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Nationalism in Canadian television Johnson, Lori Jean 1988

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NATIONALISM IN CANADIAN TELEVISION By LORI JEAN JOHNSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1986 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of T h e a t r e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o t h e re q u i r e d , s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH APRIL , 1988 (°) L o r i Jean Johnson, COLUMBIA 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT Contemporary Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s u f f e r s from a s e v e r e l a c k of i n d i g e n o u s programming. The m a j o r i t y of programming a v a i l a b l e on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n s comes from f o r e i g n s o u r c e s , p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and most of t h e programs watched by Canadian v i e w e r s a r e American. The dominance of American programming i n Canada has r e s u l t e d i n a t e l e v i s i o n system i n which i n d i g e n o u s programming p l a y s a minor r o l e . I f t h e Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system i s t o a c h i e v e t h e aims f o r which i t was c r e a t e d , d o m e s t i c programming must become a v i t a l f o r c e i n t h e system. What i s needed a r e d o m e s t i c programs t h a t d e a l w i t h Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . I n t h i s t h e s i s , Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be d e f i n e d , and methods f o r c r e a t i n g t e l e v i s i o n programs i n which n a t i o n a l i s m i s an i n f l u e n t i a l f o r c e w i l l be proposed. The su g g e s t e d changes w i l l f o c u s on e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming, as t h i s i s t h e most p o p u l a r programming c a t e g o r y i n Canada. The t y p e of programs n e c e s s a r y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , and o t h e r a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l h e l p c r e a t e a framework i n which c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e programs i s p o s s i b l e w i l l be o u t l i n e d . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l show why i t i s v i t a l t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m i i i becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of entertainment programming, how t h i s can be achieved, and why i t should occur as soon as p o s s i b l e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I NATIONALISM AND ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAMMING 5 N a t i o n a l i s m E n t e r t a i n m e n t Programming CHAPTER I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATIONALISM AND TELEVISION 23 The S t a t u s Quo Canadian T e l e v i s i o n CHAPTER I I I THE URGENT NEED FOR CHANGE 5 9 F a m i l i a r i t y Programming N a t i o n a l i s m i n Recent Canadian H i s t o r y T e c h n o l o g i c a l Advance CHAPTER IV ATTITUDE: THE KEY TO THE FUTURE 75 Government B r o a d c a s t e r s C r e a t o r s Viewers CHAPTER V FURTHER PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE 9 7 F e d e r a l Government and A g e n c i e s P r i v a t e S e c t o r P r o v i n c i a l Governments CHAPTER VI REPERCUSSIONS AND POSSIBLE DRAWBACKS 115 Government Involvement and Propaganda R e g u l a t i o n and C e n s o r s h i p F i n a n c i n g t h e P r o p o s a l s CONCLUSION 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my f a m i l y , and e s p e c i a l l y t o my p a r e n t s , f o r many y e a r s of u n c o n d i t i o n a l encouragement and su p p o r t . Thanks t o Dr. Joan R e y n e r t s o n and Mr. Ray H a l l f o r t h e i r h e l p w i t h t h i s t h e s i s . Page 1 INTRODUCTION Since the i n c e p t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada, the dearth of domestic programming i n the medium has been the dominant b r o a d c a s t i n g i s s u e . V i r t u a l l y s i n c e i t s beginnings i n 1952, Canadian t e l e v i s i o n has been composed l a r g e l y of imported programs, the U n i t e d S t a t e s being the major source of these programs. De s p i t e the e f f o r t s of f e d e r a l governments and r e g u l a t o r y agencies and the aims of numerous b r o a d c a s t i n g a c t s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n has remained the norm. The apparent l a c k of progress i n r e v e r s i n g the s c e n a r i o does not mean t h a t t h i s i s s u e i s any l e s s important now than i n the past. T h i s i s s t i l l the most v i t a l i s s u e i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g today. People t u r n to t e l e v i s i o n f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , entertainment and s t i m u l a t i o n . In a world t h a t seems to be r a p i d l y s u r p a s s i n g man's a b i l i t y to comprehend i t l o g i c a l l y , t e l e v i s i o n has become a s i g n i f i c a n t determinant i n how people shape t h e i r l i v e s . In s h o r t , t e l e v i s i o n has become the most important mode of communication f o r most North Americans. Yet the values and a t t i t u d e s t h a t Canadians are exposed to on t e l e v i s i o n come from other n a t i o n s . I f , - a s Mark Frieman suggests, t e l e v i s i o n i s an important c o n s t i t u e n t "of the s o c i a l stock of knowledge Page 2 on the b a s i s of which people understand themselves and make important d e c i s i o n s both as i n d i v i d u a l s and as c i t i z e n s , " 1 then Canadians are basing many of t h e i r a c t i o n s on knowledge and a t t i t u d e s imported from other peoples. Much of t h i s knowledge i s gained from the most-watched type of programming, entertainment programs, which, i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y f o r e i g n and predominantly American. Canadians are seeing the world as others see i t , importing i m a g i n a t i o n , l o o k i n g through borrowed eyes. The dangers t h a t accompany the s c a r c i t y of Canadian programs, e s p e c i a l l y entertainment programs, are numerous. In f a c t , the l a c k of indigenous programs pres e n t s a very r e a l t h r e a t not only to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n but to the n a t i o n i t s e l f . I t i s to t h i s i s s u e t h a t t h i s paper i s addressed: t h a t the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m i n entertainment programming i s of primary importance f o r the s u r v i v a l and development of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . The focus of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be Engl i s h - l a n g u a g e t e l e v i s i o n . Although the r e s i d e n t s of Quebec and other French-speaking Canadians add a dimension to Canadian s o c i e t y and t e l e v i s i o n t h a t make both unique i n North America, adequate coverage of French-language t e l e v i s i o n would add c o n s i d e r a b l y to the l e n g t h of t h i s paper. Because of i t s s t a t u s as an anomaly i n North America, French-language Page 3 t e l e v i s i o n (with i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c u l t u r a l l y -s p e c i f i c aims) deserves more in-de p t h study than i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s paper. T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt to prove the importance of indigenous entertainment programming to both the t e l e v i s i o n system and the n a t i o n i t s e l f . The urgent need f o r t h i s programming w i l l a l s o be demonstrated. I t i s mandatory t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m become a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of Canadian entertainment programming as soon as p o s s i b l e . To do otherwise means t h a t Canadians are w i l l i n g to l e t the most p e r v a s i v e mode of communication be c o n t r o l l e d by o u t s i d e f o r c e s , t h a t they are w i l l i n g to l e t f o r e i g n powers d e f i n e the parameters and concerns of l i f e i n Canada. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n programming must a t t r a c t , engage and e n t e r t a i n . I t must a l s o inform, educate and e n r i c h our c u l t u r a l e xperience. For i f Canadians do not use one of the world's most e x t e n s i v e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d communications systems to speak to themselves - i f i t serves only f o r the i m p o r t a t i o n of f o r e i g n programs -t h e r e i s a r e a l and l e g i t i m a t e concern t h a t the country w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l o s e the means of e x p r e s s i n g i t s i d e n t i t y . Developing a strong Canadian program p r o d u c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y i s no longer a matter of d e s i r a b i l i t y but of n e c e s s i t y . 2 The d e s i r e to f u l f i l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c r e a t i n g indigenous programs w i l l determine the success of a t r u l y Canadian Page 4 t e l e v i s i o n system. In t u r n , t h i s w i l l f i g u r e g r e a t l y i n the a b i l i t y of the n a t i o n ' s r e s i d e n t s to d e f i n e and understand themselves, as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a cohesive people. Page 5 CHAPTER I NATIONALISM AND ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAMMING The most c r u c i a l s t e p i n d e v e l o p i n g and s u s t a i n i n g a t r u l y Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system i s t h e i n c l u s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m i n e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming. The key t o Canadian t e l e v i s i o n becoming more than a mere v e h i c l e f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of f o r e i g n programming i s a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e terms " n a t i o n a l i s m " and " e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming" and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. N a t i o n a l i s m i s a term w i t h a m u l t i t u d e of d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t has been s t u d i e d v o l u m i n o u s l y . F o r many contemporary w r i t e r s , n a t i o n a l i s m has t a k e n on many n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s , w i t h t h e mere mention o f t h e term s u g g e s t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l p r e s ence o f t o t a l i t a r i a n a u t h o r i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, th e concept of e n t e r t a i n m e n t s u f f e r s from a l a c k of d e t a i l e d s t u d y and i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d more f r i v o l o u s than dangerous. The d e f i n i t i o n of e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s b e s t found i n what i t i s commonly b e l i e v e d not t o be, r a t h e r than what i t t r u l y i s . The manner i n which n a t i o n a l i s m can, and must, become a v i t a l a s p e c t of e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s of a t r u l y i n d i g e n o u s t e l e v i s i o n system f o r Canada. Page 6 Nationalism Nationalism i s a multi-faceted concept, with each facet contributing equally to i t s meaning and scope. It involves an awareness, understanding and acceptance of national character, i d e n t i t y , f e e l i n g , self-image and pride. Nationalism symbolizes devotion to the i n t e r e s t s of one's nation and a l l that i s indigenous to that nation and i t s peoples. It involves a r e a l i z a t i o n that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are shared among c i t i z e n s , thus helping people within a nation to better understand themselves as a national people. Nationalism involves an understanding of what characterizes a country and bonds i t s c i t i z e n s together. It indicates a knowledge of what makes a nation unique and a s e n s i t i v i t y to the preservation of factors contributing to that uniqueness. Nationalism involves a b e l i e f that s p e c i f i c aspects of a society must be protected and promoted i f that nation i s to survive. Nationalism i s a frame of mind: i t i s knowing what makes a people special and d i s t i n c t from others, r e a l i z i n g the importance of maintaining t h i s d istinctiveness, and accepting and promoting these idiosyncracies as measures for enhancing the health of the nation. Page 7 N a t i o n a l i s m i s analogous t o t h e c o n c e p t s of s e l f -knowledge and s e l f - e s t e e m f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . A knowledge of p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, and an a c c e p t a n c e of how t h e s e d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n d i v i d u a l s from t h e i r p e e r s , a i d s i n t h e p e r s o n a l development of i n d i v i d u a l s . I n d i v i d u a l s r e a l i z e what c h a r a c t e r i z e s them, what makes them s p e c i a l , and t a k e p r i d e i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e t them a p a r t from o t h e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s embrace t h e t r a i t s c o n s i d e r e d t o be p o s i t i v e t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l development and s t r i v e t o c o r r e c t t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t p o t e n t i a l l y h i n d e r t h i s development. J u s t as s e l f - k n o w l e d g e i s v i t a l t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l and a c c e p t a n c e of s e l f f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , n a t i o n a l i s m i s v i t a l f o r f u l l development and p r i d e on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . R e s i d e n t s of a n a t i o n must r e a l i z e what s e t s them a p a r t from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , must t a k e p r i d e i n t h e s e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n and promote them. C i t i z e n s must a l s o r e a l i z e t h e n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s t h a t h i n d e r t h e development of t h e n a t i o n and t a k e a c t i o n t o a l l e v i a t e them. J u s t as i n d i v i d u a l s must be aware of what makes them s p e c i a l i f t h e y a r e t o t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s , so must a n a t i o n be aware of and embrace i t s i n d i g e n o u s t r a i t s . Lack of a sense of n a t i o n a l i s m r e s u l t s i n a n a t i o n w i t h o u t an i d e n t i t y , w i t h o u t p r i d e , and w i t h o u t t h e Page 8 means to develop to i t s f u l l e s t c a p a c i t y . In the l a s t h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century, the concept of n a t i o n a l i s m has come to be viewed with much s u s p i c i o n . I t i s a term now imbued with meaning co n s i d e r e d to be n e g a t i v e and d e t r i m e n t a l . Much of the s u s p i c i o n t h a t surrounds the concept of n a t i o n a l i s m today i s not without f o u n d a t i o n . N a t i o n a l i s m has been used as J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a t r o c i t i e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a n a t i o n : witness the crimes of Adolf H i t l e r and the Na z i s , committed f o r the "good of the F a t h e r l a n d . " N a t i o n a l i s m has come to symbolize the b e l i e f t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n i s the most important and most mo r a l l y c o r r e c t i n the world (thus p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e with and i n v a s i o n of other n a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d to be l a c k i n g i n the a p p r o p r i a t e m o r a l i t y ) . Many have come to view n a t i o n a l i s m as a ne g a t i v e , threatened m a n i f e s t a t i o n of p a t r i o t i s m or the p o s i t i v e l o v e of homeland. 1 As used i n t h i s paper, the term n a t i o n a l i s m has n e i t h e r the n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n of p a t r i o t i s m nor t h a t of n a t i o n a l s u p e r i o r i t y . Rather, the term connotes s e l f -knowledge and s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n : not b l i n d f a i t h i n one's country, but r a t h e r a wide-eyes awareness of t h a t n a t i o n . N e i t h e r i s the term n a t i o n a l i s m used as an antonym f o r r e g i o n a l i s m . In any d i s c u s s i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y , Page 9 these two concepts are o f t e n thought of as o p p o s i t e s . However, as employed here, the term n a t i o n a l i s m encompasses the n o t i o n of r e g i o n a l i d i o s y n c r a c i e s w i t h i n the country. A l a r g e p a r t of what c h a r a c t e r i z e s Canada i s i t s a t t e n t i o n to and acceptance of r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . N a t i o n a l i s m i n Canada i s the r e a l i z a t i o n , acceptance and promotion of r e g i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to n a t i o n a l thought, sentiment and i d e n t i t y . In North American commercial t e l e v i s i o n , n a t i o n a l i s m i s , and i s n e c e s s a r i l y , a v i t a l component of the medium. T e l e v i s i o n , i n t u r n , has become an instrument of n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The medium has become a n a t i o n a l one, due p a r t l y to the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of commercial t e l e v i s i o n and p a r t l y to the nature of the medium i t s e l f . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t i o n a l i s m and t e l e v i s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by interdependence; the nature of t e l e v i s i o n makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r i t to become a n a t i o n a l medium while n a t i o n a l i s m i n c r e a s i n g l y becomes an important aspect of programming. In an average week, the medium of t e l e v i s i o n reaches almost a l l Canadians: 98.5 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n watch t e l e v i s i o n at l e a s t once a week. 2 The number of hours spent watching t e l e v i s i o n each week i n c r e a s e s a n n u a l l y . In 1976, Canadians spent 22.2 hours per week watching t e l e v i s i o n ; i n 1980, 24.0 hours; and i n 1984, 23.6 h o u r s . 3 Every year. Page 10 Canadians spend more time sharing i n the same a c t i v i t y simultaneously. Many viewers from a l l over the country watch the same programming at the same time. This sharing helps to create a commonality of f e e l i n g , a national unity. As Michael Novak states, "Television can e l e c t r i f y and unite a whole nation, creating an instantaneous network i n which mi l l i o n s are simultaneous recipients of the same powerful images.'"* National concerns are appropriate for national t e l e v i s i o n : i n no other f i e l d of communications can the l o g i s t i c s of a p a r t i c u l a r issue be examined simultaneously by such a large number of people. The a c t i v i t y of watching t e l e v i s i o n creates a bond between viewers that might not otherwise e x i s t . Television may help to create s i m i l a r i t i e s between the diverse regions and peoples within a nation: i t may aid in p u l l i n g them together as a singular unit. Marshall McLuhan hinted at t h i s with his famous "global v i l l a g e " concept, outlined i n his book Understanding Media. McLuhan argued that communication technologies would shrink the entire world and that people would no longer be i s o l a t e d from each other. He suggested that, as technology made i t easier to know about events a l l over the world, people would become more aware of others and have more i n common with them: people would become residents of one "global v i l l a g e . " Page 11 T e l e v i s i o n , one of the most powerful modes of communication, i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g t h i s worldwide community. I f t e l e v i s i o n can do a l l t h i s on a g l o b a l s c a l e , i t can s u r e l y do the same a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Not only i s the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y of watching t e l e v i s i o n shared, but so i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of i t s programs. Commercial t e l e v i s i o n , with i t s c o n t i n u i n g s e r i e s with weekly i n s t a l l m e n t s , a l l o w s f o r l a r g e n a t i o n a l audiences to d e a l with the same s t o r y l i n e s (and t h e i r messages) on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . A l l of t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to the development of a con n e c t i v e t i s s u e between an otherwise d i v e r s e audience: i t cr e a t e s a common n a t i o n a l mind s e t . As Paula S. Fass has s a i d , " D a i l y exposure to t e l e v i s i o n means t h a t the views, the convention, the s e n s i b i l i t i e s purveyed on the screen get not only maximum p o t e n t i a l exposure but constant r e p e t i t i o n , h o u r l y , d a i l y , weekly, y e a r l y . I f th e r e was ever a v e h i c l e which c o u l d c r e a t e a p u b l i c mind, t h i s s u r e l y must be i t . " 5 To maintain l a r g e audiences, commercial t e l e v i s i o n has become an organ of homogenization. Programs t h a t are s u c c e s s f u l are emulated by oth e r s , r e s u l t i n g i n a body of programs t h a t are s i m i l a r i n look, s t r u c t u r e and content. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n and the attempts to appeal to the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e audience have r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of " t e l e v i s i o n e s e . " 6 Page 12 T e l e v i s i o n e s e , as d e s c r i b e d by Michael Novak, i s a manner of speaking indigenous to no p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n of a country and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of no p a r t i c u l a r group. I t i s an a r t i f i c i a l c r e a t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n , a concept e x i s t i n g nowhere o u t s i d e of the medium but one t h a t i s understood and accepted by most viewers. I t i s the common language with which t e l e v i s i o n speaks to an e n t i r e n a t i o n . T e l e v i s i o n e s e and program emulation have c o n t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of v a r i e t y and d i v e r s i t y i n commercial t e l e v i s i o n . Attempts to garner l a r g e audiences have r e s u l t e d i n what many t h e o r i s t s c a l l the l e a s t common denominator f a c t o r . The b a s i c premise of t h i s concept i s t h a t t e l e v i s i o n programming should t r y to appeal to as many people as p o s s i b l e , and t h a t the best way to achieve t h i s i s to program f o r t h a t which most people have i n common. What the l a r g e s t number of people share with each other should d i c t a t e the content of t e l e v i s i o n programs. Robert R u t h e r f o r d Smith notes, "the l a r g e r . . . t h e audience, the g r e a t e r the need to safeguard and p u r i f y the standards of q u a l i t y and t a s t e . " 7 The high c o s t of t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n demands a mass audience and must appeal to a common i n t e r e s t . But what, i n f a c t , i s more common to an audience than i t s n a t i o n a l i t y ? And what, i n f a c t , i s more common to t e l e v i s i o n ' s o r i g i n a t o r s - i t s producers and i t s w r i t e r s - than t h e i r knowledge of Page 13 t h e i r l a n d , i t s people, i t s l i v e s , and i t s values? N a t i o n a l i s m and t e l e v i s i o n are thus i n e v i t a b l y , and i n e s c a p a b l y , i n t e r t w i n e d . Entertainment Programming At the h e a r t and s o u l of contemporary North American t e l e v i s i o n i s entertainment programming. T e l e v i s i o n screens are f l o o d e d with t h i s type of programming and, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the most watched programs a l s o f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . 8 Much i s w r i t t e n about the entertainment value of t e l e v i s i o n , and many c r i t i c s and viewers a l i k e see entertainment as the primary purpose of t e l e v i s i o n . I t i s , then, q u i t e c l e a r why e f f o r t s to enhance the presence of n a t i o n a l i s m i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n should be concentrated i n t h i s c a t e g o r y of programming. Not on l y i s entertainment the most popular type of program, i t i s the category where the message(s) and theme(s) of n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be most s u c c e s s f u l l y manifested. As Kas Kalba notes, entertainment programs "convey not only emotions and c a t h a r s i s , but s p e c i f i c images of how s o c i a l r o l e s can i n t e r a c t , how products s a t i s f y , how i n s t i t u t i o n s operate, and how values are f u l f i l l e d . " 9 C a t e g o r i z i n g t e l e v i s i o n programs i n t o s p e c i f i c Page 14 formats i s a d i f f i c u l t task. There seems to be no standard method: The Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CBC) uses one method, the Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) another, the Canadian T e l e v i s i o n Network (CTV) y e t another, and a l l three d i f f e r from methods employed by networks i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to d e v i s e a system i n which a l l programs f i t e a s i l y i n t o one category or another. There does, however, seem to be one b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t can be made between t e l e v i s i o n programs i n g e n e r a l . For the purposes of t h i s paper, a l l t e l e v i s i o n programming w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s : i n f o r m a t i o n and entertainment. Included i n the i n f o r m a t i o n category i s news, p u b l i c a f f a i r s , documentary, r e l i g i o u s and s p o r t s programs. These are predominantly i n f o r m a t i o n - d i s p e n s i n g programs t h a t d e a l with a c t u a l events ( i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s ) , programs t h a t r e l a y s p e c i f i c data to t h e i r audiences. Entertainment programming i s composed of weekly s e r i e s (comedy, adventure and drama), m i n i - s e r i e s , f i l m s , v a r i e t y and what i s sometimes c a l l e d the "performance program" ( the t e l e v i s i n g of a b a l l e t from the N a t i o n a l A r t s Centre, f o r example). These programs are o f t e n (but not always) the product of a w r i t e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n r a t h e r than a f a c t u a l , d e t a i l e d account of an a c t u a l event. The N a t i o n a l . Page 15 The J o u r n a l . Man A l i v e , and The F i f t h E s t a t e are i n f o r m a t i o n programs; Not My Department. Danger Bay. Anne of Green  Gables. and L i e s From Lotus Land are i n the entertainment category. A u s e f u l method f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i n f o r m a t i o n and entertainment programming i s to t h i n k of the former as n o n - f i c t i o n a l and the l a t t e r as f i c t i o n a l . O b viously, t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method can be used only as a g u i d e l i n e . The treatment a f f o r d e d c u r r e n t i s s u e s of concern on i n f o r m a t i o n programs i s o f t e n rendered f i c t i o n a l i n h i n d s i g h t : a m i n i - s e r i e s based on the l i f e of Hal Banks, W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , or Napoleon Bonaparte i s bound to r e l y h e a v i l y on h i s t o r i c a l f a c t and data. Information programs can q u i t e e a s i l y be e n t e r t a i n i n g , Just as entertainment programs can inform and educate. Information programs can be c r e a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e , but i n a manner t h a t d i f f e r s from t h a t of entertainment programs. Although i m a g i n a t i o n i s the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind entertainment programming, i t can a l s o be an important element of i n f o r m a t i o n programming. However, im a g i n a t i o n i s not the d e f i n i n g p r i n c i p l e of i n f o r m a t i o n programming: the communication of s p e c i f i c (and, i d e a l l y , f a c t u a l ) i n f o r m a t i o n i s . Even t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s by no means immutable or comprehensive, but i t does set the parameters of the major types of contemporary t e l e v i s i o n . Page 16 T h e r e f o r e , i t w i l l s u f f i c e to t h i n k of entertainment programming as f i c t i o n a l , or s e m i - f i c t i o n a l , programming. There are two very obvious reasons why any proposed change i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n should focus on entertainment programming: a v a i l a b i l i t y and audience s i z e . Q u i t e simply, entertainment i s the most a v a i l a b l e and the most watched type of programming on t e l e v i s i o n . In Canada, over h a l f ( f i f t y -e i g h t percent or 30,102 of 51,900 hours) of what i s a v a i l a b l e i n an average broadcast week i s entertainment programming (with the remaining forty-two percent (21,798 hours) being i n f o r m a t i o n programming). 1 0 Time spent watching the a v a i l a b l e entertainment programs c o n s t i t u t e s s i x t y - s e v e n percent(34,773 hours) of a l l viewing t i m e . 1 1 These programs are broadcast predominantly d u r i n g prime time hours (7:00 P.M.-11:00 P.M.), a s s u r i n g them l a r g e r audiences than a t any other time of the day. In the prime-time hours, seventy-two percent (8,126 of 11,300 hours) of a v a i l a b l e programming i s entertainment, while s e v e n t y - f i v e percent (8,475 hours) of viewing time i s spent watching t h i s programming. 1 3 The o r i g i n of entertainment programming on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n serves as evidence f o r the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t change must occur w i t h i n t h i s category of programming. In a t y p i c a l Canadian broadcast week, seventy-two percent of a v a i l a b l e programming i s from f o r e i g n sources and only twenty-nine Page 17 percent i s Canadian i n o r i g i n . 1 3 During prime-time hours, seventy-four percent of a v a i l a b l e programming i s imported, ye t s e v e n t y - s i x percent of viewing time i n t h i s p a r t of the day i s devoted to foreign-produced programming. 1" 1 S i m i l a r f o r e i g n / C a n a d i a n r a t i o s appear when programs are d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s (drama, v a r i e t y , and so o n ) . 