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A follow-up evaluation of business education career preparation programs in Vancouver secondary schools Good, Dianne E. 1988

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A FOLLOW-UP EVAIJJATTON OF BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VANCOUVER SECONDARY SCHOOLS  By DIANNE E. GOOD B.Ed.Sec, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFTLLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Educational  Psychology and Special Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 © D i a n n e E. Good, 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  c o p y i n g  of  department publication  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  C o l u m b i a ,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis b y  for  his  a n d  scholarly  or  thesis  study.  her  of  this  for  of  E d u c a t i o n a l  I  further  purposes  financial  gain  It  shall  that  agree  m a y  representatives.  requirements  not  the  that  b e  Library  by  understood be  an  allowed  a d v a n c e d  shall  permission  granted  is  for  the that without  for  T 1 V V  h 9 a 6  e University of British 56 Main Mall ncouver, C a n a d a T 1 Y 3  Date  1988  P s y c h o l o g y  C o l u m b i a  September  30  a n d . S p e c i a l  it  extensive  h e a d  of  m y  c o p y i n g  o r  m y  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t  m a k e  E d u c a t i o n  written  t  •  11  ABSTRACT  Career Preparation programs have been o f f e r e d i n B r i t i s h since 1980.  Columbia  However, i n t h a t time very l i t t l e formal evaluation has  been conducted t o determine i f Career Preparation programs are achieving the stated objectives.  T h i s study, based on Business  Education Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver secondary schools, surveyed Career Preparation students one, two, and three years a f t e r graduation.  Schools which had s t a r t e d Business Education Career  Preparation programs i n September 1982 o r e a r l i e r were selected. Graduates o f these schools who completed a Business Education Career Preparation program i n 1984,  1985, o r 1986, were surveyed t o  determine t h e i r employment and post-secondary education experiences, whether t h e i r post-secondary education o r employment was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s , and t h e i r perceptions o f the program.  The purpose of the study was t o determine the strengths and  weaknesses o f the Business Education Career Preparation programs o f f e r e d i n Vancouver Secondary Schools i n order t o make recommendat i o n s f o r program improvements. The r e s u l t s show that 94% o f respondents h e l d a t l e a s t one job since graduating from secondary school; 77% o f respondents continue t h e i r education a t a post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n ; 67% o f postsecondary programs e n r o l l e d i n by respondents were a t l e a s t somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y ; and 67% o f jobs h e l d since graduating from secondary school were a t l e a s t somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  The Career Preparation  program was rated a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress  iii  i n post-secondary education by 81% o f respondents; 93% o f respondents r a t e d Career Preparation a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n making career choices; 91% r a t e d i t a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing employable s k i l l s ; 85% rated i t a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing j o b search s k i l l s ; and 68% rated i t a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing employment contacts.  Overall, t h e Business  Education Career Preparation program offered i n Vancouver was judged as meeting the program objectives o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l curriculum. Recommendations are made f o r t h e program, including:  matching  students more c a r e f u l l y t o work experience placements which meet t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , career goals and s p e c i a l t y ; more c a r e f u l monitoring of work experience s i t e s t o ensure t h a t appropriate tasks are being assigned; o f f e r i n g programs which w i l l i n t e r e s t both males and females; ooorcUrating employment opportunities f o r graduates; improving a r t i c u l a t i o n with post-secondary programs; and s t r u c t u r i n g Career Preparation programs t o allow f o r f l e x i b i l i t y recjuirements and work experience.  i n course  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  ,  L i s t of Tables  iv v  Actocwledgement  vii  Chapter I.  II.  III.  IV.  OVERVIEW The Career Preparation Program Scope o f the Study Purpose o f the Evaluation Issues  1 1 3 5 5  RELATED LITERATURE S i m i l a r Programs and Studies Evaluation Issues  6 7 14  EVALUATION PROCEDURES Evaluations Questions Iristrumentation Population and Sampling Data Management Data A n a l y s i s  18 18 20 24 26 28  RESULTS Delivery and Response Rates C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents Career Preparation Work Experience Post-Secondary Education Post-Secondary Employment P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Perceptions of the Program :  V.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECEMlENDAnONS Summary Prccedures Results and Conclusions Limitations Reconmendations . Reaanmendations f o r Business Education Career Preparation Programs Recommendations f o r Future Studies  30 30 31 33 . 37 41 50 53 53 53 54 65 66 66 69  References  72  Appendix A  75  Appendix B  85  V  LIST OF TABLES Table 1  Page Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver Schools: 1986/87  4  2  Program Objectives and Related Questions  21  3  Number o f Students (3ampleting Business Education Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver Schools: 1984 t o 1986  24  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Questionnaires by Year o f Graduation  25  Number o f Graduates Sampled by School and Year of Graduation  26  4 5 6  Number and Rate o f Responses by School and Year o f Graduation  30  7  L i v i n g Arrangements by M a r i t a l Status and Gender  31  8  Career Preparation Specialty by School  32  9  Combinations o f Career Preparation S p e c i a l t i e s  33  10  Businesses which Provided Work Experience Placements  34  11 12  Jobs Performed on Work Experience Frequency o f S k i l l s and Equipment Used on Work Experience by Career Preparation Specialty  35 36  Percentage o f Respondents Using Work Experience S k i l l s Central t o the Career Preparation S p e c i a l t y  37  Frequency o f Enrollment i n Post-Secondary Programs by I n s t i t u t i o n s  38  Relationship Between Post-Secondary Education and Career Preparation Specialty  39  16  Frequency o f Advanced Placement i n Courses by College  40  17  Proportion o f Respondents Continuing Education a t a Post-Secondary I n s t i t u t i o n by School  42  Number o f Jobs Held since Graduation from Secondary School by Year o f Graduation  42  Hours o f Work Per Week i n Each Job f o r Employed Respondents  43  13 14 15  18 19  LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Table 20  Months o f Employment by Year o f Graduation  21  Employment Ratio by Year o f Graduation  22  Businesses Providing Employment  23  Post-Secondary Jobs Performed by Respondents  24  Employment Rates o f Career Preparation Graduates and Greater Vancouver Residents Aged 20-24 with High School Education  25  Relationship o f Employment t o Career Preparation Specialty  26  Source f o r Finding Jobs  27  Respondent Ratings o f How H e l p f u l the Career Preparation Program was f o r Them  28  Suggested Major Benefits o f P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Career Preparation  29  Suggested Improvements t o the Career Preparation Program  vii  ACKNOWLEnSEMENT  Many thanks t o Dr. Robert Conry f o r h i s countless hours o f assistance i n completing t h i s study.  Thank you a l s o t o Dr. Frank  Echols and Dr. Norm Amundson f o r agreeing t o be on the committee and f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and comments. A t the Vancouver School Board, I would l i k e t o extend thanks t o Bob Peacock, Business Education D i s t r i c t P r i n c i p a l , f o r h i s continued support throughout the completion o f t h i s study and t o Cy H i r i n g , Career Preparation Coordinator, f o r suggesting the study.  1  Chapter I  OVERVIEW  Career Preparation programs have been o f f e r e d i n B r i t i s h since 1980.  Columbia  However, i n that time very l i t t l e formal evaluation has  been conducted t o determine i f Career Preparation programs are achieving stated objectives.  T h i s study was undertaken a t the  suggestion of a Vancouver School Board Career Preparation Coordinator,, and t h i s evaluation has been designed f o r use i n program planning by School Board o f f i c i a l s .  The M i n i s t r y of Education began  the process o f r e v i s i n g the Business Education curriculum i n the spring o f 1987.  I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s study w i l l a l s o be of  use t o the M i n i s t r y of Education curriculum r e v i s i o n committee i n making d e c i s i o n s about Career Preparation programs.  The Career Preparation Program Career Preparation programs were p i l o t e d i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  between 1977 and 1980 following a review of the effectiveness o f secondary programs t o prepare students adequately f o r future employment (Ministry o f Education, 1982).  The review concluded that  more e f f i c i e n t and relevant use o f student time was needed i n grades 11 and 12, t h a t students had a l a c k o f r e a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o the world o f work, and t h a t more e f f e c t i v e vocational t r a i n i n g was needed i n grades 11 and 12 t o prepare students f o r d i r e c t entry i n t o the work force. In 1980 the Career Preparation program received formal endorsement from the M i n i s t r y o f Education.  2  The M i n i s t r y of Education has defined Career Preparation as: a s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of courses i n general education subjects and i n major vocational f i e l d s t o form a systematic pattern leading t o graduation from a senior secondary school with advanced admission t o a post-secondary program and/or d i r e c t entry t o employment (1982, p. 12). To graduate from a Career Preparation program, students must complete s i x p r o v i n c i a l l y approved s p e c i a l t y courses i n a d d i t i o n t o the prescribed courses f o r graduation (english, math, science, s o c i a l studies).  The s p e c i a l t y courses f o r each program are selected by  schools and then submitted t o the M i n i s t r y o f Education f o r approval.  The s p e c i a l t y courses include Work Experience 12, which  c r e d i t s the completion o f three weeks (100 t o 120 hours) o f on-the-job experience i n a student's chosen career f i e l d . Volunteer advisory committees (usually made up of representatives of the secondary school, school d i s t r i c t , l o c a l industry, unions o r r e l a t e d associations, and post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ) are formed t o provide advice and guidance i n the development o f Career Preparation programs. community.  They a l s o provide a communication l i n k between school and Where possible, Career Preparation programs are  a r t i c u l a t e d with post-secondary programs t o allow advanced placement i n r e l a t e d programs and/or p r i o r i t y on waiting l i s t s f o r post-secondary programs. Career Preparation i n Vancouver.  The Vancouver School D i s t r i c t  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Career Preparation p i l o t p r o j e c t between 1977 1980, and has continued t o p a r t i c i p a t e since then.  and  The number o f  programs o f f e r e d has increased every year since the program began. In the 1986/87 school year, 14 o f 18 secondary schools i n Vancouver  3  had a t l e a s t one Career Preparation program.  Fifty-one programs,  with 23 d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l t y t i t l e s , were offered. Table 1 l i s t s programs by school.  Over 1700 grade 11 and 12 Vancouver students  were e n r o l l e d i n these programs i n 1986/87. Of the 14 schools o f f e r i n g Career Preparation programs i n 1987, 12 o f f e r e d programs i n Business Education.  The Business Education  programs are f u r t h e r sub-divided i n t o s p e c i a l t y areas such as Accounting, S e c r e t a r i a l , C l e r i c a l , Marketing, and Data Processing. The programs o f f e r e d and the courses required f o r each s p e c i a l t y are l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n of each school, subject t o approval by the M i n i s t r y o f Education.  Any student t a k i n g the required courses f o r a  s p e c i a l t y may p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program; but these students may  be  dropped from the program i f they have poor attendance o r grades.  The  work experience placements are arranged by Career Preparation Coordinators a t the school board.  Teachers provide the coordinators  with information regarding the students  1  s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s so t h a t  students may be matched t o an appropriate work experience placement.  Scope o f the Study Although Career Preparation Programs are o f f e r e d i n schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s study i s l i m i t e d t o Career Preparation Programs o f f e r e d i n Vancouver secondary schools.  Career  Preparation Programs are o f f e r e d i n Vancouver schools throughout the c i t y t h a t ranged i n student population as o f June 1986 from 354 students t o 1833 students (numbers provided over the telephone by Vancouver School Board).  The scope o f Career Preparation Programs  vary widely from one subject area t o another; therefore, the  Table 1 CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VMCOUVER SCHOOLS:  School  1986/87  Programs  Britannia  Business Education I n t e r i o r Design  Fashion Design Truck Driver/Mechanic  Lord Byng  Theatre  Gladstone  Auto Mechanics Drafting Graphics Hospitality/Tourism  Business Education Electronics Hospitality/Foods  E r i c Hamber  Auto Parts  Television  John O l i v e r  Auto Mechanics Business Education Drafting Machinist  (Commercial A r t Computer Science Human/Family Services  Killarney  Auto Mechanics  Business Education  King George  Business Education  Kitsilano  Auto Mechanics  Point Grey  Business Education  Templeton  Auto Mechanics Construction Electronics  Business Education Drafting Machinist  David Thompson  Auto Mechanics Hospitality/Foods  Business Education  S i r Charles Tupper  Business Education Electricity  Construction Human/Children's Services  Vancouver Technical  Business Education Foundry Hairdressing Hospitality/Tourism Welding  Electronics Graphics Hospitality/Foods Machinist  Windermere  Business Education  Business Education  5  focus o f t h i s study i s l i m i t e d t o Business Education Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver.  Furthermore, the Business  Education curriculum i s c u r r e n t l y being r e v i s e d and there i s an opportunity f o r t h i s study t o have an impact on the r e v i s i o n of Business Education Career Preparation Programs.  Purpose o f the Evaluation The purpose o f t h i s study was t o determine the strengths and weaknesses o f the Business Education Career Preparation programs o f f e r e d i n Vancouver secondary schools i n order t o make recommendations f o r program improvements.  Issues The evaluation was structured around three issues. 1)  Do program leavers enter employment r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation program?  2)  Do program leavers pursue f u r t h e r studies toward a p r o f e s s i o n or s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation specialty?  3)  Do program leavers perceive any value i n completing a Business Education Career preparation program?  6 Chapter I I RELATED LITERATURE Very few studies o f B r i t i s h Columbia Career Preparation Programs have been conducted.  Some studies of Vancouver work experience  programs, which were o f f e r e d before the introduction o f Career Preparation Programs, are a v a i l a b l e (Middleton, 1975; 1978).  Stevens,  However, these studies do not include follow-up data about  students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the work experience programs.  One  evaluation study o f Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver was conducted p r i o r t o t h i s study and d i d include a l i m i t e d amount of follow-up data on graduates  (Kettle, 1984).  Although programs s i m i l a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia's Career Preparation programs are o f f e r e d throughout Canada, very few program evaluations are a v a i l a b l e .  Because of t h i s , i t i s necessary t o  review studies from other j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  Many forms of work  experience programs are o f f e r e d i n the United States and same are very s i m i l a r t o the Career Preparation Programs o f f e r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Many more evaluation reports about these programs are  a v a i l a b l e than reports about Canadian programs. them include follow-up data about  graduates.  