Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teaching as a second career choice : a study of industrial education students Gowdy, Eileen Frances 1987

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1987_A2 G68_2.pdf [ 10.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097564.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097564-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097564-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097564-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097564-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097564-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097564-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097564-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097564.ris

Full Text

TEACHING AS A SECOND CAREER CHOICE: A STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS  by EILEEN FRANCES GOWDY B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y B.A., University M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  of S a s k a t c h e w a n , of Saskatchewan, of Saskatchewan,  1970 1973 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in  THE (Department  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  thesis,as  the required  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February  ©  and S p e c i a l  1987  E i l e e n F r a n c e s Gowdy,  1987  Education)  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  requirements that the  her  representatives.  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be granted It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81i  the  ABSTRACT  The  study  explored  the  career  change  made  population  of  37 t r a d e s m e n e n r o l l e d i n a t e a c h e r  program.  A  semi-structured  constructed  and  The  four  propositions of  career  career  face-to-face areas  change, t h e  participants  with  former  people, visual  i n the s o c i a l  making, career  and t h e i r  Responses  facilitators and  to  support  experiences  of  barriers  most  finances. change  the  common p a t t e r n several  readily  T h e r e was  in  sufficient  participants'  years  wives  work  in  one  career  an i n t e n t t o r e m a i n  the  were  employed  Socio-demographic the  information  participants  were  backgrounds.  exposure  of  and  The  personal Potential  frequent  term  jobs Future  teaching entering  indicated that around  with  change d e c i s i o n .  stressed.  path.  to  dealing  to p r i n t or  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i n the  prior  of  were l a c k o f s u p p o r t  was a s e r i e s o f s h o r t  indicated men  was  evidence  histories  expectations  finances  identified  little  and b a r r i e r s t o  and i n t e r a c t i o n s  media h a d i n f l u e n c e d t h e c a r e e r  support  principles  propositions  indication, that  having  was  tape-recorded.  learning  histories  tended  instructional  of  education  schedule  were  socio-demographic  b u t gave l i t t l e  importance  of  interviews  a  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d p o s i t i v e  put forward decision  interview  by  30 y e a r s  or  career The most  followed  by  career  plans  field.  A l l  the just  program.  over  half  of. age a n d o v e r  t w o - t h i r d s were m a r r i e d .  Wives tended  highly  in higher  than  educated their  tertiary  education  completed  of  participants  movement mobility.  but  husbands.  had  fathers.  (64%)  Over  prior  80%  were  Their entry rather  in into  than  lower  only  more  status occupations  (76%)  of  to current  bachelor's degrees.  t o be  the  men  involvement By  had and  entered five  entering a trade,  status  jobs  teaching resulted direct  not  upward  in  than a  men 57%  their rebound  inter-generational  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DEDICATION. CHAPTER ONE  vi viii ix x  - INTRODUCTION  1  1.1 B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e S t u d y 1.2 A r e a s o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n , O r i e n t i n g Statements 1.3 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms CHAPTER TWO 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4  1 Propositions, and R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s  10 16 17  - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  18  The C a r e e r Change P r o c e s s T h e o r i e s and M o d e l s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e F a c i l i t a t o r s a n d B a r r i e r s t o C a r e e r Change P a t t e r n s o f C a r e e r Change  18 25 30 34  Summary  37  CHAPTER THREE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  - METHODOLOGY  40  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Study Development of Research Instrument C o l l e c t i o n of Data C o d i n g and A n a l y s i s o f D a t a  40 40 50 51  CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS AND 4.1  DISCUSSION  53  A r e a o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1: A p p l y i n g S o c i a l Learning P r i n c i p l e s to Career Decision 4.1.1 P r o p o s i t i o n 4.1.2 P r o p o s i t i o n 4.1.3 P r o p o s i t i o n 4.1.4 P r o p o s i t i o n Summary o f R e s u l t s  4.2 A r e a  Making  ...53  A B C D  of I n v e s t i g a t i o n  53 59 62 78 83 2: F a c i l i t a t o r s  O r i e n t i n g Statement 4.2.1 B a r r i e r s t o C a r e e r Change 4.2.2 F a c i l i t a t o r s t o C a r e e r Change Summary o f R e s u l t s  and B a r r i e r s  .85 85 86 94 98  V  4.3 A r e a o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n  3: C a r e e r P a t t e r n s  O r i e n t i n g Statement Summary o f R e s u l t s 4.4 A r e a o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n Backgrounds  99 99 .....133  4:  Socio-demographic  O r i e n t i n g Statement 4.4.1 P a r t i c i p a n t D a t a 4.4.2 C o m p a r i s o n w i t h P r o v i n c i a l Data Summary o f R e s u l t s  .....135 135 136 and N a t i o n a l 147 157  CHAPTER F I V E - SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, UNEXPECTED FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  159  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5  159 164 166 179 183  Summary o f S t u d y L i m i t a t i o n s of Study Conclusions Summary o f U n e x p e c t e d F i n d i n g s Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  BIBLIOGRAPHY  189  APPENDICES  199  A: B: C: D:  199 201 203  E: F: G: H: I:  D e s c r i p t i o n of Program Description of P a r t i c i p a n t s I n i t i a l V e r s i o n of Interview Schedule Areas of I n v e s t i g a t i o n with P r o p o s i t i o n s , R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s and R e l e v a n t Items on Interview Schedule Items E l i m i n a t e d f r o m I n i t i a l I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e Codebook F i n a l V e r s i o n of I n t e r v i e w Schedule L e t t e r of C o n t a c t P a r t i c i p a n t C o n s e n t Form  208 ...221 223 256 264 .266  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table 1.  Instructional  Experiences  2. O b s e r v a t i o n s Made by Industrial 3. T e a c h e r s  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Participants  55  in  Education Classes  Liked  by  60  Participants  63  4.  R e p o r t e d O p i n i o n s of F r i e n d s , Workmates, P a r e n t s and W i v e s on C a r e e r Change of P a r t i c i p a n t s 5. I m p r e s s i o n s o f T e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g O b t a i n e d from 6. M a j o r  Film/Program Barriers  and  Book  to Career  7. Changes E x p e r i e n c e d  67 79  Change  by F a m i l i e s  86 of  Participants  ....87  8. D e g r e e of F i n a n c i a l S t r e s s E x p e r i e n c e d D u r i n g T r a i n i n g Year 9. S a l a r y a f t e r F i v e Y e a r s T e a c h i n g Compared t o Year P r i o r Program 10.  Likelihood  of A p p l i c a t i o n  Government  t o Program  to Career  12. D e g r e e of Home S u p p o r t  91  Without  Sponsorship  11. M a j o r F a c i l i t a t o r s  90  93 Change  94  for Participants'  Entry  into Teaching  96  13. C a r e e r  P a t t e r n s of P a r t i c i p a n t s  101  14.  Career  Related Goals  110  15.  Second C a r e e r  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Interests  16. D e g r e e of Commitment  112  to Occupations  Other  than  Teaching 17.  Reasons  for E a r l i e r  18. R e a s o n s f o r L e a v i n g  114 Non-entry  into Teaching  Previous Occupations  118 123  vii  19. O c c u p a t i o n a l V a l u e s into Teaching  and  Achieved  by  Entry 125  20.  Reasons  21.  Socio-economic  22.  S o c i o - e c o n o m i c Rank o f O c c u p a t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a n t s  of  Socio-economic  of Wives  23.  of  for Selection  Gains  of T e a c h i n g  as a C a r e e r  Rank of P a r t i c i p a n t  Rank o f O c c u p a t i o n s  Occupations  128 ....137  Fathers 139  Participants  141  24.  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of P a r t i c i p a n t s  143  25.  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of P a r e n t s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s  145  26.  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Wives of P a r t i c i p a n t s  146  27.  Summary o f C o m p a r i s o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h T r a d e s m e n i n Canada C o m p a r i s o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h Tradesmen i n Canada  28. 29.  Comparison of S e l e c t e d P a r t i c i p a n t s T r a d e s m e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  with Canada  148 150 155  viii  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1. P r o c e s s  o f Item S e l e c t i o n  2. M o d e l o f C a r e e r 3. C a r e e r  43  Change D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s  Change o f P a r t i c i p a n t ,  Boatbuilder  121 122  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  author  would l i k e  t o acknowledge t h e f o l l o w i n g :  - Members of the supervisory committee, Professors J.M.H. Andrews, R . J . L e d u c , C S . U n g e r l e i d e r , w i t h particular thanks to Professor F.H. E c h o l s , Research Supervisor. - M e s s r s D a v i d A b e l , K e i t h F o s t e r , Norman H e n d e r s o n , B r u c e M c G i l l i v r a y , W i l l i a m Logan and Kenneth Reynolds for their various a s s i s t a n c e . - Faculty and students i n the D i v i s i o n E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r e s t . - Delta  Kappa Gamma, A l p h a scholarship.  Province  of I n d u s t r i a l Columbia, f o r  f o r a much  appreciated  - A wide c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s whose s u p p o r t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g made i t p o s s i b l e to succeed in this test of tenacity and t e e t h - g r i n d i n g . S t r a i g h t A's t o my s i s t e r Caroline Williams and Janet Schmitz f o r their special contributions.  X  DEDICATION  To Rowan a n d We  d i d i t again  Arran my  loves!  To Graduate Students Illegitimati  Non  Everywhere Carborundum  1  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION People accepted there for  members of  has  been  career  characterized The  the  (b)  career  change,  study  out  was  and  one  which  the  examined the in  change  was  change  teacher  of  education  any  patterns  experience.  organized  into  four  main  four p r o p o s i t i o n s  (Mitchell, of  motivation  career  if  been  However,  Jones  facilitators  & and  areas. related  Krumboltz, barriers  of  work  (d) c o l l e c t i o n  of  information  histories on  to of  their  backgrounds.  income,  lives,  a  discover  change  Study  Work p e r v a d e s s e v e r a l  the  have  investigation  Background to the  how  by  to  making  (c)  socio-demographic  within  their  process  identification  participants,  life  either  enrolled  career  decision  establishes-  into  (a) c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  1979),  1.1  the  set  research  were:  career  research  present  It  i s a second c a r e e r  p r o f e s s i o n f o r some t i m e .  tradesmen  program.  to  little  The  skilled  These  the  change o r  achieved. 37  f o r whom t e a c h i n g  p r e s t i g e and  f a m i l y and and  aspects  of  social  adult  It  status, influences  community, d e t e r m i n e s  d e l i m i t s the  life.  amount and  use  where of  and  leisure  2  time  (Peters  & Hansen,  1966).  Levinson  work t h e p o s i t i o n o f ' p r i m a r y to  this  base  base'  i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l  class,  cultural  and  social  status  which  defined  by  offered  a wide r a n g i n g  affects  others  structure  way  &  ascribed  i n a man's  influences.  the  (Karp  (1978)  Rooted  and a network o f Work  one d e f i n e s  Yoels,  life.  to  1982).  provides  a  oneself  and i s  Sofer  (1971)  d e s c r i p t i o n of the f u n c t i o n  o f work.  He saw i t s r o l e a s :  providing means  economic  returns  other  ends/  to  opportunities  to  society/ enabling and  structuring ward  to  off  achievement/ personal  competence.  What one does  adult  scope  i d e n t i t y as w e l l  identity/ helping  thoughts and for  and  personal affirming  (p.198)  for a living  one i s ( K a r p & Y o e l s ,  others/  of time/  distressing  testing  and  opportunities  with  the passage  to  status  family  personal  feelings/ providing  of  the  interaction  contributing  who  oneself  network/ p r o v i d i n g  for  to  relate  in  are a  providing  one t o s u s t a i n  self-respect  social  that  1982).  i s a major  influence  I t i s an i m p o r t a n t  as a route  for self  upon source  expression  and  3  satisfaction realistic life. the  Pietrofesa & Splete,  to separate  A role work  work a n d  (Super  interrelationship  between  which  Career adult  career  million  non-work  However,  i t i s not  aspects  of  s u c h a s s p o u s e has an u n a v o i d a b l e role  existence  1975).  lasts change  &  one's  throughout  i n f l u e n c e on  1978).  work  There  and  the l i f e  the  In the t i t l e  i n career  of t h e i r  transition,  Arbeiter,  p e o p l e who  the  considering,  a  change  become so w i d e s p r e a d career"  (Driver,  have been c o i n e d . life  & Bohm,  that  or  occupation.  special  1978)  of,  and  terms  "protean  An a v e r a g e o f t h r e e  such  career" careers  as t h e t y p i c a l  Aslanian, numbers o f  were  Career  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  of i n f o r m a t i o n  seriously change has as  "serial  (Hall,  working  contemporary  pattern  on t h e r e a s o n s  attention  f o r career  would  facilitate The  by  potential  Thomas  study (e.g.  They  recommended  career  changers  the career of c a r e e r  people  change.  i n v e s t i g a t e d , as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s setting.  of  to the  careers  identify  characteristics  drew  that  occupational  1976)  per  recommended be  40  1970).  Arbeiter lack  process  of  h a s been p r o j e c t e d  (Super  of  report,  (1978) h i g h l i g h t e d t h e v a s t  in  rest  cycle.  Schmerbeck & B u c k n e l l were  i s an  i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y common o c c u r e n c e i n  development.  Americans  Hall,  one's  change  who  1980).  change of the  further research and  conditions  to  which  process.  c h a n g e has been w i d e l y  1975, 1977,  They  He  saw  undertaken  the  need  to  4  examine  career  of  adult  the  relationship  change as  life-cycle.  Career  other  changes  Sarason  those  who  withdraw  and  believed  understanding  emphasized  life data  "one  on  to enter career  policy  in  and  by  the  d y n a m i c s of c a r e e r  for  in  change are of  the  had as  The  also  career  paucity  of  transition  (1983).  occupational  to  important  such  b e l i e v e d t o be  need He  in career  Farmer  career whether  another.  education.  Harmon and  theories  by  by  style.  discover  areas  ego  paralleled life  change  the  and  life-one  to  counselling adults  been c r i t i c i s e d  current  or  planning  on  the  or  were more m o t i v a t e d  data  for public  f o u n d t o be  i t important  situation  that  counselling, theoretical  also  marital status  criticised  from one  implications  has  such as  change c a r e e r s  suggested  He  c h a n g e was. o f t e n  (1977)  imperative",  r e l a t e d to the  between work, p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g  identity. life  being  Moreover, unaccounted  choice  (Scott,  1983). By to  another,  means t o an  studying one  can  and  career  changes can  better  Splete,  friends  and  and  (Krantz,  people  how  to  of  shift  i t affects  1977;  career  f r o m one  discovering  career  what  work  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  Wilensky,  i l l u m i n a t e career  understanding  1975).  why  come c l o s e r  individual  family  a  how  1966).  e x p l o r a t i o n and  development  Studying lead  to  (Pietrofesa &  5  The  effects  described vertical  as  of  both  to the  occcupational  vertical  extent roles  occupational  and  in that  a  can  have wide  our  lives.  aspects alter  of much  hour day. into and  both  life  (Becker  discovering Past  student  i n w h i c h one  of  social  change  They  are  future  they  are  life,  i n t o non-work can  therefore  s p e n d s an  change lending  eight  may new  spread qualities  accompanying  effects  i t s shape and  place  body  little  of  which  literature is  of  i s a t t r a c t e d to t e a c h i n g adults  teachers  entering  the  of c a r e e r  to  which  i n one's  1966).  growing  is  such a  examined  transition  direct  as  in  on  a  career help  second  career  profession. into teaching  in  career.  change  and  However,  the  has  not  yet  explored. In  career  men  formed  order  choice  g r o u p of The  way  effects  occupation  has  combination been  career  the  who  research  the  and  & Strauss,  there  However,  ripple  I t i s these  the  Despite change,  spread  global effects  personal  to give  be  decision affects  choices.  A change of  than  perspectives.  help  can  d e c i s i o n s taken o s t e n s i b l y i n r e l a t i o n  more The  horizontal.  that a career  horizontal career  and  decisions  the  to d i s c o v e r present  more a b o u t  study  teaching  explored  tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher were c o n s i d e r e d a  experience  cohesive in another  appropriate  group. field  They before  the  education study  had  entering  a  second  s i t u a t i o n s of  for t h i s a l l  as  a  program. as  training  teaching.  they and They  6  were  generally  spent  several years  from , t h e by  their  career  career  could  career  transition  teachers.  It  exhibited b o t h of  exploration  the  of  of  responses.  As  unexamined p o p u l a t i o n  research  framework By  could  be  which  discovery. i f the  teaching  as in  a the  late-entry  i f participants  found  in  interviews provided  either  or  study  i t was  of  the  a  for  investigated a  b e n e f i t t o use  both  behaviour  characteristic  combination  opportunity  the  provided  exploring  teachers,  on  knowledge.  research  previously  flexibility.  facilitated  become  to d i s c o v e r  open-ended q u e s t i o n s of  second c a r e e r  who  d e c i s i o n making  use  different  to e l u c i d a t e p a t t e r n s  interest  r e l a t e d bodies  Through of c l o s e d and  of  used  had  site.  s e l e c t i o n of  tradesmen  of  and  o b j e c t i v e s were t o d e t e r m i n e  be of  quite  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  change and  was  patterns  these  the  teachers  t o r e s p o n d e n t s was  comprehensive  research  on  student  environment  Access  e m p h a s i s of  literature  typical  i n a work  l o c a t i o n i n one  principal  first  than  classroom.  The The  older  structure of  patterns  a and  individual of  the  group  discovered.  Four perspective provide  a  explain  how  propositions (Mitchell,  focus  f o r the  career  learning  and  to  i n the  assist  from  the  social  Jones & Krumboltz, study.  choice  These p o s t u l a t e s  is positively  experiences.  1979)  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  four the  learning  were u s e d  to  attempt  to  a f f e c t e d by  previous  p r o p o s i t i o n s were career  change  used  process.  7  Mitchell, importance groups the  of  such  present  the  J o n e s and  including in future as  a d u l t s who  study  this  information  theoretical  (1979)  research  such a  particular  stressed  particular  change c a r e e r s .  a r e members of  e x p l o r a t i o n of  provided  Krumboltz  target  P a r t i c i p a n t s in  target  career  the  group.  change,  on  the  relationship  propositions  and  the  In  the  study  between  the  v o c a t i o n a l behaviour  of  part ic ipants. As adult  mid-career  life,  it  change  is  i s now  important  facilitators  w h i c h accompany  facilitators  and  tradesman  teacher  change  to  of  either  such as lives  present  or  group. can  barriers  and  transition  ease w i t h  the  career  the  which  concept  of  changer  from  career of  is,  effect  on  choose  plan  in  other  to  on  the  in  t h e r e f o r e , of  of p e o p l e who  commitment  can  p r e s e n c e of commitment  It  of  second area  membership  have immediate  commitment  of  Examination  i n the  formed  short-term  The  aspect  research.  The  well-being.  examine t h e  the  i s chosen  interest.  teaching and  identify  such a change.  increase  career  long-term  occupational  can  i n the  immediate  to  Such e x a m i n a t i o n  When a new is  recognized  b a r r i e r s encountered  i s made.  investigation  a  new  careers people's  interest  to  enter  - the  assessed  from  profession. Commitment both past of  behaviour  i n d i v i d u a l s may  to and give  the  new  career  can  be  future expectations. some i n d i c a t i o n  as  Work  history  t o whether or  not  8  they  are  likely  commitment. career  A  to  repeated  instability,  make pattern  which  or  justify  commitment  of  participants  examined.  histories  and  For background 1975;  years  people  Ryans,  1960;  was  teachers  backgrounds social chose  and  teaching  backgrounds decide  at  of a  profession. full  effect  a  of  served  t o be  decisions has  of  made. the  need  been s t r e s s e d  for  the  Career  study  was  their  work  interest  to  be  blue  the  who  of  i n other  the  fields, teaching  information  that  information  such  social  context  In  order  to  (Harmon & F a r m e r ,  upward  the  explored.  the  and  collar  gaining  intra-generational  However,  the  research  known  enter  such  of  s t u d i e d men  is  worked  socio-demographic  for s o c i a l  has  the  Lortie,  previous  a means o f  with  and  One  Little  in  ( e . g.  from  research  change can  explored.  to describe  change was  as  age  i t i s only  inter-generational  patterns  usually  having  mature  career  been  1932).  career.  who,  more  Collection both  are  teaching  first  men  Yet  into  from t h i s  However, p a s t  as  made  become t e a c h e r s  emerged  view  mobility.  present  has  Waller,  which  male  was  well  suggest  re-training.  the  there  who  generalizations that  in  c h a n g e may  augur  of  occupational  plans.  fifty  of  not  cost  Inquiry  future  over  the  requisite  of c a r e e r  does  profession  therefore  the  allowed mobility  information  from which the  better  understand  biographical 1983;  also career adult  information  Levinson,  1978).  9  As  with  other  determined past  by  behaviours,  a combination  history.  In  socio-demographic image of  t h e men  changed  careers  multiple  social  data and  and  rationale  There who  i s no  As  Details  base on  comparison in  significant population  than  are  with  attempted  they  t h a t of  are  and  this  previous  in other  Results  comparison  literature  may  more  appear to  both  a  first  career  In t h e  single  i s somewhat  presented  r a t h e r than  wider  comparisons  research  are  men.  with  in  the  immediate  data.  The  transition  achieved  more  receptive  to  adults  study.  of  this  fields.  present  context  backgrounds  However, on  would  included in  apply  study.  similar  related  similar  may  research  c a r e e r changers  to a case  group  data  of  information.  t o d i s c o v e r the  socio-demographic  the  of  i n the c o n t e x t  trade occupations  of  particpants  backgrounds  from  group e x p l o r a t o r y approach,  context  so  and  comprehensive  As  f i t other  g r o u p of men  their  than  t e a c h e r s and  choice. doing  is  collection  a more  of t h e i r  which to  study  a result,  made  be  the  f o r t h e c a r e e r change of one  remained  study.  career  behaviour  circumstances  study  facilitate  would  roles.  change  present  present  their  present  of  would  they  provide a richer The  the  career  who  opportunity  from  easily  one  when  the  late  entry.  As  decide  to  become  for  both  career  Lortie  training  second  another career  can  be  field  is  (1975) i n d i c a t e d ,  teachers and  to  have  employment.  found  mature ready  However,  as  10  yet  there  h a s been  little  why a c a r e e r  change  concentrated  on t h e r e a s o n s  It  has  examined  the  teachers  who  teacher  education  people may  teaching  other  as a s e c o n d c a r e e r study  information a  change as  after  i n general  route  out  is  lack  has  even  t o meet  further  student  of  school, However,  occupation  of  r e s e a r c h on  already  more  this  on s e c o n d c a r e e r for  and  i n another  The  has  teaching.  to school.  years  choice  into  of teachers  been  noted  on t e a c h i n g  pronounced.  recognized teachers  research  and t h e p a r t i c u l a r  a second career  entry  back  goals.  choice  set  point  and  Research  However, l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n  gathered  starting  made.  traditional  program  1979).  is  for i n i t i a l  the  a s an o c c u p a t i o n a l  (Schalock,  present  teaching  teaching  seeking  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the reasons  motivations  followed  who e n t e r  be  into  attempt  The  need.  can serve  into  selection  both of  The as  career  teaching  field.  1.2 A r e a s o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n , P r o p o s i t i o n s , O r i e n t i n g S t a t e m e n t s and R e s e a r c h  The  four  propositions are  below.  statements"  which a s p e c t s  of  or o r i e n t i n g  .identified  "orienting  areas  of career  Questions  investigation,  with  statements and r e s e a r c h Using  Homan's  a r e sometimes change w i l l  (1967)  provided be  explored.  relevant questions  terminology, to  indicate  i1  Area  Did  the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g s o c i a l  career  d e c i s i o n making a s s i s t  teaching  as a second  Proposition  An for  of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1  is  of study,  consequences  that  the  choice  of  A  a course  learned  in explaining  p r i n c i p l e s to  career?  individual  positively  learning  an  of a f i e l d  reinforced  are  course,  more  likely  occupation,  o f work  occupation  with  or  i f that  f o r engaging  associated  to express  in  preference  the  tasks  individual  activities  and  h a s been s/he  has  the s u c c e s s f u l performance of  or f i e l d  o f work.  (Krumboltz,  1979,  p.39) Research praise  for their Research  experienced behaviour  for  1: Have t h e  behaviour Question  a feeling  participants  in a teaching related  2:  of  i n a teaching  Proposition  An  Question  Have pleasure  related  received  situation?  the  participants  associated  with  their  situation?  B  individual  a course  of  i s more  study,  an  likely  to express  occupation  or  a preference  the  tasks  and  12  consequences observed  of  field  s/he  successful work.  has  performance (Krumboltz,  Research  recognized  as  Proposition  An  individual  consistently  of  as an  a  o f work.  who  In  engaging  in  for  associated  with or  I n d u s t r i a l Education student  the field  classes  behaviours which  are  to teachers?  an  field  of  work  was  family  engaging  (Krumboltz,  Question  1979,  members who  occupation?  the  and  has  been  person  who  course, occupation  p.40)  participants  known  a  reinforcement?  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  support  tasks  person  valued  i n that  4: Have t h e  5: Do  or  i f that  by a  a s o u r c e of p o s i t i v e Question  to express a preference  occupation  positively reinforced  Research and/or  study,  of  Research teacher  has  course, occupation  i s more l i k e l y  and/or a d v o c a t e s  field  3:  are  individual  p.39)  observed  rewarding  consequences  or  reinforced  of t h a t 1979,  i f that  C  a course  models  work  learned  Question  have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  for  of  a v a l u e d model b e i n g  activities  of  a  have  friends  t h e i r c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g  13  Proposition  An for  a  D  individual  course  of  i s more l i k e l y study,  consequences  in a  exposed  positive  to  an  to express  occupation  f i e l d o f work  i f that  words and  a  or  preference  the  individual  occupation,  f i e l d of work or t h e a c t i v i t i e s  to  (Krumboltz,  1979,  or  television  image of  the  role  6:  school  Research Question book  which  teaching  portrayed  as an  factors  been that  related  a  a  positive  teacher?  7: a  portrayed  watched  Have positive  the  participants  image  of  read  teachers  a or  occupation?  Area  What  Have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  p r o g r a m w h i c h has of  and  p.40)  Research Question film  has  images a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  course, i t .  tasks  of  Investigation 2  facilitated  or  impeded  the  career  change  process?  Orienting  Statement  When c h a n g i n g w h i c h a i d or h i n d e r  careers the  there  transition  exist process  certain (Louis,  factors 1980).  1 4  Research Question major b a r r i e r s  in  8:  the  What  career  factors are recognized change  from  tradesman  as to  teacher? Research Question major  facilitators  9:  What  i n the c a r e e r  factors are recognized change  from  tradesman  as to  teacher? Research Question the  career  change  the c a r e e r  the  experiences  indicate  11:  An  do f a m i l y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s  tradesman t o  and  expectations career  individual  is  likely  participants  pattern?  & Bohm, 1970).  t o p u r s u e on a v e r a g e  (Super  series  of  exist.  I f s o , s u c h a p a t t e r n would  unrelated careers  If  teaching  an u n s t a b l e be  is  career  one  three of  pattern  reflected  in  a may  work  and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Research Question teaching  of  Statement  careers  histories  teacher?  of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3  a s t a b l e or u n s t a b l e  Orienting  factors affect  to teacher?  How  change f r o m  Area  Did  do f i n a n c i a l  from t r a d e s m a n  Research Question affect  10: How  after  occupations?  a  12:  sequence  Have of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s entered three  or  more  unrelated  15  Research into  Question  Do t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w  teaching as a temporary Research  occupations  Question  Question  becoming  a  intrinsic  factors?  teacher  indicate  14;  Is  15:  entry  one  of  several  change? the  stated  extrinsic  reasons rather  for than  of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4  socio-demographic that  to  entry  commitment?  teaching  Are  related  Area  the  o r permanent  c o n s i d e r e d as a c a r e e r  Research  Did  13;  into  backgrounds of the p a r t i c i p a n t s teaching  would  provide  upward  social mobility?  Orienting  Statement  Male backgrounds. accessible  teachers  tend  Entry  teaching w i l l  route  Research participants  levels  Question  16;  class What  come  from  blue  collar  therefore provide  (Schalock, were  an  1979).  the o c c u p a t i o n s of  e n t e r i n g t h e program?  Question  of p a r t i c i p a n t s Research  parents  t o the middle  before  Research  into  to  17:  before  Question  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  18:  What  were  the  educational  e n t e r i n g t h e program? What  were  the o c c u p a t i o n s of  16  Research Question levels  of parents  -1.3  20:  What  were  the  summary, t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t the  tradesmen as they discover  the  career became  participants.  previously teachers, social  educational  personal  Four  were  in  the (1)  examined:  learning principles  (2) What process?  and  (3)  indicate  choice  the  mobility?  into  to  on c a r e e r transition  second  none  career  D i d the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n making  of t e a c h i n g as a second o r impeded  experiences  socio-demographic entry  out  of r e s e a r c h ,  of  the and  i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or unstable  the that  Did  context  to  skilled  set  career  areas  was  by  research  and t h e  to career  factors facilitated  participants Did  the  It  between p a s t  principal  study  undertaken  schoolteachers.  of teaching  addressed  explaining  social  change  relationship  change and s e l e c t i o n  (4)  the  Purpose of the Study  investigate  in  were  backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  In  of  What  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  Research Question family  19:  assist career?  career  change  expectations career  of  pattern?  backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s  teaching  would  provide  upward  1 7  1 .4 D e f i n i t i o n  The  of  Terms  f o l l o w i n g terms are  Career:  A  succession  hierarchy  of  p r e s t i g e , through  ordered  (more-or-less  used throughout  of  r e l a t e d jobs, which  the  arranged  persons  predictable)  study:  move  sequence  in a in  an  (Wilensky,  1966).  Career which  involves  different  work  Stable career  c h a n g e : A change w i t h i n  career  changes  Education  of  different  history: A pattern  undertaken  program.  Unstable career  implementation  career  sequence  skills  in a  environment.  changes  Education  the  the  ( B a s e d on  career  entry  less  than  i n t o the  three  Industrial  S u p e r & Bohm,l970)  history: A pattern  undertaken  program.  before  of  before  entry  of  three  i n t o the  or  more  Industrial  18  CHAPTER  REVIEW OF  Research discussed  theories  Review of  2.1  research  i s followed  The  Career  At work may his  the  by  stages  will A  their  range minor rural five of  to urban  decision  to  enter  in  such  shift  well  as  change.  career  patterns.  or  one  he  a new  value  of  a man  in  in  his  occupation  value  career  of  held  and  involve altering  the  in daily  environment  p o s i t i o n can  careers.  b a r r i e r s to  perspective  the  from m a j o r a l t e r a t i o n s , differences  The  be  s u c h a d e c i s i o n may as  Next,  discussed  t h e m e a n i n g and  not  However,  life  life  1980).  indicate a  of  are  to second  and  is  reviews  process.  choice  relevance  of  therefore  aspects  section  change  career  study  Process  (Osherson,  mid-twenties.  of  present  a d i s c u s s i o n of c a r e e r  Change  mid-forties  career  into f a c i l i t a t o r s  different vary  of  to the  introductory  models  in light  LITERATURE  relevant  The  f i n d i n g s on  and  particularly  change  literature  below.  contemporary  THE  TWO  may  meaning.  several  itself.  other  These  can  such as d i s t a n t r e l o c a t i o n , t o logistic from  routines.  shift  variously contribute  A move  work t o a  t o an  overall  nine  from to  pattern  19  career  There  may  be  roles  and  other  A l t h o u g h Super are  not  often  been  found  (Krantz,  Thomas,  may  accompanied  1977). by  occupation  requires a  resulting  in  career  or  Hiestand  significant the  skills  may  ending  period of  of  turn  tasks  in  Krantz  (1977),  or  of  the  hand.  degree  The  much  terms,  turns.  occupation  setting. former  The  business  existence,  S a n t a Fe and  Hiestand  categorized  of  research  as  making 45  the  of  than  the  i n s e v e r a l ways.  former  career.  career  entailed a built  The  new  residents studied  as  now 90  mature g r a d u a t e changes.  on  right  occupation,  described  degree  personal  effects  p r o f e s s i o n a l men be  new  perhaps  describing  The  earlier  other  into a  which n e v e r t h e l e s s  could  changers.  or  wider  r e s u l t e d i n a c o m p l e t e change of a new  occupation  skills,  1975).  range  90  an  entry  self-image,  job at  between  re-socialization  (Gross,  knowledge of an  counter-cultural  h i s own  life.  Osherson,  marriage  subsequent  therefore  c h a n g e of  angled  1978;  leave  a  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  c h a n g e s have been c a t e g o r i z e d  45  and  changing  person's  Levinson,  (1971) u s e d g e o m e t r i c a l as  a  d e c i s i o n to  The  values  i m m e d i a t e demands of  shifts  the  alteration  change  Career  1977; The  relationship.  relationships  within  n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d , such a  1980;  personal  roles  the  (1980) i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e c i s i o n p o i n t s  roles  be  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  by  in a degree  students  20  Osherson either  a  defensive  commitment there  (1980)  to  the  the  as  resolution  f a c e d up  of  both  to  the  the  to the  both in  new.  first the  A more b a l a n c e d  pleasant  and  being  affected change  and  old  This  r e s u l t e d i n a more  also  1976).  third  f i g u r e s to  compared h i g h  and  The  of  of  Comparison pressure  second job  and  approach  was  or  "sculpted"  unpleasant  aspects  i n t e g r a t e d commitment  series  1977;  of  career from  Thomas,  leave  self  present  and  response  and  their  own  and to  internal,  high  external),  internal,  external),  and  occupational  such  patterns  of  low  external),  (high  internal,  response to c a r e e r  group.  However,  Thomas  of  motives behind  (low  "opinions  and  such change.  Each  the  external  These  were  Bow-outs  (high  internal,  high  low  external).  c h a n g e were f o u n d  emphasized  a  situations.  internal  Force-outs  Opt-outs  was  " e x t e r n a l " f a c t o r s s u c h as  i n d i c a t e d f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of c h a n g e r s . (low  (1980)  environment  occupations  situations  people  utilizing  Mela, Robbins & Harvey,  f a c t o r s such as  other  articles  c h a n g e , Thomas  "internal"  of  Drift-outs  General  a  pressure  d e c i s i o n to  personal  opinions  of  illustrate  low  Thomas,  combination  nature  the  This  In a d e f e n s i v e  value  of  c h a n g e as  second.  four-part  each  occupation.  "foreclosed".  c a r e e r s and  In  (see  process.  any  worth  described  adaptive  e v a l u a t i o n s of  denigrating  exaggerating  of c a r e e r  new  were u n r e a l i s t i c  careers,  and  or  conceived  the  for  individual  respondent  had  21  his  own  reasons  for  leaving  an  executive  position  in  mid-career. A both  exit  study, For  decision and  motivations  example,  who  pushed  reasons  job  c a r e e r s c o n t a i n s elements  the  purposes  of  the  voluntary exit  are of  changes  Thomas's  of  were r e q u i r e d t o l e a v e t h e i r  those  nor  behind  For  behind  the  r e l e v a n t as  not  change  entrance.  "force-outs", as  to  of t h e  did  they  a similar  "opt-outs". fall.  The  examined  present  interest. (1980)  jobs, are  not  " o p t - o u t s " were  They c h o s e  c h o i c e was  of  t o jump.  i n the  The  present  study. Parsons  and  Wigtail  towards p e r s o n a l development career.  They b e l i e v e d  chosen  for  convenient  economic location,  availability was  study  field,  Krantz  r a t h e r than  traditional  sociological chances  of new  enter class  as  the  or  a much s t r o n g e r careers.  These  p r o f e s s i o n s and  to  such  as or  meeting  Hiestand's  in  be  in occupation  those  realization  counter  second  tended  determined  interest  shift  promotion  variables,  skills  in  indicated  middle  of  a  a  reasons  influential.  such  that  occupations  students also  motives  However, men  (1977)  initial  However, when a c h a n g e  n e e d s , were more  aquisition  suggested  made i n s e l e c t i n g  psychological  specific  ambition.  was  income,  of m a t u r e g r a d u a t e  personal  exit  and  of work.  considered,  individual  that  (1974)  a  (1971)  a range  of  particular of l o n g h e l d  culture  study  individual people  by  need  had  moved t o S a n t a  to  left Fe,  22  New  Mexico.  whatever  There they  else  more o f  an  lifestyle  escape  than  route  a positive this  that  satisfying  occupation  supportive  occupation  Thomas  stressed affluent  and  experiencing transition In  foster  for  the  interesting  a  towards  personal  interests  contrast  (Hiestand, 1979). income,  to  gains  factors  such  Krantz,  as  more  Almost  earlier  which  is  of  both  but  work,  is  career  but i n e v i t a b l e . one e x p l a n a t i o n  50% o f  the  workers  wanted more money.  advancement work  Other  (18%),  more c l o s e l y  more  related to  The e m p h a s i s on f i n a n c i a l  gain i s  other  studies  career  1977;  indicated through work  environment'  deviance,  world  change  change.  structure  l a r g e survey,  and  (10%).  sought  (1980) a  of such  society  i n the  (1978)  (15%)  Such r e s e a r c h  when  which condones  not o n l y a c c c e p t a b l e  several  1971;  occurs  social  professional  work  Neapolitan's  social  jobs because they  were  was  'macrosocial  of In  o n g o i n g change  new  occupation  no-longer-desired  the occurence  on  tolerant  would a p p e a r  attractors  on  only  c a r e e r change p r e d o m i n a t e d .  looked  in  support  environment  (1964).  Arbeiter's  or  i s perceived.  influence  by B e c k e r  a  endeavours  towards a w e l l - d e f i n e d g o a l .  to  social  will  the  step  from  change  (1979) commented  highlighting  for  career  artistic  F o r them a new  away  tends  contention  of  in  was a v a i l a b l e .  Nevertheless,  A  worked  change  Osherson,  that  rather  1980; than  c a r e e r change tended  which  had  more  Thomas, increased to focus  meaning  or  23  opportunity often  f o r p e r s o n a l development.  resulted  conflict  in less  between  income,  motives  can  comparing  t h e sample  o f t h e two  included  many  paid  included  women who  income.  The  professional a  low  state  A change  fulfill  higher  more  with  more d e s i r a b l e constant  purely  which  reasons  families  Such p e o p l e were  in  or  on  for their  sought  basic  in order  to  be d e s c r i b e d i n  esthetic  (Maslow,  by Thomas c o n t i n u e wanting  once a c e r t a i n  are  expected  to  work  have  to  There  level  on  spend  or l o o k i n g  live.  that  into  1973;  of  extrinsic  Hahn,  These  and  1959;  Extrinsic  work w h i c h would be more o r  vacations  in  or i n r e c r e a t i o n to  personal  for a  is  the  o f income i s  provide  more  than  rewards.  1970).  workers.  minimal  These  men  f o r example  i n which  by  Arbeiter  survey.  could  discovered  lines,  rewards  differentiated  Super,  his  often  self-actualizing  location  monetary The  needs  explained  concentrated  order  occupations  & Tersine,  research  apparent  study.  with  was  implication  assured,  in  homemakers  be  of  occupation  This  w h i c h more t h a n p r o v i d e d  non-financial  time  types  of o c c u p a t i o n  terms as Further  similar  perhaps  workers  other  needs.  1943).  more.  and m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n s .  financial  Maslovian  were  not  Change o f  would be  intrinsic  Spreitzer  factors less factors  o r work e n v i r o n m e n t .  frequently factors &  include constant  (Altimus  Snyder,  1974;  those a s p e c t s of for  equivalent  s u c h a s economic  Intrinsic  been  factors  returns,  relate  to  24  satisfaction  experienced  creativity  s e n s e of a c h i e v e m e n t .  that  or  extrinsic  (1943)  lower  -Intrinsic division account  his  a s s o c i a t e d an ability  internal  a particular  f o r p r e s t i g e , he  his  choice  his  work  from  best.  The  p r o f e s s i o n a l men intrinsic  given  by  needs.  needs.  career  The may  changers  now  were  reasons  described  (Hahn,  through  in  changes  sought  the  esteem.  context  important  Herzberg, as  of In t h e  in The  for  by  derives Mausner  &  partial  truth  by Thomas's  (1979)  Young b l u e  Workers  a in  t o him  accounted  f o r l a c k of  lack  the  i f a worker had  dissatisfaction  work.  1973).  and  with  dissatisfaction  accepted  reason  as  is  1959;  on  (1970)  satisfaction.  o n l y be  their  Tersine,  self-actualization  while  based  have a l s o r e p o r t e d t h i s &  job  satisfaction  career  (Altimus  worker  I f p r e s t i g e were a c c o r d e d  factors  of  the  example,  experience  can  of  Zytowski  would c o n s i d e r p r e s t i g e  job  aspects  a work v a l u e ,  For  e l e m e n t s of work  1959)  Maslow's  h i e r a r c h y of needs  desired attributes  would  extrinsic  to  order  as  suggested  physiological  a  disposition  of c a r e e r .  that  Snyderman, at  of  occupation.  need  instrinsic  (1974)  such  levels.  to o b t a i n the  suggestion  worker  aligned  to higher  along  definition  he  Miller  and  v a r y i n g reasons  income  In  safety  values  individual  closely  were r e l a t e d  work  f o r the  the  were  level  factors of  different  of  factors  by  job  under  with  collar  the  workers  satisfaction 26  years  opportunity same s t u d y ,  gave for  workers  25  over  36 y e a r s  Considering be  that  reported  levels  the e r a i n which t h i s  the  sixties,  higher  younger  had h i g h e r  self-fulfilment  through  noted,  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  the l e v e l  closely their  related  expectations.  passed  through  apologies Their  how  state  to Festinger  work  their  colleagues  work.  As  reached  by t h e w o r k e r s  could  situation.  altered  They  be  was  j o b matched had  already  described,  with  dissonance".  t o match t h e r e a l i t y  therefore  for  the r e s e a r c h e r s  the o l d e r workers  which  had t h e n  i t may  grown up d u r i n g t h e  (1957), as " o c c u p a t i o n a l  i s perhaps s e l f - e v i d e n t that  employment  must  have  satisfaction  before  they  Either  earlier  the  enough.  reported  decided  job  was  change needs f u r t h e r  exist,  careers.  a  of  higher  in lack  a second  regular of  job  career.  n o t good, o r i t was n o t good  of l a c k of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  on  investigation.  Choice  s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s and m o d e l s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  none i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  Hall  some  to enter  and M o d e l s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l  Although  workers  experienced  However, t h e i m p a c t  2.2 T h e o r i e s  choice  than  took.place  of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . It  career  having  satisfaction.  