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Teaching as a second career choice : a study of industrial education students Gowdy, Eileen Frances 1987

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TEACHING AS A SECOND CAREER CHOICE: A STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS by EILEEN FRANCES GOWDY B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1970 B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1973 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s , a s conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1987 © E i l e e n Frances Gowdy, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81i ABSTRACT The study e x p l o r e d the care e r change made by a po p u l a t i o n of 37 tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher e d u c a t i o n program. A s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule was c o n s t r u c t e d and f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s were tape - r e c o r d e d . The four areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d p o s i t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s put forward i n the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making, f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to car e e r change, the c a r e e r h i s t o r i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r socio-demographic backgrounds. Responses tended to support p r o p o s i t i o n s d e a l i n g with former i n s t r u c t i o n a l experiences and i n t e r a c t i o n s with people, but gave l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n , that exposure to p r i n t or v i s u a l media had i n f l u e n c e d the care e r change d e c i s i o n . The importance of having s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c e s and p e r s o n a l support of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' wives was s t r e s s e d . P o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s most r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d were lack of support or f i n a n c e s . There was l i t t l e evidence of frequent c a r e e r change i n the work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The most common p a t t e r n was a s e r i e s of short term jobs f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l years i n one c a r e e r path. Future c a r e e r p l a n s i n d i c a t e d an i n t e n t to remain i n the tea c h i n g f i e l d . A l l the men were employed p r i o r to e n t e r i n g the program. Socio-demographic i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e d that j u s t over h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were around 30 years of. age and over two-thirds were mar r i e d . Wives tended to be not only more h i g h l y educated (64%) but i n higher s t a t u s occupations (76%) than t h e i r husbands. Over 80% of the men had e n t e r e d t e r t i a r y education p r i o r to c u r r e n t involvement and f i v e men had completed b a c h e l o r ' s degrees. By e n t e r i n g a t r a d e , 57% of p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n lower s t a t u s jobs than t h e i r f a t h e r s . T h e i r e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g r e s u l t e d i n a rebound movement r a t h e r than d i r e c t upward i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix DEDICATION. x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background to the Study 1 1.2 Areas of I n v e s t i g a t i o n , P r o p o s i t i o n s , O r i e n t i n g Statements and Research Questions 10 1.3 Purpose of the Study 16 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 17 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 18 2.1 The Career Change Process 18 2.2 Th e o r i e s and Models of O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 25 2.3 F a c i l i t a t o r s and B a r r i e r s to Career Change 30 2.4 P a t t e r n s of Career Change 34 Summary 37 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 40 3.1 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Study 40 3.2 Development of Research Instrument 40 3.3 C o l l e c t i o n of Data 50 3.4 Coding and A n a l y s i s of Data 51 CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 53 4.1 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1: Applying S o c i a l L e a r n i n g P r i n c i p l e s to Career D e c i s i o n Making ...53 4.1.1 P r o p o s i t i o n A 53 4.1.2 P r o p o s i t i o n B 59 4.1.3 P r o p o s i t i o n C 62 4.1.4 P r o p o s i t i o n D 78 Summary of R e s u l t s 83 4.2 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 2: F a c i l i t a t o r s and B a r r i e r s .85 O r i e n t i n g Statement 85 4.2.1 B a r r i e r s to Career Change 86 4.2.2 F a c i l i t a t o r s to Career Change 94 Summary of R e s u l t s 98 V 4.3 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3: Career P a t t e r n s 99 O r i e n t i n g Statement 99 Summary of R e s u l t s .....133 4.4 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4: Socio-demographic Backgrounds .....135 O r i e n t i n g Statement 135 4.4.1 P a r t i c i p a n t Data 136 4.4.2 Comparison with P r o v i n c i a l and N a t i o n a l Data 147 Summary of R e s u l t s 157 CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, UNEXPECTED FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 159 5.1 Summary of Study 159 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of Study 164 5.3 C o n c l u s i o n s 166 5.4 Summary of Unexpected F i n d i n g s 179 5.5 Recommendations f o r Furt h e r Research 183 BIBLIOGRAPHY 189 APPENDICES 199 A: D e s c r i p t i o n of Program 199 B: D e s c r i p t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s 201 C: I n i t i a l V e r s i o n of Interview Schedule 203 D: Areas of I n v e s t i g a t i o n with P r o p o s i t i o n s , Research Questions and Relevant Items on Interview Schedule 208 E: Items E l i m i n a t e d from I n i t i a l Interview Schedule ...221 F: Codebook 223 G: F i n a l V e r s i o n of Interview Schedule 256 H: L e t t e r of Contact 264 I: P a r t i c i p a n t Consent Form .266 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Experiences of P a r t i c i p a n t s 55 2. Observations Made by P a r t i c i p a n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l Education C l a s s e s 60 3. Teachers L i k e d by P a r t i c i p a n t s 63 4. Reported Opinions of F r i e n d s , Workmates, Parents and Wives on Career Change of P a r t i c i p a n t s 67 5. Impressions of Teachers and Teaching Obtained from Film/Program and Book 79 6. Major B a r r i e r s to Career Change 86 7. Changes Experienced by F a m i l i e s of P a r t i c i p a n t s ....87 8. Degree of F i n a n c i a l S t r e s s Experienced During T r a i n i n g Year 90 9. S a l a r y a f t e r F i v e Years Teaching Compared to Year P r i o r Program 91 10. L i k e l i h o o d of A p p l i c a t i o n to Program Without Government Sponsorship 93 11. Major F a c i l i t a t o r s to Career Change 94 12. Degree of Home Support f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s ' E n t r y i n t o Teaching 96 13. Career P a t t e r n s of P a r t i c i p a n t s 101 14. Career R e l a t e d Goals of P a r t i c i p a n t s 110 15. Second Career I n t e r e s t s 112 16. Degree of Commitment to Occupations Other than Teaching 114 17. Reasons f o r E a r l i e r Non-entry i n t o Teaching 118 18. Reasons f o r Leaving Previous Occupations 123 v i i 19. O c c u p a t i o n a l Values and Gains Achieved by Entry i n t o Teaching 125 20. Reasons f o r S e l e c t i o n of Teaching as a Career 128 21. Socio-economic Rank of P a r t i c i p a n t Occupations ....137 22. Socio-economic Rank of Occupations of F a t h e r s of P a r t i c i p a n t s 139 23. Socio-economic Rank of Occupations of Wives of P a r t i c i p a n t s 141 24. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of P a r t i c i p a n t s 143 25. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Parents of P a r t i c i p a n t s 145 26. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Wives of P a r t i c i p a n t s 146 27. Summary of Comparison of P a r t i c i p a n t s with Tradesmen i n Canada 148 28. Comparison of P a r t i c i p a n t s with Tradesmen in Canada 150 29. Comparison of S e l e c t e d P a r t i c i p a n t s with Tradesmen in B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada 155 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. Process of Item S e l e c t i o n 43 2. Model of Career Change D e c i s i o n Process 121 3. Career Change of P a r t i c i p a n t , B o a t b u i l d e r 122 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would l i k e to acknowledge the f o l l o w i n g : - Members of the s u p e r v i s o r y committee, P r o f e s s o r s J.M.H. Andrews, R.J. Leduc, C S . U n g e r l e i d e r , with p a r t i c u l a r thanks to P r o f e s s o r F.H. E c h o l s , Research S u p e r v i s o r . - Messrs David A b e l , K e i t h F o s t e r , Norman Henderson, Bruce M c G i l l i v r a y , W i l l i a m Logan and Kenneth Reynolds f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s a s s i s t a n c e . - F a c u l t y and students i n the D i v i s i o n of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r e s t . - D e l t a Kappa Gamma, Alpha Provin c e f o r a much a p p r e c i a t e d s c h o l a r s h i p . - A wide c i r c l e of f r i e n d s whose support and understanding made i t p o s s i b l e to succeed i n t h i s t e s t of t e n a c i t y and t e e t h - g r i n d i n g . S t r a i g h t A's to my s i s t e r C a r o l i n e W i l l i a m s and Janet Schmitz f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . X DEDICATION To Rowan and Arran We d i d i t again my l o v e s ! To Graduate Students Everywhere I l l e g i t i m a t i Non Carborundum 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION People fo r whom te a c h i n g i s a second c a r e e r have been accepted members of the p r o f e s s i o n f o r some time. However, there has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n t o e i t h e r t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r c a r e e r change or the process by which the change was a c h i e v e d . The present study examined the c a r e e r change of 37 s k i l l e d tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher e d u c a t i o n program. I t set out to d i s c o v e r i f any p a t t e r n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the c a r e e r change e x p e r i e n c e . The r e s e a r c h was o r g a n i z e d i n t o four main ar e a s . These were: (a) c o n s i d e r a t i o n of four p r o p o s i t i o n s r e l a t e d to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making ( M i t c h e l l , Jones & Krumboltz, 1979), (b) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change, (c) i n v e s t i g a t i o n of work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and (d) c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r socio-demographic backgrounds. 1.1 Background to the Study Work pervades s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of a d u l t l i f e . I t e s t a b l i s h e s - income, p r e s t i g e and s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n f l u e n c e s l i f e w i t h i n the f a m i l y and community, determines where and how one l i v e s , and d e l i m i t s the amount and use of l e i s u r e 2 time (Peters & Hansen, 1966). Levinson (1978) a s c r i b e d to work the p o s i t i o n of 'primary base' i n a man's l i f e . Rooted to t h i s base i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and a network of c l a s s , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . Work p r o v i d e s a s t a t u s which a f f e c t s the way one d e f i n e s o n e s e l f and i s d e f i n e d by others (Karp & Y o e l s , 1982). Sofer (1971) o f f e r e d a wide ranging d e s c r i p t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of work. He saw i t s r o l e as: p r o v i d i n g economic r e t u r n s that are a means to other ends/ p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e l a t e o n e s e l f to s o c i e t y / e n a b l i n g one to s u s t a i n s t a t u s and s e l f - r e s p e c t i n the fa m i l y and s o c i a l network/ p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s for i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s / c o n t r i b u t i n g to p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y / s t r u c t u r i n g the passage of time/ h e l p i n g to ward o f f d i s t r e s s i n g thoughts and f e e l i n g s / p r o v i d i n g scope f o r p e r s o n a l achievement/ t e s t i n g and a f f i r m i n g p e r s o n a l competence. (p.198) What one does f o r a l i v i n g i s a major i n f l u e n c e upon who one i s (Karp & Y o e l s , 1982). I t i s an important source of a d u l t i d e n t i t y as w e l l as a route f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and 3 s a t i s f a c t i o n P i e t r o f e s a & S p l e t e , 1975). However, i t i s not r e a l i s t i c to separate work and non-work aspects of one's l i f e . A r o l e such as spouse has an unavoidable i n f l u e n c e on the work r o l e (Super & H a l l , 1978). There i s an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between one's work and the r e s t of ex i s t e n c e which l a s t s throughout the l i f e c y c l e . Career change i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y common occurence i n a d u l t c a r e e r development. In the t i t l e of t h e i r r e p o r t , 40  m i l l i o n Americans i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n , A r b e i t e r , A s l a n i a n , Schmerbeck & B u c k n e l l (1978) h i g h l i g h t e d the vast numbers of people who were i n the process of, or were s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g , a change of occu p a t i o n . Career change has become so widespread that s p e c i a l terms such as " s e r i a l c a r e e r " ( D r i v e r , 1978) and "protean c a r e e r " ( H a l l , 1976) have been c o i n e d . An average of three c a r e e r s per working l i f e has been p r o j e c t e d as the t y p i c a l contemporary p a t t e r n (Super & Bohm, 1970). A r b e i t e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s drew a t t e n t i o n to the lack of i n f o r m a t i o n on the reasons f o r care e r change. They recommended that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who change c a r e e r s be i n v e s t i g a t e d , as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . They recommended f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l c a r e e r changers and c o n d i t i o n s which would f a c i l i t a t e the c a r e e r change process. The study of c a r e e r change has been widely undertaken by Thomas (e.g. 1975, 1977, 1980). He saw the need to 4 examine c a r e e r change as being r e l a t e d to the understanding of the a d u l t l i f e - c y c l e . He a l s o emphasized the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work, p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and ego i d e n t i t y . Career change was. o f t e n found to be p a r a l l e l e d by other l i f e changes such as m a r i t a l s t a t u s or l i f e s t y l e . Sarason (1977) c r i t i c i s e d the "one l i f e - o n e c a r e e r imperative", and b e l i e v e d i t important to d i s c o v e r whether those who change c a r e e r s were more motivated by the need to withdraw from one s i t u a t i o n or to enter another. He a l s o suggested that data on c a r e e r change had important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y i n areas such as c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , l i f e p l a n n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . The p a u c i t y of t h e o r e t i c a l data on c o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n has been c r i t i c i s e d by Harmon and Farmer (1983). Moreover, the dynamics of c a r e e r change are b e l i e v e d to be unaccounted for i n c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ( S c o t t , 1983). By s t u d y i n g how and why people s h i f t from one c a r e e r to another, one can come c l o s e r to d i s c o v e r i n g what work means to an i n d i v i d u a l and how i t a f f e c t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f a m i l y and f r i e n d s (Krantz, 1977; Wilensky, 1966). Studying c a r e e r changes can i l l u m i n a t e c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and l e a d to a b e t t e r understanding of c a r e e r development ( P i e t r o f e s a & S p l e t e , 1975). 