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A follow-up evaluation of business education career preparation programs in Vancouver secondary schools Good, Dianne E. 1988

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A FOLLOW-UP EVAIJJATTON OF BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VANCOUVER SECONDARY SCHOOLS By DIANNE E. GOOD B.Ed.Sec, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFTLLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 ©Dianne E. Good, 1988 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y a n d . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 9 5 6 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1 Y 3 D a t e 1988 September 30 t • 11 ABSTRACT Career Preparation programs have been offered i n B r i t i s h Columbia since 1980. However, i n that time very l i t t l e formal evaluation has been conducted to determine i f Career Preparation programs are achieving the stated objectives. This study, based on Business Education Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver secondary schools, surveyed Career Preparation students one, two, and three years after graduation. Schools which had started Business Education Career Preparation programs i n September 1982 or e a r l i e r were selected. Graduates of these schools who completed a Business Education Career Preparation program i n 1984, 1985, or 1986, were surveyed to determine their employment and post-secondary education experiences, whether th e i r post-secondary education or employment was related to the i r Career Preparation specialties, and their perceptions of the program. The purpose of the study was to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the Business Education Career Preparation programs offered i n Vancouver Secondary Schools i n order to make recommenda-tions for program improvements. The results show that 94% of respondents held at least one job since graduating from secondary school; 77% of respondents continue their education at a post-secondary institution; 67% of post-secondary programs enrolled i n by respondents were at least somewhat related to their Career Preparation specialty; and 67% of jobs held since graduating from secondary school were at least somewhat related to their Career Preparation specialty. The Career Preparation program was rated at least somewhat helpful i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress i i i i n post-secondary education by 81% of respondents; 93% of respondents rated Career Preparation at least somewhat helpful i n making career choices; 91% rated i t at least somewhat helpful i n providing employable s k i l l s ; 85% rated i t at least somewhat helpful i n providing job search s k i l l s ; and 68% rated i t at least somewhat helpful i n providing employment contacts. Overall, the Business Education Career Preparation program offered i n Vancouver was judged as meeting the program objectives of the provincial curriculum. Recommendations are made for the program, including: matching students more carefully to work experience placements which meet their interests, career goals and specialty; more careful monitoring of work experience sites to ensure that appropriate tasks are being assigned; offering programs which w i l l interest both males and females; ooorcUrating employment opportunities for graduates; improving articulation with post-secondary programs; and structuring Career Preparation programs to allow for f l e x i b i l i t y i n course recjuirements and work experience. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Table of Contents , i v L i s t of Tables v Actocwledgement v i i Chapter I. OVERVIEW 1 The Career Preparation Program 1 Scope of the Study 3 Purpose of the Evaluation 5 Issues 5 II. RELATED LITERATURE 6 Similar Programs and Studies 7 Evaluation Issues 14 III. EVALUATION PROCEDURES 18 Evaluations Questions 18 Iristrumentation 20 Population and Sampling 24 Data Management 26 Data Analysis 28 IV. RESULTS 30 Delivery and Response Rates : 30 Characteristics of Respondents 31 Career Preparation Work Experience 33 Post-Secondary Education . 37 Post-Secondary Employment 41 Participants' Perceptions of the Program 50 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECEMlENDAnONS 53 Summary 53 Prccedures 53 Results and Conclusions 54 Limitations 65 Reconmendations . 66 Reaanmendations for Business Education Career Preparation Programs 66 Recommendations for Future Studies 69 References 72 Appendix A 75 Appendix B 85 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver Schools: 1986/87 4 2 Program Objectives and Related Questions 21 3 Number of Students (3ampleting Business Education Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver Schools: 1984 to 1986 24 4 Distribution of Questionnaires by Year of Graduation 25 5 Number of Graduates Sampled by School and Year of Graduation 26 6 Number and Rate of Responses by School and Year of Graduation 30 7 Living Arrangements by Marital Status and Gender 31 8 Career Preparation Specialty by School 32 9 Combinations of Career Preparation Specialties 33 10 Businesses which Provided Work Experience Placements 34 11 Jobs Performed on Work Experience 35 12 Frequency of S k i l l s and Equipment Used on Work Experience by Career Preparation Specialty 36 13 Percentage of Respondents Using Work Experience S k i l l s Central to the Career Preparation Specialty 37 14 Frequency of Enrollment i n Post-Secondary Programs by Institutions 38 15 Relationship Between Post-Secondary Education and Career Preparation Specialty 39 16 Frequency of Advanced Placement i n Courses by College 40 17 Proportion of Respondents Continuing Education at a Post-Secondary Institution by School 42 18 Number of Jobs Held since Graduation from Secondary School by Year of Graduation 42 19 Hours of Work Per Week i n Each Job for Employed Respondents 43 LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Table 20 Months of Employment by Year of Graduation 21 Employment Ratio by Year of Graduation 22 Businesses Providing Employment 23 Post-Secondary Jobs Performed by Respondents 24 Employment Rates of Career Preparation Graduates and Greater Vancouver Residents Aged 20-24 with High School Education 25 Relationship of Employment to Career Preparation Specialty 26 Source for Finding Jobs 27 Respondent Ratings of How Helpful the Career Preparation Program was for Them 28 Suggested Major Benefits of Participating i n Career Preparation 29 Suggested Improvements to the Career Preparation Program v i i ACKNOWLEnSEMENT Many thanks to Dr. Robert Conry for his countless hours of assistance i n completing this study. Thank you also to Dr. Frank Echols and Dr. Norm Amundson for agreeing to be on the committee and for t h e i r helpful suggestions and comments. At the Vancouver School Board, I would l i k e to extend thanks to Bob Peacock, Business Education D i s t r i c t Principal, for his continued support throughout the completion of th i s study and to Cy Hiring, Career Preparation Coordinator, for suggesting the study. 1 Chapter I OVERVIEW Career Preparation programs have been offered i n B r i t i s h Columbia since 1980. However, i n that time very l i t t l e formal evaluation has been conducted to determine i f Career Preparation programs are achieving stated objectives. This study was undertaken at the suggestion of a Vancouver School Board Career Preparation Coordinator,, and t h i s evaluation has been designed for use i n program planning by School Board o f f i c i a l s . The Ministry of Education began the process of revising the Business Education curriculum i n the spring of 1987. I t i s anticipated that t h i s study w i l l also be of use to the Ministry of Education curriculum revision committee i n making decisions about Career Preparation programs. The Career Preparation Program Career Preparation programs were piloted i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1977 and 1980 following a review of the effectiveness of secondary programs to prepare students adequately for future employment (Ministry of Education, 1982). The review concluded that more e f f i c i e n t and relevant use of student time was needed i n grades 11 and 12, that students had a lack of r e a l i s t i c orientation to the world of work, and that more effective vocational training was needed i n grades 11 and 12 to prepare students for direct entry into the work force. In 1980 the Career Preparation program received formal endorsement from the Ministry of Education. 2 The Ministry of Education has defined Career Preparation as: a selection and arrangement of courses i n general education subjects and i n major vocational f i e l d s to form a systematic pattern leading to graduation from a senior secondary school with advanced admission to a post-secondary program and/or direct entry to employment (1982, p. 12). To graduate from a Career Preparation program, students must complete six provincially approved specialty courses i n addition to the prescribed courses for graduation (english, math, science, social studies). The specialty courses for each program are selected by schools and then submitted to the Ministry of Education for approval. The specialty courses include Work Experience 12, which credits the completion of three weeks (100 to 120 hours) of on-the-job experience i n a student's chosen career f i e l d . Volunteer advisory committees (usually made up of representatives of the secondary school, school d i s t r i c t , local industry, unions or related associations, and post-secondary institutions) are formed to provide advice and guidance i n the development of Career Preparation programs. They also provide a communication l i n k between school and community. Where possible, Career Preparation programs are articulated with post-secondary programs to allow advanced placement i n related programs and/or p r i o r i t y on waiting l i s t s for post-secondary programs. Career Preparation i n Vancouver. The Vancouver School D i s t r i c t participated i n the Career Preparation p i l o t project between 1977 and 1980, and has continued to participate since then. The number of programs offered has increased every year since the program began. In the 1986/87 school year, 14 of 18 secondary schools i n Vancouver 3 had at least one Career Preparation program. Fifty-one programs, with 23 different specialty t i t l e s , were offered. Table 1 l i s t s programs by school. Over 1700 grade 11 and 12 Vancouver students were enrolled i n these programs i n 1986/87. Of the 14 schools offering Career Preparation programs i n 1987, 12 offered programs i n Business Education. The Business Education programs are further sub-divided into specialty areas such as Accounting, Secretarial, C l e r i c a l , Marketing, and Data Processing. The programs offered and the courses required for each specialty are l e f t to the discretion of each school, subject to approval by the Ministry of Education. Any student taking the required courses for a specialty may participate i n the program; but these students may be dropped from the program i f they have poor attendance or grades. The work experience placements are arranged by Career Preparation Coordinators at the school board. Teachers provide the coordinators with information regarding the students 1 s k i l l s and interests so that students may be matched to an appropriate work experience placement. Scope of the Study Although Career Preparation Programs are offered i n schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s study i s limited to Career Preparation Programs offered i n Vancouver secondary schools. Career Preparation Programs are offered i n Vancouver schools throughout the c i t y that ranged i n student population as of June 1986 from 354 students to 1833 students (numbers provided over the telephone by Vancouver School Board). The scope of Career Preparation Programs vary widely from one subject area to another; therefore, the Table 1 CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VMCOUVER SCHOOLS: 1986/87 School Programs Britannia Business Education Interior Design Fashion Design Truck Driver/Mechanic Lord Byng Theatre Gladstone Auto Mechanics Drafting Graphics Hospitality/Tourism Business Education Electronics Hospitality/Foods E r i c Hamber Auto Parts Television John Oliver Auto Mechanics Business Education Drafting Machinist (Commercial Art Computer Science Human/Family Services Killarney Auto Mechanics Business Education King George Business Education Kitsilano Auto Mechanics Business Education Point Grey Business Education Templeton Auto Mechanics Construction Electronics Business Education Drafting Machinist David Thompson Auto Mechanics Hospitality/Foods Business Education S i r Charles Tupper Business Education E l e c t r i c i t y Construction Human/Children's Services Vancouver Technical Business Education Foundry Hairdressing Hospitality/Tourism Welding Electronics Graphics Hospitality/Foods Machinist Windermere Business Education 5 focus of t h i s study i s limited to Business Education Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver. Furthermore, the Business Education curriculum i s currently being revised and there i s an opportunity for t h i s study to have an impact on the revision of Business Education Career Preparation Programs. Purpose of the Evaluation The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the Business Education Career Preparation programs offered i n Vancouver secondary schools i n order to make recom-mendations for program improvements. Issues The evaluation was structured around three issues. 1) Do program leavers enter employment related to t h e i r Career Preparation program? 2) Do program leavers pursue further studies toward a profession or specialized training that i s related to their Career Preparation specialty? 3) Do program leavers perceive any value i n completing a Business Education Career preparation program? Chapter II 6 RELATED LITERATURE Very few studies of B r i t i s h Columbia Career Preparation Programs have been conducted. Some studies of Vancouver work experience programs, which were offered before the introduction of Career Preparation Programs, are available (Middleton, 1975; Stevens, 1978). However, these studies do not include follow-up data about students who participated i n the work experience programs. One evaluation study of Career Preparation Programs i n Vancouver was conducted prior to t h i s study and did include a limited amount of follow-up data on graduates (Kettle, 1984). Although programs similar to B r i t i s h Columbia's Career Preparation programs are offered throughout Canada, very few program evaluations are available. Because of this, i t i s necessary to review studies from other jurisdictions. Many forms of work experience programs are offered i n the United States and same are very similar to the Career Preparation Programs offered i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Many more evaluation reports about these programs are available than reports about Canadian programs. In addition, many of them include follow-up data about graduates. Britain also offers programs that provide work experience for secondary school students. Same of these programs have been evaluated and include follow-up data. The studies reviewed used many different approaches to evaluate programs, so program evaluation literature was also reviewed to identify methodological issues and to develop an appropriate approach of program evaluation. 