t h e outcomes o f t h e i r  Perhaps  a  expectations  their level  to  their  job  research  workers,  expectations  of  (1976) c l a s s i f i e d  main g r o u p s - M a t c h i n g  and  directed current  Process.  towards  second  theories into  Among  the  two  Matching  26  theories, enter and  which attempt  certain Super  kinds  1963).  fulfills  their  to  early  value  1957;  Super,  Roe s u g g e s t e d  theory  relationships.  h a s been q u e s t i o n e d as  to  believed  be c o n g r u e n t  made  up  of  at  career with to  changers the stage  occupation both  life-  Life-Career overlap roles.  postulates just  decide  to start  concept.  and  the  Rainbow.  Such e m p h a s i s of  Levinson,  stages  to a lack  of  aspects  and  1978; O s h e r s o n ,  of  of  to some  conflict  one c a r e e r between  an  t o encompass  (1980)  presented  a  he e m p h a s i z e d t h e  personal  contemporary  career  stage,  from  accord  form  t o such personal  in  In an e f f o r t Super  was  expected  is  However, t h e s h i f t  relfects  or  would be  In diagrammatic  personal  relative  This  so a s  concept  or Maintenance  self-image.  various  This  six  over.  and c a r e e r - h i s t o r i e s ,  individual  career.  values,  when t h e y  the Establishment  may be r e l a t e d  between  integration (e.g.  However,  either  another  theory  concept.  interests,  1973), t h e  were s e l e c t e d  image o f h i m s e l f  abilities,  The  development. be  the s e l f  the person's  f a c e t s as h i s history.  with  that occupations  which  the research  by  of a second  &  attributed  (Osipow,  affected  needs may be r e l e v a n t t o s e l e c t i o n  (1957)  c h o o s e work  Although  who  Matlin  T h e s e needs were  of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e  Super  o f Roe  Starishevsky,  that people  p e r s o n a l needs.  parent-child  of t h i s  concept  of o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e those  (Super,  Jordaan,  t o d e s c r i b e the kinds of people  and w o r k e r  interest  c a r e e r development 1980; S a r a s o n ,  in  the  of a d u l t s  1977).  27  A m a t c h i n g a p p r o a c h was later blank  developed  interest  particular  approach  to  orientations.  Although Holland's  model  some  according  to  the  the  occupations members.  A  and  Betz,  six  are  of  definition  f a i l s to  personal.effects  suggested  that  have  similar by  the  been done  1979; of  the  Dwight,  1977;  present  study  of  personality  Investigative,  and of  using  Conventional t h r e e of  Holland  the  six  listed  465  t h e P e r s o n a l i t y P a t t e r n of  their  A r t s t e a c h e r s a r e coded as P l u m b e r s and  categories (Vaitenas  RIS,  automobile  Although  to  another  &  Weiner,  has  argument  from such  are  from  one  been u s e d  1977),  tradesman  so  mechanics  change  i n c o r p o r a t e the w i d e - r a n g i n g  of a t r a n s i t i o n  Holland's  this  Realistic,  w h i l e c a r p e n t e r s a r e RCI. six  of  1965).  types  Pattern.  an  on  measured  (Holland,  measured c o m b i n a t i o n  welders.  d e f i n e c a r e e r change  on  The  o f members  who  were  Enterprising,  terms  Industrial  Holland's  He  others  &  beween  elaborated  f o r the purposes  Personality in  electricians  Based  Doty  model  Social,  indicate  of  (e.g., 1978),  (R,I,A,S,E,C).  a r e RIE,  Inventory  weaknesses.  Artistic,  Holland  and  inventory  similarity  the p r o f i l e  with  (1943)  Strong's  much v o c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has  L. G o t t f r e d s o n , has  and  the  orientations  Preference  Strong  orientations.  work  These  by  1973).  indicated  profile  proposed  tend  Vocational  (1966,  occupation.  and  people  it  Holland  gave a s c o r e w h i c h  individual's a  by  taken  to  a transition  such  social  to a and  teacher. would  stem  28  from  a personality  account  for selection The  designed choice  Process  of  & Herma,  1964).  this  type  make a  A three  Beginning period  of  descision  on  their  Axelrad,  the childhood Fantasy Choice  i t i s admitted  a Realistic  theory  choice u n t i l  and  stage, finally  t h a t many well  people  into  adult  c a n n o t .be a p p l i e d t o c a r e e r c h a n g e r s o f  i n the present  have a l r e a d y made f i r m  years  of t r a i n i n g decision  to  s t a g e model was p u t f o r w a r d  Tentative  Although  into  examined  with  will  their  fails  models and t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r c h o i c e a r e  Choice.  not s e t t l e  the  theory  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (Ginzberg, G i n s b e r g ,  follows a  life,  the  of the i n i t i a l c a r e e r .  occupation.  Realistic do  Otherwise  t o d e s c r i b e how p e o p l e  by G i n z b e r g  there  change.  study.  Realistic  and e x p e r i e n c e . to  enter  participants  c h o i c e s , as they  However,  teaching  The  i t may  be  have that  i s f u l f i l l i n g an e a r l y  Fantasy. Examination their  careers,  maturity" is  stage.  The  vocational finally  with  resulted  both  to their  emphasis  maturity  behaviour Although  adolescents,  on  by w h i c h p e o p l e  i n the concept  1973; S u p e r  attained.  vocational cycles.  has  (Crites,  in relation  of the process  £< Bohm,  peers  i s not r e l a t i v e  change much the  d e c i s i o n s made i n c a r e e r  of  in  this  concept change.  of " v o c a t i o n a l This maturity  with peers  life  means t h a t  t o age a n d c a n n e v e r  f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s a  with  and t o a p a r t i c u l a r  comparison  The c r i t e r i a  1970).  cope  series  of  be  mature  developmental  work h a s been c a r r i e d o u t may  be  relevant  t o the  29  The  impact of the s o c i a l  occupational  choice  was  structure  stressed  on an  individual's  i n t h e model  d e v e l o p e d by  B l a u „(Blau, G u s t a d , P a r n e s & W i l c o x , 1 9 6 8 ) . subject  to  two  development, certain  main  which  choices,  opportunities  influences.  would and  determine  Blau a l s o  orientation  stressed  c h o s e him. influence  but  on  A n o t h e r major of s o c i a l  attainments emphasised  of  theories  have and  context  of  Levinson  e t a l . , 1978;  Jones  principles  the  a  whole  Krumboltz of c a r e e r  (1974,  life  effect.  to  decision  was  the and  (1974)  also  vocational  decision  making  somewhat narrow i n  of o c c u p a t i o n (Jones  &  in  Jung,  the 1979;  1980).  explain  (1979)  career  presented making.  choice  B a s e d on  sociological  Mitchell,  the s o c i a l  1977), t h e i r a p p r o a c h n o t o n l y  but a l s o a l l o w e d They  as b e i n g  setting  Super,  i n t e r p l a y of economic,  factors,  career  also  aspirations  s i t u a t i o n on  t o view t h e c h o i c e  an a t t e m p t  and  Bandura  failing  such  and  learning  t h e work  career  decisions  of  incorporated psychological  f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of cause  proposed that  the  careers  work  J e p s e n and D i l l e y  criticized  concept  that  on  the o c c u p a t i o n  of B l a u ' s  of e x t e r n a l  However,  been  towards  i n d i v i d u a l chose  b a c k g r o u n d on t h e c a r e e r  the i n f l u e n c e making.  hired,  emphasis  individuals.  decision  In  being  The  was  personality  the socio-economic c o n s t r a i n t s  available.  occupation,  choice  T h e s e were  were t h e r e s u l t s o f two-way d e c i s i o n s . the  The  and  were made as a  30  result  of a  lifetime's  reinforcement  provided  affected  and  past  The u s e d by  learning. both  future  and  motivation  set  out  Herzog-Spokane  choice.  i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s  and  of  slide-tape  modeling  found  that p o s i t i v e  for  the  jobs,  condition  had no  Foreman's e t a l . (1979) approach  he  conditions present with the  of  (1980)  w h i c h may identified  career  words  presentation  of  technology.  increased  and  They  preferences  reinforcement  or  modeling  review  of  of  Mitchell  it  the  as  d e c i s i o n making  be  attempts  18  work  first  new  i t d i d not c o n s i d e r  related  to address  years  the  are  theoretical  t o a p p e a r f o r some  time.  the l e a r n i n g  to  career  change.  this  issue.  In a c c o r d a n c e  (1982) o b s e r v a t i o n ,  career  no  The  d e c i s i o n s made a t  longer  considered  a  choice.  Facilitators  Career  the  images  and  the  effect.  w h i c h may  Osipow's  which  test  of p o s i t i v e  i n medical  the  r e g r e t t e d that  "one-time-only"  2.3  words and  welcomed  study  age  of jobs  to  information  through  whereas  to career  However,  occupational  portrayals  information  (1981)  between  images  external  by K r u m b o l t z (1979) were  relationship They  and  and  experiences.  propositions  Spokane  Internal  and B a r r i e r s t o C a r e e r  change  facilitate certain  is  influenced  o r impede  Change  by a r a n g e o f f a c t o r s  the s i t u a t i o n .  communalities  which e x i s t  Louis with  (1980)  every  such  31  change the  such  as  coping  move f r o m one j o b  classified dealing  with  to  another.  with  t h e c h a n g e s was c l o s e l y  changers  and  in  instruments  Weiner  such  Rafferty,  as  point  was  the career  part  fear  i s recognized  Dohrenwend  1978),  stability  stress.  The  being  widely  question barriers concrete  were  used  to  a  as a s t r e s s f u l  Scale (Rotter  at this  time  change  emotional  had  career.  superfluous  taken  As c a r e e r &  t o measure  s i g n s of  emotional  of p e r s o n a l i t y i s  of the instruments 1979).  t o be i d e n t i f i e d  t e r m s , a s do t h e f a c i l i t a t o r s .  were  (Dohrenwend  1977; S e c h r e s t ,  need  dividing  by  and  situation  and f i n d  as v a l i d i t y  a  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  new  somewhat  1974; M i s c h e l ,  career  Using  age d i f f e r e n c e s emerged,  measurement o f many a s p e c t s  (Fiske,  mid-career  as  characterized  entering  criticised  to acquire.  Sentences Blank  of f a i l u r e .  i t appears  emotional  amount  Stability  i n a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g program towards  the  occupations.  The age  No i m p o r t a n t  changers and  steps  change  to  compared g r o u p s o f young a n d o l d e r  changers to c o n t r o l s . 35 y e a r s .  were  Success i n  studied  Emotional  Incomplete  1950), t h e y  maladjustment  (1977)  the  career  active  related  business-managerial  (Gordon,1963) a n d R o t t e r  taking  differences  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e w o r k e r h a d been a b l e  Vaitenas  but  The  a s changes, c o n t r a s t s and s u r p r i s e s .  of advance  &  the d i f f e r e n c e s experienced i n  i s in The  i n more  32  A life more  transition  likely  available. out,  to  be  such  as c a r e e r  successful  when  However, as W a t e r s a n d  the  need  f o r support  support  become  less  example  of r e l o c a t i o n ,  family  and  Nevertheless,  i t was  would  personal  Goodman  pointed  as s o u r c e s of cited  the  removing a worker and dependents  from  thus  Super  seem  support i s  (1981)  can i n c r e a s e j u s t  accessible.  friends,  change  (1980)  increasing stress  of j o b change.  the e x i s t e n c e of support,  particularly  f r o m t h e w o r k e r ' s s p o u s e , w h i c h was a c k n o w l e d g e d a s t h e main facilitator 1980;  in  the c a r e e r  Neapolitan, A second  presence  1980; W a t e r s & Goodman,  factor  which eased  of s u f f i c i e n t  financial  Thomas,  1980).  Hiestand's  age  who  entered  graduate  of  financial  to  school.  appeared little  need  transition  be for  period  remained working the of  career suitable  present  teachers  and  resources  These study  after  (Hiestand,  indicated  that  availability  i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r  executives firm  in  Thomas's  financial  financial  base.  support  Further students  successful  the  of  return  research There  during  was the  o f w i v e s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e s had facilitators were  tradesmen  accepted  could  into  the  to  availability  admission  findings are p a r t i c u l a r l y  being  1971;  school,  and  as  the  35 y e a r s  t h e home.  programs  was  over  60%  inside  change  of people  a more  extra  1981).  study  change of H i e s t a n d ' s  universities. the  on  (Bloland & Selby,  career  a i d was an i m p o r t a n t  The b u s i n e s s to  change p r o c e s s  to  the  relevant to only  become  appropriate  33  university  program.  Personal  also  to a s s i s t  i n the  found  of  the  business  was  important  strong  needs o f  career  executives  f o r them t o  personal  the  change p r o c e s s .  reported  find  individual  that  they  more m e a n i n g f u l  conviction  helped  were  Over  believed i t work.  them  75%  This  through  the  transition. Barriers the  o b v e r s e of  financial and  to career  change would appear a t  facilitators.  or  personal  presence  of  Indeed,  support,  dependents  were  However, s u c h b a r r i e r s were not by  successful  almost large  75%  of  survey  career the  by  executives  Arbeiter  education.  However, c a r e e r  reason  believed for  lack  Barriers level  were  (1978) .  The  to and  dependent 60%  included  take  changers  effective  education,  deterrents. as  such  (1980) f o u n d  that  children. adults  the in  be  In  the  in  career  necessary  further  the  Krantz  were an  study  e x c u s e , not  a  mobility.  to adult  sample  career by of  change at  clients  these c l i e n t s lack  of  self  Such  in preventing  a d i f f e r e n t income  Fredrickson, from a  from  and  Vickers  regional  learning  low  confidence, desire  psychological career  Macy  income  in attempting  r e - t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s and  prestige.  of  to a c q u i r e  were m o s t l y women a n d / o r  p r o b l e m s of  career  of  Thomas  to  sufficient  further  possible  responsibilities  discussed  Their  service  prepared  that  had  (1978),  were  for  of  n e c e s s a r i l y accepted  changers.  transition  (1977)  need  lack  first  t o change  lack for  of  their  motivation  instant  barriers  transition.  groups.  were  success very  34  On Osherson career  a  professional  (1980)  identified  change  previous  structure  status,  and  of  the  eye  of  to  the  obstacles  be  given  of  and  the  up.  environment  barriers  per  barriers  were  se  Patterns  that  perceived.  found  one  described increased. studying  This  both  aspect  Gottfredson men  financial  of  lay in  the that  s t r e s s would position being  It  to  maximise  was  key  could  in c o n t r o l  not  c h a n g e , but the  be  how  the those  difference  Change  of  and  career  t o be  as a s o c i o e c o n o m i c G.  was  and  non-changers.  examination  particular  career  the  effects  both  problems.  from  believed  previous  tended  prevented  of C a r e e r  his  and  the  abilities.  obstacles  t h e m s e l v e s as  to d e p r e c i a t e  between c h a n g e r s and  In  of  and  the  financial  their  in  pacing  and  changers  surmounted,  They t h o u g h t  their  skills  summarising  s e c u r i t y of  in  in social  that  level,  challenges  changes  changes  Successful  be  personal  were s e p a r a t i o n  change, noted  beholder.  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  2.4  day,  (1980),  career  would  temporary  These  occupation,  the  than  main  need t o d e v e l o p new  Neapolitan barriers  four  situation.  a t t a c h m e n t s of time  rather  law:  change, Byrne  so c o n s t a n t  that  (1975) it  m o b i l i t y decreased  (1977) e x a m i n e d t h i s women between  the  was  as  age  phenomenon,  ages o f  21  to  25  35  y e a r s a n d 61 t o 65 y e a r s . the in  Between  32.7% o f  younger men a n d 54.9% o f t h e y o u n g e r women h a d r e m a i n e d t h e same j o b .  older  However, 77.3% o f o l d e r men a n d  women had n o t moved.  made up l e s s accounted  than  40%  f o r 70%  of  single  (17.0%) r a t h e r t h a n  that  with  mobility  average  age.  college  eight  three  attempt  at higher  Super's  (195.7) A  of  being  carried  Phillips, Donald  gathered  Super,  from  showed had t h e highest  four years of rate.  They  reasonably  education.  people from  person  t o use  one o c c u p a t i o n t o  most  indicate  people  A f t e r an  were,  likely  to  be  someone who was m a l e ,  drop-out.  o f work h i s t o r i e s Career  Pattern  & Hall,  1978).  Under  boys a g e d  Byrne's  the  were  the  this  among  changers  with  they  (Byrne,  higher  mobility  these  the  study  by  1982; S u p e r  those  of c o l l e g e  and a c o l l e g e  out  year  o f j o b change was h e l d by  would  A longtitudinal  1972,  of s c h o o l i n g or l e s s  floundering  mobile  25, s i n g l e  of career  lowest  education, term,  35 y e a r s  (7.8%) w o r k e r s .  work w i t h w h i c h t h e y  years  profile  occupationally  be  contrast,  a  The h i g h e s t r a t e  another.  to  As  content.  to  i n that  T h i s was t h e g r o u p w i t h  o r more h a d t h e s e c o n d  one  in  rate.  t o have f o u n d  under  married  years  appeared  with  employed  found  of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l  people  lowest  r a t e s were a l s o  78.2% o f  w o r k e r s under  o f a l l j o b changes  Mobility  examination  Although people  1975).  of  1965 and 1970,  study  began  13 t o 15 y e a r s .  in  is  currently  Study  (e.g.  the l e a d e r s h i p 1951. D a t a  Further  data  were were  36  gathered around  in  75%  1958,  of  themselves  the  by  to  be  of  should  89%  similar. Study,  age  to  remain  be  that  return  stability  to another.  unusual  identified (3%)  the  a t or  to  their  Rather career  new  in  only  one  workers  made  'horizontal'  job  pattern  was  Career  could  Pattern  indicate a  to be  very  from  one  youthful  interpreted  perspective.  orderly career  patterns  society.  from v e r y  few  complete  stratum, and  for  foreman.  occupational as  one  He people  career,  were  journeyman  described  or  Horizontal occupations  same o c c u p a t i o n a l  across  Thomas  with  within  cut  by  progression  related  work  the  'vertical'  orderliness.  progression  career  study  their  degrees of  vertical  the  a transition  Apart  for or  on  American  varying  apprentice,  This  regression  that  patterns.  held  the  by  transition  class  who  mid-life.  occupation  from a d i f f e r e n t  middle  career  change does n o t  than  (1966) b e l i e v e d  data  in m i d - l i f e indicated that  f l o u n d e r i n g , but  six career  carpenter's  The  25%  on  information  maturity.  The  report  near  for  other  jobs..  will  that  paths  However, t h e  1980s  are  discovered  career  a i m l e s s l y between  in  reassessing maturity  were  find  years.  such c a r e e r  mid-life  Wilensky  I t was  intent i s confirmed  mid-life  as  25  changed c a r e e r s  If t h i s  behaviour,  of  in their  who  i t may  to  interesting  of men  hoped  begun  when t h e y  yield  (1980) of men  had  during  t h e men  transition  1973.  to d r i f t  collected  stages  and  men  the  were c o n t i n u i n g  1962,  example Jobs  strata.  'orderly' according  in The  to  the  37  degree were  i n to which s k i l l s applicable  through  a  to  and  the  hierarchy  next.  of  of  one  occupation  T h e r e was  also  progression  prestige.  which h a l f  o r more d e v e l o p e d  in  described  13%  orderly horizontal progression  and  having  as  g r o u p were  33%  of w o r k e r s had  having  an  orderly vertical borderline  where more t h a n  an  one  fifth  history  was  described  indicate  that  the  as  l a c k of  p r e s e n c e would be  orderly  less  than  one  career i n the  The  half  of  largest  the  work  f i g u r e s would  rather  study  He  progression,  These  change  of  fashion.  vertical  orderly.  surprising  histories  progression.  orderly  but  career  Wilensky  that  as  30%  However,  suggested  17%  only  experience  of  than  its  occupations.  Summary  Research transition  was  particularly Levinson, for  old  1971;  Krantz,  second c a r e e r Other include  in  personal  aspects  change  indicated  1980;  change a p p e a r e d  or  teachers of  income c h a n g e ,  t o be  a new  Thomas, along  career  other  Thomas,  one 1977,  1980).  continuum  change  which  such  changes,  Rationale In  to  an  The is  1977;  of n e e d s .  dominant  this  i n both  life  1980).  either  was  that  (Krantz,  a balance  the m o t i v a t i o n  to enter  1977;  by  relationships  Osherson,  circumstances  occupation  career  f r e q u e n t l y accompanied  1978;  the c a r e e r  different  into  leave  (Hiestand, position  not  have been  of  known. studied  d i r e c t i o n s ( A r b i e t e r et  al.,  38  1978;  Hiestand,  (Altimus  & Tersine,  Theories first  careers. into  the  Hall  occupational  some  type  self  little  choice  principles account  (Mitchell,  theories  Theories  for late  the authors,  including  entry  adult career  Facilitators process presence helping  were of  found family  t o ease  Goodman,  and to  of  worker  process. availability  to  related.  have  learning  1981) may h e l p research  was  target  to  urged  groups,  In  change  particular, was  transition  (Thomas,  1980;  and f i n a n c i a l  of a p p r o p r i a t e  career  support  general  i n a supportive  aids  the  financial  (Bloland & Selby,  Further  have  selection.  social  certain  barriers  Although  t h e key p e r s o n  Lack o f p e r s o n a l  be  and  helpful, the  on  or  changers.  the career  1981).  career  Further  with  may  But i f s o , t h e y  & Krumboltz,  particularly  1957)  1966, 1973)  based  careers.  relating  (Super,  careers.  Jones,  theoretical  vocational choice  concept  investigation  using  second  (Holland,  second  developed  on  "process". to  1974).  information  divided  congruency to  is  to e x p l a i n s u c c e s s f u l l y the f i r s t  Career  &  There  and  choice  relevance  failed  change have been  increasing  (1976)  "matching"  t h e need f o r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  1973; S p r e i t z e r & S n y d e r ,  choices. to  personality  and  of c a r e e r  career  underpinning  by  1971),  to  social role  noted  1980; N e a p o l i t a n ,  support  hindered  career  transition  retraining  programs  the  as  Waters  support  was t h e  the  was  spouse 1980). change  were  the  (Hiestand,  39  1971),  an  1980), and succeed  active personal  (Krantz,  transition  of  underway,  past  particularly  not of  complete career  will  lend  change.  Neapolitan,  research  on  career 1980).  present  career  work  change As  study  change  (Thomas, would  the  was  career already  facilitators  was  relevant. m o b i l i t y was  of c o l l e g e by  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the 1977;  (G. G o t t f r e d s o n ,  developed  f o r more m e a n i n g f u l  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  Career  out  search  most  frequent  1977), e s p e c i a l l y  (Byrne,  Wilensky career  1975).  i n younger  i n those  Patterns  of  (1966) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h a n g e , was  patterns  h e l d by  further  information  who  widespread.  this  had  work  dropped history  job m o b i l i t y , i f  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the on  workers  The  discovery  present  aspect  of  study career  40  CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY  3.1  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e Study  A g r o u p o f 37 p a r t i c i p a n t s was study. in  They were t h e t o t a l  the  Division, at  Program  Department  of Curriculum  described complete were the of  in  population  training academic  before  represented ranged  A.  1981-82. had  deciding,  17 d i f f e r e n t  from  24  to  to  Industrial  enrolled Education  and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s  The  t o become t e a c h e r s  year  the  Columbia.  of tradesmen  t h e men i n t e r v i e w e d  trade  of  British  Appendix  f o r the  number o f male s t u d e n t s  Sponsored  the U n i v e r s i t y of  interviewed  This  program  respondents comprised the in  British  Columbia  of I n d u s t r i a l  who  Education i n  As r e q u i r e d by t h e p r o g r a m , training  and  experience  become t e a c h e r s .  occupations.  54 y e a r s  is  with  each in a  Together  Ages o f  they  participants  a mean o f 30.8 y e a r s .  summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s p r e s e n t e d  A  i n Appendix  B.  3.2  Development  The  of Research  research  semi-structured  instrument  used  interview schedule  D a t a were c o l l e c t e d it  Instrument  in  study  c o n s i s t i n g o f 83  by t h e f a c e t o f a c e  was deemed most a p p r o p r i a t e  this  was  a  items.  i n t e r v i e w method  as  f o r the research o b j e c t i v e s .  41  With  only  rate  was  37  potential  considered  ensured  that  item.  It  the was  interviewing,  the  to probe  Before  routine, and  He  both  are  initial  information  As  in  life  an  of  and  the  other  set of  the  and  hour items  received  and  quality  in  below.  the  factors.  Industrial  schedule, with  a  key  researcher  on  the  to  daily family  The  informant  Education  Sponsored  a university  instructor  as  Each c o n v e r s a t i o n  was  A f t e r these  constructed C).  the  in a written  of work, e f f e c t s  (see Appendix  full  i t s expectations,  articulate.  was  many of  Informant  enabled  in.length.  specific  the  interviews  relevant  every  developed  interview  program,  recommended by  one  Key  initial  conversations  completed was  described  unstructured  perceptive  approximately an  gain  was  also  d i d a l l the  encouraged  instrument  t i m e demands, p r e s s u r e s  recently  being  two  impression  Program.  who  to  richness  - Discussion with  These  personal  had  research  developing  had  informant. an  format  l e d to a  These steps  S t e p One  obtain  in order  interview  This  The  steps.  researcher  answered  w h i c h w o u l d have been u n o b t a i n a b l e  questionnaire. s e v e n main  and  researcher,  responses  participation  interview procedure  t o expand where a p p r o p r i a t e .  responses. data  The  a high  p a r t i c i p a n t s understood  were o p e n - e n d e d ,  explicit of  essential.  p o s s i b l e f o r the  i n f o r m a t i o n and items  respondents,  interviews,  incorporating  the  42  S t e p Two  A initial  - Pilot  preliminary interview  students  from  members.  at  the  each  Department interview and  result  job  interview.  and  "What  f o r you?".  number  of  questions  Four  the  five  their  of  w i v e s on  investigated attitude  men  career  wives'  towards the  was  based  learning  main a r e a s on  theory  a  of  the  five Program faculty  Faculty and  of two  i n Burnaby.  After  t o comment  the  main c h a n g e s were made  as  First  inclusion  of  want t o  be  was  "Why  the  do  teaching was  you  t h a t makes i t a an  increased  s p o u s e of• t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . noted  the  d e c i s i o n making.  importance The  educational  new  of  items  level  and  change of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Social  Learning  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were  included.  p o s i t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n which a p p l i e d  to career  the  on  occupations,  career  1981,  Columbia,  invited  change  S t e p T h r e e - I n c l u s i o n of P r i n c i p l e s and Item S e l e c t i o n  Four  British  s u c h as  interviewed  their  the  Two  the  at  Education  second  about  of  using  Sponsored  place  i s i t about  The  out  were recommended by  comments.  were more d i r e c t ,  spring  took  Industrial  these  teacher?"  good  of  carried  Education  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  the  of  items t h a t a  Industrial  interviews  was  In t h e  b u i l d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of  questions a  One  study  These s t u d e n t s  Three  Education  pilot  schedule.  the  were c o n t a c t e d .  Study  d e c i s i o n making  (Mitchell,  Each social  Jones  &  43  Krumboltz, was  added  research narrow on the  an  1979).  A more  through  the  questions. topic  main  area  approach  use  orienting  Each  w h i c h was  interview  focussed  schedule. of  of  research  i n v e s t i g a t e d through Only  items  investigation  a n d p r o p o s i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d  the  v e r s i o n of the i n t e r v i e w  process  is illustrated  Figure  The investigation  1:  number  in Figure  Process  of  research  inclusion This  to  in  selection  1.  of item  items  was a s f o l l o w s :  schedule.  a  items  related  both  for  and  examined  a set of  directly through  research  statements  question  questions final  to the  selection.  used  for  each  area  of  44  1. D i d learning the  the  factors  principles  preference  of  identified  of c a r e e r  by  the  decision assist  teaching  as a s e c o n d c a r e e r  factors  facilitated  social  in explaining choice?  (31  items) 2.  What  change p r o c e s s ? 3.  Did  participants (19  (12  the  career  items)  the  experiences  indicate  Did  participants  and  a s t a b l e or  The  the  expectations  unstable  career  being being  used  used used  i n the  of  the  pattern?  presented  of  discarded  propositions. E.  of  provide  r a t h e r than results  investigation 1  from  1 and  4,  and  2.  propositions and  83  schedule  and  as  was  item  1  item  19  Areas  or  of  orienting items,  are  D.  of  twelve as  This  questions  i n Appendix  t e a c h i n g would  i s 85  related  research  elimination  items  investigation  with  Compilation  Appendix  of  of  into  backgrounds  items)  schedule.  for areas  investigation,  (23  number of  in areas  statements,  that entry  mobility?  above t o t a l  actually  socio-demographic  indicate  upward s o c i a l  the  impeded  items) 4.  were  or  the proposed items  being The  from either  eliminated  the  final  schedule  initial  redundant items  or  are  involved  list.  They  irrelevant  to  presented  in  45  Step  Items past  Four - Arrangement  were a r r a n g e d  experience  plans.  untruthful towards  questions,  responses  beginning  on t o t h e i r  w h i c h may have  & Sudman,  socio-demographic  backgrounds  participants.  stration  instrument  the  consecutive  refer  order  Step A  involved  without  back t o p r e v i o u s  of  need  pages o r  coding  schedule.  discussed  below, t h e r e s e a r c h e r  the  responses.  the  For  a f o r c e d c h o i c e made  example,  Item  learned a  "How  i n the I n d u s t r i a l  letter  from t h i s  gave a f i v e little. point  24,  point  The  items to  of  four  devised a p r i o r i items,  f o r the items  categories  numerical  codes  from a range of o p t i o n s .  much  do  you  Education  from  of  was d e v e l o p e d  think  classes?  (A)  equivalent coding  Very  ranged  select  by a c a r d  much  For  the students  Please  c a r d . " , was a c c o m p a n i e d  range  Admini-  researcher  exception  closed  reflected  the  on  o f Code Book  system  Interview  for  With  placed  responses.  F i v e - Development  preliminary  elicited  i n c l u d e d items  reading  for  with  future  1979), were  These  of  end  and g o i n g those  (Bradburn  order,  of the schedule.  in  the  in logical  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Threatening  o f Items  to  which  (E)  from 5 t o 1.  A  Very five  r a n g e was s e l e c t e d a s i t gave a d e q u a t e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  diverse  responses,  population  being  yet  spread  avoided  responses  too t h i n l y .  from  the  small  46  Open logical Thus,  ended  grouping  Item  had  "Individual  15  "When  in  accordance  indicated  by  past  camps,  categories  and  21 A p p r e n t i c e  made  the  "Group  responses  training  move  which  Factors,  Financial  29,  options  39,  The related  employment  occupations.  wife  During  arose.  from' When  anything  anticipated  Categories  responses.  codes  9,  Unused  f o r use i f n e e d e d  prearranged  later.  were a l l  items  d e a l t with  the past  the  occupation  of the  and  Two, i t became a p p a r e n t  required.  f o r Graduate  coding  given the  54,  f o r example, a s F a m i l y  f o r "other"  For  of p a r t i c i p a n t ,  categories allowing  responses  Study  were  level  Practice  you?",  Relocation.  These  Item  and f a t h e r .  Pilot  options  educational  Apart  without  of the p a r t i c i p a n t  participant's  further  items  c o a c h i n g and  f o r I n d i v i d u a l Teaching  for  t h e 9 were l e f t open  four  to  provided  "Group  j o b s was t h e r e  coded,  F a c t o r s , or  were  before  be  under  teaching".  a n d 22 T u t o r i n g .  difficult  could  research.  grouped  c a t e g o r i e s a s 14 S p o r t s  while  with  done any t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g o r  response  i n c l u d e d such  responses  the  coded  y o u were t h i n k i n g o f c h a n g i n g  that  19,  as  teaching"  Summer  included  and/or  were  19, "Have y o u e v e r  tutoring?",  teaching"  items  the  parents  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  coding  items  or spouse,  on  needed  d e g r e e a n d Don't know.  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  changes  instance,  t h a t some  indicated system  took  place  in Pilot  using  S t u d y Two.  a b o v e , no d i f f i c u l t i e s was  examined  by  the  47  Validation  Panel  (see  were s u g g e s t e d . presented  The  i n Appendix  Step  A final  v e r s i o n of  pilot  study  in  was  took  participants They  a  The  t o 22  r a n g e of  15  consent  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  that  and  forgotten objections understand  that about to  and  once the  any  is  items  the  had  and  taken  the  provide  Industrial  part  Education  in Pilot  i n the  a  enrolled  introduced to  i n the  researcher's  University  of B r i t i s h  With  the  Study  study,  even  the  clear.  All  i n t e r v i e w had the  the  prior  Columbia  and  a  time  knowledge  and  tape-recorded.  presented  process.  or p e r s o n a l l y o f f e n s i v e .  at  participants  i n t e r v i e w was  items  office  T h e r e was  a l l i n t e r v i e w s were  recording of  purpose of  Six students  r e s e a r c h e r was  proposed  inclusion.  minutes.  t a p e - r e c o r d i n g the  threat  of  The  19 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e .  A n s w e r s were f l u e n t  codebook  h e l d u s i n g the  volunteered to a s s i s t  were h e l d  of  in  who  requesting  mean  was  f o r the codebook.  t h e F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , took  the  categories  Two  clarity  a student  Interviews  of  interview schedule.  Program  readily  independently  study  part.  by  additional  version  Study  to ensure  Sponsored  Division  One.  the  a few  F.  pilot  mechanism  the  final  Six - P i l o t  second  checking  below)  as  little  underway There  being  reported or  no  they  had  were  no  difficult  to  48  In o r d e r  to check  threatening  items  Bradburn  Sudman  asked  and  i f they  answering believed items  this  No  to  a  five  Step  feel  by  were  uncomfortable  None of  the  participants  inclusion  of  threatening  was  t h e r e f o r e assumed t o  1,  time?", five were  Five  items  e x p e r t s was  schedule  "What d i d you  For  p r o g r a m ? " , was anything  you  be  years  time?".  A  required.  in order  participants entering  that?". in  more the  "Were  you  Item 57  was  career  in  your  doing  in  additional  your  coding  T h e s e were p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d  of Code Book.  - Validation  requested  example,  hope t o be few  Minor  discussion  given a probe,  hope t o be you  considered  after  before  like  "What do  to v a l i d a t e  of  do  were  researcher.  were made  to  Seven  or  researcher.  - Development  In o r d e r  the  occupations  "Where do  Step  of  of  supervisor,  categories  advocated  Participants  would  participants  of the  Education  from,  in  to  previous  Question  years  career  in  either  to wording  foreman,  changed  potentially  level.  identify  Industrial  The  of  technique  used.  the q u e s t i o n s .  the d e c i s i o n  clearly,  was  interview schedule  by  adjustments  presence  other people  major c h a n g e s  necessary  or on  (1979)  of  the  "gatekeeper"  would o c c u r .  i n the  a t a minimum  the  believed  any  for  the  of t h e  Instrument  research instrument  t o examine t h e  a  panel  interview schedule.  49  The a  panel  members e x p r e s s e d  w i l l i n g n e s s t o take  member  interest  i n t h e s t u d y and^  i n the v a l i d a t i o n  process.  r e c e i v e d two v e r s i o n s o f t h e s c h e d u l e .  had  items  the  second  and  part  a keen  arranged  version  c o n s e c u t i v e l y as f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g .  v e r s i o n , items  research  One  Each  were a r r a n g e d  questions,  with  the  under  proposed  On  propositions coding  system  five  people  included. The  validation  knowledgeable  in  panel  consisted  field  of I n d u s t r i a l  the  of  Education.  were i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r p r o g r a m s a t t h e government two  were members o f  Industrial  academic  Education  departments  programs.  Department  of  At  he h a d been a s t u d e n t  one t i m e  Industrial  The f i f t h  E a c h member interview  Education  of the panel  schedule  was  a  valid  research  for  items  were a d d e d  items  of these  Have y o u h a d a n y t e a c h e r  29.  How  with  the  select  from  this card.  badly).  letter  the  collect.  which Some  c a t e g o r i e s were following  training  five  o f any k i n d ?  you think the I n d u s t r i a l  teachers got along a  to  the  schedule.  18.  do  instrument  and c o d i n g  suggestions  to the interview  well  school.  s t a t e d t h a t he b e l i e v e d  suggestions  As a r e s u l t  member was Head o f  i n the program.  the i n f o r m a t i o n i t s e t out  made.  l e v e l and  responsible for  i n a secondary  would e l i c i t  further  Two  rest  of  the  (A: V e r y  staff?  Education Please  w e l l - E: Very  50  34.  What  (Following your  about  Item  going  into  the  34,  "How  f o r the f i r s t 72.  inplant  do y o u r  Have  had  any  upgrading  were c l o s e d - e n d e d  classes,  When of  with?  feel  left  about  secondary  schooling  anything  seven  stages,  f o r use.  like  such as that?  the  research  The f i n a l  c o n s i s t e d o f 83 i t e m s ,  a n d 28 were o p e n - e n d e d .  i n Appendix  3.3 C o l l e c t i o n  friends  you  informal  was c o n s i d e r e d r e a d y  the i n t e r v i e w schedule  presented  worked  time?  Upon c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e  of  close  were y o u i n when  you  training,  instrument  you  teaching?")  71. What g r a d e school  people  The  version  55 o f w h i c h schedule  is  G.  of Data  participants  the academic y e a r ,  i n the study a r r i v e d  they  each  f o r the s t a r t  received a letter  from  the  Head o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l  Education Division  This  them o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h  letter  project,  informed  i t s g o a l s and t i m e l i n e . by  cooperation.  A l l of the students contacted agreed  i n the study.  and  researcher  participants  part  telephone  The  (see Appendix H).  contacted  p e r s o n a l l y requested to  their take  51  A interviews a private of  convenient  time  took  Students  the  Interviews  were  to  tape-recorded  Length  with  Consent  of  Form  with  was  the  checked  interviews  r e a d and  (see Appendix I ) . being  from  11 t o 27  No p a r t i c i p a n t  refused  the i n t e r v i e w . a sample  against the interview schedule  r e s e a r c h e r was f o u n d  in  Faculty  a l l recordings  progressed  the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y The  They  the i n t e r v i e w s ranged  a mode o f 15 m i n u t e s .  individual  Division,  Columbia.  answer any q u e s t i o n and none s t o p p e d As  and  interviewed singly  Education  of B r i t i s h  Participant  anonymous. minutes,  University  arranged were  room a t t h e I n d u s t r i a l  Education,  signed  place.  was  of  of the tapes  by two members o f  British  t o be a d h e r i n g  Columbia.  to. c o r r e c t  research  procedures.  3.4 C o d i n g  and A n a l y s i s of Data  D a t a were c o d e d codebook  (see Appendix  researcher. four  Reliability  doctoral  University After  i n accordance  students  of B r i t i s h  each  group  randomly  chosen  completed  one  four  or approximately  tapes  other  constructed  was done by t h e  procedure  was c h e c k e d  i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n who e a c h  12 t a p e s  be  the  A l l coding  of coding  Columbia  of to  F).  with  at the  one  tape.  had been c o d e d one t a p e  checked.  tape  re-coded  When  was r a n d o m l y  the  coding  selected.  11% o f t h e t o t a l  were  by  was was  In a l l ,  checked.  52  Each  of  opportunities The on  recoding  After  for error,  of of  the  interpretation  whether  responses  items,  instances had  responses  and  could  the categories  responses statistics.  were  it  was  of  been  were  was  or " q u i t e "  assess  the  were  selected  Computer p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e d  f o r the S o c i a l Sciences  also  eight  responses. that  in  gauging  p o s i t i v e or participants  the nuances of t h e i r  of the r e s e a r c h e r using  1.46%,  appropriate.  differences  knew  or  agreed  t h e more  "very"  better  examined  opportunities.  i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  these  different  errors,  There  Again, as the researcher  personally  Package  researcher.  137  o f 548  d i r e c t coding  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r 7  presented  for a total  eight  of  also  negative.  tapes  differences  discussion  T h e r e were  four  indicated  the part  instances  the  in  the  ( N i e , 1975) were  used.  The  descriptive Statistical used.  53  CHAPTER FOUR  RESULTS AND  This to  each  chapter  provides  the  four areas  of  were: a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l change,  facilitators  histories  and  r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  and b a r r i e r s  expectations  of  backgrounds.  The  study  present  examine a p o p u l a t i o n population  research.  and/or  presented. research 4.1  has  Discussion  a  been  with  past  the  of  results  career  change,  career  and  entering subject  research  changers  to  areas  their  d e s c r i p t i v e approach to  changers  not  career  to career  related  These  principles  participants,  used  of c a r e e r  Comparisons  teachers  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  learning  sociodemographic  This  DISCUSSION  in  about  other  i s preceded  teaching. of  previous  first  career  fields  are  by r e l e v a n t  questions.  A r e a o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1: D i d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g social  learning principles  to career  assist  i n e x p l a i n i n g the choice  d e c i s i o n making  of t e a c h i n g  as a  second  career? 4.1.1  P r o p o s i t i o n A:  An for  a  individual  course  of  i s more l i k e l y study,  consequences of a f i e l d  an  o f work  to  express  occupation, i f that  preference  o r t h e t a s k s and  individual  has  been  54  positively learned  reinforced  a r e , a s s o c i a t e d with  that  course,  1979,  p.39)  Question  for their Research  experienced behaviour  order  any  activities Of  the  such  37  experience  were  teaching basis  more  (46) t h a n  (19).  youth  groups  There  were  experience program.  tutor  inquiry  said  with  their  as  many  experiences  who  teaching  into  (Item 19).  they  had  no  The e x p e r i e n c e s o f i n Table  responses on  a  already before  1.  of group  one-to-one  were w o r k i n g  a n d summer camps  six participants  was made  a r e summarised  t h e r e were o f t e a c h i n g  classroom  participants  or s p o r t s coach  o f any k i n d .  The most common  of  situation?  associated  three  twice  (14 r e s p o n s e s )  received  whether o r n o t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  participants  than  participants  situation?  participants,  34 (91.9%) o t h e r  There  pleasure  of  (Krumboltz,  the  experience,  as teacher,  o f work.  Have  to establish  teaching-related the  2:  of  instructional  field  s/he has  performance  i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  In had  a feeling  or  in activities  successful  1: Have t h e  behaviour Question  engaging the  occupation,  Research praise  for  with  (9 r e s p o n s e s ) . had  direct  entering  the  55  Table 1 Instructional  Group  1  Total  1  3  %  No. Reported  School teaching Night school Armed f o r c e s Sports coaching Summer camp Youth group Other None  2  Experiences  6 , 4 3 6 9 1 4 4 3 3  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Individual  2  16.2 10.8 8.1 18.2 25.3 37.8 10.8 8.1  %  No. Reported  Apprent i c e Tutor ing S o c i a l work Sports coaching Other None  8 3 1 4 3 3  46  21 .6 8.1 2.7 10.8 8.1 8.1  1 9  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more t h a n one r e s p o n s e . P e r c e n t a g e s i n a l l t a b l e s a r e g i v e n a s p e r c e n t of 37 ( t o t a l number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ) . T o t a l numbers a r e p r o v i d e d o n l y when N i s o t h e r than 37.  When a s k e d been that  given  negative  friends.  said  T h i s came m a i n l y  was  also  praise  from  A  had  total  received  s u p e r i o r s (16 pupils,  had  of  25  positive  responses).  peers,  s p o u s e s and  c o u l d n o t remember any comments  teaching.  When  asked  for  experiences  (Item  20) none o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  negative  they  o n l y one r e p o r t e d  comments. they  from  Eight participants  their  of feedback  teaching a c t i v i t i e s ,  participants  feedback.  about  for their  he h a d r e c e i v e d  (67.6%)  There  to d e s c r i b e the type  response.  Very  their  reactions  positive  responses  to  the  teaching  expressed  were g i v e n  a  by 26  56  (70.3%) o f t h e men quite  positive.  about  teaching  from  24  and  (Item  The  21)  degree  was  question  elicited  expression  of f e e l i n g s  of  about  very  and  feelings  were  their  feelings  positive  comments  from  assessed  vocabulary,  towards t e a c h i n g .  negative  (21.6%)  comments  positivity  b a s e d on p a r t i c i p a n t s '  positive  eight  and q u i t e p o s i t i v e  researcher  both  remaining  A more d i r e c t  (64.9%) men,  (18.9%).  the  by  the  tone,  and  T h r e e men about  seven  reported  their  teaching  experienced  teaching  considerable  pleasure  experiences. The before from  majority  e n t e r i n g t h e p r o g r a m had g a i n e d i t .  