5 The e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s can be d e s c r i b e d as both v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l . They are v e r t i c a l to the extent that a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n a f f e c t s f u t u r e o c c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s and c h o i c e s . However, they are h o r i z o n t a l i n that d e c i s i o n s taken o s t e n s i b l y i n r e l a t i o n to a c a r e e r can have wide spread r i p p l e e f f e c t s i n t o non-work aspects of our l i v e s . A change of occupation can t h e r e f o r e a l t e r much more than the way i n which one spends an e i g h t hour day. The g l o b a l e f f e c t s of such a change may spread i n t o both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e , l e n d i n g new q u a l i t i e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t i s these accompanying e f f e c t s which he l p to give the c a r e e r change i t s shape and p l a c e i n one's l i f e (Becker & S t r a u s s , 1966). Des p i t e the growing body of l i t e r a t u r e on c a r e e r change, there i s l i t t l e which i s of d i r e c t h e l p i n d i s c o v e r i n g who i s a t t r a c t e d to t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r . Past r e s e a r c h has examined a d u l t s i n c a r e e r change and student t e a c h e r s e n t e r i n g the p r o f e s s i o n . However, the combination of c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t e a c h i n g has not yet been e x p l o r e d . In order to d i s c o v e r more about t e a c h i n g as a second car e e r c h o i c e the present study e x p l o r e d the s i t u a t i o n s of a group of tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher e d u c a t i o n program. The men were c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s study as they formed a cohe s i v e group. They a l l had t r a i n i n g and experience i n another f i e l d before e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g . They 6 were g e n e r a l l y o l d e r than t y p i c a l student t e a c h e r s and had spent s e v e r a l years i n a work environment q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from , the classroom. Access to respondents was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n one comprehensive s i t e . The emphasis of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was on d i s c o v e r y . The p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s were to determine i f the l i t e r a t u r e on c a r e e r change and s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g as a f i r s t c a r e e r c o u l d be used to e l u c i d a t e p a t t e r n s i n the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n of tradesmen who become l a t e - e n t r y t e a c h e r s . I t was of i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r i f p a r t i c i p a n t s e x h i b i t e d p a t t e r n s of d e c i s i o n making found i n e i t h e r or both of these r e l a t e d bodies of knowledge. Through the use of r e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w s a combination of c l o s e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p l o r a t i o n of responses. As the study i n v e s t i g a t e d a p r e v i o u s l y unexamined p o p u l a t i o n i t was of b e n e f i t to use a r e s e a r c h framework which p r o v i d e d both s t r u c t u r e and f l e x i b i l i t y . By e x p l o r i n g the behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l second c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s of the group c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d . Four p r o p o s i t i o n s from the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e ( M i t c h e l l , Jones & Krumboltz, 1979) were used to provide a focus f o r the study. These p o s t u l a t e s attempt to e x p l a i n how c a r e e r c h o i c e i s p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e s . The four p r o p o s i t i o n s were used to a s s i s t i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c a r e e r change p r o c e s s . 7 M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979) s t r e s s e d the importance of i n c l u d i n g i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t groups such as a d u l t s who change c a r e e r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study are members of such a t a r g e t group. In the e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r change, the study p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s and the v o c a t i o n a l behaviour of part i c i p a n t s . As mid-career change i s now a r e c o g n i z e d aspect of a d u l t l i f e , i t i s important to i d e n t i f y b a r r i e r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s which accompany such a change. Examination of f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s encountered i n the t r a n s i t i o n from tradesman to teacher can i n c r e a s e the ease with which c a r e e r change i s made. Such examination formed the second area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the present r e s e a r c h . When a new c a r e e r i s chosen the concept of commitment i s of immediate i n t e r e s t . The c a r e e r changer can p l a n on e i t h e r long-term or short-term membership i n the new o c c u p a t i o n a l group. The presence of commitment i n c a r e e r s such as t e a c h i n g can have immediate e f f e c t on other people's l i v e s and w e l l - b e i n g . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , of i n t e r e s t to examine the commitment of people who choose to enter - the p r o f e s s i o n . Commitment to the new c a r e e r can be a s s e s s e d from both past behaviour and f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Work h i s t o r y of i n d i v i d u a l s may give some i n d i c a t i o n as to whether or not 8 they are l i k e l y to make the r e q u i s i t e o c c u p a t i o n a l commitment. A repeated p a t t e r n of c a r e e r change may suggest c a r e e r i n s t a b i l i t y , which does not augur w e l l f o r the p r o f e s s i o n or j u s t i f y the c o s t of r e - t r a i n i n g . Career commitment of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study was t h e r e f o r e examined. I n q u i r y was made i n t o t h e i r work h i s t o r i e s and f u t u r e p l a n s . For over f i f t y years there has been i n t e r e s t i n the background of people who become teach e r s (e. g. L o r t i e , 1975; Ryans, 1960; W a l l e r , 1932). One of the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which emerged from t h i s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h was that male teachers are u s u a l l y from blue c o l l a r backgrounds and view teaching as a means of g a i n i n g upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . However, past r e s e a r c h has s t u d i e d men who chose t e a c h i n g as a f i r s t c a r e e r . L i t t l e i s known of the backgrounds of men who, having worked i n other f i e l d s , d ecide at a more mature age to enter the teaching p r o f e s s i o n . Yet i t i s only with such i n f o r m a t i o n that the f u l l e f f e c t of c a r e e r change can be e x p l o r e d . C o l l e c t i o n of socio-demographic i n f o r m a t i o n allowed both i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l and i n t r a - g e n e r a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s to be e x p l o r e d . However, such i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o served to d e s c r i b e the s o c i a l context from which the c a r e e r change was made. In order to b e t t e r understand a d u l t d e c i s i o n s the need for s o c i a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n has been s t r e s s e d (Harmon & Farmer, 1983; L e v i n s o n , 1978). 9 As with other behaviours, c a r e e r change behaviour i s determined by a combination of present circumstances and past h i s t o r y . In the present study the c o l l e c t i o n of socio-demographic data would f a c i l i t a t e a more comprehensive image of the men and t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . As p a r t i c p a n t s changed c a r e e r s they would be doing so i n the context of m u l t i p l e s o c i a l r o l e s . D e t a i l s of t h e i r backgrounds would pr o v i d e a r i c h e r base on which to f i t other i n f o r m a t i o n . The present study attempted to d i s c o v e r the context and r a t i o n a l e f o r the c a r e e r change of one group of men. There i s no comparison group of men from s i m i l a r backgrounds who remained in t h e i r trade occupations i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. As a r e s u l t , socio-demographic data may appear more s i g n i f i c a n t than they are and may apply to a wider p o p u l a t i o n than that of t h i s study. However, comparisons are made with previous r e s e a r c h on both f i r s t c a r e e r teachers and c a r e e r changers i n other f i e l d s . In the s i n g l e group e x p l o r a t o r y approach, the present r e s e a r c h i s somewhat s i m i l a r to a case study. R e s u l t s are presented i n the context of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r than with immediate comparison d a t a . The t r a n s i t i o n from one c a r e e r to another can be achieved more e a s i l y when the second c a r e e r f i e l d i s r e c e p t i v e to l a t e e n t r y . As L o r t i e (1975) i n d i c a t e d , mature a d u l t s who decide to become teach e r s have found ready o p p o r t u n i t y f o r both t r a i n i n g and employment. However, as 10 yet t here has been l i t t l e attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e the reasons why a c a r e e r change i n t o t e a c h i n g i s made. Research has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the reasons f o r i n i t i a l e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g . I t has examined the m o t i v a t i o n s of teachers and student t e a c h e r s who fo l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n a l route of s c h o o l , teacher education program and back to s c h o o l . However, people who enter teaching a f t e r years i n another occupation may be seeking other g o a l s . The l a c k of re s e a r c h on te a c h i n g as an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e has a l r e a d y been noted (Schalock, 1979). However, lack of i n f o r m a t i o n on t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r c h o i c e i s even more pronounced. The present study set out to meet t h i s r e c o g n i z e d need. The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered on second c a r e e r t e a c h e r s can serve as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o both c a r e e r change i n g e n e r a l and the p a r t i c u l a r s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r f i e l d . 1.2 Areas of I n v e s t i g a t i o n , P r o p o s i t i o n s , O r i e n t i n g  Statements and Research Questions The four areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , with r e l e v a n t p r o p o s i t i o n s or o r i e n t i n g statements and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are . i d e n t i f i e d below. Using Homan's (1967) terminology, " o r i e n t i n g statements" are sometimes p r o v i d e d to i n d i c a t e which a s p e c t s of career change w i l l be e x p l o r e d . i 1 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 Did the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r ? P r o p o s i t i o n A An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n , or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l has been p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d f o r engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has l e a r n e d are a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 1: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d p r a i s e f o r t h e i r behaviour i n a t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n ? Research Question 2: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a f e e l i n g of p l e a s u r e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r behaviour i n a teaching r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n ? P r o p o s i t i o n B An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n or the tasks and 1 2 consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has observed a valued model being r e i n f o r c e d for engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has l e a r n e d are a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 3: In I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s have the p a r t i c i p a n t s observed student behaviours which are r e c o g n i z e d as rewarding to t e a c h e r s ? P r o p o s i t i o n C An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e fo r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that person has been c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d by a valued person who models and/or advocates engaging i n that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 4: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s known a teacher who was a source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement? Research Question 5: Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s have f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y members who support t h e i r c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g as an occupation? 1 3 P r o p o s i t i o n D An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an occupation or the tasks and consequences i n a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has been exposed to p o s i t i v e words and images a s s o c i a t e d with that course, o c c u p a t i o n , f i e l d of work or the a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to i t . (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 6: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s watched a f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n program which has p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of the r o l e of s c h o o l teacher? Research Question 7: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s read a book which p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of teachers or t e a c h i n g as an occupation? Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 2 What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d or impeded the c a r e e r change process? O r i e n t i n g Statement When changing c a r e e r s there e x i s t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which a i d or hinder the t r a n s i t i o n process ( L o u i s , 1980). 