In addition, many of  Britain also offers  programs t h a t provide work experience f o r secondary school students. Same o f these programs have been evaluated and include follow-up data. The studies reviewed used many d i f f e r e n t approaches t o evaluate programs, so program evaluation l i t e r a t u r e was a l s o reviewed t o i d e n t i f y methodological issues and t o develop an appropriate approach o f program evaluation.  7  S i m i l a r Programs and Studies Vancouver.  P r i o r t o the implementation o f Career Preparation  programs i n Vancouver, many schools o f f e r e d work experience t o any i n t e r e s t e d students who were a t l e a s t 15 years o l d .  The o b j e c t i v e o f  the work experience program was t o provide students with an opportunity t o complement classroom learning with on-the-job learning. Studies o f the work experience programs i n Vancouver schools (Middleton, 1975; Stevens, 1978) found high l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n from students, parents, teachers, and employers.  Students i n both  studies reported t h a t they enjoyed the work experience and t h a t they believed i t would a s s i s t them t o function e f f e c t i v e l y i n a j o b . Parents, teachers, and employers were supportive o f t h e program. Although these studies found high l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e work experience programs, they were l i m i t e d t o responses from current students i n the program and no attempt was made t o measure any long-term b e n e f i t s . In 1984, K e t t l e conducted an evaluation o f Automotive, Accounting, and Foods Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver schools.  Questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l students i n these  programs, t o t h e i r teachers, t o employers who had had students on work experience, and t o post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s .  As i n t h e  Middleton and Stevens studies, high l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n were reported f o r employers, teachers, and students.  However, post-  secondary i n s t r u c t o r s were not as p o s i t i v e as t h e other respondents; but, t h e number o f post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e study was low.  Twenty-two were surveyed, but only nine responded.  8  Students i n a l l three programs indicated a high degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n with the program and were p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d with the work experience component o f the program.  Most students were  s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r t r a i n i n g as preparation f o r employment and b e l i e v e d they were being adequately prepared f o r entrance t o post-secondary t r a i n i n g .  Teachers and employers of students i n the  Automotive Program thought that students were r e c e i v i n g appropriate t r a i n i n g f o r entrance t o employment, and were r e c e i v i n g relevant t r a i n i n g f o r post-secondary i n s t r u c t i o n .  However, three out o f the  four post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s who responded disagreed; they were d i s s a t i s f i e d with students  1  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, general s k i l l s ,  s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s , problem-solving a b i l i t y , study h a b i t s and w r i t t e n s k i l l s . Teachers, employers, and post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s o f students i n the Accounting Program agreed t h a t students were r e c e i v i n g appropriate t r a i n i n g f o r entrance t o employment and/or post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ; but post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s were d i s s a t i s f i e d with s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s of the students. (Responses were received from only two out of eight post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s surveyed about the Accounting program.)  A l l groups surveyed about  the Foods Program, including post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s , believed t h a t students were r e c e i v i n g appropriate t r a i n i n g f o r entrance t o employment and/or post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o surveying p a r t i c i p a n t s about the Career Preparation program, K e t t l e used follow-up data c o l l e c t e d f o r the M i n i s t r y of Education t o determine the employment and educational a c t i v i t i e s o f Career Preparation students three months a f t e r leaving  9  secondary school.  U n t i l 1986 the M i n i s t r y o f Education, through  Career Preparation teachers, c o l l e c t e d data each f a l l about the students who were e n r o l l e d as grade 12 Career Preparation students the previous school year.  The data included information about the  number of students completing Career Preparation programs, students' employment status, and students' attendance a t post-secondary institutions. Most o f the Career Preparation students were reported as entering employment o r education the same as t h e i r secondary area o f study. But, the c r i t e r i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g whether a student entered an area of employment the same as h i s Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y was applied leniently.  An automotive student employed as a l o t a s s i s t a n t  f o r a c a r dealer was judged t o have entered an area of employment the same as h i s Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  Furthermore, an accounting  student employed i n r e t a i l s a l e s f o r a department store was judged t o have entered an area of employment the same as h i s Career Preparation specialty.  The c r i t e r i a f o r matching post-secondary education t o  secondary education were not s p e c i f i e d . Unemployment was reported as 3%; but no information was a v a i l a b l e f o r 16% of the students, some of wham may have been unemployed.  In addition, the method o f  c a l c u l a t i n g employment rates was not s p e c i f i e d . Although K e t t l e ' s study does examine the post-secondary education and employment o f Career Preparation students, i t i s l i m i t e d because of the short-term nature o f the study/ the very r e s t r i c t e d amount of information a v a i l a b l e from the M i n i s t r y o f Education forms, the absence o f a d e f i n i t i o n of "employment," and the small number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study.  10  Other Canadian Studies.  Work experience programs s i m i l a r t o  B r i t i s h Columbia's Career Preparation program e x i s t across Canada. In an unpublished paper by Mclndoe (1980) work experience programs i n Ontario, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick are described. Although the programs d i f f e r i n organization, a l l promote the exploration o f career choices and most provide p r a c t i c a l on-the-job experience. A study by Dhanota, Wright, and Toplak (1980) evaluated four programs o f f e r e d i n Toronto:  cooperative education, career  exploration v i s i t s , business education work experience week, and t e c h n i c a l education work experience week.  Students, teachers, and  employers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programs were surveyed.  The  responses  were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e and most students b e l i e v e d the programs were worthwhile.  L i k e the Vancouver studies by Middleton and Stevens,  t h i s study was l i m i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s then a c t i v e i n the programs and no attempt was made t o follow-up on students a f t e r they had completed the program.  In t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s o f the program, employers  and students involved i n the work experience week suggested t h a t one week o f work experience was not long enough.  In a l a t e r study o f  Ontario work experience programs, Simon (1983) discusses the same l i m i t a t i o n o f work experience programs s t a t i n g t h a t "the u t i l i t y of such experiences i s often l i m i t e d by t h e i r b r e v i t y and l a c k o f depth" (p.  237). Another study o f a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n work experience programs  (coordinators, students, work experience sponsors) was conducted i n A l b e r t a by Germscheid i n 1980.  T h i s study measured program e f f e c t i v e -  ness by examining the extent t o which perceived b e n e f i t s o f the  11  program matched reported p r i o r i t i e s o f each group i n the program. I t was concluded t h a t the program was moderately t o h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e based on a n t i c i p a t e d b e n e f i t s and p r i o r i t e s .  Again, there was no  measure o f long-term b e n e f i t . Other Studies.  Work experience and cooperative education  programs a r e o f f e r e d i n a wide v a r i e t y o f forms throughout the United States.  There are programs, such as the Career Intern Program and  programs sponsored by the Youth Employment and Demonstrations Projects Act o f 1977, which are aimed a t dropouts and p o t e n t i a l dropouts.  On the other hand, there are programs, such as the  Executive High School Internship Program, which g e n e r a l l y e n r o l students i n the upper f o u r t h o f t h e i r c l a s s who p l a n t o attend college.  Other programs, such as Cooperative Education Programs,  o f f e r extended periods o f work experience i n a v a r i e t y o f occupations and a t t r a c t a wide range o f students.  Same programs, such as  Experience-Based Career Education, o f f e r students short-term work experience f o r which they receive academic c r e d i t much l i k e the Career Preparation program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Evaluation studies o f work experience o r cooperative education programs vary widely i n t h e i r s t r u c t u r e making s t r a i g h t forward comparisons impossible.  However, one p o s i t i v e r e s u l t common t o many  programs reviewed by Crowe and Adams (1979) and Canna (1982) was a more p o s i t i v e student a t t i t u d e toward work and school.  Studies by  Seaward (1978), the National Center f o r Reasearch i n Vocational Education (cited i n Crowe & Adams, 1979), and Shaughnessy (1986) emphasized the development o f p o s i t i v e self-esteem as a r e s u l t o f student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n cooperative education programs.  With  12  respect t o employment and wages, Herrnstadt, Horowitz, and Sum (1979), a f t e r interviewing graduates o f four cooperative vocational programs, found no s i g n i f i c a n t advantage f o r graduates o f cooperative vocational programs compared t o graduates o f other programs; and Walsh and B r e g l i o (1976) found t h a t the cooperative education programs had l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on the earnings o f graduates. However, Lewis, Glyde, McKee, and Kozak (1976) found t h a t graduates of cooperative education programs had s l i g h t l y l e s s unemployment than graduates o f other programs and found s u i t a b l e jobs w i t h i n a shorter time.  I n a more recent three-year follow-up study o f the e f f e c t s o f  youth employment t r a i n i n g programs, Ekstrom, Freeberg, and Rock (1987) found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these programs had had more months of employment than non-participants and t h a t programs which emphasized work experience had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the number of months worked and hourly wages.  Although same studies have shown no  s i g n i f i c a n t advantage t o p a r t i c i p a n t s o f work experience programs i n terms o f employment and wages, i t i s important not t o base judgement of the success o r f a i l u r e o f a program on these f a c t o r s alone.  Work  experience programs may have other b e n e f i t s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s such as an increased awareness o f career opportunities, the a c q u i s i t i o n o f employable s k i l l s , o r development o f maturity, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and self-confidence. In B r i t a i n three main forms o f work-experience programs have developed:  work-experience programs f o r students attending secondary  school, work-experience programs f o r students i n post-secondary education, and work-experience programs f o r young people who have l e f t school and are unemployed (Watts, 1983).  According t o Watts,  13  there i s l i t t l e hard evidence t o a t t e s t t o the effectiveness o f work-experience programs i n schools.  He c l a s s i f i e s the evaluative  evidence i n t o two broad categories:  objective data and subjective  data.  Watts states that objective data (data using  behavioural  measures such as success i n g e t t i n g a job and measures o f a t t i t u d e s , knowledge, etc.) "are l i m i t e d and methodologically d e f i c i e n t " (p. 84). As evidence he points t o studies which are based on small samples and use crude a t t i t u d i n a l measures, and studies which produce inconsistent r e s u l t s .  In s p i t e o f the weaknesses o f the o b j e c t i v e  evaluations, Watts concludes t h a t the measureable outcomes o f work experience a r e p o s i t i v e . Watts examined subjective data from follow-up surveys which included retrospective opinions regarding the value o f work experience and comments c o l l e c t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r subjects i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t programs had completed t h e i r work experience.  Although much o f the data was not quantified, he found  t h a t most students who p a r t i c i p a t e i n work experience enjoy the experience and t h a t most f i n d i t valuable.  The l i m i t e d number o f Canadian studies o f Career Preparation and s i m i l a r programs suggests t h a t there i s a need f o r more evaluative studies. scope.  Canadian studies have been l i m i t e d i n both number and A l l but one study reviewed included no follow-up o f program  leavers and the one t h a t d i d , used data c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a short period o f time.  There i s a need f o r more comprehensive studies.  Evaluative studies o f s i m i l a r programs i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as the United States and B r i t a i n , provide an example o f more comprehensive evaluation studies.  14  Evaluation Issues Program evaluation i s defined and conducted i n many ways. Jemelka and Borich (1979) categorize t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f evaluation i n four ways:  evaluation as measurement, evaluation as  determining congruence, evaluation as p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement, and evaluation as s c i e n t i f i c research. emerging d e f i n i t i o n s of evaluation: value-oriented evaluation.  In addition, they i d e n t i f y  two  decision-oriented evaluation and  In a d i f f e r e n t and more recent  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Smith and Glass (1987) i d e n t i f i e d three categories o f evaluation:  evaluation as part o f systems management, evaluation as  p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement, and evaluation as p o l i t i c s .  For each  d e f i n i t i o n o f evaluation there i s a model o r method o f evaluation. But, as Smith and Glass point out, evaluation methodologists do not agree on a s i n g l e , c o r r e c t way t o evaluate a program o r product. Moreover, Cronbach (1982) views each evaluation as a new  s t a r t and  proposes t h a t no s i n g l e form o f evaluation i s appropriate i n a l l cases.  Stake (1981) cautions against viewing evaluation models as  more than they a c t u a l l y are.  He believes that evaluation models have  been mistaken as methodologies f o r conducting evaluations instead of frameworks w i t h i n which more s p e c i f i c methods must be placed.  Models  of program evaluation provide guidance f o r conducting studies. Models should be t a i l o r e d t o s u i t the needs o f a program evaluation not the reverse. Because work experience programs d i f f e r i n t h e i r goals and i n t h e i r structure i t may not be advisable o r f e a s i b l e t o apply the tenets o f any p a r t i c u l a r abstract "model" t o the evaluation o f one given program.  15  Models o r approaches t h a t f a l l i n t o the category o f evaluation as p a r t of systems management a l l have one f a c t o r i n common, t h a t i s , "to evaluate a program one must measure the products o f the system on the b a s i s o f stated goals" (Smith & Glass, 1987,  p. 41).  Surveys are  o f t e n used i n such studies t o determine the educational achievement and s a t i s f a c t i o n with services provided by the program t o i t s clients. Because the goal o f Career Preparation i s t o prepare students f o r post-secondary employment and/or education,  i t i s appropriate t o use  an evaluation approach which measures the f i n a l product o f the program.  An e f f e c t i v e way t o c o l l e c t data about the f i n a l outcome of  a program i s through the use of a follow-up survey, even though p a r t i c i p a n t s e l f - r a t i n g s have some shortcomings.  Rossi, Freeman, and  Wright (1979) describe post-project follow-up studies as "approximate methods f o r impact assessment" which have same d e f i c i e n c i e s . a l s o caution against the use o f p a r t i c i p a n t s e l f - r a t i n g s .  