They  performance. Proposition  activities, "Fine",  also  or  received  praise  f i n d i n g s would  t h e r e f o r e tend  assess  earlier  for  their  to  support  A. to  participant  prior  education  had  These  Asked  their  of p a r t i c i p a n t s who  "I  responses  enjoyed  experience  their  ranged  i t " to a d i r e c t  and t h e i r  teaching-related from  a  connection  presence  in  the  program:  It  was  part  of  coming h e r e .  Great. decide  (automotive  That's that's  (electronics  the motivation  what what  sort I  technician)  f o r me  mechanic)  of want  made to  me do.  succinct between teacher  57  Although necessarily 1979),  be  previous  i t is quite likely  new  have  instructional  actively  that  found  role  unpleasant  are  not  (Schalock,  filter  system.  young p e o p l e  unsatisfying,  unlikely  may  teaching  i t a c t s as a  working with  t o be  youth  and/or  unmotivating,  to consider teaching  or  as  a  career. Lortie  teaching in  with  associated with classroom  I n d i v i d u a l s who the  experience  can  (1975) o f t e n use  a teaching role.  industrial  suggested  skills  their  would be  not  be  enough  relevantly  justify  e d u c a t i o n program.  Reasons  concrete  experiences  if  past  young p e o p l e . spend  some  adolescents,  used  If a l a t e  entrants  and  study,  of p r e r e q u i s i t e  to  late  education  In t h e p r e s e n t  However, t h e p o s s e s s i o n may  prior  that  experiences  currently i n the  skills  acceptance  for application  and into  has  education a  would  instructional  role  time  i n an  their  p e r c e p t i o n of  teaching  not  held  classroom.  teacher be  i n c l u d e d group c o n t a c t  entry teacher  to  more with  chosen  to  with c h i l d r e n may  be  or  somewhat  unreali st i c . There along with feeling The  their  about  negative  experiences. aspects  were  of  unpleasant  three  positive their  feelings  men  i n the program  comments, e x p r e s s e d  earlier  were a b l e t o  instructional  t o some d e g r e e .  some  who,  negative  teaching-related situations.  were f a r o u t w e i g h e d by  However, t h e y their  enrolled  One  role man  had  their  positive  identify  transient  which felt  had  rather  been nervous  58  when s t a r t i n g experienced third  to instruct  some d i s c i p l i n e  student  years.  He  problems  had a l r e a d y t a u g h t  reported  restrictions structured  naval personnel  that  i n h i s work.  spring  of  reactions,  e a c h o f t h e t h r e e men  experiences  a n d were l o o k i n g f o r w a r d  school  the  irritating  In s p i t e  second  had  i n a summer camp.  in a private  each  o f s c h o o l became  and a  felt  nature  had e n j o y e d to  forsix  institutional  and he  the  The  of  their  being  overly these  previous  instructors  again. The tended from  intrinsic  rewards  t o be s u p p o r t e d  by p o s i t i v e  s u p e r i o r s and p u p i l s .  previously  enrolled  experienced  in  One an  by  feedback, man  received  reported  elementary  and l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n .  participants  remembered comments  Reports  from  teaching-related proposition (1979). they  the  experiences  put  forward  by  Not o n l y h a d t h e men  had  enjoyed  instructional participants who  role who  i t . had  classroom  to  lend  Mitchell, already  70%  on  been  support  J o n e s and tried  rewarding.  to  men  had  n o t been d e t e r r e d by s u c h  teaching  but i n an  There °were  some n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s experiences.  the  Krumboltz  t e a c h i n g a s an u n p l e a s a n t  The  of  prior  F o r e a c h o f them p a r t i c i p a t i o n  recalled  d i d remember  on  positive.  participants tend  while  education  However, a l m o s t  t h a t were  mainly  that  teacher  p r o g r a m , he had r e c e i v e d some n e g a t i v e comments discipline  participants  no  task.  of t h e i r  work  59  4.1.2  Proposition B  An for  a  individual  course  of  i s more study,  consequences of a f i e l d observed  a  valued s/he  successful  performance  of  work.  has  (Krumboltz,  Research  of  was  participants  observed  student  taken  that  31  Industrial  (Item  2 which  Schedule  results  completed, learned students  there their and  was  (Items  Their  ability  the  Education  observations  responses  are  t o s i x items  24-29). tended  t o be  c l a s s e s where p r o j e c t s  appropriate A  of  i n s c h o o l and  Industrial  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  Education  material. an  which a r e  (83.8%)  Education  summarizes  indicated  members o f I n d u s t r i a l  field  to teachers?  23).  The  or  the  Education c l a s s e s  behaviours  c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s  the I n t e r v i e w  occupation  3: In I n d u s t r i a l  t o observe  on  with  in  p.39)  established  i n Table  has  f o r engaging  associated  were t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n  presented  preference  individual  reinforced  are  a  or the t a s k s and  that  of t h a t c o u r s e ,  Question  had  if  being  learned  r e c o g n i z e d as rewarding  to express  occupation,  work  1979,  have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  It  an  model  activities  likely  high to  behaviour,  and  productivity  maintain  were  students level  reasonable  in  class  60  Table 2 O b s e r v a t i o n s Made by P a r t i c i p a n t s in I n d u s t r i a l Education C l a s s e s Observation  Rating Positive N % 1  17 26 1 1 28 20 1 2 6  Amount l e a r n e d by s t u d e n t s Completion of p r o j e c t s Discipline in class Relations with I.E. teacher C l o s e r t o I.E. teacher I.E./other s t a f f r e l a t i o n s Not r e l e v a n t Total  1  Percentages  discipline result  are accepted  in satisfaction  most n o t a b l e the 31  a r e based  aspect  men who h a d t a k e n  group)  responded  a s two  group)  Industrial  'Very  other  they  Education  8.1 2.7 10.8 2.7 21 .6 5.4 16.2  25  (Lortie,  Education  which  1975).  The  classes  was  and t e a c h e r . 28  Of t h e  (90.3%  of  "How w e l l d i d t h e s t u d e n t s g e t Ed.  and  believed  t e a c h e r ? ' ( I tern 27) When a s k e d  the  teachers  teacher.  teaching  Education,  well'.  between p u p i l s  said  of  student  Industrial  or  of  aspects  between  t o the item  to that with  3 1 4 1 8 2 6  59  f o r the teacher  either  teacher  29.7 10.8 43.2 5.4 8.1 45.9 16.2  on N=37  the I n d u s t r i a l  relationship  1 1 4 1 6 2 3 1 7 6  1 20  along with with 'Well'  45.9 70.3 29.7 75.7 54. 1 32.4 16.2  of the I n d u s t r i a l  close relationship  N o n - c o m m i t a l Negat i v e N N % %  t o compare t h e  Industrial  (Item  pupils  28),  with  Education  20 men  (64.5%  were c l o s e r  to the  61  Most p a r t i c i p a n t s comment on teachers they  tended  have the  their  members  and  teachers been  receiving  being  classroom.  To  take  on  benefits.  would tend  m o d e l s as p u t  such  Such  forward  and  this  However, atmosphere  t h e r e f o r e appear  their role  friendship situation  Industrial  be  credence  to the  i n P r o p o s i t i o n B.  to  observation  to the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  but of the  Education  performance  would  widespread  related  t o add  for a  29).  members.  Education  regard  to  Education  cordial  staff  t h e r e f o r e have seen  r o l e models d i r e c t l y career  been a  observing  reinforced  (Item  able  o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards  r e w a r d of  In  would  not  were not  Industrial  staff  Industrial  more p e r s o n a l  teachers  of  non-academic  of  students.  t h a t they  between  t o b e l i e v e t h e r e had  participants  similar  other  academic  The  also  relationship  and  among t h e  to  the  reported  in  the  receive of  valued  choice  importance  of  of role  62  4.1.3  Proposition  An for  a  C  individual  course  of  i s more study,  consequences of a f i e l d consistently  field  positively  o f work.  who  (Krumboltz,  was a s o u r c e  as an  family  preference  if  that  person  has  been  by a v a l u e d p e r s o n  i n that  course,  who  occupation  1979, p.40)  Have  the  of p o s i t i v e  participants  reinforcement?  5: Do t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s support  known a  their choice  have of  friends teaching  occupation?  In that  members who  4:  a  o c c u p a t i o n , o r t h e t a s k s and  engaging  Research Question and/or  to express  reinforced  Research Question teacher  an  o f work  models and/or a d v o c a t e s or  likely  order  family  to  and  reinforcement.  answer friends  Therefore,  these q u e s t i o n s were both  i t was assumed  sources t e a c h e r s who  of  positive  filled  these  roles,  and w e l l - l i k e d t e a c h e r s by whom t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  had  been  taught  for  investigation. by  such  were Table  teachers.  both  considered  3 indicates  appropriate  the subject  areas  taught  63  Table 3 Teachers Subject  L i k e d by P a r t i c i p a n t s Area  %i  No. Reported 1 2 10 10 7 6 4 3 6 3  I n d u s t r i a l Education English Sc i e n c e Mathematics Physical Education Social Studies Elementary School Other None Total  32. 4 27. 0 27. 0 18. 9 16. 2 10. 8 8. 1 16. 2 8. 1  61  Note. P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d choose t h a n one t e a c h e r . 1  A  total  teachers were  Percentages  of  whom t h e y  participants.  the  mentioned  indication  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  than  teachers  It  was  remembered  of these  apparent  one o r more  earlier  received  that  other  that  12  (32.5%)  and  times.  Science  There  Industrial  was,  Education  o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t any  subjects.  with  particular  i n t o an e n v i r o n m e n t  (Evans,  teachers  the majority of p a r t i c i p a n t s  psychological  observations  of  teachers 10  identified  Education  group  as sources  teachers  men were m o v i n g back  already  largest  each  no c l e a r  participants  Industrial  English  therefore,  The  (88.1%)  However,  were  more  33  by  teachers  teachers  a r e b a s e d on N=37  liked.  nominated  more  rewards.  1952; L o r t i e ,  affection.  where t h e y h a d This  supports  1975) t h a t  people  64  most had  likely enjoyed  to consider their  teaching as a career  own s c h o o l  experience.  T h r e e men d i d n o t r e c a l l particularly liked  liked.  h i s teachers  "hero".  The  identify but  they  discussed  their  his of  who  their  wife  friends  reported  h i s past  now  teaching  instructor, influenced  They  family their  them  had  One man  pre-apprentices  and  from or  home.  other  t o whom he h a d m e n t i o n e d h i s p l a n s  were  attitude  further  The  He  their  wife  source  support.  relationships.  reinforcement.  of  He h a d a l s o r e a r e d a f a m i l y  a l l away  of these  was  to  a n d had no  was no f u r t h e r  of  no t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e  who  unable  or workmates.  there  recall  Neither  a  towards h i s c a r e e r change and  negative  no t e a c h e r  in  as  of reinforcement,  Neither  quite  supportive  had g e n e r a l l y  they  sources  friends  Although  h a d no p a r e n t s ,  that people  children.  had  of t h e group i n a  were  family.  non-commital  six children,  participant  they  who were t e a c h e r s  a p p r e n t i c e s h a d been r e w a r d i n g . of  whom  of these  only  were p a s t  close  supportive.  support,  one  Not  d e c i s i o n with  h i s parents  teacher  two men were a t y p i c a l  h a d no c u r r e n t in  found  However,  manner.  teachers  teachers  a  b u t d i d n o t have what he d e s c r i b e d  other  more w i d e s p r e a d  were t h o s e who  to teaching. or  men a p p e a r e d For these  recognized  as  work  decision.  or  with  participants a  young  t o have a c i r c l e o f  source  c o u l d name no t e a c h e r s member,  He c o u l d  friend,  The s i t u a t i o n  t h e r e was  of  positive  i n the r o l e of  who  may  of these  have two men  65  was,  however,  in  decided  contrast  to  the  majority  of  part ic ipants. It was the  apparent that even before  participants  tended  There were 29 men, friends.  Six  (16.2%) men  the  sheer  recruitment of  his  very In  teachers.  who  as  had  had  teachers.  sample  He  had  Lortie  the present  b e l i e v e d the  least  one  and  eight  parent was  (59.5%) men  commented  were a l s o of the  teachers  situation.  (21.6%) came from f a m i l i e s where  at  To him,  had  third  who  a teacher.  teachers.  were  f a m i l y members  One  r u e f u l l y , that h i s mother, f a t h e r all  (1975)  f i n d i n g that one  c l o s e r e l a t i v e s who  study, 22  close  p r o f e s s i o n acted as a  probably underestimated the r e a l i t y  were teachers  were  teachers  wives or g i r l f r i e n d s who  s i z e of the teaching  factor.  the program  move i n a world of  almost 80%,  p r a c t i s i n g or student that  to  entering  man  and  admitted, somewhat  both  h i s entry  older  i n t o the  sisters  profession  appeared to have an aura of i n e v i t a b i l i t y about i t . One  of  the  of  two  participants  whose  I n d u s t r i a l Education recognized  fathers the  were  influence  teachers this  his decision:  As  I  said,  teacher, shop  and  my  I grew up,  I  was  a shop in  his  a l l the time....I've always wanted  to be a teacher. dad,  dad's a teacher,  I  grew  up  I guess I've with  seen  my  [teaching].  My  had  on  66  dad's a t e a c h e r source  of  and  input  that's  been  I guess.  a  big  (automotive  mechanic)  The family  theme  was  teacher  who  near  feelings", their  the  support  teaching parents.  other  seven  explained  within  the  familial  act  as models  value  the  men  within  given  Although  described  as  to  the eight  one  mother,  having  "mixed  r e c e i v e d warm a p p r o v a l  Morrison  system.  for their  presence  of  predisposition Friends considered change.  a  sources  Mclntyre teacher  to  The  of  the  for  in part, a  teaching  restatement  However, t e a c h i n g p a r e n t s  children.  In s o c i a l  learning  of p o s i t i v e  (1969) p o s s i b l y  in  the  family  of  would terms,  reinforcement. understated, may  create  the a  teach. and  workmates  t o be p o t e n t i a l  participants' 4.  and  continuation f a m i l y as,  m o d e l s would a c t as  Table  the  continuity  decision.  profession  As  had  by  r e t i r e m e n t , was  Lortie  such  professional  illustrated  participants a  of  reported decision  of  support  opinions to enter  the groups of  participants for  these  teaching  are  their groups  were career on  the  presented  in  67  Table 4 R e p o r t e d O p i n i o n s o f F r i e n d s , Workmates, P a r e n t s and Wives on C a r e e r Change o f P a r t i c i p a n t s Opinion  Friends N %1  Very p o s i t i v e Quite positive Quite negative Very negative Non-commital Don't know Not t o l d Not r e l e v a n t 1  1 4 1 2 2 0 6 3 0 0  Workmates N %  37.8 32.4 5.4 0.0 16.2 8.1 0.0 0.0  10 1 2 4 3 6 2 0 0  Parents N %  27.0 32.4 10.8 8.1 16.2 5.4 0.0 0.0  Wives N %  1 4 37.8 1 4 37.8 2 5.4 0 0.0 8.1 3 2.7 1 2.7 1 2 5.4  16 8 0 0 1 0 0 1 2  43.2 21.6 0.0 0.0 2.7 • 0.0 0.0 32.4  N=37  It change  appeared  decision  transition work of  in  few o f t h e men had made  isolation.  The  Only  plans.  two men had n o t t o l d  A third  man  know  what h i s f r i e n d s  thought,  much  i n f a v o u r o f h i s move.  People  participants there staying  had  tended been  to support  some  their  negative  friends  o r workmates did  h i s workmates were  very  who  had  worked  about felt  is, I  getting  was  comment.  doing  out and they  t h e same way.  (welder  with  c a r e e r change, a l t h o u g h It  seemed  than  out:  thing  the  a l t h o u g h he  i n t h e t r a d e was o f t e n l e s s a t t r a c t i v e  The  career,  a t home a n d i n  reported that,  not  their  prospect of a c a r e e r  h a d o f t e n been d i s c u s s e d b o t h  place.  their  that  something  a l l basically fitter)  that  getting  68  The  older  more see  fellows....seem  than the that  this  fellows  some o f  guy  becomes  understand  age  ...I  could  thinking  that  them a r e  i s going too  my  to  to get  much  of  out a  before  it  drudgery.  (pa i n t e r )  In men  reporting  indicated  favour  of  negative  their  the  entry  into teaching.  of  situation  bears  decision existence  The  close  discussing made  by  men  i n S a n t a Fe,  career  moved  Krantz  was  But  ambivalence reactions, guardedly do  friends  having  heads".  stated  gotten  there .  i n some a  by  of  touch  sometimes of  as  one  tinged man  of  in  to  friends a  the as  radical crazy,  also  an  friends' often  "sometimes I w i s h  what y o u ' r e d o i n g " .  as  their  envy  (p.  with this  Krantz to  the  countercultural  into  their  in  rather  t o a comment by  was  of  were  occasional  wrote:  seen  (70.3%)  g r o u p s who  The  reaction  changers'  "something  could  similarity  who  Such a c h o i c e  were report  the  f r i e n d s 26  support  friends  admiration. a  had  their  they  remarks  In  of  that  reluctant  (1977).  opinions  174)  I  69  The of  participant's  bewilderment  comment  get t h i s  doing  now  still don't  step  was  understand  reported entry  are  you  I think there's  a  with  what  they're  (painter)  were  to  leave  taking  attractive When  their  a risk.  to  faced  feelings  occupations,  I t would seem t h a t  others  who  were  with  the  successful  of r e s e n t m e n t  received  earlier  somewhat  perhaps  more  move  and envy were cautious  this  of  aroused.  support  from  h a d one t h i n g i n common, t h e y were a l l t e a c h e r s  years as  "What  t h e r e b e c a u s e some o f  unhappy  deciding  T h r e e men  And some,  t o s c h o o l - You're  i t .  are  who  themes  t o s c h o o l ? " . . . Some o f them  them  participants,  w i t h many  going  b i t o f envy  cautious.  friends  - I'm  little  participants  crazy.  t h i n g about  going  doing.  By  t h e two  and envy:  Some o f them t h i n k I'm you  reiterated  experience.  having  mixed  to the p r o f e s s i o n .  school p r i n c i p a l ,  These  feelings  One man  as having  older about  reported  teachers  were  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' his  friend,  the f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d e :  a  70  He  wasn't  critical,  objective...as all  the  not  just  thinking right.  None  that  of  everything  of  very  I knew  of  go on i n s c h o o l s ,  should  experienced  younger  through  and  have been a l l  teachers.  teachers  to  welcome p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o  younger  was  t h e men had been d e t e r r e d by t h e r e s t r a i n e d  openly  one man  sure  breezing  and  of  he  ( c a b i n e t maker)  approach of these apparently  t o making  things sort  but  supportive  tended  of the career  illustrates  their  the t y p i c a l  Friends  who  were  t o be more e n t h u s i a s t i c change.  They  own f i e l d .  appeared  The r e s p o n s e  contrasting  reaction  of  friends:  Since  half  of  them  better  than  half  they  a l l think  [close  o f them  friends],  are  teachers,  i t s great.  (welder  fabricator)  Although teacher brought  friends  ongoing  was  spontaneous  Criticism teachers  no d i r e c t  about  asked, opinions reporting  or reserved who h a d s p e n t  experience  question  left  approval  of  opinions  of  of f r i e n d s i n g e n e r a l  opinions  of  was r e p o r t e d o n l y  many y e a r s little  the  teachers. from  i n the p r o f e s s i o n .  room f o r i l l u s i o n  older Their  or n a i v e t e .  71  They  appeared  age,  their  not  known.  disenchanted.  years  Whether  of experience,  Their  attitude  this  was due t o t h e i r  or a combination  of both  was a r e f l e c t i o n  Where t h e t r a d e s m e n  better  l e a v e , t h e o l d e r t e a c h e r s had r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t  entering.  I t may p e r h a p s be o f  this  somewhat  older  teachers.  the  number  could  be  an  of  years  existence  to  To  years,  "beginners"  may  irrespective  with  into  varying  ages and s t a g e s  the  of t h e i r  years  approach  well  attitudes  their  indirectly,  the  attending  which  lives  men were a c t u a l l y  of those  t h e program, w i t h sons'  that  approved  parents  profession  of  had h e l d  them.  directly Although home  one e x c e p t i o n p a r e n t s  teaching,  seemed  to  was  but  entry  fulfill  a  f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t :  their  at  were making a  parents'  Not o n l y  retain  warranted.  affect,  around  career goals.  occasionally  they  would  resident in their  aware o f t h e i r  ambition  hand, t h e  teachers  c a r e e r may be  in  do  community.  of  e n t e r i n g teaching, the p a r t i c i p a n t s  to  may  into  the school  i t  enthusiasm  o f work  In  lives  of  respect  On t h e o t h e r  decidedly benefit  if  i s common among  o f a body o f m a t u r e , e n r i c h i n g t e a c h e r s who  investigation  two  determine  t e a c h e r s whose  body.  i t was  i n the p r o f e s s i o n ,  policy  limited  the student  Further  change  only  to  exist,  have s p e n t  employ  believe  attitude  to  for hiring  after  enthusiastic  later  they  teachers.  injustice  interest  positive  I f i t i s found  be r e s t r a i n e d  their  than  important  late-entry will  less  to  of t h e o l d e r  tradesmen. to  seemed  is  or only  while  were w e l l i t  clear  into the long  term  72  They  think  really  it's  think  really  it's  special.  something.  They (welder  fabricator)  They  think  that  My  I'm  i t ' s really,  doing  mother  teacher  always  wanted me  their  from in  wish  the  upward  standing. aspect  One  of  into the  of h i s p a r e n t s  There's  It's  son  movement.  work  to  worker)  be  a  some d e e p  She's  always  (mechanic)  their  dream,  mechanic)  r e c o g n i t i o n that  blue-collar  me  a teacher.  dream.  for their  social  wanted  fabulous  metal  thing there.  t o be  (automotive  The  (sheet  [laughter].  psychological  It's  i t .  really  men  t o become a t e a c h e r  entry  into teaching  T h e r e would be a  position quoted  approval:  of  above  may  would  a move away increased highlighted  spring result from social this  73  But  they  and  again  t h i n k t h a t t o be  ultra  smart  really  pleased.  However, backgrounds  or  parents  being m i l d l y  reported  as  a  members  t e a c h e r s was in  favour  of  was  the  of h i s son's the  evident  they  are  worker)  occupations  support  parents  of  one  b e l i e v e the  other p a r t i c i p a n t spent  to the  I t seemed he  particularly  the  His  o p i n i o n of  was  not  o f t e n been  i n the d e c i s i o n  influential  participants  were  had  training to  program, enter.  My  wife  has  been the most  supportive.  She  more  or  less  it  (carpenter)  wholly  companions o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  d u r i n g the  towards  right  of  It  only p r o v i d i n g support  and  son  be  influential.  not  it  were  in close contact  system which a s s i s t e d  appeared  me  man  decision.  t h a t w i v e s and  Pushed  parents  change t o  was  many y e a r s  and career  reported their  teaching profession.  support  g r o u p of p e o p l e  men  d i d not  somewhat n e g a t i v e .  Within one  The  they  had  two  be  their  widespread  Only  However, t h e  of  class  i s to  So  (sheet metal  critical.  s c h o o l c u s t o d i a n who  with  something.  gave  saying  "necessary".  a teacher  irrespective  change o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . as  are very working  now  forced  i t , p u s h e d me  she's s t i l l  on  me.  through  keeping  me.  but  74  She's t h r i l l e d  She's t h i n k s  to b i t s .  (boatbuilder)  i t ' s great.  (machinist)  She e n c o u r a g e d me it's  great.  She's get  the  men.  Entry  one  high  of support  participants, attitudes  for  their  support  recurred  reported  h i s wife  feel  that  effort  with  what  thinks  fabricator)  p u s h e d me m a i n l y t o  flow  of  encouragement  program appeared  T h e r e was an mutual  She  (carpenter)  the  together, level  who  an o n g o i n g  into  commitment.  (welder  into i t .  T h e r e was  t o do i t .  was  atmosphere leading  one  of  throughout  The  theme  a  support,  of  the  reported of  the i n t e r v i e w s .  the  family working  benefit.  All  exception,  wives.  to e n t a i l  to mutual  indicated.  for  A  very  married positive  approval  and  O n l y one  man  a s n o t o v e r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , "She seems  to  I do i s e n t i r e l y  it  was  t h e t e e n a g e c h i l d r e n who  of  the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s d e c i s i o n .  up t o me".  In t h i s  were p a r t i c u l a r l y  family  supportive  75  Karp decisions  and can  Yoels  often affect  well-illustrated relations change.  by  with  a  two  He c i t e d  An  (1982)  other  in  the f i r s t  thought  the  nice,  idea  and as  that  career  who  T h i s was  explained  context  his  of h i s career  of c r i t i c i s m :  And t h a t ' s one o f t h e  an  ex-girlfriend.  i d e a was f i n e ,  but f i n a n c i a l l y  idea,  the  out  decisions.  as a source  ex-girlfriend. she's  life  participant  women  reasons  pointed  i t wasn't  timewise  f a r as  that's a  She very good  i t was a t e r r i b l e  she  was  concerned,  (painter)  The  relationship  in  which t e a c h i n g  to  enter  with  h i scurrent  was v i e w e d a s a d e s i r a b l e g o a l .  t h e p r o g r a m were t h e n met w i t h  congruency and u n d e r l y i n g  One was and  companion  reason going  support:  we g o t t o g e t h e r  i s because I  t o go i n t o t e a c h i n g .  she...was  teaching.  a greater  doing  So t h a t  we h a d i n common.  her  We  first  met year  was one o f t h e t h i n g s (painter)  was one  H i s plans degree  of  76  Participants contact  with  entry  into  people  tend  t e a c h e r s and the  conduct".  i n the program tended  profession.  (1974) i n d i c a t e d  that  social  support  an  believed  own  the  are  c h a n g e had of p e o p l e  selected  I t was  who  filled  the  been  otherwise,  is  o r were t o l d  as  those  constraints than  (p.  role  that  of  which  159)  such  choice of have of  on  opinions  and  has  thought  as  we well  and  external  made  men  less  more  than  researchers  for  decisions  love  what  a  Approval  particularly  to b e l i e v e ,  have  of  significant  t o be  we  internal  c a n d i d and  naive.  clear  because  wanted  support  sometimes a c r i t e r i o n  independent  it  a  importance  career  If  approve  participants.  found  of  to  who  of  been made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  relationships.  of  the  g o a l s was  system.  People  members  a c k n o w l e d g e d by  experience  rarely  as  study  (1977) comment was  The  gave  reinforcement.  present  professional i n the  this  personal  of  Sarason's  their  He  readily  support  of  of  s y s t e m was  career  approved  "standards  In  inclusion  Bandura  regular  similar  of o n e ' s b e h a v i o u r s  their  o t h e r a d u l t s who  in  to choose a s s o c i a t e s with  individual's  system.  t o be  others. apt:  77  When parents  or  members, 38).  to  wives,  E a c h g r o u p was  There  of  were  support  negatively  them  (43.2%)  were  source  majority anyone  had  who  had  4  The  who  d i d not  name  source  of  thought  of  teachers either These  as  a person  entry  who  of  the  especially entering readily  liked a  men  into  teaching.  c o u l d t h i n k of anyone their  26  decision  (70.3%)  critical  of  their  at  profession  identified.  reinforcement, in  favour  of  such  put  forward  further and  wives,  of  t h e c a r e e r change  a  active  support  in Proposition  men  important 39).  The  think  of  The  few  family  any  into  group of (59.5%). Only  teacher they 33  (89.2%)  had were  r o l e m o d e l s were  source was  from  reinforcement.  other  found  teaching.  group tends C.  The  (13.5%).  which p o s i t i v e  A  parents  The  in  5  or  identify  school.  decision.  t o have a s u p p o r t  (78.4%),  not  not  reacted  equivalent proportion  tended  friends  (Item  could  f a m i l y members,  did  c o u l d be  r e i n f o r c e m e n t had  t e a c h e r s were s o u r c e s of p o s i t i v e  three  any  Lord.  wives.  criticised  participants  final  The  i f they  ( 1 0 . 8 % ) , and  Two  member and  n e g a t i v e comments came i n a l m o s t friends,  (Item  faculty  of p o s i t i v e  been  family  friends  men.  than  a  that  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  other  other  16  to p a r t i c i p a n t s '  who  mentioned  named by  possible  were t h e r e f o r e a s k e d  support  i n - l a w s , and  13 p a r t i c i p a n t s  a potential  of  and  support  was  sources  siblings  b e y o n d p a r e n t s and It  to  name  participants  including  sources  as  asked  of  positive  t o be  strongly  The  presence  to s u s t a i n  the  ideas  78  4.1.4  Proposition D  An for  a  individual  course  of  i s more l i k e l y study,  consequences  in a  exposed  positive  to  field  field  to  (Krumboltz,  1979,  film  or  Question  the  r o l e of  Research which  teaching  a s an  There recall  a  teaching Industrial  or t h e  tasks  i n d i v i d u a l has  and been that  related  p.40)  Have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  school  portrayed  preference  of work or t h e a c t i v i t i e s  6;  Question  a  images a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m w h i c h has  image o f  book  i f that  words and  occupation,  Research  occupation,  o f work  course, i t .  an  to express  a  a  positive  teacher?  7: a  portrayed  watched  Have  the  positive  participants  image  read  a  of  teachers  or  who  were a b l e  to  schools  or  occupation?  were  film (Item  23  or 40).  Education  (62.2%) p a r t i c i p a n t s  television Only class  program  five  about  recalled  where more  direct  scenes  in  an  modelling  of  79  Industrial  Education  t e a c h i n g w o u l d have t a k e n  impressions  of t e a c h i n g and t e a c h e r s o b t a i n e d  o r p r o g r a m s a r e summarised  i n Table  place.  from  The  the f i l m s  5.  Table 5 Impressions o f T e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g O b t a i n e d From F i l m / P r o g r a m a n d Book Impressions  Film/Program N % 1  Teaching Positive Non-commmital Negative Both pos. and neg.  3  5 12 4 2  13.5 32.4 10.8 5.4  4 5 5 1  10.8 13.5 13.5 2.7  9 6 5 3  24.3 16.2 13.5 8.1  5 7 2 1  13.5 18.9 5.4 2.7  14  37.8  22  59.5  Teachers Positive Non-commital Negative Both pos. and neg. Not R e l e v a n t • N=23 N=37 N=15  Book N  2  1  2 3  Almost h a l f teaching  of the viewers  a s an o c c u p a t i o n  memorably  positive  personality  of the  remembered  more  men)  indicated  h a d n o t been p o r t r a y e d  or teacher  clearly.  (12  negative in  the  light. film  or  that  in either a  However,  the  program  was  T h e r e were 9 (24.3%) a c c o u n t s o f  t e a c h e r s who h a d been p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g  positive  such  or e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  a s warmth, p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t i v e n e s s ,  qualities  80  However, t h e n e x t non-commital  A  largest  group,  of  15  (40.5%) men  r e a d a book r e l a t e d  to teaching  four  who  participants profession  impressions  of  positive  images,  five,  readers),  in  a  or  positive  negative.  outnumbered  predominate.  the  become  teachers,  happened. they  a  positive  third and  f o u r men  portrayal  lack  of  (26.7%  unclear (46.7% o f  dramatic  the  impact  of  teacher.  Thus, n e g a t i v e  said  decision to this  readers)  the  impression  both  The  decisions  However, a of t e a c h i n g fourth  teaching  as w e l l as p o s i t i v e career  men h a d  and a second had r e a d  teacher. of  had not believed  One o f t h e s e  of t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r .  impressions  influenced  seven  their  of readers)  reported a negative  negative  part ic ipants.  the  (73.3%  was n o n - c o m m i t a l a b o u t  have  two,  or books.  received  to  positive  o f an i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t  p o r t r a y a l of a teacher  participant  the  negative,  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b o o k s .  read a p o s i t i v e  However,  t h e b o o k s were n o t  i f t h e book h a d a f f e c t e d  The o t h e r  h a d been  of  films  11  were  o p i n i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y of  or  perhaps  in  Of t h e 15 r e a d e r s ,  over  When a s k e d  There  light.  Although  T h i s may be t h e r e s u l t  by s u c h  t h a t they had  (Items 45-49).  teachers.  possessed  again  portrayed.  indicated  presented  h a d no d e f i n i t e  time  were  b e l i e v e d t h e book had p o r t r a y e d t h e  teachers  strongly  impressions  (16.2%),  r e p o r t s on t h e t e a c h e r - i m a g e  total  teaching  six  and t h e  images made  man  by  appear these  81  T h e r e was tended  to  confirm  considered. Service  at  and  the  my  was  film  man  recalled  already  film  of  teaching  in  text  The  wife  b o o k s and  my  interest  use  t o t e a c h and  aspects  of  in  books.  those  interested [Film]  i t .  me  Yes  attention considering fabricator)  They  Well to  one  swayed  did the  i t was  being  a  both  i n methods  interested me.  reason t h a t I was  I  man  to t r y to  these  [affected  They  [influence  teacher.  film  program.  pyschological  really  a  participant  anyway. it  decision].  the  I was  commitment  decision:  must have  my  that  Another  education  [Books] I t h i n k they decision]...  to  i t had  i n t h e work of CUSO  of  found  being  University  that  overseas. my  media  already  stated  a teacher  his evolving career  they  was  Canadian  interested  students".  to read her  and  "strengthened  enrolled  affected  seeing a  for people  a book  f o r my  that  However, h i s e x p o s u r e  possibility that  t h a t exposure to the  decision  (CUSO)  a meeting  best  started  a  influence".  reported do  One  Overseas  "positive was  some i n d i c a t i o n  my paid  already (welder  and  He a  82  Not  a l l . media  had  provided  had  affected  thought had  exposure acknowledged as  a p o s i t i v e image. his  he c o u l d  decision  one  to  negative  which they  images  may  existing  other  they  lent  rather  have  In  Although  recall  quest  decision  for  The  cases  experiences  provide  enough  Such  they  should  evolving  t h e media  were  negative  went  be  was  against  career  change  influence reinforced,  opinion. had  decided  half  the  on t h e t o p i c .  made. hand  to men  enter (15)  Somewhat  on t e a c h i n g  the had  more  than  half  This  lack  s o c i e t y almost  knowledge o f a t l e a s t to  any  when s u c h a m a j o r  However, i n w e s t e r n  tended  teaching done  or t e a c h e r s .  i s of i n t e r e s t  participants  school  career.  already  information  e v e r y o n e has f i r s t teaching.  an  a film  was b e i n g  o f them  The image p r e s e n t e d  remembered b e c a u s e  than  (23)  of the  when  they  less  that  which  some p o s i t i v e images were remembered  these  reading  of  i n f l u e n c e , four  that  he  On  to  deliberate could  than  i t  done.  than a l t e r e d ,  profession  media  o f how good t e a c h i n g  hand,  t h a t a book  reading  j o b of t e a c h i n g  portrayals.  been  support  decision.  after  b e l i e v e d t o be r e p r e h e n s i b l e .  opinions  the  remarked  I t i s perhaps worth n o t i n g  seven men who r e c o g n i z e d reacting  because  do a b e t t e r  been p o r t r a y e d .  One man  influential  one  rely  and t h o s e  of  their  support  information  on  which  to  view  of  on t h e i r  own  groups  to  select  a  future  83  From t h e to  lend  Krumboltz through  a  experience,  teaching  portrayals  portrayals  men  reported  media e x p o s u r e . image, of  responding  four  teachers  to  or  negative  p a r t i c i p a n t s may  directed  and  not  rather have  their  change  decision.  impact  principles  propositions to  career  T h r e e of  the  present  study.  Participants  four  decision  were l e n t The  were f o u n d  that  extrinsic  to by  that  had  been  receiving  were,  negative  therefore, The  appear  more  self  a book or  film.  They  media e x p o s u r e had  be  following  from  social  making were by  the  trends  t o have a l r e a d y  intrinsically  rewards  applied  support  instructional situation. to  than  reported  They  to  influences.  decision  men  by  on  Results  Four  role  difficult  than p o s i t i v e models.  swayed  i f any  one  their  wished  little  Summary of  it  forward  of  unconscious  these  teaching.  put  influence  make  that  of  easily  as  However, r a t h e r  acknowledged career  the  between c o n s c i o u s and  (18.9%) by  model  information  teaching  positive  other  little  However, w i d e s p r e a d e x p o s u r e t o  media  media  was  (1979).  and  the  there  to  differentiate  affected  study  support  personal  friends,  Seven  present  They had  found had  others.  of  the.  established.  experienced  r e w a r d i n g and  s t u d e n t s and  investigated.  findings were  learning  at  least  the  teaching  often  received  84  As  students  Industrial  themselves,  Education  environments  where  maintained.  Teachers  role  m o d e l s and  However, level  of  and  of The  present  to  study  such  of  investigate  the  to o f f e r  rewarding and  identified into  who  as  positive  profession.  a more  were  order  both  restrained sources  of t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r and  failed  family  involving Of  They had  However,  of t h e  of  choice  members.  In  were  major  c o n f i r m a t i o n of  the e f f e c t the  seven four  o f words or (18.9%)  reported  counter-identified  within difficult  the  context  to l i v e  research  a p r e c i s e impact  it  of  totally  teaching profession.  the p r e s e n t  teaching.  to f i n d  influence,  i t w o u l d be  presentation purposes  in  c o m p a n i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s  teaching.  images.  presented. society  people  work  observed  support.  acknowledged negative  entry  workmates  proposition  related  of  had  completed  readily  advocates  w i v e s and  men  at  were  were  Other  friends,  particular,  with  projects  advocates  support.  included  final  teachers  o l d e r t e a c h e r s appeared  reinforcement  sources  the  was  of words and  images  men  who  exposure  to  with  the  image  contemporary free  Therefore, not  the  of  media  for  the  possible  to  images a s s o c i a t e d  85  4.2 A r e a  o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 2: What  impeded  Orienting  In aid  t h e c a r e e r change  f a c i l i t a t e d or  process?  Statement  changing  or h i n d e r  careers there e x i s t  the t r a n s i t i o n  Research major  factors  Question  barriers  in  the  process  certain  (Louis,  8: What  factors  career  change  factors  which  1980).  are  recognized  from  as  tradesman t o  teacher? Research major  Question  facilitators  in  9: What  factors are  t h e c a r e e r change  recognized  from  as  tradesman t o  teacher? Research  Question  the c a r e e r change Research affect  t h e c a r e e r change  study  research  1980; H i e s t a n d ,  the e f f e c t change  tradesman  Question  Previous Selby,  from  that  10: How do f i n a n c i a l  11: How from  depth.  family-related  tradesman  For  factors  to teacher?  on c a r e e r c h a n g e  i t was, t h e r e f o r e , d e c i d e d  particular  do  (e.g., Bloland &  1971; W a t e r s & Goodman,  making.  affect  to teacher?  f a m i l y and f i n a n c i a l  decision  factors  factors  the purposes  1981)  noted  had upon c a r e e r of the present  to explore these  aspects in  86  4.2.1  By had  to Career  gaining entry  successfully  plans. had  Barriers  Any  i n t o the  completed  barriers  factors  problematic These  their  factors  are  program  a  major  which  step  However, t h e might  have  change of  occupation  presented  in Table  Table Major  Barriers  to Career  entry  were a s k e d  blocked 54  or and  presented their  their a  %  shift  from  of  2  21.6 21.6 13.5 5.4 5.4 2.7 2.7 32.4  8 8 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 39  reported.  c a r e e r change was  range  made  Change  1  Although  to  56).  No. Reported  More t h a n one b a r r i e r c o u l d be P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  prevented  this  6  Total  men  men  career  6.  Lack of f i n a n c e s F a m i l y emergency Lack of f a m i l y support I n c r e a s e d a c a d e m i c demand I n c r e a s e d t i m e demand Relocation B e t t e r company o f f e r None  1  participants  in their  (Items  Type  2  the  w h i c h m i g h t have p r e v e n t e d  o b v i o u s l y been overcome.  identify  Change  underway,  deterrents tradesman  to  which  25  (67.6%)  might  teacher.  have Family  87  related 13  b a r r i e r s were most  (35.1%) r e p o r t s  family  support  that  considered The  families decisions  interfered  to the  had  were  asked  experienced  (Item  5.1).  with  lifestyle  a potential barrier  participants  There  e i t h e r f a m i l y e m e r g e n c i e s or  w o u l d have  Interruption  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned.  as  of  career the  lack  family could of  to consider  any  changes  of  their  result  These changes a r e  of  plans.  to a change  a  were  be  occupation. their career  indicated in  Table  7.  Table Changes E x p e r i e n c e d  by  7  F a m i l i e s of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Changes  No. Reported  Decreased finances Separation Relocation D i f f e r e n t job Other None  11 7 4 2 4 12 Total  1 2  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d r e p o r t more t h a n one P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  The income,  most 11  participant, reported  %  1  commonly  (29.7%), 7  being  (18.9%).  reported  followed There  geographically  by were  29.7 18.9 10.8 5.4 10.8 32.4  40 change.  change  was  separation 12  separated  2  (32.4%) from t h e i r  decreased from  the  men  who  families  88  for than  some o r a l l o f t h e a c a d e m i c those  resulting  who  from e n t r y  occupations for  may  these f i v e  described  reported  men.  the  This from  the  from the  with  f a m i l y members. hours  home f o u n d t h e r e was  s p e n t away  psychological  stresses.  Enrolment  The  well-articulated  We  demands effect  this  by one  man:  just  as  don't  much  your else's  working  for  listen  just day just  (54.1%)  much.less  T h e r e was  on  men,  mind  i t was  out.  full  tell  spend in  a l s o a new  set  even  time  farthest  When  friend's  men  different  some r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the  I quite  was easy  complaints  and  Whereas now,  of t h i n g s  I  as  resulted  i s t o p u t up w i t h  beefs.  h e a r h e r day i s so p a c k e d  time t o  with  a n o t h e r , t o spend  instance  t o my  as soon  had  Sometimes  someone  to  20  i n a l o t of ways t o be  o f one  listening... in  not a c t e d  the  the  were  had  have as much e n e r g y ,  desire  supportive  thing  upon  separation  changes.  i n the program  from home.  previous  families  major  family  more  as a change  However,  of  f o r a l l of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , at  five  geographical  (32.4%)  separation  is  family  program.  as not h a v i n g gone t h r o u g h any  lived  of  into  Twelve  who  many  separation  a l s o have e n t a i l e d  Although a barrier  term.  my  would  h e r t o s h u t up and  go  was  89  away, o r l i s t e n does get  t o me  f o r a minute.  cause a l o t of problems. so s e l f i s h  I  think.  It  You  (sheet  just metal  worker)  Deterrents  to  c a r e e r change may  problems a s s o c i a t e d with possible  f u t u r e problems  m e n t i o n e d by 16 (43.2%)  You  feel  you're  able  you  prove  yourself.  My  main  problem  teachers  hold  experience.  about  management  was  time  if  the classroom  in  feel  that respect  until  (carpenter)  might the  be  one  of  class  with  the  (machinist)  seem t h a t a n t i c i p a t e d . p r o b l e m s o f constant  Teacher  cannot  asked  (mechanic)  really  would  11) c l a s s r o o m  t o cope w i t h  don't  students  When  unsure a t t h i s  You  discipline  teachers  (Item  career.  anticipated  men.  really  situation.  It  t h e new  include  irrespective  education  of  programs f o r  assume t h a t o l d e r s t u d e n t s  beginning  age  or  mature will  prior student  necessarily  90  be  confident  or  feel  i n c o n t r o l of  S u c h programs c o u l d  also  perhaps  realities  years  ahead  unable,  of  the  or u n w i l l i n g , t o do Insufficient  financial  possible  deterrent  on  t h e d e g r e e of  rating  failed  to  Table  by  eight  associate  change d e c i s i o n .  so  to  for  some  of as  the  appear  themselves. was  recognized  (21.6%) p a r t i c i p a n t s . s t r e s s only stress  Further  6  with  details  as  However,  (16.2%) their  are  a  men  career  given  in  8.  Table D e g r e e of F i n a n c i a l  8  Stress Experienced  During  Stress  T r a i n i n g Year  No. Reported  %  1  Extreme High Moderate Slight None 1  out  situation.  such students  support  financial 5).  classroom  point  financial  (Item  the  1 6 19 5 6  2.7 16.2 51.4 13.5 16.2  N=37  T h e r e were 26 experiencing most men, As  19  (70.3%) men  some d e g r e e o f (51.4%),  t h e men  had  the  their  financial  been e m p l o y e d  career  reported  s t r e s s was  t h o u g h u s u a l l y much l o n g e r , what e f f e c t  who  i t was  that  stress.  they  were  However, f o r  moderate. f o r at  of  least  interest  c h a n g e w o u l d have on  five to  their  years,  discover income.  91  They time  were,  would compare  entry in  t h e r e f o r e , asked  into  Table  how  their  with  their  income  the program  (Item  53).  income  in five  f o r the year Responses a r e  years  prior  to  summarised  9.  Table  9  S a l a r y A f t e r F i v e Years Teaching Compared t o Y e a r P r i o r t o Program  Salary  No. Reported  %  9 7 9 7 3 2  24.3 18.9 24.3 18.9 8.1 5.4  1  Much More S l i g h t l y more About t h e same Slightly less Much l e s s Don't know 1  N=37  Nine p a r t i c i p a n t s after  they  f i v e y e a r s of t e a c h i n g than  However,  only  full-time  at t h e i r  guessing.  Of  three  worked  had  the other  would  earn  the p r e v i o u s year  working  of  them  s i x , two had s p e n t  said  (51.4%),  reported  Just  over  university.  that after  half  One  year.  than  what  man  had  running  participants,  i t had  was  working  f i v e y e a r s of t e a c h i n g ,  income w o u l d be t h e same o r l e s s the p r e v i o u s  the  he  the year  as a t e a c h e r ' s a i d e a n d t h e o t h e r had been business.  more year.  one  attended  much  d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s  spent  t r a d e s , and  p a r t - t i m e and two had  small  said  been  a 19  their for  92  Even salary with  for at the  men  those least  five  financial  (21.6%)  completely fact  participants y e a r s had  demands of  reported  that  prevented  them  have p r o v e d a m a j o r  (18.9%) men being  who  an  a n t i c i p a t e d a drop  obviously  the  lack  of  There  sufficient in  jobs  and  were  eight have  would  also  in  seven  resources  decision  in  terms  would  financial  their  to  However,  money  from c h a n g i n g  aid  come  program.  