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Problems and issues in the arrangement and description of photographs in libraries and archival repositories Cobon, Linda Louise 1988

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PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THE ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN LIBRARIES AND ARCHIVAL REPOSITORIES By LINDA LOUISE COBON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF ARTS (School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1988 <£> Linda Louise Cobon In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of IWJUti>~-\ S W t ; t ^ CSUVvsl The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date AQM %e> .  DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT U n t i l recent years, a r c h i v i s t s have been r e l u c t a n t to consider photographs as being a r c h i v a l i n nature. The e v i d e n t i a l value possessed by some photographs was ignored and a r c h i v i s t s a l s o f a i l e d to see where the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of a photographic image could be enhanced when viewed w i t h i n the context i n which i t was created. Instead, a r c h i v i s t s p r e f e r r e d to arrange and d e s c r i b e photographs as d i s c r e t e items. For a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s endeavor, a r c h i v i s t s turned to members of the l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n . L i b r a r i a n s , f o r t h e i r p a r t , found that photographs were not amenable to standard b i b l i o g r a p h i c formats or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes devised f o r p r i n t e d monographs. The r e s u l t was the c r e a t i o n by members of both the l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n s of numerous and oft e n i d i o s y n c r a t i c methods f o r the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of photographs. The volume of photographic images acquired by l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s now makes i t v i r t u a l l y impossible to continue d e a l i n g with photographs as d i s c r e t e items. The research needs and methodologies of users have a l s o changed; photographs are i n c r e a s i n g l y being sought as h i s t o r i c a l documents i n t h e i r own r i g h t and not j u s t as i l l u s t r a t i o n s to accompany the w r i t t e n word. In response to these two f a c t o r s , l i b r a r i a n s began o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g photographs as " l o t s " and a r c h i v i s t s moved s l o w l y toward the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs as a r c h i v a l fonds. This e v o l u t i o n , f a r from complete with regard to photographs, resembles an e a r l i e r e v o l u t i o n a f f e c t i n g the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of i i t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y manuscripts. Today a r c h i v i s t s i n many Western c o u n t r i e s are seeking to e s t a b l i s h standard formats i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . This goal has become p a r t i c u l a r l y urgent i n the face of computer technology and the d e s i r e to form automated a r c h i v a l networks. I t remains to be seen whether the f i n a l standards adopted i n Canada, f o r ins t a n c e , w i l l encompass photographs or whether photographs w i l l r e t a i n a " s p e c i a l " s t a t u s . Without q u e s t i o n , photographs have and w i l l continue to present members of the l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n s with problems In arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n . This i s demonstrated i n the body of t h i s t h e s i s through a survey of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and through f i e l d work undertaken i n s i x l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n the Vancouver area and i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. However, the exi s t e n c e of problems should not mean th a t the approach to photographic a r c h i v e s should be any d i f f e r e n t , i n essence, from the approach and p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d to t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Abstract i i - i i i Acknowledgments v Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1-12 Chapter Two: L i b r a r y Techniques f o r the Or g a n i z a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Photographs 13-41 Chapter Three: A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e s f o r the Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of Photographs 42-78 Chapter Four: S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and Automation 79-116 Chapter F i v e : F i e l d I n v e s t i g a t i o n s 117-156 Chapter S i x : Conclusion 157-164 Appendix (Questionnaire) 165-167 B i b l i o g r a p h y 168-182 iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to thank the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the fie l d - w o r k component of t h i s t h e s i s : Alan Woodland and Wendy K l e i n of the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y ; C h r i s Middlemass and Laurie Robertson of the H i s t o r i c a l Photographs S e c t i o n of the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y ; Ken Young of the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s ; J e r r y Davison and David Mattison of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia; Don B a i r d of the Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s ; Barbi Hollenberg and C y r i l Leonoff of the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S p e c i a l mention should be made concerning the g e n e r o s i t y of the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n a l l o w i n g me access to the Soc i e t y ' s computer f o r use i n preparing t h i s t h e s i s . The a s s i s t a n c e I rec e i v e d from J e n n i f e r B e a i r s t o , O f f i c e Manager, JHSBC, was i n v a l u a b l e . Above a l l , I would l i k e to thank Terry Eastwood and Dr. Ronald Hagler of the School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information Studies f o r t h e i r help and encouragement during the w r i t i n g of e a r l i e r d r a f t versions of t h i s t h e s i s . v PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THE ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN LIBRARIES AND ARCHIVAL REPOSITORIES CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The p r i n c i p l e of provenance and i t s c o r o l l a r y o r i g i n a l order are fundamental to the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a r c h i v e s . M a i n t a i n i n g provenance means that "the a r c h i v e s of. a given record c r e a t o r must not be i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h those of other record c r e a t o r s . * 1 1 M a i n t a i n i n g o r i g i n a l order means that "records should be kept i n the order imposed on them d u r i n g t h e i r c u r r e n t l i f e . . . . " 2 The arrangement of a r c h i v e s according to provenance and o r i g i n a l order preserves the organic nature of i n d i v i d u a l fonds, while a l s o p r e s e r v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents w i t h i n each fonds. In t u r n , t h i s p r o t e c t s the e v i d e n t i a l value of the documents, t h a t i s , the a u t h e n t i c and adequate documentation of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g of the c r e a t i n g body. I t a l s o p r o t e c t s the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of the documents, t h a t i s , the i n f o r m a t i o n the a r c h i v e s c o n t a i n on persons, p l a c e , s u b j e c t s and the l i k e with which the c r e a t i n g body d e a l t . 3 F i n d i n g a i d s , such as i n v e n t o r i e s , should r e f l e c t the organic s t r u c t u r e of a fonds and t h e r e f o r e d e s c r i p t i o n begins at the fonds or group l e v e l and proceeds downward toward the subgroup, s e r i e s , s u b s e r i e s , f i l e and item l e v e l s . Normally, i n v e n t o r i e s do not go below the s e r i e s l e v e l . The s u b j e c t content of a fonds should never or r a r e l y be used as a means of p h y s i c a l l y arranging documents, but should be made known through the f i n d i n g 1 a i d s produced. Therefore, the a r c h i v i s t must focus on the organic nature of each fonds and put the maintenance of i t s i n t e g r i t y ahead of the patron's preference f o r subject-based arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n . In h i s 1965 p u b l i c a t i o n , The Management of A r c h i v e s . T.R. Schellenberg s t a t e d that "Information on the provenance of p i c t o r i a l records w i t h i n some government agency, corporate body, or person i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant, f o r such records do not d e r i v e much of t h e i r meaning from t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r i g i n s . " " • Schellenberg d i d not completely abandon the idea of a p p l y i n g a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance (respect des fonds) and o r i g i n a l order (respect pour l ' o r d r e p r i m i t i f ) to photographs, but suggested they be used p r i m a r i l y i n easing the handling of large groups of photographs. 9 Otherwise, a r c h i v i s t s should have no compunction about arranging p r i n t s and negatives i n numerical order and d e s c r i b i n g them as d i s c r e t e items through the use of card catalogues, l i s t s and indexes. I n v e n t o r i e s , Schellenberg f e l t , were unnecessary and guides only r e q u i r e d by l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . 8 Schellenberg's thoughts on the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs r e f l e c t e d , r a t h e r than molded the p r a c t i c e s of a r c h i v i s t s , l i b r a r i a n s , museum c u r a t o r s and other custodians of nontextual m a t e r i a l s . L i k e Schellenberg, very few p r o f e s s i o n a l s could see where photographs possessed e v i d e n t i a l value or where maintaining provenance would enhance the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of an image. The widespread p r a c t i c e of arranging and d e s c r i b i n g (or i n l i b r a r y terminology, o r g a n i z i n g and cataloguing) photographs item-by-item and according to s u b j e c t content, was, and s t i l l i s , the outcome of such f a c t o r s as the perceived research value of the photographs and the nature of user demands. 2 L i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s have found that the m a j o r i t y of users w i l l search f o r a p a r t i c u l a r image of a s p e c i f i c event, s u b j e c t or person. As opposed to research, which e n t a i l s studying large groups of documents to detect u n d e r l y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more v a r i a b l e s , 7 a search r e q u i r e s that users be able to f i n d that one image or s e l e c t i o n of images w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time and w i t h a minimum of d i f f i c u l t y . In p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and i n school l i b r a r i e s , photographs must be administered i n such a way as to a l l o w easy access. In academic l i b r a r i e s , s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs has a l s o been geared to search r a t h e r than research. Students, h i s t o r i a n s , and p u b l i s h e r s search, o f t e n as an a f t e r t h o u g h t , f o r images to i l l u s t r a t e the w r i t t e n t e x t . As L a r r y we i n s t e i n and Robert Booth, authors of C o l l e c t i o n Use and Care of  H i s t o r i c a l Photographs have d i s c o v e r e d , many users come f o r a p a r t i c u l a r photo they know you have and nothing more. They w i l l not look at p i c t u r e s , d i s c o v e r any new images, or even enjoy l o o k i n g at o l d photographs. 8 Browsers, on the other hand, w i l l ask to see e v e r y t h i n g on a given t o p i c , but w i l l d e c l i n e viewing bodies of photographs for which there are only p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e n t o r i e s a v a i l a b l e . Weinstein and Booth a l s o found t h a t a l l users expect each photograph to be a c c u r a t e l y dated and thoroughly i d e n t i f i e d . 9 Users and a r c h i v i s t s a l i k e tend to b e l i e v e t h a t there are few documents "more useless than u n i d e n t i f i e d images." 1" A r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s 3 i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i p l o m a t i c s of photographs are even more emphatic on t h i s p o i n t than t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . Having t r a i n e d themselves to be " v i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e " , these s p e c i a l i s t s have found that n e a r l y a l l photographs present a biased or d i s t o r t e d view of r e a l i t y . D i s t o r t i o n may be the outcome of conscious or unconscious manipulation on the part of the photographer. 3- 1 The general p u b l i c , however, accepts photographic images as r e f l e c t i o n s of t r u t h and r e a l i t y . 1 2 To a v e r t the misuse or m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of photographs, a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s f e e l compelled to f u r n i s h a d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each image. This stance makes i t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n paramount while rendering unthinkable the idea of d e s c r i p t i o n at any higher l e v e l , such as at the fonds and/or s e r i e s l e v e l s . In d e a l i n g w i t h photographs as d i s c r e t e items, Schellenberg advised a r c h i v i s t s to adopt the techniques of the l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n . 1 3 Yet l i b r a r i a n s , l i k e a r c h i v i s t s , have been overwhelmed by the v a r i e t y and complexity of photographs. The nature of the medium i t s e l f suggests myriad p o s s i b l e methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n and c a t a l o g u i n g . Moreover, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , few l i b r a r y schools o f f e r e d courses i n p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s h i p . 1 4 As a consequence, knowledge regarding photograph c o l l e c t i o n s was acquired through t r i a l and e r r o r experiments or as the r e s u l t of on the job t r a i n i n g . This s i t u a t i o n l e d to the c r e a t i o n of numerous t a i l o r e d and h i g h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l schemes and r e t r i e v a l systems. Indeed, l i b r a r i a n s have s t r e s s e d the need f o r t a k i n g an ad hoc approach to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p i c t u r e c o l l e c t i o n s . x s The choice of methods was to be determined a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the unique nature of the photographs held by each i n s t i t u t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l character of usership at each l i b r a r y . 4 In some cases, t h i s l e d to the adaptation or abandonment of t r a d i t i o n a l l i b r a r y standards and r u l e s . H i l a r y Evans, f o r example, has s t a t e d t h a t p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s h i p (which includes d e a l i n g with photographs as w e l l as other p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l ) runs " p a r a l l e l t o , r a t h e r than d e r i v i n g from, book l i b r a r i a n s h i p . " 1 6 A more moderate op i n i o n claims that p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s h i p challenges some elements of t r a d i t i o n a l l i b r a r i a n s h i p while r e i t e r a t i n g o t h e r . 1 7 Throughout the s p e c i a l i z e d area of p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s h i p , there i s a general agreement t h a t "no-one can c l a i m to have the r i g h t answer to a l l s i t u a t i o n s . " 1 8 A d e f i n i t i v e textbook, o u t l i n i n g u n i v e r s a l l y acceptable means of o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g photographs, t h e r e f o r e , has yet to be w r i t t e n . P i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s p r e f e r to r e l y on case s t u d i e s as a means of di s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and advice. The un d e r l y i n g message of most a r t i c l e s published by p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s i s " t h i s worked f o r us so maybe i t w i l l work f o r y o u . " 1 9 Yet as Ron D'Altroy, formerly of the H i s t o r i c a l Photograph S e c t i o n of the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y found, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of various systems of f i l i n g and s t o r i n g photographs proved most methods to be "very complicated a n d . . . v i r t u a l l y useless " f o r h i s p u r p o s e s . 2 0 He was forc e d , e v e n t u a l l y , to create h i s own system and then, i n t u r n , o f f e r e d h i s ideas to h i s colleagues through a p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l . No doubt the p u b l i c a t i o n of case s t u d i e s has helped numerous l i b r a r i a n s , D'Altroy notwithstanding, but i t has a l s o created something of a v i c i o u s c y c l e , r e s u l t i n g i n the frequent r e p e t i t i o n of a l i m i t e d body of ideas and techniques. A r c h i v i s t s and other custodians of photographs who have looked to 5 l i b r a r i a n s f o r guidance have found l i t t l e i n the way of e s t a b l i s h e d or accepted standards or procedures. In c o n s u l t i n g l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , these p r o f e s s i o n a l s are f u r t h e r handicapped through a lack of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h b a s i c l i b r a r y techniques such as d e s c r i p t i v e c a t a l o g u i n g , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and indexing. Thus, they have created t h e i r own systems of arranging and d e s c r i b i n g photographs which are e q u a l l y , i f not more, i d i o s y n c r a t i c than those designed by l i b r a r i a n s . The overwhelming and expensive task of d e s c r i b i n g photographs at the item l e v e l coupled with c o n f l i c t i n g and confusing methodologies of p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l have l e d t o unfortunate s i t u a t i o n s . While re s e a r c h i n g the e a r l y o i l i n d u s t r y i n Texas, h i s t o r i a n Walter Rundle found th a t photographs i n some museums and a r c h i v e s were t o t a l l y unorganized and, i n one i n s t a n c e , photographs were l i t e r a l l y s c a t t e r e d a l l over the f l o o r . Rundle concluded t h a t a lack of i n t e l l e c t u a l access to photograph c o l l e c t i o n s i s the norm. 2 1 In the m i d - t o - l a t e 1970s, a number of f a c t o r s converged to b r i n g about a new awareness on the part of l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s regarding the appropriateness of a p p l y i n g the p r i n c i p l e of provenance and o r i g i n a l order to photographs. F i r s t and foremost there was a n o t i c e a b l e upsurge i n i n t e r e s t shown by the p u b l i c i n h i s t o r i c a l photographs. As user requests for new and v a r i e d v i s u a l m a t e r i a l increased, l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s acquired more and l a r g e r bodies of photographs to meet the demand. Sheer volume negated the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n i n making the m a t e r i a l a c c e s s i b l e to patrons. The approach of academics toward photographs a l s o changed. Where photographs were once considered s o l e l y as 6 adjuncts to the w r i t t e n word, they were now being used as documents capable of standing on t h e i r own m e r i t s . 2 2 Extended research p r o j e c t s convinced users and s t a f f a l i k e that the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of a photograph was g r e a t l y enhanced when viewed w i t h i n the context i n which i t was cr e a t e d . In other words, when provenance was not observed and a photograph was severed from i t s s e r i e s or group o r i g i n , i t became very d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t the meaning of the photograph or to determine the bias of the photographer. 2 3 Nancy Malan summarized the s i t u a t i o n when she s t a t e d "A h i s t o r i c a l photograph i s a fragment of h i s t o r y . I t i s l i k e a s i n g l e bone found during an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i g . Taken alone i t has l i m i t e d meaning." 2 4 The need to p r o t e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of photographic fonds through the maintenance of provenance has been conceded but there i s s t i l l some question concerning the e v i d e n t i a l value possessed by photographic fonds. I f an a r c h i v i s t considers o n l y the i n f o r m a t i o n a l or s c h o l a r l y research value of a p a r t i c u l a r fonds, he or she might not be as scrupulous i n p r e s e r v i n g provenance and o r i g i n a l order as would be the case i n p r o t e c t i n g the e v i d e n t i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e g a l , value of a f o n d s . 2 9 However, the f a c t t h a t many photographic fonds do possess a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or l e g a l v a lue, i s s l o w l y g a i n i n g acceptance w i t h i n the a r c h i v a l community. Recognizing photographs as "records i n the a r c h i v a l sense" has not made i t any l e s s d i f f i c u l t to deal with a medium which o f t e n shows " l i t t l e evidence of a time s e r i e s and o b s t i n a t e l y r e s i s t t s ] an o r i g i n a l order between i n c l u s i v e d a t e s . " 2 8 A r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s are s t i l l i n the experimental stage of arranging and d e s c r i b i n g photographic fonds according to provenance and o r i g i n a l order. A s i m i l a r e v o l u t i o n , marked by some of 7 the same u n c e r t a i n t i e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , occurred e a r l i e r i n the twe n t i e t h century i n regards to manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s . Although they were at one time the domain of l i b r a r i a n s and were most of t e n catalogued at the item l e v e l , manuscript fonds are now, f o r the most p a r t , considered p a r t of the " a r c h i v a l f a m i l y " and arranged and described according to a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s to photographic fonds has not completely negated the need to de s c r i b e some fonds and/or d i s c r e t e photographs a t the item l e v e l . Since 1978 and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the second e d i t i o n of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and i n 1982 with the p u b l i c a t i o n of E l i s a b e t h Betz's Graphic M a t e r i a l s members of both p r o f e s s i o n s have been able to apply a standardized format i n d e s c r i b i n g nontextual m a t e r i a l a t the item and fonds l e v e l s . 2 7 The advent of automation, the hope f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and the promise of informa t i o n networking have p u l l e d the members of the two p r o f e s s i o n s c l o s e r together. I t i s c l e a r that a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s w i l l continue to b e n e f i t from a sh a r i n g of s k i l l s and techniques i f f u r t h e r standards and e f f e c t i v e means of arranging and d e s c r i b i n g photographs and photographic fonds are to be developed. The problems and issues faced by a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s i n the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs w i l l be d e a l t with i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters. Methods, p r i m a r i l y developed by l i b r a r i a n s , f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n , c a t a l o g u i n g and r e t r i e v a l of photographs w i l l be the focus of Chapter Two. Tracing the e v o l u t i o n away from o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g photographs as d i s c r e t e items toward a r e c o g n i t i o n of the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of 8 a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s to photographic fonds comprises the o b j e c t i v e of Chapter Three. Chapter Four w i l l d eal w i t h the impact of automation and the d r i v e toward the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of a r c h i v e s , t e x t u a l and no n t e x t u a l . Chapter F i v e , u n l i k e the previous chapters, w i l l not be based on theory and case s t u d i e s as presented i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e but w i l l d e s c r i b e f i e l d work undertaken a t l o c a l a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , l i b r a r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . This f i e l d work inv o l v e d i n t e r v i e w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n charge of photographs a t the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , H i s t o r i c a l Photographs S e c t i o n , the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i s u a l Records D i v i s i o n , the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s , the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y , the Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s , and the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose was to uncover s p e c i f i c problems faced by p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e a l i n g with the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs and to dis c o v e r the methods or t a c t i c s used i n overcoming o b s t a c l e s . A short c o n c l u s i o n , found i n Chapter S i x , w i l l attempt to summarize the f i n d i n g s contained i n the body, of t h i s t h e s i s . Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , the term fonds i s used to d e l i n e a t e "the whole of the documents of any nature that every a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body, every p h y s i c a l or corporate e n t i t y , a u t o m a t i c a l l y and o r g a n i c a l l y accumulates by reason of i t s f u n c t i o n or of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . " Thus, a fonds r e f e r s to the t o t a l i t y of the documents i n any form or on any medium created by an agency or person a c t i n g i n a p u b l i c or p r i v a t e c a p a c i t y . 2 8 A photographic fonds might a l s o c o n t a i n some t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l generated by the c r e a t o r , such as ledgers kept by a commercial photographer. Photographs that are a part of a 9 l a r g e l y t e x t u a l fonds or where photographs have been removed from a t e x t u a l fonds and maintained and administered s e p a r a t e l y , are best described as bodies of photographs as opposed to photographic fonds. C o l l e c t i o n s of documents, t e x t u a l or n o n t e x t u a l , are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from fonds d'archives i n that they were a r t i f i c i a l l y brought together and are u s u a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , not organic i n nature. This s a i d , i t must be borne i n mind t h a t i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s , the term c o l l e c t i o n may r e f e r to e i t h e r an a r t i f i c i a l l y accumulated or o r g a n i c a l l y generated body of documents. The P h i l l i p Timms C o l l e c t i o n , held by the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , H i s t o r i c a l Photographs S e c t i o n , f o r in s t a n c e , was o r g a n i c a l l y generated by the photographer P h i l l i p Timms. In some l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , "photographic c o l l e c t i o n " i s used to r e f e r to the e n t i r e photographic holdings of the i n s t i t u t i o n . To avoid c o n f u s i o n , the term c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be used here to i n d i c a t e an a r t i f i c i a l group of documents or i n conformity with an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s use of the word to mean the h o l d i n g s , organic or a r t i f i c i a l , of the i n s t i t u t i o n . A photograph, h e r e i n , i s def i n e d as a c h e m i c a l l y f i x e d image ho l d i n g a lens-produced p a t t e r n of l i g h t , an aggregate of space and a f i n i t e amount of t i m e . 2 9 10 ENDNOTES 1. Frank B. Evans et a l . , "A B a s i c Glossary f o r A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curato r s , and Records Managers," American A r c h i v i s t 37, 3 ( J u l y 1974): 427. 2. Schellenberg, The Management of Archives (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), 100. 3. T.R. Schellenberg, Modern Archives (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956), 140 and 148. 4. T.R. Sche l l e n b e r g , The Management of A r c h i v e s , 325. 5. I b i d . , 329. 6. I b i d . , 335. 7. E s t e l l e Jussim, "The Research Uses of V i s u a l Information," L i b r a r y Trends 25. 4 ( A p r i l 1977): 764. 8. Robert A. Weinstein and L a r r y Booth, C o l l e c t i o n , , Use and Care of H i s t o r i c a l Photographs. 2nd ed., ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r State and L o c a l H i s t o r y , 1978), 55. 9. I b i d . , 55. 10. David B. Gracy, Archives and Manuscripts: Arrangement and  D e s c r i p t i o n (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977), 42. 11. See: Peter Robertson, "More than Meets the Eye," A r c h i v a r i a 1, 2 (Summer 1976): 33-44; Susan Sontag, On Photography (New York: F a r r a r , Straus and Giroux, 1978): 86-87. 12. See: Ruth Thompson, "The C o l l e c t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n of L o c a l H i s t o r i c a l P i c t u r e s i n the Minneapolis P u b l i c L i b r a r y , " American A r c h i v i s t 19, 3 ( J u l y 1946): 222; Sontag, On Photography, 5-6 and 86-87. 13. Schellenberg, Modern A r c h i v e s , 20. 14. C e l e s t i n e Frankenberg and Romana J a v i t z , " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n : P i c t u r e s . A Dialogue about the T r a i n i n g of P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56, 1 (January 1965): 17; Kenneth Duckett, Modern Manuscripts. A P r a c t i c a l  Manual f o r t h e i r Management. Care and Use ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n for State and L o c a l H i s t o r y , 1975), 200. 15. H i l a r y Evans, P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s h i p (New York: K.G. Saur and C l i v e B i n g l e y L t d . , 1980), 62. 16. I b i d , 7. 11 17. Jay E. D a i l y , Organizing Nonprlnt M a t e r i a l s . A Guide f o r L i b r a r i a n s (New York: Marcel Dekkar, Inc., 1972), i i i . 18. Helen P. H a r r i s o n , P i c t u r e L i b r a r U n s h i p (London: The L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981), 12-13. 19. See, f o r example: Donald L. P i e t e r s , "Handling Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s by Coordinate Indexing," S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 66 (November 1975): 541-542. Above the t i t l e of the a r t i c l e i s the statement "This works f o r us." 20. Ron D'Altroy, "An E f f e c t i v e Photographic A r c h i v e s , " Canadian  A r c h i v i s t 1, 7 (1969): 18. 21. Walter Rundle, "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Evidence: E a r l y Texas O i l , " American A r c h i v i s t 41, 4 (October 1978): 376. 22. J . Robert Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye: The H i s t o r i a n ' s Use of Photographs," B.C. Studies 52 (Winter 1981-1982): 16-17. 23. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r et a l . , Archives and Manuscripts:  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 71. 24. Nancy Malan, A d m i n i s t e r i n g H i s t o r i c a l Photograph C o l l e c t i o n s ( N a s h v i l l e 1981), 22. As quoted i n W i l l i a m H. Leary's The A r c h i v a l  A p p r a i s a l of Photographs: A RAMP Study with G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1985), 23. 25. Deborah Barr , "Photographs as A r c h i v a l Documents," ACA B u l l e t i n 10, 5 (May 1986): 8. 26. Hugh T a y l o r , "Documentary A r t and the Role of the A r c h i v i s t , " American A r c h i v i s t 42, 4 (October 1979): 419. 27. Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler, eds., Anglo-American Cataloguing  Rules, 2nd ed. (Chicago: American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1978); E l i s a b e t h Betz, Graphic M a t e r i a l s . Rules f o r D e s c r i b i n g O r i g i n a l Items and H i s t o r i c a l  C o l l e c t i o n s (Washington: L i b r a r y of Congress, 1982). 28. Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards. Report  and Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i v e  Standards (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1985), 7. 29. Weinstein and Booth, C o l l e c t i o n . Use and Care of H i s t o r i c a l  Photographs,. 4. 12 CHAPTER TWO: LIBRARY TECHNIQUES FOR THE ORGANIZATION AND DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS Schellenberg considered photographs, as d i s c r e t e items, to be "of n e a r l y equal concern to l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s . " 1 L i b r a r i a n s , however, have intimated t h a t they have been "delegated" the task of handling photographs and, i n c r e a s i n g l y , have assumed the job of a r c h i v i s t . 2 In North America, l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s began c o l l e c t i n g photographs i n the l a t e 1800s and e a r l y 1900s; 3 s p e c i a l i z e d custodians of t h i s record medium were, and i n many cases s t i l l a r e , p i c t u r e or photographic l i b r a r i a n s , not photographic a r c h i v i s t s . In the course of t h i s chapter, the b a s i c and most common means of o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g photographs i n accordance with s k i l l s d e r i v e d from l i b r a r i a n s h i p w i l l be examined. I t w i l l become apparent t h a t the i t e m - l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c a t a l o g u i n g of photographs has presented c u r a t o r s with a formidable c h a l l e n g e . Most p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s would agree that photographs are one of the most d i f f i c u l t types of h i s t o r i c a l documents to a d m i n i s t e r . S i m i l a r to other media s p e c i a l i s t s , c u r a t o r s of photographs have f e l t c u t o f f from the mainstream of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s . Moreover, as a s m a l l and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s c a t t e r e d group they have of t e n found themselves i s o l a t e d from one another. As the l i n e s of communication have been strengthened over the years, advances i n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of methodology have been achieved. Although the approach of a r c h i v i s t s and some l i b r a r i a n s toward the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs i s now changing and moving away from i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l , the groundwork accomplished i n recent 13 decades cannot be dismissed as outdated. In many l i b r a r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , the methods developed by p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s are s t i l l i n use e i t h e r as the s o l e system of c o n t r o l or as a complementary system to an a r c h i v a l l y - b a s e d system. At f i r s t , working i n small autonomous u n i t s w i t h i n various i n s t i t u t i o n s , p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s sought to develop methods of c a t a l o g u i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and indexing the images under t h e i r care. To encourage the p o o l i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n , workshops and study sessions were convened p e r i o d i c a l l y . As e a r l y as 1946, an informal conference was held at the N a t i o n a l Archives i n Washington with t w e n t y - f i v e photographic l i b r a r i a n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g eleven agencies, i n attendance. 4 In 1953, the P i c t u r e D i v i s i o n of the S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s A s s o c i a t i o n was formed and s e v e r a l years l a t e r began p u b l i s h i n g a q u a r t e r l y n e w s l e t t e r , P i c t u r e s c o p e . Other channels for the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of manuals d e a l i n g with various aspects of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of nontextual m a t e r i a l s , continued to appear. Yet by 1965, p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s s t i l l f e l t "forced i n t o s e l f - t r a i n i n g , problem-solving and i n v e n t i o n . " * To evaluate the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n as i t a p p l i e d to photographs as w e l l as to other nonprint m a t e r i a l s , the United States O f f i c e of Education media i n s t i t u t e organized three conferences t o be held between August of 1969 and A p r i l of 1970. S p e c i a l i s t s from Canada, B r i t a i n and the United States attended these meetings and concluded t h a t "non-print media i s not p r e s e n t l y organized f o r i t s i n t e l l i g e n t s e l e c t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n " and that there had been a general f a i l u r e , on the part of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , to e s t a b l i s h s u i t a b l e standards f o r the c o n t r o l of nonprint media. 6 14 In r e t r o s p e c t , i t i s r e a l l y n e i t h e r very s u r p r i s i n g nor alarming that members of the l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n have faced years of i n d e c i s i o n and experimentation i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of nonprint m a t e r i a l . A f t e r a l l , photographs, f o r i n s t a n c e , have only been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1826. 7 By comparison, methods f o r the c a t a l o g u i n g , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and indexing of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s have evolved over c e n t u r i e s . In 1697, a f t e r books had e x i s t e d f o r approximately 250 years, the c u r a t o r s of the Bodleian L i b r a r y were advised t h a t "a dozen or more Learned men, who are l i k e w i s e supposed to know books b e t t e r than ot h e r s , met so many times a week....To c o n s u l t whether books with g i l t backs should stand w i t h the backs out or not;...whether Authors should be placed i n A l p h a b e t i c a l order as to t h e i r names or not;...whether when a book contains many d i f f e r e n t Tracts of s e v e r a l Authors, under one general T i t l e , every Author and Tract ought not to be expressed i n the Catalogue." 8 In reference to the c o n t r o l of nonprint m a t e r i a l , one l i b r a r y school professor has pointed out that "Today we do t h i n g s more q u i c k l y , " 9 or, a t l e a s t , we would l i k e to do t h i n g s more q u i c k l y . I t a l s o must be remembered th a t c u r r e n t standards and r u l e s f o r the c o n t r o l of both p r i n t and nonprint m a t e r i a l cannot be considered s t a t i c or a b s o l u t e . Technology, p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n t r o d u c t i o n of computers, w i l l continue to render obsolete what has a l r e a d y been accomplished. Economic r e a l i t i e s and the sometimes impossible task of a p p l y i n g general r u l e s to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s have l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s must remain an a r t , not a s c i e n c e . 1 8 This does not mean that standards and r u l e s are unimportant or 15 u n n e c e s s a r y , o n l y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e . E x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l exchange o f b i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s one i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h e o n g o i n g development and a d o p t i o n of s t a n d a r d s . User e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g u n i f o r m i t y i n m e t h o d o l o g y amongst i n s t i t u t i o n s i s y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n . The c r e a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of b i b l i o g r a p h i c s t a n d a r d s or any c o m p r e h e n s i v e form o f o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h s has been r e t a r d e d due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . One i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l forms w h i c h p h o t o g r a p h s may t a k e , f r o m d a g u e r r e o t y p e s t o g l a s s -p l a t e n e g a t i v e s t o t h e s t a n d a r d b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e p r i n t . The c o n s e r v a t i o n needs of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p h o t o g r a p h s o f t e n seems t o d e f y t h e c r e a t i o n o f one method of p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t . The s h e e r volume o f p h o t o g r a p h s a c c u m u l a t e d by l i b r a r i e s and the r e s u l t i n g c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n making the images i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e has s t y m i e d t h e b e s t l a i d p l a n s and schemes. L i b r a r i e s a r e a l s o u s e r - o r i e n t e d and u l t i m a t e l y the p e r c e i v e d needs o f p a t r o n s have i n f l u e n c e d and even d i c t a t e d t h e methods used i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s . The e v o l u t i o n of methods o f c o n t r o l o ver p h o t o g r a p h i c images more o f t e n r e f l e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n p r e c e d e s the c h a n g i n g needs of u s e r s . 16 ORGANIZATION VERTICAL FILES U n t i l recent years and i n "most places photographs, i f not l o o s e l y f i l e d i n drawers or boxes, a t t a i n t e d ] t h e i r z e n i t h of a t t e n t i o n when simply dropped i n a v e r t i c a l f i l e , which to appease conscience...[was] u s u a l l y subdivided on a c h r o n o l o g i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , or name b a s i s . " 1 1 Deemed as being " f a r too p r i m i t i v e " 1 2 by one author, the v e r t i c a l f i l e , or s e l f -indexing p i c t u r e f i l e , remains the f a v o r i t e means of o r g a n i z i n g photographic p r i n t s i n many l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . Robert Weinstein and L a r r y Booth have promoted the use of a v e r t i c a l f i l e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t upon which a more ela b o r a t e system can be b u i l t as funds and s t a f f time become a v a i l a b l e . 1 3 The contents of a v e r t i c a l f i l e can be arranged according to subj e c t term or c l a s s i f i e d s u b j e c t term. Subject term f i l i n g i s f a r more common and in v o l v e s producing a l i s t of s u b j e c t terms or su b j e c t headings a g a i n s t which photographs can be arranged i n the appropriate f i l e s , c a b i n e t s or bi n d e r s . Classes such as p o r t r a i t s , geographic l o c a t i o n s , h i s t o r i c events and a l a r g e , general s u b j e c t c l a s s are u s u a l l y created and then subdivided to r e f l e c t i n greater d e t a i l the subj e c t content of the photographs. 1 4 Cross r e f e r e n c i n g can be accomplished by making d u p l i c a t e copies of o r i g i n a l images and then f i l i n g the d u p l i c a t e s under numerous subject headings. Large company l i b r a r i e s , such as those at the Mobil O i l , Wells Fargo Bank, L i f e Incorporated and S h e l l O i l have a l l adopted the s e l f - i n d e x i n g 17 f i l e as a means of arranging t h e i r photographs. At Mobil O i l , the l i b r a r i a n admitted that "'the age of i l l u s t r a t e d communication' had caught most of us unprepared." In an e f f o r t to respond more e f f e c t i v e l y to in-house requests and p u b l i c e n q u i r i e s f o r v i s u a l documentation, the company's photographs were reorganized. P o r t r a i t s were arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , while photographs of p l a n t s and o f f i c e s , geographic l o c a t i o n s and products and processes were arranged by s u b j e c t . 1 3 At Wells Fargo, some f i f t e e n s u b j e c t s were a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n which a l l photographs could be f i l e d . 1 6 In 1960, the i n d i v i d u a l put i n charge of o r g a n i z i n g the photographs held by S h e l l O i l began h i s task with an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t f i l i n g systems only to d i s c o v e r "there were none." He t h e r e f o r e decided he would have to "play i t by ear." In the end, S h e l l O i l photographs were p h y s i c a l l y organized w i t h i n two d i f f e r e n t systems, but each system was based on s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F ive black albums c o n t a i n i n g s e l e c t photographs were organized under the f o l l o w i n g headings: e x p l o r a t i o n and production; manufacturing; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; storage l a b o r a t o r i e s ; and research. These albums were designed f o r "window shoppers" w i t h no f i x e d idea regarding the type of image sought. Researchers with s p e c i f i c requests were to be d i r e c t e d to a twenty-four drawer cabinet c o n t a i n i n g photographs organized i n t o more p r e c i s e s u b j e c t c a t e g o r i e s . 