They  They  suggest t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v i n g p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s from a program may  report greater s a t i s f a c t i o n than they a c t u a l l y f e e l because they  f e a r t h a t c r i t i c a l responses may discontinued.  r e s u l t i n the program being  Another problem i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s may  not be  completely aware o f program e f f e c t s . However, M o r e l l (1979) states t h a t "accurate follow-up i s the only way t o obtain information  on  changes o f program e f f e c t s as a function of time" (p. 14). Furthermore, follow-up evaluation can be used t o determine whether a program had any unforeseen consequences.  Mason, Haines, and Furtado  (1981) recommend t h a t a follow-up study o f graduates o f  cooperative  16  vocational education programs should obtain the employment status o f each graduate, any a d d i t i o n a l education, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the graduate's employment t o the cooperative education program he or she was e n r o l l e d i n . Evaluations can be comparative o r absolute.  Comparative  evaluations assess the effectiveness o f a program by comparing i t t o another program designed t o meet the same ends; absolute evaluations measure the e f f e c t s o f one group only and compare r e s u l t s with an absolute c r i t e r i o n (Smith & Glass, 1987).  Many evaluations o f  cooperative education or work experience programs are comparative (Canna, 1982;  Crowe & Adams, 1979; Ekstram e t a l . , 1987;  e t a l . , 1979;  Seaward, 1978;  Shaughnessy, 1986).  A  Herrnstadt  follow-up  comparison o f post-secondary employment and education o f Career Preparation program p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants would provide valuable information f o r assessing the e f f e c t of the program on employment r a t e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n post-secondary t r a i n i n g o r education. In addition, an absolute evaluation which assesses whether program goals are being achieved would provide valuable evaluative information. I t has been argued t h a t an evaluation report has value only t o the extent t h a t i t s recranmendations are a c t u a l l y put i n t o e f f e c t by d e c i s i o n makers (Patten, 1978).  To t h a t end, Patton suggests "that  i d e n t i f i e d decision-makers and information users p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making o f measurement and methods decisions so t h a t they understand the strengths and weaknesses o f the data - and so t h a t they b e l i e v e i n the data" (p. 202).  Where possible, then, i t would be wise t o  17  include Career Preparation teachers and coordinators ( f o r example) i n the planning o f an evaluation so t h a t they f e e l t h a t they are a p a r t of the evaluation and do not f e e l threatened by i t .  Program evaluation l i t e r a t u r e supports using models o f evaluation as g u i d e l i n e s - not p r e s c r i p t i o n s .  I f the i n t e n t o f a program  evaluation i s t o judge whether the program i s achieving i t s objectives, i t i s necessary t o i d e n t i f y the goals o f the program.  To  measure the f i n a l product o f a program, follow-up surveys are u s e f u l . P a r t i c i p a n t s e l f - r a t i n g s have same weaknesses; but the opportunity t o obtain information about program r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g any unexpected consequences, outweighs the weaknesses.  18 Chapter I I I  EVMDATION PROCEDURES  This study was designed around the issues i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I post-secondary employment and education o f program leavers and t h e value o f completing a Business Education Career Preparation program. In order t o c o l l e c t information about program leavers a follow-up survey was conducted.  Subjects included graduates o f three years so  t h a t any changes i n employment o r education trends could be identified.  Evaluation questions centered around Career Preparation  work experience, post-secondary education, post-secondary employment, and p a r t i c i p a n t ' s perceptions o f the program.  Information about  graduates' Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s and work experience placements was obtained t o allow judgements t o be made about whether graduates* post-secondary employment o r education was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation program.  I n order t o make judgements about whether  the program was meeting i t s objectives, program objectives were f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d i n the M i n i s t r y o f Education Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide f o r Business Education (1982).  Then the survey  instrument was designed t o answer questions about the program objectives as w e l l as the post-secondary a c t i v i t i e s o f program leavers.  Evaluation Questions T h i s study examines four aspects o f the Career Preparation program with a number o f research questions r e l a t e d t o each.  19  Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1  What i s the nature o f the work experience placements?  1.2  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the work experience placements t o the student's Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y ?  1.3  How relevant are the work experience placements t o the educational objectives o f the program?  Post-Secondary 2.1  Education  What are the post-secondary education experiences o f program participants?  2.2  Does the type and amount o f post-secondary education d i f f e r from non-participants?  2.3  How relevant i s the Career Preparation program t o p a r t i c i p a n t s ' post-secondary  2.4  education?  To what extent i s post-secondary education r e l a t e d t o bio-demographic factors?  Post-Secondary 3.1  Employment  What i s the post-secondary employment h i s t o r y o f program participants?  3.2  Do the amount and type o f employment o f p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r from non-participants?  3.3  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f students' employment t o t h e i r work experience placements?  3.4  How relevant i s the Career Preparation program t o the employment o f program p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  3.5  To what extent i s employment r e l a t e d t o bio-demographic factors?  20  4.  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Perceptions of the Program 4.1  What are the retrospective views of partcipants regarding the strengths and weaknesses o f the Career Preparation program?  Instrumentation In t h i s study, the Business Education Career Preparation program i s evaluated by examining whether or not the program i s meeting i t s stated objectives.  In order t o do t h i s a follow-up survey was designed t o be  administered t o graduates of the program. The i n t i t i a l step i n planning t h i s evaluation was t o meet with Vancouver Career Preparation teachers and coordinators t o a s c e r t a i n what information they would regard as valuable.  Next, the objectives  of the Business Education Career Preparation program were explicated by reviewing the M i n i s t r y of Education Career Preparation Curriculum Guide f o r Business Education. were then devised.  Questions r e l a t e d t o the program objectives  The objectives, which were taken from the  Curriculum Guide, and corresponding questions are shown i n Table 2. Using these questions and objectives as a guideline, a survey questionnaire was designed t o be administered t o graduates of Business Education Career Preparation Programs.  The purposes o f the  questionnaire were: 1) t o gather data about the post-secondary employment and education of Business Education Career Preparation graduates; 2) t o obtain information about the Career Preparation work experience placements and the Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s  completed  by graduates; and 3) t o receive feedback from p a r t i c i p a n t s regarding the b e n e f i t s o f completing the program.  An i n i t i a l d r a f t o f the  21  Table 2 PROGRAM OBJECTIVES AND  Program Objective Graduates may  RELATED QUESTIONS  Question  be q u a l i f i e d t o :  pursue further studies toward a profession or attend c o l l e g e t o pursue further s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and may q u a l i f y f o r advanced placement i n an integrated program  What proportion o f graduates pursue further studies toward a profession or specialized training? Are the programs they enrol i n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r CP specialty? What proportion o f graduates who enrol i n post-secondary programs receive advanced placement?  proceed d i r e c t l y t o employment.  What proportion of graduates proceed d i r e c t l y t o employment? Is t h e i r employment r e l a t e d t o t h e i r CP specialty? What proportion o f graduates are employed? How does t h e i r employment r a t e compare t o that o f non-participants?  Work experience w i l l be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a program specialty.  Were the work experience placements r e l a t e d t o the students' CP specialties?  Students w i l l gain p r a c t i c a l experience r e l a t i n g t o employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Did students f i n d the work experience placements valuable?  22  Program Objectives Students w i l l have an opport u n i t y t o apply b a s i c s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s and t o explore a wide v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s i n an occupational f i e l d .  Questions What s k i l l s d i d students use on work experience? Did they use a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s ? Were the s k i l l s used on work experience relevant t o the CP specialty?  Students w i l l know proven j o b search and interview procedures.  Did the CP program provide students with j o b search s k i l l s ? What i s the source o f f i n d i n g jobs f o r CP graduates?  Students w i l l have an increased Did students f i n d t h a t the CP program understanding o f career and helped them i n making career choices? employment needs and w i l l be able t o make meaningful decisions about an occupation.  Students w i l l acquire marketable s k i l l s f o r employment.  Do graduates t h i n k t h a t they have aaguired marketable s k i l l s ?  The t r a n s i t i o n between secondary school and post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s o r employment w i l l be improved.  Do graduates t h i n k t h a t the CP program f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r progress a t post-secondary? Did the CP program provide graduates with employment contacts?  23  questionnaire was reviewed by two d i s t r i c t coordinators, two classroom teachers, a school administrator, a u n i v e r s i t y evaluation s p e c i a l i s t , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Behavioural Sciences  Screening  Committee f o r Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects, and the Vancouver School Board research department.  The questionnaire was  r e v i s e d according t o responses and suggestions from the reviewers, then mailed t o program graduates with a covering l e t t e r and a s e l f addressed, postage-paid envelope.  A f t e r two months, when the response  r a t e t o t h i s mailing declined, another copy o f the questionnaire, a covering l e t t e r , and a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope was mailed.  A f t e r s i x weeks, when the response r a t e t o t h i s second  m a i l i n g diminished, a f i n a l follow-up o f non-respondents was conducted by  telephone. A second questionnaire was designed t o be sent t o a comparison  group o f non-participants. The purpose o f t h i s second questionnaire was t o obtain information about the post-secondary employment and education o f non-participants t o use as a b a s i s f o r comparison i n judging the effectiveness o f the Business Education Career Preparation Program.  This second survey was not mailed.  Due t o concerns about  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f student records, the Vancouver School Board declined t o provide addresses f o r a comparison group, even though the study had been i n i t i a t e d by a request from the Board o f f i c e .  A copy  o f both questionnaires and covering l e t t e r s are i n Appendix A.  24  Population and Sampling The population o f i n t e r e s t was a l l Vancouver Secondary school students who had completed a Business Education Career Preparation program i n 1984, 1985 o r 1986. Only students from schools which had had students completing a Business Education Career Preparation program f o r a l l three o f these years were included.  The population was  i d e n t i f i e d by examining the data on M i n i s t r y o f Education CP4 forms and 1522 forms.  These forms provide the student's name, school, Career  Preparation program, and whether o r not the student completed the program requirements.  Only those students who were i d e n t i f i e d on these  forms as having completed the program requirements were included. The t o t a l population by school and year i s shown i n Table 3.  Table 3 NUMBER OF STUDENTS COMPLETING BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS: 1984 TO 1986 School Gladstone Killarney King George Kitsilano Pt. Grey Templeton Thompson Tupper Technical Total  1984  1985  1986  20 18 6 6 4 18 13 14 9  31 24 10 10 4 34 8 8 32  38 21 4 5 7 26 10 24 26  108  161  161  Total 89 63 20 21 15 78 31 46 67 430  25  A s t r a t i f i e d random p r o b a b i l i t y sample was selected from t h i s population.  To allow comparisons among schools, the minimum t a r g e t  sample was 20 subjects per school.  Gender was not used as a  s t r a t i f y i n g v a r i a b l e as most (80%) o f the population i s female.  The  l i k e l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n response r a t e was estimated a t 80 p e r cent.  The  d e l i v e r a b l e r a t e was estimated a t 90 per cent i n the f i r s t year, 81 per cent i n the second, and 73 per cent the t h i r d year.  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mailed questionnaires r e s u l t i n g from applying these estimates t o t h e population values i s shown i n Table 4. The number o f students per school surveyed i s shown i n Table 5. These numbers were c a l c u l a t e d using the f r a c t i o n s shown i n Table 4. I f any school had f i v e o r fewer students completing a Business Education Career Preparation program i n a year, a l l students from t h a t school were included i n the sample.  I f the number o f students  Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRES BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984  1985  1986  108  161  161  430  Target Sample  45  67  68  180  Number required t o achieve t a r g e t based on 80% p a r t i c i p a t i o n  57  84  84  225  Number required t o achieve achieve t a r g e t based on estimated d e l i v e r y rates  78  104  93  275  Population s i z e  Sampling  fraction  .722  .646  .578  Total  .640  26  Table 5 NUMBER OF GRADUATES SAMPLED BY SCHOOL AND YEAR OF GRADUATION  School  Total  % Of Population  1984  1985  1986  Gladstone Killarney King George Kitsilano Pt. Grey Templeton Thompson Tupper Technical  14 13 5 5 4 13 9 10 _6  20 16 6 6 4 22 5 5 21  22 12 4 5 5 15 6 14 15  56 41 15 16 13 50 20 29 42  62.9 65.1 75.0 76.2 86.7 64.1 64.5 63.0 62.7  Total  79  105  98  282  65.6  completing the program i n a year was greater than f i v e , but the number o f required cases was c a l c u l a t e d t o be l e s s than f i v e , f i v e students were selected a t random. Had the second survey been mailed t o a comparison group, the comparison group would have been selected by taking the name from the Vancouver School Board f i l e s o f the student who immediately followed the Career Preparation p a r t i c i p a n t i n the f i l e s and had graduated from the same school i n the same year and was o f the same gender.  Data Management When t h e surveys were received, a l l information on t h e surveys was coded with a number, then entered d i r e c t l y i n t o a data f i l e from the survey forms.  Open-ended questions were grouped by s i m i l a r  responses and assigned a numeric code.  Many program t i t l e s were  27  given by respondents f o r programs taken a t post-secondary i n s t i t u tions.  Programs with very s i m i l a r t i t l e s were grouped together and  assigned the same numeric code. Based on information provided by respondents about work experience placements and employment, the jobs they performed were c l a s s i f i e d according t o the Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Dictionary o f Occupations (CCDO). A seven-digit code was assigned t o each job, but only the f i r s t three d i g i t s were used i n analysis because the three d i g i t codes provided information o f s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l .  The CCDO  codes use four l e v e l s o f occupational categorization, each providing successively f i n e r d e t a i l .  This categorization allows the complete  seven-digit code t o be used o r codes can be broken down i n a meaningful manner by the f i r s t two, three, o r four d i g i t s . S k i l l s used on work experience were coded as c e n t r a l o r nonc e n t r a l t o each Business Education Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y t o determine what proportion o f s k i l l s being used were relevant t o the program students had been e n r o l l e d i n . An employment r a t i o was c a l c u l a t e d by summing the lengths o f time employed i n a l l jobs l i s t e d , and then d i v i d i n g by the length o f time since graduation. In many cases respondents h e l d more than one j o b a t a time.  