UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Elizabethan society of antiquaries reassessed Jones, Helen Dorothy 1988

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THE ELIZABETHAN SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES REASSESSED By HELEN DOROTHY JONES A. ( H o n s . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 138 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PART IAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN HISTORY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment o f H i s t o r y > We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g bo t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1988 (c) H e l e n D o r o t h y J o n e s , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of b«? p The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date I V - ^ i ^ b 3^ 2.///CjrJTff-DE-6G/81) i i ABSTRACT The E l i z a b e t h a n S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e g a r d e d as a s c h o l a r l y group which d i s s o l v e d due t o a t t r i t i o n and perhaps the s u s p i c i o n of the r u l i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A 1614 e f f o r t t o r e c o n g r e g a t e f a i l e d due t o James I's'unfounded s u s p i c i o n s of the members' p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s t s on the ass u m p t i o n t h a t the d i s c o u r s e s produced by members were the o b j e c t of the S o c i e t y , and t h a t the members were p r i m a r i l y s c h o l a r s . W hile the d i s c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h , t h e y were s u p e r f i c i a l and u n c r i t i c a l , not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s t a n d a r d of h i s t o r i c a l work of which some of the members, such as Camden, Stow and Lambarde, were c a p a b l e . They d i d not j u s t i f y i n themselves e i t h e r the amount of time which must have been expended on them, or the s e c r e c y which the S o c i e t y m a i n t a i n e d . C l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of the members' p r o f e s s i o n a l and p a t r o n a g e - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s shows t h a t t h e y were not s c h o l a r s , but h i g h l y p l a c e d and v e r y busy f u n c t i o n a r i e s of the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They had p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l p a t r o n s , were drawn from a l l p o i n t s on the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s spectrum, and had o f f i c i a l d u t i e s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . C a r e f u l p r o b i n g of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l motive was t o e s t a b l i s h and prepare the ground f o r a w i d e l y a c c e p t a b l e s u c c e s s o r t o E l i z a b e t h I . James' s u s p i c i o n s were s o u n d l y based on f a c t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v PROLOGUE THE OCCASION OF THIS DISCOURSE 1 CHAPTER 1 THE ANTIQUARIES AS INTELLECTUALS: A PUZZLE 5 CHAPTER 2 THE ANTIQUARIES AS CAREER MEN 20 CHAPTER 3 THE ANTIQUARIES AS FACTION PLAYERS 42 CHAPTER 4 THE SOLUTION 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 APPENDIX: THE MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY 98 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I have r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l of h e l p w h i l e I have been p r e p a r i n g t h i s paper. My thanks a r e due t o my a d v i s e r , Dr. Murray T o l m i e , who hung onto h i s p a t i e n c e and good humour even when I t r i e d b o t h . Harvey and Angela Henderson g e n e r o u s l y a l l o w e d me f r e e r e i n w i t h t h e i r computer. Most of a l l I thank my husband Don, and daughter K a t r i o n a , who never c o m p l a i n e d , no matter what s a c r i f i c e s "Mum's work" demanded of them. "Mum's work" would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i r s u p p o r t . 1 S i r Henry spelman, c. 1626-1628: THE OCCASION OF THIS DISCOURSE (1) About f o r t y two y e a r s s i n c e , c l i v e r s Gentlemen i n London, s t u d i o u s of A n t i q u i t i e s , framed themselves i n t o a C o l l e g e or S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , a p p o i n t i n g t o meet e v e r y F r i d a y weekly i n the Term, a t a p l a c e agreed o f , and f o r L e a r n i n g sake t o c o n f e r upon some q u e s t i o n s i n t h a t F a c u l t y , and t o sup t o g e t h e r . The P l a c e , a f t e r a Meet i n g or two, became c e r t a i n a t Darby House, where the H e r a l d ' s O f f i c e i s k e p t : and two Q u e s t i o n s were propounded a t e v e r y M e e t i n g , t o be handled a t the next t h a t f o l l o w e d ; so t h a t e v e r y Man had a S e n n i g h t ' s r e s p i t e t o a d v i s e upon them, and then t o d e l i v e r h i s o p i n i o n . That which seemed most m a t e r i a l , was by one of the Company (chosen f o r the purpose) t o be e n t e r e d i n a Book; t h a t so i t might remain unto P o s t e r i t y . The S o c i e t y i n c r e a s e d d a i l y ; many Persons of g r e a t Worth, as w e l l n o b l e as o t h e r Learned, j o i n i n g themselves unto i t . Thus i t c o n t i n u e d d i v e r s Y e a r s ; but as a l l good Uses commonly d e c l i n e ; so many of the c h i e f S u p p o r t e r s h e r e o f e i t h e r d y i n g or w i t h d r a w i n g themselves from London i n t o the Co u n t r y ; t h i s among the r e s t grew f o r twenty Years t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d . But i t the n came a g a i n i n t o the minds of d i v e r s p r i n c i p a l Gentlemen t o r e v i v e i t ; and f o r t h a t purpose, upon the Day of i n the Year 1614 t h e r e met a t the same P l a c e S i r James Ley K n i g h t , then A t t o r n e y of the 2 C o u r t of Wards, s i n c e E a r l of Marlborough and L o r d T r e a s u r e r of Engl a n d ; S i r Robert C o t t o n K n i g h t and B a r o n e t ; S i r John Davies h i s M a j e s t y ' s A t t o r n e y f o r I r e l a n d ; S i r R i c h a r d S t . George K n t . then N o r r e y , Mr. H a c k w e l l the Queen's S o l i c i t o r , Mr. Camden then C l a r e n c i e u x , my s e l f , and some o t h e r s . Of t h e s e , the L o r d T r e a s u r e r , S i r Robert C o t t o n , Mr. Camden, and my s e l f , had been of the o r i g i n a l F o u n d a t i o n ; and t o my knowledge were a l l t h e n l i v i n g of t h a t s o r t , s a v i n g S i r John Dodderidge K n i g h t , J u s t i c e of the K i n g ' s Bench. We h e l d i t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h a t time t o r e v i v e the M e e t i n g , and o n l y c o n c e i v e d some Rule s of Government and L i m i t a t i o n t o be observed amongst us; whereof t h i s was one, That f o r a v o i d i n g O f f e n c e , we s h o u l d n e i t h e r meddle w i t h M a t t e r s of S t a t e , nor of R e l i g i o n . And a g r e e i n g of two Q u e s t i o n s f o r the next M e e t i n g , we chose Mr. H a c k w e l l t o be our R e g i s t e r , and the Convocator of our A s s e m b l i e s f o r the p r e s e n t ; and s u p p i n g t o g e t h e r , so d e p a r t e d . One of the Q u e s t i o n s was, t o u c h i n g the O r i g i n a l of the  Terms; about which, as b e i n g obscure and g e n e r a l l y m i s t a k e n , I bestowed some e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a i n s ; t h a t coming s h o r t of o t h e r s i n U n d e r s t a n d i n g , I might e q u a l them i f I c o u l d i n D i l i g e n c e . But b e f o r e our next M e e t i n g , we had n o t i c e t h a t h i s M a j e s t y took a l i t t l e M i s l i k e of our S o c i e t y ; not b e i n g i n f o r m e d , t h a t we had r e s o l v e d t o d e c l i n e a l l M a t t e r s of 3 State. Yet hereupon we forbore to meet again, and so a l l our Labours l o s t . But mine lying by me, and having been often desired of me by some of my Friends, I thought i t good upon a Review and Augmentation to l e t i t creep abroad in the Form you see i t , wishing i t might be r e c t i f i e d by some better Judgement. 4 NOTES 1. S i r Henry Spelman, The E n g l i s h Works of S i r Henry Spelman, Kb (London, 1723), pp.69-70. The " O c c a s i o n " was w r i t t e n as a p r e f a c e t o Spelman's The O r i g i n a l of the Four  Terms of the Year, f i r s t p r i n t e d i n 1684. S p e l l i n g has been modernised, e x c e p t f o r proper names and c a p i t a l i s a t i o n . P u n c t u a t i o n has a l s o been l e f t untouched. 5 THE ANTIQUARIES AS INTELLECTUALS: A PUZZLE Why would a group of E n g l i s h gentlemen, o n l y " s t u d i o u s of A n t i q u i t i e s " , promise so f i r m l y i n advance t o a v o i d m a t t e r s of s t a t e and r e l i g i o n ? And why would James I , h i m s e l f i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y and i n the concept of a R o y a l Academy, r e f u s e so f i r m l y t o a l l o w the f o r m a t i o n of such a S o c i e t y on the grounds t h a t i t might meddle i n p o l i t i c s ? The o r i g i n a l S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s had o s t e n s i b l y o p e r a t e d between 1586 and c.1607, v e r y much i n the way t h a t S i r Henry Spelman d e s c r i b e d i t . The members were e x p e c t e d t o a t t e n d London m e e t i n g s , where t h e y exchanged s h o r t papers on s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o B r i t i s h a n t i q u i t y . These p a p e r s , or " d i s c o u r s e s " , d e a l t g e n e r a l l y w i t h the q u e s t i o n of o r i g i n s , of how B r i t a i n had d e v e l o p e d as i t had. Thus t h e y d i s c u s s e d the development of o f f i c e s , of customs, of t e r m i n o l o g y and of laws. L i t t l e i n a l l t h i s e x p l a i n s James' unease. H i s t o r i a n s have never s u c c e s s f u l l y e x p l a i n e d h i s " m i s l i k e " . The s o l e major modern s t u d y of the S o c i e t y i s L i n d a Van Norden's 1946 d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , i n which she c a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a l i s t of 38 members* and s t u d i e d the 198 d i s c o u r s e s then known.(1) I n t e r e s t e d i n the S o c i e t y m a i n l y as i t "helped t o c r e a t e modern method i n h i s t o r i c a l * D e t a i l s on the c a r e e r s of the 38 members are l i s t e d i n the Appendix. 6 r e s e a r c h " , Van Norden o n l y b r i e f l y touched on James' 1614 d i s a p p r o v a l , s p e c u l a t i n g t h a t he was s i m p l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t . ( 2 ) More r e c e n t l y h i s t o r i a n s , who a d d r e s s the S o c i e t y o n l y m o m e n t a r i l y , g e n e r a l l y assume t h a t James d i s a p p r o v e d of the s u b j e c t matter of some of the S o c i e t y ' s l a t e r d i s c o u r s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those t o do w i t h the h i s t o r y of P a r l i a m e n t . ( 3 ) T h i s i s p o s s i b l e , though u n s a t i s f y i n g . The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s was not a f o r m a l academy of h i s t o r y such as e x i s t e d i n I t a l y a t t h a t t i m e . ( 4 ) Nor was i t i n any sense a n a t i o n a l r e p o s i t o r y of books and m a n u s c r i p t s , a l t h o u g h an undated p e t i t i o n w i t h the names of James Ley, Robert C o t t o n and John Dodderidge proposes the f o r m a t i o n of such an i n s t i t u t i o n . ( 5 ) T h i s p e t i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of the a n t i q u a r i e s had a broad v i s i o n of the s c h o l a r l y p o t e n t i a l of a s t a t e l i b r a r y s u p p o r t e d and m a i n t a i n e d by a n a t i o n a l academy of h i s t o r y ; i f t h i s had been a S o c i e t y p r o j e c t , one would expect more members t o have s i g n e d the p e t i t i o n . Yet the members of the S o c i e t y were not s c h o l a r s . Not one of them was s o l e l y a h i s t o r i a n ; t h e y a l l had demanding p r o f e s s i o n s w i t h which t h e y were e x t r e m e l y i n v o l v e d d u r i n g the S o c i e t y ' s y e a r s of o p e r a t i o n . Those of the a n t i q u a r i e s who wrote h i s t o r y tended t o do so e i t h e r b e f o r e or a f t e r these y e a r s . Lambarde's P e r a m b u l a t i o n  of Kent was v i r t u a l l y f i n i s h e d by 1570. Camden's B r i t a n n i a was p u b l i s h e d i n 1586, and the f i r s t p a r t of h i s Annales d i d not appear u n t i l 1615. Robert C o t t o n p u b l i s h e d n o t h i n g 7 b e f o r e 1627, and Henry Spelman, a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r on v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o the law, a l s o p u b l i s h e d o n l y q u i t e l a t e i n h i s l i f e . T h i s i s the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n f o r the a n t i q u a r i e s , many of whom wrote a g r e a t d e a l , but most of whom p u b l i s h e d l i t t l e or n o t h i n g of moment w h i l e the S o c i e t y was i n e x i s t e n c e . When one examines the S o c i e t y and i t s members i n d e t a i l more m y s t e r i e s b e g i n t o appear. The S o c i e t y was not composed of h i s t o r i a n s and s c h o l a r s , but of m i d d l e - and u p p e r - l e v e l g e n t r y , of m i d d l e - r a n k c i v i l s e r v a n t s , of l a w y e r s and j u d g e s , and of h e r a l d s . A l l t h e s e men were h i g h l y connected and e x t r e m e l y busy i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s . How and why d i d t h e y f i n d time t o g i v e an e n t i r e a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g once e v e r y week i n term time t o the meetings of an a n t i q u a r i a n s o c i e t y , meetings w h i c h , moreover, demanded a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p r e p a r a t i o n ? The contemporary documentation f o r the S o c i e t y i s s p a r s e i n d e e d , and u n i n f o r m a t i v e . In a d d i t i o n t o Spelman's " O c c a s i o n " and t o the d i s c o u r s e s themselves t h e r e e x i s t o n l y two membership r o l l s , a few m a r g i n a l notes of names, two l e t t e r s between S o c i e t y members which mention S o c i e t y b u s i n e s s , and two n o t i c e s of meetings t o be h e l d . ( 6 ) T h i s p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n i s c u r i o u s . One might e x p e c t such a l i t e r a r y group t o l e a v e volumes of l e t t e r s , r e c o r d s , d i a r i e s and s u c h l i k e e v i d e n c e of a c t i v i t i e s , but t h i s i s by no means 8 the c a s e . I t i s a l s o s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e mention of the S o c i e t y or i t s a c t i v i t i e s over 20 y e a r s i n any o f f i c i a l documents. N e i t h e r the S t a t e Papers nor the r e c o r d s of the P r i v y C o u n c i l ever mention the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , a l t h o u g h b oth c o n t a i n numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l S o c i e t y members. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s o f f i c i a l i n v i s i b i l i t y , t h e r e i s the p r o v i s o i n the e x i s t i n g summonses t o meetings t h a t a b s o l u t e s e c r e c y be m a i n t a i n e d . The 1598 and 1599 n o t i c e s t o Mr. Bowyer and Mr. Stowe both d e c r e e d t h a t the r e c i p i e n t s were n e i t h e r t o t e l l anyone about the meetings nor t o b r i n g anyone w i t h them.(7) Why would a l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y l a y such emphasis on a need f o r s e c r e c y ? The o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the S o c i e t y was more than a c l u b f o r "Gentlemen i n London s t u d i o u s of A n t i q u i t i e s " . Dr. Van Norden attempted o n l y t o e s t a b l i s h the membership f o r the S o c i e t y , and the s u b j e c t s t h a t were d i s c u s s e d i n d i s c o u r s e s . She d i d not examine the members or t h e i r c a r e e r s i n any d e t a i l . L a t e r h i s t o r i a n s have f o l l o w e d her l e a d i n u n c r i t i c a l l y t r e a t i n g the S o c i e t y as an i n t e l l e c t u a l group s i m p l y because the group produced s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l e s s a y s . T h i s approach has l e d nowhere. The d i s c o u r s e s are o f t e n s u p e r f i c i a l , sometimes even p u e r i l e . In t hemselves t h e y cannot account f o r the S o c i e t y . A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n of the S o c i e t y ' s outward a c t i v i t i e s w i l l s i m p l y p o i n t up the i m p l i c i t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , the 9 p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e was more t o the s o c i e t y than i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . The S o c i e t y , formed of gentlemen who were h i s t o r i c a l e n t h u s i a s t s but not p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s , was o s t e n s i b l y o r g a n i s e d t o s t u d y B r i t i s h h i s t o r y u s i n g r e c o r d s o u r c e s , c h r o n i c l e s , c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and a c t u a l a r t i f a c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Spelman's a c c o u n t , which i s not c o n t r a d i c t e d by any d i r e c t e v i d e n c e , i t was formed around 1586 and c o n t i n u e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 y e a r s . ( 8 ) The e a r l i e s t e x i s t i n g d i s c o u r s e s were produced i n 1590 and the l a s t i n 1607.(9) A s t u d y of the d i s c o u r s e s and of the o t h e r documentary e v i d e n c e r e v e a l s the outward a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i e t y . ( 1 0 ) A l l members who were i n London were expected t o a t t e n d the meetings which g e n e r a l l y began i n the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n a t e i t h e r the H e r a l d s ' O f f i c e a t Darby House or i n the home of W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e , the G a r t e r King-at-Arms and the most s e n i o r h e r a l d i n England.(11) Everyone p r e s e n t was expected t o p r e s e n t h i s o p i n i o n e i t h e r o r a l l y or i n w r i t i n g on the q u e s t i o n s of the day. A c c o r d i n g t o Spelman, the answers "which seemed most m a t e r i a l , was by one of the Company (chosen f o r the Purpose) t o be e n t e r e d i n a Book; t h a t so i t might remain unto P o s t e r i t y . " ( 1 2 ) The members c u s t o m a r i l y d i n e d t o g e t h e r on meeting days. Thus the s e were l o n g meetings i n t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e y r e q u i r e d time-consuming and c o m p l i c a t e d p r e p a r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g e x t e n s i v e s e a r c h e s t h r o u g h m a n u s c r i p t s and r e c o r d s . 10 That e v e r y member was e x p e c t e d to a t t e n d ( a t l e a s t when i n London) i s c o n f i r m e d by a l e t t e r from R i c h a r d Carew of Anthony t o Robert C o t t o n i n e a r l y 1605 e x c u s i n g h i s own absence from S o c i e t y m e e t i n g s ( 1 3 ) , and by the peremptory tones of the summonses t o Mr. Bowyer and Mr. Stowe, which s i m p l y demand t h e i r presence and announce t h a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e "exp e c t e d " . That e v e r y member was e x p e c t e d w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t e h i s s c h o l a r s h i p i s c o n f i r m e d by numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s o b l i g a t i o n w i t h i n the d i s c o u r s e s t h e m s e l v e s . A r t h u r Agard, f o r i n s t a n c e , when s p e a k i n g i n November 1598 on "the a n t i q u i t y of arms i n E n g l a n d " p l e a d e d i g n o r a n c e of the s u b j e c t , y e t p r e p a r e d a d i s c o u r s e "because i t i s r e q u i r e d . " ( 1 4 ) A c o n t r i b u t o r who n e g l e c t e d t o s i g n h i s d i s c o u r s e on " e p i t a p h s " i n November 1600 echoed t h i s s e n t i m e n t when he p r o t e s t e d t h a t he would p r e f e r i n h i s i g n o r a n c e t o remain s i l e n t on the s u b j e c t b u t , " i n the d u t i f u l r e g a r d I bear t o t h i s assembly, I must s e t s i l e n c e a p a r t . . . . " ( 1 5 ) The s u b j e c t s f o r d i s c o u r s e , a g a i n a c c o r d i n g t o Spelman, were proposed a t one meeting t o be d i s c u s s e d a t the n e x t , and t h e y r e f l e c t e d the f a c t t h a t most of the members were e i t h e r l a w y e r s or h e r a l d s . The t o t a l of 203 d i s c o u r s e s which s t i l l e x i s t , and which form the b a s i s f o r t h i s p a r t of my d i s c u s s i o n , a re da t e d from November 27, 1590 t o June 21, 1607, and r e p r e s e n t 38 known meetings. While not a l l a r e e i t h e r d a t e d or s i g n e d , i d e n t i c a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r s r e l i a b l y 11 group 178 of the d i s c o u r s e s i n t h i s manner. No meetings a r e known t o have been h e l d between 1594 and 1598, perhaps because th e s e were plague y e a r s i n London; 1599 and 1600 were, a c c o r d i n g t o the s u r v i v i n g d i s c o u r s e s , by f a r the most a c t i v e y e a r s f o r the S o c i e t y i n terms of the number of q u e s t i o n s proposed and a l s o the number of d i s c o u r s e s s u r v i v i n g . The t r a c t s commonly showed an i n t e r e s t i n etymology, and the s e r i e s on s t e r l i n g money and on the d i v e r s i t y of place-names i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s were p u r e l y e t y m o l o g i c a l . More common, however, was an e t y m o l o g i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n f o l l o w e d by the h i s t o r y of the law and customs c o n c e r n i n g the g i v e n s u b j e c t . Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s were a l r e a d y or would become a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s t o r i a n s and w r i t e r s . Camden's B r i t a n n i a , Carew's Survey of C o r n w a l l , and Lambarde's P e r a m b u l a t i o n of  Kent t e s t i f y t o t h e i r a b i l i t y . Yet l i t t l e of t h i s a b i l i t y i s e v i d e n t i n the s u r v i v i n g d i s c o u r s e s , which o v e r f l o w w i t h f l o w e r y p hrases and mutual compliments. Dr. Van Norden remarked t h a t the d i s c o u r s e s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by "the t o t a l l a c k of r e c i p r o c a l a d v e r s e c r i t i c i s m " and were g e n e r a l l y " f a m i l i a r and ' c h a t t y , ' sometimes even c o l l o q u i a l . " ( 1 6 ) While t h e y c e r t a i n l y n e c e s s i t a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h , the d i s c o u r s e s were s u p e r f i c i a l and u n c r i t i c a l i n comparison w i t h the work t h a t r e a l h i s t o r i a n s c o u l d produce. Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s were indeed r e a l 12 h i s t o r i a n s - but t h e i r work f o r the S o c i e t y was not up t o the s t a n d a r d s t h e y o t h e r w i s e s e t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The a n t i q u a r i e s f o l l o w e d "a program of s t u d y . . . . [ i n which] one s e r i e s of t r a c t s on r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s , l i n k i n g m e e t i ngs, terms, and sometimes y e a r s , would f o l l o w a n o t h e r or r u n p a r a l l e l t o a n o t h e r . " ( 1 7 ) Thus from 1590 t o 1594 the S o c i e t y s t u d i e d the E n g l i s h peerage, and from 1591 t o 1594 the members a l s o d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the Inns of C o u r t , and r e a l p r o p e r t y . In 1598 t h e r e was a b r i e f e x c u r s i o n i n t o the a n t i q u i t y of arms, b e f o r e a new s e r i e s on t o p o g r a p h i c a l - l e g a l q u e s t i o n s i n 1599. In 1600 f u n e r a l s and f u n e r a l customs were d i s c u s s e d , and from 1601 t o 1603 the a n t i q u a r i e s were concerned w i t h c o u r t l y o f f i c e s such as h e r a l d s , the High C o n s t a b l e and the E a r l M a r s h a l l . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n o r i g i n s and development, and l i m i t e d t h emselves as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o E n g l i s h s o u r c e s . The d i s c o u r s e s s t i l l s u r v i v i n g show e v i d e n c e of e x t e n s i v e s t u d y of s t a t e r e c o r d s , as w e l l as knowledge of p r i n t e d a u t h o r s such as Bede and G e o f f r e y of Monmouth. Some a n t i q u a r i e s c o n s u l t e d c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s , and a v e r y few mentioned works of l i t e r a t u r e such as The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s . H i s t o r i a n s , l e d a s t r a y by the a ssumption t h a t the S o c i e t y was p u r e l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l group, have been l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s S o c i e t y and i t s d i s c o u r s e s e x c e p t t o l i n k i t a l l t o nascent n a t i o n a l i s m e x p r e s s e d i n a g e n e r a l e f f o r t t o s e a r c h out the o r i g i n s of England as a n a t i o n . ( 1 8 ) T h i s 13 i s c o n v i n c i n g as f a r as I t goes, but h a r d l y s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n e i t h e r the l a r g e amount of time expended by busy members on t h e i r S o c i e t y a c t i v i t i e s , or James 1 " m i s l i k e " , and h i s f e a r of the a n t i q u a r i e s ' p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n a t i o n s . Most a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h i s f e a r have r e v o l v e d around a s e r i e s of u n f o r t u n a t e l y undated d i s c o u r s e s on the a n t i q u i t y of Par 1iament.(19) T h i s s e r i e s , which Van Norden s p e c u l a t e s was w r i t t e n about 1604, was composed of seven d i s c o u r s e s of which two were u n s i g n e d ; the r e s t were w r i t t e n by John Dodderidge, A r t h u r Agard, F r a n c i s T a t e , W i l l i a m Camden and Joseph H o l l a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o u s u a l S o c i e t y p r a c t i s e s e v e r a l of the d i s c o u r s e s opened w i t h an etymology of the word " p a r l i a m e n t " , l i n k i n g i t t o v a r i o u s L a t i n and Greek terms and t o the F r e n c h v e r b p a r l e r . The a n t i q u a r i e s then s e a r c h e d out the e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e s t o such a g a t h e r i n g and t o the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t would be e x a g g e r a t i n g t o c a l l t he r e s u l t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y , but c e r t a i n l y some of the a n t i q u a r i e s ' p o s i t i o n papers were l e s s w h o l e h e a r t e d l y m o n a r c h i c a l i n tone than James might have wished. Tate and Dodderidge, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of P a r l i a m e n t as a u n i o n of K i n g , Lords and Commons w i t h i n which each element was v i t a l , and which put c e r t a i n customary l i m i t a t i o n s on the monarch's power, may have i r k e d James i f he read the papers. 