1 7 C l a s s i f i e d s u b j e c t term f i l i n g i s a more s t r u c t u r e d system. Using t h i s method, each s u b j e c t term i s assigned a number between 1 and 9 or 1 and 999 and a f t e r each photograph i s analyzed and numbered i t i s placed i n a container bearing the i d e n t i c a l number. 1 8 This approach i s h i g h l y recommended by Paul V a n d e r b i l t of the State H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Wisconsin 18 for other historical societies who are "seeking some easily executed formula" for dealing with their photographs. 1 9 Vanderbilt, originally trained as an art historian, has worked in several libraries, including the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress, and specializes in "the extension of library type reference and research into...less well-organized areas" such as photographs. In advising historical societies and other custodians of photographs, Vanderbilt suggests that the material to be fi l e d be handled randomly until one is familiar enough with the collection to create an outline of it s contents. Each class in the outline should then be numbered, for example: 1 Early maps and views; 30 Persons and Families, A-E, F-L, M-R, S-Z; 60 Churches and religious af f a i r s ; 90 Farms. 2 8 While a l i s t of classes and their corresponding numbers must be supplied to researchers, Vanderbilt feels that no further description is necessary. To Vanderbilt, the use of the classified subject term system resembles, in theory, the system of arrangement and description used by archivists dealing with manuscript and record groups. Researchers in archival repositories, like patrons using photographs organized by classified subject term in libraries must "deal with significant large masses, known by their position in the structure of accumulated records, and...deal with the individual details of information." 2 1 In a very general sense, Vanderbilt's analogy holds true. However, in an archival setting the provenance of a fonds is retained whereas the type of photograph collection to which Vanderbilt refers is an accumulation of images brought together from various sources to create one large collection. As a consequence, subject term classification is a wholly a r t i f i c i a l scheme and the photographs contained 19 w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m g a i n l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e when view e d v i s - " a - v i s o t h e r images i n the same c l a s s . V a n d e r b i l t ' s p i c t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n s p i r e d W.J. Burke of t h e Look magazine p h o t o g r a p h l i b r a r y t o adopt a s i m i l a r s y s t e m . Burke and h i s s t a f f d i v i d e d t h e company's p h o t o g r a p h s i n t o n i n e major c a t e g o r i e s : 1 N a t u r e ; 2 M a n - P h y s i c a l ; 3 Man-Economic; 4 M a n - S o c i a l ; 5 M a n - P o l i t i c a l ; 6 M a n - I n t e l l e c t u a l and S p i r i t u a l ; 7 R e c r e a t i o n a l ; 8 War; 9 M i s c e l l a n e o u s . Working from the g e n e r a l t o the more s p e c i f i c , the l i b r a r i a n s a t Look th e n f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d t h e n i n e main c l a s s e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , 1.50 i s N a t u r e -A n i m a l s and w i t h i n t h i s c l a s s p h o t o g r a p h s a r e o r g a n i z e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , from B i r d s t o Z e b r a s . I n w r i t i n g a b out h i s e x p e r i e n c e , Burke c a u t i o n e d t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s n o t an e x a c t s c i e n c e and t h u s each l i b r a r y must c r e a t e a s y s t e m t o s u i t t h e p a r t i c u l a r needs of i t s p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n . 2 2 At t h e U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , F r e d e r i c k K o r n , a former s t u d e n t i n the u n i v e r s i t y ' s G r a d u a t e S c h o o l of L i b r a r y S c i e n c e d e s i g n e d a u n i q u e c l a s s i f i e d s u b j e c t term f i l i n g s y s t e m based on p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s or a p p a r a t u s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e d u l e was c r e a t e d t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e l e s s o n p l a n of a c o u r s e i n p h o t o g r a p h y . N o t a t i o n was a l p h a n u m e r i c w i t h d e c i m a l e x p a n s i o n . C l a s s e s i n c l u d e d s u c h t o p i c s as Cameras, Camera a c c e s s o r i e s , Camera l e n s e s , B l a c k - a n d W h i t e , C o l o u r and so o n . 2 3 A l t h o u g h numerous c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes have been d e v i s e d f o r use i n o r g a n i z i n g t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s , few of t h e s e schemes a r e e a s i l y a d a p t e d t o p h o t o g r a p h s . P a u l V a n d e r b i l t and o t h e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t a C u t t e r code, o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r use w i t h monographs, be used where the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s name i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t about a p i c t u r e , f o r example 20 B4 f o r Bemis and B5 f o r B i l l i n g s and so o n . 2 4 Other general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes which were a l s o devised for monographs, such as the Dewey Decimal System, the L i b r a r y of Congress system, the Colon C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System, the B l i s s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme and the U n i v e r s a l Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System have not been found to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e or appropriate f o r photographs. 2 9 They are u s u a l l y academic and d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d and th e r e f o r e new c l a s s e s would have to be created by the l i b r a r i a n to cover some s u b j e c t s found i n photographs while other large designated c l a s s e s , such as philosophy, would go unused i n a p i c t u r e l i b r a r y . 2 6 V e r t i c a l f i l e s , organized by subj e c t term or c l a s s i f i e d s u b j e c t term, do have s e v e r a l advantages over other systems. The prime advantage emphasized by l i b r a r i a n s i s that a v e r t i c a l f i l e i s , to an ex t e n t , s e l f -i ndexing and may be used as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r c a t a l o g u i n g or c r o s s - i n d e x i n g . In bypassing d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n , the l i b r a r y can reduce i t s backlog of photographs which would otherwise be a w a i t i n g c a t a l o g u i n g . V e r t i c a l f i l e s are a l s o capable of expansion through the a d d i t i o n of new subheadings or c l a s s e s . The f a c t t h a t v e r t i c a l f i l e s are u s u a l l y open-access and simple to use means that patrons can conduct t h e i r research with minimal guidance from s t a f f members. For patrons with only a general idea of what they are lo o k i n g f o r , a v e r t i c a l f i l e f a c i l i t a t e s b r o w s i n g . 2 7 There are a l s o disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d with v e r t i c a l f i l e s . I f o r i g i n a l p r i n t s are used, open access r e s u l t s i n wear and tear and even t h e f t . M i s f i l i n g by patrons i s , of course, i n e v i t a b l e . One of the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from the use of t h i s system i s that v e r t i c a l f i l e s tend to grow at a phenomenal r a t e and e v e n t u a l l y become unwieldy. This can be a 21 p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m where s t r i c t o v e r a l l c o n t r o l has n o t been m a i n t a i n e d i n c h o o s i n g s u b j e c t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e a d i n g s . As m e n t i o n e d , p u b l i s h e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes, s u c h as t h e Dewey D e c i m a l s y s t e m a r e n o t s u i t e d f o r use w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s . S t a n d a r d a u t h o r i t i e s on s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s , s u c h as the L i b r a r y o f Con g r e s s S u b j e c t H e a d i n g s , a r e a l s o v i e w e d as b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e because t h e y c o n t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l terms i n t e n d e d f o r b o o k s . 2 8 P i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e u s u a l l y f o r c e d t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s , a d i f f i c u l t t a s k a t b e s t . Hermine M. Ba u m h o f f e r , an a u t h o r i t y i n t h e f i e l d o f p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s h i p , f e e l s t h a t a " s p a r k l i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " can o n l y be "produced where t h e l i b r a r i a n has c o m p l e t e i n t e l l e c t u a l m a s t e r y o v e r t h e c o n t e n t s o f the f i l e s , s e e s i t i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f g e n e r a t i o n s , and r e g a r d s i t w i t h s o m e t h i n g l i k e d e v o t i o n . " 2 9 T h i s i d e a l might be a t t a i n a b l e i f o n l y one l i b r a r i a n were p l a c e d i n c h a r g e o f c r e a t i n g a s u b j e c t - h e a d i n g l i s t , r e m a i n s a t h i s or her p o s t i n d e f i n i t e l y t o guard i t , o r i f t h e s y s t e m r a r e l y r e q u i r e s t h e a d d i t i o n o f new c l a s s e s . More t y p i c a l i s the s i t u a t i o n f a c e d by Alma E g g l e s t o n , C h i e f , P i c t u r e L i b r a r y o f L i f e magazine i n New Y o r k . A s c h e d u l e o f s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s was o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d f o r the L i f e p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n but each member of t h e department m a i n t a i n e d a " l o o s e - l e a f t r a n s c r i p t o f s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s , and each week new a d d i t i o n s a r e d i t t o e d and handed out f o r i n c l u s i o n . " 3 B Chances a r e , t h e n , t h a t s e v e r a l l i b r a r i a n s w i l l change and d e v e l o p a s y s t e m . O f t e n a d d i t i o n s w i l l be c r e a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n r a t h e r t h a n w i t h an eye t o l o n g -range o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 3 1 I n a 1978 a r t i c l e a p p e a r i n g i n P i c t u r e s c o p e , Mary J i r g e n s o n s , t h e n a 22 student of the P r a t t I n s t i t u t e Graduate School of L i b r a r y and Information Science, s t r e s s e s the need to consider the user f i r s t and l o g i c and convenience second i n c r e a t i n g subject headings f o r a v e r t i c a l f i l e of photographs. She f e e l s that i n f u l f i l l i n g the needs of the user, subject headings must r e f l e c t c u r r e n t language usage and s o c i a l t r e n d s . 3 2 As the r e s u l t i n g terms become obsole t e , one would assume that the subje c t headings would have to be r e v i s e d , d e l e t e d or "see" and "see a l s o " references added. From Jir g e n s o n s ' p o i n t of view, the few published subject-heading guides are of l i t t l e use. For in s t a n c e , even though the Newark P u b l i c L i b r a r y o r i g i n a l l y published i t s l i s t of subj e c t headings as The P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n i n response to requests r e c e i v e d from other l i b r a r i e s , 3 3 Jirgensons f e e l s that that work can only a i d other l i b r a r i a n s on a very b a s i c l e v e l . 3 4 Other evidence would support t h i s stance. Richard Staub, f o r one, g e n e r a l l y found that the Newark scheme provided an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework and that i t acted as a reminder to l i b r a r i a n s to work from the general to the s p e c i f i c i n c r e a t i n g h e a d i n g s . 3 3 Broad c l a s s e s might be borrowed from The P i c t u r e  C o l l e c t i o n but more s p e c i f i c , l o c a l c l a s s e s must be devised by l i b r a r i a n s seeing with "subject e y e s . " 3 6 NUMERICAL ARRANGEMENT (NOT BASED ON CLASSIFIED SUBJECT TERMS) The o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l photographs by accession number, c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y or through the use of any numerical d e s i g n a t o r , other than c l a s s i f i e d s u b j e c t term o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s u s u a l l y considered " f a t a l " i n 23 l i b r a r i e s . 3 7 P r i n t s a r r a n g e d n u m e r i c a l l y r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e i n d e x i n g or c a t a l o g u i n g and t h e r e f o r e o n l y v a l u a b l e i t e m s or s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s can be c o n t r o l l e d i n t h i s manner. George B o w d i t c h of the A d i r o n d a c k Museum recommends f i l i n g p r i n t s by a c c e s s i o n number and making them a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h d e s c r i p t i v e and s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g but he concedes t h a t the s y s t e m i s b e s t s u i t e d t o c o l l e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g no more t h a n 1500 i m a g e s . 3 8 O r i g i n a l p r i n t s can be e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d by a c c e s s i o n number when copy p r i n t s or p h o t o c o p i e s have been made and a r e a c c e s s i b l e i n v e r t i c a l f i l e s i n the r e f e r e n c e room. I n a s i m i l a r manner, where images have been r e p r o d u c e d on m i c r o f i c h e or m i c r o f i l m , t h e o r i g i n a l s can be o r g a n i z e d n u m e r i c a l l y . The s u b j e c t c o n t e n t o f the m i c r o f i c h e or m i c r o f i l m i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n i n d e x e s . N e g a t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e most o f t e n o r g a n i z e d n u m e r i c a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e where t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r i n t s a r e housed i n s u b j e c t f i l e s . P r i n t s p l a c e d i n v e r t i c a l f i l e s a r e a s s i g n e d an a c c e s s i o n number wh i c h i s a l s o i n s c r i b e d on the j a c k e t of t h e n e g a t i v e o r , u s i n g a s p e c i a l i n k , on t h e edge o f t h e n e g a t i v e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of n e g a t i v e s by a c c e s s i o n number and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r i n t s by s u b j e c t i s p r e f e r r e d by numerous p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c l u d i n g H e l e n D a v i d s o n , a r c h i v i s t a t t h e E l i L i l l y Company, and C a m i l l a P. L u e c k e , C h i e f , P h o t o g r a p h i c L i b r a r y , U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n Agency, Wa s h i n g t o n , D.C. 3 9 At t h e F o r d Motor Company l i b r a r y , o n l y n e g a t i v e s a r e k e p t on hand f o r r e f e r e n c e and r e s e a r c h . O r g a n i z a t i o n i s n u m e r i c a l and by t h e s i z e of t h e n e g a t i v e , 4 by 5 i n c h or 8 by 10 i n c h . I n t e l l e c t u a l a c c e s s i s g a i n e d t h r o u g h the use of a s u b j e c t i n d e x . * " Few j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s or manuals d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and 24 d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs go i n t o great d e t a i l when d i s c u s s i n g negatives. There are s e v e r a l l i k e l y reasons for t h i s . In many cases, i n s t i t u t i o n s acquire only p r i n t s , while the negatives remain with the donor or were l o s t or misplaced by the donor years before. Some photographic processes produce no negative, such as daguerreotypes which are d i r e c t p o s i t i v e images. 4 1 When v e r t i c a l f i l e s c o n t a i n photographs as w e l l as other p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l , such as magazine c l i p p i n g s , a l l images i n the f i l e are considered to be of l i t t l e value and rep l a c e a b l e with s i m i l a r images; having or knowing the whereabouts of the negatives becomes unimportant. Hence, while some l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s would consider the negative to be the "heart of any photo o p e r a t i o n " , others a t t a c h l i t t l e import to the o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e . 4 2 DESCRIPTION ACCESSION REGISTERS OR LOGS Recording an acc e s s i o n i s both the f i r s t step i n g a i n i n g p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l over photographs and the beginning of the d e s c r i p t i v e process. In a r c h i v e s , an accession r e g i s t e r u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e s incoming a c q u i s i t i o n s at the fonds or group l e v e l but i n l i b r a r i e s there i s a n a t u r a l tendency to record the accession number, subject content and other in f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on each item. Weinstein and Booth suggest that the log be as d e t a i l e d as p o s s i b l e . In t h i s way, i t can be used f o r reference i n w r i t i n g captions or 25 to l o c a t e photographs not yet a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s photograph l i b r a r y . Moreover, a l o g can be used to reassemble fonds p r e v i o u s l y d i s p e r s e d and i n t e r f i l e d with other photographs. 4 3 From the l i t e r a t u r e , i t would appear that very few l i b r a r i e s a c t u a l l y maintain an a c c e s s i o n l o g . I t may be that logs f o r photographs are considered of l i t t l e use or, conversely, that they are so b a s i c they need not be discussed i n a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on the d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs. CAPTIONS In l i b r a r i e s , a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s and museums where photographs are maintained i n v e r t i c a l f i l e s the c a p t i o n u s u a l l y w i l l provide the main source of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on an image. Custodians of photographs th e r e f o r e agree that each image must c a r r y enough data to make i t of use to patrons and to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r s t a f f members to f i n d and r e t r i e v e the image. At the same time, the c a p t i o n need not include everything that could p o s s i b l y be s a i d f o r "who can know i n advance what informa t i o n about a p i c t u r e i s l i k e l y to be r e q u i r e d . . . . " 4 4 B a s i c a l l y , i t i s suggested that the c a p t i o n answer the questions who, what, where and when and supply the name of the photographer, i f known. 4 3 I t can be d i f f i c u l t to c a p t i o n a photograph a c c u r a t e l y and f u l l y so i t i s recommended that users be provided with information f i l e s or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d i r e c t o r i e s corresponding to the subject content of the c o l l e c t i o n . The c r e a t i o n of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d i r e c t o r y i n v o l v e s compiling 26 l i s t s o f d a t e s , p e o p l e , p l a c e s and e v e n t s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h s h e l d by an i n s t i t u t i o n . 4 6 Much of t h i s t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y comments of an a r c h i v a l i n v e n t o r y f o r a s i n g l e f o n d s . IMAGE-BEARING CATALOGUES The i m a g e - b e a r i n g c a t a l o g u e i s a s t e p up f r o m t h e v e r t i c a l f i l e and s i m p l e c a p t i o n i n g . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f images and as a c onsequence, an i m a g e - b e a r i n g c a t a l o g u e i s an e x p e n s i v e and t i m e consuming p r o j e c t . U s i n g t h i s method of d e s c r i p t i o n , o r i g i n a l p r i n t s and n e g a t i v e s c a n be o r g a n i z e d by a c c e s s i o n number or i n any o t h e r manner w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r e f f i c i e n t r e t r i e v a l . S m a l l copy p r i n t s a r e made of o r i g i n a l images and t h e n a t t a c h e d t o c a t a l o g u e c a r d s c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r c a p t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n o r , more l i k e l y , a f u l l d e s c r i p t i v e c a t a l o g u e e n t r y . In t u r n , the c a r d s a r e a r r a n g e d by s u b j e c t , as a t t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n . o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada ( t h e NPC no l o n g e r e x i s t s as a d i s t i n c t D i v i s i o n but has been merged w i t h t h e P i c t u r e D i v i s i o n t o f o r m t h e Documentary A r t and P h o t o g r a p h D i v i s i o n ; as o f June 1987, t h e PAC became the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada), or by c a l l - n u m b e r and a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h an i n d e x as a t the UCLA L i b r a r y Department of S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 4 7 The c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e method has p r o v e n p r o h i b i t i v e t o a l l but the l a r g e r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s and l i b r a r i e s . Even where i t i s i n u s e , o n l y a f r a c t i o n of t h e images h e l d by the i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n an i m a g e - b e a r i n g c a t a l o g u e . The UCLA L i b r a r y s e l e c t e d o n l y i t s "most 27 valuable and important... vintage images" for i t s v i s i b l e f i l e . 4 8 At the N a t i o n a l Photography C o l l e c t i o n (Documentary A r t and Photograph D i v i s i o n ) , a s e l e c t i o n process i s a l s o used i n determining which images w i l l be described i n the p i c t u r e catalogue. Every time a patron requests the reproduction of an o r i g i n a l p r i n t , s e v e r a l copies are made, one of which goes to the patron and one which goes i n t o the catalogue. At the N a t i o n a l Photography C o l l e c t i o n (DAPD) whole fonds or s e r i e s w i t h i n photographic fonds are a l s o reproduced f o r the p i c t u r e catalogue i f they are considered to be of p o t e n t i a l research value. In a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , photographs not described i n the image-bearing catalogue should be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e through some other d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l . DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUING In 1950 Hermine Baumhofer informed custodians of photographs that they l i k e l y would have to do without a catalogue of t h e i r p i c t o r i a l h o l d i n g s . She f e l t t h a t f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s made i t impossible to catalogue a l l but a very small and s e l e c t number of photographs. 4 9 One of the most problematic aspects of c a t a l o g u i n g photographs and the one which r e s u l t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t expenditure of time and money i s a t t r i b u t i o n , that i s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the photograph. Photographs, u n l i k e books, do not have a t i t l e page from which a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of information can be taken. I f research i s conducted u n t i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s complete, the l i b r a r i a n may be led on a "modern treasure hunt" through various secondary s o u r c e s . s a At the 28 v e r y l e a s t , the d e s c r i p t i v e c a t a l o g u i n g of p h o t o g r a p h s r e q u i r e s t h a t the c a t a l o g u e r have some knowledge of l o c a l h i s t o r y and n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , as w e l l as some g r o u n d i n g i n o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a s u c h as s o c i a l or a g r i c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y , h i s t o r i c a l geography, l i t e r a t u r e and so on. F o r the most p a r t , l i b r a r i a n s f e e l t h a t where p h o t o g r a p h s a r e a c c e s s i b l e t o u s e r s and p r o p e r l y d i s p l a y e d , i n a v e r t i c a l f i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s no need f o r c a t a l o g u i n g . D e s p i t e a l l t h e i n h e r e n t p r o b l e m s , l i m i t a t i o n s and f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c a t a l o g u i n g o f p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e r e has been a l o n g and sometimes c o n t r o v e r s i a l s e a r c h f o r a comprehensive and u s a b l e s t a n d a r d f o r the b i b l i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l o f p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l . In p a r t , t h i s q u e s t was s p u r r e d on by l i b r a r i a n s i n c h a r g e of a l l manner of nonbook m a t e r i a l . Y e t s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e a r e a o f p h o t o g r a p h s have a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o c e s s . P r i o r t o 1950, p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n char g e o f v a r i o u s n o n t e x t u a l media forms were q u i t e w i l l i n g t o c r e a t e t h e i r own c a t a l o g i n g r u l e s . A f t e r 1950, t h e a c q u i s i t i o n i n g o f a u d i o v i s u a l r e c o r d s and o t h e r nonbook m a t e r i a l s i n c r e a s e d i n many l i b r a r i e s . I n an a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l o ver t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , new media s p e c i a l i s t s found t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l r u l e s of b i b l i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l c o u l d not a l w a y s be t r a n s f e r r e d t o nonbook m a t e r i a l s w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y or extreme m o d i f i c a t i o n s . As an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t i n g " b i b l i o g r a p h i c a n a r c h y " , t h e B i b l i o g r a p h i c  C o n t r o l of N o n p r i n t Media r e c o r d e d over 600 r e f e r e n c e s i n 1972 and a n o t h e r b i b l i o g r a p h i c work, N o n p r i n t Media i n Academic L i b r a r i e s , c o n t a i n e d over 400 r e f e r e n c e s i n 1 9 7 5 . 3 1 Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , u s e r needs c o u l d not be met 29 f u l l y . In school l i b r a r i e s , f o r example, nonprint items were not included i n c e n t r a l catalogues because varying formats for t e x t u a l and nontextual m a t e r i a l s would make the catalogue d i f f i c u l t to use. U l t i m a t e l y t h i s hindered user access to nonprint records. S i m p l i s t i c or ad_ hoc c a t a l o g u i n g i n academic and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s a l s o l i m i t e d the p o t e n t i a l use of nonprint m a t e r i a l s ; c u r r e n t b i b l i o g r a p h i c formats were doing j u s t i c e n e i t h e r to the m a t e r i a l s nor to the user who would b e n e f i t from more and b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n . The promise of i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l resource s h a r i n g , which would a l s o b e n e f i t the user, i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to achieve, when l i b r a r i e s each use a d i f f e r e n t b i b l i o g r a p h i c format for the c a t a l o g u i n g of nonprint items. Networking, p a r t i c u l a r l y through e l e c t r o n i c means, r e q u i r e s a standard form of d e s c r i p t i o n for a l l media t y p e s . 9 2 In response to the need to standardize the c a t a l o g u i n g of nonprint m a t e r i a l , numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared, s e v e r a l of which had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact. The f i r s t , Eunice Keen's Manual f o r Use i n the C a t a l o g i n g and  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A u d i o v i s u a l M a t e r i a l s for a High School L i b r a r y was issued i n a p r e l i m i n a r y mimeographed e d i t i o n i n 1949 and r e v i s e d and published i n 1955. 9 3 As one of the f i r s t attempts to d e a l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y with nonprint m a t e r i a l , Keen's book found a large a u d i e n c e . 9 4 However, Keen r e s t r i c t e d her scope s t r i c t l y to a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and excluded photographs or any other s t a t i c form of p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d . P i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s would have to continue to r e l y on t h e i r own resources u n t i l 1959 when the American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the L i b r a r y of Congress published a supplement to t h e i r p r i n t - o r i e n t e d c a t a l o g u i n g r u l e s , P i c t u r e s , Designs and  other Two Dimensional Representations. This supplement along with other 30 s u p p l e m e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h phonograph r e c o r d s and f i l m s were r e v i s e d and t h e r u l e s a p p e a r e d i n 1967 i n P a r t I I I of the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f A n g l o - A m e r i c a n  C a t a l o g i n g R u l e s ( h e r e a f t e r AACRJJ . s s I n i t i a l l y , P a r t I I I o f AACR1 was welcomed, but a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y t h e s e c a t a l o g u i n g r u l e s t o nonbook items p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t . s s R e v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n s o f P a r t I I I were i s s u e d i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s b u t C h a p t e r 15 of P a r t I I I , d e a l i n g w i t h p i c t u r e s , was not r e v i s e d p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of the second e d i t i o n of A n g l o - A m e r i c a n  C a t a l o g i n g R u l e s ( h e r e a f t e r AACR2) i n 1 9 7 8 . 3 7 I n t h e i n t e r i m , t h e r e were more a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s and o t h e r media s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h u s a b l e c a t a l o g i n g r u l e s . A C a n a d i a n p u b l i c a t i o n , Non-book M a t e r i a l s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n t e g r a t e d  C o l l e c t i o n s f w r i t t e n by J e a n R i d d l e ( W e i h s ) , S h i r l e y L e w i s and J a n e t M a c d o n a l d , f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n 1970 and was l a t e r r e v i s e d and r e i s s u e d i n 1973 and 1 9 7 9 . s a Adopted by many s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , t he second e d i t i o n o f Nonbook  M a t e r i a l s a l s o met t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f many academic l i b r a r i e s f o r t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f a u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s . " However, a s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e does not r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h Nonbook M a t e r i a l s has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l o f p h o t o g r a p h s i n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s or i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and museums. In t h e 1970s E l i s a b e t h B e t z o f the L i b r a r y o f Congress put t o g e t h e r a w o r k i n g paper on the c a t a l o g u i n g o f g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s . C h a p t e r 15 of AACR1 formed the b a s i s f o r B e t z ' s work but she a l s o m o d i f i e d and expanded on AACR1 t o accommodate t h e o r i g i n a l and u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l h e l d i n the P r i n t s and P h o t o g r a p h s D i v i s i o n o f t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s . S B B e t z ' s paper was a h e l p f u l a d d i t i o n t o e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s , 31 but i t s lack of d e t a i l and the f a c t that i t was never published meant that i t s impact was not great. A step forward was taken i n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of b i b l i o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n the 1970s with the c r e a t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standard B i b l i o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n (ISBD) under the auspices of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Federation of L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s (IFLA). IFLA a l s o published a v e r s i o n of the ISBD f o r nonbook m a t e r i a l s ISBD(NBM). 6 1 These standards were not to be used for c a t a l o g u i n g but to d e l i m i t elements of d e s c r i p t i o n , e s t a b l i s h an order of p r e s e n t a t i o n and standardize p u n c t u a t i o n . 6 2 F o l l o w i n g the r e l e a s e of ISBD(NBM) i n 1977, cataloguers i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the Main L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia undertook the development of a c a t a l o g u i n g system f o r approximately two hundred photographs. I t was agreed that ISBD(NBM) would work but only i f adjustments were made. To t h i s end, the cataloguers reversed the p u b l i c a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , manufacture area and the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n area. They a l s o t r e a t e d the notes area and standard number area as part of the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and manufacture a r e a . 6 3 This experiment may have s u i t e d the s p e c i f i c needs of the photographs held by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, but i t runs counter to the intended use of the ISBD standards. Apparently, other l i b r a r i e s a l s o experienced problems i n attempting to manipulate or superimpose ISBD r u l e s . 6 4 In 1978 a second e d i t i o n of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) was publis h e d . The b i b l i o g r a p h i c formats presented for a l l media types r e c o n c i l e d many of the previous d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered with AACR1 while a l s o conforming to ISBD standards. Chapter 8, Part I of AACR2 deals 32 w i t h g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s s u c h as p h o t o g r a p h s , a r t o r i g i n a l s , p l u s a wide range of o t h e r t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . The r u l e s , w h i c h f o c u s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on the d i s c r e t e i t e m , were c o n s t r u c t e d t o a l l o w f o r i n d e p t h or a l e s s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s . The second e d i t i o n o f AACR2 met the needs of most b u t not a l l c u s t o d i a n s of p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n s . By t h e ti m e AACR2 was p u b l i s h e d , many l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s who had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a means of c a t a l o g u i n g p h o t o g r a p h s were u n w i l l i n g t o c l o s e t h e i r c a t a l o g u e s and b e g i n u s i n g AACR2 or t o sup e r i m p o s e i t s r u l e s on e x i s t i n g d e s c r i p t i v e work. Moreover, t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1960s and 1970s t h e use of computers and t h e a b i l i t y t o t a i l o r s o f t w a r e programs t o t h e s p e c i f i c needs of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s muddied t h e w a t e r s and i n i t i a l l y e n couraged a s h i f t away fr o m s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . Of g r e a t consequence was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t many b o d i e s of p h o t o g r a p h s housed i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , l i b r a r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and museums c o u l d and s h o u l d be t r e a t e d i n t h e same manner as any o t h e r a r c h i v a l f o n d s . The r u l e s i n AACR2 were not d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e s e new and s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . Indeed, AACR2 s t a t e s i n i t s g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t i t s r u l e s a r e "not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r s p e c i a l i s t and a r c h i v a l l i b r a r i e s . " At t h e same t i m e , a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s a p p r e c i a t e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g a s t a n d a r d f o r m a t , l i k e t h a t of AACR2. C l e a r l y , some method of d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h s and p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s w h i c h merged and r e c o n c i l e d l i b r a r y c a t a l o g u i n g methods w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f a r c h i v e s and museum d o c u m e n t a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . 6 9 E l i s a b e t h B e t z and her c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e P r i n t s and P h o t o g r a p h s D i v i s i o n of t h e L i b r a r y of Congress f i l l e d t h i s need w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of G r a p h i c 33 M a t e r i a l s i n 1982. The impact of t h i s manual w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Four o f t h i s t h e s i s . SUBJECT ANALYSIS S u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g and t h e s u b j e c t i n d e x i n g of p h o t o g r a p h s p r e s e n t many of t h e same problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e a r e a of s u b j e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above on pages 16 t o 22. The main s t u m b l i n g b l o c k i s s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s and the su b s e q u e n t c h o i c e of a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s e s , a c c e s s p o i n t s and i n d e x t e r m s . S p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d of v i s u a l r e c o r d s have r e c o g n i z e d t h e " n e c e s s i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g a f l e x i b l e , m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l v e r b a l s y s t e m t o a s s i s t r e s e a r c h i n t o v i s u a l f o r m s , " but work i n t h i s a r e a has o n l y j u s t b e g u n . s s I n the meantime, the s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s o f p h o t o g r a p h s f o r the purpose of s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g and i n d e x i n g i s l e f t t o the l i b r a r i a n o r a r c h i v i s t who may or may not be a b l e t o a n a l y z e an image f u l l y and a c c u r a t e l y d e p e n d i n g on i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . When u s i n g AACR2 i n the c a t a l o g u i n g o f p r i n t o r n o n p r i n t m a t e r i a l , the p r i n c i p l e a c c e s s p o i n t s h o u l d be the name of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l and/or a r t i s t i c c o n t e n t . In a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , t h i s u s u a l l y r e l a t e s t o i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g provenance w h i c h i s r a r e l y u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g s u b j e c t c o n t e n t . I n c a t a l o g u i n g p h o t o g r a p h s th e name of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t and/or a r t i s t i c c o n t e n t c o u l d be used t o r e f e r t o the name of the p h o t o g r a p h e r . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the name of the p h o t o g r a p h e r has been 34 c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . As c e r t a i n p h o t o g r a p h e r s became w e l l known and examples o f t h e i r work were r e q u e s t e d by u s e r s many i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d i n d e x e s t o i d e n t i f y t he work o f p a r t i c u l a r p h o t o g r a p h e r s , but t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s name does not seem t o be used i n s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g . M o r e o v e r , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , t h e name of t h e i n d i v i d u a l who took t h e ph o t o g r a p h i s u n r e c o r d e d and unknown. As a consequence, the norm i s t o use the t i t l e o f a p h o t o g r a p h i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e main a c c e s s p o i n t and added e n t r i e s . The number of s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s c r e a t e d f o r ph o t o g r a p h s i s u s u a l l y o n l y l i m i t e d by s t a f f t i m e , f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e n a t u r e of t h e it e m s b e i n g a n a l y z e d . S u b j e c t i n d e x i n g , l i k e s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g and s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e s s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s . C e r t a i n c r i t e r i a must a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n d e x a b l e c o n t e n t s o f a p h o t o g r a p h and i n d e x terms t o be used. C r i t e r i a c an r e l a t e t o the t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e e l e m e n t s i n the image, t h e s t a t e d or u n s t a t e d i n t e n t o f the p h o t o g r a p h e r , the i n d e x e r ' s knowledge i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a and h i s or her judgment r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o n t e n t , the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n and t h e n a t u r e of o t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s i n u s e . 3 7 I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i n d e x i n g o f p h o t o g r a p h s i s viewed as a n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . I n s t e a d , t h e memory of an e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f member i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d f a r more e f f e c t i v e t h a n any a t t e m p t e d p r i n t e d i n d e x . s a V e r y few a r t i c l e s have appeared i n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s d e s c r i b i n g the i n d e x i n g of p h o t o g r a p h s . More o f t e n , p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d e x i n g a r e embedded i n g e n e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s on the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s o r i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g language 35 usage. One a r t i c l e w h i c h d i d appear on the i n d e x i n g of p h o t o g r a p h s s u g g e s t s the use of i n d e x c a r d s a r r a n g e d by s u b j e c t and d i s p l a y i n g the a c c e s s i o n numbers of a l l images r e l a t i n g t o each s u b j e c t . When a r e q u e s t f o r a p h o t o g r a p h i n v o l v e s two or more s u b j e c t s , the a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e x c a r d s a r e compared f o r a c o i n c i d e n c e of a c c e s s i o n n u m b e r s . S 9 As a manual s y s t e m , one would s u s p e c t i t would b e g i n t o break down when the number of p h o t o g r a p h t o be i n d e x e d went above f i v e hundred or one t h o u s a n d . O n l y t h r o u g h the use of computer t e c h n o l o g y does the t y p e of p o s t c o o r d i n a t e i n d e x i n g d e s c r i b e d above become p r a c t i c a l e s p e c i a l l y when i n d e x i n g l a r g e b o d i e s of documents. Whether one i s d e a l i n g w i t h t e x t u a l or n o n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s , s u b j e c t i n d e x i n g i s a c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r and i n any manual s y s t e m of b i b l i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l , s u b j e c t i n d e x i n g i s the weakest l i n k . 7 0 The t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d by l i b r a r i a n s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s f i l l e d what o t h e r w i s e might have been a v o i d . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , as a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s began s e a r c h i n g f o r ways of a p p l y i n g a r c h i v a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s t o p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s , i t has a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e y were hampered i n t h e i r e f f o r t s because of t h e i r e a r l i e r r e l i a n c e on and a c c e p t a n c e of l i b r a r y t e c h n i q u e s . In r e a l i t y , i t was not u n t i l p h o t o g r a p h s were a c c e p t e d as t r u e a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r became p o s s i b l e . T h i s r e v o l u t i o n i n t h o u g h t d i d not r e s u l t i n a c o m p l e t e d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e advances made by l i b r a r i a n s and t o d a y members of b o t h p r o f e s s i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d i n a l o o s e a l l i a n c e aimed a t c r e a t i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d methods of d e s c r i b i n g and i n d e x i n g p h o t o g r a p h s and p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s . 36 ENDNOTES 1. T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 956), 18. 2. Donald L. P i e t e r s , " H a n d l i n g P h o t o g r a p h C o l l e c t i o n s by C o o r d i n a t e I n d e x i n g , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 66 (November 1975): 541. 