , w e l f a r e , and a s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h e a l t h , h a p p i n e s s and p r o s p e r i t y . I t a p p l i e s t o many a s p e c t s o f u rban l i f e , i n c l u d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r a p i d t r a n s i t i n p a r t i c u l a r . The components o f q u a l i t y o f l i f e , a l s o known as s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , f u r t h e r r e f i n e the c o n c e p t o f q u a l i t y o f l i f e . These v a r y , d e p e n d i n g upon the l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s and the i s s u e s . P a l y s (1973) c o n s i d e r s s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s t o be an i n d e x o f the s t a t e of s o c i e t y a n d / o r i t s sub -componen t s , and any changes i n t h i s s t a t e can be r e v i e w e d . The U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e d e f i n e s a s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r a s : " . . . a s t a t i s t i c o f d i r e c t n o r m a t i v e i n t e r e s t w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s c o n c i s e , c o m p r e h e n s i v e and b a l a n c e d judgements about the c o n d i t i o n o f major a s p e c t s o f a s o c i e t y . I t i s . . . s u b j e c t t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t , i f i t changes i n the ' r i g h t ' d i r e c t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r t h i n g s r ema in e q u a l , t h i n g s have g o t t e n b e t t e r , or p e o p l e a r e ' b e t t e r o f f . " ( P a l y s 1973: 5) I t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as a " d i r e c t and v a l i d s t a t i s t i c a l measure w h i c h m o n i t o r s l e v e l s and changes ove r t i m e i n a fundamenta l s o c i a l c o n c e r n " ( O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o -o p e r a t i o n and Development 1976: 1 4 ) . T h i s g roup r e c o g n i z e s t h a t g rowth can improve the q u a l i t y o f l i f e , p r o v i d e d t h a t more a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o such q u a l i t a t i v e measurements a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , p o l i c y t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r complex economic s o c i a l c h o i c e s i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . I t i s n o t e d t h a t i n the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , the a i m i s : 1 5 1. To p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t he deve lopmen t of measures t o f i l l the gaps i n e x i s t i n g knowledge abou t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s ; 2 . To l i n k v a r i o u s measures so as t o p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e no t o n l y o f the r e l e v a n t phenomena, but a l s o o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them; 3 . To r educe i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d t h r o u g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n on r e l e v a n t i n d i c a t o r s and s u p p o r t i n g d a t a . (OECD 1976: 11) I n d i c a t o r s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y , e s p e c i a l l y on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e . C a n t e r e t a l (1985) have compared a g r o u p of e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact s t u d i e s and have p r o v i d e d a c h e c k l i s t f o r m e a s u r i n g the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . Under the domain of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y the i n d i c a t o r s r e l e v a n t t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e ' n o i s e p o l l u t i o n i n d e x ' , and ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y ' . The OECD (1976) l i s t s o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s : a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , p e r s o n a l s a f e t y , and p e r c e p t i o n / s a t i s f a c t i o n . As a s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may p roduce a v a r i e t y of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t he i m p r o v e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y a f f o r d e d by the a u t o m o b i l e opposes " the s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s o f a s a f e , a t t r a c t i v e , u rban e n v i r o n m e n t " (Pendakur and Brown 1969: 4 3 ) . T h i s i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o any o t h e r mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as r a p i d t r a n s i t , b u s e s , and a i r c r a f t . When a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the q u a l i t y o f l i f e , a s s u m p t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s must r emain g e n e r a l . W h i l e q u a l i t y o f l i f e may be c o n s i d e r e d v a g u e , the measurement o f s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s more p r e c i s e . I t j o i n s a s u b j e c t i v e , q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i t h q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements . Q u a l i t y of l i f e c anno t be d e s c r i b e d ' 16 as improved or d i m i n i s h e d w i t h o u t a c l o s e r a n a l y s i s o f the components of each of the s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s . In the c a s e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t y needs r e f e r t o u s e r s , w h i l e a m e n i t y needs r e f e r t o n o n - u s e r s ( C a n t e r e t a l 1985) . Response v a r i e s , d e p e n d i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r o l e as a use r or n o n - u s e r (Pendakur and Brown 1 9 6 9 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , a p e r s o n u s i n g r a p i d t r a n s i t may e n j o y improved t r a v e l t i m e . However , t h a t same p e r s o n may be annoyed by l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the f a c i l i t i e s . Such a pa radox may g e n e r a t e two c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e a c t i o n s from the same p e r s o n . User and n o n - u s e r p e r s p e c t i v e s a t the n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l may be c o n t r a d i c t o r y . However , s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s a r e e a s i e r t o d e f i n e s i n c e one can i d e n t i f y whose v a l u e s a r e b e i n g used a t t h i s s c a l e . V a l u e judgements o f r e s i d e n t s measure the q u a l i t y of l i f e a t the l o c a l l e v e l . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the n a t i o n a l s c a l e , where s p e c i f y i n g components may l e a d t o an e n d l e s s a r r a y of f a c t o r s and s u b - c o m p o n e n t s . 2 . 2 . N e i g h b o u r h o o d P e r c e p t i o n s o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y On the l o c a l s c a l e , t h e r e i s more agreement among r e s i d e n t s on the q u a l i t i e s and p r o b l e m s of t he s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . Such p e r c e p t i o n i s b o t h p e r s o n a l and s h a r e d , and the q u a l i t y of l i f e depends upon i n t e r a c t i o n among r e s i d e n t s and the awareness of e x t e r n a l components ( C i t y of V a n c o u v e r 1980a: 6 2 ) . A n o t h e r s t u d y n o t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e many v a r i a b l e s t h a t shape the p e r c e p t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I t depends on e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the r e s i d e n t ' s image of a t y p i c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t he n e i g h b o u r h o o d of a r e l a t i v e , and p a s t 1 7 e x p e r i e n c e s ( A p p l e y a r d 1981) . One o f t h e t r a i t s of an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y i s t h a t t h e e s t h e t i c v a l u e s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y a r e as i m p o r t a n t as b a s i c n e e d s . In the N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o n e ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s r e f e r s to o p p o r t u n i t y needs and a m e n i t y n e e d s , s i n c e the b a s i c l i f e needs a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s met . However , even when q u a l i t y of l i f e i s na r rowed t o one of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c i f y a l l the components o r i n d i c a t o r s . T h i s i s because s a t i s f a c t i o n d i f f e r s among i n d i v i d u a l s , changes w i t h t i m e , and i s p r i m a r i l y shaped by e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s (Can te r e t a l 1985: 2 3 5 - 2 3 6 ) . T h u s , i n the a n a l y s i s o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , i t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o s p e c i f y the component , s u c h as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . When the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s a f f e c t e d , p e r c e p t i o n s i n the form of c o m p l a i n t s a r e o f t e n the f i r s t i n d i c a t o r of a p r o b l e m . In the ca se of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y had p r i o r i t y o v e r the e n v i r o n m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g s t a g e s . The t y p e of p e r c e p t i o n s and the m u l t i t u d e o f e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i s o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 2 . 1 . In t h i s c a s e , n o i s e i s the p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t . A r e p o r t c o m p a r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s on s t r e e t s s u b j e c t e d t o l i g h t , modera te and heavy t r a f f i c f l o w s ( A p p l e y a r d and L i n t e l l 1972) l i s t e d t h e f a c t o r s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y as t r a f f i c h a z a r d s , s t r e s s , n o i s e and p o l l u t i o n , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , p r i v a c y and home t e r r i t o r y , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a w a r e n e s s . The ' l i g h t * s t r e e t was n o t e d as l i v e l y . R e s i d e n t s made use o f t he s t r e e t , and had a h i g h degree of e n v i r o n m e n t a l awareness and sense of commun i ty . T r a f f i c h a z a r d s were a c o n c e r n f o r a l l 18 COMMUNITY NOISE Indoor Noise Ground Traffic Noise from Aircraft Noise Other Sources INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE Hearing Psychological Speech Physiological NEIGHBOURHOOD RESPONSE GROUP COMMUNITY RESPONSE RESPONSE OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDES -F A C T O R S O T H E R T H A N F i g u r e 2 . 1 : A c t i o n of N o i s e on the Community S o u r c e : Pendakur and P y p l a c z , 1984 1 9 r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y on the ' h e a v y ' s t r e e t . O the r a s p e c t s of t r a f f i c such as n o i s e , v i b r a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n were a n u i s a n c e on the ' h e a v y ' and ' m o d e r a t e ' s t r e e t s . R e s i d e n t s o f the ' l i g h t ' s t r e e t were c o n c e r n e d w i t h g r a d u a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . F a c t o r s not n o t i c e d on the ' h e a v y ' s t r e e t were of c o n c e r n on the ' l i g h t ' s t r e e t . Where a s t r e e t was i n t r a n s i t i o n , the h i g h e s t deg ree of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was measured . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have shown t h a t c o n c e r n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l impac t s i s more p r e v a l e n t among homeowners and l o n g e r - t e r m r e s i d e n t s i n the s t udy a r e a than s h o r t - t e r m r e s i d e n t s (Wachs 1968) . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n c e r n f o r the e n v i r o n m e n t v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h p e r s p e c t i v e the respondent t a k e s . The same p e r s o n r e a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t r o l e s , as a u s e r or an a f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t ( S h a f f e r 1969) . S i n c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can b o t h improve and worsen the q u a l i t y of l i f e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f ocus on a p a r t i c u l a r impac t and mode. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e f i n e the i m p a c t e d a r e a s u c h as a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , as p r o x i m i t y t o a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y e s t a b l i s h e s v a l u e s and o p i n i o n s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l impac t (Wachs 1970 ) . However , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e not a l w a y s r e l i a b l e on t h e i r own. There a r e a v a r i e t y o f h i d d e n f a c t o r s t h a t can i n f l u e n c e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . A p p l e y a r d (1981) s t a t e s t h a t judgement based s o l e l y on a measure of s a t i s f a c t i o n may no t a c c u r a t e l y measure the i m p a c t . I f p e r c e i v e d and measured i m p a c t s a r e c o m b i n e d , the a n a l y s i s may be more d e s c r i p t i v e o f t he c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s assumes t h a t an a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d i s i n p l a c e by w h i c h t o b a l a n c e the judgement . 20 2 . 3 . Impact of N o i s e on the R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t W h i l e t h e r e i s much deba te about w h i c h components c o m p r i s e the q u a l i t y o f l i f e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i m p a c t s a r e c l e a r e r , e s p e c i a l l y a t the l o c a l l e v e l . Many s t u d i e s have been made i s o l a t i n g v a r i o u s non -use r i m p a c t s . Advances i n t e c h n o l o g y and r a p i d economic g rowth i n urban a r e a s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a c o n c e r n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and a wide range of i n d i c a t o r s . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t e n t r i e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s i s t he r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m . 2 . 3 . 1 . Measu red N o i s e Impacts N o i s e may be c o n s i d e r e d an annoyance as w e l l as a h a z a r d t o h e a l t h . In e i t h e r form i t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . The i n t e n s i t y , f r e q u e n c y , and t ime i n f l u e n c e human r e a c t i o n s ( G o l d s t e i n 1979) , w h i c h i n c l u d e p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and economic e f f e c t s (Pendakur and P y p l a c z 1 9 8 4 ) . Much work has been done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the n o i s e s o u r c e and r e c e i v e r , r e s u l t i n g i n s t a n d a r d s s e t by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . S t a n d a r d s a r e based on g u i d e s and c r i t e r i a t h a t r e l a t e measurements t o the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . Economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s a l s o p l a y a r o l e . N o i s e i s measured i n u n i t s o f d e c i b e l s ( d B ) . The d e c i b e l s c a l e i s l o g a r i t h m i c ; an i n c r e a s e o f 10 dB r e p r e s e n t s a d o u b l i n g of l o u d n e s s (Towers 1980) . S e v e r a l s c a l e s have been d e v i s e d w h i c h " f i l t e r , o r w e i g h t , measured sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s a c r o s s f r e q u e n c i e s i n a manner a n a l o g o u s t o the s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e a r " ( G o l d s t e i n 1979: 4 5 ) . The most common s c a l e f o r m e a s u r i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n o i s e i s the A -w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l , L ( A ) , e x p r e s s e d as dB(A) when measured i n 21 the d e c i b e l u n i t . The dB(A) u n i t i s t he most p r a c t i c a l u n i t t o measure the h a r m f u l r e s u l t s o f many forms of n o i s e and the s u b j e c t i v e human r e s p o n s e ( G o l d s t e i n 1979; Towers 1980) , i n c l u d i n g e l e v a t e d r a i l n o i s e ( W i t t i g 1983 ) . R a p i d t r a n s i t p r o d u c e s i n t e r m i t t e n t n o i s e l e v e l s t h a t i n t r u d e i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o r a i l w a y s . The most p r a c t i c a l way t o measure such f l u c t u a t i o n s i s t o a v e r a g e the e n e r g y . A common measurement i s 1 L e q ' , the e q u i v a l e n t sound l e v e l w h i c h measures the d u r a t i o n and magni tude o v e r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d ( G o l d s t e i n 1979 ) . R e l a t i v e t o L ( A ) , the L eq depends on the number o f t r a i n s per hour and the l e n g t h o f each t r a i n ( F i g u r e 2 . 2 ) . The 24-hour L eq i s " the c o n t i n u o u s A - w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l t h a t i s e q u i v a l e n t , i n te rms of n o i s e ene rgy c o n t e n t , t o the a c t u a l f l u c t u a t i n g n o i s e e x i s t i n g a t the l o c a t i o n o v e r the o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . " ( S c h u l t z 1982: 98-99) The f o r m u l a t i o n i s : L eq = 10 l o g ( 1 / T ) So 1 0 ^ 1 0 d t where T = p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n L = A - w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l a t each i n s t a n t a n e o u s p o i n t i n t ime ( G o l d s t e i n 1979: 57) I t i s the b e s t measurement f o r t r a i n n o i s e and i t i s the most a c c u r a t e i n p r e d i c t i n g community r e s p o n s e t o such n o i s e ( F i e l d s and W a l k e r 1978; G o l d s t e i n 1979; CMHC 1981 ) . A v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e r a i l t r a n s i t n o i s e l e v e l s . Towers (1980 : 7) n o t e s t h a t "Ways ide n o i s e l e v e l s near e l e v a t e d t r a n s i t s t r u c t u r e s a r e a f u n c t i o n of t r a i n speed , t r a i n l e n g t h , d i s t a n c e from the t r a c k , s h i e l d i n g , a i r and g round a t t e n u a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e t y p e , and v e h i c l e and t r a c k c o n d i t i o n . " F i g u r e 2 . 2 : A P r e d i c t e d R e l a t i o n s h i p Between L ( A ) , L e q , and the P roduc t n l (Where n i s the number of t r a i n s per hour ove r a 24-hour p e r i o d , and 1 i s the l e n g t h of each i n m e t r e s ) Source : May, 1976 23 R a i l n o i s e v a r i e s w i t h the s o u r c e of power and the t e c h n o l o g y s p e c i f i c t o each s i t e . F o r e l e c t r i c t r a i n s , i n c l u d i n g LRT, the p redominan t s o u r c e i s t he c o n t a c t between the r a i l and s t e e l whee l s (May 1976; Hanson 1985 ) . T h i s a p p l i e s t o m i d - r a n g e speeds of up t o 80 kmh (Towers 1980 ) . The motor p l a y s a s e c o n d a r y r o l e . I f t he whee l i s not p e r f e c t l y c i r c u l a r o r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the r a i l s u r f a c e , n o i s e w i l l be i n t e n s i f i e d . A h i g h - p i t c h e d s q u e a l i s p r o d u c e d by w h e e l s s l i d i n g on the r a i l , e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g sha rp c u r v e s i n the t r a c k (Towers 1980) . I t i s t he most s i g n i f i c a n t on LRT sys tems (Hanson 1985) and i s o f t e n the r e s u l t o f d e s i g n c o n s t r a i n t s i n u rban a r e a s . N o i s e r a d i a t e d from e l e v a t e d r a i l t r a n s i t s t r u c t u r e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s may exceed g r o u n d - r a d i a t e d n o i s e by as much as 20 d B ( A ) f o r the same t y p e o f s y s t e m , d e p e n d i n g on the t y p e o f m a t e r i a l s and the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e (Towers 1 9 8 0 ) . N o i s e i s p l a c e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l and r a d i a t e s v i b r a t i o n s (Hanson 1985) ; an example i s t h e p a s s - b y n o i s e l e v e l t a k e n 15 m e t r e s from an 8 - ca r t r a i n t r a v e l l i n g a t 80kmh: A t - g r a d e : 82 dB(A) A e r i a l : 86 dB(A) The C a l g a r y and Edmonton LRT s y s t e m s , b o t h a t - g r a d e , p r o v i d e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s a t the same speed and d i s t a n c e from the t r a c k (Hanson 1 9 8 5 ) : 2 - c a r t r a i n s : 81 dB(A) 4 - c a r t r a i n s : 82 dB(A) N o i s e v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h d i s t a n c e , d e c l i n i n g i n a l o g a r i t h m i c manner moving away from the s o u r c e (Walke r 1977; Towers 1980 ) . The r a t e o f d e c l i n e changes a t d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e 24 p o i n t s ( F i g u r e 2 . 3 ) . In t h e f i r s t and t h i r d segments o f d i s t a n c e , r a p i d t r a n s i t n o i s e d e c r e a s e s a t a r a t e o f 6 dB per d o u b l i n g of d i s t a n c e , and the n o i s e r e p r e s e n t s a s i n g l e p o i n t s o u r c e (Towers 1980 ) . The m i d d l e segment i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y g r e a t e r than t w o - t h i r d s o f t he w h e e l - t r u c k s p a c i n g (21/n) and l e s s than t w o - t h i r d s o f t he t r a i n l e n g t h (2b/it) , and n o i s e d e c r e a s e s a t a r a t e o f 3 dB p e r d o u b l i n g of d i s t a n c e . N o i s e i n the m i d d l e segment i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i d e a l l i n e s o u r c e (Towers 1980: 8 ) . I t i s i n t h i s m i d d l e segment where n o i s e can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a t more t han one p o i n t , thus the d i p o l e d e s c r i p t i o n . 2 . 3 . 2 . P e r c e i v e d N o i s e Impac t s A complex se t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s make up r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n impact i n the u rban e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c l u d i n g n o i s e . D e s p i t e t h i s , t hey r ema in i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n e r s t o c o n s i d e r . A p p l e y a r d (1981 : 32) s t a t e s t h a t "When the r e s i d e n t s e n c o u n t e r the s t r e e t e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e y p e r c e i v e i n t r u s i o n s or b e n e f i t s and t h e i r consequent b e h a v i o r i s d i s r u p t e d or enhanced . T h e i r r e s u l t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n or annoyance i s pe rhaps the most c r u c i a l o f a l l the impac t m e a s u r e s . " S t a n d a r d s w h i c h s p e c i f y u n a c c e p t a b l e n o i s e l e v e l s a r e o b t a i n e d from s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and community r e s p o n s e . S i n c e r e a c t i o n s t o n o i s e v a r y g r e a t l y among i n d i v i d u a l s under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s and s o u r c e s , an ave rage or norm i s used (CMHC 1981 ) . One measurement has been t e rmed the " r e a s o n a b l e p e r s o n ' s " c r i t e r i o n , w h i c h assumes t h a t p e o p l e w i l l adapt t o n o i s e by 25 > d - DISTANCE FROM LINE SOURCE b - DISTANCE BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL SOURCES I - LENGTH OF LINE SOURCE F i g u r e 2 . 3 : Sound P r e s s u r e L e v e l A t t e n u a t i o n w i t h D i s t a n c e f o r a F i n i t e S t r a i g h t - L i n e Source C o n s i s t i n g o f a Row of I n d i v i d u a l D i r e c t i o n a l ( D i p o l e ) S o u r c e s S o u r c e : T o w e r s , 1980 26 a d j u s t i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t y up t o the p o i n t where i t i s i n c o n v e n i e n t t o do so (May 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s i s based on i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h ou tdoo r s p e e c h , w h i c h a t a d i s t a n c e of 2 me t re s between speake r and r e c e i v e r o c c u r s a t 60 d B ( A ) . CMHC (1981) s p e c i f i e s a s l i g h t l y l o w e r L eq of 55 dB(A) f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ( F i g u r e 2 . 4 ) . More s e r i o u s r e s u l t s o c c u r a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . Lamber t e t a l (1984) have s p e c i f i e d t h a t "A d a y t i m e L eq v a l u e of more than 65 dB(A) g i v e s r i s e t o what can be r e g a r d e d as f o r c e d b e h a v i o r a l r e sponses t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the no rma l way of l i f e o f the p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d , and such r e s p o n s e s g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the magni tude o f t he s o c i a l c o s t s t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s o f t r a f f i c n o i s e . " An L eq above 70 dB(A) o u t d o o r s i s c o n s i d e r e d a h a z a r d t o h e a r i n g (May 1976 ) . W i t t i g (1983) s t a t e s t h a t n o i s e a t n i g h t i s more s i g n i f i c a n t and a n n o y i n g because the b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e i s l o w e r , and no te s t h a t any measurements must have a w e i g h t i n g f a c t o r o f 10 d B . Depend ing on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t each s i t e , o t h e r c o r r e c t i o n s may be made. The U . S . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) u s i n g the d a y - n i g h t a v e r a g e sound l e v e l , L d n , has s e t c r i t e r i a (1972) t o n o r m a l i z e the n o i s e ( F i g u r e 2 . 5 ) . F o r e l e c t r i c r a i l c a r s , c o r r e c t i o n s a r e not n e c e s s a r y f o r t o n a l o r i m p u l s e measurements from w h e e l - r a i l n o i s e , nor a r e s e a s o n a l c o r r e c t i o n s needed i f the sys t em o p e r a t e s r e g u l a r l y t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r (May 1 9 7 6 ) . W h i l e t he L dn and L eq measurements d i f f e r s l i g h t l y , t h e r e i s o n l y a d i f f e r e n c e of 3 dB(A) i f a r a p i d t r a n s i t sys tem does not run between 0100 h and 0600 h , and a t h a l f f r e q u e n c y between 0600 h and 0700 h , and m i d n i g h t and 0100 h (May 1976) . 27 Sound Source Noise Level Apparent Loudness Typical Reaction CMHC Requirements Military |et Jet takeoff at SOm Jet takeoff at 500 m Freight tram at 15m Heavy truck at 15 m Busy city street Highway traffic at 15 m Light car traffic at 15 m Noisy office Public library Soft whisper at 5 m Threshold of hearing dB 135 — i 130 120 110 100 95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 10 0 Sixty-four times as loud Thirty-two times as loud Sixteen limes as loud Eight times as loud Four times as loud Twice as loud Base reference Half as loud Quarter as loud Eighth as loud Sixteenth as loud Sixty-lourth as loud — Painfully loud Limit amplified speech I Categories Maximum vocal effort Unacceptable Very annoying -Hearing damage (8 hours) Annoying Telephone use difficult •75 Intrusive Speech inter-ference L - 4 - -Unacceptable without ade-quate sound insulation Normally acceptable Ouiet Very quiet Jusl audible Acceptable dB ! Maximum | Acceptable Levels Outdoor Recreation 4 5 (kitchens (Bathrooms (Living/ ling 35 +Bedrooms I r -40TlD,n,, NOTE. The minimum difference in noise level noticeable to the human listener is 3 dBA 10 dB increase in level appears to double the loudness, while a 10 dB decrease halves the apparent loudness. F i g u r e 2 . 4 : Common N o i s e L e v e l s and T y p i c a l R e a c t i o n s S o u r c e : CMHC, 1981 28 Amount of Correction to be Added Type of to Measured Correction Description L d n in dB(A) Seasonal Summer (or year-round operation) 0 Correction Winter only (or windows always closed) -5 Correction Quiet suburban or rural community (remote from large for outdoor cities and from industrial activity and trucking) + 10 noise level Normal suburban community (not located near in-measured in dustrial activity) +5 absence of Urban residential community (not immediately intruding adjacent to heavily traveled roads and industrial areas) 0 noise Noisy urban residential community (near relatively busy roads or industrial areas) -5 Very noisy urban residential community -10 Correction No prior experience with the intruding noise +5 for previous Community has had some previous exposure to in-exposure and truding noise but little effort is being made to con-community trol the noise. This correction may also be applied attitudes in a situation where the community has not been exposed to the noise previously, but the people are aware that bona Tide efforts are being made to control the noise. 0 Community has had considerable previous exposure to the intruding noise and the noise maker's relations with the community are good. -5 Community aware that operation causing noise is very necessary and it will not continue indefinitely. This correction can be applied for an operation of limited duration and under emergency circumstances. -10 Pure tone No pure tone or impulsive character 0 or impulse Pure tone or impulsive character present +5 F i g u r e 2 . 5 : C o r r e c t i o n s t o the Measured Community N o i s e E q u i v a l e n t L e v e l t o O b t a i n N o r m a l i z e d CNEL S o u r c e : U . S . E P A , 1972 29 An e a r l y s t u d y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a i r c r a f t n o i s e t o community r e a c t i o n i n c l u d e d 7 v a r i a b l e s ( U . S . EPA 1 9 7 2 ) : t he magni tude of n o i s e w i t h a f r equency w e i g h t i n g f o r human r e s p o n s e , the d u r a t i o n of the i n t r u d i n g n o i s e (10 l o g r e l a t i v e d u r a t i o n ) , the t ime of y e a r , t he t ime of day n o i s e o c c u r s , t he o u t d o o r n o i s e l e v e l i n the community when the i n t r u d i n g n o i s e i s not p r e s e n t , the h i s t o r y of p r i o r exposure t o the n o i s e s o u r c e and a t t i t u d e t oward i t s owner , and the e x i s t e n c e of a pu re tone or i m p u l s i v e c h a r a c t e r i n the n o i s e . V o o r h e e s (1979) and S c h u l t z (1982) c o n s i d e r the human r e s p o n s e t o be r e l a t e d t o the n o i s e magni tude as a f u n c t i o n of f r e q u e n c y and t i m e . G o l d s t e i n (1979) adds o t h e r f a c t o r s t o the v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e , such as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , t he a c t i v i t y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and e m o t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r n o i s e s , and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f t he i n d i v i d u a l . W e i n s t e i n (1980) s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s p o n s e s depend on o n e ' s t e n d e n c y t o v o i c e a c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n , the r e s u l t o f one o r more o f f o u r r e a s o n s : g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o n e ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r r e g a r d l e s s o f the a s p e c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y ; t h o s e who a r e h a b i t u a l l y c r i t i c a l , e a s i l y d i s t u r b e d o r have g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y ; the w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p r e s s c r i t i c i s m ; a n d , the t ime o f day o r the amount o f t ime spen t a t home. Such d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o measure a c c u r a t e l y . The re a r e a v a r i e t y o f ways t o r a t e annoyance t o n o i s e . A v e r b a l annoyance s c a l e t e l l s i f a r e sponden t i s not a t a l l a n n o y e d , m o d e r a t e l y , o r v e r y much annoyed . Annoyance may a l s o be c o n v e r t e d t o numbers , known as a s eman t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e , 30 r a n g i n g from c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e t o c o m p l e t e l y u n a c c e p t a b l e . V a r i o u s s t u d i e s ( J o h n s t o n and C a r o t h e r s 1973; Langdon 1976; Voorhees 1979) found t h a t i n c r e a s e d n o i s e l e v e l s r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d annoyance . The annoyance was measured as e i t h e r a b s o l u t e numbers annoyed t o any d e g r e e , o r as an i n c r e a s e i n the p e r c e n t a g e of " h i g h l y annoyed" r e s i d e n t s . However , F i e l d s and Walke r (1978) no te t h a t t h e r e i s no one r e l a t i o n s h i p between annoyance and the n o i s e , as each s t u d y may d e f i n e n o i s e d i f f e r e n t l y and p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o the responden t ( F i g u r e 2 . 