1 4 Research Question 8: What f a c t o r s are r e c o g n i z e d as major b a r r i e r s i n the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 9: What f a c t o r s are r e c o g n i z e d as major f a c i l i t a t o r s i n the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 10: How do f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 11: How do f a m i l y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s a f f e c t the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3 Did the experiences and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or uns t a b l e c a r e e r p a t t e r n ? O r i e n t i n g Statement An i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y to pursue on average three c a r e e r s (Super & Bohm, 1970). I f teaching i s one of a s e r i e s of u n r e l a t e d c a r e e r s an unstable c a r e e r p a t t e r n may e x i s t . If so, such a p a t t e r n would be r e f l e c t e d i n work h i s t o r i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Research Question 12: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t e r e d t e a c h i n g a f t e r a sequence of three or more u n r e l a t e d occupations? 15 Research Question 13; Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s view e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g as a temporary or permanent commitment? Research Question 14; Is teaching one o f s e v e r a l occupations c o n s i d e r e d as a c a r e e r change? Research Question 15: Are the s t a t e d reasons f o r becoming a teacher r e l a t e d to e x t r i n s i c r a t h e r than i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s ? Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4 Did the socio-demographic backgrounds of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e that e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g would provide upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? O r i e n t i n g Statement Male t e a c h e r s tend to come from blue c o l l a r backgrounds. E n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g w i l l t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e an a c c e s s i b l e route to the middle c l a s s (Schalock, 1979). Research Question 16; What were the occupations of p a r t i c i p a n t s before e n t e r i n g the program? Research Question 17: What were the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a n t s b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the program? Research Question 18: What were the occu p a t i o n s of parents of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 1 6 Research Question 19: What were the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of parents of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? Research Question 20: What were the p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? -1.3 Purpose of the Study In summary, the purpose of the present study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the c a r e e r change undertaken by s k i l l e d tradesmen as they became s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . I t set out to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between past r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r change and s e l e c t i o n of te a c h i n g and the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Four p r i n c i p a l areas of r e s e a r c h , none p r e v i o u s l y addressed i n the context of second c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , were examined: (1) Did the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to career d e c i s i o n making a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the c h o i c e of te a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r ? (2) What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d or impeded the c a r e e r change process? (3) Did the experiences and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or unstable c a r e e r p a t t e r n ? (4) Did the socio-demographic backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e t h at e n t r y i n t o teaching would p r o v i d e upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? 1 7 1 .4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms are used throughout the study: Career: A s u c c e s s i o n of r e l a t e d jobs, arranged i n a h i e r a r c h y of p r e s t i g e , through which persons move i n an ordered (more-or-less p r e d i c t a b l e ) sequence (Wilensky, 1966). Career change: A change w i t h i n the c a r e e r sequence which i n v o l v e s the implementation of d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s i n a d i f f e r e n t work environment. S t a b l e c a r e e r h i s t o r y : A p a t t e r n of l e s s than three c a r e e r changes undertaken before entry i n t o the I n d u s t r i a l Education program. (Based on Super & Bohm,l970) Unstable c a r e e r h i s t o r y : A p a t t e r n of three or more care e r changes undertaken before entry i n t o the I n d u s t r i a l E ducation program. 18 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Research l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to the present study i s d i s c u s s e d below. The i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n reviews contemporary f i n d i n g s on the c a r e e r change p r o c e s s . Next, t h e o r i e s and models of c a r e e r c h o i c e are d i s c u s s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of t h e i r relevance to second c a r e e r s . Review of r e s e a r c h i n t o f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . 2.1 The Career Change Process At d i f f e r e n t stages of l i f e the meaning and value of work may vary (Osherson, 1980). The p e r s p e c t i v e of a man i n h i s m i d - f o r t i e s w i l l not be the one he h e l d i n h i s mid-twenties. A d e c i s i o n to enter a new occupation may t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e a s h i f t i n such value and meaning. However, such a d e c i s i o n may i n v o l v e a l t e r i n g s e v e r a l other aspects of l i f e as w e l l as the c a r e e r i t s e l f . These can range from major a l t e r a t i o n s , such as d i s t a n t r e l o c a t i o n , to minor d i f f e r e n c e s i n d a i l y l o g i s t i c r o u t i n e s . A move from r u r a l to urban environment or from s h i f t work to a nine to f i v e p o s i t i o n can v a r i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e to an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of change. 19 There may be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the changing of c a r e e r r o l e s and other r o l e s w i t h i n a person's l i f e . Although Super (1980) i n d i c a t e d that d e c i s i o n p o i n t s between r o l e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d , such a r e l a t i o n s h i p has o f t e n been found (Krantz, 1977; Levinson, 1978; Osherson, 1980; Thomas, 1977). The d e c i s i o n to leave an occupation may be accompanied by the ending of a marriage or other p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The subsequent e n t r y i n t o a new occupation r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d of r e - s o c i a l i z a t i o n perhaps r e s u l t i n g i n a l t e r a t i o n of s e l f - i m a g e , s k i l l s , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s or v a l u e s (Gross, 1975). The e f f e c t s of c a r e e r change may t h e r e f o r e range much wider than the immediate demands of the job at hand. Career changes have been c a t e g o r i z e d i n s e v e r a l ways. Hiesta n d (1971) used g e o m e t r i c a l terms, d e s c r i b i n g c a r e e r s h i f t s as 45 or 90 degree t u r n s . The former e n t a i l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change of occupation which n e v e r t h e l e s s b u i l t on the s k i l l s and knowledge of an e a r l i e r c a r e e r . The r i g h t angled t u r n r e s u l t e d i n a complete change of o c c u p a t i o n , new tasks i n a new s e t t i n g . The Santa Fe r e s i d e n t s s t u d i e d by Krantz (1977), former business and p r o f e s s i o n a l men now i n a c o u n t e r - c u l t u r a l e x i s t e n c e , c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as 90 degree changers. H i e s t a n d c a t e g o r i z e d the mature graduate students of h i s own r e s e a r c h as making 45 degree changes. 20 Osherson (1980) conceived of c a r e e r change as being e i t h e r a d e f e n s i v e or a d a p t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s a f f e c t e d commitment to the new o c c u p a t i o n . In a d e f e n s i v e change there were u n r e a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n s of both f i r s t and second c a r e e r s , d e n i g r a t i n g any value i n the o l d job and exaggerating the worth of the new. T h i s approach was d e s c r i b e d as " f o r e c l o s e d " . A more balanced or " s c u l p t e d " r e s o l u t i o n faced up to the p l e a s a n t and unpleasant aspects of both c a r e e r s and r e s u l t e d i n a more i n t e g r a t e d commitment to the second. In the t h i r d of a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s u t i l i z i n g f o u r - p a r t f i g u r e s to i l l u s t r a t e c a r e e r change, Thomas (1980) compared hi g h and low pressure from s e l f and environment (see a l s o Thomas, 1977; Thomas, Mela, Robbins & Harvey, 1976). The d e c i s i o n to leave present o c c u p a t i o n s was a combination of " i n t e r n a l " f a c t o r s such as t h e i r own "opinions and p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s and " e x t e r n a l " f a c t o r s such as the o p i n i o n s of other people and o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . Comparison of response to such i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l pressure i n d i c a t e d four c a t e g o r i e s of changers. These were D r i f t - o u t s (low i n t e r n a l , low e x t e r n a l ) , Bow-outs (high i n t e r n a l , h i g h e x t e r n a l ) , Force-outs (low i n t e r n a l , high e x t e r n a l ) , and Opt-outs (high i n t e r n a l , low e x t e r n a l ) . General p a t t e r n s of response to c a r e e r change were found f o r each group. However, Thomas emphasized the i n d i v i d u a l nature of motives behind such change. Each respondent had 21 h i s own reasons f o r l e a v i n g an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n i n mid-career. A d e c i s i o n to change c a r e e r s c o n t a i n s elements of both e x i t and entrance. For the purposes of the present study, m o t i v a t i o n s behind v o l u n t a r y e x i t are of i n t e r e s t . For example, the job changes of Thomas's (1980) " f o r c e - o u t s " , who were r e q u i r e d to leave t h e i r jobs, are not as r e l e v a n t as those of the "opt-outs". The "opt-outs" were not pushed nor d i d they f a l l . They chose to jump. The reasons behind a s i m i l a r c h o i c e was examined in the present study. Parsons and W i g t a i l (1974) suggested that a s h i f t towards p e r s o n a l development was made i n s e l e c t i n g a second c a r e e r . They b e l i e v e d that i n i t i a l o c c upations tended to be chosen f o r economic and s o c i o l o g i c a l reasons such as convenient l o c a t i o n , income, chances of promotion or a v a i l a b i l i t y of work. However, when a change in occupation was c o n s i d e r e d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , those meeting i n d i v i d u a l needs, were more i n f l u e n t i a l . Hiestand's (1971) study of mature graduate students a l s o determined a range of p e r s o n a l s p e c i f i c motives such as i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d , a q u i s i t i o n of new s k i l l s or r e a l i z a t i o n of long h e l d a m b i t i o n . However, men i n the counter c u l t u r e study by Krantz (1977) i n d i c a t e d a much st r o n g e r i n d i v i d u a l need to e x i t r a t h e r than enter c a r e e r s . These people had l e f t t r a d i t i o n a l middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n s and moved to Santa Fe, 22 New Mexico. There they worked i n a r t i s t i c endeavours or whatever e l s e was a v a i l a b l e . For them a new occupation was more of an escape route away from a n o - l o n g e r - d e s i r e d l i f e s t y l e than a p o s i t i v e step towards a w e l l - d e f i n e d g o a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s tends to support N e a p o l i t a n ' s (1980) c o n t e n t i o n that c a r e e r change only occurs when a more s a t i s f y i n g occupation i s p e r c e i v e d . A s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l environment which condones change of o ccupation w i l l f o s t e r the occurence of such change. Thomas (1979) commented on the 'macrosocial environment' h i g h l i g h t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e e a r l i e r s t r e s s e d by Becker (1964). In a s o c i e t y which i s both a f f l u e n t and t o l e r a n t towards s o c i a l deviance, but i s e x p e r i e n c i n g ongoing change i n the world of work, c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n would appear not onl y a c c c e p t a b l e but i n e v i t a b l e . In A r b e i t e r ' s (1978) l a r g e survey, one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r c a r e e r change predominated. Almost 50% of the workers looked f o r new jobs because they wanted more money. Other a t t r a c t o r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement (18%), more i n t e r e s t i n g work (15%) and work more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s (10%). The emphasis on f i n a n c i a l gain i s in c o n t r a s t to s e v e r a l other c a r e e r change s t u d i e s (Hiestand, 1971; Krantz, 1977; Osherson, 1980; Thomas, 1979). Such r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d income, gains sought through c a r e e r change tended to focus on f a c t o r s such as work which had more meaning or 23 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l development. Change of occupation o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n l e s s income, not more. T h i s apparent c o n f l i c t between motives can perhaps be e x p l a i n e d by comparing the sample of the two types of study. A r b e i t e r i n c l u d e d many low p a i d workers i n h i s survey. These i n c l u d e d women who were homemakers with minimal p e r s o n a l income. The other r e s e a r c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on men i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and managerial p o s i t i o n s . Such people were i n a f i n a n c i a l s t a t e which more than pr o v i d e d f o r t h e i r b a s i c needs. A change of occupation was o f t e n sought i n order to f u l f i l l higher order needs which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n Maslovian terms as s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g or e s t h e t i c (Maslow, 1943). F u r t h e r reasons d i s c o v e r e d by Thomas continue on s i m i l a r n o n - f i n a n c i a l l i n e s , f o r example wanting to spend more time with f a m i l i e s or i n r e c r e a t i o n or l o o k i n g f o r a more d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n i n which to l i v e . There i s the con s t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n that once a c e r t a i n l e v e l of income i s assured, occupations are expected to p r o v i d e more than p u r e l y monetary rewards. The rewards of work have f r e q u e n t l y been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s (Altimus & T e r s i n e , 1973; Hahn, 1959; S p r e i t z e r & Snyder, 1974; Super, 1970). E x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e those a s p e c t s of work which would be more or l e s s constant f o r e q u i v a l e n t workers. These would be f a c t o r s such as economic r e t u r n s , v a c a t i o n s or work environment. I n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s r e l a t e to 24 s a t i s f a c t i o n experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l worker such as c r