Therefore, t o compute the t o t a l length o f time employed, any  time t h a t jobs overlapped was subtracted so t h a t the time would not be counted twice.  I f more than three jobs were held, the amount o f  time employed was divided by the amount o f time from the s t a r t o f the o l d e s t j o b l i s t e d t o the date o f the survey.  An employment r a t i o was  a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r the amount o f time employed while not attending a  28  post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n by subtracting the time spent a t a postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n and any employment engaged i n a t the same time. Because access t o addresses of program non-participants had been denied, another source of information had t o be used t o provide comparison data f o r employment h i s t o r y .  S t a t i s t i c s provided by Canada  Employment and Immigration were used t o compare employment r a t e s of Business Education Career Preparation graduates t o the s i m i l a r l y aged population.  The data provided by Canada Employment and Immigration  was  c o l l e c t e d over a three-month p e r i o d ending mid September, 1987.  The  data f o r t h i s study was c o l l e c t e d from mid June t o September 30,  1987.  The population ranged i n age from 20 t o 24 years.  The ages of the  respondents f o r t h i s study ranged from 18 t o 25, but only one respondent was aged 18 and one aged 25.  The comparison group have high  school education and l i v e i n the greater Vancouver area.  A l l the  Career Preparation graduates have a t l e a s t a high school education and a l l but one were l i v i n g i n greater Vancouver.  Data A n a l y s i s The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l Sciences Extended Version (SPSS-X) was employed f o r data analysis. for  Frequencies were computed  Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s , work experience placements,  skills  used on work experience, respondents' comments, and the amount and type of employment and post-secondary education. CCDO Job c l a s s i f a c t i o n s were matched with Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s t o determine how c l o s e l y students' jobs on work experience and t h e i r post-secondary employment matched t h e i r Career Preparation  29  specialties.  A four-point scale was constructed f o r r a t i n g relatedness  of jobs:  1) the same, 2) h i g h l y related, 3) somewhat r e l a t e d , 4) not  related.  Table B - l i n Appendix B shows the match o f CCDO codes f o r  work experience and post-secondary employment with Career Preparation specialties. CCDO codes f o r work experience and employment were crosstabulated t o determine how many respondents held the same c l a s s o f job a f t e r graduating as they had on work experience. The post-secondary programs taken by p a r t i c i p a n t s were matched with Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s and rated on a four-point s c a l e t o determine how c l o s e l y r e l a t e d respondents • post-secondary education programs were t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s .  Table B-2 i n  Appendix B shows the match between post-secondary programs and Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s . A n a l y s i s o f variance was used t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between bio-demographic f a c t o r s and employment rates and post-secondary education.  A post hoc analysis using Tukey's method (Myers, 1966) was  used t o i d e n t i f y sources o f variance f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t differences indicated by the a n a l y s i s o f variance.  30 Chapter IV RESULTS Delivery and Response Rates I t was estimated t h a t the r a t e o f d e l i v e r y o f surveys would d e c l i n e as the time since graduation from secondary school increased. However, t h i s proved not t o be true.  The o v e r a l l r a t e o f d e l i v e r y  was estimated a t 81%, but was i n f a c t 75.5%.  Based on the number o f  surveys delivered, the response r a t e was 85.5%.  Although the r a t e o f  d e l i v e r y d i d not d e c l i n e with the time since graduation, the r a t e of response d i d decline.  Telephone interviews provided data f o r 23.9%  o f respondents; a l l other data were c o l l e c t e d by mailed surveys.  The  rates o f d e l i v e r y and response are shown i n Table 6. Table 6 NUMBER AND RATE OF RESPONSES BY SCHOOL AND YEAR OF GRADUATION  School  1985  1986  Gladstone 4 Killarney 7 King George 2 Kitsilano 3 Point Grey 4 Templeton 9 Thompson 6 Tupper 7 Vancouver Technical _5 Total 47  13 9 6 3 1 19 3 0 11 65  13 9 4 3 4 12 4 9 10 68  Response Rate  75.8%  83.3%  93.2%  84.5%  73.0%  81.0%  90.0%  81.3%  78.5%  74.3%  74.5%  75.5%  Estimated r a t e o f delivery Actual r a t e o f delivery  1984  Total 30 30 12 9 9 40 13 16 26 180  •Response Rate Based on Deliverable Questionnaires  Response Rate (%)* 81.1 83.3 92.3 81.8 100.0 88.9 76.4 80.0 83.9  31 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents One hundred per cent o f the respondents graduated from secondary school, but 10.6% d i d not complete the Career Preparation program even though the sample was screened t o include only those who had completed.  There are three possible explanations f o r t h i s  discrepancy: 1) the information on the M i n i s t r y o f Education CP4 and 1522 forms was i n c o r r e c t ; 2) students had completed a l l the required courses but not a l l three weeks o f work experience and were shown as having completed the program when i n f a c t they had completed only the course work; 3) i n c o r r e c t names were obtained from the Vancouver School Board student records o f f i c e . The respondents range i n age from 18 t o 25 with a mean age o f 20. Most o f the respondents are s i n g l e females and l i v e with parents o r other r e l a t i v e s .  Table 7 shows the percentage o f students l i v i n g  with parents, spouses, friends, o r alone by gender and m a r i t a l status. Table 7 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND GENDER (Percentage o f t o t a l response group) With wham do you l i v e ? Parent o r other r e l a t i v e Single Male  Spouse o r partner  One o r more friends  Alone  Total  n  12.3  0  0.6  0.6  13.4  24  Female  79.3  1.1  0  2.8  83.2  149  Married Female Total  _0 91.6  3^4 4.5  0 0.6  0 3.4  3.4 100.0  6 179  Single  32  Respondents were asked t o indicate t h e i r Career Preparation specialty.  Table 8 shows the number of students by school e n r o l l e d  i n each s p e c i a l t y .  The category "other" includes students who were  not i n the Business Education program - one d i d her work experience a t a pre-school, the other a t a radio s t a t i o n .  Some respondents  checked "other" f o r advanced accounting, bank t e l l e r , and r e t a i l clerk.  Advanced accounting was receded t o accounting, bank t e l l e r  was receded t o c l e r i c a l , and r e t a i l c l e r k was receded t o marketing. There i s overlap i n the courses required f o r each s p e c i a l t y w i t h i n Business Education; consequently, many students take courses which q u a l i f y them f o r more than one s p e c i a l t y . The combinations o f Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s taken by the respondents have been grouped together and are shown i n Table 9.  Table 8 CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY BY SCHOOL  Specialty Accounting Clerical Secretarial Marketing Data Processing Other Total * 1 4 7  Gladstone Kitsilano Thompson  1  2  3  4  13 13 7 6 5 0 44  6 7 14 7 2 2 38  2 8 5 0 0 0 15  2 3 4 3 1 0 13  2 5 8  School* 5 6  7  8  9  Total  13 11 16 10 12 0 62  7 2 7 2 1 0 19  10 10 5 2 2 0 29  13 4 3 10 0 0 30  71 61 65 40 25 2 264  Killarney Point Grey Tupper  5 3 4 0 2 0 14  3 6 9  King George Templeton Vancouver Technical  33  Table 9 CXMBINATIONS OF CAREER PREPARATION SPECQACTTES Frequency Single Specialty: Accounting Clerical Secretarial Marketing Data Processing Other Combinations: Accounting and Data Processing Accounting, Data Processing and another s p e c i a l t y Accounting and another s p e c i a l t y excluding Data Processing Data Processing and another s p e c i a l t y excluding Accounting C l e r i c a l and S e c r e t a r i a l C l e r i c a l and/or S e c r e t a r i a l and Marketing Total  Percent  41 23 32 20 3 2  23.2 13.0 18.1 11.3 1.7 1.1  5  2.8  11  6.2  14  7.9  6 11 9  3.4 6.2 5.1  177  100.0  The remainder o f the r e s u l t s are presented i n a manner t o r e f l e c t the organization o f the evaluation questions given e a r l i e r , with heading numbers corresponding t o the question numbers i n Chapter I I I (pp. 19-20).  Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1  Nature o f work experience placements.  Students u s u a l l y  complete t h e i r work experience a t three d i f f e r e n t work s i t e s , spending one week a t each s i t e .  The range o f businesses which a c t as  work experience sponsors i s shown i n Table 10.  The most frequently  used businesses are f i n a n c i a l , such as banks and t r u s t companies, followed by r e t a i l o u t l e t s .  Not a l l respondents provided information  34 Table 10 BUSINESSES WHICH PROVIDED WORK EXPERIENCE PLACEMENTS Placement  Number  F i n a n c i a l (banks, c r e d i t unions,trust) Retail outlets Government o f f i c e s O f f i c e jobs not included i n other classifications* Accounting firms School board o f f i c e s Hospital o f f i c e s Insurance companies Travel o f f i c e s Law firms Non-profit organizations (Heart Foundation,t Cancer Society, Red Cross, etc.) U t i l i t i e s (hydro) Expo o f f i c e s Medical o r dental o f f i c e s (excluding hospital) Hotels Other jobs (not o f f i c e work) Total  Percent  99 91 62  20.5 18.9 12.7  62 42 28 27 18 17 10  12.7 8.7 5.8 5.6 3.7 3.5 2.1  9 6 4  1.9 1.2 0.8  3 2 _2  0.6 0.4 0.4  482  100.0  * 9 a t Chevron Canada o f f i c e s , 8 a t Westcoast Transmission, others a t a v a r i e t y o f companies ranging from small t o l a r g e f o r three work experience placements.  Same could not remember a l l  three placements, while others d i d not complete three weeks o f work experience. Most (84%) o f the respondents performed jobs on work experience i n the major job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group 41 - " C l e r i c a l and Related Occupations."  Table 11 shows the t h r e e - d i g i t CCDO code f o r the jobs  performed on work experience. 1.2  Relationship o f work experience placements t o Career  Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  Most students were placed i n jobs t h a t  matched t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y - 55.6% were i n jobs the  35 Table 11 JOBS PERFORMED ON WORK EXPERIENCE Job  CCDO Code  Clerical* Bookkeeping, Account-Recording Stenographic and Typing Sales Reception, Information, M a i l and Message D i s t r i b u t i o n O f f i c e Machine and E l e c t r o n i c Data-Processing Equipment Operators Personal Service (Child Care) Otherf  Number  Percent  419 413 411 513  131 109 100 67  27.2 22.6 20.7 13.9  417  42  8.7  414 614  23 2 8  4.8 0.4 1.7  482  100.0  Total  •includes 415 - Material Recording, Scheduling and D i s t r i b u t i o n and 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks +includes teacher's aide, cxsmmunity service, and advertising d i s p l a y work same as t h e i r s p e c i a l t y , 27.1 were i n jobs h i g h l y related, 13.7% were i n jobs somewhat related, and 3.6% were i n jobs not r e l a t e d t o t h e i r specialty. 1.3  Relevance o f work experience placements t o program  objectives.  The v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s used by students while on work  experience i s shown i n Table 12.  The mean number o f s k i l l s used on  work experience was 3.57 (SD=1.88) on the f i r s t placement, 3.02 (SD=2.07) on the second placement, and 2.54 (SD=2.21) on the t h i r d placement.  The minimum and maximum number o f s k i l l s used on each  placement were 0 and 9.  The proportion o f students using s k i l l s  c e n t r a l t o t h e i r s p e c i a l t y i s shown i n Table 13.  For more than 50  percent o f the respondents, 75 percent o f the s k i l l s used on work  Table 12 FREQUENCY OF SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT USED ON WORK EXPERIENCE BY CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY Skill  Typing Filing Telephone Accounting Calculator Computer Shorthand Photocopier Transcription Word Processing Cash Register Sales Other * Specialties: 1 2 3 4 5 6  Specialty* 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  Total  38 71 40 52+ 60+ 49+  34+ 42+ 39+ 8 16 13  13 17 23 7 19 11  2 1  2 3 4 1 1 1  2 6 6 7+ 7+ 8+  15+ 22+ 13+ 11+ 16+ 14+  27+ 27+ 27+ 8+ 21+ 10+  7+ 10+ 4+ 2 4 7+  43  32+ 3 8+ 2  70+ 66+ 59+ 6 24 18 3+ 44+ 11+ 7+ 2  2  2  22+  6+  11+ 13+ 13+ 2 5 4 1 7+  4+  5+  2  7  1  1 4  23+ 3+ 3 1 1 7  24+ 26+ 18+ 4 10 7 1 19+ 1+ 3+  245 304 246 110 166 145 5 210 20 44 16 17 37  7 5 8  Acccunting Clerical Secretarial Marketing Data Processing Other  2 2 3+  10 2 2 8+ 4+  2+ 3  7 8 9 10 11 12  +  +  1+ 1 2  4  +  2+ 2+ 4+ 1  Accounting & Data Processing Accounting & Data Processing & other Accounting & other (excluding Data Processing Data Processing & other (excluding Accounting) Clerical & Secretarial C l e r i c a l &/ S e c r e t a r i a l & Marketing  + indicates s k i l l central t o CP Specialty  or  37  Table 13 PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS USING WORK EXPERIENCE SKILLS CENTRAL TO THE CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY Portion o f S k i l l s Central t o CP  F i r s t Placement (n=171)  .00 .01-.25 .26-.50 .51-.75 .76-.99 1.00  17.0 2.9 16.4 14.0 7.0 42.7  Second Placement (n=156) 17.3 2.6 19.2 12.8 9.0 39.1  experience were s k i l l s c e n t r a l t o t h e i r s p e c i a l t y .  T h i r d Placement (n=139) 18.3 4.6 13.0 17.6 9.1 37.4  However, 17 percent  or more o f the respondents used no s k i l l s which were c e n t r a l t o t h e i r s p e c i a l t y on a t l e a s t one o f t h e i r three work experience placements. When asked t o r a t e the value o f t h e i r work experience placements, most respondents rated work experience valuable - 19.8% rated the experience extremely valuable; 35.7%, quite valuable; 33.4%, somewhat valuable; and 11.1%, not valuable.  Post-Secondary Education 2.1  Post-secondary education experiences.  A large proportion  (77.2%) o f the respondents continued t h e i r education a t a post-secondary institution.  The programs they e n r o l l e d i n and the c o l l e g e s o r  u n i v e r s i t i e s they attended are shown i n Table 14.  Of those who e n r o l l e d  i n a post-secondary course, the mean time between f i n i s h i n g secondary school and s t a r t i n g a post-secondary course was 5.9 months, but the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these times was markedly skewed (SD=6.2 months, min.=l month, max. =39 months).  Table 14 FREQUENCY OF ENROLLMENT IN POST-SECONDARY PROGRAMS BY INSTITUTIONS  Program  UBC  SFU  Commerce 10 Arts/Science 5 Financial Mgmt. Marketing Mgmt. Business Admin. Computer Course Accounting 2 Secretarial Clerical Travel & Tourism Unrelated S o c i a l * Otherf Total 17  3  Langara Capilano Douglas BCTT 1 30 2 3 1 2 2  5 1 4 2 1 2 1  1  1  4  42  *nursing, criminology +hairdressing, makeup a r t i s t r y  1 1 2  10 5 2 2 2  1 4 2 9  Kwantlan  Business School Other  1  4 16  WT  27  1 1 1 1 5 8 8 1 3 28  1 3  3  1 2  2 1 4  2 1  11  2 9  Tote 19 38 19 14 7 8 11 13 16 8 9 3 165  39  2.2  Type and amount of post-secondary education compared t o  non-participants.  I t was not p o s s i b l e t o answer t h i s research  question due t o the l a c k o f access t o addresses f o r a cohort group. 2.3  Relevance o f Career Preparation program t o post-secondary  education.  Programs e n r o l l e d i n a t the most recent (or only)  post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n attended by respondents were q u i t e evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on a four-point s c a l e measuring how c l o s e l y r e l a t e d the program was t o the student's Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  However,  the programs taken a t a p r i o r post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n were more o f t e n unrelated t o respondents' Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s . Table 15 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f post-secondary education t o the Career Preparation program.  Table 15 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION AND CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY  Rating  Most Recent or Only Post Secondary Frequency %  Same Highly r e l a t e d Somewhat r e l a t e d Not r e l a t e d Total  37 30 30 38 135  Prior Post Secondary Frequency %  27.4 22.2 22.2 28.1  6 6 3 17  18.8 18.8 9.4 53.1  100.0%  32  100.0%  Both Frequency  %  43 36 33 55  25.7 21.6 19.8 32.9  167  100.0  T o t a l n attending post-secondary=139 Through a r t i c u l a t i o n of Career Preparation programs with colleges, some students are granted advanced placement i f they e n r o l l i n s i m i l a r programs a t a college.  Only 18 respondents indicated t h a t  they had received advanced placement i n post-secondary programs.  40  Table 16 shows the courses i n which respondents have been granted advanced placement.  In addition, same colleges g i v e p r i o r i t y t o  Career Preparation graduates when programs have a waiting l i s t . the most recent post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n attended,  For  34 respondents  indicated t h a t there was a waiting l i s t f o r the program i n which they enrolled. list.  