14 A g a i n , even i f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y were f a c t i t i s u n s a t i s f y i n g . Had James s i m p l y not approved of the s u b j e c t matter of the d i s c o u r s e s , he c o u l d s i m p l y have s a i d s o ; but t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n s u r e l y would have been r e c o r d e d . There i s no e v i d e n c e whatever t h a t the a n t i q u a r i e s were su p p r e s s e d or t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the r e i g n were o f f i c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d o f ; i n f a c t , as s h a l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , the a n t i q u a r i e s as a group f a r e d v e r y w e l l indeed d u r i n g James' f i r s t E n g l i s h decade. F u r t h e r m o r e , even had such a s u p p r e s s i o n of t h e i r a n t i q u a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r e d , we s t i l l have no s e n s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n t o account f o r the l a c k of e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the S o c i e t y d u r i n g n e a r l y 20 y e a r s of E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n . To u n d e r s t a n d the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s and i t s a c t i v i t i e s i t i s c r u c i a l t o examine the members v e r y c l o s e l y . A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y were, as a group, v e r y busy men, v e r y o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r c a r e e r s and t h e i r a m b i t i o n s and h i g h l y p l a c e d i n the s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l h i e r a r c h y of the c o u n t r y ; t h e y were not an anonymous group a t a l l , but i n many ways a d i v e r s e one. Only two were h i s t o r i a n s , W i l l i a m Camden and John Stowe. Both t h e s e men, however, a l s o h e l d o t h e r p o s i t i o n s : Camden as a well-known t e a c h e r and l a t e r a h e r a l d and Stowe, the o n l y member not born a gentleman, as a t a i l o r and a member of the Merchant T a y l o r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n of London. The o t h e r a n t i q u a r i e s were m o s t l y l a w y e r s or h e r a l d s ; Thomas D'oyley 15 was a d o c t o r of m e d i c i n e , of the t h i r t y e i g h t c o n f i r m e d members, t h i r t y one had a t t e n d e d e i t h e r O x f o r d or Cambridge, and most had been awarded degr e e s . None were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r u n i v e r s i t y , and none were c l e r i c s . They r e p r e s e n t e d a l l p o i n t s on the r e l i g i o u s spectrum. Some, l i k e R obert B e a l e , have been l a b e l l e d " p u r i t a n s " . O t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Henry Spelman c o u l d be more a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as r e l i g i o u s c o n s e r v a t i v e s . Stowe was s u s p e c t e d of p a p i s t t e n d e n c i e s , Thomas Lake was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C a t h o l i c cause, and Sampson Er d e s w i c k was a f u l l - b l o w n r e c u s a n t who was i m p r i s o n e d f o r h i s b e l i e f s i n 1589. Thus r e l i g i o n was h a r d l y a u n i t i n g f a c t o r and c o u l d not have been the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the S o c i e t y . Yet the S o c i e t y c e r t a i n l y had members a v a i l a b l e w i t h a d i v e r s i t y of r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s . I n f a c t the S o c i e t y members had f i n g e r s on the p u l s e of the c o u n t r y i n v a r i o u s ways. Many of them were r e t u r n e d t o P a r l i a m e n t d u r i n g the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v e y e a r s . They d i d not p r e s e n t a c o h e s i v e " p a r t y p o s i t i o n " i n the House, but th e y d i d , as a group, r e p r e s e n t most of the c o u n t r y a t some t i m e . The members were a l s o a c t i v e throughout the c o u n t r y as l a w y e r s , j u d g e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y J u s t i c e s of the Peace, those u p h o l d e r s of the c e n t r a l government's a u t h o r i t y i n the p r o v i n c e s . They appeared on the C o u n c i l of the N o r t h and the C o u n c i l i n the Marches of Wales. The S o c i e t y was r e p r e s e n t e d a l s o i n the major "departments" of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n such 16 as Chancery, the S i g n e t O f f i c e and the Exchequer. They even had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l : f o r many y e a r s Robert Beale was one of i t s s e c r e t a r i e s , and W i l l i a m Compton was a member. Thomas Lake, who l a t e r became a P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r , was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t as the L a t i n s e c r e t a r y t o bo t h Queen E l i z a b e t h and K i n g James. N a t u r a l l y , these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s e n t a i l e d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the g r e a t statesmen of the t i m e . Most of the S o c i e t y members had patronage r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h these gentlemen, and many a l s o were r e l a t e d e i t h e r by b l o o d or ma r r i a g e t o the foremost noble and g o v e r n i n g f a m i l i e s of E n g l a n d . The p a t t e r n i s c l e a r . E i t h e r i n i t s own members or i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s , the E l i z a b e t h a n S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s had t e n t a c l e s s p r e a d a t e v e r y l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t the kingdom. The p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y w i d e s p r e a d . The e x t e n t of t h i s p o t e n t i a l w i l l be e l u c i d a t e d from a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of the members' p r o f e s s i o n a l , p e r s o n a l , and p a t r o n a g e - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and i t w i l l s uggest an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l component i n the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s and m o t i v a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , an e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d which w i l l e x p l a i n the s e c r e c y of the S o c i e t y , i t s demise i n the e a r l y y e a r s of James' r e i g n , and h i s h o s t i l e response t o the 1614 r e q u e s t t o r e - f o r m . S i n c e the tendency to loo k a t the S o c i e t y and i t s d i s c o u r s e s i n i s o l a t i o n has proved t o l e a d 17 nowhere, the f o c u s throughout w i l l be on the members i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l environment. 18 NOTES 1. L i n d a Van Norden, "The E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e of A n t i q u a r i e s " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1946). Van Norden's t h i r t y e i g h t proven members w i l l form the b a s i s of t h i s s t u d y . The membership may p o s s i b l y have been as h i g h as f o r t y f i v e ; the seven "unproven" gentlemen have been o m i t t e d . Most of the d i s c o u r s e s were p u b l i s h e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F o r t y seven appeared i n Thomas Hearne, A C o l l e c t i o n of C u r i o u s  D i s c o u r s e s ( O x f o r d : 1720), and 107 more appeared i n A y l o f f e , A C o l l e c t i o n of C u r i o u s D i s c o u r s e s 2 v o l s . (London: 1771, 1773, 1775). In " S i r Henry Spelman on the C h ronology of the E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e of A n t i q u a r i e s , " H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y  Q u a r t e r l y , 2, Feb. 1950, Van Norden notes f i v e f u r t h e r d i s c o u r s e s . M a n u s c r i p t c o p i e s of the d i s c o u r s e s are p r e s e r v e d i n a t l e a s t t h i r t y seven c o l l e c t i o n s i n the B r i t i s h Museum, the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y and o t h e r r e p o s i t o r i e s . 2. Van Norden, " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e " , p.488. 3. See, f o r example, M i c h a e l Mendle, Dangerous P o s i t i o n s (Alabama: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama P r e s s , 1985), pp.103-111. 4. Van Norden, " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e " , p.413. 5. T h i s document, known as the " C o t t o n P e t i t i o n , " i s p r i n t e d i n A y l o f f e , 1775 ed., I I , pp.324-326. An i n c o m p l e t e v e r s i o n i s i n [Gough,] " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " A r c h e o l o g i a , I , 1779, p p . i i i - v . 6. Van Norden d i s c u s s e s t h i s o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n d e t a i l i n " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e " , pp.24-36. Academic p r o j e c t o r s such as Edmund B o l t o n made many c l a i m s f o r the S o c i e t y and produced a g r e a t d e a l of s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l . T h i s m a t e r i a l was s e l f -s e r v i n g and h i g h l y b i a s e d ; Van Norden r i g h t l y d i s c o u n t s i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . Gough's " I n t r o d u c t i o n " has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used as a s o u r c e by h i s t o r i a n s , but he r e l i e d on the s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s ; thus Gough's " i n f e r e n c e s were h a s t i l y drawn" and h i s work was "unevenly v e r i f i e d and documented." ( " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e " , pp.40-43.) He s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d o n l y w i t h g r e a t c a u t i o n . 7. See A r t h u r J . Evans, " A n n i v e r s a r y A d d r e s s , " P r o c e e d i n g s  of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , 2nd. s e r i e s , V o l . XXIX, 1916-1917, between pages 170 and 171, f o r f a c s i m i l e s of t h e s e summonses. The 1598 summons or d e r e d Mr. Bowyer t o " g i v e not n o t i c e h e r e o f t o any but such as have the l i k e summons." Mr. Stowe's 1599 n o t i c e c a u t i o n e d him t o " b r i n g 19 none o t h e r w i t h you nor g i v e any n o t i c e t o any but such as have the l i k e summons." 8. Spelman," " O c c a s i o n . " 9. Van Norden d i s c u s s e s the d i s c o u r s e s v e r y f u l l y i n both her d i s s e r t a t i o n and her a r t i c l e . 10. Van Norden, " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e " , f o r the meetings. 11. These may have been one and the same p l a c e . 12. Spelman, " O c c a s i o n . " The d i s c o u r s e s were w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d a f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n of the S o c i e t y . 13. L e t t e r p r i n t e d i n S i r Henry E l l i s , O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s of  Eminent L i t e r a r y Men of the S i x t e e n t h , S e v e n t e e n t h , and  E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s (London: Camden S o c i e t y , v o l . X X I I I , 1843), pp.98-100. O c c a s i o n a l l y , members unable t o a t t e n d i n pe r s o n s e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the meetings anyway; see K e v i n Sharpe, S i r Robert C o t t o n , 1586-1631 ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p.18, n.9. 14. A y l o f f e , I , p.173. 15. I b i d . , p.233. 16. Van Norden, " E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e , " pp.403, 409. 17. I b i d . , p.338. See May McKisack, M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y i n the  Tudor Age ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1971), c h a p t e r 7, e s p e c i a l l y pp.161-169, f o r a good d i s c u s s i o n of the S o c i e t y and i t s d i s c o u r s e s . 18. A y l o f f e , I , p . i v ; Gough, p p . i - i v ; Evans, " A n n i v e r s a r y A d d r e s s , " pp.168-170; McKisack, p.161; and Evans, H i s t o r y , pp.8-9. 19.See the s e d i s c o u r s e s i n A y l o f f e , I , pp.281-310. A r e c e n t example i s i n Mendle, pp.103-106. 20 THE ANTIQUARIES AS CAREER MEN The members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s were e x t r e m e l y busy gentlemen. Not o n l y were t h e y judges and la w y e r s who, w h i l e a b l e t o a t t e n d meetings d u r i n g the law terms because of t h e i r r e s u l t i n g presence i n London, must have been a t t e n d i n g t h e s e meetings d u r i n g t h e i r b u s i e s t s e a s o n s . S e v e r a l were h e r a l d s , who had wide r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f r e q u e n t l y t r a v e l l e d a l l over the c o u n t r y . Some were m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s l i k e W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , the r e c o r d e r of London, who once complained t o L o r d B u r g h l e y t h a t he had no time f o r meals and c o u l d never r e s t . Many were members of P a r l i a m e n t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . Many, some v e r y h i g h l y p l a c e d , were members of the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and s e v e r a l m a i n t a i n e d a l a r g e v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s a l l a t the same t i m e . How c o u l d t h e y p o s s i b l y f i n d time f o r a gentlemens' l i t e r a r y group u n l e s s t h i s group was e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t ? Perhaps an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n the S o c i e t y can be found i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . The a r e a s i n which t h e y worked had c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. The a n t i q u a r i e s were a b l e t o t r a v e l t h r o u g h o u t E n g l a n d , u n q u e s t i o n e d and t h e r e f o r e i n v i s i b l e ; t o meet w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of people a t a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the p o l i t i c a l c l a s s ; t o d e l v e i n t o the most a b s t r u s e r e c o r d s ; and t o m a i n t a i n a p o t e n t i a l f o r a l e v e l of c o n t r o l 21 a l l over the c o u n t r y . Thus, I f one p o s t u l a t e s a p o l i t i c a l r o l e f o r the S o c i e t y , as K i n g James c l e a r l y p o s t u l a t e d , perhaps t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s h o l d a c l u e . Most of the members had some l e g a l t r a i n i n g , as c i v i l law was p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m a t both u n i v e r s i t i e s . Beyond t h i s l e s s f o r m a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s t u d y of law, however, t h i r t y one had a t t e n d e d the Inns of C o u r t , advanced l e g a l academies where s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n h i s t o r y and the common law and a l s o l e a r n e d accomplishments "as a r e s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r q u a l i t y , and such as a r e u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d a t C o u r t . " (1) Thus t h e y l e a r n e d d a n c i n g , s i n g i n g and t h e a t r i c a l s , and r e g u l a r l y p r e s e n t e d l a v i s h e n t e r t a i n m e n t s or " r e v e l s " t o which the monarch and Cou r t were i n v i t e d . The Inns were more than l e g a l and c o u r t l y academies, however. They "comprised a l l those l i c e n s e d t o p r a c t i s e as b a r r i s t e r s b e f o r e the c o u r t s of common law and e q u i t y " , r e g u l a t e d many a s p e c t s of l a w y e r s ' p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l b e h a v i o u r , and a c t e d g e n e r a l l y as p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and g o v e r n o r s f o r the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n . ( 2 ) The case of S i r John D a v i e s , an e x t r e m e l y hot tempered and i m p u l s i v e member of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , i l l u s t r a t e s some of the f u n c t i o n s of the Inns. D a v i e s r e c e i v e d a B.A. from O x f o r d i n 1590, two y e a r s a f t e r he e n t e r e d the M i d d l e Temple. He was c a l l e d t o the bar i n 1595, but o n l y a f t e r b e i n g f i n e d i n 1591 by the Temple 22 a u t h o r i t i e s f o r d i c i n g and d i s o r d e r l y b e h a v i o u r , and t e m p o r a r i l y e x p e l l e d i n 1592 f o r d i s o r d e r l y and i n s u l t i n g b e h a v i o u r . Even a f t e r Davies was c a l l e d t o the bar he was under the governance of the M i d d l e Temple. In a somewhat m y s t e r i o u s i n c i d e n t i n 1597 he marched i n t o the Temple d i n i n g h a l l and, f o r some u n s p e c i f i e d r e a s o n , h i t h i s former f r i e n d R i c h a r d M a r t i n over the head. T h i s escapade was r e g a r d e d e x t r e m e l y s e r i o u s l y and Davies was d i s b a r r e d , s u p p o s e d l y f o r e v e r , by the M i d d l e Temple. Only a f t e r e f f o r t s by S i r R o b e r t C e c i l , the L o r d C h i e f J u s t i c e S i r John Popham, and the L o r d Keeper S i r Thomas E g e r t o n , was D a v i e s r e i n s t a t e d i n 1601 a f t e r he p u b l i c l y a p o l o g i s e d t o M a r t i n . ( 3 ) The Inns of C o u r t had c o n s i d e r a b l e power. No la w y e r c o u l d p l e a d b e f o r e the r o y a l c o u r t s a t Westminster u n l e s s he was a r a n k i n g member of an Inn, and the c o u r t of Common P l e a s was the monopoly t e r r i t o r y of the S e r j e a n t s a t law who were r e c r u i t e d from the s e n i o r r a n k s a t the I n n s . ( 4 ) The s e n i o r r a n k s , known as benchers and r e a d e r s , were the t e a c h i n g f a c u l t y a t the I n n s , and t e n of the a n t i q u a r i e s a t some time a c t e d i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . ( 5 ) In a d d i t i o n , John Dodderidge became the t r e a s u r e r of the M i d d l e Temple i n 1603, and James Ley was the governor of L i n c o l n ' s Inn from 1609-1622. Thus the a n t i q u a r i e s were w e l l - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the h i e r a r c h y of the E n g l i s h l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n , w i t h i n which t h e y were a b l e t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e . 23 In a d d i t i o n t o those who h e l d p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the I n n s 7 a t l e a s t f i f t e e n S o c i e t y members were p r a c t i s i n g l a w y e r s and s i x (or perhaps seven) were judges whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s took them a l l over the c o u n t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the West and N o r t h . ( 6 ) R i c h a r d Broughton, b r o t h e r of the well-known Hebrew s c h o l a r , and a d v i s o r t o the Devereux f a m i l y , a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m when he s e r v e d as a judge i n N o r t h Wales and i n C h e s t e r . T h i s c r i t i c i s m c u l m i n a t e d i n e a r l y 1599 when f i f t y c i t i z e n s of Monmouthshire appeared b e f o r e the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n London t o c o m p l a i n t h a t Broughton was t r y i n g t o t a k e away t h e i r commons and a l s o t r y i n g t o f o r c e one of the c i t i z e n s t o h e l p Broughton's endeavour t o marry o f f h i s daughter and make h i s son a k n i g h t . ( 7 ) The P r i v y C o u n c i l d i d not remove Broughton from h i s p o s t , even when the c o m p l a i n t s c o n t i n u e d , but o n l y o r d e r e d him t o a c t more c i r c u m s p e c t l y , t o "take more more moderate and i n d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s t o a v o i d t h i s c l a m o u r . " ( 8 ) Broughton f i n a l l y l o s t h i s j o b i n 1602, perhaps as an i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of the Essex R e b e l l i o n , o n l y t o be promoted a g a i n i n 1603 a f t e r James' a c c e s s i o n . The n o r t h e r n c i r c u i t was c o v e r e d from the mid-1590s p o s s i b l y by Thomas T a l b o t and c e r t a i n l y by John S a v i l e , an a n t i q u a r y of some n o t o r i e t y who c l a s h e d r e p e a t e d l y w i t h the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n the 1580s and 1590s over the s t a t u t e s t o do w i t h c l o t h making. In t h i s matter he was h a r d l y 24 d i s i n t e r e s t e d s i n c e he came from an i n f l u e n t i a l Y p r k s h i r e f a m i l y which had e x t e n s i v e c l o t h i n g i n t e r e s t s . Yet even though S a v i l e , l i k e Broughton, was a c o n s i d e r a b l e i r r i t a n t , t he P r i v y C o u n c i l d i d not remove him from o f f i c e , but r a t h e r promoted him i n 1598 t o be a j u s t i c e of a s s i z e f o r the n o r t h e r n c i r c u i t and a Baron of the Exchequer. The j u s t i c e s of a s s i z e made t w i c e y e a r l y c i r c u i t s , c o n v e y i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s of the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o l o c a l government, a d j u d i c a t i n g l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s , and r e p o r t i n g back t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l . T h e i r c o n t a c t s i n l o c a l governments were the j u s t i c e s of the peace.(9) S a v i l e c o n t i n u e d t o cause problems as a judge: i n 1599 S i r Thomas Posthumous Hoby complained t o S i r Robert C e c i l because S a v i l e gave "hard d e a l i n g " i n a case i n which he was both judge and i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . S t i l l S a v i l e was not d i s m i s s e d . ( 1 0 ) The j u s t i c e s of the peace, c o n t r o l l e d by the Crown (and p a r t i c u l a r l y the P r i v y C o u n c i l a c t i n g on the Crown's b e h a l f ) and by the c o u r t s of common law, were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n f o r c i n g the laws made by P a r l i a m e n t and by the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . "The men of a l l work i n the Tudor scheme of l o c a l government," who were combined c i v i l s e r v a n t s , law o f f i c e r s and j u d g e s , t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c e n t r e d around the q u a r t e r s e s s i o n s where t h e y a d j u d i c a t e d minor l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s . ( 1 1 ) G e n e r a l l y t h e y were i n f l u e n t i a l as l a n d owners i n the ar e a s where t h e y I 25 s e r v e d , and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the case f o r the f i f t e e n a n t i q u a r i e s who were J.P.s who, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r London r e s i d e n c e s , e i t h e r p r i v a t e l y owned or w i t h i n the Inns of C o u r t , g e n e r a l l y owned c o n s i d e r a b l e c o u n t r y p r o p e r t y . T h e i r s e r v i c e as j u s t i c e s of the peace was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s o u t h e a s t , i n Wales, and i n the n o r t h of England.(12) Many J.P.s were a l s o Members of P a r l i a m e n t , where t h e y h e l p e d t o make the laws which t h e y would l a t e r a d m i n i s t e r i n the p r o v i n c e s . Here a g a i n the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s was a c t i v e a s , out of the f i f t e e n who s e r v e d as J. P . s , t e n were a l s o Members of P a r l i a m e n t d u r i n g the a c t i v e y e a r s of the S o c i e t y . Between 1586 and 1604 n i n e t e e n of the S o c i e t y members s e r v e d i n Pa r 1 i a m e n t . ( 1 3 ) I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n the A n t i q u a r i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the southwest and the west M i d l a n d s . In e v e r y P a r l i a m e n t from 1586 t o 1604 (except f o r 1589, when M i c h a e l Heneage s a t f o r T a v i s t o c k , Devon, j u s t a c r o s s the c o u n t y b o r d e r ) the A n t i q u a r i e s h e l d one or two C o r n w a l l s e a t s . D o r s e t s e a t s were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d by A n t i q u a r i e s i n e v e r y P a r l i a m e n t e x c e p t 1593 and 1604. In the M i d l a n d s the A n t i q u a r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d S h r o p s h i r e s e a t s i n 1597, 1601 and 1604; and S t a f f o r d s h i r e s e a t s i n 1586, 1589, 1593 and 1597. In a d d i t i o n t o these a r e a s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , the A n t i q u a r y M.P.s h e l d two s e a t s i n Devon i n 1589; two i n W i l t s h i r e , one i n L a n c a s h i r e and one i n N o r f o l k i n 1593; and one s e a t each i n N o r f o l k and W i l t s h i r e i n 1597. By 1601 t h e i r net was 26 s p r e a d i n g even more w i d e l y t o encompass s e a t s i n Sussex, the I s l e of Wight, Kent, O x f o r d s h i r e and N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e . In 1604 t h e y h e l d s e a t s i n W o r c e s t e r s h i r e , Sussex, O x f o r d s h i r e , W i l t s h i r e , G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e , and the c o u n t y s e a t f o r H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e . Thus most a r e a s of the c o u n t r y were r e p r e s e n t e d a t some time by Members who a l s o belonged t o the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . These gentlemen were q u i t e a c t i v e i n P a r l i a m e n t , s e r v i n g on a wide v a r i e t y of committees and making many speeches. Yet t h e r e i s no d i s c e r n i b l e "programme," no c o n c e r t e d p a r l i a m e n t a r y p l a t f o r m promoted through the y e a r s by the A n t i q u a r i e s . The most t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t the A n t i q u a r i e s as a group tended t o be d e e p l y concerned f o r P a r l i a m e n t ' s power and p r i v i l e g e s . S e v e r a l of them a d d r e s s e d t h i s i s s u e , among them W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , the r e c o r d e r of London and a most l o y a l s e r v a n t of the Queen, who n e v e r t h e l e s s i n 1572 poured s c o r n on those who r e p o r t e d t o her the p r o c e e d i n g s i n the House, c a l l i n g them " e r r a n t p a p i s t s " and thus t r a i t o r s . ( 1 4 ) Robert Bowyer, Robert Beale and Henry B o u r g c h i e r were a l s o a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n the h i s t o r y and p r i v i l e g e s of the House.