7 Similar Programs and Studies Vancouver. Prior to the implementation of Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver, many schools offered work experience to any interested students who were at least 15 years old. The objective of the work experience program was to provide students with an opportunity to complement classroom learning with on-the-job learning. Studies of the work experience programs i n Vancouver schools (Middleton, 1975; Stevens, 1978) found high levels of satisfaction from students, parents, teachers, and employers. Students i n both studies reported that they enjoyed the work experience and that they believed i t would assist them to function effectively i n a job. Parents, teachers, and employers were supportive of the program. Although these studies found high levels of satisfaction with the work experience programs, they were limited to responses from current students i n the program and no attempt was made to measure any long-term benefits. In 1984, Kettle conducted an evaluation of Automotive, Accounting, and Foods Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver schools. Questionnaires were distributed to a l l students i n these programs, to the i r teachers, to employers who had had students on work experience, and to post-secondary instructors. As i n the Middleton and Stevens studies, high levels of satisfaction were reported for employers, teachers, and students. However, post-secondary instructors were not as positive as the other respondents; but, the number of post-secondary instructors participating i n the study was low. Twenty-two were surveyed, but only nine responded. 8 Students i n a l l three programs indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the program and were particularly s a t i s f i e d with the work experience component of the program. Most students were sat i s f i e d with their training as preparation for employment and believed they were being adequately prepared for entrance to post-secondary training. Teachers and employers of students i n the Automotive Program thought that students were receiving appropriate training for entrance to employment, and were receiving relevant training for post-secondary instruction. However, three out of the four post-secondary instructors who responded disagreed; they were dis s a t i s f i e d with students 1 theoretical knowledge, general s k i l l s , s pecialist s k i l l s , problem-solving a b i l i t y , study habits and written s k i l l s . Teachers, employers, and post-secondary instructors of students i n the Accounting Program agreed that students were receiving appropriate training for entrance to employment and/or post-secondary institutions; but post-secondary instructors were dis s a t i s f i e d with specialist s k i l l s of the students. (Responses were received from only two out of eight post-secondary instructors surveyed about the Accounting program.) A l l groups surveyed about the Foods Program, including post-secondary instructors, believed that students were receiving appropriate training for entrance to employment and/or post-secondary institutions. In addition to surveying participants about the Career Preparation program, Kettle used follow-up data collected for the Ministry of Education to determine the employment and educational a c t i v i t i e s of Career Preparation students three months after leaving 9 secondary school. U n t i l 1986 the Ministry of Education, through Career Preparation teachers, collected data each f a l l about the students who were enrolled as grade 12 Career Preparation students the previous school year. The data included information about the number of students completing Career Preparation programs, students' employment status, and students' attendance at post-secondary institutions. Most of the Career Preparation students were reported as entering employment or education the same as their secondary area of study. But, the c r i t e r i o n for identifying whether a student entered an area of employment the same as his Career Preparation specialty was applied leniently. An automotive student employed as a l o t assistant for a car dealer was judged to have entered an area of employment the same as h i s Career Preparation specialty. Furthermore, an accounting student employed i n r e t a i l sales for a department store was judged to have entered an area of employment the same as his Career Preparation specialty. The c r i t e r i a for matching post-secondary education to secondary education were not specified. Unemployment was reported as 3%; but no information was available for 16% of the students, some of wham may have been unemployed. In addition, the method of calculating employment rates was not specified. Although Kettle's study does examine the post-secondary education and employment of Career Preparation students, i t i s limited because of the short-term nature of the study/ the very restricted amount of information available from the Ministry of Education forms, the absence of a definition of "employment," and the small number of participants i n the study. 10 Other Canadian Studies. Work experience programs similar to B r i t i s h Columbia's Career Preparation program exist across Canada. In an unpublished paper by Mclndoe (1980) work experience programs i n Ontario, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick are described. Although the programs d i f f e r i n organization, a l l promote the exploration of career choices and most provide practical on-the-job experience. A study by Dhanota, Wright, and Toplak (1980) evaluated four programs offered i n Toronto: cooperative education, career exploration v i s i t s , business education work experience week, and technical education work experience week. Students, teachers, and employers participating i n the programs were surveyed. The responses were generally positive and most students believed the programs were worthwhile. Like the Vancouver studies by Middleton and Stevens, th i s study was limited to participants then active i n the programs and no attempt was made to follow-up on students after they had completed the program. In their criticisms of the program, employers and students involved i n the work experience week suggested that one week of work experience was not long enough. In a later study of Ontario work experience programs, Simon (1983) discusses the same limitation of work experience programs stating that "the u t i l i t y of such experiences i s often limited by their brevity and lack of depth" (p. 237). Another study of active participants i n work experience programs (coordinators, students, work experience sponsors) was conducted i n Alberta by Germscheid i n 1980. This study measured program effective-ness by examining the extent to which perceived benefits of the 11 program matched reported p r i o r i t i e s of each group i n the program. I t was concluded that the program was moderately to highly effective based on anticipated benefits and priorites. Again, there was no measure of long-term benefit. Other Studies. Work experience and cooperative education programs are offered i n a wide variety of forms throughout the United States. There are programs, such as the Career Intern Program and programs sponsored by the Youth Employment and Demonstrations Projects Act of 1977, which are aimed at dropouts and potential dropouts. On the other hand, there are programs, such as the Executive High School Internship Program, which generally enrol students i n the upper fourth of their class who plan to attend college. Other programs, such as Cooperative Education Programs, offer extended periods of work experience i n a variety of occupations and attract a wide range of students. Same programs, such as Experience-Based Career Education, offer students short-term work experience for which they receive academic credit much l i k e the Career Preparation program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Evaluation studies of work experience or cooperative education programs vary widely i n their structure making straight forward comparisons impossible. However, one positive result common to many programs reviewed by Crowe and Adams (1979) and Canna (1982) was a more positive student attitude toward work and school. Studies by Seaward (1978), the National Center for Reasearch i n Vocational Education (cited i n Crowe & Adams, 1979), and Shaughnessy (1986) emphasized the development of positive self-esteem as a result of student participation i n cooperative education programs. With 12 respect to employment and wages, Herrnstadt, Horowitz, and Sum (1979), after interviewing graduates of four cooperative vocational programs, found no significant advantage for graduates of cooperative vocational programs compared to graduates of other programs; and Walsh and Breglio (1976) found that the cooperative education programs had l i t t l e or no effect on the earnings of graduates. However, Lewis, Glyde, McKee, and Kozak (1976) found that graduates of cooperative education programs had s l i g h t l y less unemployment than graduates of other programs and found suitable jobs within a shorter time. In a more recent three-year follow-up study of the effects of youth employment training programs, Ekstrom, Freeberg, and Rock (1987) found that participants i n these programs had had more months of employment than non-participants and that programs which emphasized work experience had a significant effect on the number of months worked and hourly wages. Although same studies have shown no significant advantage to participants of work experience programs i n terms of employment and wages, i t i s important not to base judgement of the success or failure of a program on these factors alone. Work experience programs may have other benefits for participants such as an increased awareness of career opportunities, the acquisition of employable s k i l l s , or development of maturity, responsibility, and self-confidence. In Britain three main forms of work-experience programs have developed: work-experience programs for students attending secondary school, work-experience programs for students i n post-secondary education, and work-experience programs for young people who have l e f t school and are unemployed (Watts, 1983). According to Watts, 13 there i s l i t t l e hard evidence to attest to the effectiveness of work-experience programs i n schools. He c l a s s i f i e s the evaluative evidence into two broad categories: objective data and subjective data. Watts states that objective data (data using behavioural measures such as success i n getting a job and measures of attitudes, knowledge, etc.) "are limited and methodologically deficient" (p. 84). As evidence he points to studies which are based on small samples and use crude attitudinal measures, and studies which produce inconsistent results. In spite of the weaknesses of the objective evaluations, Watts concludes that the measureable outcomes of work experience are positive. Watts examined subjective data from follow-up surveys which included retrospective opinions regarding the value of work experience and comments collected shortly after subjects i n a number of different programs had completed t h e i r work experience. Although much of the data was not quantified, he found that most students who participate i n work experience enjoy the experience and that most find i t valuable. The limited number of Canadian studies of Career Preparation and similar programs suggests that there i s a need for more evaluative studies. Canadian studies have been limited i n both number and scope. A l l but one study reviewed included no follow-up of program leavers and the one that did, used data collected after a short period of time. There i s a need for more comprehensive studies. Evaluative studies of similar programs i n other jurisdictions, such as the United States and Britain, provide an example of more comprehensive evaluation studies. 14 Evaluation Issues Program evaluation i s defined and conducted i n many ways. Jemelka and Borich (1979) categorize traditional definitions of evaluation i n four ways: evaluation as measurement, evaluation as determining congruence, evaluation as professional judgement, and evaluation as s c i e n t i f i c research. In addition, they identify two emerging definitions of evaluation: decision-oriented evaluation and value-oriented evaluation. In a different and more recent cl a s s i f i c a t i o n , Smith and Glass (1987) identified three categories of evaluation: evaluation as part of systems management, evaluation as professional judgement, and evaluation as p o l i t i c s . For each definition of evaluation there i s a model or method of evaluation. But, as Smith and Glass point out, evaluation methodologists do not agree on a single, correct way to evaluate a program or product. Moreover, Cronbach (1982) views each evaluation as a new start and proposes that no single form of evaluation i s appropriate i n a l l cases. Stake (1981) cautions against viewing evaluation models as more than they actually are. He believes that evaluation models have been mistaken as methodologies for conducting evaluations instead of frameworks within which more specific methods must be placed. Models of program evaluation provide guidance for conducting studies. Models should be tailored to suit the needs of a program evaluation -not the reverse. Because work experience programs d i f f e r i n their goals and i n their structure i t may not be advisable or feasible to apply the tenets of any particular abstract "model" to the evaluation of one given program. 15 Models or approaches that f a l l into the category of evaluation as part of systems management a l l have one factor i n common, that i s , "to evaluate a program one must measure the products of the system on the basis of stated goals" (Smith & Glass, 1987, p. 41). Surveys are often used i n such studies to determine the educational achievement and satisfaction with services provided by the program to i t s clients. Because the goal of Career Preparation i s to prepare students for post-secondary employment and/or education, i t i s appropriate to use an evaluation approach which measures the f i n a l product of the program. An effective way to collect data about the f i n a l outcome of a program i s through the use of a follow-up survey, even though participant self-ratings have some shortcomings. Rossi, Freeman, and Wright (1979) describe post-project follow-up studies as "approximate methods for impact assessment" which have same deficiencies. They also caution against the use of participant self-ratings. They suggest that participants receiving positive benefits from a program may report greater satisfaction than they actually f e e l because they fear that c r i t i c a l responses may result i n the program being discontinued. Another problem i s that participants may not be completely aware of program effects. However, Morell (1979) states that "accurate follow-up i s the only way to obtain information on changes of program effects as a function of time" (p. 14). Furthermore, follow-up evaluation can be used to determine whether a program had any unforeseen consequences. Mason, Haines, and Furtado (1981) recommend that a follow-up study of graduates of cooperative 16 vocational education programs should obtain the employment status of each graduate, any additional education, and the relationship of the graduate's employment to the cooperative education program he or she was enrolled i n . Evaluations can be comparative or absolute. Comparative evaluations assess the effectiveness of a program by comparing i t to another program designed to meet the same ends; absolute evaluations measure the effects of one group only and compare results with an absolute c r i t e r i o n (Smith & Glass, 1987). Many evaluations of cooperative education or work experience programs are comparative (Canna, 1982; Crowe & Adams, 1979; Ekstram et a l . , 1987; Herrnstadt et a l . , 1979; Seaward, 1978; Shaughnessy, 1986). A follow-up comparison of post-secondary employment and education of Career Preparation program participants and non-participants would provide valuable information for assessing the effect of the program on employment rates and