3. W i l l i a m H. L e a r y , The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l of P h o t o g r a p h s : A RAMP  Stu d y w i t h G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 19 8 5 ) , 2. 4. "News N o t e s . A s s o c i a t i o n of F e d e r a l P h o t o g r a p h i c L i b r a r i a n s , " A m e rican A r c h i v i s t 4 ( O c t o b e r 1947): 394. 5. H e l e n F a y e , "About the P i c t u r e D i v i s i o n , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 51, 1 ( J a n u a r y 1965): 15. 6. P e a r c e S. Grove and E v e l y n G. Clement, e d s . , B i b l i o g r a p h i c C o n t r o l of  N o n p r i n t Media ( C h i c a g o : American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 972), x v i i i - x i x . 7. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r e t a l . , A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s :  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1 9 8 4 ) , 9. 8. Quoted i n : R o n a l d H a g l e r , "The Development of C a t a l o g u i n g R u l e s f o r Nonbook M a t e r i a l s , " L i b r a r y R e s o u r c e s and T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s 19, 3 (Summer 19 7 5 ) : 268. 9. I b i d . , 269. 10. R o n a l d H a g l e r and P e t e r Simmons, The B i b l i o g r a p h i c R ecord and  I n f o r m a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y ( C h i c a g o : American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 982), 4, 12-13. 11. W i l l a r d Rouse J i l l s o n , "The I n d e x i n g of H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l s , " A merican A r c h i v i s t 16, 3 ( J u l y 1 9 5 3 ) : 254. 12. I b i d . 13. R o b e r t A. W e i n s t e i n and L a r r y B o o t h , C o l l e c t i o n , Use and Care of  H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s 2nd ed. ( N a s h v i l l e : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y , 1 9 7 8 ) , 114. 14. See, f o r example: Renata Shaw, " P i c t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n . P r a c t i c e s and P r o c e d u r e s , P a r t I , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 63, 10 ( O c t o b e r 1972): 449-454. 15. B e t t y H a l e , " P i c t u r e s i n Your Company's A r c h i v e s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56, 1 ( J a n u a r y 1965): 41. 16. I r e n e Simpson, " P i c t u r e s f o r P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56, 1 ( J a n u a r y 1965): 39. 37 17. " S h e l l O i l ' s P i c t u r e L i b r a r y S t o r e s P i c t u r e s by t h e Numbers," I n d u s t r i a l P h o t o g r a p h y 19 (December 1960): 63-64. 18. Diane Vogt, "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s : A Speech O u t l i n e , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y Seminar on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s , t he Oakland Museum, O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , March 17-20, 1 9 8 0 ) , 29. 19. P a u l V a n d e r b i l t , " F i l i n g Your P h o t o g r a p h s : Some B a s i c P r o c e d u r e s , " H i s t o r y News 21 (June 1966): 117. 20. I b i d . , 118. 21. I b i d . , 124. 22. W.J. B u r k e , "The P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n of Look M a g a z i n e , " S p e c i a l  L i b r a r i e s 35, 10 (December 1944): 482-483. 23. F r e d e r i c k K o r n , "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S c h e d u l e f o r P h o t o g r a p h s by P r o c e s s or A p p a r a t u s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 68 ( A p r i l 1977): 145-148. 24. V a n d e r b i l t , " F i l i n g Your P h o t o g r a p h s : Some B a s i c P r o c e d u r e s " : 121. 25. Vogt, "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s : A Speech O u t l i n e " , 40-46. 26. H e l e n P. H a r r i s o n , P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s h i p (London: The L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981), 134-135. 27. H i l a r y Evans, P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s h i p (New Yor k : K.G. Saur and C l i v e B i n g l e y L t d . , 1980), 57. 28. Mary J i r g e n s o n s , " T h i n k i n g V i s u a l l y about S u b j e c t Headings f o r P i c t u r e F i l e s , " P i c t u r e s c o o e 26, 4 ( F a l l 1978): 122. 29. Hermine M. Baumhofer, " P i c t o r i a l D o c u m e n t a t i o n , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 45 (September 1954) : 275. 30. Alma E g g l e s t o n , " L i f e P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 45 (September 1954): 287. 31. E l i s a b e t h B e t z , " O r g a n i z a t i o n and C a t a l o g i n g o f P i c t o r i a l M a t e r i a l s i n the L i b r a r y of Congress P r i n t s and P h o t o g r a p h s D i v i s i o n , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d w o r k i n g p a p e r , W a s h i n g t o n , L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , 12. 32. J i r g e n s o n s , " T h i n k i n g V i s u a l l y about S u b j e c t Headings f o r P i c t u r e F i l e s " : 104 - 105. 33. John C o t t o n Dana, The P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n (New Yor k : H.W. W i l s o n Company, 1929), v. 38 34. J i r g e n s o n s , "Thinking V i s u a l l y about Subject Headings for P i c t u r e F i l e s " : 120. 35. Richard Staub, " R e v i s i n g a General P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n , " Picturescope 24, 4 ( F a l l 1979) : 4 . 36. Jirgensons, "Thinking V i s u a l l y about Subject Headings f o r P i c t u r e F i l e s " : 103. 37. Burke, "The P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n of Look Magazine": 482. 38. George Bowditch, "Cataloging Photographs: A Procedure f or Small Museums," H i s t o r y News 26 (November 1971): 2-5. 39. See: Helen Davidson, "Handling P i c t u r e s and Audi o - V i s u a l M a t e r i a l s i n Company L i b r a r i e s and A r c h i v e s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 53, 6 ( J u l y - August 1962): 328-329; C a m i l l a P. Luecke, "Photographic L i b r a r y Procedures," S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 47. 10 (December 1956): 455-461. 40. "A P o s i t i v e Approach to Negative F i l i n g , " I n d u s t r i a l Photography 5 (November 1956): 52 and 70. 41. R i t z e n t h a l e r , Archives and Manuscripts: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s . 32. 42. Luecke, "Photographic L i b r a r y Procedures": 455. 43. Weinstein and Booth, C o l l e c t i o n , Use and Care of H i s t o r i c a l  Photographs, 105, 110-114. 44. Evans, P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s h i p . 79. 45. See, f o r example: Helen Davidson, "Handling P i c t u r e s and Audio-V i s u a l M a t e r i a l s i n Company L i b r a r i e s and A r c h i v e s " : 328; Luecke, "Photographic L i b r a r y Procedures": 457. 46. R i t z e n t h a l e r , Archives and Manuscripts: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s , 114-115; Ron D'Altroy, "An E f f e c t i v e Photographic A r c h i v e s , " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 1. 7 (1969): 19. 47. H i l d a Bohem, "A V i s i b l e F i l e Catalog f or Photographic M a t e r i a l s , " American A r c h i v i s t 39, 2 ( A p r i l 1976): 166. 48. I b i d . , 165. 49. Hermine Baumhofer, "Some Reference Problems of P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n s , " American A r c h i v i s t 13. 2 ( A p r i l 1950): 125. 50. L y d i a E l i z a b e t h Kohn, "A Photograph and Lantern S l i d e Catalog i n the Making," L i b r a r y J o u r n a l 57 (November 1932): 941. 51. Helen P. H a r r i s o n , P i c t u r e L i b r a r i a n s h i p , 208-209. 39 52. JoAnn V. R o g e r s , N o n p r i n t C a t a l o g i n g f o r M u l t i m e d i a C o l l e c t i o n s . A  Guide Based on AACR2 ( L i t t l e t o n , C o l o r a d o : L i b r a r i e s U n l i m i t e d I n c . , 1 9 8 2 ) , 22-24. 53. E u n i c e Keen, Manual f o r use i n the C a t a l o g i n g and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  A u d i o v i s u a l M a t e r i a l s f o r High S c h o o l s (Lakehead, F l o r i d a : Lakehead High S c h o o l , 1 9 5 5 ) . 54. C a r o l y n 0. F r o s t , C a t a l o g i n g Nonbook M a t e r i a l s . P r oblems i n Theory  and P r a c t i c e ( L i t t l e t o n , C o l o r a d o : L i b r a r i e s U n l i m i t e d I n c . , 1 9 8 3 ) , 13. 55. A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n e t a l . , A n g l o - A m e r i c a n C a t a l o g i n g R u l e s .  N o r t h American Text ( C h i c a g o : American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967). 56. See: H a g l e r , "The Development of C a t a l o g i n g R u l e s f o r Nonbook M a t e r i a l s " : 268-278. 57. M i c h a e l Gorman and P a u l W. W i n k l e r , e d s . , A n g l o - A m e r i c a n C a t a l o g u i n g  R u l e s 2nd ed. ( C h i c a g o : American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1978). 58. J e a n R i d d l e ( W e i h s ) , S h i r l e y L e w i s and J a n e t Macdonald, Non-book  M a t e r i a l s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of I n t e g r a t e d C o l l e c t i o n s p r e l i m i n a r y e d i t i o n ( O t tawa: C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) ; J e a n Weihs, S h i r l e y L e w i s and J a n e t Macdonald. Nonbook M a t e r i a l s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of I n t e g r a t e d  C o l l e c t i o n s 2nd ed. (Ottawa: C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . 59. See, f o r example: J . McRee E l r o d and John M c K i n l e y , " C a t a l o g u i n g and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Non-book M a t e r i a l s ( A u d i o - v i s u a l , M i c r o f o r m , and M a n u s c r i p t ) i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a System," ( U n p u b l i s h e d manual, Vancouver, UBC, 1970), 1-1. 60. E l i s a b e t h B e t z , " O r g a n i z a t i o n and C a t a l o g i n g of P i c t o r i a l M a t e r i a l i n th e L i b r a r y o f Congress P r i n t s and P h o t o g r a p h s D i v i s i o n , " 20-25. 61. I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s and I n s t i t u t i o n s , ISBD(NBM): I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d B i b l i o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n f o r Non-Book  M a t e r i a l s (London: IFLA, I n t e r n a t i o n a l O f f i c e f o r UBC, 1977). 62. F r o s t , C a t a l o g i n g Nonbook M a t e r i a l s . P r oblems i n T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e , 25. 63. D a v i d M a t t i s o n and Saundra Sherman, " C a t a l o g u i n g H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s w i t h ISBD(NBM)," A r c h i v a r i a 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78): 102, 105. 64. M i c h a e l Gorman, "Implementing Changes i n C a t a l o g i n g R u l e s , " L i b r a r y  J o u r n a l 112. 3 ( F e b r u a r y 1987): 110. 65. E l i s a b e t h B e t z , G r a p h i c M a t e r i a l s . R u l e s f o r D e s c r i b i n g O r i g i n a l  Items and H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s ( W a s h i n g t o n : L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , 1982), 3. 40 66. E s t e l l e Jussim, "The Research Uses of V i s u a l Information," L i b r a r y Trends 25, 4 ( A p r i l 1977): 773. 67. R i t a Murray, "Summary of Survey C r i t e r i a for Subject Indexing of P i c t u r e s at Selected I n s t i t u t i o n s , " (Unpublished r e p o r t f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a F a c u l t y of L i b r a r y Science, 1984), 5-7. 68. I b i d . , 8. 69. Donald L. P i e t e r s , "Handling Photograph C o l l e c t i o n s by Coordinate Indexing": 541-542. 70. Hagler and Simmons, The B i b l i o g r a p h i c Record and Information  Technology, 165. 41 CHAPTER THREE: ARCHIVAL PRACTICES FOR THE ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS While a r c h i v i s t s and p i c t u r e l i b r a r i a n s continued to grapple w i t h the c o n t r o l of photographs as d i s c r e t e items, they found the landscape changing around them. S t a r t i n g i n the 1970s, the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which these p r o f e s s i o n a l s worked began a c q u i r i n g large groups of photographs from government o f f i c e s , commercial photograph s t u d i o s , news photograph morgues and other sources. In a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , users began conducting research p r o j e c t s which i n v o l v e d the examination of aggregates of photographs. In a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , users r e q u i r e d some form of p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l access to r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d , voluminous photographic bodies or c o l l e c t i o n s . Out of expediency, l i b r a r i a n s r e s o r t e d to o r g a n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g incoming photographs on a " l o t " b a s i s . For the same reason, a r c h i v i s t s a l s o moved toward g r o u p - l e v e l c o n t r o l . James Anderson, an a r c h i v i s t a t the U n i v e r s i t y of L o u i s v i l l e , claimed t h a t members of h i s pr o f e s s i o n had "held a l l along the key t o . . . t h e i r dilemma" concerning the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of photographs. "That k e y . . . s u r p r i s i n g l y and simply, i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l methodology to photograph c o l l e c t i o n s . " x As w i l l become evident throughout t h i s chapter, having found "the key" to the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographic a r c h i v e s has not solved a l l the problems faced by a r c h i v i s t s and, indeed, has l e d to new problems. The scope and nature of some of these problems w i l l a l s o be covered i n the 42 f o l l o w i n g pages. In theory, provenance as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e should have allowed f o r the e f f i c i e n t handling of photographs and f o r the c r e a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s , such as i n v e n t o r i e s , which would provide researchers with the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n necessary i n the study of h i s t o r i c a l photographs. At f i r s t , however, provenance was a p p l i e d but i t s c o r o l l a r y , o r i g i n a l order was not, nor were s e r i e s or e q u i v a l e n t u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d which r e f l e c t e d the organic nature of a fonds or body of photographs. The images w i t h i n a fonds were most o f t e n c l a s s e d by s u b j e c t and described at the item l e v e l . This seemed the best way to capture and r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a l value. The idea t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n a l value of i n d i v i d u a l photographs could be enhanced through the maintenance of o r i g i n a l order was slow i n g a i n i n g acceptance. S i m i l a r to t e x t u a l r e c o r d s , photographs do gain a d d i t i o n a l meaning when viewed w i t h i n the o r i g i n a l s e r i e s i n which they were created. That o r i g i n a l order should be r e t a i n e d to p r o t e c t the e v i d e n t i a l value of photographic fonds i s an even newer concept. Thus, the e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance was incomplete and inadequate. The p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e would i n d i c a t e that the use of l i b r a r y techniques f o r o r g a n i z i n g photographs w i t h i n a fonds maintained by provenance i s s t i l l i n p r a c t i c e . There does appear, however, to be a growing number of a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s who have accepted photographs as a r c h i v a l documents and are arranging and d e s c r i b i n g them as such. In many r e s p e c t s , the t r a n s i t i o n away from arranging and d e s c r i b i n g photographs using techniques d e r i v e d from l i b r a r i a n s h i p toward the u t i l i z a t i o n of a r c h i v a l methodology c l o s e l y resembles a s i m i l a r e v o l u t i o n regarding the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e 43 t e x t u a l f&nrls.. For t h i s reason, I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to review the development of the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n and to place the handling of photographs w i t h i n t h i s l a r g e r context. Antecedents to Western European a r c h i v e s can be traced to ancient times, but the modern h i s t o r y of the p r o f e s s i o n dates from the French R e v o l u t i o n and the founding of the Archives N a t i o n a l e s i n 1794. 2 The f i r s t d i r e c t o r s of the Archives Nationales were l i b r a r i a n s and they n a t u r a l l y adopted a s u b j e c t arrangement f o r a l l the documents under t h e i r care. As a consequence, the contents of whole bodies of documents were d i s p e r s e d and f i l e d under the a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t c l a s s . By 1841, i t had become apparent that t h i s a r t i f i c i a l arrangement was d e s t r o y i n g the i n t e g r i t y of the documents and i n t h a t same year, the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r issued a c i r c u l a r i n which the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of respect des fonds was a r t i c u l a t e d . In accordance with the c i r c u l a r , records of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body, c o r p o r a t i o n or f a m i l y were to be maintained as fonds. However, w i t h i n each fonds the documents were to be arranged by s u b j e c t content and w i t h i n these l a r g e r c l a s s e s arrangement could be e i t h e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l , geographic, or a l p h a b e t i c a l , depending on c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 3 I t was i n P r u s s i a where the p r i n c i p l e of P r o v e n i e n z p r i n z i p , or respect  des fonds. was to be c a r r i e d to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n : R e g i s t r a t u r p r i n z i p , or respect f o r the o r i g i n a l order. Regulations formulated i n 1881 s t r e s s e d t h a t records of every government agency i n P r u s s i a should be maintained i n the order given them by the r e g i s t r y o f f i c e of the agency which created them and should not be reorganized by s u b j e c t or any other a r t i f i c i a l scheme. Under t h i s system, provenance and o r i g i n a l order were developed to meet the 44 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e needs of government o f f i c e s . In France, by c o n t r a s t , the p h y s i c a l arrangement of documents w i t h i n a fonds were to meet the subject i n q u i r e s of r e s e a r c h e r s . 4 The concepts of provenance and o r i g i n a l order were f u r t h e r elaborated upon and given t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n a manual published i n 1898 by three Dutch a r c h i v i s t s , S. M u l l e r , J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n . 5 To these a r c h i v i s t s , p r e s e r v i n g the o r i g i n a l order of r e g i s t r y records ensured that the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of the c r e a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body would be r e f l e c t e d i n the arrangement. Moreover, and more impo r t a n t l y , o r i g i n a l order would r e l a t e each t r a n s a c t i o n or a c t i v i t y documented i n a s i n g l e record to the whole of the records. Recognizing the organic nature of a r c h i v e s and the need to arrange records so as to r e v e a l the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the parts to the whole, i s the essence of a r c h i v a l work. D e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s r e f l e c t i n g the o r i g i n a l order of records and the framework, process and f u n c t i o n to which the records are o r g a n i c a l l y connected provides a s u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r making searches under an innumerable v a r i e t y of t o p i c s and s u b j e c t s . The p h y s i c a l arrangement and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of records by s u b j e c t , however, was dismissed by M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n because they b e l i e v e d that i t would force the a r c h i v a l group i n t o "an a l i e n mold." While subj e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n might help some re s e a r c h e r s , i t might a l s o hinder others s i n c e a s i n g l e a r c h i v a l record may be c l a s s i f i e d by subject i n more than one way. Only i n s i t u a t i o n s where the o r i g i n a l order of record groups had been destroyed or obscured before reaching the a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y d i d M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n recommend o r g a n i z a t i o n based on s u b j e c t m a t t e r . 8 S i m i l a r to the Prussians and Dutch, a r c h i v i s t s i n England a l s o focused 45 on r e g i s t r y records. S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson gives a r a t h e r complete d e s c r i p t i o n of E n g l i s h a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s i n h i s Manual of Archive  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n published i n 1922 and r e v i s e d i n 1937. 7 Jenkinson s t a t e s that p u b l i c records are to be organized i n t o "archive groups" which he d e f i n e s as records " r e s u l t i n g from the work of an A d m i n i s t r a t i o n which was an organic whole, complete i n i t s e l f " Within these "archive groups", o r i g i n a l order i s to be maintained. Jenkinson a l s o discussed the idea of e s t a b l i s h i n g s e r i e s w i t h i n fonds with s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s k e l e t o n of the body which created the records. Having determined s e r i e s , loose documents found w i t h i n a fonds could r e a d i l y be placed i n the appropriate f i l e . To Jenkinson, o r i g i n a l order should only be broken up "on paper", that i s , i n f i n d i n g a i d s . The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l arrangement must remain i n t a c t . 8 Thus, e a r l y methods f o r the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of p u b l i c records i n England and Europe had been based on l i b r a r y - t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. As the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n matured and a c l e a r set of g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s were enunciated, p r a c t i c e s began to change. Over time, manuscripts o r i g i n a t i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and nontextual m a t e r i a l s , such as photographic fonds. were a l s o d e a l t with i n the same manner as p u b l i c records. The s i t u a t i o n i n North America evolved d i f f e r e n t l y and i n the United S t a t e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the process was somewhat tumultuous. During the nineteenth and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s , government records and manuscript m a t e r i a l s were d e a l t w i t h by l i b r a r i a n s or a r c h i v i s t s a p p l y i n g l i b r a r y techniques. This meant that documents were t r e a t e d as d i s c r e t e items, arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y or 46 c l a s s i f i e d according to a predetermined scheme and catalogued using r u l e s o r i g i n a l l y formulated f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of books. In the l a t e 1800s, the L i b r a r y of Congress, f o r instance, removed manuscript papers from t h e i r o r i g i n a l context and merged them i n t o l a r g e c l a s s e s organized on a g e o g r a p h i c - c h r o n o l o g i c a l b a s i s . 9 Other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes based on su b j e c t content were a l s o devised i n various American l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Douglas Brymner of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada arranged p u b l i c records and p r i v a t e papers c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and by s u b j e c t . As l a t e as 1911, Brymner's system was lauded by a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s throughout Canada and the United S t a t e s . 1 0 During the same time p e r i o d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s t a f f at the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y were a l s o using a s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes w i t h l i t t l e or no thought given to the idea of m a i n t a i n i n g an o r i g i n a l f i l i n g s y s t e m . 1 1 In Canada, the p r i n c i p l e of provenance was endorsed, i f not f o r the f i r s t time then most f o r c e f u l l y , by David W. Parker, Chief Manuscript D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1912-1923. Parker condemned the e a r l i e r d i s r e g a r d f o r provenance and "the d i s g r a c e f u l mixture that formed the o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " system i n use at the PAC. Parker's concerns reached the ear of the new Dominion A r c h i v i s t , Arthur Doughty, and e v e n t u a l l y Doughty was convinced of the n e c e s s i t y of adopting a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s i n the handling of p u b l i c records. Before Parker l e f t the employ of the PAC, he d i d much to reverse the c h a o t i c arrangement and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n imposed by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . 1 2 However, i t was not u n t i l Kaye Lamb's tenure as Dominion A r c h i v i s t , 1934-1939, t h a t s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n p u b l i c record fonds was completely overcome. 47 The extent to which the P u b l i c Archives of Canada has served as a model fo r other Canadian a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n regards to the use of provenance has not been explored i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Moreover, one would assume that once European a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s had been accepted they would have been a p p l i e d to both p u b l i c records and p r i v a t e papers; the m a j o r i t y of Canadian r e p o s i t o r i e s , at the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y have acquired o f f i c i a l records and manuscripts, thereby b r i n g i n g both types of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s under the c o n t r o l of one group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Gordon Dodds of the N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada has suggested that the l i b r a r y hegemony i n Canada has not g e n e r a l l y been strong outside of u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s , 1 3 yet even while Kaye Lamb was p r e s i d i n g over the a r c h i v a l arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p u b l i c records he developed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme based on Cutter f o r manuscripts. The manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s were kept together but shelved using a l i b r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. In the United S t a t e s , a r c h i v i s t s tended to concentrate on p u b l i c records while l i b r a r i a n s c o l l e c t e d h i s t o r i c manuscripts and t h i s d i v i s i o n of labour and eventual attempts to enforce conformity to a r c h i v a l standards led to a p r o t r a c t e d controversy i n v o l v i n g members of both p r o f e s s i o n s . Echoes of t h i s b a t t l e could be heard i n Canada through p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e produced by Americans and read by Canadians and many of the problems encountered i n the United States were a l s o experienced i n Canada, a l b e i t i n a l e s s intense manner. In the United S t a t e s , the P u b l i c Archives Commission held the f i r s t Conference of A r c h i v i s t s i n 1909. At that time, Waldo G. Leland recommended tha t a l l h i s t o r i c records, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , be handled i n accordance wit h 48 " t h e p r i n c i p l e e n u n c i a t e d by t h e D u t c h , " t h a t i s , p r o v e n a n c e . O p p o s i t i o n was v o i c e d i m m e d i a t e l y by l i b r a r i a n s and o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t c u r a t o r s who were committed t o s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . N e a r l y t h i r t y S t a t e a r c h i v e s e v e n t u a l l y d i d adopt t h e methods pr o p o s e d by L e l a n d but i n the m a j o r i t y of S t a t e l i b r a r i e s and S t a t e h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes were r e t a i n e d . 1 4 D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between t h e o u t b r e a k of World War I and t h e end of t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n , l i t t l e p r o g r e s s was made i n terms of a d a p t i n g and a p p l y i n g European a r c h i v a l t h e o r y i n A m e r i c a n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the 1930s and s e v e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e arrangement of p u b l i c r e c o r d s i n c l u d i n g one w h i c h was based upon t h e r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n o f an agency's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s scheme was " w h o l l y u n l i k e t h e F r e n c h s y s t e m of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " and a c t u a l l y v i o l a t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o v e n a n c e . 1 * The f o u n d i n g of t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and i t s s u b s e q u e n t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t arrangement schemes prompted a r e n e w a l of the d e b a t e over l i b r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v e r s u s a r c h i v a l t h e o r y . I n 1941 the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s a d o p t e d a s y s t e m of arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n based on r e c o r d g r o u p s . These r e c o r d groups were d e f i n e d as major a r c h i v a l u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y b u t w i t h due r e g a r d t o p r o v e n a n c e . Arrangement p r a c t i c e s and t e c h n i q u e s were f u r t h e r r e f i n e d and e v e n t u a l l y r e s p e c t pour l ' o r d r e p r i m i t i f was a l s o a c c e p t e d by American a r c h i v i s t s . 1 6 I n a p p l y i n g provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r , A m e r i c a n a r c h i v i s t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d a t l e a s t f i v e l e v e l s of arrangement n e c e s s a r y i n b r i n g i n g t h e h o l d i n g s of a r e p o s i t o r y under c o n t r o l : arrangement a t the 49 r e p o s i t o r y l e v e l ; arrangement at the record group l e v e l ; arrangement at the s e r i e s l e v e l ; arrangement at the f i l e l e v e l ; arrangement at the document l e v e l . 1 7 Only a f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g these f i v e l e v e l s of arrangement could d e s c r i p t i v e work begin. The most ba s i c and t y p i c a l type of f i n d i n g a i d produced f o r in-house use i s an inventory. I n v e n t o r i e s u s u a l l y include "a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s of the agency whose records are being d e s c r i b e d ; a d e s c r i p t i v e l i s t of each record s e r i e s g i v i n g as a minimum such data as t i t l e , i n c l u s i v e dates, q u a n t i t y , arrangement, r e l a t i o n s h i p s to other s e r i e s , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t c o n t e n t . . . . " L a An inventory of p u b l i c records normally d e s c r i b e s the records at the s e r i e s l e v e l and o c c a s i o n a l l y at the f i l e l e v e l . I t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n i s rare f o r two reasons: the character and organic nature of a record group i s best expressed at the s e r i e s l e v e l ; the sheer volume of records accessioned by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s throughout the course of the t w e n t i e t h century has made i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l v i r t u a l l y impossible except for very small and h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t fonds. The production of c a l e n d a r s , a standard d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l of the nineteenth and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , which involved producing a l i s t of every document i n a record group and g i v i n g a synopsis of the content, i s now n e a r l y obsolete. While American a r c h i v i s t s working with p u b l i c records became acquainted with the concepts and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance and o r i g i n a l order, manuscript c u r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y continued to c l a s s i f y and catalogue p r i v a t e papers on an i t e m - l e v e l b a s i s . Richard C. Berner contends that Schellenberg's 1965 p u b l i c a t i o n The Management of Archives was w r i t t e n as a means of c o n v i n c i n g l i b r a r i a n s t h a t they ought to apply a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s 50 t o m a n u s c r i p t s . 1 9 S c h e l l e n b e r g , l i k e o t h e r a r c h i v i s t s , c o u l d see where m a n u s c r i p t s o f t e n p o s s e s s e d t h e same o r g a n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o r p o r a t e and p u b l i c r e c o r d s and t h a t t h e y t h e r e f o r e p o s s e s s e d e v i d e n t i a l as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e . Through h i s book, S c h e l l e n b e r g was a t t e m p t i n g t o get l i b r a r i a n s t o do what t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s had done i n 1941, a b o l i s h i t s d i v i s i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c a t a l o g u i n g . 2 8 I n p r o v i d i n g a s u i t a b l e model f o r m a n u s c r i p t c u r a t o r s , S c h e l l e n b e r g n o t e d t h e t h e n r e c e n t program a t t h e M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n of t h e L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s . By 1965, the L i b r a r y of C ongress was a r r a n g i n g i t s m a n u s c r i p t s a l o n g t h e l i n e s p r e s c r i b e d by p u b l i c r e c o r d a r c h i v i s t s and d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e fonds i n i n v e n t o r i e s , c a l l e d r e g i s t e r s . 2 1 As B e r n e r p u t i t , t h e L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n had acknowledged t h e " c o n t r i b u t i o n of a r c h i v i s t s toward the s o l u t i o n of one of t h e most f r u s t r a t i n g problems t h a t had c o n f r o n t e d t h e l i b r a r i a n , " t h a t b e i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f c o n t r o l l i n g l a r g e masses of p a p e r s . 2 2 D i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l a r g e volume of m a t e r i a l was perhaps one of t h e most c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h e a d o p t i o n of European a r c h i v a l t h e o r y i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s but d e b a t e over t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance i s s t i l l h e a r d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n r e g a r d s t o m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r of p u b l i c r e c o r d s and p r i v a t e p a p e r s . I n a l l manuals on the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of a r c h i v e s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , a r c h i v i s t s a r e a d v i s e d t h a t where an o r i g i n a l o r d e r no l o n g e r e x i s t s or where a f i l i n g s y s t e m o b s c u r e s t h e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e of t h e r e c o r d s , t h e a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d f i r s t a t t e m p t t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r o r , as a l a s t r e s o r t , impose a s u i t a b l e a r t i f i c i a l o r d e r on t h e r e c o r d s . The p r o b l e m of f i n d i n g and 51 p r e s e r v i n g an o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s an even more d a u n t i n g t a s k f o r a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s h a n d l i n g m a n u s c r i p t s . S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s have a p p e a r e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s i n Canada, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and A u s t r a l i a a r g u i n g a g a i n s t o r i g i n a l o r d e r and i n f a v o r of the a d o p t i o n o f some s i m p l e and u s a b l e arrangement scheme f o r m a n u s c r i p t s . 2 3 R e b u t t a l s s t r e s s t h a t a l t h o u g h o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s not a p p l i c a b l e i n a l l i n s t a n c e and t o a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b o d i e s of documents, a b a n d o n i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e on t h e s e grounds would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . As C. H u r l e y , an A u s t r a l i a n a r c h i v i s t has a r g u e d , i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , an o r i g i n a l o r d e r w i l l e x i s t and m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t o r d e r i s p r e f e r a b l e because o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s d e s t r o y t h e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e i m p a r t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l documents or g r o u p s of documents by t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h i n t h e w h o l e ; . . . o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s d e s t r o y the t o t a l sum of the meaning of t h e w h o l e - -t h e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e of t h e arrangement i t s e l f b o t h as t o t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e c r e a t o r and as t o t h e l a s t p r a c t i c a l use t o w h i c h t h e r e c o r d s were p u t ; . . . o r i g i n a l o r d e r p r o v i d e s a s t a n d a r d form o f p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e o n l y p r i n c i p l e t h a t can be j u s t i f i e d t o a l l u s e r s ; . . . o r i g i n a l o r d e r a l l o w s d e p o s i t o r s t o r e f e r t o the r e c o r d s ; . . . o r i g i n a l o r d e r w i l l e n s u r e t h a t o r i g i n a l i n t e r n a l c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g r e m a i n s o p e r a t i v e . 2 4 Moreover, the most l i k e l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s the c r e a t i o n of some a r t i f i c i a l scheme of arrangement based on s u b j e c t c o n t e n t . Once o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s undermined or i g n o r e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of provenance a l s o b e g i n s t o break down. The u l t i m a t e and most extreme r e s u l t might be a r e v e r s i o n t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes of an e a r l i e r time and the d e s c r i p t i o n of a r c h i v e s as d i s c r e t e i t e m s . In the c a s e of p h o t o g r a p h s , a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e when and where i t 52 e x i s t s . Nor have t h e y seen where t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e of p h o t o g r a p h s can be enhanced t h r o u g h the maintenance of o r i g i n a l o r d e r w i t h i n a f o n d s . In c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e p o s s e s s e d by i n d i v i d u a l p h o t o g r a p h , provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r become u n i m p o r t a n t . As a consequence, a r c h i v i s t s s u c h as S c h e l l e n b e r g and D a v i d B. G r a c y I I , who have t a k e n g r e a t p a i n s t o r e c o n c i l e l i b r a r i a n s t o the use of a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s i n the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of m a n u s c r i p t s , have r e l e g a t e d t h e p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l o f p h o t o g r a p h s t o the l i b r a r i a n ' s c o u r t . I n the p r o c e s s t h e y have g i v e n some a t t e n t i o n t o t h e maintenance of provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r i n s p e c i a l c a s e s , but a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s were to f e e l f r e e t o choose w h i c h e v e r a p p r o a c h b e s t s u i t e d t h e n a t u r e of t h e p h o t o g r a p h s under t h e i r c a r e and t h e c h a r a c t e r of u s e r s h i p a t each i n s t i t u t i o n . S c h e l l e n b e r g recommends t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of p h o t o g r a p h s h e l d by a l i b r a r y or a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n be a r r a n g e d and d e s c r i b e d on an i t e m - l e v e l b a s i s . P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u c h as s i z e and f o r m a t would i n f o r m arrangement p r a c t i c e s . Paper p r i n t s , c e l l u l o i d or g l a s s - p l a t e n e g a t i v e s , d a g u e r r e o t y p e s , ambrotypes and so on s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d s e p a r a t e l y and w i t h i n t h e s e l a r g e r c l a s s e s i t e m s s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d n u m e r i c a l l y . I n t e l l e c t u a l a c c e s s s h o u l d be t h r o u g h i n d e x e s or i t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i v e and s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g . 2 3 I t would appear t h a t S c h e l l e n b e r g b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y i n d e a l i n g w i t h n e g a t i v e s and p r i n t s p r o duced by a government agency s h o u l d an a r c h i v i s t p r e s e r v e provenance and s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r . D e s c r i p t i o n s h o u l d be t h r o u g h i n v e n t o r i e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e used i n d e s c r i b i n g t e x t u a l f o n d s . In a l l , S c h e l l e n b e r g d e d i c a t e d over t w e n t y pages i n h i s The Management of A r c h i v e s t o t h e 53 arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - a n d - a - h a l f o f t h e s e pages d i s c u s s arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n by p r o v e n a n c e . 2 6 He d i d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , go i n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n on the a p p l i c a t i o n of a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s t o p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s or f o c u s on the k n o t t y problems a r c h i v i s t s would l i k e l y e n c o u n t e r i n a d a p t i n g t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t o n o n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l . T h i s s t a n d s q u i t e i n c o n t r a s t t o many of the o t h e r c h a p t e r s i n The Management of A r c h i v e s w h i c h seek t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e t e x t u a l f o n d s . D a v i d B. G r a c y I I , i n h i s manual A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s :  Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1977 by the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , a l s o a d a p t s a r c h i v a l t h e o r y t o the t r e a t m e n t o f m a n u s c r i p t s b u t c o n s i d e r s p h o t o g r a p h s and o t h e r " s p e c i a l r e c o r d m a t e r i a l s " t o be e p h e m e r a l . A l t h o u g h G r a c y conceded t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s , maps, m o t i o n p i c t u r e s , sound r e c o r d i n g s and d i s c r e t e p r i n t e d i t e m s had, i n some c a s e s , " g a i n e d a r e s e a r c h v a l u e i n t h e i r own r i g h t , " 2 7 t h e b e s t means of a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g them was t h r o u g h some s e l f - i n d e x i n g s y s t e m . An a l t e r n a t i v e , t o wh i c h G r a c y g i v e s s c a n t a t t e n t i o n , i s t h e maintenance o f s p e c i a l r e c o r d s , i n c l u d i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , i n group s as r e c e i v e d . G r a c y s u g g e s t s t h a t where provenance i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l p h o t o g r a p h s i n the c o l l e c t i o n s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d a symbol t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r s o u r c e and the n "housed i n a r c h i v e s c a s e s or v e r t i c a l f i l e s . " 2 8 The d e t a i l s o f how p h o t o g r a p h s were t o be a r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h e s e " a r c h i v e s c a s e s " i s not d i s c u s s e d i n any d e t a i l . The s t r e s s i s d e f i n i t e l y on the use of s e l f - i n d e x i n g f i l e s . S i n c e G r a c y f e e l s t h a t e v e r y s t i l l p i c t u r e r e q u i r e s a complete c a p t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n would have t o e x t e n d t o t h e i t e m l e v e l . The u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n w h i c h G r a c y o f f e r s i s the c r e a t i o n 54 of a v i s u a l p h o t o g r a p h c a t a l o g u e w i t h c o p i e s of a l l images p l a c e d on c a t a l o g u e c a r d s b e a r i n g f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s . 