6 ) . F i e l d s and W a l k e r (1980) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f annoyance r e l a t e d t o t h e d i s t a n c e from the r a i l w a y . In t h e i r s t udy of p e r c e p t i o n s o f a f r e e w a y , Lawson and W a l t e r s (1974) found t h a t annoyance was h i g h l y dependent upon d i s t a n c e from the s o u r c e . They n o t e d t h a t t he f a c t o r s o f t i m e spent i n the house , s e x , age , t y p e of employment , d w e l l i n g t y p e and h o u s e h o l d s i z e were not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the r a t e o f c o m p l a i n t s and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were g r o u p s of c o m p l a i n e r s and n o n - c o m p l a i n e r s , p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t han t o the s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h r a i l and r o a d n o i s e s d i f f e r , some c o m p a r i s o n s may be made. K n a l l and Schuemer (1983) compared annoyance l e v e l s between r a i l and r o a d n o i s e . . They found t h a t a s i m i l a r l e v e l o f annoyance was r e a c h e d when when r a i l n o i s e was 4-5 dB above the r o a d n o i s e . W i t t i g ( 1 9 8 3 ) , u s i n g the L dn measurement , n o t e d t h a t a t e q u i v a l e n t n o i s e l e v e l s the annoyance from e l e v a t e d t r a i n s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o d u c e d by o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . 31 lOO-i O———a Nona ii las* than •definitely satisfactory' (Q.llbl a a Trains 'bofhsr or annoy' .'at least a little* (Q. 17bl o o Trains 'bother, disturb or annoy at all" [Q.101 O -o Interferes with conversation (0.18b Ivll Listening to T V drsturbed if window open (Q 191 g.h I o--—-o Talking in garden disturbed IQ 211 » « Trains 'very much bother or annoy' IQ. 17b' o> o The'worst imaginable amount of railway noise*{ Number of cmerviowa Number of noise moeaurement sites 91 23 Noise level in 24 hour Leq dB(A) 57 143 233 186 188 213 174 38 S3 52 69 46 26 60 16 F i g u r e 2 . 6 : P e r c e n t a g e of Responden ts D i s t u r b e d by R a i l w a y N o i s e on E i g h t Q u e s t i o n s S o u r c e : F i e l d s and W a l k e r , 1978 32 H a l l and T a y l o r (1982) s t u d i e d the r e l i a b i l i t y o f annoyance c a t e g o r i e s and the s t a b i l i t y of a t t i t u d e s ove r t i m e . R e - t e s t s showed t h a t f o r r o a d n o i s e , the i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s v a r i e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l o w e r n o i s e l e v e l . The a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s o f the community were more c o n s i s t e n t . G r i f f i t h s and D e l a u z u n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , i n a s t u d y o f t r a f f i c n o i s e , found t h a t t he d i s t r i b u t i o n of annoyance was f a i r l y normal and t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y was not o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n s t e a d , v a r i a t i o n of r e s p o n s e s was a random f a c t o r . A v e r a g i n g the annoyance s c o r e s ove r s e v e r a l t e s t s p r o v i d e d a more a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n of the t r u e e f f e c t ( G r i f f i t h s e t a l 1980) . A t l o w e r l e v e l s o f n o i s e , r e l a t i n g measurements t o communi ty r e a c t i o n s i s l e s s p r e c i s e . S c h u l t z (1982) has commented t h a t be low 65 d B ( A ) , due t o v a r y i n g r e a c t i o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t annoyance or a c t i v i t y i n t e r f e r e n c e . " I n s t e a d i t appea r s t h a t the degree t o w h i c h low l e v e l o r i n f r e q u e n t h i g h l e v e l n o i s e s annoy -people may be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the degree t o w h i c h t hey i n t r u d e upon awarenes s . The te rm ' i n t r u s i v e n e s s ' has thus g a i n e d c u r r e n c y as a s u r r o g a t e f o r the annoyance p roduced by low l e v e l n o i s e e x p o s u r e . " ( S c h u l t z 1982: 270) The U . S . EPA (1972) matched n o i s e l e v e l s i n an u rban r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o the type of community r e a c t i o n ( F i g u r e 2 . 7 ) . The re i s a sha rp i n c r e a s e i n the range of 55 dB t o 75 d B . J o h n s t o n and C a r o t h e r s (1973) have a l s o shown an i n c r e a s e i n annoyance as the urban t r a f f i c n o i s e r i s e s above 60 d B . Voorhees (1979) c o n s i d e r s the average community r e a c t i o n t o be n e g l i g i b l e between 55 dB and 61 dB , w i t h l e s s t han 20% h i g h l y a n n o y e d . Then up t o 72 dB , c o m p l a i n t s and t h r e a t s o f l e g a l a c t i o n r e s u l t , w i t h up t o 45% h i g h l y annoyed ( F i g u r e 2 . 8 ) . 33 COMMUNITY REACTION VIGOROUS ACTION S E V E R A L T H R E A T S OF L E G A L ACTION OR STRONG APPEALS TO L O C A L OFFICIALS TO STOP NOISE WIDESPREAD COMPLAINTS OR SINGLE T H R E A T OF L E G A L ACTION SPORADIC COMPLAINTS NO REACTION A L T H O U G H NOISE IS G E N E R A L L Y NOTICEABLE -i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r • • • ••• 40 50 60 70 80 90 NORMALIZED OUTDOOR DAY/NIGHT SOUND L E V E L OF INTRUDING NOISE, La„, dB(A| F i g u r e 2 . 7 : Community R e a c t i o n t o I n t r u s i v e N o i s e s o f Many Types as a F u n c t i o n of the N o r m a l i z e d Community N o i s e E q u i v a l e n t L e v e l S o u r c e : U . S . EPA, 1972 34 F i g u r e 2 . 8 : Response t o Community N o i s e L e v e l s : P e r c e n t a g e of C o m p l a i n t s and P e r c e n t a g e H i g h l y Annoyed S o u r c e : Voorhees and A s s o c i a t e s , 1979 35 W h i l e t h e r e i s s i m i l a r i t y i n the range of a n n o y a n c e , t h e r e i s some v a r i a t i o n i n the s e n s i t i v i t y l e v e l s . V a l l e t e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , i n t h e i r s t u d y of u rban e x p r e s s w a y s , found t h a t h a b i t u a t i o n t o n o i s e o n l y o c c u r r e d a t l e s s than 60 d B . A t h i g h e r l e v e l s , annoyance e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d o r remained c o n s t a n t . Road n o i s e became more s i g n i f i c a n t as a s i n g l e sou rce a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . Owners were more h i g h l y annoyed t han t e n a n t s , and r o a d u s e r s r e g i s t e r e d h i g h annoyance s c o r e s . E x c e s s i v e n o i s e from c e r t a i n s o u r c e s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i s shown t o d i m i n i s h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , howeve r , t h a t some s o u r c e s a r e not b o t h e r s o m e , and can even be p l e a s i n g , such as a fogho rn or c h u r c h b e l l s . The U . S . A n n u a l H o u s i n g S u r v e y of 1973 showed t h a t the g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n o f r e s i d e n t s was s t r e e t n o i s e ( A p p l e y a r d 1981) . In a San F r a n c i s c o s t u d y , A p p l e y a r d ( 1 9 8 1 : 41) g rouped the s u r v e y e d s t r e e t s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : L i g h t ( 0 - 2 000 v e h i c l e s / d a y ) Medium (2 000 - 10 000 v e h i c l e s / d a y ) Heavy (10 000 - 20 000 v e h i c l e s / d a y ) V e r y Heavy (> 20 000 v e h i c l e s / d a y ) R e s i d e n t s were q u e r i e d on the image of t h e i r s t r e e t . F o r the L i g h t s t r e e t , 39% gave the q u a l i t y o f " q u i e t , not b u s y " . On the Medium, Heavy and V e r y Heavy s t r e e t s " e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c " was l i s t e d by 31%, 51% and 52% r e s p e c t i v e l y . As a s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , peace and q u i e t was r a t e d ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' by ove r 70% ( F i g u r e 2 . 9 ) . In t e rms of annoyance , t r a f f i c was the s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m e x c e p t on L i g h t s t r e e t s . T r a f f i c n o i s e was l i s t e d as the t h i r d most common a n n o y a n c e , w i t h 61% c o m p l a i n i n g ( F i g u r e 2 . 1 0 ) . A p p l e y a r d ( 1 9 8 1 : 62) n o t e d the s e n s i t i v i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s : " P e r c e p t i o n s o f s t r e e t n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n 36 Percentage saying "very important" 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Safe from crime Clean, unlittered Neighbors upkeep Attractive appearance Greenery Good weather Pleasant view Front Yard, garden Distinct area Near public transport Walking conditions Close to shops Close to parks Easy for car Close to work Convenient to downtown Level ground Air pollution Peace and quiet Safe from traffic Backyard Privacy Sociable, friendly Good for children Interesting people Prestige Same ethnic group Cost of housing = CRIME VAVo°AVo' APPEARANCE I CONVENIENCE TRAFFIC NEIGHBORS/ CHILDREN • • « ".*/. COST F i g u r e 2 . 9 : Impor tance of S t r e e t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S o u r c e : A p p l e y a r d , 1981 37 Percentage "very much/somewhat annoyed' 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Danger lor children Careless drivers Traffic noise, vibration Air pollution Danger at crossings Trucks Motorcycles Danger lor backing cars Buses Danger of being hit Traffic accidents Parking space Cars blocking driveways Waiting too long I TRAFFIC Streets too wide Streets too narrow Narrow sidewalks Slippery streets Trash and dirt Abandoned cars Overhead wires Auto repairs Trees Burglaries Vandalism Car theft Muggings Street lighting Hassle from strangers Sales people Intrusive children Noisy neighbors Bothersome neighbors Neighbors music SSi INCONVENIENCE mm , APPEARANCE = ; CRIME i NEIGHBORS F i g u r e 2 . 1 0 : Annoyance W i t h S t r e e t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S o u r c e : A p p l e y a r d , 1981 38 c o r r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y w i t h t r a f f i c volume ( r = . 4 6 ) , but even on L i g h t s t r e e t s , 21 p e r c e n t of our r e s p o n d e n t s t hough t t h e i r s t r e e t s n o i s i e r t han s u r r o u n d i n g s t r e e t s . " T a b l e 2.1 l i s t s the a d a p t a t i o n s made by r e s i d e n t s c o n f r o n t e d by t r a f f i c a n d / o r n o i s e . F i e l d s (1984 : 447) found t h a t " r e a c t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e l o g a r i t h m of e v e n t s " , a l t h o u g h some s t u d i e s showed t h a t annoyance d e c r e a s e s a f t e r 150 e v e n t s per d a y . F a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l and community r e s p o n s e were found t o v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between s t u d i e s . The communi ty r e sponse depends on d i s t a n c e from the n o i s e s o u r c e . There i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e s where the measured L eq i s anywhere above 60 d B ( A ) . The p o i n t a t w h i c h the n o i s e l e v e l i s u n a c c e p t a b l e i s a " v a l u e d e c i s i o n r a t h e r t h a n a s c i e n t i f i c one" ( F i e l d s and Walke r 1978 ) . In the l o w e r impac t z o n e , community r e sponse i s l e s s c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e the n o i s e l e v e l i s under 60 d B ( A ) . The s t a n d a r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t l e v e l s between 55 and 60 dB(A) a r e not a c c e p t a b l e , and y e t i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t o r summarize , a c c u r a t e l y . R e a c t i o n s among i n d i v i d u a l s may be h a r s h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f LRT o p e r a t i o n s w i t h exposure t o w a y s i d e n o i s e l e v e l s r i s i n g n o t i c e a b l y above the p r e - o p e r a t i o n s l e v e l s . A p p l e y a r d and C a r p (1973) e x p e c t e d the r e a c t i o n s t o s t a b i l i z e o v e r t ime i n t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n o f r a p i d t r a n s i t i m p a c t s . However , t h i s does no t mean t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a d j u s t t o the n o i s e i m p a c t s , and change t h e i r n e g a t i v e o u t l o o k . R e a c t i o n s may s t a b i l i z e as r e s i d e n t s c o m p l a i n l e s s and t r y t o i g n o r e the a n n o y i n g a s p e c t s . S i n c e h a b i t u a t i o n t o n o i s e i s not e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r i n a zone o f T a b l e 2 . 1 : A d a p t a t i o n s . "Which do you do because of t r a f f i c a n d / o r n o i s e ? " Total Responses Light Responses by Street Type Medium Heavy Very Heavy Keep windows shut . 42% 17% 42% 49% 59% Live more in back of house 29 13 36 39 29 Forbid children to play on street 23 16 14 28 34 Tell children not to cross certain streets 22 17 10 28 34 Go out on street less often 19 5 17 26 26 Add heavy curtains, drapes 12 3 12 18 15 Accompany children to school 10 8 ' 5 14 13 Fenced or walled-in yard 8 6 7 11 9 Planted trees or shrubs 6 3 6 11 4 Other 4 2 2 13 1 Nothing 41 58 58 25 22 N = 428 100 100 140 68 S o u r c e : A p p l e y a r d (1981) 40 h i g h i m p a c t , a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y on the p a r t o f p l a n n e r s . T h i s m a t t e r i s e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r 5 . 2 . 4 . R a p i d T r a n s i t S t u d i e s Two r a p i d t r a n s i t sys t ems a r e examined as a backg round t o t h i s t h e s i s . The Bay A r e a R a p i d T r a n s i t (BART) sys tem has s e r v e d San F r a n c i s c o and i t s suburbs s i n c e the e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s . I t was the f i r s t f u l l y au tomated r a p i d t r a n s i t sys tem i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . L i k e V a n c o u v e r ' s A L R T , segments of i t run a l o n g an e l e v a t e d guideway t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The S c a r b o r o u g h LRT runs a l o n g a r a i l r i g h t - o f - w a y from the Kennedy Subway S t a t i o n t o S c a r b o r o u g h Town C e n t r e i n n o r t h - e a s t M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . 2 . 4 . 1 . The BART E x p e r i e n c e A v a r i e t y o f impac t s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o BART. A p r e - o p e r a t i o n s s t u d y by A p p l e y a r d and C a r p (1973 : 12) e x p e c t e d the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a round s t a t i o n s and a l o n g the l i n e s t o be a f f e c t e d , w i t h a d i m i n i s h i n g " g r a d i e n t of e f f e c t " moving t o the l i m i t o f t he impac t z o n e . The s tudy a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s due t o e x t e r n a l components and the c o m p o s i t i o n of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . G r a f f and K n i g h t (1978) summar ized the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s and p e r c e p t i o n s . A g e n e r a l f i n d i n g was t h a t the two most a d v e r s e l o c a l e f f e c t s were t r a i n n o i s e a l o n g the e l e v a t e d p o r t i o n s of t he l i n e and a l a c k of p a r k i n g a r o u n d most o f t h e s t a t i o n s . The n o i s e impac t from t r a i n s was l i m i t e d t o t hose l i v i n g w i t h i n a b l o c k of t he l i n e . N o i s e from BART t r a i n s exceeded ambien t n o i s e l e v e l s by 5 t o 12 dB a l o n g 10% o f the l i n e . A t 41 n i g h t , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e rose t o as much as 17 d B . F o r s u r v e y s i t e s a l o n g a e r i a l s e c t i o n s , 55-85% of r e s i d e n t s a d j a c e n t t o the l i n e r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s , d e p e n d i n g on the s t a t i o n a r e a . 51-71% r e p o r t e d the same f o r a l l s u r v e y s i t e s e x c e p t O a k l a n d . Those w i t h back y a r d s f a c i n g the l i n e c o m p l a i n e d more . A f t e r a d i s t a n c e o f two b l o c k s , few r e p o r t e d a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . O v e r a l l , v e r y few made c o m p l a i n t s ; change i n b e h a v i o u r was the most common r e s u l t . The a u t h o r s no te t h a t i m p a c t s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a p p e a r e d t o be s m a l l o v e r a l l , s i n c e 85% of the BART l i n e runs a l o n g s i d e e x p r e s s w a y s , r a i l r o a d s and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . The f a c t o r s w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t n o i s e i m p a c t s were the h i g h speeds of the t r a i n s , narrow r i g h t - o f - w a y s , the a e r i a l l i n e and p o r t i o n s o f the t r a c k p a s s i n g t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . S i n g l e - f a m i l y houses a d j a c e n t t o e l e v a t e d p a r t s o f the l i n e were the most a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the w a y s i d e n o i s e from BART. 2 . 4 . 2 . S c a r b o r o u g h LRT The s t u d y of the p r o p o s e d S c a r b o r o u g h L i g h t R a p i d T r a n s i t l i n e ( M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g Depar tment 1975) p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e of r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i n the p r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n p h a s e . The s t u d y a r e a was d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h and l o w - i m p a c t zones (Map 2 . 1 ) . R e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e d one o f the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of any LRT s y s t e m t o be n o i s e ; t h i s was the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the h i g h -impac t z o n e . A s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e was r e v e a l e d when t h e y were a s k e d abou t the S c a r b o r o u g h LRT s y s t e m . A d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the s y s t e m , combined w i t h a need f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i m p a c t s . Fo r e x a m p l e , 69% of the 4 2 k i l o m e t r e s Map 2.1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Household Survey Areas, Scarborough LRT P r o j e c t Source: M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Department, 1975 43 r e s i d e n t s a s k e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a b r o c h u r e , w h i l e e l a b o r a t i o n on LRT n o i s e l e v e l s was r e q u e s t e d by 20%. In t h e h i g h - i m p a c t z o n e , t he d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n t i c i p a t e d by r e s i d e n t s were n o i s e d i s t u r b a n c e (16%) and i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c i n the a r e a (7%). In the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e , 4% f e l t t r a f f i c wou ld i n c r e a s e , w h i l e t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n o f n o i s e c o n c e r n s . T r a f f i c appea r s t o have been a more d i s p e r s e d p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t . A n o t h e r i s s u e was a new LRT s t a t i o n i n the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . The o v e r a l l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s f a c i l i t y c o n c e r n e d s a f e t y h a z a r d s f o r c h i l d r e n (15%), t r a f f i c and p a r k e d c a r s of LRT u s e r s (5%), and s t a t i o n n o i s e (4%). Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d about the sense of communi ty . Two q u a l i t i e s , s t r e e t s a f e t y and f r i e n d l y p e o p l e , r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t r a t i n g i n such q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e q u i e t c h a r a c t e r was n o t e d by 72% and 71% i n the h i g h and l o w -impac t z o n e s . However , o n l y 44% and 43% f e l t t h a t the q u a l i t y of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d was i m p r o v i n g i n the two zones r e s p e c t i v e l y . Compar ing t h e i r a r e a t o a n o t h e r p a r t o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , 8% f e l t t h a t t r a f f i c n o i s e was a n n o y i n g , w h i l e 7% n o t e d t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n . In the l o w - i m p a c t a r e a , 9% f e l t t r a f f i c n o i s e was a n n o y i n g . Apar tmen t d w e l l e r s r a t e d the a r e a l ower than homeowners. Those near the p r o p o s e d LRT r a t e d t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d h i g h l y . 44 2 . 5 . Summary T h i s r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e has c o v e r e d a v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s o f r a p i d t r a n s i t and o t h e r n o i s e i m p a c t s . Many v a r i a b l e s can i n f l u e n c e bo th the measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s . M e a s u r e d impac t s depend upon the t e c h n o l o g y of the r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m , the number of p a s s - b y s , d i s t a n c e t o the s o u r c e , t r a i n s p e e d , and f e a t u r e s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t such as b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y , ambien t n o i s e l e v e l s , and the l o c a t i o n of t he s t u d y a r e a i n the c i t y (Towers 1980; S c h u l t z 1982; Hanson 1 9 8 5 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , f o r e l e v a t e d r a p i d t r a n s i t sys tems i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , the n o i s e i s d i s p e r s e d f u r t h e r from the t r a c k due t o i t s h e i g h t and because houses a d j a c e n t t o the gu ideway canno t s e r v e as a b u f f e r . A ' shadow ' o f low n o i s e l e v e l s l i e s i m m e d i a t e l y benea th the g u i d e w a y . Ad jus tmen t t o the n o i s e l e v e l may be n e c e s s a r y ( U . S . EPA 1972; May 1976; W i t t i g 1 9 8 3 ) . A summary cannot a p p l y one p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e as common t o a l l s t u d y s i t e s , a l t h o u g h d i s t a n c e t o the n o i s e s o u r c e i s the b a s i c measurement . N o i s e d i m i n i s h e s l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y r e l a t i v e t o d i s t a n c e (Walker 1977; Towers 1 9 8 0 ) . P e r c e p t i o n s v a r y w i t h the n o i s e s o u r c e and a mix of p e r s o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . N o i s e s t u d i e s show t h a t t he measured L e q , t he number o f e v e n t s , the d u r a t i o n of n o i s e , t e r r a i n and s h i e l d i n g , l o c a t i o n t o the s o u r c e , and p r e v i o u s exposu re a l l i n f l u e n c e the l e v e l of annoyance ( U . S . EPA 1972; F i e l d s and W a l k e r 1980; CMHC 1981; S c h u l t z 1982; F i e l d s 1 9 8 4 ) . The a c c u r a c y of measurements of annoyance d i m i n i s h e s as the n o i s e l e v e l d e c r e a s e s . In a r e a s of h i g h n o i s e e x p o s u r e , t he s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s a r e l e s s v a r i a b l e ( S c h u l t z 1982) ; t he 45 i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s on the i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p ' s r e sponse i n c r e a s e s . The n a t u r e of annoyance i s summarized i n t o two g r o u p s : above 65 dB(A) L eq the responden t i s awa.re o f unwanted e f f e c t s such as l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e from 55 t o 65 dB(A) L eq the r e s p o n s e i s r e l a t e d t o how the n o i s e i s p e r c e i v e d t o be d i s t u r b i n g by the i n d i v i d u a l . W i t h i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e from the n o i s e s o u r c e , a t l o w e r l e v e l s , t he impac t may be n e g l i g i b l e , and any n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e may be r e l a t e d t o b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e or p e r s o n a l b i a s e s t h a t canno t be r e v e a l e d w i t h o u t i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g . S o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s p l a y a p a r t i n p e r c e p t i o n s , a l t h o u g h no one s t u d y summar izes a common f a c t o r . O p i n i o n s v a r y o v e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s on response t o n o i s e . A t an L eq under 55 d B ( A ) , i t may be a r g u e d t h a t the n o i s e i s a s l i g h t i r r i t a n t t o some, but i t does not d i m i n i s h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . V i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f BART has been a n a l y z e d . As the t e c h n o l o g y and the d e s i g n of the sys tem i s s i m i l a r t o V a n c o u v e r ' s A L R T , i t p r o v i d e s an i d e a of the impac t s e n c o u n t e r e d i n the s t u d y a r e a o f t h i s t h e s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the u n a c c e p t a b l e n o i s e l e v e l s f rom an e l e v a t e d g u i d e w a y . The S c a r b o r o u g h s t u d y , on the o t h e r h a n d , i s l i m i t e d t o p r e l i m i n a r y p e r c e p t i o n s o f an LRT sys t em p o s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n f e a t u r e s . However , i t p r o v i d e s s e v e r a l r e l e v a n t p o i n t s , such as impact " zones" ( a l b e i t v e r y l a r g e i n a r e a ) , r e s i d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s based on t h e s e l o c a t i o n s , and t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p l e y a r d and C a r p (1973) s t a t e t h a t the a n a l y s t must be aware o f changes i n the s t u d y a r e a , and be c o n v i n c e d t h a t the 46 i m p a c t s under s t u d y a r e c a u s e d by the r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m . I f t hey a r e s econda ry e f f e c t s , d i s t o r t i o n may r e s u l t . Any f e a t u r e s of the env i ronmen t t h a t may i n f l u e n c e p e r c e p t i o n s s h o u l d be n o t e d , f o r many s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t v a r i a n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d by u n s p e c i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f the a f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t s or i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d , more work i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y z e p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e s the combined e f f e c t o f measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . 47 CHAPTER 3; LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT IN VANCOUVER 3 . 1 . E a r l y R a p i d T r a n s i t P l a n s Throughou t the 1 9 6 0 ' s , Vancouver and i t s suburbs were e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h g rowth r a t e s . P l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o manage g rowth more e f f e c t i v e l y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s needed t o be a d d r e s s e d . A c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t o u t l i n e d the r o l e of r a p i d t r a n s i t t o meet t h i s g r o w t h (De Leuw, C a t h e r and Company 1970) . B o t h p o p u l a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o d o u b l e i n the f o l l o w i n g 30 y e a r s . T h i s r e p o r t e x p r e s s e d most of the b e n e f i t s o f r a p i d t r a n s i t i n q u a n t i f i a b l e t e r m s . N o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e b e n e f i t s i n c l u d e d g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , and an improved q u a l i t y o f u rban l i v i n g i n the form o f l e s s n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n , compact d e v e l o p m e n t , and r e d u c e d p e d e s t r i a n - v e h i c u l a r c o n f l i c t s . S i n c e impac t s t u d i e s were o n l y i n t h e i r i n f a n c y a t t h i s p o i n t , e f f e c t s on the a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l env i ronmen t were no t m e n t i o n e d . The c o r r i d o r between New W e s t m i n s t e r and Vancouve r has been an i m p o r t a n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s i n c e the days o f t h e i n t e r -u rban commuter r a i l s e r v i c e . Urban g rowth up t o 1946 was h i g h l y dependent upon t h e s e e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y l i n e s ( G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 1 9 7 8 ) . The p o t e n t i a l f o r r a p i d t r a n s i t near the K i n g s w a y c o r r i d o r was c o n s i d e r e d the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f any i n V a n c o u v e r (De Leuw, C a t h e r and Company 1970) . L a t e r r e p o r t s a l s o a r t i c u l a t e d t h i s r o u t e (GVRD 1975; GVRD 1978; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 1 ) . The L i v a b l e R e g i o n P l a n (GVRD 1975) s p e c i f i e d 48 g rowth management w i t h an i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s i t s y s t e m . LRT was a r e sponse t o t h i s s t r a t e g y . A l i n e was c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g the Kingsway c o r r i d o r t o l i n k the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s o f B u r n a b y ' s Met ro town and New W e s t m i n s t e r . However , the r e g i o n a l g o a l of l i v a b i l i t y was d e s t i n e d t o impose p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s and c o n f l i c t s a t the n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a l e . The C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r was d e f i n i n g i t s g o a l s a r o u n d t h i s t i m e . A s u r v e y r e v e a l e d r e s i d e n t s ' p r i o r i t i e s ( C i t y o f Vancouver 1 9 7 9 ) . They d i d not w i s h t o change the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , such as p a r k s , beaches and v i e w s . N e i g h b o u r h o o d components were not i n c l u d e d i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . R e s i d e n t s s p e c i f i e d improvements t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h a new r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m . A n o t h e r c o n c e r n was c o n t r o l o f a i r and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e d u c t i o n o f heavy t r u c k t r a f f i c i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , and t h e l o w e r i n g of n o i s e l e v e l s . T r a n s i t was p e r c e i v e d as a b e n e f i t , r a t h e r than a c o n t r i b u t o r to e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r e d a t i o n . The s u r v e y added t h a t a l t h o u g h i n c r e a s e s i n b o t h t r a f f i c and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n would c a u s e many t o l e a v e the c i t y , the o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t y o f l i f e was 82 .9%. By the l a t e 1 9 7 0 ' s , d i s c u s s i o n had begun between t h e GVRD and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h the LRT wou ld be r o u t e d . The P r o v i n c i a l Government p l a y e d a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . A t t h i s t ime LRT i m p a c t s were d i s c u s s e d , i n c l u d i n g n o i s e and l o c a l t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d a r o u n d s t a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a t i o n s c a l l e d f o r an a t - g r a d e LRT ( C i t y o f Vancouve r 1980b) . The needs of the c o m m u n i t i e s a l o n g the p r o p o s e d t r a n s i t l i n e were c l a r i f i e d . The D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g s t a t e d : 49 "The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the sys tem i n v o l v e s more than j u s t w o r k i n g ou t the d e s i g n , e x p l a i n i n g i t t o " i m p a c t e d c o m m u n i t i e s " and p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s d e s i r e a b l e t o work w i t h the c o m m u n i t i e s a f f e c t e d by the s y s t e m , t o a l l o w p e o p l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t h a t l e a d s t o t h e p l a n s t h a t w i l l g u i d e change i n t h o s e a r e a s . " ( C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , Managers R e p o r t , 29 J a n u a r y 1981) L o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' i n p u t and c o n t r o l o v e r t r a n s i t i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n i t i a l l y appeared t o be s e c u r e . However , some r e s e r v a t i o n s were e x p r e s s e d on the r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an au tomated LRT s y s t e m . By 1981, the C i t y and the GVRD a g r e e d t e n t a t i v e l y t o c o n s t r u c t a subway under C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e t o a v o i d the Cedar C o t t a g e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , s i n c e t h i s was r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t a r e a i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( C i t y o f Vancouver 1981 ) . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , howeve r , the GVRD had l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l power t o c o l l e c t funds and implement a r a p i d t r a n s i t sys tem on i t s own. The P r o v i n c i a l Government was no t p r e p a r e d t o g i v e the n e c e s s a r y a u t h o r i t y t o p r o c e e d . The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e l i m i n a t e d the GVRD's r o l e i n r a p i d , t r a n s i t i n 1982, when i t d e c i d e d t o h o s t a w o r l d e x p o s i t i o n on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n 1986, o r i g i n a l l y t i t l e d T ranspo 86 and l a t e r changed t o Expo 86 . T h i s gave t h e P r o v i n c e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e a showcase f o r t he most advanced C a n a d i a n r a p i d t r a n s i t t e c h n o l o g y , r e g a r d l e s s o f the c o s t s or impac t upon l o c a l a r e a s . The p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of t h e new ALRT sys t em was i n the hands of B . C . T r a n s i t . T h i s i s t he body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p u b l i c t r a n s i t i n the p r o v i n c e , under the c o n t r o l o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government . T h u s , the s t age was s e t f o r t he p o l a r i z a t i o n of l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d g roups and 50 the P r o v i n c e , c r e a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n i t i a l l y , t h i s was most e v i d e n t i n the Cedar C o t t a g e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i s w e l l documented by Hasson ( 1 9 8 4 ) . 3 . 2 . The Broadway S t a t i o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d The Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a c o v e r s p o r t i o n s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d s of Cedar C o t t a g e and G r a n d v i e w . In t h i s c h a p t e r , r e f e r e n c e s t o the i m p a c t e d a r e a o f Cedar C o t t a g e i m p l y the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a s o u t h of E a s t 16th A v e n u e . The S t a t i o n A r e a i s d e f i n e d as the a r e a where the ALRT would have the g r e a t e s t impac t ( C i t y of V a n c o u v e r 1983a) , w i t h i n a f i v e t o ten minu te ' w a l k of the p r e s e n t s t a t i o n a t E a s t Broadway and C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e (Map 3 . 1 ) . I t c o v e r s 120 h e c t a r e s , w i t h a 1981 p o p u l a t i o n of 7 , 2 0 0 . The a r e a i s p r i m a r i l y s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l , w i t h the a v e r a g e age o f h o u s i n g s e t a t 50 t o 70 y e a r s (Hasson 1 9 8 4 ) . In the v i c i n i t y o f E a s t Broadway and C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e , t he v a r i e t y o f a p a r t m e n t s , d u p l e x e s , and s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i s a p p a r e n t . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l n a t u r e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the a d j a c e n t c o m m e r c i a l a r e a and the a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . Much of t h e a r e a t o the s o u t h of E a s t 10th Avenue c o n s i s t s o f c o n v e r t e d s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . S m a l l p o c k e t s o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d l i e t o the n o r t h - w e s t , and t o the s o u t h - e a s t l i e s a mix of r e t a i l , r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e . S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s pas s t h r o u g h the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a , i n c l u d i n g E a s t Broadway , Commerc ia l D r i v e , V i c t o r i a D i v e r s i o n , E a s t 12 th A v e n u e , Grandv iew Highway , 51 ISO AVE 6TH AVE A A P A R T M E N T A R E A B C O N V E R T E D S I N G L E F A M I L Y D W E L L I N G A R E A C S I N G L E F A M I L Y D W E L L I N G A R E A D1 C O M M E R C I A L D R I V E / B R O A D W A Y A R E A ( C o n c e n t r a t e d R e t a i l ) D2 C O M M E R C I A L D R I V E SOUTH OF 1 2 t h A V E . ( D i s p e r s e d R e t a i l ) E V I C T O R I A D I V E R S I O N : M I X E D R E S I D E N T I A L , C O M M E R C I A L , I N D U S T R I A L F I N D U S T R I A L A R E A Map 3 . 1 : Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a Land Uses S o u r c e : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1983a 52 and a r a i l w a y c u t (Map 3 . 2 ) . T a b l e 3.1 p r o v i d e s the 2 4 - h o u r two-way t r a f f i c vo lumes on t he se s t r e e t s . T a b l e 3 . 1 : T r a f f i c i n the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a (24-Hour 2-Way Volumes) S t r e e t V e h i c l e s / D a y Broadway* 38 ,000 G r a n d v i e w Highway (west of C o m m e r c i a l ) * 2 ,700 12th Avenue 31 ,800 C l a r k D r i v e * 24 ,000 C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e ( s o u t h of Grandv iew Hwy)* 15,000 V i c t o r i a D r i v e (between Broadway and V i c t o r i a D i v e r s i o n ) 11,000 * T r u c k r o u t e S o u r c e : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1983a An a s se s smen t of the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a by the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r (1985b) n o t e d the p r e s e n c e of seven t r a f f i c g e n e r a t o r s (Map 3 . 3 ) . Of t h e s e , fou r a r e i n the immedia te v i c i n i t y of the ALRT s t a t i o n . W h i l e the K i n g Edward Campus i s o u t s i d e the a r e a , i t r ema ins an i n f l u e n c e on t r a f f i c . The most s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a t o r was the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i t s e l f , c o n s i s t i n g of 3 ,300 h o u s e h o l d s w i t h more than 3 ,000 a u t o m o b i l e s . E a c h of t h e s e s t r e e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a r t e r i a l s , c o n t r i b u t e d t o n o i s e i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . However , s e v e r a l measurements t a k e n i n 1982 i n d i c a t e t h a t day and e v e n i n g n o i s e l e v e l s were f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t and the 24 -hour L eq was a c c e p t a b l e by CMHC s t a n d a r d s ( T a b l e 3 . 2 ) . 53 S ARTERIAL STREET lllllllllllllllll. TRUCK ROUTE Map 3 . 2 : T r a f f i c A r t e r i a l s and Truck R o u t e s , Broadway S t a t i o n Area S o u r c e : C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , 1985b 54 1 1 i I I i 1 1 S- V I I 1 • 1 1 1 — 1 I I I I I : 1 1 a; S T M ave 1 VANCOUVER E A S T C I N E M A 2 BROADWAY S T A T I O N SAFEWAY E A S T V A N C O U V E R M E D I C A L C E N T R E C R O A T I A N C U L T U R A L C E N T R E TROUT L A K E COMMUNITY C E N T R E K I N G EDWARD CAMPUS C O M M E R C I A L D R I V E R E T A I L Map 3 . 3 : T r a f f i c G e n e r a t o r s , Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a S o u r c e : C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , 1985b 55 T a b l e 3 . 2 : Measured L e v e l s o f Community N o i s e P r i o r t o C o n s t r u c t i o n o f ALRT Day E v e n i n g N i g h t T o t a l 6 : 2 0 - 1 8 : 2 0 1 8 : 2 0 - 0 : 2 0 0 : 2 0 - 6 : 2 0 24 Hours S i t e 1 L e q 54 51 45 52 F r o n t , 1736 E . 1 1 t h 27 .28 S e p t . 1982 S i t e 2 55 55 51 54 R e a r , 1736 E . 1 1 t h 28 .29 S e p t . 1982 S i t e 3 52 50 48 51 R e a r , 3020 C o m m e r c i a l 30 S e p t . 1982 S o u r c e : H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d , 1983, A p p e n d i x ' A ' S i n c e the e a r l i e r r a p i d t r a n s i t s t u d i e s , the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a has been a d e l i c a t e m a t t e r f o r p l a n n e r s and r e s i d e n t s a l i k e . The L i v a b l e R e g i o n P l a n (GVRD 1975: 24) s t a t e d t h a t l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t s h o u l d run i n a subway from downtown t o Cedar C o t t a g e . By 1980, t he deba te c o n t i n u e d o v e r e x a c t l y where the r o u t e w o u l d r u n . There was no one c o r r i d o r t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y l i n k the r a i l w a y r i g h t - o f - w a y t o the n o r t h - w e s t of Broadway t o the o l d i n t e r u r b a n l i n e e a s t o f Nanaimo S t r e e t . An a l i g n m e n t a l o n g Naniamo S t r e e t was c o n s i d e r e d because of i t s e x i s t i n g c o r r i d o r f u n c t i o n , t he m i n i m a l n o i s e i m p a c t s , low c o s t s and no need f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d t h i s , a l o n g w i t h a s u r f a c e a l i g n m e n t a l o n g C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e o r t h r o u g h T r o u t Lake P a r k a t a m e e t i n g on 19 F e b r u a r y 1980. An underground r o u t e was p r e f e r a b l e . Up t o 1982, howeve r , the p lacement of the r o u t e and the s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g y was u n c e r t a i n . 56 In 1982, B . C . T r a n s i t took o v e r r a p i d t r a n s i t p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . I t s d e c i s i o n t o c o n s t r u c t an e l e v a t e d gu ideway t h r o u g h the e a s t l a n e of C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e was a c o n t e n t i o u s o n e . The C i t y r e q u e s t e d t h a t a t u n n e l be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h i s p o r t i o n o f t he l i n e . R e s i d e n t s c o n t e n d e d t h a t among o t h e r t h i n g s , a t u n n e l was n e c e s s a r y , as an e l e v a t e d s t r u c t u r e w o u l d . r e q u i r e the d e m o l i t i o n of 16 houses and s e v e r a l b u s i n e s s e s (Hasson 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s wou ld d i m i n i s h the l i v a b i l i t y o f the a r e a . The P r o v i n c e d e c i d e d t h a t the e x t r a $14 m i l l i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a t u n n e l was too e x p e n s i v e . The C i t y and r e s i d e n t s c l a i m e d t h a t t he P r o v i n c e had the money, and t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y was a v a i l a b l e t o c o m p l e t e the sy s t em by i t s d e a d l i n e . The P r o v i n c e r e q u i r e d the ALRT t o be f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l b e f o r e the o p e n i n g of E x p o , i n May 1986. I t w o u l d no t t o l e r a t e any d e l a y s i n the p r o c e s s , nor d i d i t w i s h t o add t o the a l r e a d y h i g h c o s t s o f deve lopment and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The C i t y was a b l e t o t a k e a c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l s t a n d because none of i t s money was a t s t a k e , and i t knew t h a t B . C . T r a n s i t was u n l i k e l y t o - c h a n g e i t s p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h the C i t y r e c o g n i z e d the many b e n e f i t s t h a t the ALRT would b r i n g , i t was o b l i g e d t o r a i s e o b j e c t i o n s , s i n c e 1984 was an e l e c t i o n yea r i n V a n c o u v e r and p o l i t i c i a n s w i s h e d t o be seen on the s i d e of the p e o p l e . The c o n f r o n t a t i o n p i t t e d a r i g h t - w i n g P r o v i n c i a l Government a g a i n s t a p r e d o m i n a n t l y l e f t -wing C i t y C o u n c i l . F u r t h e r d e t a i l s a r e documented by Hasson ( 1984) . 57 3 . 3 . Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s The o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the C i t y , t o i n t e g r a t e r a p i d t r a n s i t i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h as l i t t l e d i s r u p t i o n as p o s s i b l e and t o a l l o w r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , were d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e a t t h i s p o i n t . W i t h o u t measures t a k e n by e i t h e r the C i t y or B . C . T r a n s i t , t h e ALRT was e x p e c t e d t o have s e r i o u s n e g a t i v e consequences on the q u a l i t y o f l i f e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Among o t h e r e f f o r t s , t he S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n t e n d e d t o reduce n o i s e l e v e l s as much as p o s s i b l e . I t i n c l u d e d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p r o p e r t y o w n e r s , r e s i d e n t s , and m e r c h a n t s . The s t a g e s of p l a n n i n g were d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : 1. The r e v i e w o f the ALRT r o u t e t h r o u g h the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n . 2 . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o l u t i o n s t o the p h y s i c a l i m p a c t s o f A L R T . 3 . A s s i s t a n c e i n r e l o c a t i n g r e s i d e n t s . 4 . A c h i e v e c o m p a t a b i 1 i t y between the ALRT and the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 5 . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s pe r fo rmed by the E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p r o b l e m s wou ld not be s o l v e d by S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n n i n g a l o n e . The C i t y M a n a g e r ' s R e p o r t of 5 A u g u s t 1983 s t a t e d t h a t "These m i t i g a t i o n measures can h e l p moderate ALRT i m p a c t s but a r e not a panacea t h a t w i l l e l i m i n a t e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s a l t o g e t h e r . Some impac t s a r e u n a v o i d a b l e and r e p r e s e n t a r e a l c o s t i n exchange f o r t h e b e n e f i t s o f A L R T . " ( C i t y of Vancouver 1983c) The re were many unknown v a r i a b l e s , o f w h i c h B . C . T r a n s i t ' s p o l i c i e s were the most s i g n i f i c a n t . I t s d e c i s i o n s d i d not a l l o w p l a n n i n g t o w e i g h the p r o s and cons o f an e l e v a t e d guideway or a 58 t u n n e l and r e c e i v e community i n p u t . P l a n n i n g became a r e a c t i v e , r a t h e r than a p r e v e n t a t i v e , p r o c e s s . The C i t y had t o c o n t e n d w i t h p rob l ems t h a t a c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s migh t have a v o i d e d a l t o g e t h e r . The C i t y c l a i m e d t h a t s i n c e B . C . T r a n s i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g the s y s t e m , i t was o b l i g e d t o d e a l w i t h most o f t h e d i r e c t i m p a c t s . The C i t y ' s r o l e was t o implement m i t i g a t i o n m e a s u r e s , and s o l v e p rob l ems c r e a t e d by i n d i r e c t i m p a c t s ( C i t y o f Vancouve r 1 9 8 3 c ) . M i t i g a t i o n depended g r e a t l y on t h e o p e r a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e ALRT and w h i c h changes wou ld be d e s i r a b l e i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , i f a n y . The e a r l y s t a g e s of p l a n n i n g i n the S t a t i o n A r e a c o u l d o n l y se t out the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s . N o i s e c o u l d not be e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d by the C i t y a l o n e . The r o l e o f B . C . T r a n s i t was v i t a l . The C i t y was r e s t r i c t e d t o e n c o u r a g i n g redeve lopment a d j a c e n t t o the ALRT t h a t c o u l d b u f f e r t he n o i s e . Such an a p p r o a c h was no t e n t i r e l y b e n e f i c i a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , development on the e a s t s i d e c o u l d r e f l e c t the n o i s e , w i t h a r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e on t h e west s i d e by as much as 2 dB ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1 9 8 3 ) . A h i g h e r d e n s i t y deve lopment c o u l d a l s o c r e a t e i n s t a b i l i t y i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1983c ) . However , t h i s was d i f f i c u l t t o measure or p r e d i c t . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was h i n d e r e d by i m p a c t s t h a t were e i t h e r u n f o r e s e e n or not c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t , and t h e r e f o r e no t m i n i m i z e d w i t h s p e c i a l d e s i g n t r e a t m e n t . The t r a n s i t needs of t h e r e g i o n were g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i m p a c t s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h r e s i d e n t s was m i n i m a l . The g roups 59 i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g d i d no t have any common g o a l s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t he C i t y p r o c e e d e d w i t h i t s e a r l i e s t S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n s on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a t u n n e l would be i n s t a l l e d . L a t e r i t r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e p l a n s f o r t he e l e v a t e d s t r u c t u r e as a form of p r o t e s t . F o r t u n a t e l y , the C i t y d i d not a b s o l v e i t s e l f o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d i m p a c t s when i t a p p e a r e d t h a t B . C . T r a n s i t i n t e n d e d t o b u i l d the ALRT w i t h o u t an ag reemen t . I t s a t t empt a t S t a t i o n A r e a p l a n n i n g was the f i r s t s t e p t o c o r r e c t the m i s t a k e s made on b o t h s i d e s i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of d e v e l o p i n g the A L R T . 60 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS T h i s c h a p t e r i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of w a y s i d e ALRT n o i s e t o d i s t a n c e from t h e s o u r c e . S e l e c t e d s t a n d a r d s (CMHC 1981) and c r i t e r i a ( U . S . EPA 1972) e s t a b l i s h zones o f h i g h and low i m p a c t . The measured impac t i s compared t o the r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e f o r two p o i n t s i n t i m e : the ALRT p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n phase i n 1983-84 , and the e a r l y o p e r a t i o n s phase i n 1986. The n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t u d i e d i s the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a and a p o r t i o n of the Nanaimo S t a t i o n A r e a west of Nanaimo S t r e e t i n V a n c o u v e r . 4 . 1 . T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s Bo th measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s o f r a p i d t r a n s i t may i n d i c a t e a change i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the n o n - u s e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t and e a s i l y m e a s u r a b l e impac t i s w a y s i d e n o i s e . The r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e i n C h a p t e r 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e w a y s i d e n o i s e i m p a c t , i d e a l l y measured as a 24 -hour L e q , i s a f u n c t i o n of d i s t a n c e from the r a p i d t r a n s i t f a c i l i t y , d e c r e a s i n g i n a l o g a r i t h m i c manner. D e p e n d i n g upon c i r c u m s t a n c e s s p e c i f i c t o the s tudy a r e a , such as p r e v i o u s community e x p o s u r e and the background n o i s e , a d j u s t m e n t s may be made t o the L e q . The a d j u s t e d 24-hour L eq n o i s e c o n t o u r o f 55 dBA d e f i n e s the boundary between the h i g h and l o w - i m p a c t z o n e s . The h i g h - i m p a c t zone f o r n o i s e runs p a r a l l e l t o , and w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o , the t r a c k . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r c e p t i o n s t o the measured n o i s e 61 impac t i s no t as easy t o p r e d i c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the ALRT f a c i l i t y . P e r c e p t i o n s depend on o t h e r f a c t o r s such as the t y p e of q u e s t i o n used i n the s u r v e y , the s c a l e used t o measure annoyance , p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e t o the n o i s e , and o t h e r n o i s e s o u r c e s . P e r s o n a l v a l u e s may a l s o p l a c e a v a l u e e i t h e r t he n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' s a c c e s s i b i l i t y or the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i t s e x i s t i n g q u a l i t i e s . Over t i m e , r e p e a t e d measurements may d e t e r m i n e i f p e r c e p t i o n s change a t a l l , and how they compare t o t h e measured n o i s e i m p a c t . 4 . 2 . D a t a S o u r c e s ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s f o r e c a s t f o r 1986 were o b t a i n e d from a c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r B . C . T r a n s i t ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1983 ) , as w e l l as the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 3 b ) . The E a s t Vancouve r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy ( C i t y of V a n c o u v e r 1985a) s u r v e y e d r e s i d e n t s near the ALRT l i n e , c o v e r i n g a v a r i e t y of ALRT i m p a c t s . I t was u n d e r t a k e n between May and A u g u s t o f 1984 d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the A L R T . Over a p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks i n A p r i l o f 1986, an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y of w a y s i d e n o i s e l e v e l s between the Broadway and Nanaimo ALRT S t a t i o n s was c o n d u c t e d by the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s o f the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 T h i s s t u d y a l s o s u r v e y e d r e s i d e n t s on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t he ALRT and S t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n PLAN 524 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g : F i o n a A v a k u m o v i c , Roger C l e w l e y , Hugh M c L e a n , G e r a l d M i n c h u k , L o u P e l l e t i e r , M a r i n o P i o m b i n i , Debb ie Se to and James Y a r d l e y . 62 n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e . T h i s s t u d y i s h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the 1986 UBC S t u d y . The w a y s i d e ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s f o r the C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e s e c t i o n of the sys t em were p r e d i c t e d by " u s i n g t ape r e c o r d i n g s of a c t u a l v e h i c l e p a s s b y s made a t t he ALRT Deve lopment C e n t r e i n K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o " ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1983 ) . T h i s f o r e c a s t a c c o u n t e d f o r e x i s t i n g (1983) b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e i n the s tudy a r e a . The t o t a l 24 -hour L eq was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h r e e s i t e s , one t o the west and two t o the e a s t o f t he p r o p o s e d gu ideway , a d j a c e n t t o the e a s t l a n e of C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e . The c o n s u l t a n t e x t r a p o l a t e d t h e s e n o i s e l e v e l s t o a p p l y t o the b l o c k s c o n t a i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y between E a s t 10th Avenue and E a s t 16th A v e n u e . Two f o r e c a s t s were put f o r w a r d f o r 1986: a w o r s t - c a s e s c e n a r i o w i t h the ALRT r u n n i n g up t o maximum c a p a c i t y w i t h one row o f houses removed a l o n g the e a s t s i d e of the g u i d e w a y , and s l i g h t l y l o w e r l e v e l s r e s u l t i n g from the ALRT r u n n i n g a t 1986 p r o j e c t e d l e v e l s w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l r edeve lopmen t t o m i t i g a t e the n o i s e i m p a c t . The E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy c o v e r e d t h r e e s t a t i o n a r e a s i n V a n c o u v e r : Broadway , N a n a i m o / 2 9 t h A v e n u e , and J o y c e . I t s pu rpose was ' " t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s i d e n t s -a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s t h a t w o u l d h e l p the s t a t i o n a r e a p l a n n i n g commi t t ee s i n t h e i r l o c a l a r e a p l a n m a k i n g " (Coote 1985: 4 5 ) . Among o t h e r q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , r e s i d e n t s were a s k e d : " ( A f t e r the ALRT i s i n o p e r a t i o n , do you t h i n k ) the c h a r a c t e r o f y o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i l l be : b e t t e r , no change , w o r s e ? " , and " R i g h t h e r e , where you l i v e , what about n o i s e l e v e l s : l o w e r , no change , h i g h e r ? " ( C i t y 6 3 of V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 5 a ) . S t u d i e s by the Vancouve r H e a l t h Depar tment i n Augus t 1985 and F e b r u a r y 1986 found n o i s e l e v e l s h i g h e r t han a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g p rompted the 1986 UBC S t u d y . In A p r i l 1986, i n d o o r and o u t d o o r w a y s i d e n o i s e measurements were t a k e n a t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s and a l o n g s t r e e t s c r o s s i n g the ALRT g u i d e w a y . The s u r v e y a s k e d r e s i d e n t s t o e v a l u a t e the g e n e r a l n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t o rank the ALRT n o i s e w i t h a l l o t h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e s , and t o e v a l u a t e the e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e based on the rooms i n w h i c h i t c o u l d be h e a r d ( A p p e n d i x A ) . I n f o r m a t i o n on the l e n g t h of an ALRT c a r and the number o f t w o - c a r and f o u r - c a r t r a i n s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the s t u d y a r e a on a r e g u l a r weekday was p r o v i d e d by Ian Graham, O p e r a t i o n s Manager o f . t h e A L R T . S t a t i s t i c s Canada i s the s o u r c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the a v e r a g e number o f p e r s o n s per h o u s e h o l d u n i t , and the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p r o v i d e d maps w i t h the number o f s i n g l e - f a m i l y , d u p l e x and apar tment u n i t s i n the s t u d y a r e a . 4 . 3 . M e t h o d o l o g y The m e t h o d o l o g y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . F i r s t , the ALRT n o i s e measurements a r e combined w i t h b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e and c o n v e r t e d t o a 2 4 - h o u r L e q . A r e l a t i o n s h i p of n o i s e t o d i s t a n c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The zones o f h i g h and low impac t a r e d e f i n e d by the a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L e q . The second s t e p a n a l y z e s r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s from the 1986 UBC S t u d y and the E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y . The p e r c e i v e d n o i s e l e v e l s a r e r e l a t e d t o the measured n o i s e l e v e l s 64 and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p e r c e p t i o n s t o c e r t a i n s o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s i s t e s t e d . F i g u r e 4.1 i l l u s t r a t e s the n o i s e impact a s se s smen t m e t h o d o l o g y . 4.3.1. N o i s e Measurements The 1986 UBC S tudy s e l e c t e d a segment o f the ALRT between the Broadway and Nanaimo S t a t i o n s , e x t e n d i n g s l i g h t l y beyond the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the a r e a most n e g a t i v e l y i m p a c t e d by ALRT n o i s e w i t h i n the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . The s i t e s f o r n o i s e measurements and i n t e r v i e w s were chosen a t random from p r o p e r t y maps t o ensure a f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two s t a t i o n s , and t o a v o i d a c l u s t e r o f s i t e s on any one s t r e e t or b l o c k . No s i t e s were chosen west o f C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e or n o r t h o f Broadway, s i n c e t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n from e a r l i e r s t u d i e s t h a t ALRT n o i s e i m p a c t s were p r e s e n t . I f no one was a v a i l a b l e a t a s u r v e y s i t e , t hose a d m i n i s t e r i n g the s u r v e y and n o i s e measurements r e t u r n e d w i t h i n one o r two days t o the same r e s i d e n c e . I f a g a i n t h e r e was no answer , o r i f a r e q u e s t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s u r v e y was r e f u s e d , the s u r v e y team chose a n e i g h b o u r i n g d w e l l i n g as an a l t e r n a t i v e . The maximum d i s t a n c e from the guideway f o r any s i t e was 320 f e e t . The number o f r e s i d e n c e s s u r v e y e d was 40. One p e r s o n measured i n d o o r and o u t d o o r n o i s e w h i l e ano the r a d m i n i s t e r e d the s u r v e y . N o i s e measurements i n c l u d e d 15-minute i n d o o r L eq r e a d i n g s , peak i n d o o r and o u t d o o r d B ( A ) l e v e l s , and ambien t i n d o o r and ou tdoo r dB(A) l e v e l s . F o r b o t h the peak i n d o o r and o u t d o o r l e v e l s , a t l e a s t f o u r measurements were made t o o b t a i n an ave rage l e v e l . F i g u r e 4.1: Flow Chart of N o i s e Impact Assessment Methodology f o r the Study Area FIELD DATA TRAIN PASS-BY & AMBIENT NOISE 24-HOUR L eq LITERATURE CMHC STANDARDS AND SITE-SPECIFIC ADJUSTMENTS HIGH AND LOW-IMPACT ZONES 1986 UBC STUDY PERCEPTIONS EAST VANCOUVER NEIGHBOURHOODS STUDY PERCEPTIONS PROJECTED ZONES OF IMPACT BASED ON PROJECTED 24-HOUR L eq Source: Adapted from Towers, 1980 66 A n o t h e r s e t o f measurements were made a t 5 0 - f o o t i n t e r v a l s on c r o s s - s t r e e t s moving away from the g u i d e w a y . The measurements were s i n g l e - e v e n t maxima, and ambien t n o i s e l e v e l s , t e rmed d B ( A ) f a s t and dB(A) s l o w , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These were t a k e n a t 76 s i t e s . Thus , o u t d o o r n o i s e was measured a t a t o t a l o f 116 s i t e s . The L eq r e a d i n g s were t a k e n w i t h a M e t r o s o n i c s Mode l 306/140 dB-306 M e t r o l o g g e r , w h i l e s i n g l e even t l e v e l s were measured w i t h two B r u e l and K j a e r M o d e l 2206 P r e c i s i o n Sound L e v e l M e t e r s . Each d e v i c e was c a l i b r a t e d t o 9 2 . 5 d B ( A ) . The f i r s t s t age of a n a l y s i s , based upon l o c a t i o n , c o n s i d e r s e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s as the i n f l u e n c e on measured i m p a c t s ( T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . A more e x t e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l the v a r i a b l e s used i n the a n a l y s i s of the 1986 UBC S tudy i s i n A p p e n d i x B . T a b l e 4 . 