participation i n post-secondary training or education. In addition, an absolute evaluation which assesses whether program goals are being achieved would provide valuable evaluative information. I t has been argued that an evaluation report has value only to the extent that i t s recranmendations are actually put into effect by decision makers (Patten, 1978). To that end, Patton suggests "that identified decision-makers and information users participate i n the making of measurement and methods decisions so that they understand the strengths and weaknesses of the data - and so that they believe i n the data" (p. 202). Where possible, then, i t would be wise to 17 include Career Preparation teachers and coordinators (for example) i n the planning of an evaluation so that they feel that they are a part of the evaluation and do not feel threatened by i t . Program evaluation literature supports using models of evaluation as guidelines - not prescriptions. I f the intent of a program evaluation i s to judge whether the program i s achieving i t s objectives, i t i s necessary to identify the goals of the program. To measure the f i n a l product of a program, follow-up surveys are useful. Participant self-ratings have same weaknesses; but the opportunity to obtain information about program results, including any unexpected consequences, outweighs the weaknesses. Chapter III 18 EVMDATION PROCEDURES This study was designed around the issues identified i n Chapter I -post-secondary employment and education of program leavers and the value of completing a Business Education Career Preparation program. In order to colle c t information about program leavers a follow-up survey was conducted. Subjects included graduates of three years so that any changes i n employment or education trends could be identified. Evaluation questions centered around Career Preparation work experience, post-secondary education, post-secondary employment, and participant's perceptions of the program. Information about graduates' Career Preparation specialties and work experience placements was obtained to allow judgements to be made about whether graduates* post-secondary employment or education was related to their Career Preparation program. In order to make judgements about whether the program was meeting i t s objectives, program objectives were f i r s t identified i n the Ministry of Education Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for Business Education (1982). Then the survey instrument was designed to answer questions about the program objectives as well as the post-secondary a c t i v i t i e s of program leavers. Evaluation Questions This study examines four aspects of the Career Preparation program with a number of research questions related to each. 19 Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1 What i s the nature of the work experience placements? 1.2 What i s the relationship of the work experience placements to the student's Career Preparation specialty? 1.3 How relevant are the work experience placements to the educational objectives of the program? Post-Secondary Education 2.1 What are the post-secondary education experiences of program participants? 2.2 Does the type and amount of post-secondary education d i f f e r from non-participants? 2.3 How relevant i s the Career Preparation program to participants' post-secondary education? 2.4 To what extent i s post-secondary education related to bio-demographic factors? Post-Secondary Employment 3.1 What i s the post-secondary employment history of program participants? 3.2 Do the amount and type of employment of participants d i f f e r from non-participants? 3.3 What i s the relationship of students' employment to their work experience placements? 3.4 How relevant i s the Career Preparation program to the employment of program participants? 3.5 To what extent i s employment related to bio-demographic factors? 20 4. Participants' Perceptions of the Program 4.1 What are the retrospective views of partcipants regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the Career Preparation program? Instrumentation In t h i s study, the Business Education Career Preparation program i s evaluated by examining whether or not the program i s meeting i t s stated objectives. In order to do t h i s a follow-up survey was designed to be administered to graduates of the program. The i n t i t i a l step i n planning t h i s evaluation was to meet with Vancouver Career Preparation teachers and coordinators to ascertain what information they would regard as valuable. Next, the objectives of the Business Education Career Preparation program were explicated by reviewing the Ministry of Education Career Preparation Curriculum Guide for Business Education. Questions related to the program objectives were then devised. The objectives, which were taken from the Curriculum Guide, and corresponding questions are shown i n Table 2. Using these questions and objectives as a guideline, a survey questionnaire was designed to be administered to graduates of Business Education Career Preparation Programs. The purposes of the questionnaire were: 1) to gather data about the post-secondary employment and education of Business Education Career Preparation graduates; 2) to obtain information about the Career Preparation work experience placements and the Career Preparation specialties completed by graduates; and 3) to receive feedback from participants regarding the benefits of completing the program. An i n i t i a l draft of the 21 Table 2 PROGRAM OBJECTIVES AND RELATED QUESTIONS Program Objective Question Graduates may be qualified to: pursue further studies toward a profession or attend college to pursue further specialized training and may qualify for advanced placement i n an integrated program proceed dire c t l y to employment. What proportion of graduates pursue further studies toward a profession or specialized training? Are the programs they enrol i n related to their CP specialty? What proportion of graduates who enrol i n post-secondary programs receive advanced placement? What proportion of graduates proceed directly to employment? Is their employment related to their CP specialty? What proportion of graduates are employed? How does their employment rate compare to that of non-participants? Work experience w i l l be dir e c t l y related to a program specialty. Were the work experience placements related to the students' CP specialties? Students w i l l gain practical Did students find the work experience experience relating to employ- placements valuable? ment responsibilities. 22 Program Objectives Questions Students w i l l have an oppor-tunity to apply basic s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s and to explore a wide variety of s k i l l s i n an occupational f i e l d . What s k i l l s did students use on work experience? Did they use a variety of s k i l l s ? Were the s k i l l s used on work experience relevant to the CP specialty? Students w i l l know proven job search and interview procedures. Did the CP program provide students with job search s k i l l s ? What i s the source of finding jobs for CP graduates? Students w i l l have an increased understanding of career and employment needs and w i l l be able to make meaningful decisions about an occupation. Did students find that the CP program helped them i n making career choices? Students w i l l acquire marketable s k i l l s for employment. Do graduates think that they have aaguired marketable s k i l l s ? The transition between secondary school and post-secondary institutions or employment w i l l be improved. Do graduates think that the CP program f a c i l i t a t e d their progress at post-secondary? Did the CP program provide graduates with employment contacts? 23 questionnaire was reviewed by two d i s t r i c t coordinators, two classroom teachers, a school administrator, a university evaluation specialist, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects, and the Vancouver School Board research department. The questionnaire was revised according to responses and suggestions from the reviewers, then mailed to program graduates with a covering l e t t e r and a s e l f -addressed, postage-paid envelope. After two months, when the response rate to t h i s mailing declined, another copy of the questionnaire, a covering letter, and a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope was mailed. After six weeks, when the response rate to t h i s second mailing diminished, a f i n a l follow-up of non-respondents was conducted by telephone. A second questionnaire was designed to be sent to a comparison group of non-participants. The purpose of th i s second questionnaire was to obtain information about the post-secondary employment and education of non-participants to use as a basis for comparison i n judging the effectiveness of the Business Education Career Preparation Program. This second survey was not mailed. Due to concerns about confidentiality of student records, the Vancouver School Board declined to provide addresses for a comparison group, even though the study had been i n i t i a t e d by a request from the Board o f f i c e . A copy of both questionnaires and covering letters are i n Appendix A. 24 Population and Sampling The population of interest was a l l Vancouver Secondary school students who had completed a Business Education Career Preparation program i n 1984, 1985 or 1986. Only students from schools which had had students completing a Business Education Career Preparation program for a l l three of these years were included. The population was identified by examining the data on Ministry of Education CP4 forms and 1522 forms. These forms provide the student's name, school, Career Preparation program, and whether or not the student completed the program requirements. Only those students who were identified on these forms as having completed the program requirements were included. The tot a l population by school and year i s shown i n Table 3. Table 3 NUMBER OF STUDENTS COMPLETING BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS: 1984 TO 1986 School 1984 1985 1986 Total Gladstone 20 31 38 89 Killarney 18 24 21 63 King George 6 10 4 20 Kitsilano 6 10 5 21 Pt. Grey 4 4 7 15 Templeton 18 34 26 78 Thompson 13 8 10 31 Tupper 14 8 24 46 Technical 9 32 26 67 Total 108 161 161 430 25 A s t r a t i f i e d random probability sample was selected from t h i s population. To allow comparisons among schools, the minimum target sample was 20 subjects per school. Gender was not used as a stra t i f y i n g variable as most (80%) of the population i s female. The l i k e l y participation response rate was estimated at 80 per cent. The deliverable rate was estimated at 90 per cent i n the f i r s t year, 81 per cent i n the second, and 73 per cent the t h i r d year. The distribution of mailed questionnaires resulting from applying these estimates to the population values i s shown i n Table 4. The number of students per school surveyed i s shown i n Table 5. These numbers were calculated using the fractions shown i n Table 4. I f any school had five or fewer students completing a Business Education Career Preparation program i n a year, a l l students from that school were included i n the sample. I f the number of students Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRES BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984 1985 1986 Total Population size 108 161 161 430 Target Sample 45 67 68 180 Number required to achieve target based on 80% participation 57 84 84 225 Number required to achieve achieve target based on estimated delivery rates 78 104 93 275 Sampling fraction .722 .646 .578 .640 26 Table 5 NUMBER OF GRADUATES SAMPLED BY SCHOOL AND YEAR OF GRADUATION % Of School 1984 1985 1986 Total Population Gladstone 14 20 22 56 62.9 Killarney 13 16 12 41 65.1 King George 5 6 4 15 75.0 Kitsilano 5 6 5 16 76.2 Pt. Grey 4 4 5 13 86.7 Templeton 13 22 15 50 64.1 Thompson 9 5 6 20 64.5 Tupper 10 5 14 29 63.0 Technical _6 21 15 42 62.7 Total 79 105 98 282 65.6 completing the program i n a year was greater than five, but the number of required cases was calculated to be less than five, f i v e students were selected at random. Had the second survey been mailed to a comparison group, the comparison group would have been selected by taking the name from the Vancouver School Board f i l e s of the student who immediately followed the Career Preparation participant i n the f i l e s and had graduated from the same school i n the same year and was of the same gender. Data Management When the surveys were received, a l l information on the surveys was coded with a number, then entered directly into a data f i l e from the survey forms. Open-ended questions were grouped by similar responses and assigned a numeric code. Many program t i t l e s were 27 given by respondents for programs taken at post-secondary i n s t i t u -tions. Programs with very similar t i t l e s were grouped together and assigned the same numeric code. Based on information provided by respondents about work experience placements and employment, the jobs they performed were c l a s s i f i e d according to the Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations (CCDO). A seven-digit code was assigned to each job, but only the f i r s t three d i g i t s were used i n analysis because the three d i g i t codes provided information of sufficient d e t a i l . The CCDO codes use four levels of occupational categorization, each providing successively finer d e t a i l . This categorization allows the complete seven-digit code to be used or codes can be broken down i n a meaningful manner by the f i r s t two, three, or four d i g i t s . S k i l l s used on work experience were coded as central or non-central to each Business Education Career Preparation specialty to determine what proportion of s k i l l s being used were relevant to the program students had been enrolled i n . An employment ratio was calculated by summing the lengths of time employed i n a l l jobs l i s t e d , and then dividing by the length of time since graduation. In many cases respondents held more than one job at a time. Therefore, to compute the to t a l length of time employed, any time that jobs overlapped was subtracted so that the time would not be counted twice. I f more than three jobs were held, the amount of time employed was divided by the amount of time from the start of the oldest job l i s t e d to the date of the survey. An employment ratio was also calculated for the amount of time employed while not attending a 28 post-secondary institution by subtracting the time spent at a post-secondary institution and any employment engaged i n at the same time. Because access to addresses of program non-participants had been denied, another source of information had to be used to provide comparison data for employment history. S t a t i s t i c s provided by Canada Employment and Immigration were used to compare employment rates of Business Education Career Preparation graduates to the similarly aged population. The data provided by Canada Employment and Immigration was collected over a three-month period ending mid September, 1987. The data for t h i s study was collected from mid June to September 30, 1987. The population ranged i n age from 20 to 24 years. The ages of the respondents for t h i s study ranged from 18 to 25, but only one respondent was aged 18 and one aged 25. The comparison group have high school education and l i v e i n the greater Vancouver area. A l l the Career Preparation graduates have at least a high school education and a l l but one were l i v i n g i n greater Vancouver. Data Analysis The S t a t i s t i c a l Package for Social Sciences Extended Version (SPSS-X) was employed for data analysis. Frequencies were computed for Career Preparation specialties, work experience placements, s k i l l s used on work experience, respondents' comments, and the amount and type of employment and post-secondary education. CCDO Job classifactions were matched with Career Preparation specialties to determine how closely students' jobs on work experience and their post-secondary employment matched their Career Preparation 29 specialties. A four-point scale was constructed for rating relatedness of jobs: 1) the same, 2) highly related, 3) somewhat related, 4) not related. Table B-l i n Appendix B shows the match of CCDO codes for work experience and post-secondary employment with Career Preparation specialties. CCDO codes for work experience and employment were crosstabulated to determine how many respondents held the same class of job after graduating as they had on work experience. The post-secondary programs taken by participants were matched with Career Preparation specialties and rated on a four-point scale to determine how closely related respondents • post-secondary education programs were to their Career Preparation specialties. Table B-2 i n Appendix B shows the match between post-secondary programs and Career Preparation specialties. Analysis of variance was used to test for significant relationships between bio-demographic factors and employment rates and post-secondary education. A post hoc analysis using Tukey's method (Myers, 1966) was used to identify sources of variance for any significant differences indicated by the analysis of variance. 