2 9 I n t h e e r a i n w h i c h G r a c y w r o t e h i s manual, a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s were o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o f a c e the problems posed by huge a c c u m u l a t i o n s of p h o t o g r a p h s and o t h e r p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l . Thus, G r a c y geared h i s s u g g e s t i o n s " t o t h o s e c u r a t o r s and a r c h i v i s t s who must s h e p h e r d c o l l e c t i o n s of s p e c i a l r e c o r d i t e m s u n t i l the volume has mushroomed t o t h e s i z e t h a t a s e p a r a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r management." 3 0 Who t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l m i ght be and t h e methodology he or she might employ i s a l s o l e f t u n s t a t e d . A n o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l manual a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s i s t c u r a t o r s i n t h e a r c h i v a l arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of m a n u s c r i p t s , and w h i c h a l s o t o u c h e s on p h o t o g r a p h s , i s Kenneth D u c k e t t ' s Modern M a n u s c r i p t s . D u c k e t t ' s i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e i s the n o v i c e c u r a t o r w o r k i n g w i t h i n s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n p r i v a t e or academic l i b r a r i e s o r i n h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . As an h i s t o r i a n and c u r a t o r of m a n u s c r i p t s h i m s e l f , D u c k e t t ' s a p p r o a c h i s a v e r y p r a c t i c a l one but l a c k s a f i r m g r o u n d i n g i n a r c h i v a l t h e o r y . 3 1 A p a r t from a c k n o w l e d g i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f provenance and t h a t s e r i e s do e x i s t w i t h i n a c o l l e c t i o n or f o n d s , D u c k e t t s t r e s s e s i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l . R i c h a r d B e r n e r has c r i t i c i z e d D u c k e t t f o r f a i l i n g t o d i s c u s s s e r i e s , an o m i s s i o n w h i c h would l e a d a " c a t a l o g u e r t o seek i t e m s and c l u s t e r s f o r [a d e s c r i p t i v e ] e n t r y i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e i r s e r i e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " In e f f e c t , d e s c r i p t i o n would be of " t r e e s f i r s t , n o t t h e f o r e s t . " 3 2 D u c k e t t c a r r i e s t h i s a p p r o a c h t h r o u g h t o t h e arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s . He a d v i s e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s m a i n t a i n e d by provenance s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as d i s c r e t e i t e m s ; he does not 55 m e n t i o n t h e need f o r an i n v e n t o r y or o t h e r form of c o n t r o l d e v i c e n o t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e r i e s or u n i t s w i t h i n a body or fonds of p h o t o g r a p h s . D u c k e t t o n l y recommends u n i t or group c a t a l o g u i n g f o r u n i m p o r t a n t or l e s s v a l u a b l e c o l l e c t i o n s w i t h a common t h e m e . 3 3 H i s t r u e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n when he p a r a p h r a s e s a c o l l e a g u e : "because p h o t o g r a p h r e s e a r c h e r s a r e u s u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s u b j e c t , s o u r c e , p h o t o g r a p h e r , and d a t e of p h o t o g r a p h s , and r a r e l y i n t h e c r e a t i n g agency, arrangement by provenance o n l y c r e a t e s u n n e c e s s a r y work f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . 1 , 3 4 The n o t i o n t h a t p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s . or any o t h e r a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l be a r r a n g e d and d e s c r i b e d on the b a s i s of u s a b i l i t y i s b e s t summed up by S i r H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n who s a i d " t o d e f i n e a r c h i v e s by the r e s e a r c h use made of them i s l i k e p r o d u c i n g a r a b b i t from a h a t and t h e n s a y i n g t h a t t h a t i s what h a t s a r e f o r . . . . " 3 3 A breakdown i n the h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h to a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i s a l s o i n e v i d e n c e when Hugh T a y l o r d i s c u s s e s p h o t o g r a p h s i n h i s 1980 p u b l i c a t i o n , The  Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l s . In the g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , T a y l o r s t r e s s e s t h e i d e a t h a t l i b r a r i a n s w i s h i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a r c h i v a l arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n must abandon t h e i r t e n d e n c y toward c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n f o r a more broad and a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g a p p r o a c h . The arrangement of a r c h i v a l u n i t s must m a i n t a i n e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between documents and f i l e s o f documents. I n T a y l o r ' s v i e w t o d e s c r i b e i s t o c o n t r o l and t o i n f o r m . F i n d i n g a i d s produced by a r c h i v i s t s , s u c h as i n v e n t o r i e s , a r e l i k e a " s t r e e t map w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e shape of t h e c i t y , how t o e n t e r i t and how t o g e t from p o i n t A t o p o i n t B." These f i n d i n g a i d s a r e n o t "always and n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e f i n d i n g a i d s 56 r e q u i r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s . They a r e o f t e n c o m b i n e d . " 3 8 A f t e r s u c h an e l o q u e n t summary of the n a t u r e of a r c h i v a l work, T a y l o r e n t e r s a g r e y a r e a between l i b r a r i a n s h i p and a r c h i v a l t h e o r y i n d i s c u s s i n g the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s . I n t h e o r y , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r c h i v a l u n i t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t a r r a n g e m e n t , but i n a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , T a y l o r a l i e n a t e s t h e two p r o c e s s e s . He a d v i s e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s be a r r a n g e d by provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r , when a v a l i d o r i g i n a l o r d e r e x i s t s . Where an o r i g i n a l o r d e r does not e x i s t o r where i t i s u n u s a b l e , a r a t i o n a l g r o u p i n g can be imposed: n e g a t i v e s numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y and p r i n t s a r r a n g e d n u m e r i c a l l y , by s u b j e c t or p h y s i c a l f o r m a t . However, T a y l o r c o n t e n d s t h a t groups of ph o t o g r a p h s do not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c u r a t e g e n e r a l or even p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n as do t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s . He t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t s i t e m - l e v e l c a t a l o g u i n g or t h e c r e a t i o n o f a v i s u a l c a t a l o g u e as means of d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h s . I n a p a r a g r a p h w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h "Group c a t a l o g u i n g i s . . . a d e q u a t e f o r a c o l l e c t i o n of no g r e a t v a l u e . . . , " T a y l o r b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e f i l e l e v e l and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f i n c l u d i n g group and/or f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a g e n e r a l c a t a l o g u e . 3 7 In e f f e c t , the u s u a l a p p r o a c h of a r c h i v i s t s i s s t o o d on i t s head; a r c h i v e s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as d i s c r e t e i t e m s but a r t i f i c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s and fonds deemed t o be of l i t t l e v a l u e b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as groups or as b o d i e s . T a y l o r wrote The Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l s w h i l e he was t h e D i r e c t o r of t h e A r c h i v e s B r a n c h of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. The examples of f i n d i n g a i d s used t h r o u g h o u t h i s work were drawn from t h e v a r i o u s D i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the PAC. H i s d i s c u s s i o n on p h o t o g r a p h s 57 v e r y much r e f l e c t s t h e work t h a t went on a t t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e PAC and which c o n t i n u e s i n the Documentary A r t and P h o t o g r a p h D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada. As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two of t h i s t h e s i s , the NPC/DAPD p u t s a major emphasis on i t s v i s u a l c a t a l o g u e ; d e t a i l e d f i n d i n g a i d s , s u c h as i n v e n t o r i e s , c o v e r o n l y a f r a c t i o n of t h e D i v i s i o n ' s h o l d i n g s . 3 8 T a y l o r , l i k e t he s t a f f o f the NPC/DAPD, c o n s i d e r s the i t e m - l e v e l t r e a t m e n t of p h o t o g r a p h s and a v i s u a l c a t a l o g u e t o be o f g r e a t e s t use t o the p u b l i c . He c o n s i d e r s i n v e n t o r i e s , t o be a p p r o p r i a t e i n m e e t i n g t h e needs of u s e r s and s t a f f w o r k i n g w i t h t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s , b u t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p h o t o g r a p h s . L i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s c o n s u l t i n g t h e work of S c h e l l e n b e r g , D u c k e t t , G r a c y or T a y l o r would r e c e i v e a somewhat mixed s i g n a l : provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r a r e i m p o r t a n t , b u t not t o o i m p o r t a n t and s u b j e c t a c c e s s a t the i t e m l e v e l s h o u l d p recede or i n f o r m d e s c r i p t i o n a t a h i g h e r l e v e l . The r e s u l t i n g c o n f u s i o n i n a d o p t i n g an a r c h i v a l a p p r o a c h t o p h o t o g r a p h s can be seen i n a t t e m p t s by l i b r a r i a n s t o a r r a n g e and d e s c r i b e p h o t o g r a p h s by " l o t s " . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f c o n t r o l l i n g l a r g e numbers of p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , f o r example, began i d e n t i f y i n g groups or b o d i e s o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e manner " p r a c t i c e d i n a r c h i v e s and m a n u s c r i p t r e p o s i t o r i e s , " t h a t i s , the r e t e n t i o n o f " m a t e r i a l i n r e c o r d groups or i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e c t i o n s . " 3 9 C r i t e r i a t o be used i n d e s i g n a t i n g l o t s i n c l u d e a common format and s i z e , the c r e a t i v e work of one p h o t o g r a p h e r , i n h e r e n t u n i t y o f a group a c c e s s i o n , or t h e p e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f a donor. L o t s a l s o may be formed on the b a s i s of unique t o p i c or s e v e r a l t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . A group a c c e s s i o n c o n t a i n i n g numerous s u b j e c t s i s 58 p e r c e i v e d as a p r o b l e m as i s a l a r g e a c c e s s i o n . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e a c c e s s i o n s a r e s u b d i v i d e d " i n t o more manageable ch u n k s " d e t e r m i n e d by s u b j e c t or p h y s i c a l f o r m . 4 0 L o t s a r e d e s c r i b e d a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n l e v e l b u t because the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n each l o t a r e a r t i f i c i a l c r e a t i o n s , n o t e s on the r e l a t i o n between d i v i s i o n s i s u n n e c e s s a r y . D u r i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of a c o n t r o l form on each l o t a t the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , emphasis i s on items and t h e i r s u b j e c t c o n t e n t ; t h e c o n t r o l f o r m i s t h e n used t o produce t h e c a t a l o g u e c a r d e n t r y . 4 1 I n e f f e c t , t h e c a t a l o g u e e n t r y d e s c r i b e s i m p o r t a n t i t e m s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n or f o n d s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , d u r i n g t h e 1950s, two a r c h i v i s t s w o r k i n g a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s i n Washington had r e c o g n i z e d t h e e v i d e n t i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e of government p h o t o g r a p h s and had h i n t e d a t arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n by provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r . J o s e p h i n e Cobb found t h a t government r e c o r d s o f t e n c o n t a i n e d d i s t i n c t s e r i e s made up of p h o t o g r a p h s . These s e r i e s r e f l e c t e d t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e government department w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h s and c o n t a i n e d h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e t o r e s e a r c h e r s . She a d m i t t e d , however, t h a t the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s had not d e v i s e d an o v e r a l l method of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s e s e r i e s . 4 2 W h i l e employed a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Hermine Baumhofer a l s o n o t e d t h a t modern p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n s were more homogeneous th a n e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i o n s and t h a t " t h e i r c o n t e n t i s p r e d i c a b l e f r o m the knowledge of the a gency's f u n c t i o n . " 4 3 She went on t o d i s c u s s i t e m - l e v e l arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of i m p o r t a n t p h o t o g r a p h s but s u g g e s t e d t h a t when a l a c k of p e r s o n n e l p r e v e n t s s u c h d e t a i l e d work, " a t l e a s t a c h e c k l i s t of p h o t o g r a p h i c s e r i e s might be f e a s i b l e . " T h i s t y p e of f i n d i n g a i d might not meet th e 59 " h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d s o f l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l t r a i n i n g " but she " f i r m l y b e l i e v e t d l t h a t we s h o u l d s u r r e n d e r the i d e a l and lower our s t a n d a r d s t o the p r a c t i c a l . 1 1 4 4 These v o i c e s i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , even i f weak and u n s u r e , a p p a r e n t l y had l i t t l e immediate impact w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s . I n t h e 1980s, a r c h i v i s t s a t the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s were s t i l l a t t e m p t i n g t o meld a r c h i v a l and l i b r a r y t e c h n i q u e s i n the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s by l o t s . I n one a r t i c l e w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n P i c t u r e s c o p e i n 1981, Nancy Mala n , an a r c h i v i s t a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , p r e p a r e d a l i s t of q u e s t i o n s which s h o u l d be a s k e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether groups of p h o t o g r a p h s c o n s t i t u t e l o t s : Are t h e p h o t o s t h e work of one p h o t o g r a p h e r ? Were t h e y c r e a t e d by one i n d i v i d u a l or f i r m ? Are t h e y a common s i z e or p h y s i c a l t y p e ? Do t h e y d e p i c t the same s u b j e c t , t i m e p e r i o d , or g e o g r a p h i c a r e a ? Are t h e y l i n k e d p h y s i c a l l y , as albums, 35-mm n e g a t i v e s , and c o n t a c t s h e e t s a r e ? Are t h e r e c a p t i o n l i s t s , i n d e x e s , o r o t h e r p a p e r s t h a t would be d i f f i c u l t t o match w i t h t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i f t h e y were not k e p t as a u n i t ? Does k e e p i n g them t o g e t h e r a i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? Has the donor r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e y r e m a i n t o g e t h e r ? Do t h e y have an a u t h e n t i c i t y o r s p e c i a l meaning t h a t would be l o s t i f t h e y were s e p a r a t e d ( l i k e a s e r i e s showing p r o g r e s s on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g ) ? Do t h e y have an i n t e r n a l o r d e r , an arrangement by s u b j e c t , number, d a t e or some o t h e r sequence? Are t h e y a s i z e a b l e a d d i t i o n t o your h o l d i n g s ? 4 3 I t i s c l e a r t h a t provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r a r e n o t t h e o n l y d e c i d i n g f a c t o r s or c r i t e r i a w hich Malan f o c u s e s on i n d e c i d i n g a method of p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t . I n terms of d e s c r i p t i o n , she men t i o n s t h a t i t e m - l e v e l c a t a l o g u i n g i s o f t e n the most e f f e c t i v e means of r e t r i e v a l but t h a t i t i s 60 e x p e n s i v e and time c o n s u m i n g . 4 6 She makes no p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g f o n d s or u n i t - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n . D u r i n g the 1970s and 1980s, a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e of the L i b r a r y o f Congress and t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s were a l s o e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t h e group arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s . Max J . Evans, l i b r a r i a n - a r c h i v i s t w i t h t h e H i s t o r i c a l Department o f t h e Church of J e s u s C h r i s t o f L a t t e r - d a y S a i n t s was one of the f i r s t t o p u b l i s h t h e r e s u l t s o f a t e s t c a s e i n wh i c h provenance was a p p l i e d t o p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n s . R e p o r t i n g i n 1977 i n t h e American A r c h i v i s t , Evans e x p l a i n e d t h a t w h i l e some c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e a r c h i v e s were a r t i f i c i a l and based on a common theme, most had a common s o u r c e , s u c h as b e i n g t h e work of a p r o m i n e n t , p i o n e e r Utah p h o t o g r a p h e r , or r e s u l t i n g f r o m the a c t i v i t i e s o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y LDS Church a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s . Where groups o f p h o t o g r a p h s had a common o r i g i n , p rovenance was m a i n t a i n e d . Each c o l l e c t i o n , a r t i f i c i a l or of an o r g a n i c n a t u r e , was d e s c r i b e d a t the c o l l e c t i o n l e v e l i n the c a r d c a t a l o g u e . I m p o r t a n t c o l l e c t i o n s were a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n a " r e g i s t e r or c a l e n d a r , w h i c h l i s t s t he p h o t o g r a p h s f o l d e r - b y - f o l d e r or i t e m - b y - i t e m . . . . " 4 7 Evans does not go i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l on t h e i n t e r n a l arrangement of t h e c o l l e c t i o n s or fonds under h i s c a r e . The r e a d e r c a n n o t a s c e r t a i n whether s e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and i f t h e y were, whether t h e y were based on o r i g i n a l o r d e r or some form o f s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The n a t u r e of arrangement w i t h i n f i l e f o l d e r s i s a l s o u n e x p l a i n e d . I n t u r n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know whether emphasis was on the s u b j e c t c o n t e n t of i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s w i t h i n a c o l l e c t i o n or f i l e f o l d e r . S i n c e Evans d i d not me n t i o n o r i g i n a l o r d e r as a g u i d i n g c o n c e p t , we can l i k e l y assume t h a t arrangement 61 was by s u b j e c t or some o t h e r c r i t e r i a , s u c h as p h y s i c a l form. Without the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s e r i e s or s i m i l a r u n i t s t o p r o v i d e t h e s k e l e t a l c o n s t r u c t s of the whole, arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n t e n d s t o r e v o l v e around a r t i f i c i a l l y c l a s s e d i t e m s . Other a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s who have a c c e p t e d b o t h provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r as a p p r o p r i a t e means of a r r a n g i n g p h o t o g r a p h s a l s o have had d i f f i c u l t i e s when i t comes t o d e s c r i p t i o n . I n f a c t , w h i l e t h e y w h o l l y a c c e p t a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s i n a r r a n g i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e y seem a m b i v a l e n t and even r e l u c t a n t about d e s c r i b i n g fonds or s e r i e s or u n i t s w i t h i n fonds as opposed t o i t e m s . For example, S h e l l e y A r l e n of the Western H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma, s t r e s s e s t h a t "Each donor's c o l l e c t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s i s k e p t i n t a c t r e g a r d l e s s of the s u b j e c t s i t c o n t a i n s . . . " and t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l o r d e r i s a l s o m a i n t a i n e d when p o s s i b l e . Yet each c o l l e c t i o n i s c a t a l o g u e d i t e m - b y - i t e m . O n l y a s e r i o u s b a c k l o g has prompted the a r c h i v i s t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma t o c o n s i d e r c a t a l o g u i n g a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n or fonds l e v e l . 4 3 At the New York S t a t e A r c h i v e s i n A l b a n y , J u d i t h F e l s t e n a r r a n g e d one f o n d s i n p a r t i c u l a r i n w h i c h provenance was m a i n t a i n e d and w i t h i n w h i c h s u b g r o u p s , s e r i e s and s u b s e r i e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . She a r r a n g e d o n l y t o the s u b s e r i e s l e v e l l e a v i n g r e s e a r c h e r s the t a s k of i d e n t i f y i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g items w i t h i n each s u b s e r i e s . The means by w h i c h a r e s e a r c h e r would i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e s s the f o n d s i s u n s t a t e d . F e l s t e n m e n t i o n s o n l y t h a t , upon c o m p l e t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t , she was a b l e t o s e l e c t t h o s e images which b e s t r e f l e c t e d t h e themes found i n the f o n d s . These s p e c i f i c images were t h e n added t o a v i s u a l c a t a l o g u e a r r a n g e d by s u b j e c t . 4 9 62 The i d e a t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s p o s s e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e as d i s c r e t e items and a r e not r e a l l y a r c h i v e s i n the f u l l s e n s e , i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the 1984 S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s ' p u b l i c a t i o n A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s :  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s . The c h a p t e r i n t h i s manual on the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s , w r i t t e n by G e r a l d J . Munoff, b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r as s u i t a b l e means of d e a l i n g w i t h p h o t o g r a p h i c fonds but Munoff s t r e s s e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s a r e more o f t e n "sought f o r p u r p o s e s more numerous and o f t e n v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the o r i g i n a l r e a s o n s f o r c r e a t i n g them." T h e r e f o r e , one can make "compromises on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h provenance i s a p p l i e d . . . . " 3 0 F u r t h e r , as one c o m p l e t e s a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e n t o r y of a p h o t o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n or f o n d s the e x i s t i n g o r i g i n a l o r d e r must be e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f whether i t w i l l " s e r v e the r e s e a r c h demands p l a c e d on i t . " The e x a m i n a t i o n f o r o r i g i n a l o r d e r s h o u l d " i n v o l v e s u b j e c t e x p e r t s . " B 1 M u n o f f ' s d i s c u s s i o n on d e s c r i p t i o n c e n t e r s around i t e m - l e v e l c a t a l o g u i n g and t h e c r e a t i o n of s e l f -i n d e x i n g f i l e s . 3 2 F o r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s i n the same manner as t e x t u a l f o n d s , Munoff d i r e c t s them t o a manual p r e p a r e d by t h e S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , I n v e n t o r i e s and R e g i s t e r s : A Handbook of T e c h n i q u e s and Examples ( C h i c a g o 1 9 7 6 ) . 3 3 I n v e n t o r i e s and R e g i s t e r s , , however, i s g e a r e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o w a r d the d e s c r i p t i o n of t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s and makes no a l l o w a n c e s f o r nor d i s c u s s e s the problems i n h e r e n t i n d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s . R e c o g n i t i o n of t h e f a c t t h a t p r e s e r v i n g provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r enhances i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e i s a new i d e a i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n s t e a d of d e s c r i b i n g d i s c r e t e i t e m s f o r use by p a t r o n s , some a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s 63 have found t h e u s e r b e t t e r s e r v e d i f a group or body of p h o t o g r a p h s i s d e s c r i b e d as a whole and the n a t u r e of t h e s u b g r o u p s , s e r i e s and s u b s e r i e s e x p l a i n e d i n an i n v e n t o r y or r e g i s t e r . 5 4 C a p t i o n s , which a r e o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g when h a s t i l y p r e p a r e d or not f u l l y r e s e a r c h e d by the a r c h i v i s t , become u n n e c e s s a r y when s e r i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and d e s c r i b e d . R e s e a r c h e r s a r e a b l e t o make t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of images found i n p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s , as t h e y do when d e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c r e c o r d s and m a n u s c r i p t m a t e r i a l . That p h o t o g r a p h s p o s s e s s e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e w o r t h y of p r e s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s an even newer c o n c e p t . U n d e r l y i n g S c h e l l e n b e r g ' s e a r l i e r q uoted s t a t e m e n t t h a t the provenance of p h o t o g r a p h s i s u n i m p o r t a n t , i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t even p h o t o g r a p h s produced by government a g e n c i e s c o n t a i n l i t t l e o r no l o n g - t e r m a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . W i l l i a m L e a r y echoes t h e same v i e w s i n h i s r e c e n t s t u d y on the a p p r a i s a l of p h o t o g r a p h s . To L e a r y " p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t show o f f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and n o t h i n g e l s e a r e l i k e l y t o be v e r y b o r i n g and i n s i g n i f i c a n t i m a g e s . " 3 5 He l a t e r c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f by s t a t i n g t h a t governments have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p h o t o g r a p h s i n d o c u m e n t i n g . . . t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s " . 5 6 I f governments r e c o g n i z e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e of p h o t o g r a p h s , i t i s incumbent upon a r c h i v i s t s t o p r o t e c t t h a t v a l u e . Debra B a r r , i n her M a s t e r of A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s t h e s i s e n t i t l e d " A n a l y z i n g P h o t o g r a p h s i n A r c h i v a l Terms", a r g u e s t h a t many p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s do i n d e e d p o s s e s s e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . Her f o c u s i s on p u b l i c p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s w h i c h have been shown t o p o s s e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l v a l u e and t h e r e f o r e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . B a r r s u p p l i e s s e v e r a l examples where s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h s were employed i n l e g a l d i s p u t e s 5 7 and emphasizes t h a t a r c h i v i s t s 64 n o t o n l y must p r o t e c t o r i g i n a l o r d e r but become i n v o l v e d i n the e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e of p u b l i c p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s . I n t h i s way, l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , as d e f i n e d i n the e v i d e n c e a c t s r e g a r d i n g a s s u r a n c e s of t h e o f f i c i a l o r i g i n o f b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s , w i l l be m e t . B a B a r r t o u c h e s on t h e f a c t t h a t n o n t e x t u a l f o n d s produced by p h o t o g r a p h e r s , f o r example, a l s o p o s s e s s e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t t h e y r e f l e c t the a r t i s t i c and b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s of t h e c r e a t o r . 3 9 S i m i l a r t o m a n u s c r i p t s , t h e n , p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s produced i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r a l s o r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s o f the p e r s o n s or b o d i e s w h i c h c r e a t e d them. Who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n or would b e n e f i t f r o m the maintenance of t h e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e of t h i s t y p e of p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s ? The answer, i n c r e a s i n g l y , i s t h e academic w o r l d . James An d e r s o n , C u r a t o r of P h o t o g r a p h s , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of L o u i s v i l l e , b e l i e v e s t h a t the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s a c c o r d i n g t o provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s i m p o r t a n t i n p r e s e r v i n g and r e f l e c t i n g the f u n c t i o n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s and p h o t o g r a p h i c f i r m s . Anderson was l e d t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r s t u d y i n g the c h a n g i n g needs of r e s e a r c h e r s . He found t h a t h i s t o r i a n s , f o r example, wished t o examine whole b o d i e s of images produced by one p h o t o g r a p h e r and t h a t o n l y two o t h e r i t e m s of i n f o r m a t i o n were r e q u i r e d : the d a t e s and l o c a t i o n s of images c o n t a i n e d i n the f o n d s . The maintenance of provenance p r o v i d e d t h e answer t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i r s t q u e r y r e g a r d i n g the work of one i n d i v i d u a l . The s e r i e s and s u b s e r i e s w i t h i n each fonds e n a b l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e t e r m i n e the d a t e and l o c a t i o n . S B Anderson found t h a t i n v e n t o r i e s r e f l e c t i n g provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r met the needs of 65 academics and i f t h o s e same i n v e n t o r i e s were s u b j e c t i n d e x e d , p a t r o n s i n s e a r c h of a s p e c i a l or more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d image c o u l d a l s o be s e r v e d e f f e c t i v e l y . 6 1 A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s have r e c e n t l y t u r n e d t o ph o t o g r a p h s t o document s o c i a l and f a m i l i a l p a t t e r n s . To t h e s e a c a d e m i c s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s , d i s c r e t e i t e m s w i l l sometimes s u f f i c e b u t more o f t e n b o d i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h s produced by i n d i v i d u a l s or f a m i l i e s a r e r e q u i r e d . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s or f a m i l i e s , t he r e c o r d s which t h e y c r e a t e d s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d as c r e a t e d . I n t e r e s t i n g examples o f t h e use of p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h i s manner c a n be found i n t h e j o u r n a l S t u d i e s i n V i s u a l Communications and i t s p r e d e c e s s o r S t u d i e s i n the  A n t h r o p o l o g y of V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s . 6 2 M e r e l y r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s p o s s e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a l and e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e w h i c h must be p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n , does not s o l v e a l l of the problems of a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s and, i n f a c t , c r e a t e s new s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s . Some of t h e s e s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s a r e s p e c i f i c t o p h o t o g r a p h s , o t h e r s a r e common t o the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l a r c h i v e s . The most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m which o f t e n c o n founds a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s w o r k i n g w i t h t e x t u a l or n o n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t o f c r e a t i n g s e r i e s w i t h i n a fonds when an o r i g i n a l f i l i n g o r d e r i s n o n e x i s t e n t or not w o r t h y o f r e t e n t i o n . E s t a b l i s h i n g s e r i e s i s one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t s t e p s i n p h y s i c a l arrangement because s e r i e s e x p r e s s the a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r of the f o n d s . G r a c y o f f e r s some s u g g e s t i o n s t o a r c h i v i s t s and m a n u s c r i p t c u r a t o r s who must c r e a t e t h e i r own s e r i e s w i t h i n a t e x t u a l f o n d s . He a d v i s e s t h a t 66 s e r i e s may be d e v e l o p e d u s i n g one of f o u r s y s t e m s : c h r o n o l o g y , t o p i c s , f u n c t i o n s of the c r e a t o r , and t y p e s of m a t e r i a l . 6 3 To some e x t e n t t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o p h o t o g r a p h i c fonds as w e l l . S e r i e s based on c h r o n o l o g y might r e v e a l much about an i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y or o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e work of a p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i o . Too o f t e n , however, th e a c c u r a t e d a t i n g of p h o t o g r a p h s becomes a d i f f i c u l t and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g c h o r e . S e r i e s a r r a n g e d around t o p i c s a r e , as G r a c y s t a t e s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t e x t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s , l e a s t a d v i s a b l e s i m p l y because each document i n t h e s e r i e s may d e a l w i t h one or more s u b j e c t s , as i s t h e case w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s . Arrangement by f u n c t i o n or a c t i v i t y of t h e c r e a t o r i s recommended f o r t e x t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s because i t w i l l most l i k e l y r e f l e c t the o r i g i n a l manner of c r e a t i o n of t h e documents, t h e r e b y p r e s e r v i n g e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . 6 4 T h i s would a l s o seem to be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e means of e s t a b l i s h i n g s e r i e s w i t h i n a p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s when th e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of the c r e a t o r can be i d e n t i f i e d . Arrangement by type of m a t e r i a l or by p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s recommended f o r t e x t u a l fonds because s e r i e s of d i a r i e s , l e d g e r s , and s c r a p b o o k s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l each c o n t a i n c e r t a i n k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s , s e r i e s a r r a n g e d by p h y s i c a l f o r m a t a r e o f t e n imposed on b o d i e s or groups of p h o t o g r a p h s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t and sometimes h a z a r d o u s t o s t o r e paper p r i n t s a l o n g w i t h g l a s s -p l a t e n e g a t i v e s , f o r example, but a s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n of " c e l l u l o s e n e g a t i v e s " i s of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e use t o anyone e x c e p t perhaps a r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s e s . In fonds where v a r i o u s t y p e s of p h o t o g r a p h i c f o r m a t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , p h y s i c a l arrangement might have t o be by type of m a t e r i a l but the f i n d i n g a i d s h o u l d d e s c r i b e the o r i g i n a l s e r i e s 67 or s e r i e s based on d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t more work needs t o be done i n t h i s a r e a and t h e r e s u l t s p u b l i s h e d f o r the b e n e f i t of o t h e r s w o r k i n g w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s . A r c h i v i s t s have, as noted i n t h i s c h a p t e r , s u c c e s s f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d s e r i e s w i t h i n p h o t o g r a p h i c fonds y e t i n many c a s e s s e r i e s may be a d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t t o a p p l y . I t may w e l l be t h a t a r c h i v i s t s w i l l have t o f i n d some o t h e r means t o a r r a n g e and d e s c r i b e t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of b o d i e s of p h o t o g r a p h s and t o r e l a t e the p a r t s t o the whole. That some t y p e of i n t e r n a l o r d e r w i l l e x i s t and a l l o w f o r t h e arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of u n i t s seems l i k e l y s i n c e a r c h i v e s , t e x t u a l and n o n t e x t u a l , were f i r s t p r e s e r v e d f o r r e f e r e n c e by the c r e a t o r and t h e r e f o r e an o r d e r or f i l i n g scheme s h o u l d be d i s c e r n i b l e . D e t e r m i n i n g t h i s o r d e r w i t h i n p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s w i l l be t h e c h a l l e n g e . I n t h e f u t u r e , as a r c h i v i s t s become b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r t o p h o t o g r a p h i c f o n d s , g u i d e l i n e s , l i k e t h o s e produced by G r a c y and o t h e r s f o r the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s , s h o u l d b e g i n t o a p p e a r . I n t h e meantime, t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r e s e n t a r c h i v i s t s w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , more and more a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s a r e a c q u i r i n g newspaper p h o t o g r a p h s which t e n d t o be v o l u m i n o u s i n scope and a r r a n g e d i n v a r i o u s ways. In 1982 J u d i t h F e l s t e n u n d e r t o o k a s u r v e y of t w e n t y - n i n e news p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n s s t i l l housed i n newspaper o f f i c e s and found a wide a s s o r t m e n t of a r r a n g e m e n t s , a l l i n v a r i a b l y based on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l schemes d e v i s e d and a p p l i e d by l i b r a r i a n s . D u r i n g her s u r v e y F e l s t e n e n c o u n t e r e d the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s of n e g a t i v e f i l e a r r a n g e m e n t s : a l p h a b e t i c a l s e l f - i n d e x i n g ; number-keyed 68 s u b j e c t - a c c e s s ; c h r o n o l o g i c a l ; c h r o n o l o g i c a l by "bag" or a s s i g n m e n t number; c h r o n o l o g i c a l by l i b r a r y p r o c e s s i n g d a t e ; c h r o n o l o g i c a l and by s u b j e c t . s s F e l s t e n s u g g e s t s t h a t once a r c h i v i s t s a c q u i r e news p h o t o g r a p h s , the images a r e b e s t m a i n t a i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o o r i g i n a l o r d e r but o n l y i f the a c c e s s -c o n t r o l t o o l s c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e a c t i v e l i f e o f t h e r e c o r d s a r e a c q u i r e d as w e l l . These c o n t r o l t o o l s w i l l a l l o w u s e r s a c c e s s t o the p h o t o g r a p h s . O t h e r w i s e , she a d v i s e s t h a t a c h r o n o l o g i c a l or s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m s h o u l d be i m p o s e d . 6 6 F e l s t e n seems most c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g u s e r s w i t h i t e m - l e v e l a c c e s s , y e t t h e o r i g i n a l f i l e a r r a n g e m e n t , i n most c a s e s , w i l l r e s e m b l e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes used by r e c o r d managers t o c o n t r o l t e x t u a l documents. I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o i d e n t i f y s e r i e s or o t h e r u n i t s . As F e l s t e n p o i n t s o u t , i t i s advantageous f o r t h e a r c h i v i s t t o s u p e r v i s e t h e t r a n s f e r of news p h o t o g r a p h s t o e n s u r e t h a t o r i g i n a l o r d e r i s m a i n t a i n e d and t h a t a l l i n d e x e s , l o g books and s t a f f handbooks a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n . 5 7 However, c o n t r o l documents a r e as i m p o r t a n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g s e r i e s and o t h e r d e s c r i b a b l e u n i t s as t h e y a r e f o r i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s e r i e s w i t h i n b o d i e s of p h o t o g r a p h s removed f r o m t e x t u a l fonds can a l s o become a p r o b l e m . In the 1979-30 w i n t e r i s s u e o f A r c h i v a r i a , T e r r y Cook of t h e P u b l i c R e c ords D i v i s i o n of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada a r g u e s t h a t the provenance of m a n u s c r i p t s and r e c o r d g r o u p s i s e r oded or d e s t r o y e d when n o n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s a r e removed f r o m t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s and t u r n e d over t o the c u s t o d y of media s p e c i a l i s t s ; not o n l y i s t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e p a r e n t f o n d s i m p a i r e d , but t h e provenance and o r i g i n a l o r d e r of the t r a n s f e r r e d m a t e r i a l can be l o s t as w e l l . 5 8 In making h i s 69 p o i n t , Cook was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l o f the N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n of t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada w h i c h r o u t i n e l y a c q u i r e d p h o t o g r a p h s from o t h e r d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the PAC and c o n t i n u e s t o do so as p a r t o f t h e Documentary A r t and P h o t o g r a p h D i v i s i o n o f the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada. Andrew B i r r e l l , a t t h a t time the C h i e f of the NPC, answered Cook i n t h e subsequent i s s u e o f A r c h i v a r i a . I n t h a t a r t i c l e B i r r e l l s t r e s s e s t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a i d s by s p e c i a l i s t s e n s u r e s t h a t the provenance of t r a n s f e r r e d m a t e r i a l s i s s a f e g u a r d e d . 6 9 I n t h e same b r e a t h he b e t r a y s t h e i s o l a t i o n engendered by media s e p a r a t i o n , and f e a r e d by Cook, when he c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g a i d s can be produced w i t h o u t one a r c h i v i s t h a v i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l over the e n t i r e r e c o r d or m a n u s c r i p t f o n d s . 7 0 T h i s would s u g g e s t t h a t a r c h i v i s t s i n media d i v i s i o n s c r e a t e i n v e n t o r i e s and o t h e r f i n d i n g a i d s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e arrangement of the p a r e n t f o n d s . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e o r i g i n a l s e r i e s t o wh i c h n o n t e x t u a l i t e m s b e l o n g e d w i l l be l o s t and the media s p e c i a l i s t w i l l be f o r c e d i n t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a r t i f i c i a l s e r i e s i f he or she c a n n o t d e t e c t t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n l a r g e r e p o s i t o r i e s where media d i v i s i o n s e x i s t , g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n and co m m u n i c a t i o n between d i v i s i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y . In d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s , adequate d o c u m e n t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d whenever a t r a n s f e r t a k e s p l a c e . The i n v e n t o r y c r e a t e d by t h e m a n u s c r i p t or r e c o r d a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s have been removed from a fonds and the l o c a t i o n of where t h e y can now be found n o t e d . The i n v e n t o r y or f i n d i n g a i d produced by the p h o t o g r a p h s p e c i a l i s t s h o u l d p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on the provenance of the images b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . The i d e a l , as Cook s u g g e s t s , would be an i n t e r - d i v i s i o n a l or c r o s s - m e d i a f i n d i n g 70 F r a g m e n t a t i o n by media can a l s o o c c u r i n s m a l l m a n u s c r i p t l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s where p h o t o g r a p h s a r e a c t u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d w i t h i n the t e x t u a l fonds i n wh i c h t h e y a r e f o u n d . W i t h i n a s i n g l e m a n u s c r i p t f o n d s , f o r i n s t a n c e , p h o t o g r a p h s a r e n o r m a l l y a r r a n g e d and d e s c r i b e d as a d i s t i n c t s e r i e s as p r e s c r i b e d by a r c h i v i s t s s u c h as G r a c y . 