obstacle.  identified  important  who  to  as  change  occupations. The program  government  removed  academic  fees  financial  the  pay  summarised  own  their  aid  to  the  fees.  fees  factor  in  entrants  into  the  their  own  program The  possible  source  of  were a s k e d whether  i f t h e y had  l i k e l i h o o d of  been  this  they  required  occurring  is  10.  11  i n the  participation  academic  one  Participants  in Table  T h e r e were  of  f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o pay  alleviated  pressure.  their  financial  need  which  would have a p p l i e d to  sponsorship  (29.7%) men  who  form of  s p o n s o r s h i p was  i n the  fee  program.  would, t h e r e f o r e , career  change  indicated that  needed  for  Government payment  appear  of  external  almost  t o be  a  one  of  facilitative third  of  the  identify  any  part ic ipants. T h e r e were factor into  the  12  which might program.  (32.4%) men have a c t e d  Now  that  as  who  could  not  a deterrent  to  t h e y were e n r o l l e d ,  their  entry  they  could  93  Table  10  L i k e l i h o o d of A p p l i c a t i o n to Program W i t h o u t Government S p o n s o r s h i p Likelihood  %  No. Reported 1  1 7 9 9 2  Very l i k e l y Fairly likely Fairly unlikely Very u n l i k e l y  45.9 24.3 24.3 5.4  N=37  not  envisage  change.  In  (45.9%)  men  from  their  school free. nor  situation  could  career was  future  item  foresee  no  change.  A g r o u p of  foreseen eight  barriers. consistency  of  w h i c h would have p r e v e n t e d  answer t o a n o t h e r  teacher  cognitive lack  a  imagination  shift  men  which c o u l d or  perhaps  who  one  experienced transi t ions.  that  third  or a n t i c i p a t e d no  of  with his  difficulties  past  possess  a t t r i b u t e d to  professional  is consistent  to  trouble  neither  to  17  arising  tradesman  identified  p e r h a p s be  career  barriers,  smooth and  appeared  However, s u c h a r e s u l t reported  from  completely  (21.6%) men These  projected  problems whatsoever  The as  on  a  in  a  naivete.  Arbeiter career  a  (1978) changers  making  their  94  change,  4.2.2  Facilitators  When  asked  participants  situations. and  to  finding  the  been  with  barriers  realities  their readily  career  in  change  identifiable  one f a c i l i t a t o r  career  T h e s e a r e summarised  career  hypothetical completion  a h e a d , by e n t e r i n g  as  recognized at least transition.  their  of program  were s t i l l  However,  to  with  s t e p out of l i f e  taken. to  Change  dealing  a teacher p o s i t i o n  facilitators dealing  identify were  Although  t h e p r o g r a m t h e major already  to Career  a  tradesman  the  had  selection  participants factors.  of  . were  Each  which had h e l p e d  man  in his  i n T a b l e 11.  T a b l e 11 Major  Facilitators  to Career  Facilitators  No. Reported 1  S u p p o r t from f a m i l y Personal motivation Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n Financial security S u p p o r t from f r i e n d s Being s i n g l e P r i o r academic e x p e r i e n c e Combination of c i r c u m s t a n c e s R e a c h i n g age f o r d e c i s i o n s  1 4 1 2 8 7 3 3 2 2 1 Total  1 2  Change  52  More t h a n one f a c i l i t a t o r c o u l d be r e p o r t e d . P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  %  2  37.8 32.4 21.6 18.9 8.1 8.1 5.4 5.4 2.7  95  As  in  the  change,  t h e main  family  influence.  families  identification  group of f a c i l i t a t o r s The  was c o n s i d e r e d  A more d i r e c t suggested  that  A  of  total  attitudes the  of  a t home.  These  by 14 (37.8%)  on t h e t o p i c  participants responses  Although  family  acknowledged making  members  how t h e i r  i n general  wives,  related  o f home a t t i t u d e s (Item  reported  by were  entry  strong i n favour,  in particular,  having  knowing it  the support  was  the  best  (sheet  metal  I  s e t my mind  just  backing  me.  A supportive scholarship.  My w i f e .  to  do  and  t h i n g f o r me t o d o .  worker)  t o i t and my w i f e  was  (electrician)  wife  with  the  government  (carpenter)  (heavy duty  mechanic)  into  support. t h e men  had a s s i s t e d i n  f r o m my w i f e a n d  i t was what I wanted  58).  supportive  the change:  Just  to  men.  indicate that  p r o g r a m was g e n e r a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d  career  by members o f t h e i r  was a wide base o f s u p p o r t  (89.2%)  to  was a l s o  given  important  question  there 33  support  barriers  96  The the  contribution  change  support  in  support  4).  with  than  Nevertheless,  plans  f o r second  profession.  term  of s o c i a l  career  They t h o u g h t  commitment  concept  the general career  the  h a d made  lack  their  family approval  i s presented  career already  accorded  i n T a b l e 12.  12  f o rParticipants'  Degree o f Support  of  t e a c h i n g augurs w e l l f o r the  The d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t  D e g r e e o f Home S u p p o r t  singleness  i t was f o r t h e men who were  Table  Entry  into  Teaching  No. Reported 1  Very s u p p o r t i v e F a i r l y supportive Non-commital F a i r l y unsupportive Very u n s u p p o r t i v e Not r e l e v a n t  1  levels  men b e l i e v e d t h e i r  assistance.  long  change much e a s i e r married.  the high  However, n o t a l l t h e men h i g h l i g h t e d s p o u s a l  been o f d e c i d e d and  i n h e l p i n g t o make  towards t h e complete  a n d some o f t h e s i n g l e  dependents  to  accord  reported e a r l i e r  (see T a b l e  had  was  o f f a m i l y members  30 3 1 1 0 2  % 81.1 8.1 2.7 2.7 0.0 5.4  N=37  Almost that  their  had  really  one t h i r d  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  own d e t e r m i n a t i o n  (32.4%) r e p o r t e d  had been a m a j o r  wanted t o change c a r e e r s a n d e n t e r  factor.  They  t h e program.  97  They  felt  that  their  whatever  was  that  they  were d o i n g  the  participants'  change  (Item  necessary  12).  as  to achieve  the r i g h t  Positive  in  Although internal This  their other  drive  that  people  about  belief  reflected ongoing  also  in  career  expressed  classroom  was a f i r m their  them,  Hammel  self-management  statement  and  of  lives.  possessed  the  was  Underlying  own  they  them t h r o u g h  some  management o r  expertise.  control  helped  with  working  j o b was an a i d t o e i g h t The d e s i r e t o  an  transition.  Vardi's  affected  and a b i l i t y  conditions  (21.6%) men  (1981) by  an  to bring  leave  their  carpenters,  for  t o move o n . reasons  for  (21.6%) men  referred  incentives  to  content  example,  Although leaving  job  initiate  had  were  previous occupations,  change.  working These  career i t  Of c o u r s e i f welders  t h e r e w o u l d have been  prior  their  made  being mechanics,  a l l participants  to their  in  in their  f o r them t o move on t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e .  t h e men h a d been p e r f e c t l y  give  the  p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f - c o n t r o l  transition.  reason  This  do  change.  previous  or  men  of  reflected  Dissatisfaction  easier  to  which c a r r i e d  career  individuals'  area  ability  goal.  them  were r e p o r t e d by a l l o f  of the responses  characteristic  belief  towards  However, seven  tone  helped  t h i n g was a l s o  t o t h e heavy w o r k l o a d ,  positive  belief  their  feelings  need t o t e a c h o u t s i d e t h e i r the  motivation  attitudes  the p a r t i c i p a n t s . concerns  strong  little  able  to  only eight  conditions  as  men came from s i x  98  different  occupations  negative  aspects  of  situations  such  unpleasant  working  withdraw  and gave v a r y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s  as  their  lack  earlier  of  work.  prospect  They  for  occupations  helped  the cited  advancement,  c o n d i t i o n s , and boredom.  from p r e v i o u s  of  The d e s i r e t o  them  move  toward  teaching. Another financial  resources  full-time it  facilitator  study.  difficulty  would  that  of  reducing  essential  study  that  had been  program without  spend  sufficient a  that having  a  adequate  He p o i n t e d  standard than  year  important. f i n a n c e s was  out  the  i t making  a  added  of  living,  which f o r  for  younger  people.  the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s in a financial  in  for a l l participants,  (18.9%) men a s b e i n g  was o f t e n h i g h e r  appear  of having  t h e men t o  f o r mature s t u d e n t s .  mature s t u d e n t s  present  by seven  (1971) commented  "critical"  It  t o enable Although  was i d e n t i f i e d  Hiestand  was  situation  memorable  i n the  t o enter the  impact  on  their  change  were  decision.  Summary o f R e s u l t s  Although recognized identified projected program career.  facilitators  by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , by  men.  a s t h e men had so  far  had  However,  not  yet  career  potential  (32.4%)  but  12  to  b a r r i e r s were  Barriers  were n e c e s s a r i l y  successfully  a p p l i e d to begin  facilitators  and  not  entered their  barriers  the  teaching  were  often  99  related. friends  Support  from  wives,  was q u o t e d as a m a j o r  other  facilitator.  support  w o u l d have a c t e d a s a b a r r i e r .  for  the concept  both  immediate  demands  was e s s e n t i a l without  identified salary just  over  their  half  However, o n l y  short-term  anticipated  Personal  motivation  career  Unpleasant  change  4.3 A r e a  Orienting  An careers series  of  funds  during  the  spent  time  (18.9%) p a r t i c i p a n t s  facilitator.  These  Teaching  that  was a s much a s , i f n o t more  than,  after  five  was r e c o g n i z e d almost  men  years  a s an  of t e a c h i n g .  important  one t h i r d  aid  to  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  previous  occupations  (21.6%) o f t h e men.  o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3: Do t h e e x p e r i e n c e s  unstable  meeting  sufficient  as an i n c e n t i v e by e i g h t  expectations  existed  Having  working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r  was m e n t i o n e d  in  such  reported  salary  of  of  d i d not a c t as a f a c i l i t a t o r f o r  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i n the trades  Lack  and  seven  a s an a c t i v e  members and  The s u p p o r t  change  of the program.  factor  the  income  their  the  this  in  of c a r e e r  to successful survival  earning.  family  and  of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or  career  pattern?  Statement  individual (Super  &  is likely Bohm,  t o p u r s u e an a v e r a g e o f t h r e e  1970).  of unrelated occupations,  If  teaching  an u n s t a b l e  i s one o f a  career  pattern  100  may  exist.  career  If  so,  histories  and  such  after  a  reflected  in  expectations.  Research Question teaching  a p a t t e r n would be  12:  Have t h e  sequence  of  participants  three  or  more  entered  unrelated  occupations? Research Question into  teaching  13:  as a t e m p o r a r y  Research Question occupations  considered  as  a  intrinsic  teacher  the  Is  15:  one  of  several  change?  Are  related  entry  commitment?  teaching  a career  discussion  "occupations"  are  work  Those h e l d  jobs".  p a r t i c i p a n t s view  the to  stated  extrinsic  reasons  for  rather  than  factors?  In  years.  the  o r permanent  14:  Research Question becoming  Do  similar  this  positions  research held  for shorter periods  Occupations  involved  of  are  considered  activity  based  for  are  t o be on  question, at  termed related  a  least  similar  two  "filler when  they  body  of  knowledge. No  participant  of  short  had  changed  career.  term  Of  occupations.  their  had  filler work  these,  spent  jobs.  h i s working T h e r e were 28  position 12  at  (32.4%) had  However, e i g h t  life  of  these  some  in a  (75.7%) men point  moved between men  series  had  spent  in  who their  unrelated at  least  101  two  years as f u l l - t i m e  university  students.  histories  o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x a m i n e d ,  patterns  emerged.  These  When t h e c a r e e r five  distinct  career patterns are presented i n .  T a b l e 13.  Table Career  13  Patterns of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Type A B C D E 1  No. Reported  %  1  Main o c c u p a t i o n o n l y M a i n o c c u p a t i o n p r e c e d e d by f i l l e r j o b s Changes between r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s Changes between u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s Two c o n c u r r e n t main o c c u p a t i o n s  9 12 2 12 2  24.3 32.4 5.4 32.4 5.4  N=37  The  five  participants elaborated  career patterns relate  to their upon  main  below.  number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  occupations. Numbers  conforming  Type A - M a i n o c c u p a t i o n that  they  automotive  "of t h e i r  mechanic.  patterns  are  i n d i c a t e the  t o each p a t t e r n .  only  ( 9 ) : These  had h e l d o n l y one o c c u p a t i o n  context  The  i n brackets  They h a d p e r h a p s c h a n g e d p o s i t i o n s , the  t h e work h i s t o r i e s of  men  stated  since leaving  school.  b u t i t was a l w a y s w i t h i n  c a r e e r a s , f o r example,  a c a r p e n t e r or  1 02  Type B - M a i n o c c u p a t i o n s p r e c e d e d (12):  Before  worked  settling  into  a trade  at  a series  of s h o r t term  two y e a r s .  However,  actual  generally had  between  done,  for  bartending, these  six  based  a  on  similar  f i t this the  Royal  business. through  The  body  pattern. Navy  The o t h e r  months p e r j o b .  was  a  teacher  o f and  interest  o c c u p a t i o n s were  properties various  and  types  boatbuilding.  The  thorough  a  detailed of t i m b e r .  of  None o f  occupations occupations  similar  activity  T h e r e were diving  two  expertise  closely of in  The p a r t i c i p a n t  diving  boatbuilding  The  participant  and  construction later  who,  types of  related.  woods  men  instructor  in different  instructor.  knowledge  men  labouring,  between  had been a  explained  demanded  related  of knowledge. One  was  occupation.  involved  keeping  both  work,  a transition  woods, became a bee these  jobs  and became t h e owner of a s c u b a  h i s knowledge  that  filler  o r ambulance d r i v i n g .  jobs  had  f o r p e r i o d s o f up t o in  c h a n g e s between  This pattern indicated related.  in  spent  j o b s had been c o n s i d e r e d a main  w h i c h were  who  jobs  jobs  participants  construction  driving,  Type C - C a r e e r (2):  these  and t w e l v e  example,  truck  time  by f i l l e r  They their with  returned to  1 03  Type D - C a r e e r (12):  Some c a r e e r  which  were  social  worker  driver,  unrelated.  architectural  had  of  also  unrelated had  changes  two  office  school  filler  jobs.  company a  who  and  two  cook t o  held  for a  group,  changes  had  that  duty  who was a l s o a c o m m e r c i a l  business.  their  occupations  stated  One was a h e a v y  l e a d hand m e c h a n i c  two  In  four  car  eight  between one man  and  five  respectively.  participants  occupations.  carpenter, was  from  racing  n i n e men h a d two o c c u p a t i o n s ,  Type E - Two c o n c u r r e n t two  to  Of t h e 12 men i n t h i s  occupations,  occupations,  to  occupations  c h a n g e s were  manager  teacher  occupations  between  Each o c c u p a t i o n  years.  occupations,  made  Examples of such  draftsman.  held  three  were  to carpenter,  elementary  minimum  c h a n g e s between u n r e l a t e d  they  There  had  mechanic  were  two  for a  fisherman.  who h a d h i s own  Both of these  (2):  main large  The o t h e r  trucking  and  was  logging  men d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s a s h a v i n g  jobs.  Although indicated recurring  varied  the  career  patterns,  transition  between  (8.1%)  participants  had  careers,  a stable career  histories  of  participants  t h e r e was l i t t l e  i n d i c a t i o n of  occupations. held  three  or  As more  p a t t e r n was d o m i n a n t .  only  three  unrelated  104  In an identified the  examination  six separate  complete  States.  work  Although  participants  of  career  lives  i t was  to  work  patterns.  of  too  over  usefully  from t h i s  Work h i s t o r i e s of  continual  56.8%) h e l d or  short  working  by  term  life  pattern Wilensky  working least  h a l f of  the  complete  to r e t i r e m e n t ,  in  the  were  as  Type A and  suggested  had  work y e a r s  were  there  may  Progression  functionally  30.8  far  can  be  indication  the  men  same  trade  of  an  these  fall  within  as  described 13%  in  age  a  effect  Wilensky  patterns.  Here,  but  cut  of  They may  in their  around  their  of  the  b a c k g r o u n d s where a t  a v e r a g e age years.  (21,  of  only  arranged  that  related  most  exactly  related which  17%  at  studied  h i s p a r t i c i p a n t s , from  "disorder1iness" suggested  so  Type B,  comparisons.  whereas t h e was  were  Both  that  stable  h i s t o r y of  study  United  of  s p e n d i n g most  H o r i z o n i t a l Progression  influences  job  Vertical  the  Wilensky  career  Wilensky  positions within  occupation.  However,  time to d e v e l o p  of  main  the  present  half  their  population  partially  Over  before  (1966).  they  work l i v e s  jobs  noted e a r l i e r  male  not  on  perspective.  change.  of O r d e r l y  i n the  careers  filler  in  hierarchy. least  career  men  p a r t i c i p a n t s gave l i t t l e  either varying  categories, the  of  their  (1966)  They were b a s e d  600  d e t e r m i n e whether or  viewed  Wilensky  e a r l y i n the  following Wilensky's patterns, be  history,  first  participants not  have  had  careers. of men  successive across  had  Orderly  occupations occupational  105  strata.  In  the  p a t t e r n s and Related  present  were  included  Occupations.  pattern  akin  when  they  their  trade  skills.  by  the  function.  entered  participants  men  Type  C,  showed a  the  Although  who  such  m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s Progression  although  these  do  not  fall  the  occupation, that  careers  perform  d i d not  had  the  of are  same  Wilensky's note  t h e r e were  they  first  teachers  between  Wilensky  reported  for  program, becoming  therefore,  concurrent  (5.4%) had  between  knowledge b a s e , t h e y  classifications. one  two  Changes  However,  They,  more t h a n  The  in  to O r d e r l y V e r t i c a l  time  related  study  men  two  with (5.4%)  always h e l d  two  jobs. The  pattern Wilensky  Progression neither  showed  a  lifetime  functionally  suggested  around  29%  nor  12  unrelated  occupations  held  only  study,  two  they,  unstable  There unrelated had  in  for  (Type D ) .  therefore,  occupations  of  For  who  two  w h i c h was  set  who  had  years  at  them  the  three  been a c o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o u r e r , cook and  had  present for  or  an  more  education.  held three  f o r a p e r i o d of a t l e a s t  held  o r more  criterion  entering teacher  participants  pattern.  (24.3%) o f  meet t h e  were  Wilensky  this  t h e p u r p o s e s of  d i d not  that  related.  program  However, n i n e  before  were t h r e e  the  periods  occupations.  occupations  occupations  hierarchically  men  career history,  unrelated  One  (32.4%)  entering  of  of male w o r k e r s p o r t r a y e d  T h e r e were  before  d e s c r i b e d as D i s o r d e r l y V e r t i c a l  two  o r more years.  architectural  1 06  draftsman. decided  Another  t o become a  mechanic  of an  carpenter, Science a  career  a  car  in  and  engineering.  the  over  work  Abreiter's  the  (1978)  report  were n o t  event.  42%  for  the  found  previous  of  a Bachelor  five  heavy  duty  and  office  a  manager, a of  of  only This  people  one  were  majority  full  time  i s congruent in  only  men  The  the  c h a n g e r s had  and  racing  mechanical  these  a whole.  years.  years  of  other  held  career  a  The  necessarily repeating  the  worked as  Peace C o r p s .  student  that  principal  also  mechanic  had  he  had  g r o u p as  five  changing careers He  the  When  He  histories  the  last  he  Administration.  a  56.8%)  that  completed  university  (21,  careers.  owner and  Before  w o r k e r , an  a t y p i c a l of  men  occupation  a The  nevertheless of  been  the  and  with  lumber m i l l  driver  was  shop.  Business  had  separate  he  worker  overseas  changer a  teacher,  social  year  mechanic,  four  auto-repair  degree  spent  had  5%  process  a  of  recurring  held  had  with  one  had  job  four  or  more. As  Type  categories,  nine  considerably career  variety labouring,  preceded of  participants with  more, Type  pattern.  occupation  nine  D  work  men  B  by  the 12  short-term  reported or  indicated  into  occupations  was  T h e r e were  construction  (24.3%)  two  fell  as  and  single  (32.4%) men filler filler  service that  two  distinct three  most who  jobs. jobs,  cohesive  held  a main  T h e r e was usually  industries. such  with  work had  a in  However, included  1 07  helping  positions  people  or  adults with  alcoholics, children  retarded  from  who  had  and  taught  which brought  junior one  elementary  at  high the  an a l t e r n a t i v e  A third  school  Holland's  worked d e s c r i b e d a b o v e also  a  Social  occupations,  it  participants  had  leisure  time  teaching that that in  of  t h e men was the  as  they  participants  be a l r e a d y more l i k e  occupations.  As  a  private  that  aide in  move  90%  of  the past  work study  appropriately  time suggest  a  course teachers  Industrial  same c o d e a s  for  Arts  welders  experiences would  into  a  suggest Social  i s , i n some ways t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  teachers  than  they  are  or  to  Holland placed  i n the p r e s e n t  quite  time  full  towards  classified  of  full  as p a r t - t i m e  would a p p e a r  Although  u s i n g the  these  towards  lives  type  Teaching  over  instructors  their  he  grouping.  w e l l as  noting  Nevertheless,  That  at  became  delinquents.  Education  grouping,  Realistic,  classification.  other  then  been a t e a c h e r ' s  i s i n the S o c i a l  worth  f i t  men  workers  The  were o r i e n t i n g  may  social  as R e a l i s t i c  Industrial  several  the  participants  of c a r e e r s ,  occupation.  is  of t h e s e  had  The  of that  man  activities.  electricians.  or  level,  been  and  delinquents,  Two  young  (1966,1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  already present.  teachers  with  They had  camps, a s s i s t e d  already  Social  worked  for juvenile  trades are c l a s s i f i e d  is  needs.  T h e r e were a l s o  school.  college  with  juvenile  homes.  education  school.  In  adults,  abusive  l e d outdoor  teachers,  special  them i n c o n t a c t  like  may  tradesmen.  1 08  Further be  investigation  of v a l u e In  in pursuing looking  Pietrofesa history were  10  stages.  tendency jobs.  18 to  at  stages  to  30+  occupations  the  From  and  years.  life  jobs,  the  21  (56.8%) men  under  that  at  built  a t an  and  men  as  years time  earlier and  life  men  one  man  five  years.  He  of  of  25 and  there  self"  Levinson career  the  years.  Thirty  There  years.  This  were  cluster  suggestion  s t r u c t u r e s they  choices  T h e r e -is now  are an  viable  found  to  have have  opportunity in  of  Adult  Age  Levinson's  be  main  moved out  change,  30  a  several  purely men  from  was  tried  Entering  33  with  structure that w i l l  over  said  stage  Earlier  participants  aspirations  years,  lasted  stage.  to  work study  changing  this  rethink l i f e  mistakes.  s u i t a b l e f o r the The  28  around  concurs  as  opposed  of  until  age.  present  time  well  period  aged between  30  individuals's  Stage VII  this  as  age  a  which l a s t e d  this  limitations "create a  entered  might  development,  m o b i l i t y where men  stages  about  They  Transition,  VIII.  During  s t a b l e , though e x p l o r a t o r y ,  World.  of  VII  often c o n s i s t e n t with  (1978) c o n s i d e r e d stages.  career  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  filler  was  of  (1975) d i v i d e d an  occupational  Holding  p e r s o n a l i t y types  issue.  stages  Splete  mainly  this  at  and  into  a r o u n d age  into Holland's  the  to  world  (p.72). were  a p e r i o d of  five  asked and  about then  ten  he  d i d not  t h i n k he  w o u l d be  was  looking  for five  years  their  career  years.  Only  teaching  after  employment  after  1 09  which 52  he  years  further One  would  retire  o l d and two  men  had  and  spent  planned  wanted t o s t a r t  do 27  years  t o be  h i s own  v o l u n t e e r work.  out  i n the  of  the  become  a  a journeyman w e l d e r - f i t t e r  filler  businessman two  and  jobs  had  a half  a  before  history  i n an  alternate  Prior  that  he  university. were not  had  necessarily  an  a  school one  I t appeared  to  Only  teacher's  in  indication  potential  He  had  to  spent  delinquents.  b u s i n e s s and  t h a t even p l a n s  five  aide/woodwork  for juvenile  year  for  the  of c a r e e r c h a n g e .  y e a r s w o r k i n g as  instructor to  that.  years. to  psychologist years with  hoped  A  intended  The  been  who  i n ten  other  was  Navy.  become a p s y c h o l o g i s t . had  man  Royal  teaching  business,  T h i s man  leave  one  at  teaching  of a b a c k g r o u n d of c a r e e r  change. Apart  from  program w i t h the  teaching  goals over  "What years  choice year  time  do  you  hope  resulted  of g o a l . span  As  i n the  t o be 60,61). in  would be  were more c l e a r  teaching  a  summarised interview  doing  i n your  The  Industrial  within  career  related  those  (30,  career  in  asked, five/ten of  this  of n a t u r e for  the  f o r ten years  81.1%)  Education,  14.  schedule  plans  the  career  in Table  selection  expected, than  entered  open ended n a t u r e  participant  m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s  still  had  Their anticipated  periods are  r e l e v a n t items  (Items  participants  of m a i n t a i n i n g  profession.  these  time?"  men,  intention  The  question  The  the  these  expected  although  and five  ahead. to  be  often in a  1 10  , Table Career Career  14  Related Goals  Goals  After N  of  5  1 2  2  30 3 3 2 1 3 1 1  Total  81.1 8.1 8.1 5.4 2.7 8.1 2.7 2.7  special There  field.  education, was  little  administration (3,  8.1%)  (3, 8.1%)  within  ten  five  (21.6%) and  (27.0%).  mentioned one which  in  graduate  the of  was  now who  a  of  who  and  t o be  were  general science.  moving  degrees  student.  expected  considered  and  into  school  university  rose  to  degrees  10 y e a r s a  total  the of  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s increased to wanted  of t e a c h i n g a t  a community c o l l e g e he  areas  However, a f t e r  expectant  t h e men  51 .4 2.7 18.9 0.0 18.9 2.7 5.4 13.5  goal.  of c o m p l e t i n g  years.  the p o s s i b i l i t y  participants t ime.  Two  or  one  programs  anticipation  number of a n t i c i p a t e d eight  teaching  career  years %  42  44  Other  10  19 1 7 0 7 1 2 5  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d r e p o r t more t h a n P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  specialised  After N  years %  1  Teacher ( I n d . Educ.) Teacher (other) Administration B a c h e l o r ' s degree Graduate degree Teach overseas Out of t e a c h i n g Don't know  Participants  the  graduate the  other  There still  degrees  tertiary  level,  i n the program i n were  teaching  34  (91.9%)  i n 10  years  111  The  attitude  considerably "Most  men  teaching  from t h a t reject  as  other  new  subject  the  but  going  was  (1980)  c h a n g e r s went  in career  out  that  accurate  a  occupational  how  career  was  just  as The  differ comment,  goal;  they  an men  interim  moving  to  travelling  themselves to  indication  see  sometimes  teaching,  found that  of  asking  a high  work  transition.  their  plans  for  plan  expressed  89%  of  they  of  wanted  b a s e d on  interest  occupational  his  (1981)  future occupations  I t would be  the  of  job  of  anticipated  L. G o t t f r e d s o n  p e o p l e what their  proportion  with  T h i s comment was  young p e o p l e . are  new  expressed  f o r c a s t e r of  to  was  as  any  research discover  f o r e c a s t s of  changers. When a new  move  little  the  inventory.  accurate  -  t o commit  into their  mid-life  men  end  His  i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or  also  This  done w i t h  ultimate  to  mobility.  stability.  as  an  (1975).  applicable.  intended  There  career  pointed  Lortie  as  not  appeared  f l e x i b i l i t y within  they  Thomas career  was  areas,  careers.  further  f o u n d by  teaching  (p.86),  using  overseas,  participants  a means t o w a r d s a n o t h e r  engagement" proposed  of  towards  one  seem a t t r a c t i v e . job w i l l  be  career  i s being  particular Decisions  chosen.  But  from  two  directions.  jobs  and  those  who  are  occupation  must t h e n  entry The  considered  be  or  hiring  may  be  s e v e r a l jobs  made  into a career  applicant  there  as  to  i s decided  a may  which upon  s e l e c t s from a v a i l a b l e  select  from  available  11 2  applicants.  In t h e p r e s e n t  provisionally training  been  made,  program. of  commitment  teaching  and  those  going  The  into  who  least there  between entered  this  lines  summarised  of  men  Table Second C a r e e r  for  entry be  who  considered  had  or  in  only third  thought  teaching.  of  Their  15.  15 Interests  Second Career  No. Reported  %  1  Teaching only Business S o c i a l work Anthropology Architecture Account ing Biology Construction supt. Engineering Industrial sales Law Police force P r o s t h e t i c s manufacture Stockbroking No f i r m d e c i s i o n 1  the  a difference  i f they  besides  had  into  t e a c h i n g as a s e c o n d  work  in Table  two-way d e c i s i o n  may  p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d  other  answers a r e  at  However,  quality  choice.  study  1 6 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2  43. 2 16 2 5 4 2. 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 .7 5 .4  N=37 There  were  program having Although  two  16  (43.2%) p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t e a c h i n g as a  men  did  not  express  interest  who  entered  the  future career. in  particular  1 13  fields, which from  19  (51.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s  they  considered.  The  positions.  Of  the  19 men  went beyond t h e inquiries received and/or  This  stage  about  who  i n f o r m a t i o n had  other been  training  careers  had  successful.  other  than  courses.  In  concurrently  two  t o be  required.  Formal  had  full  these time  requirements  for entry  The  participants  who  two  them down i n f a v o u r Alternative for  the  most  considered current than  i n the  The  by  the  entry  who  schools for  going  related  they  had  in  to not  fields  university  been  None of  other  had  to  taken  these  men  professions.  been o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s t u r n e d program. by  participants  w h i t e - c o l l a r category.  t r a d e s as  replacements  d e c i s i o n to apply  a r c h i t e c t u r e or e n g i n e e r i n g ,  affected  into  careers considered  entering other  position.  had  but  c o l l e g e or  courses  of e n t e r i n g t h e  part  men,  employment.  completed  men  application  some t r a i n i n g  each taken  16.  (35.1%)  companies,  tended  had  but  general  five  occupations  cases  with  The  reasons  two  13  making  Their  made by  extended  in Table  work,  t h i n k i n g or  field.  f o u r who  teaching  other  occupation.  been  The  occupations  offered,  i s presented  considered  p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the  l e n g t h of  being  each c o n t a c t e d  f u r t h e r towards these  the  range  of merely  another  other  r a n g e of commitment  serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n to a c t u a l l y  refusing,  no  identified  requirements  Few  had  for  their  to t e a c h i n g  rather  f o r example, may or  were  length  of  have  been  training  11 4 Table D e g r e e o f Commitment  16  t o O c c u p a t i o n s O t h e r Than  Commitment  No.  Teaching %  1  Reported Considered  entry  6  16.2  Received information Architecture Engineer ing P r o s t h e t i c s manufacture S o c i a l work Stockbroking  5  13.5  Entered a p p l i c a t i o n  2  5.4  4  10.8  2  5.4  18  48.6  Business  Law Police Received  force training  Accounting Anthropology Biology S o c i a l Work Offered  position  Construction supt. Industrial sales Not  relevant  N=37 required. may  lend  route  The  ease of e n t r y  attractiveness  into teaching  as a  profession  t o i t s s e l e c t i o n as a second  to intra-generational  social  mobility.  career  1 15  Of  the  occupations decision, ten  only  into  -was  by  the for  both  to the  used  foregone",  were u n o b t a i n a b l e . in  business  teaching  financial  loss  alternative  and  recruitment. study  indicated  regret  that  accepted  considered they  elsewhere.  had  upon  a  career were  of  the  teaching,  from  a  that  the  the  overshadowed  by  they  went on  chosen  for  had  a  various  given  up  not  As  teaching  only  models  conducive  two  because  of  these  the  participants  fields,  were  sense  to d i s c u s s  was  was  professions.  s u c h men.  (51.4%) other  teaching  alternatives  and  that  Economics,  g o a l s , which  effect  19  master's  one-half  term  men  shown by  their  Although had  career  Lortie  for teaching  y o u n g e r male t e a c h e r s  present  were  occupations.  enthusiasm  a  administration  careers  and  He  occupations  suggested  For  officer.  made.  the and  change  profession within  making  decided  p r o f e s s i o n was  (1975)  In  considered  career  bachelor's  than  having  had  police  alternative  a s u b s t i t u t e for other  usually  l e a v i n g the  more  However,  "alternatives  reasons  their  potential  slightly  Lortie  not  on  teaching,  respondents.  of  planned  in  becoming a p s y c h o l o g i s t .  considered  Their  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  teaching  studying  d e g r e e s and  often  than  one  This  anticipated  commitment  (51.4%)  other  years.  change  19  in  lack for to the  (5.4%)  they  were  1 16  In  their  participants groups.  in  Almost  teaching.  Of  about going others  consideration the half  the  into  spread  present of  them  rest,  two  Using Holland's  (1960;1973)  suggested  career  such  as  G.  apparent  stage  mentioned even  years.  a  Another  position  in  However, he teacher.  an  had  passed  There  change  occupations. Enterprising  had  Enterprising  was  it  little were  w h i c h had They  over  were  occupation  to s h i f t  into  (Dwight,  t r e n d was  not  men  none had  establishments  in  been  who  gone  past  i t as a p o s s i b i l i t y .  with  t e a c h i n g over  field, in  evidence  from  been  i n men  as a second  a  usual from  Social  career  ten  offered  a  sales.  becoming  the p r e s e n t  the  entering  of  or six  the next  industrial  following found  All  been  favour  None  or b a n k s ,  friends.  actually  11  occupations,  s i x (16.2%)  alternative,  career  participant  show t h a t t h e men  career  an  the  thought  has  includes business  seriously  stable  in R e a l i s t i c  However, t h i s  only  occupations. it  like  two  work and  which  business  it  a r a n g e of  Of  into  had  considered social  t h i n k i n g about  contacting  discussing  projected  to  just  men  or w o u l d  study.  of  six  shift  i n the p r e s e n t as  careers,  considered  classifications  1977).  business  of  over  Gottfredson,  considered the  category,  new  were d i v i d e d  43.2%) had  changers  tradesmen, u s u a l l y  the E n t e r p r i s i n g 1977;  (16,  individually  possible  study  a cluster  business,  that  of  a  study  pattern  of  trade-based rather  choice.  than  11 7  The to  be l e s s e n e d  were in  degree  19  by c o n s i d e r a t i o n  (51.4%) men who  other  being  occupations.  in  the  position  rather  As teaching  another  teaching  had  considered impulsive  profession of  indication  been  over  men,  impulsive  d e c i s i o n t o enter  teaching  for at least  ten years.  that  career  an e a r l i e r  they  point  as  a  some o t h e r  temporary  new  career.  to  to the  discover  if  o r i f i t had been  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an could  decision to leave.  reported  at  anticipated  choice  of time.  (78.4%) men  interest  18 o f them  relevant  some p e r i o d  impulsive  degrees of  There  o f s e r i o u s commitment  i t appeared an  d i d not appear  careers.  teaching  d e s i r a b l e than  profession,  other  showed v a r y i n g  indication less  to teaching of  Of t h e s e  teaching  T h e r e was l i t t l e  equally  o f commitment  be f o l l o w e d  by an  However, a t o t a l  o f 29  had c o n s i d e r e d  of t h e i r  teaching  lives.  Entry  as  a  i n t o the  p r o g r a m h a d n o t r e s u l t e d from a sudden d e c i s i o n , b u t was t h e outcome o f o n g o i n g men  (6,  16.2%)  considered  being  i f spasmodic d e l i b e r a t i o n . had  still  teachers  been a t s c h o o l  themselves.  (1964) t e r m , by b e c o m i n g t e a c h e r s a  "fantasy".  older  and  considered. these roles. acted  To  they  However, most o f t h e men  already  at  work  when  I t i s worth n o t i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d a l s o been The e x p e r i e n c e as a d e t e r r e n t  gained  of  when t h e y  the first  use  Ginzberg's  were were  actualizing  (16, 43.2%) had been  teaching  that while involved  was  first  working,  each of  in  i n such a r o l e  to teaching.  Some  instructional  had c l e a r l y not  Two o f t h e t h r e e  men  who  118  had  no  previous  considered delayed had  teaching  entry  been  before  to gain  working  available. are  teaching-related  summarised  more t r a d e  in  Reasons  entry  a  the  program.  experience  and  also One  the  had other  where a p r o g r a m was  non-entry  into  the  not  program  for E a r l i e r  17  Non-entry  into  Reasons  Teaching  %  No. Reported 1  Lack of f i n a n c e s A c a d e m i c demands of p r o g r a m Need f o r more t r a d e e x p e r i e n c e Too young f o r p r o g r a m Peer p r e s s u r e A p p e a l of o t h e r work Q u i t e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n program Entered father's trade M a r i t a l breakup P r o g r a m not a v a i l a b l e Not r e l e v a n t  1  had  17.  Table Reasons  into  province  for e a r l i e r  in Table  experience  9 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 8  24.3 10.8 10.8 8.1 5.4 5.4 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 21.6  N=37  Lack  of  sufficient  reported  r e s p o n s e and  concurs  with  that  l a c k of  the  earlier  reported  change.  unready  to  face too  the  most  commonly  9  (24.3%)  comments by  7  (18.9%) p a r t i c i p a n t s  However, the  was by  f u n d s w o u l d have  career  p r o g r a m or  was  funds  amount  inexperienced  acted  some of  men  as  barrier  had  studying  to teach  men.  their  also  to  their  felt  either  demanded trade  This  to  by  the  others.  1 19  Two  of the three  when t h e y on  were  In  had  participants wide-spread  to  1977).  make  impact  the  application  an  two and  five  was  general  application  specific  1978) o r  and  force.  They were  now  extensive  period  over  (35.1%) had  years prior state  found  that  been c o n s i d e r e d  for a  by  a  of  incidents" decision  with  events  As L e v i n s o n  noted,  after getting feeling  night  drinking up so  with  too  in  the  well  -  much  my  stimulated such to  room-mate, tequila  morning I  there  occupations.  occasion: Sunday  or  o f i t between  particular  traced  was  years  participants  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  were  considered  five  thought  For  (Krantz,  change  participants  first  a  "marker  making  the  a p e r i o d of  have  particular  concept  f o r s e v e r a l d a y s o r c o u l d be  One  for  was  when  to entry.  t o the program.  necessary  It  of  (16.2%)  13  was  to  the  moments  been p u t a s i d e .  was  "critical  f o r some of t h e men  last  pressure  often precipitated  intermittently  A further  could  to peer  lives.  supported  teaching  which  had sometimes  Six  more.  However,  considered  it  decision  specific  deliberated.  a  t h e work  their  finding  These in  upon  i t was  (Levinson,  embedded  a  decision  This  events"  entered  t o become a t e a c h e r ,  number o f y e a r s event.  first  t o r e a c h a g o a l w h i c h had e a r l i e r order  although  who  a t s c h o o l had succumbed  graduation  attempting  participants  and  and  not  remember  it  events a  very  distinctly.  I t was an O c t o b e r  pouring  really  rain,  feeling the  pretty  non-pay thought, ten  months  a  what  I took  we're  I  Only  a n d I g e t two "No, I  think  to school."  time  thinking  a little  and l o o k e d  doing  better.  and I  got  and  soul  trip  now  around  a t where do we  there  exactly must  And I d e c i d e d  be  t o make  commitment,  (greenhouse  owner/operator)  Boat  building  Two  years  found  that  no  longer  And  I heard  and  go  I f we're n o t happy a t  something the  to  i s my slow  province  go n e x t .  and  i t ' s awful.  l o t of  searching. the  looked  A  technician)  January do  I  I went back  (electronics  to  outside.  And I t h o u g h t ,  time  Well,  And  awful,  I g o t up i n  looked  Oh my God,  weeks o f f . it's  I  week.  more  gruesomely  hungover.  morning.  morning,  i t  i s q u i t e c o m p e t i t i v e ....  ago  at  the  45 V a n c o u v e r i n business that  started  (boatbuilder)  piece  Boat  Show  companies after of  t o make me  they were  two y e a r s . information think,  111  A l m o s t h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s (17, to pinpoint  the  event  which  discontent  into action.  of  discontent"  "career  upsets forced in  the  In a c a r e e r exists.  The  e q u i l i b r i u m t o such an  t o make a d e c i s i o n .  the  focussed  present  The  occupation,  career new  Eventually discontent.  information  this  2:  o n s e t of new  state  information  be as  including entry  to  remain it  is.  to a  new  evolve i n t o another state be  jolted  n e c e s s i t a t i n g f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n making. in Figure  Model of c a r e e r  of  e x t e n t t h a t the worker i s  unsatisfactory  may  able  feelings  change d e c i s i o n a  In t u r n , s u c h a s t a t e may  process i s i l l u s t r a t e d  Figure  their  decision could  However, o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t career.  45.9%) were  2 below.  change d e c i s i o n  process.  of by  This  1 22  The to  case  demonstrate  of the b o a t b u i l d e r  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  aware of the c o m p e t i t i v e and  the  the  insecure  information  close  down  nature  that  that  nature  quoted model.  He  was  of h i s p o s i t i o n .  spurred  him  business  However, been  into action  used  generally  of the b o a t b u i l d i n g  s e v e r a l companies had  finally  a b o v e c a n be  i t was  forced  to  (see Figure  3) .  Information on recent closure ' of 45 companies /  Awareness of competition in boat building business  /  // —  *  I  1  1 I I I  I  Stay in boat building?  > •  | |« |  I  Enrolment in teacher education program  I  I  Leave  I  I  work  |  I  force?  I  Figure  3:  Career  Before been  change of p a r t i c i p a n t , b o a t b u i l d e r .  p a r t i c i p a n t s entered  engaged i n f u l l - t i m e  It  was,  in  their  t h e r e f o r e , what  presented  |  I  previous i n Table  work  i t was  occupations. 18.  which they  the  program,  they had  decided  they to  had  leave.  found u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  D e t a i l s of these  factors are  1 23  Table Reasons  18  for Leaving Previous Occupations  Reasons  No. Reported  %  1  2  Intrinsic Self Lack Lack Want  concept incongruency of job s a t i s f a c t i o n of c h a l l e n g e time w i t h f a m i l y  13 5 .3 2 Subtotal  35.1 13.5 8.1 5.4  23  Extr insic Poor w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s Lack of c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s Age/health Lack of c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e Lack of job s t a b i l i t y  15 8 4 3 3 Subtotal  1 2  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more t h a n P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  The unpleasant  most working  which  dirty.  factor  was  There  were  Although  influences  occupations,  the  second  intrinsic 13  response.  conditions  cold  extrinsic  one  mentioned  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  and  33  frequently  (40.5%)  which most  men  an  led  was  overall to  who  related said  factor  reported  was  by  of b e i n g  on  prior  mentioned to  15 wet,  emphasis  quitting  frequently  i n n a t u r e and  (35.1%)  exit  They were t i r e d  t h e r e was  40.5 21.6 10.8 8.1 8.1  exit  self-concept.  they c o u l d  not  see  124  themselves  spending  p r e v i o u s work. else,  who  which  offered  group,  11  appear  that  reasons into  solely  felt  extrinsic intrinsic  although  supports  the  reasons.  An  However,  This inclusion  with  dissatisfaction  did  not  reasons  in  with the p h y s i c a l  receiving.  Although  just  laid  been  careers All  had  into  the  decision  men  study  been  of  part  were n o t  merely  work, they  employed  of  but were  they  of d e c i s i o n lack  such  in  reported that  at the time  career  (1973).  was  had  making,  employment.  prior  t o change o c c u p a t i o n s i m p l i e s  occupational values.  aspects  had  readily  to  entry  program.  A of  work  would  dissatisfaction  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r  participants  those  intrinsic  Tersine  but  The  not been c h a n g e d b e c a u s e  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  were more  w i t h the p e r s o n a l rewards  two  off  It  present  exist  discontented  dissatisfied  and  the  f o r the c a r e e r change.  felt  same a s  almost e q u i v a l e n t  intrinsic  responsible  also  (32.4%),  i n moving o u t o f one of  just  the  12  transition,  Altimus  participants  their  something  responses.  career  of  in  a more a p p r o p r i a t e  was  t y p e s of  the  findings  t o be  reasons  also played a large part  another.  lives  number o f men,  extrinsic  in explaining  their  t h e y were c a p a b l e o f  they  ( 2 9 . 