30 Chapter IV RESULTS Delivery and Response Rates I t was estimated that the rate of delivery of surveys would decline as the time since graduation from secondary school increased. However, th i s proved not to be true. The overall rate of delivery was estimated at 81%, but was i n fact 75.5%. Based on the number of surveys delivered, the response rate was 85.5%. Although the rate of delivery did not decline with the time since graduation, the rate of response did decline. Telephone interviews provided data for 23.9% of respondents; a l l other data were collected by mailed surveys. The rates of delivery and response are shown i n Table 6. Table 6 NUMBER AND RATE OF RESPONSES BY SCHOOL AND YEAR OF GRADUATION Response School 1984 1985 1986 Total Rate (%)* Gladstone 4 13 13 30 81.1 Killarney 7 9 9 30 83.3 King George 2 6 4 12 92.3 Kitsilano 3 3 3 9 81.8 Point Grey 4 1 4 9 100.0 Templeton 9 19 12 40 88.9 Thompson 6 3 4 13 76.4 Tupper 7 0 9 16 80.0 Vancouver Technical _5 11 10 26 83.9 Total 47 65 68 180 Response Rate 75.8% 83.3% 93.2% 84.5% Estimated rate of delivery 73.0% 81.0% 90.0% 81.3% Actual rate of delivery 78.5% 74.3% 74.5% 75.5% •Response Rate Based on Deliverable Questionnaires 31 Characteristics of Respondents One hundred per cent of the respondents graduated from secondary school, but 10.6% did not complete the Career Preparation program even though the sample was screened to include only those who had completed. There are three possible explanations for t h i s discrepancy: 1) the information on the Ministry of Education CP4 and 1522 forms was incorrect; 2) students had completed a l l the required courses but not a l l three weeks of work experience and were shown as having completed the program when i n fact they had completed only the course work; 3) incorrect names were obtained from the Vancouver School Board student records office. The respondents range i n age from 18 to 25 with a mean age of 20. Most of the respondents are single females and l i v e with parents or other relatives. Table 7 shows the percentage of students l i v i n g with parents, spouses, friends, or alone by gender and marital status. Table 7 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND GENDER (Percentage of t o t a l response group) With wham do you live? Parent or Spouse or One or more other relative partner friends Alone Total n Single Male 12.3 0 0.6 0.6 13.4 24 Single Female 79.3 1.1 0 2.8 83.2 149 Married Female _0 3^ 4 0 0 3.4 6 Total 91.6 4.5 0.6 3.4 100.0 179 32 Respondents were asked to indicate their Career Preparation specialty. Table 8 shows the number of students by school enrolled i n each specialty. The category "other" includes students who were not i n the Business Education program - one did her work experience at a pre-school, the other at a radio station. Some respondents checked "other" for advanced accounting, bank t e l l e r , and r e t a i l clerk. Advanced accounting was receded to accounting, bank t e l l e r was receded to c l e r i c a l , and r e t a i l clerk was receded to marketing. There i s overlap i n the courses required for each specialty within Business Education; consequently, many students take courses which qualify them for more than one specialty. The combinations of Career Preparation specialties taken by the respondents have been grouped together and are shown i n Table 9. Table 8 CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY BY SCHOOL School* Specialty 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total Accounting 13 6 2 2 5 13 7 10 13 71 C l e r i c a l 13 7 8 3 3 11 2 10 4 61 Secretarial 7 14 5 4 4 16 7 5 3 65 Marketing 6 7 0 3 0 10 2 2 10 40 Data Processing 5 2 0 1 2 12 1 2 0 25 Other 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Total 44 38 15 13 14 62 19 29 30 264 * 1 Gladstone 4 Kitsilano 7 Thompson 2 Killarney 5 Point Grey 8 Tupper 3 King George 6 Templeton 9 Vancouver Technical 33 Table 9 CXMBINATIONS OF CAREER PREPARATION SPECQACTTES Single Specialty: Accounting C l e r i c a l Secretarial Marketing Data Processing Other Combinations: Accounting and Data Processing Accounting, Data Processing and another specialty Accounting and another specialty excluding Data Processing Data Processing and another specialty excluding Accounting C l e r i c a l and Secretarial C l e r i c a l and/or Secretarial and Marketing Frequency Percent 41 23.2 23 13.0 32 18.1 20 11.3 3 1.7 2 1.1 5 2.8 11 6.2 14 7.9 6 11 9 3.4 6.2 5.1 Total 177 100.0 The remainder of the results are presented i n a manner to re f l e c t the organization of the evaluation questions given earlier, with heading numbers corresponding to the question numbers i n Chapter III (pp. 19-20). Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1 Nature of work experience placements. Students usually complete t h e i r work experience at three different work sites, spending one week at each s i t e . The range of businesses which act as work experience sponsors i s shown i n Table 10. The most frequently used businesses are financial, such as banks and trust companies, followed by r e t a i l outlets. Not a l l respondents provided information 34 Table 10 BUSINESSES WHICH PROVIDED WORK EXPERIENCE PLACEMENTS Placement Number Percent Financial (banks, credit unions,trust) 99 20.5 Retail outlets 91 18.9 Government offices 62 12.7 Office jobs not included i n other classifications* 62 12.7 Accounting firms 42 8.7 School board offices 28 5.8 Hospital offices 27 5.6 Insurance companies 18 3.7 Travel offices 17 3.5 Law firms 10 2.1 Non-profit organizations (Heart Foundation, t Cancer Society, Red Cross, etc.) 9 1.9 U t i l i t i e s (hydro) 6 1.2 Expo offices 4 0.8 Medical or dental offices (excluding hospital) 3 0.6 Hotels 2 0.4 Other jobs (not o f f i c e work) _2 0.4 Total 482 100.0 * 9 at Chevron Canada offices, 8 at Westcoast Transmission, others at a variety of companies ranging from small to large for three work experience placements. Same could not remember a l l three placements, while others did not complete three weeks of work experience. Most (84%) of the respondents performed jobs on work experience i n the major job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group 41 - "Clerical and Related Occupations." Table 11 shows the three-digit CCDO code for the jobs performed on work experience. 1.2 Relationship of work experience placements to Career  Preparation specialty. Most students were placed i n jobs that matched the i r Career Preparation specialty - 55.6% were i n jobs the 35 Table 11 JOBS PERFORMED ON WORK EXPERIENCE Job CCDO Code Number Percent C l e r i c a l * 419 131 27.2 Bookkeeping, Account-Recording 413 109 22.6 Stenographic and Typing 411 100 20.7 Sales 513 67 13.9 Reception, Information, Mail and Message Distribution 417 42 8.7 Office Machine and Electronic Data-Processing Equipment Operators 414 23 4.8 Personal Service (Child Care) 614 2 0.4 Otherf 8 1.7 Total 482 100.0 •includes 415 - Material Recording, Scheduling and Distribution and 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks +includes teacher's aide, cxsmmunity service, and advertising display work same as the i r specialty, 27.1 were i n jobs highly related, 13.7% were i n jobs somewhat related, and 3.6% were i n jobs not related to their specialty. 1.3 Relevance of work experience placements to program  objectives. The variety of s k i l l s used by students while on work experience i s shown i n Table 12. The mean number of s k i l l s used on work experience was 3.57 (SD=1.88) on the f i r s t placement, 3.02 (SD=2.07) on the second placement, and 2.54 (SD=2.21) on the thi r d placement. The minimum and maximum number of s k i l l s used on each placement were 0 and 9. The proportion of students using s k i l l s central to the i r specialty i s shown i n Table 13. For more than 50 percent of the respondents, 75 percent of the s k i l l s used on work Table 12 FREQUENCY OF SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT USED ON WORK EXPERIENCE BY CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY S k i l l Specialty* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total Typing 38 34+ 70+ 13 2 2 2 15+ 27+ 7+ 24+ 11+ 245 F i l i n g 71 42+ 66+ 17 1 3 6 22+ 27+ 10+ 26+ 13+ 304 Telephone 40 39+ 59+ 23 4 6 13+ 27+ 4+ 18+ 13+ 246 Accounting 52+ 8 6 7 2 1 7+ 11+ 8+ 2 4 2 110 Calculator 60+ 16 24 19 2 1 7+ 16+ 21+ 4 10 5 166 Computer 49+ 13 18 11 3+ 1 8+ 14+ 10+ 7+ 7 4 145 Shorthand 3+ 1 1 5 Photocopier 43 32+ 44+ 10 2 2 22+ 23+ 6+ 19+ 7+ 210 Transcription 3 11+ 2 + 3+ + 1+ + 20 Word Processing 7 8+ 7+ 2 2+ 4+ 5+ 3 1+ 3+ 2+ 44 Cash Register 2 2 8+ 1 1 2+ 16 Sales 5 4+ 1 1 2 4+ 17 Other 8 2 7 3 1 4 7 4 1 37 * Specialties: 1 Acccunting 2 Clerical 3 Secretarial 4 Marketing 5 Data Processing 6 Other 7 Accounting & Data Processing 8 Accounting & Data Processing & other 9 Accounting & other (excluding Data Processing 10 Data Processing & other (excluding Accounting) 11 Clerical & Secretarial 12 Clerical &/or Secretarial & Marketing + indicates s k i l l central to CP Specialty 37 Table 13 PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS USING WORK EXPERIENCE SKILLS CENTRAL TO THE CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY Portion of S k i l l s F i r s t Placement Second Placement Third Placement Central to CP (n=171) (n=156) (n=139) .00 17.0 17.3 18.3 .01-.25 2.9 2.6 4.6 .26-.50 16.4 19.2 13.0 .51-.75 14.0 12.8 17.6 .76-.99 7.0 9.0 9.1 1.00 42.7 39.1 37.4 experience were s k i l l s central to their specialty. However, 17 percent or more of the respondents used no s k i l l s which were central to their specialty on at least one of their three work experience placements. When asked to rate the value of their work experience placements, most respondents rated work experience valuable - 19.8% rated the experience extremely valuable; 35.7%, quite valuable; 33.4%, somewhat valuable; and 11.1%, not valuable. Post-Secondary Education 2.1 Post-secondary education experiences. A large proportion (77.2%) of the respondents continued their education at a post-secondary institution. The programs they enrolled i n and the colleges or universities they attended are shown i n Table 14. Of those who enrolled i n a post-secondary course, the mean time between finishing secondary school and starting a post-secondary course was 5.9 months, but the distribution of these times was markedly skewed (SD=6.2 months, min.=l month, max. =39 months). Table 14 FREQUENCY OF ENROLLMENT IN POST-SECONDARY PROGRAMS BY INSTITUTIONS Business Program UBC SFU Langara Capilano Douglas BCTT WT Kwantlan School Other Tote Commerce 10 3 1 5 19 Arts/Science 5 30 1 1 1 38 Financial Mgmt. 2 4 1 10 1 1 19 Marketing Mgmt. 3 2 5 1 3 14 Business Admin. 1 1 2 2 1 7 Computer Course 2 2 1 3 8 Accounting 2 2 2 5 11 Secretarial 2 1 8 2 13 Clerical 1 4 8 1 2 16 Travel & Tourism 2 1 4 1 8 Unrelated Social* 1 1 4 3 9 Otherf 1 2 3 Total 17 4 42 16 9 27 28 2 11 9 165 *nursing, criminology +hairdressing, makeup artistry 39 2.2 Type and amount of post-secondary education compared to  non-participants. I t was not possible to answer th i s research question due to the lack of access to addresses for a cohort group. 2.3 Relevance of Career Preparation program to post-secondary  education. Programs enrolled i n at the most recent (or only) post-secondary institution attended by respondents were quite evenly distributed on a four-point scale measuring how closely related the program was to the student's Career Preparation specialty. However, the programs taken at a prior post-secondary institution were more often unrelated to respondents' Career Preparation specialties. Table 15 shows the relationship of post-secondary education to the Career Preparation program. Table 15 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION AND CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY Most Recent or Only Prior Post Secondary Post Secondary Both  Rating Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Same 37 27.4 6 18.8 43 25.7 Highly related 30 22.2 6 18.8 36 21.6 Somewhat related 30 22.2 3 9.4 33 19.8 Not related 38 28.1 17 53.1 55 32.9 Total 135 100.0% 32 100.0% 167 100.0 Total n attending post-secondary=139 Through articulation of Career Preparation programs with colleges, some students are granted advanced placement i f they enroll i n similar programs at a college. Only 18 respondents indicated that they had received advanced placement i n post-secondary programs. 40 Table 16 shows the courses i n which respondents have been granted advanced placement. In addition, same colleges give p r i o r i t y to Career Preparation graduates when programs have a waiting l i s t . For the most recent post-secondary institution attended, 34 respondents indicated that there was a waiting l i s t for the program i n which they enrolled. Of those 34, 13 (38.2%) were given p r i o r i t y on the waiting l i s t . The mean length of time on a waiting l i s t for those who were given p r i o r i t y was 8 weeks (SEKL1.09, min.=0, max=37); for those who were not given p r i o r i t y the mean length of wait was 22.1 weeks (SD=24.1, min.=0, max. =99). For a prior post-secondary instit u t i o n attended, three programs had waiting l i s t s and one student was given p r i o r i t y on the waiting l i s t . The length of time on a waiting l i s t was one week for the person who was given p r i o r i t y and two and four weeks for the other respondents. Table 16 FREQUENCY OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN COURSES BY COLLEGE Course College Langara Capilano BCIT W l Business Other Total Accounting 1 1 2 4 Typing 2 2 1 5 Shorthand 1 1 Computer Info. 1 1 2 Marketing 1 1 Business Math 1 1 Admin. Clerk 1 1 Legal Secretary 1 1 Info. Processing 1 1 Word Processing 1 _ _ _ _ 1 Total 5 1 3 7 1 1 18 41 When asked to rate how valuable the Career Preparation program was i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress i n post-secondary education, 24 (17.6%) rated i t extremely valuable; 37 (27.2%), quite valuable; 49 (36.0%), somewhat valuable; and 26 (19.1%), not valuable. 