Of those 34, 13 (38.2%) were given p r i o r i t y on the waiting  The mean length of time on a waiting l i s t f o r those who were  given p r i o r i t y was 8 weeks (SEKL1.09, min.=0, max=37); f o r those were not given p r i o r i t y the mean length o f wait was (SD=24.1, min.=0, max. =99).  who  22.1 weeks  For a p r i o r post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n  attended, three programs had waiting l i s t s and one student was p r i o r i t y on the waiting l i s t .  given  The length o f time on a waiting l i s t  was one week f o r the person who was given p r i o r i t y and two and four weeks f o r the other respondents.  Table 16 FREQUENCY OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN COURSES BY COLLEGE Course  College Langara Capilano  Accounting Typing Shorthand Computer Info. Marketing Business Math Admin. C l e r k Legal Secretary Info. Processing Word Processing Total  1  BCIT  1  Wl  Business  Other  Total  2 2  2  1  1 1 1 1  1  1  _  5  1  _ 3  1 1 1 _  _  7  1  1  4 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 18  41  When asked t o r a t e how valuable the Career Preparation program was i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress i n post-secondary education, 24 (17.6%) rated i t extremely valuable; 37 (27.2%), quite valuable; 49 (36.0%), somewhat valuable; and 26 (19.1%), not valuable. 2.4 factors.  Relationship o f post-secondary education t o bic^emoqraphic Due t o the homogeneous nature o f the response group  (79.3%  were s i n g l e females l i v i n g with parents o r other r e l a t i v e s ) , i t was not p r a c t i c a l t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f post-secondary education t o f a c t o r s such as gender, m a r i t a l status o r l i v i n g  arrangements.  Therefore, the breakdown was l i m i t e d t o year o f graduation and school.  The number o f students attending a post-secondary  i n s t i t u t i o n f o r f u r t h e r education d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among years o f graduation (F=0.33; df=8, 171; p=.72).  The proportion o f  respondents who continued t h e i r education a t a post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n d i d vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F=2.78; df=8,171; p=<.01) among schools, from a low o f 41.7% o f King George graduates t o a high o f 93.3% o f Gladstone graduates.  Tukey's post hoc comparisons indicated  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between King George and Gladstone, and between King George and Templeton  (alpha=.05).  Table 17 shows t h e  proportion o f respondents from each school who continued t h e i r education a t a post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n .  Post-Secondary Etrploynient 3.1  Employment h i s t o r y .  A t the time o f completing the  questionnaire 136 (75.6%) o f respondents were employed.  A l l but 10  respondents had h e l d a t l e a s t one job since graduation. The number of jobs h e l d ranged from 0 t o 8 and i s shown i n Table 18.  42  Table 17 PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS CONTINUING EDUCATION AT A POST-SECONDARY DESTITUTION BY SCHOOL School  Mean  SD  N  Gladstone Killarney King George Kitsilano Pt. Grey Templeton Thompson Tupper  .933 .640 .417 .556 .778 .850 .692 .813 .846  .25 .49 .51 .53 .44 .36 .48 .40 .37  30 25 12 9 9 40 13 16 26  .772  .42  180  Vancouver Technical Total  Table 18 NUMBER OF JOBS HELD SINCE GRADUATION FROM SECONDARY SCHOOL BY YEAR OF GRADUATION Graduating Year Number of Jobs  1984 Frequency  0 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 Total  2 10 11 16 6 2 47  % 4.3 21.3 23.4 34.0 12.8 4.3 100.0  1985 Freguency 2 18 24 13 5 2 1 65  % 3.1 27.7 36.9 20.0 7.7 3.1 1.5 100.0  1986 Freguency 6 26 27 5 1  % 8.8 38.2 39.7 7.4 1.5  2.9 2 1 1.5 68 :100.0  A l l Years Freguency $ 10 54 62 34 12 4 3 1 180  5.6 30.0 34.4 18.9 6.7 2.2 1.7 .6 100.0  Respondents were asked f o r information about t h e i r three most recent jobs.  T h i s provided information about a l l jobs h e l d by 89.9% of  the respondents.  The remainder claimed t o have had more than three  jobs; no information was s o l i c i t e d about jobs h e l d p r i o r t o the three most recent.  43  The jobs h e l d included both part-time and f u l l - t i m e employment. The number o f hours worked per week i s shown i n Table 19.  The mean  length o f time between f i n i s h i n g secondary school and s t a r t i n g a job f o r respondents who h e l d between one and three jobs was 4.86 months (SD=7.06, min.=0, max. =33). Of those, 41.7% s t a r t e d t h e i r j o b w i t h i n one month o f graduation. months.  The mean length o f employment was 14.8  Table 20 shows the length o f employment f o r respondents  1  three  most recent jobs by year o f graduation. The mean proportion o f time since graduation from secondary school that respondents were employed was .61.  T h i s employment r a t i o - c a l c u l a t e d by t o t a l i n g t h e number o f  months employed, subtracting any overlap i n time i f more than one j o b was h e l d a t a time, and d i v i d i n g by the amount o f time respondents had been out o f secondary school - i s shown i n Table 21.  When t h i s  c a l c u l a t i o n was based on the time respondents were not engaged i n post-secondary education, the mean employment r a t i o was v i r t u a l l y unchanged.  Table 19 HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH JOB FOR EMPLOYED RESPONDENTS (Percentage o f Responses)  Job  Number o f Hours Worked 30 o r more 10 t o 29 9 or less  A. Current o r most recent j o b (n=168)  67.3  25.0  7.7  B. Job p r i o r t o A (n=114)  56.1  37.7  6.1  C. Job p r i o r t o B (n=53)  50.9  41.5  7.5  44 Table 20 MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984 Mean SD  1985 Mean SD  1986 Mean SD  14.9  12.2  10.1  8.5  7.7  5.8  10.1  9.2  B. Job p r i o r t o A  6.6  9.4  5.0  6.5  2.2  3.6  4.3  6.7  C. Job p r i o r t o B  3.1  6.0  2.5  5.5  •5  1.8  1.9  4.8  12.4  15.5  8.6  8.4  5.6  Job A. Current o r most recent j o b  T o t a l time employed  22.9  A l l Years Mean SD  -14.8  10.6  Table 21 EMPLOYMENT RATIOS BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984 Mean SD  1985 Mean SD  1986 Mean SD  A l l Years Mean SD  Employment r a t i o  .64  .33  .62  .33  .58  .38  .61  .35  Employment r a t i o excluding time a t post secondary  .65  .35  .65  .34  .56  .39  .61  .36  Respondents were employed most o f t e n i n o f f i c e s , followed by r e t a i l stores and restaurants. employing respondents.  Table 22 shows the types o f businesses The jobs, and t h e i r CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , i n  which respondents were employed are l i s t e d i n Table 23.  Over h a l f  (57.7%) o f the jobs h e l d were i n the major job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group 41 - " C l e r i c a l and Related Occupations."  Table 22 BUSINESSES PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT Placement  Number  Percent  75 69 51 44 20 13 11 11 9 8 5 4  22.4 20.6 15.2 13.1 6.0 3.9 3.3 3.3 2.7 2.4 1.5 1.2  4 4 3 2 2 335  1.2 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.6 100.0  Retail outlets O f f i c e jobs not included i n other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Food/Restaurant Other jobs (not o f f i c e work) Expo F i n a n c i a l (banks, c r e d i t unions,trust) Government o f f i c e s Law firms Insurance companies Hospital School board o f f i c e s Accounting firms Non-profit organizations (Heart Foundation, Cancer Society, Red Cross, etc.) Travel o f f i c e s Hotels Medical o r dental o f f i c e s (excluding hospital) U t i l i t i e s (hydro) Total Table 23  POST-SECONDARY JOBS PERFORMED BY RESPONDENTS Job  CCDO Code  Bookkeeping, Account-Recording Sales Clerical* Food Preparation and Serving Stenographic and Typing Reception, Information, M a i l and Message D i s t r i b u t i o n O f f i c e Machine and E l e c t r o n i c Data-Processing Equipment Operators Personal Service (Child Care) Other Service Food Processing F a b r i c a t i n g and Assembling Other Total  Number  Percent  413 513 419 612 411  64 52 46 43 41  19.0 15.4 13.6 12.8 12.2  417  31  9.2  414 614 619 822 856  12 11 11 6 4 16 337  3.6 3.3 3.3 1.8 1.2 4.7 100.0  * includes 415 - M a t e r i a l Recording, Scheduling and D i s t r i b u t i o n and 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks  46  3.2  Amount and type of employment cxanpared t o non-participants.  Comparison with non-participants' amount and type o f employment was not p o s s i b l e because access t o cohort addresses was denied.  Subsequently,  the amount o f employment o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was compared t o a sample o f Vancouver r e s i d e n t s c l o s e l y matched i n age, but not matched as c l o s e l y on other f a c t o r s as would have been the proposed comparison group o f non-participants.  Compared t o Vancouver residents aged 20-24 years o f  age with h i g h school education, the o v e r a l l r a t e o f employment f o r Career Preparation graduates i s higher.  The r a t e o f employment f o r  male respondents i s lower than that o f the comparison group, but the number o f male respondents i s very small. shown i n Table 24.  The r a t e s o f employment are  Subjects i n both groups were considered employed i f  they had a job a t the time of being surveyed regardless o f the number of hours per week they worked.  Table 24 EMPLOYMENT RATES OF CAREER PREPARATION GRADUATES AND GREATER VANCOUVER RESIDENTS AGED 20-24 WITH HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION Vancouver Residents, 20-24 years of acre* Gender  n  Career Preparation Graduates  employment r a t e  n  employment r a t e  Female  60,000  60.0%  156  76.9%  Male  68,000  72.1%  24  66.7%  120,000  69.2%  180  75.5%  Combined  • S t a t i s t i c s provided over the telephone by Canada Employment and Immigration.  47  3.3  Relationship o f employment t o work experience placements.  A  crosstabulation o f t h r e e - d i g i t CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f jobs performed on work experience and jobs performed since graduation indicated t h a t 23.4% o f jobs h e l d a f t e r graduation were i n the same category as jobs h e l d on work experience; 32.2% o f the jobs were a c l o s e match (the f i r s t two d i g i t s o f the CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were the same); and the remainder o f the jobs h e l d a f t e r graduation (44.4%) were completely d i f f e r e n t from jobs h e l d on work experience. 3.4 Relevance o f Career Preparation program t o employment. Although many respondents had jobs which were r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s p e c i a l t y , nearly one-third (32.9%) had jobs which were not r e l a t e d . Table 25 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f respondents' jobs t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y based on matching CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s .  Table 25 RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYMENT TO CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY (Percentage o f Responses)  Job  Same  Highly Related  Somewhat Related  Not Related  n  A. Current o r most recent j o b  37.7%  12.0%  20.4%  29.9%  167  B. Job p r i o r t o A  31.0%  15.0%  16.8%  37.2%  113  C. Job p r i o r t o C  27.8%  20.4%  18.5%  33.3%  54  D. Combined  33.8%  14.4%  18.9%  32.9%  334  48  Respondents were asked on the questionnaire t o i n d i c a t e how c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t h e i r jobs were t o the Career Preparation program they completed. Very few respondents rated t h e i r jobs t h e same as t h e Career Preparation program they completed - 4.8% rated t h e i r j o b "the same," 18.3% rated t h e i r j o b "highly r e l a t e d , " 32.9% rated t h e i r j o b "somewhat r e l a t e d , " and 44.0% rated t h e i r j o b "not the same."  Respondents were  given no t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s by which t o make these judgements.  Some  rated t h e i r work not the same as t h e i r Career Preparation program even though the CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was the same f o r the j o b they performed on work experience and the j o b they h e l d a f t e r completing secondary school.  A crosstabulation o f the r a t i n g s made based on the CCDO  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the r a t i n g s made by respondents shows t h a t 24.4% o f respondent r a t i n g s are two o r three points lower on the four-point s c a l e used than the r a t i n g s made based on CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and only 1.8% o f respondent r a t i n g s are two o r three p o i n t s higher on the s c a l e (high end o f the s c a l e "same"). Because an objective o f Career Preparation i s t o provide students with j o b search s k i l l s , repsondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the source f o r f i n d i n g t h e i r jobs.  The most frequent source f o r f i n d i n g jobs was  friends, followed by employment o f f i c e s .  Few jobs were found through  teachers o r Career Preparation work experience sponsors.  Table 26  shows respondents' sources f o r f i n d i n g t h e i r three most recent jobs. Respondents were asked t o r a t e how h e l p f u l a number o f aspects o f the Career Preparation program were t o them. was used:  A four-point r a t i n g scale  1) no help a t a l l , 2) somewhat h e l p f u l , 3) q u i t e h e l p f u l ,  4) extremely h e l p f u l .  Most respondents found Career Preparation a t  l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n making career choices, p r o v i d i n g them with  49  Table 26 SOURCE FOR FINDING JOBS (Percentage of Responses) Current or Most Recent Job (n=168)  Source  Friend Employment O f f i c e Newspaper Family Walk i n or resume CP Sponsor Teacher Other  31.0 15.5 10.7 9.5 9.5 7.7 4.8 11.3  Job P r i o r t o Most Recent (n=115) 28.7 20.9 12.2 12.2 10.4 5.2 7.0 3.5  P r i o r Job (n=54) 22.2 24.1 14.8 11.1 16.7 5.6 5.6  A l l Jobs (n=337) 28.8 18.7 11.9 10.7 11.0 6.5 5.6 6.8  employable s k i l l s , providing them with job search s k i l l s , and providing them with employment contacts.  Table 27 shows respondents r a t i n g s f o r  each o f these aspects of the program and a d d i t i o n a l comments provided by the respondents.  T h i r t y - t h r e e o f the respondents included other  comments about aspects o f the program which they found h e l p f u l o r not helpful.  Seven included two comments.  repeated i n respondents  1  Many o f the comments were  general comments about the major advantages o f  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program and t h e i r suggestions f o r program improvements. 3.5 factors.  Extent t o which employment i s r e l a t e d t o bio-democrraphic Due t o the homogeneity of the response group i t was not  p r a c t i c a l t o break down employment by gender, m a r i t a l status, o r l i v i n g arrangements.  Therefore, employment was broken down by p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n post-secondary education, year o f graduation and school.  There was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among schools i n employment r a t i o (F=1.31; df=8, 171; p=.24), nor among years o f graduation (F=0.47; df=2, 177;  50  p=.63).  However, the employment r a t i o f o r respondents with no post-  secondary education was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than f o r those with post-secondary education (F=18.03; df=l, 178; p=<.001).  The employment  r a t i o f o r respondents with no post-secondary education was respondents with post-secondary education, .55.  .80; and f o r  The length o f time  between f i n i s h i n g secondary school and s t a r t i n g a job i s l e s s f o r respondents with no post-secondary education (2.6 months) than f o r those with such education (5.6 months).  The amount o f part-time work  i s greater f o r respondents with post-secondary education.  On t h e i r  current o r most recent job, 59.4% o f respondents with post-secondary education were working 30 hours o r more; 92.5% o f respondents with no post-secondary education were working 30 hours o r more.  Participants 4.1  1  Perceptions o f the Program  Retrospective views o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Respondents were asked  t o comment on what they believed was the major advantage t o p a r t i c i p a t ing i n a Career Preparation program and t o cxtrnment on the main way i n which they thought the program could be improved.  The most frequently  c i t e d advantages t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program were the exposure t o a business environment and the experience provided.  The most frequently  suggested improvements concerned the work experience placements.  The  suggestions were more work experience, more choice i n work experience placements, and b e t t e r placements.  More comments were received  regarding the advantages o f the program than comments suggesting improvements.  Table 28 summarizes the comments about the b e n e f i t s o f  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program, and Table 29 shows the comments suggesting improvements t o the program.  