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Displacement and redemption in the Lais of Marie de France Dunkel, Sharon Lynn 1988

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Displacement in  the Lais  and  Redemption  o f M a r i e de  France  8y Sharon  Lynn  8. A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  Dunkel  of Washington,  IN P A R T I A L  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FULFILLMENT  FOR THE DEGREE  MASTER  OF  1986  OF  ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE (Department  We a c c e p t t h i s to  of French)  thesis  the required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF 8 R I T I S H April ©Sharon  Lynn  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1988 D u n k e l , 1988  OF  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis in partial  fulfilment of the  study. I further agree that permission for  copying of  this thesis for scholarly purposes may  department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  be  permission.  French  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 A p r i l 26,  1988  granted by  It is understood  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Date  advanced  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and  Department of  requirements for an  be  the that  extensive  head of  my  copying  or  allowed without my  written  Abstract  In love  the endless  and  marriage  literature. woman  with  The  bringing  the  woman  otherwise  woman,  idea  of  the  must  The  masculine  f o r his future  role  of the  convince  his  the wife,  o f t h e man's and  serve  of  parents  hearth,  of  aspect  as  her  The  tensions  struggle  court  first  symbol  and s t a b l e  theme  to  from  location. the  existence.  f o r her part,  Not o n l y also  conflict  to  mold  and  the protector  and  to  the  herself  h e r mate  originally  her  own  by  of maturation  capable  of  access  o f God  which  she  -a  t o t h e new  way  of  spatial  domicile, herself to  The v e r t i c a l  movement  the  f o rthe lady.  bedroom Once s h e  t h e woman  to the society for self.  Thus  i n redeeming  individuality,  of displacement  undergo  adulthood,  i n h i s search  as t h e instrument  maintaining  grove  i.n g a i n i n g  rejected  also  t o change and adapt  her b i r t h p l a c e .  has  proven  must  she travel  be p r e p a r e d  leaving  tower  must  the process  process  comes  home. He  and  the issues  recurrent  h e r away  the paternal  constitutes  serves  and  foreigner,  h i s own  home  and d e a t h ,  o f h i s home a n d s o c i e t y .  s h e must  assist  a  of taking  new  this  t h e man  displacement.  from  as  t h e one c o n s t a n t  in  The  the  man,  nomadic  inherent  but  constant  her i n t o  the  constitutes  provider  are a  t o leave  of  prepare  of l i f e  the intent  and  center  cycle  seen  in  experiences.  he had  t h e woman  t h e man the  will  while  parallel  i i1  upon of  The  reader  the  realization  spatial  through  forces  the  the  recipients  narrative various social  technique  characters,  the  the  reader  of of  a  The  of  courtly  Lens  entertainment  of but  of  the  text  l o c a l e of i s that, each  the  also  go  reader  words,  the  the  back  in  time  purpose  proper  twelve  type  mechanisms,  identification  learns  based  protagonists.  literary  to  is  experiences a  B r & t a i g n e . The through  Lais  of the  v a r i e t y of  i n t e r a c t i o n . In o t h e r  a manual  text  s i m i l a r to that  use  to the mythic  to  that  displacement  Marie,  space  response  of  and this  with  the  methods  of  stories  form  etiquette. Marie  de  France  for edification  as  are  well.  not  only  for  I§b2§_of_Cgntents Abstract List  -  of A b b r e v i a t i o n s  Introduction  . .. . i i - i i i v 1-12  Chapter  1  1 3-33  Chapter  2.  34-61  Chapter  3  62-99  Conclusion Bi bliography  ..100-106 107-109  List  of  Abbreviations  La i s Pro!ogue Guigemar Equitan Le F r e s n e 8isclavret Lanva1 D e u s Amanz Yonec Laustic M i 1 un Cha i t i v e l Chievrefoi1 E1 i d u c  P G Eq Fr B  Yva i n  Yv  Ll  DA Y L M C Cf E  1  Marie in  French,  versions as  de  France,  expresses  views  present  Her s e n s i b i l i t y  us w i t h a glimpse  thumbnail  known  that  are  o f t h e human e x p e r i e n c e ,  to instruct.  reader  as t h e f i r s t  ( i nd e t a i l ) .  in  aristocratic  constitute  not the  various  seek  integration major  not  presented  gives  composition  the this  duty,  that  rather  force  the  proper  stumble  into a  succeeds  she wishes  love,  themes o f  of  social  type  social  She wants  Secondly, to leave to  will  process,  i s  but as a  reasons  f o r the  herself  mind,  thus  fulfillment  a record  come  as  experience.  her  in  Love,  code,  t o guard  of  do  and i n  or f a i l s .  enunciated  occupation  generations  and  them  of the integration  plainly  work.  the  universal  the unifying  as a l e g a l i s t i c  two  offer  Adventures  and m u l t i f a c e t e d e m o t i o n a l us  well  technique  a r e both  undergoes  either  of her s t o r i e s .  undertakes  so  which  as  the protagonists of the Lais  individual  by M a r i e  complex  by  they  motivating  Marie  social  the  ritual  the  vice  While  adventures,  process,  potent,  tales.  narrative  Her s t o r i e s  writer  feminine  sketches' that  t o p i c ) and p a r t i c u l a r  these  undeniably  and keen  (in  settings,  woman  meant t o e n t e r t a i n  character  of the past.  major  of  from she her  of the  adventures  profit  from  her  efforts.  C u & t u m e fu a s a n c Terns, C e o t e s t i m o i n e P r e c T e n s , Es livres k e J a d is feseient, A s s e z o s c u r e m e n t d i s e f e n t Pur ceus k i a ven ir e s te fen t E k iaprendre les deveient, K'i peussent gloser la lettre E d e lur s e n le s u r p l u s mettre.  1  ( P 9-16)  2 Clearly,  in  preserve  the  prologue,  old  tales  generations.  She  and  folklore  In  her  social  recreate  tradition  poetry, world the  of  the  as  as  means  and  the goal  of  of  the  social the  had  in  poet  i s not  her  intentions  heard  time  as  for a  to  future  mediator  of  eras.  role  and  of  teacher, Marie  among  human  but  a  people,  communication. coincides  the  picture  to  aim  knowledge  of  of  the  self-knowledge,  and  personality  poet  seeks  p r e s e r v i n g i t . "The  'devices'  relationship  development  learning  stands  a  states  she  between  course,  and  that  thus  culture  Marie  in  In t h e  the  final  with the goal  process summing  of  culture  of up,  as  a  1 whole."  Thus  conflict artist; the  between  i t i s rather  constant  t h e m e do skill  the  not  with  that  p r e s e r v e r of one  of  the  tradition  of  i t . The  enter  the  issue.  which  these  stories  is  greater  is  not  and  the  p r e s e r v a t i o n of  recreation into  emerges  are  told-  creative  of  topic  matters  how  of  tradition  originality What t r u l y  one  well  by and  i s the  they  are  related. There the  quality  systems, its  one  style  in  the  to  events  then,  of  no and of  proof  endurance the  most  narration.  of  rests  upon  of  The  the  that  success  i t s  important  presence  these  of  of  a  a and  f rame  of  situation. narrator  work  or  than  internal  aspects  narration  immediate  immediate  for  function of  process  interpreter/narrator's outside  of  being  culminates reference Narration, narrative  1 A l b e r t L o r d , T h e S i n g e r o f Tal_§s, H a r v a r d S t u d i e s i n C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e 24, ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960) 132-3.  3 medium  and  words,  there  between the  the  must  the  reduced  to the  the  a  text,  sort  author  of  of  forced to  of see  to  time  the  In  other  element,, which  a  gap  denotes  circumstances  of  the  enunciation i s frequently  p o i n t of the  narrated.  recounted,  narrative  s i m p l e r one  are  events  i t ' s being  the  question  view.  events  We,  as  through  receptor,  the  eyes  of  economy  of  narrator, Marie's  words.  style  This  the  essential  stages  before  a  future two  be  accounted  work  before  of  written  It  text  these The  is  a  having  is  two  composed  text  performance  intermediary  the  seemingly  audience  the  of  performance  audience  Thus  probably  One  the  are  a fictitious  an  an  audience.  live  dramatic  on  her  There  readers.  s e r v i n g as  of  composed  of  functions  on  as  well  between  the  as  a  author  r e s p e c t i v e groups. temporal  language,  plays  gives  a  us  here;  a  by  composition  and  of  based  live  audience.  contemporaries generations  is for  a  oral  envisioned  levels.  another  narration  critical  recipients Marie's  of  might  performed  and  of  the  some  and  relationship The  of  be  event  action.  of  absence  It  unavoidable  key  window  time,  existent.  a  factor,  sets  role  into  another  inherent i n the the  world, the  n e c e s s i t y of  past a  tone  in  the  r e c e p t i o n of allowing  different of  structure  the  the  us  reality story.  of  text.  to no It  composition.  " . . . J e peux f o r t b i e n r a c o n t e r une h i s t o i r e s a n s p r e c i s e r l e l i e u ou elle s e p a s s e , e t s i c e l i e u e s t p l u s ou m o i n s e l o i g n e du l i e u d ' o u J e l a r a c o n t e ,  the It  observe longer is  an  4  t a n d i s q u ' i l m'est p r e s q u e i m p o s s i b l e de ne p a s l a s i t u e r d a n s l e t e m p s p a r r a p p o r t a man a c t e n a r r a t i f , p u i s q u e j e d o i s necessairement l a r a c o n t e r a un t e m p s du p r e s e n t , du p a s s e o u du f u t u r . De l a v i e n t p e u t - e t r e que l e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n s tempore!les de 1 ' i n s t a n c e n a r r a t i v e s o n t m a n i f e s t e m e n t p l u s i m p o r t a g t e s que s e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n s spatiales." Narrative that the  time  i t s importance  i t t r a n s p o r t s us story.  reference behind  As  are  points  and  indefinite  time  We  the  present)  a  gains  the  into  d i s a s s o c i a t e d from  a l l of  our  up  those  time  enter  the created  into  of  of  that  actual  time  of  standard  the author.  the  fact  We  leave  reading  (the  of the h i s t o r y  (the  past).  readers  entering  specific  territory  Marie  of  reality  take  our  receptive  of the actual  very  of  virtue  own  and  out  by  of  tale,  and  we  well  B r e t a g n e .  a toujours  into  the  find  context  well  as  o u r s e l v e s t o be s i t u a t e d  defined  space,  E Hoepffner  eu s o in d e  as  fixer  that  states,  ses  of "L e  the  the in  Celtic  f a i t e s t q u e  la is d a n s  le t e m p s  et  to.establish  the  3 dans  1 ' e s p a c e . " She  locale Not  of the i n d i v i d u a l  only  into  takes  are  we  l a i well  i n the  the mythical  past  particular  past, more  as i t s t e m p o r a l  but  often  care  we  are  than  component.  also  into  transported  the  historical  past . There text  which  are  very  allow  us  specific to  signs  place  each  incorporated lai  in  one  into  the  of  two  2 G e r a r d G e n e t t e , F i g u r e s I i i , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1972) 228. 3 E. H o e p f f n e r , " L a G e o g r a p h i e e t l ' h i s t o i r e d a n s l e s L a i s d e M a r i e d e F r a n c e , " B205§Qi§ ( 1 9 3 0 ) 1. L  V  I  5  catagories. details  If there  then  situated deals  we  are  fantastic  lais  an  actual  t h e usage  Each  and  Within  character  When know  of f a n t a s t i c  mythology,  an ambiguous  occur  recit the la is, A m a n z ,  i n or  near  S t . Malo  and  i n miraculous i n every  a n d e n s  we  or  aspect.  mythical  for  as  come  clear  the distance  of  the  or  Bretagne  in  between  a  the  i s great. past  as t a l k i n g  comes  where  them  mythical  other  their  indicators  thereof  such  from  a l l  across  reception  country  be  with  D & u s  categorize  details  characters  of  twelve  catagory;  serve  that  the textual  the  can  r e c o g n i z a b l e . The u s e o f  and  manifestation  worlds.  comes beasts, As  the  to symbolize f o r  the unusual  occurs  as  experience. the context  historical  develops  we  and  to  nonetheless  past.  Of  plausible  and e a s i l y  J a d i s  type  associated  i s lacking  us  realistic  which  i n Normandy,  story  permit  This  narrated  Pitres  and a r e t o t a l l y  terms  of C e l t i c  reader  events  of  are clear  notable  habitual  the  this  passage,  metamorphosis  a  f i tinto  ambiguity  events  Another  the  that  indefinite  particular  locale  city.  which  temporal  quantative  from  indicated  and  story  legend  the  cities  signs  a  names  context.  local  C h a i t i v e l . The  nuances,  The  a  place  with  historical  in Brittany.  magical  of  of  respective  Nantes  dealing  with  three  L a u s t i c and  the  a  i n general  there  the  are  within  establishment  are definite  or  the  in relation types  in  of the s t o r i e s ,  whether  mythical  a  past,  to the internal the  Lais.  we  consider  distinct  pattern  s e t t i n g s of the various There  is  the  natural  distinction civilized were  of the c i t y and  t o go  chosen  into  f o r male  spatial  around  a  The  chamber concerned  through  t h e untamed  forest of  evokes  security  thus  a  an the  to  regions  between  a  spiritual  given the  domain align  centers  themselves  a  vertical  t h e tower,  t h e bed-  of t h e i r  roles i n the Lais, the  Journey,  the  movement  namely  man.  The  They  travel  i s  a s a s.ign o f  male  of the forest  within  sensation  the  characters  between  cities  i n their  among t h e C e l t s , the context  of safety,  refugee  significant  abundance  intrinsic  expect,  of  extensive  notably  sanctuary  i n the Middle  The  distribution  f a r as  one major  regions,  isolating  forest  i f we  the locales  experience  p e r m i t t i n g one t o h i d e  particularly  the  search  companion.  diverse  constitutes  a clear  activities  horizontal transition.  a suitable In  As  loyalty  a  of  t h e woman's  alternately  within the context  ultimate  However,  analysis  characters  make  reflects  of the c i t y .  t h e grove.  can only  nature.  persona,  t h e man's  concept  undergo  for  in-depth  structure,  while  moving  and  man's  which  e m e r g e s . As o n e m i g h t  feminine  transition,  their  more  social  t h e home  the forest  of  and f e m a l e  t h e broader  women  sides  displacement  contemporary  with  wild  and  link life  because  an  of nature.  enveloping  from  from  the forest The  blanket  t h e r e s t o f mankind society.  Europe  was  This  covered  i s with  Ages. of trees  between  which  constitute a  the physical  (the sky) of  life  mankind.  forest  form  (theearth) The  tree  can  and be  7 considered  as  intermediary  a  symbol  between  of  the  embedded, and t h e heavens However, forest  acts  as  superimposed core  when  layers  o f t h e human  human  earth,  touched  seen a  the  from  life,  where,  being  i t s roots  by i t s t o w e r i n g a  stripping  modern  agent;  of c i v i l i t y  an are  limbs.  perspective,  - removing  t o reveal  the  a l l the  the subconscious  psyche.  "Pour 1 ' a n a l y s t e moderne, par son o b s c u r i t e et son enracinement profond, l a f o r e t symbolise 1 ' i n c o n s c i e n t . Les t e r r e u r s de l a f o r e t , comme l e s t e r r e u r s p a n i q u e s , s e r a i e n t i n s p i r e e s , selon Jung, par l a c r a i n t e d e s r e v e l a t i o n s de 1 ' i n c o n s c i e n t . The  forest  but  a threatening  reality  i s no  of  which  inner,  must  doubles  world)  boon,  learn  before  concepts cities:  being  mate  Having  parallels  gained  t h e man  with  journey man  a  as  two  man's  and  back  equipped  to  mirror  man.  control  The that  i n t o s o c i e t y as  through  a  pilgrim from  cities  personal  city  a  inner  the forest  kingdom). i n search  search  and r e c e i v e d return  journeying  the city  ( t h e heavenly  between  as  the  to maturity.  passage  above  society  to confront  the  allowed  i s a  t h e second  i s now  of  from  acts  Thus t h e J o u r n e y  life  journey  forest  t o deal  see  to the city  physical  suitable aid.  two  The  reflection  f o r the psychological  between  the  nature.  true  then  refuge  where one i s f o r c e d  by t h e c i t y .  Medieval  (the  a  w i l d nature  represented  t h e welcoming  place,  h i s basic  contains  character  longer  to  below Thus of  a  for divine the desired  his  4 M a r i a n B e r l e u r , eel., D i c t i o n n a i r e des s y _ m b g 2 § s , Seghers 1973) 341.  original  (Paris:  8 community,  capable  than  living  Just  issue  becomes  of contributing t o that parasitically  one  of  the  from  organism  i t . Once  passage  from  rather  again,  the  adolescence  to  adulthood. According the  principal  attributes a  mother  t o contemporary symbols  of l i m i t s contains  of  the  within  her  i t s inhabitants.  virtue  of  the s p i r i t ,  flesh;  t h e one and t h e o t h e r the  spiritual immobile  Greek  and  with  children,  The  the city  the  of  stationary  the  her paternal  home,  sacred  s p a c e w i t h i n t h e new  city  on  below  by  the  too  high  double  of  by  of the  and w i f e . i s the  represents  t h e home.  she because  city  creates  Hespia  She  that  the  t h e means  goddess  hearth.  center  leaves  so  a r e e q u a l l y mother  tradition,  guardian  mother,  i s one o f  a n d p r o t e c t i o n . I n t h e same manner  possesses  In  analysis, the city  When  the protector  the  a  woman  of  this  home.  "En c o n t r a s t a v e c H e r m e s , l e d i e u d e I ' e s p a c e o u v e r t , du p a s s a g e e t d e s echanges, H e s t i a d e l i m i t e I'espace du d e d a n s , c e l u i d u monde f e m i n i n , que l a n o u v e l l e e p o u s e , une f o i s i n stance d a n s l a d e m e u r e d e s o n m a r i , va p e r p e t u e r , m a i n t e n i r dans s a c o n t i n u i t y , en d e v e n a n t en q u e l q u e s o r t e comme l a f i l l e d e l a n o u v e l l e m a i s o n e t d u ffsu d o m e s t i q u e , c o n f i e s a s e s soi ns." Thus t h e v e r y father, husband's home  o n e who h a s b e t r a y e d  controls  t h e atmosphere  refuge.  For c e r t a i n l y ,  as t h a t  i s h i s point  the foyer and a  the  man  of s t a b i l i t y  o f o n e man, h e r sanctity  will  of  her  always  return  and s e c u r i t y  amidst  5 Y v e s B o n n e f o y , e d . , D i _ c t i o n n a i r e d e s myt h g l g g i e s , Flammarion, 1981) 5 1 8 - T I .  (Paris:  9  his  wanderings  protection forms man  o f Hermes,  t h e counter  i sbasically A  that  lady  that  beauty  a  to Hestia.  protecting  helpmate.  o f God's  The u n i o n  towards  i s presented  as  a  t o h i sperfection.  was  t o be a p a r t  meant  himself  which  reject,  human  i f he  being. be  he must  This  part  she c l e a r l y  functions  man,  Eve. w a s c r e a t e d  to control  i s t o achieve harmonization before  being.  from  Adam. S h e  that  piece of  and use p r o p e r l y , not  the reintegration  of the  o f t h e two d i v e r s e  total  as a  different yet  o f him. She r e p r e s e n t s learn  accomplished  of  mere  man i n g i v i n g h i m  o f a man a n d a woman  essential  must  i s not a  o f t h e h a r m o n y a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e man's  Woman  to  o f t h e woman's  i f anything,  goodness  the  be t h e i m p u l s e i n  t h e woman  impulses;  servant,  who < •  o f . God o r o f t h e l o v e  t h e medium  However,  o f t h e man's  civil  L o v e may e v e n  t o God t h r o u g h  and a c t i v i t y  a n d h e n c e t h e woman.  t h e instrument  goodness.  a reflection  As a  thecity  a man t o e x c e l .  and  symbol  part  responds  projection  t h e g o d o f movement  i s often  incites  man  is  i n t h e s e r v i c e o f s o c i e t y . He c o m e s u n d e r t h e  union  with  God  natures c a n be  i  realizedhas of him  h i sultimate  goal.  From  this  an e s s e n t i a l and p o s i t i v e r o l e a man, a r o l e g i v e n astray Woman  created  does  being,  original cause  or  sin.  into  point  of view,  i n t h e moral  woman  development  h e r by God. She h a s t h e power  t o lead  wholeness.  not differ  from  b u t a s t o what Often  of i t ; i n other  a s t o what  she represents-  the object words,  man  temptation  o f man's d e s i r e  he p r o j e c t s  she i s - a and  becomes t h e  h i s own  weakness  onto of  i t s object.  philosophical  male  persona  In  Marie  her  treatment  She  takes  as  love.  i s more both  realistic  o f women persona  o f them  who s e e s  repressive  seen  us w i t h a c l e a r  transcend  and  the plot  from  normal  in  literary characters  i n the plot  allows  structure.  the adulterous  Y o n e c  idealize  wife,  a n d M i l l i n g a  t h e women a b o u t given  L a O s t i c . The  noble  whom s h e  t o t h e wives mother  of  in  Fresne  e x a m p l e o f a woman who e x p e r i e n c e s  resolution. roles  separate  of her  t h e woman's p o i n t o f v i e w  reintegration  the standard  individuality,  she t r e a t s  relationship.  and r e a l i s t i c  i n t h e punishment  furnishes  of  for  her contemporaries  out of their  in G u i g e m a r ,  B i s c l a v r e t and  result  role  the feelings  and o f t h e l o v e  sinful,  E q u 1 t a n ,  rehabilitation  aspects  trouble the  de F r a n c e ;  than  of mobility  She does n o t however as  that  literary  into  plausible  marriage  and o f t e n  the ladies  writes,  by M a r i e  insights  them a d e g r e e  Marie,  such  us c l o s e r  making  allowing  problems  traditional  i s ignored  t h e female  functions,  The  as symbols,  i n a n i n n o v a t i v e way  giving  ladies,  Only  world.  as symobls  female  as  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  dominated  women  by  T h u s t h e women f u n c t i o n  from  i n society Marie's  as  female  a  direct  characters  f o r women a n d a c h i e v e t h e i r and y e t complementary  own  to their  male c o u n t e r p a r t . Until on  his life  the  male  no  apparent  he f a l l s  i n love,  and awakens  accomplice  until  him t o an a s p e c t  has n o t been  direction.  a woman  The  aware  woman  intrudes  herself  of his, being  o f , a man's  becomes  life  h i s goal  that has and  purpose and  to  act  often  hidden  significant the  end  of  in  love  is  which  of  the  separated  that  society.  aspects  role  previously supply  within  She  his  calls  personality.  attainment  to  make  of  a  is  lacking  to  the  deeper  Love  plays  self-awareness  new  i n d i v i d u a l s . The  he  forth  person man  since  out  needs  complement  a  of  two  the  woman  to  and  complete  himself. The  journey  directions from  his  world.  of  in  at  in  must  familiarize  and  contact  the  answer  role  her as  with  to  his  as  that  woman t o  home, t o  private  to  his  return  the  r e v e r s e d . He  Having  found  woman, he accomplish member o f  the  the  society.  he  man  seeks  void  travels  out  into  into  the  himself  to  to  so  f i l l .  that  he  becomes t h e  He can  object  his  next  integrate  her  into his  social  outward  motion  The  man  his  his  fellow  to  he  is  initial  to  return  l o c a t i o n , the  fulfillment  which  goes  i t . She  regain  becomes o n c e a g a i n that  a  mate,  life.  initial  must  relation  As  distinct  desires.  allowing  in  f i l l  a complementary  his  he  two  withdraws  with  reversed,  rank  he  himself  his  to  woman,  which  inner  back t o  inward.  