e a t i v i t y or sense of achievement. M i l l e r (1974) suggested that e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s were c l o s e l y a l i g n e d to Maslow's (1943) lower l e v e l s a f e t y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs. - I n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s were r e l a t e d to higher order needs. The d i v i s i o n of work v a l u e s a l o n g a h i e r a r c h y of needs may account for the v a r y i n g reasons given by career changers i n d i f f e r e n t income l e v e l s . In h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a work value , Zytowski (1970) a s s o c i a t e d an i n t e r n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the worker with the a b i l i t y to o b t a i n the d e s i r e d a t t r i b u t e s through the context of a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n . For example, i f a worker had a need f o r p r e s t i g e , he would c o n s i d e r p r e s t i g e important i n h i s c h o ice of c a r e e r . I f p r e s t i g e were accorded to him i n h i s work he would experience job s a t i s f a c t i o n . The suggestion that job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s accounted f o r by i n s t r i n s i c elements of work while d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e s from e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s (Hahn, 1959; Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959) can now o n l y be accepted as p a r t i a l t r u t h at best. The c a r e e r changes sought by Thomas's (1979) p r o f e s s i o n a l men were based on d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i n t r i n s i c aspects of t h e i r work. Young blue c o l l a r workers have a l s o r e p o r t e d t h i s reason f o r l a c k of job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Altimus & T e r s i n e , 1973). Workers under 26 years gave reasons d e s c r i b e d as l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and esteem. In the same study, workers 25 over 36 years r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g the era i n which t h i s r e s e a r c h took.place i t may be that the younger workers, having grown up d u r i n g the s i x t i e s , had higher e x p e c t a t i o n s than t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t through t h e i r work. As the r e s e a r c h e r s noted, the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n reached by the workers was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to how the outcomes of t h e i r job matched t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . Perhaps the o l d e r workers had a l r e a d y passed through a s t a t e which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d , with a p o l o g i e s to F e s t i n g e r (1957), as " o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s s o n a n c e " . T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s had then a l t e r e d to match the r e a l i t y of t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n . They t h e r e f o r e r e p o r t e d a higher l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s perhaps s e l f - e v i d e n t that workers i n r e g u l a r employment must have experienced some lack of job s a t i s f a c t i o n before they d e c i d e d to enter a second c a r e e r . E i t h e r the e a r l i e r job was not good, or i t was not good enough. However, the impact of l a c k of job s a t i s f a c t i o n on ca r e e r change needs f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 2.2 The o r i e s and Models of Oc c u p a t i o n a l Choice Although s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s and models of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e e x i s t , none i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d towards second c a r e e r s . H a l l (1976) c l a s s i f i e d c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s i n t o two main groups - Matching and Process. Among the Matching 26 t h e o r i e s , which attempt to d e s c r i b e the kinds of people who enter c e r t a i n kinds of o c c u p a t i o n s , are those of Roe (1957) and Super (Super, 1957; Super, S t a r i s h e v s k y , M a t l i n & Jordaan, 1963). Roe suggested that people choose work which f u l f i l l s t h e i r p e r s o n a l needs. These needs were a t t r i b u t e d to e a r l y p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Although the r e s e a r c h value of t h i s theory has been questioned (Osipow, 1973), the concept of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a f f e c t e d by i n d i v i d u a l needs may be r e l e v a n t to s e l e c t i o n of a second c a r e e r . Super b e l i e v e d that occupations were s e l e c t e d so as to be congruent with the s e l f concept. T h i s concept was made up of the person's image of himself r e l a t i v e to such f a c e t s as h i s a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , or p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y . The theory p o s t u l a t e s s i x stages of c a r e e r development. However, j u s t when they would be expected to be at e i t h e r the Es t a b l i s h m e n t or Maintenance stage, some ca r e e r changers d e c i d e to s t a r t over. T h i s i s i n c o n f l i c t with the stage concept. However, the s h i f t from one c a r e e r to another may be r e l a t e d to a lack of a c c o r d between an occupation and the s e l f - i m a g e . In an e f f o r t to encompass both l i f e - and c a r e e r - h i s t o r i e s , Super (1980) presented a L i f e - C a r e e r Rainbow. In diagrammatic form he emphasized the ov e r l a p between v a r i o u s aspects of p e r s o n a l and worker r o l e s . Such emphasis r e l f e c t s contemporary i n t e r e s t i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l and car e e r development of a d u l t s (e.g. L evinson, 1978; Osherson, 1980; Sarason, 1977). 27 A matching approach was taken by Strong (1943) and l a t e r developed by H o l l a n d (1966, 1973). Strong's i n v e n t o r y blank gave a score which i n d i c a t e d the s i m i l a r i t y beween an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t p r o f i l e and the p r o f i l e of members of a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n . H o l l a n d e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s approach and proposed o r i e n t a t i o n s . He suggested that people tend to work with others who have s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s . These o r i e n t a t i o n s were measured by the V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e Inventory (Holland, 1965). Although much v o c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has been done u s i n g Holland's model (e.g., Doty & Betz, 1979; Dwight, 1977; L. G o t t f r e d s o n , 1978), f o r the purposes of the present study i t has some weaknesses. The s i x types of p e r s o n a l i t y a c c o r d i n g to the model are R e a l i s t i c , I n v e s t i g a t i v e , A r t i s t i c , S o c i a l , E n t e r p r i s i n g , and C o n v e n t i o n a l (R,I,A,S,E,C). A measured combination of three of the s i x i n d i c a t e the P e r s o n a l i t y P a t t e r n . H o l l a n d l i s t e d 465 occupations i n terms of the P e r s o n a l i t y P a t t e r n of t h e i r members. I n d u s t r i a l A r t s teachers are coded as RIS, so are e l e c t r i c i a n s and welders. Plumbers and automobile mechanics are RIE, while c a r p e n t e r s are RCI. Although change from one of H o lland's s i x c a t e g o r i e s to another has been used to d e f i n e c a r e e r change (Vaitenas & Weiner, 1977), such a d e f i n i t i o n f a i l s to i n c o r p o r a t e the wide-ranging s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l . e f f e c t s of a t r a n s i t i o n from tradesman to teacher. Based on H o l l a n d ' s argument such a t r a n s i t i o n would stem 28 from a p e r s o n a l i t y change. Otherwise the theory f a i l s to account f o r s e l e c t i o n of the i n i t i a l c a r e e r . The Process models and t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r c h o i c e are designed to d e s c r i b e how people make a d e s c i s i o n on t h e i r c h o i c e of o c c u p a t i o n . A three stage model was put forward by Ginzberg and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (Ginzberg, Ginsberg, A x e l r a d , & Herma, 1964). Beginning with the c h i l d h o o d Fantasy stage, there f o l l o w s a p e r i o d of T e n t a t i v e Choice and f i n a l l y R e a l i s t i c C hoice. Although i t i s admitted that many people do not s e t t l e i n t o a R e a l i s t i c c h o i c e u n t i l w e l l i n t o a d u l t l i f e , t h i s theory cannot .be a p p l i e d to c a r e e r changers of the type examined i n the present study. The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l have a l r e a d y made f i r m R e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s , as they have years of t r a i n i n g and ex p e r i e n c e . However, i t may be that t h e i r d e c i s i o n to enter t e a c h i n g i s f u l f i l l i n g an e a r l y Fantasy. Examination of the process by which people cope with t h e i r c a r e e r s , has r e s u l t e d i n the concept of " v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y " ( C r i t e s , 1973; Super £< Bohm, 1970). T h i s maturity i s i n r e l a t i o n both to t h e i r peers and to a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e stage. The emphasis on comparison with peers means that v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i s not r e l a t i v e to age and can never be f i n a l l y a t t a i n e d . The c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s mature v o c a t i o n a l behaviour change i n a s e r i e s of developmental c y c l e s . Although much of t h i s work has been c a r r i e d out with a d o l e s c e n t s , the concept may be r e l e v a n t to the d e c i s i o n s made i n c a r e e r change. 29 The impact of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e was s t r e s s e d i n the model developed by Blau „(Blau, Gustad, Parnes & Wilcox, 1 968). The c h o i c e was subj e c t to two main i n f l u e n c e s . These were p e r s o n a l i t y development, which would determine o r i e n t a t i o n towards c e r t a i n c h o i c e s , and the socio-economic c o n s t r a i n t s on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . Blau a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t c a r e e r s were the r e s u l t s of two-way d e c i s i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l chose the o c c u p a t i o n , but on being h i r e d , the o c c u p a t i o n a l s o chose him. Another major emphasis of Blau's work was the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l background on the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and attainments of i n d i v i d u a l s . Jepsen and D i l l e y (1974) a l s o emphasised the i n f l u e n c e of e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n on v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. However, such c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making t h e o r i e s have been c r i t i c i z e d as being somewhat narrow i n concept and f a i l i n g to view the c h o i c e of o c c u p a t i o n i n the context of a whole l i f e s e t t i n g (Jones & Jung, 1979; Levinson et a l . , 1978; Super, 1980). In an attempt to e x p l a i n c a r e e r c h o i c e M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979) presented the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. Based on the work of Bandura (1974, 1977), t h e i r approach not only i n c o r p o r a t e d the i n t e r p l a y of economic, s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , but a l s o allowed f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of cause and e f f e c t . They proposed that c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s were made as a 30 r e s u l t of a l i f e t i m e ' s l e a r n i n g . I n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l reinforcement p r o v i d e d both m o t i v a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n which a f f e c t e d past and f u t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s . The p r o p o s i t i o n s set out by Krumboltz (1979) were used by Spokane and Herzog-Spokane (1981) to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and career c h o i c e . They i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of p o s i t i v e words and images and of modeling through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s l i d e - t a p e p o r t r a y a l s of jobs i n medical technology. They found that p o s i t i v e words and images i n c r e a s e d p r e f e r e n c e s for the jobs, whereas the reinforcement or modeling c o n d i t i o n had no e f f e c t . Foreman's (1980) review of the work of M i t c h e l l et a l . (1979) welcomed i t as the f i r s t new t h e o r e t i c a l approach to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making to appear f o r some time. However, he r e g r e t t e d that i t d i d not c o n s i d e r the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s which may be r e l a t e d to c a r e e r change. The present study attempts to address t h i s i s s u e . In accordance with Osipow's (1982) o b s e r v a t i o n , c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s made at the age of 18 years are no longer c o n s i d e r e d a "one-time-only" c h o i c e . 2.3 F a c i l i t a t o r s and B a r r i e r s to Career Change Career change i s i n f l u e n c e d by a range of f a c t o r s which may f a c i l i t a t e or impede the s i t u a t i o n . L o u i s (1980) i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n communalities which e x i s t with every such 31 change such as coping with the d i f f e r e n c e s experienced i n the move from one job to another. The d i f f e r e n c e s were c l a s s i f i e d as changes, c o n t r a s t s and s u r p r i s e s . Success i n d e a l i n g with the changes was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the amount of advance i n f o r m a t i o n the worker had been a b l e to a c q u i r e . V a i t e n a s and Weiner (1977) s t u d i e d mid-career changers i n business-managerial o c c u p a t i o n s . Using instruments such as the Emotional S t a b i l i t y S c ale (Gordon,1963) and Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (Rotter & R a f f e r t y , 1950), they compared groups of young and o l d e r c a r e e r changers to c o n t r o l s . The age used as a d i v i d i n g p o i n t was 35 ye a r s . No important age d i f f e r e n c e s emerged, but the c a r e e r changers were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emotional maladjustment and fear of f a i l u r e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were t a k i n g p a r t i n a care e r c o u n s e l l i n g program and had taken a c t i v e steps towards e n t e r i n g a new c a r e e r . As car e e r change i s re c o g n i z e d as a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n (Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend 1978), i t appears somewhat s u p e r f l u o u s to measure emotional s t a b i l i t y at t h i s time and f i n d s i g n s of emotional s t r e s s . The measurement of many a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y i s being widely c r i t i c i s e d as v a l i d i t y of the instruments i s i n q u e s t i o n ( F i s k e , 1974; M i s c h e l , 1977; S e c h r e s t , 1979). The b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change need to be i d e n t i f i e d i n more concret e terms, as do the f a c i l i t a t o r s . 