1 : V a r i a b l e s of Measured ALRT N o i s e Impact NOISE N o i s e g e n e r a t e d by the ALRT (24-Hour L eq) DISTANCE D i s t a n c e from the ALRT gu ideway t o the measurement s i t e ( F e e t ) ZONE Zone of impact ( i . e . H i g h , Low) WHERE C r o s s - s t r e e t o r code number o f r e s i d e n c e s u r v e y e d ( s t r i n g v a r i a b l e ) The peak n o i s e l e v e l s a r e d e f i n e d as the c o m b i n a t i o n of the ALRT p a s s - b y and background n o i s e . The p u r e , o r u n c o n t a m i n a t e d , ALRT p a s s - b y n o i s e i s the n o i s e l e v e l w i t h a l l b a c k g r o u n d i n f l u e n c e s removed. A 24-hour L eq i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of 67 the pu re p a s s - b y n o i s e and the b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e . (The b a c k g r o u n d and pure ALRT p a s s - b y n o i s e l e v e l s canno t be combined u n l e s s t hey a r e c o n v e r t e d t o s i m i l a r u n i t s . ) The c o m b i n a t i o n of t he se two l e v e l s p r o d u c e s a t o t a l 2 4 - h o u r L e q . A p r o f i l e o f 24 -hour L eq n o i s e c o n t o u r s i s mapped f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l s u r v e y s i t e s and c r o s s - s t r e e t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of ALRT n o i s e , t he dependent v a r i a b l e , and d i s t a n c e , t he i ndependen t v a r i a b l e , i s computed u s i n g r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . To t e s t the a s s u m p t i o n of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y , t he normal p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t o f e x p e c t e d and o b s e r v e d r e s i d u a l s , and the skew and k u r t o s i s , a r e a n a l y z e d u s i n g the f r e q u e n c i e s and r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The a s s u m p t i o n of h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y ( i . e . t he c o n d i t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d u a l s from the r e g r e s s i o n h a v i n g c o n s t a n t v a r i a n c e ) i s a l s o t e s t e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e . I n o r d e r t o f i t a l i n e t o the o b s e r v a t i o n s , the l e a s t s q u a r e s p r o c e d u r e i s u s e d , whereby the sum of s q u a r e d v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s from the o b s e r v e d d a t a p o i n t s t o the l i n e i s m i n i m i z e d . An e q u a t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t the s t u d y a r e a i s computed . Those s i t e s where background n o i s e c o n t r i b u t e s more t o the 24 -hour L eq t han ALRT p a s s - b y n o i s e a r e e x c l u d e d from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . T h i s r educes the number o f s i t e s from 116 t o 9 3 . E n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s such as the h e i g h t o f the ALRT g u i d e w a y , s h i e l d i n g and r e f l e c t i o n of n o i s e , and t o p o g r a p h y a r e i m p l i c i t i n the f i e l d measurements , and a r e not i d e n t i f i e d as v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the t r a n s m i s s i o n of ALRT n o i s e , a l t h o u g h i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o the 24-hour L e q . O t h e r n o i s e s o u r c e s s u c h as t r a f f i c a r e p a r t o f t he b a c k g r o u n d 24-hour L e q . I t i s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s 68 t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the 2 4 - h o u r L eq o f each of these e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . The sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l a t t e n u a t i o n w i t h d i s t a n c e f o r a f i n i t e s o u r c e such as r a p i d t r a n s i t t r a i n s depends on the s p a c i n g between the s e t s of whee l s and the l e n g t h of t he t r a i n (Towers 1980) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a t d i s t a n c e s from the gu ideway t h a t a r e l e s s than a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e whee l s p a c i n g or g r e a t e r than a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s of t h e a v e r a g e t r a i n l e n g t h t h e r e w o u l d be a r e d u c t i o n o f 6 dB pe r d i s t a n c e d o u b l i n g . Between t h e s e two p o i n t s , a g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n o f 3 dB per d i s t a n c e d o u b l i n g i s e x p e c t e d (Towers 1 9 8 0 ) . The d i s t a n c e from the gu ideway i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e segmen t s . In the f i r s t and t h i r d , the n o i s e r e s e m b l e s a p o i n t s o u r c e , w h i l e i n the m i d d l e segment i t r e s e m b l e s a l i n e s o u r c e where the i n d i v i d u a l s o u r c e s ( i . e . the w h e e l s ) can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The two p o i n t s d i v i d i n g the n o i s e c u r v e i n t o t h e s e segments would be 2b/7r and 2 1 / T T , where b i s d e f i n e d as the d i s t a n c e between i n d i v i d u a l s o u r c e s and 1 i s the l e n g t h o f t he l i n e s o u r c e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , the whee l s p a c i n g (b) i s one c a r l e n g t h . The a v e r a g e l e n g t h of a weekday t r a i n (1) was c a l c u l a t e d by c o m b i n i n g the number o f t w o - c a r and f o u r - c a r t r a i n s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the s t u d y a r e a . An a n a l y s i s i s made of t he s t u d y a r e a between the Broadway S t a t i o n and H u l l S t r e e t , the a r e a a n a l y z e d i n the n o i s e impac t s t u d i e s o f 1983. Here the gu ideway r u n s a t a c o n s i s t e n t h e i g h t , u n l i k e the s e c t i o n between H u l l S t r e e t and Nanaimo S t r e e t , where a p o r t i o n i s a t g round l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d between n o i s e and the l o g of d i s t a n c e f o r t h e 69 B r o a d w a y - H u l l S t r e e t segment . The zone of h i g h impac t i s d e f i n e d as t h e " a r e a where t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d f o r maximum o u t d o o r n o i s e l e v e l s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i s e x c e e d e d . The 24-hour L eq o f 55 dB i s c o n s i d e r e d the most a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t a t w h i c h t o c l a i m t h a t o u t d o o r n o i s e i s u n a c c e p t a b l e f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (CMHC 1 9 8 1 ) . The zone o f low impac t i s the a r e a i n w h i c h o u t d o o r n o i s e l e v e l s a r e a c c e p t a b l e , be low a 24 -hour L eq of 55 d B . F o r t h e 1986 UBC S t u d y , t h i s zone e x t e n d s up to 320 f e e t from the ALRT g u i d e w a y , t he maximum d i s t a n c e a t w h i c h n o i s e measurements and s u r v e y s were t a k e n i n 1986. Each zone of impact i s o u t l i n e d on base maps o b t a i n e d from the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r . For the 1986 UBC S t u d y , t he u n i t used t o d i v i d e the s t u d y a r e a i n t o zones o f h i g h and low impac t i s the ' a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L e q ' . T h i s i s d e f i n e d as the 24 -hour L eq a l t e r e d where n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o u n t f o r a c o m m u n i t y ' s p r e v i o u s exposu re t o the n o i s e i n q u e s t i o n and the o u t d o o r n o i s e measured i n absence of t he i n t r u d i n g n o i s e ( U . S . EPA 1 9 7 2 ) . The r a t i o n a l e f o r an a d j u s t m e n t i n the s t u d y a r e a was no p r e v i o u s exposure , t o ALRT n o i s e a t the t ime o f the s u r v e y , and the background 24 -hour L e q . The boundary d i v i d i n g the a r e a i n t o two zones o f impac t i s e i t h e r the a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L eq of 55 d B , or e l s e the ' t o t a l ' 24 -hour L eq of 55 dB i f no ad ju s tmen t i s n e c e s s a r y . 2 An e s t i m a t i o n i s made of t he number o f p e r s o n s i n the h i g h -2 As an example o f an a d j u s t m e n t , f o r a community w i t h no p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e t o the n o i s e , 5 dB i s added t o the t o t a l 2 4 -hour L e q . In t h i s c a s e , t he boundary between zones wou ld be t h e a d j u s t e d 2 4 - h o u r L eq of 55 d B , e q u a l t o the t o t a l 24 -hour L eq of 50 d B . 70 impac t zone i n the s t u d y a r e a . In the 1986 C e n s u s , S t a t i s t i c s Canada c a l c u l a t e d the number of p e r s o n s f o r a s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d u n i t , f o r apa r tmen t s f i v e s t o r e y s or h i g h e r , and a l l o t h e r s combined f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . ' A l l o t h e r s ' i n c l u d e s a p a r t m e n t s l e s s than f i v e s t o r e y s , d u p l e x e s , c o n v e r s i o n s and row h o u s i n g . The number of i m p a c t e d r e s i d e n t s was e s t i m a t e d f o r 1986 by c o u n t i n g the number o f s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d , d u p l e x , and apa r tmen t u n i t s from GVRD l a n d - u s e maps, and m u l t i p l y i n g each o f t h e s e by the ave rage number o f p e r s o n s per u n i t . 4 . 3 . 2 . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s u s i n g S P S S - X i s c a r r i e d ou t f o r t h e 1986 UBC S tudy and the E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy as the second s t age i n the n o i s e impac t a s ses smen t m e t h o d o l o g y ( F i g u r e 4 . 1 ) . F o r each s t u d y , t h i s a n a l y s i s d e t e r m i n e s how ALRT n o i s e , be i t a n t i c i p a t e d or e x i s t i n g , and how the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , may i n f l u e n c e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f such n o i s e . ' A n t i c i p a t e d ' n o i s e i s g e n e r a l i z e d i n te rms of impac t zones when a n a l y z i n g the E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y . ' E x i s t i n g ' n o i s e r e f e r s t o the 1986 UBC S t u d y . P e r c e p t i o n s a r e a n a l y z e d f o r t he c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a and each zone of i m p a c t . The zones of impact f o r the E a s t Vancouve r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y d e f i n e d f o r the p u r p o s e s of t h i s t h e s i s d i f f e r from t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y men t ioned f o r t h e 1986 UBC S t u d y . Fo r the E a s t V a n c o u v e r Ne ighbourhoods S t u d y , t he zone of h i g h impac t e x t e n d s from the ALRT guideway t o t h e 55 dB c o n t o u r p r o j e c t e d i n the e a r l y s t u d i e s ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1983; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 3 b ) . S i n c e t h e s e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s l i m i t e d t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n s 71 t o the p r o p o s e d ALRT c o r r i d o r between E a s t Broadway and E a s t 16th A v e n u e , i t i s assumed t h a t t he a n t i c i p a t e d n o i s e impac t f o r the r e m a i n d e r o f the s t u d y a r e a would be s i m i l a r t o the p r o j e c t i o n a l o n g the e a s t s i d e of the ALRT g u i d e w a y . The d i s t a n c e from the ALRT gu ideway t o the p r o j e c t e d 55 dB L eq c o n t o u r r e m a i n s the same, e x c e p t f o r the s i d e f a c i n g C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e . N o i s e from t h i s a r t e r i a l s t r e e t l i m i t s the h i g h - i m p a c t zone t o t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s a d j a c e n t t o the p r o p o s e d g u i d e w a y . The zone of low impac t encompasses the r ema inde r o f the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a and the Nanaimo S t a t i o n A r e a west o f Nanaimo S t r e e t . S i n c e t he se n o i s e l e v e l s were a n t i c i p a t e d , and not a c t u a l , no a d j u s t m e n t t o the L eq was n e c e s s a r y . The v a r i a b l e s used i n the two s t u d i e s d i f f e r i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s . T h i s i s due t o the d i f f e r e n t t ime f rames , the s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s , and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of d a t a . Due t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r each s t u d y i s c a r r i e d out i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The v a r i a b l e s t a k e n from the 1986 UBC S tudy a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4 . 2 . At f i v e of t he 40 s u r v e y s i t e s backg round n o i s e c o n t r i b u t e s more than the ALRT t o the 24 -hour L e q . These c a s e s a r e not i n c l u d e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , s i n c e p e r c e p t i o n s c o u l d be d i s t o r t e d by the b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e . 72 T a b l e 4 . 2 : V a r i a b l e s o f t he 1986 S u r v e y Measured N o i s e and P e r c e p t i o n s ADJLEQ A d j u s t e d 24-Hour L eq EXALRTNS P e r c e i v e d E x t e n t o f ALRT N o i s e ALRTNOIS Rank of ALRT N o i s e w i t h O t h e r N o i s e S o u r c e s NOISLEVE G e n e r a l N o i s e L e v e l o f N e i g h b o u r h o o d S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s AGERES Age of the Respondent SEXRES Sex of the Respondent OCUPRESP O c c u p a t i o n of t h e Respondent ATHOME One or More Members of H o u s e h o l d A l m o s t A l w a y s a t Home BLUECOL One o r More Members o f H o u s e h o l d w i t h a B l u e - C o l l a r Job WHITECOL One o r More Members o f H o u s e h o l d w i t h a W h i t e - C o l l a r Job NOFOCCUP Number of O c c u p a n t s i n H o u s e h o l d DWELLING Type of D w e l l i n g LENGTRES L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c y a t the I n t e r v i e w S i t e NEIGUNIT N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t y F o r the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e , t he r e s p o n d e n t was a s k e d i f the ALRT c o u l d be h e a r d o u t s i d e , and then i f i t c o u l d be h e a r d i n the k i t c h e n , l i v i n g room and bedroom, and whether s l e e p i n g p a t t e r n s were a f f e c t e d . D a t a were coded as a s i x - p o i n t s c a l e . The p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d was coded as a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e . F o r b o t h o f t h e s e , a h i g h e r v a l u e i n d i c a t e d a more s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t . The rank of ALRT n o i s e was coded as 1 i f i t was the n o i s i e s t s o u r c e , 2 i f i t was the second n o i s i e s t , and so o n . R e s i d e n t s c o u l d l i s t up t o 12 s o u r c e s , though 5 was the maximum g i v e n by any r e s p o n d e n t . In o r d e r t o compare t h r e e p e r c e p t i o n s , one h a v i n g a s i x -p o i n t s c a l e ( e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e ) , a n o t h e r w i t h a f i v e - p o i n t 73 s c a l e ( n o i s i n e s s o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d ) , and a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e r a n k e d i n an o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o the o t h e r two ( r ank of ALRT n o i s e ) , r e c o d i n g was n e c e s s a r y . The e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e was changed t o a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e by c o m b i n i n g the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s ( m i n i m a l / n o i m p a c t , and n o i s e hea rd o n l y o u t s i d e ) , s i n c e t h e y were s i m i l a r i n d e s c r i b i n g the e x t e n t o f the i m p a c t . The s c a l e o f the r a n k i n g f o r ALRT n o i s e was r e v e r s e d so t h a t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the o t h e r two p e r c e p t i o n s would i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e . T h i s r e c o d i n g and r e v e r s i n g of s c a l e s a p p l i e s o n l y t o the N o n p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e p t i o n s and measured n o i s e , no t the a n a l y s i s of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e c o d i n g , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s i n c e the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e and the r a n k i n g of ALRT n o i s e a r e d i f f e r e n t methods o f s c o r i n g the same i m p a c t , t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s wou ld be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , y e t i n d e p e n d e n t o f each o t h e r . I t i s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a h i g h e r L eq wou ld r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r v a l u e f o r each of the t h r e e p e r c e p t i o n s . By c o m p a r i n g the b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the L eq w i t h each of the ' e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e ' and the ' n o i s i n e s s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' , i t may be d e t e r m i n e d w h i c h of t h e s e two p e r c e p t i o n s i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e l e v e l . The s t u d y a r e a i s d i v i d e d i n t o the two zones o f impac t i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n s between z o n e s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n each z o n e . The f i r s t s t e p i n a n a l y z i n g the 1986 UBC S tudy i s t o e s t a b l i s h a measure o f c e n t r a l t endency f o r the measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s , computed f o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a 74 and f o r each zone of i m p a c t . The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a re used f o r the a d j u s t e d 24-hour L e q , s i n c e i t i s an i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e . The median and i n t e r q u a r t i l e range a r e used f o r the t h r e e p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s , s i n c e t h e s e a r e o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s . The f r e q u e n c i e s of each p e r c e p t i o n and the a d j u s t e d 24-hour L eq a r e c a l c u l a t e d i n the C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , s e p a r a t i n g each v a l u e or rank i n t o i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s . The N o n p a r a m e t r i c c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e t e s t s f o r a b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p and s t r e n g t h of a s s o c i a t i o n between each p e r c e p t i o n and t h e measured n o i s e impact u s i n g the K e n d a l l Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , w i t h a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the m u l t i - v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e l e v e l s , t he P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i s u s e d . T h i s d e s c r i b e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the a d j u s t e d L e q , a d j u s t i n g f o r t he e f f e c t s of the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e , u s i n g p a r t i a l K e n d a l l Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The m u l t i - v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e compared t o t h e b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e same v a r i a b l e s . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 4 . 2 ) a r e u sed i n the N o n p a r a m e t r i c c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e t o o b t a i n the K e n d a l l Tau-b c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h i s t e s t s f o r the b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each of the t h r e e p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s and each s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e f o r b o t h the h i g h and l o w - i m p a c t z o n e s . A t w o - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s used f o r the v a r i a b l e s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i r s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d i n a d v a n c e : the a g e , sex and o c c u p a t i o n of t he r e s p o n d e n t , 75 h o u s e h o l d s w i t h a t l e a s t one p e r s o n h a v i n g a b l u e - c o l l a r o r w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b , and the number of o c c u p a n t s . A o n e - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s used f o r the r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s , t h o s e f o r w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r r e sponse i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n a d v a n c e : t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h one p e r s o n n e a r l y a l w a y s a t home, the t y p e of d w e l l i n g , t h e l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y , and the p e r c e i v e d degree of n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t y . T a b l e 4 . 3 : R e c o d i n g of 1986 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s Age o f Respondent 15 - 28 y e a r s = = 1 (9) 29 - 40 II = 2 (8) 41 - 64 II = 3 (7) > 65 II = 4 (9) L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c y 0 - 1 . 9 y e a r s = = 1 (9) 2 - 9 .9 II = 2 (13) > 10 II = 3 (13) Number o f O c c u p a n t s 1 ,2 --= 1 (14) 3 = = 2 (9) > 4 = = 3 (12) N o t e : Numbers i n b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e f r e q u e n c y Three v a r i a b l e s a r e r ecoded f o r an a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a s e s ( T a b l e 4 . 3 ) . P r i o r t o r e c o d i n g , t h e f r e q u e n c i e s i n d i c a t e d a wide range of a g e s , w i t h a c l u s t e r i n g of v a l u e s l e s s t han 4 0 . F o r the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y , t h e r e were many c a s e s between 0 and 2 y e a r s , w i t h a wide s c a t t e r i n g above 10 y e a r s . F o r the number o f o c c u p a n t s , t h e r e were few c a s e s between 4 and 10, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e . The E a s t Vancouve r Ne ighbourhoods S tudy measured t h e 76 p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e s i d e n t s on a v a r i e t y of m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g the ALRT under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e . T h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d t h e s u r v e y s i t e s by a b l o c k code r a t h e r than an a d d r e s s . T h u s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y the s u r v e y s i t e s , marked on a p r o p e r t y map p r o v i d e d w i t h the S t u d y . A l l the s i t e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as i n e i t h e r zone of i m p a c t , e x c e p t where a b l o c k spanned b o t h zones w i t h more than one r e s i d e n c e s u r v e y e d . F o r t h e s e c a s e s , t he b l o c k was e x c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s . S e v e r a l p e r c e p t i o n s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s t h a t r e l a t e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o the ALRT ( T a b l e 4.4). An a n a l y s i s o f the n o m i n a l v a r i a b l e s BEST, LEAST, NBRDCHG and ALRTINFO, and the p e r c e i v e d n o i s e impac t v a r i a b l e (NOISE) i s made f o r the whole s t u d y a r e a and each zone o f impac t u s i n g the C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . The o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , NOISE, NBRCHTR, NOISENBR, LCLTRFIC and PLCTRNST a r e a n a l y z e d i n t h i s manner and a l s o w i t h the N o n p a r a m e t r i c c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e t o o b t a i n the K e n d a l l Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . In t h i s p r o c e d u r e , a t w o - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s u s e d . The nex t s t e p a n a l y z e s the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . The N o n p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e i s used because o f the nar row range of c o d i n g ( t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ) f o r p e r c e i v e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e and c h a r a c t e r . A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f K e n d a l l Tau-b v a l u e s p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between each s o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e and the a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t o f the ALRT on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e l e v e l s . 77 T a b l e 4.4: V a r i a b l e s Chosen from the E a s t Vancouve r Ne ighbourhoods S tudy P e r c e p t i o n s o f R e s i d e n t s BEST 1 T h i n g L i k e d Bes t About N e i g h b o u r h o o d BEST2 T h i n g L i k e d Bes t About N e i g h b o u r h o o d LEAST1 T h i n g L i k e d L e a s t About N e i g h b o u r h o o d LEAST2 T h i n g L i k e d L e a s t About N e i g h b o u r h o o d NBRDCHG1 One Change E x p e c t e d i n N e i g h b o u r h o o d i n Nex t F i v e Y e a r s NBRDCHG2 Second Change E x p e c t e d i n N e i g h b o u r h o o d i n Nex t F i v e Y e a r s ALRTINFO M a i n Source of I n f o r m a t i o n about ALRT NBRCHTR E f f e c t o f ALRT on N e i g h b o u r h o o d C h a r a c t e r NOISE E f f e c t o f ALRT on N o i s e L e v e l s NOISENBR P r o b l e m of N o i s y N e i g h b o u r s LCLTRFIC T r a f f i c on L o c a l S t r e e t s Once ALRT Opens PLCTRNST T r a n s i t S e r v i c e A f t e r ALRT Opens S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s DWELLING Type of D w e l l i n g NBRHDTME L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c y i n N e i g h b o u r h o o d HSEOWN H o u s i n g Tenure PEOPLE Number o f Peop l e i n H o u s e h o l d AGERES Age of Respondent SEXRES Sex o f Respondent OCUPRES P r i m a r y O c c u p a t i o n of Respondent KNOW Number of P e o p l e on B l o c k Respondent Knows A t w o - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s used f o r t h o s e v a r i a b l e s where a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i r s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d i n a d v a n c e : age and sex of the r e s p o n d e n t , t he number o f p e r s o n s i n the h o u s e h o l d , and the r e s p o n d e n t ' s o c c u p a t i o n . F o r the r e m a i n i n g f o u r v a r i a b l e s , a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s u s e d . The r e c o d i n g of fou r v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 4.5) e n s u r e s an adequa te number o f c a s e s and a f a i r l y e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each 78 c e l l c a t e g o r y f o r a g e , number o f o c c u p a n t s and l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y , and i t g r o u p s the o c c u p a t i o n of the responden t i n t o t h o s e f r e q u e n t l y a t home, b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , and w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , s i m i l a r t o the 1986 UBC S t u d y . T a b l e 4 . 5 : R e c o d i n g o f E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy S o c i o - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s Age o f Respondent # o f P e o p l e L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c y 16 - 29 = 1 (89) 1 = = 1 (62) < 2 Y e a r s = 1 (97) 30 - 40 = 2 (86) 2 = = 2 (75) 2 - 4 . 9 II = 2 (62) 41 - 59 = 3 (55) 3 = = 3 (46) 5 - 9 . 9 II = 3 (46) > 60 = 4 (45) 4 = = 4 (46) 10 - 1 9 . 9 II = 4 (40) > 5 = = 5 (46) > 20 II = 5 (35) O c c u p a t i o n o f Respondent H o u s e w i f e / H u s b a n d Unemployed , Seek Work Unemployed , Not Seek Work Ret i r e d T o t a l (114) S a l e s S e r v i c e F o r e s t r y , L o g g i n g M i n i n g , Q u a r r y i n g P r o c e s s i n g , M a c h i n i n g P r o d u c t s F a b r i c a t i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t o r O t h e r Equipment O p e r a t o r M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g T o t a l (73) = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 M a n a g e r i a l , e t c . N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s S o c i a l S c i e n c e s T e a c h i n g M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h A r t i s t i c , e t c . C l e r i c a l , e t c . F u l l - t i m e S tuden t T o t a l (87) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 N o t e : Numbers i n b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e f r e q u e n c y F o r the l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y , the f r e q u e n c i e s i n d i c a t e d a s m a l l number o f c a s e s f o r h i g h e r v a l u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r 30-40 y e a r s and > 40 y e a r s . The f i r s t t h r e e g r o u p i n g s , up t o 9 .9 y e a r s , a r e i d e n t i c a l t o the c o d i n g i n the E a s t Vancouve r 79 N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y , w h i l e the l a s t two a r e r e c o d e d . F o r the number o f p e r s o n s i n the h o u s e h o l d , t h e r e were v e r y few c a s e s g r e a t e r than s e v e n . The o n l y change i n c o d i n g was t o combine t h o s e c a s e s > 5. The age o f t he r e sponden t was r e c o d e d f o r r e a s o n s s i m i l a r t o the g r o u p i n g i n the 1986 UBC S t u d y . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s found i n each s t u d y uncove r some o f the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h o u t c a r r y i n g out a d e t a i l e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s ses smen t of each r e s p o n d e n t or a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s t o w h i c h no r e s p o n s e c o u l d l i k e l y be o b t a i n e d such as p e r s o n a l i ncome . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t he o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s used f o r t h o s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s where a r e s p o n s e may be p r e d i c t e d i n a d v a n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h o s e r e m a i n i n g a t home more o f t e n may be more s e n s i t i v e t o ALRT n o i s e . F o r h o u s i n g t e n u r e , t h o s e who own t h e i r d w e l l i n g may a l s o be more s e n s i t i v e t o a new n o i s e such as the ALRT i f t h e y a r e p r o t e c t i v e o f t h e i r s i n g l e l a r g e s t i n v e s t m e n t . An impac t t h a t t h e y f e e l d i m i n i s h e s the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i l l not be welcome. The E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy v a r i a b l e , d w e l l i n g t y p e , c o u l d p roduce a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e : t h o s e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s may be more s e n s i t i v e t o ALRT n o i s e . The l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d because t h o s e who have l i v e d i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d l o n g e r may remember when i t was q u i e t e r . 80 4 . 4 . F i n d i n g s : Ways ide ALRT N o i s e 4 . 4 . 1 . P r e l i m i n a r y N o i s e Impact Assessment One o f t he most a d v e r s e ALRT impac t s e x p e c t e d by the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r (1983c) was n o i s e , p r i m a r i l y t o the s o u t h of E a s t 12th Avenue (Map 4 . 1 ) . T h i s was the r e s u l t o f the h e i g h t of the gu ideway and i t s p r o x i m i t y t o r e s i d e n c e s . The w o r s t c o n d i t i o n was e x p e c t e d i f one row of houses a l o n g the e a s t s i d e of the gu ideway were removed w i t h no r e d e v e l o p m e n t , and the ALRT were t o o p e r a t e a t peak c a p a c i t y . F i v e r e s i d e n c e s i n each b l o c k i m m e d i a t e l y e a s t o f the gu ideway between E a s t 10th Avenue and E a s t 14th Avenue wou ld be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by w a y s i d e n o i s e ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1983; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 3 b ) . U n a c c e p t a b l e o u t d o o r n o i s e l e v e l s o f 55 dB o r more were e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r up t o 48 me t r e s (156 f e e t ) from the guideway (Map 4 . 2 ) , a s suming t h a t the g round was a c o u s t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e , f l a t and f r e e of o b s t r u c t i o n s ( H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d 1 9 8 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , h i g h n o i s e l e v e l s wou ld o c c u r i n s i d e houses w i t h o u t i n s u l a t i o n and w i t h open windows f a c i n g the gu ideway ( C i t y o f Vancouver 1983b) . F o r the houses west o f t he l i n e , e x p e c t e d ou tdoo r n o i s e l e v e l s were the h i g h e s t , due t o the c o m b i n a t i o n of ways ide ALRT n o i s e and t r a f f i c on C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e (Map 4 . 3 ) . 4 . 4 . 2 . Ways ide N o i s e L e v e l s The 1986 UBC S t u d y ' s n o i s e measurements were s i n g l e - e v e n t maxima n o i s e l e v e l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the i n d o o r 15-minu te L e q . T h u s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e r t the s i n g l e - e v e n t l e v e l s t o a 2 4 - h o u r L e q . A p r e d i c t i o n was o b t a i n e d from May ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Map 4 . 1 : E x p e c t e d Impacts of the ALRT i n the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a S o u r c e : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1983a 82 Notes: 1. Noise 1s measured as a 24-hour L eq. 2. 'Potential Capacity' refers to 6-car trains running at minimum headway of 75 seconds with one row of houses expropriated and no new redevelopment. Other levels are based on projected 1986 operating schedule. Map 4 . 2 : P r e d i c t e d N o i s e C o n t o u r s (Eas t of ALRT A l i g n m e n t ) S o u r c e : C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , 1 983b 83 Notes: 1. N o i s e Is measured as a 24-hour L eq. 2. ' P o t e n t i a l C a p a c i t y ' r e f e r s to 6-car t r a i n s r u n n i n g a t minimum headway of 75 seconds. Other l e v e l s a re based on p r o j e c t e d 1986 o p e r a t i n g s c h e d u l e . Map 4 . 3 : P r e d i c t e d N o i s e C o n t o u r s (West of ALRT A l i g n m e n t ) S o u r c e : C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , 1983b 84 L eq = L ( a ) + 10 l o g ( n l ) - 49 Where: n = number of t r a i n s per hour f o r t he L eq t ime p e r i o d 1 = l e n g t h of a t r a i n (me t re s ) L ( a ) = the maximum A - w e i g h t e d sound l e v e l f o r a t r a i n p a s s - b y A c c o r d i n g t o B . C . T r a n s i t , each weekday, 263 t r a i n s p a s s t h r o u g h the s t u d y a r e a . The number of t r a i n s p e r hour (n) ove r a 24 -hour p e r i o d i s t h e r e f o r e 1 0 . 9 6 . The t o t a l number o f c a r s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h over 24 hou r s i s 932 , based on 60 t r a i n s w i t h two c a r s and 203 c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r c a r s . The a v e r a g e number o f c a r s on a weekday t r a i n i s 3 . 5 4 , c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e c a r t o t a l (932) by the t r a i n t o t a l ( 2 6 3 ) . The l e n g t h of one c a r , 12 .5 m e t r e s , m u l t i p l i e d by the ave rage number o f c a r s , 3 . 