7 2 I f t h e r e a r e o n l y a few ph o t o g r a p h s i n a t e x t u a l fonds or where the images t r u l y c o m p r i s e a s e r i e s o f f a m i l y p h o t o g r a p h albums, f o r example, t h i s may w e l l be an a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , t h o ugh, whether a l l p h o t o g r a p h s s h o u l d be removed from the s e r i e s i n w h i c h t h e y o r i g i n a t e d . A p h o t o g r a p h o f a p e r s o n or e v e n t e n c l o s e d i n a l e t t e r l o o s e s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e once removed. From th e s t a n d p o i n t of c o n s e r v a t i o n , i t has been deemed a d v i s a b l e t o group a l l p h o t o g r a p h s i n one f o l d e r or one box. W i t h adequate c a r e and the use of p r i n t and n e g a t i v e s l e e v e s , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o l e a v e p h o t o g r a p h s where t h e y o r i g i n a t e p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y a r e i n t e g r a l t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e x t u a l documents. When t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , a note r e g a r d i n g t h e r e m o v a l of p h o t o g r a p h s from v a r i o u s s e r i e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n d i n g a i d . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a r c h i v a l f o n d s can o c c a s i o n a l l y p r e s e n t more of a p r o b l e m t h a n d e t e r m i n i n g s e r i e s when d e a l i n g w i t h government p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s . Some governments have, a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , c e n t r a l i z e d p h o t o g r a p h a c t i v i t i e s . 7 3 The o f f i c e w h i c h t r a n s f e r s the p h o t o g r a p h s t o t h e a r c h i v e s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t he agency w h i c h caused the p h o t o g r a p h s t o be t a k e n . As w i t h t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s , t he provenance of ph o t o g r a p h s can a l s o be o b s c u r e d when an agency c o n t a i n s a number of i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s , goes t h r o u g h a s u c c e s s i o n o f name changes or amalgamates w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s . When 71 c o n f r o n t e d by any one of the above s i t u a t i o n s , a r c h i v i s t s a c c e s s i o n i n g p h o t o g r a p h s might want t o c o n s i d e r t h e a d v a n t a g e s of a b a n d o n i n g the r e c o r d group c o n c e p t i n f a v o r of a " s e r i e s s y s t e m " where the s e r i e s i s the p r i m a r y l e v e l of a rrangement. A r c h i v i s t s a t the A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s have ado p t e d t h i s s y s t e m and a r c h i v i s t s i n N o r t h A m e rica a r e c u r r e n t l y d i s c u s s i n g t h e m e r i t s and drawbacks of a p p l y i n g the s e r i e s s y s t e m t o t e x t u a l government r e c o r d s . 7 4 One p r o b l e m w h i c h c o n c e r n s a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s a p p l y i n g a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s t o t e x t u a l and n o n t e x t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s i s how t o p r o v i d e a l l u s e r s w i t h adequate i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c e s s t o t h e r e c o r d s under t h e i r c a r e . S o l v i n g t h i s p r o b l e m would p a r t i c u l a r l y ease the c o n s c i e n c e s of l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s w o r k i n g w i t h p h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l . A r c h i v i s t s g e n e r a l l y do t e n d t o d i v i d e u s e r s i n t o two g r o u p s : t h e s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r and, by l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n , t h e n o t - s o - s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r . M a n u s c r i p t and government r e c o r d a r c h i v i s t s have f o c u s e d on t h e s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r but a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s w o r k i n g w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s have never been a b l e t o i g n o r e t h e needs of the b r o w s e r . T h i s p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t s f o r the c r e a t i o n of d u a l systems of d e s c r i b i n g p h o t o g r a p h s : i n v e n t o r i e s p l u s v i s u a l or s e l f - i n d e x i n g f i l e s . A s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m which c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d do away w i t h t h e need f o r v e r t i c a l f i l e s and i t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i v e and s u b j e c t c a t a l o g u i n g i s t h e c r e a t i o n of an i n d e x based on the s u b j e c t c o n t e n t of f o n d s . s e r i e s , or u n i t s w i t h i n f o n d s , o r , i f n e c e s s a r y , i t e m s . Indexes c o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r each i n v e n t o r y or c e n t r a l i z e d and c o v e r i n g the h o l d i n g s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . A r c h i v i s t s and m a n u s c r i p t c u r a t o r s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g improved s u b j e c t a c c e s s t h r o u g h the use of i n d e x e s as r e c e n t u s e r s t u d i e s c o n t i n u e t o 72 i n d i c a t e t h a t the m a j o r i t y o£ u s e r s do b e g i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h w i t h a s u b j e c t r e q u e s t . 7 * G i v e n the volume of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s a c q u i r e d or a c c e s s i o n e d each y e a r by a r c h i v a l and m a n u s c r i p t r e p o s i t o r i e s , r e f e r e n c e p e r s o n n e l c a n n o t p o s s i b l y c o n t i n u e t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y m e n t a l c o n n e c t i o n s between s u b j e c t r e q u e s t s and p r o v e n a n c e - b a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n . Mary Jo Pugh has s u g g e s t e d t h a t b o t h c o n t e n t - i n d e x i n g , as d e r i v e d f o r l i b r a r i a n s h i p , and p r o v e n a n c e - i n d e x i n g , d e v i s e d from a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s , a r e n e c e s s a r y i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs of u s e r s . 7 6 The f o r m u l a t i o n of s t a n d a r d s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r i n d e x i n g , t h e c r e a t i o n of s t a n d a r d f o r m a t s f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of a r c h i v e s and t h e a u t o m a t i o n of b o t h p r o c e s s e s a r e major g o a l s c u r r e n t l y a t t r a c t i n g the i n t e r e s t of most, i f not a l l , a r c h i v i s t s as w e l l as l i b r a r i a n s c h a r g e d w i t h the c a r e of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . 73 ENDNOTES 1. James A n d e r s o n , " O r g a n i z i n g a Photo C o l l e c t i o n : The A r c h i v a l A p p r o a c h , " P i c t u r e s c o p e 29, 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 1 ) : 8. 2. C h e r y l Y. C a m p b e l l , " H i s t o r y of A r c h i v e s K e e p i n g , " A r c h i f a c t s 1 (March 1984): 3. 3. T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 975), 169-173. 4. I b i d . , 173-175. 5. S. M u l l e r , J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n , Manual f o r t h e Arrangement and  D e s c r i p t i o n o f A r c h i v e s , t r a n s . A r t h u r H. L e a v i t t (New York: H.W. W i l s o n , 1940. 6. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s . 175-178. 7. H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: P e r c y Lund, Humphries and Company, 1965). 8. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s , 178-179. 9. T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The Management of A r c h i v e s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1 9 6 5 ) , 38-40. 10. I b i d . , 42. 11. T e r r y Eastwood, "R.E. G o s n e l l , E.O.E. S c h o l e f i e l d and t h e f o u n d i n g of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C. S t u d i e s 54 (Summer 1982): 38-62. 12. Carman V. C a r r o l l , " D a v i d W. P a r k e r : The " F a t h e r " of A r c h i v a l Arrangement a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 16 (Summer 1983): 150-153. 13. Gordon Dodds, "Review of A r c h i v e - L i b r a r y R e l a t i o n s . E d i t e d by R o b e r t L. C l a r k . New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1976," A r c h i v a r i a 4 (Summer 1977): 224. 14. Frank B. Evans, "Modern Methods of Arrangement of A r c h i v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29, 2 ( A p r i l 1966): 243-247. 15. I b i d . , 251, 256. 16. I b i d . , 256-258. 74 17. O l i v e r W. Holmes, " A r c h i v a l Arrangement-Five D i f f e r e n t Operations at Fi v e D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s , " American A r c h i v i s t 27 (1964): 23-24. 13. Frank B. Evans et a l . , "A Basic Glossary f o r A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curators and Record Managers," American A r c h i v i s t 37, 3 ( J u l y 1974): 424. 19. Richard Berner, "Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n : Some H i s t o r i c a l Observations," American A r c h i v i s t 41, 2 ( A p r i l 1978): 175-176. 20. I b i d . , 176. 21. Schellenberg, The Management of A r c h i v e s , 56-57. 22. Berner, "Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n : Some H i s t o r i c a l Observations," 176. 23. See, f o r example, Frank Boles, " D i s r e s p e c t i n g O r i g i n a l Order," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (Winter 1982): 26-32; Graeme T. Powell, " A r c h i v a l P r i n c i p l e s and the Treatment of Personal Papers," Archives and Manuscripts 6 (August 1976): 259-268. 24. C. Hurley, "Personal Papers and the Treatment of A r c h i v a l P r i n c i p l e s , " Archives and Manuscripts 6 (February 1977): 353- 354. 25. Schellenberg, The Management of A r c h i v e s , 326, 337-338. 26. I b i d . , 329-330, 338-339. 27. David B. Gracy I I , Archives and Manuscripts: Arrangement and  D e s c r i p t i o n (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977), 41. 28. I b i d . , 43. 29. I b i d . , 44. 30. I b i d . , 41. 31. Richard Berner, A r c h i v a l Theory and P r a c t i c e i n the United S t a t e s : A  H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1983), 75. 32. I b i d . , 78. 33. Kenneth W. Duckett, Modern Manuscripts: A P r a c t i c a l Manual for t h e i r  Management, Care and Use ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n f or State and Lo c a l H i s t o r y , 1975), 196. 34. I b i d . , 197. 75 35. H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , "The E n g l i s h A r c h i v i s t : A New P r o f e s s i o n , " i n S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f S i r H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , e d s . Roger E l l i s and P e t e r Walne ( G l o u c e s t e r , E n g l a n d : A l a n S u t t o n , 1980): 149. 36. Hugh T a y l o r , The Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l s (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on A r c h i v e s , 1 980), 16. 37. I b i d . , 114-115. 38. R i c h a r d J . Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s i n Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78): 10 - 11. 39. E l i s a b e t h B e t z , " O r g a n i z a t i o n and C a t a l o g i n g o f P i c t o r i a l M a t e r i a l i n the L i b r a r y o f Congress P r i n t s and P h o t o g r a p h s D i v i s i o n , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d w o r k i n g paper ( W a s h i n g t o n , L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , 13. 40. I b i d . , 13-14. 41. I b i d . , 18-19. 42. J o s e p h i n e Cobb, "The S t i l l P i c t u r e Program a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 45 (September 1956): 269, 273. 43. Hermine Baumhofer, "Some R e f e r e n c e P r o b l e m s of P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n s , " A m e rican A r c h i v i s t 13, 2 ( A p r i l 1950): 122. 44. I b i d . , 127. 45. Nancy M a l a n , " O r g a n i z i n g Photo C o l l e c t i o n s : An I n t r o s p e c t i v e A p p r o a c h , " P i c t u r e s c o p e 29, 1 (Summer 1981): 5. 46. I b i d . 47. Max J . Evans, " H a n d l i n g P h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e LDS Church A r c h i v e s , " A m erican A r c h i v i s t 40, 2 ( A p r i l 1977): 173. 48. S h e l l e y A r l e n , "The Western H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma," P i c t u r e s c o p e 30, 2 (Summer 1982): 64. 49. J u d i t h F e l s t e n , "Photo Group P r o c e s s i n g f o r a Theme R e p o s i t o r y , " P i c t u r e s c o p e 32, 1 (Summer 1985): 23-24. 50. G e r a l d J . Munoff, "Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n , " i n R i t z e n t h a l e r e t a l . A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1 9 8 4 ) , 72. 51. I b i d . , 84. 52. I b i d . , 86-92. 76 53. Committee on F i n d i n g A i d s , I n v e n t o r i e s and R e g i s t e r s : A Handbook of  T e c h n i q u e s and Examples ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1976). 54. James A n d e r s o n , " O r g a n i z i n g a Photo C o l l e c t i o n : The A r c h i v a l A p p r o a c h , " 9-10. 55. W i l l i a m L e a r y , The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l of P h o t o g r a p h s : A RAMP S t u d y  w i t h G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1985), 19. 56. I b i d . , 63. 57. Debra B a r r , " A n a l y z i n g P h o t o g r a p h s i n A r c h i v a l Terms," ( M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985), 42, 45-46. 58. I b i d . , 49. 59. I b i d . , 71. 60. James A n d e r s o n , " O r g a n i z i n g a Photo C o l l e c t i o n : The A r c h i v a l A p p r o a c h , " 9. 61. I b i d . , 10. 62. See, f o r example, C h r i s t o p h e r M u s e l l o , " S t u d y i n g t h e Home Mode: An E x p l o r a t i o n of F a m i l y P h o t o g r a p h s and V i s u a l Communication," S t u d i e s i n  V i s u a l Communications 6, 1 (1 9 8 0 ) : 23-42; See a l s o , R o b e r t A k e r e t , P h o t o a n a l y s i s : How t o I n t e r p r e t t he Hidden P s y c h o l o g i c a l Meaning o f  P e r s o n a l and P u b l i c P h o t o g r a p h s (New York: P.H. Wyden, 1973). 63. G r a c y , A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n , 9. 64. I b i d . 65. J u d i t h F e l s t e n , "News P h o t o g r a p h C o l l e c t i o n s : A S u r v e y o f Newspaper P r a c t i c e s and A r c h i v a l S t r a t e g i e s , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d paper, P h i l a d e l p h i a , Temple U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r i e s , 1 9 8 2 ) , 9-10. 66. I b i d . , 17. 67. I b i d . , 25. 68. T e r r y Cook, "The Tyranny o f t h e Medium: A Comment on ' T o t a l A r c h i v e s , " ' A r c h i v a r i a 9 ( W i n t e r 1979-80): 144. 69. Andrew B i r r e l l , "The Tyranny of T r a d i t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 10 (Summer 1980): 251. 70. I b i d . 77 71. Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on ' T o t a l A r c h i v e s , ' " 147. 72. G r a c y , A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n , 10. 73. Hermine Baumhoffer, " F i l m Records Management," American A r c h i v i s t 19, 3 ( J u l y 1 9 5 6 ) : 237. 74. See, P e t e r J . S c o t t , "The R e c o r d Group C o n c e p t : A Case f o r Abandonment," Am e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29, 4 ( O c t o b e r 1966): 493-504; C a r l V i n c e n t , "The R e c o r d Group: A Concept i n E v o l u t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 3 ( W i n t e r 1976-77): 3-16; M i c h e l D u c h e i n , " T h e o r e t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c a l P r oblems of R e s p e c t des f o n d s i n A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e , " A r c h i v a r i a 16 (Summer 1983): 64-82. 75. Mary Jo Pugh, "The I l l u s i o n of O m n i s c i e n c e : S u b j e c t A c c e s s and t h e R e f e r e n c e A r c h i v i s t , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 45, 1 ( W i n t e r 1982): 36, 40. 76. I b i d . , 41. 78 CHAPTER FOUR: STANDARDIZATION AND AUTOMATION By the time of h i s retirement i n the 1960s as A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t of the United S t a t e s , T.R. Schellenberg was a d v i s i n g a r c h i v i s t s that two t h i n g s must be done to develop the p r o f e s s i o n : the f i r s t was to d e f i n e a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and techniques; the second was to s t a n d a r d i z e those p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s . 1 Without f i r s t addressing these i s s u e s , Schellenberg warned, a r c h i v i s t s would be unable to take advantage of "modern gadgetry," such as computers, i n the c o n t r o l of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . Other b e n e f i t s , such as the development of n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n networks, would a l s o be l o s t i f members of the p r o f e s s i o n f a i l e d t o d e f i n e and s t a n d a r d i z e i t s p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s . At the same time, Schellenberg cautioned a r c h i v i s t s t h a t the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the p r o f e s s i o n could not be accomplished w i t h i n a vacuum but must in v o l v e a l l persons charged with the care of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r i a n s and manuscript c u r a t o r s . 2 Over the years a r c h i v i s t s have given some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e i r methods of arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the need to formulate standards, but i t has only been i n the l a s t ten years that s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n has become a c e n t r a l theme. From 1978 u n t i l 1982 the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s ' N a t i o n a l Information Systems Task Force (NISTF) d e a l t with d e f i n i n g the data elements r e q u i r e d i n an a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n system. A s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by the A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n P r o j e c t of the U n i v e r s i t y Archives of L i v e r p o o l U n i v e r s i t y . In 1985 the Canadian 79 Working Group on A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i v e Standards of the Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s published i t s f i r s t r eport regarding the Canadian a r c h i v a l scene. 3 There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which account f o r t h i s recent and intense i n t e r e s t i n a r c h i v a l d e s c r i p t i v e standards: the i n c r e a s i n g volume of documents acquired by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s and the need f o r b e t t e r , more r e f i n e d access; the d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h n a t i o n a l a r c h i v a l networks s i m i l a r to l i b r a r y b i b l i o g r a p h i c networks; the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t Schellenberg was r i g h t i n that automation, with i t s promise of in-depth indexing and networking c a p a b i l i t i e s , could not answer the needs of a r c h i v i s t s u n t i l d e s c r i p t i v e standards were e s t a b l i s h e d . Throughout t h i s chapter, the move toward d e s c r i p t i v e standards and the automation of f i n d i n g a i d s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . This w i l l i n v o l v e reviewing past attempts i n automating d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s , the problems which arose and the c o r r e c t i v e steps taken. In the l a t e 1950s and throughout the 1960s and 1970s, use of mainframe computers by a r c h i v i s t s spawned a number of software programs, some of which were presented to the p r o f e s s i o n as standard formats f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . In the l a t e 1970s and the 1980s, the a v a i l a b i l i t y and r e l a t i v e inexpense of microcomputers coupled with a disenchantment w i t h mainframe software programs, r e s u l t e d i n the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of word-processing and data base management programs aimed at s a t i s f y i n g the d e s c r i p t i v e needs of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The growth of independent systems and programs was somewhat e c l i p s e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of NISTF's MARC AMC (MAchine-Readable C a t a l o g i n g , Archives and Manuscript C o n t r o l ) format i n the mid 1980s. Through these t r i a l and e r r o r experiments with v a r i o u s computer software programs, a r c h i v i s t s have been forced i n t o 80 re-examining t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s . Moreover, i n attempting to e s t a b l i s h automated systems, a r c h i v i s t s have found themselves c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h and a l s o borrowing ideas and b i b l i o g r a p h i c formats from the l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n . In so doing, a r c h i v i s t s have been f u r t h e r spurred to c l a r i f y , d e f i n e and analyze t h e i r own p r i n c i p l e s and methodologies v i s - a - v i s l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s . Common ground can and has been i d e n t i f i e d , but i n some areas d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach s t i l l e x i s t concerning the f o r m u l a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e standards. D e s c r i p t i v e methods and d e s c r i p t i v e standards f o r photographs have been developed both i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h and s e p a r a t e l y from formats f o r t e x t u a l a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . This a p t l y r e f l e c t s the changing a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r c h i v a l nature of photographs and c l e a r l y demonstrates that a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s must come to some understanding regarding a uniform approach toward the c o n t r o l of nontextual a r c h i v e s . In terms of both t e x t u a l and nontextual a r c h i v e s much remains to be done i n a c h i e v i n g a f u l l range of standardized c o n t r o l t o o l s . At t h i s p o i n t , i t would be appr o p r i a t e to d e f i n e some of the terms found i n t h i s chapter which r e f e r to the use of computers. A re c o r d , f or in s t a n c e , i s a c o l l e c t i o n of r e l a t e d items of data t r e a t e d as a u n i t . Within a re c o r d , data i s u s u a l l y contained w i t h i n f i e l d s . A f i e l d i s a s p e c i f i e d area w i t h a c l e a r l y defined f u n c t i o n and used to enter a s p e c i f i c category of data. Software r e f e r s to a set of programs, procedures, r u l e s and a s s o c i a t e d documentation concerned w i t h the operation of the hardware, or of the computer i t s e l f . Programs are d e t a i l e d and e x p l i c i t s e t s of i n s t r u c t i o n s presented i n a form t h a t can be i n t e r p r e t e d by the computer. 81 Boolean l o g i c r e f e r s to a method of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l t h a t r e s t r i c t s responses to "yes" or "no" and i n c l u d e s l o g i c a l operators "and," "or," "not," "except," " i f , " and "then" which may be combined i n a v a r i e t y of ways. 4 Other terms found i n t h i s chapter t h a t r e l a t e to the use of computers are g e n e r a l l y f a m i l i a r and t h e r e f o r e need not be d e f i n e d here. For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , d e f i n i t i o n of terms and a general i n t r o d u c t i o n to the use of computers i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s see H. Thomas Hickerson's Archives  and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated Access published i n 1981 or Michael Cook's Archives and the Computer, published i n a second e d i t i o n i n 1986. s The advent of automation was at f i r s t h a i l e d by a r c h i v i s t s and manuscript c u r a t o r s as a panacea f o r inf o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of indexing and the c r e a t i o n of guides and union l i s t s . Indexing, however, was the main and immediate a t t r a c t i o n of automation and some p r o f e s s i o n a l s looked to computers as a means of s a t i s f y i n g the o l d urge to analyze and index every document i n a fonds. Given the volume of modern a r c h i v e s , indexing had become impossible because of the time i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g , f i l i n g and c r o s s - f i l i n g index cards; computers promised "a quick and simple f i x t h a t could b r i n g c u r a t o r s back to t h e i r h a b i t without the d e l e t e r i o u s s i d e e f f e c t s , namely growing b a c k l o g s . " 6 As Dr. R i t a Campbell, a r c h i v i s t at the Herbert Hoover A r c h i v e s , summed up the s i t u a t i o n i n 1967, " a r c h i v i s t s are s u b j e c t to the opposing pressures of mounds of paper and c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g research demands. The way out of the dilemma may be found i n more i n t e n s i v e indexing of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s by machine." 7 I t i s no s u r p r i s e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the f i r s t major p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g powerful 82 mainframe computers focused on i t e m - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n and Indexing. In 1958 the L i b r a r y of Congress Manuscripts D i v i s i o n i n i t i a t e d a p r o j e c t t o index i t s backlog of p r e s i d e n t i a l papers. The 2,500,000 documents were arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and an indexing record was created f o r each document using 80-column punch cards. At the N a t i o n a l Archives i n Washington the f i r s t use of automation was to produce an item index to the 50,000 documents i n the Papers of the C o n t i n e n t a l Congress. 8 Item indexing was undertaken at the P u b l i c Archives of Canada i n 1965 to d e a l w i t h the papers of prime m i n i s t e r s . In the l a t t e r p r o j e c t , the f i n d i n g a i d s produced included an "author index, s e c o n d a r i l y s o r t e d by s u b j e c t , and then by date; a s u b j e c t index, s e c o n d a r i l y s o r t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , and then by author; and a c h r o n o l o g i c a l index, s e c o n d a r i l y s o r t e d by a u t h o r . " 9 A l l of these p r o j e c t s proved t o be extremely time consuming and expensive. A f t e r reviewing the f i n a l products, a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s a l s o r e a l i z e d that item indexes were u s e f u l only to researchers w i t h extremely s p e c i a l i z e d needs, t h a t many documents were s i n g u l a r l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t when viewed out of context and t h a t an index was u s e f u l only when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f i n d i n g a i d s which de s c r i b e d aggregates, such a fonds or s e r i e s . In s h o r t , item indexes proved to be " u n a r c h i v a l " and even " a n t i a r c h i v a l " i n nature. 3- 8 A Canadian h i s t o r i a n , T.D. Regehr, has commented that the P u b l i c Archives of Canada's computer index to prime m i n i s t e r s ' papers "can produce myriad disconnected f a c t u a l b i t s and pieces at a moments n o t i c e . " However, Regehr continues, "the s c h o l a r must understand the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n . . . " and t h a t l o o k i n g up a narrowly d e f i n e d s u b j e c t i n the prime m i n i s t e r s ' index would be as u s e f u l as a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c " c o n s u l t i n g the word 'love' i n a concordance 83 of the works of Shakespeare. 1 , 1 1 The lessons to be learned from these e a r l y attempts at automation d i d not immediately and f u l l y impress themselves on a l l a r c h i v i s t s and manuscript c u r a t o r s . In the l a t e 1960s, the L i b r a r y of Congress Manuscripts D i v i s i o n developed SPINDCX (Selected Permutation INDEX), a software program based on modified forms of KWTC (key-word-in-context) and word-author indexing. In one sense, the L i b r a r y of Congress' use of SPINDEX came c l o s e r to t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l methodology because indexing was at the f i l e - f o l d e r l e v e l , not the item l e v e l . However, problems with the vagaries and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of n a t u r a l language, f o l d e r t i l e s which d i d not a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e contents and other l i m i t a t i o n s regarding data f i e l d s and e d i t i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d the acceptance and use of SPINDEX. The L i b r a r y of Congress abandoned the program, but the N a t i o n a l Archives and Record S e r v i c e (NARS) opted to develop SPINDEX. By 1974 SPINDEX I I was on the market. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s program was most o f t e n perceived and used as another indexing t o o l d e s p i t e the a b i l i t y of SPINDEX I I to take an e n t i r e r e g i s t e r or inventory and provide h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1 2 At the South C a r o l i n a Department of Archives and H i s t o r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , SPINDEX I I was used to produce a s e r i e s - l e v e l d e s c r i p t i v e guide but t h i s work proceeded more s l o w l y than a separate p r o j e c t using SPINDEX I I to create i t e m - l e v e l indexes to 64,000 documents i n s e l e c t e d s e r i e s . 1 3 Enhancements to SPINDEX I I , known as SPINDEX I I I , have been a v a i l a b l e s i n c e 1978. As of the e a r l y 1980s, SPINDEX software was i n use i n over two dozen i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United States and Canada making i t one of the most popular automated systems f o r a r c h i v a l u s e . 1 4 SPINDEX users are. o f f e r e d a 84 one-week t r a i n i n g course and can j o i n the SPINDEX Users' Network (SUN) which a c t s as a forum f o r the exchange of t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the system. The t r a i n i n g course and SUN program are important because although a "so-c a l l e d standard data base design was provided by the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n e r s , i t u n f o r t u n a t e l y remains embedded today i n the language of the system's user i n s t r u c t i o n s Each i n s t i t u t i o n using SPINDEX must a l s o c reate i t s own c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary f o r indexing purposes as no widely accepted thesaurus of i n dexing terms e x i s t s f o r a r c h i v e s . F r e e - t e x t searching and the use of Boolean l o g i c are not p o s s i b l e with SPINDEX. The main drawback to SPINDEX i s t h a t i t w i l l operate only on IBM 360/370 mainframes. 1 6 The expense of i n v e s t i n g i n a mainframe puts SPINDEX beyond the f i n a n c i a l reach of most a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , manuscript l i b r a r i e s , and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . SELGEM (SELf-GEnerating Master) i s a package of software programs developed by the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e f o r use i n museum c a t a l o g u i n g but which has a l s o been used by a r c h i v i s t s . O r i g i n a l l y o r i e n t e d toward item-l e v e l c o n t r o l , SELGEM has been adapted by the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e Archives f o r the production of a r c h i v a l guides and subj e c t indexes at the fonds l e v e l . The N a t i o n a l C o l l e c t i o n of Fine A r t s (NCFA) of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e , however, was a t t r a c t e d to SELGEM s p e c i f i c a l l y because of the program's c a p a c i t y f o r i t e m - l e v e l i n d e x i n g . NCFA c o l l e c t s American works of a r t and then produces photographs and s l i d e s of these works for use by res e a r c h e r s . I t a l s o c o l l e c t s and maintains over 127,000 rare photographic negatives documenting American a r t from 1897 to 1975. I t can be argued that the photographs held by the NCFA are not a r c h i v a l i n nature but, as noted i n Chapter Three of t h i s t h e s i s , photographs are r a r e l y perceived as being 85 a r c h i v a l , even when o r g a n i c a l l y generated by a body or i n d i v i d u a l . The NCFA's use of SELGEM could be taken as a model by other custodians of photographs p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the most recent d i s c u s s i o n of NCFA's use of SELGEM appears i n the 1980 p u b l i c a t i o n Automating the A r c h i v e s . In Automating the Archives Eleanor E. Fink of NCFA disc u s s e s the problems encountered i n using SELGEM. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , she looks at how the f i e l d s comprising the record were e s t a b l i s h e d and how name and s u b j e c t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r use i n indexing were cr e a t e d . There i s no mention of whether AACR2 was consulted i n determining the f i e l d s and i n the case of the name and s u b j e c t a u t h o r i t y , i t was found t h a t no e x i s t i n g standard s u f f i c e d and t h e r e f o r e NCFA created i t s own a u t h o r i t y records. The f a c t that SELGEM can be searched using Boolean l o g i c eases some of the indexing problems a s s o c i a t e d with manual or automated indexing. However, as discovered by other a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s attempting i t e m - l e v e l i n d e x i n g , e n t r y time was s u b s t a n t i a l l y slower than the s t a f f a t the NCFA had a n t i c i p a t e d . 1 7 The f a c t t h a t SELGEM must be run on a mainframe computer has made i t s merits and drawbacks merely an academic matter to p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n s m a l l e r , f i n a n c i a l l y strapped r e p o s i t o r i e s . A s i m i l a r p r o j e c t to that undertaken by NCFA was t h a t of the Corning Glass Works A r c h i v e s . The Corning Archives developed a computer program, run on an IBM mainframe, f o r the i t e m - l e v e l indexing of i t s c o l l e c t i o n of 150,000 negatives d a t i n g from 1851. There are three f i e l d s used i n d e s c r i b i n g each photograph, one f o r a c c e s s i o n number, one f o r date and one f o r s u b j e c t indexing. Indexing terms are drawn from a "category l i s t " designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the p r o j e c t . U n l i k e SPINDEX or SELGEM, t h i s 86 program i s unable to produce other f i n d i n g a i d s such as g u i d e s . 1 8 One of the most unusual and i n s t i t u t i o n - s p e c i f i c uses of a mainframe computer f o r s u b j e c t indexing of i n d i v i d u a l photographs was that of the Dupre L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of Southwestern L o u i s i a n a . In the mid-1970s, a p r o j e c t was undertaken by l i b r a r y s t a f f which in v o l v e d the use of the u n i v e r s i t y ' s M u l t l c s System and the s u b j e c t indexing of photographs through the use of f i v e - d i g i t , mnenomic d e s c r i p t o r s ; f o r example, i f a photograph showed a seated female, the code entered i n the s u b j e c t f i e l d was SEFEM, HUNTD would i n d i c a t e a hunting dog and so on. The o r i g i n a l , manual c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme had not been developed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , however, and the r e s u l t was confusion and slow data input time. The system was r e v i s e d to include two s u b f i e l d s as w e l l as the o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t - i n d e x i n g f i e l d . In the o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t - i n d e x i n g f i e l d , the indexer would choose, f o r example, the l e t t e r A f o r a d u l t , C f o r c h i l d , E f o r e l d e r l y , V f o r v a r i e d group of a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n or 0 f o r s c e n i c s h o t s . In the f i r s t s u b f i e l d , two l e t t e r s could be chosen from a l i s t i n c l u d i n g A f o r animal, C f o r c l o t h i n g , E f o r e t h n i c , 0 f o r occupation, S f o r s o c i a l event or V f o r views of b u i l d i n g s . The second s u b f i e l d was a f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n , for instance PK f o r p o s i t i o n / k n e e l i n g , PT f o r p o s i t i o n / s t a n d i n g and so on. Thus CEBRA meant a c h i l d (C), black (EB), i n or near an automobile ( R A ) . 1 9 Although i t was o f f e r e d as a case study and p o s s i b l e model, there i s nothing i n the l i t e r a t u r e to i n d i c a t e the system was favourably r e c e i v e d or d u p l i c a t e d elsewhere. In the mid 1970s, M i l d r e d Simpson, the l i b r a r i a n a t the A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company, worked with the company's computer programmers to create 87 a data base management system that allowed f o r the s u b j e c t indexing of "groups" of photographs. The photographs i n the l i b r a r y had been created i n response to s p e c i f i c requests by the company f o r images to i l l u s t r a t e annual r e p o r t s , brochures, press r e l e a s e s or f o r other purposes. Although M i l d r e d Simpson does not d e f i n e what a "group" i s , we can l i k e l y assume that a group o£ photographs r e s u l t e d from the execution of one of the above mentioned photographic assignments. Using an IBM software package known as STAIRS (STorage And Information R e t r i e v a l S y s t e m s / V i r t u a l Storage), Simpson and the computing s t a f f created a system c a l l e d PMIS (Photographic Management Information System). Each record i n PMIS conta i n s t h i r t e e n f i e l d s , the m a j o r i t y of which are f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l purposes. The two most important f i e l d s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l access are the a b s t r a c t f i e l d , i n which a short d e s c r i p t i o n of each group of photographs i s gi v e n , and the sub j e c t f i e l d c o n t a i n i n g s u b j e c t terms chosen from a s p e c i a l l y designed a u t h o r i t y l i s t . 2 0 Of the p r o j e c t s undertaken i n the 1960s and 1970s i n v o l v i n g mainframes, the experiment a t the A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company l i b r a r y i s one of very few i n which photographs are de s c r i b e d and indexed at any l e v e l other than item, o r , a t the other extreme, a t the fonds l e v e l , as i n guides. While c u r a t o r s of photographs continued p r i m a r i l y to develop or adopt computer programs a l l o w i n g f o r i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l , other p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e a l i n g with t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s began moving toward indexing at the f i l e and s e r i e s l e v e l s . The ARCHON (ARCHives ON-line) system designed and used by the Baltimore Region I n s t i t u t i o n a l Studies Center (BRISC) provides f o l d e r -l e v e l access to BRISC t e x t u a l h o l d i n g s . I t can a l s o generate r e g i s t e r s and f i l e - h e a d i n g i n v e n t o r i e s . Developed under the d i r e c t i o n s of an h i s t o r i a n 88 and a l i b r a r i a n , ARCHON i s user o r i e n t e d and allows f o r i n t e r a c t i v e , on-l i n e searches by name, s u b j e c t , date and geographic l o c a t i o n . KWOC (key-word-out-of-context) indexing f u r t h e r enhances the f l e x i b i l i t y of ARCHON. S i m i l a r to other computer p r o j e c t s , the s t a f f i n p u t t i n g data i n t o the ARCHON system soon found t h a t some form of name and subje c t a u t h o r i t y c o n t r o l was r e q u i r e d . The r e s u l t was the production of the Urban Information Thesaurus which contains indexing terms unique to BRISC a r c h i v e s and was compiled by a f u l l t i m e reference s p e c i a l i s t h i r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the t a s k . 2 1 ARCHON was developed i n the 1970s as was PARADIGM (Programmed Annual Report And D i g i t a l Information Generation M a t r i x ) , created f o r the a r c h i v e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana-Champaign. A mainframe program, PARADIGM provides f o r s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s and i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on s e r i e s numbers, type and s t a t u s of m a t e r i a l , value, i n c l u s i v e dates, a c q u i s i t i o n and p r ocessing dates, l e n g t h of f i n d i n g a i d s , s h o r t s e r i e s t i t l e , and sub j e c t coding. In the o r i g i n a l program s u b j e c t indexing was l i m i t e d by the sho r t record l e n g t h and t h e r e f o r e the system was used p r i m a r i l y f o r management purposes. As of 1977, enhancements to the program have allowed fo r any number of su b j e c t d e s c r i p t o r s . Subject d e s c r i p t o r s are chosen f o r an a u t h o r i t y l i s t compiled e s p e c i a l l y f o r use i n the u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s . I t was not u n t i l the indexing c a p a c i t y of PARADIGM was enhanced t h a t the program was considered a r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to a r c h i v a l a u t o m a t i o n . 2 2 The computer system developed by the N a t i o n a l Archives and Record S e r v i c e , NARS A - l , was poor l y r e c e i v e d by the a r c h i v a l community i n part because i t was created to f a c i l i t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l , not su b j e c t indexing. For ins t a n c e , NARS A - l , which runs on a minicomputer (a d i g i t a l 89 computer which can f u n c t i o n independently or as a component of a l a r g e r mainframe), w i l l produce l o c a t i o n r e g i s t e r s , s t a t i s t i c s on the volume of records at the s e r i e s l e v e l and f i n d i n g a i d s such as s e r i e s and f i l e l i s t s . Programming f o r s u b j e c t access was d e f e r r e d because of the c o s t s i n v o l v e d and because of d i f f i c u l t i e s foreseen i n indexing s e r i e s t i t l e s over which there was no a u t h o r i t y c o n t r o l . 2 3 In 1980, Charles D o l l a r of the N a t i o n a l Archives conceded that NARS A - l , with i t s emphasis on access by provenance, seems antiquated and t h a t i n f u t u r e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be given to e s t a b l i s h i n g a means to provide s u b j e c t a c c e s s . 2 4 Mainframes, minicomputers and even microcomputers, along w i t h v a r i o u s software programs, have been l i n k e d to v i s u a l systems to provide users with i n t e l l e c t u a l access to t e x t u a l and nontextual a r c h i v e s . The use of automated v i s u a l systems has been p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to photographic l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s who have never r e l i n q u i s h e d the idea t h a t w r i t t e n information alone on photographs i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n conveying the nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s holdings to users. The automated v i s u a l c a t a l o g u i n g and indexing of graphic m a t e r i a l s began i n the l a t e 1960s and i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d the use of m i c r o f i l m and m i c r o f i c h e . In these experimental p i l o t p r o j e c t s , the cost f a c t o r o f t e n l i m i t e d the reproduction on f i l m and the indexing of images to s e v e r a l hundred. These images were i n v a r i a b l y chosen on the b a s i s of h i s t o r i c a l value and repeated use by p a t r o n s . 2 9 The random access r e t r i e v a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the computer systems i n use meant t h a t search requirements were f u l f i l l e d with speed and ease. Users were able to search the indexes and having decided on a p a r t i c u l a r image, could see t h a t image and a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of i t on the computer or m i c r o f i l m reader 90 s c r e e n . 2 6 These experiments, as f a r as they went, were deemed s u c c e s s f u l , but the i n t r o d u c t i o n of v i d e o d i s c s has made e a r l i e r work with m i c r o f i l m and mi c r o f i c h e seem ob s o l e t e . The advantages of v i d e o d i s c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g , are data storage c a p a c i t y , random access and d u r a b i l i t y . Depending on the type of d i s c u t i l i z e d , thousands and even m i l l i o n s of images can be st o r e d on one d i s c . Discs are r e l a t i v e l y durable e s p e c i a l l y i n comparison to m i c r o f i l m and m i c r o f i c h e which have proven to be p h y s i c a l l y unstable. Moreover, l i n k e d to the appr o p r i a t e computer program, each frame on a d i s c can be accessed d i r e c t l y . 