void  found  well  and  the  now  his  represents  the  time  is  a 1 so  man  of  same  right  Having bring  search  the  come  recognize  a  movement: o u t w a r d  home  Yet  for  of  given  home.  inward  equi1ibrium, men  once  his  inner  extrovert, to  able do  task  as  is  to  Parallel motion  is  re-establish  he  comes  needs to  go a  home.  in  the  forth  and  responsible  12  This contains change: in  motion the  young  physical  basic  man's f i r s t  This  love,  encounters readers  form  with  with  a  end-posts a  tightly  complicated  of  love, two  the  7ais.  extremes  variety  system  adventures:  of  motion  a  u c o e u r . of  and  we  the story  spectrum Marie  one  of  presents between  can see that  describing  t h e male/female  maturation  o f an o l d e r ,  combinations  Thus  has f o r  of maturation  G u i g e m a r ,  of  equilibrium  society  and E l i d u c , a t a l e  of experience. knit  that  to  and t h e s t a g e s  pattern  a f f a i r e s d wide  and r e t u r n i n g  metaphors  displacement  i n a l l twelve  mature  form  two  the life-cycle.  occurs  two  of stretching  of  a  more human her these  the Lais  life's  relationship.  most  Socially, of  decay  middle for  i n Feudalism  class.  "the  good  especially type  the t w e l f t h century  of  stands  and t h e r i s e  o l ddays",  her  chivalry  injustice and  courtly: later,  this  e  longing  societies,  o f change.  to  what  o f descent  of  decline  wherein  l i  a  many  of t h e heights  s i x , Arthur  7i p r u z  law-abiding  This Marie  was  while  from  which  that  i t took.  i n the Lais.  attitude  In verse  A r t u r ,  tone  court  deal  signs  see i n the Lais.  and t h e path  this  among  back  t o us an a p p r a i s a l  of Arthur's  abused.  we  e r a , looking  has f a l l e n  see  great  i s what  Hence t h e g e n e r a l l y t r a g i c We  a  more  of t h e past,  i s prevalent  undergoing  idealization  transmitting  of a  The r o m a n t i c i z a t i o n  those  in  saw t h e b e g i n n i n g  Lanval  latent abides  i s described  c u r t e i s .  d e s c r i p t i o n i s negated  Yet,  i n the neglected  as brave and  thirteen  by t h e k i n g ' s  verses  treatment  2 of  Lanval.  ,and  By f o r m i n g  action,  hollowness ideal,  Marie  within.  Arthur  being  a clear  cracks Envy  contrast  the courtly  h a s gnawed  theliterary  between  facade  away  exemplar  appearance  t o reveal the  t h e substance  o f an  of kingship.  1 "Many h i s t o r i a n s d e s c r i b e t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a s a p e r i o d of c o n f i d e n t a c t i v i t y , o f economic and i n t e l l e c t u a l expansion,..." Joan M. F e r r a n t e , Women a s I m a g e i n M e d i e y a i L i t e r a t u r e : F r o m t h e J w e j f t h C e n t u r y , t o D a n t e , (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975) 11.  2 C e o fu L a n v a l ; n e 7 'en sovint N e n u l s d e s s o e n s b i e n n e 7i t i n t . P u r s a v a l u r , p u r s a 7 a r g e s c e , P u r s a b e a u t S , p u r s a p r u e s c e , L 'env'foent tuit 7i plusur; Te7s 7i m u s t r a semb7ant d ' a m u r , S ' a 7 c h e v a 7 i e r m e s a v e n i s t , J a  une  feiz  n e 7'en  p7e  insist.'  (Ll  19-26).  14 The  term  literature lai,  which  i s given  (both  in  By  to  are  was  extant this.  Marie  being  one  around  Celtic  to de  of  bretoms,  there  refer  France  is  no  a  of  r e a d . We  earliest  Celtic  local and  of  color certain  the  time,  Tai  the  to  undergoes  the twelve l a i s lais on  have  exception to  upon  the  harp  or  her rote.  a narrative  the  to  poem  t o us  validity  this  compose  a  being  which  available  check  writers  celtiques des  l a geographie  In  dealing two  a  lais  sont  no of  tradition, her  texts  toutefois  assez  personnages  1'histoire reprises,  de  arthurienne.  t h e m e s de  des  noms d e s  plusieurs  des  are  the  Most  performed  to  references  la tradition  sont  story"-  folklore.  rencontrent  de  "short  names)  musical  which  l a plupart  a  seven  or  the  des  renvoient  of  traditional  The be  the  Breton sources.  recited  elements  abondants:  personal  with  to  genre  the adventure, Marie creates  be  texts  were  of  elements.  Celts.  to  modern  presence  the  i n form,  based  to  "Les  and  hands,  the  emphasizing  which  the  t o have u t i l i z e d  change  attributed stories  of  applies  t o our  supernatural  Marie's  definite  i t  is similar  because  and  claim In  as  place-names  folkloric poets  Breton,  les  l a Bretagne Les  de  themes  sont  noms  1'Amorique noms  ou  des  a  de  se  lieux  1'Angleterre  merveilleux,  enfin,  contes bretons."  with  the  categories  question into  which  of the  temporal twelve  settings, lais  fall;  3 J e a n n e L o d s , L e s L a i s de M a r i e de F r a n c e , L e s C l a s s i q u e s f r a n c a i s du M o y e n A g e 8 7 , ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e H o n o r e C h a m p i o n , 1959) x - x i .  15  that  of  the  Celtic  historically fall  into  mythical  based  this  scenario.  latter  C h a i t i v m l . Each of  its  realistic  to  the  the  great  three  place care  In lais  to  are  historic  the  Other  the  The  4  in the A  we  of  local  a  point  see  the  details  a  a  these time  and  legends which  linked  she  takes  long  minds of  longing for  "the  of  ago  belief the  golden  tales in  use  of  such  terms  are  that  play.  the  boat  identity  in  the  magic  and  markedly  we  see  an and  provides  to  of G u i g e v a r ,  for  transmit when  the  Indefinite  author  magic  of  mystified  Y o n e c , Lanval's  elements  primitive  and  into  which  stag  revelation  of  These  narratives  i n B i s c l a v r & t and  when  the  names.  majority  to  fairy  lover,  Fresne the  reader  fantastic reigned  and  was  supreme  audience. days of  yore" 5  through  lais  Laustic  i t s place  past,  time.  coming  talking  a l l of  hearts  of  World  temporal  feeling  possible,  twelve  a  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  on  distant  the  "miraculous"  that  based  the  with  Oet/s A m a n z ,  precision  Marie,  the  from  son,  namely  trio,  cloud  audience.  Milun's  by  this  in  by  metamorphosis the  the  the  of  of  three tales  seemingly  to  occurring  element  three  contrasted  establish.  contrast  different  her  are  and  names c h o s e n  romanticized  hazy  details  these  being  Only  category;  and  Also,  past  as  Jadis  i s communicated 6  and  ancien&  which  c r e a t e a n o s t a l g i c a m b i a n c e . M a r i e makes a c o n s c i o u s effort 4 " L ' e m p l o i d'un t e m p s du p a s s e s u f f i t a l a d e s i g n e r comme t e l l e , sans pour a u t a n t i n d i q u e r l a d i s t a n c e t e m p o r e l l e q u i s e p a r e l e moment d e l a n a r r a t i o n d e c e l u i d e 1 ' h i s t o i r e . " Genette, 232. 5 F r 3,4; B 5; Y 1 1 , 1 2 ; OA 1,2; Eq3. 6 G 26; M 532; E 1,5,6.  16  to  situate  remains of  her s t o r i e s  imprecise  physical  tales.  We  situate  placed  and  setting  the tales  vague. so  are given  G u i g e m a r ,  i n the d i s t a n t past.  the f i r s t  e e l  the land.  tale  historically  terms  which  enable  us  to  setting.  o f the' c o l l e c t i o n ,  i s clearly  la M e n u r a n c i e n u r  tint  H o i las la t e r e  (G 2 5 - 2 7 ) .  t h e name o f t h e c u r r e n t  This  based  past.  tens  are also given  held  i n the  general  always  are a l l the precisions  i n a d i s t a n t temporal  K i en B r e t a i g n e A v i n t a l t e n s  We  obvious  very  i n the mythical  En  Absent  The t i m e  i s an  ancient  monarch- Hoel,  who  which  in  story  occurred  Brittany. A  second  supernatural, hunting  in  which  the  conversation adversary's actions.  forest,  to  this  information, following  via a  and  unguarded,  the  type  of  aspect  as  a  the  section, but w i t h this  magic  the  luxury  kings. as  of  this,  The s h i p s t e e r s  itself  denoted  by  t h e good  and  the  there  The  costly  boat  as as  t o Solomon wealthy  wind.  of and  the r e c i t begins.  and moves u n d e r gentle  A her  description  scene,  most  hind.  prophesies  in i t sconstruction  t h e r e i n . The r e f e r e n c e  While  t h e commencement  vessel .  furnishings fabled  white  beast  t h e hunt,  forest  i s the  impetus.  a  a l l i s  yet i t i s obviously used  G u i g e m a r  wounds  scene comprises  magnificent  wood  of  narrative  Guigemar  wherein  future. This  Immediately journey  acts  ensues,  Up  background  distinguishing  The  i s  the  i s empty  signified  by  well  as t h e  ( v 72)  evokes  of  ancient  divine  impetus  ebony  vessel  conveniently  makes two  expulsion  of  magic,  symbolized  force  as of  more a p p e a r a n c e s  Guigemar  physical  and by  at  the  the  i n the  flight  ship,  of  the  becomes  displacement  as  story, lady.  the  well  at  the Thus  motivational  as  of  narrative  progression G u i g e m a r times past  and  meets  magical  and  cannot  contemporary  both  our  influences. be  confused  geography  E q u i t a n , however, the the  of  antiquated  is  in  It i s a with  the  case  requirements clear  history  obvious,  so  ancient  case of  mythical  despite  preliminary  i s not  of  the  use  description.  straight-forward.  the  magical  is  of With  While  relatively  nonexistent. The  only  indication  describing  Equitan  locale  been  total the  has lack  king  into  of of  as  the  magic,  and,  dwarfs.  If  king  folkloric Irish  of  society  tradition.  about  the  realistic  fairy realm  the  s i r e d e s  interpreted  consideration,  8eing  of  we  the the of  be  (v  the  converse  take  the  dwarfs, the  could, as  in i t  everyone  found  This  become  is  hence  a  as'' / ? a / / 7 5 ,  interpretation self-evident.  links  us  people,  so  this  sense,  is  in  ambiguous  extreme,  latter  Equitan  little  kingdom,  12).  is  modern-day Nantes,  conclusions  Equitan  where  N a u n s .  to  to  supernatural  with  the  prevalent  hard  to  deformed  as  be  a  in story  imagine a  a  national  trait. The a  king  were  other cursed  often  possibility in  his  which  physical  interpreted  as  presents  stature. a  itself  Physical  curse  of  God  i s that  of  deformities upon  an  individual;  the  manifested would  give  moral  the  debate  contention  A  central  a just  baseness  The  Marie's  of  in his flesh.  connotation, of  weight  his  forefathers'  fleshly figure  a  representation  contrasted remains  to scholars.  imagination,  N a u n s  sort  negative  inner  state  lineage.  unresolved  and a  be a s i m p l e  Hoepffner  being  this  and  of Equitan's  could  Ernest  of  dark  to h i s peerless  t o date  as  marking  sins  point  of  invention of  suggests  in his  7 detailed or  examination  a geographical  has  survived.  theory,  this  of historical  reference  Given issue  of which  no c o n c r e t e remains  geography  of the Lais  no a u t h o r i t a t i v e  evidence  a mystery  that  t o support in a l l  ,  source either  likelihood,  8 will  remain  shrouded  There  i s ,  which  i n the fog of  however,  we c a n b e c e r t a i n .  Cil d e Bretaine, J a d is s u l e i e n t P a r c u r t e i s i e D e s a ven t u r e s  another  the  mythical  time  a r e given  n o r a r e we made a w a r e  could  affix  t h e name  of  time  about  li B r e tun J p a r pruesce, e p a r n o b l e s c e qu ' i 1 o e ien t, ( E 2 - 5 ) .  u s e o f J a d i s and B r e t u n p l a c e We  indication  E q u i t a n i s an o l d t a l e .  The  past.  ambiguity.  N a u n s .  E q u i t a n i n the category no c l e a r ,  of a specific This  story  either  of the B r i t a i n s .  The m a j o r i t y  around  the seneschal's  castle.  This  defined  of  period  of  l o c a l e t o which  we  could  take  of action could  be  place i n  occurs any  at or castle,  a n y w h e r e , a t a n y t i m e i n t h e p a s t . The l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n 7 H o e p f f n e r 5. 8 F o r an o v e r v i e w o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a r i o u s meanings of N a u n s , s e e Jean Rychner, L a i s , Les C l a s s i q u e s f r a n c a i s du Moyen Age 9 3 , ( P a r i s : Librairie Honore Champion, 1978) 247-248.  thus be  makes  lying  E q u i t a n open  dormant  within  Fresno, like Marie  uses  to interpretation.  Equitan  could  place i n the distant  past.  any monarch.  E q u i t a n , takes  t h e same  An  vocabulary t o place her next  story  in a  context:  En  Bretaine  Jadis  Du i cheval First,  we  major  note  with with  of  of  precedent  the  The  remains  neighbors  have  had  which  emphatically  narration reference  The  lends point miracle  general  reversal  tale  the  out  are told  due  adult  Secure  readers. Fresne  t o which  This a  people  aspect of t h i s  populace  of  grant  Cil  mervei  e celes  a  Bretagne  more  liberty  to  now  of  being  her  of  adventure  named  to f i l l  local with  color  i s  as t h e of  i n more of  the  and  a  facility.  i s Fresne  i s amazed a t F r e s n e ' s  le le  main  Fresne  embellishment  can r e l a t e  reaction  teneient  k i la v e e i e n t .  The  two  establishment  begins  extra touch  gossip.  life  in  Fresne's  i s that  of her e s t a t e .  A  supposed  established  takes  in i t s location,  Dole.  to  the  concerning  A l l we  as t h e o l d w o r l d , Marie f o r her  to  having  Fresne,  the  falling  specific of  in  vague.  treats  archbishopric Bretagne  a  J a d i s as t h e  setting. of  rather  adverb  E q u i t a n f o r the use  Marie;  part  parentage  episode  ( F r 3,4)  position  Secondly,  and  of her  first  relative  story.  fantastic,  the details  The  our  in G u i g e m a r  the  details  ier; ve is in e s t e i e n t .  the use of the temporal  indicator  occurrence  maneient  ( F r 381-82)  herself. to the  20  Her  calm  and  opposition daughter and  to  The  to  her  of  who  Fresne Upon  is a  Fresne  terrible  that  occurs  acts  Fresne  negatively  story  she  note  of  the  of  past-  thereafter  to  This  in  of  theme  d e  here  Marie  the  her  her  fate  with  repentance the  the  of  the  plot.  The  a t t i t u d e of  upon  the  bed,  i t came f r o m . given  the  s u n  the  The  lady  in explanation  to  lady  acknowledge  falls  to  her  to her  knees  which  J a d f s  le  a  brief  the  of  us  and send  p o e f t  ( F r 456-59)  greatest  changing  gives  Jadfs  entrez,  m e s f a f t .  i s the  fantastic  a  and  of  a  tale  perhaps  human  heart.  that  contains  the  folkloric.  Again  us  s p i r a l ing  into  h u mo f r  discourse  the  (5).  we the  Immediately  on  the  and  back  legendary  werewolf.  metamorphosis  central  remove  conniving  choses  m i r a c l e s - the  follows  characteristics  fantasy  of  both  use  indefinite  the  If q u f e r t  Bisclavret,  elements  direct  confessing a l l :  witness  most d i f f i c u l t In  to  within  the  where  Miraculously,  husband,  are  in  situation  coverlet  to  the  instead  to  the  as  ignored  but  P a r d u n we  is  accepts  i s the  Quant 7*7 e s t en 7a c h a m b r e l a d a m e 1i c h e f as pfez, Estreftement If a d bafsfez,  What  Gurun schemes  scene.  recognizing  ways.  the  still  i s contrasted  simply  queries,  before  what  miracle  i n q u i r e s of  foolhardy  who  the  heretofore  have  towards  worsen.  mother.  could  from  best  second  example of  mother  love  mother  again  the  potential  the  the  yet  makes  mother,  selfless  from  man  to  wolf  the  story,  encapsules  B f s c l a v r e t . We  expect  to  read  a  the  again,  as  element  of  horrific  tale  of  21  a  man-eating  lending  to  identify us  to  beast,  i t pity  with  the  change  narrating active  We  pathos,  thus  man  trapped  inside  the  the  wife  view.  into  pains,  In  tradition,  her.audience  beast. to  fantasy,  She  the  doing  disappointments  his enforced know t h a t  of  twists  enabling  from, the  point  enter  the  Marie  and  his  readers,  comprise  instead  loyalties  from  Bisclavret  but  forces  husband  this,  by  we,  experiencing and  to  betrayal  as with  which  imprisonment.  the  baron  in question  i s from  Bretagne,  as  g this  fact  later  as  man  i s the  as  the  into  Arthur. lais  discussed. Bretagne  one  can  our  name It  i n our  is  past,  us  instead  choice  association  easily opinion  9  be  surface  Ernest  Hoepffner  of  M e r v e i 1 le  m a n e it u n s 1 'a i of  loeri  the  in  the sign  a of  state,  as  15,16)  the  is  of  and  the  King  mythical of  on  decorations  article  bers; (B  of  That  difficulty his  as  signs  Jadfs  court  concentrate  mainly any  of  incontestable  Arthur.  without  En B r e t a i n e  in  with  replaced  He,  of  B i s c l a v r e t definitely  above d i s c u s s i o n s  indefinite  L a n v a l are  voice  the  use  of  settings.  set  an  of  that  ahistorical  tale,  the  p h y s i c a l change of (the  Marie  country  described.  the  is  elements  the  By  Bretaigne  of  story.  interpret correctly  of  let  as  i s thus  s a f e l y surmise  seen  the  i s through  indicators  next  of  to  other  category  Having  that  only  we  beginning  geographical  that  two  the  Lanval,  the  captivity.  B r e t a i n e } , fits  this  advisor  8isclavret's well  at  previously  king's  wise  given  defines  marvels the  is  the  Marie's Arthurian and  could  expressed  L aG e o g r a p h i e e  t  22 l ' h i s t o i r e d a n s  l e s Lais  d eM a r i e d e F r a n c e . 1 0  ,  D  but: why Marie  make s u c h  an  which  stretches  back  to  lend  contact  an  with  Marie Troyes  also  of  connection Gaufrei  makes  distinct  audience  i s the  emphatically  a  literary  Monmouth and  to  her  could  references details  to  de  credibility  her  a l l ,there  most  to  of  which  i n two  First life  air  overt  to  Yvain  which she and  demonstrated  by  point  not of  identify.  by  Chrestien  decline the  Id  tradition  a  includes  injustice  wou  Wace i f  tales,  readily  . .  de  in Lanval. of  courtly  ostracism  of  Lanval: F F C N  e m m e s e teres depa o r s a u ns u l k i 1 ' o eo fu L a n v a l ; n e 1' e n u l s d es o e n s b i e  Likewise, namely  by  mourns  the  make a  mockery  Chrestien  emphasising loss  of of  true i t by  rti t s e r v i : en sovint n n e li t i n t .  starts the  Yvain  decline  c h i v a l r y and rendering  a  in  of  (LI the  same  courtly  laments hollow  and  17-20) manner,  ethics.  those base  who  He now  service  11 to Love. Described by b o t h M a r i e a n d C h r e s t i e n as brave 10 " L e s e l e m e n t s a r t h u r i e n n e s d a n s L a n v a l s o n t d ' a i l l e u r s t o u t a f a i t e x t e r i e u r s e t n e t o u c h e n t en r i e n au c o e u r du s u j e t ; on p e u t l e s e l 1 m i n e r s a n s l a m o i n d r e d i f f i c u l t ^ . " H o e p f f n e r 20. 11 L i u n r e c o n t o i e n t n o v e l e s , L i a u t r e p a r l o i e n t d ' A m o r s , D e s a n g o i s s e s e t d e s d o l o r s E t d e s g r a n z b i e n s q u 'o r e n t s o v a n t L i d i s c i p l e d es o n c o v a n t , Q u i l o r s e s t o i t m o l t d o l z e t b u e n s ; M e s o r i a m o 11 p o d e s suens Q u ' a b i e n p r e s 1 ' o n t J a t u i t l e s s i e e ; S ' a n e s t A m o r s m o l t a b e s s i e e , C a r c i l q u i s o l o i e n t a m e r Se feisoient c o r t o is c l a m e r E t p r e u e tl a r g e e t e n o r a b l e ; O r e s t A m o r s t o r n e e a f a b l e F o r c eq u e c i l q u i r i e n n ' e n s a n t e n t D i e n t q u ' il a i m e n t, m e s i 1 m a n t e n t,  23 and  courteous  falls  ( L l 6;  asleep  astounded  in  and  Yv  the  3), Arthur  queen's  deeply  forgets  chambers.  disturbed  by  h i s manners The  this  and  knights  overt  are  lack  of  courtesy. Mes c e 1 J o r m o 1t s e merveil D e l r o i q u ie i n c o i s s e l e v a , S i o t d e t e x c u i m o 1t g r e v a E t q u i m o l t g r a n t p a r o l e a n P o r c eq u io n q u e s m e s n e l v i A s i g r a n t f e s t e a nc h a n b r e p o r d o r m i r n ep o r r e p o s e r ; M e s e e l J o r e n s i le a v i n t Que la r e i n e le detint, Si d e m o r a tant delez li Q u ' i l s ' o b l i a e t e n d o r m i . The  knights  Didonel ,  Calogrenant honor  s i t outside  and  picture  valor  of  elements  flattering.  The  but  this  and  Pentecost  of Gauvain  two  Gauvain  sis form  and  h i s men  link  filled  life  that  Yvain  tale,  not  The  of  overall  with are  and  negative far  from  commences a t t h e f e a s t o f  between  and Y v a i n  o de u se s t e i t  cusins an  court  a  disgrace.  i s  Yy§2Q  Gauvains,  Lanval (11).  textual  E n s e m b l e  ( Y v 4 2-5 2 )  sharing  and  scene  about  f i r e n t r e n t a n t r e r  Kex,  door  shame  also that  ( 6 ) as does  E  of  details  second  the  opening  Notice  introduction  These  Sagremors,  lierent  li b e a u s  integral who  into  Marie's  text  i s the  :  N a Iwa i n s Y w a i n s .  part  stand  L a n v a l and Y y a i n  ( L I 225-26)  of the narrative  as pledge  f o r Lanval  as  i ti s  ( L l 397-  E t c i l f a b l e e t m a n c o n g e a n f o n t Q u i s 'an v a n t e n t e t d r o i t n'i ont. M e s o r p a r I o n s d e c e zq u i f u r e n t , S i l e i s s o n s c e zq u ia n c o r d u r e n t , C a r m o l t v a l t m i a l z , c e m ' e s t a v i s U n s c o r t o is m o r z c ' u n s v i l a i n s v i s (Yv 12-32.) T.8.W.Reid, e d . , Y y a i n L e C h e y a 2 i § £ §u L y o n ( M a n c h e s t e r : M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) 1. x  24  401).  Marie,  in  the  using  elements  aspects  in  some  of  the  greatest  details  are  intentional  L a n v a l , being Hoepffner enforce the  more  had the  lover  this  set  It  afford  the  out  in  would  aspect  as  i s the being  from  blanc  This  the  verses  could  nature.  take  mortgage  a  rides  palefrei  These  narration  any  other  of  as  E.  aspect,  classification  who  as  his  she  vus  sui  venue  the  l a i as  whence she Avalon,  i t s supernatural historic  on  herself  luinz  from  and  as  of  Her  Lanval's mysterious  ornamented  bought  by  one's  any  castle  defends  limitless  De  land  be  p r o t e c t s and  of  lady  palefrei: t e n e r e i eslegier e n g a g i e r . ( L I 551,  fors  a  with  with  king just  on to  chevauchot,  Jeo  L a n v a l from  story  upon:  vine  Thus  the  flavoring.  not  vus  of  her  mythology.  fairy  adorned  Pur  other  arthun'an  embellishments  than  the  wealth,  source land  of  grove,  sovereign  another  more  folkloric  Riches atur at el S u z c i e l n e n a d c u n K i tut le p e u s t S a n z t e r e v e n d r e u She  to  textual  the  p a l f r e y she  Un  literary  L a n v a l w i t h i n the  story a  unparalleled  earth.  aligns  integral  They,  and  past.  supernatural  pavilion  of  mere  of  Yyain  Lanval,  and  than  placement  gives  of  creators  stated.  indefinite The  an  creation  of  555-58)  Lanval  wealth.  The  as  well  lady  is  confesses:  de  m a tere:  quere.  1  (LI  111-12)  came i s r e v e a l e d  i n the  thus  her  content  classification.  confirming also  serves  to  last  faerie exempt  25  Y o n e c the  "days  instead  time  of yore."  of  Lanval's  an  i s y e t another  He  of c r i s i s  answer  This  female.  lady.  to  example of a f a i r y  The  time,  however,  bird-knight  t o o h a s come  tale  l a i seti n  the fairy  i s male  i s the counterpart  from  f o r the protagonist  another  land  to  during  of the adventure,  a  being  prayer.  M e s n e poeie a vus venir N e f o r s d e m a n p a 1e is eissir, S i vus n e m ' e u s s e z r e g u i s . ( Y 131-3 3 ) Here which,  we  find  second  occurrence  as i n B i s c l a v r e t , occurs  indicated  by  Jadis;  Marie.  Other  lady's  miraculous  silver  city.  pattern other  our  facets  we  have  i n Bretaigne  solidly  this  fits  tale  to take  into  examined  metamorphosis, and t h e t i m e i s  established  her journey  Y o n e c  ahistorical as  of  leap,  Thus  which  Just  two  of  signals  note  through  with  of are the  the h i l l  and t h e  the generally  established  f o r t h e temporal  settings of  lais.  Y o n e c  i s the counter-part  M i l u n t o F r e s n e , where  a son instead  to  Lanval,  of a daughter  so i s  recovers  12 his  family.  However,  Milun  i s based  on  Milun  was  i s South  Wales,  Celtic  context.  itself one,  born  within  a  as she r e v e a l s  a  h e r e we a r e g i v e n tale.  Marie  so  that  does  that  tell  t h e l a is t i l l  Her  source  i s an  us  situates ancient  a t t h e end o f t h e l a i .  . D e lur a m u r Firent  Breton  no i n d i c a t i o n  e d e  lur  bien  u n 7 a i li a u c ' i e n ,  (M  531-32)  12 F o r m o r e o n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s l a i s t o o n e a n o t h e r , s e e S. F o s t e r Damon, " M a r i e P s y c h o l o g i s t o f C o u r t l y Love," P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a 7 ~ X L I V ( 1 92 9 ) ~ 9 6 8-996"7~  26 While  this  story  does  contain  specific  geographic  p l a c e names,  history,  as  criteria  personal  history  i s the  twenty  years  itself  a  of  wonder  of  ponder.  identity  is  something  remarkable,  of  ending  discovered  in  his  in  disaster,  via  The  is  modern  lover  correspondence to  and  the  manner  also  that  great  i t does not  f o r the  Milun,  a  deal  with  lais.  It  their  swan in  is  results  Oedipian in  the  of  local is  the  son. in  which  presented  the  number  and  the  by  The of  son's  Marie  combat,  as  instead  resolution  of  the  his  body  with  his  intrigue.  E  DeuJ  P a r M i l u n , the  and  his  a  reunion  b r u i s e d ego,  The  conform  il, c u m s u i  f e i , a m i s ,  For  lady.  fait  amazing  to  our  legendary  is a divine leading  series  Tristan  and  information. minimal  there  the  union  the  location  p a s t , .making  both Milun  one.  the  Marie  Tristram  of  the  cunte en  legendary  gives  us  receive  no the  love  affair  background story  with a  and  miraculous  lais,  tradition  Thomas.  e d i t escrit  e d e la r e ' i n e ,  Marie  mythological Celtic  literary  Beroul  and  historic  immediately  le m ' u n t 1 'ai t r o v e  i s nothing  shortest  another  desired  distant  to  f o r both  introduction.  De  the  a  Yseut.  the  of  471-72)  healing  details  itself  I n s t e a d we  Plusur E J e o  While  to  of  more t h a n  C h i e v r e f o i l links of  t u e s m i s f i z J (M  qualifications  tale  garizi  and  (Cf nor  5-7)  magical  nonetheless  vignette,  as  has  within  this,  created  established  yet  within  c o n t e x t most n o t a b l y expounded  by  27  E l i d u c , the twelfth described  This (E  by M a r i e  lai,  5,30).  court  like  majority,  As  are  the with  bear  Eliduc  across  faithful  to flee Marie  of  Eliduc,  her  lover.  The  as  people  tend  to  like  Fresne,  an  recovery.  agent  of n a r r a t i o n .  resembles  closely  Guildeluec's two  as  she  wife,  Her  that  preference  having  was  the  the  because and  the Breton proper  is  given  of  takes  name f o r  names  i s the is a  manner  the up  Guildeluec,  be,  of  used  instead  tool  of  paragon  sisters  miraculous  for  of  by  being  destiny in  to  rather clears  dead  of v i r t u e  of r e l a t i n g  f o r the veil  started  in G u i g e m a r ,  Eliduc the  uses  of  and  Guilliadun  than  rivals.  t h e way  f o r the  l o v e r s t o be u n i t e d . thus,  past  story,  She,  injustice  vassal  Guilliadun  in  this  Bretaigne  the continent  A l l of  episode  jealous,  the  in  derivation.  "resurrection" the  situated  witness a  69,1071).  a l s o of Amorican The  upon  i s forced  (E  i s  we  the Channel.  Logres  i s  en lai bretun tute la refsun si cum Jeo en t e n t m u n e s c Yen t . ( E 1-4)  Lanval,  to  l a i of the c o l l e c t i o n ,  o l d Breton l a i .  d  jealously.  England,  as a v e r y  D'un mut an Le cunte e k'us dirai,' La verite,  brought  refuge  and f i n a l  occurs,  Bretaigne  literary marvelous  we  like of  the  distant,  end upon t h e same n o t e a l l of  Marie's  tradition  with  of  occurrences,  a  the other Being  country  replete and  with this  ahistorical  making.  the twelfth  mythological  situated with  final  story.  lais,  in  within  the  strange  and  l a i brings  us  28  full  circle  which  i n our  direct  magic, three  contrast  fairies  and  of  the lais  Generally  speaking,  names.  relate  D e u s  to Pitres  Bretagne.  the  conjugal  they  realistic everyday We two  life  associate 20) here has  space  this  as well  as with  of mythical long  a g o been  S t . Malo lack  with  with local  time  past.  and  city  definite  stages.  a specific  subject  identified  Marie  provides  that  l a iexploits  are matter.  The of  tales f o r  great  site  care  question  of this l a i  to thespecific  13 f o r us.  O.M.  two  known  to  and c i t y ( 7 -  i ti s not a  The e x a c t  well  less  and concerns  mountain  according  of  contemporaries.  takes  h i s t o r y . Thus  and p l a c e .  They  the "historic"  a l l , Marie  both  plausible scenarios  the issues  with  and Nantes,  o f t h e f a n t a s t i c and  i n their  with  A m a n z  names w h i c h this  and  concerned  of  recit  prevalent,  linked to a  details  a s i t was k n o w n t o M a r i e ' s  First  are  where  L a u s t i c and C h a i t i v e l r e s p e c t i v e l y  deal  D e u s  tales,  the historic  stories  realistic  i t s various  thus  classify  reasons.  by  a n d more mundane  lais  within  i s a distinct  in  elements  are local  Amanz,  a r e more  adventuresome  worldly  i n Normandy  life  t h e legendary  a r e placed  There  episodes  with  other  are characterized  place  in  the imaginary  i s B r e t a i g n e i n a l l i t s forms. In  and  investigation of  Johnston themes  place  concludes i n the  13 "... I I s ' a g i t d e l a " c o t e d e s D e u x A m a n t s " , q u i , a u c o n f l u e n t d e l a S e i n e e t d e 1 ' A n d e l l e , d o m i n e d e s e s 138 metres l a p r a i r i e q u i l a separe des r i v i e r e s ; c e t e s c a r p e m e n t , i m p r e s s i o n a n t d a n s un p a y s de p l a i n e s , s e t r o u v e a p r o x i m i t e d e P i t r e s . " J e a n n e W a t h e l e t - W i 1 1 em, "Un Lai de M a r i e de F r a n c e : L e sD e u x A m a n t s " M§lstQg§s ° f f § C * § k Bl£§ k§J§yQ§' ( G e m b l o u x : E d i t i o n s J . D u c u l o t , 1 9 6 9 ) 1144. r  29 universal a  tradition  father  for  his daughter  an  insurmountable  daughter denies  any  placing  of-folklore;  originality  i t  in  exploits.^*  the  It  examination  who  of  the  imposes task  in  the  context  of  becoames  namely  as  the  upon  the  proof  of  composition a  local  D e u s  his  of  even  A m a n z  love  of  of  the  suitor  love.  this  legend  evident,  l a i , that  abnormal  story,  which  at  i s not  a a  He  Marie cursory  product  of  15 Celtic  folklore  Secondly, philtre  to  there  and  characters drink  influences  augment  physical  makes  and  training  who  practices  as  m e s c i n e s (DA  While  15  the  located  for  with  the  takes  a  purely  strength.  by  as  man  mystical.  the  two  denies world.  and  prefers  medicinal  drink  the  7 ' a r t d ep h i s i k e  rich  and  matter  of  relative  Q u e  and  its the  risks  of  bottle  of  the to  refusing  rejects  the  motif,  is a  By  He  The  principle  magic  literary  This  directed  the  each other.  real  aid  i t i s .  of  love,  young  upon  i t a  claims  lack  enamored  Marie  and  14 O.M. Modern  not  otherworldly Rather  Marie  total  are  potion,  potion,  mountain  a  already  the  fantastic,  not  though  is  potion are  potential  reality.  even  improve roots,  and  herbs  of  Salerne,  m u te s t  s a i v e d e  106-7).  the in  Bretons  h a v e made a  Bretaigne,  i n N o r m a n d y . The  Johnston, "Sources L a n g u a g e N o t e s , XXI  but  l a i , as  l a i of  explains much as  this  story,  i t is  the  naming  of  the  of the l a y of the (1906) 34-39.  P u r 7' a v e n t u r e d e s e n f a u n z A d n u n 7i m u n z "des D e u s A m a n z " . I s s i a v i n t c u m d i t vus a i ; L i B r e t u n e n f i r e n t u n l a i . (DA  251-54).  mountain, Two  a  is a  Lovers,"  30 monument two  to "love's  basic  labor  criteria  lost."  Thus  D e u s  f o r the mythical  A m a n z  fails  classification,  the while  16 fulfilling  those  Laustic  of the historic.  i s our  urban -in f l a v o r , living These in  next  courting  door  the  The  Tatter's  given  was r e a d i l y  pur  7e b i e n  Tant  pur  ceo  merits,  reputation.  The  profound when  plot  disposes  triangle  by  which  modern i n  a cynical  most c l e a r l y  without  maintained  this  account  goes,  pres  succumbs  much o f a  good  de an  complex  a trial.  so does  The  i n t h e two  battle,  r e p u t a t i o n and  her e f f o r t .  en oi,  case,  not  a  be w o r t h  qu'ele  i s  of.  except  his friend  e x i s t e n c e . The l a d y  pressure  enough t o w i t h s t a n d  the convenience  rapidly  t o the reader  qu 'i7 e i r t in  neighbors  of L a u s t i c i s very  i t would  Tant  Convenience  rich  strictly  p l a y i n g at love f o r t h e sake of t h e  he  accessible,  i s  e n d up a s e n e m i e s .  love  t i n g e shows t h r o u g h  since  Two  betrays  This  f o r the affair's  that,  and  i n a l l respects  bachelor  presents  her l o v e r ' s p e r s i s t e n t  reasoning  other  wife.  individuals  game. T h e i r o n i c  tale  as f r i e n d s  each  t h e , c e n t r a l theme  o f two grown  to  other  parallel  respects. Marie  reasons  historic  s e t i n S t . Mala.  t o each  concerns.  constitutes all  being  two r i v a l s  marital  second  cut  7 i. ( L 2 7 - 2 8 ) equal nor  status  with  their  love  i s  As a m a t t e r  the lover, and  dried  of  course,  whom t h e l a d y forthright  16 T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e o p i n i o n s o f E H o e p f f n e r , who, i n h i s a r t i c l e , p l a c e s t h i s t a l e w i t h i n t h e i n a c c e s s i b l e p a s t o f l e g e n d s . H o e p f f n e r 5-6.  31  delineation enchanted  in  final  urban  form  and  content  with  a  i n question the lady  choosing  she  i s  woman  closely  over  Here  to life  as  three  her tower  above t h e tournament  at  i t sbest  and, a t i t s worst  of  mental  stagnation  as seen  compete.  The  with  issue  as  i s not  and i n d e c i s i o n  By d e l a y i n g  are killed  a s an i n v a l i d .  are  but merely s e l e c t i n g  Hesitation  of the heroine.  a l l four,  we  s u i t o r s t o deal  For h e r , t h e major  as a mate.  Laustic  again  men  nor  "lais.  parallels  whom  a s many  characters  folkloric  C h a i t i v e 7.  in  a  magical  a l o v e r and a husband,  the downfall  condemned  which  in Laustic.  between  loses  tale,  proud  no  i n the nine  has t w i c e  of the four  about  contains  as found  The  lady  one  events  episodes  confronted  did  of  field  her choice,  and  The charmed  the fourth  life  she leads  i s shattered  moments,  i t becomes  i n the lady's  bring  reality a  inability  prison t o make  decision.  The deal.  total  lack  Marie,  in  of temporal  a l l of  adverbs  the  so-called  painstakingly  establishes  her various  past.  this  there  In  classification. poetess, This  also  makes  medieval  i s  The n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n t adds  to the feeling  Chaitivel  details  appropriate  l a i ,  of  "mythic"  no  clear  tense,  o f an tale  tournaments  and  of  a  great tales  r&cits i n the distant  a .timeless  t o any g e n e r a t i o n  signifies  readers.  temporal  as used  imagined  that,  by t h e present.  but f o r  knights,  would  i t s be  32 In  this  courtly  love  and  content  l a i , Marie which  is a  i t seems  rejects  dream  to support  responsibility.  By  tacitly  that  sincerely  love  as  a way  that  she  proposes.  with  the  city  she  Clearly,  the  as  Celtic  to  ages.  both  amour-propre, reality  as  of  the mythical past  the  In  well  the  l o v e s none of  Nantes  the as  of  four.  seen  tone  social  lady  this  locale,  as  of  states  She  seeks  i n the  title  lai,  exclude  combined  i t from  and  h e n c e we  her  word,  the  place i t in  past.  take  Marie  collection  oral  ideal  chose,  of  historic  proposed  p e r s o n a l , as  harsh  i f we a  her  former  The  the c a t e g o r y of  intended  refusing  to feed  classification  of  the  of  at  folkloric  the  lais  literature  were  based  on  tradition:  Dm* 7 a is p e n s a i , k'ofz aveie Ne dutai pas, bien 7e s a v e is, , . . K e p u r r e m a m b r a n c e 7es f i r e n t P e s av e n t u r e s k ' i l o f r e n t Ci7 ki primes 7es comencierent E k i a v a n t 7es e n v e i e r e n t . P7usurs en a i o f conter, N e s The  m a j o r i t y of  traditional Bretons. thus a  tales  But  provides  variety  audience.  v o i 7 7 a i s s i e r n e  of The  she  the and  also  relief  o b 7 i e r . (P,  stories are  selections absence of  the  f i t the  attributed  includes  from  do  Marie  contemporary  appeal  a clear,  description,  by  suspension  which  33-40)  of to  distinct  to  the  anecdotes  and  reality, a  time  the  g r e a t e r number o f  the  twelve tales  its  enduring  The  other-worldly aspects  talking  appeal.  animals  and  magic  objects  more  giving diverse  reference in  gives this  create  of  collection of a  fairies, mythical  33  imaginary France's of  her  space  which  creating; genius.  her  is  the  fabled  personal  stage  B r e t a i g n e of for  the  Marie  de  presentation  34  In-depth and  dense  amidst of  internal  the variety  which,  example  between settings  scenes.  where,  one  point  by  urban  The  two  such  need  a  complex  tight  in  remaining  the  life,  as  seen  seven  in  lais  unity  f o r granted.  i s the tension  through  the various  C h a i t i v e l are  contrast rural  important  to  Equitan,  castles  contain  a  and  mixture  forest  of the  not, the protagonist enroute  civilization  adventure  Lais  L a u s t i c and  flavor  than  reveals  n o t be t a k e n  of  Marie.  more o f t e n  changing  hand, a l s o  C h e v r e f o i l with their  of  uncovers  form  facet  country  chosen  B i d a v r & t and  lais  which  on t h e o t h e r  one  and  exclusively  structures  while obvious,  of  city  of the various  of s c e n a r i o s presented. A cursory reading  the collection,  aspects An  analysis  to  within  another the  undergoes  context  a  of  from life-  natural  surroundings . .  Each which  type  they  excel  touchstone, displaced, and  of  persona and  showing  thus  h i s own  that  forth  reacting.  The  their  before  Yonec's  mother  husband  after  having  exhibits  themselves  which  the  another,  reflected  be  of  her  the  often  focused  on  i n the various  manner  to  of  Guinevere  face of  her  hidden, through  a  When acting  suffers  for  example.  her  abusive  lover. aspect  the course  locales.  in  becomes  constitution.  husband,  land  domain  setting  in their  strength  visited  will  true  self-confident  the court  finds  character  adventure  proud,  unique  specific  t h e c h a r a c t e r s change  humiliation  the  has  Each of of  35  While stationary The of  men  are quite  until  called  upon  v o y a g e c a n be a u n i q u e her f r e e - w i l l  another,  women  motion,  casts  Marie  figure  places  towers,  of hearth  She p r o v i d e s  the central  and  i n the tragedy  guardian  secure.  as  her  Often,  progression  from  or  descendant.  of  her s o c i a l l y  true  position  lady  moves real  in  of D e u s  A m a n z .  a  negative  man.  after  A lack of  aura  and g r o v e s -  world,  grove  return  the action  upon  the  and  the plot  More  i s a  often  but  vertical ascendant  to attain a  than  not,  and then  be f r e e  and  t h e imprisonment  by t h e n a t u r a l  t h e bedchamber,  civilized lover  either  from  to.  locations-  fairly  and i s e n a b l e d  of course  returns  as i d o l ,  t o t h e bedroom  as represented  She w i l l ,  being  freedom  the society.  t h e tower  man  stable  atmosphere  traditional  t o t h e next,  role  t o be  a safe a  roles  of  one l o c a t i o n  within  that  each  varied  established  from  a n d home, o u g h t  three  T h e woman g a i n s  t h e grove.  out into  surroundings  t o move  rarely  the  does  between  the  lady  t o t h e tower.  This  liberation  inspirational mere  and t o go  o f t h e home  women  bedchambers  companion.  the  their  o n e man  and e s t a b l i s h e s  reflecting the ladies'  the  and f o l l o w  remain  f o r t h e woman, t h e f r u i t i o n  t o leave  however,  generally  i n C h a i t i v e l , L a u s t i c a n d M i Tun. A wife,  and  women  t o meet  event  decision  exemplified  decisive  of  mobile,  force  possession.  physical  tower,  activates  i n the l i f e And  while  i n the heart  t h e woman  to  of her l o v e r , she  does  not  o f her l o v e r ,  be  rather  a  truly than  re-enter  a  the  she i s exalted  36 for of  her t r u e  qualities,  her previous  not  constitute  readjustment There physical  the  nor  of  instead  l i b e r a t e s and  physical  i n the Lais  and of  purpose.  living  l o c a t i o n , but a  who  receive  criticized  does  well.  movement  women who are  initiative  i n a tower, a  prize  motivation  make when  neither given  negative  for their  These  a  the  coverage lack  ladies  of  play  out the experience  to  filled  by  with  Nantes  During  t o be won  greater  shatters  t h e woman  deeds  i s exalted  as w e l l  and i n s p i r a t i o n .  responsibility.  of  women  virtues  the  in  i t s  forms.  man,  much  of  love  and a t t i t u d e s as  I t i s these  love  When  of  changing  They  f o r the enforced  True  psychological  poetess.  varied  the  a  than  making.  a mere  a r e many  motivation, game  mate's  of thoughts  opportunity. by  rather  ability  realistic  to  a  portray  purpose  idealistic  a n d a l l t o o human  the lady  higher  of F r a u e n d i e n s t that  in Chaitivel exemplifies  t h e combat,  by  force  i n s p i r e s t h e hero not so  to  I t i s the facade  her  a s an o m n i p r e s e n t  Love  but  and m y s t i f i e d  this  i s i n a tower,  Marie  scenarios  characters. type  and  The  lady  of femininity.  watching  her four  knights.  La Bien The aside society  four  common loses  sacrificed  d a m e  fu s u r  choisi  three  t o a love  tur,  les s u e n s  suitors, sense  une  in  e les lur. ( C 1 0 7 , 1 0 8 )  the  folly  of  competition,  and  continue  fighting  of  i t s four  defenders  without  reward.  past as  dusk. they  put The fall,  The f o u r t h , wounded b u t  37  alive, at  should  least  be t h e v i c t o r  the favors  that  to receive  the four  the lady's  hand, o r  had s o u g h t .  Ici 7 quatre 7 a dame amoent E de bien fere s e penoent/ P  The  lady  order  I 'meliif  mescufS su% Weir. u/  u  h a s t h e wounded  t o attempt  t o cure  (C 41-44)  v  knight  carried  him. She b r i n g s  t o her chambers i n him t o her,  instead  2 of  going  during the  t o him.  h i s darkest  battle  services rather  than  She overt  buys her free  field  of a  physically  an  She c a n n o t be hour.  We  to bring  doctor, commit  involved continues  him a i d .  grief  than  herself  to  healing.  t o play  the role  dead  that  Even  knights to their  she wears  needs out t o  she o f f e r s t h e  t o pay f o r h i s c a r e  h i s cause  his  a tribute  o f t h e mask  Instead  willing  d i s p l a y of her g r i e f .  f o r the three  he  do n o t s e e h e r r u n n i n g  being  with  t h e companion  by  o f t h e grande the funerals  form  more  becoming  dame b y which.she  o f a monument t o  memory. S h e c a n n o t b r e a k as a p u b l i c  d i s p l a y of her  pride. The. chamber has  next between  changed,  recounted the knight t h e lady  i s a  conversation  and t h e l a d y .  has  n o t . She  While can  i n the  the setting  not  make  the  1 "... t h e f i r s t f i v e w o r d s s u g g e s t s i m p l e l o v e i n s p i r a t i o n , ' f o r h e r a n d h e r l o v e , ' b u t t h e l a s t w o r d aveir makes i t c l e a r t h a t i t i s f o r t a n g i b l e reward, possession oft h e l a d y . R o b e r t H a n n i n g a n d J o a n F e r r a n t e , Xb§ k § I § 2 f M§r.I§ d e ECSD2§' ( D u r h a m : T h e L a b y r i n t h P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) 7 8 2 , f t n t 3. 2 A c t u a l l y , a l l o f t h e k n i g h t s , both dead and l i v i n g , a r e c a r r i e d t o h e r on t h e i r s h i e l d s : Sur sun escu fu mis chescuns; En 7a cite 7es unt portez A 7a dame kis ot amez. ( C , 1 4 0 - 1 4 2 ) .  38 transition distant  from  adored  manners  ideal  to  are revealed  by  a  lover.  Her  the bitter  aloof  and  speech  of the  of her receives  support  3  fourth  knight  from  Marie  instead  1  in  s  "'  her  a t e n t  criticism  decision  to  o f Q u a t r e D o l s . The l a d y  indecision, scorns  ^' '  as  s h e mourns  name  the  i s condemned  f o r the three  t h e f o u r t h . Her i l l u s i o n  l a iChaitivel to  dead  shattered,  permanent  lovers  she s t i l l  and  refuses  reality. Another is  the  for the  has  her i n t o  a s o n . Even river  fault  object  the role though  Duel as,  that  The l a d y  but wasting her  he s t i l l  there  because  he h i m s e l f  indicated  her l o v e r ,  of  woman  by  She  but a  shows  of  h i s wife  He  h i s wish up  like  t r e s p a s and  as  i f i t were  i s cloistered,  an  possession.  t o us  that  his attitude  t h e l a d y i s one o f r e v e r e n t a d o r a t i o n . J e o v u s a7 l u n g e m e n t a m e e E e nm u n q u o r m u t d e s i r e e ;  M e s J e o , k i s u ie s c h a p e z v i f s , T u z e s g a r e z e t u z c h e i t i f s , C e o q u ' e l s i e c l e p u i s p l u s a m e r V e i s ov e n t v e n i r e a l e r , P a r i e s o dm e i m a t i n e s e i r , S i n 'en p u i s nule Joie aveir N e d eb a i s i e r n ed ' a c o l e r N e d ' a u t r e b i e n f o r s d e p a r l e r . 7 e u s c e n t m a u s n e f e t e s s u f f r i r M i e u z m e v a u d r e i t la m o r t t e n i r J  where  jealousy.  chastity  i n the use  heir.  lineage,  i n a tower  i s o l d and d r i e d  treats  i s no  i s of noble away  of secluded  t o use, not a l i v i n g  Muldumarec, toward  Y o n e c .  imprisoned  t r e s p a s s e r (16,17), her  of  and i n t e l l i g e n t ,  husband  forces  woman, who c o n t r o l s t h e f a t e o f h e r l o v e r ,  malmariee  beautiful her  such  (C, 215-224)  39  Unkes  femme  N e J a m e s She  controls  only are  when met  by  immediate her  love  brings  discovered. tower,  he  In  the  waits  response,  a l l of  lady  call  in the  notice  her  and  of the  instigates the action  f o r him  Both  physical the  that and  acts  initiates his  him.  thus  interaction  and  calls  and s h e a l s o  betrayal  t h e husband about  f o r her  him. Her s u b s e q u e n t  unintentional  and  'amai  a u t r e n ' a m e r a i . (Y 127-30)  s h e has r e l e a s e d  sister-in-law that  vus n  his destiny:  with  demise  fors  the  changes  lovers  occurs the  are  i n the  bird-knight  responds. Unlike problems  the  shifting  bird-knight more t h a n  husband  the  fires  enjoyment;  room  as  than  She  stands  hell.  that  before.  She  showing  accused  They  she  readily  have  plays  a out  i s more calls  of  mother  agrees  i f he b e l i e v e s  t o prove,  but t h e lady  notes  C h a i t i v e l , Yonec's  her l o v e r ,  who of  of  roles.  willing  the  sister  lady  i n God.  himself  been  brief  take This  her r o l e to  the  unlike  baptized  period  of  c o n t i n u a l l y upon  alone  in  mutual  t o excess. be  no  he i s  faithful,  having  willing  to  has  The  i n her  the knight  to  come t o h e r .  S u n amy v o e l t s u v e n t veeir E d e lui s u n d e l it aveir; D e s q u e s i s s i r e s s ' e n d e p a r t , E nuit e Jur e tost e tart E l e The  tower,  stops of  once  referring  action  1 ' a d t u t a s u n p l e i s i r . ( Y 21 9 - 2 2 3 ) a  prison,  specifically  now  i s paradise  t o t h e tower  i s t h e bedchamber, where t h e i r  f o r her.  a n d now affair  the  takes  Marie center place.  40  The  excessive  love  a r e t h e key elements The  lady  attachment as  d e s i r e t o be a l o n e  simple  in  as jumping  of contact  world  that  world  to  dangerous to  hour,  which  and d i f f i c u l t ,  willingly  the  obeys  eventually  long  withheld,  home  enters  purpose The goal  made  that  the  i n bearing last  the city  their  the  access  to  exclusive  of escape as d i d her  a s he b r o u g h t  aidto  her  enable  to  orders,  tower, an h e i r  episode  having  person.  