(15) The a n t i q u a r i e s s e r v e d on p a r l i a m e n t a r y committees d e a l i n g w i t h a l l s o r t s of m a t t e r s from vagabonds t o the f a t e of Mary Queen of S c o t s . On o n l y one o c c a s i o n can one f i n d e v i d e n c e f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of s e v e r a l of them on the same m a t t e r . T h i s o c c a s i o n was the debate on monopolies i n the 27 1601 p a r l i a m e n t . A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a s t r o n g " a n t i q u a r i a n " p o s i t i o n i n the m a t t e r , which was e x t r e m e l y c o n t e n t i o u s . Monopolies was the system under which the Crown awarded an i n d i v i d u a l or group the p a t e n t e d r i g h t t o c o n t r o l a g i v e n commodity or i n d u s t r y . In the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h i s system came under i n c r e a s i n g c r i t i c i s m from the populace because of the p o t e n t i a l i t p r e s e n t e d f o r abuse, and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p r i c e g o uging. Haywood Townshend, W i l l i a m H a k e w i l l and John Davies a l l spoke i n the debate on m o n o p o l i e s , and were c e r t a i n l y u n i t e d i n t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l of the mushrooming of the monopoly system. When a l i s t of a l l e x i s t i n g p a t e n t s was read o u t , H a k e w i l l s a i d f a c e t i o u s l y , " " I s not bread t h e r e ? " When p r e s s e d , he then warned t h a t " i f o r d e r be not t a k e n f o r t h e s e , bread w i l l be t h e r e b e f o r e the next P a r i i a m e n t . " ( 1 6 ) D a v i e s and Townshend agreed w i t h H a k e w i l l ' s p o i n t , y e t d i f f e r e d on t h e i r recommendations f o r p r o c e d u r e . D a v i e s , who u s u a l l y s i d e d w i t h the Crown i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e s , earned r i d i c u l e and censure when he advocated p r o c e e d i n g by b i l l r a t h e r than p e t i t i o n t o the Queen, and suggested t h a t a l l p a t e n t s s h o u l d be summarily c a n c e l l e d and t h e i r h o l d e r s g a o l e d u n t i l t h e y p a i d f i n e s and "made some p a r t of r e s t i t u t i o n t o some of the p o o r e s t t h a t have been oppressed by them."(17) Townshend, on the o t h e r hand, w h i l e a g r e e i n g on the i l l s of m o n o p o l i e s , recommended t h a t "the Speaker s h o u l d p e t i t i o n the Queen t o a l l o w the Commons t o proceed by 28 s t a t u t e . " ( 1 8 ) T h i s s u g g e s t i o n , which a v o i d e d c h a l l e n g i n g the Queen's a u t h o r i t y , was w i d e l y p r a i s e d f o r i t s wisdom. Thus, on the one o c c a s i o n when s e v e r a l a n t i q u a r i e s ' p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o s i t i o n s on a s i n g l e i s s u e can be d i s c e r n e d , these p o s i t i o n s a r e not u n i t e d . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o argue t h a t the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s p r e s e n t e d a c o h e r e n t p a r l i a m e n t a r y programme or t h a t t h i s was somehow t h e i r r a i s o n d ' e t r e . ( 1 9 ) C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h , i n i t i a l l y c o nducted i n the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t such a programme was i n o p e r a t i o n has r e v e a l e d no such m o t i v a t i o n . K i n g James assumed t h a t t h e r e was an u l t e r i o r motive f o r the S o c i e t y and t h a t t h i s motive was connected w i t h p o l i t i c s . Viewed i n the l i g h t of James' s u s p i c i o n s , the a n t i q u a r i e s * p a r l i a m e n t a r y r o l e s a r e s t r i k i n g i n t h e i r l a c k of u n i t y . However, t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , l i k e t h e i r j u d i c i a l ones, a l l o w e d them t o s p r e a d a l l over the c o u n t r y . T h e i r a n t i q u a r i a n r e s e a r c h e s must c e r t a i n l y have b e n e f i t e d from t h i s . More i m p o r t a n t f o r any p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s was the way i n which the a n t i q u a r i e s ' g e o g r a p h i c a l s p r e a d a l l o w e d the members t o be i n t o u c h w i t h the whole c o u n t r y a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s over an extended p e r i o d of t i m e . There were s t i l l o t h e r ways i n which the members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s came i n c o n t a c t w i t h the c o u n t r y . S e v e r a l of them were h e r a l d s whose main work was t o keep r e c o r d s of a l l e x i s t i n g arms i n the r e a l m , t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g r a n t i n g and d e s i g n i n g a l l new arms, and t o s e t r u l e s of 29 precedence.(20) i n the p r o c e s s t h e y d i d a g r e a t d e a l o£ g e n e a l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and t r a v e l l e d a l l over the c o u n t r y on t o u r s of i n s p e c t i o n known as " p r o v i n c i a l v i s i t a t i o n s , " i n which t h e y c a r r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y and e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l over s o c i e t y . The h e r a l d s were under the a u t h o r i t y of the E a r l M a r s h a l of E n g l a n d , and were themselves o r g a n i s e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . ( 2 1 ) C l a r e n c e u x k i n g of arms had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l of England s o u t h of the R i v e r T r e n t w h i l e N o r r o y k i n g o£ arms had j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r a l l of the r e s t of the kingdom. G a r t e r P r i n c i p a l k i n g of arms had g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y over C l a r e n c e u x and N o r r o y and t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e h e r a l d s and p o u r s u i v a n t s , and thus over the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . From 1586 t o c.1604 W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e , a member of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , was G a r t e r P r i n c i p a l k i n g of arms. He was thus the s u p e r i o r of W i l l i a m Camden, Richmond H e r a l d from 1597 and C l a r e n c e u x k i n g of arms from 1599; F r a n c i s Thynne, Blanche Lyon P o u r s u i v a n t i n 1601 and L a n c a s t e r H e r a l d from 1602; and R i c h a r d S t . George, Berwick P o u r s u i v a n t E x t r a o r d i n a r y and Windsor H e r a l d i n 1602 and N o r r o y k i n g of arms from 1603. A l l were members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . L i t t l e i s known of S t . George beyond h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as a h e r a l d . F r a n c i s Thynne, a younger son of the Thynnes of L o n g l e a t , was a Chaucer s c h o l a r who was c o n s t a n t l y i n t r o u b l e f o r i n d e b t e d n e s s i n h i s y o u t h , and was even i m p r i s o n e d i n 1574; two y e a r s l a t e r he was f o r c e d t o 30 a p p l y t o L o r d B u r g h l e y t o i n t e r v e n e f o r h i s r e l e a s e . Camden was of co u r s e the famous s c h o l a r and a u t h o r of B r i t a n n i a , which was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1586 and d e d i c a t e d t o L o r d B u r g h l e y . W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e was a v o l a t i l e i n d i v i d u a l who was c o n s t a n t l y surrounded by c o n t r o v e r s y and had a most c r e a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards l e g a l i t y . When he was c r e a t e d G a r t e r k i n g of arms he persuaded the c l e r k who wrote the b i l l t o tamper w i t h the wording so t h a t he c o u l d e n c r o a c h on the t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s of Norroy and C l a r e n c e u x . He argued b i t t e r l y and r e p e a t e d l y w i t h the o t h e r h e r a l d s t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r . He a t t a c k e d both h i s f a t h e r and h i s b r o t h e r , and W i l l i a m F l eetwood once s e c u r e d h i s r e l e a s e from Newgate a f t e r he k n i f e d two gentlemen a t the f u n e r a l of the Countess of Sussex. In 1589 a p a i n t e r named R i c h a r d S c a r l e t t c o mplained t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l t h a t D e t h i c k e had a t t a c k e d him w i t h a dagger and was s t i l l t h r e a t e n i n g h i s l i f e . S t r a n g e l y enough, the P r i v y C o u n c i l d i d not censure D e t h i c k e , but c o n t e n t e d i t s e l f w i t h o r d e r i n g p r o t e c t i o n f o r S c a r l e t t . ( 2 2 ) Not u n t i l James had taken the th r o n e was D e t h i c k e f i n a l l y d i s m i s s e d from h i s i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n . Thus, d u r i n g the a c t i v e y e a r s of the S o c i e t y from c.1586, i t s members had g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t England as l a w y e r s , J . P . s , j u d g e s , M.P.s and h e r a l d s . They had reasons t o t r a v e l around the c o u n t r y s i d e u n o b s t r u c t e d and u n q u e s t i o n e d , and the o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and come i n c o n t a c t w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of 31 p e o p l e . Nor d i d the S o c i e t y ' s c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n f l u e n c e end h e r e . Many of i t s members h e l d p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or w i t h employers who were themselves c l o s e l y c onnected w i t h t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The government of England and Wales was a d m i n i s t e r e d by g r e a t o f f i c e r s of s t a t e under the Great S e a l , the P r i v y S e a l and the S i g n e t . The monarch oversaw a l l , and had s p e c i f i c powers such as c o n t r o l over f o r e i g n p o l i c y , the r e g u l a t i o n of f o r e i g n t r a d e and the c o i n a g e , and the r e g u l a t i o n of the Church. The P r i v y C o u n c i l had huge a u t h o r i t y as i t a d v i s e d the monarch on m a t t e r s of p o l i c y , a p p o i n t e d and e x p e l l e d men from the commissions of the peace, s u p e r v i s e d the n a t i o n a l m i l i t i a , o r g a n i s e d the r a i s i n g and s p e n d i n g of money, oversaw the navy, was concerned w i t h d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n t r a d e and w i t h d i p l o m a c y , and s a t i n judgement over d i s p u t e s which d i d not come under the a e g i s of the law c o u r t s . ( 2 3 ) There were two s u b o r d i n a t e c o u n c i l s : the C o u n c i l i n the N o r t h and the C o u n c i l f o r Wales and the Marches; both were answerable t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l . The whole r e a l m was under complete s u r v e i l l a n c e between t h e s e t h r e e b o d i e s ; n o t h i n g was too t r i v i a l , l o c a l , p e r s o n a l or s e c t i o n a l f o r the C o u n c i l s ' i n t e r e s t . ( 2 4 ) The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s was w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l the C o u n c i l s . Robert Beale was c l e r k t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l from 1572, and s e c r e t a r y and keeper of the S i g n e t of the C o u n c i l of the N o r t h from 1586 t o 1595 when he r e s i g n e d due t o i l l h e a l t h . (25) Beale a l s o a c t e d as 32 S e c r e t a r y of State between 1580 and 1595 whenever Walsingham was absent. John S a v i l e served with Beale on the C o u n c i l f o r the North, and Richard Broughton served on the C o u n c i l f o r Wales and the Marches. The P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y f o r the monarch c o n t r o l l e d the Signet which a u t h e n t i c a t e d the monarch's p r i v a t e commands, and he was the major l i n k between the monarch and the P r i v y C o u n c i l . T h i s was S i r F r a n c i s Walsingham from 1573 to 1590, whose own s e c r e t a r y i n 1570 was the same Robert Beale who l a t e r became c l e r k to the P r i v y C o u n c i l . Walsingham's s e c r e t a r y by 1586 was Thomas Lake, another member of the S o c i e t y . Thus members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s were placed i n t i m a t e l y i n t o the hi g h e s t l e v e l s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and even came to have d i r e c t c o n t a c t with the monarch through Thomas Lake who was f i r s t appointed L a t i n S e c r e t a r y i n 1596. From 1589 to 1616 Lake was a l s o a c l e r k i n the department of s t a t e d e a l i n g with the Signe t , as was F r a n c i s Thynne before 1591 and John C l i f f e by 1586. Members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s were s i m i l a r l y w e l l placed i n other major departments of s t a t e . The Exchequer had j u r i s d i c t i o n over about 90% of the Crown's revenues, and the Lord Treasurer was second on l y to the Lord C h a n c e l l o r i n the l a y o f f i c e r s of s t a t e . ( 2 6 ) From 1572 to 1598 the Lord Treasurer was W i l l i a m C e c i l , Lord Burghley; a f t e r h i s death he was r e p l a c e d by h i s f r i e n d Thomas S a c k v i l l e , Lord Buckhurst. W i l l i a m Patten, an a n t i q u a r y 33 about whom l i t t l e i s known, but who had accompanied C e c i l on an expedition into Scotland in 1548 and was working for him on a matter of l i t e r a r y censorship in 1575, was a t e l l e r of receipt in the Exchequer by 1563.(27) Arthur Agard, a much more prominent member of the Society, was a clerk and keeper of the exchequer records early in his career; he rose by 1570 to become deputy chamberlain, and was later chamberlain. In 1598 John Savile was appointed a Baron of the Exchequer.(28) Most of the remaining 10% of the revenue coming to the Crown did so through the Duchy of Lancaster, which represented the fusion of the Crown with the dukedom of Lancaster since 1399.(29) The Duchy administered the royal estates which were mostly in the north of England and i t s accounts were not paid to the Exchequer, but kept separate. Several members of the Society of Antiquaries were employed by the Duchy. William Fleetwood, best known as the recorder of London, came from a prominent Lancashire family and held many posts in the Duchy from 1559 onwards. Robert Beale, in addition to his many other jobs, was b a i l i f f of the Duchy from 1590, and John Savile was one of i t s commissioners between 1599 and 1601. William Hakewill became the receiver for the Duchy after James* accession. Not only did the Society members have their fingers on the f i n a n c i a l pulse of the country. They were also involved in Chancery, the department responsible for drafting royal 34 Acts and the "court where every item of p r o c e d u r a l h a b i t was recorded."(30) In a d d i t i o n , Chancery d e a l t with " a l l cases of s p e c i a l l e g a l h a r d s h i p " and cases i n which the r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n of law would lead to i n e q u i t y . ( 3 1 ) Three S o c i e t y members worked here. Robert Bowyer obtained a minor post i n 1594 and Arnold Oldesworth was a c l e r k of the Hanaper before 1604. Most important, however, was W i l l i a m Lambarde. Lambarde was a g r e a t l y admired j u r i s t and author of l e g a l works and a l s o of the Perambulation of Kent, the f i r s t known county h i s t o r y . He was a devout P r o t e s t a n t who was advanced by Archbishop Parker i n h i s e a r l y days, and was working f o r W i l l i a m C e c i l i n the newly c r e a t e d O f f i c e of A l i e n a t i o n s by 1589.(32) In 1592 S i r John Puckering appointed him a Master i n Chancery e x t r a o r d i n a r y and i n 1597 S i r Thomas Egerton, Lord Keeper of the Great S e a l , made him Master i n Chancery i n o r d i n a r y and Deputy Keeper of the R o l l s . Egerton, an a l l y of Lord Burghley, depended h e a v i l y on Lambarde and gave him c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y . In January 1601 Queen E l i z a b e t h h e r s e l f made Lambarde keeper of the r e c o r d s i n the Tower of London and commissioned him to compile an index to these r e c o r d s . He f i n i s h e d t h i s task and presented the r e s u l t s to her o n l y two weeks before he d i e d i n August 1601. Lambarde was not the o n l y member to have access to o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . These documents, such as c h a r t e r s , r o l l s , 35 and f i n a n c i a l and l e g a l r e c o r d s , were kept In a r a t h e r unorganised f a s h i o n i n v a r i o u s caches, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Tower of London and a t W h i t e h a l l . The Tower r e c o r d s , which i n c l u d e d the records from Parliament, were c o n t i n u o u s l y watched over by members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . Michael Heneage, along with h i s more famous brother Thomas, was j o i n t keeper from 1567 u n t i l h i s death, when Lambarde was appointed. Thomas T a l b o t was a c l e r k of the Tower records by 1580. From 1597 the W h i t e h a l l records were kept by Thomas Lake, the Queen's L a t i n S e c r e t a r y and c l e r k of the S i g n e t . As has been mentioned, Arthur Agarde was i n charge of Exchequer records before he became deputy chamberlain, and must have had e x t e n s i v e knowledge of e x a c t l y what was i n the documents under h i s c a r e . T h i s emphasis on records i s important f o r s e v e r a l reasons. A n t i q u a r i a n s , o b v i o u s l y , are i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y and records are a major source. Thus the work of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s as they examined questions of precedent must have been g r e a t l y eased by access to such documents. Access would not n e c e s s a r i l y be granted to j u s t anyone. The records of Chancery, f o r example, were s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d . They c o u l d o n l y be removed by order of the Master of the R o l l s or by a P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r who had an order from the Queen and, without s p e c i f i c p e r m i s s i o n from the keeper of the r o l l s , they could o n l y be c o n s u l t e d by P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r s , the Queen or her h e i r s , or the c l e r k s of the P e t t y Bag.(33) Having 36 members on the spot must have been extremely useful for the Society's j o i n t enterprise, and also provided an opportunity to keep an eye on who outside the Society was consulting which records. In a p o l i t i c a l sense access to records is access to power, p a r t i c u l a r l y in a country l i k e England which set great store by custom, by the ways things had always been, and in "an age which t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e l y to determine c o n s t i t u t i o n a l issues by an appeal to prescription rather than to natural right."(34) He who could state a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y what past practice had been was p o t e n t i a l l y a great influence on future practice. When one adds to t h i s the fact that many early records had been written in Anglo-Saxon, a language which very few people could read, one can appreciate that the members of the Society, several of whom were expert in the language had the potential for great influence.(35) It is important to emphasise that these gentlemen were not schol a r l y historians. They were hard-headed, very ambitious, p o l i t i c a l l y attuned career men. At t h i s time the study of history was beginning to be seen as e x p l i c i t l y p o l i t i c a l . Beyond the personal obsession with lineage and pedigree which was f e l t by many, England and the English were p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious to est a b l i s h the c o n t i n u i t i e s , both r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l , of their country, which was dominated by a seemingly new r e l i g i o n and a young and somewhat sparse dynasty. Humanism had i t s part in a l l 37 t h i s , concerned as i t was with the r e c o v e r y of. t h i n g s a n c i e n t and with an i n c r e a s e d s e c u l a r i s m , as d i d the i n c r e a s i n g f e e l i n g that England was unique and E n g l i s h was "a language equal i n i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s to any other."(36) Thus the a n t i q u a r i e s were r i g h t i n tune with t h e i r times i n which E n g l i s h h i s t o r i a n s s t r e s s e d the l i n e a r development of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y and c o n s c i o u s l y t r i e d "to impart a sense of c o n t i n u i t y to a people i n the throes of change."(37) The problem was the p o t e n t i a l f o r o p p o s i t i o n to the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y of the Crown i n the hands of the c o l l e c t o r s of precedents. T h i s problem would o n l y be a r t i c u l a t e d f u l l y by James I, and a r t i c u l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a g a i n s t s e v e r a l members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . 38 NOTES 1. W i l l i a m R. Douthwaite, Gray's Inn (London:Reeves and T u r n e r , 1886), p.28, q u o t i n g F o r t e s c u e . 2. For a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n of the Inns of Court system , see W.S. H o l d s w o r t h , A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Law 6 v o l s . (London: Methuen, 1924), 4:.230-237, 262-265. A l s o see W i l f r i d P r e s t , "The E n g l i s h Bar, 1550-1700," i n Lawyers i n E a r l y Modern Europe and A m e r i c a , ed. W i l f r i d P r e s t (London: Croom Helm, 1981), pp.65-85, and L o u i s A. K n a f l a , "The M a t r i c u l a t i o n R e v o l u t i o n and E d u c a t i o n a t the Inns of C o u r t i n Re n a i s s a n c e E n g l a n d , " i n Tudor Men and  I n s t i t u t i o n s , ed. A r t h u r J . S l a v i n (Baton Rouge: L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), pp.232-264. 3. D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y , V, pp.591-593. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as DNB.) P.W. H a s l e r , ed. The House of Commons 1558-1603 London: H i s t o r y of P a r l i a m e n t T r u s t , 1981, V o l . I I , p.22. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as HPT.) John C h a m b e r l a i n , The L e t t e r s of John C h a m b e r l a i n 2 v o l s . , ed.Norman E. McClure ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1939), I : 126. One might wonder why Davies had such august a d v o c a t e s . 4. C.W. Bro o k s , "The Common Lawyers i n En g l a n d , c.1558-1642," i n P r e s t , Lawyers i n E a r l y Modern Europe and  Ame r i c a , pp.4 3-4 4. H o l d s w o r t h , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Law,IV, p.230, l i k e n s t he S e r j e a n t s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l t o t h a t of our modern PhD's. 5. B o u r g c h i e r , Dodderidge, F l e e t w o o d , H a k e w i l l , Lambarde, Ley, O l d e s w o r t h , S a v i l e , T a t e , W h l t l o c k e . 6. Broughton, Dodderidge, Ley, P a t t e n , S a v i l e , T a t e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Thomas T a l b o t as the j u s t i c e of the West R i d i n g i s not a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n . 7. The i n c i d e n t i s r e p o r t e d i n the A c t s of the P r i v y  C o u n c i l , Feb. 3, 1599. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as APC.) 8. APC May 13, 1599. 9. Penry W i l l i a m s , "The Crown and the C o u n t i e s , " pp.125-146 i n The Reign of E l i z a b e t h I , e d . C h r i s t o p h e r Haigh (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1984), p.126. 39 10. G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s a v i l e can be found i n HPT, I I , pp.350-351. For the "hard d e a l i n g " see S a l i s b u r y Mss of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as S a l i s b u r y , ) v o l . IX, p.390. 11. H o l d s w o r t h , H i s t o r y , IV , pp. 137-142. 12. The a n t i q u a r y J.P.s were: B e a l e , Bowyer, Broughton, Carew, D a v i e s , F l e e t w o o d , Lake, Lambarde, L e i g h , Ley, P a t t e n , S a v i l e , Spelman, T a t e , W h i t l o c k e . 13. The P a r l i a m e n t a r y a n t i q u a r i e s were: B e a l e , B o u r g c h i e r , Bowyer, Broughton, Carew, C o t t o n , D a v i e s , Dodderidge, F l e e t w o o d , H a k e w i l l , H a r t w e l l , Heneage, Lake, Lambarde, L e i g h , Ley, O l d e s w o r t h , S a v i l e , Spelman, T a t e , Townshend, W h i t l o c k e . Note t h a t Lambarde and S a v i l e were M.P.s o n l y b e f o r e the a c t i v e y e a r s of the S o c i e t y , and W h i t l o c k e a f t e r . 14. HPT, I I , pp.134-135. 15. HPT ,1, pp.412-413, 460, 473. 16. HPT, I I , p.238. 17. I b i d . , p.22. 18. HPT, I I I , pp.516-517. 19. T h i s becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r d u r i n g James' r e i g n , when some of the a n t i q u a r i e s became d e f e n d e r s of the Crown w h i l e o t h e r s a l i g n e d w i t h the p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . 20. For a good s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s u b j e c t of h e r a l d r y see Roger M i l t o n , H e r a l d s and H i s t o r y (Newton Abbot, Devon: David and C h a r l e s , 1978). A l s o see O t t f r i e d Neubecker, A Guide t o H e r a l d r y (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1979), and A r t h u r C. F o x - D a v i e s , A Complete Guide t o H e r a l d r y , 2nd ed. (New York: Bonanza Books, 1978). 21. The h i e r a r c h y of the h e r a l d s worked i n a s e r i e s of r a n k s : G a r t e r K i n g of Arms was t r a d i t i o n a l l y the most s e n i o r , w i t h some a u t h o r i t y over the C l a r e n c i e u x and N o r r o y K i n g s of Arms. The s i x H e r a l d s of Windsor, Richmond, L a n c a s t e r , Somerset, C h e s t e r and York were n e x t , and were s e n i o r t o the f o u r P o u r s u i v a n t s of Arms, the Rouge Dragon, the P o r t c u l l i s , the Blue Mantle and the Rouge C r o i x . The E a r l M a r s h a l h e l d the h i g h e s t m i l i t a r y rank i n the r e a l m under the monarch. 40 22. For t h i s p a r a g r a p h , i n f o r m a t i o n on D e t h i c k e has been c o m p i l e d from DNB, V, pp.869-870; APC, 1589, 1590; S a l i s b u r y , I I I , p.424, and V, p.518; and the C a l e n d a r of  S t a t e P a p e r s , Domestic, 1589-1590. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CSP Dom.) 23. M i c h a e l B. Pulman, The E l i z a b e t h a n P r i v y C o u n c i l i n the  F i f t e e n - S e v e n t i e s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971), p.3. 24. T h i s can be c o n f i r m e d by even a c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n of APC. 25. CSP Dom., 1595, f o r B e a l e ' s r e q u e s t t o be a l l o w e d t o r e s i g n . 26. G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the Exchequer t a k e n from Henry Roseveare, The T r e a s u r y : the E v o l u t i o n of a B r i t i s h  I n s t i t u t i o n (London: A l l e n Lane The Penguin P r e s s , 1969), pp.41-44. 27. DNB, XV, p.495; S a l i s b u r y , I I , p.108. 28. A l s o note t h a t M i c h a e l Heneage was an usher from 1567-?, and t h a t R o b e r t Bowyer was a doorkeeper a t an unknown d a t e . As a Baron of the Exchequer S a v i l e would go on a c i r c u i t t w i c e a year t o a d j u d i c a t e c ases i n v o l v i n g the Crown's f i n a n c i a l r i g h t s . 29. The r e m a i n i n g p ercentage was the moneys which came t o the Crown from the C o u r t of Wards. 30. W.J. J o n e s , The E l i z a b e t h a n Court of Chancery ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967), p.15. 31. Edward P. Cheyney, A H i s t o r y of E n g l a n d , 2 v o l s . (New York: P e t e r S m i t h , 1948), I , P.126. 