1 6 The c o n c l u s i o n s are obvious: most of what i s a v a i l a b l e to Canadian viewers i s foreign-produced entertainment programming, and the number of hours spent viewing these programs exceeds the number of hours of a v a i l a b l e f o r e i g n programs. Thus, any attempt to enhance the presence of n a t i o n a l i s m i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must take p l a c e i n the category where most viewers spend t h e i r time. Yet, s i n c e the advent of c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n (and even p r i o r to t h a t ) , a Canadian presence i n t e l e v i s i o n program p r o d u c t i o n has been v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . I f Canadians spend most of t h e i r time watching f o r e i g n entertainment programs, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada. One important i d e a about entertainment i s the b e l i e f t h a t i t i s an escape, a form of r e l a x a t i o n t h a t does not demand a c t i o n or thought from i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s and does not i n f l u e n c e how they l i v e or t h i n k o u t s i d e the sphere of entertainment. Herbert S c h i l l e r s t a t e s : "One c e n t r a l myth Page 18 dominates the world of f a b r i c a t e d f a n t a s y : the idea t h a t entertainment and r e c r e a t i o n are v a l u e - f r e e , have no p o i n t of view, and e x i s t o u t s i d e . . . the s o c i a l o r d e r . " 1 * Popular philosophy has i t t h a t entertainment i s an a c t i v i t y i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n when they want to "turn o f f t h e i r b r a i n s , " i s something t h a t w i l l amuse without a f f e c t i n g t h e i r r e a l l i v e s . Yet what makes entertainment such a powerful f o r c e i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s n o t i o n of i t s i r r e l e v a n c y . I f i r r e l e v a n t , i t i s above s u s p i c i o n and cannot i n t i m i d a t e -u n l i k e e d u c a t i o n or other i n s t r u c t i v e p u r s u i t s . People are not expected to l e a r n new ideas and w r e s t l e with t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s when they p a r t i c i p a t e i n entertainment: r a t h e r , they f e e l they have to engage p a s s i v e l y and l e t the r e s u l t s be decided by p e r s o n a l emotions. Yet entertainment does have messages and p o i n t s of view; i t does not e x i s t i n a vacuum. T e l e v i s i o n programs re p r e s e n t the world as i t i s seen by w r i t e r s , producers, d i r e c t o r s , a c t o r s , d e s i g n e r s and other p r o d u c t i o n personnel -or a t l e a s t , i f not t h e i r view of the world, a view they want others to see. That view i s a p o i n t of view, an o p i n i o n , and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l recommend those r e s o l u t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s to t h e i r audiences. S e l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s , methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and c h o i c e of r e s o l u t i o n - by these means, entertainment Page 19 programs c a r r y messages t h a t h i g h l i g h t the b e n e f i c i a l , or d e t r i m e n t a l , e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . Whether or not audiences look f o r , or even sense, a message, i t i s t h e r e . Whether or not audiences i n t e n d to l e a r n , they do. The b e l i e f t h a t entertainment has no message and i s non-e d u c a t i o n a l , the b e l i e f t h a t i t i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l and l a c k i n g i n substance, adds g r e a t l y to the a b i l i t y of entertainment to be i n f l u e n t i a l and to a f f e c t viewers. S c h i l l e r notes, "For man i p u l a t i o n to be most e f f e c t i v e , evidence of i t s presence should be n o n - e x i s t e n t . When the manipulated b e l i e v e t h i n g s are the way they are n a t u r a l l y and i n e v i t a b l y , m a n i p u l a t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l . " 1 - 7 Viewers who b e l i e v e the myth of entertainment as a harmless a c t i v i t y do not r e a l i z e t h a t they are being a f f e c t e d , or manipulated. There i s no such t h i n g as a "turned o f f " mind. The mind i s a c t i v e a t a l l times, i n c l u d i n g time spent watching t e l e v i s i o n . S i n c e t e l e v i s i o n occupies a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of average p e r s o n a l l e i s u r e time, programming w i l l be the r e c i p i e n t of much viewer thought, conscious or otherwise. Because messages and b e l i e f s are disseminated by a v e h i c l e (entertainment programming) t h a t makes them appear non-e x i s t e n t , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i l l be more p e r v a s i v e and l a s t i n g . Donna Woolfolk Cross remarks, Page 2 0 I f we b e l i e v e entertainment to be "harmless," i t w i l l become a l l the more e f f e c t i v e as a c a r r i e r of propaganda. I f we t h i n k we are merely "passing the time," we are l e s s i n c l i n e d to q u e s t i o n or c h a l l e n g e - even to r e c o g n i z e - the b a s i c i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s being t r a n s m i t t e d . 1 B The concept of n a t i o n a l i s m i s not, or should not be, mani p u l a t i o n , propaganda, or b i a s . However, n a t i o n a l i s m should be p a r t of entertainment programming and a l l i t i m p l i e s . Since entertainment programming has such i n f l u e n c e on i t s viewers, i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e v e h i c l e f o r n a t i o n a l i s m . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s i n f l u e n t i a l sphere t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m should be examined, d e f i n e d and strengthened. Entertainment programming p r o v i d e s a l a r g e , t r a n s - n a t i o n a l audience f o r these a c t i v i t i e s . The examination of n a t i o n a l i s m through such a medium w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l to both the n a t i o n and the t e l e v i s i o n system. N a t i o n a l i s m w i l l enjoy more exposure and more c o n s i d e r a t i o n by audience members while a t t e n t i o n to n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l make t e l e v i s i o n more Canadian i n nature. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n has a long and d i s t i n g u i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of documentary (or i n f o r m a t i o n ) programming. Canadians e x c e l i n t h i s area, and t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s are p r a i s e d abroad as w e l l as a t home. The h i g h e s t - r a t e d Canadian programs are almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h i s category. The N a t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c e i v e s l a r g e audiences. The Page 21 J o u r n a l a t t r a c t s , on average, over 1.5 m i l l i o n viewers every weekday, w h i l e The Nature of Things r e g u l a r l y draws a weekly audience of 1.25 m i l l i o n 1 0 - t h i s , i n a n a t i o n of 25 m i l l i o n . But i n s p i t e of domestic e x p e r t i s e i n i n f o r m a t i o n programming, t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada can h a r d l y be c a l l e d Canadian i n nature because of the dominance of entertainment programming o r i g i n a t i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Examination of program l i s t i n g s f o r an average broadcast day r e v e a l s t h a t the programs a v a i l a b l e to Canadians are e s s e n t i a l l y the same American-produced entertainment programs a v a i l a b l e to viewers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . For Canadian t e l e v i s i o n to be Canadian, indigenous entertainment programming has to become as p l e n t i f u l and as s u c c e s s f u l as i n f o r m a t i o n a l programming. Rather than simply t r a n s m i t t i n g American entertainment programs to l a r g e Canadian audiences, Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must present domestic entertainment programs to these same s i z e a b l e audiences. Dominating t e l e v i s i o n screens a c r o s s the country, entertainment has deep and l a s t i n g , i f unconscious e f f e c t s on i t s viewers. I t i s r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e to most of the p o p u l a t i o n . Here i s where most Canadians spend t h e i r viewing time. Here i s where they f e e l most comfortable. Convinced of the harmlessness of mere f i c k l e entertainment, Canadian audiences d i s c a r d the p r o t e c t i v e robes they otherwise wear, Page 22 and w i l l i n g l y become receptive. Profoundly a f f e c t i n g a l l aspects of viewers' l i v e s , helping viewers to better understand and define themselves and the world i n which they l i v e , Entertainment, no less than factual information,serves to define for the i n d i v i d u a l the central categories of the normal and the inevitable.Through these concepts, individuals come to "understand" why things are the way they are, and to accept that t h i s i s how many of them must be. Such explanations are the s o c i a l glue which holds groups together, which allows them to reproduce themselves over time, and which i n special situations may also allow them to change to accommodate a changing environment. On a personal l e v e l , such explanations and the t y p i f i e d self-images derived from them allow in d i v i d u a l s to make sense of t h e i r l i v e s and to accept (and i n special cases, reject) t h e i r a l l o t t e d places i n the sun. Most of our r e a l i t y i s s o c i a l l y constructed, and culture, including entertainment, i s one of i t s key building materials. a o Yet i n Canada, i t i s American programs, American messages, American values, American b e l i e f s , American ideas and American ideals which manifest themselves i n entertainment programming. Such programming i s helping Canadians to become vicarious participants i n a contemporary society, but i t i s not t h e i r own. Page 23 CHAPTER I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATIONALISM AND TELEVISION T e l e v i s i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a s o c i a l instrument. What i s p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n "may i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the c u l t u r e i n broader ways, not Just v i a e x p l i c i t messages i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d . " 1 T e l e v i s i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of modern l i f e , both as a commentator on t h a t l i f e and as a shaping i n f l u e n c e . As the major f a r e of contemporary t e l e v i s i o n , entertainment programming i s both r e f l e c t o r of and c a t a l y s t f o r a c t i o n of d a i l y l i f e . In f a c t , t e l e v i s i o n entertainment programming may be the most e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r d e f i n i n g and understanding the popular i m a g i n a t i o n of a people. By p o r t r a y i n g l i f e i n modern s o c i e t y , with a l l i t s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, t h i s programming p r e s e n t s o p i n i o n s on the s t a t u s quo: i t d e a l s with n a t i o n a l i s m . Not only does t h i s programming p o r t r a y the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a people, but i t comments on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , n e g a t i v e l y and p o s i t i v e l y . Yet, as we have seen i n Chapter I, the n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t i s manifested on t e l e v i s i o n screens i n Canada i s not Canadian. I t i s American. T h i s chapter w i l l look a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Page 24 t e l e v i s i o n and n a t i o n a l i s m i n two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n w i l l demonstrate t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m i s a l r e a d y present i n contemporary North American t e l e v i s i o n and w i l l o u t l i n e i t s American c h a r a c t e r . The second s e c t i o n w i l l i l l u s t r a t e why Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m should be a v i t a l aspect i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . Suggestions on how t h i s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d w i l l be o f f e r e d . The S t a t u s Quo T e l e v i s i o n i s i n s e p a r a b l y interwoven with the s o c i e t y t h a t produces i t . I t i n t e r a c t s with s o c i e t y both as a r e f l e c t o r of s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s and values and as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e f o r shaping i n t e r e s t s and va l u e s . T h i s two-sided i n t e r a c t i o n between t e l e v i s i o n and s o c i e t y i s the source of much c o n t r o v e r s y over the va l u e of the medium. As merely a r e f l e c t i o n of the s t a t u s quo (and thus a t o o l of maintenance f o r t h a t s t a t u s quo), i t i s argued t h a t t e l e v i s i o n i s s t a l e , unimaginative, and of l i t t l e use to i t s viewers. As a c a t a l y s t f o r s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and a c t i o n s , t e l e v i s i o n i s o f t e n thought to w i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on i t s viewers, thus deeming the medium worthy of study and a t t e n t i o n . But even as a r e f l e c t o r of s o c i e t y (which i s only one Page 25 s i d e of t e l e v i s i o n ) , the medium has a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e . What i s p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of what a s o c i e t y f e e l s i s important or r e l e v a n t , p r o v i d i n g a t e l l i n g statement on the values and b e l i e f s of t h a t s o c i e t y . C r e a t o r s of programming and those i n d i v i d u a l s who decide what programming w i l l be broadcast are members of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , and the programs they deem f i t f o r broadcast w i l l r e f l e c t , at the very l e a s t , what these people p e r c e i v e to be important s o c i e t a l i s s u e s . In a commercial t e l e v i s i o n system, programs s u r v i v e by g a r n e r i n g audiences l a r g e enough to a t t r a c t s u b s t a n t i a l a d v e r t i s i n g revenue. Programs t h a t appear i r r e l e v a n t to audiences or programs which v i o l a t e what viewers b e l i e v e to be a c c e p t a b l e standards f o r t e l e v i s i o n may have d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g the necessary audiences. In t h i s way, programs must, to some degree, r e f l e c t the concerns and i s s u e s important to viewers. Programs must d e a l i n the realm of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . What viewers see on t e l e v i s i o n , on both i n f o r m a t i o n and entertainment programs, w i l l h e lp shape the way they look at the world. T e l e v i s i o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e what viewers f e e l are i s s u e s of importance i n t h e i r l i v e s and have an impact on how they d e a l w i t h these (and other) i s s u e s . As Frank Peers says, " t e l e v i s i o n has become not only our primary channel f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the world, but a l s o the p r i n c i p a l source of Page 26 the i m a g i n a t i v e forms through which we i n t e r p r e t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and our own ex p e r i e n c e s . " 2 These i m a g i n a t i v e forms are found i n entertainment programs, p r o v i d i n g examples of f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s d e a l i n g with r e l a t i v e l y the same environment i n which viewers operate d a i l y . Entertainment programs i l l u s t r a t e how these f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s d i s t i n g u i s h the important from the t r i v i a l , how they are a f f e c t e d by t h e i r surroundings, and how they d e a l with the e f f e c t s of those surroundings. The c h a r a c t e r s i n these programs are i n d i c a t i v e of how many members of a s o c i e t y a c t (or r e a c t ) under p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, while at the same time these c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e examples of behaviour t h a t can be emulated by viewers. Entertainment programs p o r t r a y matters of concern common to most audience members and ways of d e a l i n g with these matters t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a c t i o n s l i k e l y to be taken by viewers i n s i m i l a r circumstances. Even i f the i s s u e s and r e s o l u t i o n s p o r t r a y e d on these programs are not a l r e a d y as widespread and common as p o s s i b l e , they may become so s t r i c l t y by r e c e i v i n g t e l e v i s i o n coverage. I f a number of programs d e a l with the same i s s u e over a p e r i o d of time, t h i s i s s u e may become a matter of concern to audience members. T h i s concern w i l l be shared with other viewers as t e l e v i s i o n " u n i t e s us as d i s c r e t e beings i n t o a mass audience...." 3 The a c t of Page 27 sh a r i n g the same a c t i v i t y heightens the s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t between d i v e r s e groups of viewers and can a c t u a l l y c r e a t e new ones. The common i s s u e s t h a t concern a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y and the a c t i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e u s u a l s o c i e t a l responses to such i s s u e s d e f i n e t h a t s o c i e t y , and thus c o n s t i t u t e n a t i o n a l i s m . Entertainment programming i s , t h e r e f o r e , a very e f f e c t i v e f o r c e i n the c a r r i a g e , examination and d e f i n i t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m f o r any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y . Audience i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e l e v i s i o n and i t s audience. P r o t a g o n i s t s are s t a n d - i n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the viewers and the events of t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Viewers become v i c a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s through the p r o t a g o n i s t s . Viewers share i n the c h a l l e n g e s , agonize i n the moments of d e s p a i r , and r e j o i c e at times of triumph. Audience members see i n the p r o t a g o n i s t s something t h a t i s s i m i l a r to themselves, something they f e e l i s admirable and of value. As viewers become more a p p r e c i a t i v e of t e l e v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r s , they begin to emulate the t r a i t s , the a c t i o n s , and even the b e l i e f s of t h e i r f i c t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . What the c h a r a c t e r s say and do takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the viewers: c h a r a c t e r s become r o l e models and t h e i r behaviour r e p r e s e n t s v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r viewers i n t h e i r own l i v e s . Because Page 28 audience members i d e n t i f y with f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s , the former may begin to take on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to emulate the a c t i o n s of the l a t t e r . Thus t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r h e lps to determine viewer behaviour, and t h i s behaviour, when shared by a m a j o r i t y of c i t i z e n s , c o n s t i t u t e s n a t i o n a l i s m . Based as i t i s on r e p e t i t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y , the weekly s e r i e s , the mainstay of entertainment programming, p r o v i d e s an extremely e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g the behaviour and the b e l i e f s of viewers. On a weekly b a s i s , r e g u l a r viewers watch as c h a r a c t e r s on programs d e a l with the s i t u a t i o n s and the people t h a t a f f e c t the d a i l y l i f e of the f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s . G r a d u a l l y , viewers become f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s : they come to know the c h a r a c t e r s w e l l . Viewers may come to expect c e r t a i n behaviours from t e l e v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r s , behaviour t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t with the manner i n which c h a r a c t e r s have acted i n the past, and more o f t e n than not t h i s behaviour occurs. (T h i s i s not meant to suggest t h a t t e l e v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r s are s t a t i c and do not evolve over time. C h a r a c t e r growth does occur i n an e f f o r t to keep programs f r e s h and maintain audiences. C h a r a c t e r s do, however, a c t w i t h i n c e r t a i n parameters of e x p e c t a t i o n , j u s t as viewers do i n t h e i r own p e r s o n a l l i v e s . Moments of extreme, u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Page 29 behaviour on the p a r t of c h a r a c t e r s i s as shocking and d i s t u r b i n g as i t i s i n d a i l y l i f e . ) R e p e t i t i o n of behaviours and themes a f f e c t s the audience's w i l l i n g n e s s to accept such behaviours or messages. As Donna Woolfolk Cross suggests, people are l i k e l y to "accept as t r u e those ide a s which are repeated to them most o f t e n * I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of t e l e v i s i o n i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y with an i n c r e a s e i n r e g u l a r viewer exposure to programs. I f so, as viewers are exposed to the behaviour and ideas of weekly programs on a weekly b a s i s , they may come to b e l i e v e t h a t these behaviours are acc e p t a b l e and the ideas t r u e . Regular exposure to the same m a t e r i a l has the p o t e n t i a l to add v a l i d i t y , deserved or not, to t h a t m a t e r i a l . R e p e t i t i o n a l s o has an impact o u t s i d e of the i n d i v i d u a l weekly program. There i s much s i m i l a r i t y between the weekly i n s t a l l m e n t s of a number of t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s . S i t u a t i o n comedies o f t e n d e a l with the same p l o t s and c h a r a c t e r types. For example, Kate and A l l i e and The Golden  G i r l s are both programs about grown women s h a r i n g a r e s i d e n c e and the amusing s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e because of t h i s c o h a b i t a t i o n . Cheers and P e r f e c t Strangers are comedies t h a t make use of naive c h a r a c t e r s (Coach and Woody i n the former, B a l k i i n the l a t t e r ) to induce l a u g h t e r . Drama s e r i e s a l s o have shared s t o r y l i n e s and r e s o l u t i o n s , and they o f t e n appeal Page 3 0 to the same emotions i n t h e i r viewers. Knots Landing and St.  Elsewhere have both had episodes d e a l i n g with the abuse of p r e s c r i p t i o n drugs. Qagney and Lacey and L.A. Law r e g u l a r l y present s t o r y l i n e s t h a t appeal to the viewers' sense of j u s t i c e and conception of r i g h t and wrong. Such shared s t o r y l i n e s and p a t t e r n s c o n s t i t u t e another form of r e p e t i t i o n . Not only are viewers exposed to r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t behaviour and i d e a s on one p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s , but they see much of the same repeated on other programs. T h i s r e p e t i t i o n has the p o t e n t i a l to r e i n f o r c e , i n the minds of the viewers, the premises of these programs as t r u e and a c c e p t a b l e . A t h i r d component of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e l e v i s i o n and viewers t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n f l u e n c e of t e l e v i s i o n i s the power of the v i s u a l image. The t r u t h v alue or degree of b e l i e v a b i l i t y a t t a c h e d to the v i s u a l image i s o f t e n g r e a t e r than t h a t a s s o c i a t e d with the spoken, or even the w r i t t e n , word. Seeing with one's own eye i s o f t e n p e r c e i v e d to be more v a l i d evidence of an occurence than an o r a l account of the same event. Human beings tend to b e l i e v e more i n what they see than what they hear, and they tend to b e l i e v e i n what they see as t r u e . 5 As a v i s u a l medium, t e l e v i s i o n t h e r e f o r e enjoys p o t e n t i a l acceptance as a purveyor of t r u t h . Viewers a s s o c i a t e some nmeasure of t r u t h Page 31 and r e p u t a b i l i t y to t e l e v i s i o n because they can a c t u a l l y see i t s content. Thus, what i s p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r viewers. That which can be seen i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r u t h , and those who see may c o n s t r u c t t h e i r l i v e s around these t r u t h s . What numerous people i n North America "see", the source of many of the images they c a r r y with them i n t h e i r heads, i s t e l e v i s i o n . To a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t then, t e l e v i s i o n i n f l u e n c e s the process of determining what i s t r u e and what i s not i n contemporary s o c i e t y . An examination of s p e c i f i c American programs i l l u s t r a t e s the powerful i n f l u e n c e t e l e v i s i o n w i e l d s over i t s viewers. The content of entertainment programs i n d i c a t e s what i s (or should be) important to s o c i e t y , as numerous programs seem to draw t h e i r s t o r y l i n e s d i r e c t l y from the h e a d l i n e s of newspapers t h a t d e a l with the dominant s o c i a l i s s u e s of the day. Designing Women and St. Elsehwere have both r e c e n t l y d e a l t with the i s s u e of A c q u i r e d Immune D e f i c i e n c y Syndrome (AIDS). Oagney and Lacey.L.A. Law, and The E q u a l i z e r have a l l done episodes a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e of v i o l e n c e a g i n s t women. Almost every p o l i c e , medical and adventure program t h a t has been on the a i r f o r more than h a l f a season has d e a l t with the problem of drug abuse and the c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t surrounds the drug t r a d e . Made-for-Page 32 t e l e v i s i o n movies and m i n i - s e r i e s o f t e n focus on a p a r t i c u l a r i l l : Stone P i l l o w p o r t r a y e d the p l i g h t of the homeless s t r e e t people; the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s of Alzheimer's d i s e a s e was the focus of I Remember Love: and The Day A f t e r d e a l t with the i s s u e of n u c l e a r power. In the 1970s, A l l i n the Family and M*A*S*H o f f e r e d a v e r i t a b l e b u f f e t of contemporary s o c i a l i s s u e s f o r weekly consumption. The t o p i c s t h a t r e c e i v e treatment from entertainment programs r e f l e c t s o c i e t a l concerns, while a t the same time they focus a t t e n t i o n on i s s u e s t h a t may not be w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d , thus t u r n i n g them i n t o matters of s o c i e t a l concern. Not only does t e l e v i s i o n d e a l with matters of concern t h a t viewers do g i v e thought t o , i t a l s o a c t s as a guide f o r f o c u s s i n g viewer a t t e n t i o n on i s s u e s t h a t viewers should be t h i n k i n g about. What entertainment programs say to t h e i r viewers, the messages of these programs, has an impact on the thoughts and a c t i o n s of the audience. The u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and the forms of r e s o l u t i o n found i n any p a r t i c u l a r program w i l l i n d i c a t e the p r e v a i l i n g tone and g e n e r a l message of the program. For the past t h r e e t e l e v i s i o n seasons (1984/85 to 1986/87), The Cosby Show and Family T i e s have been the two h i g h e s t r a t e d programs i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Week a f t e r week (and year a f t e r y e a r ) , m i l l i o n s of viewers watch as the Huxtable and Keaton f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t e n t l y f i n d s t r e n g t h and Page 33 comfort (and t r u e happiness) i n the f a m i l y u n i t . When a l l e l s e f a i l s , these f a m i l i e s endure and n o u r i s h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l members. The f a m i l y i s f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d as the one constant i n l i f e , the " s h e l t e r a g a i n s t the storm of change" 6 encountered i n other aspects of l i f e . The p o s i t i v e value of q u a l i t i e s such as f a m i l y l o y a l t y and mutual r e s p e c t are not d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n i n these and other s i m i l a r programs. The importance of the f a m i l y and the b e n e f i t s of t h i s l i f e s t y l e , as p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n , have c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e c e n t r i s e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s so o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n the contemporary media. S i m i l a r l y , other u n d e r l y i n g assumptions of entertainment programs w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r r e g u l a r viewers. The p r i o r i t y a f f o r d e d to the i n d i v i d u a l (at the expense of the group or community) i s o f t e n a dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of crime shows: d i s t r u s t of i n s t i t u t i o n s and governments i s another such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c element. C r i m i n a l s are o f t e n apprehended and punished through methods t h a t v i o l a t e the laws of s o c i e t y and p e r s o n a l codes of conduct. These methods of r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t are, however, a p p a r e n t l y accepted by the audience as viewers continue watching these programs. The methods are J u s t i f i e d i n the context of the program because the crime v i c t i m must be v i n d i c a t e d before a l l e l s e , and because of the p o s s i b l e c o r r u p t i o n and probable i n a b i l i t y Page 34 of f o r m a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s to see t h a t j u s t i c e i s done. Again, r e g u l a r viewers w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by the prominence enjoyed by the i n d i v i d u a l and the l a c k of f a i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the l e g a l and j u d i c i a l systems, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many of these programs. The e f f e c t s t h a t entertainment programs have on t h e i r audiences w i l l vary i n scope and i n t e n s i t y . One f a i r l y common r e s u l t of watching these programs, e s p e c i a l l y those d e a l i n g with contemporary s o c i a l i s s u e s , i s a f e e l i n g of c a t h a r s i s . Audiences may r e c o i l i n h o r r o r a t the a t r o c i t i e s committed i n Holocaust. r e j o i c e en masse at the b r i n g i n g to J u s t i c e of the c r i m i n a l i n The Ted Bundv Story, or be awakened to the l a c k of j u d i c i a l p r o t e c t i o n a v a i l a b l e to b a t t e r e d wives by The Burning Bed, y e t t h i s may a l s o be the extent of t h e i r involvement with these i s s u e s . Viewing of these programs may cause veiwers to deem racism and v i o l e n c e unacceptable, but t h i s may a l s o be the only a c t i o n taken by viewers. S o c i a l awareness of these i s s u e s has been r a i s e d by these programs, but s o c i a l awareness alone w i l l not a l l e v i a t e these i s s u e s : i t i s only the f i r s t step i n s o l v i n g these problems. For the viewing audience, however, s o c i a l awarness may be t h e i r only c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e s o l v i n g these i s s u e s . Having watched the programs and having become aware of the s h a t t e r i n g e f f e c t s of racism and v i o l e n c e , viewers may f e e l Page 35 t h a t t h e y have done something t o h e l p r i d s o c i e t y of t h e s e i l l s . H a v ing spent a few hours f e e l i n g t h e g u i l t of a s o c i e t y t h a t a l l o w s such h o r r i b l e o c c u r r e n c e s , a u d i e n c e s may f e e l t h a t t h e y have done enough, t h a t t h e y have " p a i d t h e p r i c e . " The v i c a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g a l l o w s o f t e n l e a d s t o f e e l i n g s of h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s o l u t i o n f o r s o c i e t a l problems, of h a v i n g undergone a c a t h a r s i s by s h o u l d e r i n g t h e blame. E n t e r t a i n m e n t programs w i l l a l s o a f f e c t how p e o p l e view t h e w o r l d around them and how t h e y approach