i n death  she should  with  share  also  that  will  him. Her  with the  t o h e r own  Yonec.  fulfilled  She  t h e freedom, so  she returns child-  and t h e  She  her  never  original  f o r t h e husband.  i s another  of Caerleon,  own  her t o experience  her unborn  as  him i n h i s f i n a l  i n s t r u c t ! ons  reunion  by a l l r i g h t s  of  o f t h e husband  She i s w i t h her  described  her u l t i m a t e a l l e g i a n c e  rejection  i t p o s s i b l e . However,  f o r t h e sake  again  danger  facilitate  and o b e d i e n c e  who  her t o observe  undertakes,  underlines  his last  love  man  i s her  who f o l l o w s t h e k n i g h t  just  she  he p e r s o n i f i e s .  despite  The window  t o be  hour.  journey  which  emotional  t h e tower  between  companion  o f need  her l o v e r and her t o t a l  society  from  t h e same r o u t e  him i n h i s time  her  I t also represents  the portal  She i s t h e f a i t h f u l  The  by  allowing  s h e had been d e n i e d .  i n her darkest  on  escape  reality,  Thus s h e t a k e s  help  her  spurred  o u t o f t h e window.  with  in  t i p o f fthe antagonists.  finds  o f Muldumarec,  domains. lover.  Y o n e c ,  t o Muldumarec,  point  the  which  and her o v e r - i n d u l g e n c e  journey  but i s a c t u a l l y  and  has asi t s  the completion  of  41 her  first  Aaron. the  trip.  She goes  Stopping  t o lodge  tomb  task  postponed  the  and j o i n  of their lady  well  as t h e i r  tragic and  means  her lover.  of  victim  They  reflected  t h e abbey  she  enshrines  of forced  circumstances,  another  life.  with  a study  and  arrogant  and  kindness  two  are.  follow  just  n o t be. The f i r s t  is  from  the  upon  triumphs  into  of  another  between  t w o women  he w i l l  garden  ladies.  glimpse the  The queen  looks  below.  She  who  choose t o present petulant cordiality  different the  spatial  sovereign's  where  t h e scene  lady's  t h e queen's a  world,  in Lanval  the fairy  Y o n e c .  t w o men; o n e o f  how f u n d a m e n t a l l y  t o what  should  window"  between  The l a d i e s  highlights  inquiry  as  being t h e  ultimately  o n e o f whom  the other.  and  entertaining  caught  l e t us examine  preparatory  transitions  She, w h i l e  the other  i s also  by s h o w i n g  First  resting  i n c o n t r a s t i n g manners. Guinevere's  stance  under  t h e two i n honor.  the inverse situation  and l o y a l t y ,  by r e j e c t i n g  to  afterlife.  us w i t h  Lanval  f o r h i s love  follow  to  the  i s free  i n death  spatial  counterparts.  leaves  completed her  i n the final  emotional  her lover i n t h e  find  now a c c o m p l i s h e s  are united  i s t h e s t o r y o f one. woman t o r n  whom  having  her s o n . She  makes a l l o f t h e m a j o r  L a n v a l presents  a  by  bodies:  thus  joins  Y o n e c  on t h e way, t h e y  and r e a r i n g t h e c h i l d ,  vengeance  This  us  a t an abbey  p r o t e c t i o n of t h e church  place  vie  her f a m i l y t o t h e f e a s t o fS t .  o f t h e b i r d - k n i g h t . The l a d y ,  i n bearing  depart  with  stance  .duties  as  should  obtained  o f t h e queen  various  knights  out from and  are  her "sculpted  her l a d i e s  descend  42 into  the  Lanval  orchard  symbolizes  get  him  to  to  move  the  more  to  be  the  more  scene  private  queen  keep  one.  retires  her  remote  reflects  does  been  too.  The  in  sham  public In  future  him  her  tokens at  the  him  as  at  she  his  own  him  as  this  Having him  and  to Not  of  been the  lady  the only  and  him,  We  do  objective  not  not  he  has  spoiled  and  eat  increase  story. meets  encounters wherein creature  has  come  from  becuase  she  i t  him  two waits offer  a l l  been her  the  denied country  wants  to  use  come t o  him  intention. Lanval's  be  known She  ever  ideal  has  a  to  promises  that  more  honor  whom L a n v a l  exotic  also  the  of  pavilion  this  she  She  Y o n e c ,  cannot  Lanval  acceptance  queen's in  city,  the  to  her  the  lady  a  discretion.  serves of  to  outraged  cake  fairy  does but  loves  her  to  an  and  picture  only  beautiful  relationship.  level. ,an  the  Arthur.  the  and  the  left  setting  place  until  have  tries  attempting  in  purity  a  of  rejection,  tower  conclusion  i s the  devotion,  really  request  damaging  to  friendship  Like  to  by  his  public  is  the  lover.  had  here  attempts  She  public  publicly  at  court  because  the  humiliation  love of  have  a  the  propriety  lead  his  in  of  grove. who  we  propostion  queen.  receiving  supposed  appear  her  from  display  contrast  the  girls  in  her  the  The  acquaintance  from  to  What  thwarted  upon  retreat  want  cleared.  child  her  not  of  an  chambers  Her  She  company.  interaction  mock m o r a l i t y . locale  just  Then,  to  men  corruption  than  of  the  to  of  comes see be  lover  her  will  without  to  him  in  putting  worshipped.  permanently his  room,  herself Her  on  above  entrance  43 into  court,  desire he  of  t o go  t h e queen  as A r t h u r  cause  the other  subsequent  h i s lady  rejection  of  does  her. Lanval's  joins  even  however,  a l l  i s t h e epitome  who s e l f i s h l y  play  L a u s t i c presents who  also  gets  reasons.  of  accessible. adjacent houses  with  have  of a  criticizes the  makes  towers;  t h e problems  vain  for  adultery  woman selfish  her worth,  of the action  where  proud,  neighbor  increase  abodes  from  For,  so i s Guinevere  indirectly  her  will  The m a j o r i t y  both  circumvent the  involved  windows,  implicit  she represents.  of n o b i l i t y ,  the situation  their  an  as  a t t h e game o f l o v e .  His reputation  proximity  i s also  that  t h e " c o u r t l y " woman. T h u s M a r i e  women  t o admire and  rejection of the court,  t o Avalon,  and  men  and t h e  exceedingly  takes  place  at the  t h e two can communicate.  this  fact  posed  by  allows  the wall  The  the lovers which  to  imprisons  lady.  Preceines furent 7ur maisuns £ lur s a l e s e 7ur dunguns; N ' i a v e i t b a r e n e d e v i s e F o r s un h a u t m u r d e p i e r e b i s e . Des chambres u 7a d a m e Jut, Quant s 7 a fen est re s 'estut, Poeit par7er a sun ami De The the  never  of  under gets  consummate  with  part,  self-indulgent  veneer  cracks  She  7 ' a u t r e  never  e  nature  commitment the threats  beyond their escapes  the lover  her  i7 a of  which, of  a  tower.  affection  by  t h e household  but with  7i, ( L 3 5 - 4 2 )  herself  this when  jealous She  and  entering because  l a i i s apparent tested  by  husband.  a  trial,  The  the  "lover"  into  a  in  lady never  bedchamber.  her l o y a l t y  i s not  a n d h e r own c o n v e n i e n c e .  We  44 have here a o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l or  mature.  She  reach  neither  other  hand  playing  all,  she  to  be  our  remain the  admired  beauty  away  the  of  for  her  wife  the  Y o n e c .  setting  which old  As  lingers  in  lady  serves  spies  as  trapped  a  is  woman.  and  It  chambers  that  develops. Guigemar The  the  the  Even to  in  of  Above  show-piece  keeping  upon  i n her  nature  the  of  her  Here  we  above  in  chambers,  her  foot  role  i t  aid  She  first  has  takes  instruct chamber husband  any  Her  to  a  as  a  just the  lady  itself .had  the  walls.  him,  him  him of  to love  into  her  relationship speech  i n her  new  the  murals  the thus  short  depict  has  and  helps  their a  tower,  companion  mention  brought of  the  Guigemar  her  side  of  harbor.  before  she  amorous  The  trapped  G u i g e m a r .  expounded  the  offers  after  the  relationship.  into  strength  then,  of  the  lover.  hollow  means  at  friendship.  p e r s u a d e and  walls  a  i s kept  grove  lady  only  on  will,  and  i n t r o d u c t i o n between  bodily  is  a  the  to  alone.  lady  lady  coming  The  regain  The  able  at night,  wife  already  develop  day,  She  bed  to  man.  proffered  made.  their  ship  medium.of  exhibiting heal  a  as  by  bed.  beauty  reflects  f o r an  tower  his  i s the  was  refuses  window,  away  world  that  d i s c u s s i o n of  her  physical  child-bearer  the  her  faithful  in  locked  who  husband's  a  encased  from  she  in  i n her  role  situation  symbolic  remain  l o v e r ' s arms nor  remains  Another  have  her  now  into  will  character  of  by  part.  nature  of  Venus  and  4 her  varied  traits  depicted  upon  This  is a  4 Herman S r a e t d i s c u s s e s t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s w h i c h M a r i e c o u l d have g a i n e d her knowledge of O v i d ,  clear from  45 explanation  plans of  of t h e intended  and purposes  learning  knowledge  to  i n  accomplishes After that  instead  o f t h e o l d husband  love  her  respects  husband  to  and assures  a  faithfully, Thus  the  Instead  she the  gains  husband  cuckoldry.  o f Guigemar  i s removed  yet  a r e reversed.  lover.  h i s own  the discovery  t h e lady  u s e f o r t h e chamber,  from  by t h e h u s b a n d ,  the "love  nest"  we s e e  and p u t  i n t h e tower:  Par le c u n s e i l d'un suen barun . Ses s ires 1 'ad m ise en p r isun E n u n e tur d e m a r b r e b i s . ( G 6 5 7-59) Her  husband  forces  and  ensures  that  her t o play  this  time  there  infidelity.  However,  immediately  a f t e r she expresses  or  die.  So s h e s e t s  companion are  window of  scene  escape  tangential  t h e door  as  the ship  details  remains  unlocked  her wish  being  t h e heroine  d i d her lover. between  their  Thus  of a faithful  on one d a y ,  t o be w i t h journey  h e r means  Guigemar  to find the  of escape.  We  b u t , j u s t as i n t h e  follows  t h e exact  t h e boat  diverse  wife  be no a l l o w a n c e f o r  o f her s e a voyage,  in Y o n e c ,  point  will  o u t on h e r one t i m e  she lost,  not given  t h e part  route  represents  a  domains.  c o n c e n t r a t i n g m a i n l y on t h e i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n o f t h e m u r a l s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e h u s b a n d h a d i n t e n d e d t h e w i f e t o l e a r n f a i t h f u l n e s s t o h e r l o r d , b u t t h a t i t a l l depends upon t h e perspective of t h eviewer. "Tout depend, en f i n de compte, de c e l u i q u i c o n s i d e r e l a p e i n t u r e . Meme s i c ' e s t l e man* q u i en a c h o i s i l e s u j e t , c e t t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n peut d e m o n t r e r , de f a g o n a s s e z i r o n i q u e , l e c o n t r a i r e de c e q u ' i l a v o u l u . L ' a m b i g u i t e demeure, e t c ' e t a i t p e u t - e t r e , p r e c i s e m e n t , 1 ' i n t e n t i o n de l a p o e t e s s . " Herman B r a e t , " N o t e sur M a r i e de F r a n c e e t O v i d e ( L a i de Guigemar, vv.233-244)" M f l g n g e s de p h l l g l g g i e e t de U t t e r a t u r e s rgmanes g f f e r t s a ^ § § D D § W§£B§l§t-Will§m ( L i e g e : M a r c h R o m a n e , 19 7 8 ) 2 5 .  46 At the  t h e end o f her j o u r n e y ,  greedy  lovers  Meriaduc.  to  castle.  overcome.  Guigemar  liberating again  her  world,  helpless, Guigemar  h i s love  this  passive repays  the lady  and l o y a l t y  adoring  captor, of  h e r t o be a r e a l  had  acted  a  her previous  for  away  t o t h e lady who  would  kindness  by  once  creature  Whereas s h e ,  h i m , s h e now  Guigemar.By  the  inhis  worshipped  person.  to protect  o n e who n e e d s  trial  in  i sthe  liberating her,  and d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s  commitment. We  stage  see then to  transfer  of place  surrounding  shall  play  well  into  status  her  back  from  exercise  With lacks  lady  moves  as w i f e  true  intimates being  placement  the future  first  o f h i s dreams.  finally  of social  She i s then  rejected that  of her free  will,  friend  Refusing  propriety able  position  which  t o take  because,  she d i s t i n g u i s h e s  him her  t h e tower, holds  u p h e r new  t h e o l d one. Nothing  new  i n the  r o l e she  a helpful  she leaves  one  rapid,  She r e a d i l y b r i n g s  o f her husband,  love.  from  i f not always  w h e r e t h e t w o become l o v e r s .  achieving  a s an  smooth,  fate,  representation  from  having  a  t h e tower  a s t h e woman  physical  self  with  i n Guigemar's  the  role  t h e Guigemar's  and p o s i t i o n . Her i n i t i a l  her chambers,  social  her  that  t h e next  grove  as  locks  her i n t h e r o l e  of allowing  own  own  from  i n t o t h e hands o f  i s y e t one more  Meriaduc  proves  her  imprison  instead  There  she f a l l s  will  keep  through the  her new-found  individual. E q u i t a n , we c o n f r o n t  the ability  to relocate  another herself.  woman who, t h i s The s e n e s c h a l ' s  time, wife  1s  a  rather  arena  of  one-dimensional  action-  established prepare that his  a  the lady  chase.  He  villainy  bedroom.  correspondence  the lady  hunting  the  character  active  i n the forest  will  the lady  take  know  with  f o r h i s confession  becomes  calls  We  reflected that  Equitan  h e r , which of love.  i s when  t o take  i n her one  a  serves  has  where  time  stopped  different  t o h i s rooms,  to  The f i r s t  the king  up  has  sort  the  of  initial  place.  Es chambres vet, s i s ' e s t cuchiez. Dolenz en e s t li senescaus; II n e seit p a s queils e s t li m a u s D e quei li r e is s e n t les friguns: S a femme en e s t d r e i t e acheisuns. Pur s e i deduire e cunfarter La fist vem'r a lui p a r l e r . ( E q 106-12) This  i s unusual  affair come  from  within  to the king,  the  lady  are  at court,  This  the seneschal  public  functions.  Whenever  the lady  i n bed  together.  there,  lover,  but  recognition heart.  This  reflection  Equitan  she of  wants  domain.  normally  Even  lais  Here,  t h e man  would  the seneschal  take  place  facet  present  the lady  when  i s yet another  belongs  a  whereas  the liaisons  reversal  major  a l l of the other  t h e woman's  i n her l a i r .  policies,  are  i n that  and h i s w i f e  of Equitan's  so f a r taken  speaks,  i t i s while  over  having  keeps  her as h i s m i s t r e s s .  the private  This place  convinced  woman she  movement o u t o f bed a n d i n t o of her ambition,  rooms.  unbalanced the' king's  s h e and t h e k i n g  Once  more.  must  seek out  i n the king's  having  the  her that  wants  holds  she  She i s h i s the  public  i n the  king's  the court,  displays the lady's  which i s  attempt t o  48  begin  to  her  develop  place  of  a  character.  private  justification. be  as  Indeed  possible,  as  prominence  one  the  8ut  wonders  public  she  never  for  one  i f such  opinion  a  is  does  leave  of  public  t r a n s i t i o n would  so  negative  toward  her . It the  is  plot  Marie  she  to  who,  kill  makes  in  the  fear  another  human b e i n g  i s one  by  overstep in  the  to  be  turn a  the  The  wife  one  of  end  the  other  those  a  scalding  is  drowned.  Marie  gives  us  propriety  who  few  things  and of  the  are  stated  condemned  actions.  by  that  devious  them, as  lovers  They  committing  final  Justice  t r i c l i e u r ,  the  tub  their  also  adultery  trap  where  proverb  to  the  action,  t r i c h e u r e  which  one  resting  causes  i n s t i g a t e d the  a  in  a  and  ignominy.  v a r i a t i o n on  seneschal;  attitudes  king . f i n d  shame and  caught  two  a  instigates  bed.  the  up  The  of  own  and  against  sinister  own  boundaries  seneschal's  back  both  their  well.  king,  are  about  S i s c 7 a v r e t as  death  There  statements  here to  the  definite of  in  losing  seneschal.  destruction and  of  is  was  ponder  at  plot  to  giving  us  td e m i .  They  set  boiled  for  to  the  place  death  end  of  the and  this  lai:  K i b i e n v o d r e i t r e i s u n I c i p u r r e it e n s a m p 7 e Te7s purcace 7e m a 7 d Dunt Clearly  she  king  guilty  as  he  is  himself  tuz  is  7i m a 7s r e v e r t  condemning of  having  admits.  The  the  e n t e n d r e prendre: 'autrui sur  lui.  actions  broken  his  wife,  in  of  feudal the  (Eq  3 0 7-10)  the  couple.  duty  folly  of  to  The  a  vassal  her  pride,  49 attempts  murder.  deserved  their  choosing  to.let  There husband fear  attempt  She does  her  Marie  prefers  a lady  who o u t o f  i n order  able  t o hide  i s a  feels.  wife.  i n the  as t h e s t o r y b u t when There  her true  scene and  deceit.  convenient  She l a c k s  another's  She uses tool ,  first  we  do  she i s occasions  approaching the the wife  i s well and thus  B i s c l a v r e t . However, s h e  as  one  of  h e r new l o v e  not a  compassion  point  from  character  a  i s narrated  a r e two  s h e i s a t home,  intentions  In a  out t h e very  her i n t e n t i o n s . She i s i n her element  her true  to  position.  foolishly.  When  loved  s h e has shut  i n the initial  in the forest.  manipulative  that  the  a t home, s h e t a k e s  having  perspective,  and  king  forth  t o never  s e e much o f t h e l a d y ,  selfishly  hide  t h e two h a l by  husband  her s a f e t y  her her s o c i a l  where s h e a p p e a r s :  from  betrays  not realize  t h e werewolf's  acting  He  that  the  l a i , wherein  t o assure  gave  We d o n ' t  shows  protects  Bisclavret contains  she admits  who f i r s t  can  t o suggest  h e r own p o s i t i o n , a s d i d t h e s e n e s c h a l ' s  whom  from  she  other  superstition  desperate  one  as  seems  him l i v e .  t o the wife.  secure  place.  fate,  i s one  and  lover  Our p o e t e s s  human  i n s e c u r i t y and  f o r h e r own  being  ends.  f o r whom s h e  and t h e a b i l i t y  t o see  things  of view. ' 5  Her not  only  well.  5  a c t of treason,  the l i f e  The w i f e  of  pointed  her husband  i s supposed  o u t by M a r i e  but i n d i t e s  t o be t h e c e n t r a l  , ruins  herself  element  p a r  s  af e m m e  m a u b a il i z . ( 8 1 2 5 , 6 )  ^ •  •  as  ofthe  I s s i fu B i s c l a v r e t t r a h i z E  i  basic  •  50  home.  I t i s s h e who c r e a t e s  refuge  f o r t h e man when h e s e e k s  domain, home.  the reflection  The  incapable having  wife  of  of taking  betrayed  The found  t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f a c c e p t a n c e and  king  of herself,  Bisclavret h e r man  her sacred decides  Bisclavret.  s h e l t e r from  the world.  manifests  fails  as  f o r better  a  itself  woman,  Her  i n the  by  being  or f o r worse,  and by  t o t h e f o r e s t where  he h a d  trust. .  t o go back  The w i f e ,  hearing  of this  g o e s o u t t o meet  him:  La femme Bisclavret le sot. Avenantment s 'apparei lot; El demain vait a lrei parler, Riche present li f a i t p o r t e r . When She  in the forest, no  longer  protection vengeance scene the  left  men  home,  she who  i n order  h e r mean  reveal  concern  the  torture.  as  i t really  banished  secret  of  i n an  betrayal, With  animal's  leaves  tears  to the  The  whole  She i s t o r t u r e d  of  She  form.  She,  which  behind  of  in just  does  sympathy  or  induced  by  and f e a r  i s equitable.  the society  by  out o f h e r . In t h e  out  pain  humans,  She  life had  entrapping  recompense  f o r her  she gave.  B i s c l a v r e t , we h a v e a c a s e hides  open  comes f o r t h .  Bisclavret  punishment  from  receives that  antagonist,  herself  h e r . Her  o f f her nose.  character  but from  about  domain.  surfaces, f o r the forest reveals  i s . Her  Bisclavret  of c i v i l i t y  f o r the wife.  and p e t t y  The t r u t h  out of her proper  t o get the truth  f o r her husband,  the  him  at  of Bisclavret,  king's  steps  has t h e d i s g u i s e  i s one o f s u f f e r i n g  forest, not  the wife  (B227-30)  the facade  w h e r e t h e woman, of her s o c i a l  as t h e  position.  51  She  pretends  t o be  manipulates  the  skillfully base  as  she  the circumstances  male  characters  d i d the  actions  mistake  what  reveals makes  lady a  she i s s t r i p p e d  the  real  woman  the  forest  the  very  when as  unveils  she  of  status  lover,  queen.  between  risks  This  overt  and  foremost  h i m news o f K i n g  Marc,  two.  It  The  of  their  her  one  domain.  civilization,  i s rejected  by  i n her t r u e  she r e l a t e s uses  of  but nothing by  continues  her  other,  tangible  occurs  respective  journey.  i s no  i s the  each  their  n o t t o T r i s t a n . They There  She i s  l a i , she  j o y i n seeing  We  Yseut's  of her p o s i t i o n .  forbidden  love.  to Tristan  h e r name.  reminder  in this  form  cannot  She  i s  deny t h e  pretending  that  change.  queen  This  i s  queen  to the king,  his life  6 "... because also tel world."  queen.  and  The  the castle to  who  specifically  great  could  himself.  never  take  impossibility  The  the  talk  obligations.  things  Marie  and  to court.  reinforces the reality  the  committed  from  creature  I n C h 7'e v r & f o 7' 7,  but f i r s t  They  gives  motion  of  as T r i s t a n ' s l o v e r a l s o appears  t h e queen.  social  The  unworthy  s o c i e t y she t r i e d  read  out of  and  selfish  heart.  of the trappings  forth.  an  i n the forest:  only  his  comes  t o move  Yet she  surely  Her  calculating  i s in trying  when  as  (  C h a i 17 v & 7.  cold,  For  Yseut,  of  just  demand.  i s in control just  t o be a b l e  attitude  of  she simply c a l l s her i t reminds us o f her l s u s how i m p o s s i b l e Hanning and F e r r a n t e  of  her  life.  Tristan  t o s e e h e r . He c a r e s  not f o r  worship  lover's  i s counter-balanced  'the queen,' t h e t i t l e which, p o s i t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e i r l o v e m u s t be i n t h e 195.  by  52 their  friendship.  great  care  hopeful  that  allowed of  and  back  While  they  concern he  f o r the  will  into  are  be  society.  one  surroundings.  The  would  forest  banished seeing guise were  by  keep  King  t h e queen.  Yet  of p r o p r i e t y , a b l e t o do  to  futility unable  be  of to  were  he  of  lovers.  their  acknowledge  has was  in  in  the  and  the  so  their  settings. rules  that been  the  affair.  they  the They  forest.  protection  they  of  under  i n the  Thus,  city,  by  Having  their  nature,  affections.  tale  a l l possibility  on  them  thus  of the  apart.  lost  is  i s augmented  c a n n o t do  gave  have  and  i n court, they,  they  Now,  mutual  tone  circumvents  able to carry  society  king  outside civilized  Tristan when  the  publicly,  publicly  i n c o u r t what  surrounding  needed  occurs  them  Marc,  to  meet  also  w e l l - b e i n g . She  t o the reader  r e n d e z - v o u s thus  otherwise  they  sad, tragic  can't  chance t o communicate The  The  They  other's  reconciled  C h i e v r e f o i l i s communicated  their  lovers,  they  realize  what  the  they  confront  were  in  the  forest. D e u s keeps  A m a n z  her  release  from  In  impossible lover  of  him.  She,  than  to  contact  us  developing  h e r . ' The  castle.  a  presents  as  princess  order  to  with a  her  a  by  however,  her with  lover. her  man  her  t o meet.  because the king  has  a  She  will  father.  by  deeper  In  not  whose  his  sheltered him,  challenge f o r the suitors t h e young  daughter  person  leads  keep  a  elope  refusing  to  refusal  life  father The  thought  commitment  father  to  for fear leave,  in sets  girl  to the an  makes  highly  of  her  father  of  losing  she  places  53  the  king  place than  above  the  lover.  of s e c u r i t y ,  she  t o grow  up.  Her  positive  one  plan  which  trip  up  free  from  she  the  choses  act,  devises  mountain the  Thus  by  t o remain  i n an  to  She  boy.  She  her  her  fasts  f o r the  Salerno  to prepare f o r his t r i a l .  with  her  lover.  medicine. left the  But  issue  just  They  are  couple game o f good  serves  be  in  to  gesture to  be  make  to  does  him  Whatever  her  father.  