5 4 , p r o d u c e s the ave rage l e n g t h of a t r a i n ( 1 ) , 4 4 . 2 5 m e t r e s . The v a l u e s n and 1 a r e a p p l i e d t o the above e q u a t i o n t o c a l c u l a t e the 24-hour L eq f o r the ALRT p a s s - b y . F o l l o w i n g a . d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Kenne th B a r r o n of B a r r o n and A s s o c i a t e s , a c o u s t i c a l c o n s u l t a n t s , a model o f b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l s i n the s t udy a r e a was e s t a b l i s h e d ( F i g u r e 4 .2 ) i n o r d e r t o c o n v e r t s h o r t - t e r m b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l s t o a 24 -hour L e q . T h i s model assumes t h a t between 0600 h and 1800 h , b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e i s a t i t s maximum w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t d r o p between 1800 h and m i d n i g h t , and a f u r t h e r d r o p between m i d n i g h t and 0600 h . The examples of t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s a r e 60 d B , 54 dB and 48 dB r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the l o w e s t n i g h t t i m e l e v e l t o the 24-hour L eq i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . I t c anno t be i n c l u d e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s w i t h any a c c u r a c y s i n c e i t i s more t han 10 dB below t h e d a y t i m e l e v e l . The o n l y i n f l u e n c e on the 24 -hour maximum ene rgy l e v e l i s the p e r i o d between 1800 h and m i d n i g h t , when n o i s e i s 6 dB below the d a y t i m e l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , an e s t i m a t e 85 — 60 dB — 54 dB 48 dB 0600~ 180C 2400 0600 24 HOURS HDM F i g u r e 4 . 2 : Mode l o f Backg round N o i s e L e v e l s i n the S tudy A r e a S o u r c e : Kenne th B a r r o n , B a r r o n and A s s o c i a t e s 86 of the b a c k g r o u n d 24 -hour L eq i s o b t a i n e d by r e d u c i n g the d a y t i m e l e v e l by 3 d B . T a b l e 4 . 6 : Example o f Changes i n E v e n i n g and N i g h t t i m e N o i s e L e v e l s Time Change i n dB from Day t ime 1400 - 2200 h 0 2300 - 4 0000 - 8 0100 -10 0300 -12 0400 -13 0500 -10 0600 - 3 0700 0 S o u r c e : K e n n e t h B a r r o n , B a r r o n and A s s o c i a t e s , Augus t 1987. Da ta f rom B a r r o n and A s s o c i a t e s p r o v i d e an example o f e v e n i n g and n i g h t t i m e n o i s e l e v e l s r e l a t i v e t o the d a y t i m e l e v e l ( T a b l e 4 . 6 ) . In the e a r l y m o r n i n g , the n o i s e l e v e l i s as much as 13 dB be low d a y t i m e l e v e l s . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the above model w i t h i n 0 .5 d B . These l e v e l s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o the backg round n o i s e l e v e l s i n the s t udy a r e a , a c c o r d i n g t o M r . B a r r o n , and t h e s e examples f o l l o w the t r e n d of b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e e spoused by May ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The peak dBA n o i s e l e v e l s ( T a b l e 4 .7 ) a r e made up o f two componen t s : t he b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e measured between ALRT p a s s - b y s , and the ' p u r e ' ALRT p a s s - b y n o i s e . The l a t t e r i s d e f i n e d as the ALRT n o i s e u n c o n t a m i n a t e d by background n o i s e . To a r r i v e a t the pu re ALRT n o i s e l e v e l s ( T a b l e 4 . 8 ) , an ad jus tment i s made t o the c a s e s where the d i f f e r e n c e between peak p a s s - b y and b a c k g r o u n d Table 4.7: Peak dBA Noise Levels From ALRT Pass-By's and Background Noise Levels (dBA Slow) 50 FT. (15.5 M) 100 FT. DISTANCE FROM GUIDEWAY (31.0 M) 150 FT. (46.5 M) 200 FT. (62.0 M) STREET PEAK BACKGROUND PEAK BACKGROUND PEAK BACKGROUND PEAK BACKGROUND E. 11th 83 60 81 65 79 64 79 76 E. 12th 82 52 80 49 81 50 78 47 E. 13th 82 52 80 48 77 50 74 48 E. 14th 81 50 78 49 77 48 76 49 E. 15th 80 55 75 51 73 50 71 44 E. 16th 77 -- 74 -- 74 -- 69 --FINDLAY 81 52 79 55 76 58 75 54 VICTORIA DR. N. 82 65 79 55 79 57 76 57 HULL 79 54 SO 53 75 53 75 52 HULL-VICTORIA 77 60 76 60 74 61 74 68 MARSHALL 66 48 64 48 68 44 67 43 GLENGYLE 72 50 77 50 75 54 73 53 LAKEWOOD 79 43 73 47 70 42 69 42 SIDNEY 87 53 78 55 78 49 78 55 VANNESS E. of Lakewood 82 48 -- -- -- -- — --VANNESS W. of Gladstone 89 48 -- -- -- -- -- --GLADSTONE N. of Guideway 75 50 69 45 67 47 65 47 GLADSTONE S. of Guideway 80 50 76 43 72 56 67 46 WALKER 80 47 75 46 73 46 71 48 VANNESS E. of Gladstone 86 51 -- -- -- -- -- --VANNESS W. of Brant 85 47 -- -- -- -- -- --BRANT 76 46 77 45 75 50 71 63 NANAIMO N. of Guideway 80 65 75 65 74 64 74 68 Source: 1986 UBC Study Table 4.8: Stngle-Event Pure ALRT Pass-By Noise L e v e l s and 24-Hour L eq STREET E . E . E . E . E . E . 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th FINDLAY VICTORIA DR. N. HULL HULL-VICTORIA MARSHALL GLENGYLE LAKEWOOD SIDNEY VANNESS E L'wood VANNESS W G'stone GLADSTONE N. GLADSTONE S. WALKER VANNESS E G'stone VANNESS W Brant BRANT NANAIMO N. 50 FT. (15.5 M) DISTANCE FROM GUIDEWAY 100 FT. (31.0 M) 150 FT. (46.5 M) 200 FT. (62.0 M) SINGLE-EVENT 24-HOUR L eq SINGLE-EVENT 24-HOUR L eq SINGLE-EVENT 24-HOUR L eq SINGLE-EVENT 24-HOUR L eq 83 61 81 59 79 57 76 54 82 60 80 58 81 59 78 56 82 60 80 58 77 55 74 52 81 59 78 56 77 55 76 54 80 58 75 53 73 51 71 49 77 55 74 52 74 52 69 47 81 59 79 57 76 54 75 53 82 60 79 57 79 57 76 54 79 57 80 58 75 53 75 53 77 55 76 54 74 52 73 51 66 44 64 42 68 46 67 45 72 50 77 55 75 53 73 51 79 57 73 51 70 48 69 47 87 65 78 56 78 56 78 56 82 60 -- -- -- -- -- --89 67 -- -- -- -- -- — 75 53 69 47 67 45 65 43 80 58 76 54 72 50 67 45 80 58 75 53 73 51 71 49 86 64 -- -- -- -- -- --85 53 -- -- -- -- -- --76 54 77 55 75 53 70 48 80 58 75 53 74 52 73 51 Source: C a l c u l a t e d from 1986 UBC Study 89 n o i s e i s < 10 d B . F o r the c a s e s where the d i f f e r e n c e i s ^ 10 d B , the peak ALRT n o i s e i s e q u a l t o the pure ALRT n o i s e l e v e l . These s i n g l e - e v e n t pu re ALRT p a s s - b y l e v e l s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a 24-hour L eq u s i n g the f o r m u l a g i v e n by May ( 1 9 7 6 ) . B a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l s a r e r e d u c e d by 3 dB i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e model t o o b t a i n a 24-hour L e q . When c o m b i n i n g two u n c o r r e l a t e d n o i s e l e v e l s , s u c h as the background 24-hour L eq and the ALRT p a s s - b y 2 4 - h o u r L e q , i f the d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s £ 10 d B , the g r e a t e r o f t he two l e v e l s e q u a l s t he t o t a l 24 -hour L e q . However , i f t he d i f f e r e n c e i s < 10 d B , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r t o the a p p r o p r i a t e c h a r t ( F i g u r e 4 . 3 ) . To add two L eq t o g e t h e r , the f i r s t s t e p i s t o f i n d the n u m e r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the t w o . Mov ing h o r i z o n t a l l y t o the y - a x i s , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e on t h i s a x i s i s added t o the l a r g e r of t he two L eq t o d e t e r m i n e the t o t a l 24 -hour L e q . 3 A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a v e r t i c a l l i n e may be f o l l o w e d t o the x - a x i s , where the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e i s added to the s m a l l e r o f the two L e q . " T h i s p r o c e d u r e d e t e r m i n e s a t o t a l 24 -hour L eq f o r each s i t e (Tab l e 4 . 9 ) . Those l e v e l s shown i n b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the 24-hour L eq f o r b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e i s g r e a t e r than the 24 -hour L eq f o r the ALRT p a s s - b y s . I n t h e s e few c a s e s , b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e has more i n f l u e n c e on the t o t a l L eq than the A L R T . 3 F o r i n s t a n c e , i f t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the two L e q , t hen 3 dB i s added t o o b t a i n t h e t o t a l L e q . u F o r example , i f the b a c k g r o u n d L eq i s 6 dB l o w e r t han the ALRT p a s s - b y L e q , 7 dB i s added t o the b a c k g r o u n d t o d e t e r m i n e the t o t a l 24-hour L e q . 90 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 DECIBELS NUMERICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TOTAL AND SMALLER LEVELS F i g u r e 4 . 3 : C h a r t f o r C o m b i n i n g U n c o r r e l a t e d N o i s e L e v e l s S o u r c e : Voorhees and A s s o c i a t e s , 1979 Table 4.9: Total 24-Hour L eq (Dec(bels) DISTANCE FROM GUIDEWAY STREET 50 FT. (15.5 M) 100 FT. (31.0 M) 150 FT. (46.5 M) 200 FT. (62.0 M) E. 11th 62 [64] [62] [73] E. 12th 60 58 57 53 E. 13th 60 58 56 53 E. 14th 59 56 55 55 E. 15th 59 54 52 50 FINDLAY 59 58 [58] 55 VICTORIA DR. N. [64] 58 59 57 HULL 58 59 55 54 HULL-VICTORIA [59] [59] [59] [65] MARSHALL [48] [47] 47 46 GLENGYLE 52 56 55 54 LAKEWOOD 57 52 49 48 SIDNEY 65 57 56 57 VANNESS East of Lakewood 60 -- -- --VANNESS West of Gladstone 67 -- -- — GLADSTONE N. of Guideway 54 48 48 [47] GLADSTONE S. of Guideway 58 54 [55] 47 WALKER 58 53 52 50 VANNESS East of Gladstone 64 -- -- --VANNESS West of Brant 63 -- -- --BRANT 54 55 54 [60] NANAIMO N. of Guideway ' [63] [62] [61] [65] Source: C a l c u l a t e d from 1986 UBC Note: Brackets [ ] Indicate that Study background noise c o n t r i b u t e s more to the 24-hour L eq than the ALRT pass-by. 92 F o r each of t he 40 r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s a t o t a l 24 -hour L eq was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e ( T a b l e 4 . 1 0 ) . In t h i s c a s e the peak n o i s e l e v e l s were a v e r a g e d ove r f o u r t o e i g h t p a s s - b y s u s i n g an e q u a l number o f measurements from t h e near and f a r t r a c k s . The l o c a t i o n of the 24-hour L eq f o r c r o s s - s t r e e t s and r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s (Maps 4 . 4 a and 4 .4b ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e many p o i n t s a l o n g the Broadway-Nanaimo segment o f the ALRT l i n e where n o i s e l e v e l s a r e a t l e a s t 55 d B . A l o n g t h r e e s t r e e t s the b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e , i n t h i s case t r a f f i c , c o n t r i b u t e s more t o the 24 -hour L eq than the ALRT p a s s - b y : E a s t 11th A v e n u e , V i c t o r i a D r i v e and Nanaimo S t r e e t . These a r e some o f the h i g h e s t measurements i n the s t u d y a r e a , i n c r e a s i n g w i t h g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the g u i d e w a y . W h i l e t h e r e i s a n e g a t i v e n o i s e i m p a c t , i t i s not due t o the A L R T . No f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e l e v e l s i s n e c e s s a r y . V i r t u a l l y a l l the o t h e r f i g u r e s show t h a t n o i s e l e v e l s d e c r e a s e t o v a r y i n g degrees w i t h i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e from the s o u r c e . The a v e r a g e L eq a t each o f the f o u r 5 0 - f o o t i n c r e m e n t s a r e 5 8 . 0 d B , 54.1 d B , 52 .6 dB and 50 .4 d B . S i n c e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the gu ideway v a r y , the a n a l y s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s : the a r e a from Broadway t o H u l l S t r e e t , and e a s t o f H u l l S t r e e t t o Nanaimo S t r e e t . The ALRT n o i s e impac t a l o n g E a s t Broadway and E a s t 10th Avenue i s m i n i m a l s i n c e the t r a f f i c p r o d u c e s a h i g h b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l and the t r a i n s move a t a s low speed near the s t a t i o n . Fo r the r e m a i n d e r of s t r e e t s as f a r s o u t h as H u l l , e x c e p t f o r E a s t 15 th A v e n u e , the L eq r ema ins h i g h up t o 200 Table 4.10: Outdoor 24-Hour L eq at Residential Sites ALRT PASS-BY OUTDOOR dBA BACKGROUND dBA SURVEY SITE AVERAGE PURE PASS-BY 24-HR L eq SINGLE-EVENT 24-HOUR L eq TOTAL 24-HOUR L eq 01 80.6 81 59 50.0 47 59 02 75 .0 75 53 50.0 47 54 03 77 .3 77 55 54 .0 51 56 04 75.0 75 53 46.0 43 53 05 72 .6 73 51 50.0 I 47 52 06 77 . 3 77 55 I 46.0 43 55 07 72 .4 72 50 46 .0 43 51 08 66 .6 67 45 42 .0 39 46 09 71.4 71 49 45 .0 42 50 10 80.6 81 59 60. 1 57 61 1 1 80.4 80 58 56.5 54 59 12 76 .6 77 55 58.0 55 58 13 67.8 68 46 56.6 54 [55] 14 73 .9 74 52 58.0 55 [57] 15 87 .0 87 65 55 . 5 53 65 16 76 .8 77 55 55 .0 52 57 17 75.4 75 53 54 .0 51 55 18 84.7 85 63 62 .0 59 64 19 64.5 65 43 45 .0 42 46 20 64 .8 65 43 42.0 39 44 21 87.5 88 66 42.0 39 66 22 80.7 81 59 51 .0 48 59 23 77 .8 78 56 44 .0 41 56 24 67.8 68 46 48 .0 45 49 25 72 .5 73 51 54 .0 51 54 26 63.7 64 42 50.0 47 [48] 27 76 . 1 76 54 54 .0 51 56 28 68.8 69 47 46 .0 43 48 29 72.8 73 51 48.0 45 52 30 71.5 72 50 52.0 49 53 31 69 .0 69 47 44 .0 41 48 32 76 .3 76 54 47 .0 44 54 33 62 . 2 62 40 39 .0 36 4 1 34 78.7 79 57 55.0 52 58 35 78.6 79 57 50.0 47 57 36 67 .0 66 44 62.0 59 [59] 37 59.8 60 38 46.0 53 [44] 38 73.4 73 51 51 .8 49 53 39 73 .0 73 51 47 . 1 44 52 40 75.3 75 53 54 .5 52 56 Source: Calculated from 1986 UBC Study Note: BracKets [ ] Indicate that the background noise level contributes more to the 24-hour L eq than the ALRT pass-by. NT WW I> 1 1 \ \ ! | i B R O A D W A Y 1 ! l ! r i I I i i i r i 1 1 T E N T H A V E . ! i ! 1 I -J 1 1" 1 i l i f r 1 1 i j j : i E L E V E N T H A V E . <-> 1 J 1 1 .. i ' I I ' l 1 1 ==1 . 0 0 J l i b - T * t - r -J U [64] i i r r 62 [62 1 u a 8 Notes: i . A l l n o i s e l e v e l s are measured in dB < A 1. 2. Those l e v e l s with brackets [ ] i n d i c a t e that the background noi s e exceeds the ALRT pass-by l e v e l . 3. The symool '•' r e f e r s to no i se measurements at res i dent i a 1 s i tes. Map 4.4a: Total 24-Hour L eq 95 96 f ee t e a s t o f t he g u i d e w a y . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the impact p r e d i c t e d by H a r f o r d Kennedy W a k e f i e l d ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The p r o p e r t i e s t o the west o f the guideway a re i m p a c t e d by t h e ALRT up t o the r e a r b u i l d i n g f a c e . In the f r o n t y a r d s f a c i n g C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e , t r a f f i c n o i s e l i m i t s the scope of the ALRT n o i s e i m p a c t . E a s t o f H u l l S t r e e t , the i m p a c t s d i f f e r i n i n t e n s i t y and d i s t a n c e . To the n o r t h o f the gu ideway the n o i s e exceeds 55 dB a t 50 f e e t , w h i l e a t g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s t h e l e v e l s a r e a c c e p t a b l e . A l o n g M a r s h a l l S t r e e t , Lakewood D r i v e , G l a d s t o n e S t r e e t and W a l k e r S t r e e t , the t o p o g r a p h y d r o p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the n o r t h o f the g u i d e w a y . T h i s c o u l d d i s p e r s e the n o i s e above the h o u s e s . To t h e s o u t h o f t he guideway t h e n o i s e l e v e l s remain h i g h a t 150 f e e t . T h i s may be the r e s u l t o f an a t - g r a d e guideway a d j a c e n t t o G l e n g y l e , S i d n e y and G l a d s t o n e S t r e e t s and a s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e moving away from t h e g u i d e w a y . The open space of t he G l a d s t o n e S c h o o l g rounds r e d u c e s the b u f f e r i n g p r o v i d e d by houses i n o t h e r a r e a s . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s f o r n o i s e and d i s t a n c e f o r the whole s t u d y a r e a shows a marked c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = - 0 . 7 2 2 , p < . 0 0 0 1 ) , and the model e x p l a i n s o v e r h a l f o f the o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e ( r 2 = 0 . 5 2 1 ) . When the l o g of d i s t a n c e i s s u b s t i t u t e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i m i l a r ( r = - 0 . 7 2 3 , p < . 0 0 0 1 ) , and an e q u a l amount o f o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d ( r 2 = 0 . 5 2 3 ) . The l o g of d i s t a n c e i s p r e f e r r e d o v e r d i s t a n c e as the independen t v a r i a b l e , s i n c e i t f o l l o w s the a p p l i c a b l e t h e o r y from the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s e q u a l l y as good a p r e d i c t o r o f n o i s e , and i t i s more r e l i a b l e as a b a s i s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e . 97 F o r d i s t a n c e , t he a s sumpt ion of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i s v i o l a t e d , as t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e skew ( 0 . 6 4 4 ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e i s ' p l a t y k u r t i c ' ; i n o t h e r words , i t i s l e s s peaked than n o r m a l . The no rma l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t of o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s i d u a l s shows the former e x c e e d i n g the l a t t e r a t t he h i g h e s t v a l u e s of d i s t a n c e . O b s e r v e d p o i n t s l i e be low the e x p e c t e d i n the m i d - r a n g e v a l u e s o f d i s t a n c e . The s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a t t e r p l o t s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the s p r e a d of r e s i d u a l s . The a s s u m p t i o n o f h o m o s e e d a s t i c i t y i s v i o l a t e d . F o r the l o g of d i s t a n c e , the a s s u m p t i o n of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i s v i o l a t e d , but t o a l e s s e r deg ree than w i t h d i s t a n c e . The re i s l e s s skew ( - 0 . 4 1 4 ) , w h i l e the k u r t o s i s i n d i c a t e s a p l a t y k u r t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e ( - 0 . 5 5 2 ) . The p l o t o f o b s e r v e d v e r s u s e x p e c t e d r e s i d u a l s i s n o r m a l , e x c e p t f o r one p o i n t where the o b s e r v e d i s l e s s than the e x p e c t e d . The s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a t t e r p l o t of r e s i d u a l s shows t h a t t h e r e a r e fewer i s o l a t e d r e s i d u a l s , and the s p r e a d i s more c o n t a i n e d than w i t h d i s t a n c e . T h u s , f o r the l o g of d i s t a n c e , t he a s s u m p t i o n o f h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y i s v i o l a t e d , but t o a l e s s e r degree than f o r d i s t a n c e . The 2 4 - h o u r L eq ranges from 63 .8 dB t o 48 .8 dB f o r the 93 c a s e s , shown by the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e i n the s c a t t e r g r a m f o r n o i s e and l o g of d i s t a n c e ( F i g u r e 4 . 4 ) . The e q u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n o i s e t o the l o g of d i s t a n c e i s : 24-HOUR L eq = 7 9 . 9 9 - 12 .45 LOGDISTANCE. N o i s e i s a n a l y z e d w i t h the d i s t a n c e from the gu ideway p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o t h r e e segments , d i v i d e d a t p o i n t s r o u g h l y t w o -Figure 4.4: Scattergram: Noise (24-Hour L eq) and Log of Distance DOWN: NOISE 67 . 0 • 1 . l O O 1 .300 1. 5 0 0 ACROSS: LOGOIST 1 .700 1 .900 2 . 1 0 0 2 . GOO 2 . 5 0 O 2 . 7 0 0 2 . 9 0 0 64 . 4 6 1.8 59 . 2 56 . 6 54 . 0 5 1 . 4 46 2 43 . 6 4 1.0 + 2 2 * * 67 . 0 64 . 4 6 1 . 8 5 9 . 2 56 .6 54 . 0 5 1 . 4 48 .8 46 . 2 43 .6 4 1 .O CO I .OOO 1 .200 1 .400 1 .600 1 .800 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 0 0 2 . 4 0 0 2 . 6 0 0 2 . 8 0 0 3.OOO 99 t h i r d s the whee l s p a c i n g and t w o - t h i r d s the t r a i n l e n g t h (Towers 1980 ) . The f i r s t d i v i d i n g p o i n t i s t he t r a i n whee l s p a c i n g ( b ) . The second d i v i d i n g p o i n t i s t he ave rage l e n g t h of a t r a i n ( 1 ) . The v a l u e o f b i s i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o the l e n g t h o f an ALRT c a r , 4 0 . 6 f e e t , w h i l e 1 was p r e v i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d as 143.8 f e e t . Thus the two p o i n t s d i v i d i n g the l o g of d i s t a n c e i n t o t h r e e segments a r e : 2 ( 4 0 . 6 ) / T T = 2 5 . 9 f e e t , and 2 ( 1 4 3 . 8 ) / w = 9 1 . 6 f e e t . T a b l e 4 . 1 1 : R e l a t i o n s h i p o f N o i s e and Log o f D i s t a n c e A l l C a s e s : r = - 0 . 7 2 3 2 S i g . = 0 .0000 n = 93 Change i n L eq = - 1 5 . 0 dB > 2 5 . 9 and < 9 1 . 6 F e e t : r = - 0 . 3 9 0 5 S i g . = 0 .0149 n = 31 Change i n L eq = - 7 . 5 dB > 91 .6 and < 320 F e e t : r = - 0 . 6 0 0 9 S i g . = 0 .0000 n = 59 Change i n L eq = - 8 . 9 dB N o t e : r and S i g canno t be c a l c u l a t e d f o r the segment up t o 25 .9 f e e t due t o the s m a l l number of c a s e s (n=3) . F o r the f i r s t segment , up t o 2 5 . 9 f e e t ( c o n v e r t e d l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y ) , t he s l o p e , r v a l u e and s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e not c o m p u t a b l e s i n c e t h e r e a r e o n l y 3 c a s e s ( T a b l e 4 . 1 1 ) . In the second segment , the r v a l u e i n d i c a t e s a c o r r e l a t i o n of - 0 . 3 9 0 5 between n o i s e and l o g of d i s t a n c e , but o n l y 15% of the o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e model ( r 2 = 0 . 1 5 2 ) . In the t h i r d 1 00 segment , the r = - 0 . 6 0 0 9 . In t h i s c a s e , 36% of the o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d ( r 2 = 0 . 3 6 1 ) . I n the second segment the skew i s n e g l i g i b l e ( 0 . 1 8 2 ) . However , t he k u r t o s i s i s e v i d e n t l y l e p t o k u r t i c ( 1 . 4 0 8 ) , as shown on the h i s t o g r a m . The normal p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t of the o b s e r v e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d u a l s i n d i c a t e s a g r e a t e r number than e x p e c t e d under the a s s u m p t i o n of n o r m a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t he a s s u m p t i o n o f b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y may be v i o l a t e d . The s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a t t e r p l o t s u g g e s t s t h a t a t t he low and h i g h v a l u e s o f l o g of d i s t a n c e , t h e r e i s more of a s c a t t e r i n g of r e s i d u a l s , and the g r e a t e s t s p r e a d l i e s a l o n g one p o i n t o f l o g of d i s t a n c e . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t i n t h i s segment o f d i s t a n c e from the g u i d e w a y , the r e a d i n g s o f n o i s e t a k e n a t one p o i n t (50 f e e t ) v a r y n o t i c e a b l y , as shown i n the s c a t t e r g r a m ( A p p e n d i x C ) . The a s s u m p t i o n of h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y i s v i o l a t e d s i n c e each c o n d i t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the e r r o r does not have c o n s t a n t v a r i a n c e . In the t h i r d segment, the skew f o r l o g of d i s t a n c e i s m i n i m a l ( 0 . 1 5 7 ) , but i t i s n e g a t i v e f o r n o i s e ( - 0 . 7 1 1 ) . T h i s skew i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the h i s t o g r a m . The k u r t o s i s i s p l a t y k u r t i c ( - 1 . 0 6 9 ) f o r l o g of d i s t a n c e . The no rma l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t o f the o b s e r v e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d u a l s shows fewer t han e x p e c t e d , excep t where the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e s i d u a l s o c c u r s , and the o b s e r v e d e x c e e d the e x p e c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t he a s s u m p t i o n of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i s v i o l a t e d . The s t a n a r d i z e d s c a t t e r p l o t s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r t h r e e p o i n t s o f l o g o f d i s t a n c e , t h e r e i s a l a r g e s p r e a d of r e s i d u a l s . These p o i n t s a r e e v i d e n t l y 100 f e e t , 150 f e e t and 200 f e e t . The 101 a s s u m p t i o n of h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y i s v i o l a t e d i n t h i s segment o f d i s t a n c e from the g u i d e w a y . The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s f o r t he s c a t t e r g r a m s f o r t he se second and t h i r d segments ( A p p e n d i x C) show a r e d u c t i o n i n the 24-hour L eq o f 7 .5 dB and 8 .9 d B . The r e d u c t i o n i n the m i d d l e segment i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 .4 dB pe r d i s t a n c e d o u b l i n g , 0 .4 dB more than e x p e c t e d . The r e d u c t i o n i n the t h i r d segment i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5.2 dB pe r d i s t a n c e d o u b l i n g , 0 .8 dB l e s s than e x p e c t e d . The s l o p e i n the f i r s t segment , b , , i s - 1 4 . 8 5 , p l o t t e d f o r 31 c a s e s . The s l o p e i n the s econd segment , b 2 , i s - 1 6 . 5 , p l o t t e d f o r 59 c a s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the s l o p e s i s - 1 . 6 5 . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( H 0 ) o f no d i f f e r e n c e between the two s l o p e s i n each p o p u l a t i o n i s t e s t e d ( i . e . H 0 : B , - B 2 = 0 ) . Assuming e q u a l v a r i a n c e s i n the two p o p u l a t i o n s , the 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r B , - B 2 was c a l c u l a t e d as 0 .9035 < B , - B 2 < 2 .3965 w i t h 86 deg ree s of f r eedom. T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between ALRT n o i s e and the l o g of d i s t a n c e f o r c r o s s - s t r e e t s and s u r v e y s i t e s between the Broadway S t a t i o n and H u l l S t r e e t ( r = - 0 . 8 3 3 , p < .0001) shows t h a t n e a r l y 70% of the o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i n the dependent i s e x p l a i n e d by the model ( r 2 = 0 . 6 9 4 ) . Fo r the a r e a e a s t of H u l l S t r e e t and west of Nanaimo S t r e e t , the c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t ( r = - 0 . 7 7 3 , p < . 0 0 0 1 ) , but l e s s o f the o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e (54%) i s e x p l a i n e d ( r 2 = 0 . 5 3 8 ) . F o r t he B r o a d w a y - H u l l p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y a r e a , the a s s u m p t i o n of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y may be v i o l a t e d , as s u g g e s t e d by the no rma l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t of o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d 102 r e s i d u a l s , and by the h i s t o g r a m . A l t h o u g h the skew f o r the d e p e n d e n t , n o i s e , appea r s t o be m i n i m a l ( - 0 . 2 7 0 ) , t he same f i g u r e f o r t h e independen t v a r i a b l e , l o g of d i s t a n c e , s u g g e s t s a skew i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n ( - 0 . 6 6 4 ) . The k u r t o s i s i s - 0 . 3 3 0 . The a s s u m p t i o n of h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y appea r s t o be v i o l a t e d . There i s a w ide s p r e a d of r e s i d u a l s f o r t he l o w e s t v a l u e s o f l o g o f d i s t a n c e . The d rop i n n o i s e from 63 dB t o 4 9 . 5 dB i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r t he c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a . The e q u a t i o n i s : 24-HOUR L eq = 75 .84 - 9 .73 LOGDISTANCE. In the H u l l - N a n a i m o p o r t i o n of t he s t u d y a r e a , the a s s u m p t i o n of b i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y may be a c c e p t e d , s u g g e s t e d by t h e n o r m a l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t of o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d r e s i d u a l s . F o r the independen t v a r i a b l e , l o g of d i s t a n c e , t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no skew ( 0 . 0 2 9 ) , w h i l e the k u r t o s i s i s p l a t y k u r t i c ( - 1 . 3 2 8 ) . The skew and k u r t o s i s f o r the dependent i s n e a r l y n o r m a l , 0 .288 and 0 .179 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a s s u m p t i o n o f h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y may be a c c e p t e d due t o the even s p r e a d o f r e s i d u a l s . The e q u a t i o n f o r t h i s p o r t i o n of the s t u d y a r e a i s : 24-HOUR L eq = 85 .43 - 15.71 LOGDISTANCE. A t e s t i s pe r fo rmed f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t from t h e B r o a d w a y - H u l l s e c t i o n of t he ALRT l i n e ( r , ) and the c o e f f i c i e n t from the H u l l - N a n a i m o s e c t i o n ( r 2 ) , t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t hey were drawn from the same p o p u l a t i o n . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the r v a l u e s ( i . e . H 0 : r , = r 2 ) . E a c h c o e f f i c i e n t i s t r a n s f o r m e d t o a Z v a l u e , Z , and Z 2 , u s i n g t h e F i s h e r ' s Z t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . A z v a l u e i s o b t a i n e d from the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of the s a m p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between Z , and Z 2 v a l u e s . T h i s z v a l u e i s compared 1 03 t o the c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t i e s under H 0 o f z . In t h i s c a s e , z = - 1 . 2 1 . Compar ing z t o the c r i t i c a l v a l u e , the o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ext reme v a l u e s o f z under the n o r m a l c u r v e ( i . e . the p r o b a b i l i t y of r e j e c t i n g H 0 ) i s 0 . 1 1 3 1 . T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s not r e j e c t e d . 4 . 4 . 3 . Impact Zones The 55 dB L eq c o n t o u r l i n e i s the p o i n t a t w h i c h n o i s e l e v e l s a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (CMHC 1981) , and f o l l o w i n g an a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e L e q , the boundary between the h i g h and l o w - i m p a c t zones i s d e f i n e d (Maps 4 .5a and 4 . 5 b ) . The ad ju s tmen t t o the 24-hour L eq was made by the w r i t e r , based on an a s sessment o f . p r e v i o u s communi ty exposu re and b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e l e v e l s ( U . S . E P A , 1972 ) . H u l l S t r e e t i s used as the d i v i d i n g l i n e between two c a t e g o r i e s of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h i s i s j u s t i f i e d by the ave rage b a c k g r o u n d 24 -hour L eq t a k e n a t a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s u r v e y s i t e s and c r o s s - s t r e e t s . From E a s t Broadway , up t o and i n c l u d i n g H u l l S t r e e t , t h i s L eq i s 51 d B . T h i s i s due t o the p r o x i m i t y o f a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s such as E a s t Broadway , Commerc i a l D r i v e , and V i c t o r i a D r i v e / V i c t o r i a D i v e r s i o n . T h i s c o n f i r m s t h a t the a r e a between E a s t Broadway and H u l l S t r e e t i s a ' n o i s y urban r e s i d e n t i a l communi ty ' under the U . S . EPA c r i t e r i a . An a d j u s t m e n t w o u l d r educe the t o t a l 24 -hour L eq a t each of t he s u r v e y s i t e s and c r o s s - s t r e e t s by 5 d B . However , s i n c e t h e community had no p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the ALRT n o i s e a t the t i m e of measurement , an a d j u s t m e n t o f +5 dB would be i n o r d e r . These two a d j u s t m e n t s c a n c e l each o t h e r , r e s u l t i n g i n no 104 50 100 150 M 105 1 06 c o r r e c t i o n t o the t o t a l 24 -hour L eq between E a s t Broadway and H u l l S t r e e t . Q u i e t s i d e s t r e e t s a r e l o c a t e d t o the e a s t o f H u l l S t r e e t and west of Nanaimo S t r e e t . The a v e r a g e b a c k g r o u n d L eq i s 46 d B , o r 47 dB i n c l u d i n g Nanaimo S t r e e t . They a r e removed f a r enough from the t r a f f i c n o i s e o f K ingsway and V i c t o r i a D r i v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d an ' u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l communi ty ' by U . S . EPA c r i t e r i a . On t h i s b a s i s no c o r r e c t i o n t o the L eq i s n e c e s s a r y , but s i n c e t h e r e was no p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the n o i s e 5 dB i s added t o the t o t a l 24-hour L e q . The zone of h i g h impac t does not f u l l y e x t e n d t o e i t h e r s t a t i o n . Between the Broadway S t a t i o n and the l a n e s o u t h of E a s t 10th Avenue (Map 4 . 5 a ) , no n o i s e measurements were t a k e n , and i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t r a f f i c from Broadway and C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e was the dominant n o i s e s o u r c e . The same c a s e i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the a r e a where the guideway c r o s s e s Nanaimo S t r e e t (Map 4 . 