2.4 Relationship of post-secondary education to bic^emoqraphic  factors. Due to the homogeneous nature of the response group (79.3% were single females l i v i n g with parents or other relatives), i t was not practical to examine the relationship of post-secondary education to factors such as gender, marital status or l i v i n g arrangements. Therefore, the breakdown was limited to year of graduation and school. The number of students attending a post-secondary institution for further education did not d i f f e r significantly among years of graduation (F=0.33; df=8, 171; p=.72). The proportion of respondents who continued their education at a post-secondary institution did vary significantly (F=2.78; df=8,171; p=<.01) among schools, from a low of 41.7% of King George graduates to a high of 93.3% of Gladstone graduates. Tukey's post hoc comparisons indicated significant differences between King George and Gladstone, and between King George and Templeton (alpha=.05). Table 17 shows the proportion of respondents from each school who continued their education at a post-secondary institution. Post-Secondary Etrploynient 3.1 Employment history. At the time of completing the questionnaire 136 (75.6%) of respondents were employed. A l l but 10 respondents had held at least one job since graduation. The number of jobs held ranged from 0 to 8 and i s shown i n Table 18. 42 Table 17 PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS CONTINUING EDUCATION AT A POST-SECONDARY DESTITUTION BY SCHOOL School Gladstone Killarney King George Kitsilano Pt. Grey Templeton Thompson Tupper Vancouver Technical Total Mean SD N .933 .25 30 .640 .49 25 .417 .51 12 .556 .53 9 .778 .44 9 .850 .36 40 .692 .48 13 .813 .40 16 .846 .37 26 .772 .42 180 Table 18 NUMBER OF JOBS HELD SINCE GRADUATION FROM SECONDARY SCHOOL BY YEAR OF GRADUATION Graduating Year Number 1984 1985 1986 A l l Years of Jobs Frequency % Freguency % Freguency % Freguency $ 0 2 4.3 2 3.1 6 8.8 10 5.6 1 10 21.3 18 27.7 26 38.2 54 30.0 2 11 23.4 24 36.9 27 39.7 62 34.4 3 16 34.0 13 20.0 5 7.4 34 18.9 4 6 12.8 5 7.7 1 1.5 12 6.7 5 2 4.3 2 3.1 4 2.2 7 1 1.5 2 2.9 3 1.7 8 1 1.5 1 .6 Total 47 100.0 65 100.0 68 : 100.0 180 100.0 Respondents were asked for information about th e i r three most recent jobs. This provided information about a l l jobs held by 89.9% of the respondents. The remainder claimed to have had more than three jobs; no information was so l i c i t e d about jobs held prior to the three most recent. 43 The jobs held included both part-time and full-time employment. The number of hours worked per week i s shown i n Table 19. The mean length of time between finishing secondary school and starting a job for respondents who held between one and three jobs was 4.86 months (SD=7.06, min.=0, max. =33). Of those, 41.7% started their job within one month of graduation. The mean length of employment was 14.8 months. Table 20 shows the length of employment for respondents 1 three most recent jobs by year of graduation. The mean proportion of time since graduation from secondary school that respondents were employed was .61. This employment ratio - calculated by totaling the number of months employed, subtracting any overlap i n time i f more than one job was held at a time, and dividing by the amount of time respondents had been out of secondary school - i s shown i n Table 21. When th i s calculation was based on the time respondents were not engaged i n post-secondary education, the mean employment ratio was v i r t u a l l y unchanged. Table 19 HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH JOB FOR EMPLOYED RESPONDENTS (Percentage of Responses) Number of Hours Worked  Job 30 or more 10 to 29 9 or less A. Current or most recent job (n=168) 67.3 25.0 7.7 B. Job prior to A (n=114) 56.1 37.7 6.1 C. Job prior to B (n=53) 50.9 41.5 7.5 44 Table 20 MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984 1985 1986 A l l Years Job Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD A. Current or most recent job 14.9 12.2 10.1 8.5 7.7 5.8 10.1 9.2 B. Job prior to A 6.6 9.4 5.0 6.5 2.2 3.6 4.3 6.7 C. Job prior to B 3.1 6.0 2.5 5.5 •5 1.8 1.9 4.8 Total time employed 22.9 12.4 15.5 8.6 8.4 5.6 -14.8 10.6 Table 21 EMPLOYMENT RATIOS BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 1984 1985 1986 A l l Years Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Employment ra t i o .64 .33 .62 .33 .58 .38 .61 .35 Employment ra t i o excluding time at .65 .35 .65 .34 .56 .39 .61 .36 post secondary Respondents were employed most often i n offices, followed by r e t a i l stores and restaurants. Table 22 shows the types of businesses employing respondents. The jobs, and their CCDO classifications, i n which respondents were employed are l i s t e d i n Table 23. Over half (57.7%) of the jobs held were i n the major job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group 41 - "Clerical and Related Occupations." Table 22 BUSINESSES PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT Placement Number Percent Retail outlets 75 22.4 Office jobs not included i n other classifications 69 20.6 Food/Restaurant 51 15.2 Other jobs (not o f f i c e work) 44 13.1 Expo 20 6.0 Financial (banks, credit unions,trust) 13 3.9 Government offices 11 3.3 Law firms 11 3.3 Insurance companies 9 2.7 Hospital 8 2.4 School board offices 5 1.5 Accounting firms 4 1.2 Non-profit organizations (Heart Foundation, Cancer Society, Red Cross, etc.) 4 1.2 Travel offices 4 1.2 Hotels 3 0.9 Medical or dental offices (excluding hospital) 2 0.6 U t i l i t i e s (hydro) 2 0.6 Total 335 100.0 Table 23 POST-SECONDARY JOBS PERFORMED BY RESPONDENTS Job CCDO Code Number Percent Bookkeeping, Account-Recording 413 64 19.0 Sales 513 52 15.4 C l e r i c a l * 419 46 13.6 Food Preparation and Serving 612 43 12.8 Stenographic and Typing 411 41 12.2 Reception, Information, Mail and Message Distribution 417 31 9.2 Office Machine and Electronic Data-Processing Equipment Operators 414 12 3.6 Personal Service (Child Care) 614 11 3.3 Other Service 619 11 3.3 Food Processing 822 6 1.8 Fabricating and Assembling 856 4 1.2 Other 16 4.7 Total 337 100.0 * includes 415 - Material Recording, Scheduling and Distribution and 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks 46 3.2 Amount and type of employment cxanpared to non-participants. Comparison with non-participants' amount and type of employment was not possible because access to cohort addresses was denied. Subsequently, the amount of employment of participants was compared to a sample of Vancouver residents closely matched i n age, but not matched as closely on other factors as would have been the proposed comparison group of non-participants. Compared to Vancouver residents aged 20-24 years of age with high school education, the overall rate of employment for Career Preparation graduates i s higher. The rate of employment for male respondents i s lower than that of the comparison group, but the number of male respondents i s very small. The rates of employment are shown i n Table 24. Subjects i n both groups were considered employed i f they had a job at the time of being surveyed regardless of the number of hours per week they worked. Table 24 EMPLOYMENT RATES OF CAREER PREPARATION GRADUATES AND GREATER VANCOUVER RESIDENTS AGED 20-24 WITH HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION Vancouver Residents, 20-24 years of acre* Career Preparation Graduates Gender n employment rate n employment rate Female 60,000 60.0% 156 76.9% Male 68,000 72.1% 24 66.7% Combined 120,000 69.2% 180 75.5% •Sta t i s t i c s provided over the telephone by Canada Employment and Immigration. 47 3.3 Relationship of employment to work experience placements. A crosstabulation of three-digit CCDO classifications of jobs performed on work experience and jobs performed since graduation indicated that 23.4% of jobs held after graduation were i n the same category as jobs held on work experience; 32.2% of the jobs were a close match (the f i r s t two di g i t s of the CCDO cla s s i f i c a t i o n were the same); and the remainder of the jobs held after graduation (44.4%) were completely different from jobs held on work experience. 3.4 Relevance of Career Preparation program to employment. Although many respondents had jobs which were related to the i r specialty, nearly one-third (32.9%) had jobs which were not related. Table 25 shows the relationship of respondents' jobs to their Career Preparation specialty based on matching CCDO classifications to Career Preparation specialties. Table 25 RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYMENT TO CAREER PREPARATION SPECIALTY (Percentage of Responses) Job Same Highly Related Somewhat Related Not Related n A. Current or most recent job 37.7% 12.0% 20.4% 29.9% 167 B. Job prior to A 31.0% 15.0% 16.8% 37.2% 113 C. Job pr i o r to C 27.8% 20.4% 18.5% 33.3% 54 D. Combined 33.8% 14.4% 18.9% 32.9% 334 48 Respondents were asked on the questionnaire to indicate how closely related t h e i r jobs were to the Career Preparation program they completed. Very few respondents rated their jobs the same as the Career Preparation program they completed - 4.8% rated their job "the same," 18.3% rated t h e i r job "highly related," 32.9% rated their job "somewhat related," and 44.0% rated t h e i r job "not the same." Respondents were given no technical guidelines by which to make these judgements. Some rated t h e i r work not the same as their Career Preparation program even though the CCDO cl a s s i f i c a t i o n was the same for the job they performed on work experience and the job they held after completing secondary school. A crosstabulation of the ratings made based on the CCDO cl a s s i f i c a t i o n and the ratings made by respondents shows that 24.4% of respondent ratings are two or three points lower on the four-point scale used than the ratings made based on CCDO classifications, and only 1.8% of respondent ratings are two or three points higher on the scale (high end of the scale "same"). Because an objective of Career Preparation i s to provide students with job search s k i l l s , repsondents were asked to indicate the source for finding their jobs. The most frequent source for finding jobs was friends, followed by employment offices. Few jobs were found through teachers or Career Preparation work experience sponsors. Table 26 shows respondents' sources for finding their three most recent jobs. Respondents were asked to rate how helpful a number of aspects of the Career Preparation program were to them. A four-point rating scale was used: 1) no help at a l l , 2) somewhat helpful, 3) quite helpful, 4) extremely helpful. Most respondents found Career Preparation at least somewhat helpful i n making career choices, providing them with 49 Table 26 SOURCE FOR FINDING JOBS (Percentage of Responses) Current or Most Job Prior to Source Recent Job Most Recent Prior Job A l l Jobs (n=168) (n=115) (n=54) (n=337) Friend 31.0 28.7 22.2 28.8 Employment Office 15.5 20.9 24.1 18.7 Newspaper 10.7 12.2 14.8 11.9 Family 9.5 12.2 11.1 10.7 Walk i n or resume 9.5 10.4 16.7 11.0 CP Sponsor 7.7 5.2 5.6 6.5 Teacher 4.8 7.0 5.6 5.6 Other 11.3 3.5 6.8 employable s k i l l s , providing them with job search s k i l l s , and providing them with employment contacts. Table 27 shows respondents ratings for each of these aspects of the program and additional comments provided by the respondents. Thirty-three of the respondents included other comments about aspects of the program which they found helpful or not helpful. Seven included two comments. Many of the comments were repeated i n respondents1 general comments about the major advantages of participating i n the program and their suggestions for program improvements. 3.5 Extent to which employment i s related to bio-democrraphic  factors. Due to the homogeneity of the response group i t was not practical to break down employment by gender, marital status, or l i v i n g arrangements. Therefore, employment was broken down by participation i n post-secondary education, year of graduation and school. There was no significant difference among schools i n employment ratio (F=1.31; df=8, 171; p=.24), nor among years of graduation (F=0.47; df=2, 177; 50 p=.63). However, the employment ratio for respondents with no post-secondary education was significantly higher than for those with post-secondary education (F=18.03; df=l, 178; p=<.001). The employment ratio for respondents with no post-secondary education was .80; and for respondents with post-secondary education, .55. The length of time between finishing secondary school and starting a job i s less for respondents with no post-secondary education (2.6 months) than for those with such education (5.6 months). The amount of part-time work i s greater for respondents with post-secondary education. On their current or most recent job, 59.4% of respondents with post-secondary education were working 30 hours or more; 92.5% of respondents with no post-secondary education were working 30 hours or more. Participants 1 Perceptions of the Program 4.1 Retrospective views of participants. Respondents were asked to comment on what they believed was the major advantage to participat-ing i n a Career Preparation program and to cxtrnment on the main way i n which they thought the program could be improved. The most frequently cited advantages to participating i n the program were the exposure to a business environment and the experience provided. The most frequently suggested improvements concerned the work experience placements. The suggestions were more work experience, more choice i n work experience placements, and better placements. More comments were received regarding the advantages of the program than comments suggesting improvements. Table 28 summarizes the comments about the benefits of participating i n the program, and Table 29 shows the comments suggesting improvements to the program. 51 Table 27 RESPONDENT RATINGS OF HOW HELPFUL THE CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM WAS FOR THEM (Percentage of Responses) No Help Somewhat Quite Extremely Helpful Helpful Helpful n Career choice 6.5 25.3 40.6 27.6 170 Employable s k i l l s 8.8 31.2 35.9 24.1 170 Job search s k i l l s 14.8 34.9 34.3 16.0 169 Fjttployment contacts 31.5 29.6 20.4 18.5 162 Other 40 Work experience 2.5 7.5 7.5 Working i n a business environment 5.0 7.5 Learn what job/career entails 7.5 S k i l l s learned 2.5 5.0 Application of s k i l l s 5.0 2.5 Contact with public 2.5 7.5 Opportunity to be hired 5.0 Job references 5.0 Length of work experience 5.0 Preparation of sponsor for student 2.5 2.5 Development of s e l f -confidence 2.5 2.5 Teacher 5.0 Classroom theory 2.5 Teacher v i s i t s 2.5 Algebra 2.5 52 Table 28 SUGGESTED MAJOR BENEFITS OF PARTICIPATING IN CAREER PREPARATION Comment Exposure to business environment Experience Helps make career choices Students learn and develop s k i l l s Develops interpersonal s k i l l s Provides job opportunities Develops confidence, maturity, responsibility Provides references for future employment Prepares students for work Opportunity to t r y different jobs Provides job search s k i l l s The courses offered Receiving credit for the program Other comments Total Frequency Percent 61 21.0 54 18.6 43 14.8 26 9.0 17 5.9 16 5.5 15 5.2 14 4.8 12 4.1 10 3.4 9 3.1 5 1.7 3 1.0 5 1.7 290 100.0 Table 29 SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM Comment Frequency Percent Provide more choices for work experience 26 15.5 Provide more work experience 26 15.5 Better work experience placements 24 14.3 Work experience sponsors who are aware of the program and prepared for students 16 9.5 Change course content 11 6.5 Offer a wider variety of Career Preparation programs 9 5.4 Coordination of job opportunities 7 4.2 Allow students to do their work experience i n three different f i e l d s 5 3.0 More specialization of Career Prep, programs 5 3.0 Promote the program more widely 5 3.0 Offer work experience during holidays 3 1.8 Include more academic courses 3 1.8 Pay students 3 1.8 Have fewer required courses 2 1.2 Better instruction 2 1.2 No improvement i s needed 12 7.1 Other comments 9 5.4 Total 168 100.0 53 Chapter V CONCLUSIONS AND RECCMyENDATIONS The surttmary of procedures, and results and conclusions, and the limitations outlined i n this chapter form the basis for the reaanmenda-tions for Business Education Career Preparation programs and for future studies. Summary Procedures The deliverable rate of questionnaires was somewhat lower than anticipated. For future studies a f i l e - including current address and phone number of the student and a relative or friend - prepared at the time of graduation from secondary school for each student enrolled i n Career Preparation may improve follow-up capability. The process of retrieving addresses from the Vancouver School Board Records Department i s inefficient. Addresses are retrieved manually by a records clerk and the turnaround time i s lengthy. Retrieving the addresses required for this study took longer than one month. Using a computer to store f i l e s i s now routine procedure i n even small enter-prises; i f t h i s were done for Career Preparation graduates, addresses could be retrieved and mailing l i s t s could be printed with far greater efficiency. 