For  her as  lover she  should  have  he her  could  united his  she  and  in  to drink  says  i n those of the  please  in death,  relative  She  that  loses  burden  w a n t t o be  demands  she  the  her  i s past.  hands and  contains  D e u s The  the  While  A m a n z , lady  reputation. as  futile to  mature  lover. go  through  refusal  she not  now,  to  dies  as  cope  with  reality.  lovers.  love.  The  her  united  Milun also to  demands.  in  action,  demands o f  agree  her  rather  father's  him  She  for action  is unrealistic  decisive  well.  his  sends  to  c o n t i n u e s to encourage  time  i s out of  motions  take  the  her  adolescent  her  the  as  home when g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y .  She the  She  also  t o move f r o m  is  one  so  lighter  an  attempt  meet  embodies  king.  refusing  7  scene  the  tale  not  they  as  are  of  meets  two  young  young  as  definitely  asks Milun She  of  t o be  her  their  her  lover affair.  people  who  the unfortunate playing lover  at  because  i n the grove Their  the of  which  excessive  7 T h i s i s t h e s a m e r e a s o n f o r a n a f f a i r a s g i v e n in E q u i t a n (38), L e F r e s n e (247-48), D e u s A m a n z (59-62), L a u s t i c (2628), C h a i t i v e l ( 5 3 - 5 4 ) , and E l i d u c ( 2 7 3 - 7 4 ) . M a r i e seems t o c r i t i c i s e t h i s m o t i v e as i n f i v e of t h e c a s e s , t h e l o v e r s are p u n i s h e d w h i l e i n t h e two o t h e r s t o r i e s , the. l o v e r s must d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r s i n c e r i t y t h r o u g h a t r i a l .  54  delights  lead  pregnant  her reputation  more  concern  proves  to the inevitable results.  hangs  f o r her p u b l i c  her motives  When  i n t h e balance. image  than  t o be o f a s e l f i s h  she  She  becomes  expresses  f o r the child  and  nature.  Dist 1i c u m e n t e s t avenu: S'onur e s u n bien a d perdu, Quant d e te7 fet s ' e s t entremise; D e 1i e r t f a i t e g r a n z Justise: A gleive serat turmentee U She  never  household. affair love. to  as  tries  to  In  as  The  away  ascend  ( F r 57-62)  from  the  play  the part  lack  of  whom  we  i n t h e esteem  and  of  the  denies  her  consequences  of lover  and  of  companion  i n t o t h e r o l e o f mother f o r maturity  t h e more s u b l i m e  women  confines  h e r s o n , t h e woman  the responsibility  total  her from  t h e other  never  escape  giving  well  c u n t r e e .  but she can not s h i f t  baby.  excludes in  e na u t r e  She c a n e a s i l y  Milun,  the  v e n d u e  in  emotions  have  word  that  discussed.  that  Milun  might  follows  the  social  She never  tries  Yonec,  t h e mere  and  deed  a r e present  Thus  she can  have  had f o r  her . She playing  marries  and  out her part.  Milun.  In G u i g e m a r  desire  t o leave  heroine  and f o l l o w  to realize  commitment  this  on t h e p a r t  the  two l o v e r s  her  husband's  father's.  and  The  twenty  wish.  years  rendez-vous with  does  Here,  just  and  expression  there  i s a lack  as  she  join  of the f o r the of clear  Her i n d e c i s i v e n e s s  of separation.  manage  her l o v e r ,  t o escape  man was s u f f i c i e n t  of the lady.  household, lady  their  conventions,  costs  She remains i n  remained  i n her  t o get out occasionally t o  because,  as Marie  adds,  no one  55 can  be  so  closely  guarded  that  they  can't  find  some  way  out. 8 She the  continues  swan.  thus  However,  never  She., m u s t he  t o p l a y t h e game b y s e n d i n g the lady  develops  beyond  be r e s c u e d  a  acts  to free  conventional  her t o r e a l i z e  o f her husband  the love  that  clears  heretofore  and  character.  intervenes  finally  with  herself  stock  by h e r s o n , y e t f a t e  c a n a c t . The d e a t h  for  never  messages  before t h e way  has remained  a  game. In  the  shifting a  point  being  instead  of  emphasis  full  the  symbolized  Here,  in  as  well  do  not but  only  also  Often,  the  and  nature,  examined, Instead  Le  into  as  must  in  be  still  t h e tower  8 E n s e m b l ev i e n d r e n t p l u s u r s f e i z . . N u l s n e p o e t e s t r e s i d e s t r e i z N e s i t e n u z e s t r e i t e m e n t Q u e  il n  et r u i s s e  l i u s ov e n t .  (M 2 8 5 - 8 8 )  chapels  The  interpersonal own  into  internal  out  of  to  still  represents  sanctuary.  see the  or  i n order  i s turned  as  E l i d u c , the  taken  the progression  t h e grove  we  redemption.  their  environment  While  and  social  in  i s a  of t h e tower  abbeys  Fresne  succeed  lady  there  f o r t h e woman,  excel  encumbering  potential.  bedroom,  be  out of or sent  moral  or  to  idolization  i s on  betterment. repressive  of  rescued  relationships  lais  f o r the settings.  towers.  characters  her  two  of focus  central  ladies  last  realize  i s toward  the a  one  reality  religious  56 The  mother  position  remains  infidelity, points  she  out  E domain  secure.  she  e?e  ert  i s the to  The  After  into  the  feint  commit  mother  and  e  that  accused trap  her  social  a neighbor  herself.  of  Marie  vicious:  orguilluse (Fr  She  murder  exhibits  ensure  same  e enviuse.  household.  to  having  i s deceptive  m e s d i s a n z  threatening twins.  L eFresne tries  falls  that  Kar Her  in  27-28)  protects  when  more  she,  her  place  too,  concern  gives  for  her  there  by  birth  to  reputation  9 than  for  the  The  mother  tale.  Once  doesn't of  the  she  welfare  care girl.  bed  does  she  about  Fresne  to  confess  causes She  to  role.  a  revealed as  to  colors.  that home.  9  She  appear  and  her  guilt.  to  inquire  have  develops  aware  home, is  of  she  the  rewarded  Thus  she  been in  free by  undergoes  possible  i f  relation  P a r m e i d e f e n d r e d e h u n i r , U n -des e n f a n z m'estuet murdrir; Mieuz 7e v p i l vers Deu a m e n d e r Q u e  m e ih u n i r  e  v e r g u n d e r . (F  91-94)  the She  get  rid  in  that  cloth  a  removed show r&cov&ry social  she  had the  has  mother  fact  is  that  from her of  on the  where she  a  to  of  into  wicked  to  the  the  deeply  story,  Being  is  of  domain this  to  herself  sight  own  of.  time  redeems  more  end  interests.  a second  her  of  the  own  The  nature  characters  honesty  not  tries  in  until  her  character  true  own  again  protects  already  daughter.  child.  longer  The  her  This  would  i s no  are  of  long-lost  her  a l l the  readers  security  not  again,  situation. play  her  However, t h i s  i s able  the  of  we the  true her  redemption remained others  at and  57 distinguishes journey from  from  herself  as  h e r home  remaining  a  major  into  i n the  that  realm  figure  i n the recit.  of Fresne  of  a  saves  stock,  this  The lady  one-dimensional  character. Fresne transitions story.  "aunt",  to  raised  total  knight  with  Fresne.  in  their fits  a  This  of  i n roles  that  because  The  an  will  face.  Her  patience  that  stages of the  her  as  of  she  was  the  abbey  extraordinary  role-  carrying  make  this  life  heir  her lack  on  an  move  Marie  Indeed,  under  be wrong o f  rather  and p u b l i c  about  their  perfectly;  she  belongs  "nobility",  to the  n o t condemn  that  false  correspond  she  t h e two applauds  love.  Gurun  Fresne  for  a r e concerned  I t would  does  a n d come t o  problems  affair  to  f o r h i s people. of  no  and y e t both  s h e has undergone.  arrangement.  Gurun's  causes  o c c u r s when i t i s d e t e r m i n e d  of  her  a  on  the  influences  atmosphere  into  h i s lover  i n t h e abbey.  living  legitimate  she  her with  transition  c h o i c e t o be o p e n  problem  throughout  abbey  that  spatial  virtue.  must  into  roles  i t s mark  her c h a r a c t e r  She  their  the  of  i n t h e subsequent  put  seclusion.  propriety  t o remain  series  c o n v i n c e s her t o l e a v e t h e abbey  him.  pretenses. change  not  She i s a l r e a d y  the  in  has i n s t i l l e d  has  of Christian  live  up  to i t s limits  and forms  The  a  her various  brought  world  in  model  with  reflect  t h e abbess,  The  moulds  undergoes  a l lthe situations  be t e s t e d  plot.  her  which  Being  reactions  will  herself  Fresne  there. must  The  provide  i s overlooked  and y e t she w i l l  prove  58 herself like in  t o b e 'the  the seneschal's  t h e house.  will  justify  the  two  there  centers  Gurun, well.  Thus  The of  confirm  concern the  i s Eliduc's  exhibits  which  her  triumphs  place  parents'  her i d e n t i t y  She  Fresne's as  beside home  t o t h e two l o c a t i o n s  as  which  and r i g h t s i n  i n E l i d u c go t h r o u g h which  makes  of  her  Having  h i s happiness rival.  Like  but aids  been  left  that  Guildeluec  the  She i s no l o n g e r  need  original  wife. welfare  choses capable  a series  be  examined.  Guildeluec. her husband Not  only  She  i s  in  i s her  but she i s a l s o  p o s s i b l e by h e r r o l e i n Fresne,  the other alone  to  wife, while  the perfect  surprising abbey.  i n . Her  t o usurp  case v i r t u e  of  f o r her husband's  no j e a l o u s y ,  roTe.  the  Fresne i s  come  threatened  the property  exemplifies  recovery  found  women  developments  firstly  agent  the  and  there  She  to  into  and  to society.  a t home t o g u a r d  exile.  back  together.  tries  the  her and which  changes  stays  only  birthrights  two p r i n c i p l e  Firstly,  a n d He  at the castle  rival  i n this  access  relationship  birth  and i s n o t i n t r o s p e c t i v e .  s h e has g a i n e d  were d e n i e d  not t r y ,  her p o s i t i o n  since  forced  last  t h e mother  not  but t h e l o s t  being  f o r her  However  recovers  She does  arrives  were  others  and  t o be t h e r e .  girl  her p r o t e c t o r  they  t h e way around  all.  i n .E q u i t a n , t o secure  The mother  wherein  i n her element  the  o f them  i n t h e bedroom,  preparing  rights  wife  h e r now.  context  concern  noble  God h a s b e e n  meet  orignal  is  most  the f i r s t woman  i n h e r new-  f o r so long, to live  wife  i t i s not  h e r own  of f u l f i l l i n g  life  in  t h e needs  59 of  her  husband  Eliduc  and  greatly  so  retires  esteems  h i s wife  because s h e has c l e a r e d because  he  respects  her d e c i s i o n  The maturing,  acquaintance, similar  in  f o r her choice,  that  a godly  Guilliadun of D e u s  t o woman. lives  with  "life.  not  joy,  higher  i n E l i d u c goes  adolescent  t o that  her  to follow  woman  from  the sequestered  t h e way f o r h i s f u t u r e  recognizes  second  into  only  but a l s o  calling  and  life. through  When  we  a  process  first  of  make h e r  an o v e r p r o t e c t i v e  father  A m a n z :  V i e u z h u m e a u n c ' i e n s e s t e i t ; K a r n e l h e i r m a d l e n e n a v e i t . U n e f i l l e o ta m a r f e r . P u r c e o k ' i l n e la v o l t d o n e r A u n s u e n p e r , s i l g u e r r ' i o t , • T u t e s e t e r e li g a s t o t . ( E 9 3 - 9 8 ) The  daughter  talk  with  invites  Eliduc  t o come i n t o h e r c h a m b e r a n d  h e r . They s i t on t h e bed a n d i t i s a t t h a t  when s h e f a l l s  moment  i n love.  La pucele k i 1 ' o t veu V o d r a d e l u i f e r e s u n d r u : U n g u e s m e s t a n t n u 1 n e p r e i s a ! (E 327-29) It  i s she  affair. to  who  8y i n v i t i n g  and  visit  consummation king  with  the foreign  their  of  love.  with  of their  himself  the f i r s t  He  continues  her. There love,  enough  i s no  y e t what  knight.  princess,  initiative  in the  Thus  the king  unlike to  free  the  one  herself  to  love  herself  come  mention  up  t o her of  the  i s interesting i s that  i n s t r u c t s h i s daughter  r e l a t i o n s h i p and h i s d a u g h t e r ' s This  actions  him i n t o her rooms, s h e opens  the possibility  rooms  the  instigates  t o become  acquainted  unwittingly  sanctions  subsequent in from  Deus her  elopement.  A m a n z , father.  shows She  60  willingly not to  goes  to the king. come  She  left  f o r dead she  observance, switching  one  which  takes  Eliduc. well; be  They  But  trio  become  ways  by a  each  but i n doing  in  evident  i n chosing  filling  the  the  in details.  to their  civilization,  t h e women  They have  environment easily  life.  seems t o  Marie  as  and d e s i r a b l e . one can change.  superiority  advanced  Marie have  aided  their  t o heaven's  t h e game  that  not only  settings  we  The s e c o n d  roles  in distinct  play  up  but s o c i a l  development,  that  end  and companion t o  have  her l o c a t i o n s ,  T h e women  seem t o r e a c t  moral  the  character  Guildeluec's  abbey.  that  much n e a r e r of  back t o  women  are valid  so they  examination  two  as w i f e  choice  i n t h e abbey.  significance that,  go  retreats to the forest  places  of l i f e  b r i n g i n g them a l l t h a t this  the girl  of  her requested duties  to  itself  In  the  wife  free-will  exemplifies  cause  husband.  i spossible.  result  that  exchange  a l l attain  other,  her  She i s g i v e n  end up i n t h e r e l i g i o u s both  i t i s only  The  i s  a  The o r i g i n a l  not only  that  union  able  of the bride.  by h a v i n g  chapel.  as  t h e former's  a l l three  saying  up  occurs  h a s now  over  their  be  on l e a r n i n g o f E l i d u e ' s w i f e , G u i l l i a d u n  wakes  places.  s h e must  to follow  the plot  before  i s to Eliduc,  i s t h e duty  household  i n a forest  what  companion,  as that  twists  trial  fainted  When  chapel  Marie  one l a s t  Having  God.  As h i s f u t u r e  her parents'  however,  through  h e r l o v e r . Her commitment  t o h i s country,  leaves  Here,  is  with  door.  and i t  own  their becomes  was n o t m e r e l y looked  at a l l  ways.  When i n  of love.  They  61  can  deceive  well.  They  within  their  own  husbands  a c t i o n f o r they  personal  domain-  the  and s t a t i o n a r y i n t r a d i t i o n a l  In  or  manipulate  control the true  their  sedentary  has  and  this  set of  feminine  had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y remaining  challenge  content  or  question  was  being  reflection  a  particular criticism  always  woman i s  motivations  of  her  because  refuse  often  spatial  on  the individual's  it  can  occupation  liberate.  to  of  i s , f o r these  and p e r s o n a l own  free  will.  on  in life  either  the  forward,  and i m p r i s o n e d  a way p r e s e n t s  moving  met t h e  results,  convictions.  move  are  individual  for relocation,  to act responsibly.  i s a will  of  need  from  Women  each  They  Whatever  hardness  petrified  There  between  the will's  i s unable  subcategory.  hand, t h e r e  test.  one o f a  that  have  they  the  home.  as  p o r t r a y a l s o f them.  i n her s i t u a t i o n .  failed  others  are acting  stereotypes,  t o chose  and  heart  Where,  itself.  the and  no  a  latent selfish  a  social  way o u t  on t h e o t h e r  Thus t h i s  development Society  actions  Whenever  her i n t o women,  the  issue  i s dependant  can imprison  or  62  Just  a s women a r e t h e s t a t i o n a r y m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t y , a s  embodied being  t h e nomadic  society men  i n t h e home,  which  around  whom  general,  paternal and  her  from  often  instances  i s that  realize  and  counterpart  that  This  the  woman  change and  process  of maturation  are reflected  interact  with  woman e x p e r i e n c e s a  the signs  h o r i z o n t a l one.  world  protected trial  where  of  male One  in  eight  woman  f o r himself,  more  specific an  qualities.  the idealization  progression,  male  of h i s female  than  and ability  However,  attempt  The  he  currently  f o r t h e man p a r a l l e l s  h i s environment.  they  the  a  of emotional  of  cycle.  the story.  i n the character's  a vertical  a  the  lady,  of the  of  h i s higher  through  Man, i n  the plot  he c a n be s o much  i n that  through  flame,  the  her world,  displacement  man's s e a r c h  develop  perceives  of  court  that  t o women  microcosm  t o h i s own  spatial  search same  her  to a  return.  to  renew t h e s o c i a l  this  protagonist  is.  draws  constitutes  in  they  original from  by  and d e s t i n y  comes  her  her parents  and thus  journey  who  extreme  animated  a moth drawn  fate  h e r away  he  t h e Lal§,  protagonist  to  Taking  and  a n d t o whom  from  place,  a family  man's  circle  away  manor.  separation  In  And, l i k e  by c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  they  secure  start  serve.  t o the opposite  mobile  i s the foreigner  persuading  tend  element,  they  a r e drawn  s o men  that of  psychological t o react t o whereas  t h e man  the  undergoes  If the  plot  simple of  we  should  attempt  structure  of  movement  the forest  to formulate  the  o f a man  Lais,  from  to the social  his society  setting  a g a i n . T h e woman j o i n s  the  original  scene.  the  resolution  options: die  remain  and a r e p l a c e d  city.  As  more'of sort, to  they  of the plot,  well;  we  whether  As  their stated  function  in  magnifies  and  displaced,  on  in  in a  story  of  which  three  return  forth  The  proud,  h i s lady  their  when g o i n g  through  rectification  It i s this  the  course  reflected  in  city,  cases,  they  one o r o f some  tomb o r a  in  of  place  character  relation  that true  to  specific  their setting  constitution.  in their  manner  of  Guigemar  f o r example.  Milun  When acting  becomes takes  on  t o c h a l l e n g e t h e k n i g h t , Sanz another,  hidden  of  plausible  setting  type  self-confident  character exhibits  themselves.  each  thus  love,  denotes  t o t h e woman's  many  of t h e i r  space  and  the wilds  h i s return to  i n t h e man's  great  two,  unique  to the  moments.  t h e c h a r a c t e r s change  before  Each  chapter  shows  vengeful attitude  1 oca 1es.  down  terrestrial  own  the  reacting.  insecure  of  be o n e  be t h e l o c a t i o n  final  their  Per.  him a f t e r  or they  see that,  that  inhabits  a  i n a tomb,  through  t h e c h a r a c t e r s end up i n a r e l i g i o u s  spend  and  and s e t t l e  reduce  destination,  can  plan f o r  o f t h e woman a n d b a c k t o  own w o r l d  final  general  i t would  his  Their  a  the the  often  f l a w which adventure; movement  hidden, will the  be  aspect focused  process  through  of  various  Civi1ization, the  latter  is  a  while  the  which  represents  from  pure  former  whence  he  created  is  came.  between  which  urban  locale,  the  but  and  must  concerns  which  The the  the  Lais  false, to  a  balance  his  loyalty  subject  of  and  characters  to  between  the  an  nature  stand  and  use  as  extreme  When  duty  in  an  which  that  society  and  private  devotion.  of  in-depth  nature,  function  serves  civic  reality  subdue  societal  that  structure  migrate.  He  in  of  imposed  rule  his existence.  learn  an  visited  fulfills  vie for  i s the  opposes  representation  cities  male  man  distinction  and  attempt The  delineates also  man,  factual  forced  man's  poles  defines  and  by  b o i s and  f o r e s t in  a n a l y s i s by  Andre  1 Eskenazi. which  attempts  is associated  similar b o i s that  He  terms.  is  i s defined  sense.  The  use  expanse  that  focuses  itself  expands  out  with  While  u ns e j o u r and of  to  the  distinguish the  use  f o r e s tis 3  f a m i 1i e r . limited  down t o  away f r o m  a the  type  these  two  in a  and  culturally  to  denote  savage  s t a t e of  of  discourse  seemingly  2 u ns e j o u r i m p e n e t r a b l e ,  B o i s seems t o  f o r e s t tends  is unlimited  of  the  a  be  a  accessible wilder  in nature.  civility  quantity  while  untouched  Thus  bois  forest  society:  Cette distribution issue du content/ e s t confirmee dices formels: le d e g r e  d e 7 'analyse p a r deux inzero de 1'ar-  1 Andre Eskenazi, Bois e f Forest d a n s l e s Lais d uMs. H, M § 1 § Q 9 § § s!§ J=§Dsy§ ®£ d e k i £ £ e r a t u r e D3§^i§Y§l§§ 2ff§c£§ § Alice Blanche, P u b l i c a t i o n s A n n a l e s de l a F a c u l t e d e s L e t t r e s e t S c i e n c e s H u m a i n e s d e N i c e , 48 ( P a r i s : L e s B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1984) 199-211. 2 Eskenazi, 201. 3 Eskenazi, 202.  65 t i d e  d a n s  a l e r en b o i s ,  e  t o u j o u r s s i n g u l ier d a n s  M.  Eskenazi  type  concludes  of arrangement  purest  that  n o m b r e ,  b o i s i n d i c a t e s a more  whereas  civilized  f o r e s t refers t o nature  i ni t s  state.  A man's w a n d e r i n g s that  t 7e  7e c a s d e b o i s . . .  part  between  of h i s environment  locales traverse  which  the forest,  h a s y e t t o be  civilized  5  and  tamed.  with  While  h i s basic  identity, gaining  false  nature  he  can  this  balance  i n the forest,  rediscover  knowledge,  the various sense  discovered  of  duty  to  to  shed  male  comes  i n contact  the socially  his true  the  elements  h i s natural  contribution  and, having  t h e man  raison  d ' e t r e . In  protagonist  of h i s l i f e .  his fellow  learns  He i s f r e e d  citizens  both  in  personal  to  from  and,  t a l e n t s , h e now c a n make a  society,  imposed  a  having  legitimate  and  public  affairs. C h i e v r e f o i l occurs  exclusively  the stage  readers  sets  f o r her  background  information.  from  Wales,  South  forced queen  4  thus  h i s place  with  t o pass  by  i n hopes  of a l l h i s status  t o beg f r o m  Eskenazi,211.  that  of birth.  t h e peasants  Tristan  Tristan,  himself  of speaking and rank  forest.  twenty-four  know  out of c o u r t l y society, finds  stripped forced  We  i n the  we  been  f o r the has  exiled  What  of  h a s come  having  t o h e r . He  at night.  lines  waiting  by b e i n g  Marie  been  and i s  see  here  5 "... a v e c f o r e s t , le b u t s p a t i a l d u d e p l a c e m e n t e s t t o u j o u r s a s s o c i e a u m o t i f d u d e p l a c e m e n t . . .", E s k e n a z i , 2 0 6 .  66 is  a  man  to  possess  risk  compelled what  death  in  never  that  well.  he  society  knows  be  From has  queen  make  the  moment  been  locked  as w e l l .  Their more  M a r i e makes t h e r e a d e r  Puis  him  at Tintagel  for  this  forests one  of  Joie  been  barred  forest, the  evident  from  love  a  misfortune  to fall  Tristan that  much  with  the  seeks  more  The  being  a l l the hold  queen  queen.  shared  by  serves  to  point  (42).  barons  court  by  which  Tristan  but  i n love  with  an  audience a  mere  However,  merely  he  a  with  exact has  In  the  n o r i s he  one  has  had  the  wife.  the queen,  away  is  he  who  i s desired.  goes  the  the  festivities.  his uncle's  It is  a gathering  exhibits  man  Join  through  t r e s p e n s e z ( 2 5 ) , as  i n the  chat  to  at Pentecost.  mood o f s u c h  dolenz e  barons,  ban  is travelling  general  participating  than  that  ( C f 10)  T r i s t a n i s n o t t h e nephew o f t h e k i n g , privileged  Joy  only  poignant,  as  potion,  The  feeling  happiness  and  tale  but of f a t e  the  is a  en un J u r .  the  deduit  emotions,  drunk  to  queen  i s a tragic  his dire destiny.  he w i l l  that  e  f o r the  of s o c i e t y  temporary  summoned  of Cornwall.  Theirs  him,  aware o f :  where  reason  opposite  of  has  life.  attempt  offer  nurses  he  his lover  en m u r u r e n t  Marc  not  love  having  into  seeing  will  to  t o i t s end.  not only of  at  and  desire  one g o a l  in this  the  tragedy  King  the  are victims  experiences  the  overriding  cannot  that  realized  both  Tristan  h i s one  i n p u r s u i t of that  Tristan will  by  y e t we He  empty  does handed  sense speak and  67 returns  t o South  Wales.  lady's  society  society  and r e t u r n  she  t o o must  king.  