5 b ) . The a r e a a d j a c e n t t o the s t a t i o n s may be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t r a f f i c n o i s e , bu t ALRT n o i s e p l a y s a s e c o n d a r y r o l e . I t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s t h e s i s t o d e c i p h e r a zone of h i g h impact r e s u l t i n g from o t h e r n o i s e s o u r c e s . There a r e 66 s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d u n i t s l o c a t e d i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , and 68 u n i t s c l a s s i f i e d as d u p l e x e s , a p a r t m e n t s under 5 s t o r e y s , o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y c o n v e r s i o n s . Based on Census e s t i m a t e s of 3.1 and 2 . 0 p e r s o n s per u n i t r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 341 p e r s o n s r e s i d e d i n t h i s zone i n 1986. 1 07 4 . 5 . R e s i d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n s 4 . 5 . 1 . 1986 UBC S tudy The mean and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r the measured n o i s e impac t and the median and p e r c e n t i l e s f o r the t h r e e p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s p r e s e n t s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s ( T a b l e 4 . 1 2 ) . T a b l e 4 . 1 2 : Means and M e d i a n s o f P e r c e i v e d and Measured N o i s e Impacts Mean S t a n d a r d I n t e r q u a r t i l e Var i a b l e Case s (Median) D e v i a t i o n Range ADJLEQ 35 56 .77 5.4020 EXALRTNS 35 ( 5 . 0 ) 2 . 0 ALRTNOIS 34 ( 1 . 0 ) 2 . 0 NOISLEVE 35 ( 4 . 0 ) 2 . 0 Zone o f H i g h Impact ADJLEQ 23 59 .78 3.6799 EXALRTNS 23 ( 5 . 0 ) 1.0 ALRTNOIS 22 ( 1 . 5 ) 2 . 0 NOISLEVE 23 ( 4 . 0 ) 2 . 0 Zone o f Low Impact ADJLEQ 1 2 51 .00 2.7961 EXALRTNS 1 2 ( 5 . 0 ) 2 . 5 ALRTNOIS 1 2 ( 1 . 0 ) 1 .0 NOISLEVE 1 2 ( 3 . 0 ) 1 .75 The measured n o i s e impac t i n i t he s t u d y a r e a , c a l c u l a t e d as the a d j u s t e d 24- hour L e q , i s s l i g h t l y above the a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t of 55 dB (mean = 56 .8 d B , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n = 5 . 4 0 2 ) . There i s a w i d e r range : o f n o i s e l e v e l s i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , l a r g e l y due t o s e v e r a l l e v e l s above 60 d B . The mean i s an u n a c c e p t a b l e 1 08 l e v e l , 59 .8 d B . In the zone of low impac t the mean i s 5 1 . 0 d B . The p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e r anges from 1 t o 6 . The median i s h i g h ( 5 . 0 ) , and does n o t d i f f e r between the two z o n e s . However , t h e r e i s more of a v a r i a t i o n a round the median i n the zone of low i m p a c t , s u g g e s t i n g a w i d e r range of p e r c e p t i o n s t oward ALRT n o i s e . The median of r e s i d e n t s ' r a n k i n g o f ALRT n o i s e w i t h o t h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e s (ALRTNOIS) v a r i e s s l i g h t l y between the two z o n e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h o s e i n the h i g h - i m p a c t zone rank o t h e r s o u r c e s b e s i d e s the ALRT as bo thersome (median = 1 . 5 ) . Those i n the zone of low impac t rank fewer n o i s e s o u r c e s , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g a l o w e r median of 1 .0 . The median f o r the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s o f t he n e i g h b o u r h o o d (NOISLEVE) i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y h i g h e r i n the zone of h i g h impac t ( 4 . 0 ) t h a n the zone of low impac t ( 3 . 0 ) . There i s s l i g h t l y l e s s v a r i a t i o n a round the median i n the zone o f low i m p a c t . The 24 -hour L eq f o r background n o i s e c o n f i r m s t h a t the h i g h - i m p a c t zone i s the n o i s i e r o f the two , even w i t h o u t t he A L R T : the a v e r a g e L eq a r e 49 .3 dB and 44 .0 dB i n each zone r e s p e c t i v e l y . The K e n d a l l Tau-b c o e f f i c i e n t s ( T a b l e 4 .13 ) show t h a t f o r the c o m p l e t e s t udy a r e a , among the p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the t h r e e p e r c e p t i o n s , the s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e and the r a n k i n g of ALRT n o i s e ( 0 . 4 3 8 0 , SIG . 0 0 2 ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t as t he ALRT i s p e r c e i v e d t o be n o i s i e r , i t i s r a n k e d as the most bothersome of a l l n o i s e s o u r c e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the zone of h i g h impac t ( 0 . 5 8 4 6 , SIG . 0 0 1 ) . 1 09 T a b l e 4 . 1 3 : K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Measu red and P e r c e i v e d N o i s e Impacts B o t h Zones Zone of H i g h Impact Zone of Low Impact EXALRTNS w i t h ADJLEQ 0 .1850 S i g = 0 .083 (35) 0 .0050 S i g = 0 .489 (23) 0 .2785 S i g = 0 .125 (12) EXALRTNS w i t h ALRTNOIS 0 .4360 S i g = 0 .002 (34) 0 .5846 S i g = 0.001 (22) 0 .3537 S i g = 0 .086 (12) EXALRTNS w i t h NOISLEVE 0 .3866 S i g = 0 .003 (35) 0 .3335 S i g = 0.034 (23) 0 .3587 S i g = 0 .078 (12) ADJLEQ w i t h ALRTNOIS 0 .0672 S i g = 0 .312 (34) 0 .2404 S i g = 0.087 (22) 0 .3586 S i g = 0 .078 (12) ADJLEQ w i t h NOISLEVE 0 .3765 S i g = 0 .002 (35) 0 .2110 S i g = 0.108 (23) - 0 . 0 5 4 2 S i g = 0 .413 (12) ALRTNOIS w i t h NOISLEVE 0 .4146 S i g = 0 .002 (34) 0 .4706 S i g = 0 .006 (22) 0 .6050 S i g = 0.011 (12) 1 10 S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s i d e n t s ' o p i n i o n o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e and t h e rank of the ALRT n o i s e w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s ( 0 . 4 1 4 6 , SIG . 0 0 2 ) . T h u s , as the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s e v a l u a t e d as n o i s i e r , the ALRT i s r a n k e d as the most a u d i b l e s o u r c e . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o a p p l i e s t o each zone of i m p a c t . There i s a t endency f o r h i g h e r v a l u e s f o r the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r v a l u e s f o r the p e r c e i v e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e ( 0 . 3 8 6 6 , SIG . 0 0 3 ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the b e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i e among t h e t h r e e p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s : of the n i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p a i r s of p e r c e p t i o n s , a l l but two a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and b o t h of t h e s e a r e i n . t h e zone of low i m p a c t . When the measured n o i s e impac t i s compared t o the p e r c e p t i o n s , t he b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t ends t o be weake r . The o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L eq and the n o i s i n e s s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( 0 . 3 7 6 5 , SIG . 0 0 2 ) . In c o m p a r i s o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L eq and the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e i s p o o r e r f o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a ( 0 . 1 8 5 0 , SIG . 0 8 3 ) . For each b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t s i n each z o n e , none o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r the a d j u s t e d L eq and the e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e , t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , w h i l e t h e r e i s a weak and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t he zone o f low impac t ( 0 . 2 7 8 5 , SIG . 1 2 5 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the L eq and n o i s i n e s s of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s weak and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n each z o n e . There i s a p a t t e r n of r a n k i n g the ALRT as the f i r s t or 111 second l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e r e g a r d l e s s o f t he a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L e q . T h i s f a c t o r , and the poor c o r r e l a t i o n , d i s c o u r a g e s any f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t he rank o f ALRT n o i s e . In c o n c l u s i o n , the d i v i s i o n of t he s t u d y a r e a i n t o zones o f h i g h and low impac t r e s u l t s i n two s m a l l g roups of c a s e s ( n , = 2 3 , n 2 = 1 2 ) , w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the zone of low i m p a c t . F o r e x a m p l e , o f the n i n e Tau-b v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h r e e p a i r s of p e r c e p t i o n s , t h e o n l y two t h a t a r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t a r e i n the zone of low i m p a c t . Due t o the l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the p e r c e p t i o n s and measured n o i s e i n e i t h e r z o n e , a c o n c l u s i o n f o r t he Tau-b c o e f f i c i e n t s can be made o n l y f o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a : as t he a d j u s t e d 24-hour L eq i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t he responden t t o judge t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d as n o i s i e r . An a n a l y s i s o f the f r e q u e n c i e s i n each c e l l between the a d j u s t e d L eq and the ' p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e ' , and the L eq and the ' n o i s i n e s s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' , i d e n t i f i e s the r e a s o n s f o r poor c o r r e l a t i o n s . The f o c u s i s on t h o s e c a s e s where p e r c e p t i o n s do not appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e impac t i n each zone (Append ix C ) . For the e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e i n the zone o f h i g h i m p a c t , t h e r e i s one c a s e out o f 23 where the n o i s e i s h e a r d o n l y o u t s i d e (58 d B ) , and one case where the ALRT i s h e a r d i n o n l y one room o f the house (56 d B ) . A t an L eq o f 55 d B , t h e r e a r e two c a s e s where n o i s e i s c l a i m e d t o a f f e c t s l e e p i n g p a t t e r n s . 1 1 2 F i n a l l y , a t a h i g h L eq o f 71 d B , one r e s p o n s e c l a i m e d t h a t the n o i s e was h e a r d i n more than one room, but not everywhere i n the r e s i d e n c e . These a r e the f i v e c a s e s out o f 23 where p e r c e p t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be no t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e i m p a c t . Of t h e s e , two c a s e s a r e e x a g g e r a t e d , w h i l e f o r the o t h e r t h r e e , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f emphas i s on the i m p a c t . Of the 12 c a s e s i n the zone of low i m p a c t , t h r e e c l a i m t h a t the ALRT a f f e c t s s l e e p i n g p a t t e r n s a t an L eq of 50 d B , 51 dB and 53 d B . One c a s e a t 51 d B , two c a s e s a t 53 d B , and one ca se a t 54 dB c l a i m t h a t t he ALRT n o i s e i s h e a r d everywhere i n the r e s i d e n c e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e seven c a s e s a r e somewhat e x a g g e r a t e d i n t h i s z o n e . The r e a s o n f o r a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s zone i s a g roup of t h r e e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t low n o i s e l e v e l s , combined w i t h the c l u s t e r o f n i n e p e r c e p t i o n s between 50 dB and 54 dB t h a t a r e r a t e d 4, 5 or 6 on a s c a l e o f s i x . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e seven c a s e s does not i n d i c a t e t h a t an ' e x a g g e r a t e d ' r e s p o n s e t e n d s t o be from the q u i e t e r p o r t i o n of t he s t u d y a r e a , e a s t o f H u l l S t r e e t . Four o f the seven c a s e s a re from between Broadway and H u l l S t r e e t . In the a n a l y s i s o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the two z o n e s , the v a r i a b l e ' n o i s i n e s s of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' p r e s e n t s s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o t h o s e f o r the ' p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e ' . I n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , t he f r e q u e n c i e s show t h a t t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e c a s e s ou t o f 23 where the impac t of the n o i s e i s u n d e r r a t e d by the r e s p o n d e n t : a t 57 dB t h e r e i s one case c l a i m i n g the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s ' q u i e t ' , w h i l e a t 58 dB and 61 d B , one c a s e i n each c l a i m s 'some n o i s e s ' . The r ema inde r of c a s e s appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e i m p a c t , and 1 1 3 t h e r e i s a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n the p e r c e i v e d impac t as t he L eq i n c r e a s e s . I n t h e zone of low i m p a c t , t h e r e a r e f i v e c a s e s ou t o f 12 w h i c h do no t appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e . At 46 dB and 49 dB , t h e r e i s one c a s e f o r each where the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s judged as ' f a i r l y n o i s y ' , and one c a s e a t 50 dB and two a t 51 dB where the judgement i s ' n o i s y ' . I t i s t h e s e f i v e c a s e s t h a t may accoun t f o r the poor Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s z o n e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the c o m p a r i s o n between t h e two zones of impac t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of c a s e s i n the zone o f low impact where the p e r c e p t i o n i s no t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the 24 -hour L e q . The c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s show t h a t the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s m a r g i n a l l y a more a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f the measured n o i s e impac t when compared w i t h the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e . The m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the a d j u s t e d 24 -hour L eq c o n t r o l s f o r the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t of ALRT n o i s e . F o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a , t he f i r s t o r d e r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s 0 . 3 3 6 5 , w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e of 0 . 0 2 6 . T h i s i s s l i g h t l y weaker t h a n the b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s ( 0 . 3 7 6 5 , SIG . 0 0 2 ) . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e the m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s c o n t r o l s f o r a v a r i a b l e w i t h poor c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the L e q . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , the Tau-b v a l u e i s 0 . 2 2 2 0 , w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e o f 0 . 1 6 0 . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s ( 0 . 2 1 1 0 , SIG . 1 0 8 ) , a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t . There i s a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the zone o f low impac t ( - 0 . 1 7 1 9 , SIG . 3 0 7 ) , but s i m i l a r t o the 1 1 4 b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . In c o n c l u s i o n , the f i n d i n g s f o r the m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f p e r c e i v e d and measured n o i s e , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of the e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e , d i f f e r l i t t l e from the b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of p e r c e i v e d n o i s e and t h e measured L e q . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s o f t he 1986 UBC S tudy a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e and n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e ( T a b l e 4.14). The ave rage age o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s i s 44.5 y e a r s , and the ave rage l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y i s r e a s o n a b l y l o n g a t 14.8 y e a r s . The ave rage number of o c c u p a n t s i s 3.3 p e r s o n s per u n i t w h i l e the m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s a r e f e m a l e . Based upon the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s t a b l e f o r t he c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a , t h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e and the s o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s . There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g of ALRT n o i s e and the number o f o c c u p a n t s (-0.3409, SIG .026) and the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y (-0.3883, SIG .006). None of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r t he c o m p l e t e s t udy a r e a . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , the b e s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e and the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y (0.4381, SIG .010), f o l l o w e d by the t y p e of d w e l l i n g (-0.3442, SIG .037). In the zone of low impac t t h e r e a r e no c o r r e l a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e between the p e r c e i v e d e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . There i s a marked c o r r e l a t i o n between the r a n k i n g of ALRT n o i s e and the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y (-0.5999, SIG .015). I t i s o n l y i n the zone of low impac t t h a t t h e r e i s a Table 4.14: Kendall Tau-b Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s for 1986 Soclo-Economlc Variables AGERES SEXRES OCUPRESP ATHOME WHITECOL BLUECOL NOFOCCUP DWELLING LENGTRES NEIGUNIT EXALRTNS -0 .0717 0. 1 150 0, .1261 0. 1821 -0, ,0822 -0. .0747 0. 2741 - o . . 1963 0, . 1904 -0. .0577 N( 35) N( 35) N( 30) N( 34) N( 30) N( 30) N( 35) N( 35) N( 35) N( 35) SIG .619 SIG . 465 SIG . 434 SIG . 127 SIG .631 SIG .662 SIG .066 SIG .099 SIG . 100 SIG . 355 (High 0 ,0861 0. 2 158 0. .0664 0. 1296 -0. . 1006 0. 0000 0. 2380 -0. 3442 0. .4381 -0. 0335 Impact N( 23) N( 23) N( 18) N( 22) N( 18) N( 18) N( 23) N( 23) N( 23) N( 23) Zone) SIG .637 SIG .278 SIG .758 SIG .262 SIG .659 SIG 1 .00 SIG .205 SIG .037 SIG .010 SIG .433 ( Low -0. 1770 -0. 1348 0. 1752 . 0. 3373 - o . 2051 -0. 2247 0. 3239 -0. 0250 0. 0228 0. 1765 Impact N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) Zone) SIG .489 SIG .621 SIG .497 SIG . 108 SIG .452 SIG .410 SIG .221 SIG .462 SIG .466 SIG .255 ALRTNOIS 0 .0025 -0. 0763 0 .0576 0. 1391 0. 0333 0. .0663 -0. 3409 0. .0033 -0. 3883 0. 0892 N( 34) N( 34) N( 29) N( 33) N( 29) N( 29) N( 34) N( 34) N( 34) N( 34) SIG .987 SIG .637 SIG .728 SIG . 199 SIG .849 SIG .705 SIG .026 SIG .492 SIG .006 SIG .288 (High O. .0296 -0. 1207 -0. .0103 0. .081 1 0. 1113 -0. 0237 -0. 3540 0, ,0927 -0. 2659 0. 1822 Impact N( 22) N( 22) N( 17) N( 21) N( 17) N( 17) N( 22) N( 22) N( 22) N( 22) Zone) SIG .874 SIG .552 SIG .962 SIG . 348 SIG .630 SIG .918 SIG .064 SIG .319 SIG .083 SIG . 184 (Low 0, .0450 -0. 1029 0. . 2004 0. 2673 -0. 1304 0. 1543 -0. 3706 -0. 2006 -0. 5999 0. 1010 Impact N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) Zone) SIG .866 SIG .719 SIG .457 SIG . 175 SIG .648 SIG .589 SIG . 181 SIG .235 SIG .015 SIG .359 NOISLEVE -O . 1450 O. . 1056 0. .0903 -0. 1866 0. 1007 0. .0072 0 . 1750 0, ,0223 -0. . 1 104 -0. . 1534 N( 35) N( 35) N( 30) N( 34) N( 30) N( 30) N( 35) N( 35) N( 35) N( 35) SIG . 307 SIG .496 SIG .569 SIG . 1 18 SIG . 548 SIG .966 SIG .233 SIG .44 1 SIG . 226 SIG . 158 (High" O .0156 0. 0864 O. 1262 -0. 0994 -0. 1063 0. .08 34 0. 0548 -0. .0196 -0. 0279 -0. 0130 Impact N( 23) N( 23) N( 18) N( 22) N( 18) N( 18) N( 23) N( 23) N( 23) N( 23) Zone) SIG .931 SIG .659 SIG .550 SIG .311 SIG .634 SIG . 709 SIG .767 SIG .459 SIG .440 SIG .474 (Low -0. 0409 -0. 3501 -0. 0808 -O. 4042 0. 3077 -0. 1867 0. 2242 0. 104O 0. 4497 0. 0917 Impact N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) N( 12) Zone) SIG .875 SIG . 208 SIG . 758 SIG .073 SIG . 268 SIG .502 SIG .406 SIG .351 SIG .048 SIG .368 1 16 c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the p e r c e i v e d n o i s i n e s s of t he n e i g h b o u r h o o d : t h i s i s w i t h the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y ( 0 . 4 4 9 7 , SIG . 0 4 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e , f o r the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a , t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h f o u r or more o c c u p a n t s t e n d t o c l a i m t h a t ALRT n o i s e a f f e c t s s l e e p . A l s o , t h o s e w i t h f o u r or more o c c u p a n t s and t h o s e h a v i n g l i v e d i n the a r e a l o n g e r than 10 y e a r s rank the ALRT as one of the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r s of n o i s e . In the h i g h -impac t z o n e , t h o s e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and t h o s e h a v i n g a l o n g e r r e s i d e n c y ( i . e . > 2 y e a r s ) p e r c e i v e t h a t t he ALRT n o i s e a f f e c t s s l e e p p a t t e r n s . I n the zone of low i m p a c t , t h o s e w i t h a l o n g e r r e s i d e n c y ( i . e . £ 10 y e a r s ) rank ALRT n o i s e as the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t o r and e v a l u a t e the n o i s i n e s s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d as ' n o i s y ' o r ' v e r y n o i s y ' . 4 . 5 . 2 . E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S tudy Of the 280 r e s i d e n t s s u r v e y e d i n the s t u d y a r e a d e f i n e d by t h i s t h e s i s , 33 a r e i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , and 247 a r e i n the zone of low i m p a c t . When q u e s t i o n e d about the most p l e a s i n g a s p e c t o f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t hose i n the zone of h i g h impac t gave the p r o x i m i t y o f s h o p p i n g , the q u i e t n e s s , and a c c e s s t o buses and roads e q u a l m e r i t w i t h 5 c a s e s each ( 1 5 . 2 % ) . In the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e , the p e r c e n t a g e s were s i m i l a r t o the whole s t u d y a r e a : p r o x i m i t y t o s h o p p i n g (15 .7%) , q u i e t n e s s (14 .3%) , and a c c e s s t o buses and roads (10.7%) were the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s . A l a r g e p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s , 50 o f 280 ( 1 7 . 9 % ) , c o u l d no t l i s t a n y t h i n g t hey l i k e d the l e a s t abou t t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . As a f i r s t o r s e c o n d c h o i c e , 57 c a s e s (20.4%) 117 n o t e d t r a f f i c n o i s e , w h i l e o n l y 12 c a s e s (4.3%) n o t e d the A L R T , t hen under c o n s t r u c t i o n . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , 3 c a s e s (9.1%) d i s l i k e d t h e ALRT i n t h e i r f i r s t o r s econd c h o i c e . T r a f f i c n o i s e was n o t e d by 4 c a s e s ( 1 2 . 1 % ) . In the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e , t r a f f i c n o i s e was a c o n c e r n of 53 r e s p o n d e n t s (21.5%) w h i l e t he ALRT was d i s l i k e d by 9 ( 3 . 6 % ) . O n l y 11 o f 280 r e s i d e n t s p l a c e d i n c r e a s e d n o i s e as the f i r s t or s e c o n d change i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n the f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s . None of t he se c a s e s was i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t . The community was w e l l - i n f o r m e d of the A L R T . O n l y 13 c a s e s (4.6%) had no knowledge of the A L R T , and 12 of t he se were i n the zone of low i m p a c t . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t s s u r v e y e d , 109 c a s e s ( 3 8 . 9 % ) , b e l i e v e d t h a t t he ALRT would have no e f f e c t on n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r , 75 c a s e s (26.8%) f e l t i t w o u l d have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t and 65 c a s e s (23.2%) f e l t t he c h a r a c t e r w o u l d i m p r o v e . A s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n (27.3%) i n the h i g h - i m p a c t zone p r e d i c t e d no change t o the n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r , . w h i l e t he n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n s were d i v i d e d e q u a l l y ( 3 0 . 3 % ) . In the zone of low i m p a c t , 40.5% were n e u t r a l , w i t h 26.3% n e g a t i v e , and 22.3% p o s i t i v e . A p r o b l e m i n a n a l y z i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t h a t i t i s made up of many f a c t o r s b e s i d e s n o i s i n e s s o f the A L R T , and t h e s e f a c t o r s canno t be r e v e a l e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . In the c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a , t he l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e gave a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e t o the A L R T ' s e f f e c t on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e l e v e l s ( 4 2 . 1 % ) , w h i l e 38.2% b e l i e v e d n o i s e l e v e l s w o u l d i n c r e a s e . I n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , no change i n n o i s e f rom 118 the ALRT was p r e d i c t e d by 16 c a s e s (48 .5%) , w h i l e 11 p r e d i c t e d h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s ( 3 3 . 3 % ) . O n l y two c a s e s p r e d i c t e d l o w e r l e v e l s . In the zone of low i m p a c t , 102 c a s e s (41.3%) were n e u t r a l , 96 ca se s (38.9%) p r e d i c t e d h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s , and 17 c a s e s (6.9%) p r e d i c t e d l o w e r n o i s e l e v e l s . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , of t h o s e 11 c a s e s p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s from the A L R T , r e s p o n s e s t o the a s p e c t l i k e d b e s t were s c a t t e r e d randomly among the 17 c h o i c e s . No t r e n d was e v i d e n t . Most p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s d i s l i k e d a f e a t u r e g rouped as ' o t h e r ' i n the s u r v e y ' s c o d i n g . T r a f f i c n o i s e was d i s l i k e d by 2 c a s e s . Of the 16 who p r e d i c t e d no change i n the n o i s e l e v e l s , 7 p e r s o n s r a t e d a c c e s s t o buses and roads as the f i r s t o r second p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e o f the a r e a , 6 r a t e d the p r o x i m i t y t o s h o p p i n g , and 4 v a l u e d the q u i e t n e s s . F o r a l m o s t a l l who p r e d i c t e d no change i n n o i s e , a n e g a t i v e a s p e c t c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d , s i n c e i t was c l a s s i f i e d as ' o t h e r ' i n the s u r v e y ' s c o d i n g . In the zone of low i m p a c t , o f t he 96 c a s e s p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s from the A L R T , 21 (21.9%) l i s t e d q u i e t n e s s as t h e i r f i r s t o r second c h o i c e o f t h i n g s l i k e d bes t i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , 28 (29.2%) s t a t e d p r o x i m i t y t o s h o p p i n g , and 28 (29.2%) l i s t e d p r o x i m i t y t o p a r k s . F o r t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g t o an a s p e c t of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d d i s l i k e d , t r a f f i c n o i s e was the most common: i t was n o t e d by 25 ( 2 6 . 0 % ) , w h i l e o n l y 6 m e n t i o n e d the A L R T . Of the 102 c a s e s p r e d i c t i n g no change i n n o i s e l e v e l s i n the zone of low i m p a c t , 26 (25.5%) v a l u e d a c c e s s t o r o a d s and buses and a n o t h e r 26 l i s t e d q u i e t n e s s as t h e i r f i r s t or s econd c h o i c e . Those p r e d i c t i n g no change i n n o i s e l e v e l s a l s o had a 1 19 p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the n e i g h b o u r h o o d : 26 c a s e s s t a t e d t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o d i s l i k e . The r emainde r of c a s e s were d i s t r i b u t e d i n f r e q u e n c i e s l e s s than 3 among the o t h e r f e a t u r e s , o r were no t s p e c i f i e d ( i . e . coded as ' o t h e r ' ) . Of the 17 c a s e s p r e d i c t i n g l o w e r n o i s e l e v e l s , 3 (17.6%) l i s t e d the q u i e t n e s s o f the a r e a as a p o s i t i v e t r a i t . T a b l e 4 . 1 5 : K e n d a l l Tau-b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r O r d i n a l V a r i a b l e s - E a s t V a n c o u v e r Ne ighbourhoods S tudy NBRCHTR NOISENBR LCLTRFIC PLCTRNST NOISE 0 . 2252 0 . 1590 0 . 3760 0 . 0835 ( B o t h SIG .000 SIG .004 SIG .000 SIG .190 Zones) (222) (243) (228) (2 16) Zone 0 . 2218 0 . 0274 0 . 1 1 54 0 . 2553 o f H i g h SIG .226 SIG .863 SIG .524 SIG . 1 76 Impact ( 26) ( 29) ( 27) ( 26) Zone 0. 2244 0 . 1750 0. 4083 0 . 0630 of Low SIG .001 SIG .003 SIG .000 SIG .353 Impact (1 96) (2 14) (201 ) (1 90) S e v e r a l f i n d i n g s may be t a k e n from the a n a l y s i s of o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 4 . 1 5 ) . F o r t he whole s t u d y a r e a , t h o s e w i t h a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t o f the ALRT on n o i s e l e v e l s a l s o had a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d i t s e f f e c t on n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r ( 0 . 2 2 5 2 , SIG . 0 0 0 ) . When each zone i s c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y , the K e n d a l l T a u - b c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the zone of low impac t ( 0 . 2 2 4 4 , SIG . 0 0 1 ) , but not i n t h e zone o f h i g h i m p a c t . 1 20 In t he zone o f low i m p a c t , t h o s e a n t i c i p a t i n g h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s a l s o n o t e d a p r o b l e m of n o i s y n e i g h b o u r s ( 0 . 1 7 5 0 , SIG . 0 0 3 ) . For a l l c a s e s , t h o s e w i t h a p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n t o w a r d p o s t -ALRT t r a f f i c on l o c a l s t r e e t s t ended t o have a p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l o u t l o o k on n o i s e from the A L R T , w h i l e t h o s e w i t h a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o t r a f f i c p r e d i c t e d h i g h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e l e v e l s ( 0 . 3 7 6 0 , SIG . 0 0 0 ) . In the zone of low impac t t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t ( 0 . 4 0 8 3 , SIG . 0 0 0 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o i s e and p o s t - A L R T p u b l i c t r a n s i t s e r v i c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t i n e i t h e r z o n e . Based on the s e t o f K e n d a l l Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Tab l e 4 . 1 6 ) , i n the e n t i r e s t u d y a r e a , the o n l y s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e t o the r e s p o n d e n t ' s p r e d i c t i o n of n o i s e l e v e l s a r e t h a t p e r s o n ' s o c c u p a t i o n ( - 0 . 1 4 5 3 , SIG .014) and age ( 0 . 1 1 5 7 , S IG . 0 4 4 ) . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t o f the ALRT on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e and the number of p e r s o n s known on the b l o c k ( - 0 . 2 9 2 1 , SIG . 0 4 0 ) , and h o u s i n g t e n u r e ( - 0 . 2 9 5 2 , SIG . 0 5 4 ) . In the zone of low i m p a c t , t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the p r e d i c t i o n of n o i s e l e v e l s and the o c c u p a t i o n of the r e sponden t ( - 0 . 1 3 2 0 , SIG . 0 3 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t he c o m p l e t e s t u d y a r e a , a r e s p o n s e t o the a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t o f t he ALRT on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e may be summar ized f o r o n e ' s o c c u p a t i o n and age g r o u p . A n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e t ends t o be from t h o s e f r e q u e n t l y a t home, such as homemakers , t he r e t i r e d and the u n e m p l o y e d , as w e l l as b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . The re i s a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e from T a b l e 4 . 1 6 : K e n d a l l T a u - b C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y S o c l o - E c o n o m I c V a r i a b l e s ( H i g h I m p a c t Z o n e ) ( L o w I m p a c t Z o n e ) D W E L L I N G NBRHDTME HSEOWN P E O P L E A G E R E S S E X R E S O C U P R E S KNOW 0 N( S I G . 0 4 1 7 2 4 4 ) . 2 5 2 -O N( S I G 0 2 19 2 4 4 ) . 3 4 8 O N( S I G . 0 2 6 3 2 4 4 ) . 3 3 7 0 . N( S I G . 0 3 8 4 2 4 1 ) . 4 9 4 • O. N( S I G . 1 157 2 4 4 ) . 0 4 4 0 , N( S I G . 0 9 8 7 2 4 3 ) . 1 1 3 - 0 . N( S I G . 1453 2 4 0 ) . 0 1 4 - O . N( S I G 0 5 8 4 2 4 1 ) . 147 - 0 . N( S I G . 1234 2 9 ) . 251 - 0 . N( S I G 1748 2 9 ) . 146 - 0 N( S I G 2 9 5 2 2 9 ) . 0 5 4 - 0 . N( S I G 2 5 3 5 2 9 ) . 1 2 7 O . N( S I G 2 6 7 9 2 9 ) . 1 1 1 - 0 . N( S I G . 04 15 2 9 ) . 8 2 1 - 0 . N( S I G 2 5 3 2 2 8 ) . 163 - 0 . N( S I G 2 9 2 1 2 8 ) . 0 4 0 0 . N( S I G . 0 6 5 9 2 1 5 ) . 160 - 0 . N( S I G 0 0 3 2 2 1 5 ) . 4 7 9 0 . N( S I G . 0 6 9 1 2 1 5 ) . 149 0 . N( S I G 0 7 9 0 2 1 2 ) . 