54 The data collection period for t h i s study was longer than anticipated. The study was delayed by two postal labor disruptions -one shortly after the f i r s t mailing and another shortly after the second mailing. The postal disruptions slowed the distribution and return of questionnaires. To avoid even longer delays between mailings and returns, telephone interviews were used. Very few subjects contacted by telephone declined to answer the questionnaire even though they had ignored two previous mailings. Telephone surveys have the benefit of an immediate response once the subject has been contacted. In addition, subjects who move but do not change the i r phone numbers can be contacted by phone when they cannot be reached by mail. Response rates were considerably higher for 1986 graduates than 1984 graduates (93.2% and 75.8% respectively). Tracking the same subjects over a period of years may increase the response rate by involving subjects i n the study scon after they graduate and have an interest i n the program, and keeping them involved over the years. Results and Conclusions In t h i s section and those following, headings are numbered to match the corresponding evaluation questions i n Chapter III. Career Preparation Work Experience 1.1 Nature of work experience placements. Most respondents performed jobs on work experience i n the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " c l e r i c a l and related occupations." This i s an appropriate job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Business Education Career Preparation students. 55 1.2 Relationship of work experience placements to Career Preparation specialty. Although most respondents were placed i n jobs that matched the i r Career Preparation specialty, 17.3% were placed i n jobs for work experience that were not related or only somewhat related to their specialty. An objective of the program i s that work experi-ence w i l l be dire c t l y related to a program specialty. Careful matching of students to work experience placements i s necessary to ensure that students 1 work experience i s directly related to their specialty" and that the time students spend on work experience i s meaningful. 1.3 Relevance of work experience placements to program objectives. I t i s an objective of the Career Preparation program that students w i l l have an opportunity to apply basic s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s and to explore a wide variety of s k i l l s i n an occupational f i e l d . In many cases students were not provided with an opportunity to explore a wide variety of s k i l l s . A mean of three s k i l l s was used i n one week of work experience. For 17% or more of the respondents, on at least one work experience placement none of the s k i l l s used was central to the Career Preparation specialty. Work experiences should provide students with a variety of tasks which require the application of s k i l l s which are central to the students 1 specialty. Careful monitoring of the placements by Career Preparation teachers and coordinators i s necessary to ensure that sponsors assign appropriate tasks to students on work experience. Many of the respondents' criticisms of the Career Preparation program referred to work experience and included comments regarding sponsors being unprepared for them and not having work for them to do or students spending the whole week doing menial and repetitive tasks such as stuffing envelopes. 56 Even though same respondents were c r i t i c a l of the work experience placements, 89% of the placements were rated at least somewhat helpful. Responses regarding helpful aspects of the program and the major benefit of participating i n the program substantiate the 'helpful' rating for work experience. Work experience i s a valuable aspect of the Career Preparation program which offers students an opportunity to gain practical experience relating to employment responsibilities. Post-Secondary Education 2.1 Post-secondary education experiences. The large proportion (77.2%) of respondents who continue their education indicates that the Career Preparation program i s meeting i t s objective of qualifying graduates to pursue further studies toward a profession or attend college to pursue further specialized training. The program most frequently enrolled i n by respondents was Arts and Sciences at Langara (Vancouver Community College). Unfortunately, t h i s does not provide a very clear indication of respondents' plans for post-secondary education because the Arts and Sciences program i s often taken as a prerequisite to more specialized programs at university. Considering the large proportion of Career Preparation graduates who continue their education, the Career Preparation program requirements should be flexible to allow students the opportunity to take the courses required for entrance to post-secondary institutions as well as the courses required for Career Preparation. I f the program does not allow f l e x i b i l i t y , timetabling constraints at the school may mean that students cannot take a l l the courses required for Career 57 Preparation i n addition to the courses recjuired for entrance to a college or university. Starting i n the 1986/87 school year, schools were recjoiired by the Ministry of Education to specify and have approved the six courses which would be recjuired for each Business Education Career Preparation specialty. Prior to that, i t was l e f t to the judgement of the teacher to decide which six Business Education courses would be appropriate for each specialty. This provided more f l e x i -b i l i t y i n the programs than they currently have. Because the subjects i n t h i s study graduated prior to the change which recjuired a l l s ix courses to be specified, the f l e x i b i l i t y i n program requirements was not an issue for this study. I t i s , therefore, not apparent from results of t h i s study whether changes i n program requirements have led same students to be unable to complete the program due to timetable confl i c t s and lack of f l e x i b i l i t y i n the programs. The mean length of time between finishing secondary school and starting a post-secondary program was almost six months. Therefore, i f future follow-up studies of students' post-secondary education are planned, the follow-up should be conducted more than the three months after students graduate that was previously done by Career Preparation teachers for the Ministry of Education. 2.2 Type and amount of post-secondary education compared to  non-participants. Data was not available to compare the amount and •type of post-secondary education of Career Preparation participants with non-participants. A comparison of participants and non-participants would have provided an indication of the extent to which completing a Business Education Career Preparation program influenced students' enrollment i n post-secondary programs. 58 2.3 Relevance of Career Preparation program to post-secondary  education. Many of the post-secondary programs enrolled i n by respondents (67%) were at least somewhat related to respondents 1 Career Preparation specialty. Career Preparation was rated at least somewhat helpful i n f a c i l i t a t i n g progress i n post-secondary education by 81% of respondents who attended post-secondary institutions. This suggests that participation i n the Career Preparation program does improve the transition between secondary school and post-secondary institutions. Although respondents were qualified to pursue further studies, few were granted advanced placement i n courses or p r i o r i t y cn waiting l i s t s for programs. I t was apparent during telephone interviews from lack of understanding of the question that some respondents were not aware that advanced placement i s sometimes offered by colleges. Articulation with post-secondary institutions should be improved so that Business Education Career Preparation courses lead to post-secondary programs and, where appropriate, Career Preparation graduates be exempted from same post-secondary courses. Career Preparation students should be made aware of post-secondary programs which offer advanced placement so that they may take advantage of these opportunities. Although not many respondents were given p r i o r i t y on waiting l i s t s for post-secondary programs, those who were spent considerably less time on waiting l i s t s - a mean of 8 weeks compared to 22 weeks. I f students know that they are given p r i o r i t y on a waiting l i s t because they completed a Career Preparation program this i s an obvious benefit of the program. However, the meaning of t h i s finding may be unclear because some students may not be aware that they were given p r i o r i t y on waiting 59 l i s t s . I t would be useful to survey post-secondary institutions regarding th e i r policies for waiting l i s t s , and then to make Career Preparation students aware of these policies so that they may take advantage of the opportunity for pr i o r i t y . 2.4 Relationship of post-secondary education to bio-demographic  factors. Because 87% of respondents are female, 97% are single, and 92% l i v e with parents or another relative, i t was not practical to examine the extent to which post-secondary education was related to bio-demographic factors such as gender, marital status, or l i v i n g arrangements. However, i t was determined that significantly more graduates from Gladstone and Templeton attended post-secondary institutions than graduates from King George. Post-Secondary Employment 3.1 Employment history. The high employment rate of respondents indicates that graduates are qualified to proceed d i r e c t l y to employment even though many choose to continue th e i r education. At the time of completing the questionnaire 75.6% of respondents were employed and 94.4% had held at least one job since graduating from secondary school. Only one respondent had not attended any post-secondary courses and had not been employed. Respondents who attended post-secondary programs had more part-time jobs, lower employment ratios, and shorter periods of employment than respondents who did not attend post-secondary. This suggests that respondents continuing their education l i k e l y took part-time jobs while continuing t h e i r education and that these jobs may not be indicative of career choices. 60 3.2 Amount and type of employment compared to non-participants. Compared to a similar age group of Greater Vancouver residents, respondents had higher rates of employment. This indicates that the Career Preparation program has been successful i n providing students with marketable s k i l l s for employment and with proven job search procedures. 3.3 Relationship of employment to work experience placements. Based on CCDO classifications of jobs performed on work experience and jobs employed at after graduation from secondary school, 67.1% of the jobs held by respondents after graduation from secondary school were at least somewhat related to their Career Preparation specialty. I t i s apparent that many program leavers are entering employment related to th e i r Career Preparation specialties. 3.4 Relevance of Career Preparation program to employment. The fact that 94% of respondents held at least one job since graduating from secondary school i s an indication that the program has provided students with proven job search and interview procedures. In addition, 85% of respondents rate the Career Preparation program at least somewhat helpful i n providing them with job search s k i l l s . The most frequent source for finding jobs was through friends -28.8% of jobs held by respondents were found through friends. Only 12.1% of jobs were found through teachers or Career Preparation work experience sponsors. Although most respondents rated the program at least somewhat helpful i n providing job search s k i l l s , 31.5% of respondents rated the program no help i n providing employment contacts. Furthermore, some of the respondents suggested that the 61 cxxDrdination of job opportunities for students should be improved. Same Career Preparation graduates find employment as a result of their work experience placements, but the numbers are few. A more formal procedure for matching graduates to job opportunities could increase the number of jobs found by graduates as a result of participating i n the Career Preparation program. Qxrrently, same employers c a l l the coordinators at the school board when they are looking for a graduate to hire, others phone teachers at the schools. An established policy for employers interested i n hiring graduates would improve the coordination of job opportunites for graduates. The aaordination of job opportunites for graduates of Career Preparation programs would be time consuming and, therefore, should receive program funding i f established. Respondents' comments regarding the major benefits of participating i n a Career Preparation program and their ratings of how helpful the program was i n making career choices indicates that Career Preparation develops i n students an increased understanding of career and employ-ment needs and an a b i l i t y to make meaningful decisions about an occupation. Same graduates commented that the program was helpful i n making career choices because they discovered through work experience what they did not want to do. I t i s important that students be provided with a variety of work experience placements because they may get a false impression of what a jab i s l i k e by being exposed to only one working environment. Respondents' comments regarding the benefits of participating i n the program, their ratings of how helpful the program was i n providing employable s k i l l s , and the fact that 94% of respondents held at least 62 one job and 67% of these jobs were at least somewhat related to their Career Preparation specialty, a l l indicate that Career Preparation students acquire marketable s k i l l s for employment. Even though 68.5% of respondents rated the Career Preparation program at least somewhat helpful i n providing them with employment contacts, the relatively small number of jobs (12%) that were found through teachers or work experience sponsors, suggests that the programs' success i n improving the transition between secondary school and employment by providing employment contacts i s limited. However, respondents' comments regarding the benefits of participating i n the program - such as exposure to a business environment, experience, prep-aration of students for work, and references for future employment -demonstrate that work experience improves the transition between secondary school and employment. 