King  does  with  be t r u e  The o n l y  whisper  nor  that  He n e v e r he  regains  convince  him. Yseut  spot  t h e young  to  that  h e r way a s  the wife  scenario  might  into the  leave  on  function-  in this  lover  her  continues  t o her real  bright  entrance  of a  i s the hopeful  be r e c a l l e d  t o court  by  Marc.  Puis 7i m u n s t r a cum faitement De7 rei avrat acordement, E que mut 7 i aveit pese D e c e o qu ' i7 7'ot s i cungee: P u r e n c u s e m e n t 7 ' a v e i t f a i t . (CF 9 7 - 1 0 1 ) With  this  until and  nebulous  h i s uncle  should  y e t he f a i l e d  sphere. Thus  The  promise,  t o gain  intended  he h a s f a i l e d  within must  the context work  her  send  Tristan  r e t u r n s ' home  f o r h i m . He entrance  into  to  wait  s e t out from  home  the lady's  social  displacement  i s aborted  and d i v e r t e d .  i n h i s attempts  at social  re-integration  and scope  tale  of this  around  a  l a i , given  that  pre-established  Marie  literary  tradition. B i s c 7 a v r e t presents having  been  banished  seeks  refuge  us  from  to  h i s favor.  to  a l l i n t e n t s and purposes,  he  i s very  However,  there  i s  disappears  at regular  this  role.  other  This  He h a s a s e c u r e  Even one  another  character  t h e s o c i e t y of which  i n the forest.  close.  with  man  has e v e r y t h i n g  place loves  him and a l o r d  problem: into  love  he  i s  part,  arranged  i n society, a wife  h i s neighbors  intervals  he i s a  who,  with  who, whom  and admire him. a  werewolf  and  the forest t o l i v e out  68 This essence the  of  the  be  the  the  flaw  a  he  of  has,  does  being,  illness. to  his  the  the  hidden  the  re-integration.  as  the  longer  a  direct  power  the  wife  to  come.  to  of  the  court  him  curse of  go  to  this a  woman  to  he  When human  his  former  transfer  missing  i t ceases  a  in search  restored  acknowledged  therefore  up  problem.  seems a  undergo  the  into  is  which  covered  does not  as  has  will  has  relapsing  form  8isclavret  publicly,  He  the  which  81sclavret  reaction  physical  in  he  issue  which  overcome  the  hear  the  of  and  h i s makeup. W h i l e  embodies  central  side  narration  re-enter  problem  protagonist  contains  this  of  Instead,  generations with  find  no  is  does,  finally  we  itself  he  of  and  social  within  woman,  already  It focus  process  major  nature tale  intrigue.  will  of  dual  nose and to  for dealt  plague  him. Bisclavret of  his  wife.  wanderings thus  he  in  i s banished  She  has  the  forest.  figuratively  from  condemned  and  He  his  home  him  to  ceases  socially,  to  a  by  the  life  exist  i f not  treachery of  as  aimless  a  man  and  physically,  has  died .  -Darns, fet il, p u r D e u mereiJ M a i m 'en vendra s i Jol vus df, / C a r d e m ' a m u r vus partfraf E t m e f m e i sm e s en p e r d r a i . * ( 8 5 3-5 6 ) Contrary Marie  i n the  to  the  introduction,  demeanor.  It i s this  the  to  king  description  the  true  inner  of  Bisclavret quality  situation  of  and  a  werewolf  given  maintains a very civility thus  which  saves  by  human alerts  Bisclavret  69 from  being  clothes, stone  torn  to  t h e symbol  by  security  a  pieces of  the  his civility,  chapel,  and  by  thus  hunting remain  indicating  hope o f d e l i v e r a n c e  rests  Bisclavret had  been  have  denied  made e v i d e n t a  aspect  matter  been and  of c i v i l i t y  transposed. disguised  displayed  His  under  his  in divine  providence.  89-96) facet  h i s animal  by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ,  and  of  nature  i t i s now  Y e t t h e human q u a l i t i e s  actions  a  ultimate  and t h e b e s t i a l  Whereas  f o r a l l to observe.  of  hidden  that  t'Dame, f e t il, d e l e z e e l bois, Lez le c h e m in p a r u n t J e o vois, Une vielz chape le i esteit, K i m e in t e f e iz g r a n t b i e n m e f e i t : L a e s t la p i e r e cruose e l e e , S u z u n b u s s u n , d e d e n z c a v e e ; M e s dras i m e t , s u z le buissun, T a n t q u e J e o r e v i e n c a m e i s u n . i* ( 8 The o u t w a r d  hounds.  demeanor.  are  The  king  6 recognizes  this  Bisclavret  from  the  wife  i s  becomes  for  reasonableness the forest  a  mask  the  of  man  a  i n the  creature*  to his court.  civility mask  of  He  Therefore  hiding  a  takes  what  wicked  brutality  hiding  in  nature a  true  nobility. During perfect the real this  "gentleman".  king.  This  serves  man  hidden  under  takes  betraying S  h i s sojourn  place  He  the court,  shows  himself  Bisclavret to  be  t o r e i n f o r c e the idea the coat  when  Bisclavret  at  the  comes  to  most that  o f f u r . The o n l y  knight  who  court.  aided The  b e s t e  a de n t e n t e e s e n .  (B  153-54,57)  as  loyal  there  a to  is a  exception  to  the  in  werewolf  C u m c e s t e b e s t e s ' h u m i l i e J E l e a ds e n d ' h u m e , m e r c i c r i e . C e s t e  acts  wife  attacks  70 the  man.  prompts the  This  the king  true  having the  i s a  firmly  character  will  takes  in Bisclavret  I t i s there  be r e v e a l e d .  i n t h e minds  f i t member  Marie  of  to the forest.  of t h e wolf  established  knight  change  to return  identity  circumstances, to  sudden  that  Thus,  after  of her readers  that  of s o c i e t y ,  despite  the  strange  us back t o t h e s c e n e o f t h e c r i m e  reinstate the protagonist  to hisrightful  position i nthe  community. Once revealed it  again,  now  a  knight. one's  self,  nose.  This  the  right  of  could  have  i n order  uncover Now  to  t h e baron.  symbol  be  character  to  pride.  punish  remains  indicating  H i s peers  identity way  acts  of  h i s wife  disguising  accepts accept  He  her  live  recompense f o r  king  puts  her  mystery.  to  Thus  8isclavret.  the restoration of the clothing  places that  wife.  t o make  just  the  to his  a s i t was  adulterous  a  of the  and b i t e s o f f  the facts of this  plot against  before  according  instead  Moreover,  only  The k i n g  no  an  and shame;  to discover  of the realm,  community.  can  be  was i n q u e s t i o n , i t  the true  her but chose  the wife's  there  werewolf,  husband  will  i s p e r f e c t l y reasonable  i n ignominy  vainglorious  torture  each  h i s nature  that  Bisclavret attacks  killed  her l i f e  there  punishment a  of  t o t h e f o r e s t . Whereas  unveiling  therefore  her  they  of  In t h e f o r e s t ,  traits.  her  aspect  a n i m a l i s t i c nature  matter  innermost  out  hidden  as B i s c l a v r e t r e t u r n s  was h i s b a s e ,  is  a  t h e garments  h i s sovereign, him once  again  in front the  consummate  back  him u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y ,  of the  into the  even  after  having the  found  beast  out h i s worst  refuses  embarrassed.  to  This  king's that  now  metamorphosis.  of  the  his social  are dealt  country  duty  can  two  the context  decent  until  he  form.  control  in  fully  figures  court.  reality  will  be  of  concerning  The k i n g ,  seneschal  what  The  king's  This  remedied  incident.  The  duties  the  hobbies  of h i s position,  related  to that  i s a  good,  of  scene  to  interests  one f a u l t ,  that of his  best  perceive  i n one  swift  reveals to the  to others  and t h u s  locales  castle in  and  by h i s d & m e s u r e ,  apparent  equally  to correctly  i n the final  scene of h i s h a b i t u a l e x p l o i t s .  social  of  yet h i s devotion  the conduct  forest,  the  in  a r e two  seneschal  f o r the seneschal's  pleasures  reveals  interact  tensions  his favorite  personal  just  moment  the seneschal's  forsake  the  also  the  There  inability  Equitan,  i s becoming love  i s  i n the  participate  character,  unobservant  and h i s spouse.  This  which  the story.  i n the plot;  matters  us  i s alone  over  h i m . He h a s , t o o u r k n o w l e d g e o n l y  blindness  t o remind  He  r e i n t e g r a t i o n i s complete.  Equitan's  him  clothes.  a n d r e c e i v i n g a i d . S o , by t h e e n d  straightforward  renders  friend  of  serves  Amazingly,  He now f o l l o w s p r e c i s e l y t h e  now  male  with  and  and  around  detail  some  secret.  proffered  h i s human  in giving  E q u i t a n has  which  have He  both  the tale,  within  the  has changed.  to regain  does  community,  deepest  of propriety, waiting  chambers he  don  touching  how much t h e b a r o n conventions  and  around him.  wife  he a l s o  causes  him t o  forsakes  He n o t o n l y  the  abandons  b u t he a l s o ' n e g l e c t s  position.  He d e c e i v e s h i s  72 friend of  and  his subjects  folly.  The  are  a  and  refuses  wife  failure the  Li Q u e I I Ja L a He  pursues  of  other  course  The  the  While  he  did  forfeited the to  continue an  as  Equitan the involved  with  the  lady,  to  he  that  (Eq  yet  social  they duties  197-201 )  breaking one  lifestyles  in  results  a  must  resolve  multitude be  able  to  order  to  this  inherent  in his death  have  as  is  tale. h i s own  the  seneschal  yet  the  Marie  upon only  demise:  for  pursuit  of  this  and  the  lady  as  a  him. way  to  He to  his  people.  well,  direct  also  result  i s thus remove  he  of  unworthy him  is  by  court  in  exercises.  ignored  passion  inverts  love  relationships  previously his  see  exerted  which  of  not  to  love  wed:  of  promise to  she  king,  option  to  prophesies  other  influence that  death,  the  his  a l l his  his  pursuit  u r s u n t n o v e l i e r e n t d e t r i c h i e r , S e d e c e O ; 1 ' a v u m n u s v e u . e r v e i l l e s e c i l p e r t r e i n e le d e s e r t . ( E q 1 6 3 - 6 8 )  ignobly  keep  denies  cost  this  effectively  behaved  in  the  loyalties  i n the  success  him  failure  u l t i m a t e outcome of  has  on  social  two  C i l k id ' a m E k is ' a t u r n II sunt g a b D e p l u s u r s N ' e s t p a s m K i p a r s ' o v He  does  fulfillment.  Equitan  put  at  He and  between  king  forgotten  1 'a m a m u t lungement t r e f e m m e n ' o t t a l e n t . l e i t n u l e e s p u s e r ; rovast o'ir parler. le t i n d r e n t m u t a m a l ,  personal  tension the  this  enjoy  The  pressures  r e is d ' a u n e v o n 'en g e n t  totally  king  society.  promises.  integrate true  in  and  are  the  social  hunting.  He  pleasure. unnatural  life was  Then,  too  of  personally  after  meeting  preoccupation.  He  73  Ignores for  the private  the social once  pleasures  of He  cannot  of the forest  scene of t h e court  However,  duties.  domain  again, love  he  and  function  continues  in  to  reality,  i t r e j e c t s him i n t u r n .  every  king  fails  desire.  private  and  himself, tale.  made  He  himself  l e s s than  up  In t h e i r  debasing  force He  pulls  t h e woman path,  common  sink  greater goes  part  a  of  below  lacks  Love  and lower,  and greedy  fortitude  of improving,  being  i s a  level Equitan  s t a r t e d along t h e  t h e moral  Instead  and  the lady's  h i m . Once h a v i n g  of  of the  hunting  adultery.  of  part  t o h i s . In h i s demise,  t h e main  fully  or the  Equitan  united  male f i g u r e i n Y o n e c ,  of t h e motion  according  metamorphosis, enabled  with  rejected  he was a t t h e o u t s e t  himself  thus  a synthesis  forsaken  activities  He  only  and in a  death.  Muldumarec,  and  placed  hisslide. lower  has  be.  to f u l f i l l his  because of h i s s e l f i s h  t o ascend down  He  public  and  Having  about  he s u b s t i t u t e d  Equitan  t o stop  lady  forest  place  has  she t r i e d  the  the  in hislife  while  ability  not bring  domains.  hawking.  downward  could  to  location  i n h i s attempt  private  his  happens  world.  domain.  the  neglect  he  real  public  gave  intentions.  the  miserably  Equitan  to  either  refuses  The  with  pursues  wherever  equitably  deal  or the seneschal's  selfishly  i s unbalanced  and exchanges i t  such  i n that  t o the lady's as  him t o achieve  Bisclavret  embodies t h e  h e i s t h e o n e who bidding. had  h i s journey's  He  comes  underwent  experienced,  end. Given  a  which  the story  74 from  the lady's  route  that  left  h i s own  release.  he t a k e s .  as  a  from  do n o t d i r e c t l y  tells  his bien  response  to  we s e e f r o m  repeating  voyages  we  Muldumarec  once a g a i n ,  pattern  foreigner,  of view,  country  Thus,  general  point  itself;  home  airnee that  her  prayer  he  for  a new p e r s p e c t i v e t h e  namely  t o seek  see the  that  t h e man,  o u t t h e woman  a  of h i s  desire. We  learn  journey.. Unable  of the route  She  follows  t h e sequence  wounding.  After  meadow, s i m i l a r its  hole.  the  road  the  which  have  leads  by  t h e dark  imprisoned  t h e window, an e f f e c t i v e  wound. the  we c a n r e before  his  enters  and f i n d s t h e h i l l he w o u l d  8eing  access  own  pursues  Muldumarec  hole,  t o t h e tower.  and o f h e r s .  and  f o r t h e man  his city,  has  his fatal  of her excursion,  events  gaining  v i athe lady's  t h e window  of Lanval's,  through  husband  h i sexistence  his  leaving  no problem  wicked  through of  Going  of  to that  left  from  By r e v e r s i n g t h e s t a g e s  establish  he t a k e s  the t r a i l  t o f l y , s h e jumps  knight.  would  that  a  portal  Thus t h e r e  with  e n d up a t  b i r d - k n i g h t , he  t o t h e tower, the  a  wife.  between  wherein  He  enters  the  reality  are three  stages  to  journey. The  first  constitutes  section  the search  of  Muldumarec's  f o rmaturity.  He g o e s  pilgrimage  into  t h e meadow  7 to  seek  path-  a companion  the h i l l .  and i n s t e a d  The d a r k ,  finds  tomb-like  an  obstacle  interior  tohis  of the  hill,  7 S e e c h a p t e r t w o , w h e r e i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e meadow and g r o v e a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e s e t w o p l a c e s r e p r e s e n t t h e r o l e o f woman a s c o m p a n i o n a n d h e l p m a t e t o t h e man.  75  while  i n t i m i d a t i n g , represents  access going  to  the  lady's  through  the stage  comprises  second  "die"  for  the  experience death  at  trip  from  own  people  the  remainder  sake  the  and  to  of  her  who  will  not  the  son  the  story until  of  the  does  the  final  ceases  man.  have  traditional  from to  his  whom  he  against duty  of  created  a  old,  of  perceives  his for  lines.  as  love" wife  to  his demise.  find  will bear  out  produces  a  corrupt i t  There  in  is  the  a  his  castle, He  gains  replacement Yonec,  that  not  son  as  enter  the  lady's  f o r the  For  rear  not  old  of  the  venture  into  nature,  against this  punished  and  there  with.  foray  be  in  figure instead  occasional  enemy.  unity  forsaken  l a i , does  does  the  of  him.  character  turns  he  replace  We  she  and  to  transitional  reach  behind  step-father  and  ability  accomplished.  leaves  deal  the  challenge.  also  as  and  underground  Having to  by  somber  thirdly,  figure in this  f o r an  this  This  died  gaining  except  time  And  is easily  but  to  twisted  having  but  incompetent  pursuit  "true  castle.  soon  step-mother  He,  the  of  her  triumph  to  wicked  home e x c e p t  hunt.  penchant  as  eventual l a i .  avenge, male  The  the  die,  of  beloved.  without  main  reach  to  chambers  only  the  now  his  motion  manner  his maturation,  their  hill  persecution  This  of  cannot  process. of  figuratively  Muldumarec  We  stage  only  translation  the  conclusion  the  entrance  of  prefigures the  He  deathlike  subterranean the  world.  his  the base  by  the  the  forest  takes  this  bird-knight, and  vile  death. son  out  It  that  is a certain poetic  deed  is  the  destiny  justice  in  76  this  twist  heart  of  tradition.  embodies  The  one  d e s i r e of  h i s g r e a t e s t f e a r as  the  did  not  bequeath occurs  want  his  at  state  sole  reason  last  wish  of  in  from  his  the  Thirdly  arrogance  security  of  the  own  His  own  recounted  way  to CaerTeon,  the  abbot.  father. down t h e  The  He  the  proper  Marie. boy  has  laid  the  auspices  to  rest of  his  with the  through he  could  ironically  the  triumph  his  him,  in  have  of  their  attraction  in  any  mother's  carry  the  earth.  each  by  i s a l s o an  signifies  Upon  reaching  l e a r n s of  confirms  replacement  he  out  the  instrument  step-father's  establishing The  three  placed  the  members  a l l  their  him.  first  s t e p - f a t h e r . Yonec  the  death  becomes  to maturity occurs  mother  performs  Yonec  Therefore,  generation  by  common  p e r p e t u i t y on  journey  whom  prohibited  ruth!essness  dreams w i t h i n  to  embodies  are  must,  Yonec  and  preceding  h o p e s and  verses  his  Yonec,  their  She  heir  heir.  afterlife.  Muldumarec.  an  18-20)  ignominious  parents  exist.  supreme  of  his  realizing  to  revenge.  That  question,  but  of  without  wealth.  love;  societies  die  hands of  son  forbidden  other  vast  the  The  to  king's  well.  P u r c e o k ' i l o t b a n h e r i t a g e , F e m m e p r i s t p u r e n f a n z a v e i r , K i a p r e s lui f u i s s e n t s i h e i r . (Y He  old  for  church,  is  last  indicating  by  by  divine  the from  Yonec's striking  the  The  this  on  history  indeed  father.  A l l of  hundred  abbey,  adulthood  installed  real  Muldumarec.  this  of  i s then his  the  his'father's  that act  i n the  city  as  mother  he  occurs  under  approval  of  77 the  love  affair.  homeland also  to that  left We  which men. of  Yonec  youth  observe  of  which  both  occurs  a r e both  confront  adventure,  inclusive.  The  sort  o f man.  one  of  He  lacks  noble  decency  reveals  society.  The  contrasting Muldumarec  and  characters  which  wilderness  i n order  true  Lanval  rather  than  inverse found role The  by  Unlike  passively  reversal lady  to  their  the tale  of  the  i n respect  corrupt  as  member  of  manifest  a  rival.  people  destinies.  i n search  Muldumarec,  character  and f e m a l e to their  and  nature's  the  of a lady  t h e grove  H e r e we a r e p r e s e n t e d  same  t o rescue  sedentary  through  youth  common  joint  respective  of  distinguish and  their  a  to  the opposite  The k i n g ' s  journey  a  willing  would  develop  stage  becomes  point of h i s journey,  waiting.  The male  comes  of  the egress  at the halfway  in Y o n e c .  able  of  consequences  clearly  of  to achieve their  tells  structure  fairy  are  and  false  pair  that  of the  of l i f e ,  which  patterns  life-cycle  compassion  a  son  to  i s seen  also  two  typifies  of h i s bride.  and  Yonec  companion.  meets  kindness,  lifestyle  Lanval  qualities  he h a s  man.  d a m i s & a u  risks  t o the reader  father  a  and f u l l  a l l  many  bearing;  lifestyle  when  of Caerwent  i n the treatment  figures  are indicative  noble  o l d king  male  mother's  time  of a  the pre-established  c h e v a l i e r . They any  his  a n d a t t h e same  three  and Muldumarec  transition  from  t o t a k e up t h e d u t i e s  i n these  indicative  Yonec  travelled  of h i s father  behind  are  has  w i t h an  scenario  as  was  characters experience a traditional  Lanval  in a  social time  of  rank. need.  78 She  seeks  him  she  is a fairy Lanval  to  his  and  thus  lover. and  Lanval  leaves  fairy  ideal  not  He  has of  Lanval  town  for  the  refused  him  he  commits  his  his  fealty  is  to  i s sworn  to  related  source  of  conflict  and  in this By  and of  the  decline keep  of  ever  true.  his  new-found  who  queen,  had  started to  us,  the  his  seeing  her his  towards  of  lady  again. broken  Lanval.  His  He  the finds  f o r . She  he  is.  she  has  the  rules  over  in  of  their  the  city.  existence The  as  stands  accept  to  and  the  location i n the  of  forest,  the see  a  accused  him.  This  fickle just  by  her  reversal  attitude  how  imperfect  by  man,  far  of'  their  fails  revealing  to the  torments  himself  despairing  commitment  remains  strong  and  proves  her  promise, He  He  aspect  confidentiality love.  peers.  for  her  Lanval  us  Lanval,  attached. seek  occurring  readers,  allows  the  city.  the  and  and  by  to  that  wealth.  i n the  court  is  sojourn  concerning  society.  wholeheartedly.  This  case  promise of  by  he  hoped  now  hers.  tested  progressed.  Despite  loyalty  is  happen  her  because  ignored  of  sovereign,  i n s t e a d of  society  existence  a  and  have  city,  refinement,  court,  his  to  of  Arthur's  group  himself  call  r u l e s of  forest  could  the  his  insulting  has  be  this  his  which  ever  secrecy  a t t i t u d e s shows  courtly  by  to  support  will  rejected  the  and  Lanval  King  in  to  sponsorship  relationship  both  court  he  for  to the  the  returns  heart;  waiting  subject  been  more t h a n  and  than  foreigner  head  companionship  his  rather  is a  members  in. the  out  the  fairy  i s a c q u i t t e d by  lover the  society  which  79 had  so  greatly  Avalun.  wronged  Having  has  no  desire  the  lady  seen to  reign  him.  the  The  couple  reality  remain  there.  of  His  decides  Arthur's  loyalty  to  return  court,  and  to  Lanval  commitment  to  supreme.  Q u a n d la p u c e l e ist f o r s a 1'us, Sur le p a l e f r e i , detriers li, D e p la in e s la is L a n va 1 s a i H i ! O d He  li s ' e n  rejects  fortune  upon  reality  and  Reconciled  choses to  him,  previously  that  It  a  the  society. four  instead  to  follow  sought  from  of lady  Each  is  can  his social  peers.  be  continually  us,  as  life.  comprise a  carbon  seen  as  associated  a  does  city  The  four  of  the  whole one  another,  leads.  he  present  us  who  cross  unit.  i t  country.  insight  men  other  fickle  a l l that  the  an  a  i t s demands  not  and  readers,  specific  copy  one with  the  careful  wherever  maiden  tale,  between  of  satisfied  forest  civilized  the  love  having  urban  638-41 )  promises  his  strictly  give  and  with  distinction  however  of  false  finds  corruption  hand  the  Lanval  clear  does  and  society  Chaitivel, a with  v a i t e n A v a l u n , (LI  seek  the  section  of  three These  both  into  in  and  the  men  are  life  and  8 death.  They  their  d e m e s u r e .  they  are  fall  in  8  are  Tant  to  the  the More  committed  city  whose  battle.  furent  corruption  These  tuit  p o t e s 1 ire  Sur En  s u n escu fu m i s la c i t e les u n t  A  la  d a m e  le  de  Ne  k i s o  men  grant  mei1lur.  ta m e z .  of to  nobility,  an  protection forfeit  ideal  than  is  duty,  they  their  neither  valur,  53-54,  by  unworthy  chescuns,portez (C  denoted  140-142)  the  glory  of  80 battle  nor  cause.  Three  condemned to  the  themselves  way.  neighbors  The  conflict  upon  peers  baron  leads  a very  21).  However,  he  falls  i n love  with  sedentary, his  decline.  matters,  denoted  this  window  from  progresses. containing charade.  r  on  7a s 'au 7e  He  lacks the  reality.  i n S t . Malo' between of  the  city.  This  and  of  a  next  of  door;  denotes  interests  adventure  This  himself  and  very  with  of love  of  external  motivation  t o t h e tower  restricted  Immediately  to a  in  at night.  confronted  force  he  t h e commencement  his life  more  when  shift  of motion  the lady  veneit v e it n o t v e i l lot.  baron's  M u t t u r n e o t e d e s p e n d e i t (L  h i s love  and  brave  of t h e L a u s t i c , t h e baron  fenestre ester un a m iqu'e7e sa treteu vie d e m e plus d e 7a n u i t  different  nature.  when  affair.  show  among  life:  the true  city  known  restricts  Finally,  their  was w e l l  longer  more  the  the reputation  lifestyle  the'corpse  of  of  The b a c h e l o r  he o b s e r v e s  becomes  reveals  the f o l l y  place  by t h e s u s p e n s i o n  which  speech  one  the lady  He  bitter  crippled,  concerns  generous  no  lies  noble  surfaces  suspends  character.  