32 A l i f e t r a n s i t i o n such as c a r e e r change would seem more l i k e l y to be s u c c e s s f u l when p e r s o n a l support i s a v a i l a b l e . However, as Waters and Goodman (1981) p o i n t e d out, the need f o r support can i n c r e a s e j u s t as sources of support become l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . Super (1980) c i t e d the example of r e l o c a t i o n , removing a worker and dependents from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , thus i n c r e a s i n g s t r e s s of job change. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was the e x i s t e n c e of support, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the worker's spouse, which was acknowledged as the main f a c i l i t a t o r i n the car e e r change process ( B l o l a n d & Selby, 1980; N e a p o l i t a n , 1980; Waters & Goodman, 1981). A second f a c t o r which eased c a r e e r change was the presence of s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l r esources (Hiestand, 1971; Thomas, 1980). Hiestand's study of people over 35 years of age who e n t e r e d graduate s c h o o l , i n d i c a t e d that a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i n a n c i a l a i d was an important i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r r e t u r n to s c h o o l . The business e x e c u t i v e s i n Thomas's re s e a r c h appeared to be on a more f i r m f i n a n c i a l base. There was l i t t l e need f o r e x t r a f i n a n c i a l support d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d and 60% of wives of the e x e c u t i v e s had remained working i n s i d e the home. F u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t o r s to the c a r e e r change of Hiestand's students were a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e programs and s u c c e s s f u l admission to the u n i v e r s i t i e s . These f i n d i n g s are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the pr e s e n t study as the tradesmen c o u l d only become teache r s a f t e r being accepted i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e 33 u n i v e r s i t y program. Personal needs of the i n d i v i d u a l were a l s o found to a s s i s t i n the c a r e e r change p r o c e s s . Over 75% of the business e x e c u t i v e s r e p o r t e d that they b e l i e v e d i t was important fo r them to f i n d more meaningful work. T h i s s t r o n g p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n h e l p e d them through the t r a n s i t i o n . B a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change would appear at f i r s t to be the obverse of f a c i l i t a t o r s . Indeed, l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l or p e r s o n a l support, need f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , and presence of dependents were p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t s . However, such b a r r i e r s were not n e c e s s a r i l y accepted as such by s u c c e s s f u l career changers. Thomas (1980) found that almost 75% of the e x e c u t i v e s had dependent c h i l d r e n . In the l a r g e survey by A r b e i t e r (1978), 60% of a d u l t s i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n were prepared to a c q u i r e the necessary f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . However, car e e r changers i n the Krantz study (1977) b e l i e v e d that r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were an excuse, not a reason f o r lack of m o b i l i t y . B a r r i e r s to a d u l t c a r e e r change at a d i f f e r e n t income l e v e l were d i s c u s s e d by F r e d r i c k s o n , Macy and V i c k e r s (1978) . T h e i r sample of c l i e n t s from a r e g i o n a l l e a r n i n g s e r v i c e were mostly women and/or from low income groups. The problems of these c l i e n t s i n attempting to change t h e i r c a r e e r i n c l u d e d l a c k of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n to take r e - t r a i n i n g programs and d e s i r e f o r i n s t a n t success and p r e s t i g e . Such p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s were very e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . 34 On a p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l l e v e l , Osherson (1980) i d e n t i f i e d four main c h a l l e n g e s i n the c a r e e r change s i t u a t i o n . These were s e p a r a t i o n from the attachments of p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n , changes in pacing and time s t r u c t u r e of the day, changes i n s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s , and the need to develop new s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . N e a p o l i t a n (1980), summarising the e f f e c t s of b a r r i e r s to career change, noted that o b s t a c l e s l a y i n the eye of the beholder. S u c c e s s f u l changers b e l i e v e d that o b s t a c l e s would be surmounted, f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s would be temporary and the s e c u r i t y of t h e i r p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n up. They thought of themselves as being i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r environment and tended both to maximise o p p o r t u n i t i e s and to d e p r e c i a t e problems. I t was not the b a r r i e r s per se that prevented c a r e e r change, but how those b a r r i e r s were p e r c e i v e d . T h i s was the key d i f f e r e n c e between changers and non-changers. 2.4 P a t t e r n s of Career Change In h i s examination of c a r e e r change, Byrne (1975) found one p a r t i c u l a r aspect to be so constant that i t was d e s c r i b e d as a socioeconomic law: m o b i l i t y decreased as age i n c r e a s e d . G. G o t t f r e d s o n (1977) examined t h i s phenomenon, s t u d y i n g both men and women between the ages of 21 to 25 35 years and 61 to 65 y e a r s . Between 1965 and 1970, 32.7% of the younger men and 54.9% of the younger women had remained i n the same job. However, 77.3% of o l d e r men and 78.2% of o l d e r women had not moved. Although workers under 35 years made up l e s s than 40% of people employed i n 1972, they accounted f o r 70% of a l l job changes i n that year (Byrne, 1975). M o b i l i t y r a t e s were a l s o found to be higher among s i n g l e (17.0%) r a t h e r than married (7.8%) workers. Byrne's examination of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of car e e r changers showed that people with e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g or l e s s had the lowest m o b i l i t y r a t e . T h i s was the group with the h i g h e s t average age. As a c o n t r a s t , those with four years of c o l l e g e or more had the second lowest m o b i l i t y r a t e . They appeared to have found work with which they were reasonably c o n t e n t . The h i g h e s t r a t e of job change was h e l d by people with one to three years of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r an attempt at higher e d u c a t i o n , these people were, to use Super's (195.7) term, f l o u n d e r i n g from one occupation to another. A p r o f i l e of the person most l i k e l y to be o c c u p a t i o n a l l y mobile would i n d i c a t e someone who was male, under 25, s i n g l e and a c o l l e g e drop-out. A l o n g t i t u d i n a l study of work h i s t o r i e s i s c u r r e n t l y being c a r r i e d out by the Career P a t t e r n Study (e.g. P h i l l i p s , 1982; Super & H a l l , 1978). Under the l e a d e r s h i p of Donald Super, t h i s study began i n 1951. Data were gathered from boys aged 13 to 15 y e a r s . Further data were 36 gathered i n 1958, 1962, and 1973. I t was d i s c o v e r e d that around 75% of the men had begun to f i n d c a r e e r paths f o r themselves by the age of 25 y e a r s . However, the other 25% were c o n t i n u i n g to d r i f t a i m l e s s l y between jo b s . . The data to be c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the 1980s w i l l r e p o r t on c a r e e r stages of the men when they are at or near m i d - l i f e . T h i s should y i e l d i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n of men i n t h e i r m a t u r i t y . The study by Thomas (1980) of men who changed c a r e e r s i n m i d - l i f e i n d i c a t e d that 89% hoped to remain i n t h e i r new occupation or one very s i m i l a r . If t h i s i n t e n t i s confirmed by the Career P a t t e r n Study, i t may be that such c a r e e r change does not i n d i c a t e a m i d - l i f e r e t u r n to f l o u n d e r i n g , but a t r a n s i t i o n from one s t a b i l i t y to another. Rather than r e g r e s s i o n to y o u t h f u l behaviour, m i d - l i f e c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e a s s e s s i n g m a t u r i t y from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . Wilensky (1966) b e l i e v e d that o r d e r l y c a r e e r p a t t e r n s were unusual i n middle c l a s s American s o c i e t y . He i d e n t i f i e d s i x c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . Apart from very few people (3%) who h e l d only one job f o r t h e i r complete c a r e e r , workers made ' h o r i z o n t a l ' or ' v e r t i c a l ' p r o g r e s s i o n with v a r y i n g degrees of o r d e r l i n e s s . H o r i z o n t a l o c c u p a t i o n s were r e l a t e d w i t h i n the same o c c u p a t i o n a l stratum, f o r example c a r p e n t e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e , journeyman and foreman. Jobs i n v e r t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n cut a c r o s s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r a t a . The work p a t t e r n was d e s c r i b e d as ' o r d e r l y ' a c c o r d i n g to the 37 degree i n to which s k i l l s and experience of one o c c u p a t i o n were a p p l i c a b l e to the next. There was a l s o p r o g r e s s i o n through a h i e r a r c h y of p r e s t i g e . However, Wilensky suggested that only 30% of workers had c a r e e r h i s t o r i e s of which h a l f or more developed i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . He d e s c r i b e d 13% as having an o r d e r l y h o r i z o n t a l p r o g r e s s i o n and 17% as having o r d e r l y v e r t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n . The l a r g e s t group were 33% b o r d e r l i n e o r d e r l y v e r t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n , where more than one f i f t h but l e s s than one h a l f of the work h i s t o r y was d e s c r i b e d as o r d e r l y . These f i g u r e s would i n d i c a t e that the l a c k of c a r e e r change r a t h e r than i t s presence would be s u r p r i s i n g i n the study of o c c u p a t i o n s . Summary Research i n t o c a r e e r change i n d i c a t e d that such t r a n s i t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y accompanied by other l i f e changes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Krantz, 1977; Levinson, 1978; Osherson, 1980; Thomas, 1980). R a t i o n a l e for the c a r e e r change appeared to be a balance of needs. In d i f f e r e n t circumstances the m o t i v a t i o n e i t h e r to leave an o l d o ccupation or to enter a new one was dominant (Hiestand, 1971; Krantz, 1977; Thomas, 1977, 1980). The p o s i t i o n of second c a r e e r t e a c h e r s along t h i s continuum i s not known. Other aspects of c a r e e r change which have been s t u d i e d i n c l u d e income change, i n both d i r e c t i o n s ( A r b i e t e r et a l . , 38 1978; H i e s t a n d , 1971), and the need f o r job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Altimus & T e r s i n e , 1973; S p r e i t z e r & Snyder, 1974). T h e o r i e s of c a r e e r change have been developed u s i n g f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e s . There i s l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l underpinning to the i n c r e a s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on second c a r e e r s . H a l l (1976) d i v i d e d v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e o r i e s i n t o "matching" and "process". T h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e to s e l f concept (Super, 1957) or p e r s o n a l i t y type congruency (Holland, 1966, 1973) may have some re l e v a n c e to second c a r e e r s . But i f so, they have f a i l e d to e x p l a i n s u c c e s s f u l l y the f i r s t c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . Career c h o i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s ( M i t c h e l l , Jones, & Krumboltz, 1981) may h e l p to account f o r l a t e e n try c a r e e r s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was urged by the authors, p a r t i c u l a r l y with c e r t a i n t a r g e t groups, i n c l u d i n g a d u l t c a r e e r changers. F a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to the c a r e e r change process were found to be r e l a t e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , the presence of f a m i l y and f i n a n c i a l support was noted as h e l p i n g to ease the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n (Thomas, 1980; Waters & Goodman, 1981). Although general s o c i a l support was h e l p f u l , the key person i n a su p p o r t i v e r o l e was the spouse of the worker ( B l o l a n d & Selby, 1980; N e a p o l i t a n , 1980). Lack of p e r s o n a l and f i n a n c i a l support hindered the change proc e s s . F u r t h e r a i d s to car e e r t r a n s i t i o n were the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a p p r o p r i a t e r e t r a i n i n g programs (Hi e s t a n d , 39 1971), an a c t i v e search f o r more meaningful work (Thomas, 1980), and p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n that the c a r e e r change would succeed (Krantz, 1977; N e a p o l i t a n , 1980). As the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study was a l r e a d y underway, past r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r change f a c i l i t a t o r s was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t . Career m o b i l i t y was most frequent i n younger workers (G. G o t t f r e d s o n , 1977), e s p e c i a l l y i n those who had dropped out of c o l l e g e (Byrne, 1975). P a t t e r n s of work h i s t o r y developed by Wilensky (1966) i n d i c a t e d that job m o b i l i t y , i f not complete c a r e e r change, was widespread. The d i s c o v e r y of c a r e e r p a t t e r n s h e l d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study w i l l lend f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s aspect of c a r e e r change. 40 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Study A group of 37 p a r t i c i p a n t s was i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the study. They were the t o t a l number of male students e n r o l l e d i n the Sponsored Program of the I n d u s t r i a l Education D i v i s i o n , Department of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s program i s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A. The respondents comprised the complete p o p u l a t i o n of tradesmen i n B r i t i s h Columbia who were t r a i n i n g to become teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Education i n the academic year 1981-82. As r e q u i r e d by the program, each of the men i n t e r v i e w e d had t r a i n i n g and experience i n a trade before deciding, to become t e a c h e r s . Together they represented 17 d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . Ages of p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from 24 to 54 years with a mean of 30.8 yea r s . A summary d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s presented i n Appendix B. 3.2 Development of Research Instrument The r e s e a r c h instrument used i n t h i s study was a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule c o n s i s t i n g of 83 items. Data were c o l l e c t e d by the face to face i n t e r v i e w method as i t was deemed most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . 41 With only 37 p o t e n t i a l respondents, a h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l . The i n t e r v i e w procedure a l s o ensured that the p a r t i c i p a n t s understood and answered every item. I t was p o s s i b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r , who d i d a l l the i n t e r v i e w i n g , to probe responses i n order to gain s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and to expand where a p p r o p r i a t e . As many of the items were open-ended, i n t e r v i e w format encouraged f u l l and e x p l i c i t responses. T h i s l e d to a r i c h n e s s i n the q u a l i t y of the data which would have been unobtainable i n a w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s e a r c h instrument was developed i n seven main s t e p s . These steps are d e s c r i b e d below. Step One - D i s c u s s i o n with Key Informant Before d e v e l o p i n g an i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w schedule, the r e s e a r c h e r had two u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s with a key informant. These c o n v e r s a t i o n s enabled the researcher to o b t a i n an impression of the program, i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s , d a i l y r o u t i n e , time demands, pr e s s u r e s of work, e f f e c t s on f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l l i f e and other r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s . The informant had r e c e n t l y completed the I n d u s t r i a l Education Sponsored Program. He was recommended by a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r as being both p e r c e p t i v e and a r t i c u l a t e . Each c o n v e r s a t i o n was approximately one hour i n . l e n g t h . A f t e r these i n t e r v i e w s , an i n i t i a l set of items was c o n s t r u c t e d i n c o r p o r a t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d (see Appendix C). 42 Step Two - P i l o t Study One A p r e l i m i n a r y p i l o t study was c a r r i e d out u s i n g the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w schedule. In the s p r i n g of 1981, f i v e students from the I n d u s t r i a l Education Sponsored Program were c o n t a c t e d . These students were recommended by f a c u l t y members. Three i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e a t the F a c u l t y of Education b u i l d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and two at the Department of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n i n Burnaby. A f t e r each i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v i t e d to comment on the q u e s t i o n s and the i n t e r v i e w . Two main changes were made as a r e s u l t of these comments. F i r s t was the i n c l u s i o n of items that were more d i r e c t , such as "Why do you want to be a t e a c h e r ? " and "What i s i t about t e a c h i n g that makes i t a good job f o r you?". The second change was an i n c r e a s e d number of q u e s t i o n s about the spouse of• the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Four of the f i v e men i n t e r v i e w e d noted the importance of t h e i r wives on t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. The new items i n v e s t i g a t e d the wives' occupations, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and a t t i t u d e towards the c a r e e r change of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Step Three - I n c l u s i o n of S o c i a l L e a r n i n g  P r i n c i p l e s and Item S e l e c t i o n Four main areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i n c l u d e d . Each was based on a p o s i t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n which a p p l i e d s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory to career d e c i s i o n making ( M i t c h e l l , Jones & 43 Krumboltz, 1979). A more f o c u s s e d approach to the r e s e a r c h was added through the use of o r i e n t i n g statements and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Each r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n examined a narrow t o p i c which was i n v e s t i g a t e d through a set of items on an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . Only items d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the main a r e a of i n v e s t i g a t i o n through both r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and p r o p o s i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . T h i s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 1 : P r o c e s s of item s e l e c t i o n . The number of items used f o r each a r e a of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : 44 1. Did the f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the p r e f e r e n c e of t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r choice? (31 items) 2. What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d or impeded the c a r e e r change process? (12 items) 3. Did the experiences and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or u n s t a b l e c a r e e r p a t t e r n ? (19 items) 4. Did the socio-demographic backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e that entry i n t o t e a c h i n g would p r o v i d e upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? (23 items) The above t o t a l number of items i s 85 r a t h e r than 83 as was a c t u a l l y used i n the schedule. T h i s r e s u l t s from item 1 being used f o r areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 and 4, and item 19 being used i n areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 and 2. Areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , with r e l a t e d p r o p o s i t i o n s or o r i e n t i n g statements, r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and schedule items, are p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix D. C o m p i l a t i o n of the proposed f i n a l schedule i n v o l v e d e l i m i n a t i o n of twelve items from the i n i t i a l l i s t . They were d i s c a r d e d as being e i t h e r redundant or i r r e l e v a n t to the p r o p o s i t i o n s . The e l i m i n a t e d items are presented i n Appendix E. 45 Step Four - Arrangement of Items Items were arranged i n l o g i c a l order, beginning with past experience of p a r t i c i p a n t s and going on to t h e i r f u t u r e p l a n s . Threatening q u e s t i o n s , those which may have e l i c i t e d u n t r u t h f u l responses (Bradburn & Sudman, 1979), were p l a c e d towards the end of the schedule. These i n c l u d e d items on socio-demographic backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Admini-s t r a t i o n of the instrument i n v o l v e d reading of items i n c o n s e c u t i v e order without need f o r the resear c h e r to r e f e r back to pre v i o u s pages or responses. Step F i v e - Development of Code Book A p r e l i m i n a r y coding system was developed f o r the Interview schedule. With the exce p t i o n of four items d i s c u s s e d below, the resear c h e r d e v i s e d a p r i o r i c a t e g o r i e s f o r the responses. For c l o s e d items, numerical codes r e f l e c t e d a f o r c e d c h o i c e made from a range of o p t i o n s . For example, Item 24, "How much do you think the students l e a r n e d i n the I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . " , was accompanied by a card which gave a f i v e p o i n t range from (A) Very much to (E) Very l i t t l e . The e q u i v a l e n t coding ranged from 5 to 1. A f i v e p o i n t range was s e l e c t e d as i t gave adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i v e r s e responses, yet avoided responses from the small p o p u l a t i o n being spread too t h i n l y . 46 Open ended items were coded i n accordance with l o g i c a l grouping and/or as i n d i c a t e d by past r e s e a r c h . Thus, Item 19, "Have you ever done any te a c h i n g , coaching or t u t o r i n g ? " , had response c a t e g o r i e s grouped under " I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g " and "Group t e a c h i n g " . "Group t e a c h i n g " i n c l u d e d such c a t e g o r i e s as 14 Sports coaching and 15 Summer camps, while responses f o r I n d i v i d u a l Teaching i n c l u d e d 21 Apprentice t r a i n i n g and 22 T u t o r i n g . Item 54, "When you were t h i n k i n g of changing jobs was there anything that made the move d i f f i c u l t f o r you?", a n t i c i p a t e d responses which c o u l d be coded, f o r example, as Family F a c t o r s , F i n a n c i a l F a c t o r s , or R e l o c a t i o n . C a t e g o r i e s 9, 19, 29, 39, were p r o v i d e d f o r "other" responses. Unused o p t i o n s before the 9 were l e f t open f o r use i f needed l a t e r . The four items without prearranged codes were a l l r e l a t e d to oc c u p a t i o n s . These items d e a l t with the past employment of the p a r t i c i p a n t and the occupation of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s wife and f a t h e r . During P i l o t Study Two, i t became apparent that some f u r t h e r o p t i o n s were r e q u i r e d . For i n s t a n c e , items on e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t , parents or spouse, needed c a t e g o r i e s a l l o w i n g f o r Graduate degree and Don't know. P r a c t i c e coding by the re s e a r c h e r took p l a c e u s i n g the responses given by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n P i l o t Study Two. Apart from' the changes i n d i c a t e d above, no d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e . When the coding system was examined by the 47 V a l i d a t i o n Panel (see below) a few a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were suggested. The f i n a l v e r s i o n of the codebook i s presented i n Appendix F. Step Six - P i l o t Study Two A second p i l o t study was h e l d using the proposed f i n a l v e r s i o n of the i n t e r v i e w schedule. The purpose of the p i l o t study was to ensure c l a r i t y of items and p r o v i d e a checking mechanism f o r the codebook. Six students e n r o l l e d i n the Sponsored Program i n the I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n took p a r t . The r e s e a r c h e r was i n t r o d u c e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t s by a student who had taken part i n P i l o t Study One. They r e a d i l y v o l u n t e e r e d to a s s i s t i n the study, even independently r e q u e s t i n g i n c l u s i o n . Interviews were h e l d i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e at the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and took a mean of 19 minutes to complete. There was a time range of 15 to 22 minutes. With the p r i o r knowledge and consent of p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l i n t e r v i e w s were tape-recorded. Answers were f l u e n t and c l e a r . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d that t a p e - r e c o r d i n g the i n t e r v i e w had presented l i t t l e or no t h r e a t and that once the i n t e r v i e w was underway they had f o r g o t t e n about the r e c o r d i n g process. There were no o b j e c t i o n s to any of the items as being d i f f i c u l t to understand or p e r s o n a l l y o f f e n s i v e . 48 In order to check f o r the presence of p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g items the "gatekeeper" technique advocated by Bradburn and Sudman (1979) was used. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked i f they b e l i e v e d other people would f e e l uncomfortable answering any of the q u e s t i o n s . None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e d t h i s would o c c u r . The i n c l u s i o n of t h r e a t e n i n g items i n the i n t e r v i e w schedule was t h e r e f o r e assumed to be at a minimum l e v e l . No major changes to the schedule were c o n s i d e r e d necessary by e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s or r e s e a r c h e r . Minor adjustments to wording of items were made a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n or on the d e c i s i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r . For example, i n order to i d e n t i f y p r e v i o u s occupations of p a r t i c i p a n t s more c l e a r l y , Question 1, "What d i d you do before e n t e r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n program?", was given a probe, "Were you a foreman, s u p e r v i s o r , anything l i k e t h a t ? " . Item 57 was changed from, "Where do you hope to be i n your c a r e e r i n f i v e years time?", to "What do you hope to be doing i n your c a r e e r i n f i v e years time?". A few a d d i t i o n a l coding c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u i r e d . These were p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d in Step F i v e - Development of Code Book. Step Seven - V a l i d a t i o n of the Instrument In order to v a l i d a t e the r e s e a r c h instrument a panel of e x p erts was requested to examine the i n t e r v i e w schedule. 49 The panel members expressed a keen i n t e r e s t i n the study and^ a w i l l i n g n e s s to take p a r t i n the v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e s s . Each member r e c e i v e d two v e r s i o n s of the schedule. One v e r s i o n had items arranged c o n s e c u t i v e l y as f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g . On the second v e r s i o n , items were arranged under p r o p o s i t i o n s and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , with the proposed c o d i n g system i n c l u d e d . The v a l i d a t i o n panel c o n s i s t e d of f i v e people knowledgeable i n the f i e l d of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n . Two were i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r programs at the government l e v e l and two were members of academic departments r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I n d u s t r i a l Education programs. The f i f t h member was Head of Department of I n d u s t r i a l Education i n a secondary s c h o o l . At one time he had been a student i n the program. Each member of the panel s t a t e d that he b e l i e v e d the in t e r v i e w schedule was a v a l i d r e s e a r c h instrument which would e l i c i t the i n f o r m a t i o n i t set out to c o l l e c t . Some suggestions f o r f u r t h e r items and coding c a t e g o r i e s were made. As a r e s u l t of these suggestions the f o l l o w i n g f i v e items were added to the i n t e r v i e w schedule. 18. Have you had any teacher t r a i n i n g of any kind? 29. How w e l l do you thin k the I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n teachers got along with the r e s t of the s t a f f ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (A: Very w e l l - E: Very b a d l y ) . 50 34. What about the people you worked with? ( F o l l o w i n g Item 34, "How do your c l o s e f r i e n d s f e e l about your going i n t o t e a c h i n g ? " ) 71. What grade were you i n when you l e f t secondary school f o r the f i r s t time? 72. Have you had any i n f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g such as i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , a n ything l i k e t h a t ? Upon c o n c l u s i o n of these seven stages, the r e s e a r c h instrument was c o n s i d e r e d ready f o r use. The f i n a l v e r s i o n of the i n t e r v i e w schedule c o n s i s t e d of 83 items, 55 of which were closed-ended and 28 were open-ended. The schedule i s presented i n Appendix G. 3.3 C o l l e c t i o n of Data When p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study a r r i v e d f o r the s t a r t of the academic year, they each r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the Head of the I n d u s t r i a l Education D i v i s i o n (see Appendix H). T h i s l e t t e r informed them of the e x i s t e n c e of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , i t s g o a l s and t i m e l i n e . The re s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s by telephone and p e r s o n a l l y requested t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . A l l of the students c o n t a c t e d agreed to take p a r t i n the study. 