t h e i r l i v e s . T e l e v i s i o n i n f l u e n c e s v i e w e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y , of good and e v i l , of r i g h t and wrong. Time and budget c o n s t r a i n t s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n programs i n which t h e l i n e s of c o n f l i c t a r e d i s t i n c t and unwavering. The d i v i s i o n s between good and e v i l and r i g h t and wrong a r e e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e , and c r o s s i n g of t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s i s o b v i o u s t o v i e w e r s . R e s o l u t i o n s have t o o c c u r w i t h i n a g i v e n framework of t i me ( u s u a l l y t h i r t y or s i x t y m i n u t e s , i n c l u d i n g c o m m e r i c a l s ) , and t h i s o f t e n makes c h a r a c t e r s symbols of s p e c i f i c i d e a s r a t h e r than f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . These programs o f f e r a b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e view of t h e w o r l d . The p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t h e s e programs r e p r e s e n t a l l t h a t i s p o s i t i v e i n s o c i e t y w h i l e t h e a n t a g o n i s t s embody a l l t h e n e g a t i v e elements of modern l i f e , and v i e w e r s w i l l be Page 36 a f f e c t e d by these extremes. There ± 3 c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t m i l l i o n s of people - e s p e c i a l l y many of the youth - have become i n c l i n e d toward s i m p l i s t i c s o l u t i o n s to complicated problems, because f o r years they have seen problems d r a m a t i c a l l y presented and n e a t l y s o l v e d on t e l e v i s i o n w i t h i n a t h i r t y -minute p e r i o d . M i l l i o n s have been tempted to the f a n t a s y t h a t r e a l i t y i s something e i t h e r black or white, good or bad d e s i r a b l e or r e p r e h e n s i b l e - never anything i n between."7 More o f t e n than not, the good w i l l p r e v a i l and the " r i g h t t h i n g " w i l l be done, sending a message to viewers t h a t proper behaviour w i l l be rewarded and e v i l a c t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n punishment. Regular viewers may use t h i s message to guide t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The messages and assumptions of entertainment programs, r e g a r d l e s s of what they may s p e c i f i c a l l y be, are bound to have an impact on viewers who are exposed to them on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and i n f l u e n c e d by the power of v i s u a l communication. T h i s impact w i l l f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the d a i l y l i v e s of viewers. The v a r i o u s components of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e l e v i s i o n and viewers can be o f f e r e d as proof of the present e x i s t e n c e of n a t i o n a l i s m i n the medium. As i l l u s t r a t e d above, t e l e v i s i o n a c t s both as a r e f l e c t o r of and c a t a l y s t f o r the s o c i e t y i n which i t i s produced: the medium prese n t s Page 37 c u r r e n t i s s u e s of co n c e r n and h e l p s t o c r e a t e new ones by making them s u b j e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r programs. Viewers a r e a f f e c t e d by t e l e v i s i o n t h r o u g h t h e f o r c e s of v i s u a l imagery, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , r e p e t i t i o n and i m i t a t i o n . T e l e v i s i o n has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o become more i n f l u e n t i a l on v i e w e r s as exposure t o t h e medium i n c r e a s e s . R e g u l a r v i e w i n g w i l l e v e n t u a l l y have an impact on how v i e w e r s t h i n k and a c t i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . When p a r t i c u l a r modes of thought and ways of l i v i n g a r e s h a r e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t number of p e o p l e t h e y become c o n s t i t u e n t s of n a t i o n a l l i f e , or n a t i o n a l i s m . T e l e v i s i o n , a medium of mass communication, has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i n f l u e n c e a l a r g e number of p e o p l e i n a s i m i l a r manner. Thus t e l e v i s i o n n o t o n l y r e l a y s t h e components o f n a t i o n a l i s m t o i t s v i e w e r s but a i d s i n a c t u a l l y c r e a t i n g new components. The n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t i n t e r a c t s w i t h t e l e v i s i o n i n N o r t h America, however, i s American: i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , i d e a l s , myths, and i d e a s t h a t d e f i n e l i f e i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n f a c t , t e l e v i s i o n i n N o r t h America i s an American medium. T e l e v i s i o n has s e r v e d e f f e c t i v e l y as a v e h i c l e f o r t h e c a r r i a g e of American c u l t u r e t o c o u n t r i e s around t h e w o r l d . I f t h e r e was any doubt of t h e s t a t u s of th e U n i t e d S t a t e s as a w o r l d power, i t has been c o m p l e t e l y d i s p e l l e d w i t h t h e advent of t e l e v i s i o n . The medium i s one v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d and thorough Page 38 spread of American i n f l u e n c e worldwide. As G e r a l d C r a i g notes, the U n i t e d S t a t e s has b u i l t up "the world's most p e n e t r a t i n g and e f f e c t i v e apparatus f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of ideas [and] Canada, more than any other country, i s naked to t h a t f o r c e . " 8 Since most Canadians' t e l e v i s i o n d i e t c o n s i s t s of American entertainment programs, the i d e a s they i n g e s t d a i l y are those of American n a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s unacceptable (and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s change) only i f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The premises of c o n t i n e n t a l i s m and arguments s u p p o r t i n g a New World i d e o l o g y , major f o r c e s i n North America v i r t u a l l y s i n c e the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s , contend t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o u n t r i e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e peoples are minute and of no p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e . 9 The i d e a t h a t a l l North Americans share a common h i s t o r y and mind-set t h a t r e s u l t s from s e t t l i n g a new l a n d and c r e a t i n g a new s o c i e t y has always enjoyed s u b s t a n t i a l support i n both n a t i o n s . 1 0 Page 39 Yet t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s , d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t have ensured the s u r v i v a l of each country as a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y , d e s p i t e t h e i r many s i m i l a r i t i e s . I t i s these d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the c u l t u r e of each country, and i t i s the c u l t u r e of each p a r t i c i p a n t t h a t i s the founda t i o n f o r n a t i o n a l i s m . A b r i e f examination of these d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the uniqueness of each n a t i o n and the dangers of a Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system inundated with American programming and n a t i o n a l i s m . There are ge n e r a l themes and b e l i e f s t h a t should be mentioned i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between Canada and the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Some of these d i f f e r e n c e s have e x i s t e d s i n c e the formation of both n a t i o n s . The United S t a t e s was founded on the p r i n c i p l e s of l i b e r a l democracy, i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and independence. Canada, on the other hand, was modelled more on the p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i c a l conservatism, with i t s emphasis on s o c i e t y as a community or orga n i c u n i t . The p r i n c i p l e of democracy has made the m a j o r i t y the i n f l u e n t i a l body i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s , while Canada has allowed f o r d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r e s and d u a l i t y of languages. The U n i t e d S t a t e s has a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a d i t i o n , a h i s t o r y of winning freedom through r e v o l u t i o n . Canada became a n a t i o n through d i p l o m a t i c n e g o t i a t i o n s , and d i d not Page 40 reach f u l l autonomous s t a t u s u n t i l w e l l over one hundred years of e x i s t e n c e . Canada has a long h i s t o r y of economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t i e s with another n a t i o n ( B r i t a i n ) , w h i l e the U n i t e d S t a t e s has set i t s own parameters of n a t i o n a l l i f e s i n c e the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century. The c r e a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1776 was an experiment h e r e t o f o r e u n t r i e d , and i t s a c t i o n s as a n a t i o n were subsequently unprecedented. Conversely, the n a t i o n of Canada was modelled l a r g e l y on e x i s t e n t systems, e s p e c i a l l y those of Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , with fewer o r i g i n a l a spects t h a t those of her neighbour to the south. Throughout the years, c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e to the Canadian and American peoples have become c l e a r . The documents on which each n a t i o n was founded o f f e r c l u e s as to why these two peoples d i f f e r . The Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n Act of 1867 speaks of "Peace, Order and Good Government" 1 1 while the American D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence (1776) promises " L i f e , L i b e r t y and the p u r s u i t of H a p p i n e s s . " 1 2 Canadians have become a much more c o n s e r v a t i v e and c a u t i o u s people than t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s . They pay more heed to t r a d i t i o n than the Americans. Canadians p l a c e more importance on the maintenance of law and order, and value the group (or community) more than the Americans, who are a more r e s t l e s s , venturesome people who b e l i e v e the i n d i v i d u a l i s Page 41 the most important s o c i a l d i v i s i o n . The d i f f e r e n t methods of s e t t l i n g the western " f r o n t i e r " of each country i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e q u i t e w e l l . Canadians do not share the Americans' d i s t r u s t and s u s p i c i o n of b i g government. Canada has a h i s t o r y of government i n s t i t u t i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n t government involvement i n a l l spheres of l i f e , and Canadians have come to view government as v i t a l to t h e i r s u r v i v a l . For many obvious reasons, Canadians have become i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e to f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n domestic a f f a i r s and are r e s i s t a n t to a c c e p t i n g l e a d e r s h i p from other n a t i o n s , w h ile the Americans have r a r e l y , i f ever, had o c c a s i o n to develop such f e e l i n g s . F i n a l l y , the presence of a s i z e a b l e French Canadian p o p u l a t i o n adds a d i s t i n c t i v e element to Canadian l i f e t h a t does not e x i s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s between the two n a t i o n s can be seen c l e a r l y i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b r o a d c a s t i n g systems and the p o l i c i e s t h a t r e g u l a t e them. The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of each n a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the es t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e i r b r o a d c a s t i n g systems and i n f l u e n c e s the r e g u l a t i o n of these systems. In an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Canada and the Un i t e d S t a t e s : Comparative O r i g i n s and Approaches to Broadcast P o l i c y , " Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g h i s t o r i a n Frank Peers o u t l i n e s h i s v e r s i o n of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each system: Page 42 I h y p o t h e s i z e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the c h i e f determinant of the b r o a d c a s t i n g system was the market system on which the economy i s based, but a l s o important were p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , which i n c l u d e the l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n i n America, consumerism, and a f e a r of b i g government. I h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i n Canada the p r i n c i p a l determinants have been geographic l o c a t i o n ; demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g s i z e of p o p u l a t i o n and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y ; economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the sources of c a p i t a l and f l u c t u a t i n g l e v e l s of p r o s p e r i t y ; and the p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e -a t t i t u d e s toward government, the mixture of i d e o l o g i c a l s t r a i n s , and s e n s i t i v i t y about a c c e p t i n g l e a d e r s h i p from another people. 1 3 American and Canadian r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c i e s f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g d i f f e r p r i m a r i l y i n the extent to which they r e l y on market mechanisms and government r e g u l a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y i n order to determine program content and the economic s t r u c t u r e of the i n d u s t r y . The content of American programs i s determined l a r g e l y on a commercial b a s i s , dependent on audience p o p u l a r i t y and the w i l l i n g n e s s of a d v e r t i s e r s to pay top p r i c e f o r commercials d u r i n g the program. In Canada, a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of what i s broadcast has to be Canadian i n content (as d e f i n e d by the Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommunications Commission), r e g a r d l e s s of audience s i z e or revenue-generating p o t e n t i a l . B r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s more concerned with economic consequences Page 43 than with the p o l i t i c a l or c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s t h a t are the focus of b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y i n Canada, although n e i t h e r i s based s o l e l y on one s e t of concerns or the other. The Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system has always been much more a v e h i c l e to "safeguard, e n r i c h and strengthen" 1 - 4 the c u l t u r e of the n a t i o n than a p u r e l y market-dependent, economic a c t i v i t y . B r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada has always been viewed as a c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y of s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and c o l l e c t i v e concern (thus the e x t e n s i v e involvement of the f e d e r a l government), and p o l i c i e s of b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n r e f l e c t t h i s view. I t i s obvious, then, t h a t t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o u n t r i e s and t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s are manifested i n p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as the f o r m u l a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y and determining the s t r u c t u r e of the i n d u s t r y . These d i f f e r e n c e s help to d e f i n e each n a t i o n and are c o n s t i t u e n t s of Canadian and American n a t i o n a l i s m , y e t they are v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n entertainment programming on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . Canadians watch American programs, and by doing so they become well-educated i n the b e l i e f s and values t h a t d e f i n e the American way of l i f e . They come to view the world as Americans do, and they l e a r n what i s important and of value by watching what Americans deem important and v a l u a b l e . Page 44 There i s nothing i n h e r e n t l y wrong or s u b v e r s i v e with American c u l t u r e as i t i s t r e a t e d on t e l e v i s i o n : i t i s not dangerous s t r i c t l y because i t i s American. What i s dangerous i s Canadian dependence on these programs to c o n s t i t u t e the v a s t m a j o r i t y of a v a i l a b l e programming. For Canadian viewers, there i s no v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e : the k i n d of programs t h a t would have s i m i l a r b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s f o r Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m simply do not e x i s t . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t amount of indigenous programming t h a t c o u l d serve to help Canadians examine what makes them d i s t i n c t i v e and d e f i n e s them as a n a t i o n . B i a s , or n a t i o n a l i s t s l a n t , i s unavoidable i n any t e l e v i s i o n programming. Programming from the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y have b i a s by showing what i s important to the n a t i o n (program content) and how i t s c i t i z e n s d e a l with matters of importance ( r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t , c h a l l e n g e , and so on). Not t h a t American producers and c r e a t i v e personnel have as t h e i r primary purpose the annexation of the Canadian people, although t h i s may w e l l be the r e s u l t . The programs w i l l have an American b i a s and s l a n t simply because they o r i g i n a t e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , j u s t as programming from B r i t a i n , Germany or any other n a t i o n w i l l p o r t r a y the domestic concerns and n a t i o n a l i s m of those c o u n t r i e s . However, the American b i a s i n these programs i s Page 45 d e t r i m e n t a l to Canadian viewers because American programs occupy such a prominent p o s i t i o n i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . A recent episode of Designing Women d e a l t with the American involvement i n the B a t t l e of the Bulge, suggesting the American presence on the European f r o n t i n World War I I was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the ev e n t u a l v i c t o r y of the A l l i e s . Canada was a l s o deeply i n v o l v e d i n the f i g h t i n g i n Europe, but Canadian viewers d i d not see t h i s . Our World p r o v i d e s a weekly l e s s o n i n h i s t o r y , but i t p o r t r a y s what was happening to and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r year, not i n Canada. Cagney and Lacey. L.A. Law. Matlock. and numerous other p o l i c e / p r i v a t e d e t e c t i v e / l a w y e r programs d e a l r e g u l a r l y with the assumptions behind the American J u s t i c e system, c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i t i s by the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and the concept of "innocent u n t i l proven g u i l t y . " Canadians have d i f f e r e n t laws, law-making processes, systems of p o l i c i n g , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the j u d i c i a l system, y e t many viewers b e l i e v e they have the same system as the Un i t e d S t a t e s because t h i s i s what they see on t e l e v i s i o n . Innumerable s e r i e s , m i n i - s e r i e s , and movies d e a l with the i s s u e of American b l a c k s and t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y , and some Canadian audience members have come to view t h i s concern as t h e i r own. There i s no doubt t h a t racism e x i s t s i n Canada and t h a t v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s s u f f e r from i t . The l a r g e s t Page 46 v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y i n Canada, however, c o n s i s t s of o r i e n t a l s r a t h e r than b l a c k s , but programs d e a l i n g with the problems f a c i n g t h i s group are few and f a r between. As a group f i g h t i n g f o r p a r i t y and e q u a l i t y , the French Canadians are a k i n to the b l a c k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , y e t the areas of c o n t e n t i o n and the methods of a l l e v i a t i n g c o n f l i c t between French-speaking and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadians have always v a r i e d from the C i v i l R i g h t s movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The i n e v i t a b l e b i a s of American programming i s not by nature n e g a t i v e , but i t becomes so i n r e l a t i o n to Canadian viewers. As t e l e v i s i o n viewing time i n c r e a s e s , Canadians become more f a m i l i a r with l i f e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h i s i s done at the expense of the Canadian n a t i o n . Increased f a m i l i a r i t y with American c u l t u r e clouds any r e a l i z a t i o n of Canadian d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e are r e l a t i v e l y few programs t h a t c o u l d r e i n f o r c e t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . Canadian viewers become i n d i v i d u a l s who g r a d u a l l y take on the c h a r a c t e r of another n a t i o n while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l o s i n g t h e i r g r i p on t h e i r own n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n must be r e c t i f i e d , and the best method f o r c o r r e c t i o n i s the c r e a t i o n of Canadian programs t h a t d e a l with Canadian d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . Canadian T e l e v i s i o n Page 47 Canadian t e l e v i s i o n u r g e n t l y needs programs t h a t d e a l with Canadian matters of concern, Canadian myths and heroes, and Canadian methods of r e s o l u t i o n and a c t i o n . Canada, as a country, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by concern with n a t i o n a l i s m and i d e n t i t y . To t h i n k of Canada, as K e i t h S p i c e r suggests, as "The Woody A l l e n of n a t i o n s (our i d e n t i t y i s our i d e n t i t y c r i s i s ) " 1 B i s not much of a d e v i a t i o n from the t r u t h . Canada has always been a n a t i o n g r e a t l y concerned with a c t u a l l y d e f i n i n g i t s n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and promoting the acceptance of t h a t i d e n t i t y among Canadians. What i s needed are t e l e v i s i o n programs t h a t r e f l e c t t h i s concern f o r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and sentiment and t h a t s t i m u l a t e e f f o r t s to show the value of t h i s i d e n t i t y to the n a t i o n . The k i n d of programs being proposed here would have Canadians as the p r o t a g o n i s t s (or the r e g u l a r c h a r a c t e r s i n a weekly s e r i e s ) . They would be programs which d e a l with the l i v e s of Canadians from a l l p a r t s of the country. Viewers can best r e l a t e to (and w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , watch) t h a t which i s f a m i l i a r , and what i s most f a m i l i a r to them i s t h a t which surrounds them d a i l y : f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , co-workers, jobs, i n s t i t u t i o n s , and geographic areas. I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t the average A l b e r t a n has been to e i t h e r Edmonton or C a l g a r y ( i f he does not l i v e i n one or the other) or has been a f f e c t e d by the i n f l u e n c e of these c i t i e s : the same can be Page 48 s a i d f o r r e s i d e n t s of any p r o v i n c e i n Canada. Canadians know what l i f e i n t h e i r own pr o v i n c e i s l i k e , and they know t h a t t h e i r f e l l o w r e s i d e n t s shape t h e i r l i v e s from the same surroundings. C r e a t i n g programs about people t h a t are f a m i l i a r bypasses a major step i n f i n d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a r e g u l a r audience, t h a t of c r e a t i n g audience f a m i l i a r i t y with c h a r a c t e r s and g e t t i n g them to care f o r the c h a r a c t e r s . Audiences w i l l f e e l more comfortable with c h a r a c t e r s t h a t speak the same language, go to the same p l a c e s , and de a l with the same problems as the viewers. Audiences w i l l f e e l they know these c h a r a c t e r s . Programs should t h e r e f o r e d e a l with c h a r a c t e r s t h a t the viewers are l i k e l y to encounter i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , people t h a t b r i n g to viewers' minds s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n which they have found themselves. These programs should have as t h e i r l o c a l e s p l a c e s Canadians w i l l l i k e l y be aware of. Some c u r r e n t Canadian t e l e v i s i o n programs take g r e a t p a i n s to hide t h e i r Canadian l o c a t i o n s , but th e r e r e a l l y i s no need f o r t h i s . There i s no reason f o r programs about a doctor i n Montreal or a high school i n H a l i f a x to mask t h e i r Canadian l o c a t i o n s . P a r t of what c h a r a c t e r i z e s i n d i v i d u a l s ' l i v e s i s the i n f l u e n c e of where they l i v e , and a p p a r e n t l y g e n e r i c l o c a t i o n s may make understanding c h a r a c t e r s ' behaviour more d i f f i c u l t than necessary. A program's l o c a l e does not have to be f i c t i o n a l Page 49 or d i s g u i s e d f o r i t s message to be u n i v e r s a l (or, i n t h i s case, n a t i o n a l ) . There are c e r t a i n occurrences t h a t happen to and a f f e c t Canadians a l l a c r o s s the country, and seeing i t happen to f e l l o w Canadians on t e l e v i s i o n , be they f a r or near, helps viewers to r e a l i z e what they have i n common with other Canadians. Again, f a m i l i a r i t y p l a y s a r o l e i n Canadian l o c a t i o n s : most viewers are l i k e l y to have a t l e a s t some knowledge of the p l a c e s where these s t o r i e s take p l a c e and w i l l f e e l some p e r s o n a l connection with the show. As with c h a r a c t e r s and l o c a l e s , the c r e a t i v e p e r s onnel of these programs should be Canadian, f o r i t i s they who know best the geography, the language(s), the concerns, and the ways of l i f e i n t h i s country. Canadians should c r e a t e programs f o r themselves, because i t i s they who know best what makes them Canadian. Canadian c h a r a c t e r s , l o c a t i o n s , or c r e a t i v e personnel are not, however, the most important aspect of the programs being proposed: Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e i s . Canadian content - indeed any s o r t of g e o g r a p h i c a l l y or otherwise s p e c i f i e d content - has as i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i t s d i s t i n c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , not simply the o r i g i n of i t s f i n a n c i n g or the n a t i o n a l i t y of i t s producers. 1 S These programs should r e f l e c t the modes of thought and a c t i o n Page 5 0 t h a t comprise the Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e . Programs should show how Canadians view the world and t h e i r p l a c e i n i t , how they a c t , and what they f e e l i s important. These programs should p o r t r a y the r e a l i t y of the Canadian experience and show how t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Canadians from other peoples. Entertainment programs c o u l d d e a l with a host of Canadian i s s u e s : government involvement i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' l i v e s ; the presence of two d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l groups w i t h i n the country,- the q u e s t i o n s of r e g i o n a l or l o c a l versus n a t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; the b e n e f i t s and problems a s s o c i a t e d with a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n spread over a v a s t l a n d mass; the i m p l i c a t i o n s of years of r e l a t i v e l y open immigration p o l i c i e s ; or the love-hate r e l a t i o n s h i p with the United S t a t e s , a n a t i o n o f t e n viewed as p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g to Canada. The programs c o u l d examine the f e e l i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e i n a s o c i e t y t h a t o f t e n r e q u i r e s them to s u b j e c t t h e i r w i l l to the good of the community, or d e a l with the c a u t i o u s and r a t h e r p r o t e c t i v e nature of a people who are slow and d e l i b e r a t e i n i n i t i a t i n g change. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n needs programs t h a t r e f l e c t how Canadians l i v e and why they l i v e t h a t way. These programs should p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Canadians to examine t h e i r l i v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a n a t i o n and to determine (and r e j o i c e i n ) the shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t bind them together. The only Page 51 way to p r e s e r v e any indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system i n t h i s country i s to c r e a t e programs t h a t speak to Canadians about themselves i n terms t h a t are f a m i l i a r to them. Entertainment programs a l s o d e a l with myths and heroes of a n a t i o n and i t s peoples, and Canadian t e l e v i s i o n needs more of t h i s type of program. Myths and heroes a c t as u n i f y i n g f o r c e s on a n a t i o n , as r a l l y i n g p o i n t s f o r i t s people, and are t h e r e f o r e important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to n a t i o n a l i s m . Some Canadian programs d e a l i n g with t h i s have been produced, and they have been very s u c c e s s f u l . Anne of  Green Gables d e a l t with a Canadian ( a l b e i t f i c t i o n a l ) hero and was, i n Canada, the h i g h e s t r a t e d indigenous entertainment program of a l l time. The N a t i o n a l Dream. B i l l y  Bishop Goes to War, and Bethune d e a l t both with n a t i o n a l heroes and the myths t h a t surrounded them, and C h a r l i e  Grant's War e l e v a t e d a p r e v i o u s l y unknown f i g u r e to h i s proper p l a c e as a n a t i o n a l hero. These programs were a l l e f f e c t i v e i n p o r t r a y i n g n a t i o n a l heroes and n a t i o n a l myths, but t h e r e i s not enough of t h i s type of programming. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n needs many more of these programs whose t o p i c s c o n t r i b u t e to the n a t i o n a l i m a g i n a t i o n and d i s t i n c t i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n i n Canada. These programs i n t e n s i f y the n a t i o n a l p r i d e t h a t i s so v i t a l an aspect of n a t i o n a l i s m and tend to bond people together by c r e a t i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y Page 52 f o r nation-wide s h a r i n g i n t h a t p r i d e . Some d i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e i n the c r e a t i o n of the kinds of Canadian program proposed here. One p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e i s the r e g i o n a l i s m t h a t i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canada, given the d i s t i n c t i v e r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s and the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the d i f f e r e n t areas of the country, i n c r e a t i n g programming t h a t speaks to the va s t m a j o r i t y of Canadians. But r e g i o n a l i s m does not have to be d e t r i m e n t a l i f i t i s viewed as a component of n a t i o n a l i s m r a t h e r than an opposing f o r c e . Programs about p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s w i l l show the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area and i t s people and w i l l , h o p e f u l l y , f o s t e r a s e n s i t i v i t y to and understanding of t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n viewers. T e l e v i s i o n p r o v i d e s a n a t i o n a l framework f o r t h i s to occur, and n a t i o n a l exposure f o r these programs w i l l a l l o w f o r country-wide education of r e g i o n s about each other. That there e x i s t s any b e t t e r d e v i c e than t e l e v i s i o n f o r promoting i n c r e a s e d understanding and t o l e r a n c e of the r e g i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s t h a t combine to form a s i n g l e n a t i o n i s d o u b t f u l . Programs t h a t take i n t o account r e g i o n a l uniqueness may help Canadian viewers r e a l i z e the many t h i n g s they do share, d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . Regionalism may w e l l be one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from t e l e v i s i o n of other n a t i o n s . Page 53 Other a s p e c t s of b o t h t e l e v i s i o n and Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m appear t o make any u n i o n of t h e two d i f f i c u l t . T e l e v i s i o n , and most e s p e c i a l l y commercial t e l e v i s i o n , has l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t from t i m e and money c o n s t r a i n t s . I n Four Arguments F o r The E l i m i n a t i o n of T e l e v i s i o n . J e r r y Mander s u g g e s t s some l i m i t a t i o n s on what t e l e v i s i o n can d e a l w i t h e f f e c t i v e l y , i n c l u d i n g t h e b e l i e f s t h a t , f o r t e l e v i s i o n , s u p e r f i c i a l i t y i s e a s i e r than depth, t h e one i s e a s i e r than the many, and s h o r t s u b j e c t s w i t h b e g i n n i n g s and ends a r e s i m p l e r t o t r a n s m i t than extended and m u l t i f a c e t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 7 Other t e l e v i s i o n c r i t i c s and t h e o r i s t s w r i t e of t h e i n a b i l i t y of t e l e v i s i o n t o o f f e r p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t t o nuance and i t s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d range of emotions. I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t t e l e v i s i o n c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h such a c o m p l i c a t e d and e m o t i o n a l concept as n a t i o n a l i s m , a concept t h a t r e q u i r e s i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n of i t s many components f o r f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n . However, t e l e v i s i o n ' s l i m i t a t i o n s do not make t h e pr e s e n c e of Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . As we have seen, American programming i s i n f u s e d w i t h n a t i o n a l i s m , and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e or s u p e r f i c i a l about t h e American i d e n t i t y . The same s i t u a t i o n c o u l d o c c u r i n Canada. T e l e v i s i o n w i e l d s i t s i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n of programs watched over a p e r i o d of t i m e , and, Page 54 over time, a number of programs may present a f a i r l y i n - d e p t h examination of the components of n a t i o n a l i s m . F o c u s s i n g on one aspect of n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r and i d e n t i t y may s t i m u l a t e viewers to look deeper i n t o other a s p e c t s : t e l e v i s i o n may be a c a t a l y s t f o r expanded thought and d i s c u s s i o n about n a t i o n a l i s m . S i m i l a r l y , c e r t a i n aspects of Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m make i t appear to be a s u b j e c t b e t t e r t r e a t e d by something other than t e l e v i s i o n . Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m has never been f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d or d e s c r i b e d . In f a c t , i t i s i n a constant s t a t e of f l u x and i s the source of on-going debate. T h i s l a c k of obvious premises may make Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m d i f f i c u l t to d e a l with e f f e c t i v e l y on t e l e v i s i o n . The ca u t i o u s nature of Canadians and t h e i r r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n s and the s t a t u s quo are not e a s i l y p o r t r a y e d v i s u a l l y . Canada i s not as e a s i l y r e presented by v i s u a l symbols as i s the Uni t e d S t a t e s , with i t s f l a g , Statue of L i b e r t y , and Mount Rushmore r e c o g n i z e d world-wide as symbols of the United S t a t e s and i t s c i t i z e n s . Yet these apparent o b s t a c l e s do not mean t h a t Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m cannot be a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t e l e v i s i o n . T e l e v i s i o n d e a l s most e f f e c t i v e l y with t h a t which i s c u r r e n t and which i s r e l e v a n t to i t s viewers at a c e r t a i n time, and Canadian i d e n t i t y and sentiment have been c u r r e n t i s s u e s f o r every g e n e r a t i o n of Canadians s i n c e the Page 5 5 f o r m a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y . The d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e of Canadians may p r o v i d e a c h a l l e n g e t o c r e a t o r s of programs, but meeting t h i s c h a l l e n g e c o u l d v e r y w e l l c r e a t e a new s t y l e of t e l e v i s i o n t h a t i s i n d i g e n o u s t o t h i s c o u n t r y . T e l e v i s i o n p r o v i d e s a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e f o r c r e a t i n g a l l e g i a n c e t o and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h v i s u a l symbols of Canada: i t can g i v e t h e s e symbols more exposure t o a l a r g e a u d i e n c e than any o t h e r medium. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m t o be a v i t a l p a r t of t e l e v i s i o n , d e s p i t e t h e se e m i n g l y d i f f i c u l t n a t u r e of t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m . The b e n e f i t s of c r e a t i n g t h e k i n d s of programs suggested here would be numerous and would J u s t i f y any amount of work t h a t needs t o be done. These k i n d s o f programs c o u l d add t o t h e q u a l i t y of t e l e v i s i o n g e n e r a l l y . A t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e many components o f Canadian l i f e and t h e d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Canadian p e o p l e would expand the range of p o s s i b l e s c r i p t t o p i c s . Programs c o u l d be more d i v e r s e and v a r i e d , r e f l e c t i n g t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each r e g i o n of t h e c o u n t r y . D i v e r s i t y of s c r i p t s and new methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t may be d e v e l o p e d i n an e f f o r t t o s u c c e s s f u l l y p o r t r a y t h e Canadian e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d l e a d t o a whole new s t y l e of t e l e v i s i o n , one t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e t o th e q u a l i t y of t h e medium by exp a n d i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l . Programming of t h i s t y p e c o u l d a l s o enhance t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p Page 56 between t e l e v i s i o n and i t s viewers. By attempting to d e a l with d a i l y l i f e as i t i s experienced by the viewers, by p o r t r a y i n g t h i n g s viewers are f a m i l i a r with and have p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n , and by u s i n g myths and heroes from the viewers' own country as s c r i p t t o p i c s , the proposed programs w i l l show more r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r viewers. Seeing f a m i l i a r p l a c e s and s i t u a t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n w i l l make viewers r e a l i z e t h a t they are important to the medium as i t s nourishment as w e l l as i t s r e c i p i e n t s . Anything t h a t makes viewers f e e l they are a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n , r a t h e r than mere consumers of, the medium w i l l enhance the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e l e v i s i o n and i t s viewers, and t h i s , i n t u r n , cannot help but add to the p o t e n t i a l and q u a l i t y of t e l e v i s i o n . There are other p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s from the c r e a t i o n of these programs. Viewers would be a b l e to see and b e t t e r understand the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a l l r e g i o n s , not j u s t t h e i r own, to the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . The u n i f y i n g e f f e c t s of simultaneous viewing of one program by m i l l i o n s of Canadians would be extremely p o s i t i v e . Canada c o u l d f i n a l l y have a n a t i o n a l stage on which the v a r i o u s views of what "being Canadian" means c o u l d be presented and examined. The t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r y i n Canada c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e n e f i t from i n c r e a s e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r domestic c r e a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l t a l e n t . C r e a t i n g these kinds of programs would be Page 57 c o n s i s t e n t with Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g h i s t o r y , a h i s t o r y of t r e a t i n g b r o a d c a s t i n g as a c o l l e c t i v e concern, as a means of p r e s e r v i n g Canadian d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , and as a v e h i c l e f o r " i d e n t i f y i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g c u l t u r a l e n t i t i e s , r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s and community l o y a l i t e s . " 1 B The c r e a t i o n of these programs would f u l f i l l t h a t which has been the goal of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n : to have Canadians watching Canadian-made programs about t h e i r country and t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . A l l the expected b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s t h a t made t h i s the u l t i m a t e aim of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n w i l l be r e a l i z e d by the c r e a t i o n of these programs. The f u t u r e of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n depends on the kinds of programs d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . These programs should be more than mere i m i t a t i o n s of programming from the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Canadian t e l e v i s i o n needs a new, changed s t y l e of programming, and t h i s change w i l l f i n d i t s d i r e c t i o n i n Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s s t y l e of programming w i l l make t e l e v i s i o n i n t h i s country t r u l y Canadian and keep i t from becoming merely a d i s t r i b u t i o n v e h i c l e f o r f o r e i g n programs. The proposed programs w i l l help to stem the t i d e of American i n f l u e n c e sweeping over Canada because of massive exposure to entertainment programs from the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Much e f f o r t and support w i l l be needed to c r e a t e a l a r g e number of indigenous entertainment programs, but to view t h i s as too Page 58 e x t e n s i v e an undertaking i n d i c a t e s only a l a c k of w i l l , not a l a c k of a b i l i t y . To b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s an i m p o s s i b l e task i s to b e l i e v e t h a t Canada i s a n a t i o n devoid of t a l e n t e d and i n n o v a t i v e a r t i s t s . T h i s i s untrue. The necessary resources and t a l e n t are a v a i l a b l e i n Canada, and i f they are not used to c r e a t e these proposed programs, d i s t i n c t i v e Canadian t e l e v i s i o n has no f u t u r e . Page 59 CHAPTER I I I THE URGENT NEED FOR CHANGE The time f o r i n i t i a t i n g change, f o r c r e a t i n g the kinds of programs o u t l i n e d i n the l a s t chapter, i s now. For three reasons, e f f o r t s to change Canadian t e l e v i s i o n should commence immediately. The f i r s t of the reasons concerns the type of entertainment programs c u r r e n t l y i n p r o d u c t i o n and the growth of " f a m i l i a r i t y programming," a programming concept c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of much t e l e v i s i o n f a r e i n the 1980s. The second reason has to do with the amount of a t t e n t i o n given to Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m i n the past twenty years. The f i n a l reason r e l a t e s to the r a p i d advance of communications technology and the e f f e c t s of t h a t advance on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . F a m i l i a r i t y Programming . Since the e a r l y 1980s, t e l e v i s i o n programs seem to have become more r e a l i s t i c i n look and i n content than ever be f o r e . U n l i k e e a r l i e r t e l e v i s i o n f a r e , o f t e n deemed u n r e a l i s t i c by c r i t i c s and t h e o r i s t s , contemporary programs Page 60 attempt to p o r t r a y l i f e as i t r e a l l y i s , r a t h e r than l i f e as i t i s thought to be. These are programs t h a t s t r i v e to r e c r e a t e people, p l a c e s , and s i t u a t i o n s as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , programs such as H i l l S t r e e t Blues and Cagney and  Lacey. S t o r y l i n e s of these programs are designed to s t r i k e a chord of f a m i l i a r i t y i n audiences: viewers w i l l r e c o g n i z e elements i n the p l o t t h a t they, or someone they know, have had to d e a l with, i s s u e s t h a t viewers are l i k e l y to have faced. The way i n which viewers are apt to handle these i s s u e s h e lps determine the way the s c r i p t w r i t e r s r e s o l v e problems. T h i s i s f a m i l i a r i t y programming: entertainment programs t h a t d e a l , as t r u t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , with l o c a l e s , c h a r a c t e r s , and i s s u e s t h a t are f a m i l i a r to audiences. Two e a r l y examples of f a m i l i a r i t y programming are H i l l S t r e e t Blues and Cagney and Lacey. which p o r t r a y members of the p o l i c e f o r c e as human beings who, l i k e a l l humans, have f a u l t s and f a i l i n g s . The p r o t a g o n i s t s are not i n f a l l i b l e . They do not always s o l v e the crimes: they f a i l to c a r r y out t h e i r duty as policemen at a l l times. The c h a r a c t e r s have p e r s o n a l problems to de a l with, problems o f t e n a f f e c t i n g t h e i r work performance. C h a r a c t e r s are o f t e n f a c e d with moral dilemmas and, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, f a i l to make the proper d e c i s i o n s . As with everyday l i f e , these programs do not always have a happy ending. As with a l l Page 61 people, these f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s are not above reproach. Another example of f a m i l i a r i t y programming, Frank's  P l a c e . makes e f f e c t i v e use of l o c a l d i a l e c t s and jazz music f o r a r e l a t i v e l y a c c u r a t e d e p i c t i o n of New Orleans. Year i n  the L i f e i s a program about the Gar d i n e r f a m i l y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the members. I t d e a l s with i s s u e s t h a t f a c e many f a m i l i e s : g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , s i b l i n g resentment, f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y , the e f f e c t of one member's marriage on the extended f a m i l y , and so on. T h i s f a m i l y , l i k e many oth e r s , does not always r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s or d e a l r a t i o n a l l y with moments of c r i s i s . The Ga r d i n e r s have to face p e t t y j e a l o u s i e s , f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s , o b l i g a t i o n s , i n t e r f e r e n c e , and a l l the neg a t i v e (as w e l l as the p o s i t i v e ) t h i n g s t h a t come with membership i n a f a m i l y . D e g r a s s i  J u n i o r High d e a l s with l i f e i n a Toronto Junior high s c h o o l . The c h a r a c t e r s , students and te a c h e r s , are f a r from p e r f e c t . The problems and Joys t h a t accompany adolescence are d e a l t with h o n e s t l y and openly. Students make wrong c h o i c e s and succumb to peer p r e s s u r e ; t e a c h e r s g i v e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a d v i c e ; new f r i e n d s h i p s are formed w h i l e o l d ones are abandoned; students r e a l i z e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as the freedoms t h a t accompany adulthood. These t h r e e programs do not always end h a p p i l y . In f a c t , they sometimes do not end at a l l . C h a r a c t e r s r e f u s e to de a l with matters, l e a v i n g them Page 62 unre s o l v e d , much the same as people o c c a s i o n a l l y do i n r e a l l i f e . The programs d i s c u s s e d above serve as examples of how f a m i l i a r i t y programming can p o r t r a y l i f e as i t i s . F a m i l i a r i t y programming seems to have found favour with viewers and c r i t i c s a l i k e . H i l l S t r e e t Blues ran f o r seven seasons and r e c e i v e d numerous awards f o r e x c e l l e n c e . Cagney and Lacey i s i n i t s s i x t h year of p r o d u c t i o n and has a l s o been the r e c i p i e n t of much c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m . D e g r a s s i  J u n i o r High, a Canadian p r o d u c t i o n , has been honored i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n the form of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l Emmy award. In t h e i r f i r s t season of p r o d u c t i o n , both Year  i n the L i f e and Frank's P l a c e have r e c e i v e d high p r a i s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y from t e l e v i s i o n c r i t i c s . The c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m r e c e i v e d by f a m i l i a r i t y programming, coupled with the l o n g e v i t y of some programs i n t h i s category suggests an audience w i l l i n g n e s s to watch. Viewers seem r e c e p t i v e to programs t h a t remind them of themselves and t h e i r own l i v e s . In s p i t e of the popular myth of entertainment as an escape from r e a l i t y , viewers - a t l e a s t some viewers - enjoy entertainment programs t h a t d e a l with the f a m i l i a r . And, as Kenneth P i e r c e p o i n t s out, I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t we d e l i g h t at seeing t h i n g s and people on t e l e v i s i o n Page 63 t h a t are f a m i l i a r to us but u s u a l l y kept o f f the screen. The p l e a s u r e i s one of triumph: the triumph of seeing t h i n g s we know and value i n the p u b l i c forum. 1 The growth of f a m i l i a r i t y programming i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r the c r e a t i o n of the k i n d of entertainment programs o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter. I t meets the c r i t e r i a : programs d e a l i n g with f a m i l i a r Canadian people, p l a c e s , and s i t u a t i o n s . I f the appeal of f a m i l i a r i t y programming i s f a m i l i a r i t y , i t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t Canadian viewers w i l l want to watch programs d e a l i n g with t o p i c s f a m i l i a r to Canadian viewers. The success, i n Canada, of American f a m i l i a r i t y programming shows t h a t t h e r e i s an audience f o r t h i s type of programming. Some Canadian viewers have shown a w i l l i n g n e s s to watch these kinds of programs - p r e c i s e l y the kinds of programs proposed i n Chapter I I . I f indigenous entertainment programs were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h i s r e c e p t i v e environment, the programs c o u l d b e n e f i t from c u r r e n t audience w i l l i n g n e s s to watch f a m i l i a r i t y programming. N a t i o n a l i s m i n Recent Canadian H i s t o r y The second reason t h a t the programming changes proposed i n Chapter I I should be i n i t i a t e d immediately r e v o l v e s around the present s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l atmosphere i n Page 64 Canada. Canadian i d e n t i t y and sentiment, always matters of concern and debate, have become even more p e r t i n e n t f o r contemporary Canadian s o c i e t y . N a t i o n a l i s m , as a t o p i c , has r e c e i v e d e x t e n s i v e exposure and a t t e n t i o n i n the past twenty ye a r s . Canadian s o c i e t y has undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes du r i n g these y e a r s , and each major change has l e d the r e s i d e n t s of the n a t i o n to a deeper examination of what Canada i s and what being Canadian means. The atmosphere c r e a t e d by t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g of n a t i o n a l i s m i s one t h a t i s most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the type of entertainment programs being proposed. Since the hundredth a n n i v e r s a r y of C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1967, Canadians have been faced with a s e r i e s of events t h r e a t e n i n g the s t a b i l i t y of the n a t i o n , f o r c i n g d e f i n i t i o n of the terms Canada and Canadian. From the l a t e 1960s through most of the 1970s, s e p a r a t i s t f o r c e s i n the p r o v i n c e of Quebec gained momentum and p o p u l a r i t y , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the e l e c t i o n of the P a r t i Quebecois i n 1976 and the referendum f o r s o v e r e i g n t y a s s o c i a t i o n i n 1980. Residents of Quebec were co n f r o n t e d with the c h o i c e of remaining Canadian, and determining Just what t h a t means, or becoming independent. Other Canadians w r e s t l e d with the l o g i c of the b i c u l t u r a l -b i l i n g u a l aspect of Canadian s o c i e t y and examined the p o s s i b l e r e p e r c u s s i o n s of one p r o v i n c e s e p a r a t i n g from the Page 65 r e s t . The r i s e of s e p a r a t i s t f o r c e s i n the western p r o v i n c e s d u r i n g the 1970s had s i m i l i a r r e s u l t s . Some Canadians i n t h a t p a r t of the country proposed a type of union with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Westerners were faced with the q u e s t i o n s of what would happen i f they "gave up" being Canadians. Although the s e p a r a t i s t movement i n Western Canada was not as s t r o n g as t h a t i n Quebec, western s e p a r a t i s t groups garnered enough a t t e n t i o n to cause some Canadians to q u e s t i o n the d e f i n i t i o n and value of Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . In the 1980s, r e p a t r i a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n (1981) and the Meech Lake Accord (1987) have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the debate on Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . Such documents w i l l f i g u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the d e f i n i t i o n of Canada and l i f e i n the n a t i o n . They w i l l , by nature, be p a r t of the o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of "Canada" and "being Canadian." Both the C o n s t i t u t i o n and the Meech Lake Accord have been c r i t i c i z e d and defended on the b a s i s of how w e l l e i t h e r document d e f i n e s and p r o t e c t s the Canadian way of l i f e - Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . As these events (separatism, r e p a t r i a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , s i g n i n g of the Meech Lake Accord) un f o l d e d and r e c e i v e d i n -depth n a t i o n a l coverage from the media, Canadians came f a c e -t o - f a c e with the concept of n a t i o n a l i s m and i t s r o l e i n the f u t u r e of the country. The events of r e c e n t Canadian h i s t o r y have Page 66 culminated, i n the l a s t h a l f of the 1980s, i n the debate over f r e e t r a d e . The proposed f r e e trade agreement with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f a r more than a p u r e l y economic agreement, i s the source of much c o n t r o v e r s y about Canadian i d e n t i t y and the Canadian way of l i f e . D e c i s i o n s concerning what i s to be i n c l u d e d i n the agreement and what i s to be p r o t e c t e d have been viewed as both p r o g r e s s i v e and d e t r i m e n t a l measures f o r e n s u r i n g the s t a b i l i t y of the n a t i o n . Supporters of the agreement see i t as a v i t a l step f o r the continued growth of Canada; d e t r a c t o r s c l a i m the agreement w i l l b r i n g Canada i n t o a p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , thus t h r e a t e n i n g the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and s o v e r e i g n t y of Canada. The f r e e t r a d e i s s u e may prove to be the impetus f o r the most in-dept h debate on Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m i n h i s t o r y . As the pros and cons of the agreement are argued, Canadians w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n the process of d e c i d i n g what i s important to l i f e i n Canada and what needs s p e c i a l treatment i n the agreement. Determining what does and what does not go i n t o the agreement may prove to be an e x e r c i s e i n d e c i d i n g what h i s t o r i c a l a spects of Canada should be maintained and what new elements w i l l serve to d e f i n e the Canada of the f u t u r e . Is the t r a d i t i o n a l d u a l i t y of language and m u l t i p l i c i t y of c u l t u r e i n Canada worth p r e s e r v i n g ? Is i t wise to maintain the t r a d i t i o n of u s i n g the f e d e r a l government "to compensate f o r Page 67 our d i s a b i l i t i e s of geography, sparse p o p u l a t i o n and v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s " ? 2 Whether or not the proposed agreement i s ever put i n t o e f f e c t , the debate over f r e e trade w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Canadians to c l e a r l y d e f i n e the v i t a l components of Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r Canadians to remain u n a f f e c t e d by the r e c e n t a t t e n t i o n given to n a t i o n a l i s m . Events of the past two decades have r e c e i v e d n a t i o n a l media coverage. The f r e e t r a d e i s s u e i s d i s c u s s e d i n n a t i o n a l magazines, on n a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n , and i n newspapers a c r o s s the country. Whether or not they are aware of i t , most Canadians are t h i n k i n g about n a t i o n a l i s m : e x t e n s i v e media coverage helps to ensure t h i s . I f most Canadians are t h i n k i n g about n a t i o n a l i s m , they should r e p r e s e n t a w i l l i n g audience f o r the kinds of programs proposed here. These programs w i l l be about Canadians and the way Canadians l e a d t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s type of programming w i l l d e a l with the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canada and i t s peoples - the t e n e t s of n a t i o n a l i s m . I f viewers have a l r e a d y s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g about n a t i o n a l i s m , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t they w i l l be r e c e p t i v e to entertainment programs t h a t d e a l , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , with the same t o p i c . Indigenous entertainment programs may help i n d e l i n e a t i n g j u s t what n a t i o n a l i s m means to Canadians. Page 68 T e l e v i s i o n provides a national stage on which t h i s examination of nationalism can occur, and both information and entertainment programming can make valuable contributions to t h i s examination. I t i s possible that entertainment programs w i l l help Canadians determine Just what nationalism means by portraying the multitude of elements that constitute the Canadian way of l i f e . The time to create such programming i s now. The present s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l atmosphere i n Canada i s conducive to acceptance of these programs, and the programs themselves can make a contribution to the on-going probing into Canadian nationalism. Technological Advance The t h i r d reason the proposed changes to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must be implemented immediately i s the advance of communications technology. As the transmission and reception of t e l e v i s i o n signals becomes more widespread with sophisticated technology, i t w i l l become increasingly more d i f f i c u l t for Canadian regulatory agencies and governments to regulate the content of t e l e v i s i o n programming. The introduction of cable t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada has already made the percentage of available foreign programs greater than that of available Canadian programs, e s p e c i a l l y i n the prime-Page 69 time hours. In an average broadcast week, seventy-four percent of programming a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g prime-time i s f o r e i g n , w h ile o n l y twenty-six percent i s Canadian. 3 As other new, more s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods of t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n are i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Canada, the amount of a v a i l a b l e f o r e i g n programming may i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Before a l l t e l e v i s i o n screens i n Canada are f l o o d e d with f o r e i g n programming, i t i s v i t a l t h a t Canadian entertainment programs be c r e a t e d and have time to e s t a b l i s h an audience. Cable t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada was the f i r s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance to a f f e c t ( n e g a t i v e l y ) the amount of a v a i l a b l e indigenous programming. Canada i s one of the most h e a v i l y c a b l e d c o u n t r i e s i n the world: P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more Canadians than r e s i d e n t s of any other country i n the world s u b s c r i b e to pay t e l e v i s i o n , which u n t i l r e c e n t l y has p r o v i d e d access p r i m a r i l y to ABC, CBS, NBC, and, i n many l o c a t i o n s , PBS from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . * By 1984, over e i g h t y percent of Canadian households had c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n . 5 For a monthly charge, c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n allows viewers to r e c e i v e a number of t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g American s t a t i o n s . As the number of a v a i l a b l e s t a t i o n s i n c r e a s e s , so does the amount of American programming. The s t a t i o n s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f e r , understandably, Page 70 predominantly American f a r e . The number of Canadian p r i v a t e , independent s t a t i o n s a l s o i n c r e a s e s with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of ca b l e , but t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e the amount of a v a i l a b l e Canadian programming, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g prime-time. Independent Canadian s t a t i o n s account f o r only 5.72 percent of a l l Canadian programming a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the prime-time hours. s Cable t e l e v i s i o n o f f e r s more ch o i c e to Canadian viewers, but the c h o i c e i s between d i f f e r e n t American programs, not between Canadian and American programming. Cable t e l e v i s i o n has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to a d e c l i n e i n viewing of Canadian programs. In f a c t , as noted i n a study paper prepared f o r the 1986 Task Force on B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y (Caplan-Sauvageau), the process "of i n c r e a s i n g the TV o p t i o n s i n a r e g i o n , w i l l have the e f f e c t of reducing the amount of Canadian programs viewed." 