7 % ) , gave b o t h  identified  of  However, t h e a c t u a l  gave e x c l u s i v e l y  who  rest  They b e l i e v e d  something  occupation.  the  Participants  o f work w h i c h t h e y  were a l s o  asked  believed  to a n t i c i p a t e  were a s k e d  t o be  examination to  identify  important.  o c c u p a t i o n a l g a i n s which  They would  1 25  result  from  Summaries o f  their  entry  into  t e a c h i n g (Items  responses are given  Table  in Table  9 and  10)  19.  19  O c c u p a t i o n a l V a l u e s and G a i n s A c h i e v e d by E n t r y i n t o T e a c h i n g  Values No. %2 Reported  Gains No. Reported  1  Intrinsic Job s a t i s f a c t i o n Challenge Match s e l f concept Be w i t h y o u t h New o u t l o o k S e l f knowledge  20 10 4 4 0 0  Subtotal  1 7 5 6 6 4 2  54 27 10 10 0 0  39  45 ,9 1 3,5 1 6,2 16 ,2 1 0,8 5 ,4  40  Extrinsic Career opportunity Job s t a b i l i t y Working c o n d i t i o n s Financial security Opportunity to l e a r n Change o f e n v i r o n m e n t New lifestyle P a s s on knowledge Prest ige Subtotal 1 2  4 5 4 2 3 1 1 0 0  10..8 13..5 10..8 5..4 8.. 1 2..7 2,.7 0..0 0..0  4 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1  intrinsic  indicated  factors  were  that  ,7  ,7. ,7  23  19  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more t h a n one P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  Responses  10.8 8 1 8.1 8.1 10.8 7  i n both  mentioned  response,  values  and  approximately  gains, t w i c e as  126  often the  as  extrinsic.  work v a l u e s  obtained for  expressed  be  only  two  and  the  cases  stability  was  there  c h a l l e n g i n g was  5  and  there  becoming t e a c h e r s .  satisfaction  In o n l y to  by  In g e n e r a l  (13.5%)  is parallelism  anticipated  gains  to  T h i s congruency augurs once the  disparity.  m e n t i o n e d by  anticipated  between  that  10  men  enter  The  need  well  teaching. for  (27.0%) men,  teaching  be  a  job  although  would  bring  a  challenge. The  second  acquisition becoming a  of  a new  outlook  teacher.  occupational might  divergence  value,  occur  No  this  but  of  teachers  were v i e w e d a s  teachers  were  centred  about  teaching  The  tended  the  hardest  men  entered  was a  the a  62). in  question but  decided  two  teaching  The  some few  from  t o be  an it  profession.  To  that  the  suggests  that  g r o u p by p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  as  first job  'Why  latter  a  new  asked  f o r you?' do  you  before  comments s u c h as me"  or  in  is i t  (Item  15). be  a  particular  answers  "I s u p p o s e "It's  career  'What  want t o  question  hesitation  you've asked  result  that  This  teaching  items.  the  that  indicates  desirable. reference  in  recognized  gain  even more d i r e c t .  (Item  was  w h i c h would  (10.8%)  t h a t makes i t a good  T h e r e were a  question, two  around  to r e s u l t  given.  life  f o r s e l e c t i o n of  s e c o n d was  teacher?'  four  change as  outlook  Reasons  on  responses  p a r t i c i p a n t considered  once they  have d e s c r i b e d  in  a  were that's simple  it's a difficult  one".  After consideration,  that  really  know why  they  didn't  they  wanted  1 27  t o be to  teachers.  be,  three,  but  One  he  said  supposed  decision.  presented  that  the  the  for  first  reflected  wanted t o work w i t h  people.  He  second  34%  important  service  considered  service  theme was  35%  fun.  Apart  multiple into  want  from  these  reasons  for  teaching  are  of  an  teachers  frequently given  other  people,  for  especially  gave r e a s o n s of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was worthwhile"  i n d i c a t e d by  (1975) entry  ' i n t e r p e r s o n a l theme'.  teachers  t o be  Lortie  23%  being and  of  able  The young  this  type.  to o f f e r  important.  secondary  a  This  teachers  and  overall. Reasons  provided  an  findings. to  particularly  entry  careers  teachers  A  be  give  r e a s o n s most  profession  found  didn't  20.  In h i s work on reported  to  Reasons  in Table  he  i t could  p a r t i c i p a n t s tended  their  into  that  be  reason theme.  given  interesting  The  with  primary young  which c o u l d His  by  Well,  comparison  reason  people be  w o u l d be  I  education.  only  it's  It's  It's  only as one  to provide  think  profession. doing.  but  the  with  for entering  classified  r e p l y was  become a t e a c h e r  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  one  which  (painter)  teaching man  a  (1975) was  also  service  indicated that service:  respectable that help  study  (2.7%) gave a  a valuable  a  to  Lortie's  reflecting  something  good  present  needs with  to  1 28  Table Reasons  for Selection  20  ^  of Teaching  Item No. Reported 1  15  %  as a  Career  Item No. Reported  2  62 %  Intrinsic Be w i t h y o u t h 20 Match s e l f concept 8 Job s a t i s f a c t i o n 3 Work w i t h hands 5 2 Challenge P a s s on knowledge 0 Combine s k i l l & p r o f e s s i o n 0 Be c r e a t i v e 0 Be w i t h f a m i l y 0 Copy f a t h e r ' s model 0 0 Have i n f l u e n c e Subtotal  54 0 21 6 8 1 13 5 •5 4 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0  1 5 1 2 9 0 3 4 3 1 1 1 1  41  40. 5 32. 4 24. 3 0 0 8. 1 10. 8 8. 1 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 7  50  Extrinsic  Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s Job s t a b i l i t y Flexibility Career o p p o r t u n i t y Financial security Respect Opportunity to learn Prestige  8 1 4 1 1 1 0 0  Subtotal  16  Don't know Does n o t want 1 2  t o be t e a c h e r  0 1  21 , 2 2. 2 2 2 2 2  21.6 2.7 10.8 2.7 2 .7 2 7 0 .0 0 ,0 1 5 2 1  0.0 2.7  P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more t h a n P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on N=37  one  response.  5.4 2.7  129  The  other  men  teaching  as  perhaps  more  career  teachers.  a vehicle  Reasons  ignore  in  a  their  than  given  f o r becoming  like  kids.  of  were  motivations  than  first  practical  and  were  teachers  often  a l s o the  I could  good a t  things,  teach  it.  I like  to  them  I like  to  instruct,  (carpenter)  I  like  instructing,  like  talking,  p e o p l e and enjoy  I get  satisfaction  Mostly very I  conducive  know  find other metal  things  i t .  about  find  something than  be  worker)  on  to  to  young  amount  I of  engineer)  personality is kids to  myself skills  a career, do  I  t o them.  (marine  to a l l o w i n g  a b o u t manual  kids  have.  a certain  I t h i n k my  enough  k i d s and help  from  because  always  particularly  passing  that.  I  with  grow.  and  about  that  find  can  a  goal,  their  time  self-destructive.  reflected  knowledge  satisfaction:  I'm  people  of  altruistic.  I think  something.  concept They  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  feeling  the  service.  goals  rather  what gave them a  tell  to  provide  Their  s e l f - c o n c e p t s of  I  to  pragmatic  self-fulfilling  the  seemed  (sheet  of  1 30  It people as  was  had  apparent  confirmed  effective A  further  highlighted  the  and  with  was  be  already  had  (10.8%) men  and  prestige.  by  and  reflects  career being  decision. a  worthy  partially  As  by  first  1960;  Ryans,  career  1960;  of  1971;  earlier  often  not  goals.  with  of  young  themselves  was  time  (21.6%) men.  proportion the  in past  fact when the  t o be  than that  they  They  This the  10  (27.0%)  decided  l a c k of  time  i s higher  was  reasons  findings,  in  gain,  However, t h e r e was  spent  mention  but  little  reported  of  of  the  teaching  findings  for  were  career  choice  as  1975;  Haubruch,  1966).  research  choice  6%  money,  perspective  (Lortie,  partial  the  the  present  teachers  again  than  little  the  with  to  occupations.  pragmatic  there  with  Lortie's  mentioned m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s ,  to p r e v i o u s  for financial  8  Lortie  opportunity  K r a n t z , 1 9 7 7 ; Thomas,  p a r t i c i p a n t s are  with  an  Yamamoto & D a v i s ,  When compared (Hiestand,  by  children  occupation  incongruent  given  to  by  They were aware o f  security Lortie  a higher  related  c h i l d r e n while  Four  perception  recognized  T h i s was  teachers.  their  experiences  identified  l o n g h o l i d a y s as  may  participants become  prior  participants'  theme  This  families.  14.4%  the  instructors.  compatibility.  their  that  into  1979,  career  1980)  agreement of a  t o meet mention  change  the  goals  only.  As  second c a r e e r specific of  was  personal  teaching  being  131  a worthwhile career, its  own  sake  and  occupations.  intrinsically morally  Although  w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s of that  their  value. the  earlier  Rather,  trades  intrinsic reason  was  value  The be  needs.  i n both  reflecting earlier.  personality.  desire and  t o be  i n an  interaction  participants teacher  T h e s e men  were  rather were not  but  to  be  earlier d i d not  and  with  rewards  other  in  learned in Lack  of  been g i v e n as seem t o  a  motivate  they  people.  the  becoming  appeared  people,  had  The of  to  share  b e l i e v e d would reflected  reasons  suit  in  the  contact  given  by  d e c i s i o n t o become a the  n e e d s of teachers  to round out  often  experienced  opportunity  The  to  present  w h i c h demands o n g o i n g  awareness  than  had  young  o f f , an  self-oriented. an  lacking  a w a r e n e s s of  job which they  occupation  i n order  or  for participants  experience  a  indication  others.  T h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t was  with  reflected  individual  society,  this  They wanted more t i m e and  to  about  study.  teaching past  on  work had  present  personal  t h e i r - knowledge their  passing  wanted  the  no  trivial  for  previous  sometimes c o m p l a i n e d  considered  c h a n g e , but  of  their  t r a d e s , t h e r e was  in previous  i n the  They  men  to  b e l i e v e d t h a t what t h e y  worth  appeal  grounded  the  work was  for career  participants  preferable  their  they  v a l u a b l e , worth doing  their  needs  of  s o c i e t y as  a  in  to  own  order lives.  the  whole. serve  1 32  As reason an  with  most  for their  adult  choice.  decisions  However,  t h e r e was no s i n g l e  t e a c h i n g was r e g a r d e d  o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h a n s w e r e d many o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e  One his men,  participant financial  articulated  situation  h i s answer  h i s reasons  fluently.  was n o t a s s e c u r e  reflected  as  most  much o f t h e t h i n k i n g  a good t r a d e o f f .  I  profession  where  not  a basic  nine to f i v e ,  saw  mill.  making carrying programs. in  that  hustling on  It  got  and  important.  League  at  own  the  decisions, developing  financial  have  to  outlay. the  really  family.  doing  pail,  security  worry  about  t o make s u r e y o u have a pay o f f  I've  that's  have  don't  a financial  that  my  through,  I'll  I  down  a  have my s e m i - f r e e d o m ,  l o t of them  have  I'm n o t a l u n c h  I still a  can  i t .  I like  surnmmers  important, my  But  the fact off...But  t o be w i t h  Christmases, i t ' s also  Everytime  that  I've  baseball...I really  h a s been so r e w a r d i n g .  up a t t h e end o f t h e  my  that's I enjoy  had  Little  enjoyed i t . The k i d s came  season  and  men.  Although of  the  of the group  as a w h o l e :  It's  as  said,  1 33  'Wow!  That  fantastic  was  job.  great.  Will  next  year.?'  off.  I t ' s more t h a n  Money  i s only  got  any.  You  you  be  did  a  coaching  You know, t h a t ' s a b i g pay dollars  important  (greenhouse  and c e n t s .  when y o u h a v e n ' t owner/operator)  Summary o f R e s u l t s  Investigation revealed  a general  men  had h e l d  the  teacher  that  teaching  into  p a t t e r n of s t a b i l i t y .  three  o r more o c c u p a t i o n s  education would  program. be  occupations.  A high  participants  reporting  typical  age  misleading  of  a  However,  decisions are often  teaching leave of  men  age c o n c u r s  reported  profession,  within  teaching  being  a  contrast to e a r l i e r  little  indication  of  series  a  occupations is  possible  Career  may  of  Those  were n o t that  the  result  in a  change  decision  an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n when  reconsidered.  that  they only  span.  intended three  T h e r e was  secondary  b e c a u s e a more a t t r a c t i v e in  with  with  a t e n year  one  (8.1%)  t o enrolment i n  30.8 y e a r s ,  appearance of s t a b i l i t y .  earlier  The  of it  participants,  at this  prior  three  r a t e was n o t i n d i c a t e d .  range  making  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Only  T h e r e was  considered  turnover  of the group.  average  t h e work h i s t o r i e s  choice  t o remain  a b o u t male  the  (8.1%) p l a n n i n g t o little or  indication  selected only  g o a l was u n o b t a i n a b l e .  research  in  This  teachers.  was  134  Almost teaching  of  by a  the  illustrate career  time.  decision of  participants Final  new  considered  d e c i s i o n s were  identifiable making  had  marker  process  sometimes event.  A  was c o n s t r u c t e d t o  information  on  a  state  of  discontent.  attributed reported  were  the  readily  the e f f e c t  Reasons  rather  of  a t an e a r l i e r  precipitated model  80%  for  to unpleasant  t o be c h o s e n  than  accord  with  first  teachers  and o t h e r  worthwhile participant. congruent transition.  i t met p e r s o n a l  gain. main  t o be w i t h career  more by p a r t i c i p a n t s .  reason  career  changers, was  much  earlier  t o be o f  of  was needs  conditions teachers  This  was  in  b u t was s t r e s s e d much  ignored  However, t h e a b s e n c e  often  specific  f o r becoming  young p e o p l e .  teachers,  were  Teaching  Improved w o r k i n g  The s t a t e d m o t i v a t i o n  occupation,  with  occupations  working c o n d i t i o n s .  The  as wanting  earlier  because  for financial  acknowledged.  was g i v e n  leaving  by  of f i r s t service  in  a l l but  financial  research  career  gain  about  a  one was  career  1 35  4.4 A r e a  o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4: Do t h e  backgrounds of the p a r t i c i p a n t s teaching  Orienting  provide  indicate  that entry  into  upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ?  Statement  Male backgrounds. route  will  socio-demographic  teachers Entry  t o the middle  Research participants  tend  to  come  from  into  teaching w i l l  class  (Schalock,  Question  before  16:  entering  What  blue  provide  collar  an a c c e s s i b l e  1979).  were  the  the o c c u p a t i o n s of  Industrial  Education  program?  Research levels  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Research parents  17:  before  Question  What  were  the  educational  e n t e r i n g t h e program?  18: What were  the  occupations  of  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  Research levels  Question  Question  of parents  19:  What  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  were  the  educational  1 36  Research family  In  Participant  order  which c a r e e r  participants  of  information  ranged  total  were l i v i n g  29,  were  with  were  although  married  decisions  from  o f 21  five  from  under  Years  and  as  of  Lortie  trend  that  suggests  was  married  The a g e s o f  30  five  ranged  men, years  Ages  years  o f age o r three  separated  were  and  from  15  12  one t o  (71.4%  or l e s s .  of  the  of  There  children  (1975) p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e which t y p i f i e s  male t e a c h e r s come from  to a white-collar l i f e  style  a  i s no  teachers as  t r e n d s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d .  b a c k g r o u n d s a n d f o r them t e a c h i n g p r e s e n t s blue-collar  some  20 y e a r s .  p a t t e r n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s social  obtained.  of marriage  t o over  a group, c e r t a i n  contexts  made,  o f t h e men were  one  h a d been m a r r i e d  five  being  (56.8%) men were m a r r i e d ,  the m a j o r i t y  group),  the p e r s o n a l  (13.5%) were 40 y e a r s  companions,  single.  Although, single  personal  24 t o 54 y e a r s , w i t h a mean o f 30.8  10 (27.0%) men w i t h c h i l d r e n .  ranged  the  were  was  The m a j o r i t y , 26 ( 7 0 . 3 % ) ,  A  (32.4%)  were  Data  change  age o r l e s s a n d o n l y  more.  What  t o b e t t e r understand  socio-demographic  years.  20:  backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  4.4.1  in  Question  One  such  working  class  route  (Schalock,  from 1979).  a  1 37  Before  enrolling  i n the t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n program the  participants  had  been  employed  occupations.  These o c c u p a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d  Table Socio-economic  Rank  1  in  a  17 d i f f e r e n t  in Table  21.  As  21 Occupations  No. Reported  Level  2  Boatbuilder C a b i n e t maker C a r p e n t e r (journeyman) C a r p e n t e r (foreman) Diving instructor Draftsman Electrician E l e c t r i c i a n (foreman) Electronics technician Greenhouse owner/operator M a r i n e e n g i n e e r (C.P.O.) Mechanic ( v e h i c l e ) M e c h a n i c (heavy d u t y ) Machini st P a i n t e r (foreman) Sheet metal worker T e a c h e r ' s a i d e (woodwork) T o o l maker Welder-fabricator  2  of  of P a r t i c i p a n t  Occupation  1  one  %  2 1 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 5  II I I III III V III IV II II III II III III III II . IV IV II  5.4 2.7 16.2 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.4 2.7 2.7 13.5 5.4 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 13.5  C l a s s e s r a n k e d on B l i s h e n S c a l e w i t h C l a s s I low and C l a s s VI h i g h . N=37  measure  Blishen  of  Scale  indicated.  socio-economic (Blishen  This  socio-economic  scale  levels.  & is  level,  class  McRoberts, the accepted  r a n k i n g s on t h e  1976) index  are of  also  Canadian  138  The  most  carpenter,  with  m e c h a n i c s and themselves and  two  own  five  as  the  16 men  falling  within entering  parents of  discover  whether e n t r y  social of  their  origins.  with Blishen  28  occupations  While there  of  Level was  the  workforce, had  maker  owned  their  This  Class from  with the  group an  rankings  I  to  V.  occupations  to a  c l a s s e s are  the  the  of  all  interest  c l a s s c l o s e r to  fathers  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  of  class to  r e f l e c t e d d i r e c t upward  social  listed  occupations  social  therefore,  into teaching  (seven  i t was  indicated  I t was,  a return  a relatively  cabinet  category.  representing  III  vehicle  instructor,  ranged  frequently,  O c c u p a t i o n s of  Scale  Fathers of  or  diving  of  described  program.  both b o a t b u i l d e r s .  participants.  mobility  T h r e e men  the  Scale  that  were f i v e  participants  operator,  this  which  ranking  five  Blishen  most  was  They were t h e  entering  and  the  occurred  Before their  Another  mechanic  II  There  welder-fabricators.  before  o c c u p a t i o n s on  occupation  members.  greenhouse  Class  reported  self-employed.  businesses  automotive  of  eight  carpenters.  included  of  frequently  of  participants  in Table  22.  been e n g a g e d six  occupations)  in a  social was  that  the  even d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the  range  classes. most  common  other  five  levels. Comparison indicated  that  participants  between o c c u p a t i o n prior  were  to  program  in occupations  of  each entry  ranked  father  and  . 21  (56.8%)  lower  than  that  son  of  1 39  Table  22  Socio-economic Rank of Occupations of F a t h e r s of P a r t i c i p a n t s 1  Occupation  No. Reported  Boilermaker Buttermaker Buyer ( w h o l e s a l e / r e t a i l ) Cabinet maker Carpenter Commissioned o f f i c e r (R.A.F.) Diamond d r i l l e r E l e c t r i c a l equipment i n s t a l l e r E l e c t r i c i a n (supervisor) Engineer (electrical) Engineer (mining) Farmer Janitor Manager (department s t o r e ) Manager ( t r a n s i t system) Mechan i c Mechanic (foreman) Mechanic (heavy duty) Milkman Millworker Painter Physic ian Real e s t a t e agent Salesman Schoolteacher (secondary) S o c i a l worker University professor Welder-fabricator Don't know 1  2  C l a s s e s ranked on B l i s h e n Scale with C l a s s VI h i g h . N=37  2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2  % 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.4 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 8.1 5.4  C l a s s I low and  Level III  II IV I I V III III III VI V I I V V II III III II II I VI IV III VI IV VI II —  their and  fathers. nine  their  Five  (24.3%) were  fathers'  school  Blishen Scale.  whose  occupations  other  31  (83.8%),  opportunity previous  chosen  for  socio-economic  movement class  Two  men  d i d n o t know  in  Class  them  in that  into teaching  category.  would  mobility.  present  However,  in their  56.8% o f p a r t i c p a n t s  which  teaching,  majority  engaged  in  mothers  that  of  lowered  their  were  than  upward s h i f t  attended three of  from  h a d been  this  full-time  homemakers,  were  with  25  noted. (67.6%)  were  12  reports  outside  home.  Two  of  these  were  the  other  the  worked  t h e home.  entry  had  a  farm  full-time  a dietician,  nutritionist,  two e x c e p t i o n s ,  occupations  on  Those w i t h  two n u r s e s ,  restaurant,  participants'  the s o c i a l  There  university.  employed o u t s i d e their  rebound  occupation.  one o f whom  With  a  from  fathers.  teachers,  chain  their  resulting  incorporated  in  They had  raised  T h e i r upward movement therefore,  placed  fathers.  rather  than a d i r e c t  working  part-time,  on  indeed  O c c u p a t i o n s of mothers of p a r t i c i p a n t s The  VI  For the  than  rather  i s placed  placed  level.  of t h e i r  teaching  upward s o c i a l  lower  into  ranked h i g h e r .  categories  fathers  entry  ocupations  entry  equivalent  T h e r e were s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h  occupations,  categories  in  occupations.  Secondary the  (13.5%) were  I t was  been  occupations  dressmaker,  and s a l e s  w i v e s of t h e  and  of  were  manager  representative.  participants  were  n o t i n d i c a t e d t h a t any of  taken  up ^ a s a r e s u l t  i n t o the program, a l t h o u g h  of the  two w i v e s had  141  moved  into  different  participants  with  jobs.  Occupations  Blishen Scale rankings  are  of  wives  listed  of  in Table  23.  Table Socio-economic  Rank  1  23  of O c c u p a t i o n s  Occupation  of W i v e s o f  2  2  C l a s s e s r a n k e d on C l a s s VI h i g h . N=37  The  occupations  employment.  secretaries.  1  Blishen Scale with  T h e r e were more t e a c h e r s , of  Level  No. Reported  Book k e e p e r C h i l d c a r e worker Dental a s s i s t a n t Farmer Homemaker Horticulturalist Laboratory t e c h n i c i a n Manager ( f i r s t a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n ) Music t e a c h e r ( p r i v a t e ) Nurse Postal clerk Recreation supervisor Schoolteacher Secretary Speech p a t h o l o g i s t Student ( d o c t o r a l ) Student (undergraduate) Not a p p l i c a b l e 1  Participants  of  the  2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 2  any  other  of t h e  B o t h homemakers had  students planned  —  17  fields.  single  students  to enter  been employed when f i r s t  -  II IV V III IV III IV V IV V  low and  covered  T h e r e were t h r e e u n i v e r s i t y Two  IV II III II  5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.4 2.7 2.7 10.8 5.4 2.7 2.7 5.4 32.4  Class I  wives  f o u r , than  %  area  and  two  teaching.  married,  one  as  142  a  nurse's  agent that  aide  ( C l a s s I I I ) and  (Class IV). university  class  men)  level  than  wives  or  ranked  lower  than  effect  noted  earlier  of  the  of  a  their both.  ranked  The  11  group,  T h e r e were  (76.0%  women  than  higher  T h e r e were t h a t of  upward d i r e c t i o n  in higher  19 in  (29.7%) i n  t o be  assumed  uncategorized  to  lower  would a p p e a r  educational  necessary  In  29  either  occupations  of  the  rebound  accompanied  s t a t u s employment  them  qualifications.  They  (81.1%) a l r e a d y had educational  levels  T h e r e were a university had  trying  highest  by  the  than  that  However, 25  16  have  on  the  years  In  were  occupational mobility a l s o male and  in Table who  as had  had  and  single.  entrance  Details  30 of  already enrolled  first  attempt  this  aspect to  of a but  out  were  of  they  now  their  group  Byrne  in  degree.  of  the  d e s c r i b e d by dropped  was  24.  c o n t r a s t to the p a r t i c i p a n t s , of age  it  h i g h s c h o o l and  completion  similar  was  program  education.  before  route.  participants  in  completed  (43.2%) men  out  the  university  tertiary  left  participants  enter  a l l had  p r o g r a m but  g r o u p was  of  are presented  different  background,  to  to  some  dropped  a  level  order  for  under  i t was  were t h e m s e l v e s .  f a t h e r s and  spouse  investigated.  That  married  estate  participant. The  They  tradesmen.  they  in occupations  their  presence  than  as a r e a l  of comparison  f o r m e d an  participants  rankings  (78.4%) men  purposes  s t u d e n t s , who  were a t a h i g h e r of m a r r i e d  For  the o t h e r  with  (1975). college.  were  mostly  143  Table Educational Educational  24  Level of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Level  No. Reported  High s c h o o l Some c o l l e g e C o l l e g e diploma Some u n i v e r s i t y B a c h e l o r ' s degree 1  %  1  7 8 1 16 5  18.9 21.6 2.7 43.2 13.5  N=37  Five following of  (13.5%) areas,  Arts  (Psychology),  Bachelor  of  Religious  the others  level  outside  Religious  diploma  Canada.  completed  t o be h i g h e r where o n l y  than  There  university,  i n the  (General A r t s ) ,  Bachelor  were  Science  Science  Education.  The  were  awarded  percentage  General  obtained by  eight  who  one c o m p l e t e d  Arts at  and  private One  a n d was awarded  (16.2%) o f t r a d e s m e n  would be e x p e c t e d  instruction  and  universities.  educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  on  (Business  (Geography)  was h e l d i n b e e - k e e p i n g  or informal education  were  degrees  of  of  2.1% have u n i v e r s i t y  Courses formal  of A r t s  degrees  The  tertiary  bachelor's  Bachelor  Bachelor  Education  colleges,  the  held  Bachelor  Administration),  higher  men  would  appear  i n t r a d e s m e n a s a whole,  degrees  (see Table 27).  h a d been  included in either  o f 12 (32.4%) o f t h e  studied  with  Education  instructional  courses  men.  courses  at  i n the Royal  1 44  Navy, one  received training  had  short t r a i n i n g  taken  taken the  prior other  Ambulance  was  preparation  majority  time. two  school with school  in  Grade  and  One  instructor,  training  for  and  two  course  was  S e r v i c e Overseas work  in  and  S t . John's  Brigade.  completed  11  courses.  to s e r v i n g with Voluntary  The  first  as a c o l l e g e  Informal  12 b e f o r e  (83.8%)  T h e r e were t h r e e men  who  left  after  participant  Grade 9  10.  One  equivalent  and  education  leaving  31  school  Europe  had  training,  courses  night  at  in  had  the  Grade left  attended  customary  age.  such  forces,  taken  the  first  routes  armed  been  after  who  had  for  originally  through  courses  school,  first  had  left  obtained  on-the-job and  participants, secondary  Grade  in  of  by  as  upgrading  29  (78.4%)  participants. In  order  to d i s c o v e r the e d u c a t i o n a l environment  participants,  the  noted.  l e v e l s a t t a i n e d by  The  participants graduate  educational levels  ranged  degree.  from  and  eight  generation female  at the high mothers where  graduates,  where a v a l u e  school had  their  parents  m o t h e r s and  of e l e m e n t a r y  summarised  T w i c e a s many m o t h e r s as education  both  completion  D e t a i l s are  of  in Table  f a t h e r s stopped  level.  university  A  total  degrees.  these  have p r e s e n t e d  was  clearly  f a t h e r s of school  to  25.  their  Coming  graduates  for education  was  formal  of t e n f a t h e r s  male u n i v e r s i t y women may  of  from  a  f a r outnumbered  stated.  role  models  1 45 Table  25  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Parents Educational  Level  Fathers N %  Elementary Some s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l Completed secondary s c h o o l Some c o l l e g e Completed c o l l e g e Bachelor's degree Graduate degree Don't know 1  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  6 13 5 0 0 7 3 3  Mothers N %  1  16.,2 35. , 1 13, ,5 0.,0 0.,0 18..9 8.. 1 8., 1  1  16..2 27. .0 27. ,0 2..7 2..7 16, .2 5.,4 2..7  6 10 10 1 1 6 2 1  N=37  There one  parent  there The  were  14 (37.8%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t l e a s t  who was a  university  were t h r e e men who d i d n o t e n t e r  other  11 e n r o l l e d a t u n i v e r s i t y  completing  a  college  bachelor's  degrees.  tended  have  to  formal  sons  education  The  contains  who  with  entered  to enter level  of high  both  the  career  effort  needed  their  husbands  and  enter,  education.  college,  two  14,  with  graduating  university  one with  education  c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y .  (78.6% o f group) had g i v e n  of wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged t o graduate degree.  levels  Table  26  of p a r t i c p a n t s ' wives.  W i v e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were in  these  the trades.  school  the educational  Of  tertiary  or  and  of t h e sons  educational  from c o m p l e t i o n  diploma Parents  However, t h e m a j o r i t y up  graduate.  identified  a s key  factors  change d e c i s i o n a n d i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e  i n the course. to leave  T h e s e women  were  encouraging  the b l u e - c o l l a r  world  o f tradesmen  or r e - e n t e r , the middle  class  through  teaching.  146  Table Educational Educational  L e v e l of Wives of  Participants  Level  No. Reported  %  1  Completed secondary C o l l e g e diploma Some u n i v e r s i t y Bachelor's degree Master's degree Not a p p l i c a b l e 1  26  school  5 7 5 6 2 12  13.5 18.9 13.5 16.2 5.4 32.4  N=37  Research  in career  changers  themselves.  importance greater fill  the r o l e by  could  89.2%), Residents. Canada,  four  The  three  from  the U n i t e d  Over  half  (57%)  of  E n g l i s h was  participants.  work,  perhaps  impact  other  and  whose l i v e s  had  (28,  the  still  of p e o p l e  who  would  48.6%)  the  and  men  first  had coming  from three  had  be  i n four  i n each of t h r e e  been  born  from  of 32  Kingdom,  others.  Europe. immigrant  (86.5%) o f  families  in  British  from W e s t e r n one  (33,  Permanent  the U n i t e d  at l e a s t  language  spoken  citizens  non-citizen  75.7%)  emigrated  States,  the  Canadian  being  (18,  German was  Romanian, o r Greek  career  (1980) s t r e s s e d  the  (10.8%)  half  T h r e e men  the  on  mostly  majority  almost  on  change.  were  Columbia.  parent.  be p l a c e d  the c a r e e r  with  to focus  events outside  of s i g n i f i c a n t  Participants  tended  Although Oscherson  of examining  emphasis  affected  change has  and  the  Dutch,  1 47  The consistent teaching  the  from  with  recognized  pattern  of  selection  to the middle  class.  The  ease of  the  as a r o u t e  associated of  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of men  with  teaching  professions.  places  immigrant  families  is of  entry  i t among t h e more a c c e s s i b l e  It i s , therefore,  an  opportunity  and  National  for  intra-generational mobility.  4.4.2  No  Comparison w i t h  direct  However,  some  available  on  (Statistics  the men  shown  in  However,  some to  their  higher  1983b).  study.  in  the  in this  with  in B r i t i s h  However, as Statistics  Columbia 17  trades  foremen  are  Canada d a t a ,  Table  and  study.  information  T h e r e were  were e x a m i n e d .  Data  27  a  summarizes  n a t i o n a l samples  of  relevant trades.  sample  as  compared  between p a r t i c i p a n t s  national  tended  1983a,  separately  comparison  As  used  tradesmen a c r o s s Canada and  19 o c c u p a t i o n s  i n the  g r o u p was  were  i n the p r e s e n t  categorized of  variables  Canada,  represented  total  comparison  Provincial  be  first  level  the  on  table,  marital  differences younger  participants  status  p l a c e of  a  birth.  apparent.  Participants  (p<.001), more l i k e l y  t o have E n g l i s h  language  of e d u c a t i o n  were  and  resembled  (p<.02) (p<.00l).  and  had  a  considerably  Table  27  Summary o f C o m p a r i s o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s W i t h Tradesmen i n C a n a d a 1  Category  Participants  Mean Age ( y e a r s )  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l (%) No H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e or D i p l o m a High School Completion with C e r t i f i c a t e or Diploma Trade C e r t i f i c a t e Some C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y Graduate Marital Status Single Married Other Place of Canada Other  2 3  National Sample  t-test/ X 2  t=5.37 P<.001  36.6  X =158.0 P<.001 2  0.0  38. 1  0.0 8.1 78.4 13.5  8.7 36.9 14.3 2.1  (%) 32.4 67.6 0.0  21 .7 72.5 5.8 77. 1 22.9  81.1 18.9  56.7 43.3  3  X =.042 p<. 98 2  75.7 24.3  3  X =4.23 p<. 20 2  Birth  F i r s t Language English Other  1  30.8  2  3  X =8.96 p<. 02 2  A d a p t e d from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1983, C a t a l o g u e 92-917, T a b l e s 3 and 4; C a t a l o g u e 92-918, T a b l e 1. N=37 C a l c u l a t e d by C h i S q u a r e One Sample T e s t . E x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s b a s e d on n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by category.  3  149  In Table The  order  t o examine t h e s e  28 p r e s e n t s same  comparisons  socio-demographic  However,  the  reader  are divided  of  two  one  (n=6),  or  i n more  detail,  f o r each o c c u p a t i o n a l  group.  variables  should  participants  keep  -  were  in  investigated.  mind  that  when  i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l groups c e l l  participants  mechanic  differences  vehicle  result,  except  sizes  for carpenter  (n=5),  and w e l d e r / f a b r i c a t o r  mean age o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n 14 (73.7%) o f t h e 19  was l o w e r  the  (n=5). The occupations Where  participants  than  that  of  national  were y o u n g e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e  15.5  years  (electrician  The  mean  age  f o r e m a n ) t o 2.9 y e a r s  difference  sample.  ranged  from  (draftsman).  f o r a l l t r a d e s where  participants  were younger was 8.2 y e a r s . Place  of b i r t h  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  (57.9%) o f t h e 19 o c c u p a t i o n s , to  have  sample.  participants  been b o r n  i n Canada t h a n  Five  the  of  was r e c o r d e d .  remaining  In  were more  tradesmen  11  likely  i n the national  occupations  were  each  r e p r e s e n t e d by two men, one o f whom h a d been b o r n  i n Canada.  Two  by  further  participants In  who h a d e m i g r a t e d  than  were r e p r e s e n t e d  of  their  speak E n g l i s h  spoke  English,  native  were  represented  counterparts  as t h e i r by e i t h e r  first two  o r by a s i n g l e  English  speakers  single  t o Canada.  15 (78.9%) o f t h e 19 o c c u p a t i o n s  more l i k e l y to  occupations  i n the  language.  participants national  sample  The o t h e r  trades  participants, tradesman.  were  one  of  whom  A high proportion  among p a r t i c i p a n t s  was  apparent.  Table 2 8 Comparison of P a r t i c i p a n t s with Tradesmen Occupation  [n]  Mean Age [years]  Mode Educational Level [%]  Marital  Status  [%]  i n Canada  1  P l a c e of B i r t h  [%]  C o l l e g e diploma 5 0 . 0 / Some u n i v e r s i t y 5 0 . 0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 3 0 .4)  S i ngle 0 0 (27 2) Marri ed 1 0 0 0 ( 6 9 6 ) Other 0 0 ( 3 2)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  50 0 50 0  Cabinet Maker ( 1 ) 3 8 0 ( 3 4 0 )  Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 1 0 0 . 0 / (Some high school 2 7 . 5)  S i ngle 100 0 ( 3 4 1 ) Marr i ed 0 0 (63 3) Other 0 0 ( 2 7)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  0 0 0 o  (69 ( 1 ( 1 (20  Carpenter ( 6 )  Some u n i v e r s i t y 6 0 . 0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 2 7 .6)  Single  66 6 ( 2 3 1 ) 33 3 ( 7 4 0 ) 0 0 ( 2 9)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  Boatbuilder ( 2 )  39 0 (36  28 0 (37  3)  8)  3  M a r r i ed  Other Carpenter Foreman ( 2 )  Diving Instructor  Draftsman ( 1 )  1 2 3  F i r s t Language [%] Eng1i sh  100 0  (70  5)  2) 0) 9) 5)  E n g l i sh  100 0 (37  5)  (79 ( 1 ( 3 ( 17  2) 2) 0) 4)  E n g l i sh German  0 (82  4)  O ( 1 4) 0 ( 5 8) 0 ( 13 0 )  83 3 ( 5 5 0 ) 16 7 ( n/a)  29 0 (40  5)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 5 0 . 0 / Bachelor degree 5 0 . 0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 3 2 .4)  S i ngle 0 0 ( 8 6) Marr ied 1 0 0 0 ( 8 8 3 ) Other 0 0 ( 3 1)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  50 50 0 0  0 0 0 0  (73 ( 1 ( 4 (24  0) 0) 0) 4)  E n g l i sh  100 0  (55  9)  52 0 (28  9)  Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 1 0 0 0 ( U n i v e r s i t y degree 31 2 )  S i ngle 0 0 (52 6) Marr i ed 1 0 0 0 ( 4 4 5 ) Other 0 0 ( 3 0)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  (87 ( 2 ( 3 ( 7  9) 0) 4) 8)  E n g l i sh  100 0  (55  7)  0 (33  9)  Some c o l l e g e 1 0 0 . 0 (Un i vers i ty, non-university cert i f i cate/ diploma 3 8 . 5 )  Si ngle 0 0 (31 0 ) Marr i ed 1 0 0 0 ( 6 6 5 ) Other o 0 ( 2 5)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  0 0 100 0  0 0 0 0  (65 ( 1 ( 8 (21  2) 1) 4) 9)  E n g l i sh  100 0  (58  3)  ( 1)  31  Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1 9 8 3 , Catalogue 9 2 - 9 1 7 , R e s u l t s from the present study F i g u r e s f o r tradesmen in Canada  Tables 3 and 4; Catalogue  92-918,  Table 1.  Ln O  Table 28 continued Occupation  [n] Mean Age [years]  Mode Educational Level [%]  Marital  Status  [%]  Place of B i r t h  [%]  F i r s t Language [%]  E l e c t r i c i a n (1)  25 0 (34 0)  Some c o l 1ege 100.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 55.5)  Single 100 0 (24 • 8) Canada Marr i ed 0 0 (72 .8) U.S.A. Other 0 0 ( 2• 3) U.K. Europe  100 O 0 0  0 0 0 0  (82 9) ( 0 8) ( 4 2) ( 13 7)  Electrician Foreman (1)  26 0 (41 5)  Some c o l lege 100.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.6)  Single 0 0 ( 5.5) Marr i ed 100 0 (91 9) Other 0 0 ( 2.6)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  (84 4) E n g l i sh ( 08) ( 5 1 ) ( 13 7)  100 .0 (64.4)  E1ectroni cs T e c h n i c i a n (2)  28 0 (33 5)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 50.0/ Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 (Univ/Non-univ c e r t 40.1  S i ngle Married Other  0 0 (29 9) 100 0 (68 0) 0 0 ( 2 O)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  50 0 50 0  0 0 0 0  (78 ( 0 ( 5 (12  E n g l i sh  100 0 (51.7)  Greenhouse Owner (1)  36 0 (39 9)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 100.0 (Some high school 24.5)  S i ngle 0 0 ( 17 8) Marr i ed 100 0 (79 6) Other 0 0 ( 2 5)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  0 (79 6) Eng1 i sh 0 ( 1 1) 0 ( 3 3) o ( 17 8)  100 0 (64.6)  Marine Engineer (C.P.O.) (1)  44 0 (42 5)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 100.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.9)  S i ngle 0 0 ( 16 2) Marr i ed 100 0 (79 6) Other 0 0 ( 4 2)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 o 0 0 0 0 0  Mechanic V e h i c l e (5)  25 0 (33 2)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 60.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 43.8)  Single Marr i ed Other  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  80 20 0 0  Mechanic Heavy Duty (2)  33 0 (37 0)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 50.0/ Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 42.5)  S i ngle Married Other  O 0 ( 18 1 ) Canada 100 0 (79 2) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 9) U.K. Europe  M a c h i n i s t (2)  36 0 (36 0)  Some c o l l e g e 50.0/ Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 40.8)  S i ngle 0 0 (25 1 ) Canada Marr i ed 100 0 (72 0) U.S.A. Other 0 0 ( 2 9) U.K. Europe  40 0 (28 9) 60 0 (68 6) 0 0 ( 2 5)  6) 6) 5) 9)  German  100 0 ( n/a)  (81 4) ( 1 O) ( 8 3) ( 13 6)  E n g l i sh  0 0 0 0  (83 2) ( 0 7) ( 2 5) ( 1 1 2)  E n g l i sh Greek  80 0 (58.7) 20 0 ( n/a)  50 50 0 0  0 0 0 0  (82 3) ( 0 7) ( 4 9) ( 13 8)  E n g l i sh German  50 o (59.2) 50 0 ( n/a)  50 0 0 50  0 0 0 0  (65 ( 0 ( 6 (24  E n g l i sh Dutch  50 0 (50.4) 50 0 ( n/a)  4) 8) 7) 2)  100 0 (76.0)  Table 28 continued Occupation  [n] Mean Age [years]  Mode Educational Level [%]  Marital  Status  [%]  Place of B i r t h  [%]  Painter Foreman (1)  26 0 (40 5)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 100.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 32 4)  S i ngle 0 0 ( 8 6) Canada Marr i ed 100 O (88 3) U.S.A. Other 0 0 ( 3 1 ) U.K. Europe  100 O 0 0  0 (73 o ( 1 0 ( 3 0 (24  Sheet Metal Worker ( 1 )  28 0 (35 3)  Some c o l 1ege 100.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 36 7)  Single 0 0 (26 5) Marr i ed 100 0 (70 6) Other 0 0 ( 2 8)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  100 0 0 0  Teacher's Aide Woodwork (1)  24 0  Some col 1ege 100.0 ( U n i v e r s i t y degree 45 9)  S i ngle Married Other  Canada U.S.A. U .K: Europe  Tool Maker ( 1 )  40 0 (38 9)  Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 100 0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 48 1)  S i ngle 100 0 (20 3) Canada Marr i ed 0 0 (76 5) U.S.A. Other 0 0 ( 3 1 ) U.K. Europe  26 0 (34 4)  Some u n i v e r s i t y 60.0 (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 44 0)  S i ngle Marr i ed Other  Welder/ F a b r i c a t o r (5)  ( 8)  (37  100 0 ( 19 2) 100 0 (77 7) 0 0 ( 3 0)  20 0 (23 5) 80 0 (73 5) 0 0 ( 3 0)  Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  F i r s t Language [%]  0) O) 9) 4)  E n g l i sh  100 0 (55.9)  0 0 0 0  (74 1) ( 0 5) ( 4 4) ( 19 5)  E n g l i sh  100 0 (59.2)  100 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  (83 9) ( 1 7) ( 4 9) ( 10 5)  E n g l i sh  100 0 (44.2)  0 0 0 100  o (53 8)  German  100 0 ( n/a)  80 0 0 20  0 ( 0 7) 0 ( 12 7) o (39 5) 0 0 0 0  (74 2) ( 0 6) ( 2 9) ( 17 2)  E n g l i sh Romanian  80 0 (54.5) 20 0 ( n/a)  1 53  As  language  this  result The  fluency  is  a basic  seems c o n g r u e n t most  striking  with  Canada was  The  of  was  trade  level  university  and  participants national  In  the  required  higher  occupation Diving  national  A  total  degrees.  younger, their  national level  with  was  five  a  All the  diploma  or  instructor than  sports  which as  an  occupations.  instructors  participants  in contrast  of  education  aide  related  and  that  occupations  Teacher's  (13.5%)  some  of  participant  teaching with  was  group.  higher  r a n g e of  levels.  grouped of  a  level  sample  w h e r e a s 38.1%  diving  T h i s was  with  2.1%  in held  of  the  group  in  sample.  Participants several  school,  education.  national  the  categories,  grouped with  i n s t r u c t o r was  university  of  without  educational  was  general.  78.4%  school  grouped  of  i n the  However, i n e a c h c a s e  necessarily  teachers,  goals.  participants this  left  two  aide,  participants. was  had  career  levels  of men  completed high  sample  teacher's  For  represented  had  certificate.  in their  education  certificate.  their  for  d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and  tradesmen a c r o s s modal  expectation  important  differed areas.  t o have been b o r n first  language.  educational  level.  recognized  characteristics  Gottfredson,  1977)  1975;  1960).  Ryans,  E a c h of  and/or  from  They  the  were  larger  more  i n Canada and  to  also  these  attributes is  first  a  changers  career  to  be  speak E n g l i s h  They  of c a r e e r  had  likely  much  higher  related (Byrne,  teachers  as  to 1975;  (Lortie,  1 54  In o r d e r the  national  t o f u r t h e r examine d i f f e r e n c e s d i s c o v e r e d a t level,  characteristics,  were  occupational  groups  their  of b i r t h  place  groups  were  carpenters specific more  and e t h n i c  with  occupations.  study  (5),  this  on  lack  lacking  precision.  are presented  of  more  occupational  groups  Canada a n d more their  the n a t i o n a l  present  study  Participants somewhat  based  likely  were  tended  younger  than  was  patterns  trade  treated. paralleled  results  of  birth  Participants in  more  likely  may  be  do emerge  and  first  a l l  were three  t o h a v e been b o r n i n  t o have E n g l i s h a s a  first  language  peers.  four  tended  on  f o r example,  i n the n a t i o n a l comparison  level.  were  provincial  There  was  29.  d i f f e r e n c e s found  at the p r o v i n c i a l  and  were a v a i l a b l e on  closely  However, g e n e r a l  i n Table  The  (5)  a l l construction  On b o t h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s , p l a c e  than  mechanics  W e l d e r s and m e c h a n i c s were s i m i l a r l y  comparisons with  upheld  language.  D a t a on c a r p e n t e r s ,  information, in  largest  Each of the occupations  information  of  on two  were e x a m i n e d a s t o  information  groups.  many o t h e r s .  three  origin/first  provincial  defined  result  language,  The  ( 8 ) . Although nationwide data  were a v a i l a b l e a s  and  a v a i l a b l e only  investigated.  welder-fabricators  widely  a  data,  i n the present  occupations,  included  As  provincial  areas  to d i f f e r to  be  their  where  participants  from t r a d e s m e n considerably national  in  i n the  general.  more e d u c a t e d and  counterparts.  They  Table 29 Comparison of S e l e c t e d P a r t i c i p a n t s  with Tradesmen i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada  Weiders Participant  2  B.C.  1  Carpenters  Mechani cs 3  Canada"  Participant  5  B.C.  6  Canada.'  Participant"  B.C.  9  Canada  P l a c e of B i r t h (%) Canada U.S.A. U.K. Europe  80.0 0.0 0.0 20.0  71 1 6 3  68.8 0.0 4. 7 12.3  80.0 20.0 0.0 0.0  70. 7 1.4 5.7 2.4  76 . 6 1. 2 1. 5 6.5  87.5 12.5 0.0 0.0  75 .0 1 .8 5.4 5.4  82.9 4. 3 1 .0 4.0  E t h n i c O r i g i n / F i r s t Language (%) English German Romanian Greek  80.0 0.0 20.0 0.0  51 9  68 4  80.0 0.0 0.0 20.0  53 . 1 10. 2  59 . 3 8.4  87 . 5 12.5 O.O 0.0  50. 5 12. 1  66 . 