51  Table 27 RESPONDENT RATINGS OF HOW HELPFUL THE CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM WAS FOR THEM (Percentage o f Responses) No Help  Somewhat Helpful  Quite Helpful  Extremely Helpful  n  Career choice  6.5  25.3  40.6  27.6  170  Employable s k i l l s  8.8  31.2  35.9  24.1  170  Job search s k i l l s  14.8  34.9  34.3  16.0  169  Fjttployment contacts  31.5  29.6  20.4  18.5  162  Other Work experience Working i n a business environment Learn what job/career entails S k i l l s learned Application of s k i l l s Contact with p u b l i c Opportunity t o be h i r e d Job references Length o f work experience Preparation o f sponsor f o r student Development o f s e l f confidence Teacher Classroom theory Teacher v i s i t s Algebra  40 2.5  7.5  7.5  5.0  7.5  2.5 5.0 2.5  7.5 5.0 2.5 7.5 5.0 5.0  5.0 2.5  2.5 2.5 2.5  2.5 2.5  2.5 5.0  52  Table 28 SUGGESTED MAJOR BENEFITS OF PARTICIPATING IN CAREER PREPARATION Comment Exposure t o business environment Experience Helps make career choices Students l e a r n and develop s k i l l s Develops interpersonal s k i l l s Provides j o b opportunities Develops confidence, maturity, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Provides references f o r future employment Prepares students f o r work Opportunity t o t r y d i f f e r e n t jobs Provides j o b search s k i l l s The courses o f f e r e d Receiving c r e d i t f o r the program Other comments Total  Frequency  Percent  61 54 43 26 17 16 15 14 12 10 9 5 3 5 290  21.0 18.6 14.8 9.0 5.9 5.5 5.2 4.8 4.1 3.4 3.1 1.7 1.0 1.7 100.0  Table 29 SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM Comment Provide more choices f o r work experience Provide more work experience Better work experience placements Work experience sponsors who are aware o f the program and prepared f o r students Change course content O f f e r a wider v a r i e t y o f Career Preparation programs Coordination o f j o b opportunities Allow students t o do t h e i r work experience i n three d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s More s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Career Prep, programs Promote the program more widely O f f e r work experience during holidays Include more academic courses Pay students Have fewer required courses Better i n s t r u c t i o n No improvement i s needed Other comments Total  Frequency 26 26 24  Percent 15.5 15.5 14.3  16 11  9.5 6.5  9 7  5.4 4.2  5 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 12 9 168  3.0 3.0 3.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.2 7.1 5.4 100.0  53  Chapter V  CONCLUSIONS AND RECCMyENDATIONS  The surttmary o f procedures, and r e s u l t s and conclusions, and the l i m i t a t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter form the b a s i s f o r the reaanmendat i o n s f o r Business Education Career Preparation programs and f o r future studies.  Summary  Procedures The d e l i v e r a b l e r a t e o f questionnaires was somewhat lower than anticipated.  For future studies a f i l e - i n c l u d i n g current address and  phone number o f the student and a r e l a t i v e o r f r i e n d - prepared a t the time o f graduation from secondary school f o r each student e n r o l l e d i n Career Preparation may improve follow-up c a p a b i l i t y . The process o f r e t r i e v i n g addresses from the Vancouver School Board Records Department i s i n e f f i c i e n t .  Addresses are r e t r i e v e d manually by  a records c l e r k and the turnaround time i s lengthy.  R e t r i e v i n g the  addresses required f o r t h i s study took longer than one month.  Using a  computer t o store f i l e s i s now routine procedure i n even small enterp r i s e s ; i f t h i s were done f o r Career Preparation graduates, addresses could be r e t r i e v e d and m a i l i n g l i s t s could be p r i n t e d with f a r greater efficiency.  54  The data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d f o r t h i s study was longer than anticipated.  The study was delayed by two p o s t a l labor disruptions -  one s h o r t l y a f t e r the f i r s t m a i l i n g and another s h o r t l y a f t e r the second mailing.  The p o s t a l disruptions slowed the d i s t r i b u t i o n and  return o f questionnaires.  To avoid even longer delays between mailings  and returns, telephone interviews were used.  Very few subjects  contacted by telephone declined t o answer the questionnaire even though they had ignored two previous mailings.  Telephone surveys have the  b e n e f i t o f an immediate response once the subject has been contacted. In addition, subjects who move but do not change t h e i r phone numbers can be contacted by phone when they cannot be reached by m a i l . Response r a t e s were considerably higher f o r 1986 graduates than 1984 graduates (93.2% and 75.8%  respectively).  subjects over a p e r i o d o f years may  Tracking the same  increase the response r a t e by  i n v o l v i n g subjects i n the study scon a f t e r they graduate and have an i n t e r e s t i n the program, and keeping them involved over the years.  Results and  Conclusions  In t h i s s e c t i o n and those following, headings are numbered t o match the corresponding evaluation questions i n Chapter I I I .  Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1  Nature of work experience placements.  Most respondents  performed jobs on work experience i n the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " c l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d occupations."  T h i s i s an appropriate job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  f o r Business Education Career Preparation students.  55  1.2  Relationship o f work experience placements t o Career  Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  Although most respondents were placed i n jobs  t h a t matched t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y , 17.3% were placed i n jobs f o r work experience t h a t were not r e l a t e d o r only somewhat r e l a t e d to t h e i r specialty.  An objective o f the program i s t h a t work e x p e r i -  ence w i l l be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a program s p e c i a l t y .  C a r e f u l matching  of students t o work experience placements i s necessary t o ensure t h a t students  1  work experience i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r specialty" and  t h a t the time students spend on work experience i s meaningful. 1.3  Relevance of work experience placements t o program  objectives.  I t i s an objective of the Career Preparation program t h a t  students w i l l have an opportunity t o apply b a s i c s k i l l s and  abilities  and t o explore a wide v a r i e t y of s k i l l s i n an occupational f i e l d .  In  many cases students were not provided with an opportunity t o explore a wide v a r i e t y of s k i l l s . work experience.  A mean of three s k i l l s was used i n one week of  For 17% o r more o f the respondents, on a t l e a s t one  work experience placement none o f the s k i l l s used was c e n t r a l t o the Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  Work experiences should provide students  with a v a r i e t y o f tasks which require the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s k i l l s which are c e n t r a l t o the students  1  s p e c i a l t y . C a r e f u l monitoring o f the  placements by Career Preparation teachers and coordinators i s necessary t o ensure t h a t sponsors assign appropriate tasks t o students on work experience.  Many of the respondents' c r i t i c i s m s o f the Career  Preparation program r e f e r r e d t o work experience and included comments regarding sponsors being unprepared f o r them and not having work f o r them t o do or students spending the whole week doing menial and r e p e t i t i v e tasks such as s t u f f i n g envelopes.  56  Even though same respondents were c r i t i c a l o f the work experience placements,  89% o f the placements were rated a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l .  Responses regarding h e l p f u l aspects o f the program and the major b e n e f i t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program substantiate the 'helpful' r a t i n g f o r work experience.  Work experience i s a valuable aspect of  the Career Preparation program which o f f e r s students an opportunity t o gain p r a c t i c a l experience r e l a t i n g t o employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Post-Secondary 2.1  Education  Post-secondary education experiences.  The l a r g e proportion  (77.2%) o f respondents who continue t h e i r education indicates t h a t the Career Preparation program i s meeting i t s o b j e c t i v e o f q u a l i f y i n g graduates t o pursue further studies toward a p r o f e s s i o n o r attend c o l l e g e t o pursue further s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g .  The program most  frequently e n r o l l e d i n by respondents was A r t s and Sciences a t Langara (Vancouver Community College).  Unfortunately, t h i s does not provide a  very c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of respondents' plans f o r post-secondary education because the A r t s and Sciences program i s o f t e n taken as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o more s p e c i a l i z e d programs a t u n i v e r s i t y . Considering the l a r g e proportion o f Career Preparation graduates who continue t h e i r education, the Career Preparation program requirements should be f l e x i b l e t o allow students the opportunity t o take the courses required f o r entrance t o post-secondary  institutions  as w e l l as the courses required f o r Career Preparation.  I f the program  does not allow f l e x i b i l i t y , timetabling c o n s t r a i n t s a t the school may mean t h a t students cannot take a l l the courses required f o r Career  57  Preparation i n a d d i t i o n t o the courses recjuired f o r entrance t o a college or university.  S t a r t i n g i n the 1986/87 school year, schools  were recjoiired by the M i n i s t r y o f Education t o s p e c i f y and have approved the s i x courses which would be recjuired f o r each Business Education Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y .  P r i o r t o that, i t was l e f t t o the  judgement o f the teacher t o decide which s i x Business Education courses would be appropriate f o r each s p e c i a l t y .  T h i s provided more f l e x i -  b i l i t y i n the programs than they c u r r e n t l y have.  Because the subjects  i n t h i s study graduated p r i o r t o the change which recjuired a l l s i x courses t o be s p e c i f i e d , the f l e x i b i l i t y i n program requirements was not an issue f o r t h i s study.  I t i s , therefore, not apparent from  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study whether changes i n program requirements have l e d same students t o be unable t o complete the program due t o timetable c o n f l i c t s and l a c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n the programs. The mean length of time between f i n i s h i n g secondary school and s t a r t i n g a post-secondary program was almost s i x months.  Therefore, i f  future follow-up studies o f students' post-secondary education are planned, the follow-up should be conducted more than the three months a f t e r students graduate that was previously done by Career Preparation teachers f o r the M i n i s t r y o f Education. 2.2  Type and amount o f post-secondary education compared t o  non-participants.  Data was not a v a i l a b l e t o compare the amount and  •type o f post-secondary education o f Career Preparation p a r t i c i p a n t s with non-participants.  A comparison o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-  p a r t i c i p a n t s would have provided an i n d i c a t i o n o f the extent t o which completing a Business Education Career Preparation program influenced students' enrollment i n post-secondary programs.  58  2.3  Relevance o f Career Preparation program t o post-secondary  education.  Many o f the post-secondary programs e n r o l l e d i n by  respondents (67%) were a t l e a s t somewhat r e l a t e d t o respondents  1  Career  Preparation s p e c i a l t y . Career Preparation was rated a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress i n post-secondary education by 81% of respondents who attended post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s .  T h i s suggests  t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Career Preparation program does improve the t r a n s i t i o n between secondary school and post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . Although respondents were q u a l i f i e d t o pursue f u r t h e r studies, few were granted advanced placement i n courses o r p r i o r i t y cn w a i t i n g l i s t s f o r programs.  I t was apparent during telephone interviews from l a c k o f  understanding o f the question t h a t some respondents were not aware t h a t advanced placement i s sometimes o f f e r e d by colleges.  A r t i c u l a t i o n with  post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s should be improved so t h a t Business Education Career Preparation courses lead t o post-secondary programs and, where appropriate, Career Preparation graduates be exempted from same post-secondary courses.  Career Preparation students should be  made aware o f post-secondary programs which o f f e r advanced placement so t h a t they may take advantage o f these opportunities.  Although not many  respondents were given p r i o r i t y on waiting l i s t s f o r post-secondary programs, those who were spent considerably l e s s time on waiting l i s t s - a mean o f 8 weeks compared t o 22 weeks. are  I f students know t h a t they  given p r i o r i t y on a waiting l i s t because they completed a Career  Preparation program t h i s i s an obvious b e n e f i t o f the program. However, the meaning o f t h i s f i n d i n g may be unclear because some students may not be aware that they were given p r i o r i t y on waiting  59  lists.  I t would be u s e f u l t o survey post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s  regarding t h e i r p o l i c i e s f o r waiting l i s t s , and then t o make Career Preparation students aware o f these p o l i c i e s so t h a t they may take advantage o f the opportunity f o r p r i o r i t y . 2.4  Relationship o f post-secondary education t o bio-demographic  factors.  Because 87% o f respondents a r e female, 97% a r e s i n g l e , and  92% l i v e with parents o r another r e l a t i v e , i t was not p r a c t i c a l t o examine the extent t o which post-secondary education was r e l a t e d t o bio-demographic f a c t o r s such as gender, m a r i t a l status, o r l i v i n g arrangements.  However, i t was determined t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  graduates from Gladstone and Templeton attended post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s than graduates from King George.  Post-Secondary Employment 3.1  Employment h i s t o r y .  The h i g h employment r a t e o f respondents  i n d i c a t e s t h a t graduates are q u a l i f i e d t o proceed d i r e c t l y t o employment even though many choose t o continue t h e i r education. A t the time o f completing the questionnaire 75.6% o f respondents were employed and 94.4% had h e l d a t l e a s t one job since graduating from secondary school.  Only one respondent had not attended any post-secondary  courses and had not been employed. Respondents who attended post-secondary programs had more part-time jobs, lower employment r a t i o s , and shorter periods o f employment than respondents who d i d not attend post-secondary.  T h i s suggests t h a t  respondents continuing t h e i r education l i k e l y took part-time jobs while continuing t h e i r education and that these jobs may not be i n d i c a t i v e o f career choices.  60  3.2  Amount and type o f employment compared t o non-participants.  Compared t o a s i m i l a r age group o f Greater Vancouver residents, respondents had higher r a t e s of employment.  T h i s indicates t h a t the  Career Preparation program has been successful i n p r o v i d i n g students with marketable s k i l l s f o r employment and with proven job search procedures. 3.3  Relationship o f employment t o work experience  placements.  Based on CCDO c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of jobs performed on work experience and jobs employed a t a f t e r graduation from secondary school, 67.1% o f the jobs h e l d by respondents a f t e r graduation from secondary school were a t l e a s t somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y . I t i s apparent t h a t many program leavers are entering employment r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s . 3.4  Relevance of Career Preparation program t o employment.  The  f a c t t h a t 94% o f respondents h e l d a t l e a s t one job s i n c e graduating from secondary school i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the program has provided students with proven job search and interview procedures.  In addition,  85% o f respondents r a t e the Career Preparation program a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing them with job search s k i l l s . The most frequent source f o r f i n d i n g jobs was through f r i e n d s 28.8% o f jobs h e l d by respondents were found through f r i e n d s .  Only  12.1% o f jobs were found through teachers o r Career Preparation work experience sponsors.  Although most respondents rated the program a t  l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing job search s k i l l s , 31.5% o f respondents rated the program no help i n providing employment contacts.  