2 7 The main drawback, of course, i s heavy f r o n t end cost s i n c u r r e d i n purchasing the necessary equipment, i n c l u d i n g a computer i f one i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . L i t e r a t u r e appearing i n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s would i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o j e c t s using v i d e o d i s c s share a s i m i l a r goal to other computer p r o j e c t s : s u b j e c t i n d e x i n g , e s p e c i a l l y of d i s c r e t e items. For example, i n 1982 the L i b r a r y of Congress i n i t i a t e d an O p t i c a l Disk P i l o t Program and by 1984 had put 40,000 photographs, p o s t e r s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings and other graphic items from the L i b r a r y ' s P r i n t s and Photographs c o l l e c t i o n on v i d e o d i s c s . Using the L i b r a r y of Congress computer indexing and a b s t r a c t i n g systems, users can view images a t a rate of s e v e r a l per second or they can manually c o n t r o l the r a t e a t which the images a p p e a r . 2 8 The N a t i o n a l A i r and Space Museum has a l s o used v i d e o d i s c s i n s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g photographic images. As of 198G, three v i d e o d i s c s had been completed, the f i r s t two c o n t a i n i n g 100,000 images and the t h i r d c o n t a i n i n g 50,000 images. Offered f o r s a l e to i n t e r e s t e d r e p o s i t o r i e s , the d i s c s come with an automated and 91 hardcopy i n d e x . 2 3 A r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s have a l s o considered the use of o p t i c a l d i s c s f o r images considered unworthy of item indexing. At the Time Incorporated P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n , Betsy G. Young, Chief L i b r a r i a n , has speculated that " l o t s " of photographs could be placed on v i d e o d i s c s and, presumably, accessed by a s u b j e c t index which would p o i n t to groups w i t h i n the l o t s or the e n t i r e l o t i t s e l f i f of a homogeneous nature. Important photographs e x t r a c t e d from l o t s as the best examples of p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s could s t i l l be catalogued and indexed at the item l e v e l and included i n a manual p i c t u r e f i l e . 3 " While some i n s t i t u t i o n s have been pleased w i t h the r e s u l t s of t h e i r v i d e o d i s c p i l o t p r o j e c t s , others have met with l e s s success. The Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e , f o r example, conducted a two-year study of the p o t e n t i a l value of v i d e o d i s c technology and found i t u n s u i t a b l e f o r use i n i t s l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l d i v i s i o n s . The major complaints of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e were that v i d e o d i s c s are not f a r enough developed to be a r e l i a b l e replacement f o r m i c r o f i l m , the expense i s too great and, g e n e r a l l y , t h a t more research and development are r e q u i r e d . 3 1 For these same reasons, most a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s w i l l not have to consider the o p t i o n of v i d e o d i s c s f o r some time to come. In Canada, mainframe systems have a l s o been used to produce union guides such as the Union L i s t of Manuscripts (ULM) and the Guide to Canadian  Photographic Archives (GCPA). 3 2 Work on the ULM began i n the 1960s and a database was created i n which d e s c r i p t i o n s of manuscript u n i t s could be maintained. Three types of output were produced: a l p h a b e t i c a l by t i t l e of 92 each e n t r y w i t h a p r i n t of the t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n ; a l p h a b e t i c a l by t i t l e f o r each c o n t r i b u t i n g r e p o s i t o r y with a p r i n t of t i t l e s and corresponding i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers; an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t of su b j e c t s and proper names r e f e r r i n g users to the appropriate u n i t d e s c r i p t i o n i n the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of the ULM. The system was developed to produce only one product, the ULM, and the data cannot be manipulated f o r other purposes. The system a l s o l a c k s the c a p a c i t y f o r o n - l i n e searches or updating on a day-to-day b a s i s . 3 3 Work on an automated v e r s i o n of the Guide to Canadian Photographic  Archives began i n the l a t e 1970s. Using a database system known as TEAMS/MITS developed by Al p h a t e x t , a s e r v i c e bureau i n Ottawa, the system was used to a l p h a b e t i c a l l y s o r t and index over 9,000 photographic a r c h i v a l fonds and item d e s c r i p t i o n s . An e a r l i e r , manually complied v e r s i o n of the GCPA had met with c r i t i c i s m because the subj e c t index was considered inadequate; the second e d i t i o n redressed the problem by expanding the subje c t index and by i n c l u d i n g an index by photographer's name as w e l l . In the Explanatory Notes sent to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , the compilers of the GCPA designed and included a form to be used i n d e s c r i b i n g bodies of photographs. 3 4 The compilers hoped t h a t the form, based l o o s e l y on AACR1 and AARC2. would encourage standard d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o r photographs. 3' In the end, though, the compilers had to accept photocopies of accession forms, catalogue cards, i n v e n t o r i e s or other f i n d i n g a i d s and then use the in f o r m a t i o n contained t h e r e i n to f i l l out the form themselves before i n p u t t i n g data i n t o the computer. Both the Union L i s t of Manuscripts and the Guide to Canadian 93 Photographic Archives are important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n and to the users of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . At the same time, they are i n d i c a t i v e of automated p r o j e c t s undertaken w i t h a narrow goal i n mind, such as using computers to ease manual s o r t i n g processes a s s o c i a t e d with indexing and compiling guides. More b a s i c i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and informati o n management were o f t e n ignored by the i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e a r l y automation p r o j e c t s . The computer systems used i n c r e a t i n g the ULM and the GCPA, along with most other mainframe systems of the 1960s and 1970s were developed i n i s o l a t i o n and without the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of other i n t e r e s t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The net r e s u l t i s that the exchange of inf o r m a t i o n v i a networks i s v i r t u a l l y impossible because database systems and a u t h o r i t y f i l e s are i n c o m p a t i b l e . 3 6 In the case of the ULM and the GCPA. there i s the added dimension of fragmentation by media. To some a r c h i v i s t s , such as Terry Cook, f o r example, i t i s inexcusable that a researcher cannot f i n d f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s of a l l media forms i n one union l i s t . 3 7 Thus, although some progress was made i n the e a r l y phase of using mainframe computers, the f i n a l products d i d not always meet o r i g i n a l e xpectations or the expectations of the p r o f e s s i o n a t large nor f o s t e r great hope f o r the f u t u r e of automating the a r c h i v e s . Smaller i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n automation could f i n d very l i t t l e which they wished or could p o s s i b l y d u p l i c a t e i n p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out on large mainframe computers. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , i t looked as i f these smaller r e p o s i t o r i e s would never be able to contemplate automation and the undertaking of t h e i r own p r o j e c t s without access to a c e n t r a l i z e d mainframe system. As l a t e as 1981, a r c h i v i s t s were warned that microcomputers were 94 not acceptable a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r multipurpose a r c h i v a l use because they lacked the powerful c a p a b i l i t i e s of mainframes. 3 8 Rapid developments and improvements i n microcomputer technology, the r e l a t i v e inexpense of microcomputers compared to minicomputers and mainframes and imaginative experimentation w i t h microcomputers by p i o n e e r i n g a r c h i v i s t s has l e d to a new s i t u a t i o n where microcomputers are considered the way of the f u t u r e . In the l a s t few years, the use of microcomputers has given a greater number of a r c h i v i s t s hands-on experience and i t would appear that users of microcomputers d i d l e a r n some v a l u a b l e lessons by observing t h e i r predecessors working with mainframes. However, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of microcomputers i n t o a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s could not overcome problems which had t h e i r o r i g i n i n the approach and methodology of the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f . R ichard Kesner, a strong proponent of the use of microcomputers, has s t r e s s e d that a r c h i v i s t s should move g r a d u a l l y toward f u l l y automating the a r c h i v e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t microcomputers should f i r s t be used to handle d a i l y r o u t i n e matters such as general a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chores, f i n a n c i a l management, c o l l e c t i o n development and fund r a i s i n g before moving i n t o the area of i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of h o l d i n g s . This approach w i l l give s t a f f time to evaluate the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the microcomputer and i t s software and to consider which d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s w i l l be automated and how to t a c k l e the s i t u a t i o n . 3 9 Before an i n s t i t u t i o n moves i n t o automating inform a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and before c o n s i d e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n networks, Kesner warns that manual d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s must be evaluated, r a t i o n a l i z e d and, p r e f e r a b l y , s t a n d a r d i z e d . * 0 95 Kesner's advice regarding the establishment of p r i o r i t i e s and the need to analyze manual d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s before automating echoed the sentiments of a r c h i v i s t s who had experienced l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n the e a r l y use of computers. L y d i a Lucas of the Minnesota H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ' s D i v i s i o n of Archives and Manuscripts, f o r example, sent out a very c l e a r message to a r c h i v i s t s i n her 1981 a r t i c l e i n the American A r c h i v i s t . In t h a t a r t i c l e she recounts the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ' s encounter with SPINDEX and the reasons why she and her colleagues "bowed out of t h e . . . p r o j e c t . " Apart from a problem with lack of funds and f r u s t r a t i o n s involved i n debugging a program with inherent i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s , the s t a f f of the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y found that they r e a l l y d i d not know what t h e i r needs were nor d i d they have any c l e a r idea of what r e a l i s t i c a l l y could be expected of SPINDEX. 4 1 The most val u a b l e t h i n g learned was that a poor manual system of d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s cannot be converted i n t o a good automated system. An automated system could n e i t h e r compensate f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n manual f i n d i n g a i d s nor t o l e r a t e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s . 4 2 In s h o r t , Lucas and her colleagues confirmed the o l d dictum, "garbage i n , garbage out." A microcomputer p r o j e c t launched by the N a t i o n a l Photography C o l l e c t i o n of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada i n 1983 b e n e f i t e d from the advice of Kesner, Lucas and other c a u t i o n a r y v o i c e s . I n i t i a l l y , the microcomputers purchased by the NPC were to be used by s t a f f members to perform a v a r i e t y of o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s such as producing l e t t e r s , memoranda, and r e p o r t s . Over time, a d d i t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s were discovered i n c l u d i n g c a t a l o g u i n g and f i n d i n g a i d p r o d u c t i o n . 4 3 In c r e a t i n g f i n d i n g a i d s such as i n v e n t o r i e s , the s t a f f of the N a t i o n a l 96 Photography C o l l e c t i o n use the microcomputer as a word processor but the c a t a l o g u i n g o£ i n d i v i d u a l photographs i s a more s t r u c t u r e d and standardized process using dBase II, a data base management system. To ensure u n i f o r m i t y i n c a t a l o g u i n g , the NPC devised a procedures manual c o n s i s t i n g of two s e c t i o n s : one on d e s c r i p t i v e c a t a l o g u i n g of photographs which c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e s how the t i t l e , p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , notes, and c o n t r o l and l o c a t i o n numbers are to be entered; the second s e c t i o n contains a s u b j e c t thesaurus used i n s e l e c t i n g subject headings. Output can be i n the form of card catalogue e n t r i e s or l i s t s . The c r e a t o r s of the procedures manual recognize that the r u l e s and s u b j e c t headings "are not the d e f i n i t i v e word on c a t a l o g u i n g photographs" but hope th a t i n making t h e i r manual a v a i l a b l e , other p r o f e s s i o n a l s might b e n e f i t from the work done at the N a t i o n a l Photography C o l l e c t i o n . 4 4 While the manual i t s e l f may or may not be of use to o t h e r s , the automated c a t a l o g u i n g p r o j e c t undertaken by the NPC again un d e r l i n e s the trend of working i n i s o l a t i o n from other p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n other r e p o s i t o r i e s . Moreover, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, the NPC a l s o developed i t s data base management system i n i s o l a t i o n from a r c h i v i s t s working i n other d i v i s i o n s of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. Microcomputers and word-processing packages have a l s o been used by a r c h i v i s t s whose requirements are l i m i t e d to a system that w i l l a l l o w for the production of i n v e n t o r i e s , guides and/or s u b j e c t indexes. The Delaware State Archives Guide P r o j e c t , f o r i n s t a n c e , has t r a n s f e r r e d i t s SPINDEX data to a microcomputer employing Word P e r f e c t , a word processing program. 4 3 At the l i b r a r y of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development i n Washington D.C. the e n t i r e .catalogue of photographs was entered i n t o a 97 computer using a word processing program which allows f o r search and access by s u b j e c t , proper name and l o c a t i o n . 4 6 The author of an a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , David A. Murdock, does not mention whether he had communicated with or was otherwise aware of the work done by the Baltimore Region I n s t i t u t i o n a l Studies Center (BRISC) which, using ARCHON, deals with a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s of a s i m i l a r nature and o r i g i n to those of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Murdock a l s o does not d i s c u s s whether or not he created an subj e c t and/or name a u t h o r i t y f i l e ( s ) f o r h i s p r o j e c t , but i f he d i d , he may have found BRISC's Urban Information  Thesaurus of value. The Microcomputer Archives and Records Management System (MARS) at the Archives of Appalachia grew out of a d e s i r e to i n v e s t i g a t e and experiment with microcomputers i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g . Using an Apple computer and BASIC software, the s t a f f a t the Archives of Appalachia created programs to deal w i t h a c c e s s i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s as w e l l as a program fo r i n p u t t i n g guide e n t r i e s d e s c r i b i n g the holdings of the r e p o s i t o r y . The guide e n t r i e s are searchable by s t a f f and users through Boolean l o g i c operands. Before e n t e r i n g fojnjis. d e s c r i p t i o n s , the a r c h i v i s t s i nvolved r e a l i z e d that a modicum of in-house s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l . To t h i s end, a s p e c i a l l y designed f i n d i n g a i d format was devised which s t r u c t u r e s the d e s c r i p t i v e process and the input of data i n t o the computer. The ul t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t i s to provide other l o c a l a r c h i v i s t s with a model worthy of adoption and, once adopted, make p o s s i b l e the idea of informati o n networking. Microcomputers, i n f a c t , can be used to form networks through the use of telephone l i n e connections. As the s t a f f a t the 98 Archives of Appalachia a n t i c i p a t e , c e r t a i n changes i n t h e i r computer software package w i l l be necessary i n transforming i t from one type of microcomputer to another and formats may r e q u i r e a l t e r a t i o n to b r i n g them i n t o conformity with the formats created i n other r e p o s i t o r i e s . 4 7 Whether or not other i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l adopt MARS and whether the p a r t i c i p a t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s w i l l be able to devise standard formats f or the exchange of inf o r m a t i o n w i l l determine the r e a l success of the MARS program. In-house computer programs developed by a r c h i v i s t s are now vying for a t t e n t i o n a l o n g s i d e programs created by commercial f i r m s and aimed a t ca p t u r i n g the new market i n microcomputer a p p l i c a t i o n i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . Computer programs such as MARCON, w r i t t e n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r a r c h i v e s , a l l o w f or the e n t e r i n g and e d i t i n g of d e s c r i p t i o n s a t the item, f i l e , s e r i e s or fonds l e v e l s , o n l i n e searches using Boolean l o g i c , the production of su b j e c t indexes, a u t h o r i t y c o n t r o l through the use of o p t i o n a l thesaurus systems and f l e x i b i l i t y i n report g e n e r a t i o n . 4 8 GENCAT (GENeric CATaloguing) developed by Eloquent Systems Incorporated of North Vancouver i s very s i m i l a r to MARCON and possesses many of the same f e a t u r e s . 4 9 Both of these data base management programs r e q u i r e that the a r c h i v i s t d e f i n e the f i e l d s to be used i n d e s c r i b i n g a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l and determine h i s or her own subj e c t headings and proper name a u t h o r i t i e s . This makes both programs very f l e x i b l e , but o b v i o u s l y i t does not r e l i e v e the a r c h i v i s t of having to address the issue of s t a n d a r d i z i n g d e s c r i p t i v e elements and c r e a t i n g f i e l d s before i n p u t t i n g data. I f an i n s t i t u t i o n hopes to share in f o r m a t i o n on i t s holdings with other i n s t i t u t i o n s , some thought must a l s o be given to the use of d e s c r i p t i v e elements f o r communication purposes. 99 In 1978 the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s e s t a b l i s h e d a Task Force on Nat i o n a l Information Systems (NISTF) to study information systems and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d e s c r i p t i v e process and to make recommendations regarding the development of a u n i f i e d n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n system tot a r c h i v e s and manuscript r e s o u r c e s . S B A f t e r a n a l y z i n g the d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s used i n ar c h i v e s and manuscript r e p o s i t o r i e s the members of NISTF found that although the p h y s i c a l appearance of these t o o l s v a r i e d w i d e l y , most contained common elements of in f o r m a t i o n , such as c o l l e c t i o n t i t l e , date span, volume, access r e s t r i c t i o n s and the l i k e . 5 1 The Task Force decided, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t what was needed was some form of reference d i c t i o n a r y to standardize d e f i n i t i o n s of a r c h i v a l d e s c r i p t i o n and provide a common language. The Task Force a l s o r e a l i z e d that a standard d e s c r i p t i v e format for the exchange of a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n amongst r e p o s i t o r i e s should be designed. The f i n a l outcome was the c r e a t i o n of a "Data Elements D i c t i o n a r y " and the MARC AMC (MAchine-Readable C a t a l o g i n g , Archives and Manuscript C o n t r o l ) format, both of which can be found i n Nancy S a h l i ' s MARC  fo r Archives and Manuscripts. The AMC Format published i n Chicago by the So c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s i n 1985. The MARC format has a lengthy h i s t o r y . O r i g i n a l l y developed by the L i b r a r y of Congress i n the l a t e 1960s f o r c a t a l o g u i n g p r i n t e d monographic p u b l i c a t i o n s , MARC formats f o r other types of l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s , such as s e r i a l s , maps, v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , music and manuscripts were a l s o developed over the years. The f i r s t MARC format for manuscript c o n t r o l was not w e l l s u i t e d f o r use i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s because of i t s emphasis on the cat a l o g u i n g of i n d i v i d u a l items. However, the MARC format f o r manuscripts 100 was compatible with the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules and with I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standard B i b l i o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n p r a c t i c e s which made i t a t t r a c t i v e to the members of NISTF. Knowing that the L i b r a r y of Congress was c o n s i d e r i n g the r e v i s i o n of i t s MARC format for manuscripts, NISTF i n v i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the L i b r a r y of Congress, along w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Research L i b r a r i e s Group, N a t i o n a l Archives and Record S e r v i c e , and the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission, to j o i n together i n a working group to consider the for m u l a t i o n of a standard format f o r the exchange of a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The working group e v e n t u a l l y decided on adopting and modifying the o r i g i n a l MARC format for m a n u s c r i p t s . 3 2 The r e s u l t was MARC AMC. MARC AMC i s s i m i l a r to other b i b l i o g r a p h i c formats i n that i t a c t s as a cont a i n e r to hold data and to i n d i c a t e the l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the record of each data element or f i e l d comprising a d e s c r i p t i o n . The format can be used i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of any type of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , t e x t u a l or n o n t e x t u a l , and at any l e v e l , from item to fonds. When a b i b l i o g r a p h i c record i s created using MARC AMC, the inf o r m a t i o n i n the f i e l d s can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and manipulated by the computer to generate a number of d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s . Although designed as a standard f o r the automated exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n , MARC AMC can a l s o be used as an in-house manual format. F u r t h e r , the data element d i c t i o n a r y and the f i e l d format of MARC AMC are f l e x i b l e enough to meet l o c a l needs while not p r e c l u d i n g n a t i o n a l exchange n e t w o r k s . 3 3 The MARC AMC format i s a l r e a d y i n use i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r the purpose of d e s c r i b i n g bodies of photographs. At Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , f o r 101 example, MARC AMC has been used to describe the photographs found i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s News and P u b l i c a t i o n s Service C o l l e c t i o n . These photographs were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d as a group i n one record and i n separate records as i n d i v i d u a l s e r i e s . 9 4 The h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the MARC AMC format makes i t p o s s i b l e to l i n k i n t o a meaningful whole a l l the s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to one fonds or body of m a t e r i a l . The exis t e n c e of MARC V i s u a l and MARC Audio-Visual formats, designed for use i n l i b r a r i e s , but a l s o s u i t a b l e f o r use i n museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s , should mean that these I n s t i t u t i o n s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s w i l l be able to exchange in f o r m a t i o n on photographic holdings s i n c e a l l the MARC formats are b a s i c a l l y compatible with one another. In Washington, the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of A r t Photographic Archives has described the d i s c r e t e items i n i t s c o l l e c t i o n using the MARC Audio - V i s u a l f o r m a t . 9 9 However, with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of va r i o u s l i b r a r y networks, such as the Research L i b r a r i e s Group, i n the development and/or use of MARC AMC, the most l o g i c a l route f or l i b r a r i e s having a r c h i v a l photographs w i l l a l s o be to use the AMC format. The MARC AMC format was designed f or use with a mainframe computer which would mean t h a t s m a l l e r r e p o s i t o r i e s w i t h microcomputers would be excluded from p o s s i b l e networks based on MARC. To remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n , MicroMARC:AMC was developed i n 1986 f o r use with IBM PCs (personal computers) or IBM compatibles. In g e n e r a l , MicroMARC works w e l l except that some f u n c t i o n s such as updating indexes are slower on a microcomputer than when using a mainframe and the standard MARC AMC f o r m a t . 9 6 Another a l t e r n a t i v e discussed by Ronald Zboray i s the use of a microcomputer with dBase I I I Plus and the MARC AMC format. While there i s no inherent 102 i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between dBase and the MARC format, the use of a dBase-MARC system does r e q u i r e some programming to overcome the maximum dBase record s i z e of 4,000 bytes. The MARC format c o n t a i n s seventy-seven f i e l d s and f i l l i n g these f i e l d s might exceed the dBase byte l i m i t . One method of d e a l i n g with t h i s problem i s to l i n k two dBase data f i l e s together through a common f i e l d and d i v i d e the MARC f i e l d s between them.* 7 I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h computer e n t h u s i a s t s or t h e i r own programmers w i l l experience no d i f f i c u l t i e s here, but other i n s t i t u t i o n s may have to e n l i s t the a i d of a computer c o n s u l t a n t to i n s t a l l MARC AMC. Further research i n t o the use of dBase and MARC i s warranted given the commercial p o p u l a r i t y of dBase and the growing d e s i r e of a r c h i v i s t s to become involved with the MARC AMC format. For example, i n 1986 the a r c h i v i s t s at the Medical College of Pennsylvania reported having considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of using dBase I I I and the MARC format together i n d e s c r i b i n g the photographic holdings of the C o l l e g e . 3 8 Whether or not they e v e n t u a l l y launched an experimental p r o j e c t i n t h i s regard i s not revealed i n subsequent l i t e r a t u r e . The members of the A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n P r o j e c t of the U n i v e r s i t y of L i v e r p o o l i n England have r e j e c t e d any d e s c r i p t i v e system which conforms to AACR2, i n c l u d i n g MARC, c i t i n g i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s with a r c h i v a l t r a d i t i o n s as the r e a s o n . 3 9 Instead, the A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n P r o j e c t team has made recommendations of i t s own concerning the s t r u c t u r e of data elements f o r the manual and automated d e s c r i p t i o n of t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s . 8 8 Members of the team a l s o f e e l that t h e i r general data standards would not be s u i t a b l e f o r s p e c i a l i z e d forms of documents, such as photographs, unless those s p e c i a l i z e d documents were contained w i t h i n a 103 t e x t u a l a r c h i v a l e n t i t y . Otherwise they recommend that nontextual m a t e r i a l be catalogued and indexed as d i s c r e t e i t e m s . 6 1 The Canadian Working Group on A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i v e Standards has been more w i l l i n g to consider and to recommend d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s based on AARC2f such as MARC. The approach of the Working Group has been much wider i n scope than t h a t of the A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n P r o j e c t or NISTF. Members of the Working Group have analyzed and made suggestions regarding a l l areas of manual or automated d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s , g i v i n g equal a t t e n t i o n to nontextual as w e l l as t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s . As Kent Haworth, a member of the Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s ' P lanning Committee on D e s c r i p t i v e Standards set up pursuant to the report of the Working Group, has argued, the development of in-house, automated d e s c r i p t i v e standards f o r s p e c i f i c purposes along with dreams of automated communications networks means p u t t i n g the c a r t before the horse, the horse being a broad range of manual d e s c r i p t i v e standards accepted and used by a r c h i v i s t s across the n a t i o n . 6 2 In a l l , the Working Group made t h i r t y - f i v e recommendations i n i t s 1985 rep o r t Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards. As a p r i o r i t y , the Working Group has recommended that Canadian a r c h i v i s t s f i r s t d e s c r i b e and index a l l holdings at the fonds l e v e l , r e g a r d l e s s of form or medium of r e c o r d . 6 3 They a l s o recommend th a t a l l types of f i n d i n g a i d s be d e f i n e d i n standard terms which name each type of f i n d i n g a i d , s t a t e i t s purpose, c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s contents and e s t a b l i s h a format f o r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n . 6 4 The development of d e s c r i p t i v e standards for s p e c i f i c types of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s was a l s o considered by the Working Group. For example, the Working Group has suggested that a committee of Canadian a r c h i v i s t s should review Steven 104 Hensen's manual Arch i v e s . Personal Papers and M a n u s c r i p t s 6 8 as the p o s s i b l e b a s i s f or the development of r u l e s f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s . 6 6 Hensen's work i s based and expands on Chapter Four on manuscripts i n AACR2. In d e s c r i b i n g bodies of photographs, the Working Group recommends that a committee of Canadian a r c h i v i s t s adopt and/or adapt E l i s a b e t h Betz's Graphic M a t e r i a l s f o r D e s c r i b i n g O r i g i n a l Items and  C o l l e c t i o n s • 6 7 Betz's manual i s based and expands on Chapter Ei g h t i n AACR2 and t h e r e f o r e l i k e Hensen's manual i s a l s o compatible w i t h the various MARC formats, i n c l u d i n g MARC AMC. The Working Group could see where MARC AMC would l i k e l y become wid e l y used f o r the storage and exchange of a r c h i v a l data and thus recommended that a committee be str u c k to study the MARC AMC format i n l i g h t of i t s adoption or adaptation i n Canada. 6 8 F o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Working Group's r e p o r t , a Canadian Committee on MARC (CCM) was created and has al r e a d y begun to address t h i s i s s u e . 6 8 E l i s a b e t h Betz's Graphic M a t e r i a l s was published by the L i b r a r y of Congress but the r u l e s contained i n the manual were intended to meet the needs of a r c h i v i s t s and museum c u r a t o r s as w e l l as l i b r a r i a n s and to f a c i l i t a t e automation and n a t i o n a l networking systems. While Chapter E i g h t of AACR2 p r i m a r i l y focuses on the c a t a l o g u i n g of commercially-produced v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , published and/or documented a r t i s t s ' p r i n t s and photographs and reproductions accompanied by p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , Graphic  M a t e r i a l s o f f e r s r u l e s more app r o p r i a t e i n the ca t a l o g u i n g of o r i g i n a l s and h i s t o r i c a l g r a p h i c s . 7 8 Rules contained i n AACR2 are rede f i n e d and modified i n Graphic M a t e r i a l s to take i n t o account the f a c t t h a t h i s t o r i c a l and unpublished graphics can r a r e l y be catalogued with reference to a " c h i e f 105 source of in f o r m a t i o n " from which to t r a n s c r i b e b i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . Instead, as Betz p o i n t s out, i n f o r m a t i o n must be e x t r a c t e d , i n t e r p r e t e d and ext r a p o l a t e d from the v i s u a l content and context of unpublished graphic m a t e r i a l s . 7 1 Thus, the terminology, d e f i n i t i o n s and g u i d e l i n e s i n Graphic  M a t e r i a l s can be more e a s i l y understood and a p p l i e d by a r c h i v i s t s and museum cu r a t o r s than can the r u l e s i n AACR2. U n l i k e AACR2 which s t r e s s e s item-l e v e l c a t a l o g u i n g , Graphic M a t e r i a l s puts equal emphasis on item and group c a t a l o g u i n g . When Graphic M a t e r i a l s was published i n 1982 work on the MARC AMC format was not yet complete. In recent years, however, the MARC AMC format has come to inform other p r o j e c t s undertaken at the L i b r a r y of Congress, P r i n t s and Photographs D i v i s i o n . B u i l d i n g on Graphic M a t e r i a l s and the MARC AMC format, Betz and her colleagues have created two other t o o l s to be used i n s t a n d a r d i z i n g d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o r nontextual a r c h i v e s : LC Thesaurus f o r Graphic M a t e r i a l s : T o p i c a l Terms for Subject Access (LCTGM) and D e s c r i p t i v e Terms  f o r Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Headings (GMGPC). The terms contained i n both of these p u b l i c a t i o n s are aut h o r i z e d f o r use i n MARC records. LCTGM contains 3,567 postable (authorized) terms to be entered i n the 650 f i e l d of MARC records and 2,569 nonpostable (cross reference) t e r m s . 7 2 As with any thesaurus, however, i t i s expected t h a t indexers i n various i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l f i n d a d d i t i o n a l terms which should be added. To a i d i n t h i s process, LCTGM contains g u i d e l i n e s i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n on the a p p l i c a t i o n of indexing p r a c t i c e s to p i c t o r i a l indexing. These g u i d e l i n e s w i l l a l s o help ensure t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n of LCTGM i s c o n s i s t e n t . 7 3 The LC Thesaurus for Graphic M a t e r i a l s should be used i n 106 c o n j u n c t i o n with D e s c r i p t i v e Terms for Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and  P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Headings. The g u i d e l i n e s i n GMGPC and LCTGM make c l e a r when a genre or p h y s i c a l type can be considered a subje c t heading and used i n MARC f i e l d 650 and when the same inf o r m a t i o n should be entered i n MARC f i e l d 655 as a genre heading and/or f i e l d 755, as a p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c heading. GMGPC contains 513 au t h o r i z e d terms and 260 cross r e f e r e n c e s . 7 * The terms are exhaustive and cover v i r t u a l l y every type of genre or p h y s i c a l format p e r t a i n i n g to p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g photographs. I t i s l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , that new terms w i l l have to be added only on an o c c a s i o n a l b a s i s . Given the broad i n t e r e s t i n MARC, l i b r a r i a n s , a r c h i v i s t s and other c u r a t o r s of photographs might be more r e c e p t i v e to the LC Thesaurus f o r Graphic M a t e r i a l s : T o p i c a l Terms f o r Subject Access and D e s c r i p t i v e Terms for Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Headings than they have been to other a u t h o r i t i e s created i n the past. L i k e Graphic M a t e r i a l s . LCTGM and GMGPC are a l s o a p p l i c a b l e to manual d e s c r i p t i v e systems. The c o n t r o l l e d v o c a b u l a r i e s i n LCTGM and GMGPC were developed by the L i b r a r y of Congress f o r indexing purposes and i t i s i n t h i s area, the indexing of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s , where a r c h i v i s t s have r e c e n t l y come to question the e x c l u s i v e use of l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s . The mandate of l i b r a r i a n s i s to f a c i l i t a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and n a t u r a l l y members of the pr o f e s s i o n think i n terms of subject indexing as the best means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l . A r c h i v i s t s , conversely, have a mandate to provide documentary a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , that i s , to document o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . A r c h i v i s t s do not e x i s t s o l e l y f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g access to t h e i r holdings nor 107 to analyze the s u b j e c t content of those h o l d i n g s . 7 S For t h i s reason, a r c h i v i s t s are coming to r e a l i z e that t h e i r approach to indexing must emphasize e v i d e n t i a l v e r i f i c a t i o n and record a u t h e n t i c a t i o n . This means a departure from the present focus on access by s u b j e c t and the development of a c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary which r e v e a l s m i s s i o n , mandate, o r g a n i z a t i o n , f u n c t i o n s and h i s t o r y of the bodies which created the records being d e s c r i b e d . 7 6 In Canada, the Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s ' Committee on D e s c r i p t i v e Standards has struck a number of new Working Groups to act on the recommendations of the o r i g i n a l Working Group on D e s c r i p t i v e Standards; one of these new Working Groups which has a l r e a d y been appointed and begun i t s work i s charged with the study of the theory and methodology of indexing as a p p l i e d to a r c h i v e s , e x i s t i n g systems and how they work f o r a r c h i v e s , and the needs of a r c h i v i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s . This group plans on s u b m i t t i n g i t s f i n a l r eport by 31 March 1989 . 7 7 The issue of indexing by provenance w i l l l i k e l y be discussed by the group and perhaps work on the c o m p i l a t i o n of a c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary to be used i n provenance indexing w i l l be begun. A r c h i v i s t s need not abandon subj e c t indexing t o t a l l y ; to provide maximum access to a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s , both su b j e c t indexing and provenance indexing could be employed. When a method of provenance indexing i s developed i t s conceptual framework should encompass a l l a r c h i v e s r e g a r d l e s s of medium or o r i g i n , that i s , no d i s t i n c t i o n should be made i n the approach to the provenance indexing of p u b l i c records, manuscripts or nontextual m a t e r i a l s . Resistance to provenance indexing w i l l l i k e l y be encountered i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s who b e l i e v e that a r c h i v e s and manuscripts are b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e 108 separate indexing s o l u t i o n s . The same s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to occur i n ap p l y i n g provenance indexing to photographs. In one sense, D e s c r i p t i v e  Terms for Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Headings w i l l a i d a r c h i v i s t s i n d e s c r i b i n g the form and t h e r e f o r e , i n some in s t a n c e s , the f u n c t i o n of some photographs and the body which created them. For example, " l e g a l photographs" or " d e t e c t i v e camera photographs" could be used i n r e v e a l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the c r e a t o r ( s ) . However, i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to GMGPC. readers are advised t h a t terms r e f l e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e or f u n c t i o n need not be a p p l i e d i f images can be indexed j u s t as w e l l through t h e i r s u b j e c t c o n t e n t . 7 8 This i l l u s t r a t e s the b a s i c dichotomy i n the approach taken by a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s . I t a l s o u n d e r l i n e s the n e c e s s i t y of f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of a r c h i v a l methodology and p r i n c i p l e s before rushing to automate d e s c r i p t i v e systems and to j o i n i n f o r m a t i o n networks. Automation and networks are, of course, not the only reasons t h a t a r c h i v i s t s should be working toward the c r e a t i o n of standard d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s . D e s c r i p t i v e standards w i l l r e s u l t i n the more e f f i c i e n t use of the a r c h i v i s t ' s time; once r u l e s and procedures are e s t a b l i s h e d , a r c h i v i s t s w i l l not have to waste time i n d e c i d i n g what to do and how to do i t . Given the v a r i e t y of methods employed i n the arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs, standards would be p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l i n t h i s area. The existence of standards w i l l a l s o f a c i l i t a t e the t r a i n i n g of new s t a f f . From the user's p e r s p e c t i v e , c o n s i s t e n t l y formatted i n v e n t o r i e s , guides or indexes w i t h i n and between i n s t i t u t i o n s would mean b e t t e r s e r v i c e and l e s s time spent i n l e a r n i n g d i f f e r e n t systems i n d i f f e r e n t r e p o s i t o r i e s . 7 8 One of the l a r g e s t roadblocks to the development of standards has been 109 the idea that a l l a r c h i v a l fonds are unique e n t i t i e s . As a consequence, the a p p l i c a t i o n of standard d e s c r i p t i v e formats seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e . This n o t i o n , as i t a p p l i e s to t e x t u a l a r c h i v e s , has been l a r g e l y overcome. I t remains to be seen i f a r c h i v i s t s can break away from viewing photographic a r c h i v e s as a s p e c i a l medium f o r which a r c h i v a l d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s are only p a r t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e , i f at a l l . 110 ENDNOTES 1. T.R. Schellenberg, The Management of. Archives (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1965), 63. 2. I b i d . , 73, 77-79. 3. See Nancy S a h l i , MARC f o r Archives and Manuscripts: The AMC Format (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1985); Michael Cook and K r i s t i n a Grant, comps., A Manual of A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n d r a f t 7 (November 1984), A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i o n P r o j e c t , U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s , L i v e r p o o l , England; Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e  Standards. Report and Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on  A r c h i v a l D e s c r i p t i v e Standards (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1985). 4. H. Thomas Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to  Automated Access (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t , 1981), 19, 56-59. 5. Michael Cook, Archives and the Computer, 2nd ed. (London: Buttersworths, 1986). 6. Frank Burke, " A r c h i v a l Automation and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r , " i n Automating the A r c h i v e s : Issues and Problems i n Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 7. 7. R i t a R. Campbell, "Automation and Information R e t r i e v a l i n A r c h i v e s — The Broad Concepts," American A r c h i v i s t 30, 2 ( A p r i l 1967): 279. 8. Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access, 22. 