1 5.7  1 2 3 4 6 6 7 s 9 1 0  Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1983, Catalogue 92-917, Tables 3 and 4; 92-918 T a b l e s N=5 N=74955 ( F a b r i c a t o r occupations) N=1270 N=5 N=45485 (Mechanical occupations) N=1615 N=8 N=107100 ( C o n s t r u c t i o n trade occupations) N=1490  1 and 2  10  1 56  were  also  more l i k e l y  E n g l i s h as  their  The filter  first  effects  through  recognized  as  of  the  lives  finding  participants  were l e s s  in  to  their  a variety  finding  when  several  of  this  Holland  as  experiences  a  appear  noted  with  their  to t h e i r  i n the  been,  occupations  immediate  respondents  were  1966)  experiences  is  of 1973)  also  a number of  in  or c a t e g o r y  by  work  teachers  Through  certification  to  earlier  (1966,  returning  prior  an  previous  network.  to teacher  they  are c l a s s i f i e d  had  had  social  that  experiences  Teaching  Participants  (Holland,  work  work  Trade  leading  some  parallels  group.  to  included teachers  in Holland's  t o t e a c h i n g and  similar  workmates t h a n  Social  Realistic. related  past  are  possible  T h i s group  that  had  group.  classification  is  Such s i m i l a r i t y  program that  It  roles.  a s members of t h e i r into  1974).  to  People  among o t h e r s  group.  participants  Social  speak  expected  participants.  friends  similar  c o u l d be  support  i t was  classification,  of  their  (Bandura,  i n Canada and  language. such d i f f e r e n c e s  themselves  were  t o have been b o r n  entry  i t would  to  a  work  more c o n s i s t e n t  entry  into  trade  occupat ions. There the are  i s a suggested  wrong p l a c e . " not  usually  They were o f t e n sources  more h i g h l y e d u c a t e d  than  friends  be  tended  image of p a r t i c i p a n t s  to  of  from  tradesmen,  backgrounds  they  most t r a d e s m e n , more  educated  being " i n  and  which  were y o u n g e r their  wives  in higher  and and  status  1 57  positions sense  than  of  they  social  discontent.  are themselves. dislocation  None o f t h e men  work a s t r a d e s m e n . inappropriate  It i s possible  contributed  to their  spoke c r i t i c a l l y  T h e s e were n o t  occupations.  in  of t h e i r  themselves  However,  in  development  o f . p a r t i c i p a n t s such o c c u p a t i o n s  regarded  satisfactory.  as  that  career prior  seen  the  a  as  career  were no  longer  Summary o f R e s u l t s  Descriptive the  personal  construct their  career  results in  a  change.  backgrounds  social  level.  teachers  their  group  to  of  upheld  socio-demographic the  teaching  view  offers  is particularly  i n a socio-ecomomic  rebound  of  examined,  Their effect  upward  common a s  56.8% o f  level  decision with  that,  socio-economic  e n t e r i n g t h e program,  fathers.  helped  context  was  are i n the highest  trades  a p p e a r s t o be a  social mobility.  into  In Canada t h i s  entered of  entry  prior  This  e x c l u s i v e l y t o tradesmen  Examination  teachers  However,  that  As no c o m p a r i s o n  f o r men,  to discover  p i c t u r e of the s o c i a l  participants  school  participants than  of  i n order  participants.  be assumed t o a p p l y  mobility.  secondary  of  more c o m p l e t e  transition.  particularly  were c o l l e c t e d  backgrounds  cannot  career  data  lower  t o become respect  to  1 58  The  men  educational being of  come  from  l e v e l suggested  of v a l u e .  wives  that  often  and  64% o f  This some  an  friends  participants to entry  into  76.0%,  were  i n lower  status  teachers  wives  immigrant  indicated  Canada  participants Canada  or  than  found  than  their  half  o f men,  their  teachers  level  I t was  educated  (28%).  almost  selected  in  British  to  wives.  and  student  The b a c k g r o u n d o f  of  them  came  from  also  even b e f o r e  social milieu  Columbia  from  chapter.  that  families.  l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n I t was  t h e program p a r t i c i p a n t s  where t e a c h e r s p l a y e d  the  tradesmen  indicated  i n their occupations.  entering  of  with  English-speaking  had a much h i g h e r  implications following  variables  t o be y o u n g e r , t o have been b o r n i n  come  w o u l d be e x p e c t e d o f men  a  that  group  on  were l i k e l y  and  Participants  that  less  as  families.  Comparison across  i n the e d u c a t i o n a l  occupations  showed  that  education  the program t h e m a j o r i t y  formed t h e l a r g e s t  participants  on  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  were  Prior  of  emphasis  was r e f l e c t e d  wives.  Occupations  f a m i l i e s where t h e m o t h e r s '  a  large  than found  lived in  part.  The  t h e above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n  1 59  CHAPTER  FIVE  SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, UNEXPECTED FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  5.1 Summary  In  spite  teaching, people an  of Study  of decades of r e s e a r c h  little  who  i s known o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n  chose t o enter  exploratory  study  teaching  the present  career  change o f a p o p u l a t i o n  teacher  education  occupations.  program.  Their  mean o f 30.8 y e a r s . age  or  less.  g r o u p , were  social  a  set  learning Jones  identifiable the  histories,  and  or background of  as a second c a r e e r .  research  investigated  In the  They  came from  from  separate  24 t o 54 y e a r s  70% o f t h e men were o f 25 men,  17  over  30  with a  years  two t h i r d s  of  of the  married.  (Mitchell,  change,  Over  teachers  o f 37 t r a d e s m e n e n r o l l e d i n a  ages ranged  A total  F o u r main included  about  research of  areas  four  principles &  s e t of  and t h e i r  investigated.  propositions of  Krumboltz, facilitators  stability,  were  career  These  put forward  i n the  decision  making  1979), t h e e x i s t e n c e and  or otherwise,  socio-demographic  barriers  to  o f an career  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' backgrounds.  work  160  A semi-structured interview using  a  seven  step procedure.  (1) D i s c u s s i o n w i t h  key  (3)  social  Inclusion  decision study,  of  making,  schedule The  informant,  developed  s t e p s were as f o l l o w s :  (2) F i r s t  learning  pilot  principles  (4) A r r a n g e m e n t s o f  (6) D e v e l o p m e n t o f  was  items,  codebook,  and  study,  of  career  (5) S e c o n d  pilot  (7) V a l i d a t i o n  of  of t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  the  instrument. Participants study was  as  they  started  c o n t a c t e d by  the  the  interviews.  knowledge and Taped codebook.  were their  academic y e a r .  r e s e a r c h e r and  Each  consent  i n t e r v i e w was of  the  using  the  of  Each  participant  arrangements  made  for  tape-recorded  with  full  to  the  Data  were  participant.  i n t e r v i e w s were t h e n  Reliability  analysed  informed  coding  coded was  Statistical  according  established.  Package  for  the  Social  Sciences. Results propositions lent  of  the  put  forward  by  present  support  suggested  that  occupation  i f they  to  people  that occupation  were  sources  rewarded  study  of  had or  advocating  men  had  by  the  been  theory,  postitive  had  observed  some t y p e  of  propositions  activity other  reinforcement  found  four  them were  to choose a  f o r an  I t was  the  t h r e e of  i n the o c c u p a t i o n ,  the o c c u p a t i o n .  of  These  likely  rewarded  i f they  a l r e a d y performed  that  findings.  w o u l d be  for p a r t i c i p a t i o n  or  indicated  similar  people  either or  certain  who being  modelling  t h a t 34  instructional  (91.9%) role.  161  Their  experiences  levels  in  areas  i n c l u d e d working a t group and i n d i v i d u a l such  as  instruction  and  rewards both  in feelings  Nearly whom  they  Although  these  observed  they  Industrial  This  wives  companions.  and  was  favour  present  so.  of Most  c l a s s e s and had  recognized  as  which  being  be a f f e c t e d  by e x p o s u r e  commonplace present  i n western study,  effect.  literature  or  decisions.  forthcoming other  failed  friends  entry  into  f r o m t h e men's  family  to  find  members, were a l s o  support  that occupational  to positive  f o r the  choice  words a n d images  M e d i a commentary a b o u t  would related  teaching  i s so  society that, within the confines i t was  Examination film  and  change d e c i s i o n .  suggested  occupation.  of family  forparticipants'  However,  study  proposition  career  teachers  many o f whom were t e a c h e r s ,  of the c a r e e r  The  unique  identify  when a t s c h o o l .  Education  settings  especially  workmates a n d f r i e n d s ,  the  liked  others.  to  not e x c l u s i v e l y  of the a t t i t u d e  teaching.  the  able  predominantly  were  showed a h i g h d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t  to  receiving  to teachers.  Investigation  in  were  were  instructional  rewarding  school  of p l e a s u r e and p r a i s e from  teachers  had taken  night  They r e p o r t e d  had p a r t i c u l a r l y  Education  participants  coaching,  teaching.  a l l participants  teachers  Industrial  school  sports  not p o s s i b l e t o determine i t s of  on t e a c h i n g  What e f f e c t  of  deliberate indicated  exposure  little  t h e r e was i n c l u d e d  to  e f f e c t on a  degree  1 62  of  counter  identification  following negative  p o r t r a y a l s of  teachers. As  the  education  as  were  program  facilitators L a c k of  men  than  they  particular,  and  as  completion  were  personal  goal  and  their  sequence of into  career  participants  when  34  profession other  s e t as It  teaching  t h e men,  only  within  a  one  of  decade. had  facilitators  to achieve  been made.  their  occupations.  determined.  criterion that  A  entry  (89.2%) men plans  had were  stability  of  teaching profession. remaining Although  been c o n s i d e r e d group planned decided  of  "unstable"  career  potential the  before  for  33  Future  ten y e a r s .  Having  and  were  anticipated  this  making  patterns  entered  had  was  histories  found  f o r a minimum of  In  work  determine they  suggested  the  the  was  (91.9%) men  than  commitment  of  a s t a b l e work h i s t o r y . to  of  Further  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  made  process.  companions  decision  program.  identify  facilitators.  and  both  teacher  were  o r more u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s  patterns.  investigated  total  the  was  Five  three  established  in  drive  t h e p r o g r a m was  career  wives  d e s i r e to leave previous  Examination participants.  of  as  a  change  resources  presence  important  in  readily  career  financial  from  successful  more  to t h e i r  their  support  acknowledged  the  or  enrolled  could  barriers  family support  barriers,  already  on on  by  within  A the  occupations  almost  leaving teaching  half  of  teaching a  firm  163  Reasons occupations intrinsic  by  emphasized  teaching  fulfilling  wish  of  their  previous  entered entry the  that  teaching  into  a  This  working c o n d i t i o n s Reasons benefits  with  young  t o be  also  and  given  for  such  as  people  or  acknowledged  more p l e a s a n t  backgrounds  which  teaching,  Blishen Scale  prior  than  occupations.  becoming  occupations  mobility. as  by  work  leaving  However, t h e y  Socio-demographic indicated  for  intrinsic  to  self-concept.  w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s of  that  men  incongruency.  stressed  their  congruency of  the  both e x t r i n s i c  self-concept  entering  the  given  tradesmen  of 21  lowered t h e i r  classified  (56.8%)  social  i n the  ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts,  participants had  class.  highest 1976),  downward t h e n upward p a t t e r n  men  Their  category  l e d to was  on  upward  described  " r e b o u n d movement". Prior  program  30  tertiary  to  their  (81.1%)  men  education.  already  Five  men  one  had  r e c e i v e d some form of  Educational of  levels  64%  them had  they  were t h e m s e l v e s . 76%  work  that  than  occupations  had  completed  Examination  their  of wives c o v e r e d  Twelve  of  bachelor's participants training.  educated  occupational been,  r a n g e of  17  The  fields.  than  status  in higher  tradesmen husbands. a  of  participants indicated  women more h i g h l y  of w i v e s were, or had of  experience  instructional  of m a r r i e d  married  current university  some  a c o l l e g e diploma.  that  showed t h a t  i n the  had  d e g r e e s and already  had  enrollment  status current  The  most  164  common the  field  of  employment  was  wives being  practising  or p o t e n t i a l  National almost them  90%  from  immigrated  status  families  t o Canada. of a  tradesmen  the  with  indicated tended  to  English  their  first  5.2  either  the  highly  the  present  of  known a b o u t  first  description  study  with  either  in their  of  one  case,  The  group of selecting  was  career  an  to  parent  had  recognized  professional Comparison  more  samples  of of  However,  likely  to  more h i g h l y  no  study  in-depth  have  educated  as  with  career  focussed  career.  the  i s already detailed  changers,  presented  information  entered  on  with  c o n t r o l g r o u p of or  was  what  combined  decision-makers,  second  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Emphasis  teachers  teachers,  trades  present  a  of  i n many r e s p e c t s .  entailed  existing  There  teaching.  half  the  provincial  l a n g u a g e and  population  transition. stayed  with  route  younger,  career  career  the  conjunction  one  society.  population.  second  of  least  that  Study  specialized  comparison  in  be  of  samples.  L i m i t a t i o n s of  The a  of  a  and  similarity  participants as  at  as  showed  However, a l m o s t  dominant  national  a quarter  teachers.  i s congruent  career  with  participants  where  This  teaching  within  participants  than  of  were C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s .  came  selection  affiliation  education,  on  career  tradesmen  careers other on who  the  who than  investigation  were,  in  this  1 65  However,  the  generalizability experiences not  of  of  of  teachers.  The  women who  enter  the  control It  teaching support  not  after  be  men  career  Although enrolled  i n a teacher  the  total  the  group,  to  Canadian  is  specialized  nature  of t h e  the  program  are  would  to  Aspects  potentially  more a p p l i c a b l e t o fields. of  was  37.  tradesmen  investigated,  The  small  characteristics, restricts  the  researcher than  of  r e s e a r c h about  i n the U n i t e d that  size  and  of the  generaliza-  there  may  experiences is  research.  However,  with found  format  regards little  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and  the  an  characteristics  i n the  S t a t e s and  self-report  in a different  cross-checked  other  be  the  career  homemakers.  many r e f e r e n c e s  in occupational  interview  questions  The  second  population  study  p a u c i t y of  teachers,  Validity  be  education  acknowledged  differences  with  may  complete  that  f o r example,  change between any  their  research conducted It  as  the  of f i n d i n g s . Due  of  relevant,  number of p a r t i c i p a n t s was  exploratory bility  the  other  histories  However, r e s u l t s  of  possible  of  years  or work  group l i m i t s  t o become t e a c h e r s  experiences  quite different. in process  is  decide  f i n d i n g s may  spousal  a  findings.  t r a d e s m e n who  characterize  s u c h as  lack  Great  be and  study  some  accepted by  to congruence of  direct.  to  Britain. cultural  perceptions. difficulty  repeating  r e s p o n s e s were  indication  are  that  able  key to  information. responses  were  166  5.3  Conclusions  Of  the  learning  principles,  findings of  70%  four p o s i t i v e  of  of  people  either  who  There  a career.  was  education  The  study  of  of  failed  to  seven  (18.9%) men  exposure found form  t o media  to an  result  through  and  and  enjoyed  entering  the  teacher  had  support  been  portrayed.  and  Conscious and  books  taken  the of  on  fourth  the  media  want  deliberate  was  sometimes  of  like  the  teaching  t h a t some l e v e l  However, f o r an  Rather  model t h e men  t o be  occupation  films  and  indentification.  portrayal  i n Western c u l t u r e  for  influence  with a p o s i t i v e d i d not  seems i n e v i t a b l e .  the  t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n as  r e p o r t e d t h a t books or  films  in negative  Discussion  of  of  experienced  the  t o a n e g a t i v e model and  commonplace  the  career choice.  identification  of a minimum  reinforcement  instructor  find  model.  their  by  occupation.  advocated  affected  positive  before  which  had  indication  also  proposition Only  experiences  support  the i n f l u e n c e  role  s h o r t term  were l e n t  social  clear  had  The  on  each  activities  program.  as a hobby or  The  and/or a d v o c a t e d  Participants  instructional  them  based  were i n a c c o r d w i t h  were s o u r c e s  modelled  of  study.  participants  propositions. of  three  the p r e s e n t  the  propositions  than  reacted teachers is  so  of i n f l u e n c e less  widely  167  exposed  to  public  view  p o r t r a y a l s c o u l d be Herzog-Spokane perceptions support  this As  influential.  (1981),  of t h e  as  support,  albeit  t h e men  one  & Herma,  1964)  stage  who  by  they  prior  just  and  media e f f e c t s  on  tend  choice  school  when  by  to  and  present  that  study.  occupations  supported  by  see  However, 29.7% first  were  of  thought  For are over  a l l  Axelrad the  men  of b e i n g  were f u l f i l l i n g  h i s a s s o c i a t e s as a  lent  themselves  (Ginsberg, Ginsburg,  they  career  c h o i c e were  Participants  that they  Ginsberg  t h e o r y of  c o u l d not  trade.  to enter another.  at  the  suggestion  said  T h i s suggested  what  a was  "Fantasy  "  decision. The  application  career  decision  choice  theories,  explanation current  of  making, was  not  social in  learning  common  successful  of t h e c a r e e r c h a n g e .  theories  none p r e s e n t s widely  Spokane  technology,  s e l f - c o n c e p t was  "realistic"  still  described  positive  of c a r e e r  limited,  (1957)  in their  leaving  teacher.  by  learning  theories  c h o s e n w h i c h match t h e  were  work  medical  social  somewhat  Super's  continuing  of  the  making, o t h e r  of  indicating  field  decision  20%  The  media  suggestion.  well  example,  i t i s p o s s i b l e that p o s i t i v e  for  on d e s i g n as  account  base.  lack  in  They  of  opposed  offering  a  that,  have  validity,  full  although  for career  longitudinal to  to  other v o c a t i o n a l  I t appears  partially  a comprehensive  criticised  over-emphasis  may  with  principles  change,  also  been  data  and  logic  and  168  formulation Scott,  1983; The  on  many  Westbrook, individual  or  nuances  the  circumstances. constant. occupation  were  which suggest (Merton, career as  as  a  other frame  which  self-evaluation  concept  This an  same  factors  present  and  of  in  the  are  another  theory  postulates  individual or  These  be  group  may  future  present  reference  1955)  reference. and  careers  the  underlying  is  g r o u p s whose v a l u e s of  uncountable  exactly  findings  Shibutani,  of  exist  as  o n l y more d e s i r a b l e but a c c e s s i b l e .  change p r o c e s s .  groups  certain  the  in  based  f a c t o r s , such  p e o p l e change t h e i r  certain  several  that  1957;  two  discontent  a p p e a r s not  1983;  changers are  grouped  there  reasons,  However,  Career  There  No  same  career  within  variables,  situation.  exactly  (Harmon & F a r m e r ,  1983).  Even  social  of  questions  d e c i s i o n s of  variables.  economic  for  of a p p r o p r i a t e  theory  relevant that  study  to  as  well  i s a member t h e r e standards groups  membership  may are  is  the  be  are used  used  for  considered  desirable. The change  of  relevance  each  of  were made w i t h census and  reference  participants  sociodemographic For  of  v a r i a b l e s was  the  17  trades,  Statistics  (Statistics  provincial  was  data  Canada, were  group theory  investigated. compared plus  Canada 1983(a),  used.  two  with  t o the A  s e l e c t i o n of other  foremen,  records 1983(b)).  career  from  data.  comparisons the  1981  Both n a t i o n a l  169  Participants  i n the  present  s t u d y who  become t e a c h e r s  were f o u n d  to d i f f e r  national  provincial  samples.  and  indicated likely  in four  to  be  younger,  have E n g l i s h as d i f f e r e n c e was tradesmen  relevant  their that  in general.  colleagues  were  language.  In  an  most  often  were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  had  high  bachelor's wives,  degrees.  who,  for  occupations  tradesmen  in  educational  decrease  the  have t e a c h e r s  and  the  most the  suggest  of  educated less 1975).  part,  level  family  likelihood as  their  group  was  that  showed t h a t  than p a r t i c i p a n t s , the  likely  than  participants  (13.5%)  held  fathers  and  status respondent  atypical  status  of  would  in general,  would  group.  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  the  influence  Being  average to  them  i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such  reference  diminished.  their  A l l of  These  tradesmen,  group,  than  dropouts,  higher  socio-economic  f r i e n d s or  membership  held  to  notable  where  had  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  Differences  their  membership  t h e s e men  more  educated  field  respondents  general. and  most  school  trades.  that  Because comparisons typical  five  was  i n Canada and  well-educated.  In a d d i t i o n ,  than  characteristics  as  school  high  both  They were  The  occupational  in  to  difference  were much more h i g h l y  participants completed  This  characteristics.  first  decided  from t r a d e s m e n  t o h a v e been b o r n  they  had  older  tradesman  of  the  and  less  would  change c a r e e r s  not  be  (Byrne,  170  As  a  teachers British  reference  appear  to  Columbia  are  group  for  represent fluent  a v i a b l e source. English  e d u c a t e d , as  were p a r t i c i p a n t s .  conjunction  with  with  family  t r a d e s m e n , w o u l d be  unlikely as  a  in  teachers  the  the  reference teaching  Through behaviour  new  of  the  expectations  s e l e c t i o n of  reference  teachers  were w e l l  tended  t o have t e a c h e r s  of  teachers.  This  selection  would  be  unlikely  high  school  of  the  pants to  their  similarity is  a  group  such  identified  the  to  in  such  selection  a of  as  a new  career,  the  known t o p a r t i c i p a n t s as  they  f r i e n d s or  therefore i s a basic  among  1960). the  dropouts. reference  Similar  group  Hartley  (i960)  helped  determine choice a  requirement  Second,  own.  family  h e l d a wide  friends  values  that  theory.  with  First,  g r o u p whose  possible  orientation  Exposure  teaching  group  were  (Hyman,  teacher in  who  environment  group  were  readily  in  associated  p a r t i c i p a n t s i s i n many ways c o n g r u e n t  of  tion  usually  A reference  more  highly  of e d u c a t i o n ,  social  in explaining  of  social  and  in  career.  norms  Their  to a  participants.  assist  their  the  t o be  of  g r o u p may the  b a c k g r o u n d not  average tradesman.  circle  as  level  however,  Teachers  speakers  This  conducive  would a p p e a r  social  participants,  of  and  representaof  norms  suggested  representation tradesmen a  who  member  place  partici-  were  similar  such  of a r e f e r e n c e  dissimilarity  reference  becoming  would  members.  existed  prior  group.  It  between  171  participants group its  was  and  "relevant"  standing  was  meaningful. of e n t r y  of  Hollander  neither  and  an Hunt  on  participants teaching  one  reality.  too  The  low  to  principle  their  As  ease  trade  pointed  s e l e c t i o n of and  be  sociodemographic  with  goal.  reference  they  emphasize  the  skill  out  by  a  reference  reality  principle  that  of  in  these  findings  the  p o s i t i o n of  career  was  making has  choice.  the  common  them  the the  reference  p e o p l e on  the  other,  with  the  tradesmen desirable  personal  appears  lives  as  theories  extent  On  an  which  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  group  of  to  instructors,  friends,  b a s i s of theory  relevant.  contribute may  group  behaviour  i n d i c a t e d the  reference  It  For  and  noted.  much t o  in  were members of  teachers,  wives,  theory  study the  or  this  more  tradesmen  teachers.  other  parents  decision  of  learning  present  featured  i n f l u e n c e of  have  g r o u p of  a s s o c i a t e s on  a s p i r e d elsewhere.  effect The  to  reference  teacher  They a l r e a d y  social  the  individual. teachers  hand and  g r o u p was  Both  between a  appeared  group.  g r o u p , but  second  nor  that  work.  colleagues  that  reference  a p r o f e s s i o n whose a c c e p t e d  (1971) i n t h e  pleasure  the  to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  high  achievable  When c h o o s i n g  career  1955)  too  was  Third,  p a r t i c i p a n t s combined  group, both the  The  (Turner,  made membership a  t o make t e a c h i n g  at  tradesmen.  Teaching  background  are  other  to  also assist  in  present adult  It i s possible the  study  of  i n meeting  the  1 72  need f o r t h e o r e t i c a l career  transition  exploration reference this  group  (1978).  stages  has  1980), y e t further  the  stage  The  termed  years  Their  old.  mid-life  crisis,  certain  level  perspective  of  earlier Using  the  from leave,  behaviour.  in  Further of  information  career  work  of  career, study  Levinson  career  the  on  future  that  of  adult  on life,  of  his  & Milkovich, towards  particularly the  second  finding  of  Thirty Transition."  years was  of not  effect  T h i s may  s u c h as  contribute  "Age  the  may  focussed  Rush  supported  change  change  delineation  and  three  perhaps  and  The  have much t o  have  suggesting  being  thirty  the  result  of  reaching  influenced  i t was  now  of  a a  their  time  to  decisions. classifications were  external  conditions. not  put  forward  "opt-outs".  change came more f r o m  i t was  of  (Peacock,  maturity.  past  adults  perspective  valuable  patterns  were w i t h i n  of  the  l o n g i t u d i n a l approach  may  but  participants  career  on  present  by  men  using yield  criticised  Over h a l f t h e  alter  of  concept  choice.  1983).  than v o c a t i o n a l aspects  understanding  career, a  stages been  Farmer,  Although Levinson's  rather  discovered  of  phenomenon.  through a  developmental he  may  information  discovered  counselling &  change,  theory  increasing social  of L e v i n s o n  i n the  (Harmon  into career  Further be  data  f o r c e d upon them.  Thomas  Motivation  internal The  by  personal  men  made t h e  They had  (1980),  behind drive  the than  decision  decided  to  to use  1 73  their  skills  a n d knowledge  their  choice  of second c a r e e r  transition  classified  in a different  by  was  setting.  typical  Heistand  of  (1971)  In t h i s ,  the  career  a s a 45 d e g r e e  change. A repeated study of  was t h e i m p o r t a n t  participants.  influence (Bloland 1981).  & Selby, From  very  influential.  isolation.  There at  was  of  The r e a d y  them.  to  other have  findings on  on  career  the  change  t o a wider  i n personal  the personal  these  of  there  attempted  styles  life  change,  little  life  changes.  of t h e i r  i n circumstances  be  wives,  and  in  men  perhaps marital  Yet f o r married  was  to  support  t o pay t r i b u t e .  1977).  seemed  to  women were  this  relationships  Sarason,  and p e r s o n a l  I t may be t h a t  i n the d i r e c t i o n  requirements,  decision  t h a t c a r e e r change, as found  study,  life  change  t h e men were q u i c k  1980;  career  the  present  by w i v e s a n d c o m p a n i o n s  acknowledgement  change o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  purpose, are  and  (Oscherson,  closer  the  change was n o t a p r o c e s s  may be r e l a t e d  men i n t h e p r e s e n t  career  program  Career  alterations  concurrent  in  1980; N e a p o l i t i a n , 1980; W a t e r s & Goodman,  marked  mid-life,  status  with  relationships  i s some e v i d e n c e  involving  played  f o r m u l a t i o n of the c a r e e r  achievement  group  role  interviews  This concurs  personal  the  in  theme d u r i n g  indication  of  However, t h e bringing  them  not s e p a r a t i n g  of support  a n d common  changes accompanying c a r e e r  transition  of i n c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s p e c t .  1 74  The possibly  strong related  o n l y more h i g h l y status  support to  mobile  shift  particpants important social  from  meet t h i s  (64%) than  of  were  their  teacher  for  to  (1966).  The  in The  would their  more  w i v e s on  two  study  both changer  Although  personal  one  of  third for  be met,  funds  Without  source such  some.  However, g i v e n  a state  of c o n f l i c t  ing  lack While  of  important  by  the  Krantz helped  may  arise  acknowledging as  identified  influence.  changers  by  the  society  retraining  government,  t h e need  of  the  for  In to is  business  unobtainable  for  1980s,  retrain-  support.  importance in  their  their  T h i s approach  Neapolitan  for  be  almost  support.  restraints  between  facilitators  also  will  financial  essential.  technological  f u n d i n g , from  sufficient  participants,  funding  t h e economic  of a v a i l a b l e  support  participants  career  were u s e d  s o u r c e s , c a r e e r change  personal  by  has  d e p e n d e n t s was  the needs of a changing  required.  and  and  them r e q u i r e d e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l  an a v a i l a b l e  or o t h e r  on  need.  to support  order  upwardly in  In t h e c a r e e r change p r o c e s s , e x i s t e n c e of funds  not  result  highlighted  present  is  higher  information  c a r e e r change was  Wilensky  also  husbands.  closer  need  wives  t h a t many w i v e s were  but  to  brought The  participants'  finding  tradesmen  fronts.  (1977) and  (76%)  being  context  the  educated  occupations  from  had  (1980).  own also  of  financial  career  change,  m o t i v a t i o n as been  Participants  and  found  an in  believed  175  they  were  doing  This  belief  in  contributed  of  skills the  the  times.  t h i n g f o r them  appropriateness  of  their  teachers are  and e x p e r i e n c e  they  t o do.  behaviour commitment.  desirable  When combined w i t h m a t u r i t y  at  the  and a r a n g e of  hold considerable  potential  for  classroom. participants  change t h e r e was event  in their  (Arbeiter  lives.  was  Second c a r e e r risks  little  indication This  not  an  teachers  Wilensky's to account  the  constructed. Type  occupation between  The  upheld  A  -  These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  An  Main  earlier  research  instability.  t o be p o o r  of  employment  career  framework  presented only;  Type D - C a r e e r  as  changes  c h a n g e s between  concurrent  be o f v a l u e  were  was  Type B - Main  j o b s ; Type C - C a r e e r  Type E - Two  patterns  of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  alternative  occupation  filler  of c a r e e r p a t t e r n s .  recurring  of c a r e e r  classifications  may  a  t h a t t o be i n c a r e e r  delineation  occupations;  occupations;  was  of c a r e e r  of p e r s o n n e l .  study.  p r e c e d e d by  related  unrelated  finding  f o r t h e work h i s t o r i e s  five  a process  that t h i s  were n o t l i k e l y  (1966)  present  follows:  in  indication  with a high turnover  failed  were  e t a l . , 1978) w h i c h c o n c l u d e d  transition  tion  the r i g h t  in beginning  Although  in  was  t o an a t m o s p h e r e o f e n t h u s i a s m and  Such q u a l i t i e s best  what  in future  occupations. categoriza-  1 76  The  examination  of  commitment  long-term  career  indicated  influenced  by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o t h e r  that  d e p t h o f commitment  is  mature,  a  other  occupations,  teaching career both  within  teachers their  contrast was  Only  first  their  second. The  following  career from  Teaching  a period  change  alternatives effect  confirm  days  appeared occupation  from  intending  possible  to  i s what t h e s e  (1975)  secondary c h o i c e ,  leave second  This  that  leading  to  was i n  teaching  to regret f o r  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were n o t f a i l e d They  had  looked  been  forward  dissatisfied  in  t o t h e rewards of  c h a n g e d e c i s i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was made of c a r e e r  discontent.  as a c a t a l y s t ,  to  process available  of a c r i t i c a l  The l e n g t h a  precise was  at  identifiable  precipitating of such moment.  The  the actual  i n c i d e n t s ranged  a time of c a r e e r  incident.  (1977) i n t h e i r  An  A model o f t h e  constructed.  t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  Krantz  a  was n o t  T h e r e was a p o s i t i v e t o n e  by L o r t i e  but t h e y  often acted  several  It  making a n d f u t u r e p l a n s .  change d e c i s i o n .  career  and  years.  foregone".  career  selected  one o f them  wanted t o d o .  career  fields.  only  or mechanics.  their  incident  choice,  to the suggestion  carpenters  the  ten  decision  "alternatives  commitment  as  two (5.4%) men h a d made a p p l i c a t i o n t o  with  o f t e n a somewhat  such  teaching  may be e n h a n c e d when an  deliberate  alternatives.  that  to  It  d i s c o n t e n t and  model  helped  f o u n d by L e v i n s o n  work on a d u l t  showed  life  to  (1979)  changes.  It  1 77  may be u s e f u l  a s a means o f e x a m i n i n g a v a r i e t y  made t h r o u g h o u t  more  result  complete  and p e r s o n a l  information  of t h e i r d e c i s i o n  entered  a  fathers.  decisions  adulthood.  Socio-demographic gave  of  higher  a  lower  socio-economic  teaching  suggests  level a  level  21  31  than  (56.8%)  occupation.  rebound  of  the  men  on t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d .  t o become t e a c h e r s  However, a s t r a d e s m e n  entered  details  This  mobility  As a  (83.8%) that  men  of t h e i r  had  delayed pattern  men  first  entry for  into these  individuals. Such  a  pattern  contrasts  intra-generational  mobility  the  e m p h a s i s on e d u c a t i o n ,  is  contemporary still  best  (Mifflen  &  predicted Mifflen,  upward d i r e c t i o n levels.  and  However,  downwards b e f o r e Although and  are  relationships, close  friends  themselves consistent both  between  neighbouring  wives  who  the with  were o f t e n as  fathers  were  teachers.  not only  reported  moving  By into  mothers  of  i n an  socio-economic  multiple  usually  t h e i r s o c i a l network.  and  their  of p a r t i c i p a n t s crossed  moved  levels. friends  as t e a c h e r s .  based  on  reported  becoming  work having  teachers  an o c c u p a t i o n  Educational  participants  of  o f sons  i s generally  29 (78.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s were  men  spite  t h e m s e l v e s had been t r a d e s m e n ,  recognized  yet  of  Mobility  upwards, b u t a l s o they  In  common  the status  1982).  over h a l f  the  i n Canada.  by t h e o c c u p a t i o n  wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Friendships  found  with  level  indicated  more of that  178  education value  was an i m p o r t a n t  system,  decisions  twice  When teachers  Wood,  asked  the  1978).  teaching.  been c a u s e  as  an  men  first  This  the  to  most  ( L o r t i e , 1975;  essence  of  i t s presence its  become  i s a l s o the  teachers  absence  career  emphasize  occupation. worthy  or  the  school  was  not  would  that  they  in  career  teachers,  have  Such  influential.  Nor d i d t h e  l o o k i n g f o r more  meaningful  the  transition  To  In r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t and t h e i r  of  mention of  respectable.  motives (Thomas, their use  had a " s c u l p t e d " , o r b a l a n c e d ,  unpleasant,  worth  was l i t t l e  socially  were  however,  instrinsic  There  i f unsatisfactory.  change.  wholly  by M i t c h e l l ,  by t h e men was t h a t  that p a r t i c i p a n t s considered  they  influence  given  course,  T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  worthwhile  career  an  wanted  career  of t e a c h i n g d i d not appear  appeared  on c a r e e r  they  determined  to  not  as being  business  term,  have  did  indicate  work.  such  this  f o r concern.  participants  men  reason  by f i r s t  contrast  teaching  why  b u t t o have d i s c o v e r e d  In  aspects  of  young p e o p l e .  i s , of  To  surprising,  not  common  given It  that  would be i n f l u e n t i a l  The e f f e c t  directly  most  reason  teaching  likely  (1979).  wanted t o be w i t h  common  It is  the advocacy p r o p o s i t i o n put forward  Jones and Krumboltz  they  found,  i n adult l i f e .  supported  value.  reported  by  1980).  It  previous  Osherson's approach  the trade  new o c c u p a t i o n  they  to  work (1980) their  left  was  unlikely  to  1 79  be  totally  integrated did  not  learned skill  pleasant, commitment  denigrate  they  were  i n a p o s i t i o n t o make a more  to teaching. their  Certainly  trades.  something v a l u a b l e  They b e l i e v e d t h e y had  to contribute  to the classroom,  t o p a s s on, an a t t i t u d e t o o f f e r .  perspective  that  they  participants  approached  It  was  teaching  with  as  a  a  this second  career.  5.4 Summary o f U n e x p e c t e d  The discovery Such  exploratory of  Findings  nature  of  s u r p r i s i n g and/or  the  unanticipated  findings lend a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y  nature.  They a r e summarized  1. The social  vast  teaching  profession.  spouse, parent, surprising  i n the l i v e s  extraordinarily  verbatim  of  similar  research. similarity  of  information.  research  participants  included  Teachers  sibling  2. R e a c t i o n s  change  which  to  facilitated  of  this  below.  majority  environment  study  many  filled  and o t h e r s  lived  members  in a  of  the  the r o l e s of f r i e n d ,  t o an e x t e n t  which  seemed  of tradesmen.  friends  of  to  found  However,  those even  of the response  in  participants i n previous  this  were career  situation,  o f one man q u o t e d  the  i n the  180  study  and  a  direct  quotation  from  Krantz  (1977)  was  remarkable.  3. somewhat the  Teachers  reported  unenthusiastic  p r o f e s s i o n had  surprising  about  a l l been  to f i n d  this  by  participants participants'  teaching  as  plans  being to  f o r many y e a r s .  c o n s i s t e n c y , even o v e r  a  enter It  was  very  few  responses.  4. major the at  Personal  aspect impact  of  support  of p a r t i c i p a n t s '  personal  support  from p r e v i o u s  5. often  Past  from  participants their  wives  decision marital  and  the  was  The  w i v e s was  than  f a m i l y was  acknowledgement especially  interviews.  more  and  The  would  of  prominent  high be  a  degree  of  anticipated  research.  research  accompanied  Apart  friends  the c a r e e r change.  several points during  this  from  the  by  indicated  changes  immediate  i n the  present  were c l o s e l y process.  relationships  in  c a r e e r change  personal  time study  that  demands tended  relationships. of  to  the  also being  was in  little  program,  indicate  i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e e r There  was  transition  impression  transition.  that  of  181  6. Over adolescents point  the  of  participants  or a d u l t s , o f t e n with  in their  reflected in  35%  career  in their  history.  choice  "Realistic"  had  special This  needs,  social  of a second c a r e e r  (Holland,  worked  with  at  some  o r i e n t a t i o n was but was  1960; 1973) n a t u r e  absent of t h e i r  trades.  7. When a s k e d teaching,  participants  occupations. change An  f o r second c a r e e r reported  a  The u p w a r d l y m o b i l e  into  teaching  interest  in  set  nature  was r e f l e c t e d  other  interests  than  of  white  collar  of  their  career  i n these  trade-related  other  other  choices.  occupations  was  not  apparent.  8. A l m o s t teaching suggest  at  80% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had c o n s i d e r e d  some  such a h i g h  returning  teaching  as  a  occupation.  the trades  data  provided choice  other.  for  had been  entering  on  research  participants  teaching  or  d i d not  would  past  did  be  not i n c l u d e  intrinsically  occupations  lacking i n value.  an i n t r i g u i n g  of teaching  of  Past  interest.  worthwhile  Comments  that  point.  percentage  t o an e a r l i e r  9. R e a s o n s  on  earlier  entering  c o n t r a s t with  d i d not  valuable suggest  The l a c k o f s u c h previous  on one hand and c a r e e r  research  c h a n g e on t h e  1 82  10.  The  mobility, scale  where  t o be  teachers,  effect  participants  t r a d e s m e n and  was  11. than  rebound  not  then  usually  when f i v e men  respect  first went up  to  social  went  down t h e  social  again  as  became  they  anticipated.  Educational level  would  with  had  be  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  expected  appeared  i n tradesmen,  u n i v e r s i t y degrees  and  one  higher  particularly  had  a  college  diploma.  12. w i v e s who  Seventy-six were  in  percent  higher  of m a r r i e d  status  participants  occupations  than  had  their  husbands.  13.  The  applicability  of  t h e c a r e e r change of p a r t i c i p a n t s As  with  stresses  social the  learning  influence  r e f e r e n c e group theory gradually  theory,  other  people  became  reference have on  to  apparent.  group  behaviour.  theory  1 83  5.5  Recommendations  f o r Further  Suggestions  for  t h r e e main themes. learning by  entry the  related  further  of career  to career  teachers.  are presented i n  Some  the  social  d e c i s i o n making a r e f o l l o w e d  change  in  individual  general  and  to  recommendations  late  complete  list.  1. The Mitchell,  social  learning  Jones and Krumboltz  of  positive  but  a l s o a s e t of negative  types  to career  2. aspects  In  i n the present  could  groups  of s k i l l e d  be compared  matched t r a d e s m e n who do tradesmen teaching; trades.  both  who late  leave entry  these  of s i x skills  examination  and r e s t r i c t e d  J o n e s and K r u m b o l t z  i s recommended. used  a set  propositions.  encompassing  tradesmen  by  research,  which a f f e c t  encompassing  be made u s i n g  to test  of comparison  population  study  A more  o f t h e work o f M i t c h e l l ,  use  not only  p r o p o s i t i o n s and a group  choice.  order  applied  (1979) p r o d u c e d  p r o p o s i t i o n s , as used  of a t a r g e t g r o u p c o u l d  the  principles  of l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and events  related  the  research  Recommendations r e l e v a n t t o  principles  those  Research  in  (1979)  F o r example, the  present  t o any one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s : not to  teachers  leave  their  trade;  matched  enter  occupations  other  than  from  backgrounds  other  than  1 84  3.  Jones  recommended learning It  and  Jung  priorities  principles  i s suggested  undertaking  for  as  that  (1979)  set  research  out  related  a p p l i e d to career  these  priorities  further  research  discovery  approach used  a  be  which  list  of  ten  to  social  d e c i s i o n making.  consulted  prior  to  incorporates  this  approach.  4.  The  elicited  several  congruent Further  with  aspects  the  principles  research  base would y i e l d  of  more  career  of  into career  i n the  change  reference  change u s i n g  information  on  the  present which  group this  study were  theory.  theoretical  strength  of  this  relationship.  5. entering  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s planned  teaching.  T h e r e was  The  career  two  factors intersected.  is  most  statement  likely  to  Further  to help  occur.  l e a v i n g the  a push-pull  c h a n g e d i s c u s s i o n was  quantifiable  on  effect  trades at  made a t a p o i n t where research  may  work. these  develop  i n d i c a t e when a c a r e e r  and  a  change  185  6.  Although  longitudinal 1978;  longitudinal  7.  As  false  support.  taken  on  role  of  adult  career  of  relevant  and  non-use  effectiveness  the  the  f o r more span  of  (1983) p o i n t e d  of c a r e e r  context  choice  out,  may  relevant  (1975,  p.37).  the  of of  the  personal  Thomas commented,  Armstrong  s e c t i o n s of readily this  information,  counsellor.  c h a n g e r s by  is  family  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  a career  accessible.  i t s work.  This  be  present  and  social  context  of  particularly "Career  present was  (1981).  newspapers  service  i n the  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of elicit  None of  counselling  explanations  As  s e r v i c e s of  the  Farmer  in  Levinson,  i s need  s e l e c t i o n over  and  spouses.  a t home"  8. the  Harmon  in  Further  change may  starts  ( e . g.  change d e c i s i o n s were f o u n d  career the  career  interest  assumptions.  Career  t o be  increasing  Sheehy,1976), t h e r e  on  such evidence  b a s e d on  study  1980;  evidence  life.  without  is  s t u d i e s of a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t  Oscherson,  working  there  change  study  also  used  found  in  Casual  reading  i n d i c a t e that  career  Research  could  i n t o the  assist  in  use the  186  9. often  When a d u l t s change c a r e e r s  quite  relevant  different  to  discover  lifestyle,  set if  i n terms o f ,  of  career  changers  f o r example,  more common t o members of  than  their  indication was  of  proposed  (1985)  this. by  in  However,  in a  fathers. highest rebound  effect.  who  particular  11.  teachers  Second  i f this  of  career  pattern  change c a r e e r s .  may  a  pastimes,  there  career  lead  was  these  developed  for  had  some lines  by  Bolles  changers.  to  a  deeper  choice.  study  change  study  and  be  occupations  somewhat a l o n g  1973)  socio-economic  This  new  and  would  already  their  manual  present  becoming  level.  (1966;  second c a r e e r  the  On  approach  It  i n t e r e s t s or  present  investigation  lower  illuminated people  of  In  An  the  self-help  further  10.  In  Holland  his  understanding  trades  old.  i n a new  colleagues.  w h i c h was of  i t results  56.8% level they  of than  men  worked  that  of  w o u l d move up  direction choice  entry  into  be  in other  teachers  at  their  resulted would  were examined Late  the  the  in  a  further  groups  w o u l d be  of of  interest.  When  their  career  found  that  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  change w i t h older  friends  teachers  t h a n y o u n g e r members o f  the  present  who  were  were somewhat profession.  