187 0 . N( S I G . 0 8 8 5 2 1 5 ) . 149 0 . N( S I G . 1 1 8 1 2 1 4 ) . 0 7 6 - 0 . N( S I G 1 3 2 0 2 1 2 ) . 0 3 6 - 0 . N( S I G 0 3 0 6 2 1 3 ) . 3 0 2 1 22 w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . A n e u t r a l r e sponse a p p l i e s t o o l d e r age g r o u p s , g e n e r a l l y o v e r 40 y e a r s , w h i l e a n e g a t i v e r e sponse i s e v i d e n t from the two younges t g r o u p s , 16-29 and 30-40 y e a r s . I n the zone o f h i g h i m p a c t , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e knowing more than f i v e p e o p l e on the b l o c k and t h o s e owning the r e s i d e n c e t o a n t i c i p a t e a n e g a t i v e impact from ALRT n o i s e , w h i l e a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t hose no t owning the r e s i d e n c e . In the zone of low i m p a c t , t hose who have a w h i t e -c o l l a r j o b a r e more l i k e l y t o g i v e a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o the change i n n o i s e from the ALRT than t h o s e r e m a i n i n g a t home, who t e n d t o g i v e a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e . The r e m a i n d e r o f b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a n t i c i p a t e d impac t o f t he ALRT on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s i n each zone a r e poor and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . No f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e i s w a r r a n t e d . 4 . 6 . Summary of t he F i n d i n g s The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of ALRT n o i s e and a l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e p roduces an e q u a t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p : 24-HOUR L eq = 79 .99 - 12 .45 LOGDISTANCE. N o r t h o f the g u i d e w a y , e a s t of H u l l S t r e e t , the n o i s e l e v e l s a r e the l o w e s t , p o s s i b l y due t o f a c t o r s such as the t o p o g r a p h y , n a t u r a l n o i s e b u f f e r s , o r the h e i g h t of t he g u i d e w a y . The l o g of d i s t a n c e i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e segments a t p o i n t s o f 26 f e e t and 92 f e e t ; no r e s u l t s c o u l d be computed f o r t he f i r s t segment due t o the s m a l l number o f c a s e s . N o i s e d i m i n i s h e s by 3.4 dB pe r d o u b l i n g o f d i s t a n c e and 5.2 dB per d o u b l i n g o f d i s t a n c e i n the s econd and t h i r d segments r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o 123 the f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s c i t e d . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between n o i s e and l o g of d i s t a n c e f o r t he s e c t i o n between the Broadway S t a t i o n and H u l l S t r e e t , and the s e c t i o n between H u l l S t r e e t and the Nanaimo S t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h more of the o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d i n the f o r m e r . T h i s may be the r e s u l t o f more c o n s i s t e n t n o i s e l e v e l s a t s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e s and the c o n s i s t e n t h e i g h t o f the guideway i n t h i s a r e a . The boundary f o r the two zones o f impac t v a r i e s between 50 and 200 f e e t from the g u i d e w a y . There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 341 p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n 134 u n i t s i n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t . In the 1986 UBC S t u d y , the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t Tau-b c o r r e l a t i o n between ALRT n o i s e and p e r c e p t i o n s i s between the L eq and the p e r c e p t i o n of n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s i d e n t s more a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e the ALRT when i t i s a s s e s s e d as one of s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , r a t h e r t han when i t i s s i n g l e d out and r a t e d by the number of rooms i n w h i c h i t i s a u d i b l e , o r whether i t a f f e c t s s l e e p . The f r e q u e n c i e s f o r the v a r i a b l e ' e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e ' w i t h the a d j u s t e d L eq i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the zone of low i m p a c t , the p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i s o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d . A number of c a s e s c l a i m s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e when the measured o u t d o o r n o i s e i s a c c e p t a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a r e more p e r c e p t i o n s i n the zone of low impac t t h a t a r e not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e . In the zone o f h i g h i m p a c t , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of c a se s u n d e r r a t e the e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e : a t a h i g h L eq some r e s i d e n t s may hear the ALRT i n s e v e r a l rooms, but t hey do not c l a i m t h a t i t a f f e c t s t h e i r s l e e p . 1 24 The r e a s o n f o r the v a r i a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y between zones of i m p a c t , c a n n o t be c o m p l e t e l y e x p l a i n e d by 10 independen t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , a l t h o u g h some c o n c l u s i o n s may be made. Those h o u s e h o l d s w i t h more o c c u p a n t s and l o n g e r - t e r m r e s i d e n t s t e n d t o rank the ALRT as the major c o n t r i b u t o r t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e f o r the comple t e s t u d y a r e a . In t h e zone o f h i g h i m p a c t , n e g a t i v e r e sponses t o the e x t e n t o f ALRT n o i s e a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h o s e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s and t h o s e l i v i n g l o n g e r i n the s t u d y a r e a . In the zone of low i m p a c t , l o n g e r t e rm r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r the n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s y , and t hey rank t h e ALRT as a major c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h i s n o i s e . F o r t he E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e whether p e r c e p t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he measured n o i s e i m p a c t , s i n c e no n o i s e measurements were t a k e n i n t h i s s u r v e y . However , some of the d i s c r e p a n c y between r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i n the two zones of impac t i s r e v e a l e d . In the h i g h - i m p a c t z o n e , a n e g a t i v e o u t l o o k toward f u t u r e n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e c o u l d not be a t t r i b u t e d t o any s i n g l e f a c t o r l i k e d o r d i s l i k e d i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The t endency was t o a n t i c i p a t e no change i n p o s t - A L R T n o i s e l e v e l s . In t h i s z o n e , t h o s e p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s a l s o t ended t o p r e d i c t a d e c l i n e i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r . However , t h o s e p r e d i c t i n g no change i n n o i s e t ended t o p r e d i c t improved c h a r a c t e r . Those i n t he zone of low impac t t ended t o m e n t i o n t r a f f i c n o i s e the most f r e q u e n t l y among the n e g a t i v e t r a i t s . Compared t o the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e p r e d i c t e d h i g h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e l e v e l s w i t h the A L R T , a l t h o u g h fewer 1 25 a n t i c i p a t e d d i m i n i s h e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r . Those who d i s l i k e d t r a f f i c n o i s e t ended t o a n t i c i p a t e h i g h e r n o i s e l e v e l s from the A L R T . T h e r e f o r e , o t h e r n o i s e s o u r c e s such as a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , and the u n c e r t a i n t y o f the t r u e measured n o i s e i m p a c t , appear t o i n f l u e n c e the o u t l o o k on n e i g h b o u r h o o d n o i s e from the ALRT i n t h i s z o n e . R e f e r r i n g t o the E a s t Vancouve r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s Study s o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s , a p r e d i c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d n o i s e due t o the ALRT came from younger r e s p o n d e n t s and w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . In the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , t h o s e knowing more p e o p l e on t h e i r b l o c k a n t i c i p a t e d more n o i s e . In the zone of low i m p a c t , n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s came from w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . In summary, t he se f i n d i n g s p r o v e the f i r s t p a r t of the h y p o t h e s i s t o be c o r r e c t . Ways ide n o i s e l e v e l s and d i s t a n c e from the gu ideway a r e r e l a t e d s e m i - l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y , s i n c e the y -a x i s i s t r a n s f o r m e d t o the l o g a r i t h m o f the d i s t a n c e . A l s o , c o m p a r i n g the L eq a t s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e s from the gu ideway , the l e v e l s v a r y m a r k e d l y between the two ALRT S t a t i o n s . In t h e zone of h i g h i m p a c t , i n w h i c h the ou tdoor a d j u s t e d L eq e x c e e d s r e s i d e n t i a l s t a n d a r d s , n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e t e n d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o the h i g h measured n o i s e l e v e l s . W h i l e no t a l l the p e r c e p t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o the measured i m p a c t , a f i n d i n g was t h a t as n o i s e l e v e l s i n c r e a s e d the t endency was t o p e r c e i v e a more s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t . T h u s , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . I n the zone of low i m p a c t , where o u t d o o r n o i s e l e v e l s meet the r e s i d e n t i a l s t a n d a r d s , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e no t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he measured n o i s e i m p a c t . I n the 1986 UBC S tudy t h e r e i s a 1 2 6 t e n d e n c y f o r r e sponden t s t o o v e r - e s t i m a t e the e x t e n t o f the i m p a c t . In the E a s t Vancouver N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y , n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s appear t o be i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r n o i s e s o u r c e s such as t r a f f i c . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . 1 27 CHAPTER 5: PLANNING IMPLICATIONS 5 . 1 . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i n the Broadway-Nanaimo c o r r i d o r has d i m i n i s h e d foro t h o s e s i t e s a d j a c e n t t o the gu ideway e x p e r i e n c i n g a 24 -hour L eq > 55 d B . E n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i s a l s o t h e most a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d i n a r e a s where the b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e i s l o w , away from o t h e r n o i s e g e n e r a t o r s such as a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of n o i s e and d i s t a n c e shows t h a t the zone o f h i g h impac t i s l i m i t e d t o a na r row g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , a l t h o u g h the d i s t a n c e from the guideway a t w h i c h n o i s e l e v e l s meet r e s i d e n t i a l s t a n d a r d s v a r i e s m a r k e d l y between the two ALRT S t a t i o n s . The i m p r e c i s i o n i n d e f i n i n g d i m i n i s h e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y on the b a s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s i s summarized by Hasson ( 1 9 8 4 ) : an impac t s u c h as n o i s e ex t ends t o " the t h r e s h h o l d of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n n o y a n c e . " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be the most annoyed . W e i n s t e i n ( 1 9 8 0 : 241) c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e i s a " l i m i t e d p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g n o i s e i n d i c i e s - e x p l a i n i n g o n l y 10% t o 25% of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n a n n o y a n c e . " The p r o b l e m i s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s a r e based on a g e n e r a l i z e d i n d e x r a t h e r t han i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a l w a y s some who a re not b o t h e r e d by i n c r e a s e d n o i s e l e v e l s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s the few i n c o n s i s t e n t p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h e h i g h - i m p a c t z o n e . However , t h e r e i s a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n i n the l o w - i m p a c t zone who f e e l t h a t ALRT n o i s e has compromised the q u a l i t y of t h e i r env i ronmen t t han t h o s e i n the zone of h i g h impac t who u n d e r r a t e the i m p a c t . 1 28 Due t o the i m p r e c i s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s , an ave rage r e s p o n s e such as t h a t g i v e n i n the CMHC s t a n d a r d s r ema ins the most p r a c t i c a l i n d i c a t o r f o r t h i s t h e s i s . However , the p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t appear t o be not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured n o i s e must not be d i s c a r d e d . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s may r e v e a l the r e a s o n f o r the i m p r e c i s i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l o w - i m p a c t z o n e . The re i s no way t o gauge whether the p e r c e p t i o n s i n the E a s t Vancouver Ne ighbourhoods S t u d y a r e ' c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ' t he measured n o i s e , s i n c e ALRT t r a i n s were not o p e r a t i n g i n 1984, and t he background n o i s e , w h i c h appea r s t o i n f l u e n c e some p e r c e p t i o n s , was not measured a t t h e s u r v e y s i t e s . However , t he f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy r e v e a l t h e i r c o n c e r n s a t t h i s t i m e . I n the zone of h i g h i m p a c t , t h e r e was l e s s c o n c e r n f o r f u t u r e n o i s e l e v e l s t han t h e r e was f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r . P r o x i m i t y t o s h o p p i n g and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , and a c c e s s t o r o a d s and b u s e s , were e x p r e s s e d as p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , a l t h o u g h i t i s not e v i d e n t whether any of t h e s e i n f l u e n c e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f ALRT n o i s e . In t h e zone of low impac t a n e g a t i v e o u t l o o k t oward a n t i c i p a t e d n o i s e l e v e l s was c o n d i t i o n e d by o t h e r n o i s e . The u n c e r t a i n t y o f the t r u e ALRT n o i s e impac t may have a l s o p l a y e d a r o l e , a l t h o u g h t h i s s t udy d i d no t measure such u n c e r t a i n t y . F i n a l l y , i t must be n o t e d t h a t the f i n d i n g s of t he p r e - A L R T s t u d y canno t be used t o e x p l a i n t h o s e p e r c e p t i o n s i n the 1986 UBC S tudy t h a t were not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the measured ALRT n o i s e , f o r r e a s o n s d e t a i l e d i n the a s s u m p t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r 1. 1 29 The d i f f i c u l t y i n e v a l u a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i s t h a t even when one component , such as ALRT n o i s e , i s i s o l a t e d , t h e r e a r e o t h e r unknown f a c t o r s t h a t can sway o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n . W i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e s e f a c t o r s remain f o r a n o t h e r s t u d y . 5 . 2 . R e l e v a n c e t o P l a n n i n g P o l i c y The e x p e r i e n c e of V a n c o u v e r ' s ALRT sys tem p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n s f o r two f u t u r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s : r e s o l v i n g t h e i m p a c t s i n the s t u d y a r e a , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o r e c a s t i n g t h e n o i s e impac t s o f f u t u r e ALRT e x t e n s i o n s a n d / o r new LRT s y s t e m s . Each of t h e s e p r o c e s s e s can c o n t a i n one or more of f o u r o p t i o n s f o r m i n i m i z i n g or e l i m i n a t i n g n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l i t i e s such as n o i s e : p r o h i b i t i o n , c o m p e n s a t i o n , m i t i g a t i o n and l i t i g a t i o n (Ombudsman of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1987 ) . No f u r t h e r m e n t i o n i s made of l i t i g a t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r , s i n c e i t i s the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e o p t i o n f o r p l a n n e r s , r e s i d e n t s and the P r o v i n c e . The outcome i s p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e u n t i l a t e s t case i s b rough t t o the c o u r t s . The e a r l i e s t o p t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l deve lopment t h e b e s t f o r t h o s e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by n o i s e and a l o s s of v i e w , e s p e c i a l l y between E a s t Broadway and E a s t 12th Avenue , w i t h i n a 5 minu t e wa lk o f the s t a t i o n ( C i t y o f Vancouver 1983a ) . T h i s i n c l u d e d e n c o u r a g i n g c o m m e r c i a l deve lopment w i t h a r e s i d e n t i a l component i n the a p p r o p r i a t e l y zoned a r e a s . To the s o u t h of E a s t 12 th Avenue the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r edeve lopment were not as g o o d . The p r o b l e m f a c i n g the C i t y was t h a t r edeve lopment was l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n the near f u t u r e o n l y a d j a c e n t t o c e n t r e s of 1 30 a c t i v i t y such as ALRT s t a t i o n s and r e t a i l c e n t r e s ( C i t y of Vancouver 1987) . W i t h most o f the h o u s i n g s t o c k i n good c o n d i t i o n and a s m a l l number of odd shaped p a r c e l s o f l a n d , t h e p r o c e s s would be cumbersome. F u r t h e r m o r e , r e s i d e n t s were wary of such change t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . In the s t u d y a r e a , two o p t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r a r e c o m p e n s a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n . N e i t h e r B . C . T r a n s i t nor the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m a i n t a i n t h a t they a r e l e g a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o compensate r e s i d e n t s , so l o n g as t h e i r p r o p e r t y was no t e x p r o p r i a t e d . "The B . C . T r a n s i t A c t p r o t e c t s the government from c l a i m s of i n j u r i o u s a f f e c t i o n a r i s i n g from the t r a n s i t sy s t ems" (Ombudsman of B . C . 1987: 2 0 ) . However , B . C . T r a n s i t s t i l l has a p u b l i c m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n s i d e r . S t u d i e s have p r o v e n t h a t n o i s e can p roduce n e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s a t a 24 -hour L eq of 55 dB or more . Due t o these p roven e f f e c t s , t h o s e r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the zone of h i g h impac t s h o u l d r e c e i v e c o m p e n s a t i o n . S h o u l d B . C . T r a n s i t a g r e e t o a c o m p e n s a t i o n scheme, t h r e e d i f f i c u l t i e s r emain t o ove rcome : i d e n t i f y i n g the i m p a c t s d e s e r v i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n , d e c i d i n g who i s e n t i t l e d t o c o m p e n s a t i o n , and p l a c i n g a v a l u e on an impac t such as n o i s e (Ombudsman of B . C . 1 9 8 7 ) . The C i t y o f Vancouve r i d e n t i f i e d the most h e a v i l y i m p a c t e d s i t e s and se t c o m p e n s a t i o n p r i o r i t y f o r each of t h e s e . The l a r g e s t number o f f i r s t , s econd and t h i r d p r i o r i t y s i t e s l i e between the Broadway and Nanaimo S t a t i o n s . But t he C i t y c a n n o t l e g a l l y buy p r o p e r t y as c o m p e n s a t i o n or t o m i t i g a t e i m p a c t s f o r r e s i d e n t s . The C i t y c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t i s l i m i t e d t o p u r c h a s i n g p r o p e r t y o n l y f o r l e g i t i m a t e c i v i c p u r p o s e s a t a p r i c e no h i g h e r 131 than t h e p o s t - A L R T marke t v a l u e ( C i t y of Vancouve r 1 9 8 7 ) . The p u r c h a s i n g o f p r o p e r t y , t h e r e f o r e , l i e s w i t h B . C . T r a n s i t . However , i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s t o p l a c e a d o l l a r v a l u e on t h e ALRT n o i s e i m p a c t . Each s i t e wou ld have t o be i n d i v i d u a l l y a s s e s s e d . T h i s i s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k even i f a f a c t o r as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as d i m i n i s h e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i s u s e d . The second o p t i o n , m i t i g a t i o n , s h o u l d be p u r s u e d f o r r e a s o n s of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d i n g i n the a r e a b e f o r e the ALRT was b u i l t , and t o m i n i m i z e the d e p r e c i a t i o n i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y (Ombudsman of B . C . 1 9 8 7 ) . F o r the n o i s e i m p a c t , s e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s i d e n t i f i e d by the Ombudsman may be t a k e n . Where the t r a c k runs a t g round l e v e l , t he s i m p l e s t s o l u t i o n i s t o c o n s t r u c t a s o l i d fence b a r r i e r t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g c h a i n - l i n k f e n c e s . For e l e v a t e d p o r t i o n s o f t he gu ideway a d j a c e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s , the sound b a r r i e r d e v e l o p e d by B r i d g e s t o n e C o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d be i n s t a l l e d . The g o a l s h o u l d be t o r educe the o u t d o o r 24-hour L eq t o be low 55 dB f o r a l l o c c u p i e d p r o p e r t i e s . Reba tes s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r d o u b l e - g l a z e d windows and i m p r o v i n g i n s u l a t i o n i n w a l l s and r o o f s . F o r t hose s i t e s where m i t i g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s p r e s e n t l y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l no t l o w e r the i n d o o r or o u t d o o r n o i s e t o an a c c e p t a b l e L e q , B . C . T r a n s i t s h o u l d p u r c h a s e t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s a t the marke t v a l u e had the ALRT not been c o n s t r u c t e d . I d e a l l y , t h e s e s i t e s would be r e d e v e l o p e d , r e t a i n i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u se , and be a d e q u a t e l y i n s u l a t e d a g a i n s t ALRT n o i s e . The g r o u p c a l l e d 'Homeowners A g a i n s t S k y T r a i n E f f e c t s ' (HASTE) i s the f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l t h r e e 132 impac ted m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o n e g o t i a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h B . C . T r a n s i t on a number o f i m p a c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e A L R T . N o i s e i s one of t h e i r many c o n c e r n s . B . C . T r a n s i t r ema ins i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l l i n g the e x p r o p r i a t e d p r o p e r t i e s but t h e y r ema in u n a t t r a c t i v e under c u r r e n t market c o n d i t i o n s . The most p r o m i s i n g p r o p o s a l i s a l o n g the e a s t l a n e of C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e . The C i t y i s c o n s i d e r i n g a j o i n t deve lopment i n i t i a t i v e t o s c r e e n houses from n o i s e ( C i t y of Vancouver 1987 ) . The r e s o l u t i o n of ALRT i m p a c t s such as n o i s e may s t i l l be a c h i e v e d w i t h an o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p r o c e s s was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h l o c a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s and i t c o n t i n u e s t o the p r e s e n t day w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i v e S t a t i o n A r e a P l a n s . The C i t y has l a i d out much of i t s p o l i c y t o w a r d ALRT i m p a c t s f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y i n t he se p l a n s . Over t ime t h e s e s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h the f o u n d a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p i n g the e x p r o p r i a t e d s i t e s , c u r r e n t l y an e y e s o r e and a n o t h e r f a c t o r d i m i n i s h i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . Redevelopment t o b u f f e r much of the n o i s e impac t i s e x p e c t e d t o be a l o n g - t e r m s o l u t i o n , e x t e n d i n g t o r e s i d e n t i a l complexes and o t h e r community f a c i l i t i e s . Open space i s a n o t h e r remedy w i t h f e a t u r e s such as t r e e s t o b u f f e r the v i e w . A l t h o u g h v e g e t a t i o n has no t p r o v e n t o l o w e r t h e measured n o i s e impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t may r educe the p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t . In summary f i the C i t y must c o n t i n u e t o encourage l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g i n the S t a t i o n A r e a s . The g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s w o u l d be t o have B . C . T r a n s i t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n S t a t i o n A r e a P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e s . T h i s wou ld r e q u i r e c o n s u l t a t i o n between B . C . T r a n s i t , and the C i t y and n e i g h b o u r h o o d g roups such as HASTE, so t h a t p l a n n e r s can r e c e i v e feedback on t h e s u c c e s s e s 133 and f a i l u r e s o f t h e S t a t i o n A r e a P l a n s . C o m p e n s a t i o n , m i t i g a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n remain the v i t a l components t o e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p o l i c y i n the s t udy a r e a . The second phase o f t he p r o j e c t i s due f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n 1989, e x t e n d i n g the ALRT by 7 m i l e s t o S c o t t Road i n S u r r e y . F u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s a r e p r o p o s e d to the W h a l l e y - G u i l f o r d a r e a i n S u r r e y , t o Lougheed M a l l i n B u r n a b y , and B u r q u i t l a m . A p r o j e c t i n s u c h u n d e v e l o p e d o r newly d e v e l o p e d suburban a r e a s a l l o w s s i m u l t a n e o u s p l a n n i n g of the t r a n s i t f a c i l i t y and the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ; t h i s was not p o s s i b l e i n the s t u d y a r e a . The i d e a l o p t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n s t o the ALRT i s te rmed ' p r o h i b i t i o n ' . T h i s i n c l u d e s the s e l e c t i o n of a s p e c i f i c r o u t e , g r ade and t r a i n s i z e be s t s u i t e d f o r the s i t e i n q u e s t i o n (Ombudsman of B . C . 1 9 8 7 ) . Fo r example , n o i s e can be m i n i m i z e d or p r e v e n t e d by d i v e r t i n g the guideway away from e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h i s a v o i d s the need f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n , y e t t he f a c i l i t y can be c l o s e t o t he se a r e a s f o r e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e . The t r a c k may a l s o be p l a c e d a t g round l e v e l o r be low g r a d e . Homes near the l i n e can be p o s i t i o n e d and d e s i g n e d t o a d e q u a t e l y i n s u l a t e the n o i s e . T h i s m i n i m i z e s b o t h t h e measured and p e r c e i v e d i m p a c t . More open s p a c e , l a n d s c a p i n g and v e g e t a t i o n can be p l a n n e d a r o u n d the f a c i l i t y . Wherever p o s s i b l e , h i g h e r d e n s i t y deve lopment s h o u l d be encouraged a r o u n d s t a t i o n s t o promote a node o f a c t i v i t y . T h i s would a l s o b u f f e r the n o i s e impac t on s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s . P l a n n e r s i n suburban a r e a s can l e a r n from the e a r l i e r m i s t a k e s o f the ALRT by a n t i c i p a t i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r i m p a c t s such as n o i s e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t p l a n n e r s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e the 134 same p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e t h a t f o r c e d the ALRT t h r o u g h the s tudy a r e a w i t h o u t adequa te p l a n n i n g o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h those i m p a c t e d r e s i d e n t s . The i m p a c t s o f a new LRT s y s t e m , such as the one t h a t may run t o R i c h m o n d , a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o f o r e c a s t e s p e c i a l l y i f the t e c h n o l o g y d i f f e r s from the p r e s e n t A L R T . P r o h i b i t i o n r emains the b e s t o p t i o n : a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g y t o t h a t i n the s t u d y a r e a c o u l d be u s e d . In o r d e r t o f o r m u l a t e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t meets the needs of u s e r s and n o n - u s e r s a l i k e , the c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l s t a n d must be removed between the P r o v i n c i a l Government ( r e p r e s e n t e d by B . C . T r a n s i t ) and l o c a l government and n e i g h b o u r h o o d g r o u p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o f the ALRT and the r e l u c t a n c e o f B . C . T r a n s i t t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e s e has no t h e l p e d the p u b l i c image of r a p i d t r a n s i t . U n l e s s the c u r r e n t i m p a c t s i n V a n c o u v e r , Burnaby and New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e overcome, no n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i l l w i s h the same impact on i t s e l f . I d e a l l y , a commi t t ee c o u l d be made up o f p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s and community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o d i s c u s s any f o r e s e e a b l e i m p a c t s so t h a t a l l i n t e r e s t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . As i n the Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a , e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e d i a l o g u e w i t h r e s i d e n t s wou ld be an a s s e t . F o r f u t u r e r a p i d t r a n s i t sys tems t h e r e i s the need t o r e s e a r c h , t o use new t e c h n o l o g y w i t h c a u t i o n , and t o t e s t b e f o r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . When c h o o s i n g the t e c h n o l o g y , l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s must be aware o f the p r o j e c t e d n o i s e i m p a c t s o f v a r i o u s sys tems and choose t h a t w h i c h be the l e a s t i n t r u s i v e . F i n a l l y , r e s i d e n t s i n the i m p a c t e d a r e a s h o u l d be s u r v e y e d . By the t ime 1 35 a new LRT l i n e i s b u i l t in Vancouver, there may be a new generation of rapid t r a n s i t that has less of a noise impact than the ALRT. This assumes that cost i s not the foremost s p e c i f i c a t i o n influencing the choice of technology, since a quieter system could be more expensive. The challenge for planners i s to draw together the interested p a r t i e s , and to deal with the remaining impacts of the ALRT through a cooperative and consultative planning process. It i s also essential to avoid a r e p e t i t i o n of these impacts for future rapid t r a n s i t projects. Prudent planning should occur at both the regional and neighbourhood l e v e l that balances the concerns of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and environmental q u a l i t y . 