action  carry  He  takes  which  active  more  C h a i t i v e T , yet of a  rests  wife.  nocturnal  last  promises  story  truer,  recognizes  a s was  whom  being  the  but a shadow o f  of i n t e r e s t  as  he  false  tale  f o r the other's  his  9 A Pu Qu E  knight's  last  t o be n a u g h t  two  of  The  The  urban  for a  and  i s L a u s t i c . This  love  victory  outright  life.  Another  in  of  a l l too late,  collective  ilk,  die  to  u&. t h a t  honor  and  H i s arena  as  the  plot  the  casket  gives  up t h e  that  i s needed  released  from  (L 73-76).  to the  81 relationship, he  left  which  t h e n i g h t l y ones  their  major  ability  respective into  positions.  and  These does  protecting marriage,  and  be  murder the of  with  source  man's o p i n i o n  manage  fares  no  the  In one  bearing  final  than  narration.  a  cruelty,  of  ruthless fault more  in this than  of h i s wife's  that  the  namely  his  word  of  wife,  in  his  the lover  under  The s e c o n d  baron  perceiving His  adequately  her t o  merciless  communicates  The b l o o d y  violence  he i s n o m o r e w o r t h y o f  i s h i s f r i e n d . While  outcome,  he  within his  of  tale.  conduct.  so  one a s p e c t  i s  of Marie's  h i s a c t shows t o t h e r e a d e r than  law  out  that  purpose,  minds  better  their  goes  reveal  at least  his  in  h i s wife  a failure  i n the  that  of  frequently  his first  doubt  readers  husband  man  f o r guarding  to  where  surfaces  the context  so obviously  of the nightingale  severely  no  no  judgement  sole  admiration in  The  h i s wife  the  While  men  the countryside  loyal  leaves the  cynical  treats  married  into  remain  He  household. the  The  h i s reason  his life  substituted.  t h e two  act within  he c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y  life.  friend  between  up  his knightly duties f o r  and  forays  t h e town.  takes  t o pursue  difference  hence  again  had p r e v i o u s l y  t o move  nature,  strictly.  his  once  i t o f f , continuing  The  can  the knight  husband,  his will as  a  does  human  triumph  being,  is  criticized.  this  r e c i t , as w e l l  character and  comes  attitude.  as i n t h e other  forth  as  A l l of  truly the  inner-city  exemplary  major  tale,  of  noble  personae  show  82 themselves  to  one  with  the  In  this  person  upper  hand.  have major  flaws.  strongest that  one  each  of  nightingale  symbolizes  the  lover,  weak  virtue  of  the  her  negative  insipid  herself  to  reference  If  the  of  of  this  is  commentary  Le nature,  and,  lends  credence  the  commitment.  Given  Malo  narrator,  lives  by  of  that  a  derogatory  city  story  centers  respectively  are  of  sympathetic  c o n t r o l l i n g his  partners Fresne  of  r e s t r a i n her.  She He  are  given  a  citizens. then  each  in  this  rural  twelfth  Fresne  herself  two  men  Firstly, While  obviously  a mild  < D a m e , fet il, l e s s i e z ester J Ne devez mie issi parler J V e r i t e z e s t q u e c e s t e d a m e A d m u t e s t e d e b o n e f a m e . > ( F r 45-4 8 )  be the  plot.  wickedly  issue  to  to  woman.  he  in  the  i n the  Marie,  speaks does  nor  linked  appears  m a n n e r , by  wife.  life around  there  father  urban  noble  mother,  the  of  spatial  also  produce,  neither of  the  are  give  symbol  most famous  can  facet  her  to  indeed.  strictly  main  the  the  reveals  specific we  i t s supposedly  best  the  the  the  to  laustic  him  pair,  to  8y  sends  They  does n o t h i n g  husband.  the  instead  mother/daughter  trouble  is  she  another  in a  It  bachelor,  consequently,  portrayed  people.  fight  Finally,  the  husband.  Desiring  unveils  and  three  the  love.  while  husband  the  is  the  gain  lady's  i s very  examined.  person  to  the  the  While  is true,  i s destined  also  reputation.  Fresne,  century.  bird  this  of  St.  the  that  successfully  the  quality  inadequate  glimpse  to  i t s death,  husband's  will  case,  The  too  Given  and  has  yet  rebuke:  he  83 The  final  scene of  forceful not a  or  act  to  well  punish  the  distinguishes  being  The Fresne's around  nor  the  realm  same  will  Fresne,  example  true  which is  loyal  relationship  with  to  other  until  pressure  persona  leads  a  any  male as  he  love  i s the  will  be  to  Fresne  while  out  and  renown  shows  Gurun  community though  life,  the  as  latter  does is  established  at  his  done  to  be  wife  character that  of  his  circumstances'.  By  relegates  degree  a  patient that He  from  He  contrasting devotion  aspect  his  marriage  role  in  involved  as  a  success  level  of  intrigue  the  pursuit in  convent  pretenses.)  in  tale  falls  be  actively  This  the  This  false  his  retainers.  initially  to  are  of  tournament.  donation  for  revolves  disdains  active  girl.  under  to  repentant  foil;  but  more  a  himself  essentially  tested.  the  does  certain  a  and  mounts  somewhat  counterpart  as  her,  with  honor  thus  her  He  except  a  story  love  to  outset.  cast.  acts  her  more  father/husband  to  the  no  This  amazing  the  be  the  way  of  to  proves  daughter.  supporting  simply  the  accepting  face  hold  at  clear  cold,  of  Gurun  He  no  Because  against  displayed.  in  father  instead  judge,  i n the  hot  lover.  He  the  was  long-lost  demeanor  to  he  wife.  himself  neither  himself  his  proves  than  equitable  as  reasonable  drama  distinctive  m o d e r a t e and  as  the  matters  of the  (even  Gurun of  in  is  social  consequence. The  second  vassals' urge must  be  a  him  to  wed  and  legitimate heir  who  get  occurs  r i d of  could  when his  succeed  the  knight's  mistress. to  his  There  land  and  84 inheritance. already it  a  proven  is this  makes  Here,  very  that  unwittingly again. the  the of  end  in  steadfast anything  rather  unique  we  dealing  his  are  castle  demands  the  in  hence  of  the  agent  past,  of  that  rightful  resolution  intrigue. back  He  together  end  destiny.  up  with  The  yet  i t is  daughter  not  directly  the  and  a  lover  story  because  selfish to  the  old  the  of  because  prime.  8y  His  refusal  reveals  the  who of  a  to  king's  Here from  where  than  he  was  ever  nature  of  this  elderly let  moves  a  mountain  very  the  react  triangle.  never  suitors the  also  establishes  love  man  foot  various  who  which  traditional  relationship,  incest.  her  Gurun  of  Yet  lover  love,  a father  go  his  father/daughter accused  a  of  to  family does  duty,  man.  to  to  young  original  own  true  social  concerns.  agent  daughter/lover,  with  more  the  man's  the  contains  except  of  of  personal  the  his  puts  restored  is of  he  i n the  be  i s an  of  the  twist  much  capable  triumph  to  of  merely  d o n e by  relation  to  first  virtue  witness  A m a n z  resolve  therefore  the  He  the  of  above  d e n o u e m e n t  no  in that  him,  Fresne  He  brings  girl.  D e u s in  for  the  Through  right  does  weakening  position. triggers  fails  virtue in  i t possible  social  Gurun  go  king  of  the  inability  stands  girl,  to  he  cope  and with  rea1i ty. The  young  princess'  hand.  accomplish proceeds  son  this. to  work  He  of  a  local  has  journeyed  Setting his  count  way  himself into  attempts from up  the  his in  the  maiden's  to own  gain  the  land  to  court,  he  heart.  She  85  however  remains  maturity  demanded  state  of  torn  affairs  The  the  girl's  the  girl  trial  rather  young in  of  by  to  hand  than  carrying  the  achieve  two  up  boy's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o  demands  complementing make  his at  an  prime  any  t h e r e f o r e he her  must  of  while circumventing the  to  increase  immature,  had  his  he  challenge.  own  Refusing to  obedience  will  p r e p a r a t i o n he  to  assumes  drink  receive, to the  the the  journey to  cannot to  fulfill  young  shows  the  into  the  letter  serves  and, he  of  up  to  potion  suitor  mainly  essentially  is  princess i n having  the  of i t .  undergoes  strength  to  convince  and the  spirit  that  to  obtain  attempt  This detour  self-confidence  pridefully  journeyed  initial  and  He  them  another.  adolescence  the  training  He  one  the  delicate  causes  prepare  of  The  adulthood.  out  The  directive-  the mountain.  break  and  extra  cost.  responsibility k i n g ' s law  loyalty  relationship.  must  in marriage  elope  family  these  contender  order  to  her  forces  come i n c o n f l i c t  Salerno  of  between  the  which  negates  made t h e  he his  trip  to  Salerno. This  male  occasionally regulations stems  from  charge.  The  that,  even  lovers  would  persona bend  are the  the  boy's  the  still  from  too  yet  to  learned  especially  resultant  inability  attempt be  not  rules,  u n j u s t . The  impression i f  has  death  accept  of  the  parties  advice  of  had  been  successful,  of  narration  their  to  those  both  tone  handle  need  when  the  immature t o  the  the  the  his is two  success.  While  in  can  fool  Yet  once the  be  too  the  c a s t l e or  himself two  into are  great, The  but  strength  has  no  abilities  are  completes girl,  lad  task  united  on  earth  lesson  to  a l l who  are  are  not  strong  by  Milun, is  a  maturing. But  this  which  him  gains  love  his of and  i s nothing  events,  the and  reason.  Twenty  is  capable  limit.  their  joint  tombs  hear  their  silent  to  survive  as  we  him  trademark, great  or  of  of  obtaining  his  see,  serve  of  the  The  They  are as  testimony.  a  Those  the  city  challenge  the  l a i is  has  difficulty  renown, to  by  the  changing a  this  bien a i m e e  being the  needed in  offers  proposal. this a  folly  future.  maiden  about  While  turn time  dictates before  matrimony.  in  prowess.  entire  young  beyond are  his  named,  ultimate  the  affair,  separation  barely  nature.  commit  well  and  realm.  which  with  extraordinary  lasts  mountain  just  death.  reputation  their  He  to  mental  stamina  temptations  shall  r e a d i l y assents  unusual  in  a f t e r whom  to  the  another  faced  domain-  marvelous  Milun's  the  when  character  maturation,  of  maximum  boy  proves of  true  in  leads  years  His  him  duration  testing  live.  of  the  possible.  but  crest  joins  a  he  the  is task  physical  despair,  who,  reputation  heard  her  there  He  the  to  man's o r i g i n a l  knight  of  Salerno,  success  mountain,  going  successful  main  of  on  care  so  becomes  Having  the  enough t o  the  young  to  before  only  always  presented  to  city  that  attain  left  stretched  his  the  virtue  does  in. sympathetic  who  on  by  possibility.  the  believing  out  not  at  of of of  Milun  87 When we but  first  make h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e ,  accomplished  knight  Meeting  her f r e q u e n t l y  company  and o b v i o u s l y  rise  to the actual  inability  who  impregnates  i n t h e grove, enjoys  status  t o move f r o m  Milun  t h e grove  young,  his girl  he g l a d l y  her favors.  of a true  i s a  He  friend.  shares  however  l o v e r , seen  her  cannot  by  Milun's  a n d become a c c e p t e d  i nher 10  bedroom,  the  Instead  of  advise,  rightful  helping  place  her  he r e t i c e n t l y  f o r a l l genuine  to  agrees  escape  with  t o whatever  him  plan  lovers.  or  offering  t h e damsel can  devise:  Milun  respunt  q u e il  fera  C e o q u ' e l ec u n s e i l l e r a . He i s u n a b l e his  t o commit  rightful  immature action  seek  nature  subsequently  honor  through  is  removed, absence, comes  exhibits  responsibility.  a  certain  circumvents  the  into  t o leave  exploits.  His an  t o take  inherently  inability  with  of  the affair  away  problem  over  rather  to  as t h e c h i l d  f o r him t o s t a y . In by  continues  of grief  abroad  i s no m e n t i o n o f  h i s l o v e r . As s o o n  i s given  amount  and goes  There  i s no f u r t h e r p u r p o s e  the girl back,  itself  decides  martial  t o be u n i t e d there  t o her and u n w i l l i n g  the g i r l .  Milun  effort  Milun  of  translates  concerning  an  his  share  himself  (M 6 5 - 6 6 )  her f a t h e r . as  normal.  When Milun  the situation,  but  ingeniously.  The  communication i s established by t h e u s e o f a swan as 10 T h i s i s t h e o n l y l a i , w h e r e t h e l o v e r c a n n o t s e e m t o f i n d s o m e way i n t o t h e l a d y ' s b o w e r . T h e t w o c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e a l f r e s c o s e t t i n g , n o t even b o t h e r i n g t o a t t e m p t an entrance into the lady's household.  88 courier.  The  two  also  take  up  their  old  habit  of  rendez-  vous: Ensemble vi end rent plusurs feiz. N u l s n e p o e t e s t r e s i d e s t r e i z N e s it e n u ze s t r e i t e m e n t , Q u e In  il n e t r u i s s e  l i u s o v e n t .  r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the previous  couple time.  i n question They  instead this  of r i s i n g  status  as  fame  Milun and  and,  honor.  quickly  same  stage  had  infant,  teach  Channel  t o do  younger  and t h e r e f o r e more p o w e r f u l , juncture  constitutions continues to  do,  realizes  in  pride,  When t h e y  the  son  t o act immaturely  and  that  son  responds  h i s contender  to  of  the tale. abroad of  Milun. the  i s an  challenge o l d man,  knight,  again  the f i e l d ,  evident.  the  Milun.  yet  that  Pure  and  unknown  i m p u l s i v e l y , as  the  he  as  unseats  become  where  responsibility  this  narration  searches  at  ears  on  his  arrives  traverses  meet  and  the  of f a t h e r  P e r . He  and  to  in  battle.  of  gains  ho m a t t e r  triumphs  Milun,  this  folly  lesson  confronted  youth,  S a n s  the jealous  a  is  in  h i s son.  the best  lines  with  f o r Milun  of h i s f a t h e r ,  the youth  reaches  he  wiser  the  circumstances  point  grown  i n the opening  news o f h i s s u c c e s s  the  a  love,  grown  when  development  i n nature,  to  now  the t i t l e  social  achieved  Desiring  arrives  i s judged  earning of  wholesome  The c r u c i a l  i n t h e manner  He  casual  within their  of h i s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -  knight and  of  of having  t o remain  development  abandoned  jousts, the  of  pattern  no s i g n s  above them.  the product The  for  are content  matter  with  show  (M285-88)  the  the son, It i s at divergent  While he  and,  Milun  i s wont when  prudently  he  ceases  89 the  action.  Helping  the elder  S a n s P e r distinguishes a  potentially  combat  reveals  heritage  long  the  making.  publicly  obstacles  step  i n h i s eyes.  youth,  This  blocked  He  f o r h i s own  to  at  accept  youthful  of the  f o r now  son  a l l the  at obtaining the  Y e t even  bringing  to unite  takes  years i n  of  acceptance  dies.  suggests  his family  mistake  attempts  and t h e husband  forces  of  rejection  courage  opinion,  h i sfeeble  who  a  public  twenty  through  and  only  i n the narrator's  not Milun,  than  t h e boy  was  field  h i s son, Milun  a step  fortitude  heretofore  which  together.  the  The  Thus  result.  to maturity,  wronged  has  a r e removed,  reason  i s dispersed.  and a c k n o w l e d g i n g  Having  him  and humble.  t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t w o men a common  what  redeems  knight  through  now  exuberance  the  as generous  the  tension  avoided  he  to his feet,  deadly  recognizing  the  lady  himself  yet a vastly different  By  birth,  man  so, i t  t h e two  i s  lovers  i f f o r no  other  legitimacy.  Unc ne demanderent parent: S a n z c u n s e i l d et u t e a u t r e g e n t Lur fiz a m d e u s les assembla, L a m e r e a s u n p e r e d o n a . (M 5 2 5 - 2 8 ) It  i s  receives happily  through  h i s woman.  to  patiently  awaits  join  leaving  implicitly older  overwhelming  Marie  f o r t h e sake  together  By  no  man.  t o allow  of the forsaken  the  lady  in  their  return.  the  resolving  augments The  seems  motivation  son  story  t o end  domicile,  action  accomplishes  Milun  s o n . And s o t h e two go  her  h i s maturity  this  that  level what  to  where  the  above  son, that  twenty  she  Marie  of the  years  of  90  muddling itself well.  around  not He  only  and  of  himself  we  are  through  knight  however  love,  a  youth, he  has  The  has  a  the  not  just  surrounding  himself  confronted  born  vanity  or  for  the  fault  source  of  his  social  the  accepts  truth the  externalizes Guigemar  and  a  an  can  background duty  of  of  of  truth.forces  debut,  i t  him  the  we  the  mask t h a t to  act.  as  more search  in  fault  that  return  forest  The  is  is  the  finds Whether  nonetheless from  the  cannot  enunciation.  The  to  in  Guigemar  character  he  Indicating  existence.  house,  must  This  remedied.  separated  be  out  of  him  has  He the  wounded  thigh  resolved  before  civilization.  relieves  heretofore  son.  Guigemar  reality  wound.  honor  to  given  prophetic  grow  and  strings.  are  his  Here  indifferent  home,  domain. of  his  be  apron  the  hind's  physical  of  in  fame  being  i s . Being  identity,  to  much  man  and  returns  reality  successfully  the  of  paternal  the  are  won  Milun  activity  that  politic  more.  the  subsequently  severed  internal  scene  has  like  will  the  challenge  necessity  who  indifference, that  shown  been and  Guigemar  distinction  the  of  exhibits  f o r a s u i t a b l e companion.  age,  of  by  of  spirit  matters  have  knight  yet  scene  in  prime example of  a  which  forest  deny  a  brilliant  first  of  us  tender  situation after  could  movement  with a  decisive  but  his search  presented at  Milun  to  His  field  and  offer  himself  not.  the  activity  complex  that  on  i s a l l that  The  for  could  of  borne.  the The  The social naked  91 The of  r e s u l t a n t voyage  Guigemar*s  outward lacks  sign the  quite  journey  divine  personal  and p r o t e c t i o n  i n society,  Throwing  of fate,  stage  he h a s a l l t h e  standing  thereof.  t h e winds  t h e second  For while  h i s adult  confidence  upon  guidance  comprises  t o manhood.  t o confirm  literally  by b o a t  Guigemar  he  himself prays f o r  as w e l l .  A Deu p r i e k ' e n p r e n g e c u r e , K a sun poeir I'ameint a port E t s i l d e f e n d e d e l a m o r t . ( G .201-3.) T  This  desire  unknown  f o r protection  and,  transformation the  lady  whom  than  resides  h i s hope  taken  wound  that  wound  that  enjoyed  i s also  the  he  understand  i n t h e boat,  psychological  Guigemar  falling  1ove:  in  testifies  a  to protect  meets t h e l a d y i n  i s removed  The  with  from t h e  initial  flaw  i n proportion  the lady.  of to  Thus t h e  However  there  i s now  a  namely  that,  after  having  established  separated  from  what c o m p r i s e s  which once again  displacement  existence,  He  h i s newly  i s forcefully  Now h e w i l l  When  healed.  of  of the  undergoes  He l e a r n s  disappears  i n love  receives,  fruits  see,  Guigemar  chambers.  t o love,  falls  h i s fear  interests.  forsurvival. her  Guigemar  development, loves.  he  later  i n safety,  the inability  degree  external  to  from  of events.  h i s own  the shore  and  will  i n the course  rather  Guigemar,  for  we  Gaining  boat  the  as  stems  from  serves  t h e happy  t o t h e progress  emotional  t h e woman  real  new  he  suffering.  as a  metaphor  medium  ofh i s  achieved  by  I  92  La d a m s regretou E prie D e u om Qu'il li d u n a s t E q u eJ a m e s n e S ' i l n e r e p e o t  t so vent nipotent hastive mort vienge a part a v e i r s ' a m i e ,  A " i l d e s i r e p l u s q u e s a vie. He  no  the  longer  lady  having  to  goes  Guigemar  in  with  his  time,  i n the  true  love  his to  of  not  only  gain  his  heart  actions.  in  matters  mockery  of  bachelor,  the  lady  finds  her  whose  port  a  the  knot  give  up  lies  liberating  as  lady's  cause.  In  knight  proves  to He  condemn  his native  most m y s t e r i o u s  the  to  he  has  this  a l l involved able  to  and  a  from  lord  Guigemar  friend, to  her  Guigemar's prison.  commit  has  duty  By  siege,  by  the  to  now  defying to  gained  himself  at  selfishly  wholeheartedly  he  a  worth.  husband.  a  bore  sought-after  the  means o f  tied would  Guigemar  right  earthly  that  who  being  nearby  lady.  had  in  explanation  his  but  himself by  a  proven  fairylike  her  her  sunk  lady  of  social  of  girtle,  from  and  leave  castle  than  legitimate now  the  acceptable,  those  i t changes  honor  is  the  to  him  land.  i n t e n t i o n s of  which  as•a  Instead,  commits  now  ego.  rather  test  can  freeing  is  a  without  raison d'etre  stance  lady  knot  also  and  her  Guigemar  wisdom.  love  decides  the  his  but  at  his  amorous  worthy  the  worthless  h i s own  the  stands  arrived,  to  Meriaduc,  of  into  finally  she  of  now  returning to  increasing his  refuses in  embodies  however,  heart.  residing  of  now  life,  one  manhood thus  The  virtue  of  No  life,  idol  v a i n g l o r y . The  shirt  his  own  ignoring  This  of  and  former  persists in  mire  wish  i t . She  the  on  his  ladies.  rooted the  for  share  replaced  He  local  cares  ( G 6 2 3-28)  the young  maturity another  93 human  being.  large,  This  proving  character  places  to  faults  Having  augments them  which  removed  himself  have  denied  same  castle,  f o r the  Guigemar  makes  himself  i t as  social  well.  and  establish. after  He  thus  Eliduc, examination,  budding older, the  king,  exiled  by  married  man  the  the  G u i g e m a r this  established the  down of  they  that  ethics,  are.  balance  find  Thus use  between  so  hard  to  i n the "happily  collection  social  dealt  ever  man.  Eliduc, of  i s quite  content  complacent  scene,  thus  proving  episode  of  the  long  Here  that  our  problems  a  gossip  we  have  foibles  nothing  of  favorite  a  in a l l respects. the  of  the concerns  slanderous  sovereign.  and  r e i n t e g r a t i o n of  with  l a i addresses  victim  beloved  influence,  that  choosing.  Whereas  their  others  by M a r i e  with  this  Guigemar  f i t f o r s o c i e t y , but of  that  deals  who  that  that- tenuous  also  of  be a  chains  l a i of  midst  to  code  final  his  the  customs  false  i s rewarded  becomes  and  the  only  duty  masculinity, well  laws  castle,  breaking  the  persona.  at  overcome  By  faulty  achieves  of her  has  society  prize.  open  not  personal  ending"  male  He  he  the  Meriaduc's  the social  splits  them  that  from  his rightful  he  to  p r e v i o u s l y h i s trademark.  himself of  worth  well  were  exposing  to  as  outside  him  his  of  of the  with  and  is  happily Into  fate  i s so  a  the  exert  stable  as  constant.  The  first  shores  of  England,  Eliduc  proceeds  to  near work  the  story  Exeter. as  a  finds  Hearing  mercenary,  Eliduc rumors  as  errant  .on of  the war,  knights  94  are  Inclined  for  after  meets is  having  a  he d o e s  i s this  of the plot  Eliduc having  to  must  of  upon  the orders  their  future  except woman  relationship  that  t o be  by  married  he  hides  in his life. will  be t h e  resolved.  occupant  o f her f a t h e r .  chambers,  herself  They even  some t i m e ,  7a m e in a s is.  and  i n the  that  to the princess' the  Eliduc  h e r . There  While  of another  f o r quite  7 'a ve i t p a r un 7 it e r e n t  with  i s already  r e l a t i o n s h i p as husband  Ce7e Desur  monarch,  properly.  entrance  there  bed and c o n v e r s e  i n love  courteously,  and t h e i s s u e  invited  local  Eliduc  behave  their  e a s i l y gains  been  moreover,  i n that  the presence  aspect  the intrigue of the r e c i t ,  and f a l l s  a c t very  the princess  center  the  problem he  lies  t h e day f o r a  daughter  foreigner  country, from  saved  t h e man's  the slight  as  It  t o do. Herein  and,  s i t upon  a direct allusion  and  wife.  pris,  D e p 7 u s u r s c h o s e s u n t p a r 7 e . (E 297-99) Having now  lived  r e a l i z e s the extent  Once a g a i n , and  king, former  he has  Eliduc  desirable Yet,  aid  the love-life  fallen  up i n a v e r y  h i s fortunes on  Eliduc,  of the king  proved  he h a s h e r e - t o - f o r e  has s e t h i m s e l f  before,  vassal.  