study  discussed  teachers,  they  less enthusiastic  I t i s not  known  if  187  this  attitude  generally  loss  of e n t h u s i a s m  than  experience,  for  the  i s found  benefit  in the  beginning  But  spite  classroom  teacher's  attitude  to  if  of age, with  a  factor  teachers  the  late  teachers.  of  may  age  be  The  would  risk is  doubly  of m a t u r i t y  phenomenon  profession  rather  approach  teachers  combination  If  a poor  beginner's  entry  their  optimism.  their  among o l d e r  t o be  second c a r e e r  profession.  retained  exists  over  of  time  and  teacher warrants  investigation.  12. entrants  Teaching from  is  a  the  career  profession  wide  homemakers, p r i e s t s of  a  and  range  of  decision  Further  of  late  recommended.  L o n g t i t u d i n a l studies are  professional  and  their  new  career.  preparation  13. recognized  of  as  such.  provides  Such  future late  Certain as  being  relationship teachers  personal  are  It  conducive teacher  officially may  opportunity  information  teaching  between not  experiences  entry  be for  late  such  as  investigation  entry  teachers  needed along  to  the  would  is  examine  contour  of  benefit  the  coach,  are  teachers.  roles, t o the and  such  as  c r e a t i o n of a student.  c o u n s e l l o r s they  that  attracts  backgrounds,  businessmen.  change  which  the  casual  nature  of  personal  Although often  function  their  interaction.  some  teaching  This  less  188  formal  instructional  Industrial It  Education,  i s recommended  for  teachers  investigated. for  their  their  as  lives.  investigate that  of  these  A positive  Almost  present  areas  counsellor  other  subject  finding  would  have  education  80% o f  a  be  o f some  beneficial.  participants  had  considered  a t some e a r l i e r  Research  career  occurrence  be  implications  a possible occupation  the  as  role  areas  p r o g r a m where i n c l u s i o n  the  into  such  Education.  and  second  of t h i s  second c a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e merely  postponed.  in  Home E c o n o m i c s and O u t d o o r  i n c o u n s e l l i n g may  14. teaching  is  t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of  teacher  coursework  style  selection  phenomenon. first  point in  career  could  I t may  be  choices  189  BIBLIOGRAPHY  190  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l t i m u s , C. A., & T e r s i n e , R. J . C h r o n o l o g i c a l age and job satisfaction: The young b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r . Academy of Management J o u r n a l , 1973, j_6, 53-56. A r b i e t e r ,S., A s l a n i a n , C . B., S c h m e r b e c k , F. A., Brecknell, H. M. 40 M i l l i o n A m e r i c a n s i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n : The need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1978. A r m s t r o n g , . J . C. D e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r s and outcome of m i d l i f e career changers. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 30, 205-211. Bandura, A. B e h a v i o r t h e o r y P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1974, 29, B a n d u r a , A. S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Prentice Hall, 1977. B e c k e r , H. 1964,  S. P e r s o n a l 27, 40-53.  and t h e m o d e l s of man. 859-869.  American  T h e o r y . Englewood C l i f f s ,  change  in  adult  life.  N.  J.:  Sociometry,  Becker, H. S., & S t r a u s s , A. L. C a r e e r s , p e r s o n a l i t y and a d u l t s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In N e u g a r t e n , B. L. ( E d . ) , Middle age and a g i n g : A r e a d e r i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1968. Blau,  P. M., G u s t a d , R. J . , P a r n e s , H. S., & W i l c o x , R. C. Occupational choices: A conceptual framework. In D. Zytowski (Ed.), V o c a t i o n a l behavior: Readings i n theory and r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1968.  Blishen, for and  B. R., & M c R o b e r t s H. A r e v i s e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x o c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a . C a n a d i a n Review of S o c i o l o g y A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1976, j_3, 71-79.  B l o l a n d , P. A. & S e l b y , T. J . F a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r e e r c h a n g e among s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s : A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, 5(3), 13-24. Bolles, R. N. What c o l o r i s y o u r p a r a c h u t e ? : A manual f o r j o b h u n t e r s and c a r e e r c h a n g e r s . C a l . : Ten Speed P r e s s , 1985.  practical Berkeley,  191  B r a d b u r n , N. M., & Sudman, S. I m p r o v i n g i n t e r v i e w method and q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n : Response e f f e c t s to t h r e a t e n i n g questions in survey r e s e a r c h . Chigago: N a t i o n a l Opinion Research Center, 1979. Byrne, J . J . O c c u p a t i o n a l Review, 1975, 9 8 ( 2 ) ,  m o b i l i t y of 53-59.  workers. Monthly  Labor  Campbell, R. E., & Heffernan, J. M. Adult vocational behavior. In W. B. Walsh & S. H. Osipow ( E d s . ) , Handbook o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 ) . Hillsdale, N. J . : E r l b a u m , 1983. Crites, J. 0. Career M a t u r i t y McGraw-Hill, 1973. Crites, J. 0. T h e o r y and maturity inventory. McGraw-Hill, 1978. Dohrenwend, events: 1974.  Inventory,  r e s e a r c h handbook f o r t h e c a r e e r Monterey, Cal.: C. T. B.  R. S., & Dohrenwend, B. T h e i r n a t u r e and e f f e c t s .  D o t y , M. S., & B e t z , N. E. validity of Holland's enterprising situation. 1979, J_5, 207-216.  Monterey, C a l . :  P. New  Stressful life York: Wiley,  Comparison of the concurrent t h e o r y f o r men and women i n an J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior,  D r i v e r , M. J . C a r e e r c o n c e p t s : A new approach to career research. In R. Katz ( E d . ) , New d i m e n s i o n s i n human r e s o u r c e management. E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice -Hall, 1980. Dwight, A. H. Once a blue c o l l a r worker. V o c a t i o n a l 318-325.  c o l l a r worker, always a blue G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 26,  E v a n s , K. M. Study of attitudes towards teaching as a career. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1952, 3_2, 6 3 - 6 9 . Festinger, 111.:  R. L. Theory of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e . Row P e t e r s o n , 1957.  Fiske, D. W. The limits p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l of  Evanston,  of the c o n v e n t i o n a l s c i e n c e P e r s o n a l i t y , 1974, 42, 1-11.  of  192  Foreman, M. E . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : How we g e t from here to there. (Review of S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making by A. M. M i t c h e l l , G. B. J o n e s & J . D. K r u m b o l t z ( E d s . ) ) . C o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 25, 334-335. F r e d r i c k s o n , R. H., Macy. F. adult career change. 1978, 57, 166-169.  U., & V i c k e r s , D. Barriers to P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l ,  G i n z b e r g , E., G i n s b u r g , J . , A l e x r a d , S., & Herma, J. O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . New Y o r k : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1964. Gordon, L. V. Harcourt, G o t t f r e d s o n , G. adulthood. 436-445.  Gordon p e r s o n a l Brace & World,  profile 1963.  and  m a n u a l . New  L.  York:  D. Career stability and redirection J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 1977,  in 62,  G o t t f r e d s o n , L. S. Analytical d e s c r i p t i o n of employment according to race, s e x , p r e s t i g e and H o l l a n d t y p e o f work. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1978, 13, 210-221. Gottfredson, L. S. Circumscription and compromise: A developmental theory of occupational aspirations. J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y Monograph, 1981, 28, 545-579. Gross, E. Patterns of organizational and occupational s o c i a l i z a t i o n . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1975, 24, 140-149. Hahn,  C. P. D i m e n s i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and motivation. Pittsburgh: American Institute Research, 1959.  Hall,  D. T. Careers Goodyear, 1976.  in organizations.  Santa Monica  career for Cal.:  Hammer, J . H., & V a r d i , Y. Locus of control and career self-management among nonsupervisory employees in industrial settings. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 98 1 , j_8 , 1 3-29. Harmon, L. W., & F a r m e r , H. S. C u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s i n vocational psychology. In W. B. W a l s h & S. H. Osipow (Eds.) Handbook of v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y (Vol. 1). H i l l s i d e , N. J . : E r l b a u m , 1983.  193  Hartley, R. Relationships between perceived values and a c c e p t a n c e o f a new r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1960, 5j_, 181-190. Haubrich, V. F. M o t i v e s of p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , i 9 6 0 , J J _ , 381-386. H e l s o n , R., St M i t c h e l l , V. Personality. P s y c h o l o g y , 1978, 29, 555-585. Herzberg, T., & M a u s n e r , B., t o work. New Y o r k : W i l e y ,  Journal  of  A n n u a l Review  of  & Snyderman, B. 1959.  B.  Motivation  Hiestand, D. L. Changing c a r e e r s a f t e r t h i r t y - f i v e . York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. H o l l a n d , J . L. Inventory. Palo Press, 1965.  New  M a n u a l f o r the V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e Alto, Cal.: Counselling Psychologist  H o l l a n d , J . L. The p s y c h o l o g y Mass.: B l a i s d e l l , 1966.  of  vocational choice.  Waltham,  H o l l a n d , J . L. M a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s : A t h e o r y of c a r e e r s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1973. Hollander, E . P. & Hunt, R. s o c i a l psychology (3rd University Press, 1971. Homans, G. C. Harcourt,  The n a t u r e of Brace & World,  G. Current ed.). New social 1967.  Hyman, H. H. R e f l e c t i o n s on r e f e r e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1960, 24, 383-396.  perspectives in York: Oxford  science.  New  groups. P u b l i c  York: Opinion  Jepsen, D. A., St D i l l e y , J . J . V o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g models. Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1974, 44, 331-349. J o n e s , G. B. & J u n g , S. M. R e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s and resources in career decision making. In A. M. M i t c h e l l , G. B. Jones & J . D. Krumboltz (Eds.), S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . C r a n s t o n , R. I . : C a r r o l l P r e s s , 1 979. Karp,  D. A. St Y o e l s , W. C. E x p e r i e n c i n g t h e l i f e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f a g i n g . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: 1982.  cycle: A Thomas,  194  Korman, A. Journal K r a n t z , D. aging  K. of  Self esteem v a r i a b l e i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 50, 479-486.  L. S a n t a Fe e x p e r i e n c e . In S. B. Sarason, Work, and s o c i a l l i f e . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1977.  Krumboltz, J. D. S o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . In A. M. Mitchell, G. B. Jones & J. D. Krumboltz (Eds.), S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . C r a n s t o n , R. I . : C a r r o l l , 1979. L e v i n s o n , D. McKee, 1 978.  J . , Barrow, C , Klein, E., B. S e a s o n s o f a man's l i f e .  L o r t i e , D. C. S c h o o l t e a c h e r : A s o c i o l o g i c a l U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975.  Levinson, M., & New York: Knopf,  study.  Chicago:  Louis, M. R. Career transitions: Varieties c o m m o n a l i t i e s . Academy of Management Review, 1980, 329-340. Maslow, A. H. Theory of human m o t i v a t i o n . Review, 1943, 50, 370-396. M e r t o n , R. 111.:  K. S o c i a l t h e o r y and Free Press, 1957.  Mifflen, F. J . & M i f f l e n , S. C. Canada and b e y o n d . C a l g a r y ,  social  Psychological  structure.  Glencoe,  The s o c i o l o g y of education: Alberta: Detselig, 1982.  M i l l e r , M. F. R e l a t i o n s h i p o f v o c a t i o n a l maturity to values. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1974, 367-371. Mischel, W. American  On the future of P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1977,  and 5,  personality 32, 246-254.  work 5,  measurement.  Mitchell, A. M., Jones, G. B. & K r u m b o l t z , J . D. (Eds.), S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . Cranston, R. I . : C a r r o l l , 1979. Morrison, A., & Mclntyre, D. T e a c h e r s and Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n , 1969. Neapolitan, J. Occupational change exploratory investigation. B e h a v i o r , 1980, ]_6, 212-225.  teaching.  in mid-career: An J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l  195  Nie,  N.H. S t a t i s t i c a l package Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1975.  f o r the s o c i a l  sciences.  O s h e r s o n , S. H a n g i n g on o r l e t t i n g go: Men and c a r e e r i n m i d - l i f e . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1980. Osipow, S. H. T h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1973.  New  change  (2nd e d . ) .  New  Osipow, S. H. R e s e a r c h i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g : An a n a l y s i s o f i s s u e s and p r o b l e m s . C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1982, 10, 27-34. ~~ P a r s o n s , G. E . , & W i g t a i l , J . V. Occupational mobility as measured by Holland's theory of c a r e e r selection. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1974, 5, 321-320. P e a c o c k , J . C , Rush, A. C, & Mildovich, G. T. Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model o f career/life stages. Journal of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1980, J_6, 347-359. Peters, and  H. J . , & H a n s e n , J . C. ( E d s . ) , V o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1966.  P h i l l i p s , S. D. C a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n a d u l t h o o d . Vocational Behavior, 1982, 20, 129-140.  J o u r n a l of  k  Pietrofesa, J . J . , & S p l e t e , H. C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : and r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : Grune & S t r a t t o n , 1975. Roe,  A. E a r l y d e t e r m i n a n t s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1957, 4, 212-217.  Rotter, J. B., & Rafferty, J. Incomplete Sentences Blank. New C o r p o r a t i o n , 1950.  Theory  J o u r n a l of  E . Manual f o r R o t t e r York: Psychological  Ryans, D. G. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.-C-. : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1960. S a r a s o n , S. B. Work, a g i n g P r e s s , 1977.  and s o c i a l  c h a n g e . New  York:  Free  Sarason, S. B., S a r a s o n . E . K., & Cowden, P. A g i n g a n d t h e n a t u r e o f work. I n R. H i l l , E. L. M i l l e r , & M. A. Lowther (Eds.), Adult career t r a n s i t i o n s : Current research perspectives. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. (Michigan B u s i n e s s P a p e r s No. 66) .  196  Schalock, D. Berliner Chicago: 1 979.  Research (Ed.), American  on  teacher selection. In D. C. Review o f r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n . Educational Research Asociation,  Scott, G. J . C a r e e r s e a r c h , s e l e c t i o n a n d e n t r y . I n B. W. W a l s h & S. H. Osipow (Eds.), Handbook o f V o c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 2 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N. J . : E r l b a u m , 1983. S e c h r e s t , L . P e r s o n a l i t y . A n n u a l Review o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 2 7 , 1-27. Sheehy, G. P a s s a g e s : P r e d i c t a b l e c h a n g e s Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1976.  in adult  life.  S h i b u t a n i , T. R e f e r e n c e groups as p e r s p e c t i v e s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 1955, 6 0 , 5 6 2 - 5 7 0 .  New  American  S o f e r , C. Men i n m i d - c a r e e r : A s t u d y o f B r i t i s h managers and technical specialists. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Spokane, A. R., & H e r z o g - S p o k a n e , R. E f f e c t s o f information on p r e f e r e n c e f o r an o c c u p a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f Employment C o u n s e l l i n g , 1981, J_8, 6 4 - 7 2 . S p r e i t z e r , E . , & S n y d e r , E . Work o r i e n t a t i o n , meaning o f l e i s u r e and mental h e a l t h . J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h, 1974, 6, 2 0 7 - 2 1 9 . S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . 1981 Census o f Canada p o p u l a t i o n - l a b o u r f o r c e : O c c u p a t i o n by d e m o g r a p h i c and e d u c a t i o n a l characteristics. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services, 1983(a). S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . 1981 Census o f Canada p o p u l a t i o n f o r c e : O c c u p a t i o n by c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1983(b). S t r o n g , E . K. Stanford,  -  labour Ottawa:  V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f men a n d women. C a l . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1943.  S u p e r , D. E . P s y c h o l o g y 1957.  of C a r e e r s .  New  York: Harper  Super, D. E . M a n u a l f o r t h e Work V a l u e s H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1970.  Inventory.  &  Row,  Boston:  1 97  Super, D. E. Life-span, development. Journal 282-298.  life-space approach to career o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, 16,  Super, D. E., & Bohm, M. J. Occupational psychology. B e l m o n t , C a l . : Wadsworth, 1970. Super, D. E . , & H a l l , D. T. C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : and p l a n n i n g . A n n u a l Review o f P s y c h o l o g y , 333-372.  Exploration 1978, 29,  S u p e r , D. E . , S t a n i s h e v s k y , R., M a t l i n , N., & J o r d a a n , J . P. Career development: S e l f concept t h e o r y . New York: C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e Examination Board, 1963. Thomas, L. E . Why s t u d y m i d - l i f e c a r e e r change? G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1975, 24, 37-40.  Vocational  Thomas, L. E. Mid-career changes: Self-selected or externally mandated. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 25, 320-321. Thomas, L. E. Cause of m i d - l i f e change f r o m h i g h s t a t u s careers. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1979, 27, 202-208. Thomas, L. E . T y p o l o g y of m i d - l i f e c a r e e r c h a n g e r s . of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, J_6, 173-182.  Journal  Thomas, L. E . , M e l a , R. L., R o b b i n s , P. I . , Harvey, D. W. Corporate dropouts: A preliminary typology. Vocational G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1976, 2_4, 220-228. T i e d e m a n , D. V., & O'Hara, R. P. Career development: Choice and a d j u s t m e n t . New Y o r k : C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n Board, 1963. T u r n e r , R. H. R e f e r e n c e g r o u p s o f t h e S o c i a l F o c u s , 1955, 34, 130-136.  future-oriented  men.  Vaitenas, R., & Weiner, Y. D e v e l o p m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l and interest factors in voluntary mid-career change. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1977, JJ_, 291-304. Waller, W. Russell,  Sociology 1932.  of t e a c h i n g .  New  York:  Russell  &  W a t e r s , E . B., & Goodman, J . I g e t by with a little help from my friends: The importance of support systems. V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 29, 362-369.  198  W e s t b r o o k , B. W. Career maturity: The concept, the instrument and the research. In W. B. W a l s h & S. H. Osipow ( E d s . ) , Handbook o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y (Vol. 1 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N. J . : E r l b a u m , 1983. W i l e n s k y , H. L. O r d e r l y c a r e e r s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In H. J . P e t e r s & J . C. Hansen ( E d s . ) , V o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1966. Wood,  K. E. What motivates students to teach? Journal T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 2 9 ( 6 ) , 48-50.  of  Yamamota, K., & D a v i s , 0. L. J r . T e a c h e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n : 1. M o t i v a t i o n , i d e a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c y , and i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l attitude. J o u r n a l of T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1966, 17, 205-209. Z y t o w s k i , D. G. The concept G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1970,  of J_8,  work values. 1 76-186.  Vocational  199  APPENDIX  THE  SPONSORED  PROGRAM IN  EDUCATION,  A  THE D I V I S I O N  UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H  OF  INDUSTRIAL  COLUMBIA  200  THE T h i s program Successful prior  to  a  PROGRAM  Bachelor  c a n d i d a t e s may q u a l i f y  to completion The  and  leads  SPONSORED  program  of  Education  for teaching  degree.  certification  of the degree. i s sponsored  i s open t o q u a l i f i e d  by t h e M i n i s t r y  journeymen  tradesmen  of Education  o f 25 y e a r s o r  older. Extended Winter Technical 24  courses;  (Burnaby  professional  campus)  courses;  student  teaching  units Summer S e s s i o n  Professional 6  Term  (Main  U.B.C. Campus)  courses  units Internship  The  student  position During of  this  professional or  complete session  o b t a i n s an i n d u s t r i a l  and i s then  a faculty  Six  teacher  internship  assigned  t o an e i g h t month  the student  works under  member a n d upon c o m p l e t i o n course  eight the  Sessions  B.Ed. D e g r e e  fees are charged.  units.  Total  75-81 u n i t s .  teaching  internship.  the d i r e c t i o n  receives 3 units  of  credit.  Summer  42-48  education  in  which  requirements.  the  Candidates  Normal  summer  APPENDIX DESCRIPTION  OF  B  PARTICIPANTS  APPENDIX B DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS  Part i c i pant  1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 1G 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  Occupat i on Carpenter - foreman A r c h i t e c t u r a l draftsman Weider/fabr i c a t o r Cabi netmaker Welder/fabricator P a i n t e r - foreman Carpenter Carpenter Greenhouse operator Boatbu i1der Carpenter Mechanic - heavy duty Mach i n i s t Mechanic - heavy duty E l e c t r i c i a n - foreman Marine engineer - CPO Carpenter - foreman Mechanic - v e h i c l e Electronics technician Teacher's aide - woodwork Electronics technician Weider/fabricator Mechanic - v e h i c l e Mechanic - v e h i c l e Mechanic - v e h i c l e Mechanic - v e h i c l e Tool maker Weider/fabricator E1ectr i c i an Mach i n i s t Weider/fabr i cator Sheetmetal worker Diving instructor Carpenter Carpenter Carpenter Boatbu i1der  Age 29 31 24 38 24 26 28 26 36 54 26 38 45 28 26 44 29 25 27 24 29 28 33 30 26 27 40 25 25 27 29 28 52 35 29 24 24  Mar i t a l Status M M M S M M S M M M S M M M M M M S M S M M S M M M S M S S S M M M S S M  Educational  Level  B . Sc. Some Col 1ege < Some U n i v e r s i t y Secondary School Some Col 1ege Some U n i v e r s i t y Some U n i v e r s i t y B.A. Some U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e D i p1oma Secondary School Secondary School Some Col 1ege Some U n i v e r s i t y Some Col 1ege Some U n i v e r s i t y Some U n i v e r s i t y Some U n i v e r s i t y Some U n i v e r s i t y Some Col 1ege Secondary School B.A. B.Sc. Some U n i v e r s i t y Some Col 1ege Some U n i v e r s i t y Secondary School Some U n i v e r s i t y Some Col 1ege Secondary School Some U n i v e r s i t y Some Col 1ege Secondary School Some U n i v e r s i t y B.R. E. Secondary School Some U n i v e r s i t y  Place of B i r t h Canada U.K. Canada B.C. B.C. Canada B.C. Canada B.C. U.K. B.C. U.S.A. Hoi land B.C. B.C. Canada U.S.A. B.C. B.C. B.C. U.K. B.C. U.S.A. B.C. B.C. B.C. Germany B.C. B.C. Canada Roman i a B.C. Canada Canada Canada B.C. Canada  First  Language  E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh Eng1i sh English E n g l i sh Engl i sh E n g l i sh German Dutch E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh Greek E n g l i sh German E n g l i sh German English Roman i an E n g l i sh E n g l i sh E n g l i sh German Engl.i sh E n g l i sh  Citizenship C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen Ci t izen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen Permanent C i t i zen Citizen C i t i zen C i t i zen Ci t i z e n C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t izen Permanent C i t i zen Permanent C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen Permanent C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen C i t i zen  Status  Res i dent  Res i dent Resident  Res i dent  O  203  APPENDIX INITIAL  VERSION  OF  C  INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  204  I N I T I A L VERSION OF  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  1. What k i n d o f work a r e y o u d o i n g 2. How  l o n g have you been d o i n g  now?  this?  3. I s t h a t t h e k i n d of work y o u have been d o i n g most working l i f e ? If  of  your  'no'...  3a. What o t h e r 3b. How If  kinds  l o n g were  o f work have you  you d o i n g  done?  that?  'yes'...  3c. You d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g 4. What  else?  i s making y o u c h a n g e y o u r  5. When d i d y o u s t a r t  mind about  ing?  t h i n k i n g about changing  6. Was there anything change a t t h i s t i m e ?  in particular  your  t h a t made you want  7. What i s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u i n c h o o s i n g a new l i n e ( P i l o t a s open ended) P r o b e : What makes a j o b a t t r a c t i v e t o you? 8. What do you t h i n k y o u w i l l work a t t h i s t i m e ? 9. Do y o u a n t i c i p a t e t h i s time?  any p r o b l e m s g o i n g you a r e g o i n g  11. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g  you'll  13. How  considered  look  t o miss  forward  new  t e a c h i n g t h a t makes i t a good  k i n d of people  do y o u t h i n k make t h e b e s t  l i n e of at  old line  to leaving  other  to  work?  job  i n your  f a r d i d y o u go t o w a r d s e n t e r i n g t h e s e  15. What  lines  a  work  i s i t about  other  into  of  14. What you?  of  g a i n by e n t e r i n g a new  10. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g of work?  12. Have you teaching?  job?  behind? besides jobs? job' for  teachers?  205  16. I s this teacher?  the  17. Have you tutoring?  first  ever  done  time  you  any  have c o n s i d e r e d  teaching,  or  being a  coaching  or  18. I s there anyone you can t h i n k o f , e i t h e r r e c e n t l y or l o n g ago, who may have i n f l u e n c e d y o u r d e c i s i o n t o t h i n k about t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r ? 19. What p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s do y o u f e e l f i t well with teaching?  y o u have t h a t  would  20. From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how the people you live with f e e l about your g o i n g i n t o teaching? (Card)  (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)  P r o b e : How  Very s u p p o r t i v e F a i r l y supportive Non-commital s u p p o r t i v e F a i r l y unsupportive Very unsupportive Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e a l o n e  do you c h i l d r e n  feel?  21. From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how y o u r income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r a b o u t five years will compare w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t income? (Card)  22. Do if  (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)  Much h i g h e r S l i g h t l y higher About t h e same Slightly less Much l e s s Dont'know  you t h i n k t h e r e w i l l be any c h a n g e s t o y o u r you become a t e a c h e r ?  lifestyle  23. From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much you will be l i v i n g a p a r t from y o u r f a m i l y i f y o u e n t e r t h e I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n program? (Card)  (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)  A l l of the time Most o f t h e t i m e P a r t of t h e time None o f t h e t i m e Not m a r r i e d  ( n o t weekends e t c . )  206  24.  From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d you much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s you year? (Card) (A) E x t r e m e (B) H i g h (C) M o d e r a t e (D) S l i g h t (E) None  25.  Will enter  26.  What do you next year?  think  you'll  l i k e most a b o u t  27.  What do  think  you'll  enjoy  28.  What a r e teacher?  29.  What do  30.  Where do  you  hope t o be  i n your c a r e e r  31.  Where do  you  hope t o be  i n 10 y e a r s  32.  From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s s i z e o f community i n w h i c h you would l i k e t o t e a c h ?  you the  (Card)  family training  you you you  (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (E)  experience program?  looking think  select a l e t t e r that expect during the  forward  will  be  Population Population Population Population Population Population  any  t o most  Where do you is? (Cue: "Now details.")  35.  How  o l d were you  36.  And  your  37.  What  sex  i s your  on  Do  you  last  i s male/female. marital  you  to  school  job  as ' a  problems? in 5 years  time?  time? the  a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s the have s p e n t most o f y o u r  know what  t o f i n i s h up  your  if  500,000 o r more? 100,000 t o 500,000 50,000 t o 100,000 10,000 t o 50,000 2,500 t o 10,000 2,5000 o r l e s s  34.  like  going  i n your  your b i g g e s t  From t h i s c a r d , w o u l d you s e l e c t size of community i n w h i c h you life? (Same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 32)  I'd  major changes  least?  33.  l i v e now?  tells how training  status?  with  birthday?  the a  few  population background  207  38.  How  many c h i l d r e n  39.  How  o l d a r e they?  40.  From t h i s c a r d , would y o u s e l e c t your p r e s e n t l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Card)  do y o u have?  a  letter  What was y o u r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? P r o b e : What d i d he do i n t h a t j o b ?  42.  From your  this card, would you s e l e c t f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ?  (Card)  a letter  that  post  tells  (A) (B) (C) (D)  Elementary school Some h i g h s c h o o l Completed h i g h s c h o o l Some c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , o r o t h e r p o s t high school i n s t i t u t i o n (E) C o m p l e t e d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , o r o t h e r post high school i n s t i t u t i o n  43.  What was y o u r m o t h e r ' s l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 42 a b o v e )  44.  What was y o u r  mother's  occupation?  P r o b e : D i d she work f u l l 45.  Where were y o u b o r n ?  46.  Where was y o u r  47.  And y o u r  48.  When y o u were g r o w i n g home?  49.  tells  (A) C o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l (B) Some c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , o r o t h e r post high school i n s t i t u t i o n (C) C o m p l e t e d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r o t h e r high school i n s t i t u t i o n  41.  (Cue:  that  time  or p a r t  time?  f a t h e r born?  mother?  "And t h e l a s t  up, what  question  Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n , have a n o t h e r s t a t u s ?  l a n g u a g e d i d y o u speak a t  i s ...") a Landed  Immigrant  o r do y o u  208  APPENDIX D  AREAS OF INVESTIGATION WITH PROPOSITIONS, RESEARCH AND  RELEVANT  ITEMS ON INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  QUESTIONS  209  AREA OF Did  INVESTIGATION 1  the p r o p o s i t i o n s applying s o c i a l  career  decision  making a s s i s t  teaching  Proposition  An for  a  in explaining  as a second  individual  course  of  i s more  t h e c h o i c e of  career?  study,  likely an  positively  for  reinforced  are a s s o c i a t e d with  course,  to  express  preference  o c c u p a t i o n , o r t h e t a s k s and  o f work  that  p r i n c i p l e s to  A  consequences of a f i e l d  learned  learning  i f that  engaging the  individual  in activities  successful  o c c u p a t i o n or f i e l d  o f work.  has  been  s/he h a s  performance (Krumboltz,  of 1979,  p.39)  Research praise  Question  for their  19. Have y o u e v e r  1:  behaviour  Have  the  participants  in a teaching related  done any t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g  ( p r o b e ) Have you spent any time summer camps, a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? 22.  D i d a n y o n e comment on how (probe)  What  sort  of t h i n g  with  you d i d ? d i d they  say?  received  situation?  or t u t o r i n g ? youth  groups,  210  Research a  feeling  teaching  Question  2:  Have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  of p l e a s u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h related  their  done any t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g  (probe) Have you spent any time summer camps, a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? 20.  How  d i d t h a t go?  21.  How  d i d you f e e l  An for  a  individual  a  of  i s more l i k e l y study,  valued s/he  successful  performance  student  has  (Krumboltz,  Research  recognized  an  or t u t o r i n g ?  with  to express  occupation  work being  learned  youth  groups,  if  that  individual  has  f o r engaging  associated  of t h a t c o u r s e ,  preference  or the t a s k s and  reinforced  are  a  with  occupation  or  in the  field  1979, p.39)  Question  behaviours  of  model  activities  work.  a  about i t ?  consequences of a f i e l d  of  in  B  course  observed  behaviour  situation?  19. Have y o u e v e r  Proposition  experienced  3:  Have  in Industrial  as rewarding  the  participants  Education  observed  c l a s s e s which a r e  to teachers?  23. When you were at secondary I n d u s t r i a l Education classes?  school,  did  you  take  21 1  24.  How much do Industrial this card.  25.  How o f t e n d i d t h e y select a letter.  26.  How much of a discipline problem I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? ' P l e a s e s e l e c t  27.  How Ed.  28.  Do you t h i n k t h e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o I n d u s t r i a l Ed. t e a c h e r t h a n t o o t h e r  29.  How well along with letter.  An  p r o j e c t s completed? was there a letter.  of  a  Research  you  field  Please in  the  Industrial to the staff?  Ed. t e a c h e r s got Please select a  was  of  4:  a source  have any  work  engaging  (Krumboltz,  Question  Have  a  tasks  1979,  been  person  who  participants  known  a  reinforcement?  31.  Are  32.  When you were i n s c h o o l were t h e r e any particularly liked?  i n your  occupation  p.40)  the  are  and  has  in that course,  Do  teachers  preference  the  valued  30.  t h e r e any  who  or  a  i f t h a t person  by  of p o s i t i v e  friends  to express  occupation  reinforced  advocates  o f work.  who  an  positively  and/or  field  i s more l i k e l y  study,  of  consistently models  the  be closer members of  do you t h i n k t h e I n d u s t r i a l t h e o t h e r members o f s t a f f ?  individual  a course  teacher  their  C  consequences  or  get  w e l l d i d the s t u d e n t s get a l o n g w i t h teacher? Please select a l e t t e r .  Proposition  for  you think the students learned in the Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please select a l e t t e r from'  teachers? family? teachers  that  you  212  Research and/or a s an  Question  5:  f a m i l y members who  Do  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  support  their  choice  How do y o u r c l o s e into teaching?  34.  What a b o u t  35.  Do your teacher?  36.  What do  37.  What d o e s y o u r  38.  Can you t h i n k of anyone e l s e i m p o r t a n t been s u p p o r t i v e i n making t h e c h a n g e ?  39.  Can you critical?  parents they  of  in  field  a  positive  teaching  film  or  image o f  and  images  decision  t o become a  job?  to  you  t o you  who  who was  has a bit  to express  a preference  t a s k s and  individual associated  has with  the a c t i v i t i e s  for  a  consequences  been e x p o s e d that  to  course,  related  to i t .  p.40)  Question  role  your  important  of work o r  television the  go  with?  o c c u p a t i o n or the  field  Research  to  D  an  1979,  decision  think?  of work i f t h a t  occupation,  your  t e a c h i n g as a  i s more l i k e l y  words  about  worked about  t h i n k about  study,  (Krumboltz,  you  know  wife  feel  t h i n k of anyone  individual  course  friends  the p e o p l e  Proposition  a  of  friends  occupation?  33.  An  have  of  6: Have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s have w a t c h e d  p r o g r a m w h i c h has school  teacher?  portrayed a  positive  213  40.  Have y o u seen any s c h o o l s or teaching?  41.  Can y o u r e c a l l  42.  What impression film/program?  43.  What  44.  Do your think this film/program y o u r d e c i s i o n t o become a t e a c h e r ?  book  sort  any s c e n e s of  of person  Research  Question  which  portrayed  teaching  a s an  films  or t e l e v i s i o n  programs about  i n an I n d u s t r i a l  teaching  did  you  Ed. c l a s s ? get  from  the  was t h e t e a c h e r ? h a d any i n f l u e n c e on  7: Have t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a  positive  image  have r e a d  of  teachers  a or  occupation?  45.  Have y o u r e a d any books a b o u t  s c h o o l s or teaching?  46.  Can y o u r e c a l l Class?  an  47.  What  impressions  48.  What  sort  49.  Do you t h i n k t h i s a teacher?  any s c e n e s  in  Industrial  o f t e a c h i n g d i d y o u g e t from  of person  Ed. c l a s s ? t h e book?  was t h e t e a c h e r ? book a f f e c t e d  your  decision  t o become  AREA OF INVESTIGATION 2 What f a c t o r s process? Orienting  facilitated  o r impeded  the career  change  Statement  Whenever a change certain  factors  (Louis,  1980)  i n career  which a i d or h i n d e r  i s considered there the t r a n s i t i o n  exist  process.  214  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 8: major  barriers  in  the  What career  factors change  are from  r e c o g n i z e d as tradesman  to  teacher?  11. Do y o u a n t i c i p a t e any p r o b l e m s work a t t h i s t i m e ? ( p r o b e ) What 54. When y o u anything you?  kind  g o i n g i n t o a new  o f p r o b l e m s ? / None a t a l l ?  were thinking of changing jobs was there i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t made t h e move d i f f i c u l t f o r  55. Can y o u t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g that would p r e v e n t e d you from c h a n g i n g j o b s ?  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 9; major  barriers  l i n e of  in  the  What  career  have  completely  f a c t o r s are recognized as change  from  tradesman  to  teacher?  12. Now t h a t you've more o r l e s s d e c i d e d t o change y o u r j o b , how do y o u f e e l a b o u t m a k i n g t h e change? 56. What s o r t  of t h i n g  h e l p e d y o u make t h e c h a n g e ?  Research Question the  career  change  52.  From t h i s c a r d , would much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s year?  10: How  from tradesman  (A) E x t r e m e (B) H i g h (C) M o d e r a t e (D) S l i g h t (E) None  do f i n a n c i a l  factors  affect  to teacher?  you s e l e c t a l e t t e r you expect during  that your  t e l l s how training  215  53. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u r income f r o m t e a c h i n g a f t e r about five years will compare with y o u r income f o r t h e y e a r b e f o r e y o u e n t e r e d t h e Program? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)  Much h i g h e r S l i g h t l y higher A b o u t t h e same Slightly less Much l e s s Don't know  57. I f y o u h a d t o pay y o u r own u n i v e r s i t y f e e s rather than being sponsored, how l i k e l y i s i t t h a t you would have a p p l i e d f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e program? Please select a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (A) V e r y l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) V e r y  unlikely  Research Question  11:  How  do f a m i l y  factors  a f f e c t the  c a r e e r change f r o m t r a d e s m a n t o t e a c h e r ? 50. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u a r e l i v i n g a p a r t f r o m y o u r f a m i l y now t h a t y o u have e n t e r e d t h e I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n program? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)  A l l of the time Most o f t h e t i m e P a r t o f t h e t i m e ( n o t weekends e t c . ) None o f t h e t i m e Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e a l o n e  51. Have y o u r f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d any major c h a n g e s now you have e n t e r e d t h e t r a i n i n g program? ( p r o b e ) What  sort  that  of changes?  58. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how the people you l i v e w i t h feel about your going into teaching? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) 59. How  Very s u p p o r t i v e Fairly supportive Non-commital F a i r l y unsupportive Very unsupportive Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e  do y o u r  children  feel?  alone  216  AREA OF  Do  the  experiences a  Orienting  series may  s t a b l e or  individual (Super  of  &  unstable  If  histories  is likely Bohm,  unrelated  exist.  career  expectations  3  of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e  career  pattern?  Statement  An careers  and  INVESTIGATION  after  so, and  a  1970).  occupations, such  If an  average of  teaching  unstable  a pattern  i s one  career  would be  three of  a  pattern  reflected  in  expectations.  Research Question teaching  t o p u r s u e an  12:  Have  sequence  the  of  participants  three  or  more  entered unrelated  occupat ions? 1. What k i n d of work were you I n d u s t r i a l Ed. p r o g r a m ? (probe) What do you supervisor, anything 2.  How  long  3.  Is that working  4.  What o t h e r  5.  About how  doing  do i n t h a t j o b ? l i k e that?  d i d you  do  that?  the k i n d life?  of  work you  k i n d of long  before  i n each  done? job?  entered  Were you  have been d o i n g  work have you  were you  you  a  the  foreman,  most o f  your  217  Research into 60.  Question  13: Do t h e  t e a c h i n g as a temporary What time?  do  o r permanent  y o u hope t o be d o i n g  61. What do y o u hope t o be d o i n g  Research occupations  participants  Question  14:  Is  i n your  considered as a career  How  16.  I s t h i s the f i r s t teacher?  time  Research  Question  15:  teaching related  have  teaching  Are  i s important  (probe)  mind a b o u t  Why do y o u want  work  besides  other  considered  stated  t o you i n choosing  being a  being  for  factors?  your you  a new l i n e  job? want  to  o f work?  t o you?  g a i n by e n t e r i n g a new  teacher?  a  ?  t e a c h i n g t h a t makes i t a good t o be a  jobs?  reasons  or e x t r i n s i c  t h a t made  What makes a j o b a t t r a c t i v e  15. What i s i t a b o u t you? 62.  of  t h i n k i n g about c h a n g i n g  10. What do y o u t h i n k y o u w i l l of work a t t h i s t i m e ?  several  then?  the  8. Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r change j o b s a t t h a t t i m e ? 9. What  of  change?  to intrinsic  6. What made y o u c h a n g e y o u r 7. When d i d y o u s t a r t  you  i n 5 years  time?  f a r d i d y o u go t o w a r d s e n t e r i n g t h e s e  17. Why d i d y o u n o t go i n t o  entering  career  one  13. Have you considered other lines teaching? ( p r o b e ) What have y o u t h o u g h t a b o u t ? 14.  entry  commitment?  i n 10 y e a r s  teaching  view  line  job for  218  AREA OF  Do  the  indicate  socio-demoqraphic that entry  into  INVESTIGATION  4  b a c k g r o u n d s of t h e teaching w i l l  participants  provide  upward  social  mobility?  Orienting  Statement  Male  teachers  tend  Entry  into  route  to the middle  to  come from  teaching w i l l  Research participants  before  therefore  class.  Question  16:  What were t h e  1. What k i n d o f work were you I n d u s t r i a l E d . program?  Research of  18.  Question  participants  Have you  had  before  any  provide  backgrounds.  an  accessible  (Schalock,1979)  e n t e r i n g the  (probe) What do you supervisor, anything  blue c o l l a r  occupations  the  program?  doing  b e f o r e you  do i n t h a t j o b ? l i k e that?  entered  Were you  a  17: What were t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r i n g the  teacher  of  program?  training  of any  kind?  the  foreman,  levels  219  70.  From t h i s c a r d w o u l d you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g b e f o r e you e n t e r e d t h e program? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I)  Elementary school Some h i g h s c h o o l Completed high school Some u n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y graduate Graduate degree Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t institution Completed c o l l e g e or other i n s t i t u t ion Don't know  high  school  post  high  your  school  71.  What grade were y o u i n when y o u l e f t for the f i r s t time?  secondary  school  72.  Have y o u h a d a n y informal schooling such as t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e that?  inplant  Research Question parents  74.  18:  (probe)  father's  What was y o u r m o t h e r ' s  76.  Was  that  full-  78.  of  job?  occupation?  19: What was t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of schooling? same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n  And y o u r m o t h e r ' s l e v e l (Use  occupations  or part-time?  Research Question  (Use  the  occupation?  What d i d he do i n t h a t  75.  77.  were  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  What was y o u r  parents  What  a letter  70)  of s c h o o l i n g ?  same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n  70)  that  tells  your  220  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 20: What were t h e p e r s o n a l backgrounds  of  o l d were you  64. And  your  66.  sex  on y o u r  last  ( I f m a r r i e d ) How  79. Where were y o u  status?  long  have y o u been  67.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) What  73.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) And (Use same c a r d  as  68. How  many c h i l d r e n  69. How  o l d are  your  married?  born?  83. A r e you a C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n , you have a n o t h e r s t a t u s ?  81. And  birthday?  i s male.  i s your m a r i t a l  80. Where was  family  participants?  63. How  65. What  and  a Landed  Immigrant,  or  do  i s your w i f e ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? your w i f e ' s l e v e l in Question do you  of  schooling?  70)  have?  they?  your  father  born?  mother?  