51 A convenient time was arranged and i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e . Students were i n t e r v i e w e d s i n g l y i n a p r i v a t e room at the I n d u s t r i a l Education D i v i s i o n , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. They read and signed the P a r t i c i p a n t Consent Form (see Appendix I ) . Interviews were tape-recorded with a l l r e c o r d i n g s being anonymous. Length of the i n t e r v i e w s ranged from 11 to 27 minutes, with a mode of 15 minutes. No p a r t i c i p a n t r e f u s e d to answer any q u e s t i o n and none stopped the i n t e r v i e w . As the i n t e r v i e w s progressed a sample of the tapes was checked a g a i n s t the i n t e r v i e w schedule by two members of the F a c u l t y of Ed u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s e a r c h e r was found to be adhering to. c o r r e c t r e s e a r c h procedures. 3.4 Coding and A n a l y s i s of Data Data were coded i n accordance with the c o n s t r u c t e d codebook (see Appendix F ) . A l l coding was done by the re s e a r c h e r . R e l i a b i l i t y of coding procedure was checked by four d o c t o r a l students i n the F a c u l t y of Educat i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who each re-coded one tape. A f t e r each group of 12 tapes had been coded one tape was randomly chosen to be checked. When the co d i n g was completed one other tape was randomly s e l e c t e d . In a l l , four tapes or approximately 11% of the t o t a l were checked. 52 Each of the four tapes presented 137 d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e r r o r , f o r a t o t a l of 548 o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r e c o d i n g i n d i c a t e d e i g h t d i r e c t coding e r r o r s , or 1.46%, on the pa r t of the r e s e a r c h e r . There were a l s o e i g h t i n s t a n c e s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of responses. A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n of these items, i t was agreed that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the researcher was the more a p p r o p r i a t e . There were a l s o 7 i n s t a n c e s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n gauging whether responses had been "very" or " q u i t e " p o s i t i v e or neg a t i v e . Again, as the researcher knew the p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r s o n a l l y and c o u l d b e t t e r assess the nuances of t h e i r responses the c a t e g o r i e s of the re s e a r c h e r were used. The responses were examined using s e l e c t e d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . Computer programs p r o v i d e d i n the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (Nie, 1975) were used. 53 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e d to each of the four areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These areas were: a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to car e e r change, f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change, career h i s t o r i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e i r sociodemographic backgrounds. The present study used a d e s c r i p t i v e approach to examine a p o p u l a t i o n of c a r e e r changers e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g . T h i s p o p u l a t i o n has not been the s u b j e c t of previous r e s e a r c h . Comparisons with past r e s e a r c h about f i r s t c a r e e r teachers and/or ca r e e r changers i n other f i e l d s are presented. D i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s i s preceded by r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 4.1 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1: D i d the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g  s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making  a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g as a second  c a r e e r ? 4.1.1 P r o p o s i t i o n A: An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n , or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has been 54 p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d f o r engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has le a r n e d a r e , a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation, or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 1: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d p r a i s e f o r t h e i r behaviour i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n ? Research Question 2: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a f e e l i n g of p l e a s u r e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r behaviour i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n ? In order to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the p a r t i c i p a n t s had any i n s t r u c t i o n a l e xperience, i n q u i r y was made i n t o a c t i v i t i e s such as teacher, t u t o r or s p o r t s coach (Item 19). Of the 37 p a r t i c i p a n t s , three s a i d they had no t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d experience of any k i n d . The experiences of the 34 (91.9%) other p a r t i c i p a n t s are summarised i n Table 1. There were more than twice as many responses of group t e a c h i n g (46) than there were of t e a c h i n g on a one-to-one b a s i s (19). The most common experiences were working with youth groups (14 responses) and summer camps (9 responses). There were s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s who a l r e a d y had d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e of classroom t e a c h i n g b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the program. 55 Table 1 I n s t r u c t i o n a l E xperiences of P a r t i c i p a n t s Group No. 1 Reported % 2 I n d i v i d u a l No. Reported % School t e a c h i n g 6 , 16.2 Apprent i c e 8 21 .6 Night school 4 10.8 Tutor i n g 3 8.1 Armed f o r c e s 3 8.1 S o c i a l work 1 2.7 Sports coaching 6 18.2 Sports coaching 4 10.8 Summer camp 9 25.3 Other 3 8.1 Youth group 1 4 37.8 None 3 8.1 Other 4 10.8 None 3 8.1 T o t a l 3 46 1 9 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d give more than one response. 2 Percentages i n a l l t a b l e s are given as percent of 37 ( t o t a l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s ) . 3 T o t a l numbers are pro v i d e d o n l y when N i s other than 37. When asked to d e s c r i b e the type of feedback they had been gi v e n f o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , only one r e p o r t e d that he had r e c e i v e d negative comments. A t o t a l of 25 (67.6%) p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d they had r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e feedback. T h i s came mainly from s u p e r i o r s (16 responses). There was a l s o p r a i s e from p u p i l s , peers, spouses and f r i e n d s . E i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d not remember any comments about t h e i r t e a c h i n g . When asked f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the te a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s (Item 20) none of the p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed a ne g a t i v e response. Very p o s i t i v e responses were given by 26 56 (70.3%) of the men and the remaining e i g h t (21.6%) were q u i t e p o s i t i v e . A more d i r e c t q u e s t i o n about t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t e a c h i n g (Item 21) e l i c i t e d very p o s i t i v e comments from 24 (64.9%) men, and q u i t e p o s i t i v e comments from seven (18.9%). The degree of p o s i t i v i t y assessed by the re s e a r c h e r was based on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' vocabulary, tone, and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s towards t e a c h i n g . Three men r e p o r t e d both p o s i t i v e and negative f e e l i n g s about t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s who experienced t e a c h i n g before e n t e r i n g the program had gained c o n s i d e r a b l e p l e a s u r e from i t . They had a l s o r e c e i v e d p r a i s e f o r t h e i r performance. These f i n d i n g s would t h e r e f o r e tend to support P r o p o s i t i o n A. Asked to assess t h e i r e a r l i e r t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a n t responses ranged from a s u c c i n c t " F i n e " , or "I enjoyed i t " to a d i r e c t connection between t h e i r p r i o r experience and t h e i r presence i n the teacher e d u c a t i o n program: It was p a r t of the m o t i v a t i o n f o r me coming here. (automotive mechanic) Great. That's what s o r t of made me decide t h a t ' s what I want to do. ( e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n ) 57 Although p r e v i o u s experience with youth may not n e c e s s a r i l y be a s s o c i a t e d with classroom t e a c h i n g (Schalock, 1979), i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t i t a c t s as a f i l t e r system. I n d i v i d u a l s who have found working with young people and/or the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e to be u n s a t i s f y i n g , unmotivating, or a c t i v e l y unpleasant are u n l i k e l y to c o n s i d e r t e a c h i n g as a new c a r e e r . L o r t i e (1975) suggested that l a t e e n t r a n t s to t e a c h i n g can o f t e n use t h e i r p r i o r education and experiences in a t e a c h i n g r o l e . In the present study, c u r r e n t l y h e l d i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s would be r e l e v a n t l y used i n the classroom. However, the p o s s e s s i o n of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and education may not be enough to j u s t i f y acceptance i n t o a teacher education program. Reasons f o r a p p l i c a t i o n would be more concret e i f past e x p e r i e n c e s i n c l u d e d group c o n t a c t with young people. If a l a t e e n t r y teacher has not chosen to spend some time i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e with c h i l d r e n or a d o l e s c e n t s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g may be somewhat u n r e a l i st i c . There were three men e n r o l l e d in the program who, along with t h e i r p o s i t i v e comments, expressed some ne g a t i v e f e e l i n g about t h e i r e a r l i e r t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s . The negative f e e l i n g s were f a r outweighed by t h e i r p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . However, they were able to i d e n t i f y t r a n s i e n t a spects of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e which had been unpleasant to some degree. One man had f e l t r a t h e r nervous 58 when s t a r t i n g to i n s t r u c t naval personnel and a second had experienced some d i s c i p l i n e problems i n a summer camp. The t h i r d student had a l r e a d y taught i n a p r i v a t e school f o r s i x y e a r s . He r e p o r t e d that each s p r i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s of school became i r r i t a t i n g and he f e l t o v e r l y s t r u c t u r e d i n h i s work. In s p i t e of the nature of these r e a c t i o n s , each of the three men had enjoyed t h e i r p r e v i o u s experiences and were l o o k i n g forward to being i n s t r u c t o r s a g a i n . The i n t r i n s i c rewards experienced by p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be supported by p o s i t i v e feedback, r e c e i v e d mainly from s u p e r i o r s and p u p i l s . One man r e p o r t e d that while p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d i n an elementary teacher e d u c a t i o n program, he had r e c e i v e d some negative comments on classroom d i s c i p l i n e and l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . However, almost 70% of p a r t i c i p a n t s remembered comments that were p o s i t i v e . Reports from the p a r t i c i p a n t s on p r i o r t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d experiences tend to lend support to the p r o p o s i t i o n put forward by M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979). Not only had the men a l r e a d y t r i e d t e a c h i n g but they had enjoyed i t . For each of them p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e had been rewarding. There °were no p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c a l l e d t e a c h i n g as an unpleasant t a s k . The men who d i d remember some negative aspects of t h e i r work had not been d e t e r r e d by such e x p e r i e n c e s . 59 4.1.2 P r o p o s i t i o n B An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an occupation, or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has observed a valued model being r e i n f o r c e d f o r engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has l e a r n e d are a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 3: In I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s  have the p a r t i c i p a n t s observed student behaviours which are  recognized as rewarding to t e a c h e r s ? It was e s t a b l i s h e d that 31 (83.8%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had taken I n d u s t r i a l Education i n school and were t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n to observe I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s and teac h e r s (Item 23). T h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s are presented i n Table 2 which summarizes responses to s i x items on the Interview Schedule (Items 24-29). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be members of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s where p r o j e c t s were completed, there was a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour, and students l e a r n e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l . A hi g h p r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l i n students and an a b i l i t y to maintain reasonable c l a s s 60 Table 2 Observations Made by P a r t i c i p a n t s in I n d u s t r i a l Education C l a s s e s Observation R a t i n g P o s i t i v e Non-commital Negat ive N % 1 N % N % Amount l e a r n e d by students 17 45.9 1 1 29.7 3 8.1 Completion of p r o j e c t s 26 70.3 4 10.8 1 2.7 D i s c i p l i n e i n c l a s s 1 1 29.7 1 6 43.2 4 10.8 R e l a t i o n s with I.E. teacher 28 75.7 2 5.4 1 2.7 C l o s e r to I.E. teacher 20 54. 1 3 8.1 8 21 .6 I.E./other s t a f f r e l a t i o n s 1 2 32.4 1 7 45.9 2 5.4 Not r e l e v a n t 6 16.2 6 16.2 6 16.2 T o t a l 1 20 59 25 1 Percentages are based on N=37 d i s c i p l i n e are accepted as two aspects of t e a c h i n g which r e s u l t i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r the teacher ( L o r t i e , 1975). The most notable aspect of the I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s was the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and te a c h e r . Of the 31 men who had taken I n d u s t r i a l Education, 28 (90.3% of group) responded to the item "How w e l l d i d the students get along with with the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. t e a c h e r ? ' ( I tern 27) with e i t h e r 'Well' or 'Very w e l l ' . When asked to compare the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u p i l s and the I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n teacher to t h a t with other teachers (Item 28), 20 men (64.5% of group) s a i d they b e l i e v e d p u p i l s were c l o s e r to the I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h e r . 