7 Economist Robert Babe c o n s t r u c t e d an econometric model to estimate the e f f e c t of c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n on audience s i z e f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . He p r e d i c t s : ...the second American channel p l a c e d on c a b l e would cause a d e c l i n e , on average, of 11 to 15 per cent i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n audience share; the t h i r d would cause a f u r t h e r d e c l i n e of 8 to 12 per cent; the f o u r t h of 4 to 7 per cent, and so on. One the other hand, however, the a d d i t i o n of Canadian s t a t i o n has an i n s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the viewing Page 71 shares a t t a i n e d by a l l Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s i n a given market each a d d i t i o n a l Canadian s t a t i o n would only decrease the share of audience to U.S. s t a t i o n s by 3 or 4 per cent. a Babe's model i s r e l a t i v e l y a c c u r a t e : i n 1984, the four American networks c a r r i e d on Canadian c a b l e systems caused a 19.1 percent d e c l i n e i n the audience share of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . ° Cable t e l e v i s i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d to a d e c l i n e i n both the amount of a v a i l a b l e indigenous programming and the percentage of time spent viewing Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . Cable t e l e v i s i o n i s not the only t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance t h a t poses a t h r e a t to the indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system i n Canada. T r a n s m i s s i o n / d i s t r i b u t i o n d e v i c e s such as s a t e l l i t e s , f i b r e o p t i c s , microwaves, and mi c r o p r o c e s s o r s , c o n t i n u a l l y improved and up-dated, are employed i n c r e a s i n g l y more i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n even g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y of f o r e i g n programming. "The i n t r o d u c t i o n of new d e l i v e r y t e c h n o l o g i e s and s e r v i c e s . . . fragments a u d i e n c e s , " 1 0 producing much the same r e s u l t s as c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n . Reception technology has a l s o i n c r e a s e d the number of channels and amount of programming a v a i l a b l e : c o n v e r t o r s , adapters, and s a t e l l i t e t r a n s m i s s i o n p r o v i d e Canadian viewers with a wider c h o i c e of s t a t i o n s and Page 72 programs, predominantly non-Canadian. As these t e c h n o l o g i e s are p e r f e c t e d and become ec o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e f o r more Canadians, i t i s not unreasonable to b e l i e v e t h a t Canadian viewers w i l l take advantage of these s e r v i c e s . I f t h i s occurs, i t occurs a t the expense of Canadian programs and Canadian s t a t i o n s and t h r e a t e n s the continued e x i s t e n c e of both. Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n can only l e s s e n , but not e l i m i n a t e , the p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t posed by progress i n communications technology. Although the Canadian Radio-t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) can, and does, demand a s p e c i f i e d amount of indigenous programming from Canadian s t a t i o n s and networks, t h i s same agency cannot r e g u l a t e the content of f o r e i g n b r o a d c a s t i n g systems: to do so i s a v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. The CRTC does have a l i m i t e d mandate to s a n c t i o n or r e s t r i c t r e c e p t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s used i n Canada, but the Commission has set no precedents f o r d i s a l l o w i n g any r e c e p t i o n d e v i c e s i n Canada. Cable systems came to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n supported by the argument t h a t , s i n c e c e n t r e s c l o s e to the Canada-United S t a t e s border c o u l d r e c e i v e American s t a t i o n s without the a i d of c a b l e , Canadians f a r t h e r from the border must be assured "equal access" to American s t a t i o n s . 1 1 The 1968 B r o a d c a s t i n g Act t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d the CRTC a l s o makes Page 73 r e f e r e n c e to the d e s i r e to make a v a i l a b l e a wide choice of programming f o r a l l Canadians. T h i s argument of e q u i t y i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l q u i t e l i k e l y be used to support the i n c e p t i o n of new r e c e p t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s i n Canada, making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the CRTC to r e s t r i c t and r e g u l a t e such d e v i c e s . In the wake of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n may prove to be an i n e f f e c t i v e method f o r p r o t e c t i n g the Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system from i n u n d a t i o n with f o r e i g n programming. I f the programs proposed here are o f f e r e d to Canadians now, the programs w i l l have time to e s t a b l i s h audiences and to prove t h e i r worth to Canadian viewers. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of such programs c o u l d p r o v i d e a defense a g a i n s t the onslaught of f o r e i g n programming on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . As the 1986 Task Force on B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y s t a t e s : "The a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t i v e f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y i n the face of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a l l e n g e from American t e l e v i s i o n i s to o f f e r a l l Canadians c o m p e l l i n g home-made a l t e r n a t i v e s so t h a t they w i l l choose to r e s i s t the f o r e i g n s e d u c t i o n . " 1 2 Any de l a y i n c r e a t i n g these indigenous entertainment programs w i l l prove c o s t l y to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . As former CRTC chairman John M e i s e l s a i d i n a 1981 speech t i t l e d " F i v e Steps to S u r v i v a l , " In the past, the e l e c t r o n i c media, and t e l e v i s i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , have contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the loss of regional and national i d e n t i t i e s ; they have been among the p r i n c i p a l agents of decentralization and the Americanization of our climate... The currently available and newly emerging s a t e l l i t e , microprocessor, and f i b r e - o p t i c technologies provide threatening avenues for the complete a n i h i l a t i o n of what remains a d i s t i n c t Canadian culture, of i t s regional and other unique components, and, i n the f i n a l analysis, of an independent Canadian state. 1 3 Page 75 CHAPTER IV ATTITUDE: THE KEY TO THE FUTURE The f i r s t , and the most v i t a l , step i n making the necessary changes to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n i s a l t e r i n g the a t t i t u d e s of the major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g : the f e d e r a l government, the b r o a d c a s t e r s ( e s p e c i a l l y p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s ) , the c r e a t o r s of t e l e v i s i o n programming, and the viewers. Without a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the a t t i t u d e s of these groups, any e f f o r t s to make indigenous t e l e v i s i o n more Canadian i n nature w i l l be mere hollow g e s t u r e s t h a t r i n g with i n s i n c e r i t y . T h i s chapter w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s , each o u t l i n i n g the present a t t i t u d e of one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and suggesting what a t t i t u d i n a l changes would be necessary f o r the development of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . Government Since the e a r l y 1930s, the Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y has been r e g u l a t e d by an agency c r e a t e d by and r e s p o n s i b l e to the f e d e r a l government, as b r o a d c a s t i n g and i t s r e g u l a t i o n f a l l s under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . In 1932, then Prime M i n i s t e r R.B. Bennett l a i d b efore Parliament t h r e e Page 76 p r i n c i p l e s t h a t have formed the b a s i s of f e d e r a l government involvement i n b r o a d c a s t i n g ( o r i g i n a l l y i n r a d i o and, l a t e r , i n t e l e v i s i o n ) : F i r s t of a l l , t h i s country must be assured of complete c o n t r o l of b r o a d c a s t i n g from Canadian sources, f r e e from f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e s or i n f l u e n c e . Without such c o n t r o l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g can never become a g r e a t agency f o r communication of matters of n a t i o n a l concern and f o r the d i f f u s i o n of n a t i o n a l thoughts and i d e a l s , and without such c o n t r o l i t can never be the agency by which n a t i o n a l consciousness may be f o s t e r e d and s u s t a i n e d and n a t i o n a l u n i t y s t i l l f u r t h e r strengthened... Secondly, no other scheme than t h a t of p u b l i c ownership can ensure to the people of t h i s country, without regard to c l a s s or p l a c e , equal enjoyment of the b e n e f i t s and p l e a s u r e s of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g . . . [ T h i r d l y ] The use of the a i r . . . t h a t l i e s over the s o i l or l a n d of Canada i s a n a t u r a l r esource over which we [ f e d e r a l government] have complete j u r i s d i c t i o n . . . I cannot t h i n k t h a t any government would be warranted i n l e a v i n g the a i r to p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n and not r e s e r v i n g i t f o r development f o r the use of the p e o p l e . 1 These p r i n c i p l e s have become fundamental components of the Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system. Considered to be a n a t u r a l resource, the airwaves became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l government i n order to make sure t h a t the resource was managed i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Page 77 To t h i s end, numerous f e d e r a l governments have taken steps to ensure the development of a b r o a d c a s t i n g system c o n s i s t e n t with the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by Bennett. The Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission was c r e a t e d i n 1932, and become the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CBC) i n 1936, a p u b l i c l y owned and operated b r o a d c a s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . In 1958, the f i r s t r e g u l a t o r y agency to operate independent of the CBC, the Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG), was c r e a t e d under the assumption t h a t the f e d e r a l government had J u r i s d i c t i o n over b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n : The grant of a new b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n c e i s the temporary and c o n d i t i o n a l a l i e n a t i o n of an important and v a l u a b l e p u b l i c a s s e t which, by i t s very nature cannot be shared by o t h e r s . Such a grant i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l a c t . 2 With the 1968 B r o a d c a s t i n g a c t , the BBG became the Canadian R a d i o - T e l e v i s i o n Commission (CRTC) which, i n t u r n , became the Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) i n 1976. Various f e d e r a l governments have c r e a t e d bodies of i n q u i r y t h a t examined b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada and made recommendations f o r f u t u r e development: the 1928 Royal Commission on Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g ( A i r d ) ; the 1951 Royal Page 78 Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and Sciences (Massey); the 1957 Royal Commission on B r o a d c a s t i n g (Fowler Commission); the 1965 Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g (Fowler Committee); the 1981 F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee (Applebaum-Hebert); and the 1986 Task; Force on B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y (Caplan-Sauvageau). Most f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n concerning b r o a d c a s t i n g r e f e r s to the n e c e s s i t y of guarding a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n t r u s i o n i n t o Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a system t h a t w i l l , i n the words of the 1970 B r o a d c a s t i n g Act, "safeguard, e n r i c h and strengthen the c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic f a b r i c of Canada." 3 A l l these a c t i o n s seem to i n d i c a t e the s e r i o u s n e s s with which s u c c e s s i v e governments have taken t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a t r u l y Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system. Yet t h e r e have been other a c t i o n s by the f e d e r a l government, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h a t have hindered the development of j u s t such a system. Many of the recommendations of the numerous bodies of i n q u i r y have been ignored or deemed unacceptable. * The CRTC has been given broad s u p e r v i s o r y powers over the e n t i r e b r o a d c a s t i n g system, but these powers are undermined by an appeal process t h a t makes Cabinet, not the CRTC, the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y . Much a t t e n t i o n has been given to the need f o r p u b l i c ownership and Page 79 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , but private stations and networks have been awarded broadcast licences while being allowed less Canadian programming than the CBC. B The private sector of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n has a questionable record i n meeting i t s Canadian content requirements, 6 yet licences are s t i l l renewed on a regular basis. Foreign cable t e l e v i s i o n , bringing with i t an increase i n foreign programming and a proportionate decrease i n viewing of Canadian programming, has been allowed entry into Canada. The CBC, the cornerstone of Canadian broadcasting, has faced severe budget reductions under the current federal government, making i t d i f f i c u l t for the CBC to continue f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate for providing a variety of indigenous programming. As a crown corporation, the CBC i s subject to changes i n federal government, and the Corporation may have f a l l e n out of p o l i t i c a l favour with the present government. As Frank Peers suggests, As for the CBC, there i s no doubt that i t has l o s t support where i t counts p o l i t i c a l l y , and the thrust of recent decisions by the CRTC has been to augment the private sector of the industry rather than to authorize additional CBC s e r v i c e s . 7 There i s much attention paid, by the public and by Page 8 0 the f e d e r a l government, to the d e a r t h of indigenous programs on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , but the f e d e r a l government has y e t to c r e a t e a framework w i t h i n which these programs c o u l d be c r e a t e d . There seems to be a c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature to the involvement of the f e d e r a l government i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g : the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and u l t i m a t e aims of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g have been kept from f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n by some of the a c t i o n s of the f e d e r a l government and i t s agencies. The a t t i t u d e of any f e d e r a l government i n Canada and the i n d i v i d u a l s who make up t h a t government must be a l t e r e d . Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g needs a government t h a t i s w i l l i n g to make a t r u e and s u s t a i n e d commitment to the development and continuance of a Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system, and to support the commitment with a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l enhance, not handicap, the c r e a t i o n of such a system. B r o a d c a s t i n g i s an important i s s u e f o r Canada, and the governing body of t h i s n a t i o n must re c o g n i z e t h i s importance. The f e d e r a l government needs to o f f e r more than j u s t l i p s e r v i c e to b r o a d c a s t i n g when i t i s p o l i t i c a l l y expedient to do so, something which has happened i n the p a s t . The government must be w i l l i n g to take a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l ensure a v i a b l e Canadian presence i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . The government must be committed to Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g , and i t must be prepared to support t h a t commitment with Page 81 a c t i o n s , some of which w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the next chapter, t h a t w i l l make b r o a d c a s t i n g more Canadian i n nature. Without a change i n a t t i t u d e from t h i s body, the p o t e n t i a l success of any e f f o r t to make b r o a d c a s t i n g t r u l y Canadian w i l l be s e v e r e l y hampered. Broa d c a s t e r s The second major p a r t i c i p a n t i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g t h a t must undergo an a l t e r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e i s the b r o a d c a s t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . Possessors of the necessary broadcast l i c e n c e , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must change i t s a t t i t u d e toward t h a t l i c e n c e : they must r e a l i z e t h a t a b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n c e i s a p r i v i l e g e , not a r i g h t , and r e c o g n i z e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t accompany p o s s e s s i o n of a l i c e n c e . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r must r e a l i z e i t s o b l i g a t i o n to enhancing the development of a t r u l y Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , meeting t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has not always been a p r i o r i t y f o r p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . P r o f i t seems to be t h e i r major m o t i v a t i o n . H e r s c h e l Hardin o u t l i n e s the s t a t u s quo f o r p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s i n Canada: "For as time has passed, i t has become p a i n f u l l y c l e a r t h a t while the p r o f i t s are endless the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the broadcaster are v i r t u a l l y n i l . . . " B Page 82 F e d e r a l governments have always s t r e s s e d the importance of the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . In 1932, R.B. Bennett o u t l i n e d the v i t a l r o l e f o r government (the p u b l i c s e c t o r ) i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i n the t h i r d of h i s p r i n c i p l e s f o r Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g : The use of the a i r . . . t h a t l i e s over the s o i l or l a n d of Canada i s a n a t u r a l resource over which we [ f e d e r a l government] have complete j u r i s d i c t i o n . . . I cannot t h i n k t h a t any government would be warranted i n l e a v i n g the a i r to p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n and not r e s e r v i n g i t f o r development f o r the use of the people. ° The Canadian airwaves are a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , and p e r m i s s i o n to use these airwaves i s a p r i v i l e g e , not a r i g h t : those who h o l d b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n c e s have a duty to use t h i s n a t u r a l resource i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the n a t i o n and i t s c i t i z e n s . T h i s b e l i e f has always been a fundamental tenet of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g , and the p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g agency was c r e a t e d i n an e f f o r t to ensure proper use of the airwaves. When t e l e v i s i o n f i r s t appeared i n Canada i n the e a r l y 1950s, i t was c l e a r t h a t the CBC was the most important p a r t i c i p a n t i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . I t was a p o l i c y of government t h a t any n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g s e r v i c e was to be p r o v i d e d by the crown c o r p o r a t i o n , and t h a t use of r a d i o and TV channels by p r i v a t e Page 83 br o a d c a s t e r s was, at best, a p r i v i l e g e . P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s were on the a i r on s u f f e r a n c e , as a supplement to the n a t i o n a l system. I f they happened to make some p r o f i t from the system i t was okay; but they had no i n h e r e n t r i g h t to use the l i m i t e d broadcast f r e q u e n c i e s . 1 0 By 1952, i t was obvious to the p a r t i c i p a n t s of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g t h a t , o f f i c i a l l y , p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s were l i c e n c e d i n order to enhance the n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g system and to complement the CBC i n p r o v i d i n g Canadians with an indigenous system. I t was e q u a l l y obvious t h a t the f e d e r a l government viewed the g r a n t i n g of a broadcast l i c e n c e as a favour to the l i c e n s e e t h a t c a r r i e d with i t c e r t a i n commitments to Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g and to Canadian viewers. At l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , these two idea s have governed involvement of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . For the p r i v i l e g e of u s i n g a p u b l i c resource, p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s are r e q u i r e d to make some type of payment. In other c o u n t r i e s , such as the Un i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s payment has taken the form of s u b s t a n t i a l l i c e n c e f e e s . 1 1 In Canada, however, a d i f f e r e n t system i s employed: l i c e n c e fees to u t i l i z e the sca r c e r a d i o f r e q u e n c i e s are q u i t e s m a l l . Rather, a r e g u l a t o r y board (the CRTC) has been c r e a t e d to seek out the most q u a l i f i e d Page 84 persons or groups to u t i l i z e the p u b l i c l y -owned f r e q u e n c i e s , to induce p r o s p e c t i v e l i c e n s e e s to undertake c e r t a i n s o c i a l commitments i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the f r e q u e n c i e s , and to r e q u i r e , by r e g u l a t i o n , c e r t a i n conduct t h a t d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from p r o f i t - m a x i m i z i n g behaviour. In other words, the payments to s o c i e t y f o r p e r m i s s i o n to use s o c i e t y ' s airwaves are to be made through s e r v i c e s rendered, as opposed to d i r e c t monetary payments. L i c e n s e e s t h a t f a i l to meet the minimum performance standards set out i n t h e i r promises to the r e g u l a t o r y board and i n b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s may be d i s c i p l i n e d i n the l i c e n c e renewal p r o c e s s . 1 3 The " s o c i a l commitments" and "conduct" t h a t have been r e q u i r e d of p r i v a t e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t e r s have taken the form of Canadian content r e g u l a t i o n s . In r e t u r n f o r u s i n g the publicly-owned airwaves, p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s are r e q u i r e d to o f f e r a s p e c i f i c amount of indigenous programming. The percentage of t o t a l programming t h a t must be Canadian i s determined by the r e g u l a t o r y agency (the BBG and i t s successor, the CRTC). I d e a l l y , the c r e a t i o n of Canadian programs, or e f f o r t s to o b t a i n Canadian programming to meet Canadian content r e g u l a t i o n s , should be a p r i o r i t y f o r p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s has not always been the case. P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s have done l i t t l e to enhance the presence of Canadian programming on t e l e v i s i o n . A l l p r i v a t e Page 85 s t a t i o n s and networks combined account f o r onl y f o r t y - s i x percent of a v a i l a b l e Canadian programming i n an average broadcast week, and only t h i r t y - f i v e percent d u r i n g the prime-time hours. 1 3 American programming r e c e i v e s more a t t e n t i o n from p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s than does Canadian programming. G e n e r a l l y , American programs garner l a r g e audiences, and a d v e r t i s e r s are w i l l i n g to pay s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of money f o r commercial time d u r i n g these programs. The g r e a t e r the a d v e r t i s i n g revenue, the g r e a t e r the p r o f i t f o r p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . The p r o f i t motive has become top p r i o r i t y f o r many p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s , and Canadian programming has s u f f e r e d because of t h i s . A l l bodies of i n q u i r y t h a t have r e p o r t e d s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of p r i v a t e t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada have c r i t i c i z e d the p u b l i c s e c t o r f o r i t s poor performance i n Canadian programming. Numerous books on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n lament the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s l a c k of a b i l i t y or d e s i r e to c r e a t e Canadian programming. Records of CRTC L i c e n c e Renewal Hearings are f u l l of r e f e r e n c e s to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s apparent w i l l i n g n e s s to put p r o f i t motives ahead of indigenous programming. Yet the r e c o r d of p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s remains r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . Canadian programming, the payment f o r u s i n g p u b l i c airwaves, seems to have been f o r g o t t e n i n the d r i v e to maximize p r o f i t s . The f i r s t Canadian p r i v a t e t e l e v i s i o n network came Page 8 6 i n t o b e i n g w i t h t h e l i c e n s i n g of CTV i n 1961 1 A Only f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , t h e F o w l e r Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g spoke d i s p a r a g i n g l y of t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s r e c o r d of broken promises made t o t h e r e g u l a t o r y agency: A promise made by a b r o a d c a s t e r t o o b t a i n a l i c e n c e t o o p e r a t e a r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s h o u l d be an e n f o r c e a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g , and not a t h e o r e t i c a l e x e r c i s e i n i m a g i n a t i o n or a c o m p e t i t i v e b i d i n an a u c t i o n of u n r e a l i s t i c e n t h u s i a s m . Promises made s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t , or some good e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n as t o why th e y cannot be c a r r i e d o u t . When performance i s f l a g r a n t l y below t h e l e v e l of t h e promises made, i t s h o u l d not be n e c e s s a r y t o w a i t u n t i l t h e e x p i r y of t h e l i c e n c e t o remedy t h e d e f a u l t . . . 1 5 D e s p i t e t h e a m b i t i o u s p l a n s of p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s o f f e r e d a t l i c e n c e renewal h e a r i n g s , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r does not always keep i t s p r o m i s e ( s ) t o a i r a v a r i e t y of Canadian programming. Promises a r e o f t e n made when l i c e n c e s a r e up f o r renewal and se e m i n g l y f o r g o t t e n s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . At th e most r e c e n t CRTC h e a r i n g f o r t h e renewal of CTV's l i c e n c e i n 1986, Commission Chairman Andre Bureau v o i c e d h i s f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h t h e network's l a c k of commitment t o Canadian programming. 1 6 CTV i s not t h e o n l y o f f e n d e r i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The G l o b a l T e l e v i s i o n Network and numerous independent s t a t i o n s have a l s o f a i l e d t o Page 87 l i v e up to t h e i r commitment to Canadian programming. T h i s f a i l u r e has l e d some Canadians to th i n k t h a t a new method of payment f o r the use of p u b l i c airwaves i s necessary. One such method has been proposed by the F r i e n d s of P u b l i c B r o a d c a s t i n g , who suggest t h a t " p r i v a t e TV s t a t i o n s and broadcast companies pay a h e f t y f ee to use the airwaves. The fee would be reduced depending on how much Canadian programming i s done." 1 7 I t i s c l e a r t h a t the view of a p r i v a t e broadcast l i c e n c e as a p r i v i l e g e t h a t must be p a i d f o r through s e r v i c e s rendered i s not as dominant i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as i t should be. I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t some p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r promises a t l i c e n c e renewal time, are u n w i l l i n g to devote more a t t e n t i o n to Canadian programming than i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary. I f Canadian programming i s to be a v i t a l f o r c e i n the indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system, the p r i v a t e s e c t o r must change i t s a t t i t u d e towards i t s r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r must f u l f i l l the purpose f o r which i t was c r e a t e d : i t must a c t as a complement to the CBC i n c r e a t i n g a t r u l y Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system, r a t h e r than competing with the CBC f o r audiences and a d v e r t i s i n g revenue. P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s have an o b l i g a t i o n to Canadian viewers to o f f e r indigenous t e l e v i s i o n f a r e as payment f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n c e s , and i f t h i s payment i s not r e c e i v e d , the Canadian Page 88 p u b l i c i s cheated of i t s r i g h t f u l remuneration. P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t meeting the commitment to Canadian viewers has to take precedent over the making of p r o f i t . Only then w i l l p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s be w i l l i n g to devote more time and resources to Canadian programming. C r e a t o r s The c r e a t i v e personnel t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n programs i s another group t h a t needs to undergo a change i n a t t i t u d e . However, of the fo u r major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system, t h i s group needs the l e a s t amount of a t t i t u d i n a l change. More than any of the others, t h i s group has demonstrated a w i l l i n g n e s s to take a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l make the indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system more Canadian i n nature. The necessary change f o r t h i s group i s the removal of the a t t i t u d e t h a t Canadian elements of domestic programs should be hidden as much as p o s s i b l e . Canadian producers and c r e a t i v e personnel have shown both d e s i r e and a b i l i t y to c r e a t e Canadian programming, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of entertainment. The CBC o f f e r s an example. During the 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 t e l e v i s i o n seasons, the CBC has devoted the m a j o r i t y of i t s Sunday Page 89 evening prime-time hours to the broadcast of Canadian entertainment programs. 