5.3. Suggestions for Further Research At each point of noise measurement along streets crossing the ALRT guideway several readings could be taken and averaged as they were for the 40 r e s i d e n t i a l survey s i t e s . This would avoid any chance of a very quiet or a very noisy t r a i n influencing the wayside noise levels along these streets. A more extensive analysis could be made of the s i t e s between Hull Street and Nanaimo Street to determine the cause of the s i g n i f i c a n t l y low noise l e v e l s , taking into account factors such as the height of the guideway and topography. In 1987, B.C. Transit began grinding the r a i l s to make the tr a i n s ride smoother, in the hope of reducing the noise. Since t h i s grinding has occurred at night when the system is not in service, noise measurements taken during the day and at night 1 36 may r e v e a l changes i n the t o t a l 24 -hour L e q . The s u r v e y of r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s c o u l d be improved by p r o v i d i n g a measure o f annoyance of ALRT n o i s e . More p e o p l e c o u l d be s u r v e y e d a t a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the ALRT guideway t o e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e the sample p o p u l a t i o n between the two zones o f impac t and t o a c h i e v e improved r e s u l t s i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of p e r c e p t i o n s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d a n a l y z e the measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e impac t a l o n g o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e ALRT l i n e . The r e s u l t s c o u l d be compared t o the Broadway-Nanaimo s e c t i o n . N o i s e i m p a c t s c o u l d be f o r e c a s t e d f o r the ALRT e x t e n s i o n t o S u r r e y , and the b r a n c h e v e n t u a l l y e x t e n d i n g out t o C o q u i t l a m . U s i n g p o s s i b l e deve lopmen t s c e n a r i o s i n the s t udy c o r r i d o r , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n o i s e and d i s t a n c e c o u l d d e t e r m i n e the new n o i s e impac t from l a r g e r b u i l d i n g s a d j a c e n t t o the guideway t h a t may b u f f e r o r r e f l e c t t he ALRT n o i s e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of n o i s e and d i s t a n c e , and an a n a l y s i s o f measured and p e r c e i v e d n o i s e i m p a c t s , c o u l d be a p p l i e d to o t h e r c i t i e s t h a t adopt s i m i l a r t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e i r r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , V a n c o u v e r ' s ALRT c o u l d be compared t o d i f f e r e n t sys tems a d o p t e d i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . Impacts such as n o i s e c o u l d be compared o v e r t ime to see how the p e r c e p t i o n s v a r y . 1 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY A p p l e y a r d , D o n a l d , and Mark L i n t e l l . 1972. 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R e p o r t on the G r e a t e r  V a n c o u v e r A r e a R a p i d T r a n s i t S t u d y . P r e p a r e d f o r the J o i n t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ( S e p t e m b e r ) . F i e l d s , James M . 1984. The E f f e c t o f Numbers of N o i s e E v e n t s on P e o p l e ' s R e a c t i o n t o N o i s e . An A n a l y s i s o f E x i s t i n g S u r v e y D a t a . J o u r n a l o f t he A c o u s t i c a l S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a 7 5 ( 2 ) : 4 4 7 - 4 7 6 . F i e l d s , J . M . and J . G . W a l k e r . 1978. R e a c t i o n s t o R a i l w a y N o i s e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n t e r - N o i s e . E d . W i l l i a m W. L a n g , 5 8 5 - 5 9 0 . 1980. R e a c t i o n s t o R a i l w a y N o i s e : A Su rvey Near R a i l w a y L i n e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t #102. I n s t i t u t e o f  Sound and V i b r a t i o n R e s e a r c h . G o l d s t e i n , J e f f r e y . 1979. D e s c r i p t o r s o f A u d i t o r y M a g n i t u d e and Methods of R a t i n g Community N o i s e . S p e c i a l T e c h n i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n 692 , 3 8 - 7 2 . Community N o i s e . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g and M a t e r i a l s . G r a f f , D o n a l d L . , and R o b e r t L . K n i g h t . 1978. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts of BART and P e o p l e ' s R e s p o n s e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of C i v i l  E n g i n e e r s 1 0 4 ( 5 ) : 7 1 3 - 7 3 0 . G r e a t e r Vancouve r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 1975. L i v a b l e R e g i o n .  1976 -86 . 1978. R a p i d T r a n s i t T e c h n i c a l Repor t # 1 . C o r r i d o r  P r i o r i t i e s ( A u g u s t ) . G r i f f i t h s , I . D . , and F . R . D e l a u z u n . 1977. I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n S e n s i t i v i t y t o T r a f f i c N o i s e : An E m p i r i c a l S t u d y . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 5 5 ( 1 ) : 9 3 - 1 0 7 . G r i f f i t h s , I . D . , F . J . L a n g d o n , and M . A . Swan. 1980. S u b j e c t i v e E f f e c t s o f T r a f f i c N o i s e E x p o s u r e : R e l i a b i l i t y and S e a s o n a l E f f e c t s . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 7 1 ( 2 ) : 2 2 7 - 2 4 0 . H a l l , F r e d L . , and S . M a r t i n T a y l o r . 1982. R e l i a b i l i t y of S o c i a l S u r v e y D a t a on N o i s e E f f e c t s . J o u r n a l of t he A c o u s t i c a l  S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a 7 2 ( 4 ) : 1 2 1 2 - 1 2 2 1 . H a r f o r d , Kennedy , W a k e f i e l d L i m i t e d . 1983. N o i s e Assessment o f  V a n c o u v e r ALRT A l o n g the E a s t Lane of Commerc ia l D r i v e . P r e p a r e d f o r B . C . T r a n s i t . 1 39 H a n s o n , C a r l E . 1985. N o i s e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A l t e r n a t i v e Urban T r a n s i t T e c h n o l o g i e s . N o i s e and V i b r a t i o n Measurement :  P r e d i c t i o n and M i t i g a t i o n . E d . W i l l i a m A . R e d l , 7 6 - 8 1 . New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . H a s s o n , Sh lomo. 1984. L o c a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t and Community A c t i o n :  The Impact o f V a n c o u v e r ' s ALRT S y s t e m . V a n c o u v e r : C e n t r e f o r Human S e t t l e m e n t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J o h n s t o n , G . W . , and R. C a r o t h e r s . 1973. Annoyance Measu res  R e l a t e d t o Urban T r a f f i c N o i s e E x p o s u r e . R e s e a r c h R e p o r t #13. U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o - Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y J o i n t P rogram i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . K n a l l , V . , and R. Schuemer. 1983. The D i f f e r i n g Annoyance L e v e l s o f R a i l and Road T r a f f i c N o i s e . J o u r n a l of Sound and  V i b r a t i o n 8 7 ( 2 ) : 3 2 1 - 3 2 6 . L a m b e r t , J . , F . S i m o n e t , and M . V a l l e t . 1984. P a t t e r n s of B e h a v i o r i n D w e l l i n g s Exposed t o Road T r a f f i c N o i s e . J o u r n a l  o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 9 2 ( 2 ) : 159 -172 . L a n g d o n , F . J . 1976. N o i s e N u i s a n c e Caused by Road T r a f f i c i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s . P a r t 1. J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 4 7 ( 2 ) : 2 4 3 - 2 6 3 . Lawson , B . R . , and D . W a l t e r s . 1974. The E f f e c t s o f a New Motorway on an E s t a b l i s h e d R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a . P s y c h o l o g y and  the B u i l t E n v i r o n m e n t . E d . D a v i d C a n t e r and Te rence L e e , 132-138 . T o n b r i d g e , E n g l a n d : A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s L i m i t e d . May, D . N . 1976. C r i t e r i a and L i m i t s f o r Ways ide N o i s e from T r a i n s . J o u r n a l of Sound and V i b r a t i o n 4 6 ( 4 ) : 5 3 7 - 5 5 0 . M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . 1975. S c a r b o r o u g h  Town C e n t r e L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t . S u r v e y of Community  A t t i t u d e s . Repor t #3, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n . Ombudsman of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1987. S k y t r a i n R e p o r t . P u b l i c R e p o r t #8. V i c t o r i a : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - O p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t . 1976. M e a s u r i n g S o c i a l W e l l - B e i n g . A P r o g r e s s R e p o r t on the Development of S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s . P a r i s : The OECD S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r Development Programmme. P a l y s , T . S. 1973. S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s of Q u a l i t y o f L i f e i n  Canada : A P r a c t i c a l / T h e o r e t i c a l R e p o r t . W i n n i p e g : M a n i t o b a Depar tment of Urban A f f a i r s . P e n d a k u r , V . S e t t y , and G . R. B r o w n . 1969. A c c e s s i b i l i t y and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y . J o u r n a l o f t he Urban P l a n n i n g and  Development D i v i s i o n , the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l  E n g i n e e r s ( A p r i l ) : 4 3 - 5 9 . 1 40 P e n d a k u r , V . S e t t y , and B o n i t a P y p l a c z . 1984. Urban T r a f f i c N o i s e A b a t e m e n t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y 3 8 ( 3 ) : 4 7 1 - 4 8 6 . R a t h e , E . J . 1977. R a i l w a y N o i s e P r o p a g a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Sound  and V i b r a t i o n 5 1 ( 3 ) : 3 7 1 - 3 8 8 . S c h u l t z , Theodore J . 1982. Community N o i s e R a t i n g . L o n d o n : A p p l i e d S c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s . S h a f f e r , M a r g a r e t T . 1969. "Community V a l u e s : A S o c i a l -P s y c h o l o g i c a l Requ i r emen t f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Sys tems P l a n n i n g . " D e f i n i n g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e q i r e m e n t s . The A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s , 2 8 6 - 2 9 3 . T o w e r s , D a v i d A . 1980. N o i s e Impact I n v e n t o r y of E l e v a t e d  S t r u c t u r e s i n U . S . Urban R a i l R a p i d T r a n s i t S y s t e m s . P r e p a r e d f o r U . S . Depar tment of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . ( S e p t e m b e r ) . U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y . 1972. Community  N o i s e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . V a l l e t , M . , M . M a u r i n , M . A . Page , B . F a u v r e , and G . P a c h i a u d i . 1978. Annoyance from and H a b i t u a t i o n t o Road T r a f f i c N o i s e from Urban E x p r e s s w a y s . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 6 0 ( 3 ) : 4 2 3 - 4 4 0 . V o o r h e e s , A l a n M . , and A s s o c i a t e s I n c . 1979. G u i d e l i n e s f o r  A s s e s s i n g the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact o f P u b l i c Mass  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o j e c t s . No tebooks 1-5. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U . S . Depar tment of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , O f f i c e o f E n v i r o n m e n t and S a f e t y . Wachs, M a r t i n . 1968. A S u r v e y of C i t i z e n s ' O p i n i o n s o f t he E f f e c t i v e n e s s , Needs and T e c h n i q u e s of Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g . Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d 229, 6 5 - 7 6 . 1970. B a s i c A p p r o a c h e s t o the Measurement o f Community  V a l u e s . C e n t e r f o r Urban S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s . W a l k e r , J . G . 1977. F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g R a i l w a y N o i s e L e v e l s i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 5 1 ( 3 ) : 3 9 3 - 3 9 8 . W e i n s t e i n , N . D . 1980. I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n C r i t i c a l T e n d e n c i e s and N o i s e A n n o y a n c e . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 6 8 ( 2 ) : 2 4 1 - 2 4 8 . W i t t i g , L . E . 1983 . R a i l w a y E l e v a t e d S t r u c t u r e N o i s e : A R e v i e w . J o u r n a l o f Sound and V i b r a t i o n 8 7 ( 2 ) : 2 4 9 - 2 7 1 . APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW FORM, 1986 UBC STUDY 142 NOTE: FILL IN ALL QUESTIONS WITH INFO., YES, NO, D.N. (DON* T KNOW), OR N.A. (NOT A P P L I C A B L E ) . A L R T QUESTIONAIRE GENERAL INFORMATION 1 CODE NUMBER (ADDRESS) 2 DWELLING CONSTRUCTION T Y P E ? WOOD FRAME BRICK CONCRETE OTHER 3 DWELLING T Y P E ? S I N G L E F A M I L Y DUPLEX LOW R I S E HIGH R I S E OTHER 4 HOW MANY STORIES IS THE DWELLING? i 5 D I S T A N C E FROM TRACK? F E E T 6 UNIT ORIENTATION TO TRACK? FRONT TO TRACK BACK TO TRACK S I D E TO TRACK OTHER 143 7 TRACK CHARACTERISTIC? AT GRADE IN C U T ELEVATED 8 ELEVATION OF HOME IN RELATION TO TRACK? ABOVE L E V E L BELOW 9 SLOPE OF TRACK? L E V E L SLOPING AGE OF DWELLING UNIT? _ 10 WINDOW TYPE? S INGLE GLAZE DOUBLE GLAZE T R I P L E GLAZE OTHER 111 7. OF WALL SURFACE FACING TRACK COVERED BY WINDOWS? 144 12 DATE OF BIRTH s =  13 GENDER M F 14 HOW MANY PEOPLE L I V E IN T H I S DWELLING? 15 HOW MANY CHILDREN? 16 HOW MANY ADULTS , 17 HOW MANY OF THE ADULTS WORK OUTSIDE THE HOME? 18 WHAT IS THE OCCUPATION OF EACH ADULT IN THE HOME? ADULT #1 ADULT #2 , ADULT #3 E T C . 19 HOW MANY HOURS PER DAY IS THE HOUSE USUALLY L E F T UNATTENDED? HRS. IF INTERVIEWEE PREFERS NOT TO RESPOND TO THIS QUESTION ASK FOLLOWING WHAT SHIFT DOES EACH ADULT WORK? ADULT #1 MORNING AFTERNOON EVENIN6 MIXED HOW MANY OF THE CHILDERN GO TO SCHOOL? 20 WHAT YEAR DID YOU MOVE INTO THIS HOUSE? APPROX. _ _ _ _ _ 145 N O I S E , 2 1 HOW WOULD Y O U R A T E T H E G E N E R A L N O I S E L E V E L O F Y O U R B L O C K ? Q U I E T 1 5 N O I S Y 22 WHAT G E N E R A T E S T H E N O I S E I N T H I S B L O C K ? N A M E A S M A N Y F A C T O R S A S Y O U C A N . L I S T F A C T O R S e x . T R A F F I C , D O G S , A L R T , N E I G H B O R S , T R U C K S , P A R T I E S , M O T O R C Y C L E S , E T C . L I S T F A C T O R S . R A N K B Y L O U D N E S S . R A N K L E V E L O F . Q U A L I T Y N O T Q U A N T I T Y . I R R I T A T I O N L O U D E S T T O Q U I E T E S T WORST T O L E A S T . 23 S I N C E T H E A L R T S E E M A N Y N O I S I E R ? S T A R T E D Y E S O P E R A T I N G , N O D O E S Y O U R N E I G H B O R H O O D D. N 1 46 24 CAN YOU HEAR THE A L R T WHEN YOU ARE IN YOUR Y A R D ? YES NO 25 CAN YOU HEAR THE A L R T FROM I N S I D E YOUR HOUSE? YES NO I F Y E S , CAN YOU HEAR IT I N THE BEDROOM YES . NO K I T C H E N YES - NO L I V I N G AREA YES NO 2£ S I N C E THE ALRT S T A R T - U P , HAVE YOUR S L E E P I N G H A B I T S C H A N G E D ? Y E S NO D . N . CHECK APPROPRIATE CHANGES - RECORD COMMENTS IF A V A I L A B L E I F Y E S , HOW? L E N G T H OF S L E E P ? T I M E YOU GO TO S L E E P ? ; T I M E I T T A K E S TO GO TO S L E E P ? ; , , ROOM YOU S L E E P I N . WINDOW C L O S E D . WINDOW C O V E R I N G S . W A K E N - U P BY THE A L R T . OTHER 1 4 L O S S OF P R I V A C Y 2 7 DO Y O U T H I N K P E O P L E R I D I N G THE. A L R T C A N S E E ? YOUR Y A R D Y E S NO Y O U R B A L C O N Y Y E S NO I N S I D E YOUR H O U S E Y E S NO 2 8 DO Y O U T H I N K P E O P L E R I D I N G T H E A L R T S E E Y O U R C A R , B O A T , S N O W M O B I L E , C A M P E R , M O T O R B I K E , E T C . Y E S NO 2 9 HOW M U C H D I D Y O U U S E YOUR Y A R D L A S T S U M M E R ? S E L D O M 1 2 3 4 5 A L M O S T E V E R Y D A Y 3 0 HOW M U C H W I L L Y O U U S E YOUR Y A R D T H I S S U M M E R ? S E L D O M 1 2 3 4 5 A L M O S T E V E R Y D A Y 3 1 HOW M U C H D I D Y O U U S E YOUR B A L C O N Y L A S T S U M M E R ? S E L D O M 1 2 3 4 5 A L M O S T E V E R Y D A Y 3 2 HOW M U C H W I L L Y O U U S E YOUR B A L C O N Y T H I S S U M M E R ? S E L D O M 1 2 3 4 5 A L M O S T E V E R Y D A Y 3 3 I N Y O U R O P I N I O N , WAS T H E R E A P R O B L E M W I T H T H E F T I N T H E N E I G H B O R H O O D L A S T Y E A R ? Y E S NO 3 4 DO Y O U E X P E C T T H I S ( P R O B L E M S W I T H T H E F T ) TO G E T B E T T E R OR W O R S E W I T H T H E A L R T ? B E T T E R WORSE D . N . 5 < \ r ^ 3 5 H A V E Y O U I M P R O V E D YOUR HOME S E C U R I T Y S I N C E A L R T ? Y E S NO 3 6 I S T H E R E A B L O C K P A R E N T P R O G R A M I N T H I S N E I G H B O R H O O D ? Y E S NO D . N . 1 48 3 6 IS THESE A NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAM IN THIS NEIGHBORHOOD"' YES NO D.N. 3 7 DO YOU KNOW IF PEOPLE IN THIS NEIGHBORHOOD LOOK AFTER EACH OTHER'S HOME WHEN THEY GO ON HOLIDAYS, BABYSIT CHILDERN, ETC.? YES NO D.N. VIBRATION 3 8 CAN YOU F E E L ANY VIPBATIONS WHEN THE ALRT GOES BY? YES NO IF YES WHERE CAN YOU FEEL THE VIBRATIONS IN/ON THE YARD BALCONY LIVING ROOM u 1  KITCHEN BEDROOM^  BATHROOM OTHER 39 GENERALLY, HOW STRONG ARE THE VIBRATIONS? WEAK 1 2 3 | 4 5 STRONG 40 DO YOU FIND THE VIBRATIONS BOTHERSOME? YES^ NO IF YES, HOW? 149 4 0 H A V E T H E V I B R A T I O N S DONE A N Y D A M A G E TO YOUR H O M E / P R O P E R T Y ? Y E S ' NO I F Y E S , W H A T ? _ , 4 1 H A V E Y O U DONE A N Y T H I N G TO C O N T R O L T H E D A M A G E OR TO R E D U C E T H E V I B R A T I O N S ? Y E S NO I F Y E S , W H A T ? 4 2 H A V E Y O U C O N S I D E R E D M O V I N G B E C A U S E O F T H E A L R T ? Y E S NO 1 50 APPENDIX B : DICTIONARY OF VARIABLES 1986 UBC STUDY AND EAST VANCOUVER NEIGHBOURHOODS STUDY 7 MAR 88 21:13:19 1986 UBC Study D i c t i o n a r y o f V a r i a b l e s LIST OF VARIABLES ON THE ACTIVE FILE NAME POSITION ADJLEQ A d j u s t e d L eq 3 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 EXALRTNS O v e r a l l E x t e n t of ALRT N o i s e 17 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 VALUE LABEL 1 Minimal Impact 2 Heard O u t s i d e 3 Heard m One Room 4 Heard In > 1 Room 5 Heard Everywhere 6 A f f e c t s S l e e p ALRTNOIS Rank of ALRT N o i s e 16 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 VALUE LABEL 1 L a r g e s t C o n t r i b u t o r 2 Second L a r g e s t C o n t r i b u t o r 3 T h i r d L a r g e s t C o n t r i b u t o r 4 F o u r t h C o n t r i b u t o r 5 L e a s t C o n t r i b u t o r NOISLEVE G e n e r a l Neighbourhood N o i s e L e v e l 15 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT. F2 VALUE LABEL 1 Q u i e t 2 Some No 1ses 3 F a i r l y N o i s y 4 N o i s y 5 Very N o i s y LOUDBKGD Background Leq > ALRT Leq PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 VALUE LABEL 1 Yes 2 No ZONE Zone o f Impact PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 VALUE LABEL 1 Zone o f H i g h Impact 2 Zone of Low Impact of Respondent PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 of Respondent PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 VALUE LABEL 1 Ma 1 e 2 Female OCUPRESP O c c u p a t i o n of Respondent PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 VALUE LABEL 1 Homemaker,Ret 1 red.Unemp1oyed 2 Whlte C o l l a r 3 B l u e C o l l a r ATHOME Home Is Always O c c u p i e d PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 VALUE LABEL AQERES Age SEXRES Sex 1 Yes 2 No MAR 88 1986 UBC Study 13:19 Dictionary of Variables BLUECOL Blue C o l l a r Job PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 VALUE LABEL 1 Yes 2 No WHITECOL White C o l l a r Job PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 99 VALUE LABEL 1 Yes 2 No NOFOCCUP Number of Occupants PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 DWELLING Type of Dwelling PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 VALUE LABEL 1 Single Family 2 Duplex. Apartment 3 Low Rise LENGTRES Length of Residency PRINT FORMAT: F4. 1 WRITE FORMAT: F4 . 1 NEIGUNIT Neighbourhood Unity PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 VALUE LABEL 0 None 1 A L i t t l e 2 Close Ties 13 9 5 14 18 cn ro 9 F R I E N D L Y N E I G H B O R S APR 8 8 E a s t V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s S t u d y 10 F A M I L Y ROOTS 38 : 3 8 D i c t i o n a r y o f V a r i a b l e s 1 1 NEAR C H U R C H 12 NEAR L I B R A R Y 13 C U L T U R A L D I V E R S I T Y L I S T OF V A R I A B L E S ON THE A C T I V E F I L E 14 V I E W S 15 Q U I E T NAME P O S I T I O N 16 OTHER 17 C E N T R A L L O C A T I O N B E S T 1 T H I N G 1 L I K E D B E S T ABOUT NEIGHBOURHOOD 15 18 M DO NOT KNOW P R I N T F O R M A T : F2 19 M M I S S I N G WRITE F O R M A T : F 2 M I S S I N G V A L U E S : 18 , 19 V A L U E L A B E L L E A S T 1 T H I N G 1 L I K E D L E A S T ABOUT N E I G H B O U R H O O D P R I N T F O R M A T : F 2 WRITE F O R M A T : F 2 M I S S I N G V A L U E S : 1 8 , 19 B E S T 2 0 NONE 1 A F F O R D A B L E HOUSES V A L U E L A B E L 2 NEAR S H O P P I N G 3 NEAR SCHOOLS 1 NONE 4 NEAR WORK 2 C R I M E , V A N D A L I S M 5 NEAR COMMUNITY F A C I L 3 THROUGH T R A F F I C 6 NEAR P A R K S 4 A L R T 7 NEAR DOWNTOWN 5 N O I S Y N E I G H B O U R S 8 A C C E S S TO B U S . R O A D S 6 T R A F F I C N O I S E 9 F R I E N D L Y N E I G H B O R S 7 L I T T L E P A R K I N G 10 F A M I L Y ROOTS 8 RUNDOWN S T R E E T S . L A N E 1 1 NEAR CHURCH 9 V A N C O U V E R S P E C I A L S 12 NEAR L I B R A R Y 10 I L L E G A L S U I T E S 13 C U L T U R A L D I V E R S I T Y 1 1 FEW L O C A L F A C I L I T I E S 14 VIEWS 12 POOR B U S S E R V I C E 15 Q U I E T 13 LOOSE A N I M A L S 16 OTHER 14 P E D L A R S , S A L E S P E O P L E 17 C E N T R A L L O C A T I O N 15 FEW J O B S 18 M DO NOT KNOW 16 OTHER 19 M M I S S I N G 17 POOR H O U S I N G 18 M DO NOT KNOW NG2 L I K E D B E S T ABOUT NEIGHBOURHOOD 16 19 M M I S S I N G P R I N T FORMAT: F2 WRITE F O R M A T : F2 M I S S I N G V A L U E S : 1 8 , 19 V A L U E L A B E L L E A S T 2 T H I N G 2 L I K E D L E A S T ABOUT NEIGHBOURHOOD P R I N T F O R M A T : F 2 WRITE F O R M A T : F 2 M I S S I N G V A L U E S : 1, 1 8 , 19 0 M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NONE A F F O R D A B L E HOUSES NEAR S H O P P I N G NEAR SCHOOLS NEAR WORK NEAR COMMUNITY F A C I L NEAR P A R K S NEAR DOWNTOWN A C C E S S TO B U S , R O A D S V A L U E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L A B E L NONE C R I M E . V A N D A L I S M THROUGH T R A F F I C A L R T N O I S Y N E I G H B O U R S T R A F F I C N O I S E L I T T L E P A R K I N G RUNDOWN S T R E E T S . L A N E 9 MAR 88 East Vancouver Neighbourhoods Study 22:37:53 D i c t i o n a r y of V a r i a b l e s 9 VANCOUVER SPECIALS 10 ILLEGAL SUITES 11 FEW LOCAL FACILITIES 12 POOR BUS SERVICE 13 LOOSE ANIMALS 14 PEDLARS.SALESPEOPLE 15 FEW JOBS 16 OTHER 17 POOR HOUSING 18 M DO NOT KNOW 19 M MISSING NBRDCHG1 ONE CHANGE IN NEIGHBOURHOOD IN NEXT 5YRS PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 21, 22 VALUE LABEL 1 NO CHANGE 2 MORE TRAFFIC 3 MORE PARKING PROBLEM 4 MORE NOISE 5 MORE PEOPLE 6 GREATER ETHNIC MIX 7 MORE HOUSING 8 MORE APARTMENTS 9 BETTER HOUSING 10 MORE ILLEGAL SUITES 1 1 MORE VAN SPECIALS 12 MORE COMMERCIAL DVMT 13 FEWER FAMILIES 14 MORE VANDALISM 15 MORE CRIME 16 YOUTH PROBLEMS 17 EXODUS OF ELDERLY 18 BETTER PUBLIC TRANS 19 MORE TRANSIENTS 20 OTHER _ 21 M DO NOT KNOW 22 M MISSING NBRDCHG2 2ND CHANGE IN NEIGHBOURHOOD IN NEXT 5Y PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: O, 22 VALUE LABEL 0 M NO CHANGE 1 MORE TRAFFIC 2 MORE PARKING PROBLEM 3 MORE NOISE 4 MORE PEOPLE 5 GREATER ETHNIC MIX 6 MORE HOUSING 7 MORE APARTMENTS 8 BETTER HOUSING 9 MORE ILLEGAL SUITES 10 MORE VAN SPECIALS 1 1 MORE COMMERCIAL DVMT 12 FEWER FAMILIES 13 MORE VANDALISM 14 MORE CRIME 15 YOUTH PROBLEMS 16 EXODUS OF ELDERLY 17 BETTER PUBLIC TRANS 18 MORE TRANSIENTS 19 OTHER 21 DO NOT KNOW 22 M MISSING ALRTINFO MAIN SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT ALRT PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 9 VALUE LABEL 0 NO KNOWLEDGE OF ALRT 1 PLANNING DEPT FLYERS 2 COMMUNITY MEETINGS 3 FLYERS AND MEETINGS 4 COMMUNITY NEWSPAPERS 5 CITY NEWSPAPERS 6 TV,RADIO,OTHER MEDIA 7 NEIGHBOURS.FRIENDS 8 OTHER 9 M MISSING 9 MAR 88 East Vancouver Neighbourhoods Study 22:37:53 D i c t i o n a r y of V a r i a b l e s NBRCHTR EFFECT OF ALRT ON NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTER PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 4, 9 VALUE LABEL -1 worse 0 no change 1 b e t t e r 9 M m i s s i n g NOISE EFFECT OF ALRT ON NOISE LEVELS PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 4. 9 VALUE LABEL -1 h i g h e r 0 no change 1 lower 9 M mIssIng NO ISENBR PROBLEM OF NOISY NEIGHBOURS PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 11. 12 VALUE LABEL 0 NOT AT ALL A PROBLEM 10 ONE OF BIGGEST PROB 11 M DO NOT KNOW 12 M MISSING LCLTRFIC TRAFFIC ON LOCAL STREETS ONCE ALRT OPENS PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 4, 9 VALUE LABEL -1 more 0 no change 1 1 ess 9 M m i s s i n g PLCTRNST TRANSIT SERVICE AFTER ALRT OPENS PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 4, 9 VALUE LABEL -1 worse 0 no change 1 b e t t e r 9 M m1ss1ng DWELLING DWELLING TYPE PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 10 VALUE LABEL 0 n o n - s i n g l e house 1 s i n g l e house 10 M m i s s i n g NBRHDTME LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN NEIGHBOURHOOD PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES. 9 VALUE LABEL 1 <2YRS 2 2-4 . 9YRS 3 5-9.9YRS 4 10-14.9YRS 5 15-19.9YRS 6 20-29.9YRS 7 30-40YRS 8 >40YRS 9 M MISSING HSEOWN HOUSING TENURE PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 9 VALUE LABEL 1 owners 2 non-owners 3 non-owners 9 M m i s s i n g PEOPLE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN HOUSEHOLD 78 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 20 V A L U E L A B E L 20 M MISSING AGERES AGE OF RESPONDENT 81 PRINT FORMAT: F3 WRITE FORMAT: F3 MISSING VALUES: -1 V A L U E L A B E L 999 MISSING SEXRES SEX OF RESPONDENT 80 PRINT FORMAT: F1 WRITE FORMAT: F1 MISSING VALUES: 9 V A L U E L A B E L 1 FEMALE 2 MALE 9 M MISSING OCUPRES PRIMARY OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENT 82 PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 28 VALUE LABEL 1 HOUSEWIFE,HUSBAND 2 MANAGERIAL ETC 3 NATURAL SCIENCES,ETC 4 SOCIAL SCIENCES,ETC 5 RELIGION 6 TEACHING,ETC 7 MEDICINE AND HEALTH 8 ARTISTIC,ETC 9 CLERICAL,ETC i o SALES 1 1 SERVICE 12 FARMING,ANIMAL CARE 13 FISHING,TRAPPING 14 FORESTRY,LOGGING 15 MINING.QUARRYING 16 PROCESSING 17 MACHINING 18 PRODUCTS FABRICATING 19 CONSTRUCTION 20 TRANSPORT EQ OPERATE 21 OTHER ARTS,EQ OPER 22 MATERIAL HANDLING 23 FULLTIME STUDENT 24 UNEMPLOYED,SEEK WORK 25 UNEMP,NOT SEEK WORK 26 RETIRED 27 OTHER 28 M MISSING NUMBER OF PEOPLE ON BLOCK KNOWN PRINT FORMAT: F2 WRITE FORMAT: F2 MISSING VALUES: 6 VALUE LABEL 0 0 1 1-2 2 3-5 3 6-1 4 11-15 5 >15 6 M MISSING APPENDIX C : SCATTERGRAMS AND CELL FREQUENCIES 9 MAR 88 ALRT Noise and Distance from the Guideway 14:00:18 Regression: Log of Distance (0 - 25 Feet) PAGE 2 DOWN: NOISE 67 .0 + 1.020 1.061 1.102 64 . 4 61.8 56 . 6 46 . 2 43.6 ACROSS: LOGDIST 1.143 1 . 184 1 . 225 1.266 1.307 1.348 1.389 + 67.0 64 . 4 61.8 59 . 2 54 .0 51.4 48 . 8 43 . 6 4 1 . 0 + I I + 4 1 . 0 .+ + + + + + + + 4- + + + + + + + + + + + +. 1.000 1.041 1.082 1.123 1.164 1.205 1.246 1.287 1.328 1.369 1.410 H oo 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway PAGE 3 14:00:19 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e ( O - 25 Fe e t ) STATISTICS CORRELATION (R ) - * • * * * * * * R SQUARED -*»**»**• SIGNIFICANCE STD ERR OF EST -*»*****• INTERCEPT (A) -**»****» SLOPE (B) PLOTTED VALUES - 3 EXCLUDED VALUES- 90 MISSING VALUES '•*****•*' IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e f rom the Guideway 14:03:42 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e (26 - 91 F e e t ) PAGE 2 DOWN: NOISE 6 7 . 0 + 1 . 447 1.826 1.881 1.935 59 . 2 54 .0 48 . 8 46 .2 67 .0 56 . 6 54 .0 O 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway 14:03:43 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e (26 - 91 Feet) PAGE 3 STATISTICS.. CORRELATION ( R ) - -.39049 R SQUARED - .15248 SIGNIFICANCE STD ERR OF EST - 3.77422 INTERCEPT (A) - 83.79249 SLOPE (B) PLOTTED VALUES - 31 EXCLUDED VALUES- 62 MISSING VALUES '*»*****»' IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED. 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e f rom the Guideway 14:06:01 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e (92 - 320 F e e t ) PAGE 2 DOWN: NOISE 6 7 . 0 + 1.992 2.051 ACROSS: LOGOI ST 2 .110 2 .168 2 .227 2.286 2 .345 2 .403 2.462 2.521 61 .8 56 .6 54 .0 51 .4 6 7 . 0 61 .8 56 .6 54 .0 46 .2 to 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway 14:06:01 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e (92 - 320 Feet) PAGE STATISTICS . . CORRELATION (R)-STD ERR OF EST -PLOTTED VALUES --.60089 3.35035 59 R SQUARED INTERCEPT (A) -EXCLUDED VALUES-.36107 89.07295 34 SIGNIFICANCE SLOPE (B) MISSING VALUES .OOOOO -16.49926 0 '******••' IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED. <7\ 00 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway 2 2 : 3 2 : 2 3 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e - Broadway to H u l l PAGE 2 9 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D t s t a n c e from the Guideway 22:32:23 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e - Broadway to H u l l PAGE STATISTICS.. CORRELATION (R)-STD ERR OF EST -PLOTTED VALUES -- .83327 2.08729 44 R SQUARED INTERCEPT (A) -EXCLUDED VALUES-.69433 75.83946 O SIGNIFICANCE SLOPE (B) MISSING VALUES .00000 -9.73257 0 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED. Ol 8 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway 21 :58 :34 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e - H u l l to Nanaimo PAGE 2 8 MAR 88 ALRT N o i s e and D i s t a n c e from the Guideway 21:58:34 R e g r e s s i o n : Log of D i s t a n c e - H u l l to Nanaimo PAGE 3 S T A T I S T I C S . . C O R R E L A T I O N ( R ) - -.73316 R S Q U A R E D - .53753 S I G N I F I C A N C E - . O O O O O S T D E R R O F E S T - 3.87635 I N T E R C E P T ( A ) - 85.42505 S L O P E ( B ) - -15.71065 P L O T T E D V A L U E S - 49 E X C L U D E D V A L U E S - O M I S S I N G V A L U E S - O . » * * * » » * * . I S P R I N T E D I F A C O E F F I C I E N T C A N N O T B E C O M P U T E D . 7 MAR 88 1986 UBC Study 21:43:10 C r o s s t a b s : ADJLEO w i t h EXALRTNS and NOISLEVE C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -EXALRTNS O v e r a l l E x t e n t of ALRT N o i s e BY ADJLEO A d j u s t e d L eq PAGE 1 OF 2 AOJLEQ COUNT ROW TOTAL 46| 49| 50| 51 | 521 531 541 551 561 571 EXALRTNS + + + + + + + + + + + Minimal Impact | | | ( | | | | I I j 2.9 Heard O u t s i d e | | | | | | | | | | | 2.9 Heard In One Roo | | | | | | | | | | | 8.6 Heard 1n > 1 Roo | | | | | | | | | | | 14.3 Heard Everywhere | | | | | | | | I I | 34.3 e i i j - - j - - | j — - - - j p------j j — - - - - - t 1 3 A f f e c t s S l e e p | | | | | | | | | | | 37.1 + + + + + + + + + + + COLUMN 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 5 (CONTINUED) TOTAL 5.7 2.9 2.9 5.7 2.9 8.6 5.7 5.7 2.9 8.6 1O0.0 7 MAR 88 1986 UBC Study 21:43:10 C r o s s t a b s : ADJLEQ w i t h EXALRTNS and NOISLEVE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F - _ - -EXALRTNS O v e r a l l E x t e n t of ALRT N o i s e BY ADJLEQ A d j u s t e d L eq PAGE 2 OF 2 ADJLEQ COUNT EXALRTNS 1 Minimal Impact Heard O u t s i d e Heard In One Roo Heard i n > 1 Roo Heard Everywhere A f f e c t s S l e e p 581 591 61| 621 641 651 71 | ROW TOTAL 1 1 COLUMN 4 TOTAL 11.4 4 11.4 4 11.4 1 2 2.9 5.7 1 1 1 2.9 1 2.9 3 8.6 5 14.3 12 34 . 3 13 37. 1 35 2.9 2.9 100.0 STATISTIC SYMMETRIC WITH EXALRTNS DEPENDENT WITH ADJLEQ DEPENDENT LAMBDA UNCERTAINTY COEFFICIENT 0.30189 0.4 1606 0.500O0 0.60O82 0.16129 0.31820 STATISTIC VALUE SIGNIFICANCE KENDALL'S TAU B 0.18678 KENDALL'S TAU C 0.18220 NUMBER OF MISSING OBSERVATIONS = 0 0.0811 0.0811 7 MAR 88 1986 UBC Study 21:43:10 C r o s s t a b s : ADJLEQ w i t h EXALRTNS and NOISLEVE - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -NOISLEVE General Neighbourhood N o i s e L e v e l BY ADJLEQ A d j u s t e d L eq _ - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - _ - _ - - - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PAGE 1 OF 2 ADJLEQ COUNT ROW TOTAL 46| 49| 50| 51| 52| 53| 54| 55| 56| 57| NOISLEVE + + + + + + + + -- + + + ' I ;} I j _ i j _ ; | j I \ . . . I ..: 2 r I ~ j " " I I 1 ? 1 I I i i I 4 Some N o i s e s | | | | | | | | I I | 1 1 .4 F a i r l y N o i s y 3 | 1 | 1 | | | I 1 I 2 I I 1 I I 25.7 4 1 j i ; i r i j j L I U ' T L " . 1 ^ s I " I I r I I I i I I 2 1 9 Very N o i s y | | | I I I I I I I I 25.7 + + + + + + + + + + + COLUMN 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 35 (CONTINUED) TOTAL 5.7 2.9 2.9 5.7 2.9 8.6 5.7 5.7 2.9 8.6 100.0 7 MAR 88 1986 UBC Study 21:43:11 C r o s s t a b s : ADJLEO w i t h EXALRTNS and NOISLEVE C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F - - - -NOISLEVE General Neighbourhood N o i s e L e v e l BY ADJLEO A d j u s t e d L eq PAGE 2 OF 2 ADJLEO COUNT NOISLEVE Q u i e t 581 59| 61| 62| 64 65| 71| + + ROW TOTAL 2 Some N o i s e s 1 ' 1 I 1 I I I I 3 F a i r l y N o i s y 1 3 1 I I I I 4 N o i s y 1 ' I 1 I I 2 I I ' 5 Ve r y N o i s y 1 1 3 I 2 I ' I I ' I COLUMN TOTAL 4 11.4 4 11.4 1 1 4 4 1 2 2.9 5.7 1 1 2.9 2.9 STATISTIC SYMMETRIC WITH NOISLEVE DEPENDENT WITH ADJLEQ DEPENDENT 3 8.6 4 11.4 9 25.7 10 28.6 9 25.7 35 LAMBDA UNCERTAINTY COEFFICIENT 0.41071 0.51285 0.68000 0.71239 0.19355 0.40063 STATISTIC VALUE SIGNIFICANCE KENDALL'S TAU B KENDALL'S TAU C 0.37654 O.39592 0.0021 0.0021 NUMBER OF MISSING OBSERVATIONS 

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