32. Jones, The E l i z a b e t h a n C o u r t of Chancery i n c l u d e s a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n on Lambarde. A l s o see W i l b u r D u n k e l , W i l l i a m Lambarde, E l i z a b e t h a n J u r i s t New Brunswick and New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 33. J . Payne C o l l i e r , ed., The E g e r t o n Papers (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1840), v o l . 1 2 , pp.194-197 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as E g e r t o n P a p e r s ) . A d r a f t of a 1592 o r d e r by G i l b e r t G e r r a r d , who was Master of the R o l l s b e f o r e E g e r t o n . 34. E. Evans, "Of the A n t i q u i t y of P a r l i a m e n t s i n E n g l a n d : Some E l i z a b e t h a n and E a r l y S t u a r t O p i n i o n s , " H i s t o r y , v o l . X X I I I , June 1938-March 1939, p. 206. 41 35. The a n t i q u a r i e s who c o u l d read Anglo-Saxon i n c l u d e d W i l l i a m Camden, Robert C o t t o n , W i l l i a m Lambarde and Henry Spelman. 36. F . J . Levy, Tudor H i s t o r i c a l Thought (San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a : H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y , 1967), p.8. A l s o see John Kenyon, The H i s t o r y Men (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1983),pp.1-21. 37. David C. Douglas, E n g l i s h S c h o l a r s , 1660-1730, 2nd ed. (London: Eyre and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1939), p.14. 42 THE ANTIQUARIES AS FACTION PLAYERS The E l i z a b e t h a n system of government and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n depended "on the way i n which patronage was bestowed, s h a r e d , and s p r e a d . " ( 1 ) The f o u n t of patronage was the Crown, which d i s p e n s e d o f f i c e s , p o s t s , peerages and g i f t s ; t h e r e was not enough t o go around, however. Thus de v e l o p e d the p a t r o n / c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which a nobleman, magnate, or o f f i c e r of s t a t e c o u l d a t t r a c t l o y a l f o l l o w e r s i n r e t u r n f o r f a v o u r s such as preferment t o s p e c i f i c p o s t s which were i n the p a t r o n ' s g i f t . O b v i o u s l y t h i s was a system of mutual b a c k - r u b b i n g . The more c l i e n t s a p a t r o n c o u l d p l a c e c o m f o r t a b l y (or o t h e r w i s e h e l p ) and thus make g r a t e f u l , the more p o t e n t i a l power, s e c u r i t y , and s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n he had. And f o r a c l i e n t , the b e n e f i t s were o b v i o u s . T h i s was v e r y much an environment where the o n l y road t o advancement was t h r o u g h some s o r t of f a v o u r i t i s m , and t o b r i n g o n e s e l f t o the a t t e n t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r p a t r o n was t o approach membership i n the g o v e r n i n g c l a s s . The p r o c e s s o p e r a t e d a t a l l l e v e l s . The gentlemen i n t h e t op l e v e l s of government, the C e c i l s and L e i c e s t e r s f o r example, had c l i e n t s who were o n l y a s m a l l s t e p down i n power and a u t h o r i t y from t h e m s e l v e s . Thus Thomas E g e r t o n , the L o r d Keeper of the S e a l t o Queen E l i z a b e t h from 1597, was a t t a c h e d t o W i l l i a m C e c i l , L o r d B u r g h l e y , and h i s son R o b e r t . S i m i l a r l y , Thomas Heneage, V i c e C h a m b e r l a i n t o the Household of the Queen, and h i m s e l f a g r e a t p a t r o n , was f o r 43 a l o n g time a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Robert Dudley, the e a r l o£ L e i c e s t e r . Below t h i s second t i e r i n the h i e r a r c h y was a t h i r d , and a f o u r t h , and so on; patronage was thus a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e f o r d o m i n a t i o n . I t was not a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n the sense of a s t r u g g l e over d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s ; r a t h e r i t was a p e r s o n a l , and by e x t e n s i o n f a c t i o n a l , s e a r c h f o r power and i n f l u e n c e . Perhaps i n p a r t because the c o n t e s t was so p e r s o n a l as opposed t o i d e o l o g i c a l , p e r s o n a l l i v e s were t h o r o u g h l y e m b r o i l e d i n the s t r u g g l e and m a r i t a l a l l i a n c e s v e r y o f t e n s e a l e d or d i c t a t e d p o l i t i c a l arrangements of f a c t i o n . The c oncept of f a c t i o n i s c r u c i a l as the E l i z a b e t h a n system, s t r u c t u r e d around p a t r o n a g e , made f a c t i o n s t r u g g l e i n e v i t a b l e . The o r i g i n a l C ourt g r o u p i n g was s e t a t the b e g i n n i n g of E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n i n the c o m p e t i t i o n between W i l l i a m C e c i l and Robert Dudley. By the e a r l y 1580s t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n had mellowed i n t o a s e t p a t t e r n which e v i n c e d l i t t l e o v e r t w r a n g l i n g ; n e i t h e r of the two had a monopoly on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a t r o n a g e . ( 2 ) Thus both had " g i f t s " t o g i v e , as d i d o t h e r s . By 1587 the e a r l of Essex was on the ascendant and a l t e r i n g the b a l a n c e as he t r i e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o t a k e c o n t r o l of power f o r h i m s e l f and h i s c l i e n t s . P atronage thus became a " s t r u g g l e f o r the d o m i n a t i o n of the E l i z a b e t h a n c o u r t , " and a f u l l - f l e d g e d p o l i t i c a l weapon.(3) By the end of the r e i g n , the C e c i l f a m i l y , s t r e n g t h e n e d by 44 the d e a t h of L e i c e s t e r and the e x e c u t i o n of E s s e x , and by t h e i r own a l l i a n c e w i t h the Howards, had immense power. The members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s were c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y with, p a t r o n s , some of whom were a t the v e r y h i g h e s t l e v e l s of E l i z a b e t h a n s o c i e t y . T h i s p r e s e n t s what seems t o be a paradox: how can one r e c o n c i l e the n o t i o n of an o v e r a l l p o l i t i c a l motive b e h i n d a S o c i e t y which had a membership drawn from v a s t l y d i f f e r i n g p a r t i e s ? I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine i n some d e t a i l how much of the p o l i t i c a l s pectrum was cov e r e d by S o c i e t y members. R e l i g i o n p l a y e d a c e n t r a l p a r t i n p o l i t i c s as the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and t e m p o r a l powers were c l o s e l y i n t e r d e p e n d a n t . None of the a n t i q u a r i e s were cle r g y m e n , but s e v e r a l a c q u i r e d p o s i t i o n s i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commisssions or were o t h e r w i s e c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n the c h u r c h ' s r o l e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To a l a r g e segment of the p o p u l a t i o n Roman C a t h o l i c s were dangerous by d e f i n i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as the 1580s wore on w i t h t h e i r s e r i e s of al a r m s over the C a t h o l i c Queen of S c o t s and the K i n g of S p a i n . Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s were d e d i c a t e d t o the P r o t e s t a n t cause, even t o the p o i n t of z e a l o u s n e s s . W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , as Recorder of London always on the l o o k o u t f o r u n d e s i r a b l e a l i e n s and C a t h o l i c s , i n 1576 went so f a r as t o invade the house of the Portuguese ambassador i n an attempt t o c a t c h any t r a i t o r o u s Englishmen t a k i n g Mass t h e r e . He 45 •arrested t w e l v e Englishmen and a l s o c o n f i s c a t e d the Host, the c h a l i c e and the ambassador's w i f e . ( 4 ) Fleetwood was a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s e a r l y days w i t h Robert Dudley, and was even l a b e l l e d " L e i c e s t e r ' s mad r e c o r d e r " i n L e y c e s t e r ' s  Commonwealth. Hi s p o s t as Recorder of London was a key one, and, as he o f t e n s e r v e d as the l i n k between the C i t y and the P r i v y C o u n c i l , he became i n c r e a s i n g l y B u r g h l e y ' s man and an " e n e r g e t i c a s s i s t a n t " f o r the C o u n c i l . ( 5 ) Z e a l o u s l y P r o t e s t a n t though he was, F leetwood was not t o t a l l y u n r e a s o n a b l e on the s u b j e c t . In 1588 he and S i r Thomas E g e r t o n c o l l a b o r a t e d (on the o r d e r of the P r i v y C o u n c i l ) t o s e t g u i d e l i n e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g " t r a i t o r o u s and m a l i c i o u s " C a t h o l i c s "from those whose s i m p l i c i t y i s m i s l e d by i g n o r a n t and b l i n d z e a l . " ( 6 ) There were o t h e r s t a u n c h l y P r o t e s t a n t members of the S o c i e t y . Robert B e a l e , r i g h t hand man t o Walsingham, was known t o be z e a l o u s and had l i v e d on the C o n t i n e n t i n o r d e r t o pursue h i s s t u d i e s and h i s r e l i g i o n d u r i n g Mary's r e i g n . He s t a y e d f i r s t w i t h S i r R i c h a r d M o r i s o n i n S t r a s b o u r g and then moved t o Z u r i c h w i t h John Aylmer, l a t e r b i s h o p of London.(7) B e a l e was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F r a n c i s Walsingham, a champion of P r o t e s t a n t i s m , on both a p r o f e s s i o n a l and a p e r s o n a l l e v e l , s i n c e he m a r r i e d Walsingham's s i s t e r - i n - l a w , E d i t h S t . Barbe. Walsingham, i n h i s t u r n , was "a C e c i l p r o t e g e . " ( 8 ) B e a l e a l s o , however, worked f o r the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the 46 1588 S l u y s m i s s i o n i n the N e t h e r l a n d s . L e i c e s t e r , l i k e Walsingham, but u n l i k e B u r g h l e y , was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P r o t e s t a n t cause. To c o m p l i c a t e f u r t h e r t h i s murky p i c t u r e , B e a l e ' s z e a l o u s n e s s was not always u n q u e s t i o n e d . In 1581 and 1584 he n e g o t i a t e d on b e h a l f of the P r i v y C o u n c i l w i t h Mary S t u a r t , but had t o be d i s m i s s e d from t h i s t a s k because he was s u s p e c t e d by some of p a r t i a l i t y t o her cause. I r o n i c a l l y he, w i t h L o r d B u c k h u r s t , was l a t e r a s s i g n e d t o n o t i f y Mary t h a t she was t o be e x e c u t e d ; he read the d e a t h w a r r a n t i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e the e x e c u t i o n and wrote an o f f i c i a l e y e w i t n e s s account of the ev e n t . Beale was a l s o not always on good terms w i t h the A n g l i c a n a u t h o r i t i e s , and f r e q u e n t l y c l a s h e d w i t h A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t , perhaps because, a r d e n t P r o t e s t a n t though he was, Be a l e r e p e a t e d l y and p u b l i c l y a d v o c a t e d r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a n c e . Other a n t i q u a r i e s were l e s s l i b e r a l . John D a v i e s , as S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l and A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l i n I r e l a n d , v i g o r o u s l y p e r s e c u t e d C a t h o l i c s and d i d h i s b e s t t o d r i v e Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s out of the c o u n t r y . W i l l i a m H a k e w i l l a l s o was d e d i c a t e d t o the P r o t e s t a n t cause, as was James W h i t l o c k e , f a t h e r of Cromwell's famous L o r d Keeper B u l s t r o d e W h i t e l o c k e . One cannot argue a P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s b a s i s f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . C e r t a i n l y , some members were P r o t e s t a n t z e a l o t s who were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t r o n s who had made a cause out of r e l i g i o n . O thers were 47 moderate P r o t e s t a n t s , l i k e Henry Spelman and W i l l i a m Camden, who defended the e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n w i t h o u t ever t i p p i n g over i n t o f a n a t i c i s m . Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s were employed by the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s . John S a v i l e , f o r example, became an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commissioner f o r Durham q u i t e e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r , and John Dodderidge was the same perhaps from 1603.(9) Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s seemed u n i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s . Haywood Townshend kept a p a r l i a m e n t a r y d i a r y f o r the s e s s i o n s of 1597-1598 and 1601 and b a r e l y mentioned r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s . ( 1 0 ) Beyond t h i s l a c k of a c o h e r e n t r e l i g i o u s o u t l o o k f o r t h e S o c i e t y i s the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l members had e i t h e r C a t h o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n s or s y m p a t h i e s , and a t l e a s t one was a p r a c t i s i n g Roman C a t h o l i c . Even W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , whose L a n c a s h i r e f a m i l y had b e n e f i t e d g r e a t l y from the d i s s o l u t i o n of the m o n a s t e r i e s , had an u n c l e who was a C a r t h u s i a n monk.(11) John Stowe, who was s u p p o r t e d a t v a r i o u s times by A r c h b i s h o p P a r k e r , Robert Dudley and W i l l i a m C e c i l , was i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s i n 1568 and 1570 f o r owning " p a p i s t i c a l " works. Only h i s p l e a t h a t t h e s e were n e c e s s a r y t o h i s a n t i q u a r i a n s t u d i e s , and some i n t e r v e n t i o n by C e c i l , s e c u r e d h i s freedom.(12) Whether or not the charges were t r u e , o b v i o u s l y Stowe was not a f r e q u e n t enough or f e r v e n t enough churchgoer t o p l a c e h i m s e l f above s u s p i c i o n . Thomas Lake a l s o was c l o s e t o the C a t h o l i c cause even though he was s e c r e t a r y t o F r a n c i s Walsingham by 1586. Whatever h i s 48 p r i v a t e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , when he was i n v o l v e d i n an e x t r e m e l y s q u a l i d l e g a l and f a m i l y s c a n d a l i n 1617-1619, Lake's s u p p o r t e r s and w e l l - w i s h e r s were d e f i n i t e l y C a t h o l i c . ( 1 3 ) Most damning of a l l t o any t h e o r y of a c o n c e r t e d r e l i g i o u s m o t i v a t i o n f o r the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s i s the membership of Sampson E r d e s w i c k . He came from a S t a f f o r d s h i r e upper g e n t r y f a m i l y which s u f f e r e d s l i g h t l y f o r i t s C a t h o l i c i s m under E l i z a b e t h . In 1577 the P r i v y C o u n c i l d i r e c t e d the Inns of Co u r t t o d i s c l o s e the names of P a p i s t members; Sampson E r d e s w i c k appeared on the l i s t f o r the Inner Temple. In 1589, as a r e s u l t of the s e r i e s of alarms f o l l o w i n g the Armada, many of the more o b s t i n a t e r e c u s a n t s were o r d e r e d i m p r i s o n e d , and Erdeswick was c o n f i n e d t o the b i s h o p ' s p a l a c e a t E l y . ( 1 4 ) He was n o t , however, i r r e t r i e v a b l y b a r r e d from the f a v o u r of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n 1603, L o r d G e r r a r d , o b v i o u s l y r e s p o n d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s , wrote t o Robert C e c i l t h a t he had found two o f f i c e s f o r "young E r d e s w i c k . " ( 1 5 ) S i n c e Sampson Erd e s w i c k d i e d t h a t y e a r , i t was most l i k e l y h i s son who thus was g i v e n honourable s e r v i c e . The members were drawn from such d i v e r s e r e l i g i o u s f a c t i o n s t h a t one cannot argue r e l i g i o n as the m o t i v a t i o n f o r the S o c i e t y . Y e t , perhaps, t h e r e i s a c l u e i n the v e r y wide range of r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s w i t h i n the membership. J u s t as the members who were j u d g e s , J . P . s , members of P a r l i a m e n t 49 and c o u n t r y gentlemen, were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r or r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a s a l l over England and Wales, the members who were a c t i v e l y r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t e d a l l r e l i g i o u s f a c t i o n s i n the r e a l m . The same i s t r u e f o r more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s . The major f a c t i o n s were l e s s s t r i n g e n t l y s e g r e g a t e d i n the S o c i e t y ' s v e r y e a r l y y e a r s , but the e a r l of Essex drew v e r y d e f i n i t e b a t t l e l i n e s and i n s i s t e d on f o r c i n g f a c t i o n s t r u g g l e where t h e r e need be none. The members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s were found on both s i d e s of t h e s e l i n e s , and some members were on both s i d e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Some seemed on the s u r f a c e v e r y d e f i n i t e l y t o be connected w i t h the e a r l of Es s e x , who was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r and t o some e x t e n t i n h e r i t e d h i s c o n t i n g e n t when he d i e d i n 1588. R i c h a r d Broughton i s the exemplar here.(16) Broughton had a c t e d as l e g a l a d v i s e r f o r W a l t e r Devereux, the f i r s t e a r l of Es s e x , u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1576; d u r i n g the second e a r l ' s m i n o r i t y he a c t e d as t r u s t e e of the e s t a t e , and he c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e the e a r l when he reached a d u l t h o o d . One of h i s t a s k s was t o pay a r e g u l a r a l l o w a n c e t o an o t h e r member of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , Henry B o u r g c h i e r , who was the i l l e g i t i m a t e son of Anne, Baroness B o u r g c h i e r . She had been d i v o r c e d i n 1533 f o r a d u l t e r y by L o r d P a r r . Her barony passed t o her c o u s i n , 50 the f i r s t e a r l of E s s e x , whose son made an a l l o w a n c e t o Henry B o u r g c h i e r . In 1577 Broughton had r e i n f o r c e d h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o Essex by m a r r y i n g Anne, the daughter of R i c h a r d Bagot, who was a s t r o n g Essex s u p p o r t e r . Thus he was t i e d both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y t o the Essex f a c t i o n . I n 1592 the e a r l of Pembroke, p r o b a b l y on Essex's i n s t r u c t i o n s , recommended Broughton u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a po s t on the C o u n c i l f o r Wales and the Marches, and i n 1594 Essex was p r e s s i n g a g a i n f o r a post f o r Broughton. He d e f i n i t e l y owed h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t s t o Essex i n f l u e n c e . Indeed he was so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the e a r l of Essex t h a t , i n the a f t e r m a t h of the d i s a s t r o u s r e b e l l i o n , a C e c i l i n f o r m a n t argued t h a t Broughton c o u l d not "be thought i g n o r a n t of the l E a r l ' s i n t e n t i o n s by many s e c r e t c o n s u l t a t i o n s t o g e t h e r i n Essex House..." (17) Broughton h i m s e l f f e a r e d r e p e r c u s s i o n s from the r e b e l l i o n enough t o r e o r g a n i s e h i s f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t h i s f a m i l y as f a r as p o s s i b l e . ( 1 8 ) He d i d l o s e h i s p o s t on the Welsh c o u n c i l i n 1602, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e b e l l i o n was t o blame, but more l i k e l y because he was i l l . He c e r t a i n l y wrote t o Robert C e c i l on October 11, d e s c r i b i n g h i s g r a d u a l r e c o v e r y from symptoms which sound as i f t h e y might have been caused by a s t r o k e . (19) I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h i s s t a u n c h Essex man s t a t e d f i r m l y i n t h i s l e t t e r t h a t he had owed h i s appointment to L o r d B u r g h l e y , C e c i l ' s f a t h e r , a l t h o u g h " f o r 51 a l l the expenses and loss o£ time I sustained, he never bestowed on me one h a l f p e n n y . " In 1603 Broughton was p l a c e d back on the c o u n c i l , i n which post he remained u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1604. Another Essex man was F r a n c i s L e i g h , whose case i l l u s t r a t e s the c o m p l i c a t e d n a t u r e of patronage r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( 2 0 ) L e i g h ' s mother was the c o u s i n of Mary S i d n e y , who was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the L e i c e s t e r and Essex f a c t i o n s , b o t h t h r o u g h her own b l o o d r e l a t i v e s and t h r o u g h her m a r r i a g e t o the e a r l of Pembroke. T h i s would seem t o d i c t a t e L e i g h ' s t i e s t o E s s e x , and c e r t a i n l y Pembroke nominated L e i g h f o r h i s 1597 p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t . However, L e i g h h i m s e l f m a r r i e d Mary, t h e daughter of S i r Thomas E g e r t o n , who was s t r o n g l y a l l i e d w i t h the C e c i l s . E g e r t o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o many g r e a t o f f i c e s of s t a t e , was h i g h s t e w a r d of O x f o r d and was thus r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a c i n g L e i g h i n P a r l i a m e n t i n 1601 and 1604. Thus L e i g h had f r i e n d s i n both camps, and was a b l e a d r o i t l y to move over when Essex c o l l a p s e d . The Essex s u p p o r t e r s i n the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s can be shown on c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n t o h o l d a l l e g i a n c e s on the " o t h e r s i d e " as w e l l . Those who had a p p a r e n t l y been L e i c e s t e r ' s men a l s o were not u n r e s e r v e d l y h i s . John Stowe had been s u p p o r t e d q u i t e e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r by L e i c e s t e r , whose s u g g e s t i o n i t was i n 1562 t h a t Stowe, u n t i l t h a t time a t a i l o r and Chaucer e x p e r t , s h o u l d s t a r t t o w r i t e 52 h i s t o r y . ( 2 1 ) Stowe even d e d i c a t e d the 1580 e d i t i o n of the c h r o n i c l e s t o L e i c e s t e r . Yet i t was C e c i l who h e l p e d him out of t r o u b l e i n 1568 and 1570. L e i c e s t e r was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Walsingham, employer of both Beale and Lake, and a champion of extreme P r o t e s t a n t i s m . Yet B e a l e moved g r a d u a l l y i n t o the C e c i l r a t h e r than the Essex camp. He owed h i s 1593 L o s t w i t h i e l p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t t o Robert C e c i l , and i t was C e c i l ' s h e l p he sought when d e e p l y i n debt i n 1599.(22) Thomas Lake a l s o a t t a c h e d h i m s e l f f i r m l y t o the C e c i l c o n t i n g e n t a f t e r Walsingham's d e a t h i n 1590.(23) He owed h i s 1593 and 1601 s e a t s t o C e c i l , and "was f r e q u e n t l y a c h a n n e l of communication between the Queen and Robert C e c i l . " Lake c o n t i n u e d t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C e c i l a f t e r James' a c c e s s i o n , and c o n t i n u e d t o r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o him d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of James' r e i g n . Another L e i c e s t e r c l i e n t was Thomas D'Oyley M.D., who worked f o r L e i c e s t e r abroad i n the 1570s both as a p h y s i c i a n and a c o u r i e r , and was r e l a t e d by m a r r i a g e t o F r a n c i s Bacon.(24) He was s t i l l w o r k i n g f o r L e i c e s t e r i n 1585 as a d i p l o m a t i c c o u r i e r a t C a l a i s and F l u s h i n g . He r e t u r n e d t o England and became a F e l l o w of the R o y a l C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s i n 1588. By l a t e 1597 he was wo r k i n g f o r Robert C e c i l as a messenger, and i n e a r l y 1598 he accompanied C e c i l on a d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n i n F r a n c e , s e r v i n g a l o n g w i t h F r a n c i s Thynne as one of C e c i l ' s t w e l v e v o l u n t a r y gentlemen 53 companions. W i l l i a m Fleetwood has a l r e a d y been mentioned as a L e i c e s t e r f o l l o w e r who became a C e c i l c l i e n t . The f i n a l a n t i q u a r y who can be s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L e i c e s t e r i s M i c h a e l Heneage, whose b r o t h e r Thomas became a P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r i n 1587 and was v e r y c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h him.(25) M i c h a e l ' s 1589 p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t was p o s s i b l y a r r a n g e d w i t h the h e l p of L e i c e s t e r ' s b r o t h e r , the e a r l of Warwick. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t when Thomas Heneage's w i f e d i e d i n 1593, he wrote an e x t r e m e l y i n t i m a t e l e t t e r of g r i e f t o Robert C e c i l , c a l l i n g him "you t h a t I b e s t know...." T h i s p a t t e r n of a n t i q u a r i e s who were a s s o c i a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t times or on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s w i t h more than one " g r e a t " man c o n t i n u e s f o r the r e s t of the membership, and i s t o some e x t e n t i n h e r e n t i n the E l i z a b e t h a n system, where c o n f l i c t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f a m i l y a l l e g i a n c e s tended to o v e r l a p . Thomas E g e r t o n promoted W i l l i a m Lambarde i n h i s Chancery p o s i t i o n s , but Lambarde had e a r l i e r been a c l i e n t and perhaps f r i e n d of S i r John P u c k e r i n g , s i n c e t h e y had been c a l l e d t o g e t h e r t o the bar of L i n c o l n ' s Inn. Lambarde was a l s o advanced by A r c h b i s h o p P a r k e r , L o r d B u r g h l e y , and L o r d Cobham.(26) S i m i l a r l y , E g e r t o n promoted the i n t e r e s t s of John D a v i e s , who was a l s o b e f r i e n d e d by the C e c i l s , and perhaps by the e a r l of Sussex whom he accompanied on a 1594 e x p e d i t i o n t o S c o t l a n d t o 54 r e p r e s e n t Queen E l i z a b e t h a t the c h r i s t e n i n g of P r i n c e Henry.(27) Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s , such as L e i g h and Heneage, were r e l a t e d by b i r t h t o the g r e a t men of the times and some, l i k e D a v i e s , a t t e m p t e d t o marry themselves or t h e i r dependents i n t o t h i s p o s i t i o n . Davies m a r r i e d E l e a n o r , the daughter of George Tuchet, L o r d A u d l e y . ( 2 8 ) The match was not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . E l e a n o r was somewhat u n s t a b l e and c o n s i d e r e d h e r s e l f t o be a p r o p h e t e s s , and d i d indeed p r e d i c t her husband's d e a t h . U n f o r t u n a t e l y she i r k e d him c o n s i d e r a b l y by i n s i s t i n g on we a r i n g mourning d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g t h r e e y e a r s . Davies d e s t r o y e d one of her books of prophecy, and her second husband i m i t a t e d him w i t h a l a t e r volume, e n t i t l e d A Remembrance t o the K i n g , f o r Beware  Great B r i t a i n ' s Blow a t Hand. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the q u i r k s of h i s w i f e , D a v i e s s t i l l managed t o promote h i s f a m i l y f o r t u n e s t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h h i s son was an i d i o t and drowned when v e r y young, h i s daughter Lucy, an i n t e l l e c t u a l , m a r r i e d F e r d i n a n d o , the s i x t h e a r l of Huntingdon.(29) Another a n t i q u a r y who m a r r i e d , i f not f o r p o s i t i o n , c e r t a i n l y f o r f o r t u n e , was W i l l i a m second L o r d Compton, who made a match i n 1594 w i t h E l i z a b e t h Spencer, the daughter of the v e r y w e a l t h y L o r d Mayor of London.(30) T h i s S i r John Spencer was not p l e a s e d w i t h the match, a p p a r e n t l y because Compton demanded t o o h i g h a dowry. G o s s i p a t the time suggested t h a t Compton, de t e r m i n e d t o possess Spencer's o n l y 55 daughter and h e i r , c a r r i e d her away hidden i n a b a k e r ' s b a s k e t , t h u s g e t t i n g c l a i m t o the e s t a t e . G o s s i p d i d not r e c o r d whether the l a d y w i l l i n g l y c o n n i v e d a t t h i s a c t . Whatever the t r u t h , when S i r John f i n a l l y d i e d i n 1610 and Compton i n h e r i t e d the f o r t u n e , he was d r i v e n n e a r l y mad w i t h d e l i g h t . For s e v e r a l weeks he was i n "a f r e n z y " and " h e l d f o r a p l a i n f r e n e t i c . " James Ley was perhaps the most o b v i o u s l y o p p o r t u n i s t i c of the a n t i q u a r i e s . ( 3 1 ) H i s e a r l i e r c a r e e r i s somewhat murky, a l t h o u g h h i s many appointments w i t h i n L i n c o l n ' s Inn s u ggest t h a t he was f u l l y employed t h e r e . In 1603 h i s c a r e e r took o f f as he became a j u s t i c e of South Wales and was p l a c e d on the C o u n c i l f o r Wales and the Marches. Many honours f o l l o w e d , perhaps because Ley was always c a r e f u l t o s t a y f r i e n d l y w i t h those i n power. He spent s e v e r a l y e a r s as a judge and Commissioner of the Great S e a l i n I r e l a n d , where he was c r i t i c i s e d f o r h a r s h n e s s ; however, and as was t y p i c a l f o r members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , the P r i v y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t e d him. When he r e t u r n e d t o England he became A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l t o the C o u r t of Wards. A f t e r h i s t h i r d m a r r i a g e , i n 1621 t o a n i e c e of the v e r y p o w e r f u l Duke of Buckingham who became h i s p a t r o n , he was p l a c e d on the K i n g ' s Bench, made a P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r , L o r d T r e a s u r e r of E n g l a n d , and e v e n t u a l l y the E a r l of M a r l b o r o u g h . Ley c o n s t a n t l y and u n s w e r v i n g l y s u p p o r t e d the Crown, f o r i n s t a n c e i n the P a r l i a m e n t of 1614, and had a g r e a t a b i l i t y 56 t o take advantage of o t h e r men's m i s f o r t u n e s . Thus he was a b l e t o become Speaker of the House of L o r d s f o r a time a f t e r Bacon's d i s g r a c e . Even though i n 1624 the Lords censured him e x t r e m e l y s t e r n l y f o r " d i s g u i s e d b r i b e r i e s and c o r r u p t i o n " as Lord T r e a s u r e r , Ley kept and was even a b l e t o improve h i s p o s i t i o n . "Feeble s t a t e s m a n " though he may have been, h i s eye was always on the main chance.(32) A f i n a l a r e a where f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e p l a y e d a p a r t r e l e v a n t t o the a n t i q u a r i e s was the p l a c i n g of nominees i n P a r l i a m e n t ; most M.P. S o c i e t y members got t h e i r s e a t s t h r o u g h some e x e r c i s e of p a t r o n a g e . W i l l i a m C e c i l had been somewhat embarrassed i n the P a r l i a m e n t of 1584 because some of h i s p r o j e c t s f a i l e d t h e r e and because of the d i s c r e d i t i n g of P a r r y , one of h i s a g e n t s . ( 3 3 ) As the r i v a l r y d e v e l o p e d w i t h the e a r l of Essex over the c o n t r o l of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the d i r e c t i o n of E n g l i s h p o l i c y , B u r g h l e y and h i s son i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t e m p t e d t o p l a c e t h e i r c l i e n t s i n P a r l i a m e n t , t o the e x t e n t t h a t " E l i z a b e t h ' s l a s t e l e c t i o n s were marked by the b i t t e r r i v a l r y " between Essex and Robert C e c i l . ( 3 4 ) Other f o r c e s a l s o had i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s a r e a . The P r i v y C o u n c i l s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d i t s c o n t r o l over e l e c t i o n s , as d i d t e r r i t o r i a l magnates.(35) A l s o more l o c a l l y p o w e r f u l noblemen and gentlemen i n f l u e n c e d the c h o i c e of c a n d i d a t e s as the boroughs themselves tended t o l o s e c o n t r o l over the s e l e c t i o n of t h e i r own members.(36) The g r e a t p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a t r o n s were the C e c i l s and the 57 second e a r l o£ B e d f o r d i n the West c o u n t r y and the e a r l o£ E s s e x , f o r whom " p a r l i a m e n t a r y patronage became an o b s e s s i o n . " ( 3 7 ) The preponderance of the C e c i l s and t h e i r c l i e n t B e d f o r d i n the West c o u n t r y , an a r e a which o t h e r w i s e was a n y t h i n g but a C e c i l p r e s e r v e , perhaps i n p a r t e x p l a i n s the heavy r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r y members of P a r l i a m e n t t h e r e . ( 3 8 ) A l o o k a t the C o r n w a l l , Devon and D o r s e t s e a t s f o r 1586 and 1589 i l l u s t r a t e s the m u l t i p l i c i t y of p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a t r o n s . Robert B e a l e ' s s e a t s i n Totnes and D o r c h e s t e r were c o n t r o l l e d by B e d f o r d , who was m a r r i e d t o the widow of S i r R i c h a r d M o r i s o n . The L o s t w i t h i e l s e a t was p r o b a b l y a r r a n g e d f o r Beale by the C e c i l s . ( 3 9 ) S i m i l a r l y , Abraham H a r t w e l l ' s s e a t a t E a s t Looe i n 1586 was c o n t r o l l e d by B u r g h l e y , who may have been most happy thus t o promote the i n t e r e s t s of A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t ' s s e c r e t a r y . ( 4 ) John Dodderidge's 1589 B a r n s t a p l e s e a t can p r o b a b l y be e x p l a i n e d by h i s p o s i t i o n as c o u n s e l t o B a r n s t a p l e ; c e r t a i n l y he was p a i d a p a r l i a m e n t a r y wage by the town's c o u n c i l , and t h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t he was the c o u n c i l ' s c a n d i d a t e . ( 4 1 ) I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t the e a r l of Bath had a hand i n t h i s n o m i n a t i o n , s i n c e he was the borough p a t r o n . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r y members of P a r l i a m e n t i s indeed t h a t of a l a r g e v a r i e t y of p a t r o n s . The e x i s t i n g S o c i e t y r e c o r d s l e a v e no e v i d e n c e of r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s . In v i e w of the f a c t t h a t the members tended t o 58 f a l l i n t o two age groups, those who were born i n the 1540s and 1550s and those who were born i n the 1560s and 1570s, one might e x p e c t an i n t e r n a l p a t r o n / c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , but no e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o s u p p o r t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , or t o suggest any i n t e r n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of the S o c i e t y or i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Thus one i s l e f t w i t h the manoeuverings of e x t e r n a l p a t r o n s . Robert C e c i l ' s e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e a " p a t t e r n of t e r r i t o r i a l power" was c e r t a i n l y a f a c t o r . ( 4 2 ) He was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r D a v i e s ' C o r f e s e a t i n 1601 and Lake's s e a t s i n Malmesbury i n 1593 and New Romney i n 1601, among o t h e r s . ( 4 3 ) The e a r l of Essex a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t : f o r i n s t a n c e he nominated B o u r g c h i e r f o r S t a f f o r d borough i n 1593 and Broughton f o r L i c h f i e l d i n 1592.(44) However, o t h e r p a t r o n s a l s o were i n v o l v e d w i t h S o c i e t y members. Thomas S a c k v i l l e , L o r d B u c k h u r s t and the L o r d T r e a s u r e r , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Bowyer's S t e y n i n g s e a t i n 1601.(45) S i r George Carey, the c a p t a i n of the I s l e of Wight, p r o c u r e d R o b e r t C o t t o n ' s s e a t f o r Newtown f o r 1601.(46) W i l l i a m F leetwood's s e a t i n P a r l i a m e n t was t r a d i t i o n a l f o r the R e c o r d e r of London. W i l l i a m H a k e w i l l owed h i s B o s s i n e y s e a t t o S i r W i l l i a m Peryam, a well-known, z e a l o u s l y P r o t e s t a n t judge t o whom he was r e l a t e d . ( 4 7 ) O c c a s i o n a l l y , as i n the case of R i c h a r d Carew, a S o c i e t y member may have been prominent enough i n l o c a l and c o u n t y a f f a i r s t o get h i m s e l f a n o m i n a t i o n unaided.(48) Another such was James Ley, whose 59 f a m i l y was new t o W i l t s h i r e , but q u i c k l y became l o c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l . ( 4 9 ) Thus, once a g a i n , the members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s t u r n up i n a l l f a c t i o n s and i n a l l a r e a s . The p u z z l e seems i n s o l u b l e . How c o u l d gentlemen who r e p r e s e n t e d such r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of v i e w have come t o g e t h e r i n a S o c i e t y w i t h a p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n ? Why would gentlemen who were so busy p r o f e s s i o n a l l y make the time f o r a n t i q u a r i a n s t u d i e s ? Why would t h e s e s t u d i e s be kept so r e s o l u t e l y s e c r e t ? The time has come t o loo k o u t s i d e the S o c i e t y and i t s members, t o loo k f o r an e x t e r n a l cause t o e x p l a i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s . 60 NOTES 1. J o n e s , Chancery, p.168. 2. H i s t o r i a n s tend now t o downplay the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C e c i l / D u d l e y s t r u g g l e . See, f o r example, Simon Adams, " E l i z a Enthroned? The C o u r t and i t s P o l i t i c s , " i n Haigh, ed., The  Reign of E l i z a b e t h I , pp.55-77, who sees C e c i l as l i m i t e d i n power but not r e a l l y t h r e a t e n e d by Dudley; or David Loades, The Tudor C o u r t (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1986), pp.144-145, who d e s c r i b e s a c e n t r a l c o r e of c o u r t i e r s and o f f i c i a l s which c o n t a i n e d both C e c i l and Dudley, and whose members a l l had some a c c e s s t o rewards and g i f t s . A l s o see M.A.R. Graves and R.H. S i l c o c k , R e v o l u t i o n , R e a c t i o n and the Triumph of  C o n s e r v a t i s m ( A u c k l a n d : Longman P a u l , 1984), pp.120-123 f o r a good s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n of the Crown and i t s p a t r o n a g e . 3. John K. G r u e n f e l d e r , I n f l u e n c e i n E a r l y S t u a r t E l e c t i o n s (Columbus: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), p.34. J.E. N e a l e , The E l i z a b e t h a n House of Commons, r e v . ed. (London: Penguin Books, 1963), p.223 quotes L o r d Grey, who charged t h a t Essex a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e him t o d e c l a r e h i s l o y a l t y t o e i t h e r Essex or Robert C e c i l , " ' p r o t e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be no n e u t r a l i t y . ' " 4. HPT, I I , p.137. A l s o see P.R. H a r r i s , " W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , Recorder of the C i t y , and C a t h o l i c i s m i n E l i z a b e t h a n London," Recusant H i s t o r y , V o l . 7 , No.3 (1963), pp.109-118. 5. G.R. E l t o n , " P a r l i a m e n t , " i n Haigh, ed., The R e i g n of  E l i z a b e t h I , p.90. The S a l i s b u r y documents c o n t a i n many of Fleetwood's r e p o r t s t o B u r l e i g h . 6. CSP Dom., I I , J u l y 20, 1588. 7. HPT, I , p.412; DNB, I I , p.3. 8. P.M. Handover, The Second C e c i l (London: Eyre and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1959), p.71. 9. HPT, I I I , pp. 350, 351. S a l i s b u r y , XV, pp.224, 393, 394. 10. Haywood Townshend's H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s (London: 1680) . 11. HPT, I I , p.133. P.R. H a r r i s , " W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d , " p.106. 12. DNB, XIX, pp.3-5. B.W. B e c k i n g s a l e , B u r g h l e y : Tudor  Statesman, 1520-1598 (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1967), p.252. 13. DNB, X I , pp.418-419; S a l i s b u r y , X X I I , pp.60-75. 61 14. DNB, V I , pp.806-807; APC, 1589; S a l i s b u r y , IV,pp.266, 272; CSP Pom.. Nov. 1577; the F o u r t h R e p o r t , P a r t I , of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, pp.330, 331, 342. 15. S a l i s b u r y , XV, p.257, October 10, 1603. 16. The i n f o r m a t i o n on Broughton has been c u l l e d from HPT, I , pp.498-499; APC; the Bagot f a m i l y papers i n the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission's F o u r t h R e p o r t , pp.330, 334, 336. S a l i s b u r y , X I , p.106; X I I , p.435; XV, p.392; and "The Devereux P a p e r s " i n Henry E. Maiden, ed., Camden  M i s c e l l a n y , X I I I (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1923). 17. S a l i s b u r y , X I , p.106. 18. Maiden, ed., "Devereux P a p e r s , " p . v i . 19. S a l i s b u r y , X I I , p.435. 20. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r L e i g h has been t a k e n from DNB, X I , p.875; HPT, I I , PP.453-454. 21. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Stow comes from DNB, XIX, pp.3-5. He d e d i c a t e d the 1584 e d i t i o n of the C h r o n i c l e s t o A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t . 22. HPT, I , pp.411-414; S a l i s b u r y , IX, p.377. 23. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Lake comes from HPT, I I , pp.428-429; S a l i s b u r y , IX,pp.177-178; XV, passim; and the Downshire  M a n u s c r i p t s of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Downshire,) V o l . I I , passim. 24. DNB,V, p.1326, wr o n g l y i d e n t i f i e s the a n t i q u a r i a n D'Oyley, who was indeed the p h y s i c i a n d i s c u s s e d i n I b i d , pp.1322-1323. A l s o see S a l i s b u r y , V I I ,pp. 386,409; V I I I , pp.16, 254; IX, pp.129, 130, 179; X X I I I , p.22; and John Bruce, ed., The correspondence of Robert Dudley, E a r l of  L e i c e s t e r , d u r i n g h i s government of the Low C o u n t r i e s , i n  the Years 1585 and 1586 (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1844), p.6. 25. For Heneage, see DNB IX, p.409; HPT, I I , p.289-290; E g e r t o n P a p e r s , p.91; S a l i s b u r y , IV, p.423 f o r the l e t t e r . 26. Dunkel, pp.5, 10-11; DNB, X I , pp.438-439; HPT,II, pp.429-432. 27. C l a r e Howard, ed., The Poems of S i r John Davies (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941), pp.v,8; the H a s t i n g s  M a n u s c r i p t s of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H a s t i n g s ) V o l . IV,pp.1-18, 62 352-353; and the Egmont M a n u s c r i p t s of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Egmont) V o l . I , pp.30, 35, 50, 53. 28. One account of t h i s m a r r i a g e i s i n Howard, pp.10-12. 29. Lucy always defended her mother's s a n i t y . Her son T h e o p h i l u s wrote an i n t e r e s t i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l a r t i c l e on D a v i e s , which i s p r i n t e d i n H a s t i n g s , IV, pp.352-353. 30. Compton i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n Chamberlain's L e t t e r s , I , p.67; S a l i s b u r y , X I , pp.83, 283-284, 540; Downshire, I I , pp.253-280 passim; H a s t i n g s , I I , p.45; the D e l i s l e M a n u s c r i p t s of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as D e l i s l e ) V o l . 1 1 , pp.276, 278, 317; and John N i c h o l s , The P r o g r e s s e s of K i n g  James I , 4 v o l s . (London: S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , 1828), I , pp.159-160, 477. 31. I n f o r m a t i o n on Ley i s t a k e n from DNB, X I , pp.1084-1085; HPT, I I , p.476; the B u c c l e u c h M a n u s c r i p t s of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as B u c c l e u c h ) V o l . I l l , pp.228-252; and Thomas L. M o i r , The Addled  P a r l i a m e n t of 1614 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1958), p.188. 32. DNB, X I , p.1085. 33. B e c k i n g s a l e , p.157. 34. G r u e n f e l d e r , p. x i i . A l s o see J . E. N e a l e , The  E l i z a b e t h a n House of Commons, pp.232-233, who d e s c r i b e s the Fre n c h ambassador's b e l i e f t h a t most c o u n t i e s and towns s e n t b l a n k r e t u r n s f o r the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e t o f i l l i n w i t h h i s chosen c a n d i d a t e s . G.R. E l t o n , " P a r l i a m e n t i n the S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y : F u n c t i o n s and F o r t u n e s , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l , X X I I , (1979), p.273, f o l l o w s the p r o c e s s i n t o the House, where he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the P r i v y C o u n c i l managed e v e n t s . 35. Cheyney, I I , pp.174-178. M.A.R. Graves, The Tudor  P a r i i a m e n t s (London: Longman, 1985), p.124. 36. Cheyney, I I , P.178. 37. HPT, I , pp.60-61. A f t e r B e d f o r d ' s d e a t h , much of h i s i n f l u e n c e passed to h i s s o n - i n - l a w , the t h i r d e a r l of Bath. 38. Handover, p.86. Note t h a t B e d f o r d was a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e of WaIs Ingham's. 39. HPT, I , p.412. 63 40. HPT, I I , p.266. 41. HPT, I , p.144; HPT, I I , pp.42-43. 42. Handover, p.190. 43. HPT, I , p.152; I I , p.429. 44. HPT, I , pp.460, 498. 45. HPT, I , p.473. Bowyer was B u c k h u r s t ' s s e c r e t a r y . 46. HPT, I , pp.170, 663. The borough/patron r e l a t i o n s h i p was n e a t l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s case as the borough s e n t Carey b l a n k r e t u r n s f o r him to f i l l i n w i t h whatever names he wished. In r e t u r n , Carey watched over and promoted the i n t e r e s t s of Newtown whenever p o s s i b l e . 47. HPT, I I , p.238. 48. HPT, I , pp.133, 136-137, 543. 49. HPT, I I , p.476. 64 THE SOLUTION Why would a p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d h i s t o r i c a l / l i t e r a r y S o c i e t y s p r i n g i n t o b e i n g around 1586? What was happening j u s t then t o spur such an endeavour? Why would i t c o n t i n u e f o r twenty y e a r s , most i n t e n s e l y from 1594 t o 1604, o n l y t o f a l l i n t o d i s u s e c.1606-1607? What was happening by 1614 which might make i t s r e b i r t h d e s i r a b l e ? I f one a t t e m p t s t o see the S o c i e t y and i t s a c t i v i t i e s as a p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d , i n t e g r a t e d whole and as an e n t i t y which must be p l a c e d i n the c o n t e x t of i t s t i m e s , t h e s e a r e the ob v i o u s q u e s t i o n s t o examine. At the time when the S o c i e t y f i r s t formed the c o u n t r y was i n some t u r m o i l . The P a r l i a m e n t of 1584 was t a k e n up al m o s t e n t i r e l y w i t h f e a r of p a p i s t s and the p e r c e i v e d need t o p r o t e c t the Queen. T h i s was the year of the Bond of A s s o c i a t i o n , s i g n e d by thousands a l l over the c o u n t r y . The document pledged i t s s i g n a t o r i e s t o pursue t o the d e a t h anyone who p l o t t e d a g a i n s t E l i z a b e t h and anyone i n whose f a v o u r such a p l o t was un d e r t a k e n , whether k n o w i n g l y or n o t . T h i s was supplemented by P a r l i a m e n t , which passed an A c t of A s s o c i a t i o n i n e a r l y 1585, and made the f o c u s of the Bond e x p l i c i t by s p e c i f i c a l l y b a r r i n g Mary S t u a r t from the t h r o n e . As t h e y had been d o i n g f o r y e a r s , the members of P a r l i a m e n t a g a i n pushed E l i z a b t h t o p r o s e c u t e Mary; as she had been d o i n g f o r y e a r s , E l i z a b e t h a g a i n r e f u s e d . 65 War w i t h S p a i n was Imminent by the end o£ 1585. P h i l i p I I s e i z e d a l l the E n g l i s h s h i p s i n S p a n i s h p o r t s , and Queen E l i z a b e t h s e n t the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r to the Low C o u n t r i e s t o a i d the P r o t e s t a n t s who were s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r S p a n i s h o v e r l o r d s . In 1586, a d d i n g t o the f e e l i n g of danger, Walsingham exposed the B a b i n g t o n P l o t which l i n k e d Mary S t u a r t w i t h the J e s u i t s i n an a t t empt t o p l a c e her on the t h r o n e . A commission was formed t o t r y Mary, and the P a r l i a m e n t , which assembled a t the end of O c t o b e r , clamoured f o r her d e a t h . I n the f a c e of g r e a t p r e s s u r e from P a r l i a m e n t and the P r i v y C o u n c i l E l i z a b e t h a t l a s t brought h e r s e l f t o s i g n a w a r r a n t , and Mary was e x e c u t e d on F e b r u a r y 8, 1587. Her son James, k i n g of S c o t l a n d , who had s i g n e d an a l l i a n c e w i t h E l i z a b e t h i n J u l y 1586, one month b e f o r e Walsingham made p u b l i c the B a b i n g t o n c o n s p i r a c y , was i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . He had h i g h hopes of s u c c e e d i n g t o the t h r o n e of E n g l a n d , but t h i s was by no means a s s u r e d . I f he p r o t e s t e d h i s mother's death too s t r e n u o u s l y E l i z a b e t h , who thus f a r had c o n s i s t e n t l y a v o i d e d naming an h e i r , might be goaded i n t o d e c l a r i n g f o r h i s c o u s i n A r a b e l l a S t u a r t . James, w h i l e honour-bound t o c o m p l a i n , had t o do i t c a r e f u l l y . These were the p r i n c i p a l c o n cerns of the 1580s: the danger posed by p a p i s t s who might a t any time run amok; the g r owing c o n f l i c t w i t h S p a i n ; and the u n c e r t a i n t y of the s u c c e s s i o n t o the t h r o n e . In a d d i t i o n t o a l l t h e s e p e r c e i v e d p r oblems, was the v e r y immediate one by the end of the 66 decade o£ growing f a c t i o n a l i s m among the P r i v y C o u n c i l and the statesmen of the r e a l m caused by the m a c h i n a t i o n s of the e a r l of E s s e x , who t h r e a t e n e d i n a v e r y r e a l sense the c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l balance.The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s f i r s t assembled w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t of u n c e r t a i n t y f o r the f u t u r e . I n 1614 the c o u n t r y ' s f u t u r e a g a i n seemed u n c e r t a i n . For n e a r l y a decade James I had a l l o w e d Robert C e c i l , now the e a r l of S a l i s b u r y , t o m a i n t a i n the near monopoly of power he had a t t a i n e d by 1603; C e c i l had c o n t r o l l e d the P r i v y C o u n c i l u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1612. U n t i l t h a t time James a l l o w e d the C o u n c i l " f u l l and a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y , " i n the words of the V e n e t i a n ambassador, who remarked t h a t "the C o u n c i l s p a r e s the K i n g the t r o u b l e of g o v e r n i n g . " ( 1 ) A f t e r C e c i l ' s d e a t h the P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c l i n e d v e r y r a p i d l y because of i n t e r n a l f a c t i o n a l s t r i f e and because of the r i s e t o power of Robert C a r r , James' f i r s t g r e a t f a v o u r i t e , who had been "unconnected w i t h the government" u n t i l C e c i l ' s d e a t h . ( 2 ) Now James and C a r r began t o bypass the C o u n c i l , o f t e n not even k e e p i n g i t f u l l y i nformed of e v e n t s . ( 3 ) Thus the P r i v y C o u n c i l , s u p p o s e d l y the p r i m a r y a d v i s o r y body t o the K i n g , was e f f e c t i v e l y s t r i p p e d of p o l i t i c a l power, and t h e n a t i o n seemed t o be run on a s e r i e s of whims. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s h i f t towards monarchic d e s p o t i s m , by 1614 the s u c c e s s i o n was once a g a i n i n doubt. James' f i r s t s o n , the u n i v e r s a l l y admired and s t r o n g l y P r o t e s t a n t P r i n c e Henry, had d i e d i n 1612. Now the h e i r was P r i n c e C h a r l e s , 67 born i n 1600, g e n e r a l l y regarded as not very b r i g h t , and c e r t a i n l y r a t h e r d e l i c a t e . I t was too e a r l y to be convinced of C h a r l e s ' r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , but James' repeated overtures to Spain, and the a r r i v a l of Count Gondomar i n 1613, made the E n g l i s h people uneasy f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f u t u r e . ( 4 ) Thus the concerns of 1586 and of 1614 were i n many ways very s i m i l a r , c e n t r i n g around u n c e r t a i n t y f o r the p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e , the s u c c e s s i o n to the throne, and r e l i g i o n . Viewed i n t h i s context the d e c l i n e of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s i n the e a r l y years of James' E n g l i s h r e i g n makes very good sense. The f u t u r e seemed assured. The throne was now held by a r e l a t i v e l y young, d e f i n i t e l y P r o t e s t a n t monarch who had an a l t o g e t h e r admirable h e i r as w e l l as a younger son. C e c i l c o n t r o l l e d much of the r e a l power i n the realm and f a c t i o n s t r u g g l e s were kept at a l e v e l which never appeared to t h r e a t e n the country's s t a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , the Gunpowder P l o t of 1605, of which Camden had been commissioned to w r i t e an account, had been turned i n t o a propaganda triumph which completely d i s c r e d i t e d the E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s . Only from 1612 d i d the s t a b i l i t y i n these areas d e c l i n e . The S o c i e t y b u r i e d i t s t r a c k s deeply. I t was never mentioned i n the P r i v y C o u n c i l r e c o r d s , nor does i t s name appear even once i n the o f f i c i a l records f o r the r e i g n s of E l i z a b e t h or James. Yet many members were p o l i t i c a l l y and 68 s o c i a l l y prominent, and the S o c i e t y g e n e r a t e d e x t e n s i v e r e c o r d s i n the p o s i t i o n papers produced f o r the m e e t i n g s , papers which were produced i n m u l t i p l e c o p i e s but which were kep t s t r i c t l y p r i v a t e and u n p u b l i s h e d . ( 5 ) These p o s i t i o n papers were on many d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , of which the common theme was a s e a r c h f o r the o r i g i n s of B r i t i s h customs, p r a c t i c e s , o f f i c e s and laws, a s e a r c h f o r the " u n d e r p i n n i n g s " of Eng l a n d . T h i s makes p e r f e c t sense i f the a n t i q u a r i e s were engaged i n a s e a r c h f o r p r e c e d e n t c o n c e r n i n g the r u l e s of i n h e r i t a n c e and s u c c e s s i o n . In f a c t e v e r y m y s t e r y about the S o c i e t y can be e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t . No e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s t o l i n k the S o c i e t y w i t h e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h the most s u i t a b l e s u c c e s s o r to the t h r o n e of E n g l a n d , y e t the c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e p o i n t s s t r o n g l y t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s . The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s formed around 1586 when t h e s u c c e s s i o n t o the t h r o n e was i n p a r t i c u l a r doubt and when L o r d B u r g h l e y ' s g r i p on a f f a i r s and on power was under a growing t h r e a t . E l i z a b e t h I was growing too o l d t o produce an h e i r even i f she s h o u l d marry, and o l d enough t o make her d e a t h from n a t u r a l causes seem an e v e r - p r e s e n t t h r e a t . M a r y S t u a r t ' s d e a t h i n e a r l y 1587 removed the most prominent C a t h o l i c c l a i m a n t t o the t h r o n e . Her son James had reached a d u l t h o o d and was a s t a u n c h P r o t e s t a n t , but he was a f o r e i g n e r , and t h e r e were s e v e r a l o t h e r people who had 69 s t r o n g c l a i m s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o be c e r t a i n who had the r i g h t t o choose a monarch. Henry V I I I had thought i t was h i s r i g h t t o choose not o n l y h i s own s u c c e s s o r but t o s e t the l i n e of s u c c e s s s i o n f o r the f u t u r e . In h i s w i l l he had s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e d the S c o t t i s h S t u a r t s , descendants of h i s l a t e s i s t e r M a r g a r e t , from the th r o n e i n fa v o u r of the descendants of h i s younger s i s t e r Mary t h r o u g h the S u f f o l k l i n e . T h i s c l a i m had been t e s t e d once by Lady Jane Grey - the r e s u l t s had been d i s a s t r o u s . A l s o t h e r e was a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n as t o the prope r e x e c u t i o n and thus the l e g a l i t y of t h i s w i l l . E l i z a b e t h I c e r t a i n l y thought i t was her own r i g h t t o choose her own s u c c e s s o r , and she r e p e a t e d l y r e f u s e d t o a l l o w any p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n on the m a t t e r , s e e i n g c l e a r l y t h a t t o d e c l a r e an h e i r was t o upset the p r e c a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s b a l a n c e she had worked so hard t o a c h i e v e . P a r l i a m e n t a l s o had a p o t e n t i a l t o c l a i m some a u t h o r i t y , h a v i n g i n 1571 produced an A c t t o p e n a l i s e any d i s c u s s i o n of c l a i m s o t h e r than those " e s t a b l i s h e d and a f f i r m e d " by P a r i i a m e n t . ( 6 ) P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n never e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r e d , even a f t e r Mary S t u a r t ' s d e a t h eased the immediate t e n s i o n . When the th r o n e had been c o n t e s t e d i n the p a s t , f o r example d u r i n g the time of Stephen and M a t i l d a o r , o n l y j u s t out of l i v i n g memory, d u r i n g the Wars of the Roses, r i v a l c l a i m s had l e d t o c i v i l war. T h i s was a 70 d a u n t i n g p r o s p e c t , bad f o r England's p o s i t i o n i n the w o r l d , bad f o r t h o s e who were i n power and bad f o r those who wanted t o a s s u r e t h e i r power f o r the f u t u r e . One who was a l r e a d y i n power and a l s o wanted i t f o r t h e . f u t u r e was W i l l i a m C e c i l , L o r d B u r g h l e y , England's preeminent p o l i t i c i a n . L i k e E l i z a b e t h , he was g e t t i n g o l d , and he was a c t i v e l y grooming h i s 3on Robert f o r p o l i t i c a l power. C e c i l f a m i l y s t r a t e g y , an e f f o r t t o r e t a i n w e a l t h and power i n the hands of the C e c i l s and t h e i r a d h e r e n t s c l a s h e d r e p e a t e d l y w i t h the schemes of the e a r l of Essex from the l a t e 1580s through the 1590s. Essex, a l b e i t u n s k i l f u l l y , c h a l l e n g e d the C e c i l s on a number of o c c a s i o n s , v y i n g f o r o f f i c e s and f o r a l e v e l of c o n t r o l of the P r i v y C o u n c i l , and f o r c i n g the C e c i l s t o do the same. V a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s thus converged around the mid- t o l a t e - 1 5 8 0 s , when the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s formed. No e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o prove how t h i s happened. Perhaps i t was o r i g i n a l l y a l e g i t i m a t e s t u d y group formed by " d i v e r s gentlemen... s t u d i o u s of A n t i q u i t i e s . " Perhaps i t was i n s p i r e d by Camden's B r i t a n n i a ; c e r t a i n l y the method of i n q u i r y Camden used was v e r y s i m i l a r t o the S o c i e t y ' s methods. Perhaps L o r d B u r g h l e y , Camden's p a t r o n , had a d i r e c t hand i n the f o r m a t i o n of the S o c i e t y ; he c e r t a i n l y had a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and used h i s t o r i c a l arguments f o r p o l i t i c a l p urposes. Whatever the t r u t h , the S o c i e t y p r o v i d e d a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e f o r the 71 s e a r c h i n g out of r u l e s o£ p r e c e d e n t , a u t h o r i t y and i n h e r i t a n c e . Viewed i n the l i g h t of a c o n c e r t e d s e a r c h f o r a s u c c e s s o r t o E l i z a b e t h , the d i v e r s i t y of the S o c i e t y ' s membership and the s e c r e c y of the o p e r a t i o n become c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . Members were i n v o l v e d i n a l l l e v e l s and major a r e a s of government, and s e r v e d i n o f f i c i a l p o s t s a l l over the c o u n t r y . They had a c c e s s t o r e c o r d s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , and p l e n t y of excuse i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t i e s f o r s e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h these r e c o r d s w i t h o u t f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t h e y had t i e s w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s as c o u n t r y g e n t r y , as m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , as j u s t i c e s of the peace and as members of P a r l i a m e n t . They were i n t o u c h w i t h the whole c o u n t r y and c o u l d a c t as a network t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s e i t h e r outwards i n t o the c o u n t r y as a whole or inwar d s , t o some c e n t r a l d i r e c t o r . T h e i r t i e s w i t h a p p a r e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s a l s o make sense i f t h e y were w o r k i n g on a p r o j e c t w i t h the u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s u c c e s s i o n t o the t h r o n e , an i s s u e on which men who o t h e r w i s e would be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o each o t h e r c o u l d f i n d a common purpose, and an i s s u e of such o v e r r i d i n g importance t h a t i t would make such an e x p e n d i t u r e of time and e f f o r t w o r t h w h i l e . No one wanted a c i v i l war, but t o l e a v e the s u c c e s s i o n open f o r r i v a l c l a i m a n t s was t o i n v i t e one, and t o i n s t a l l a s o v e r e i g n who 72 would be u n a c c e p t a b l e t o any s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n was j u s t as dangerous. Thus the i n c l u s i o n of C a t h o l i c s y m p a t h i s e r s and Sampson Erdeswick i n the S o c i e t y becomes c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s were not u n i t e d . Some were a b s o l u t e l y s i n g l e - m i n d e d and would w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t none but a C a t h o l i c monarch l o y a l t o the Pope on the t h r o n e of E n g l a n d , but these were i n the m i n o r i t y . Most E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s were more moderate, l o y a l t o the Queen and t o England above a l l , and w i l l i n g t o s e t t l e f o r a P r o t e s t a n t monarch who would a l l o w C a t h o l i c s some t o l e r a t i o n . E r d e s w i c k f i t t e d i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . When he and o t h e r prominent C a t h o l i c s were a r r e s t e d , t h o s e deemed by the a u t h o r i t i e s most v i r u l e n t l y committed to t h e i r cause were s e n t t o Wisbech. Many C a t h o l i c moderates, i n c l u d i n g E r d e s w i c k , were i n c a r c e r a t e d somewhat l e s s s t r i c t l y a t the b i s h o p ' s p a l a c e a t E l y . The moderate E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s e v e n t u a l l y became known as A p p e l l a n t s , t hose who were p r e p a r e d t o promise p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y i n r e t u r n f o r a l e v e l of o f f i c i a l t o l e r a n c e . K i n g James p r o v i d e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s k i n d of f u t u r e and E r d e s w i c k , a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r s i n the group w i t h C a t h o l i c c o n n e c t i o n s , may have been a b l e t o a c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the p o l i t i c a l l y l o y a l C a t h o l i c s i n t h e s e a r c h f o r a monarch who would be a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l . The S o c i e t y spent many y e a r s c o l l e c t i n g d a t a and e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o u n t r y - w i d e network. The i l l - f a t e d E s s e x 73 r e b e l l i o n p r o v i d e d the Queen's P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y , Robert C e c i l , whose f a t h e r had d i e d i n 1598, w i t h a c l e a r f i e l d i n which f i n a l l y t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own and England's f u t u r e . Many documents i n the S a l i s b u r y m a n u s c r i p t s demonstrate h i s (and h i s f a t h e r ' s ) i n t e r e s t i n the s u c c e s s i o n . ( 7 ) In 1585 L o r d B u r g h l e y had even c o n c o c t e d a p o s s i b l e p l a n f o r an i n t e r r e g n u m s h o u l d E l i z a b e t h s u d d e n l y d i e . The C e c i l s had an e x c e l l e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e system, and Robert had been p r a c t i s i n g " e n t h u s i a s t i c p l a c e h u n t i n g " a t l e a s t s i n c e 1593. A f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h he had worked f o r a " p a t t e r n of t e r r i t o r i a l power" t o p l a c e h i m s e l f , h i s r e l a t i o n s and h i s a d h e r e n t s i n t o key p o s i t i o n s a l l over the c o u n t r y , even e n g i n e e r i n g the placement of h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r Thomas, second L o r d B u r g h l e y , as P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l of the N o r t h i n 1599.(8) I t was t h i s L o r d B u r g h l e y who was s e n t , a l o n g w i t h W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e , t o p u b l i c l y p r o c l a i m the e a r l of Essex a t r a i t o r a f t e r the botched r e b e l l i o n . Essex o b v i o u s l y knew of D e t h i c k e ' s unsavoury r e p u t a t i o n , s i n c e he c l a i m e d a t h i s t r i a l t o have seen "'no h e r a l d but t h a t branded f e l l o w , whom I took not f o r an h e r a l d . ' To t h i s the r e p l y was t h a t 'an h e r a l d , though a wicked man, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s an h e r a l d . ' " (9) C e c i l was q u i c k t o take advantage of Essex's f a l l . E ssex had f o r some time been i n c o n t a c t w i t h K i n g James of S c o t l a n d , a s s u r i n g him of s u p p o r t i n the f u t u r e and d o i n g 74 h i s b e s t t o d i s c r e d i t C e c i l as a s u p p o r t e r of the I n f a n t a of S p a i n ' s c l a i m t o the t h r o n e . James' ambassadors a r r i v e d i n London to d i s c u s s v a r i o u s m a t t e r s w i t h the Queen s h o r t l y a f t e r E ssex's d e a t h ; C e c i l met w i t h them and a r r i v e d a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He would s u p p o r t James' c l a i m t o the E n g l i s h t h r o n e as l o n g as James agreed t o r e f r a i n from h a r r y i n g Queen E l i z a b e t h t o d e c l a r e f o r him, t o w a i t p e a c e f u l l y f o r her n a t u r a l d e a t h , t o keep a l l h i s communications w i t h C e c i l s e c r e t , and t o a l l o w C e c i l t o r e t a i n h i s f u l l l o y a l t y f o r E l i z a b e t h as l o n g as she l i v e d . ( 1 0 ) Then began a s e r i e s of s e c r e t l e t t e r s between James and C e c i l , conducted t h r o u g h v a r i o u s i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . ( 1 1 ) At James' s u g g e s t i o n , L o r d Henry Howard a c t e d as C e c i l ' s c h a n n e l of communication. Howard was n o t , u n t i l t h i s p o i n t , i n the C e c i l c o h o r t , but he and C e c i l , w h i l e never becoming c l o s e f r i e n d s , worked w e l l t o g e t h e r on the S c o t t i s h p r o j e c t . W e l l known as a c r y p t o - C a t h o l i c and a l s o as the l e a d e r of the p o w e r f u l Howard f a m i l y , Henry was i n a p o s i t i o n t o sway a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c community t o James' s i d e . He and h i s f a m i l y had o n l y r e c e n t l y and t e n u o u s l y emerged from d i s g r a c e , so he was hungry f o r power and o f f i c e . Should the p l a n s u c c e e d , James would be a b l e t o o f f e r him b o t h . C e c i l a l s o o b t a i n e d advantages from the i n c l u s i o n of Howard i n h i s scheme. As w e l l as b r i n g i n g w i t h him the p o t e n t i a l l o y a l t y of many C a t h o l i c s , Howard's e r s t w h i l e l o o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h 75 the e a r l of Essex o f f e r e d C e c i l the chance t o add some of E s s e x ' s s u p p o r t e r s t o h i s own.(12) Thus the scene was s e t f o r E l i z a b e t h ' s d e a t h and James' a c c e s s i o n . C e c i l was w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h James and w i t h Henry Howard, and h i s agents were a l l over the c o u n t r y . H i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h James were e x t r e m e l y s e c r e t and, r i g h t up u n t i l the s u c c e s s i o n , the p u b l i c and perhaps the Queen were unaware t h a t the matter was s e t t l e d . John Manningham, a London l a w y e r , had d i n n e r w i t h Dr. Henry P a r r y , one of the Queen's c h a p l a i n s and l a t e r b i s h o p of G l o u c e s t e r and W o r c e s t e r , on March 23, 1603. Even t h e n , o n l y hours b e f o r e the Queen's d e a t h , the outcome was unsure, and the two gentlemen were q u i t e a n x i o u s f o r the f u t u r e . ( 1 3 ) O n l y C e c i l and the L o r d A d m i r a l (a Howard) were p r e s e n t t o hear the Queen name James as her s u c c e s s o r ; a f t e r her death C e c i l announced the d e c i s i o n t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l . Then, as i f i t were a l l p r e a r r a n g e d , s e v e r a l t h i n g s happened v e r y q u i c k l y . At the head of a p r o c e s s i o n of h e r a l d s , W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e , G a r t e r k i n g of arms, proceeded around London, p r o c l a i m i n g James k i n g . ( 1 4 ) A g r e a t f u s s was made a t Ludgate by the Mayor of London, who r e f u s e d t o open the gate u n l e s s D e t h i c k e promised i n advance t h a t he would announce James r a t h e r than anyone e l s e . The same t h i n g happened a t the Tower of London, where the L i e u t e n a n t r e f u s e d t o admit the company u n l e s s he was a s s u r e d t h a t James was t h e new monarch. N o t i c e was s e n t t o the c i v i l and 76 j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s a l l over E n g l a n d , and t h r o u g h o u t the l a n d " d i v e r s Gentlemen had formed s e c r e t i n t e l l i g e n c e , and i n d i v e r s p l a c e s p r o c l a i m e d the k i n g ' s r i g h t w i t h o u t w a r r a n t but not w i t h o u t welcome."(15) Perhaps some of t h e s e gentlemen were the a n t i q u a r i e s . The P r i v y C o u n c i l , headed by C e c i l , s e n t word i m m e d i a t e l y t o James i n S c o t l a n d , to n o t i f y him o f f i c i a l l y of the d e a t h of the Queen and t o r e q u e s t him o f f i c i a l l y t o become k i n g . W i t h i n a few days a second d e l e g a t i o n was d i s p a t c h e d t o S c o t l a n d . T h i s group was l e d by George Carew, a Master i n Chancery and C e c i l p r o t e g e , and b r o t h e r t o S o c i e t y member R i c h a r d . Thomas Lake accompanied Carew, and on A p r i l 4 he r e p o r t e d from E d i n b u r g h t o C e c i l t h a t what had th u s f a r been done i n S c o t l a n d , and what answers the E n g l i s h d e l e g a t i o n had r e c e i v e d " t o u c h i n g the p o i n t s of our c h a r g e , you s h a l l p e r c e i v e by the t h i n g s s e n t by Mr. Carew, and by h i s r e l a t i o n . " ( 1 6 ) Lake was a l r e a d y a c t i n g on C e c i l ' s b e h a l f t o a s c e r t a i n James' immediate f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s and a d v i s e him on d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s ; he c o n t i n u e d f o r a decade t o be James' main s e c r e t a r y f o r d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s , t o r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o C e c i l , and t o g a i n i n p e r s o n a l power.(17) W i t h i n a few days of James' a c c e s s i o n a n o t h e r member of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , John D a v i e s , went to S c o t l a n d w i t h L o r d Hunsdon. Davie s h e l d no o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n which would e x p l a i n h i s p r e s e n c e , and p o p u l a r g o s s i p a t the time 77 assumed t h a t he was s i m p l y a p l a c e s e e k e r . ( 1 8 ) John Manningham p e r c e p t i v e l y c a l l e d him "the K i n g ' s man," and t h i s he proved t o be.(19) In f a c t Davies a l r e a d y knew the K i n g , h a v i n g been f o r some r e a s o n i n c l u d e d i n the d e l e g a t i o n of the e a r l of Sussex t o S c o t l a n d f o r the c h r i s t e n i n g of P r i n c e Henry i n 1594; a c c o r d i n g t o D a v i e s ' grandson, James took a l i k i n g t o him then.(20) When Davies r a c e d up t o S c o t l a n d i n 1603, James g r e e t e d him e f f u s i v e l y , a s k i n g whether he was the a u t h o r of the famous and much admired poem "Nosce Teipsum." The K i n g k n i g h t e d D a v i e s and a p p o i n t e d him S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l f o r I r e l a n d . D a v i e s ' case b r i n g s s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i v e s t r a n d s t o g e t h e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t C e c i l had been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n e n g i n e e r i n g h i s r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n the M i d d l e Temple i n 1601. Thus a t the same time t h a t C e c i l was opening the s e c r e t correspondence w i t h James, he was a l s o , f o r no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n , h e l p i n g a r e l a t i v e l y obscure lawyer back t o an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , perhaps because t h a t lawyer was a l r e a d y l i k e d by the K i n g . As a r e s u l t of h i s 1594 t r i p , D a v i e s had a p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e w i t h James, and c e r t a i n l y the e x t e n t of h i s honours i n 1603 and beyond s u g g e s t s h i g h f a v o u r . Perhaps t h i s f a v o u r from James was a reward f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d . I f s o , and i f the S o c i e t y as a whole was i n v o l v e d w i t h James' placement, one would e x p e c t t h a t o t h e r S o c i e t y members s h o u l d be s i m i l a r l y q u i c k l y rewarded by the K i n g . 78 T h i s was i n f a c t the case f o r the m a j o r i t y of l i v i n g S o c i e t y members. When James l e f t S c o t l a n d t o t r a v e l t o London h i s r o u t e was l i t t e r e d w i t h those he honoured, d e c o r a t e d , and o t h e r w i s e showered w i t h g i f t s . Indeed, he has been r o u n d l y c r i t i c i s e d f o r h i s a p p a r e n t l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e , and c o s t l y t o the c o u n t r y , l a r g e s s e ; however, t h i s l a r g e s s e s e r v e d a r e a l purpose i n the c r e a t i o n f o r James of a l o y a l f a c t i o n , which was s p r e a d w i d e l y , and which owed i t s f a v o u r s t o James p e r s o n a l l y . The S o c i e t y members, who had he l p e d i n advance t o p r e p are the populace f o r James' a c c e s s i o n , got t h e i r r ewards. Nine of them were d e f i n i t e l y dead by 1603 and f i v e may w e l l have been.(21) Of the twenty t h r e e members who were d e f i n i t e l y a l i v e , f i f t e e n r e c e i v e d e a r l y honours and appointments from James, and n i n e e i t h e r c o n t i n u e d i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n s or r e c e i v e d s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t j o b s . ( 2 2 ) These j o b s ranged from s p e c i f i c s h o r t term commissions, such as Thynne's employment by Henry Howard (who became e a r l of Northampton and a major a d v i s e r t o the k i n g ) t o r e s e a r c h the o f f i c e of h e r a l d , t o Bowyer's 1604 appointment as Keeper of the r e c o r d s of the Tower. Some of the a n t i q u a r i e s , l i k e Davies and Lake, d i d v e r y w e l l indeed under James. W i l l i a m Compton was g r e a t l y f a v o u r e d by the k i n g and by Henry Howard. Robert C o t t o n became Howard's p r i m a r y a d v i s e r and was a l s o f a v o u r e d by James. In f a c t the o n l y a n t i q u a r y who can be argued t o l o s e p o s i t i o n soon a f t e r James took over the th r o n e was W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e . 79 D e t h i c k e had been G a r t e r k i n g of arms s i n c e 1586, and had h e l d the p o s t over the s t r e n u o u s o b j e c t i o n s of many of h i s f e l l o w h e r a l d s . ( 2 3 ) When James acceeded he k n i g h t e d D e t h i c k e ; soon a f t e r , however, he s t r i p p e d him of h i s j o b and gave him a p e n s i o n . T h i s seems c u r i o u s . I t had been s e v e r a l y e a r s s i n c e D e t h i c k e had been i n a f i g h t , e i t h e r l i t e r a l l y or f i g u r a t i v e l y ; he had been s t a y i n g v e r y much out of t r o u b l e . Yet he l o s t h i s p o s i t i o n by F e b r u a r y 1605 a t the l a t e s t , and perhaps as e a r l y as F e b r u a r y 1604.(24) The  D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y s u g g e s t s t h a t he l o s t James 1 f a v o u r by h i n t i n g t h a t he had no r i g h t t o the t h r o n e ; t h e r e i s no r e a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c l a i m . Perhaps D e t h i c k e , a known hot-head, was j u s t too much of a l i a b i l i t y once h i s f u n c t i o n ( t h a t of p r o c l a i m i n g the k i n g ) was f u l f i l l e d . The f a c t t h a t D a v i e s , the o t h e r r e a l l y v o l a t i l e member of the S o c i e t y , was rewarded and removed su g g e s t s a s i m i l a r dynamic. Thus we have a S o c i e t y w i t h a g r e a t c a p a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n a l l over the c o u n t r y , whose members t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e d honours and d e c o r a t i o n s v e r y soon a f t e r the new k i n g took the t h r o n e . The members tended t o be a m b i t i o u s . They were g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Robert C e c i l , the p o l i t i c i a n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t e e r i n g James onto the t h r o n e , and s e v e r a l of them deve l o p e d an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Henry Howard, C e c i l ' s c o - c o n s p i r a t o r and an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c i a n d u r i n g James' r e i g n . The S o c i e t y ' s most 80 a c t i v e y e a r s were those i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g the a c c e s s i o n , and i t d i s b a n d e d around 1607, a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s of g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n i n g a c t i v i t y . ( 2 5 ) Spelman suggested t h a t t h e d e c l i n e was due t o a t t r i t i o n and t o members who had moved out of London. Yet he h i m s e l f d i d not l i v e i n London u n t i l 1612, and he had been a member. The e v i d e n c e of o f f i c i a l a ppointments s u g g e s t s t h a t many of the members were i n f a c t i n London d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . Had the S o c i e t y been d e l i b e r a t e l y s u p p r e s s e d because of o f f i c i a l d i s p l e a s u r e , the o p e r a t i o n would be l i k e l y t o l e a v e some t r a c e s i n both o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . Yet t h e r e i s none, and the members' c a r e e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y were g r e a t l y i n f a v o u r a t t h i s t i m e . I would suggest t h a t the S o c i e t y d i e d out because what had become i t s major impetus had d i s a p p e a r e d . The S o c i e t y had he l p e d t o make a k i n g and had c o n s o l i d a t e d b o t h h i s and C e c i l ' s power. The y e a r s from 1606 t o 1612 were ones of r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y . C e c i l was s u b t l e and c a r e f u l , p r e f e r r i n g t o c o l l a b o r a t e r a t h e r than c l a s h w i t h p o t e n t i a l enemies and t h i s a l l o w e d a c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l b a l a n c e i n the S t a t e . The former members of the S o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y c o n t i n u e d t o advance i n t h e i r c a r e e r s , and t o s u p p o r t James. Robert C o t t o n p a r t i c u l a r l y , as he had d i s c o v e r e d h i s own S c o t t i s h b l o o d and begun t o c a l l h i m s e l f Robert Bruce C o t t o n , worked t o b o l s t e r the new d y n a s t y . He was a g r e a t c o l l e c t o r of Anglo-Saxon and Tudor s t a t e documents, and v e r y generous 81 about c o n s u l t i n g them or l e n d i n g them t o f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s . As h i s c l o s e s t a d v i s e r , " C o t t o n f o r t i f i e d many of the government p o s i t i o n s t h a t i t f e l l t o Northampton t o p r e s e n t . " ( 2 6 ) C o t t o n was a l s o f a v o u r e d by James, who a p p o i n t e d him t o s e v e r a l a d v i s o r y boards. Spelman, t o o , was a devoted r o y a l i s t , and was rewarded by James w i t h a po s t as High S h e r r i f f of N o r f o l k . ( 2 7 ) Lake was a c o n s t a n t champion f o r the i n t e r e s t s a t c o u r t of James' S c o t t i s h f r i e n d s and, i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y speech i n 1604, F r a n c i s Tate t r a n s l a t e d a Welsh p r o v e r b i n s u p p o r t of James' c l a i m t o the t h r o n e . ( 2 8 ) Davies and Dodderidge both c o n s t a n t l y upheld the p o s i t i o n of the monarchy, and were w e l l rewarded. To t a k e Dodderidge as an example of the a n t i q u a r i e s ' c a r e e r s : h i s name appeared on a l i s t of gentlemen t o be c o n s i d e r e d as commissioners f o r "causes e c c l e s i a s t i c a l " i n l a t e 1603, by which time he had a l r e a d y been made S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l . ( 2 9 ) In 1604 he was put on the High Commission. In 1606 he argued a case i n the Exchequer, d e f e n d i n g the k i n g ' s i m p o s i t i o n s , and i n 1607 he was k n i g h t e d and made K i n g ' s S e r j e a n t . In 1608 he was p l a c e d on a commission t o examine abuses i n the navy, and i n 1612 he became a j u s t i c e of the K i n g ' s Bench.