1 8 These programs, and programs seen at other times on the CBC, demonstrate t h a t there are Canadians who possess the t a l e n t and the w i l l i n g n e s s to produce entertainment programming. The c r e a t i o n of T e l e f i l m Canada i n 1984 was designed to help Canadian producers fund domestic programming. Since then, the CBC alone has generated $200 m i l l i o n worth of indigenous t e l e v i s i o n movies, f e a t u r e f i l m s , and m i n i - s e r i e s . 1 S There i s no l a c k of a v a i l a b l e t a l e n t i n Canada, and i t appears t h a t there i s no la c k of w i l l i n g n e s s to use t h a t t a l e n t i n c r e a t i n g Canadian entertainment programs. However, t h e r e i s s t i l l a c o n t e n t i o n , h e l d by some c r e a t o r s of Canadian programming, t h a t must be changed. Some producers h o l d the view t h a t , to be s u c c e s s f u l , Canadian programs must be d i s g u i s e d so t h a t viewers w i l l not know they are watching Canadian programs. Anything t h a t might a l e r t viewers to a Canadian o r i g i n i s avoided. Programs are set i n f i c t i o n a l l o c a l e s r a t h e r than i n Canadian s e t t i n g s . Canadian s t r e e t s i g n s and e a s i l y - r e c o g n i z e d Canadian landmarks are d i s g u i s e d . C h a r a c t e r s make no r e f e r e n c e s to t h i n g s Canadian. Even Night Heat, the recent Gemini Award winner f o r best Canadian dramatic s e r i e s , has been faced with charges of h i d i n g i t s "Canadianess," a f a c t t h a t the producers made Page 9 0 r e f e r e n c e to i n t h e i r acceptance speech. a o A l l t h i s must change. C r e a t o r s of Canadian programming must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e i s no need to hide the Canadian o r i g i n of programs. C r e a t o r s must come to b e l i e v e t h a t programs can s t i l l be s u c c e s s f u l without being as "un-Canadian" as p o s s i b l e . Viewers Perhaps the most important a t t i t u d i n a l change t h a t i s necessary f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n to develop i s a change i n the a t t i t u d e of Canadian viewers. Viewers i n Canada must become r e c e p t i v e to indigenous programming: they must be w i l l i n g to watch Canadian programs without any preconceived n o t i o n s about the q u a l i t y of these programs. For Canadian programs to succeed on t e l e v i s i o n , viewers must be w i l l i n g to judge the programs on t h e i r own m e r i t s , not i n comparison with f o r e i g n programming. The idea t h a t Canadian t e l e v i s i o n i s synonymous with m e d i o c r i t y must be e l i m i n a t e d . A change i n the a t t i t u d e of viewers towards indigenous programming i s v i t a l and may w e l l serve as an impetus f o r a t t i t u d i n a l changes i n the other major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . D e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of some f e d e r a l governments, Page 91 r e g u l a t o r y agencies, b r o a d c a s t e r s , and producers i n Canada, Canadian viewers have expressed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r f o r e i g n t e l e v i s i o n programming. T h i s p r e f e r e n c e can be seen i n the amount of time spent watching f o r e i g n and domestic programming: Canadians spend approximately t w o - t h i r d s of t h e i r weekly t e l e v i s i o n viewing time with non-Canadian programming. 3 1 In entertainment programming, Canadians have expressed an overwhelming p r e f e r e n c e f o r f o r e i g n programming: 91.3 percent of the time spent watching entertainment programming i s devoted to viewing f o r e i g n programs. 2 2 As Glen Robinson suggests, "the f a c t remains t h a t Canadian viewers, i n impudent d i s r e g a r d of t h e i r government's wishes, seem to p r e f e r f o r e i g n programs, a t l e a s t as f a r as entertainment i s concerned." 2 3 The dominance of American t e l e v i s i o n programming i n Canada has a f f e c t e d the manner i n which the q u a l i t y and the success of a program i s measured. Because American programs are so p r e v a l e n t , they have become the norm i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n : they have s e t the parameters w i t h i n which a program can be judged. Programs are deemed " s u c c e s s f u l " or "good" on the b a s i s of how c l o s e they resemble American programs. As Frank Peers remarks, "the unique f e a t u r e s of the Canadian system [have not] a l t o g e t h e r prevented the U.S. p a t t e r n from being accepted i n the p u b l i c mind as the Page 92 standard by which success i s measured." 2 A Canadian programming has s u f f e r e d because of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Domestic programs o f t e n present a Canadian l o c a l e , a Canadian p r o t a g o n i s t , or a Canadian view of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . By nature, these programs w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from American programs. Because American programs are used as the standard by which success and q u a l i t y i s measured, the domestic programs are l i k e l y to be Judged i n f e r i o r or mediocre. Indigenous programming t h a t s t r e s s e s i t s Canadian c h a r a c t e r w i l l q u i t e o f t e n be deemed mediocre s t r i c t l y because i t d i f f e r s from the norm - American programming. Because domestic programs are p e r c e i v e d to be of low q u a l i t y , Canadians do not watch them. The p r a c t i c e of equating Canadian programming with m e d i o c r i t y i s a r e s u l t of Canadian viewing h a b i t s . Because American entertainment programs are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s on both American and Canadian s t a t i o n s , viewers are i n the h a b i t of watching these programs. American programs become the normal d a i l y f a r e , and Canadian entertainment programs r e p r e s e n t a break with the norm: Canadian programs do not f i t i n w i t h the viewing h a b i t s of most Canadians. Thus i t i s u n l i k e l y , and perhaps even i m p o s s i b l e , f o r Canadian viewers to a r r i v e at the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t American programming i s s u p e r i o r to Canadian a f t e r a Page 93 prolonged, in-depth comparison between the two. There i s simply i n s u f f i c i e n t domestic entertainment programming with which to carry out such a comparison. If t h i s viewing habit i s changed, the negative attitude with which some viewers approach Canadian programs w i l l also change. This attitude change i s most important for Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . Viewer education i s one method for changing viewing habits and viewer attitude. Viewers who possess a knowledge of how t e l e v i s i o n operates and how the medium aff e c t s audiences may be more aware of which programs they watch and why. These viewers may be w i l l i n g to watch and Judge a program on i t s own merits rather than using an established measuring system. Children would be the most productive target of such education. It may be too l a t e for adult viewers. Canadians who have grown up watching American t e l e v i s i o n have developed viewing habits and formed opinions that may be extremely d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to a l t e r . Viewer education would be most e f f e c t i v e for children who do not, as yet, have such deeply ingrained habits or opinions. Since the medium of t e l e v i s i o n i s a "major force i n the acculturation of children," 2 5 and, as Tannis MacBeth Williams suggests, "tele v i s i o n ' s content has the greatest potential to influence people who have not yet developed a broader framework for integrating and interpreting the kind Page 94 of i n f o r m a t i o n presented," 2 < s c h i l d r e n would be the most a p p r o p r i a t e focus f o r a c h i e v i n g the aims of viewer e d u c a t i o n . Regardless of the form assumed by viewer education, the goal remains the same: to teach c h i l d r e n how t e l e v i s i o n a f f e c t s them. In The Impact of T e l e v i s i o n . Tannis MacBeth W i l l i a m s o u t l i n e s two forms of viewer e d u c a t i o n : t e l e v i s i o n l i t e r a c y and c r i t i c a l viewing s k i l l s . T e l e v i s i o n l i t e r a c y i n v o l v e s understanding t e l e v i s i o n programming, i n c l u d i n g how i t i s produced and broadcast, f a m i l i a r i t y w ith the formats used, a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e o v e r t and c o v e r t themes of programs and commercial messages, and a p p r e c i a t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n as an a r t form...Most c r i t i c a l viewing s k i l l s c u r r i c u l a cover these t o p i c s , and i n a d d i t i o n , attempt to teach c h i l d r e n to be c r i t i c a l of some of the m a t e r i a l presented on t e l e v i s i o n . a < 7 In J o l t s : The T e l e v i s i o n Wasteland and the Canadian O a s i s . M o r r i s Wolfe proposes t h a t t e l e v i s i o n viewing become a classroom s u b j e c t . "We've i n t r o d u c e d sex education; more r e c e n t l y we've i n t r o d u c e d the computer. S u r e l y , t e l e v i s i o n i s a t l e a s t as important a s u b j e c t . " 3 B Wolfe suggests t h a t younger c h i l d r e n l e a r n about t e l e v i s i o n by s t u d y i n g commercials, and t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n l e a r n to watch t e l e v i s i o n c r i t i c a l l y by examining the s t r u c t u r e of program types - the s i t u a t i o n comedy, the medical drama, and so on. Page 95 2 0 Robert Walker, a Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r , r e c e n t l y suggested t h a t b r i n g i n g a r t i s t s i n t o a classroom s e t t i n g would help i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n the d i f f e r e n c e between q u a l i t y a r t and "empty e n t e r t a i n m e n t . " 3 0 A l l these p r o p o s a l s have as t h e i r u l t i m a t e aim the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n as to how t e l e v i s i o n a f f e c t s them and how they can watch t e l e v i s i o n more c r i t i c a l l y . Viewer e d u c a t i o n f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n i s needed badly. Canadian c h i l d r e n need to be aware of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e t e l e v i s i o n w i e l d s i n t h e i r l i v e s , and they need to ga i n s k i l l s t h a t w i l l h e lp them b e t t e r understand both the d i r e c t and the l a t e n t messages of t e l e v i s i o n programming. Canadian c h i l d r e n need not be taught t h a t Canadian programming i s s u p e r i o r to i t s American c o u n t e r p a r t : Canadian programming i s n e i t h e r i n h e r e n t l y b e t t e r than American nor i n h e r e n t l y mediocre. C h i l d r e n i n Canada do need to l e a r n t h a t a l l programs should be approached i n the same manner and with no preconceived n o t i o n s of q u a l i t y . At the very l e a s t , viewer education w i l l h e lp produce viewers t h a t are w i l l i n g to g i v e Canadian programming a f a i r chance, r e p r e s e n t i n g a marked improvement on the s t a t u s quo. An a l t e r a t i o n of a t t i t u d e i n Canadian viewers may w e l l prove to be the impetus f o r a t t i t u d i n a l change i n the other major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . I f Canadian Page 96 viewers were e q u a l l y as w i l l i n g to watch both American and Canadian programs, c r e a t o r s of t e l e v i s i o n programs would have l e s s reason to mask the Canadian elements of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s . With a r e c e p t i v e audience f o r Canadian programs, and t h e r e f o r e more revenue-generating p o t e n t i a l , p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s would have more i n c e n t i v e f o r a i r i n g an i n c r e a s e d amount of domestic programming. A g e n e r a t i o n of Canadians w e l l - v e r s e d i n the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t e l e v i s i o n p l a y s i n d a i l y l i f e may put pr e s s u r e on the f e d e r a l government to take a more a c t i v e r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . Members of t h i s same ge n e r a t i o n w i l l form the government(s) of the f u t u r e , i n c r e a s i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of a Canadian f e d e r a l government t h a t i s t r u l y committed to developing and m a i n t a i n i n g an indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system. A change i n viewer a t t i t u d e may be the key to e n s u r i n g t h a t domestic programming i s a v i t a l aspect of the Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system. Page 97 CHAPTER V FURTHER PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE F e d e r a l Government and Agencies At the f e d e r a l l e v e l , the two agencies most a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t e l e v i s i o n are the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CBC) and the Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The l a r g e s t p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g body (CBC) and the o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t r e g u l a t e s a l l b r o a d c a s t i n g a c t i v i t y i n Canada (CRTC) must a l t e r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and implement c e r t a i n change i f an indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system i s to e x i s t . For the CBC, the most v i t a l change needed i s i n the method by which Parliament a l l o c a t e s funds to the C o r p o r a t i o n . For the CRTC, r i g i d r e g u l a t i o n and s t r i d e n t e n f o r c i n g of t h a t r e g u l a t i o n by the Commission i s necessary. Since i t s c r e a t i o n i n 1936, the CBC has been funded by the f e d e r a l government through annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s from Parliament. Through the years, t h i s P a r l i a m e n t a r y funding of the CBC has f l u c t u a t e d . 1 For example, s h o r t l y a f t e r the c u r r e n t f e d e r a l government's e l e c t i o n i n 1984, i t announced a Page 98 p l a n , s i n c e executed, to decrease funding f o r the CBC. 2 In 1986 - 1987, Parliament c o n t r i b u t e d $782.7 m i l l i o n to the CBC's o p e r a t i n g funds, a decrease of $6.9 m i l l i o n from the p r e v i o u s f i s c a l year. Annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s and u n a n t i c i p a t e d f l u c t u a t i o n m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t long-range p l a n n i n g . How can the CBC develop and c r e a t e Canadian entertainment programming i f the funding to see such a p r o j e c t through to completion i s unstable? For the CBC to f u l f i l l i t s mandate and p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of indigenous programming f o r a l l Canadians, the way i n which the C o r p o r a t i o n r e c e i v e s funds from Parliament must be r e s t r u c t u r e d . A l t e r n a t i v e methods f o r funding the CBC were i n v e s t i g a t e d by the f e d e r a l government i n the l a t e 1960s. While reviewing the government's White Paper on B r o a d c a s t i n g i n 1967, the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g met with then d i r e c t o r - g e n e r a l of the B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (BBC), S i r Hugh Greene. Greene o u t l i n e d the d i f f e r e n c e s i n how the CBC and the BBC were f i n a n c e d . Rather than P a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n , the BBC was f i n a n c e d "by d i r e c t l e v i e s of the l i s t e n e r s and viewers, i n the form of l i c e n c e f e e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r some p e r i o d ahead." 4 Although the Committee r e j e c t e d the B r i t i s h i d e a of imposing d i r e c t l e v i e s on viewers, i t d i d recommend t h a t the method by which Page 9 9 Parliament f i n a n c e s the CBC be a l t e r e d . I t suggested t h a t the CBC be f i n a n c e d on a f i v e - y e a r b a s i s ; t h i s recommendation became p a r t of the o r i g i n a l d r a f t of the 1968 B r o a d c a s t i n g Act. B However, t h i s funding s t r a t e g y was e v e n t u a l l y removed from the l e g i s l a t i o n , l a r g e l y because the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n d i s a g r e e d with long-term funding, and annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s were r e i n s t a t e d . The funding p a t t e r n proposed by the Par l i a m e n t a r y Committee would be b e n e f i c i a l to the development of Canadian entertainment programming. Perhaps f i v e years i s an awkward f i g u r e to work with, given t h a t the average tenure of Canadian f e d e r a l governments i s four y e a r s . A funding s t r a t e g y based on a f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d may be more a p p r o p r i a t e : an incoming-government c o u l d determine the amount of funding to be earmarked f o r the CBC d u r i n g the l i f e of t h a t government. Regardless of the exact number of years used f o r such a funding s c e n a r i o , the key i s t h a t funding would be long-range. The CBC would know from the beginning of each funding p e r i o d e x a c t l y how much money the C o r p o r a t i o n would have to operate with f o r the next f o u r y e a r s . Funding would be r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , and long-range plans f o r development, based on t h i s s t a b l e funding, c o u l d be developed by the CBC. Programs c o u l d be c a r r i e d to completion d u r i n g the funding p e r i o d , as money f o r t h i s process c o u l d not be decreased Page 100 u n t i l the s t a r t of a new funding p e r i o d . S t a b i l i t y i s not the only funding problem. Q u a n t i t y i s a concern as w e l l . The CBC makes the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n , among Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s and networks, to indigenous programming, but t h e r e i s nothing i n the proposed long-range funding scheme t h a t guarantees the CBC w i l l r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t monies to maintain the l e v e l of t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . There i s nothing to ensure t h a t the CBC w i l l not be s u b j e c t to p o l i t i c a l manoeuvering. A newly e l e c t e d government c o u l d f e e l some animosity toward the CBC or c o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t the C o r p o r a t i o n does not r e q u i r e any s u b s t a n t i a l amount of funding. Such a government may a l l o c a t e a very low amount of money f o r the funding p e r i o d , thus hampering the a b i l i t y of the CBC to continue producing and b r o a d c a s t i n g Canadian programming. However, any government t h a t r e a l i z e s the importance of b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada, any government t h a t has undergone the a t t i t u d i n a l change o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, would be u n l i k e l y to put the CBC i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . A government t h a t r e a l i z e s the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t the CBC makes to b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada should be w i l l i n g to p r o v i d e the C o r p o r a t i o n with an adequate amount of money. Rece n t l y , the CBC announced a th r e e - y e a r p l a n to i n c r e a s e Canadian programming, e s p e c i a l l y entertainment Page 101 programming, and t o e l i m i n a t e American programming d u r i n g t h e p r i m e - t i m e hours. T h i s p l a n i n c l u d e s a proposed f o u r - h o u r weekly i n c r e a s e i n d o m e s t i c drama and an i n t e n t i o n t o " f u l f i l a 95 p e r c e n t Canadian c o n t e n t quota i n prime t i m e . " 6 A p r o p o s a l such as t h i s would be much e a s i e r t o implement i f , f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d , t h e CBC were a s s u r e d of s t a b l e and adequate f u n d i n g . Under t h e p r e s e n t system of a n n u a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , money may be a v a i l a b l e f o r s c r i p t development and p r e - p r o d u c t i o n work d u r i n g one f i s c a l y e a r , w h i l e p r o d u c t i o n f u n d i n g would be u n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i s c a l y e a r . Only t h r o u g h s t a b l e , l o n g - t e r m f i n a n c i n g w i l l t h e CBC be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e making s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system. The second b r o a d c a s t i n g agency o p e r a t i n g a t a f e d e r a l l e v e l t h a t must undergo c e r t a i n changes i s t h e CRTC. I t must t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e " C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n " of b r o a d c a s t i n g . I t must r e v i s e i t s p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s i n an e f f o r t t o make i n d i g e n o u s programming a more p o t e n t f o r c e i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . L e v e l s of enforcement must be improved, and t h e Commission must make b e t t e r use o f i t s power t o p e n a l i z e t h o s e who do not f o l l o w r e g u l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h r e g u l a t i o n a l o n e w i l l not a c h i e v e a t r u l y C a nadian t e l e v i s i o n system, an e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t o r y board w i l l h e l p c r e a t e an environment i n which an i n d i g e n o u s Page 102 t e l e v i s i o n system can f l o u r i s h . As the watchdog f o r Canadian content, the CRTC i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e f i n i n g t h a t content. However, i t s d e f i n i t i o n s are inadequate. P r e s e n t l y , the CRTC a l l o c a t e s p o i n t s f o r the number of Canadian i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n a p r o d u c t i o n and deems programs t h a t have earned a s p e c i f i c number of p o i n t s "Canadian." For the CRTC, a program i s Canadian i f the producer and a l l i n d i v i d u a l s performing p r o d u c e r - r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s are Canadian and i f a minimum of s i x p o i n t s i s earned by Canadians performing key r o l e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n , based on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : d i r e c t o r or w r i t e r - two points,- l e a d i n g performer, second l e a d i n g performer, head of a r t department, d i r e c t o r of photography, music composer, or e d i t o r - one p o i n t . 7 While t h i s system may guarantee t h a t Canadians are i n v o l v e d i n some key aspects of a p r o d u c t i o n , i t does not ensure t h a t a p r o d u c t i o n i s Canadian i n nature. The concept of Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e i s the c r i t e r i o n which should be used f o r determining the "Canadianess" of a program. Only programs t h a t attempt to prese n t the Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e and take no steps to mask t h i s f a c t should q u a l i f y as having Canadian content. Programs t h a t are q u i t e o b v i o u s l y made by, f o r , and/or about Canadians should be those deemed a c c e p t a b l e f o r f u l f i l l i n g Canadian content requirements. These programs would d e a l with Canadians i n Page 103 t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s or with a Canadian view of events around the world. T h i s Canadian view or Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e need not be narrowly d e f i n e d : as long as i t i s obvious t h a t a program r e p r e s e n t s some Canadian's experience or some Canadian's view of the world, the program should q u a l i f y . The CRTC c o u l d then employ a simpler method of determining Canadian content. E i t h e r i t i s obvious to the viewer t h a t there has been some Canadian i n p u t ( c r e a t i v e p ersonnel, s t o r y l i n e , s e t t i n g , r e a c t i o n to events or people elsewhere i n the world) i n t o a program and thus i t i s Canadian, or th e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any aspect of the program i s Canadian and i t t h e r e f o r e does not q u a l i f y as Canadian content. The CRTC c o u l d c r e a t e "viewing groups" i n a l l areas of the country t h a t r e f l e c t the d i v e r s i t y among Canadians from a l l r e g i o n s . Viewing groups would c o n s i s t of a d u l t Canadians from a l l age, income, r e l i g i o u s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . These groups would r e p o r t to the CRTC on t h e i r f e e l i n g s about a v a i l a b l e programming, and the CRTC co u l d use these r e p o r t s to help d i s t i n g u i s h Canadian programming from non-Canadian programming. Such a scheme would allow f o r viewer i n p u t i n t o Canadian t e l e v i s i o n and would keep the d e f i n i t i o n of Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e from becoming too narrow, which i t might become i f the i n d i v i d u a l s who comprise the CRTC were to be the s o l e judges of t h a t d e f i n i t i o n . The Commission must take steps to Page 104 expand the d e f i n i t i o n of Canadian content so t h a t r e g u l a t i o n can f u l f i l l i t s purpose of en s u r i n g a v i a b l e domestic presence on t e l e v i s i o n . The CRTC must a l s o r e a l i z e i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r e n f o r c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and f o r talcing p u n i t i v e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t b r o a d c a s t e r s who f a i l to comply with r e g u l a t i o n s . Since i t s c r e a t i o n i n 1968, the CRTC has not been given to r i g i d enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s or to t a k i n g severe a c t i o n s a g a i n s t uncooperative b r o a d c a s t e r s . CRTC records are f u l l of statements made by i n d i v i d u a l Commission members d e p l o r i n g the performance of some br o a d c a s t e r s i n c r e a t i n g and br o a d c a s t i n g Canadian programming. The records a l s o show t h a t the u s u a l p u n i t i v e a c t i o n taken i s to impose c o n d i t i o n s on the renewal of these b r o a d c a s t e r s ' l i c e n c e s t h a t r e q u i r e the l i c e n s e e s to devote more a t t e n t i o n and monetary resources to Canadian programming. Often, the next time these l i c e n c e s are up f o r renewal, the same process occurs: the Commission s t a t e s i t s d i s p l e a s u r e with the l i c e n s e e s f o r f a i l i n g to meet the imposed c o n d i t i o n s and adds new c o n d i t i o n s to the renewal. T h i s seems l i k e an endless c y c l e , and l i t t l e , i f anything, seems to be accomplished t h a t w i l l enhance the Canadian presence on t e l e v i s i o n . The CRTC must take d r a s t i c measures a g a i n s t those who f a i l to meet the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n c e : Page 105 the Commission must i n d i c a t e to b r o a d c a s t e r s t h a t such a v i o l a t i o n i s s e r i o u s . I f , as Robert Babe suggests, "the CRTC b e l i e v e s i t s e l f to be more of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e than a j u d i c i a l body," B then the Commission must a l t e r i t s s e l f -image. The Commission was c r e a t e d to judge the performance of b r o a d c a s t e r s and to take a c t i o n s to improve t h a t performance. I f a broadcaster f a i l s to f u l f i l l h i s commitment to the r e g u l a t o r y agency, then the Commission should impose s t r i c t c o n d i t i o n s of l i c e n c e renewal. I f , by the next l i c e n c e renewal h e a r i n g , the b r o a d c a s t e r has f a i l e d to meet these c o n d i t i o n s , the CRTC should invoke i t s power to c a n c e l the l i c e n c e . Parliament should enact l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would a l l o w the CRTC to impose heavy f i n e s a g a i n s t b r o a d c a s t e r s who do not meet the minimum requirements f o r Canadian content programming. Monies c o l l e c t e d from these f i n e s c o u l d then be a l l o c a t e d to agencies who are i n v o l v e d , i n one way or another, i n the c r e a t i o n of Canadian programming: T e l e f i l m Canada, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, the CBC. I f s t i f f f i n e s or revoking of a l i c e n c e were p o t e n t i a l punishments f o r f a i l u r e to f o l l o w r e g u l a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s of l i c e n c e , b r o a d c a s t e r s might take more s e r i o u s l y t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g Canadian programs. Severe p u n i t i v e measures would c o n s t i t u t e a t r u e commitment, on the p a r t of the CRTC, to Canadian programming. Such a committed Page 106 r e g u l a t o r y agency would i n d i c a t e to b r o a d c a s t e r s t h a t Canadian programming i s to be taken s e r i o u s l y and t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h i s programming must be met. P r i v a t e Sector The p r i v a t e s e c t o r of Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must begin to m o n e t a r i l y compensate the Canadian p u b l i c f o r the use of a p u b l i c resource, and t h i s compensation should r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t use of t h i s resource i s a p r i v i l e g e . P r e v i o u s l y , compensation has taken the form of Canadian programming r e q u i r e d of p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . With the a t t i t u d e change o u t l i n e d i n Chapter IV, p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s w i l l , h o p e f u l l y , take t h i s requirement s e r i o u s l y and devote much time and e f f o r t to c r e a t i n g domestic programs. However, u n t i l t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e occurs on a l a r g e s c a l e , b r o a d c a s t e r s should be r e q u i r e d to pay f o r the p r i v i l e g e ( s ) a f f o r d e d them i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. U n t i l the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s w i l l i n g to c r e a t e the ki n d of programming r e q u i r e d , i t should be f o r c e d to help f i n a n c e those who are a c t u a l l y producing Canadian programming. As G e r a l d Caplan s t a t e s , " P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s a l r e a d y r e c e i v e $90 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y through Government p o l i c i e s and they have an o b l i g a t i o n to put some of t h a t back i n t o Canadian p r o d u c t i o n . " 9 Page 107 There are a number of ways i n which the p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y to the c r e a t i o n of Canadian programming. In i t s 1986 Report. the Task Force on Br o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y (Caplan-Sauvageau) recommended t h a t two new a l l - C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e s , an all-news channel and TV Canada, be c r e a t e d . These new s e r v i c e s would be funded through a s p e c i a l l e v y on c a b l e companies, r e p r e s e n t i n g a fee i n c r e a s e of $1 a month f o r ca b l e s u b s c r i b e r s . 