3.5 Extent to which employment i s related to bio-democrraphic  factors. Respondents with no post-secondary education have significantly higher employment ratios, have shorter periods of unemployment between finishing secondary school and starting t h e i r f i r s t job, and work more hours of work per week than respondents with post-secondary education. I t i s not unusual that respondents attending school would have lower employment ratios than those not attending. However, i t i s not apparent from the results of the survey whether respondents pursued further studies because they could not secure full-time employment and wanted to upgrade their s k i l l s to improve the i r prospects of full-time employment, or whether they pursued further studies because they were interested i n more specialized training for employment or a profession. 63 Participants' Perceptions of the Program 4.1 Retrospective views of participants. Based on respondents' comments, the major benefit of participating i n Career Preparation was the work experience. Respondents commented on the benefits of being exposed to a business environment and the opportunity to gain experience and apply s k i l l s . The most frequent suggestions for improvement of the program regarded work experience. Graduates suggested that the program would be improved i f they had more choice i n work experience placements, more than one week of work experience at a time, and better placements with sponsors who were prepared for the students. Students should be matched carefully to placements to ensure that they have the appropriate s k i l l s for the job and to ensure that students are being provided with an opportunity to experience working i n a f i e l d which i s of interest to them. At the time of t h i s study/ the Vancouver School Board used a form which provided very l i t t l e information about the students' s k i l l s and interests for matching students to placements. A form which provides information about courses completed by students, s k i l l s and equipment students can use, previous placements and experience, and career goals and interests would enable Career Preparation coordinators to match students to appropriate work experience placements. As many respondents suggested that the program should be more specialized as suggested that the program should offer more variety. The program should be fle x i b l e so that i t can allow for both. By ascertaining students' interests and career goals, Career Preparation teachers and coordinators can ensure that those students who have a 64 very definite career interest are placed in jobs for work experience that are related to their career goals, and that those students who are uncertain about their career interests be given an opportunity to experience a variety of jobs. If students are permitted to specialize in one field, this should be preceded by career counselling which exposes students to a range of career opportunites before they make a decision about specializing. Same of the respondents' comments suggest that the Career Preparation program i s not being promoted very effectively. Some suggested that the program should be promoted more widely and others suggested changes to the program, such as offering Career Preparation programs in other subject areas and offering work experience during holidays, which are current practice. Same respondents were concerned about being informed about the program early in their years at secondary school so they can select courses in their junior years which lead to the courses required for the program. To encourage effective promotion of the program i t i s important to ensure that school counsellors and other Business Education teachers are familiar with a l l aspects of the program. Although there were many suggestions for improvement to the program, 12 respondents commented that no improvement was needed. Furthermore, the number of comments regarding the benefits of participating in the program outnumbered the suggestions for improvement by almost two to one. The many positive comments about the program are an indication of its effectiveness. 65 Limitations There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of response bias because less than 100% of the questionnaires were returned. Only 75.8% of the surveys were actually delivered and a l l but one response came from greater Vancouver. The results exclude the post-secondary a c t i v i t i e s of Career Preparation graduates who have l e f t the greater Vancouver area. I t i s not possible to determine which of the undeliverable questionnaires were a result of local moves and which were more distant moves. The response bias as a result of subjects who were unwilling to participate i n the survey i s minimal because 84.5% of graduates who received questionnaires either returned them or were interviewed. Therefore, the responses can be considered a reliab l e representation of Vancouver Business Education Career Preparation graduates. Even though the sample selected was to include only those graduates who had completed a Business Education Career Preparation program, 10.6% of respondents indicated that they had not completed a l l the requirements. Effects of including responses from graduates who had not completed a l l the program requirements were not addressed i n this study. However, some of the respondents who did not complete a l l of the requirements indicated that they had completed a l l the requirements except one week of work experience. In those cases, the effect of not completing the program would be minimal. Another limiting factor i n th i s study i s the use of self-reporting. Participant self-reporting has some deficiencies; however, follow-up i s necessary to determine program effects and self-reporting i s an appropriate method for collecting data. 66 Respondents were asked to rate how closely their post-secondary employment matched their Career Preparation specialties. In many cases, respondent ratings did not correspond to the ratings based on matching CCDO codes of jobs performed on work experience to jobs employed at after graduation from secondary school. In order to obtain more meaningful information from respondents about how closely related their employment was to their Career Preparation specialty, the question should have been more specific and should have given more direction about ways i n which employment was related to respondents' specialty. Reconmendations Recranmendations for Business Education Career Preparation Programs 1. Develop a computer f i l e of each graduate from Career Preparation programs. A f i l e prepared at the time of graduation from secondary school including each students' current address and phone number, the address and phone number of a relative or friend, Career Preparation specialty, s k i l l s , experience, and type of employment ( i f any) desired, would make i t easier to locate students i f employment opportunities arise. I t would also provide information for matching program graduates to appropriate jobs. In addition, graduates would be easier to track for future studies. Having the address and phone number of a relative or friend would increase the chance of contacting graduates, especially i f they move. 67 2. FJicourage greater participation by males. Approximately 80% of the students completing Business Education Career Preparation programs i n Vancouver secondary schools are female. Business Education Career Preparation courses and programs should be analyzed to determine why they attract primarily females. Where appropriate, these courses and programs should be modified to encourage participation by both males and females. 3. Match students more carefully to work experience placements. Students should be matched to work experience placements based on thei r career goals, interests, and a b i l i t i e s . Where d i s t r i c t personnel are responsible for matching students to work experience placements, forms that provide information about courses completed by students, s k i l l s and equipment students can use, previous placements and experience, and career goals and interests should be completed by students to allow better matching of students to work experience placements. 4. Ensure that students are provided with a variety of tasks on work experience that are related to their Career Preparation specialties. Careful monitoring of work experience placements by Career Preparation teachers and coordinators i s necessary to ensure that work experience sponsors provide students with a variety of tasks using s k i l l s that are related to their specialties. In addition, work experience sponsors, and any employees working with Career Preparation students, should be briefed on the purpose and goals of the program. 5. Allow f l e x i b i l i t y i n Career Preparation program requirements. Currently, students are required to complete six specific courses 68 to f u l f i l l the requirements of Career Preparation. Allowing students electives within the program specialty would provide more f l e x i b i l i t y . Programs should be fle x i b l e so they do not preclude students from obtaining courses required for entrance to university or college. 6. Allow for f l e x i b i l i t y i n the way i n which work experience i s provided. Work experience requirements for Career Preparation are most often f u l f i l l e d by three, one-week placements. Missing three f u l l weeks of school i s d i f f i c u l t for same students. Flexible scheduling of work experience can reduce the impact of missing school. Work experience, i n cooperation with work experience sponsors, can be scheduled to suit student needs - i f students have free blocks, work experience can be scheduled for days (or even half days) when students have free blocks and would be missing less classes; work experience can be scheduled for one or two days a week rather than a f u l l week so that students have contact with the school and can keep up with their assignments; or work experience can be scheduled for after-school hours. 7. Improve articulation with post-secondary institutions. Meetings between representatives of post-secondary programs that are related to Career Preparation programs and representatives of Career Preparation programs should be held to determine under what circumstances i t i s appropriate to exempt students from post-secondary courses, and to establish any agreements for granting Career Preparation students entrance into programs or p r i o r i t y on waiting l i s t s . Once these policies have been established, they should be put i n writing and distributed to Career Preparation teachers and coordinators, and to secondary school counsellors. They, i n turn, 69 should make students aware of these policies. I f changes are made i n the course requirements at the secondary school or at the post-secondary institution, another meeting should be held to discuss the effects of any changes on program articulation. 8. Improve the coordination of job opportunities for Career Preparation graduates. Establishing a procedure for employers to follow when they wish to hire graduates, and a procedure for graduates to follow i f they are actively seeking employment, could improve the coordination of job opportunities for graduates. I f one person i n the d i s t r i c t were responsible for coordinating job opportunities for graduates and i f work experience sponsors were made aware of this, more work experience sponsors might contact the school d i s t r i c t to hire graduates. A computer f i l e with graduates• Career Preparation specialty, s k i l l s , and experience would allow graduates to be matched with job opportunities. Because t h i s a c t i v i t y would require additional personnel, i t would require funding. Recommendations for Future Studies 1. Use one mailing, including a covering l e t t e r and questionnaire, followed by a telephone survey to coll e c t data. This may reduce the amount of time required to coll e c t data. 2. Track the same subjects over time. I f subjects are surveyed soon after they graduate and followed over a number of years, they might maintain more interest i n the program and the response rate may not drop as much for graduates who have been away 70 from school longer. In addition, tracking the same subjects might indicate changes i n program effects over time. 3. Survey a group of non-Career Preparation graduates. Using a group of non-participants as a basis of comparison would provide an indication of the extent to which completing a Career Preparation program influences post-secondary employment and education. 4. Survey Career Preparation graduates from a small rural town. Without close proximity to universities, colleges, and potential employers the post-secondary employment and education of Career Preparation graduates may be very different. 5. Collect data at least six months after students graduate. Collecting data sooner than six months after graduation does not allow graduates much time to establish themselves i n jobs or post-secondary programs. (The mean length of time for respondents i n t h i s study between leaving secondary school and starting post-secondary education was six months and between leaving secondary school and starting employment was five months.) 6. Have respondents identify their desired career. By identifying their desired career, i t may be possible to determine whether respondents are able to obtain jobs i n their chosen career. I t may also provide an indication of whether respondents continue th e i r education to meet the requirements of a specific career or because they cannot get employment i n their desired career. 7. Have respondents indicate whether part-time employment i s by choice. This w i l l make i t possible to determine whether respondents work part-time by choice or because they cannot get full-time employment. 71 8. Survey Career Preparation participants with regard to effects of the program on factors other than employment and education. Career Preparation programs can influence participants' work habits, attitudes toward work and school, self-confidence, and more. Influences such as these are important results of the program which should be evaluated. 9. Survey post-secondary institutions. A survey of post-secondary institutions could be used to determine which are offering advanced placement or priority on waiting l i s t s to graduates of Career Preparation programs, and to determine what criteria are used for granting advanced placement and priority on waiting l i s t s . Overall the Business Education Career Preparation program offered in Vancouver i s a successful program providing many benefits to students. The program is meeting the objectives of the provincial curriculum. However, the program could be improved by: matching students more carefully to work experience placements which meet their interests, career goals and specialty; offering programs which will interest both males and females; coordinating employment opportunities for graduates; improving articulation with post- secondary programs; and structuring Career Preparation programs to allow for flexibility in course requirements and work experience. 72 REFERENCES Canna, D. S. (1982). Effects of cooperative education on high school  students' career choice: a review of the literature. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 223 849) Cronbach, L. J . (1982). Designing evaluations of educational and  social programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Crowe, M. R. & Adams, K. A. (1979). The current status of assessing  experiential education Programs. (Information Series No. 163.) Ohio State University, Columbus National Center for Research i n Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 173 562) Dhanota, A. S., Wright, E. N., & Toplak, M. (1980). Co-operative  education, career exploration v i s i t and work experience weeks:  an evaluation. (Research Service, #158.) Toronto Board of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 198 361) Ekstrom, R. B., Freeberg, N. E., & Rock, D. A. (1987). The effects of youth employment program participation on later employment. Evaluation Review. 