(30) In 1612 the p o l i t i c a l b a l a n c e changed, as both C e c i l and the P r i n c e of Wales d i e d and James, s u p p o r t e d by Robert C a r r , took an i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e r o l e i n government. The P r i v y C o u n c i l was a l l but bypassed, and anyway became too l a r g e and i l l - a s s o r t e d t o r e s i s t a d e c l i n e i n t o 82 f a c t i o n a l i s m . ( 3 1 ) Henry Howard, e a r l of Northampton, l e d the dominant f a c t i o n and, becoming more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a r r , r e t a i n e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e which tended t o be p r o - C a t h o l i c and p r o - S p a n i s h . James h i m s e l f f a v o u r e d a p r o - S p a n i s h p o l i c y , even hop i n g t o s e a l a f r i e n d s h i p by m a r r y i n g P r i n c e C h a r l e s t o a S p a n i s h p r i n c e s s . The S p a n i s h ambassador, Count Gondomar, a r r i v e d i n England i n 1613 and appeared t o have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on the k i n g which was d e e p l y d i s t u r b i n g t o many Englishmen who d i s t r u s t e d the Hapsburgs, the S p a n i s h , and a l l C a t h o l i c s . ( 3 2 ) The dea t h of Henry Howard i n s p r i n g 1614 l e f t Robert C a r r , a p o l i t i c a l n a i f , i n a l m o s t s o l e p o s s e s s i o n of the l i n e s of a c c e s s t o James. I t was i n 1614, a c c o r d i n g t o Spelman, t h a t the a n t i q u a r i e s asked t o re g r o u p ; James r e f u s e d because he m i s t r u s t e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t i o n s . I n the l i g h t of t h e i r p r o b a b l e r o l e i n h i s i n s t a l l a t i o n as k i n g of Englan d , h i s r e f u s a l i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . That James knew what t h e i r e a r l i e r r o l e had been i s sugg e s t e d v e r y s t r o n g l y by the e x t e n t of the f a v o u r s he gave them e a r l y i n h i s r e i g n . They had a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d him f o r over t e n y e a r s , but he d i d not t r u s t them i n 1614. He once e x p l a i n e d h i s p h i l o s o p h y of t r u s t v e r y e x p l i c i t l y : " L e t t h a t P r i n c e , t h a t would beware of C o n s p i r a c i e s , be r a t h e r j e a l o u s of s u c h , whom h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y f a v o u r s have advanced, than of t h o s e whom h i s d i s p l e a s u r e h a t h d i s c o n t e n t e d . These want 83 means t o e x e c u t e t h e i r P l e a s u r e s , but t h e y have means a t p l e a s u r e t o e xecute t h e i r d e s i r e s . " ( 3 3 ) The a n t i q u a r i e s were dangerous men and James was v u l n e r a b l e . H i s g l o r i o u s o l d e r son was dead, and P r i n c e C h a r l e s was u n h e a l t h y and perhaps r e t a r d e d . Those who had had a hand i n making one k i n g might w e l l t r y t o r e p e a t the p r o c e s s . So James r e f u s e d . At t h i s p o i n t the a n t i q u a r i e s went i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y Spelman d i d not s p e c i f y the names of a l l those who were i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t e d r e v i v a l . Some, l i k e Carew i n poor h e a l t h i n C o r n w a l l , were u n d o u b t e d l y not i n c l u d e d . Some, l i k e F r a n c i s T a t e , q u i e t l y c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e i r c a r e e r s . The m a j o r i t y , however, made d i s c e r n i b l e p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e s . W i l l i a m Compton was t y p i c a l of one s m a l l group which r e t a i n e d f u l l l o y a l t y t o the k i n g and was rewarded f o r i t . Thus i n 1617 Compton was made P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l f o r Wales and the Marches, and then L o r d L i e u t e n a n t of Wales. The next y e a r he became e a r l of Northampton and i n 1628 k n i g h t of the G a r t e r . R i c h a r d S t . George a l s o remained l o y a l , and was k n i g h t e d i n 1616. F r a n c i s L e i g h was made Master of Requests i n 1614, and then S h e r r i f f of W a r w i c k s h i r e . H i s l o y a l t y t o the k i n g was u n q u e s t i o n e d , as was t h a t of h i s son, the r o y a l i s t f i r s t e a r l of C h i c h e s t e r . Spelman h i m s e l f was p l a c e d by the k i n g on v a r i o u s a d v i s o r y boards from 1617 onwards. 84 Lake and Ley worked w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g system t o a c q u i r e p e r s o n a l power. Lake had not been an a l l y of Robert C a r r , but when C a r r f e l l from grace a f t e r the Overbury s c a n d a l he was c e r t a i n l y one of tho s e who promoted S i r George V i l l i e r s t o James' a t t e n t i o n . ( 3 4 ) V i l l i e r s , a much more s k i l f u l p o l i t i c i a n t han C a r r ever was, was e x t r e m e l y i n t e l l i g e n t and w e l l a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e the power s t r u c t u r e t o advance and c o n s o l i d a t e h i s own p o s i t i o n . Lake f l e w on h i s c o a t t a i l s f o r some t i m e . James Ley, a l s o a t r u e p o l i t i c i a n , r e c o g n i s e d a s t a r when he saw one, and m a r r i e d V i l l i e r s ' n i e c e . From t h a t time onwards he g a i n e d many l u c r a t i v e o f f i c i a l p o s t s and s t a y e d v e r y c l o s e t o t h i s c e n t r e of power. 1614 was a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t year f o r James, a year when the c o n f l i c t between the "p o p u l a r demand f o r major r e f o r m s and the K i n g ' s s t u b b o r n i n s i s t e n c e on r e t a i n i n g a l l h i s powers u n d i m i n i s h e d " f i n a l l y came i n t o the open.(35) P a r l i a m e n t was a f i a s c o which James q u i c k l y d i s s o l v e d . Three a n t i q u a r i e s , two of whom were named by Spelman as s e e k i n g t o r e c o n s t i t u t e the S o c i e t y i n 1614, moved d e f i n i t e l y i n t o the camp of James' o p p o s i t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e a f t e r . W i l l i a m H a k e w i l l was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l lawyer who was v e r y a c t i v e i n P a r l i a m e n t . He pr e p a r e d and p r e s e n t e d the case a g a i n s t the k i n g i n the matter of i m p o s i t i o n s and, a f t e r the Addled P a r l i a m e n t , was one of those who were f o r c e d t o p r e s e n t t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y notes and papers t o be burned by the 85 a u t h o r i t i e s . ( 3 6 ) James W h i t l o c k e , who had a l r e a d y been i m p r i s o n e d f o r a month i n 1613 f o r o p p o s i n g the sweeping powers of a r o y a l commission on the navy, a l s o had h i s notes and papers d e s t r o y e d . ( 3 7 ) He c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e , as d i d h i s son, t o defend the p a r l i a m e n t a g a i n s t the p e r c e i v e d e x c e s s e s of " d i v i n e r i g h t . " The most s u r p r i s i n g a n t i q u a r y to f i n d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o James was Robert C o t t o n , who had e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f so f i r m l y w i t h the k i n g . Y e t , a f t e r the f a i l e d r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of the S o c i e t y , C o t t o n became a l e a d e r of the o p p o s i t i o n . He was not i n P a r l i a m e n t i n 1614, but a l r e a d y i n 1615 he was a r r e s t e d and i m p r i s o n e d f o r over s i x months f o r a l l e g e d l y t e l l i n g s t a t e s e c r e t s t o the S p a n i s h ambassador. H i s papers and m a n u s c r i p t s were s e a r c h e d , but he was never t r i e d and was e v e n t u a l l y pardoned and r e l e a s e d . ( 3 8 ) A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t C o t t o n was t r e a t e d by the c o u r t as an enemy; by 1628 the p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was u s i n g h i s house as a meeting p l a c e and h i s l i b r a r y as a r e s o u r c e bank.(39) In 1630 C o t t o n was i n t r o u b l e a g a i n and h i s l i b r a r y and c o l l e c t i o n s were c o n f i s c a t e d . A g a i n he was not t r i e d , but he was never a g a i n a d m i t t e d t o h i s own l i b r a r y . Thus the argument i s complete. The a n t i q u a r i e s had r e s e a r c h e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r making k i n g s and had been rewarded f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . For t e n y e a r s t h e y l i v e d w e l l and p r o s p e r e d under the Jacobean a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1612, when the system began o b v i o u s l y t o crumble and when the 86 f u t u r e l o o k e d u n c e r t a i n , t h e y a p p l i e d t o regroup and were r e f u s e d . A f t e r t h i s r e f u s a l some of them a l l i e d t h emselves w i t h the new powers and o t h e r s moved d e f i n i t e l y i n t o the o p p o s i t i o n . James' h o s t i l i t y was q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . He must have f e a r e d the power of the a n t i q u a r i e s , w o r k i n g as t h e y were w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , the i n t r i c a c i e s of which t h e y u n d e r s t o o d and he never q u i t e m astered. Perhaps he f e a r e d f o r h i s own crown. He must have f e a r e d f o r h i s son's. We have examined the E l i z a b e t h a n S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s i n the l i g h t of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w t h a t i t was a s c h o l a r l y group which d i s s o l v e d due t o a t t r i t i o n and perhaps t o the s u s p i c i o n of the r u l i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The 1614 e f f o r t t o r e c o n g r e g a t e f a i l e d due t o James' unfounded s u s p i c i o n s of the members' p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s t s on the assu m p t i o n t h a t the d i s c o u r s e s produced by members were the o b j e c t of the S o c i e t y , and t h a t the members were p r i m a r i l y s c h o l a r s . However, the d i s c o u r s e s were s u p e r f i c i a l and u n c r i t i c a l , not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s t a n d a r d of h i s t o r i c a l work of which some of the members were c a p a b l e . They d i d not j u s t i f y i n themselves e i t h e r the amount of time which must have been expended on them, or the s e c r e c y which the S o c i e t y m a i n t a i n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the members were not s c h o l a r s , but h i g h l y p l a c e d and v e r y busy f u n c t i o n a r i e s of the c e n t r a l 87 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They had p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l p a t r o n s , were drawn from a l l p o i n t s on the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s spectrum, and had o f f i c i a l d u t i e s a l l over the c o u n t r y . C a r e f u l p r o b i n g of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l motive was t o e s t a b l i s h and prepare the ground f o r a w i d e l y a c c e p t a b l e s u c c e s s o r t o E l i z a b e t h I . James' s u s p i c i o n s were s o u n d l y based on f a c t . 88 NOTES 1. David H a r r i s W i l l s o n , The P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r s i n the House  of Commons 1604-1629 ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1940), p.17. 2. David Mathew, James I (London: Eyre and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1967), pp.198-200. 3. M.A.R. Graves and R.H. S i l c o c k , R e v o l u t i o n , p.126. 4. David Mathew, The Jacobean Age (London: Longmans Green, 1938), pp.80-93. 5. For example, see H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, T w e l f t h R e p o r t , Appendix, p a r t IX, p.144, f o r a l i s t i n g of m u l t i p l e c o p i e s of F r a n c i s Tate's a c c o u n t of the d i m e n s i o n s and measures of l a n d i n England. 6. J o e l H u r s t f i e l d , "The S u c c e s s i o n S t r u g g l e i n L a t e E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d , " i n E l i z a b e t h a n Government and  S o c i e t y , eds. S.T. B i n d o f f e t a l . (London: U n i v e r s i t y of London A t h l o n e P r e s s ) , pp.371-372. 7. S a l i s b u r y , X I I I , l i s t s a l e n g t h y t r e a t i s e on the s u b j e c t , w r i t t e n b e f o r e 1587. A l s o see J.E. N e a l e , E l i z a b e t h I and  her P a r l i a m e n t s (New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1958), pp.44-46. 8. John K. G r u e n f e l d e r , p.33. A l s o see B.W. B e c k i n g s a l e , pp.177-178, 223; P.M. Handover, The Second C e c i l (London: E y r e and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1959), pp. 190, 231; and Graves and S i l c o c k , R e v o l u t i o n , p.123. B u r g h l e y r e t a i n e d t h i s p ost u n t i l August 1603. 9. DNB, V, p.870. 10. See Handover, Second C e c i l , pp.234-239, f o r an account of the n e g o t i a t i o n . 11. Many were p u b l i s h e d i n John Bruce, ed., Correspondence  of K i n g James VI of S c o t l a n d w i t h S i r Robert C e c i l and  o t h e r s i n E n g l a n d , d u r i n g the R e i g n of Queen E l i z a b e t h (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1861). 12. Handover, Second C e c i l , p.239. 13. John Manningham, D i a r y of John Manningham, ed.John Bruce (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1868), p p . x i i - x i v . 14. The i n c i d e n t i s d e s c r i b e d i n S a l i s b u r y , XV, pp.25-28. 89 15. John N i c h o l s , The P r o g r e s s e s of K i n g James I (London: S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , 1 8 2 8 ) , I , p.26. 16. S a l i s b u r y , XV, pp.30-31. U n f o r t u n a t e l y Lake d i d not s p e c i f y which of Carew's r e l a t i o n s was thus i n such immediate c o n t a c t w i t h C e c i l ; nor d i d he e l a b o r a t e on the c o n t e n t s of "our c h a r g e . " 17. For c o n f i r m a t i o n see the many r e f e r e n c e s t o Lake i n the S a l i s b u r y p a p e r s . 18. John C h a m b e r l a i n , L e t t e r s of John C h a m b e r l a i n , ed. Norman E. McClure ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1939), I , p.189. 19. Manningham, D i a r y , p.168. 20. H a s t i n g s Mss of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H a s t i n g s , ) v o l . I V , p.352. 21. The a n t i q u a r i e s who were dead by the end of 1603 were B e a l e , B o u r g c h i e r , D'Oyley, E r d e s w i c k , F l e e t w o o d , Heneage, Lambarde, Strangeman, Townshend. The d a t e s of d e a t h a r e unknown f o r C l i f f e , H o l l a n d , P a t t e n , T a l b o t and Weston. A c c o r d i n g t o Van Norden, George Wiseman d i e d i n 1615. 22. E a r l y honours came t o Compton, C o t t o n , D a v i e s , D e t h i c k e , Dodderidge, H a k e w i l l , Lake, L e i g h , Ley, O l d e s w o r t h , Spelman, T a t e , Broughton and S a v i l e . A gard, Bowyer, Camden, Carew, H a r t w e l l , S t . George, Stow, Thynne and W h i t l o c k e r e c e i v e d l e s s e r p r i v i l e g e s . 23. For example, see CSP Dom, 1589-1590, f o r a l o n g s e r i e s of documents d i s p u t i n g D e t h i c k e ' s r i g h t t o h i s p o s t . 24. S a l i s b u r y , X V I I I , pp.68, 127, 454, c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s from D e t h i c k e who was b e w a i l i n g h i s l o s s of o f f i c e . The same volume c o n t a i n s a 1605 l e t t e r from Thomas W i l s o n t o C e c i l c o n c e r n i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s i n t e n t i o n t o g i v e D e t h i c k e an a n n u i t y . See H a s t i n g s IV, p . l , f o r the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t he l o s t h i s p o s t i n F e b r u a r y 1604. 25. Van Norden, "Chronology," pp.138, 149, 159. 26. L i n d a Levy Peck, Northampton: Patronage and P o l i c y a t the  C o u r t of James I (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1982), p.104. 27. DNB, X V I I I , p.737. 28. B u c c l e u c h Mss of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as B u c c l e u c h , ) V o l . I l l , p.84. 90 29. S a l i s b u r y , XV, pp.223-224. The l i s t was undated, but was c e r t a i n l y c o m p i l e d a f t e r J u l y . 30. L a i n g Mss of the H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Commission, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as L a i n g , ) Vol.I,pp.110-111. DNB. V, 1062. S a l i s b u r y , XVI, pp.42-43, 290; X V I I I , p.118; X X I I I , pp.131-135. 31. Under S a l i s b u r y the P r i v y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d of about twenty members. By the time of James' d e a t h i t was t h i r t y f i v e . 32. Mathew, Jacobean Age, pp.92-93. 33. David N. Smith, ed., C h a r a c t e r s from the H i s t o r i e s and  Memoirs of the Seventeenth C e n t u r y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1918), p.2. 34. Mathew, James I , p.208. 35. Thomas M o i r , p.67. 36. C h a m b e r l a i n , L e t t e r s , I , p.539. 37. DNB, XXI, pp.117-118. C h a m b e r l a i n , L e t t e r s , I , p.455. 38. B u c c l e u c h , I , pp.162-164, 269. 39. 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In Lawyers i n E a r l y Modern Europe and A merica. Ed. W i l f r i d P r e s t . London: Croom Helm, 1981, pp. 65-85. Pulman, M i c h a e l B a r r a c l o u g h . The E l i z a b e t h a n P r i v y C o u n c i l  i n the F i f t e e n - S e v e n t i e s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971. Roseveare, Henry. The T r e a s u r y : the E v o l u t i o n of a B r i t i s h  I n s t i t u t i o n . London: A l l e n Lane the Penguin P r e s s , 1969 . Sharpe, K e v i n . S i r R o b e r t C o t t o n 1586-1631: H i s t o r y and  P o l i t i c s i n E a r l y Modern E n g l a n d . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. S m i t h , David N i c h o l . C h a r a c t e r s from the H i s t o r i e s and Memoirs of the S eventeenth C e n t u r y . With an e s s a y on "The C h a r a c t e r " and h i s t o r i c a l n o t e s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1918. Van Norden, L i n d a . The E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e of A n t i q u a r i e s . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1946. Van Norden, L i n d a , " S i r Henry Spelman on the C h r o n o l o g y of the E l i z a b e t h a n C o l l e g e of A n t i q u a r i e s , " H u n t i n g t o n  L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y , 2, (Feb. 1950), pp.131-160. W i l l s o n , David H a r r i s . The P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r s i n the House  of Commons, 1604-1629. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a , 1940. Secondary Sources C o n s u l t e d A d a i r , E.R. The Sources f o r the H i s t o r y of the C o u n c i l i n  the S i x t e e n t h and S eventeenth C e n t u r i e s . 1924; r p t . P o r t Washington, New York: K e n n i k a t P r e s s , 1971. Aylmer, G.E. The K i n g ' s S e r v a n t s : The C i v i l S e r v a n t s of  C h a r l e s I , 1625-1642. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1961. 96 Brooks, F.w. "The c o u n c i l of the N o r t h . " In The H i s t o r i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n Book of the Tudors. Ed. J o e l H u r s t f i e l d . London: S i d g w i c k and J a c k s o n , 1973, pp.162-201. Douglas, D a v i d C. E n g l i s h S c h o l a r s , 1660-1730. Rev. ed. London: Eyre and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1951. E l t o n , G.R. "Tudor Government, the P o i n t s of C o n t a c t : I . P a r l i a m e n t , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l  S o c i e t y , 5 t h . s e r . , 24, (1974), pp.183-200. F l e t c h e r , Anthony. Reform i n the P r o v i n c e s : the Government  of Tudor E n g l a n d . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986. Fox, L e v i , ed. E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l S c h o l a r s h i p i n the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s f o r the Dugdale S o c i e t y , 1956. F o s t e r , Frank Freeman. The P o l i t i c s of S t a b i l i t y : A  P o r t r a i t of the R u l e r s i n E l i z a b e t h a n London. London: R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1977. G a l l o w a y , Bruce. The Union of England and S c o t l a n d 1603- 1608. E d i n b u r g h : John Donald, 1986. H a l l i d a y , F.E., ed. and i n t r o . "The Survey of C o r n w a l l " . London: Andrew M e l r o s e , 1953. H i r s t , Derek. A u t h o r i t y and C o n f l i c t : England 1603-1658. V o l . 4 of The New H i s t o r y of Eng l a n d . Ed. A.G. Di c k e n s and Norman Gash. London: Edward A r n o l d , 1986. Loades, D.M. P o l i t i c s and the N a t i o n 1450-1660: Obedience,  R e s i s t a n c e and P u b l i c Order. Fontana L i b r a r y of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y . Ed. G.R. E l t o n . B r i g h t o n : H a r v e s t e r P r e s s , 1974. N e a l e , J.E. E l i z a b e t h I and her P a r l i a m e n t s 1584-1601. New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1958. N o t e s t e i n , W a l l a c e . The House of Commons 1604-1610. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Pocock, J.G.A. The A n c i e n t C o n s t i t u t i o n and the F e u d a l Law,  a Study of E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Thought i n the  Seve n t e e n t h C e n t u r y . Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987. 97 P r l t c h a r d , A r n o l d . C a t h o l i c L o y a l i s m i n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d . Chapel H i l l , N o r t h C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1979. R e i d , R.R. The K i n g ' s C o u n c i l i n the N o r t h . New York: Longmans Green, 1921. Roxburgh, S i r R o n a l d . The O r i g i n s of L i n c o l n ' s I n n. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. S a i n t y , J.C. " L i e u t e n a n t s of C o u n t i e s , 1585-1642." B u l l e t i n of the I n s t i t u t e of H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h , X L I I I , S p e c i a l Supplement no. 8 (1970), p p . i - v , 1-46. "The Tenure of O f f i c e s i n the Exchequer." E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l . LXXX, (1965), pp.449-475. Sheavyn, Phoebe. The L i t e r a r y P r o f e s s i o n i n the E l i z a b e t h a n  Age. 2nd. ed. Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. S t a f f o r d , Helen G e o r g i a . James VI of S c o t l a n d and the  Throne of E n g l a n d . New York: D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y Company, 1940, f o r the American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . S t e e v e s , H a r r i s o n R. Learned S o c i e t i e s and E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y  S c h o l a r s h i p i n Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . V o l 46 of the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h and Comparative L i t e r a t u r e . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1913. T r i m b l e , W i l l i a m R. The C a t h o l i c L a i t y i n E l i z a b e t h a n  E n g l a n d , 1558-1603. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap P r e s s of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. T u r n e r , Edward Raymond. The P r i v y C o u n c i l of England i n the  Seventeenth and E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , 1603-1784. 2 v o l s . B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1927. 98 APPENDIX THE MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY The t h i r t y e i g h t members of the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , as e s t a b l i s h e d by L i n d a Van Norden. A r t h u r Agard 1540-1615,of London. Educated Cambridge. C l e r k of Exchequer; Keeper of Exchequer r e c o r d s ; Deputy Ch a m b e r l a i n of Exchequer from 1570, then C h a m b e r l a i n . R o b e r t B e a l e 1541-1601, of Barn Elms, S u r r e y , P r i o r s M a r s t o n , W a r w i c k s h i r e , and London. Educated Cambridge. In E n g l i s h embassy i n P a r i s 1564; Walsingham's s e c r e t a r y i n P a r i s 1570; c l e r k of the P r i v y C o u n c i l from 1572; a c t i n g S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n Walsingham's absences 1578, 1581, 1583; Deputy Governor of the Mines R o y a l (under Walsingham) 1580-1595; S e c r e t a r y and Keeper of the S i g n e t f o r the C o u n c i l i n the N o r t h 1586-1595; B a i l i f f f o r the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r l i b e r t y 1590; envoy a t Boulogne 1600. J.P. W a r w i c k s h i r e from 1590. M.P. Totnes 1572; D o r c h e s t e r 1584, 1586, 1589; L o s t w i t h i e l 1593. Totnes and D o r c h e s t e r were borough s e a t s c o n t r o l l e d by the e a r l of B e d f o r d , who was m a r r i e d t o the widow of B e a l e ' s u n c l e S i r R i c h a r d M o r i s o n , a f r i e n d of Walsingham. The L o s t w i t h i e l s e a t was p r o b a b l y p r o c u r e d by S i r R o b e r t C e c i 1 . B e a l e m a r r i e d E d i t h S t . Barbe, Walsingham's s i s t e r - i n - l a w . He was a l s o connected p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w i t h the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r and w i t h the C e c i l s . Henry B o u r g c h i e r d. 1598, of the Inner Temple, London. Educated Inner Temple 1574; bencher 1596; Lent r e a d e r 1598. M.P. S t a f f o r d borough 1589, 1593, 1597. The e a r l of Essex was p r o b a b l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g B o u r g c h i e r i n t o P a r l i a m e n t ; he c e r t a i n l y nominated him i n 1593. B o u r g c h i e r was r e l a t e d t o the e a r l , who a c t e d as h i s p r o t e c t o r . He was a l s o r e l a t e d t o the t h i r d e a r l of B a t h , who was m a r r i e d t o the daughter of the e a r l of B e d f o r d . Robert Bowyer d. 1622, of London. Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1580. Doorkeeper t o the Exchequer ? d a t e ; minor Chancery p o s t 1594; s e c r e t a r y t o L o r d B u c k h u r s t 1599 -C.1607; Keeper of r e c o r d s i n the Tower 1604; Keeper of the c o u n c i l chamber of the C o u r t of S t a r Chamber 1604; C l e r k of the P a r l i a m e n t 1610. J.P. S u r r e y 1597. M.P. S t e y n i n g 1601, Evesham 1604. The S t e y n i n g s e a t was p r o b a b l y a r r a n g e d by the e a r l of A r u n d e l f o r B u c k h u r s t . 99 B u c k h u r s t vouched f o r Bowyer f o r h i s 1594 Chancery p o s t , and he t r i e d s e v e r a l t i m e s i n the 1590s and a g a i n i n 1602 t o promote Bowyer's i n t e r e s t s ( a l o n g w i t h h i s own). Bowyer's f a t h e r a l s o had been a Keeper of r e c o r d s i n the Tower. H i s f a m i l y was c l o s e l y connected w i t h the E l s y n g s and the K n y v e t t s . R i c h a r d Broughton 1542-1604, of Lower Broughton, B i s h o p ' s C a s t l e and Owlbury, S h r o p s h i r e . Educated Inner Temple 1568. Steward of L i c h f i e l d by 1583; r e c o r d e r of Tamworth by 1584-1598; deputy j u s t i c e of C h e s t e r by 1588; second j u s t i c e of N o r t h Wales 1594-1602; member of the C o u n c i l i n the Marches of Wales c.1595-1602; v i c e - j u s t i c e of C h e s t e r 1599-1600; member of the C o u n c i l i n the Marches of Wales 1603-1604. J.P. A n g l e s e y , C a e r n a r v o n s h i r e , Montgomeryshire, M e r i o n e t h s h i r e 1594; S h r o p s h i r e 1596. M.P. S t a f f o r d 1572; L i c h f i e l d 1586, 1589, 1593. S t a f f o r d was a borough s e a t which always e l e c t e d n o n - l o c a l s ; the Devereux f a m i l y was p a t r o n . The L i c h f i e l d s e a t i n 1586 and 1589 can perhaps be e x p l a i n e d by Broughton's p o s i t i o n as r e c o r d e r . I n 1593 he was d e f i n i t e l y promoted by the e a r l of Ess e x . Broughton m a r r i e d Anne, the daughter of R i c h a r d Bagot, an Essex s u p p o r t e r . He was a s s o c i a t e d s t r o n g l y w i t h the e a r l of Es s e x , and l a t e r w i t h the C e c i l s . W i l l i a m Camden 1551-1623, of London and C h i s e l h u r s t , Kent. Educated O x f o r d ; Gray's Inn 1592. Second master of Westminster S c h o o l 1575; Headmaster 1593; Richmond H e r a l d 1597; C l a r e n c e u x k i n g of arms 1599. Camden's major l i t e r a r y p a t r o n was W i l l i a m C e c i l , L o r d B u r g h l e y , t o whom he d e d i c a t e d the 1586 e d i t i o n of Br 1 t a n n l a . He was c l o s e f r i e n d s w i t h Robert C o t t o n , who may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s commission t o w r i t e an account of the t r i a l of the Gunpowder P l o t c o n s p i r a t o r s . Major p u b l i c a t i o n s : B r i t a n n i a 1586; Annales 1625 R i c h a r d Carew 1555-1620, of Antony, C o r n w a l l . Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1574. D i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e abroad 1581; S h e r r i f f 1582; B a i l i f f of M i t c h e l l 1584; Deputy L i e u t e n a n t of C o r n w a l l under R a l e i g h 1586; Mayor of C a l l i n g t o n 1597; many s m a l l government commissions 1590s-c.1610. J.P. C o r n w a l l 1581. M.P. S a l t a s h 1584; S t . M i c h a e l ' s 1597. S a l t a s h was a Duchy of C o r n w a l l borough s e a t , and the Carews were a l o c a l l y prominent f a m i l y . S t . M i c h a e l ' s was a borough s e a t f o r which the p a t r o n was the A r u n d e l l f a m i l y . Carew m a r r i e d J u l i a n a , daughter of John A r u n d e l l . H i s 100 b r o t h e r , George carew, was a Master of c h a n c e r y who was Hatton's s e c r e t a r y and a C e c i l p r o t e g e . Another r e l a t i v e was a h i g h o f f i c i a l i n I r e l a n d , and a l s o a f r i e n d of the C e c i l s . Major p u b l i c a t i o n s : The Survey of C o r n w a l l 1602. John C l i f f e ? d a t e s . Educated Cambridge; M i d d l e Temple 1583. C l e r k of the S i g n e t 1586. W i l l i a m Compton d.1630, of Ashby, N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e . Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1593. A member of the P r i v y C o u n c i l by 1593; P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l i n the Marches of Wales 1617, then L o r d L i e u t e n a n t of Wales. Compton m a r r i e d E l i z a b e t h Spencer, daughter of the L o r d Mayor of London. KB 1605; KG 1628. Compton was made the f i r s t e a r l of Northampton of the second c r e a t i o n 1618. H i s son Spencer d i e d i n b a t t l e 1643, f i g h t i n g f o r C h a r l e s I . R o b e r t C o t t o n 1571-1631, of London and C o n i n g t o n , H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e . Educated Cambridge; M i d d l e Temple 1588. A p p o i n t e d t o v a r i o u s a d v i s o r y boards by James I . M.P. Newtown, I s l e of Wight 1601; H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e 1604; Old Sarum 1624; T h e t f o r d 1625; C a s t l e R i s i n g 1628. Newtown was c o n t r o l l e d by the c a p t a i n of the I s l e of Wight, and u s u a l l y was r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u r t - c o n n e c t e d members who l i v e d i n London. The H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e s e a t can be e x p l a i n e d by C o t t o n ' s h i g h c o u r t c o n n e c t i o n s and by h i s f a m i l y ' s prominence i n the c o u n t y . C o t t o n was i n h i g h f a v o u r w i t h the Crown under E l i z a b e t h and, u n t i l c.1615, under James. He was well-known and f r e q u e n t l y employed as a master of p r e c e d e n t . C o t t o n worked e x t e n s i v e l y f o r Henry Howard 1602-1614; p o s s i b l y he had been i n v o l v e d w i t h Howard as e a r l y as 1597. He became one of Howard's c h i e f a d v i s e r s , and a government p r o p a g a n d i s t . He a l s o was f a v o u r e d by Robert C a r r , James' f a v o u r i t e . K n i g h t e d 1603. B a r t 1611. John Davi e s 1569-1626, of the M i d d l e Temple, of I r e l a n d , and l a t e r of E n g l e f i e l d , B e r k s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1588. S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l f o r I r e l a n d 1603-1606; A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l f o r I r e l a n d 1607-1619; c i r c u i t c o u r t judge, B e r k s h i r e , from 1619 . J.P. W i l t s h i r e 1579. M.P. S h a f t e s b u r y 1597; C o r f e C a s t l e 1601; Hindon 1621. The S h a f t e s b u r y s e a t was c o n t r o l l e d by the e a r l of Pembroke; any 101 c o n n e c t i o n between him and Davies i s unknown.. The C o r f e C a s t l e s e a t was o b t a i n e d by S i r Edward Coke. Davies m a r r i e d E l e a n o r , the daughter of George, L o r d A u d l e y . T h e i r daughter m a r r i e d the s i x t h e a r l of Huntingdon. D a v i e s ' i n t e r e s t s were promoted by E g e r t o n , B u r g h l e y , S i r John Popham and S i r Edward Coke; he was l a t e r a s s o c i a t e d on a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s w i t h S i r Robert C e c i l . He accompanied the e a r l of Sussex t o S c o t l a n d t o a t t e n d the c h r i s t e n i n g of P r i n c e Henry i n 1594; no patronage r e l a t i o n s h i p has been found. D a v i e s a l s o accompanied L o r d Hunsdon t o S c o t l a n d i n 1603, to welcome K i n g James t o the E n g l i s h crown. The K i n g p e r s o n a l l y proposed D a v i e s f o r the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l p o s t . K n i g h t e d 1603. W i l l i a m D e t h i c k e 1543-1612, of London. Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1564. H e r a l d : Rouge C r o i x P o u r s u i v a n t 1567; York H e r a l d 1570; G a r t e r K i n g a t arms 1586 - C.1604. K n i g h t e d 1603. John Dodderidge 1555-1628, of B a r n s t a p l e , Devon; Egham, S u r r e y ; and Mount R a d f o r d , Devon. Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1577; bencher 1602; r e a d e r 1603; t r e a s u r e r 1603. C o u n s e l t o B a r n s t a p l e by 1588; c o u n s e l t o Plymouth 1601; S e r j e a n t t o P r i n c e Henry and S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l 1604; K i n g ' s S e r j e a n t 1607; j u s t i c e of the K i n g ' s bench 1612. M.P. B a r n s t a p l e , 1589; Horsham 1604. The B a r n s t a p l e s e a t was c o n t r o l l e d by the e a r l of B a t h , whose f a m i l y was connected w i t h the Dodderidges. Dodderidge m a r r i e d t h r e e t i m e s , the f i r s t t o the daughter of M i c h a e l Jermyn, t w i c e mayor of E x e t e r . He was employed/promoted by Henry Howard, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s 1605 commission t o w r i t e a t r e a t i s e on the o f f i c e of h e r a l d . He a l s o was employed by R a l e i g h , c.1602, on a p r i v a t e l e g a l m a t t e r . K n i g h t e d 1607. Thomas D'Oyley 15487-1603. Educated Oxford and the C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s a t B a s i l 1592; FRCP 1588. D i p l o m a t i c c o u r i e r f o r the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r 1570s; s e r v i c e f o r the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r i n Antwerp and F l u s h i n g 1582, 1585; w o r k i n g f o r Robert C e c i l by 1598. P h y s i c i a n t o S t . Bartholomew's H o s p i t a l l a t e 1590s. D'Oyley was r e l a t e d by m a r r i a g e t o F r a n c i s Bacon. Sampson E r d e s w i c k d.1603, of S t a f f o r d s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; Inner Temple 1577. P o s s i b l y p r o t e c t e d by the C e c i l s . 102 W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d 1525-1594, of London and G r e a t Missenden, B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; C l i f f o r d ' s Inn 1543; M i d d l e Temple 1551; Autumn re a d e r 1564; Lent r e a d e r 1568. Commissioner f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l causes 1559-1594; s e r j e a n t a t law w i t h i n the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r 1559, c o u n s e l 1560; stewar d and b a i l i f f of the Savoy 1559-1594; e s c h e a t o r of Durham by 1562; stewa r d of the Duchy manor of Penwortham 1567-1594; stewa r d of the manor of M i l d e n h a l l 1571-1580; Ducht f e o d a r y and b a i l i f f of B e d f o r d s h i r e and Buckinghamshire 1577-1582; deputy c h i e f s t e w a r d of the s o u t h p a r t s 1586. Other s t e w a r d s h i p s : Wigan c h u r c h by 1559; Newton, L a n c a s h i r e 1559; Ruchock manor, W o r c e s t e r s h i r e 1564; Farnham R o y a l and S t . He l e n ' s , B e r k s h i r e c.1576; Bernword F o r e s t , Buckinghamshire 1577. Freeman of the Merchant T a y l o r s ' Company of London 1557. Reco r d e r of London 1571-1592; r e c o r d e r of P r e s t o n 1584-1594. Queen's s e r j e a n t i n the House of L o r d s 1591-1594. J.P. Buckinghamshire by 1569; London, M i d d l e s e x , S u r r e y by 1571; L a n c a s h i r e by 1577. M.P. Mar l b o r o u g h 1558; L a n c a s t e r 1559, 1563; S t . Mawes 1571; London 1572, 1584, 1586, 1589. The L a n c a s t e r s e a t was c o n t r o l l e d by S i r Ambrose Cave, c h a n c e l l o r of the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r . L o r d B u r g h l e y p r o b a b l y a r r a n g e d the S t . Mawes s e a t . The London s e a t s were customary f o r the r e c o r d e r . Fleetwood was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L e i c e s t e r and w i t h E g e r t o n and was v e r y c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h B u r g h l e y . W i l l i a m H a k e w i l l 1574-1655, of Wendover, B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1598; bencher by 1616; Lent r e a d e r 1625; keeper of the B l a c k Book 1633; t r e a s u r e r 1637-1638. R e c e i v e r f o r the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r , B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e , B e r k s h i r e a f t e r 1603; Queen's S o l i c i t o r 1617;Master i n Chancery 1647-1642. M.P. B o s s i n e y 1601; M i t c h e l l 1604; Tregony 1614, 1621; Amersham 1624, 1628. The B o s s i n e y and M i t c h e l l s e a t s were c o n t r o l l e d by S i r W i l l i a m Peryam, H a k e w i l l ' s u n c l e , a f t e r 1585. H a k e w i l l was a l s o r e l a t e d by m a r r i a g e t o the Bacons and the K i l l i g r e w s . Abraham H a r t w e l l 15537-1606, of Lambeth, S u r r e y . Educated S u r r e y ; Gray's Inn 1592. S e c r e t a r y t o A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t p r o b a b l y by 1577, c e r t a i n l y by 1584; P r o c t o r of the Court of Audience of the A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y from 1587. M.P. E a s t Looe 1586; Hindon 1593. E a s t Looe was a Duchy of C o r n w a l l borough s e a t c o n t r o l l e d by L o r d B u r g h l e y . H a r t w e l l ' s Hindon s e a t was p r o c u r e d by W h i t g i f t ' s i n f l u e n c e w i t h the B i s h o p of W i n c h e s t e r . 103 M i c h a e l Heneage 1540-1600, of S t . C a t h e r i n e Colman, London, and Essex. Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1567. Usher of the Exchequer 1567; j o i n t Keeper of the r e c o r d s i n the Tower w i t h h i s b r o t h e r Thomas 1576-1600. M.P. A r u n d e l 1571; E a s t G r i n s t e a d 1572; T a v i s t o c k 1589; Wigan 1593. A r u n d e l and E a s t G r i n s t e a d were both c o n t r o l l e d by Thomas Heneage. T a v i s t o c k was c o n t r o l l e d by Ambrose Dudley, b r o t h e r of the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r and a f r i e n d of Thomas Heneage. Wigan was c o n t r o l l e d by Thomas Heneage as c h a n c e l l o r of the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r . Heneage's f a t h e r had been a u d i t o r of the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r . H i s b r o t h e r was q u i t e i n f l u e n t i a l , and was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d f i r s t w i t h the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r and l a t e r w i t h t h e C e c i l s . J o s e p h H o l l a n d ? d a t e s . Educated O x f o r d ; Inner Temple 1571. Thomas Lake 1561-1630, of Southampton, Westminster and Canons, M i d d l e s e x . Honorary M.A. O x f o r d . S e c r e t a r y t o S i r F r a n c i s Walsingham by 1586; c l e r k of the S i g n e t 1589-1616; L a t i n s e c r e t a r y 1596-1619; j o i n t Keeper of the r e c o r d s a t W h i t e h a l l by 1597; c l e r k of York c a s t l e and Y o r k s h i r e c o u n t y c o u r t s from 1599; P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r 1614; S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e 1616-1619. J.P. M i d d l e s e x 1608 (and c u s t o s r o t u l o r u m ) . M.P. Malmesbury 1593; New Romney 1601; Dunheved (Launceston) 1604; M i d d l e s e x 1614; Wootton B a s s e t t 1626. Lake r e c e i v e d h i s Malmesbury s e a t t h r o u g h S i r Henry Knyvet, who wanted t o c u l t i v a t e the f a v o u r of S i r W i l l i a m C e c i l . In 1601 Lake was the nominee of C e c i l ' s b r o t h e r - i n law, L o r d Cobham. Lake m a r r i e d Mary, the daughter and c o h e i r of S i r W i l l i a m Ryder, the L o r d Mayor of London. T h e i r daughter m a r r i e d W i l l i a m C e c i l , L o r d Roos. Lake was promoted by Walsingham, and became v e r y c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Robert C e c i l . He worked i n t i m a t e l y w i t h both E l i z a b e t h I and K i n g James, and h e l p e d promote George V i l l i e r s t o James' a t t e n t i o n . K n i g h t e d 1603. W i l l i a m Lambarde 1536-1601, of L i n c o l n ' s Inn and Westcombe, Ken t . Educated Cambridge; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1556; a s s o c i a t e bencher 1579; b e n c h e r l 5 9 7 . Commissioner of sewers, Kent 1568; Q.C. 1584; deputy t o L o r d B u r g h l e y a t the A l i e n a t i o n s O f f i c e 1589; Master i n Chancery e x t r a o r d i n a r y 1592; Master i n o r d i n a r y 1597; deputy Keeper of the r o l l s i n Chancery 1597; Keeper of the r e c o r d s i n the Tower 1601. J.P. Kent by 1579. M.P. Aldborough 1563. 104 Lambarde was admired and advanced by many, i n c l u d i n g B u r g h l e y , P u c k e r i n g , E g e r t o n , L o r d Cobham, and Queen E l i z a b e t h I . Major p u b l i c a t i o n s : P e r a m b u l a t i o n of Kent 1576; E i r e n a r c h a 1581; A r c h i o n 1635. F r a n c i s L e i g h c.1579-c.1625, of Newnham R e g i s , W a r w i c k s h i r e . Educated M i d d l e Temple 1597. Gentleman of the p r i v y chamber t o James I ; Master of Requests 1614; S h e r r i f f , W a r w i c k s h i r e 1618-1619. J.P. W a r w i c k s h i r e by 1621. M.P. Melcombe R e g i s and Weymouth 1597; O x f o r d 1601, 1604; L e i c e s t e r 1614; W a r w i c k s h i r e 1621. L e i g h owed h i s 1597 s e a t t o h i s r e l a t i v e , the e a r l of Pembroke. H i s f a t h e r - i n -law, S i r Thomas E g e r t o n , a r r a n g e d the Oxford s e a t . L e i g h was the son of S i r W i l l i a m L e i g h and F r a n c e s , the daughter of S i r James H a r i n g t o n and the c o u s i n of Mary S i d n e y . Thus L e i g h was connected w i t h the e a r l of Pembroke , Mary S i d n e y ' s husband, and a l s o w i t h the e a r l of L e i c e s t e r and the e a r l of E s sex. L e i g h m a r r i e d Mary, daughter of S i r Thomas E g e r t o n . T h e i r son became the R o y a l i s t f i r s t e a r l of C h i c h e s t e r . KB 1603. James Ley 1550-1629, of L i n c o l n ' s Inn and Westbury, W i l t s h i r e . Educated Cambridge and O x f o r d ; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1577; bencher 1600; Lent r e a d e r 1602; governor 1609-1622. On the C o u n c i l f o r the Marches of Wales 1603 - C.1605; j u s t i c e of C a r m a r t h e n s h i r e , Pembrokeshire and C a r d i g a n s h i r e 1603-1604; j u s t i c e of the K i n g ' s bench i n I r e l a n d 1604-1608; commissioner of the g r e a t s e a l a t D u b l i n 1605; commissioner f o r U l s t e r p l a n t a t i o n 1608; a t t o r n e y of the C o u r t of Wards 1608; speaker of the House of Lords and j o i n t commissioner of the g r e a t s e a l 1621; j u s t i c e of the K i n g ' s bench 1622-1624; P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r 1624; l o r d t r e a s u r e r 1624-1628; h i g h s t e w a r d of Yarmouth 1625-1629; j o i n t commissioner f o r c o r o n a t i o n c l a i m s 1626; l o r d p r e s i d e n t of the c o u n c i l 1628; c h i e f commissioner t o t r e a t w i t h ambassadors from the S t a t e s - G e n e r a l 1628. J.P. W i t s h i r e 1601. M.P. Westbury 1597, 1604; Bath 1614; Westbury 1621. The Westbury s e a t s n e a r l y always went to l o c a l g e n t r y . Ley m a r r i e d t h r e e t i m e s , the t h i r d time t o a r e l a t i v e of the Duke of Buckingham. He was a l s o r e l a t e d t o the f a m i l y of rhe e a r l of B a t h . K n i g h t e d 1603. B a r t . 1619. C r e a t e d e a r l of Marlborough 1626. 105 A r n o l d O l d e s w o r t h 1561-16? , of London and B r a d l e y i n Wotton, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1580; a s s o c i a t e bencher 1612. C l e r k of the hanaper i n Chancery by 1604; deputy governor of the Mines R o y a l by 1605; r e c e i v e r of f i n e s f o r the K i n g ' s bench 1607. M.P. Tregony 1593; C i r e n c e s t e r 1604. Tregony was a borough s e a t c o n t r o l l e d by the second e a r l of B e d f o r d . C i r e n c e s t e r was c o n t r o l l e d by the Crown by 1601. Oldes w o r t h m a r r i e d the daughter of an Antwerp gentleman and d i e d abroad. T h e i r son became s e c r e t a r y t o L o r d Pembroke, and s i d e d w i t h the P a r l i a m e n t i n the E n g l i s h c i v i l war. From around 1595 Olde s w o r t h was p r o b a b l y i n the s e r v i c e of Anne, c o u n t e s s of Warwick and daughter of the second e a r l of B e d f o r d . W i l l i a m P a t t e n f l . 1548-1580, of Stoke Newington. A judge of the M a r s h a l s e y a f t e r 1548; t e l l e r of r e c e i p t of the Queen's exchequer 1563; r e c e i v e r g e n e r a l f o r the co u n t y of Y o r k s h i r e ; customer of London outward. J.P. M i d d l e s e x . P a t t e n was r e l a t e d t o W i l l i a m P a t t e n , a l i a s W a y n e f l e t e , b i s h o p of W i n c h e s t e r . He was i n v o l v e d w i t h Walsingham i n the f a r m i n g of the R o y a l Mines. By 1575 he was r e p o r t i n g t o L o r d B u r g h l e y on m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o c e n s o r s h i p , and had a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B u r g h l e y i n the 1548 e x p e d i t i o n i n t o S c o t l a n d . R i c h a r d S t . George d. 1635 or 1636. Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1617. H e r a l d : Berwick P o u r s u i v a n t e x t r a o r d i n a r y 1602; Windsor h e r a l d 1602; Norroy k i n g a t arms 1603-1623; C l a r e n c e u x k i n g a t arms 1623-1635. K n i g h t e d 1616. John S a v i l e 1546-1607, of B r a d l e y and M e t h l e y , Y o r k s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1565; bencher and Autumn re a d e r 1586. Commissioner f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l causes i n the d i o c e s e of Durham 1576-1577; commissioner f o r the s u b s i d y i n the West R i d i n g 1582; j u s t i c e of oyer and t e r m i n e r , n o r t h e r n c i r c u i t 1598; j u s t i c e of a s s i z e , n o r t h e r n c i r c u i t 1598; baron of the exchequer 1598; member of the n o r t h e r n h i g h commission (an arm of the C o u n c i l i n the North) 1599; commissioner of the c h a n c e l l o r s h i p of the Duchy of L a n c a s t e r 1599; member of the C o u n c i l of the N o r t h 1599-1606; on e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commissions f o r the p r o v i n c e of York 1603. J.P. Cumberland, Westmoreland, Northumberland 1601. M.P. Newton 1572. W i l l i a m F l e e t w o o d was steward of t h i s borough and c o n t r o l l e d the n o m i n a t i o n . 106 S a v i l e was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Fleetwood and w i t h o t h e r prominent P r o t e s t a n t s . He was recommended by S i r Thomas Eg e r t o n i n 1598 f o r a post on the n o r t h e r n c i r c u i t . K n i g h t e d 1603. Henry Spelman c. 1564-1641, of Congham and Hunstanton, N o r f o l k . Educated Cambridge; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1586. High s h e r r i f f of N o r f o l k 1604-1606; commissioner f o r I r i s h p r o p e r t i e s f o r James I 1617; member of c o u n c i l f o r New England 1620-1635; member of c o u n c i l f o r V i r g i n i a 1623; t r e a s u r e r of the company f o r Guiana 1627. J.P. N o r f o l k 1598. M.P. C a s t l e R i s i n g 1593, 1597; Worcester 1625. Spelman's C a s t l e R i s i n g s e a t was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the i n f l u e n c e of the L e s t r a n g e f a m i l y . Spelman m a r r i e d E l e a n o r L e s t r a n g e , a N o r f o l k h e i r e s s . K n i g h t e d 1604. Major p u b l i c a t i o n s : De Non Temerandis E c c l e s i i s 1613; A n g l o - B r i t . A r c h a e o l o g u s 1626 John Stow 1525-1605, of London. J o i n e d t h e Merchant T a y l o r s ' Company i n 1547, and c o n t i n u e d t o work as a t a i l o r t h roughout h i s l i f e . L i t e r a r y p a t r o n was A r c h b i s h o p P a r k e r . A l s o encouraged by Robert Dudley ( l a t e r e a r l of L e i c e s t e r ) 1562; and by A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t . P o s s i b l y p r o t e c t e d by L o r d B u r l e i g h . Major p u b l i c a t i o n s : The C h r o n i c l e s of England 1580; A Survey  of London 1598. James Strangeman 1558-1595. Educated Cambridge. Thomas T a l b o t ? d a t e s . Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1555. C l e r k of the r e c o r d s i n the Tower by 1580. [ J u s t i c e of the West R i d i n g by 1591; commissioner f o r the musters of L a n c a s t e r 1596]. F r a n c i s Tate 1560-1616, of D e l a p r e , N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e . Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1579; L e n t r e a d e r 1608; t r e a s u r e r 1615. Counsel t o Northampton ?-1602; j u s t i c e of a s s i z e , B r e c k n o c k s h i r e c i r c u i t 1604; j u s t i c e i t i n e r a n t South Wales c.1607. J.P. B r e c k n o c k s h i r e , G l a m o r g a n s h i r e , R a d n o r s h i r e 1604. M.P. Northampton 1601; Shrewsbury 1604. Tate was r e t u r n e d i n 1601 as the son of a freeman r e s i d e n t near the town, and was e l e c t e d by the mayor and b u r g e s s e s . L o r d Zouch, P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l i n the Marches of Wales, and Tate's b r o t h e r ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , nominated him f o r the Shrewsbury s e a t . T h i s appointment went a g a i n s t the Shrewsbury borough's s t a t e d r u l e of e l e c t i n g o n l y burgesses r e s i d e n t t h e r e or i n t h e s u b u r b s . 107 F r a n c i s Thynne 1545-1608, of C l e r k e n w e l l Green. Educated O x f o r d ; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1561. H e r a l d : Blanche Lyon P o u r s u l v a n t 1601; L a n c a s t e r H e r a l d 1602. C l e r k of the S i g n e t some time b e f o r e 1591. Thynne's f a t h e r had been Master of the Household t o Henry V I I I , and was the b u i l d e r of L o n g l e a t . Thynne was a f r i e n d of S i r Thomas E g e r t o n , whom he had met a t L i n c o l n ' s Inn, and was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S i r W i l l i a m C e c i l , L o r d B u r g h l e y , and h i s son R o b e r t , whom he accompanied t o France i n 1598. Henry Howard employed Thynne i n 1605 t o w r i t e on the o f f i c e of h e r a l d . Hayward Townshend c. l 5 7 7 - c , 1 6 0 3 , of L i n c o l n ' s I n n , London. Educated O x f o r d ; L i n c o l n ' s Inn 1594. M.P. B i s h o p ' s C a s t l e 1597, 1601. B i s h o p ' s C a s t l e was a borough s e a t and Townshend's f a t h e r was l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r the town. Townshend was r e l a t e d t o F r a n c i s Bacon. Robert Weston ? d a t e s . P o s s i b l y a member of the M i d d l e Temple. James W h i t l o c k e 1570-1632. Educated O x f o r d ; M i d d l e Temple 1592; bencher 1618-1619; r e a d e r 1619. Steward of S t . John's C o l l e g e e s t a t e s 1601; r e c o r d e r of Woodstock 1606; s t e w a r d and c o u n s e l f o r E t o n C o l l e g e 1609; steward of Westminster C o l l e g e e s t a t e s ; c h i e f j u s t i c e of Wales and C h e s t e r 1620; P u i s n e s Judge of the K i n g ' s bench 1624. J.P. Buckinghamshire 1617; O x f o r d 1618. M.P. Woodstock 1620. W h i t l o c k e was f a t h e r of B u l s t r o d e W h i t e l o c k e , Cromwell's L o r d Keeper. K n i g h t e d 1620. George Wiseman d.1615. Educated Cambridge; Gray's Inn 1564. 

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