1 0 The Task Force made other recommendations f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , a l l with the aim of guaranteeing t h a t c o n d i t i o n s of l i c e n c e "be used to ensure t h a t p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s make a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n to f i n a n c i n g Canadian programming." 1 1 P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s c o u l d be r e q u i r e d to pay l i c e n c e f e e s which would vary with the amount of Canadian programming: the g r e a t e r the programming, the lower the fee, and v i c e v e r s a . These fee s would then be d i s t r i b u t e d to agencies such as the CBC, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, or T e l e f i l m Canada, agencies t h a t do help to c r e a t e indigenous programming. A s p e c i a l tax of three to f i v e percent c o u l d be p l a c e d on the annual p r o f i t s of p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s , with the monies from t h i s tax going to the same agencies mentioned above. S i n c e p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s make p r o f i t because they are allowed access to a v a l u a b l e p u b l i c a s s e t , these same b r o a d c a s t e r s should use some of t h i s p r o f i t to compensate the p u b l i c f o r use of t h i s Page 108 as s e t . I f p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s w i l l not pay f o r t h i s p r i v i l e g e with Canadian programming, then they w i l l have to pay with c o l d , hard cash. One important reason t h a t some p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s are u n w i l l i n g to devote adequate res o u r c e s to Canadian programming i s the c o s t of purchasing programs from the Uni t e d S t a t e s . A l l a n G o t l i e b e x p l a i n s how the p r a c t i c e of "program purchasing" works: U.S. producers make t h e i r programs with the i n t e n t i o n of r e c o v e r i n g t h e i r c o s t s and making t h e i r p r o f i t s through U.S. domestic s a l e s . S a les to br o a d c a s t e r s i n other c o u n t r i e s are "gravy." As a consequence, U.S. producers s e l l a program i n Canada f o r a f r a c t i o n of the co s t i n c u r r e d i n producing t h a t program. Canadian producers, however, run i n t o c o s t s roughly e q u i v a l e n t to those encountered by t h e i r U.S. c o u n t e r p a r t s . For example, a U.S. program c o s t i n g $250 , 000 to produce may be s o l d i n Canada f o r as l i t t l e as $25,000. Canadian producers must a l s o spend $250,000 to produce e q u i v a l e n t programming but are fac e d with competition from a f o r e i g n product s e l l i n g f o r one t e n t h the c o s t of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . The economics of t h i s s i t u a t i o n are s e l f - e v i d e n t . 1 3 When American producers f i r s t s t a r t e d s e l l i n g programs i n Canada, t h e r e were on l y two buyers - the CBC and CTV - and the buyers c o u l d s e t the maximum p r i c e they would be w i l l i n g to pay. With the l i c e n s i n g of the G l o b a l T e l e v i s i o n Network Page 109 and numerous independent s t a t i o n s , the number of p o t e n t i a l buyers has i n c r e a s e d . Canadian networks and s t a t i o n s were now competing f o r the same American programs, and t h i s c o m p etition has d r i v e n up the p r i c e of American programs s u b s t a n t i a l l y . 1 3 Perhaps t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n i s a b l e s s i n g i n d i s g u i s e f o r Canadian programming. The b i d d i n g war f o r American programs may d r i v e the p r i c e of these programs c l o s e r to the c o s t of c r e a t i n g indigenous programming. I f t h i s happens, p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s may decide to put money th a t might otherwise be spent on purchasing American programs i n t o Canadian p r o d u c t i o n s , and the problem of program purchasing w i l l be s o l v e d . However, th e r e i s no guarantee t h a t p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s w i l l devote more money to Canadian programming i f the p r i c e of American programs i n c r e a s e s d r a m a t i c a l l y . Nor i s there any assurance t h a t such a p r i c e e s c a l a t i o n w i l l take p l a c e i n the immediate f u t u r e or to the extent suggested. In any case, Canadian t e l e v i s i o n cannot a f f o r d to adopt a "wait and see" approach. While w a i t i n g f o r the p r i c e of American programs to equal the c o s t of producing domestic programming, nothing i s being done to a i d the c r e a t i o n of Canadian programs. Some method f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s f u l f i l l t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s to Canadian programming must be e s t a b l i s h e d immediately, r e g a r d l e s s of Page 110 what may happen to the p r i c e of American programs i n the f u t u r e . P r o v i n c i a l Governments For the development of a t r u l y Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system, p r o v i n c i a l governments must take a more a c t i v e r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . Because b r o a d c a s t i n g and i t s r e g u l a t i o n f a l l under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , p r o v i n c i a l - l e v e l involvement i n b r o a d c a s t i n g has been marginal. P r o v i n c i a l governments i n Canada are only p e r m i t t e d to operate e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s or networks, as e d u c a t i o n i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s ' r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g has kept Canadian t e l e v i s i o n from developing to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . There are two changes t h a t should be made i n order to a l l o w the p r o v i n c e s a l a r g e r r o l e i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g : p r o v i n c e s should be p e r m i t t e d to operate b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies t h a t o f f e r more than s t r i c t l y e d u c a t i o n a l programming, and p r o v i n c e s should i n c o r p o r a t e viewer e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . Because b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada i s a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the p r o v i n c e s were excluded from any involvement i n t h i s area f o r a number of y e a r s . As former c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r C D . Howe s t a t e d i n 1946, Page 111 the government has decided t h a t , s i n c e b r o a d c a s t i n g i s the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Dominion government, b r o a d c a s t i n g l i c e n s e s s h a l l not be i s s u e d to other governments or to c o r p o r a t i o n s owned by other governments. ± A A f t e r the enactment of the 1968 B r o a d c a s t i n g Act, the f e d e r a l government began to i n v e s t i g a t e a more a c t i v e r o l e f o r the pr o v i n c e s i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g was the answer. The p r o v i n c e s and the f e d e r a l government agreed to a d e f i n i t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g which s t a t e d i t was programming to p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y aimed at the a c q u i s i t i o n or improvement of knowledge or the enlargement of understanding of members of the audience. 1 B Three p r o v i n c e s now operate p r o v i n c i a l l y - f u n d e d e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n systems l i c e n s e d by the CRTC: the A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n a l Communications C o r p o r a t i o n (ACCESS); TVOntario (TVO); and Radio-Quebec. 1 6 In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Knowledge Network a c t s as an e d u c a t i o n a l network, although i t has no p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and i s not l i c e n s e d by the CRTC. 1 7 Other p r o v i n c e s are a l s o d e v e l o p i n g plans f o r e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g . Page 112 The l i m i t a t i o n s on p r o v i n c i a l involvement i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g should be e l i m i n a t e d . P r o v i n c e s should be allowed to c r e a t e government-funded b r o a d c a s t i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t are p e r m i t t e d to p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of programming, not j u s t e d u c a t i o n a l programming. The p r o v i n c i a l agencies c o u l d be operated i n a manner s i m i l a r to the CBC a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , or they c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These agencies should be funded by p r o v i n c i a l governments f o r f o u r - or f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s , and they should operate on the same arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e as the CBC to a v o i d , as much as p o s s i b l e , p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . P r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies would be l i c e n s e d by the CRTC, and the r e g u l a t o r y agency c o u l d r e q u i r e , as a c o n d i t i o n of g r a n t i n g the l i c e n c e , t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n (perhaps e i g h t y to e i g h t y - f i v e percent) of programming be Canadian. F o l l o w i n g the example of West German t e l e v i s i o n , where the b r o a d c a s t i n g c o r p o r a t i o n of each lander (the German e q u i v a l e n t of the Canadian pro v i n c e ) s u p p l i e s programming to c o r p o r a t i o n s i n other p a r t s of the country, 1 B programming from one p r o v i n c i a l agency c o u l d be shared with agencies i n other p r o v i n c e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies would be extremely b e n e f i c i a l f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . These agencies c o u l d produce a l l types of programming - i n c l u d i n g Page 113 entertainment - t h a t would r e f l e c t l i f e i n the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s . The r e s i d e n t s of each p r o v i n c e would have a v e h i c l e f o r t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s and f o r examining the way of l i f e i n t h a t p r o v i n c e . The p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies would serve as a p l a t f o r m on which each r e g i o n and i t s people c o u l d d i s p l a y i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The concept of i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l program s h a r i n g would a l l o w viewers i n a l l p r o v i n c e s to see how other Canadians l i v e and would a i d viewers i n understanding the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of each re g i o n to Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . Program s h a r i n g may a l s o h elp keep expenditures a t a reasonable l e v e l f o r each p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g c o r p o r a t i o n . A h i g h Canadian content quota would help ensure the presence of more domestic programming on t e l e v i s i o n , and the removal of programming r e s t r i c t i o n s would i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some of t h i s domestic programming would be entertainment. The f e d e r a l government would not have to r e l i n q u i s h i t s power over b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada, as the p r o v i n c i a l agencies would be l i c e n s e d by the f e d e r a l l y - o p e r a t e d CRTC and would have to comply with the Commission's r e g u l a t i o n s . E s t a b l i s h i n g p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies would i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the entertainment programs proposed i n t h i s paper would be c r e a t e d , which would, i n t u r n , make n a t i o n a l i s m a v i t a l aspect of Canadian entertainment Page 114 programming. The second p r o v i n c i a l - l e v e l change t h a t must occur i f an indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system i s to e x i s t i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of viewer education i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l system of each p r o v i n c e . Such educ a t i o n may be the key to developing and m a i n t a i n i n g a t e l e v i s i o n system i n which Canadian entertainment programming i s a v i t a l aspect. Since education f a l l s under p r o v i n c i a l J u r i s d i c t i o n , each p r o v i n c e must take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e s i g n i n g a method of b r i n g i n g viewer e d u c a t i o n i n t o the classroom. P r o v i n c e s c o u l d e i t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e viewer e d u c a t i o n i n t o an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t area ( s o c i a l s t u d i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e ) , or they c o u l d make t e l e v i s i o n viewing a s u b j e c t to be taught s e p a r a t e l y . I n s t r u c t i o n should begin i n grade school and continue through to the l a s t year of secondary s c h o o l , and students should be r e q u i r e d to study t e l e v i s i o n viewing, i n whatever form i t takes, each year they a t t e n d c l a s s e s . Page 115 CHAPTER VI REPERCUSSIONS AND POSSIBLE DRAWBACKS Implementing changes to Canadian t e l e v i s i o n w i l l not be a simple process. I t c o u l d q u i t e l i k e l y r e s u l t i n charges of a t e l e v i s i o n system r i f e with elements t h a t make i t u n s u i t a b l e to a democratic s o c i e t y . The p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n to such change must be addressed, and the derogatory l a b e l s t h a t may be attached to these m o d i f i c a t i o n s must be proved i n a c c u r a t e . T h i s chapter w i l l examine some of the p o s s i b l e r e p e r c u s s i o n s of changing Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l with government involvement i n b r o a d c a s t i n g and the l a b e l of "propaganda" t h a t may be attached to i n c r e a s e d involvement. R e g u l a t i o n and the charge of "censorship" t h a t may p o s s i b l y be made i f r e g u l a t i o n becomes more r i g i d w i l l be d e a l t with i n the second s e c t i o n . The t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l examine the problem of f i n a n c i n g and the view t h a t such a l t e r a t i o n s are too expensive to i n i t i a t e . T h i s chapter w i l l attempt to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t propaganda, c e n s o r s h i p , and l a c k of f i n a n c e s do not have to be the r e s u l t s of r e s t r u c t u r i n g the Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system. Page 116 G o v e r n m e n t I n v o l v e m e n t a n d P r o p a g a n d a Many o f t h e c h a n g e s p r o p o s e d i n t h i s p a p e r d e p e n d on t h e i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n C a n a d i a n b r o a d c a s t i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o p p o n e n t s t o t h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s c o u l d c h a r g e t h a t s u c h g o v e r n m e n t i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l be e x c e s s i v e , t h a t i t w o u l d be u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g s y s t e m o f a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , a n d t h u s c o n s t i t u t e p r o p a g a n d a . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t a more a c t i v e r o l e f o r g o v e r n m e n t s i n b r o a d c a s t i n g w o u l d mean g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l o f a v i t a l means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . I f t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l l e d b r o a d c a s t i n g , i t c o u l d c o n t r o l what i n f o r m a t i o n C a n a d i a n s r e c e i v e : i t c o u l d u s e b r o a d c a s t i n g t o f u r t h e r i t s own p u r p o s e s w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e s t r i c t i n g C a n a d i a n s ' a c c e s s t o a n y t h i n g t h a t m i g h t p r o v e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t . However, g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l a n d p r o p a g a n d a w i l l n o t be a r e s u l t o f t h e c h a n g e s p r o p o s e d h e r e . I n f a c t , i n c r e a s e d g o v e r n m e n t i n v o l v e m e n t may be a method f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t C a n a d i a n b r o a d c a s t i n g d o e s n o t become an i n s t r u m e n t o f p r o p a g a n d a f o r any one a g e n c y o r g r o u p . The f i r s t , a n d p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t , f a c t o r t h a t w i l l k e e p g o v e r n m e n t s f r o m c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f b r o a d c a s t i n g i s t h e body o f l a w s a nd l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t g o v e r n Page 117 t h e n a t i o n o f Canada. Canada i s a d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n and t h e governments a r e , t h e r e f o r e , i n s t r u m e n t s of t h e p e o p l e . Governments a r e e l e c t e d by a m a j o r i t y of c i t i z e n s , and i f a government i s u n p o p u l a r i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s government w i l l r e c e i v e t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t from v o t e r s . Any government t h a t moves t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over th e Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system w i l l e v e n t u a l l y have t o f a c e t h e v o t i n g p u b l i c . I t i s t h e v o t e r s who bestow a u t h o r i t y on governments, and a government t h a t uses th e b r o a d c a s t i n g system as an i n s t r u m e n t of propaganda r i s k s i t s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h and s u p p o r t from t h e v o t e r s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t such a government would be g i v e n a mandate f o r r u l i n g t h e c o u n t r y f o r a second term. A c t i o n s t h a t would c e n t r a l i z e a l l power over b r o a d c a s t i n g i n a s i n g l e governmental body c o u l d be c h a l l e n g e d i n t h e c o u r t s , s i n c e even governments a r e not above the law i n Canada. Because governments i n t h i s c o u n t r y a r e s a n c t i o n e d by t h e v o t e r s and must a c t w i t h i n t h e parameters of t h e law, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t any government would attempt t o e x e r c i s e complete c o n t r o l over b r o a d c a s t i n g i s minute. F e d e r a l government i n v o l v e m e n t i n b r o a d c a s t i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Canadian h i s t o r y . Much more so than i t s n e i g h b o u r t o t h e s o u t h , Canada i s a n a t i o n t h a t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t government a c t i v i t y i n Page 118 ar e a s v i t a l t o t h e s u r v i v a l of t h e n a t i o n , a r e a s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e development. As John M e i s e l s a y s , Canadians have c o n s i s t e n t l y seen f i t t o use t h e s t a t e p o s i t i v e l y as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r common purposes t o a much l a r g e r e x t e n t than t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Our use of p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e s spans a l o n g p e r i o d , from t h e b u i l d i n g of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p u b l i c e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t i e s , t h e f o u n d i n g of Trans-Canada A i r l i n e s , t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of Petro-Canada. 1 I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Canadians would have a l l o w e d so much government i n v o l v e m e n t i n i m p o r t a n t spheres of n a t i o n a l l i f e i f government was seen as a body not t o be t r u s t e d . Canadians have always used government as an e q u a l i z a t i o n agent, as a way of e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s have e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . The i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e Canadian f e d e r a l government i n t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g , t h e n , i s l o g i c a l . As t e l e v i s i o n has become one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t modes of communication i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Canada, t h e f e d e r a l government has a r o l e t o p l a y i n m a i n t a i n i n g a t e l e v i s i o n system f o r a l l Canadians. T h i s r o l e , f a r from l e a d i n g t o propaganda and e x c e s s i v e governmental c o n t r o l , r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian response t o e n s u r i n g development i n a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of Page 119 n a t i o n a l l i f e . Government a c t i v i t y i n b r o a d c a s t i n g may be t h e most e f f e c t i v e means f o r meeting t h e g o a l s of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . From the f i r s t o f f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t i n g i n 1929, t h e R o y a l Commission on Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g ( A i r d ) , t h r o u g h t o t h e p r e s e n t , t h e g o a l s of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g have been r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e : t o d e v e l o p a system i n which t h e a i r w a v e s a r e owned by t h e p u b l i c and a d m i n i s t e r e d t o by t h e f e d e r a l government i n t r u s t , i n which s e r v i c e s a r e extended t o a l l C a n a d i a n s , and i n which programming i s p r i m a r i l y Canadian. 2 Whether i n t h e form of l e g i s l a t i o n or r e g u l a t i o n , Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y has been aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g such a system. F o r Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g , as Mark Freiman s u g g e s t s , b o t h t h e o r y and h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t by f a r t h e most p r a c t i c a l and most l i k e l y means t o a c h i e v e t h e v a l i d g o a l s of b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n i s t h r o u g h independent p u b l i c n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g systems t h a t a r e g e n e r o u s l y funded and t h a t a r e t h e r e f o r e t r u l y i n d e p e n d e n t , t r u l y p u b l i c , and t r u l y n a t i o n a l . 3 R a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t i n g e x c e s s i v e government i n v o l v e m e n t i n b r o a d c a s t i n g , a Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CBC) t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y funded on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s may be t h e key t o Page 1 2 0 a c h i e v i n g the goals of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . fl f e d e r a l government t h a t i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the b r o a d c a s t i n g system of Canada may help ensure t h a t the system does not become an instrument of propaganda f o r anyone. As Freiman notes, a monopoly by one broadcaster or one type of b r o a d c a s t i n g i s as o f f e n s i v e to democratic n o t i o n s as a r b i t r a r y c e n s o r s h i p . The f u n c t i o n a l i d e a l behind freedom of i n f o r m a t i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c ontext i s not of a f r e e flow, but of a f r e e and balanced flow...' 4 Because of the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of American programs on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , i t c o u l d be argued t h a t programming from the U n i t e d S t a t e s holds a monopoly i n Canada. T h i s type of programming i s i n d i s p u t a b l y more m u l t i t u d i n o u s than i t s Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t , and, as we saw i n Chapter I I I , the apparent monopoly of American programming becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a b l e as technology advances. Government involvement i n t e l e v i s i o n , i n the form of a CBC adequately f i n a n c e d i n order to produce Canadian programming, would re p r e s e n t the "balance" i n the flow of i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c u s s e d by Freiman. Canadian programming would p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e to American programming and would balance the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to Canadian viewers. In t h i s manner, Page 121 government a c t i v i t y would h i n d e r t h e development of monopolies i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n , and would t h u s l i m i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g system becoming a v e h i c l e f o r propaganda. R e g u l a t i o n and C e n s o r s h i p Many of t h e changes proposed here a r e based on r i g i d r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g and e q u a l l y r i g i d enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s by t h e Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission (CRTC). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s k i n d of r e g u l a t i o n would be seen by some Canadians as c e n s o r s h i p . Because r e g u l a t i o n would d e a l w i t h t h e amount of Canadian and f o r e i g n programming a v a i l a b l e on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n s , opponents may say t h a t such r e g u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s c e n s o r s h i p as i t d e t e r m i n e s what v i e w e r s may and may not see. L i k e t h e concept o f government propaganda, c e n s o r s h i p i s t h o u g h t by many t o be c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e g o a l s of a d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , c e n s o r s h i p , i n whatever form i t t a k e s , has no p l a c e i n Canadian s o c i e t y . However, th e b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n proposed here does not have t o r e p r e s e n t c e n s o r s h i p and may, i n f a c t , prove t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o Canadian s o c i e t y by a c t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t t o c e n s o r s h i p . Page 122 R e t u r n i n g to Freiman's i d e a s on monopoly and the f r e e flow of i n f o r m a t i o n helps to show how b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n does not c o n s t i t u t e c e n s o r s h i p . As he s t a t e s , The f u n c t i o n a l i d e a l behind freedom of i n f o r m a t i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l context i s not of a f r e e flow, but of a f r e e and balanced flow, and to t h a t end even s i g n i f i c a n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on incoming programming can be J u s t i f i e d as long as they are made i n a r e g u l a t o r y context designed to prevent monopoly, preserve balance, and maximize a u t h e n t i c c h o i c e . B R e g u l a t i o n s designed to ensure t h a t indigenous programming i s present i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n f i t Freiman's d e f i n i t i o n of a c c e p t a b l e r e g u l a t i o n p e r f e c t l y . Guaranteeing t h a t Canadian viewers are o f f e r e d domestic programs helps to l e s s e n the monopoly h e l d by American programs i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . I f Canadian programs are a v a i l a b l e to viewers, then viewers w i l l have a t r u e c h o i c e between Canadian and American programming, not Just between v a r i o u s American programs, the present s i t u a t i o n . I f c e n s o r s h i p i s d e f i n e d as the r e s t r i c t i o n of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , then the proposed r e g u l a t i o n would have the e f f e c t of l e s s e n i n g the presence of c e n s o r s h i p i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . I f t e l e v i s i o n screens are f l o o d e d with American programs, viewers' access to Canadian programs, and the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n these programs, i s Page 123 r e s t r i c t e d . Thus th e dominance of American programming i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a form of c e n s o r s h i p . R e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ensure an i n d i g e n o u s p r e s e n c e on Canadian t e l e v i s i o n would h e l p t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The r e g u l a t i o n proposed here i s s i m i l a r t o o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on a c t i v i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y , l i m i t a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t Canadians from p o t e n t i a l danger. There a r e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n a l l a s p e c t s of Canadian l i f e : i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n commerce must conduct t h e i r a f f a i r s i n a manner t h a t w i l l not harm consumers; t e a c h e r s must f o l l o w s p e c i f i e d g u i d e l i n e s when e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n , -h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e l i m i t e d i n a c t i o n s t h e y can t a k e t o c u r e an i l l p a t i e n t ; d r i v e r s must a b i d e by a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of r u l e s when o p e r a t i n g a motor v e h i c l e . A l l t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s o r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o make c e r t a i n t h a t Canadians a r e f a c e d w i t h as few p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l s i t u a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e . B r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n i s c r e a t e d w i t h t h e same g o a l as t h e s e o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s . R e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Canadian c o n t e n t s t r i v e t o d e c r e a s e t h e h a r m f u l e f f e c t s of a t e l e v i s i o n system dominated by f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s . Such a t e l e v i s i o n system i s p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous f o r Canadians' sense o f n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r n a t i o n , and t h e i r f e e l i n g as a n a t i o n a l p e o p l e . The proposed Page 124 r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be viewed as a s a f e t y mechanism and s h o u l d be endowed w i t h t h e same g r a v i t y as t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s l i s t e d above. As Dore Schary s t a t e s . The p u b l i c i s a m a z i n g l y complacent about t h e media's t r y i n g out a l l s o r t s of s t r a t e g i e s t h a t might d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t t h e q u a l i t y of s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o u t demanding t o know what t h e e f f e c t might be. A p h a r m a c e u t i c a l house cannot r e l e a s e a new drug on t h e market w i t h o u t f i r s t s u b j e c t i n g i t t o r i g o r o u s t e s t s ; y e t t h e p u b l i c e v i d e n t l y f i n d s s o c i a l i l l n e s s f a r l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g than p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , or i t f e e l s t h a t s o c i a l i l l s a r e j u s t too b i g and too complex t o be d e a l t w i t h r a t i o n a l l y . U n t i l p u b l i c p r e s s u r e mounts, t h e media may c o n t i n u e t o p l e a d i n n o c e n t u n t i l proven g u i l t y . 