82. When y o u were g r o w i n g home?  up what l a n g u a g e  d i d you  speak  at  APPENDIX E ITEMS ELIMINATED FROM I N I T I A L INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  222  ITEMS ELIMINATED FROM I N I T I A L  10.  Is there anything of work?  you  11.  Is there  you'll  18.  I s t h e r e anyone you can t h i n k of, either recently or l o n g ago, who may have i n f l u e n c e d y o u r d e c i s i o n t o t h i n k a b o u t t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r ?  19.  What personal q u a l i t i e s f i t well with teaching?  22.  Do if  26.  What do you next year?  think y o u ' l l  28.  What do  you  t h i n k you  29.  What do  you  think w i l l  32.  From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r w h i c h t e l l s s i z e of community i n w h i c h you w o u l d l i k e t o t e a c h ?  33.  From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r w h i c h t e l l s t h e s i z e of community i n w h i c h y o u have s p e n t most of your life?  34.  Where is?  you you  anything  are  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  going look  do  t h i n k t h e r e w i l l be become a t e a c h e r ?  do  you  live  now?  be  forward  you  any  like  will  to miss  feel  Do  you  leaving  most a b o u t  would  lifestyle  going  to  school  least?  biggest  you  line  behind?  have t h a t  changes to your  enjoy you  to  i n your o l d  problems?  know what t h e  the  population  APPENDIX CODEBOOK  F  224  CODEBOOK  CODE ON  ROW  1. What k i n d of work were you I n d u s t r i a l Ed. program?  1  doing  b e f o r e you  (probe) What did you do in that job? foreman, s u p e r v i s o r , a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? Variable:  Previous occupation Blishen Scale  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 7-10  of c o l u m n s :  Coding: Occupation Code c l a s s 2. How  l o n g d i d you  do  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  class  ( L e a v e empty p r o  in recent  of c o l u m n s :  a  on  tern.)  48  occupation  2 11-12  R e c o r d number of y e a r s  Var i a b l e :  E x i s t e n c e of o t h e r  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns: 1 yes 2 no  /Were you  -  I s t h a t t h e k i n d o f work y o u working l i f e ?  Coding:  the  4  that?  Number of y e a r s  3.  subsequent  as r e p o r t e d i n row 3 c o l u m n  Variable:  Coding:  and  entered  reported  have been d o i n g  occupations  of c o l u m n s : 1 13  as  most of  your  225  4. What o t h e r  k i n d o f work have  Variable:  Number and t y p e  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  Occupations  5. About  how  of o t h e r  occupations  10  as r e p o r t e d  l o n g were you  i n each  Number o f y e a r s  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns: Record  done?  14-23  Variable:  Coding:  you  in other  job? occupations  10  24-33  number o f y e a r s a s r e p o r t e d  6. What made you change  your  Variable:  Type o f r e a s o n  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  mind  given  about  being a  for career  ?  change  6  34-39  Coding: 10  20  30  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  Other  11 12 13 14 15 16  21 22 23 24 25 26  31 h e a l t h 32 f a m i l y  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement  19 o t h e r  work c o n s . f i n ' l security job s t a b i l i t y prestige flexibility c a r e e r opp'y  29 o t h e r  7. When d i d you s t a r t  39  thinking  Var i a b l e :  Number o f y e a r s change  spent  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  2  about  other  changing  your  job?  i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c a r e e r  226  A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: Coding:  Record  40-41  number o f y e a r s  as r e p o r t e d  8. Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r change j o b s a t t h a t t i m e ? V a r i a b l e : Type o f r e a s o n  given  t h a t made  for career  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 6  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 42-47  you  want  to  change  Coding: 10  20  30  Intrinsic  Extr i n s i c  Other  11 12 13 14 15 16  21 work c o n s . 22 f i n ' l s e c u r i t y 23 j o b s t a b i l i t y 24 p r e s t i g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 26 c a r e e r opp'y  31 h e a l t h 32 f a m i l y  29  39 no  partic  a new  line  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement  19 o t h e r 9. What  i s important  (probe)  other  t o you  i n choosing  What makes a j o b a t t r a c t i v e  Var i a b l e : Work  value  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 6  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  48-53  Coding: 10  20  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  11 12 13 14 15 16 19  21 22 23 24 25 26 29  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement other  work c o n s . fina'1 security job s t a b i l i t y prestige flexibility c a r e e r opp'y other  t o you?  of  work?  227  10.  What do you t h i n k you w i l l of work a t t h i s t i m e ?  gain  Var i a b l e : Type o f r e w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d change N e c e s s a r y number Allocated  Fortran  by e n t e r i n g  a new  as a r e s u l t o f  line  career  of columns: 6 columns:  54-59  Coding: 10  20  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  11 12 13 14 15 16  21 22 23 24 25 26  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement  19 o t h e r 11.  work c o n s . financial security job s t a b i l i t y prestige flexibility c a r e e r opp'y  29 o t h e r  Do y o u a n t i c i p a t e any p r o b l e m s g o i n g i n t o a new work a t t h i s t i m e ? ( p r o b e ) What k i n d o f p r o b l e m s ? / None a t a l l ?  Var i a b l e : Type o f p r o b l e m a n t i c i p a t e d change Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  as a r e s u l t of  of columns: 3 columns:  60-62  2 2 3 4 5  none family factors f i n a n c i a l factors work r e l a t e d f a c t o r s social factors  9  other  line  of  career  228  12.  Now t h a t y o u ' v e more o r l e s s d e c i d e d t o c h a n g e y o u r j o b , how do you f e e l a b o u t m a k i n g t h e c h a n g e ?  Var i a b l e :  Q u a l i t y of r e a c t i o n  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  to career  change  of columns: 2 63-64  Coding: 1 2 3 4  p o s i t i v e ( " p l e a s e d ; e x c i t e d ; good i d e a " ) negative ("worried; nervous; r e g r e t d e c i s i o n ; e t c . " ) both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e n o n - c o m m i t a l ("don't t h i n k a b o u t i t ; n o t much")  13. Have you teaching? (probe)  considered  other  What have y o u t h o u g h t  Var i a b l e :  Type o f o c c u p a t i o n s  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  How  of  work  about?  considered  in career  change  65-68  1 none 2 own b u s i n e s s 3 other profession other  f a r d i d y o u go t o w a r d s e n t e r i n g t h e s e  other  Var i a b l e :  D e g r e e o f commitment t o c a r e e r o t h e r teaching  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  besides  of columns: 4  9 14.  lines  than  of columns: 1  1 2 3 4  69  j u s t thought about i t i n q u i r e d about j o b applied for work/training was o f f e r e d j o b b u t r e f u s e d  9 d i d not c o n s i d e r other  jobs  jobs?  229  15. What you?  i s i t about  teaching  t h a t makes  i t a good  V a r i a b l e : Type o f r e w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d from c a r e e r into teaching Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 70-75  job for  change  of columns: 6  Coding: 10  20  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  11 12 13 14 15 16 17  21 22 23 24 25 26  work c o n s . financial security job s t a b i l i t y prestige flexibility c a r e e r opp'y  29  other  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement w o r t h w h i l e work  19 o t h e r 16. I s t h i s teacher?  the  first  time  you  have c o n s i d e r e d  ( p r o b e ) When d i d y o u t h i n k a b o u t  i t before?  V a r i a b l e : Time o f f i r s t choice  in teaching  interest  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 76  Coding:  as c a r e e r  of columns: 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 9  f i r s t time c o n s i d e r e d elementary school high school high school graduation previous t e r t i a r y education when employed other  being  a  230  17. Why  d i d y o u n o t go i n t o  teaching  Variable:  Reason career  f o r delayed  Necessary  number  of columns: 2  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  1 2 3 4 9  18.  entry  into  teaching  as a  77-78  not r e l e v a n t , f i r s t time c o n s i d e r e d t o o much s t u d y i n g financial reasons reaction against parental advice other  Have y o u h a d any t e a c h e r  Variable:  Presence  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  training  of teaching  related  o f any  kind?  experience  of columns: 2  Coding:  1 2 3 4 5 9  79-80  none c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g military instruction i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g program apprentice training other CODE ON ROW  19.  then?  2  Have y o u e v e r done any t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g ( p r o b e ) Have y o u spent any time with summer camps, a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ?  Variable:  Presence  of teaching  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  of columns: 6 7-12  related  or t u t o r i n g ? youth groups,  experience.  231  Coding: 1 0  20  Group  teaching  30  Indiv.  Teaching  11 12 13 14 15 16  school night school military sports coaching summer camps youth groups  21 a p p r e n t i c e 22 t u t o r i n g 23 v o l u n t e e r work 24 s p o r t s c o a c h i n g  19  other  29  20. How  None 31 no t c h g ,  other  d i d t h a t go?  Var i a b l e :  E x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s towards t e a c h i n g or r e l a t e d experience  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  of columns: 2 13-14  Coding: 1 0  20  30  Posit ive  Negative  Other  11 v e r y p o s i t i v e 12 q u i t e p o s i t i v e  21 v e r y n e g a t i v e 22 q u i t e n e g a t i v e  31 no T 39 pos+neg  21. How  d i d you f e e l  about i t ?  Var i a b l e :  E x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s towards t e a c h i n g or r e l a t e d experience  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  of columns: 2 15-16  Coding: 10  20  30  Positive  Negative  Other  11 v e r y p o s i t i v e 12 m i l d l y p o s .  21 v e r y n e g a t i v e 22 m i l d l y n e g .  31 no T Pos+neg  232  22. D i d anyone comment on how you did? (probe) What s o r t of t h i n g d i d they say? V a r i a b l e : Source and type of feedback  received  Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 17-22 Coding: 10  20  30  Positive  Negative  Other  11 s u p e r i o r 12 peer 13 students  21 s u p e r i o r 22 peer 23 student  31 no T 32 no Cs  19 other  29 other  23. When you were at secondary I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s ?  school,  d i d you  take  V a r i a b l e : P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s as student Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 23 Coding:  1 yes 2 no  24. How much do you think the students l e a r n e d i n the Industrial Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from this card. (Card) (A) Very much (B) A l o t (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) Very l i t t l e V a r i a b l e : Amount of l e a r n i n g observed by p a r t i c i p a n t in I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 24  233  Coding;  5 4 3 2 1  A B C D E  9 D i d not take I.E. 25. How o f t e n d i d t h e y g e t t h e i r p r o j e c t s s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . ( C a r d ) (A) V e r y o f t e n (B) O f t e n (C) Sometimes (D) Seldom (E) V e r y s e l d o m Variable:  Rate  of p r o j e c t  participants  completion  completed?  o b s e r v e d by  i n Industrial Education  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated Coding:  Fortran  Please  classes  c o l u m n s : 25 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 D i d not take I . E .  26. How much o f a d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m was I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a ( C a r d ) (A) V e r y much (B) A l o t (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) V e r y l i t t l e  there i n the letter.  Variable:  Degree of l a c k of c l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l observed by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  c o l u m n s : 26  234  Coding;  5 4 3 2 1  A B C D E  9 D i d not take I . E . 27.  How w e l l d i d the students get a l o n g Ed. t e a c h e r ? Please select a l e t t e r ( C a r d ) (A) v e r y w e l l (B) Q u i t e w e l l (C) Non-commital (D) Q u i t e b a d l y (E) V e r y b a d l y  Variable:  Q u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l Industrial  Education  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated Coding:  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 27 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E -  28.  Education  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 28  Coding:  t e a c h e r s and  students  t e n d e d t o be c l o s e r to the than t o t h e o t h e r members o f  E x i s t e n c e of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p Industrial  between  9 D i d not take I . E .  Do y o u t h i n k t h e s t u d e n t s Industrial Ed. t e a c h e r s staff?  Variable:  interaction  with the I n d u s t r i a l from t h i s c a r d .  1 2 3 4 9  between  t e a c h e r s and  yes no non-commital d o n ' t know D i d not take I . E .  students  235  29. How w e l l do you t h i n k t h e I n d u s t r i a l Ed. t e a c h e r s got along w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f s t a f f ? Please select a letter. ( C a r d ) (A) v e r y w e l l (B) Q u i t e w e l l (C) Non-commital (D) Q u i t e b a d l y (E) V e r y b a d l y Var i a b l e :  Q u a l i t y o f o b s e r v e d i n t e r a c t i o n between I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r members o f staff  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  29  5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 D i d not take I.E.  30. Do you have any c l o s e f r i e n d s Var i a b l e :  E x i s t e n c e of teacher re i n f o r c e m e n t  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  who a r e t e a c h e r s ?  as source  of p o s i t i v e  30  1 yes  2 no 31. A r e t h e r e any t e a c h e r s  i n your  Var i a b l e :  E x i s t e n c e of t e a c h e r reinforcement  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  family?  as source  31-32  of p o s i t i v e  236  Coding:  1 none 2 parent 3 sibling 4 wife 5 9  32.  grandparent other  When you were i n s c h o o l were t h e r e any t e a c h e r s particularly liked? (probe)  What d i d t h e y  teach?  Variable:  E x i s t e n c e of teacher reinforcement  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  33.  t h a t you  as source  of p o s i t i v e  of columns: 4  11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29  33-36  none Elementary teacher I n d u s t r i a l Education Physical education English Social Studies Mathematics Science Other  How do y o u r c l o s e f r i e n d s into teaching?  Variable:  Q u a l i t y of response reinforcement  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  feel  about  y o u r d e c i s i o n t o go  from  source  of p o s t i v e  of columns: 2 37-38  Coding: 1 0  20  30  Positive  Negat i v e  Other  11 v e r y p o s . 12 q u i t e p o s .  21 v e r y n e g . 22 q u i t e n e g .  31 non-comm. 32 d o n ' t know 38 pos+neg 39 o t h e r  237  34. What a b o u t  t h e p e o p l e y o u worked  V a r i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of response reinforcement  from  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  Fortran  columns:  with?  source of p o s i t i v e  39-40  Coding: 10  20  30  Positive  Negative  Other  11 v e r y p o s . 12 q u i t e p o s .  21 v e r y n e g . 22 q u i t e n e g .  31 non-comm. 32 d o n ' t know 38 pos+neg 39  35. Do y o u r p a r e n t s teacher?  know  of  your  Variable:  E x i s t e n c e of support reinforcement  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  from  other  decision  to  become  source of p o s i t i v e  c o l u m n s : 41  Coding: 1 yes 2 no 3 not r e l e v a n t  (deceased;  36. What do t h e y t h i n k  no c o n t a c t e t c . )  about  t e a c h i n g as a job?  Variable:  E x i s t e n c e of support reinforcement  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  Fortran  columns:  from  42-43  source of p o s i t i v e  a  238  Coding: 10  20  30  Positive  Negative  Other  11 v e r y p o s . 12 q u i t e p o s .  21 v e r y n e g . 22 q u i t e n e g .  31 non-comm. 32 d o n ' t know 33 n o t t o l d 39  37.  What does  your wife  not r e l .  think?  Variable:  E x i s t e n c e of support reinforcement  from s o u r c e  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 44-45  of p o s i t i v e  Coding: 10  20  30  Positive  Negative  Other  11 v e r y p o s . 12 q u i t e p o s .  21 v e r y n e g . 22 q u i t e n e g .  31 non-comm. 32 d o n ' t know 39  38.  Can you t h i n k been s u p p o r t i v e  wife  o f anyone e l s e i m p o r t a n t t o y o u who h a s i n making t h i s c a r e e r change?  Var i a b l e :  E x i s t e n c e of support reinforcement  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 3  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  no  1 2 3 4 5 6 9  from s o u r c e  46-48  no one f a m i l y member friend workmate counsellor faculty other  of p o s i t i v e  239  39. Can you t h i n k critical?  o f anyone  important  Variable:  E x i s t e n c e of c r i t i c i s m reinforcement  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  Fortran  columns:  Coding:  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  from  t o y o u who was  a bit  s o u r c e of p o s i t i v e  49-50  no one . f a m i l y member friend workmate counsellor faculty wife  9 other 40.  Have you s e e n any f i l m s teaching?  Variable:  Exposure teaching  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  to visual  o r TV p r o g r a m s about images a s s o c i a t e d  with  of columns: 1 c o l u m n s : 51  Coding:  1 yes 2 no  41. Can you r e c a l l  any s c e n e s  Variable:  Exposure teaching  t o v i s u a l images a s s o c i a t e d of I n d u s t r i a l Education  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  schools or  i n an I n d u s t r i a l  Ed. c l a s s ?  of columns: 1 columns:  52  1 yes 2 no 9 h a s n o t seen  film/program  with  240  42. What impression f ilm/program?  of  teaching  did  you  V a r i a b l e : P o r t r a y e d image o f t e a c h i n g as an Necessary  number of c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  get  from  the  occupation  53  Coding: 1 2 3 4  p o s i t i v e ("worthwhile; rewarding; e t c . " ) n e g a t i v e ("waste o f t i m e ; u n p l e a s a n t ; e t c . " ) b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e non-commital response  9 has  not  43. What  seen  sort  film/program  of p e r s o n  was  the  Variable:  P o r t r a y e d image o f  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  teacher?  teacher  54  Coding: 1 2 3 4  p o s i t i v e ( " l e a d e r ; p a t i e n t ; warm; e t c . " ) n e g a t i v e ("weak; i m p a t i e n t ; w i t h d r a w n ; e t c . " ) b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e non-commital response  9 has 44.  not  seen  film/program  Do your think this f i l m / p r o g r a m had y o u r d e c i s i o n t o become a t e a c h e r ?  any  Variable:  E f f e c t o f p o r t r a y e d image o f t e a c h e r t e a c h i n g on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  55  1 yes 2 no 3 don't 9 has  know  not  seen  film/program  influence or  on  241  45.  Have you  read  any  books a b o u t  s c h o o l s or  teaching?  Variable:  E x p o s u r e t o v e r b a l image a s s o c i a t e d w i t h teaching  Necessary  number of c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  46.  Can  56  1 yes 2 no you  recall  any  episodes  i n an  Industrial  Ed.  Variable:  E x p o s u r e t o v e r b a l image a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n  Necessary  number of c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  What  57  1 yes 2 no 9 has  47.  impressions  of  not  read  book  t e a c h i n g d i d you  Variable:  Portrayed  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  image of  t e a c h i n g as  get  from  58  p o s i t i v e ("worthwhile; rewarding; e t c . " ) n e g a t i v e ("waste of t i m e ; u n p l e a s a n t ; e t c . " ) b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e non-commital response  9 has 48.  not  read  What s o r t  book of person  was  image of  the  Variable:  Portrayed  Necessary  number of c o l u m n s : 1  teacher?  teacher  the  occupation  Coding: 1 2 3 4  class?  book?  242  Allocated  Fortran  c o l u m n s : 59  Coding: 1 2 3 4  p o s i t i v e ( " l e a d e r ; p a t i e n t ; warm; e t c . " ) n e g a t i v e ("weak; i m p a t i e n t ; w i t h d r a w n ; e t c . " ) both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e non-commital response  9 h a s n o t r e a d book  49. Do y o u t h i n k a teacher?  this  book a f f e c t e d  your  decision  Variable:  E f f e c t o f p o r t r a y e d image o f t e a c h e r o r t e a c h i n g on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  to  become  c o l u m n s : 60 1 yes 2 no 3 don't  know  9 h a s n o t r e a d book 50.  From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u a r e l i v i n g a p a r t from y o u r f a m i l y now t h a t you have e n t e r e d t h e I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m ? (Card) (A) A l l o f t h e t i m e (B) Most o f t h e t i m e ( n o t weekends e t c . ) (C) P a r t o f t h e t i m e (D) None o f t h e t i m e (E) n o t r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e a l o n e  Variable:  Amount o f t i m e s p e n t a p a r t f r o m a r e s u l t o f c a r e e r change  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  c o l u m n s : 61 5 4 3 2 1  A B C D E  f a m i l y as  243  51. Have y o u r f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d any major c h a n g e s now you have e n t e r e d t h e t r a i n i n g program? ( p r o b e ) What s o r t o f c h a n g e s ? Variable:  T y p e o f change e x p e r i e n c e d r e s u l t o f c a r e e r change  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 3  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  by f a m i l y  that  as a  c o l u m n s : 62-64 1 2 3 4 5 6 8  none s e p a r a t i o n from p a r t i c i p a n t relocation change o f j o b change o f s c h o o l s financial not r e l e v a n t , I l i v e a l o n e  9 other 52. From t h i s c a r d , would y o u s e l e c t much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s y o u e x p e c t year? (Card) (A) Extreme (B) H i g h (C) M o d e r a t e (D) S l i g h t (E) None  a letter during  Variable:  Degree of f i n a n c i a l c a r e e r change  resulting  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  stress  t h a t t e l l s how your training  from  c o l u m n s : 65 5 4 3 2 1  A B C D E  53. From t h i s c a r d would y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u r income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r about five years will compare with y o u r income f o r t h e y e a r b e f o r e you e n t e r e d t h e program? (Card) (A) Much h i g h e r (B) S l i g h t l y h i g h e r (C) About t h e same  244  (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Don't know Variable:  Comparative f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s c a r e e r change  Necessary  number of c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  columns: 5 4 3 2 1  r e s u l t i n g from  66  A B C D E  9 F 54. When y o u anything you?  were thinking of changing jobs was there i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t made t h e move d i f f i c u l t f o r  ( p r o b e ) What  sort  of  thing?  Variable:  Major b a r r i e r  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 3  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  to career  columns: 1 2 3 4 5 9  change  67-69  family factors financial factors relocation social factors academic e x p e c t a t i o n s other  55. Can y o u t h i n k of a n y t h i n g that would p r e v e n t e d you from c h a n g i n g j o b s ? Variable:  Major b a r r i e r to career  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 3  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  columns:  change  70-72  1 none 2 family exigency 3 financial factors  have  completely  245  4  relocation  5 lack  of f a m i l y  support  9 other 56. What  sort  of t h i n g  h e l p e d y o u make t h e c h a n g e ?  Variable:  Major  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 3  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  facilitator  1 2 3 4  t o c a r e e r change  73-75  family support financial factors personal motivation d e s i r e to leave current job  9 other  57.  I f y o u had t o pay y o u r own u n i v e r s i t y f e e s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g s p o n s o r e d , how l i k e l y i s i t t h a t y o u would have applied for entry into t h e program? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) V e r y l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) V e r y u n l i k e l y  Var i a b l e :  Effect career  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 76  Coding:  58.  of f i n a n c i a l change  4 3 2 1  outlay  as b a r r i e r t o  A B C D  From t h i s c a r d would y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how the people you l i v e with feel about your being a teacher? (Card) (A) V e r y s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) N o n - c o m m i t a l (D) F a i r l y u n s u p p o r t i v e (E) V e r y u n s u p p o r t i v e (F) Not r e l e v a n t  246  Variable:  Support change  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  59.  from  significant  columns: 5 4 3 2 1 9  77  A B C D E F  How do y o u r c h i l d r e n f e e l ? (Card) (A) V e r y s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) N o n - c o m m i t a l (D) F a i r l y u n s u p p o r t i v e (E) V e r y u n s u p p o r t i v e (F) Not r e l e v a n t  Var i a b l e :  Support change  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  60.  others for career  from  columns: 5 4 3 2 1 9  What do t ime?  you  significant  78  A B C D E F  hope t o be  doing  Variable:  Anticipated  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  1 2 3 4 5  others for career  i n your c a r e e r i n  career goals after  5 years  2  79-80  teacher head o f d e p a r t m e n t administrator out of t e a c h i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f B. E d .  Degree  5  years  6 graduate 7 travel 8 don't 9  know  other CODE ON  61.  What do  you  degree  hope t o be  ROW  doing  3 i n 10 y e a r s  Var i a b l e :  Anticipated career goals after  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  62.  Why  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 do  you  10  years  2  7-8  classroom teacher head of department administrator out of t e a c h i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f B. E d . graduate degree travel d o n ' t know other  want t o be  time?  a  teacher?  Variable:  Type of r e a s o n g i v e n as a s e c o n d c a r e e r  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s :  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  for entering teaching  6 9-14  Coding: 10  20  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  11 12 13 14 15 16  satisfaction match s - c o n c e p t be w i t h y o u t h be w i t h f a m i l y challenge s e l f improvement  21 work c o n s . 22 f i n a n c i a l 23 s t a b i l i t y 24 p r e s t i g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 26 c a r e e r opp'y  19  other  29  other  Degree  63. How  o l d were you on y o u r  last birthday?  Variable:  Age o f p a r t i c i p a n t  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 2  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  Record  64. And y o u r  15-16 number o f y e a r s as r e p o r t e d  sex i s m a l e .  Var i a b l e :  Sex o f p a r t i c i p a n t  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  columns:  Coding:  65. What  17  1 male 2 female i s your  marital status  status?  Var i a b l e :  Marital  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  Coding:  66.  of p a r t i c i p a n t  18  1 married 2 single 3 other  ( I f married)  How  l o n g have y o u been  Var i a b l e :  Number  of years p a r t i c i p a n t  Necessary  number  of columns: 2  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  columns:  married?  has been m a r r i e d  19-20  R e c o r d number o f y e a r s a s r e p o r t e d 98 s i n g l e 99 o t h e r  249  67.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) What  i s your  wife's occupation?  Variable:  Occupation  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  of w i f e of p a r t i c i p a n t  c o l u m n s : 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  clerical homemaker nurse student-graduate student-undergraduate teacher not married  9 other 68.  How  many c h i l d r e n  do y o u h a v e ?  Variable:  Number  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 1  Allocated  Fortran  Coding: 69. How  of c h i l d r e n  columns: Record  of p a r t i c i p a n t  22 number a s r e p o r t e d  o l d a r e they?  Var i a b l e :  Ages o f c h i l d r e n  Necessary  number o f c o l u m n s : 5  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  70.  columns: T 2 3 4 5 6  23-27  no c h i l d r e n under 5 y e a r s 5-10 y e a r s 11-15 y e a r s 16-20 y e a r s 21+ y e a r s  From t h i s c a r d would y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g b e f o r e you e n t e r e d t h e p r o g r a m ? (Card) (A) E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l (B) Some h i g h s c h o o l (C) C o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l  your  250  (D) (E) (F) (G) (H)  Some u n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y degree Graduate degree Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t Completed c o l l e g e or other institution  ( I ) Don't  know  Var i a b l e :  Educational  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  level  of p a r t i c i p a n t  of columns: 1  Coding:  71.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  28  A B C D E F G H I  What grade were y o u i n when you l e f t for the f i r s t time?  V a r i a b l e : Grade a t i n i t i a l school  completion  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 29  secondary  school  of secondary  of columns: 1  Coding:  72.  high school i n s t i t u t i o n post high school  1 2 3 4 5  grade 8 grade 9 g r a d e 10 g r a d e 11 g r a d e 12  Have you had any informal schooling such as inplant t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e that?  Var i a b l e :  Existence full-time  N e c e s s a r y number Allocated  of formal route  education  of columns: 2  F o r t r a n columns:  30-31  outside  251  Coding:  73.  1 2 3 4 5 6 9  none inplant training upgrading union l e a d e r s h i p night school armed f o r c e s other  training  ( I f m a r r i e d ) What i s y o u r w i f e ' s l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l (B) Some h i g h s c h o o l (C) C o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l „(D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e (F) G r a d u a t e d e g r e e (G) Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H) C o m p l e t e d c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l institution ( I ) d o n ' t know  Var i a b l e :  Educational  level  of spouse  N e c e s s a r y number o f c o l u m n s : 1 Allocated Coding:  74.  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  A B C D E F G H I (Use f o r 'Not m a r r i e d ' . )  What was y o u r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? ( p r o b e ) What d i d he do i n t h a t j o b ?  Var i a b l e :  O c c u p a t i o n and subsequent Blishen Scale  r a n k i n g on  N e c e s s a r y number o f c o l u m n s : 4 Allocated coding:  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 33-36 Occupation as reported Code c l a s s i n row 3 column  49  252  75.  What was y o u r m o t h e r ' s  Var i a b l e :  Occupation  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n columns:  o f mother  of columns; 2  Coding;  37-38  1 homemaker 2 clerical 3 nurse 4 teacher 9  76.  occupation?  Was t h a t  full-  other  or part-time?  Variable;  Proportion employment  o f mother's time spent i n o u t s i d e t h e home  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s ; 39  of columns; 1  Coding; 1 no o u t s i d e employment 2 p a r t - t i m e o u t s i d e employment 3 f u l l - t i m e o u t s i d e employment 77.  From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s y o u r father's l e v e l of schooling? (Card) (A Elementary school (B Some h i g h s c h o o l (C Completed h i g h school (D Some u n i v e r s i t y (E U n i v e r s i t y degree (F Graduate degree (G Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H Completed c o l l e g e or other post high school institution d o n ' t know (I)  Variable:  Educational  level  of f a t h e r  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 40  of columns: 1  253  Coding:  78.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  A B C D E F G H I  And y o u r m o t h e r ' s l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l (B) Some h i g h s c h o o l (C) C o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e (F) G r a d u a t e d e g r e e (G) Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H) C o m p l e t e d c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l institution (I)  don't  know  Var i a b l e :  Educational  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 41  Coding:  79.  level  o f mother  of columns: 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  A B C D E F G H I  Where were y o u b o r n ?  Var i a b l e :  B i r t h p l a c e of p a r t i c i p a n t  Necessary  number  Allocated  F o r t r a n c o l u m n s : 42  Coding:  of columns: 1  1 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Canada e l s e w h e r e 3 U.K.  254  4 U.S.A. 5 Western 6 Eastern 9  80. Where was  your  Birthplace  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  your  born?  of f a t h e r  of p a r t i c i p a n t  of columns: 1 columns:  Coding:  81. And  other  father  Var i a b l e :  Europe Europe  43  1 2 3 4 5 6  B r i t i s h Columbia Canada e l s e w h e r e U.K. U.S.A. Western Europe E a s t e r n Europe  9  other  mother?  Variable:  Birthplace  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  o f mother  of p a r t i c i p a n t  of c o l u m n s : 1 columns:  44  1 2 3 4 5 6  B r i t i s h Columbia Canada e l s e w h e r e U.K. U.S.A. Western Europe E a s t e r n Europe  9  other  82. When y o u were g r o w i n g up what home?  l a n g u a g e d i d y o u speak a t  Var i a b l e :  F i r s t language of p a r t i c i p a n t ; affiliation  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  of columns: 2 columns:  45-46  ethnic  255  Coding:  1 2 3 4 5  English French German Italian Ukranian  9 other  83. A r e y o u a C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n , have a n o t h e r s t a t u s ? Variable:  National  Necessary  number  Allocated  Fortran  Coding:  affiliation  Landed  of p a r t i c i p a n t  of columns: 1 columns:  Immigrant,  47  1 Canadian c i t i z e n 2 L a n d e d Immigrant 3 other status  o r do  you  APPENDIX FINAL VERSION  OF  G  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  257  FINAL VERSION OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Before the interview s t a r t e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were t h a n k e d f o r a g r e e i n g t o take p a r t i n the research project. The p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h was s u m m a r i s e d . A s s u r a n c e was g i v e n as t o anonymity of t h e i r responses. E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w was t o be t a p e - r e c o r d e d a n d t h a t he h a d t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n or stop t h e i n t e r v i e w a t any t i m e .  1.  What kind o f work did I n d u s t r i a l E d . program?  you  do  before  entering  ( p r o b e ) What d i d y o u do i n that job?/ foreman,supervisor, anything l i k e that? 2.  How  3.  Is that working  t h e k i n d o f work y o u have been d o i n g life?  About  how l o n g were y o u i n e a c h  When d i d y o u s t a r t  i s important  (probe) 10.  being  t h i n k i n g about changing  t o you i n c h o o s i n g  What makes a j o b a t t r a c t i v e  What do you t h i n k y o u w i l l o f work a t t h i s t i m e ?  gain  a your  ? job?  t h a t made y o u want t o a new l i n e  o f work?  t o you?  by e n t e r i n g a  11. Do y o u a n t i c i p a t e any p r o b l e m s g o i n g work a t t h i s t i m e ? (probe)  most o f y o u r  job?  8. Was there anything in particular change jobs a t t h a t time? 9. What  a  k i n d o f work have y o u done?  6. What made y o u change y o u r mind a b o u t 7.  you  l o n g d i d y o u do t h a t ?  4. What o t h e r 5.  Were  the  new  line  i n t o a new l i n e o f  What k i n d o f p r o b l e m s ? / None a t a l l ?  258  12.  Now t h a t you've more o r l e s s d e c i d e d t o change y o u r j o b , how do y o u f e e l a b o u t m a k i n g t h e c h a n g e ?  13. D i d y o u c o n s i d e r o t h e r  lines  o f work b e s i d e s  14.  How f a r d i d y o u go t o w a r d s e n t e r i n g t h e s e  15.  What you?  16.  Is this teacher?  i s i t about  (probe)  the  first  time  you  When d i d y o u t h i n k a b o u t  Have y o u h a d any t e a c h e r  19. Have y o u e v e r  teaching  then?  training  o f any k i n d ?  done any t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g  How d i d t h a t go?  21.  How d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t i t ?  22.  D i d anyone comment on how y o u d i d ? sort  job f o r  i t before?  20.  What  jobs?  have c o n s i d e r e d b e i n g a  ( p r o b e ) Have y o u s p e n t any t i m e summer camps, a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ?  (probe)  other  t e a c h i n g t h a t makes i t a good  17. Why d i d y o u n o t go i n t o 18.  teaching?  of t h i n g d i d they  with  or t u t o r i n g ? youth  groups,  say?  23.  When y o u were a t secondary Industrial Education c l a s s e s ?  school,  d i d you  take  24.  How much do y o u t h i n k the students learned i n the Industrial Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please select a l e t t e r from this card. ( C a r d ) (A) V e r y much (B) A l o t (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) V e r y little  25.  How o f t e n d i d t h e y g e t t h e i r p r o j e c t s c o m p l e t e d ? s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . ( C a r d ) (A) V e r y o f t e n (B) O f t e n (C) Sometimes (D) Seldom (E) V e r y s e l d o m  Please  259  26. How much o f a discipline problem was I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please select a (Same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 24 a b o v e . ) 27. How w e l l d i d the students get along with Ed. t e a c h e r ? P l e a s e s e l e c t a l e t t e r from ( C a r d ) (A) V e r y w e l l (B) Q u i t e w e l l (C) N o n - c o m m i t a l (D) Q u i t e b a d l y (E) V e r y b a d l y 28. Do y o u t h i n k t h e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o Industrial Education t e a c h e r s than staff?  there in letter.  the  the I n d u s t r i a l this card.  be c l o s e r to the t o o t h e r members o f  29. How w e l l do y o u t h i n k t h e I n d u s t r i a l Ed. t e a c h e r s got along with the rest of the s t a f f ? Please select a letter. (Same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n  27 a b o v e . )  30. Do y o u have any c l o s e f r i e n d s  who a r e t e a c h e r s ?  31. A r e t h e r e any t e a c h e r s i n y o u r f a m i l y ? 32. When y o u were i n s c h o o l were t h e r e any t e a c h e r s particularly liked? ( p r o b e ) What d i d t h e y t e a c h ? 33. How do y o u r c l o s e f r i e n d s into teaching? 34. What a b o u t  the people  35. Do y o u r p a r e n t s teacher? 36. What do t h e y  know  38. Can y o u t h i n k been s u p p o r t i v e  wife  about  y o u worked of  t h i n k about  37. What does y o u r  feel  your  your  t h a t you  decision  t o go  with? decision  t e a c h i n g as a  to  become  a  job?  think?  o f anyone e l s e i m p o r t a n t t o y o u who h a s i n making t h i s c a r e e r change?  39. Can y o u t h i n k o f anyone critical?  important  t o y o u who was  a bit  260  40.  Have y o u seen any f i l m s teaching?  41.  Can y o u r e c a l l  42.  What impression film/program?  43. What 44.  sort  any s c e n e s of  of person  o r TV p r o g r a m s a b o u t i n an I n d u s t r i a l  teaching  you  Ed. c l a s s ? get  the  Do your think this f i l m / p r o g r a m h a d any i n f l u e n c e on y o u r d e c i s i o n t o become a t e a c h e r ?  Can y o u r e c a l l  any e p i s o d e s  s c h o o l s or t e a c h i n g ?  i n an I n d u s t r i a l  47. What  i m p r e s s i o n s of t e a c h i n g d i d you g e t from  48. What  sort  49.  from  was t h e t e a c h e r ?  45. Have y o u r e a d any books a b o u t 46.  did  schools or  of person  Do y o u t h i n k a teacher?  this  Ed. c l a s s ? t h e book?  was t h e t e a c h e r ?  book a f f e c t e d  your  decision  to  become  50. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u a r e l i v i n g a p a r t from y o u r f a m i l y now t h a t you have e n t e r e d t h e I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m ? (Card) (A) A l l o f t h e t i m e (B) Most o f t h e t i m e ( n o t weekends e t c . ) (C) P a r t o f t h e t i m e (D) None o f t h e t i m e (E) n o t r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e a l o n e 51. Have y o u r f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d any m a j o r c h a n g e s now you have e n t e r e d t h e t r a i n i n g program? ( p r o b e ) What s o r t o f c h a n g e s ? 52.  From t h i s c a r d , would y o u s e l e c t much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s y o u e x p e c t year? (Card) (A) E x t r e m e (B) H i g h (C) M o d e r a t e (D) S l i g h t (E) None  a letter during  that your  that  t e l l s how training  261  53. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much y o u r income f r o m t e a c h i n g a f t e r about five years will compare with y o u r income f o r t h e y e a r b e f o r e y o u e n t e r e d the program? (Card) (A) Much h i g h e r (B) S l i g h t l y h i g h e r (C) About t h e same (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Don't know 54. When y o u were t h i n k i n g of changing jobs was there anything i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t made t h e move d i f f i c u l t f o r you? ( p r o b e ) What s o r t o f t h i n g ? 55. Can y o u t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g that would p r e v e n t e d you from c h a n g i n g jobs? 56. What  sort  of t h i n g h e l p e d  have  completely  y o u make t h e c h a n g e ?  57. I f y o u h a d t o pay y o u r own u n i v e r s i t y b e i n g s p o n s o r e d , how l i k e l y i s i t t h a t applied f o r entry into t h e program? l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) V e r y l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) V e r y u n l i k e l y  f e e s r a t h e r than you would have Please s e l e c t a  58. From t h i s c a r d w o u l d y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how the people you l i v e with feel about your being a teacher? (Card) (A) V e r y s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) N o n - c o m m i t a l (D) F a i r l y unsupportive (E) V e r y unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t 59. How  do y o u r c h i l d r e n f e e l ? (Use same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n  60. What do y o u hope t o be d o i n g time?  57)  i n your c a r e e r  in  5  years  262  61. What do y o u hope t o be d o i n g 62. Why  I'd  like  to f i n i s h  o l d were y o u on y o u r  64. And y o u r 65. What  time?  do y o u want t o be a t e a c h e r ?  Cue: Now details. 63. How  i n 10 y e a r s  last  up w i t h a few  background  birthday?  sex i s m a l e .  i s your m a r i t a l  66.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) How  67.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) What  68. How  many c h i l d r e n  69. How  o l d are they?  long  status? have you been  married?  i s your w i f e ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? do y o u have?  70. From t h i s c a r d would y o u s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s y o u r l e v e l of, s c h o o l i n g before you e n t e r e d the training program? (Card) (A) E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l (B) Some s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l (C) C o m p l e t e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e (F) G r a d u a t e d e g r e e (G) Some c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h s c h o o l institution (H) C o m p l e t e d c o l l e g e o r o t h e r p o s t h i g h school i n s t i t u t i o n ( I ) Don't know 71. What grade were y o u i n when y o u l e f t for the f i r s t time?  secondary  72. Have y o u had a n y informal schooling such as t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e that? 73.  ( I f m a r r i e d ) What (Use  i s your w i f e ' s l e v e l  same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 69)  school inplant  of s c h o o l i n g ?  263  74. What was y o u r  father's occupation?  ( p r o b e ) What d i d he do i n t h a t 75. What was y o u r m o t h e r ' s 76. Was  that  full-  77. From t h i s c a r d father's level  job?  occupation?  or part-time? would y o u s e l e c t of schooling?  a letter  that  tells  your  (Use same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 70) 78. And y o u r m o t h e r ' s  level  of s c h o o l i n g ?  (Use same c a r d a s i n Q u e s t i o n 70) 79. Where were y o u b o r n ? 80. Where was y o u r 81. And y o u r  father  mother?  82. When y o u were g r o w i n g home? (cue)  born?  And t h e l a s t  up what l a n g u a g e d i d y o u speak a t  question i s . . .  83. A r e you a C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n , have a n o t h e r s t a t u s ?  Landed  Immigrant,  o r do  you  APPENDIX  LETTER  OF  H  CONTACT  266  APPENDIX I  PARTICIPANT  CONSENT  FORM  267  PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM  I hereby give purposes of choice. and  research  The n a t u r e  I am aware t h a t I  and  my v o l u n t a r y  understand  a l l information  consent  into  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d  teaching  of the r e s e a r c h the interview t h a t my given  a  second  career  h a s been e x p l a i n e d  will  identity  will  as  f o r the  be  t o me  tape-recorded.  will  n o t be d i s c l o s e d  be t r e a t e d a s  anonymous  and  conf i d e n t i a l . I question  Signed  Date  f u r t h e r understand a n d may t e r m i n a t e  that  I may r e f u s e  the interview  t o answer any  a t any t i m e .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097564/manifest

Comment

Related Items