9. I b i d . , 24. 10. Burke, " A r c h i v a l Automation and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r , " 8. 11. T.R. Regehr, "Do We Need New and Improved A r c h i v i s t s ? " A r c h i v a r i a 3 (Winter 1976-1977): 117. 12. Burke, " A r c h i v a l Automation and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r , " 11-12. 13. Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access, 27. 14. I b i d . , 23-25. I l l 15. Nancy S a h l i , "SPINDEX Users' Network," i n Automating the A r c h i v e s :  Issues and Problems i n Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 93-96. 16. Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access, 32. 17. Eleanor F i n k , " N a t i o n a l C o l l e c t i o n of Fine A r t , S l i d e s and Photographic A r c h i v e s , " i n Automating the A r c h i v e s : Issues and Problems i n  Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , 178, 186-182. 18. Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access, 39. 19. F r e d e r i c k J . S t i e l o w , "Subject Indexing a Large Photograph C o l l e c t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 46, 1 (Winter 1983): 72-74. 20. M i l d r e d Simpson, "Photographs i n a Business S e t t i n g : A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company," American A r c h i v i s t 45, 3 (Summer 1982): 315-321. 21. W. Theodore Durr, "Baltimore Region I n s t i t u t i o n a l Studies Center," i n Automating the A r c h i v e s : Issues and Problems i n Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 73-74. 22. Hickerson, A r c h i v e s and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access, 41. 23. Charles D o l l a r , " N a t i o n a l Archives and Records S e r v i c e , " i n Automating the A r c h i v e s : Issues and Problems i n Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge In d u s t r y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 127. 24. I b i d . , 130. 25. See, f o r example, R.G.J. Zimmerman, "A Computer-Accessed M i c r o f i c h e L i b r a r y , " J o u r n a l of L i b r a r y Automation 7, 4 (December 1974): 299. 26. See E l i z a b e t h Matthew Lewis, " V i s u a l Indexing of Graphic M a t e r i a l s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 67. 11 (November 1976): 518-527; W i l l i a m Saffady, " M i c r o f i l m Equipment and R e t r i e v a l Systems f o r L i b r a r y P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 65 (October/November 1974): 440-444; Zimmerman, "A Computer-Accessed M i c r o f i c h e L i b r a r y , " 290-306. 27. Dominic Nghiep Cong B u i , "The Videodisk: Technology, A p p l i c a t i o n s and Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 47, 4 ( F a l l 1984): 421-423. 112 28. "Analog Videodisk System Opens to Users at the L i b r a r y of Congress," American A r c h i v i s t 47, 4 ( F a l l 1984): 458-459. 29. " A r c h i v a l V i d e o d i s c s , " ACA B u l l e t i n 10. 5 (May 1986): 9-10. 30. Betsy G. Young, " P i c t u r e R e t r i e v a l i n the Time Inc. P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n , " Picturescope 30, 2 (Summer 1982): 60. 31. "Discs Nixed," ACA B u l l e t i n 11, 4 (March 1987): 8. 32. P u b l i c Archives of Canada, Union L i s t of Manuscripts i n Canadian  R e p o s i t o r i e s V o l s . I and I I (Ottawa: P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1975 and supplements); Christopher S e i f r i e d , ed., Guide to Canadian Photographic  Archives (Ottawa: P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1984). 33. Michael S w i f t , " A r c h i v a l Automation," (Unpublished paper d e l i v e r e d to the J o i n t Meeting of the ABCA/NWA Conference, S e a t t l e , Washington, 4 May 1984), 11. 34. A l a i n C l a v e t , Explanatory Notes f o r the D e s c r i p t i o n of the Holdings "and C o l l e c t i o n s i n Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives (Ottawa: P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1979), 3. 35. S w i f t , " A r c h i v a l Automation," 14. 36. I b i d . , 25. 37. Terry Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on "Total A r c h i v e s * , " A r c h i v a r i a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 147-148. 38. Hickerson, Archives and Manuscripts: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Automated  Access. 49. 39. Richard Kesner, Automation f o r A r c h i v i s t s and Records Managers:  Planning and Implementing S t r a t e g i e s (Chicago: American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984), 129-130. 40. I b i d . , 144. 41. Lydia Lucas, " E f f i c i e n t F i n d i n g A i d s : Developing a System f o r C o n t r o l of Archives and Manuscripts," American A r c h i v i s t 44, 1 (Winter 1891): 23. 42. I b i d . , 24. 43. S w i f t , " A r c h i v a l Automation," 24. 44. P u b l i c Archives of Canada, D e s c r i p t i v e and Subject Cataloguing at the  N a t i o n a l Photography C o l l e c t i o n , . (Ottawa: P u b l i c Archives of Canada), forward. 113 45. "SPINDEX Discontinued," ACA B u l l e t i n 11. 4 (March 1987): 8. 46. David Murdock, "HUD Photographic L i b r a r y Catalog." Picturescope 32, 1 (Summer 1985): 27-29. 47. Richard Kesner and Don Hurst, "Microcomputer A p p l i c a t i o n s i n Arch i v e s : A Study i n Progress," A r c h i v a r i a 12 (Summer 1981): 11-13. 48. Mark H. Kibby, "MARCON I I : Information C o n t r o l on a Microcomputer," L i b r a r y Hi Tech 42, 2 (Summer 1986): 11-13. 49. Eloquent Systems, "GENCAT," promotional l i t e r a t u r e , a v a i l a b l e from Eloquent Systems Inc., 107-140 West 15 S t r e e t , North Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, V7M 1R6, n.d. 50. Richard L y t l e , "Archives Cooperation," i n Automating the Ar c h i v e s :  Issues and Problems i n Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s , e d i t e d by Lawrence J . McCrank (White P l a i n s , New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 296. 51. S a h l i , MARC for Archives and Manuscripts. I n t r o d u c t i o n , answer to question 3. 52. David Bearman and Richard L y t l e , " A r c h i v a l Information Exchange i n the U.S.," A r c h i v a r i a 13 (Winter 1981-82): 127-129. 53. W i l l i a m J . Maher, "Administering A r c h i v a l Automation: Development of In-House Systems," American A r c h i v i s t 47, 4 ( F a l l 1984): 415. 54. Max J . Evans and L i s a Weber, MARC f o r Archives and Manuscripts: A  Compendium of P r a c t i c e (Madison: State H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Wisconsin, 1985), Appendix B-13. 55. Andrea Gibbs and Pat Stevens, "MARC and the Computerization of the Na t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Art Photographic A r c h i v e s , " V i s u a l Resources 3, 3 (Autumn 1986): 185-208. 56. Jon K. Reynolds, "Review of MicroMARC: amc, East Lansing, Michigan. Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , 1986," American A r c h i v i s t 50, 2 (Spring 1987): 266-268. 57. Ronald J . Zboray, "dBase I I I Plus and the MARC AMC Format: Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 50, 2 (Spring 1987): 215. 58. J u d i t h F e l s t e n , J i l l Gates Smith and Mary Anne Kenworthy, "Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s : Arrangement and Access," Picturescope 32, 2 (Spring 1986): 56. 59. Michael Cook and K r i s t i n a Grant, comps., A Manual of A r c h i v a l  D e s c r i p t i o n . 22. 114 60. I b i d . , 30-51. 61. I b i d . , 30. 62. Kent Haworth, " P u t t i n g the Cart before the Horse: Automation and D e s c r i p t i v e Standards f o r A r c h i v e s , " ABCA Newsletter 13, 3 (Winter 1987): 6-7. 63. Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards, 56. 64. I b i d . , 62. 65. Steven Hensen, A r c h i v e s . Personal Papers and Manuscripts (Washington, D.C: L i b r a r y of Congress, 1983). 66. Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards. 64. 67. E l i s a b e t h Betz, Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Rules for D e s c r i b i n g O r i g i n a l  Items and H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s (Washington, D.C: L i b r a r y of Congress, 1982); Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards, 66. 68. Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Toward D e s c r i p t i v e Standards, 72. 69. "BCA Planning Committee on D e s c r i p t i v e Standards," ACA B u l l e t i n 12, 4 (March 1988): 9. 70. Betz, Graphic M a t e r i a l s . 3. 71. I b i d . , 4. 72. E l i s a b e t h Betz ( P a r k e r ) , LC Thesaurus f o r Graphic M a t e r i a l s : T o p i c a l  Terms f o r Subject Access (Washington, D.C: L i b r a r y of Congress, 1987), v. 73. I b i d . , v, i x - x x i . 74. E l i s a b e t h Betz (Parker) and Helena Zinkham, comps. and eds., D e s c r i p t i v e Terms for Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Headings (Washington, D.C: L i b r a r y of Congress, 1986), v i . 75. David Bearman, "Who About What or from Whence, Why and How: I n t e l l e c t u a l Access Approaches to Archives and t h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N a t i o n a l A r c h i v a l Information Systems," i n A r c h i v e s . Automation and Access:  Proceedings of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Conference at the U n i v e r s i t y of  V i c t o r i a , e d i t e d by Peter A. B a s k e r v i l l e and Chad G a f f i e l d , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1-2 March 1985, 40. 115 76. Terry Cook, " I n t r o d u c t i o n : A r c h i v e s , Automation, and Access: The Vancouver I s l a n d P r o j e c t R e v i s i t e d , " i n A r c h i v e s , Automation and Access:  Proceedings of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Conference at the U n i v e r s i t y of  V i c t o r i a , e d i t e d by Peter A. B a s k e r v i l l e and Chad M. G a f f i e l d , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1-2 March 1985, 10. 77. "BCA Planning Committee on D e s c r i p t i v e Standards," 9. 78. Betz (Parker) and Zinkham, D e s c r i p t i v e Terms f o r Graphic M a t e r i a l s : Genre and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Headings, x - x i . 79. Jean E. Dryden and Kent Haworth, Developing D e s c r i p t i v e Standards: A  C a l l to A c t i o n (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1987), 2. 116 CHAPTER FIVE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONS Many of the problems and issues r a i s e d i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e regarding the organization/arrangement and c a t a l o g u i n g / d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs were a l s o encountered during f i e l d t r i p s to l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n the Vancouver area and i n V i c t o r i a . Each i n s t i t u t i o n v i s i t e d had a d i f f e r e n t approach or a d i f f e r e n t system f o r the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of photographs. Several f a c t o r s l a y behind the adoption of va r i o u s methods and p r a c t i c e s at these i n s t i t u t i o n s : the mandate of each p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n ; nature of use r s h i p ; nature of the photographs and t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and monetary valu e ; volume of photographs h e l d ; a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f ; f i n a n c i a l resources and cost e f f i c i e n c y ; present or p o s s i b l e access to a computer. A l s o , c u r a t o r s o f t e n i n h e r i t e d a system which they e i t h e r maintain today or which they close d a t some p o i n t to begin a new system. I t i s rare i n the l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l worlds f o r new systems to be superimposed on the o l d . Instead, both systems g e n e r a l l y run c o n c u r r e n t l y . This chapter w i l l d e s c r i b e the means employed i n the organization/arrangement and c a t a l o g u i n g / d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs held by 1) the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 2) the H i s t o r i c a l Photographs S e c t i o n of the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 3) the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s , 4) the V i s u a l Records D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, 5) the Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y Archives and 6) the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. In choosing two l i b r a r i e s , three a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s 117 and one h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y I t was hoped that a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of methodologies a p p l i e d i n the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of photographs would be obtained. Interviews were arranged with i n d i v i d u a l s i n charge of photographs a t each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s except at the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where the author of t h i s t h e s i s worked as an a r c h i v i s t between 1986 and 1988. 1 During the course of the in t e r v i e w s conducted i n the l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , a qu e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix) was to be administered v e r b a l l y but due to the s t r u c t u r e and nature of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the v a r i e t y of methods encountered i n the f i e l d , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o f t e n abandoned or used as a point of reference d u r i n g a f r e e - f l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the systems i n use at these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The aim of t h i s chapter i s not to expose the shortcomings or e x t o l the v i r t u e s of various systems used i n d e a l i n g with photographs but to examine each system i n r e l a t i o n to the t h e o r i e s , methodologies and case s t u d i e s d i s c ussed i n Chapters Two through Four. NEW WESTMINISTER PUBLIC LIBRARY The mandate of the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y (NWPL), as i t r e l a t e s to photographs, i s to document the growth and development of the c i t y . The focus of the l i b r a r y ' s a c q u i s i t i o n and copying p o l i c y , t h e r e f o r e , i s to ob t a i n images of s t r e e t scenes, l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s , s o c i a l , business and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , prominent i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and so on. To date, the NWPL houses approximately 2400 catalogued images and another 200 to 300 uncatalogued images. The l i b r a r y does c o l l e c t o r i g i n a l p r i n t s and 118 negatives but the emphasis i s on copying r a t h e r than a c q u i r i n g photographs. The o r i g i n of copy p r i n t s v a r i e s ; they may be reproductions from l o c a l museums, l o c a l c i t i z e n s or from the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia or the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . O r i g i n a l p r i n t s and negatives are st o r e d i n a c l o s e d stack area. The copy p r i n t s are catalogued and then incorporated i n t o a s e l f - i n d e x i n g v e r t i c a l f i l e system. These images are used f o r study and reference purposes and are a l s o l e n t out to patrons. Alan Woodland, Chief L i b r a r i a n , and Wendy K l e i n , a s t a f f member, oversee the a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and c a t a l o g u i n g of the images held by the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y . The methodology employed i n the p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the photographic images a t the NWPL i s based on l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s . When asked about the a p p l i c a t i o n of provenance to the photographs, copies or o r i g i n a l s , Mr. Woodland r e p l i e d that the name of the donor of each image was c a r e f u l l y recorded i n the ac c e s s i o n l o g , on the catalogue card and on the back of each photograph. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , provenance i s i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning source. The p r i n c i p l e of provenance and i t s c o r o l l a r y of o r i g i n a l order are not observed i n the s t r i c t e s t sense but because o r i g i n a l p r i n t s , negatives and copy negatives are organized by acc e s s i o n number, i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y groups of photographs acquired from one source. However, photographs contained i n albums, f o r in s t a n c e , are removed and the albums discarded thereby d e s t r o y i n g the o r i g i n a l order and the c o n t e x t u a l i n t e g r i t y of the photographs p r e v i o u s l y contained t h e r e i n . In recent y e a r s , a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s have come to question t h i s p r a c t i c e and now c a r e f u l l y c onsider the nature and contents of photograph albums before d e c i d i n g on whether or not 119 to dismantle them.3 The organization of copy reference prints is by subject headings in vertical f i l e s . The classification scheme was devised after consulting several published tools, such as Sears Li s t of Subject Headings and the Public Archives of Canada Descriptive and Subject Cataloguing at the  National Photography Collection. 3 Applicable subject terms were chosen from these l i s t s and others added by the staff of the NWPL to meet local needs. The photographs in the vertical f i l e are contained in manila envelopes and in each envelope there may be one or more images pertaining to a particular subject. The subject headings are marked on the envelopes. Both physical and descriptive control begins with entries made in the accession log. Information recorded in the log includes the following: an accession number given to each image by the library, the original s e r i a l number given to each image by it s creator (this usually only applies to photographs acquired or copied from commercial studios) or the accession number given to an image by the institution from which i t was copied, such as the Vancouver City Archives; whether the image is a print or negative and whether i t has been copied; the name of the donor or source; and a description of each image noting date, inscribed information or, where there is no inscription, a caption is devised by the library staff. The information contained in the accession log is typed onto labels and the labels applied to the back of each copy print in the vertical f i l e . The vertical f i l e can be browsed or accessed through the card catalogue and indexes. The information from the accession log, is also used In creating the descriptive catalogue entries. In fact, catalogue entries are, 120 b a s i c a l l y / a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of acc e s s i o n data and are not based on standard c a t a l o g u i n g r u l e s such as AACR2. The e n t r i e s are arranged i n a catalogue which contains more subj e c t headings than those i n use i n the v e r t i c a l f i l e . Each e n t r y i n the catalogue p o i n t s users to the app r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t term i n the v e r t i c a l f i l e . For each image there may be as many as ten added e n t r i e s i n the d e s c r i p t i v e catalogue. There are a l s o two card indexes, one by date and place and another by a c c e s s i o n number. E n t r i e s i n these indexes include the same i n f o r m a t i o n as found i n the a c c e s s i o n l o g and d e s c r i p t i v e card catalogue. As a s e c u r i t y measure, a l l copy p r i n t s and the i n f o r m a t i o n contained on the backs of each image are photocopied and the photocopies maintained by ac c e s s i o n number i n black b i n d e r s . I f a copy p r i n t i s l o s t , s t o l e n or i n c i r c u l a t i o n , patrons can r e f e r to the binders. This p r a c t i c e was a l s o undertaken because s t a f f members continue t o add more i n f o r m a t i o n regarding s u b j e c t content to the backs of the reference p r i n t s . I f a copy p r i n t d i sappears, the added i n f o r m a t i o n would be l o s t as w e l l . Much of the data recorded on the backs of copy p r i n t s a l s o helps the user to put a p a r t i c u l a r image w i t h i n some s o r t of h i s t o r i c a l context. This i s important i f users are unable or d i s i n c l i n e d to study other images on the same s u b j e c t . The s i z e of the photographic holdings of the NWPL, sm a l l by comparison to other i n s t i t u t i o n s , means that i t e m - l e v e l c o n t r o l Is s t i l l f e a s i b l e . The l i b r a r y ' s a c q u i s i t i o n and copying program cannot be described as aggressive and t h e r e f o r e a growing backlog w i l l l i k e l y never be a major problem or cause the s t a f f t o t h i n k i n terms of c o n t r o l a t a higher l e v e l . The emphasis a t the New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y i s on the 121 informational value contained in discrete, historical photographs. In part, this approach explains the library's preference for copying originals rather than acquiring them. Moreover, the acquisition of original prints and negatives on a large scale requires ample storage area. This storage area, ideally, should feature environmental controls suited to the specific needs of photographs. The allotment of financial resources at most libr a r i e s , like the NWPL, means that a separate, environmentally controlled storage area, the purchasing of large bodies of photographs and the copying of these images is an impossibility. Wendy Klein has mentioned that i f the library decided to pursue an active acquisition policy and to collect a greater number of originals, the originals would have to be stored in a closed stack and be accessible to users through catalogues and indexes, a l l of which would require extra staff time to retrieve requested images. Thus, the NWPL prefers i t s vertical f i l e , open to the public and containing copy prints which can be reproduced as the need arises. This system quite adequately meets the needs of users, the majority of whom are senior citizens who take great pleasure in browsing through the photographs in the vertical f i l e . Other users include school children, college students, antiquarians and members of the media looking for images to illustrate the written or spoken word. 122 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY The Historical Photographs Section (HPS) of the Vancouver Public Library (VPL) was begun in 1967 under the direction of Ron D'Altroy, now retired. By 1971 the HPS possessed 90,000 images and today there are over 70,000 accessioned and indexed photographs and 60,000 unprocessed photographs, making for a total of some 130,000 images. Prom the outset, the aim of the HPS has been to provide accurate documentation of as many aspects of l i f e in British Columbia as possible with a special emphasis on the Vancouver area. In f u l f i l l i n g this mandate, the HPS has purchased large bodies of photographs generated by Vancouver area commercial photographers such as P h i l l i p Timms. Purchases have been augmented by many gif t s and donations by private citizens interested in preserving the history of the province. The original system used to organize and catalogue the holdings of the Historical Photographs Section was devised by Ron D'Altroy. Although D'Altroy stressed the archival nature of his approach and work,4 the system is based on library practices and the retrieval of discrete items. The system begun by D'Altroy is s t i l l in use today although his subject index is no longer added to. After D'Altroy's retirement in the early 1980s, the staff of the HPS abandoned his method of indexing in favor of less detailed index entries and they also devised a new subject authority f i l e . Beginning in the early 1980s, the staff also began identifying and describing bodies or fonds of photographs. Under the direction of Chris Middlemass, the current curator of the HPS, the move toward the adoption of archival 123 methodology in the arrangement and description of photographs is continuing. In the 1960s when D'Altroy took up his new position as the head of the Historical Photographs section he launched a literature search and an investigation of various systems of f i l i n g and retrieving photographs in use in other institutions. He then conducted several experiments of his own before settling on a simple system of Identifying and then arranging incoming original prints and negatives by accession number. The numbers assigned to originals were then given to copy prints produced by the library for use in the reference room. As D'Altroy put i t , original prints and negatives acquired by the Historical Photographs Section "do not necessarily have any relationship to each other although sometimes a related group comes in together. 1" To present day staff, D'Altroy's arrangement of originals by accession number has allowed for the identification of organic bodies and fonds thereby making possible fonds-level description for submission to the Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives. D'Altroy also began the practice of arranging the 8 inch by 10 inch copy or reference prints, routinely made of originals, in looseleaf binders with each binder containing one hundred images. The binders are numbered 0 through 140 based on accession number and the arrangement of the prints within each binder is also based on accession number. For example, a reference print with the accession number of 36 would be image 36 in binder 0, the reference print 11160 would be image 60 in binder 111 and so forth. Intellectual access to the binders can be gained through reference to the accession log, or more often, through the various indexes. Entries in the accession register l i s t the library's accession number 124 for each image, the geographic location in which the photograph was taken, subject content, date and the physical form of the image, print or negative, and the name of the donor and the name of the photographer i f known or i f different from the name of the donor. Until D'Altroy's retirement, this information was then used to create what the staff refer to as index card entries, although these entries are a cross between descriptive cataloguing and indexing. D'Altroy began with an index f i l e arranged by broad subject headings. He then indexed each image by subject, geographic area, people, buildings or whatever else seemed appropriate with as many as twenty added entries. D'Altroy also kept two more card indexes, one by date of photograph and one by acquisition number. During D'Altroy's time, 13,700 Images were subject indexed. Shortly after his departure, his subject index was closed and a new place/subject index was opened. D'Altroy's original subject authority f i l e was incorporated into a more detailed supplementary subject term l i s t with other terms drawn from the Library of Congress  Subject Headings,6 the Public Archives of Canada's Descriptive and Subject  Cataloguing at the National Photography Collection and subject terms based on local or provincial variations. The s p e c i f i c i t y of the present authority f i l e makes i t possible for staff to index an image under fewer subject headings. The preferred practice now is to index under one primary subject term and up to five or six more i f necessary. The chronological index started by D'Altroy is s t i l l in use though only for photographs of Vancouver. D'Altroy's accession index is also kept up to date. The new place/subject index includes entries for copy negatives for which there are no copy prints and therefore a reproduction of the image 125 cannot be found in the looseleaf binders. In these cases, the users are brought copy negatives to view on a light table in the reference room. The binders are s t i l l added to, but not on as routine a basis as in earlier years. Bach binder with its 100 copy prints represents an expenditure of approximately five hundred dollars. The format developed by D'Altroy in creating the index/descriptive catalogue entries does not conform to a standard such as AACR1 or AACR2. Instead a unique format was devised by D'Altroy and his staff. Entries in the D'Altroy subject index include the following information: subject term, accession number, photographer's and/or donor's name, date of the photograph, and a one or two-line description on content. In the 1980s, staff reductions resulted in less detailed descriptions on index cards. Entries in the new place/subject index usually just contain the index term and the accession number of the photograph. As a result, users must often refer to the accession log for a fuller description. To further supplement the information found in either set of subject indexes and to help researchers place an image or group of images within some type of context, an Information Pile is also maintained by the staff. The Information Pile was initiated by Ron D'Altroy and is used for recording facts about specific buildings or people or general information on local history. For instance, the l i f e cycles of important landmarks are noted in the Information Pile: Jones Building - built 1907 - burnt down 1915 - replaced by Globe Theatre. The Pile has also expanded since D'Altroy's time and now includes biographical data on donors and photographers. Background information on photographers has become important 126 recently because users have begun to manifest an interest in the work of particular individuals. Entries in the Information Pile note the name of a photographer, his/her address, number of years in business and any other pertinent data. In this way the staff of the HPS can provide users with similar information found in the biographical sketches and administrative histories of archival inventories. In response to a request from the National Photography Collection in Ottawa for fonds-level descriptions of photographs for inclusion in the Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives, the staff of the HPS began another descriptive system to cover its holdings. Organic bodies of photographs were identified and described using the form provided in the Explanatory  Notes for the Description of the Holdings and Collections in Guide to  Canadian Photographic Archives. 7 Using this form, bodies are described in terms t i t l e , that is the name of the individual or organization responsible for the creation of the photographs, dates for the birth and death of the individual or beginning and ending dates of the organization, number of photographs in the fonds r name of the repository holding the images, a brief subject description of the photographs, whether other finding aids are available and the provenance or location of copies. Due to the manner in which photographs were acquired, organized and described at the HPS, the f i r s t fflnds_-level description prepared for the Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives describes the entire photographic holdings of the Historic Photographs Section. Smaller bodies of photographs within the larger conglomerate were then described separately. The GCPA form has proven very useful to the Historical Photographs 127 Section in i t s everyday description of photographic fonds. The form has been reproduced by the HPS In various colours, each colour representing a different stage of arrangement and description. For instance, a grey form Is used for bodies of images accessioned (accessioned here means entered in the accession log) and in the place/subject index, dark blue for images accessioned, catalogued (catalogued refers to D'Altroy's subject index) and in the place/subject index, pale blue for images accession and catalogued, yellow for Images described only as a body, orange and deep pink for images not accessioned and stored on the third floor or A-Deck, respectively, and awaiting some type of organization and description. As of 1986, the HPS has been using the GCPA form as the exclusive means of describing bodies of photographs. Only rare images or those f e l t to be of great historical value are now being catalogued and indexed as discrete items. A growing backlog and financial restraints have combined to make comprehensive item-level control at the HPS v i r t u a l l y impossible but the use of the GCPA form only provides users with a minimum of intellectual access when used as prescribed in the Explanatory Notes. According to the directions in the Explanatory Notes, item 8, "Description of Documents" should emphasize the physical form of the photographs i f important, principal subjects and the names of the principal persons, families and institutions portrayed in the fonds. The GCPA form was not designed to replace indexes or other finding aids produced by individual repositories. 4 Other information, such as a note on the arrangement of a body of photographs which in turn would reflect content and help users focus on the part or unit of the fonds of greatest interest to them, is not required for 128 GCPA descriptions and therefore is absent from the Historical Photographs Section's use of the form. Chris Middlemass has acknowledged that before the HPS comes to rely on the description of bodies of photographs, the staff w i l l have to learn how to identify subgroups, series or other units within a photographic body which w i l l inform arrangement and thus description as well. Middlemass forsees the eventual use of archival Inventories instead of the GCPA form. This said, the staff of the HPS is also looking forward to the day when the indexes can be automated. The impression conveyed by some staff members is that when automation i s introduced i t w i l l make possible the item indexing of the backlog as well. Unless the HPS can expand its human resources to include extra professional staff to prepare new index entries and c l e r i c a l staff hired to input data into the computer, the latter goal may prove elusive. On the other hand, i t would be possible to automate any inventories that are created and then subject index them or provenance index the inventories by bringing out names and terms to describe the functions for which the records were created. Years may pass before the HPS wil l be able to invest in a computer and thus the issues automation raises are not of immediate concern. To avoid being caught unprepared, however, Middlemass has begun to consider a l l the implications involved in automating manual finding aids. At present, the methods of organizing and describing photographs at the Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs Section meet the needs of users. Students, antiquarians, genealogists, publishers, members of the media and browsers have subject access to over 70,000 indexed images. 129 Academic researchers Interested in studying aggregates of Images are able to identify organic bodies of photographs using the Guide to Canadian  Photographic Archives forms contained in a binder in the reference room. Some of these bodies of photographs have been p a r t i a l l y or f u l l y indexed. Bodies of photographs for which there is no physical or descriptive control below the fonds level are also made accessible under certain circumstances to researchers with very specific requests. VANCOUVER CITY ARCHIVES The Vancouver City Archives (VCA) specializes in the acquisition of photographic images relating to the Vancouver area or produced by photographers from the c i t y . In the latter instance, this also means that the VCA possesses images taken throughout British Columbia and in other provinces and ter r i t o r i e s by photographers with their home base in Vancouver. Major James Skitt Matthews founded and operated the Archives for nearly four decades prior to his death in 1970,• and during his time the VCA acquired approximately 20,000 historical photographs dating from the 1880s. Of those 20,000, Major Matthews indexed and made copy prints of over 10,000 for reference use. Including Matthews' 20,000 images, the VCA now houses over 100,000 photographs. Like the Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs Section, the VCA maintains two systems for the physical and intellectual control of i t s holdings: the f i r s t system covers the 10,000 images in the J.S. Matthews' Collection; the second system covers a l l the various bodies of photographs that make up The CVA [City of Vancouver] 130 Collections. Today the archivist in charge of acquiring and arranging and describing the photographs at the VCA is Ken Young. When Major Matthews acquired new photographic images or borrowed photographs for copying, the original prints and negatives and copy negatives were organized according to subject and within each subject class by accession number. The organizational scheme used by Matthews was his own creation, with new subject heading being added over the years. Some of the headings are quite broad, such as "Clubs" or "Outside Pictures" while others are very specific, "Duke of Connaught" or "Captain Vancouver." Matthews rarely kept an accession log and therefore once photographs had been dispersed into subject classes, i t became impossible, not only to identify or reconstruct the order of organic bodies of photographs, but to determine who the donor or photographer was, the date on which the material was acquired and so forth. Copy prints routinely made of incoming originals were also arranged, in binders, according to the subject scheme used in organizing originals. Each binder, of which there are over 200, is arranged in alphabetical order by subject heading. Arrangement of copy prints within the binders is in accordance with the accession numbers assigned to the originals. Intellectual access to the Major Matthews Collection is through a subject index created by Matthews and his staff. The index also uses the same subject headings applied to the original images and the copy prints. Before approaching the index, users are advised to consult the l i s t "Categories and Abbreviations" which gives a summary of the subject terms used by Major Matthews. After locating a subject term that covers the 131 user's area of interest, the next step is to look in the Index f i l e for specific images relating to the chosen subject term. Having found a particular index reference, the user then should consult the "Index Card Guide" to help interpret the information found on the index card. An index card w i l l l i s t the subject term and the caption of an Image and give a series of abbreviations and numbers to guide the user to the right binder; It Is the series of abbreviation and numbers that requires Interpretation. For example, "C.N./N./Dist.l/P.Dist.2 breaks down as follows: C.N. means ci t y of Vancouver and can be ignored when i t appears on a card; N. stands for negative number to be used in placing an order for a photographic reproduction; D l s t . l stands for "D i s t r i c t " volume 1, "Distri c t " being one of the subject classes which points the user to the right binder; P.Dist.2 refers to copy print number 2 In the "D i s t r i c t " class. 3-" As one researcher summed up Matthews' system "It's easy, that is once you understand how the man's mind worked." The integration of new images into this system by staff members after Matthews' death in 1970 would have meant fathoming "the man's mind" on a continual basis, thus the Major's index catalogue and reference binders were discontinued and a different system initiated. The arrangement and description of photographs after Major Matthews' time is based on archival and library practices. The work of individual photographers or bodies of photographs acquired or generated by an individual, family or institution are maintained by provenance and arranged, in so far as possible, according to original order. Description f i r s t is at the fonds or group level and then the discrete items within each body of photographs are subject Indexed. 132 The staff at the VCA have found the maintenance of the original order within bodies of photographs to present a real challenge. As with textual fonds. photographs often arrive at the repository with no discernible arrangement or lack a usable arrangement. In these cases, series or units of arrangement are devised according to format, function, chronology or subject. Bodies of photographs produced by commercial or amateur photographers are more l i k e l y to possess a distinct and usable original order, but not always. The Stuart Thomson Collection, for instance, i s comprised of over 10,000 negatives created during Thomson's career as a photographer but when acquired by the VCA the fonds exhibited several methods of arrangement which had been devised by Thomson. Thomson had organized his photographs by format and eventually by number but at some point he abandoned his original numbering system and initiated a new numbering system. After working through the fonds, the staff at the VCA settled on a chronological arrangement further subdivided by format. In the "Photographic Procedures Manual" compiled to aid staff in the physical and intellectual control of photographs, directions regarding arrangement are, understandably, vague: "order as necessary. n x x Once an order has been restored or imposed, each item within a body of photographs is given a number, beginning at 1 and moving sequentially through to the end of the fonds. The number assigned to original prints and negatives within a fonds is then given to the corresponding photocopies of each image made for use in the reference room. The photocopies are arranged by number in the binders with a separate binder used for each fonds. In this way, the photocopies 133 reflect provenance and the original order used in arranging the actual fonds. Physical control and the descriptive process begins as soon as a body of photographs is received by the VCA. The f i r s t step involves completing a short descriptive entry in the accession log. After the archivist has completed a preliminary survey or sort of the fonds the f i r s t page of an accession control form is f i l l e d out noting provenance, collection t i t l e , inclusive dates, physical format of the images in the fonds, the extent of each format, and a description of accompanying material, such as manuscript documents or finding aids prepared by the creator. The second page of the accession control form is completed after the fonds has been given i t s f i n a l arrangement and has been described at the fonds level and item indexed. Information required on the second page pertains to restrictions, i f they exist, and to administrative chores relating to physical and intellectual control such as the completion of a donor card and sending a letter of acknowledgment to the donor.1-2 A two-page worksheet is also f i l l e d in after physical arrangement i s complete. The worksheet contains information on the entire fonds, such as t i t l e , control number, extent, restrictions and provenance as well as detailed information on each item in the fonds. Individual images are described under the following headings: item control number, location at which the photograph was taken, date of image, t i t l e (caption), photographer's name, name and address of source and date received, form, colour, size of image, image quality and any relevant additional information. 1- 3 After the binders of photocopied prints are organized, the worksheets are also photocopied and added at the front of the 134 binders. The descriptive process continues with the creation of catalogue card entries for each fonds and the preparation of subject index cards for each item within the fonds. The descriptive catalogue card entries follow the rules established in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2. The note area usually focuses on the general subject content of a fonds. and/or highlights discrete items of particular historical value within the fonds. The descriptive catalogue cards created by the VCA are photocopied and submitted on a yearly basis to the Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives. This saves the staff from having to transcribe the information from the catalogue cards onto GCPA forms. Researchers consulting the descriptive card catalogue can narrow their search to a particular fonds and from there can either go to the appropriate binder to browse or further narrow their search by consulting the subject index. The subject headings in use in the index are drawn from various sources such as Sears Li s t of Subject Headings and also from Major Matthews' subject f i l e . In using some of the same subject terms as Major Matthews, the staff of the VCA hoped to provide users with some sense of continuity between the two systems. Subject index entries are kept to a minimum. The "Photographic Procedures Manual" advises staff that the principle of spe c i f i c i t y should be borne in mind while indexing. Thus, the most specific heading or headings that accurately describe the subject of the content of an image should be selected. 1- 4 If several photographs within one fonds refer to a single subject, they can be grouped on the same index card. 3- 9 The index cards do not always contain captions, usually just reference 135 numbers relating to fojjda. and item(s) and the approximate year(s) of the image(s) list e d under each index term. A l i s t of the subject terms used by the staff with "see" and "see also" references Is available in the reading room for use by researchers. Instructions on how to approach the CVA Collections are also available in the reading room. The Vancouver City Archives has a well defined policy regarding photographs contained in manuscript groups. It is recognized that media separation "on an across-the-board basis may create as many problems as i t solves" and therefore staff are required to use their own judgment in evaluating particular situations. If a photograph or body of photographs are considered to be of "value beyond the scope of the manuscript group" they are removed and added to the CVA Photograph Collections. These images are then described as a distinct body in the descriptive catalogue, indexed, photocopied and arranged in a binder. Cross references must be made in the manuscript finding aid and the CVA Collections' descriptive catalogue. Photocopies of the images are also inserted in the original manuscript group. Original Images retained in manuscript groups are described as pertaining to the policy on the description of textual materials. 