11, 84-101. Employment and Immigration Canada. (1986). Canadian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and dictionary of occupations (6th ed.). Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada. Germscheid, R. D. (1980). A summary report of work experience  education program effectiveness and organization. Research Branch, Alberta Education. Herrnstadt, I. L., Horowitz, M. A., & Sum, A. M. (1979). Transition  from school to work: the contribution of cooperative education  programs at the secondary level. (Final Report.) Northeastern University, Boston, Dept. of Economics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 183 721) Jemelka, R. P., & Borich, G. D. (1979). Traditional and emerging defintions of educational evaluation. Evaluation Quarterly, 3, 263-276. Kettle, H. (1984). An evaluation of career preparation programs i n  Vancouver schools. (Research Report 84-07.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Services Program Resources, Board of School Trustees, School D i s t r i c t #39. 73 Lewis, M. V., Glyde, G. P., McKee, D. E., & Kozak, L. (1976). Cost  effectiveness study of work experience programs, f i n a l report. Washington, D.C: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Institute for Research on Human Resources. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 136 053) Mason, R. E., Haines, P. G., & Furtado, L. T. (1981). Cooperative  occupational education and work experience i n the curriculum (3rd ed.). Danville, IL: The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc. Mclndoe, B. D. (1980). A discussion of work experience and related  programs. Unpublished major paper, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Middleton, M. A. (1975). An evaluation of the work experience education program i n five Vancouver secondary schools. (Research Report 75-19.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Education Services Group, Board of School Trustees. Ministry of Education. (1982). Career preparation program curriculum guide for business education. Division of Educational Programs - Schools Curriculum Development Branch. Victoria: Queen's Printer for B r i t i s h Columbia. Morell, J . A. (1979). Program evaluation i n social research. New York: Pergamon Press. Myers, Jerome L. (1966). Fundamentals of experimental design. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Patton, M. Q. (1978). Utilization-focused evaluation. Beverly H i l l s : Sage Publications. Rossi, P. H., Freeman, H. E., & Wright, S. R. (1979). Evaluation:  A Systematic Approach. Beverly H i l l s : Sage Publications. Seaward, M. R. (1978). A comparison of the career maturity, s e l f  concept and academic achievement of female Cooperative Vocational  Office Training students. Intensive Business Training students,  and regular Business Education students i n selected high schools  i n Mississippi. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 151 536) Shaughnessy, P. (1986). Personal s k i l l s development of co-operative education students i n two secondary schools i n the City of New York. Guidance & Counselling, 1 , 45-52. Simon, R. I. (1983). But who w i l l l e t you do i t ? Counter-hegemonic p o s s i b i l i t i e s for work education. Journal of Education, 165, 235-256. 74 Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1987). Research and, evaluation i n education and the social sciences. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. SPSS Inc. (1983). SPSS-X user's guide. Chicago: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Stake, R. (1981). Persuasions, not models. Educational Evaluation  and Policy Analysis, 3, 83-84. Stevens, R. S. (1978). An evaluation of work education programs. (Research Report 78-04.) Vancouver: Evaluation and Research Services, Education Service Group, Board of School Trustees. Walsh, J . & Breglio, V. J . (1976). An assessment of school supervised work education programs. Part II: Urban cooperative  education programs and follow-up study. San Francisco, California: Olympus Research Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 133 423) Watts, A. G. (Ed.). (1983). Work Experience and Schools. London: Heinemann Educational Books. 75 APPENDIX A Covering l e t t e r for Business Education Career Preparation graduate questionnaire. Follow-up l e t t e r for questionnaire. Questionnaire for Business Education Career Preparation graduates. (Original printed on 17"xll" paper folded to form a booklet.) Covering l e t t e r for non-participant questionnaire. Questionnaire for non-participants. (Original printed both sides of one sheet of paper.) 78 BUSINESS EDUCATION CAREER PREPARATION GRADUATE SURVEY Please complete the following information about your employment and education. As a graduate of a Business Education Career Preparation Program, you will provide information that will be valuable for making future improvements to the program. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1. Gender: • Male •Female 2. What year were you born? 3. Marital Status: • Single • Married • Separated or Divorced 4 . With whom do you live? • parents or other relatives • spouse/partner • one or more friends • alone 5. What secondary school did you last attend? 6. When did you last attend secondary school? (month) (year) 7. Did you graduate? Q yes • no 8. Did you complete six Career Preparation specialty courses (including three weeks of work experience)? • yes • no 9. What was your Career Preparation specialty? (check the appropriate box or boxes) • accounting • clerical • secretarial • marketing Q data processing • other (please specify) 10. Please l i s t your Career-Preparation work experience placements. Company name (first placement) Position (type of work) Skills and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) • typing • f i l i n g •telephone •accounting •calculator • computer Q shorthand Q photocopier Q transcription (Dicta-phone) • word processor • other (please specify) How valuable was this experience? • extremely valuable Q quite valuable •somewhat valuable • not valuable Company name (second placement) Position (type of work) Skills and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) • typing • filing • telephone • accounting • calculator • computer Q shorthand • photocopier • transcription (Dicta-phone) • word processor •other (please specify) How valuable was this experience? • extremely valuable • quite valuable • somewhat valuable • not valuable 79 Page 2 Company name (third placement) Position (type of work) Skills and equipment used (check the appropriate box or boxes) • typing Q filing • telephone Q accounting Q calculator • computer Q shorthand Q photocopier Q transcription (Dicta-phone) • word processor Q other (please specify) How valuable was this experience? • extremely valuable Q quite valuable Q somewhat valuable • not valuable POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION 11. Since leaving secondary school, have you attended any post-secondary institutions or training courses? • yes (please complete the following information) • no (proceed to question #15) 12. How valuable was your Career Preparation program in facilitating progress in your post-secondary education? • extremely valuable Q quite valuable •somewhat valuable • n o t valuable 13. Were you granted advanced standing in any of your courses? • yes • no If yes, what course(s)? 14. Starting with the current or most recent institution you have attended, please complete the following information about the two most recent post-secondary institutions or training courses you have attended. Name of institution Location Dates attended (month) (year) to (month) (year) Program or course taken Was there a waiting l i s t for this program or course? • yes • no If yes, how many weeks were you on the waiting list? Were you given priority on the waiting l i s t over others who had not completed a a Career Preparation Program? Qyes Q no Name of institution Location Dates attended (month) (year) to (month) (year) Program or course taken Was there a waiting l i s t for this program or course? • yes Q no If yes, how many weeks were you on the waiting list? Were you given priority on the waiting l i s t over others who had not completed a Career Preparation Program? Q yes Q no 80 Page 3 EMPLOYMENT 15. Are you currently employed? Q yes • no 16. How many jobs have you held since leaving secondary school? If you have not held any jobs since leaving secondary school turn to question # 19. 17. Career Preparation can be helpful in a number of ways. Beside the following statements, please rate how helpful Career Preparation has been to you by circling the appropriate number. "1" means no help at all and "4" means extremely helpful. No help Somewhat Quite Extremely at a l l h e l p f u l h e l p f u l h e l p f u l making career choices 1 2 3 4 provided skills needed on job(s) since graduation 1 2 3 4 provided job search skills 1 2 3 4 provided employment contacts 1 2 3 4 other aspects of the program which you feel were or were not helpful (please specify) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 18. Starting with your current or most recent job, please complete the following information about your three most recent jobs since leaving secondary school. Employer Position Duties (Please provide a brief description of your job.) _ How many hours a week were you employed? Q 30 or more Q ^ T 0 29 • 9 or less Dates employed (month) (year) to (month) (year) How related is this job to the Career Preparation program you completed? • same • highly related Q somewhat related Q not related How did you find out about this job? (Check the appropriate box.) • friend • family Q teacher Q newspaper • employment office • CP work experience sponsor (employer) Q other (please specify) Employer Position Duties (Please provide a brief description of your job.) _ How many hours a week were you employed? Q 30 or more • 10 to 29 • 9 or less Dates employed (month) (year) to (month) (year) How related is this job to the Career Preparation program you completed? • same • highly related • somewhat related • not related How did you find out about this job? (Check the appropriate box.) • friend • family • teacher • newspaper • employment office • CP work experience sponsor (employer) • other (please specify) 83 V A N C O U V E R S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L S G R A D U A T E S U R V E Y P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u r e m p l o y m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n . A s a g r a d u a t e o f a V a n c o u v e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , y o u p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e v a l u a b l e f o r m a k i n g f u t u r e i m p r o v e m e n t s t o s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . B A C K G R O U N D I N F O R M A T I O N 1. G e n d e r : • M a l e • F e m a l e 2 . W h a t y e a r w e r e y o u b o r n ? 3 . M a r i t a l S t a t u s : • S i n g l e Q M a r r i e d • S e p a r a t e d o r D i v o r c e d 4 . W i t h w h o m d o y o u l i v e ? Q p a r e n t s o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s • s p o u s e / p a r t n e r • o n e o r m o r e f r i e n d s • a l o n e 5 . W h a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l d i d y o u l a s t a t t e n d ? 6 . W h e n d i d y o u l a s t a t t e n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ? ( m o n t h ) ( y e a r ) 7 . D i d y o u g r a d u a t e ? Q y e s • n o 8. W h a t c o u r s e s d i d y o u t a k e i n y o u r s e n i o r y e a r s a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ? P O S T - S E C O N D A R Y E D U C A T I O N 9. S i n c e l e a v i n g s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , h a v e y o u a t t e n d e d a n y p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s ? Q y e s ( p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) Q n o ( p r o c e e d t o q u e s t i o n #11) 1 0 . S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e c u r r e n t o r m o s t r e c e n t i n s t i t u t i o n y o u h a v e a t t e n d e d , p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t w o m o s t r e c e n t p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s y o u h a v e a t t e n d e d . N a m e o f i n s t i t u t i o n L o c a t i o n D a t e s a t t e n d e d ( m o n t h ) ( y e a r ) t o ( m o n t h ) ( y e a r ) P r o g r a m o r c o u r s e t a k e n W a s t h e r e a w a i t i n g l i s t f o r t h i s p r o g r a m o r c o u r s e ? • y e s Q n o I f y e s , h o w m a n y w e e k s w e r e y o u o n t h e w a i t i n g l i s t ? N a m e o f i n s t i t u t i o n L o c a t i o n D a t e s a t t e n d e d ( m o n t h ) ( y e a r ) t o ( m o n t h ) ( y e a r ) P r o g r a m o r c o u r s e t a k e n W a s t h e r e a w a i t i n g l i s t f o r t h i s p r o g r a m o r c o u r s e ? • y e s • n o I f y e s , h o w m a n y w e e k s w e r e y o u o n t h e w a i t i n g 1 i s t ? please turn over > APPENDIX B Table B- l : Degree of Match Between CCDO Code and Career Preparation Specialty. Table B-2: Degree of Match Between Post-Secondary Program and Career Preparation Specialty. 86 Table B-l DEGREE OF MATCH BETWEEN CCDO CODE AND CP SPECIALTY l=Same, 2=Highly Related, 3=Somewnat Related, 4=Not the Same CCDO Cedes* CP Specialty 411 413 414 417 419 513 612 614 619 822 856 Accounting 3 • 1 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Cle r i c a l 2 3 2 1 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Secretarial 1 3 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Marketing 4 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 Data Processing 3 3 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Acct. & Data Pro. 3 1 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Acct., Data Pro. & another specialty 2 1 1 3 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Acct. & another excluding Data Pro. 2 1 3 2 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Data Pro. & another excluding Acct. 2 3 1 2 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Cl e r i c a l & Secretarial 1 3 2 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Cl e r i c a l &/or Secre-t a r i a l & Marketing 1 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 411 Stenographic and Typing 413 Bookkeeping, Account-Recording 414 Office Machine and Electronic Data-Processing Equipment Operators 417 Reception, Information, Mail and Message Distribution 419 C l e r i c a l (includes 415 - Material Recording, Scheduling and Distribution; 416 - Library, F i l e and Correspondence Clerks) 513 Sales 612 Food Preparation and Serving 614 Personal Service (Child Care) 619 Other Service 822 Food Processing 856 Fabricating and Assembling Other 87 Table B-2 DEGREE OF MATCH BETWEEN POST-SECONDARY PROGRAM AND CP SPECIALTY l=Same, 2=Highly Related, 3=Samewhat Related, 4=Not the Same Procrram * CP Specialty l Accounting 2 Cle r i c a l 3 Secretarial 3 Marketing 2 Data Processing 3 Acct. & Data Pro. 2 Acct., Data Pro. & another specialty 2 Acct. & another excluding Data Pro. 2 Data Pro. & another excluding Acct. 3 Cle r i c a l & Secretarial 3 Cl e r i c a l &/cr secre-t a r i a l & Marketing 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 3 3 2 1 3 4 4 4 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 1 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 3 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 4 4 4 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 4 4 4 3 1 3 3 3 1 1 3 4 4 4 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 4 4 * 1 Commerce 4 Marketing 7 Accounting 10 Travel & Tourism 2 Arts/Science 5 Business Admin. 8 Secretarial 11 Unrelated Social 3 Financial Mgmt. 6 Computer Course 9 C l e r i c a l 12 Other 

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