has f a i l e d  o f what  marriage,  Eliduc lacked.  advantageous  situation.  as  having  o f an a r r a n g e d  who  requests  as t h e f a i t h f u l  had t r e a t e d  t o keep  himself  bad t i m e s ,  change  his original  the a i d of h i s  servant,  goes  to the  him so p o o r l y .  Even  though  his private  t o be a n  as  promises  honorable  t o h i s wife,  member  he  of society i n  95 respect  to  nobleman  his public  in this  duty.  He  truly  i s  the  consummate  respect. i  In  h i s comings  readily  fulfills  respect, two  He  that  cannot  created  by  attempts  to obtain  to  the  the  details  good  himself of  fate.  who  Eliduc  i n the  same  ways w i t h t h e  from  the  He  persuading  wrongs t h e k i n g  dilemma  desperately  her t o run o f f  had been s o h o s p i t a b l e  knight.  three  of  Yet  by h i s d e c e p t i v e  G u i l l i a d u n by  the f i r s t  the channel,  requirements.  extract  Eliduc, the foreign  of  across  circumstances  h i m . He t h u s  In  goings  his social  he n e g a t e s  women.  with  and  c r o s s i n g s , Marie  the voyage,  does  restraining  n o t make  herself  much  to  one  verse;  A  la m e r  vient,  s i e s t passez,  When i t c o m e s t o t h e f o u r t h t i m e we g e t a m o r e c o m p l e t e  Me Un E Ki Lu E The  s q u a n d e tUrment un v e n t luin d e r verge t u t  For,  as  i n t h e words  d e s r u m p i .  rebels  back  i n defiance  girl's  city,  E l i d u c was  behind  the reality the  mask  however,  (E 815-20)  prevents  against  of able  of t h e i r of  God  and  and  from  Eliduc  sailor, the  t o deceive  situation,  virtue  t h e boat  aiding  of the unfortunate  maiden  with  the water,  il d u r e n t ariver, e eurent en m e r devant e u s leva, l hafne les geta; brusa e fendi  lur s i g l e  i f nature  across  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e voyage.  v i o l e n c e of the elements  land,  (E 8 7 ) .  he  reaching  in his s i n . brings  l a w . When  i n the  h e r , b u t now,  he c a n n o  excellence  longer  that  the  faced hide  are his  surface  traits.  metaphor  of  As  other him  his  just  maiden  to  Nature inner  deathlike  allowable  Eliduc  her  way  their  given  right  setting up  his  is  to  Devant  Only  God  time  their  previous  place  for  for  an  Eliduc  has  Guildeluec's  revive  the her  establish receive halves  by  there  his  every  chapel,  that  the  were  she  virtue  symbolize  loses  Alive,  forest  (E  them  no  torments moment.  reflecting  of  love.  Eliduc  The  has  now  929-30)  from  chapel  this  also  tragic  speaks  relationship. as  the  and  of  i f to  of  t r y to  serves  the  as  Marie two  of  Eliduc purge  f o r e s t chapel  gives  his  concern  tool  of  as a  time  situation. the  need  makes his  for  daily  soul  with  a continuance temporary  to  parallel  abbey.  Guilliadun. his  two  lives  for  her  God.  successor, an  of  accurate  prepare  of  storage the  way  existences  that  1ed.  joining  becomes  as  haunts  together  rendez-vous girl  i f  c u m a n d e r u m .  of  integration  The of  the  is  cuclierum  site  choice  Eliduc  7a  their  the  lies,  shore.  the  to  i n the  in  to  This  in  be  redeem  sanctification  sorrow.  she  an  God.  D e u 7a  can  pilgrimages  Dead,  7 'auter  a  Guilliadun's  to  It to  with  storm.  his  her  chosen  love  E  to get  Guilliadun  natural  chapel  for  sleep.  presence.  leaves  Eliduc  t u r m o i l - the  punishment  a  with  presents  Through  shattered  the no  are  a  The  virtue of  fused  lovers of his back  direct  result  virtuous  Providence two  because  life  as  husband.  Divine  unite  But  occurs  uses and  Eliduc's wife,  wife  her  to  then  to  does  he  the  together.  split He  is  97 now  free  having  Guilliadun  and  into  privately  i s re-established  his society.  acknowledged  t o h i s former  happy  this  make Marie  final  describes  there  works.  t o end t h i s  characters  their  as  This  ending,  this  There  they  time  and  having  lives  the underlying  previous  resolution to the intrigue.  a  lesson  moral  lived  with  between In-  a  concept  t o the readers,  perfect  love  Marie  our examination divide  search  of  i s that  eternity.  J o y . The  It also  plot of  serves  that man  three  i n good  approves  between  mate. of  h i s lady  are  killed  death  die.  and  line their  to give  life  most  outright  while  t h e two  With  lovers  That  can  be  woman  and  see  that  we  categories plot  or  A m a n z  actions  of  chosen  by  resolution more  of  a n d Y o n e c ,  three  the  principal  both  t h e man  of the four  suitors  t h e one s u r v i v o r L a u s t i c , there substantiated  based  i s o n e man's  the external  common  f o r one  lais,  three  plot.  In C h a i t i v e l ,  to society. of  The  into  through  In E q u i t a n , D e u s  and  death  God  the various  themselves  f o r himself  out a  characters.  useless  into  completed  showing  both  t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a common  seeking  can prepare t o  i n d i v i d u a l s and God.  readily  inner  that  her  a l l of her  abounding  t o an a l r e a d y  augments  life.  continues  as one o f p e a c e f u l  of  detail  still  l a i by p l a c i n g  across  time  result  added  final  i n t h e abbey.  journey  a  Marie  wrongs,  and, l i k e Job,  Despite  principle  on  his  b l e s s i n g o f a new a n d p r o s p e r o u s  She c h o s e s  they  status  F o r now,  the increased  tale.  are  bring  publicly  Eliduc with  to  remains i s the  by  virtually figurative  t h e dead  bird.  98 Another but  possible  still  woman's young to  outcome  viable  city.  prince  This  her  home  as  than  lais  but f a i l s  which  are  the tales  city,  as  i s  tries  in  goal.  with  the  the couple socially  settle  returns  into  there  to  With Yseut's  are  closure.  down  established  the  there.  some d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s f u l  where  where  the intent  entrance Finally,  to the  Milun  reside  gain  frequent  back  Lanval,  t o Avalun.  b u t more  to  i s less  going  permanently  i n this  end w i t h  lovers  back  well,  to  that  evident  h i s lady  Chievrefoil, Tristan society,  t h e two  i s most  follows  h i s lover's  liberate  sees  to the tales  four These  i n t h e man's  norm.  They  are  G u i g e m a r , B i s c l a v r e t , F r e s n e and E l i d u c . With B i s c l a v r e t , the  man  i s justified  his  wife  and remains  other  three  live  happily  of  present ever  the lais,  that it  while i s not  present  the  their  always  h i s own  plot  with  i s a  two  who  tragic  realize  he  loses  of action. settle  The  down t o  For t h e majority ending,  i n the eventual to  though  scene  lovers  somewhat  possible  noted,  unique  according The s p a t i a l  result  social  us  believes  previously  context. will  in his original  even  a f t e r i n t h e man's c i t y .  there  Marie  h i s peers  indicating  triumph this  of  goal  love,  i n the  life.  As within  before  type  to  his  reactions  displacement  i n a change  intentions  of character  s e t t i n g and f u l f i l l s  or c i t y ,  within  patterns.  men a r e a b l e  and m o t i v a t i o n s .  acts  from  his function i n  of a p a r t i c u l a r  of behavioral  milieu of the court true  each  However,  the  given  individual When  i nthe  t o cover  up  as soon  as  99 these  men  are  position,  from  self-worth, This  which  the  exposure  character problem the  removed  flaw exists.  source of  the  they derive  true is  from  motives  they  their  for  are  while  their and  hearts  they  to  sense  with  of  exposed.  rectify  admit  of the f o r e s t  the c i t y ,  social  are  cannot  willing  Thus t h e f u n c t i o n  the problem  of  their, identity  of  necessary,  until  security  that  i s to  a a  unveil  i t s pressures  i and  turmoil,  within  serves  as  the  vertical  endposts to  of  achieve  private  and  Muldumarec, As  men  often  crucible  t h e man's p s y c h o l o g i c a l  The.man u n d e r g o e s to  a  are  one  h i s own a  of city  most  constitutes  the  the  evil  from  makeup., displacement in  contrast  women.  wanders  the  and  He  that  The  Eliduc  between  o f t h e woman i n a n  balance  duties.  M i l u n and  purge  horizontal  realistic  public  the  a  to  between  repeated  trips  exemplify this  mobile  members  plot  structure  of  the  type  society,  attempt  demands of  of  Guigemar, of  this  of the r S c i t .  two  motion. motion  100 In  tracing  characters of  the  i n the  We  of  in  from  Lais.  Each  derived  from  the  displacement forms  central  and a  of  and  Marie's characters, secondary  social  while  of  for  tension  between  the  The  demands c a u s e s lacking needs  a  lacking will  the  in  render  large.  and  social the for  man  a  free  of  need.  to  satisfy  quest  being  i n t o the  world  is  directly stories-  structure unite is  of  the  around  the  of  a  physical  psychological  personal  needs  the  i s seen  As  come t o  necessary helper  who  for  to  can  himself  to  man be  grows,  his  need  by  resolve  This  the  as  a  resolve  of  use  her a  social  that  he  is  dilemma.  He  aide,  to  or  divergent  that  to  the  creates and  the  supply  of  individual's  realization  make-up. the  the  freedom  created the  plot  this  for  conflict  to  i t possible  the  self-fu1fi11ment  psychological  thus  motif  aspect  primary  internal  resources  his  theme  a  i s with  personal  the  this  female  the  that  role  to  of  cohesive  as  freedom  Paraclete,  conflict at  of  reaction  the  the  and  aspects  events  La i s ,  concern  a need  struggle  obligation.  various  of  male  of  redemption.  the  result  recognition  the  of  relocated  The  each  have examined  pattern  network  for  reader  and  these  characters  basic  the  general  For  we  presentation  redemption.  theme.  maturation  lais,  reality  of  tight  displacement  development  discussed  his  the  Lais  the  have a l s o  disassociated  of  individual  displacement  persona.  path  which the  his the  is  woman, internal  community  101  As his  the  movements  the  Lais.  Narration a  mobile  in  Marie one  c o n s t i t u t e the  i s how  gives  twelve  story,  with  personal  imperfect.  problems failure.  exposes then  them.  denotes The  victory  with  the  does not  his  has  the  locale  by  from  constitutes  of  his  him  which a  to  search  aspect  of  He  goal  for the  be  the  the  needs The  -  city  successful  exile  to  is  to  from  seek the  the  take  one  refuge  maternal  from - c i t y  will  r e l a t i o n s h i p from  he  action.  return  movement  i f  protagonist  his  the  original  and  s o m e o n e , who  within  a  sign  forest  to  or  this  i n the  male  or  various  success  his  of and  flaws  the  Generally, to  cannot  of  traverse  with  type  weak  the  resolution lies  man  a  being  a  of  experience  through  is  displacement  fled.  his  as  counter-part  woman. He he  he  problem.  side.  the  discovery  deals  not  life;  detail.  for  gradual  he  the  to  from  which  of  plot.  formulated  rectifying  the  the  in  theme.  character  or  plot  mate,  of  female  that  the  figure's  a successful  his  one  and  a  choice  in  horizontal  forced  city  nurturing  see  narrations  goes  return  of  searching  protagonist  confront  the  include  reverse  in  is  woman  T h u s we  city  to  man  The  way  the  e x p l i c i t n e s s of  through  the  man  brought  develops  has  of  a  true  of  and  love  whether  sign  man's a b i l i t y  male  his  The  the  of  action  out  v a r i a t i o n s on  crisis.  He  via  s o c i e t y , the  functions  i s worked  distinct  the  through  that  as  story  plot,  values  ignoring  the  twelve  real  ordeal  plot  us  each  central  exist  expressed  narrating  In  of  the  plan  basic  a c t i v e member o f  Characters  general  Thus  and  to over  man's  city the  mother.  102 a  vital  need  becomes  f o r t h e man  that  must  the personification of  take  the place  the  hearth  formerly  which  held  i s  the  be  filled.  h i s goal  i n that  by h i s m o t h e r . heart  and  The she  S h e now  center  woman  of  will  guards  the  new  domicile. A second, to  displace  follow  t h e female.  him back  redemption  community.  one  with  society  The  lady  herself  contrast c a n be  embodies  about  and  The  her  three  to follow  role  t h e man  grove  or garden.  These  the  required  space,  fulfill  a  t h e man secondary  undergo  h e r own  a vertical  have  t h e man,  shift  t o leave  as  proven  This  shift  i n attitudes  a  of  that  which  the  member from  t h e bedroom  I f the lady  transitions  herself  prepare  h e r home.  locations  and companion.  8efore  s h e must  indicate the various  and mental  into  displacement.  a r e t h e tower,  places  lover  spatial  she w i l l  of  also  in society  traditional  influences  woman a s i d o l ,  must  process  the psychological  woman  the  back  dreams and a s p i r a t i o n s .  movement c o m p r i s e s  and e m o t i o n a l l y  preparation life  him i n t h e  t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l one o f h e r mate.  free  to  h e r home, s h e b e c o m e s  not merely  by means o f  h i s lady  him e n t r a n c e  leaves  maturation  mentally  society.  gain  T h e woman  o f t h e man i s  She must j o i n  h i sgoals,  but she does  goal  convince  i n the reintegration  woman's s p a t i a l  direct  land.  will  the lady  must  i n the plot.  individual  the  When  t h e man, s h a r i n g  function  in  T h e man  which  participates  with  and c r u c i a l  to h i snative  process  the  She  complementary  capable  implied  and t h e role  of  c a n make by  each  of aiding the  103  man  in their  now  mutual  goal  of gaining entrance  into  his  city. The  entrance  acceptance  of  individuals words, they  fruits to  of love  re-admit  conflict Thus  of  the  while  one  outcome  the  i s that  most  of  often  realize will  the  resolve  common  a  refuse  private  t h e two must  which  i s shown  vus g u e r p i r a i the couple  may  that  i n the case  t u t e s g e n z . be  ready  group  may  on i t s b e h a l f . Thus M a r i e  alternate  resolutions  acceptance  provides  of  kin-group,  i s  cannot and  other  reveals to  the society  social  two  variety  possible to  of the incompatibility  t h e community,  The  between  The  love  they  In  the  of l a i s  while  Often  the  the  duties.  modes  of  les t i e n d r e n t , m u t s'entramrent, en m u r u r e n t e f i n e r e n t . ( E q , 183-84).  because  P u r  efforts  into  victorious.  because  by  stated i nE q u i t a n :  home  within  back  that,  world.  lovers  becomes  h i s peers,  Thus,  in this  probable  lady's  reader  community's  the plot.  i n the collection  loyalties  Bien Puis Another  as  the  created of  i t i s not always  the  death  d e n o u e m e n t  Marie  and  unit  are admitted  contained  force,  family  the resolution  by  conscientious  positive  t h e community  new  i f the couple  are portrayed  the  of  the  denotes  resolutions  and  into  courtly an  society,  exemplary  setting  re-enter  and  n o t be w o r t h y  presents  which  t h e man  of Lanval:  to  of the couple of  between  ( L I , 128)  t o the dramatic  or r e j e c t i o n  return to the  of  us w i t h a  conflict by  Marie  work their  variety  as seen  by  society. was  f o r the twelve  a  plots  member, of the  I  Lais. at  She  the  examines  same  tales.  time,  see  the  moments.  While  the  distant  past  than  England,  the  her  We  the  to  occupy  the  chivalric  world  in  she  wrote  which  that  of  the  her  first,  and  speaks  i n the  Lais,  i n mind.  composition  are  mind  most  own  i t by  twelfth are  contemporary  audience  her  transcends  tales  both  When w r i t i n g  this  of  issues discussed  audiences  specific  origins  1 04  and  obvious,  and  Marie  universality i t s most were s e t  century  seen  portion twelve in  of  There  that the  the  to  above,  we  more  France  and to  her  i s the  have  had  reasons  Celtic  for  tales,  readers.  king  of  a  The  whom  she  redemption  can  see  and  of  men  comprises  narrative  where  social  8)  structure  a  major of  instruction  the  to  men  lais  on  is implied. are  numerous o n e - l i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s  comportment  one  the  of  a  most n o t a b l e  man  when  i n the  instructions  introduction,  page 1  i n the  presence  i s found  Q u a n t e n la c h a m b r e d u t entrer, L e c h a m b e r l e n c e n v e i e a v a n t , E il s ' a l a t a u k e s targant D e c i q u e c i l r e v i n t a r i e r e . (E,  1 See  in a  relevant  the  preserve  b e n e f i t of  recipient  thematic  proper of  her  prologue.  stories,  general  of  future.  En 1' h o n u r d evus, nobles re.is, K i t a n t e s t e s p r u z e c u r t e i s , A k i t u t e J o i e s ' e n c l i n e E t e nk i q u o e r t u z b i e n s r a c i n e , M'en t r e m is d e s 7 a is assembler. P a r r i m e f a i r e e r e c o n t e r . ( P , 4 3-4 Having  and,  vulnerable  o b v i o u s l y must  fold:  f o r the  milieu  none-the-1ess  Discussed  three  social  of  a  lady,-  in Eliduc:  286-89).  105 "One  ought  the  implied  rule  the  case  the  counsel  not  of from  enter  unannounced  expounded two  his  lovers,  Thus  we  grant  can  see  that  r e c i p i e n t s of  the  composition  recipients wrote out of  her  when  her  upon  was  the  answered  settings As for  the  of  the  the  the  care  always her  are  Or,  be  to  7e e i r e . the  able  (DA,  audience  portion  be  of  found  Thus t h e  the  as  in  receive  210-12)  were c e r t a i n l y  Marie's  attention  in  been  context and  taken  of and  at  of  in  potential  fact  and  that  future  into  readers  the  introduction  put  the  outset  meticulous  of  into  care  to  focus  to  the  the of  Marie  consideration  Evidently,  setting  detail  found  the  immediate  needs  takes  group  collection.  i n Chapter  this  is  that  is  element  ancien serve  as  time  from  distant  in  can  the  traditionally  temporal  verses.  is  and  Lais  is  spatial  each  and  narrative  establish  the  works.  collection that  should  chamber"  meschineJ" ere ire;  would, have  of  observed  directly which  Lais  configuration  Marie  few  homogeneous  particular  by  temporal  men  more  composing  comprehension  lady's  stories.  stories.  their  unit.  the  manuscript  she  the  and  for  man  o d tut  a generous  of  larger  a  vostre o'fr n e  anguisse  the  A  these  a  lady:  "Amis, bevez J a n e 7a vo7t A  by  into  signs our  One, of  locale  of  the  to  tell  general  setting  chosen  either  states  B r e t a g n e . Marie  linked  own.  the  to  or that  texts, us  Each  she  that  uses  Celtic  the we  use  place land. of  names As  for  Jadis  and  are  dealing  with  introductory  section  of  a the  1 06  twelve  tales  serves  disassociate The  them from  purpose  analogous  to  experience  that  with  and  taken  of  them  to  explore  are  developed  their  situations No  to  and  the  of  world-class  her  of  the  recipient.  literature  i n the  and and  but  of  the  learn  reader  of  same  from  the  of  gain  strips and  of  the  allows  life  that  characters  and  audience  Marie her  de  style  of  her  proves  to  the  energy  by  of, t h e and  rewarded of  throughout  the the  in  a  to  both  into  the  and  be  a  enriches the  enlightenment  soulages.  the  popularity  collection  the  are way  herself  put  composed  narration  enduring  time by  is  France  readers  Marie  reading  entertainment culture  of  her  attested  richly  and  Lais.  entertain  effort,  the  surroundings  lais  lessons  variety  motivation  A  is  through  comfortable  c r o s s - s e c t i o n the  Lais.  The  the  to  characters' experiences.  context  the  composition,  the  wasted  mind  i n the  time,  context.  namely,  can  the  in  socially-imposed identities  and  writer,  appeal  the  about  discover  what and  person  p r o d u c t i v e . 8y  and  never  and  instruct  pleasing wit  own  presented  intent  a  standard,  through  matter  the  same-  is  their  back  dislocation  characters;  reading  temporarily placed  readers  of,  the  readers  current social  the  text,  of  the  their  of  the  out  take  behind  knowledge through 8eing  to  goal  text of of  107  § 1 l ? i i 2S r. § J2t>¥  EDITIONS: Man'e d e Blackwell  F r a n c e . L a i s . Ed. A l f r e d & M o t t , L t d . , 1965.  Ewert.  Oxford:  T h e L a i s o f M a r i e d e F r a n c e . Trans. Joan Ferrante H a n n i n g . Durham: The L a b y r i n t h P r e s s , J 9 8 2 . L e s L a i s d eM a r i e d eF r a n c e . L i b r a i r i e Honore Champion, 1959. L e s L a i s d eM a r i e d eF r a n c e . L i b r a i r i e Honore Champion, 1978. PRIMARY  Ed. Ed.  Jeanne  Basil,  and Robert  Lods.  Paris:  Rychner.  Paris:  s y m b o l e s .  Paris:  Jean  SOURCES:  Berleur, Marie, Seghers,1973.  ed .  Bonnefoy, Yves, ed. Flammarion,- 1981.  D i c t i o n n a i r e d e s D i c t i o n n a i r e  d e s  m y t h o l o g i e s .Paris:  B r a e t , H. " N o t e s u r M a r i e d e F r a n c e e t O v i d e . " M e l a n g e s d e p h i l o l o g i e e t d e l i t t e r a t u r e s r o m a n e s o f f e r t s a J e a n n e W a t h e l e t - W i 1 l o r n . L i e g e : P r e s s e s Un i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1 9 7 8 , 2 1 - 2 5 . Chrestien Manchester  de Troyes. Yvain. Ed. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961.  Damon, S. F o s t e r . " M a r i e P s y c h o l o g i s t XLIV ( 1 9 2 9 ) : 968-96.  T.8.W. of Courtly  Manchester: Love."  P M L A  E s k e n a z i , A n d r e . " " B o i s " e t " F o r e s t ' d a n s l e s L a i s de M a r i e de France. (MsH)" M e l a n g e s d e l a n g u e e td e l i t t e r a t u r e m e d i e v a l e s o f f e r t s a A l i c e P l a n c h e . Ed. G i l l e s E c k a r d . P a r i s : Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1984, 440-47. F e r r a n t e , J o a n M. htoman a s I m a g e in M e d i e v a l Literature: F r o m t h e T w e l f t h C e n t u r y t o D a n t e . New York:' C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. Genette,  Gerard.  F i g u r e I I I . Paris:  Editions  du S e u i l ,  1972.  Hoepffner, Ernest. "La G e o g r a p h i e e t l ' h i s t o i r e dans L a i s de M a r i e d e F r a n c e . " R o m a n i a L V I ( 1 9 3 0 ) : 1-32. J o h n s t o n , O.M. " S o u r c e o f t h e L a y o f t h e Two L a n g u a g e A / o t e s XXI ( 1 9 0 6 ) : 34-39.  Lovers"  les  M o d e m  1 08  Lord, Albert. T h e S i n g e r o f T a l e s . Comparative Literature, 24. Cambridge: Press, 1960.  SECONDRY  Harvard Studies in Harvard University  SOURCES:  Bloch, R. Howard. 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" M o y e n A g e LXXVI ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 263-74. . L Essais,  et  e M o y e n A g e . L i t t e r a t u r e e ts y m b o l i s m e . C o l l e c t i o n s 9. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e H o n o r e C h a m p i o n , 1984.  1 09  S t o c k , B r i a n . The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f L i t e r a c y : W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e a n d M o d e l s o fI n t e r p r e t a t i o n in t h e E l e v e n t h a n d T w e l f t h C e n t u r i e s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. W a t h e l e t - W i 1 1 em, J e a n n e . " E q u i t a n d a n s V o e u v r e F r a n c e . " M o y e n A g e LXIX ( 1 9 6 3 ) : 325-45.  de  Marie  --. Un L a i d e M a r i e d e F r a n c e : L e s D e u x A m a n t s . " M e l a n g e s o f f e r t s a R i t a L e ^I e u n e , I I . G e m b l o u x : E d i t i o n s J . D u c l o t , 1 969.  de  

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