6 The " s o c i a l i l l s " t h a t b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d can be as d e b i l i t a t i n g as p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , and r e g u l a t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l sphere i s as i m p o r t a n t as r e g u l a t i o n i n any o t h e r . The proposed r e g u l a t i o n s a r e p r o t e c t i v e measures, and t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s v i t a l t o t h e t o t a l h e a l t h of Canadians. F i n a n c i n g t h e P r o p o s a l s Implementing t h e proposed changes t o Canadian t e l e v i s i o n w i l l have t o i n v o l v e some f i n a n c i a l r e a d j u s t m e n t Page 125 of t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g system. Opponents of t h e changes may make c l a i m s t h a t a l t e r i n g t h e t e l e v i s i o n system would be too c o s t l y and t h a t t h e changes would be e c o n o m i c a l l y unsound. Yet many of t h e p r o p o s a l s made i n t h i s paper i n v o l v e more of a r e d i r e c t i o n of e x i s t i n g funds t h a n an i n j e c t i o n of new monies i n t o t h e t e l e v i s i o n system. Other p r o p o s a l s t h a t do r e q u i r e an i n c r e a s e i n f u n d i n g f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n may be e x p e n s i v e , but t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l , i n t h e l o n g r u n , prove much more c o s t l y , b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y . The expenses must be met i f Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i s t o f u l f i l l i t s g o a l s . A number of t h e changes proposed i n t h i s paper c o u l d be f i n a n c e d w i t h monies from w i t h i n t h e t e l e v i s i o n system i t s e l f . The p r o p o s a l s f o r a t h r e e t o f i v e p e r c e n t t a x on p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s and f o r f i n a n c i a l p e n a l t i e s f o r b r o a d c a s t e r s t h a t f a i l t o meet c o n d i t i o n s of l i c e n c e a r e examples. Funds c o l l e c t e d from t a x e s and f i n e s a r e a l r e a d y a t work i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n . These funds would s i m p l y be r e d i r e c t e d t o a g e n c i e s t h a t would c r e a t e i n d i g e n o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming. F o r example, t h e CBC's p l a n f o r o f f e r i n g a n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t Canadian s c h e d u l e d u r i n g p r i m e - t i m e would be f i n a n c e d l a r g e l y w i t h e x i s t i n g monies: th e $20 m i l l i o n spent a n n u a l l y f o r p u r c h a s i n g American programming would be spent on Canadian p r o d u c t i o n s . 7 Page 126 Some Canadians may t a k e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e t a x e s and f i n e s l e v i e d on p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s , f e e l i n g i t i s u n f a i r t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r s h o u l d h e l p f i n a n c e t h e p u b l i c , government-owned s e c t o r . Y e t t h i s p r a c t i c e of t a x i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o f i n a n c e t h e a c t i v i t y of government-owned a g e n c i e s o c c u r s q u i t e o f t e n i n Canada. P r i v a t e l y - o w n e d o i l companies pay t a x e s t o t h e government, and p a r t of t h e s e t a x e s h e l p t o f i n a n c e t h e crown c o r p o r a t i o n P e t r o Canada. A i r l i n e s pay b u s i n e s s t a x e s and, a g a i n , p a r t of t h i s money i s used i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of an o t h e r crown c o r p o r a t i o n , A i r Canada. T a x i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r as a method of c o l l e c t i n g funds f o r government-owned a g e n c i e s i s not a new a c t i v i t y , and i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system i s no more u n p a l a t a b l e than use of t h e same method i n o t h e r spheres of a c t i v i t y . I f t h e p r a c t i c e i s a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e r e s o u r c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f i e l d s , i t i s e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e f i e l d of b r o a d c a s t i n g . G e t t i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t e l e v i s i o n would r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n funds devoted t o b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada. However, i f p r o v i n c e s a r e w i l l i n g t o t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g , then t h e y must a l s o be w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of f i n a n c i n g t h a t r o l e . P r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g a g e n c i e s r e p r e s e n t an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p r o v i n c e s t o make Page 127 s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to n a t i o n a l l i f e and g i v e the p r o v i n c e s i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l exposure through program s h a r i n g . Although e s t a b l i s h i n g and o p e r a t i n g these agencies would r e p r e s e n t an expense f o r the p r o v i n c e s , the expense would be j u s t i f i e d by the b e n e f i c i a l a spects of p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g . I f the expense p r o v i d e s the p r o v i n c e s with p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , p r o v i n c i a l governments should be w i l l i n g to i n c u r the c o s t s . P r o v i n c i a l governments e x i s t , i n p a r t , to pr o v i d e b e n e f i t s to the r e s i d e n t s of the p r o v i n c e and to help the p r o v i n c e develop to i t s f u l l e s t c a p a c i t y , and p r o v i n c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies would a i d g r e a t l y i n t h i s p r o v i n c i a l development. Other changes proposed here, such as i n c r e a s e d funding f o r the OBC and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of viewer edu c a t i o n i n t o the s c h o o l system, would c o s t money. However, changes l i k e t h i s must be examined i n terms of t o t a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . I f the CBC i s not adequately f i n a n c e d , the l a r g e s t source of indigenous programming i s threatened. I f domestic programs decrease i n number, the goals of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g are not met, and Canadians are cheated of the chance to enjoy the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s of t h i s programming. On a s t r i c t l y economic s c a l e , as l e s s money goes i n t o indigenous programming i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s money w i l l be used to purchase American programs. The Canadian t e l e v i s i o n Page 128 system then becomes a vehicle for funneling money to the United States. The economic and s o c i a l costs of not incurring the expense of substantial funding for the CBC are much too high to pay. Canadians would benefit much more i n the long run i f a source of Canadian programming was maintained. A similar s i t u a t i o n exists for viewer education. If children do not have the opportunity to develop viewing patterns based on knowledge and not on habit, then another generation of Canadians may grow up preferring American programming simply becuase i t i s far more available than Canadian. The same drain of Canadian monies to the United States as discussed above would be the r e s u l t . S o c i a l l y , f a i l u r e to introduce viewer education would mean that a potent force i n d a i l y l i f e - t e l e v i s i o n - i s being ignored by the educational system. If education i s aimed at helping students better understand t h e i r world and preparing them for a future i n that world, then i t i s only l o g i c a l to include t e l e v i s i o n as part of that education. If students are aware of how t e l e v i s i o n operates and the impact i t has on ind i v i d u a l l i v e s , then these students are better prepared to l i v e i n a world i n which t e l e v i s i o n i s such an i n f l u e n t i a l force. Viewer education, and, in fact, any changes to Page 129 Canadian t e l e v i s i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l funds t o be devoted t o t h e t e l e v i s i o n system, must be approached i n a manner t h a t w i l l l o o k not o n l y a t immediate c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , but a t l o n g - t e r m as w e l l . Changes t o Canadian t e l e v i s i o n w i l l c o s t money, but t h e b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s of t h e s e changes w i l l be more than adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e expenses t h a t w i l l have t o be met. Page 130 CONCLUSION On May 9, 1961, Newton N. Minow, then chairman of t h e American b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y agency, t h e F e d e r a l Communications Commission, d e l i v e r e d a speech t o t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B r o a d c a s t e r s . He su g g e s t e d t h a t t h e b r o a d c a s t e r s watch t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s from s i g n - o n t o s i g n - o f f . U s i n g a r e f e r e n c e t o a famous T.S. E l i o t poem, Minow p r e d i c t e d t h e b r o a d c a s t e r s would not be p l e a s e d w i t h what t h e y saw: " I a s s u r e you t h a t you w i l l o bserve a v a s t w a s t e l a n d . " 1 Minow's statement r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a c k of q u a l i t y programming he p e r c e i v e d on American t e l e v i s i o n . More than a q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y l a t e r and i n a d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n , Minow's i d e a i s s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e . The Canadian t e l e v i s i o n system can be d e s c r i b e d as a " v a s t w a s t e l a n d , " not so much a w a s t e l a n d v o i d of q u a l i t y programming as a system s e v e r e l y l a c k i n g i n i n d i g e n o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming. In o r d e r t o r e v e r s e Canadian t e l e v i s i o n ' s s t a t u s as a v a s t w a s t e l a n d , i t i s v i t a l t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m become an u n a v o i d a b l e a s p e c t of e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n needs e n t e r t a i n m e n t programs t h a t d e a l w i t h Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m : programs made by, f o r , and, most Page 131 importantly, about Canadians. If the amount of domestic entertainment programs does not increase, Canadian t e l e v i s i o n w i l l remain nothing more than a vehicle for the transmission of foreign programs. If nationalism i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t part of entertainment programs, indigenous programming w i l l become a pale imitation of foreign programming. Producing entertainment programs that deal with Canadian nationalism i s the only way to ensure a Canadian presence i n the t e l e v i s i o n system of t h i s nation. A plan for r e c t i f y i n g the current s i t u a t i o n i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n has been presented i n t h i s thesis. The proposed changes, or actions with similar goals, are urgently needed. With the status quo i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n c a l l e d a "national scandal," 2 i t i s imperative that steps be taken to improve the current si t u a t i o n as soon as possible. Any delay in making n a t i o n a l i s t i c entertainment programs a v i t a l force i n Canadian t e l e v i s i o n perpetuates the dangerous status quo, and the longer the delay, the more damage that i s done to the indigenous t e l e v i s i o n system. Canadians can no longer afford to s i t by passively as the i n f l u e n t i a l medium of t e l e v i s i o n i s dominated by foreign influences. Canadian t e l e v i s i o n must become a vehicle for Canadians to examine t h e i r l i v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a national people. A t e l e v i s i o n system dominated by foreign Page 132 programming r e p r e s e n t s a t h r e a t to n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , and t h i s t h r e a t must be e l i m i n a t e d immediately. I t i s time f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n to become what i t has supposed to have been f o r the past t h i r t y y e a r s : a t e l e v i s i o n system t h a t speaks to and f o r the c i t i z e n s of the n a t i o n through a v a r i e t y of indigenous programming. I t i s time f o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n to be Canadian. FOOTNOTES Page 133 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. Mark J . Fre i m a n , "Consumer S o v e r e i g n t y and N a t i o n a l S o v e r e i g n t y i n Domestic and I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g R e g u l a t i o n , " C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n . Canadian - U.S. Co n f e r e n c e on Communications P o l i c y (New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1984), p. 110. 2. Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telec o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission, P o l i c y Statement on Canadian C o n t e n t i n  T e l e v i s i o n . CRTC P u b l i c N o t i c e 1983 - 18 (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e , 1983), p. 63. FOOTNOTES Page 134 C h a p t e r I 1. K e i t h S p i c e r , "How t o F e e l Canadian," The P r o v i n c e [ V a n c o u v e r ] , 17 September 1987, p. 37. 2. A l t h o u g h t h e s t a t i s t i c s quoted i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e f o r t h e y e a r 1984, t h e y a r e i n d i c a t i v e of any y e a r i n r e c e n t Canadian t e l e v i s i o n h i s t o r y . H a r r i s o n , Young, Pesonen and N e w e l l I n c . , Canadian TV V i e w i n g H a b i t s , s t u d y p r e p a r e d f o r the Task F o r c e on B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y (Caplan-Sauvageau), Ottawa, J a n u a r y 17, 1986, p. 20 3. Canada, Task F o r c e on B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y ( C a p l a n -Sauvageau) R e p o r t (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1986), p. 85 4. M i c h a e l Novak, " T e l e v i s i o n Shapes The S o u l , " T e l e v i s i o n as a S o c i a l F o r c e , eds. R i c h a r d A d l e r and Douglass C a t e r (New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1975), p. 15 5. P a u l a S. F a s s , " T e l e v i s i o n as a C u l t u r a l Document: Promises and Problems," T e l e v i s i o n as a C u l t u r a l F o r c e , eds. R i c h a r d A d l e r and Douglass C a t e r (New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1976), p. 55 6. Novak, S o c i a l F o r c e , p. 13 7. R o b e r t R u t h e r f o r d Smith, Beyond The Wasteland: The  C r i t i c i s m of B r o a d c a s t i n g ( F a l l s Church, V i r g i n i a : Speech Communication A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976), p. 14 8. E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e l i s t of t o p programs from any t e l e v i s i o n season w i l l r e v e a l t h e dominance of e n t e r t a i n m e n t programming. Sources such as N i e l s o n R a t i n g s , TV Guide, or any t e l e v i s i o n c r i t i c ' s t o p - t e n l i s t w i l l v e r i f y t h i s . 9. Kas K a l b a , "The E l e c t r o n i c Community: A New Environment F o r T e l e v i s i o n Viewers and C r i t i c s , " S o c i a l  F o r c e . p. 154. 10. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 91. 11. I b i d . FOOTNOTES Page 135 12 . I b i d . , P- 93 . 13 . I b i d . , P- 95 . 14. I b i d . , P- 101 . 15 . I b i d . , PP. . 95-97 16. Donna W o o l f o l k C r o s s , Mediaspeak (New York: Coward-McCann, I n c . , 1983), p. 93. 17. H e r b e r t S c h i l l e r , The Mind Managers ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1973), p. 1. 18. C r o s s , Mediaspeak. pp. 95-96. 19. Frank W. P e e r s , "Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : Comparative O r i g i n s and Approaches t o B r o a d c a s t P o l i c y , " C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 31. 20. F r e i m a n , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 110. FOOTNOTES Page 136 Chapter I I 1. T a n n i s MacBeth W i l l i a m s , ed., The Impact of  T e l e v i s i o n (London: Academic P r e s s , I n c . , 1986), p. 407. 2. P e e r s , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 15 3. F a s s , C u l t u r a l F o r c e , p. 37. 4. C r o s s , Mediaspeak. p. 25. 5. John B e r g e r e t a l . p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t account of t h e t r u t h f u l n e s s and t h e power of t h e v i s u a l image i n Wayes  of S e e i n g (London: B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Penguin Books, 1972). 6. F a s s , C u l t u r a l F o r c e , p. 44. 7. Roy L a r s o n quoted i n C r o s s , Mediaspealc. p. 120. 8. G e r a l d M. C r a i g , The U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 301. 9. A t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t e n e t s of c o n t i n e n t a l i s m can be found i n M i c h a e l A. G o l d b e r g and John Mercer, The Myth  of t h e N o r t h American C i t y : C o n t i n e n t a l i s m C h a l l e n g e d (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1986). 10. Numerous books and a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e h i s t o r y of N o r t h America/Canada/the U n i t e d S t a t e s make r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e "New World" i d e o l o g y and t h e p o p u l a r i t y i t has e n j o y e d i n both n a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y . F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s m a t t e r see C r a i g , The U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, and A l l a n S m i t h , " The C o n t i n e n t a l Dimension i n t h e E v o l u t i o n of t h e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n Mind," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l XXXI (Summer, 1976): 442-469. 11. Canada, Department of J u s t i c e , A C o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h e  C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t s 1867-1982 (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1983), p. 29. Page 137 FOOTNOTES 12. W i l l i a m MacDonald, ed., S e l e c t Documents of U n i t e d  S t a t e s H i s t o r y 1776-1661 (New York: The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1920 ), p. 2 . 13. P e e r s , G u l t u r e B i n C o l l i s i o n , pp. 11-12. 14. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t . R.S.C. 1970, c . B - l l , s . 3 ( a ) , 3 ( b ) . 15. S p i c e r , The P r o v i n c e [ V a n c o u v e r ] , p. 37. 16. F r e i m a n , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , pp. 116-117. 17. J e r r y Mander, Four Arguments F o r The E l i m i n a t i o n of  T e l e v i s i o n (New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, I n c . , 1978), p. 325. 18. Canadian R a d i o - T e l e v i s i o n Commission, Annual R e p o r t  1971-72 (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1972), p. 21. FOOTNOTES Page 138 Chapter I I I 1. Kenneth M. P i e r c e , "The Bunkers, The C r i t i c s and The News," C u l t u r a l F o r c e , p. 74. 2. Canada, R o y a l Commission on B r o a d c a s t i n g ( F o w l e r ) R e p o r t (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957), p. 9. 3. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 101. 4. A l t h o u g h i t i s r e f e r r e d t o as pay t e l e v i s i o n i n W i l l i a m s , Impact. p. 424, a c c e s s t o t h e t h r e e major American networks and PBS c o n s t i t u t e s what i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , a d e f i n i t i o n of c a b l e t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of t h e CRTC. Pay t e l e v i s i o n r e f e r s t o a group of s p e c i a l t y s t a t i o n s t h a t must be purchased as a package f o r a h i g h e r monthly f e e th a n t h e f e e f o r b a s i c c a b l e s e r v i c e . 5. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 83. 6. I b i d . , p. 101. 7. H a r r i s o n , Young, Pesonen and N e w e l l I n c . , Canadian TV  V i e w i n g H a b i t s , p. 106. 8. Ro b e r t E. Babe, Canadian T e l e v i s i o n B r o a d c a s t i n g  S t r u c t u r e . Performance and R e g u l a t i o n : A Study P r e p a r e d f o r the Economic C o u n c i l of Canada (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1979), p. 62. 9. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 104. 10. I b i d . , p. 70. 11. CRTC r e c o r d s of L i c e n c e Renewal H e a r i n g s and P u b l i c H e a r i n g s f o r t h e l i c e n c i n g of most c a b l e systems i n Canada make numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s concept of e q u a l a c c e s s f o r a l l . H e r s c h e / H a r d i n a l s o p r o v i d e s a t e l l i n g a ccount of t h e power of t h i s c oncept i n C l o s e d C i r c u i t s (Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1985). 12. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 76. 13. P e e r s , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , pp. 27-28. FOOTNOTES Page 139 Chapter IV 1. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Debates of t h e House of Commons, v o l . I l l (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1932), pp. 3035-3036. 2. Canada, Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g ( F o w l e r ) R e p o r t (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965), p. 102. 3. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t . R.S.C. 1970, c.B-11, s . 3 ( a ) , 3 ( b ) . 4. The most r e c e n t Task F o r c e (Caplan-Sauvageau) can se r v e as an example. A p p r o x i m a t e l y one and o n e - h a l f y e a r s a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Task F o r c e ' s R e p o r t . t h e f e d e r a l government i s s t i l l s t u d y i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i n g on some of t h e recommendations. I t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t any changes i n b r o a d c a s t i n g w i l l o c c u r b e f o r e t h e nex t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . S h o u l d t h e p r e s e n t government be r e t u r n e d t o o f f i c e , t h e r e w i l l have been a l o n g i n t e r r u p t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g p o t e n t i a l changes f o r Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . S h o u l d another p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t a k e o f f i c e , and p o s s i b l y b r i n g w i t h i t a new p h i l o s o p h y of b r o a d c a s t i n g , t h e p r o c e s s may have t o b e g i n anew. A l l of t h e s e d e l a y s make i t u n l i k e l y t h a t any changes proposed by t h e Task F o r c e w i l l o c c u r i n t h e near f u t u r e , i f a t a l l . 5. Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telec o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission, Proposed R e g u l a t i o n s R e s p e c t i n g T e l e v i s i o n  B r o a d c a s t i n g . CRTC P u b l i c N o t i c e 1986-176 (Ottawa: CRTC, 1986), pp. 4-5. 6. R e f e r e n c e s t h a t can be c o n s u l t e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on p r i v a t e s e c t o r performance i n t h i s a r e a i n c l u d e CRTC r e c o r d s of L i c e n c e Renewal H e a r i n g s and Chapter 5 of t h e C a p l a n -Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . 7. P e e r s , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 28. 8. I b i d . 9. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Debates of t h e House of Commons, p. 3036. FOOTNOTES Page 140 10. Warner T r o y e r , The Sound and The F u r y ( T o r o n t o : John W i l e y and Sons Canada L i m i t e d , 1980), p. 167. 11. Babe, Canadian T e l e v i s i o n B r o a d c a s t i n g , p. 32. 12. I b i d . 13. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 101. 14. T r o y e r , Sound and F u r y , p. 187. 15. F o w l e r Committee R e p o r t . p. 107. 16. "CTV t o A i r More Canadian Drama," The Globe and M a i l . 19 November 1986, Sec.A, pp. 1-2. 17. "MacDonald H i n t s a t TV L i c e n c e Fee," The Vancouver Sun, 23 September 1987, sec.D, p. 7. 18. Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Annual R e p o r t  1986-1987 (Ottawa: CBC, 1987), p. 11. 19. I b i d . 20. CBC, "Gemini Awards," 9 December 19 87. 21. H a r r i s o n , Young, Pesonen and N e w e l l I n c . , Canadian TV  V i e w i n g H a b i t s , p. 105. 22. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 96. 23. G l e n O. R o b i n s o n , "Comment," C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 126. 24. P e e r s , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 29. 25. Novak, S o c i a l F o r c e , p. 25. 26. W i l l i a m s , ed., Impact. p. 409. 27. I b i d . , p. 418. 28. M o r r i s W o l f e , J o l t s : The TV Wasteland and t h e Canadian O a s i s ( T o r o n t o : James L o r i m e r and Company, 1985), p. 137. FOOTNOTES Page 141 29. I b i d . , p. 138. 30. "Teaching K i d s t h e T r a s h , " The Vancouver Sun. A r t o f T e l l i n g Q u a l i t y From 9 October 1987, sec.C, p. 6. Page 142 FOOTNOTES 29. I b i d . , p. 138. 30. "Teaching K i d s t h e A r t of T e l l i n g Q u a l i t y From T r a s h , " The Vancouver Sun. 9 October 1987, sec.C, p. 6. FOOTNOTES Page 143 Chapter V 1. The Annual R e p o r t s of t h e CBC c o n t a i n f i g u r e s on P a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r any g i v e n y e a r , and e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e r e p o r t s shows how f u n d i n g f l u c t u a t e s . 2. See CBC Annual R e p o r t s from 1985/86 t o 1986/87. 3. CBC, Annual R e p o r t 1986-1987, p. 36. 4. Frank W. P e e r s , The P u b l i c Eye ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1979), p. 377. 5. I b i d . , p. 404. 6. "CBC P l a n G r e e t e d With C a u t i o n , " The Vancouver Sun. 15 October 1987, sec.E, pp. 1,3. 7. Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission, R e c o g n i t i o n f o r Canadian Programs. CRTC P u b l i c N o t i c e 1984-94 (Ottawa: CRTC, 1984), p. 2. 8. Babe, Canadian T e l e v i s i o n B r o a d c a s t i n g , p. 38. 9. "Boost Canadian C o n t e n t , Task F o r c e Recommends," The  Globe and M a i l . 2 3 September 1986, sec.A, p. 3. 10. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 673. 11. I b i d . , p. 672. 12. A l l a n E. G o t l i e b , "Words and Space: C u l t u r e and Communications i n t h e 1980s," C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 3. 13. J o y c e N e l s o n , " G l o b a l P i l l a g e : The Economics of Commercial T e l e v i s i o n , " Love and Money: The P o l i t i c s of  C u l t u r e . ed. D a v i d H e l w i g ( T o r o n t o : Oberon P r e s s , 1980), pp. 21-24 . 14. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Debates of t h e House of Commons, v o l . I I (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1947), p. 1167. 15. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . p. 338. Page 144 FOOTNOTES 16. I b i d . , pp. 338-339. 17. I b i d . , p. 339. 18. H a r d i n , C l o s e d C i r c u i t s , p. 112. FOOTNOTES Page 145 Chapter VI 1. John M e i s e l , "An A u d i b l e Squeak: B r o a d c a s t R e g u l a t i o n i n Canada," C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , pp. 133-134. 2. Caplan-Sauvageau Task F o r c e R e p o r t . pp. 8-9. 3. F r e i m a n , C u l t u r e s i n C o l l i s i o n , p. 117. 4. I b i d . , p. 116. 5. I b i d . 6. Benjamin DeMott, "The Viewer's E x p e r i e n c e : Notes on TV C r i t i c i s m and P u b l i c H e a l t h , " S o c i a l F o r c e , p. 57. 7. "CBC P l a n G r e e t e d With C a u t i o n , " The Vancouver Sun. 15 October 1987, sec.E, pp. 1,3. FOOTNOTES Page 146 C o n c l u s i o n 1. Smith, Beyond t h e Wasteland, p. 95. 2. "Film-TV Lobby t o Take on Ottawa," The Vancouver Sun. 23 October 1987, sec.C, p. 8. Page 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books A d l e r , R i c h a r d , and C a t e r , D o u g l a s s , eds. T e l e v i s i o n as a  C u l t u r a l F o r c e . New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. A d l e r , R i c h a r d , and C a t e r , D o u g l a s s , eds. 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T o r o n t o : James L o r i m e r and Company, 1985. Government Documents Babe, R o b e r t E. Canadian T e l e v i s i o n B r o a d c a s t i n g S t r u c t u r e . Performance and R e g u l a t i o n : A Study  P r e p a r e d f o r t h e Economic C o u n c i l of Canada. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1979. Canada. Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g ( F o w l e r ) R e p o r t . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965. Canada, Department of J u s t i c e . A C o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h e  C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t s 1867-1982. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Sup p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1983. Page 150 Canada. F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee (Applebaum-Hebert) R e p o r t . Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Su p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1982. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t . B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t . R.S.C. 1970. Canada, P a r l i a m e n t . Debates of t h e House of Commons, v o l . I I I . 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Newspapers "Angry MPs Want M i n i s t e r t o C l a r i f y B r o a d c a s t P o l i c y . " The  Vancouver Sun. 2 October 1987, sec.C, p.8. "Boost Canadian C o n t e n t , Task F o r c e Recommends." The Globe  and M a i l . 23 September 1986, sec.A, p.3. "CBC P l a n G r e e t e d With C a u t i o n . " The Vancouver Sun. 15 October 1987, sec.E, pp. 1,3. "CBC Wins Nod t o O f f e r News 24 Hours A Day." The Globe and  M a i l . 1 December 1987, sec.A, pp. 1-2. "CTV t o A i r More Canadian Drama." The Globe and M a i l . 19 November 1986, sec.A, pp. 1-2. "Film-TV Lobby t o Take on Ottawa." The Vancouver Sun. 23 October 1987, sec.C, p.8. " L i k e I t or Not, S u b s c r i b e r s W i l l Pay F o r New Channels." The Globe and M a i l . 1 December 1987, sec.B, pp.1,4. "MacDonald H i n t s a t TV L i c e n c e Fee." The Vancouver Sun. 23 September 1987, sec.D, p.7. "Teaching K i d s t h e A r t of T e l l i n g Q u a l i t y From T r a s h . " The  Vancouver Sun. 9 October 1987, sec.C, p.6. "TV O n t a r i o Boss Warns of U.S. Takeover." The Vancouver  Sun. 30 October 1987, sec.C, p.3. S p i c e r , K e i t h . "How t o F e e l C anadian." The P r o v i n c e [ V a n c o u v e r ] , 17 September 1987, p. 37. B r o a d c a s t s CBC. "Gemini Awards." 9 December 1987. Page 152 P e r i o d i c a l s S mith, A l l a n . The C o n t i n e n t a l Dimension i n t h e E v o l u t i o n of t h e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n Mind." I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l XXXI (Summer, 1976): 442-469. 

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