Furthermore,  some of the respondents suggested t h a t the  61  cxxDrdination o f job opportunities f o r students should be improved. Same Career Preparation graduates f i n d employment as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r work experience placements, but the numbers are few. A more formal procedure f o r matching graduates t o job opportunities could increase the number of jobs found by graduates as a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Career Preparation program. Qxrrently, same employers c a l l the coordinators a t the school board when they are looking f o r a graduate t o h i r e , others phone teachers a t the schools.  An established p o l i c y  f o r employers i n t e r e s t e d i n h i r i n g graduates would improve the coordination of job opportunites f o r graduates.  The aaordination o f  j o b opportunites f o r graduates of Career Preparation programs would be time consuming and, therefore, should receive program funding i f established. Respondents' comments regarding the major b e n e f i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a Career Preparation program and t h e i r r a t i n g s of how h e l p f u l the program was  i n making career choices i n d i c a t e s t h a t Career Preparation  develops i n students an increased understanding  o f career and employ-  ment needs and an a b i l i t y t o make meaningful decisions about an occupation.  Same graduates commented t h a t the program was h e l p f u l i n  making career choices because they discovered through work experience what they d i d not want t o do.  I t i s important t h a t students be  provided with a v a r i e t y of work experience placements because they  may  get a f a l s e impression o f what a jab i s l i k e by being exposed t o only one working environment. Respondents' comments regarding the b e n e f i t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program, t h e i r r a t i n g s o f how h e l p f u l the program was  i n providing  employable s k i l l s , and the f a c t that 94% o f respondents h e l d a t l e a s t  62  one job and 67% o f these jobs were a t l e a s t somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y , a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t Career Preparation students acquire marketable s k i l l s f o r employment. Even though 68.5% o f respondents rated the Career Preparation program a t l e a s t somewhat h e l p f u l i n providing them with employment contacts, the r e l a t i v e l y small number o f jobs (12%) t h a t were found through teachers o r work experience sponsors, suggests t h a t the programs' success i n improving the t r a n s i t i o n between secondary school and employment by providing employment contacts i s l i m i t e d .  However,  respondents' comments regarding the b e n e f i t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program - such as exposure t o a business environment, experience, prepa r a t i o n o f students f o r work, and references f o r future employment demonstrate t h a t work experience improves the t r a n s i t i o n between secondary school and employment. 3.5 factors.  Extent t o which employment i s r e l a t e d t o bio-democrraphic Respondents with no post-secondary education have  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher employment r a t i o s , have shorter periods o f unemployment between f i n i s h i n g secondary school and s t a r t i n g t h e i r f i r s t job, and work more hours o f work per week than respondents with post-secondary education.  I t i s not unusual that respondents attending  school would have lower employment r a t i o s than those not attending. However, i t i s not apparent from the r e s u l t s o f the survey whether respondents pursued further studies because they could not secure f u l l - t i m e employment and wanted t o upgrade t h e i r s k i l l s t o improve t h e i r prospects o f f u l l - t i m e employment, o r whether they pursued f u r t h e r studies because they were interested i n more s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r employment o r a profession.  63  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Perceptions o f the Program 4.1  Retrospective views o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Based on respondents'  comments, the major b e n e f i t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Career Preparation was the work experience.  Respondents commented on the b e n e f i t s o f being  exposed t o a business environment and the opportunity t o gain experience and apply s k i l l s .  The most frequent suggestions f o r  improvement o f the program regarded work experience.  Graduates  suggested t h a t the program would be improved i f they had more choice i n work experience placements, more than one week o f work experience a t a time, and b e t t e r placements with sponsors who were prepared f o r the students.  Students should be matched c a r e f u l l y t o placements t o ensure  t h a t they have the appropriate s k i l l s f o r the j o b and t o ensure t h a t students are being provided with an opportunity t o experience working i n a f i e l d which i s o f i n t e r e s t t o them.  A t the time o f t h i s study/  the Vancouver School Board used a form which provided very l i t t l e information about the students' s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s f o r matching students t o placements.  A form which provides information about  courses completed by students, s k i l l s and equipment students can use, previous placements and experience, and career goals and i n t e r e s t s would enable Career Preparation coordinators t o match students t o appropriate work experience placements. As many respondents suggested t h a t the program should be more s p e c i a l i z e d as suggested t h a t the program should o f f e r more v a r i e t y . The program should be f l e x i b l e so t h a t i t can allow f o r both.  By  ascertaining students' i n t e r e s t s and career goals, Career Preparation teachers and coordinators can ensure t h a t those students who have a  64  very definite career interest are placed i n jobs for work experience that are related to their career goals, and that those students who are uncertain about their career interests be given an opportunity to experience a variety of jobs.  I f students are permitted to specialize  i n one f i e l d , this should be preceded by career counselling which exposes students to a range of career opportunites before they make a decision about specializing. Same of the respondents' comments suggest that the Career Preparation program i s not being promoted very effectively.  Some  suggested that the program should be promoted more widely and others suggested changes to the program, such as offering Career Preparation programs i n other subject areas and offering work experience during holidays, which are current practice.  Same respondents were concerned  about being informed about the program early i n their years at secondary school so they can select courses i n their junior years which lead to the courses required for the program. To encourage effective promotion of the program i t i s important to ensure that school counsellors and other Business Education teachers are familiar with a l l aspects of the program. Although there were many suggestions for improvement to the program, 12 respondents commented that no improvement was needed. Furthermore, the number of comments regarding the benefits of participating i n the program outnumbered the suggestions for improvement by almost two to one.  The many positive comments about the  program are an indication of i t s effectiveness.  65  Limitations  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f response b i a s because l e s s than 100% o f the questionnaires were  returned.  Only 75.8% o f the surveys were  a c t u a l l y d e l i v e r e d and a l l but one response came from greater Vancouver.  The r e s u l t s exclude the post-secondary a c t i v i t i e s o f Career  Preparation graduates who have l e f t the greater Vancouver area.  It is  not p o s s i b l e t o determine which o f the undeliverable questionnaires were a r e s u l t o f l o c a l moves and which were more d i s t a n t moves. The response b i a s as a r e s u l t o f subjects who were u n w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e survey i s minimal because 84.5% o f graduates who received questionnaires e i t h e r returned them o r were interviewed. Therefore, the responses can be considered a r e l i a b l e representation o f Vancouver Business Education Career Preparation graduates. Even though the sample selected was t o include only those graduates who had completed a Business Education Career Preparation program, 10.6% o f respondents indicated t h a t they had not completed a l l the requirements.  E f f e c t s o f including responses from graduates who had  not completed a l l the program requirements were not addressed i n t h i s study.  However, some o f the respondents who d i d not complete a l l o f  the requirements indicated that they had completed a l l the requirements except one week o f work experience.  I n those cases, the e f f e c t o f not  completing t h e program would be minimal. Another l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s study i s the use o f s e l f - r e p o r t i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s e l f - r e p o r t i n g has some d e f i c i e n c i e s ; however, follow-up i s necessary t o determine program e f f e c t s and s e l f - r e p o r t i n g i s an appropriate method f o r c o l l e c t i n g data.  66  Respondents were asked t o r a t e how c l o s e l y t h e i r post-secondary employment matched t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t i e s .  In many  cases, respondent r a t i n g s d i d not correspond t o the r a t i n g s based on matching CCDO codes o f jobs performed on work experience t o jobs employed a t a f t e r graduation from secondary school.  In order t o obtain  more meaningful information from respondents about how c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t h e i r employment was t o t h e i r Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y , the question should have been more s p e c i f i c and should have given more d i r e c t i o n about ways i n which employment was r e l a t e d t o respondents' specialty.  Reconmendations  Recranmendations 1.  f o r Business Education Career Preparation Programs  Develop a computer f i l e o f each graduate from Career Preparation programs.  A f i l e prepared a t the time of graduation from secondary school i n c l u d i n g each students' current address and phone number, the address and phone number o f a r e l a t i v e o r f r i e n d , Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y , s k i l l s , experience, and type o f employment ( i f any) desired, would make i t e a s i e r t o l o c a t e students i f employment opportunities a r i s e . I t would a l s o provide information f o r matching program graduates t o appropriate jobs. future studies.  In addition, graduates would be e a s i e r t o t r a c k f o r Having the address and phone number o f a r e l a t i v e o r  f r i e n d would increase the chance o f contacting graduates, e s p e c i a l l y i f they move.  67  2.  FJicourage greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by males.  Approximately 80% o f the students completing Business Education Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver secondary schools are female. Business Education Career Preparation courses and programs should be analyzed t o determine why they a t t r a c t p r i m a r i l y females. Where appropriate, these courses and programs should be modified t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by both males and females. 3.  Match students more c a r e f u l l y t o work experience placements.  Students should be matched t o work experience placements based on t h e i r career goals, i n t e r e s t s , and a b i l i t i e s .  Where d i s t r i c t personnel  are responsible f o r matching students t o work experience  placements,  forms t h a t provide information about courses completed by students, s k i l l s and equipment students can use, previous placements and experience, and career goals and i n t e r e s t s should be completed by students t o allow b e t t e r matching o f students t o work experience placements. 4.  Ensure t h a t students are provided with a v a r i e t y o f tasks on work experience t h a t are r e l a t e d t o t h e i r Career Preparation specialties.  Careful monitoring o f work experience placements by Career Preparation teachers and coordinators i s necessary t o ensure t h a t work experience sponsors provide students with a v a r i e t y o f tasks using s k i l l s t h a t are r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s .  I n addition, work  experience sponsors, and any employees working with Career Preparation students, should be b r i e f e d on the purpose and goals o f the program. 5.  Allow f l e x i b i l i t y i n Career Preparation program requirements.  Currently, students are required t o complete s i x s p e c i f i c courses  68  t o f u l f i l l t h e requirements o f Career Preparation.  Allowing students  e l e c t i v e s w i t h i n the program s p e c i a l t y would provide more f l e x i b i l i t y . Programs should be f l e x i b l e so they do not preclude students from obtaining courses required f o r entrance t o u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e . 6.  Allow f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n the way i n which work experience i s provided.  Work experience requirements f o r Career Preparation are most o f t e n f u l f i l l e d by three, one-week placements. school i s d i f f i c u l t f o r same students.  Missing three f u l l weeks o f F l e x i b l e scheduling o f work  experience can reduce the impact o f missing school.  Work experience,  i n cooperation with work experience sponsors, can be scheduled t o s u i t student needs - i f students have f r e e blocks, work experience can be scheduled f o r days (or even h a l f days) when students have f r e e blocks and would be missing l e s s classes; work experience can be scheduled f o r one o r two days a week r a t h e r than a f u l l week so t h a t students have contact with the school and can keep up with t h e i r assignments; o r work experience can be scheduled f o r after-school hours. 7.  Improve a r t i c u l a t i o n with post-secondary  institutions.  Meetings between representatives o f post-secondary programs t h a t are r e l a t e d t o Career Preparation programs and representatives o f Career Preparation programs should be h e l d t o determine under what circumstances i t i s appropriate t o exempt students from post-secondary courses, and t o e s t a b l i s h any agreements f o r granting Career Preparation students entrance i n t o programs o r p r i o r i t y on waiting lists.  Once these p o l i c i e s have been established, they should be put  i n w r i t i n g and d i s t r i b u t e d t o Career Preparation teachers and coordinators, and t o secondary school counsellors.  They, i n turn,  69  should make students aware o f these p o l i c i e s .  I f changes are made i n  the course requirements a t the secondary school o r a t the postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n , another meeting should be h e l d t o discuss the e f f e c t s o f any changes on program a r t i c u l a t i o n . 8.  Improve the coordination o f job opportunities f o r Career Preparation graduates.  E s t a b l i s h i n g a procedure f o r employers t o follow when they wish t o h i r e graduates, and a procedure f o r graduates t o follow i f they are a c t i v e l y seeking employment, could improve the coordination o f job opportunities f o r graduates.  I f one person i n the d i s t r i c t were  responsible f o r coordinating job opportunities f o r graduates and i f work experience sponsors were made aware o f t h i s , more work experience sponsors might contact the school d i s t r i c t t o h i r e graduates.  A  computer f i l e with graduates• Career Preparation s p e c i a l t y , s k i l l s , and experience would allow graduates t o be matched with job opportunities. Because t h i s a c t i v i t y would require a d d i t i o n a l personnel, i t would require funding.  Recommendations f o r Future Studies 1.  Use one mailing, including a covering l e t t e r and questionnaire, followed by a telephone survey t o c o l l e c t data.  T h i s may reduce the amount o f time required t o c o l l e c t data. 2.  Track the same subjects over time.  I f subjects are surveyed soon a f t e r they graduate and followed over a number o f years, they might maintain more i n t e r e s t i n the program and the response r a t e may not drop as much f o r graduates who have been away  70  from school longer.  I n addition, t r a c k i n g the same subjects might  i n d i c a t e changes i n program e f f e c t s over time. 3.  Survey a group o f non-Career Preparation graduates.  Using a group o f non-participants as a b a s i s o f comparison would provide an i n d i c a t i o n o f the extent t o which completing a Career Preparation program influences post-secondary employment and education. 4.  Survey Career Preparation graduates from a small r u r a l town.  Without c l o s e proximity t o u n i v e r s i t i e s , colleges, and p o t e n t i a l employers t h e post-secondary employment and education o f Career Preparation graduates may be very d i f f e r e n t . 5.  C o l l e c t data a t l e a s t s i x months a f t e r students graduate.  C o l l e c t i n g data sooner than s i x months a f t e r graduation does not allow graduates much time t o e s t a b l i s h themselves i n jobs o r postsecondary programs.  (The mean length o f time f o r respondents i n t h i s  study between leaving secondary school and s t a r t i n g post-secondary education was s i x months and between leaving secondary school and s t a r t i n g employment was f i v e months.) 6.  Have respondents i d e n t i f y t h e i r desired career.  By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r desired career, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o determine whether respondents are able t o obtain jobs i n t h e i r chosen career.  I t may a l s o provide an i n d i c a t i o n o f whether respondents  continue t h e i r education t o meet the requirements o f a s p e c i f i c career o r because they cannot get employment i n t h e i r desired career. 7.  Have respondents i n d i c a t e whether part-time employment i s by choice.  T h i s w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o determine whether respondents work part-time by choice o r because they cannot get f u l l - t i m e employment.  71  8.  Survey Career Preparation participants with regard t o effects of the program on factors other than employment and education.  Career Preparation programs can influence participants' work habits, attitudes toward work and school, self-confidence, and more. Influences such as these are important results of the program which should be evaluated. 9.  Survey post-secondary institutions.  A survey of post-secondary institutions could be used to determine which are offering advanced placement or priority on waiting l i s t s to graduates of Career Preparation programs, and to determine what c r i t e r i a are used for granting advanced placement and priority on waiting l i s t s .  Overall the Business Education Career Preparation program offered in Vancouver i s a successful program providing many benefits to students.  The program i s meeting the objectives of the provincial  curriculum.  However, the program could be improved by:  matching  students more carefully to work experience placements which meet their interests, career goals and specialty; offering programs which w i l l interest both males and females; coordinating employment opportunities for graduates; improving articulation with post- secondary programs; and structuring Career Preparation programs to allow for f l e x i b i l i t y i n course requirements and work experience.  72  REFERENCES Canna, D. 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An evaluation of career preparation programs i n Vancouver schools. (Research Report 84-07.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Services Program Resources, Board o f School Trustees, School D i s t r i c t #39.  73  Lewis, M. V., Glyde, G. P., McKee, D. E., & Kozak, L. (1976). Cost effectiveness study of work experience programs, f i n a l report. Washington, D.C: Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , U n i v e r s i t y Park, I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on Human Resources. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 136 053) Mason, R. E., Haines, P. G., & Furtado, L. T. (1981). Cooperative occupational education and work experience i n the curriculum (3rd ed.). Danville, IL: The Interstate P r i n t e r s and Publishers, Inc. Mclndoe, B. D. (1980). A discussion of work experience and r e l a t e d programs. Unpublished major paper, Department o f Counselling Psychology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Middleton, M. A. (1975). An evaluation o f the work experience education program i n f i v e Vancouver secondary schools. (Research Report 75-19.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Education Services Group, Board of School Trustees. M i n i s t r y o f Education. (1982). Career preparation program curriculum guide f o r business education. D i v i s i o n of Educational Programs - Schools Curriculum Development Branch. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. M o r e l l , J . A. (1979). Program evaluation i n s o c i a l research. York: Pergamon Press.  New  Myers, Jerome L. (1966). Fundamentals of experimental design. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon. Patton, M. Q. (1978). U t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d evaluation. H i l l s : Sage Publications.  Beverly  Rossi, P. H., Freeman, H. E., & Wright, S. R. (1979). Evaluation: A Systematic Approach. Beverly H i l l s : Sage Publications. Seaward, M. R. (1978). A comparison o f the career maturity, s e l f concept and academic achievement of female Cooperative Vocational O f f i c e T r a i n i n g students. Intensive Business T r a i n i n g students, and r e g u l a r Business Education students i n selected high schools i n Mississippi. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 151 536) Shaughnessy, P. (1986). Personal s k i l l s development o f co-operative education students i n two secondary schools i n the C i t y o f New York. Guidance & Counselling, 1 , 45-52. Simon, R. I . (1983). But who w i l l l e t you do i t ? Counter-hegemonic p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r work education. Journal o f Education, 165, 235-256.  74  Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1987). Research and, evaluation i n education and the s o c i a l sciences. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. SPSS Inc. (1983). Company.  SPSS-X user's guide.  Chicago:  Stake, R. (1981). Persuasions, not models. and P o l i c y Analysis, 3, 83-84.  McGraw-Hill Book  Educational Evaluation  Stevens, R. S. (1978). An evaluation o f work education programs. (Research Report 78-04.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Services, Education Service Group, Board o f School Trustees. Walsh, J . & Breglio, V. J . (1976). An assessment o f school supervised work education programs. Part I I : Urban cooperative education programs and follow-up study. San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a : Olympus Research Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 133 423) Watts, A. G. (Ed.). (1983). Work Experience and Schools. Heinemann Educational Books.  London:  75  APPENDIX A Covering l e t t e r f o r Business Education Career Preparation graduate questionnaire. Follow-up l e t t e r f o r questionnaire. Questionnaire f o r Business Education Career Preparation graduates. (Original p r i n t e d on 1 7 " x l l " paper folded t o form a booklet.) Covering l e t t e r f o r non-participant questionnaire. Questionnaire f o r non-participants. one sheet o f paper.)  (Original p r i n t e d both sides of  78 BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION GRADUATE SURVEY Please complete the following information about your employment and education. As a graduate of a Business Education Career Preparation Program, you will provide information that will be valuable for making future improvements to the program. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.  Gender:  2.  What year were you born?  • Male  •Female  3.  Marital Status:  4.  With whom do you live?  • Single  • Married  5.  What secondary school did you last attend?  6.  When did you last attend secondary school?  • Separated or Divorced  • parents or other relatives  •  •  • alone  one or more friends  Q yes  spouse/partner  (month)  (year)  7.  Did you graduate?  8.  Did you complete six Career Preparation specialty courses (including three weeks of work experience)?  9.  • no  • yes  • no  What was your Career Preparation specialty? •  accounting  •  other (please specify)  • clerical  (check the appropriate box or boxes)  • secretarial  Q data processing  • marketing  10. Please l i s t your Career-Preparation work experience placements. Company name ( f i r s t placement) Position (type of work) S k i l l s and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) •  typing  •filing  •telephone  •accounting  •  computer  Q shorthand  Q photocopier  Q transcription  •  word processor  •calculator (Dicta-phone)  • other (please specify)  How valuable was this experience? •  extremely valuable  Q quite valuable  •somewhat valuable  • not valuable  Company name (second placement) Position (type of work) S k i l l s and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) •  typing  • filing  • telephone  • accounting  •  computer  Q shorthand  • photocopier  • transcription  •  word processor  • calculator (Dicta-phone)  • o t h e r (please specify)  How valuable was this experience? •  extremely valuable  • quite valuable  • somewhat valuable  • not valuable  79  Page 2 Company name (third placement) Position (type of work) S k i l l s and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) •  typing  Q filing  • telephone  Q accounting  •  computer  Q shorthand  Q photocopier  Q transcription  •  word processor  Q calculator (Dicta-phone)  Q other (please specify)  How valuable was this experience? •  extremely valuable  Q quite valuable  Q somewhat valuable  • not valuable  POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION 11. Since leaving secondary school, have you attended any post-secondary institutions or training courses? • yes (please complete the following information)  • no (proceed to question #15)  12. How valuable was your Career Preparation program in f a c i l i t a t i n g progress in your post-secondary education? •  extremely valuable  Q quite valuable  •somewhat valuable  13. Were you granted advanced standing in any of your courses?  • n o t valuable  • yes  • no  If yes, what course(s)? 14. Starting with the current or most recent institution you have attended, please complete the following information about the two most recent post-secondary institutions or training courses you have attended. Name of institution Dates attended  Location (month)  (year) to  (month)  (year)  Program or course taken Was there a waiting l i s t for this program or course?  • yes  • no  If yes, how many weeks were you on the waiting l i s t ? Were you given priority on the waiting l i s t over others who had not completed a a Career Preparation Program?  Qyes  Q no  Name of institution Dates attended  Location (month)  (year) to  (month)  (year)  Program or course taken Was there a waiting l i s t for this program or course?  • yes  Q no  If yes, how many weeks were you on the waiting l i s t ? Were you given priority on the waiting l i s t over others who had not completed a Career Preparation Program?  Q yes  Q no  80  Page 3 EMPLOYMENT 15. Are you currently employed?  Q yes  • no  16. How many jobs have you held since leaving secondary school? If you have not held any jobs since leaving secondary school turn to question # 19. 17. Career Preparation can be helpful in a number of ways. Beside the following statements, please rate how helpful Career Preparation has been to you by c i r c l i n g the appropriate number. "1" means no help at a l l and "4" means extremely helpful. No h e l p at a l l  making career choices provided s k i l l s needed on job(s) since graduation provided job search s k i l l s provided employment contacts other aspects of the program which you feel were or were not helpful (please specify)  Somewhat helpful  Quite helpful  Extremely helpful  1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  18. Starting with your current or most recent job, please complete the following information about your three most recent jobs since leaving secondary school. Employer  Position  Duties (Please provide a brief description of your job.)  _  How many hours a week were you employed? Q 30 or more  Q ^  Dates employed  (month)  (year)  to  T 0  29  • 9 or less  (month)  (year)  How related is this job to the Career Preparation program you completed? •  same  • highly related  Q somewhat related  How did you find out about this job? • family  Q teacher  Q not related  (Check the appropriate box.) Q newspaper  •  friend  •  CP work experience sponsor (employer)  • employment office  Q other (please specify)  Employer  Position  Duties (Please provide a brief description of your job.)  _  How many hours a week were you employed? Q 30 or more  • 10 to 29  Dates employed  (month)  (year)  to  • 9 or less  (month)  How related i s this job to the Career Preparation program you completed? •  same  • highly related  • somewhat related  How did you find out about this job? • family  • teacher  • not related  (Check the appropriate box.)  •  friend  • newspaper  •  CP work experience sponsor (employer)  • employment office  • other (please specify)  (year)  83 V A N C O U V E R P l e a s e  c o m p l e t e  g r a d u a t e f o r  o f  m a k i n g  a  t h e  f o l l o w i n g  V a n c o u v e r  f u t u r e  S E C O N D A R Y  i n f o r m a t i o n  S e c o n d a r y  i m p r o v e m e n t s  to  S C H O O L S a b o u t  1.  G e n d e r : W h a t  •  y e a r  3.  M a r i t a l  4.  W i t h  M a l e w e r e  S t a t u s :  w h o m  d o  y o u  s c h o o l  p r o g r a m s .  5.  W h a t  s e c o n d a r y  W h e n  d i d  7.  D i d  8.  W h a t  y o u  y o u  d i d  Q  S i n g l e  l i v e ?  d i d  a t t e n d  g r a d u a t e ?  c o u r s e s  S i n c e  l e a v i n g  t r a i n i n g Q y e s 1 0 .  a n d  i n f o r m a t i o n  Q y o u  M a r r i e d  Q  p a r e n t s  •  o n e y o u  o r  o r  •  S e p a r a t e d  o t h e r  r e l a t i v e s  m o r e  f r i e n d s  l a s t  a t t e n d ?  s e c o n d a r y  s c h o o l ?  y e s  •  t a k e  i n  s e c o n d a r y  o r  o f  Was If  D i v o r c e d s p o u s e / p a r t n e r  •  a l o n e  ( m o n t h )  s e n i o r  y e a r s  h a v e  y o u  a t  s e c o n d a r y  ( y e a r )  s c h o o l ?  E D U C A T I O N  a t t e n d e d  a n y  p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  c o m p l e t e  t h e  f o l l o w i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n )  Q  n o  If  o f  l i s t  w e e k s  f o r  w e r e  ( p r o c e e d  t o  o r  t h e r e  t h i s p r o g r a m y o u  o n t h e  h o w  #11)  a t t e n d e d , p l e a s e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  ( y e a r )  o r  c o u r s e ?  w a i t i n g  •  y e s  Q  n o  l i s t ?  ( y e a r )  to  ( y e a r )  ( m o n t h )  t a k e n  w a i t i n g m a n y  q u e s t i o n  L o c a t i o n ( m o n t h )  c o u r s e a  t o  ( m o n t h )  i n s t i t u t i o n  a t t e n d e d  y e s ,  o r  t a k e n  w a i t i n g m a n y  ( y e a r )  ( m o n t h )  c o u r s e a  h o w  P r o g r a m Was  o r  y e s ,  D a t e s  i n s t i t u t i o n s  L o c a t i o n  i n s t i t u t i o n  t h e r e  N a m e  a  v a l u a b l e  no  y o u r  s c h o o l ,  a t t e n d e d  P r o g r a m  A s  be  c o u r s e s ? ( p l e a s e  D a t e s  w i l l  •  S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e c u r r e n t o r m o s t r e c e n t i n s t i t u t i o n y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t w o m o s t r e c e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s y o u h a v e a t t e n d e d .  N a m e  e d u c a t i o n .  t h a t  I N F O R M A T I O N  P O S T - S E C O N D A R Y 9.  e m p l o y m e n t  p r o v i d e  F e m a l e  s c h o o l l a s t  S U R V E Y  b o r n ? •  y o u  6.  •  y o u  y o u r  S c h o o l ,  B A C K G R O U N D  2.  G R A D U A T E  l i s t  w e e k s  f o r  w e r e  t h i s p r o g r a m y o u  o n  t h e  o r  w a i t i n g  c o u r s e ? 1  •  y e s  •  n o  i s t ?  please turn over >  APPENDIX B Table B - l :  Degree o f Match Between CCDO Code and Career Preparation Specialty.  Table B-2:  Degree o f Match Between Post-Secondary Program and Career Preparation Specialty.  86  Table B - l DEGREE OF MATCH BETWEEN CCDO CODE AND CP SPECIALTY l=Same, 2=Highly Related, 3=Somewnat Related, 4=Not the Same CP S p e c i a l t y  CCDO Cedes* 411 413 414 417 419 513 612 614 619 822 856  Accounting Clerical Secretarial Marketing Data Processing Acct. & Data Pro. Acct., Data Pro. & another s p e c i a l t y Acct. & another excluding Data Pro. Data Pro. & another excluding Acct. C l e r i c a l & Secretarial C l e r i c a l &/or Secret a r i a l & Marketing  3 •1 2 3 1 3 4 3 3 3 3 1  3 2 2 3 1 1  3 1 1 3 3 3  3 1 2 3 2 2  3 3 4 1 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  2  1  1  3  1  3  4  4  4  4  4  4  2  1  3  2  1  3  4  4  4  4  4  4  2 1  3 3  1 2  2 1  1 1  3 4  4 4  4 4  4 4  4 4  4 4  4 4  1  3  2  2  1  1  4  4  4  4  4  4  * 411 Stenographic and Typing 413 Bookkeeping, Account-Recording 414 O f f i c e Machine and E l e c t r o n i c Data-Processing Equipment Operators 417 Reception, Information, M a i l and Message D i s t r i b u t i o n 419 C l e r i c a l (includes 415 - M a t e r i a l Recording, Scheduling and D i s t r i b u t i o n ; 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks) 513 Sales 612 Food Preparation and Serving 614 Personal Service (Child Care) 619 Other Service 822 Food Processing 856 F a b r i c a t i n g and Assembling Other  87  Table B-2 DEGREE OF MATCH BETWEEN POST-SECONDARY PROGRAM AND CP SPECIALTY l=Same, 2=Highly Related, 3=Samewhat Related, 4=Not the Same l  2  3  4  Accounting 2 Clerical 3 Secretarial 3 Marketing 2 Data Processing 3 Acct. & Data Pro. 2 Acct., Data Pro. & another s p e c i a l t y 2 Acct. & another excluding Data Pro. 2 Data Pro. & another excluding Acct. 3 Clerical & Secretarial 3 C l e r i c a l &/cr secret a r i a l & Marketing 2  4 4 4 4 4 4  1 3 3 3 3 2  4  CP Specialty  * 1 4 7 10  Commerce Marketing Accounting Travel & Tourism  Procrram * 5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  3 1 1 3 3 3  2 3 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 1 1  1 3 3 3 3 1  3 2 1 3 3 3  3 1 2 3 2 2  4 3 3 3 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4  2  3  2  1  1  2  1  3  4  4  4  2  2  2  3  1  2  1  3  4  4  4 4  3 3  2 1  2 3  1 3  3 3  2 1  1 1  3 3  4 4  4 4  4  3  2  2  3  3  1  1  3  4  4  2 5 8 11  Arts/Science Business Admin. Secretarial Unrelated S o c i a l  3 6 9 12  F i n a n c i a l Mgmt. Computer Course Clerical Other  

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