1 6 The two systems in use at the Vancouver City Archives for the physical and intellectual control of photographs meet the needs of users and have allowed the staff to vir t u a l l y eliminate backlog. Several images within a number of photographic fonds are not indexed because they defy description under the current l i s t of subject terms in use. For example, a photograph of a legal document would not be indexed. Young has found that these images are of l i t t l e interest to the majority of users. However, researchers 136 studying the creator(s) of a fonds and therefore also viewing the originals, would encounter these unindexed images. Young's own criticism of the CVA Collections is that the binders containing photocopies of individual fonds do not also contain an introduction to the fonds. a scope and content note, a series or unit description, and an administrative history or biographical sketch on the creator(s) as included in traditional archival inventories. In future, he hopes to see these features added to the binders. This step w i l l provide researchers with a better grounding in the overall content and structure of each fonds and perhaps reduce the Archives' dependency on the subject index and the labour intensive item-level descriptions created in completing the worksheets. PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES OF BRITISH COLUHBIA The Visual Records Division (VRD) or the Provincial Archives of British Columbia (PABC) has acquired over three million photographic images, approximately one-hundred thousand of which are under intellectual control. The present system of arrangement and description is in transition, heading away from item-level treatment toward practices informed by archival principles and methodology. The major drawback to the Visual Records Division's original system of item-level control, apart from encouraging an incredible backlog, was the haphazard way in which the system was created and added to over the years. Consistency was never a watchword of previous curators and thus different approaches have been taken at different times to the indexing of photographs held by the PABC. For the past seven or eight 137 years, no additional subject headings have been added to the old index f i l e . However, staff of the VRD s t i l l maintain and add to the subject-arranged vertical f i l e of copy prints begun decades ago. At the same time, the focus has shifted to providing intellectual access to bodies or fonds of photographs. In this regard, inventories and fonds-level descriptions are now being prepared. The present individual in charge of the Visual Records Division in Jerry Davison and under his direction many of the new finding aids are being automated using a microcomputer and dBase III software. In the past, photographs arriving at the PABC were physically arranged by subject. Organic bodies of images were therefore dispersed and the relationship between images within fonds destroyed. For years the originals were available for use by patrons. When i t became apparent that original prints should not be handled on a continual basis by researchers, the PABC decided to duplicate the images and create a separate vertical f i l e of copy prints for reference purposes. The copies in the vertical f i l e are arranged in the same manner as the originals. Some original prints were also inadvertently or purposefully placed in the vertical f i l e . This has resulted in a certain amount of confusion in recent years as staff attempt to rationalize the two systems. From the beginning i t was contemplated that intellectual access to the original images and then to the copy prints in the vertical f i l e would be through a subject index. By the 1970s there were several indexes: subject, topographical, shipping, biographical, photographer's name and accession number. The index by photographer's name was begun and then abandoned and the subject f i l e was also abandoned due to a lack of consistency in subject 138 terms. The topographical index is the "core" index and most frequently used by researchers. The standard procedure upon entering the Visual Records Division, however, is to make a verbal request regarding one's area of interest and then allow the reference personnel to retrieve the appropriate images. The vertical f i l e is now restricted from direct access by users. If staff members cannot make a mental connection between the subject request of the user and the images in the vertical f i l e , the user has no recourse; he or she cannot browse through the vertical f i l e i t s e l f nor depend on the indexes to point to a more appropriate subject term to use in retrieving images. More often, the staff are able to provide users with images pertaining to a request. A l l the copy prints contained in the various classes of the vertical f i l e bear captions and other information such as photographer's name, i f known, accession number, the number of the original negative, copyright restrictions, credit line and so forth. Throughout the summer and early autumn of 1980, David Mattison, then working in the Visual Records Division, conducted a project to produce an unspecified number of catalogue records for photographs judged to be of relative importance to the history of the province. Using AACR2 as a standard for descriptive cataloguing and the Library of Congress Subject Headings as a standard for establishing access points, 535 catalogue records and an authority f i l e were completed by the end of the project. Many of the photographs were catalogued as groups, that i s , photographs pertaining to a particular subject were catalogued as a group.1-7 The amount of time required in creating these 535 catalogue records helped convince the staff of the VRD that item-level and a s l i g h t l y more expansive unit-level control 139 would not be a feasible means of gaining intellectual control over the entire holdings of the Division. As the VRD considered moving toward the application of archival practices to i t s holdings, an interim step was the creation of "visual inventories" of fonds or organic bodies of photographs. By the late 1970s, researchers had begun evincing an interest in the work of particular photographers and to meet the needs of these users the VRD reconstructed several fonds of photographs, made copy prints and photocopies of the originals and then arranged the copies in binders. Bach binder contains the work of one photographer and the arrangement of the copies within each binder follows the numbering system used by the photographer during the active l i f e of the photographs. Recent acquisitions of photographs generated by pioneer photographers are maintained as organic bodies and those fonds considered to be of interest to the public have also had "visual inventories" created for them. Another important prerequisite in deciding which fonds to copy is that there be a pre-existing finding aid, kept by the photographer, that w i l l provide users with intellectual access to the copies and originals. Given the backlog at the VRD, i t would be impossible for staff members to attempt to describe every item in a fonds for which a visual inventory existed. At present there are twelve such visual inventories. Selected copies from the inventories are also added to the vertical f i l e for researchers interested in a particular subject as opposed to the work of one photographer. Incoming and previously acquired but unorganized bodies of photographs are now being arranged and described in such a way as to preserve and 140 reflect provenance. A new accession record devised by Jerry Davison ensures that information necessary in accurately describing photographic fonds is captured. For instance, a note must be made in the accession record as to whether the original order of a fonds was maintained or whether an a r t i f i c i a l order has been imposed. If a new order has been created, the archivist f i l l i n g out the accession record must state the nature of the new order: by subject, geographic, record type or chronological. If photographs were transferred from another Division within the PABC or i f any textual material found in a predominately photographic fonds was transferred elsewhere, detailed information describing the transaction is also required on the accession form. The accession record also contains areas for the recording of information on provenance, the format of the photographs in the fonds and on the overall subject content of the fonds. The information on provenance, which includes the birth and death dates or operation dates of the creator(s), principal occupation or a c t i v i t y and principal residence(s) or locations(s), can later be used in compiling biographical sketches or administrative histories. The description of the fonds should be entered on the accession record according to the rules contained in AACR2. A number of the accession records are now in machine-readable form and In future i t should be possible to generate guide entries from the descriptive area of the accession records. Using a microcomputer and dBase III, the staff of the VRD are also automating biographical sketches and administrative histories which, when combined with accession record information w i l l form the introduction to standard archival inventories on photographic fonds. The subject 141 description In the accession record will act as the scope and content note to a fonds. The l i s t of contents attached to the inventory w i l l be at the subgroup or series level or at some other filing-unit level. What is missing from this plan is a series, or an equivalent unit, description. There are several possible explanations for this omission, the most lik e l y being that series w i l l , in many cases, be a r t i f i c i a l l y established by the archivist. Thus the series w i l l not shed great light on the a c t i v i t i e s of the creator nor bear any interrelationship that needs to be expressed in the inventory. The subject content of such photographic fonds and their series can be summarized in the scope and content note. It is this enduring emphasis on the subject content of photographic igMs. which continues to align photographic archivists with the dwindling body of manuscript curators who maintain provenance as a means of dealing with large aggregates of documents, but who feel that informational value or subject content are more relevant to users than provenance-related information. When asked about future plans to index the fonds-level descriptions and inventories at the VRD, Davison stressed that subject indexing was being considered. Provenance indexing, a concept Davison was not f u l l y familiar with, did not seem relevant from his perspective. However, before the VRD creates an authority f i l e or does any more work in preparing to index i t s holdings, Davison is awaiting the publication of the Canadian Working Group's subcommittee report on indexing. If the subcommittee addresses the issue of provenance indexing, a l l Canadian archivists, including those in charge of photographic archives, may find themselves reconsidering their approach to indexing. Davison firmly 142 believes that photographic archives should be arranged and described no differently from textual fonds. This being the case, his possible future adoption of provenance indexing of photographic fonds could provide other archivists with a valuable case-study. SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES Through the use of a mainframe computer the subject indexing of i t s photographic holdings is the prime objective of the Simon Fraser University Archives. The SFU Archives accessions negatives and contact print sheets from three campus agencies, University News Service (UNS), Instructional Media Centre (IMC) and the Peakf the student newspaper. The acquisition of photographs documenting the history of Burnaby, the municipality in which the university i s located, is outside of the mandate of the SFU Archives. Provenance and original order are maintained in the physical arrangement of the negatives and contact prints generated by the UNS, IMC, and the Peak, but intellectual access, through the use of the computer, is structured in such a way as to emphasize subject content of items or groups of related frames found on part or on the whole of a r o l l of camera film. At present the SFU Archives houses over 7000 images dating since the founding of the university in the mid 1960s. At any time there are usually fewer than 300 images described on paper but waiting to have their description input into the computer. The intellectual and physical control of the photographic images held by the SFU Archives is under the direction of the University Archivist, Don Baird. 143 Photographers for the UNS, IMC and the Peak routinely submit their r o l l s of film and corresponding contact sheets to the University Archives. The r o l l s of film are cut to f i t negative sleeves and arranged in f i l e cabinets by provenance, that i s , there is a separate set of drawers for images generated by each agency. Internal arrangement is chronological based on the date on which the images were taken and by the number of each individual frame. The contact sheets produced by each agency are also maintained separately in black binders and arranged by date and frame number. Until 1986, the staff of the University Archives f i l l e d out a Photographic Subject Inventory Form (PSIF) to describe the subject content of individual frames or groups of frames on incoming r o l l s of negative; after 1986, the photographers for the UNS, IMC and the Peak have been required to f i l l out the PSIF themselves. In determining subject content, the photographers of contributing agencies are provided with an updated l i s t of subject headings produced by the University Archives. The authority l i s t is based on the form but not necessarily the content of the Library of  Congress Subject Headings. x a The subject terms chosen by the photographers become the keywords used in indexing the images. A short, descriptive t i t l e for an image or group of related images is also created by the photographers but need not conform to any particular standard so long as information on the event and location are included. The numbering system used by each agency varies but the date on which the images were taken must comprise the f i r s t few digits of the control number entered on the inventory form. The University Archives uses the numbering system of each agency as an accession 144 number. This also makes i t possible to search for images by date on the computer. Indeed, any of the fields contained in the PSIF is searchable on the computer. Using Report Generator software, the computer can also produce printouts ordered by any of the fields contained in the PSIF. However, the main printout of over six-hundred pages for use in the reference room is alphabetical by subject. The University Archives has not produced separate printouts by provenance or source; photographs taken by the Peak, UNS and the IMC are intermingled in the printout by subject. Nor has the University Archives prepared any documentation describing the administrative histories of the Peak, UNS and IMC. Staff at the University Archives have never perceived any need for administrative histories because researchers invariably make subject requests. To date, no researcher has entered the University Archives with the aim of studying the a c t i v i t i e s of the Peak, for instance, or the work of any of the various photographers contributing on behalf of the Peak, IMC or UNS. In the latter instance, the Photographic Subject Inventory Form does not include a f i e l d where the photographer can identify him or herself. If the photographer wishes to be acknowledged, he or she must write his or her name on the contact sheets.1-* Should any of the photographers for the various agencies contributing to the University Archives become distinguished later in career, It will be d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to identify that person's work held by the Archives. One of the most important factors considered by the staff of the University Archives in determining a method of describing their photographic holdings was that of cast efficiency. The original computer programming for 145 the photographic Indexing project was undertaken by a student working under the direction of Don Baird and paid, primarily, through a government sponsored Challenge '84 program. Once the photographers of the contributing agencies began f i l l i n g out their own inventory forms, i t was possible for the University Archives to hire more students under Work/Study and Challenge programs to input the data from the inventory forms into the computer. From the standpoint of cost efficiency relative to the item and group indexing of photographs, the system at the Simon Fraser University Archives is successful. Due to the relatively small number of images held by the Archives and the slow but steady increment of new images, i t should be possible for the University Archives to continue its indexing program indefinitely. JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The mandate of the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia (JHSBC) is to acquire textual and nontextual archives generated by Jewish individuals or organizations or materials documenting the history of Jews in British Columbia and the Yukon. Following on this, the Society has acquired two separate bodies of photographs: the Leonard Frank-Otto Landauer Collection, generated by two Jewish commercial photographers and covering the general history of the province from the late 1890s up to 1980; and the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia Photograph Collection, an a r t i f i c i a l accumulation of prints and negatives focusing on the lives of Jewish pioneers on the Pacific Coast and dating from 1858 to the present. 146 The way in which these photographic bodies came into being and other factors such as volume have informed the methods used in their arrangement and description. The Leonard Frank-Otto Landauer Collection of approximately 24,000 images was approached in the same manner as an archival textual fonds would be. The 3,000 images in the JHSBC Photograph Collection, many of which have been published, have been arranged and described as discrete items and the descriptive information entered into a microcomputer using GBNCAT (GBNeric CATaloguing) software. At the time that these projects were undertaken, Barb! Hollenberg was the Executive Director of the JHSBC and the author of this thesis was working as an archivist for the Society. C y r i l Leonoff is the current Archivist and Executive Director of the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia. The Leonard Frank-Otto Landauer Collection was acquired by the JHSBC in November of 1985 but due to space and staff shortages i t was not until March of 1986 that work on the physical and intellectual control of the fonds could begin. After a v i s i t from and consultations with L i l l y Koltun, then Chief of the Research and Acquisition Section, National Photography Collection, Public Archives of Canada, the JHSBC decided to adopt the methods used by the NPC in describing photographic images at the item level. This work was begun by staff members and taken over by volunteers in the summer of 1986. By the autumn of 1986, however, work on l i s t i n g individual items on an accession record and the creation of descriptive catalogue entries f e l l off due to a continual problem with lack of work space for volunteers. A heavy work load prevented staff members from resuming the cataloguing of the Frank-Landauer Collection after the departure of the 147 volunteers. Having forseen that the cataloguing of the items in the Frank-Landauer Collection would take over a year to complete, although not forseeing the virtual abandonment of this project, the JHSBC decided that the Collection should be described at the fonds and series level in the interim. Work on an archival preliminary inventory was therefore also begun in the summer of 1986. Today the preliminary Inventory s t i l l acts as the main tool providing intellectual access to the Frank-Landauer Collection. After considering the physical arrangement of the Collection as i t arrived at the JHSBC and bearing in mind the available work space in the office and other restraints such as a total lack of archival sleeves for prints and negatives and record boxes for storage, i t was deemed temporarily undesirable and even impossible to reconstruct the original order of the Collection. Otto Landauer, who had bought Leonard Frank's photograph studio shortly after Frank's death in 1944, had rearranged Frank's and his own photographs by subject content thereby disregarding Frank's numerical system and even his own numerical system which began with the next number after Frank's last. The images in the Collection were and s t i l l are contained in boxes originally used to house unexposed print paper and each of these boxes contains 50 to 100 prints and/or negatives generated by either Frank or Landauer. After Landauer arranged the photographs in these boxes, he labeled the outside according to subject content. The JHSBC office measures approximately two hundred square feet in which four employees, volunteers and the textual and nontextual holdings of the Society must coexist; a project as large as the reorganization of 24,000 photographs would have monopolized the time of the entire staff and taken up a l l available work 148 space. Moreover, after the photographs had been restored to their original order based on the numbering system used by Frank and Landauer, they would have had to be returned to their original boxes because funds were not available for proper storage materials. This would have meant the duplication of effort and the rehandling of a l l the images once storage sleeves and boxes became available. Instead, the hope was that the completion of the item-level accession record would provide a means of identifying where each image could be found, by number, and at a later date, with sleeves and record boxes on hand, the accession record could be used to reassemble the Collection without as much confusion. Two years later, this has yet to pass. In surveying the contents of each box in the Frank-Landauer Collection i t became clear that most boxes contained photographs whose subject content was not included in the subject-title devised by Landauer. Nor did the arrangement of the boxes or their subject content make i t possible to spot distinct series. The boxes are, in fact, similar to file-folders contained in a large subject f i l e . This is how they were treated in the preliminary inventory. During the descriptive process, the t i t l e of each box was recorded on an index card, the index cards were then arranged alphabetically and each card and corresponding box given a number. A brief description of the contents of each box was then entered on the appropriate card noting inclusive dates, the physical format of the images in each box, the name(s) of the photographer(s) whose work was present in the box (Prank and/or Landauer) and other subjects represented in the images but not covered by the broad subject-title used by Landauer. Before the various subjects were 149 noted, an authority l i s t of subject headings was devised, based on the subject headings used by the Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs Section, so that some consistency would exist in a fi n a l subject index. The l i s t of boxes in the preliminary inventory is arranged alphabetically by the subject terms chosen by Landauer and each entry includes the information taken down on the index cards pertaining to box number, inclusive dates of the images, photographer's name and physical format. The subject index following the inventory resembles an index to a book, simply giving a subject term and a reference to one or more boxes. The preliminary inventory also includes an introduction which gives an overview of the Collection, extensive biographies on Leonard Frank and Otto Landauer, an administrative history of Leonard Frank Photos (the studio established by Frank and purchased by Landauer), a scope and content note, and a note on arrangement and description. 3 0 The f i n a l , practical test, of course, was whether the system would work. Over the past two years the preliminary inventory has allowed staff to locate specific images requested by researchers both quickly and accurately. This is done by linking verbal descriptions of photographs sought by users with possible box t i t l e s listed in the inventory. The search can then be further delimited by determining whether the researcher is interested in a Frank or Landauer photograph and the approximate date of the image in question. Researchers interested in broad topics, such as the logging industry in British Columbia, local architectural history, shipping, native l i f e in British Columbia and so forth have also found the preliminary Inventory provides adequate Intellectual access to the Frank-Landauer 150 Collection. For instance, the subject index to the preliminary inventory directs researchers interested in Indians to fifteen boxes containing relevant images. Despite the successful use of the Frank-Landauer Collection inventory, members of the Board of the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia remained skeptical and f e l t that patrons of the Society should be able to search for and find one particular image without having to undertake research involving the study of aggregates of images. They stressed, therefore, that at least the JHSBC Photograph Collection, in constant use by members of the Jewish community, should be described at the item level. The approximately 3,000 images in this Collection were acquired Individually or in groups by C y r i l Leonoff during his trips throughout the province. The bulk of the images are originals although a sizeable portion are copy prints. The origin of the images varies: prints, negatives and copy prints may have been acquired from private individuals, families, Jewish organizations or copied from the holdings of other archival repositories such as the Vancouver City Archives. As the Collection was being amassed, i t was stored in Nr. Leonoff's home and arranged, to some extent, by subject. Once the Collection arrived at the JHSBC office, lack of space prevented any attempt at re-establishing and expanding on the existing subject classes. When this project was undertaken In the early winter of 1987, the staff knew that the Society would soon be purchasing a microcomputer. This meant that subject access could be achieved through the search capacity of the computer's software, GENCAT, and that the arrangement of the Images could be through the arbitrary assignment of numbers from one 151 to three thousand, making sure that negatives bore the same number as their corresponding prints. Thus, as staff members involved in the project described a photograph, i t was assigned the next number in the sequence. The JHSBC Photograph Collection i s not a closed collection and therefore items will continue to be added. Sequential numbering allows these images to be added without problem. Using information supplied by Mr. Leonoff on each photograph, manual descriptions were compiled according to the following fields: item number, caption, description, year, number of prints and negatives held on each image, and subject headings to be used in subject indexing. The description f i e l d was used to provide additional information that did not belong in the caption f i e l d , such as photographer's name. The year of each photograph was given only when i t was known or when an approximate date could be established. Hence, the description f i e l d and the date f i e l d were not always used. Subject terms to be entered in the subject-indexing f i e l d were chosen from an authority f i l e built up during the course of the project. This led, in a number of instances, to inconsistencies and the need to review a l l the manual records to ensure conformity with the f i n a l authority l i s t . After a l l the images had been described on cards, the information was entered into the computer. GENCAT software was originally designed for use in libraries and fields within each record can be designed to correspond to any bibliographic standard such as AACR2. The staff did not refer to AACR2 in determining the fields to be used in describing the items in the JHSBC Photograph Collections for several reasons. The overriding factor was that the 152 majority of the staff members involved in the project had no prior knowledge of or experience in applying AACR2. At the time, moreover, the staff had not recognized the need to follow a standard format in describing the Society's holdings. Thought was given only to the dissemination of hardcopy printouts to other repositories, such as the Canadian Jewish Congress National Archives in Montreal. However, since the CJC National Archives also has a microcomputer, laying the groundwork for an automated network, starting with the JHSBC Photograph Collection, would have been feasible. As can be observed through this look at the methods of organizing/arranging and cataloguing/describing photographs in libraries and archival and historical society repositories, each institution has formulated i t s own system. On occasion, aspects of one system resemble aspects of other systems, but for the most part, any resemblance is purely coincidental. Vith no accepted standards to be followed, institutions have developed systems in isolation based on user needs, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of financial and human resources, the volume of photographs to be controlled and the extent of backlog. Guiding principles and practices from the library and archival professions are abandoned, adapted or adopted, given the particular situation. In the case of the Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs Section, the Vancouver City Archives, the Public Archives of British Columbia, Visual Records Division, the Simon Fraser University Archives and the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia, there has been a somewhat uneasy transition or interchange between the use of library and archival practices. On the positive side, a l l the manual and automated systems in use at the various institutions analyzed here provide 153 users with a measure of intellectual access, although often at the expense of the integrity of organic bodies of photographic archives. 154 ENDNOTES 1. The original interviews took place in the spring of 1986 with subsequent interviews taking place in April and May of 1988. 2. Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler et a l . , Archives and Manuscripts: Administration of Photographic Archives (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1984), 43. 3. See, Barbara M. Westby, ed., Sears List of Subject Headings. 9th edition (New York: H.V. Wilson Company, 1965); Public Archives of Canada, Descriptive and Subject Cataloguing at the National Photography Collection (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1984). 4. See, Ron D'Altroy, "An Effective Photographic Archives," Museum Round-UP. 32 (October 1968): 14-20. 5. Ibid., 17. 6. Library of Congress, Subject Cataloging Division, Library of Congress  Subject Headings 2 vols. 10th ed. (Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1986). 7. Alain Clavet, Explanatory Notes for the Description of the Holdings and Collections in Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1979), 3. 8. Ibid., 10-11. 9. William C. McKee, "Vancouver City Archives: Some Additional Sources for Labour History," Archivaria 4 (Summer 1977): 177. 10. Vancouver City Archives, "Photographic Procedures Manual," (Unpublished manual, Vancouver City Archives, ca. 1981), Part V, 1-3. 11. Ibid., Part I, 1. 12. Ibid., Part I, 5. 13. Ibid., Part I, 6-7. 14. Ibid., Part II, ?. 15. Ibid., Part II, 5. 16. Ibid., Part I l l , 1. 155 17. David M a t t i s o n , "Cataloguing H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: Report," (Unpublished r e p o r t , V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l A r c hives of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980), 1-2. 18. Paula Y a l p a n i , "The SFU Archives Automated Photographs Index: A Guide to the Inventory, Data Entry, Computer F i l e s and On-line Searching," (Unpublished manual, Burnaby, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s , 1984), 3. 19. I b i d . , 2. 20. See, Linda Cobon, "' P r o f e s s o r s of the Black Box w i t h the Magic Eye: Leonard Frank and Otto Landauer of Leonard Frank Photos, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia," (Unpublished i n v e n t o r y , Vancouver, Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986). 156 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION In 1945, an American archivist by the name of Gaston Litton reviewed an a r t i c l e , written in Spanish for an Argentinian journal, regarding the photographic archives held by the Institute de Investigaciones Historicas of Buenos Aires. Litton enjoyed the a r t i c l e but f e l t that, even i f translated, the a r t i c l e would generate l i t t l e interest in North America because of the author's "disproportionate emphasis...given to indexes, registers, and other controls over the [photographic] collections...." Litton f e l t that what was needed was a lengthier discussion on conservation techniques and on the types and subject content of photographs held by the Instituto. As i t was, Litton judged the a r t i c l e as "less than half a loaf and serves more to stimulate than to satiate one's hunger" for information on photographic archives. 1 Not much has changed in the past forty years. A survey of the professional literature reveals that, until very recently, archivists have either ignored photographs, worried about the conservation aspect, considered photographs in terms of their Informational value as discrete items, or concentrated on "visual literacy" and the interpretation of photographs. Journal articles discussing bodies of organically generated photographs as being archival in nature are a phenomenon of the past eight to ten years. The concept of photographs as archives is so new as not to have been accepted by a l l archivists in North America. From Litton's time 157 through until today, a large number of archivists have been glad to turn to librarians and library journals for advice on the physical and intellectual control of photographs. Librarians, for their part, have also viewed photographs as "special" and therefore not amenable to standard arrangement schemes and bibliographic formats used in cataloguing textual materials, such as books. At the same time, i t is true that the various physical forms which photographs may take, the fact that they are usually unpublished and therefore bear no identification for descriptive purposes, and the special conservation needs of photographs have made them a d i f f i c u l t resource to organize and catalogue, index and retrieve. Librarians, as a consequence, have preferred to create §J. hoc systems for the physical and intellectual control of photographic images. It was also f e l t that this was the best way to reflect the unique nature of the photographs held by an institution. Since a photograph is considered v i r t u a l l y useless without a caption, the emphasis of librarians and archivists has been on description at the item level. As archivists and librarians continued to devise various systems based on library practices for the control of discrete photographic images, enormous backlogs and changing research needs of users forced a change in approach. The literature indicates that members of both professions began arranging and describing lots or groups of photographs with similar subject content. From here i t was not too far a step to the idea that provenance and original order might be applicable and even useful in arranging and describing organic bodies of photographs. Yet like manuscript curators, archivists and librarians dealing with photographic archives have been 158 reluctant to abandon the description of. fonds by subject content, more particularly, by the subject content of outstanding and h i s t o r i c a l l y valuable Items found within a body or fojids. of photographs. The description of units or series within a photographic fonds and an analysis of how these series or units reflect the a c t i v i t i e s and functions of the creator(s), thereby also revealing subject content, is not a widespread practice. The reason may well be that archivists have experienced trouble in identifying series or other describable units within bodies of photographs. If they must impose an order, i t most l i k e l y will be by subject and/or format. The arrangement of photographs using archival principles and practices is one area urgently in need of investigation and discussion in the professional literature. Another reason for the tendency to describe the subject content of photographic fonds is that bibliographic formats devised by librarians, such as AACR2 and Elisabeth Betz's Graphic Materials encourage this approach. The Introduction of automation and i t s promise of allowing a wholesale return to the item-level control of archives also promoted subject analysis and subject indexing; once an archival document is divorced from its context, i t w i l l invariably be described by subject content. The MARC AMC format, developed by librarians and archivists for the automated description of archival fonds retains an emphasis on subject indexing, as well. Archivists and librarians dealing with a l l forms of archival material, textual and nontextual, w i l l have to address this issue and ensure that some means of describing archives by provenance, particularly indexing by provenance, is devised in the not too distant future for use with manual and 159 automated systems. Although photographic archives may require some special attention in the areas of identifying descriptive units within fonds and indexing by provenance to reveal the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of the creators, this should not mean that the overall approach to photographic archives should be different from the approach to textual archives. When the various subcommittees created to follow up the recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards submit their f i n a l reports, i t w i l l be interesting to see whether photographs have retained a special status or whether they have been accepted as part of "the archival family" in every sense. Through a survey of practices and methodologies used in the organization/arrangement and cataloguing/description of photographs in libraries and archival repositories in the Vancouver area and Victoria one can see that the problems and issues raised in the professional literature are common to a l l professionals working in this area. As long as librarians and archivists are faced with only a small number of photographs, perhaps up to 10,000 images, they seem quite content to devise any method that allows for item-level control and easy access by researchers. The librarians at the New Westminster Public Library, for example, have no qualms about their methods of organization and description of photographs. The system In use at the NWPL is relatively simple for the librarians to maintain and meets the research needs of users. The methods used in arranging and describing the relatively small number of photographs held by the Simon Fraser University Archives are also derived more from librarianship than archival 160 theory and practices. The staff of the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia f e l t compelled to organize and describe their photographs as discrete items whether or not the Images belonged to an a r t i f i c i a l collection or an organically created fonds. Only volume prevented the JHSBC from arranging and describing the Leonard Frank-Otto Landauer Collection at the item level. Other institutions, such as the Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs Section, the Vancouver City Archives, and the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Visual Records Division began with methods of organization and description based on library practices and emphasizing item-level control, but found the volume of photographs acquired over the years meant that their systems had to be altered, tinkered with or f i n a l l y abandoned. It is unclear whether thoughts about using archival practices in these institutions were entertained because they were perceived as being appropriate or merely expedient. With time, archivists and librarians have, indeed, convinced themselves of the appropriateness of provenance and original order, but the actual application of archival practices has not proven an easy task. Bodies of photographs are different in some respects from textual archives but there i s never any guarantee that documents within archival fonds f textual or nontextual, w i l l f a l l into easily identifiable series or equivalent units of arrangement and description. Finding series or units of description have caused problems for professionals at the Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver City Archives, Provincial Archives of British Columbia and the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia. The result has been that some form of usable unit of description, usually based on subject, is resorted to. It may take a period 161 of experimentation and t r i a l and error before librarians and archivists are able to find suitable means of applying archival principles to photographic fonds. Archivists and librarians at nearly a l l the institutions visited were usually s e l f - c r i t i c a l , hesitant and even defensive in discussing their methods of dealing with photographs, but without their pioneering efforts, a l l progress in this area would be impeded. The movement toward the use of archival principles and practices in the intellectual and physical control of photographs w i l l not mean the demise or eradication of techniques devised by librarians in organizing and cataloguing photographs at the item level. There w i l l always be a need to deal with some photographs on an item-by-item basis, such as in small a r t i f i c i a l collections, used by general members of the public interested in browsing or finding one image in particular. Small, h i s t o r i c a l l y important photographic fonds, described f i r s t at the fonds level, w i l l , in a l l likelihood, continue to be described at the item level, as well. The librarians' approach to a r t i f i c i a l groups or lots of photographs, stressing organization and cataloguing by subject content, w i l l also remain valid. What has begun to change is the approach toward organically generated bodies of photographs that can truly be identified as being archival. In many institutions, two systems, one based on library methodology, and one based on archival principles and practices, exist side-by-side. The trend seems to be maintaining or even creating a vertical f i l e or visual-card catalogue to service one group of users while also arranging photographic fonds by provenance and original order and describing these fonds in inventories for use by researchers interested in viewing aggregates of photographic images 162 or In s t u d y i n g the l i v e s or a c t i v i t i e s of the c r e a t o r s of photographic fonds. 163 ENDNOTE 1. Gaston L i t t o n , "Review of Organizacion y O b j e c t i v e s d e l Archivo  Graf I C Q de l a Nacion f by Sergio C h i a p p o r i , Subdirector of the a r c h i v o (Buenos A i r e s . T a l l e r e s S.A. Peuser Lda., 1944, pp.27. R e p r i n t ) , " American A r c h i v i s t 8, 2 ( A p r i l 1945): 150. 164 APPENDIX THE PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL CONTROL OF PHOTOGRAPHS -A QUESTIONNAIRE-1. Name of repository/library 2. Address 3. Person in charge of photographs 4. Training 5. Other staff members in photo section 6. Size/extent of photographic holdings 7. Year photo collection/section established (brief history) ARRANGEMENT 1. Rules on provenance 2. Rules on original order 3. Rules on creating a r t i f i c i a l collections 4. C r i t e r i a in creating subgroups -series -subser ies - f i l e s -other f i l i n g units 5. Physical location of negatives -oversized materials -fragile materials -photos found in manuscript collections/record groups 165 PHYSICAL/INTELLECTUAL CONTROL 1. Accession register/log (type of Information included) 2. Worksheets, checklists used 3. Nature of pre-existing finding aids 4. Components of inventories Introduction Biographical Sketch/Administrative History. Scope and Content Note Series Description Container Listing Series Listing F i l e Listing Item Listing Index Other information included 5. Cataloguing (collection, fonds. or item level(s) 1) Descriptive cataloguing (AACR2?) i i ) Subject Headings (Library of Congress Subject Headings?) i i i ) Indexing (c r i t e r i a used, depth of cross referencing etc.) 6. Other findings aids (descriptions of) Microforms Computerized l i s t s Guides Inclusion in Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives Other indexes (accession number, negative number, photographer's name) 7. Authority f i l e s in use and manuals/reference aids consulted in creating these f i l e s ; 8. Organization of visual catalogue 9. Organization of vertical f i l e 166 10. Literature consulted in creating visual catalogue/vertical f i l e amm QVSSTIQMS 1. Previous methods used in arranging and describing collections, fonds or items 2. Extent of images actually under physical and intellectual control 3. Problems with exiting system 4. Which finding aids are most frequently used by researchers Bv staff 5. Published finding aids 6. Automation (possibility of, p r i o r i t i e s , foreseeable impact on current practices) 7. If the repository/library is automated, what kind of hardware and software are in use, which finding aids have been automated, problems encountered, etc. 8. Other comments 167 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Aketet, Robert. Ph o t o a n a l y s j s : How to I n t e r p r e t the Hidden Meaning of Personal and P u b l i c Photographs. New York: P.H. Wyden, 1973. 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