61 Most p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d that they were not a b l e to comment on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n teachers and other members of s t a f f (Item 29). However, they tended to b e l i e v e there had been a c o r d i a l atmosphere among the academic and non-academic s t a f f members. The t e a c h e r s of I n d u s t r i a l Education t h e r e f o r e appear to have been r e c e i v i n g not only p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards but a l s o the more p e r s o n a l reward of regard and f r i e n d s h i p of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In observing t h i s s i t u a t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s would t h e r e f o r e have seen I n d u s t r i a l Education teachers being r e i n f o r c e d f o r t h e i r performance i n the classroom. To take on such a r o l e would be to r e c e i v e s i m i l a r b e n e f i t s . Such widespread o b s e r v a t i o n of valued r o l e models d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c h o i c e of c a r e e r would tend to add credence to the importance of r o l e models as put forward i n P r o p o s i t i o n B. 62 4.1.3 P r o p o s i t i o n C An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n , or the t a s k s and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that person has been c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d by a v a l u e d person who models and/or advocates engaging i n that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 4: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s known a teacher who was a source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement? Research Question 5: Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s have f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y members who support t h e i r c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g as an occupation? In order to answer these q u e s t i o n s i t was assumed that f a m i l y and f r i e n d s were sources of p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , both t e a c h e r s who f i l l e d these r o l e s , and w e l l - l i k e d teachers by whom the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been taught were both c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Table 3 i n d i c a t e s the s u b j e c t areas taught by such t e a c h e r s . 63 Table 3 Teachers L i k e d by P a r t i c i p a n t s Subject Area No. % i Reported I n d u s t r i a l Education 1 2 32. 4 E n g l i s h 10 27. 0 Sc ience 10 27. 0 Mathematics 7 18. 9 P h y s i c a l Education 6 16. 2 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 4 10. 8 Elementary School 3 8. 1 Other 6 16. 2 None 3 8. 1 T o t a l 61 Note. P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d choose more than one teacher. 1 Percentages are based on N=37 A t o t a l of 33 (88.1%) p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d t eachers whom they l i k e d . I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n teachers were nominated by the l a r g e s t group of 12 (32.5%) p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, E n g l i s h teachers and Science teachers were each mentioned 10 times. There was, t h e r e f o r e , no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that I n d u s t r i a l Education teachers c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as sources of reinforcement any more than t e a c h e r s of these other s u b j e c t s . I t was apparent that the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s remembered one or more teachers with p a r t i c u l a r a f f e c t i o n . The men were moving back i n t o an environment where they had a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l rewards. T h i s supports e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s (Evans, 1952; L o r t i e , 1975) that people 64 most l i k e l y to co n s i d e r teaching as a c a r e e r were those who had enjoyed t h e i r own school e x p e r i e n c e . Three men d i d not r e c a l l a teacher whom they had p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d . However, one of these had g e n e r a l l y l i k e d h i s teach e r s but d i d not have what he d e s c r i b e d as a "hero". The other two men were a t y p i c a l of the group i n a more widespread manner. Not only were they unable to i d e n t i f y t e a c h e r s who were past sources of reinforcement, but they had no c u r r e n t f r i e n d s who were te a c h e r s and had no teachers i n t h e i r c l o s e f a m i l y . N e i t h e r of them had d i s c u s s e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n with f r i e n d s or workmates. One man found h i s parents non-commital towards h i s c a r e e r change and h i s wife s u p p o r t i v e . Although there was no f u r t h e r source of support, h i s past t e a c h i n g of p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s and a p p r e n t i c e s had been rewarding. He had a l s o reared a fami l y of s i x c h i l d r e n , now a l l away from home. The other p a r t i c i p a n t had no parents, wife or f u r t h e r support. He re p o r t e d that people to whom he had mentioned h i s plans were q u i t e n e g a t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to t e a c h i n g . He c o u l d r e c a l l no t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d experience or work with young c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r of these men appeared to have a c i r c l e of su p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For these p a r t i c i p a n t s there was no teacher who was recognized as a source of p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . They c o u l d name no tea c h e r s i n the r o l e of i n s t r u c t o r , f a m i l y member, or f r i e n d , who may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n . The s i t u a t i o n of these two men 65 was, however, in decided contrast to the majority of part ic ipants. It was apparent that even before entering the program the p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to move in a world of teachers. There were 29 men, almost 80%, who had teachers as close friends. Six (16.2%) men had wives or g i r l f r i e n d s who were p r a c t i s i n g or student teachers. L o r t i e (1975) commented that the sheer size of the teaching profession acted as a recruitment factor. He believed the finding that one t h i r d of h i s sample had close r e l a t i v e s who were also teachers very probably underestimated the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . In the present study, 22 (59.5%) men had family members who were teachers and eight (21.6%) came from families where at least one parent was a teacher. One man admitted, somewhat r u e f u l l y , that his mother, father and both older s i s t e r s were a l l teachers. To him, his entry into the profession appeared to have an aura of i n e v i t a b i l i t y about i t . One of the two participants whose fathers were teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Education recognized the influence this had on his decision: As I said, my dad's a teacher, a shop teacher, and I grew up, I was in his shop a l l the time....I've always wanted to be a teacher. I guess I've seen my dad, I grew up with [teaching]. My 66 dad's a teacher and t h a t ' s been a b i g source of input I guess. (automotive mechanic) The theme of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n the f a m i l y was i l l u s t r a t e d by the support given to e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s who had t e a c h i n g p a r e n t s . Although one mother, a teacher near r e t i r e m e n t , was d e s c r i b e d as having "mixed f e e l i n g s " , the other seven men r e c e i v e d warm approval f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . L o r t i e e x p l a i n e d c o n t i n u a t i o n of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y as, i n p a r t , a restatement of the f a m i l i a l value system. However, t e a c h i n g parents would ac t as models for t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In s o c i a l l e a r n i n g terms, such models would act as sources of p o s i t i v e r einforcement. As M o r r i s o n and M c l n t y r e (1969) p o s s i b l y understated, the presence of a teacher i n the f a m i l y may c r e a t e a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to teach. F r i e n d s and workmates of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n s i d e r e d to be p o t e n t i a l support groups f o r t h e i r c a r e e r change. The r e p o r t e d o p i n i o n s of these groups on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e c i s i o n to enter t e a c h i n g are presented i n Table 4. 67 Table 4 Reported Opinions of F r i e n d s , Workmates, Parents and Wives on Career Change of P a r t i c i p a n t s O p i nion F r i e n d s Workmates Parents Wives N % 1 N % N % N % Very p o s i t i v e 1 4 37.8 10 27.0 1 4 37.8 16 43.2 Q u i t e p o s i t i v e 1 2 32.4 1 2 32.4 1 4 37.8 8 21.6 Q u i t e n e g a t i v e 2 5.4 4 10.8 2 5.4 0 0.0 Very negative 0 0.0 3 8.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 Non-commital 6 16.2 6 16.2 3 8.1 1 2.7 Don't know 3 8.1 2 5.4 1 2.7 0 • 0.0 Not t o l d 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.7 0 0.0 Not r e l e v a n t 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 5.4 1 2 32.4 1 N=37 I t appeared that few of the men had made t h e i r c a r e e r , change d e c i s i o n i n i s o l a t i o n . The prospect of a c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n had o f t e n been d i s c u s s e d both at home and i n the work p l a c e . Only two men had not t o l d f r i e n d s or workmates of t h e i r p l a n s . A t h i r d man r e p o r t e d t h a t , although he d i d not know what h i s f r i e n d s thought, h i s workmates were very much i n favour of h i s move. People who had worked with p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to support t h e i r c a r e e r change, although t h e r e had been some negative comment. I t seemed that s t a y i n g i n the trade was o f t e n l e s s a t t r a c t i v e than g e t t i n g out: The t h i n g i s , I was doing something about g e t t i n g out and they a l l b a s i c a l l y f e l t the same way. (welder f i t t e r ) 68 The o l d e r fellows....seem to understand more than the f e l l o w s my age ...I c o u l d see that some of them are t h i n k i n g that t h i s guy i s going to get out before i t becomes too much of a drudgery. (pa i n t e r) In r e p o r t i n g the o p i n i o n s of t h e i r f r i e n d s 26 (70.3%) men i n d i c a t e d that they had support groups who were i n favour of t h e i r entry i n t o t e a c h i n g . The o c c a s i o n a l r a t h e r negative remarks of f r i e n d s were sometimes t i n g e d with r e l u c t a n t a d m i r a t i o n . The r e p o r t of one man i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n bears a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to a comment by Krantz (1977). In d i s c u s s i n g the r e a c t i o n of f r i e n d s to the d e c i s i o n made by men who moved to a c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l e x i s t e n c e i n Santa Fe, Krantz wrote: Such a c h o i c e was seen by the r a d i c a l c a r e e r changers' f r i e n d s as c r a z y , as "something having gotten i n t o t h e i r heads". But t h e r e . was a l s o an ambivalence i n some of t h e i r f r i e n d s ' r e a c t i o n s , a touch of envy o f t e n guardedly s t a t e d as "sometimes I wish I c o u l d do what you're d o i n g " . (p. 174) 69 The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s comment r e i t e r a t e d the two themes of bewilderment and envy: Some of them t h i n k I'm c r a z y . And some, you get t h i s t h i n g about "What are you doing now - I'm going to school - You're s t i l l going to s c h o o l ? " . . . Some of them don't understand i t . I think there's a l i t t l e b i t of envy there because some of them are unhappy with what they're doing. ( p a i n t e r ) By d e c i d i n g to leave t h e i r e a r l i e r o c c u p a t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a n t s were t a k i n g a r i s k . I t would seem that t h i s s tep was a t t r a c t i v e to o t h e r s who were perhaps more c a u t i o u s . When faced with the s u c c e s s f u l move of p a r t i c i p a n t s , f e e l i n g s of resentment and envy were aroused. Three men r e c e i v e d somewhat c a u t i o u s support from f r i e n d s who had one t h i n g i n common, they were a l l t e a c h e r s with many years e x p e r i e n c e . These o l d e r teachers were r e p o r t e d as having mixed f e e l i n g s about the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e n t r y to the p r o f e s s i o n . One man reported h i s f r i e n d , a sch o o l p r i n c i p a l , as having the f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d e : 70 He wasn't c r i t i c a l , but he was very o b j e c t i v e . . . a s to making sure I knew of a l l the t h i n g s that go on i n s c h o o l s , not j u s t s o r t of b r e e z i n g through and t h i n k i n g e v e r y t h i n g should have been a l l r i g h t . ( c a b i n e t maker) None of the men had been d e t e r r e d by the r e s t r a i n e d approach of these e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . F r i e n d s who were a p p a r e n t l y younger t e a c h e r s tended to be more e n t h u s i a s t i c and openly s u p p o r t i v e of the ca r e e r change. They appeared to welcome p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o t h e i r own f i e l d . The response of one man i l l u s t r a t e s the t y p i c a l c o n t r a s t i n g r e a c t i o n of younger f r i e n d s : Since h a l f of them [ c l o s e f r i e n d s ] , b e t t e r than h a l f of them are t e a c h e r s , they a l l t h i n k i t s gr e a t . (welder f a b r i c a t o r ) Although no d i r e c t q u e s t i o n about the o p i n i o n s of teacher f r i e n d s was asked, o p i n i o n s of f r i e n d s i n g e n e r a l brought spontaneous r e p o r t i n g of o p i n i o n s of t e a c h e r s . C r i t i c i s m or re s e r v e d a p p r o v a l was re p o r t e d only from o l d e r t e a c h e r s who had spent many years i n the p r o f e s s i o n . T h e i r ongoing experience l e f t l i t t l e room f o r i l l u s i o n or n a i v e t e . 71 They appeared disenchanted. Whether t h i s was due to t h e i r age, t h e i r years of experience, or a combination of both i s not known. T h e i r a t t i t u d e was a r e f l e c t i o n of the o l d e r tradesmen. Where the tradesmen seemed to b e l i e v e i t was b e t t e r to le a v e , the o l d e r teachers had r e s e r v a t i o n s about e n t e r i n g . I t may perhaps be of i n t e r e s t to determine i f t h i s somewhat l e s s than p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i s common among o l d e r t e a c h e r s . I f i t i s found to e x i s t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the number of years they have spent i n the p r o f e s s i o n , i t c o u l d be important f o r h i r i n g p o l i c y with r e s p e c t to l a t e - e n t r y t e a c h e r s . To employ teachers whose enthusiasm w i l l be r e s t r a i n e d a f t e r only l i m i t e d years of work may do an i n j u s t i c e to the student body. On the other hand, the ex i s t e n c e of a body of mature, e n r i c h i n g t e a c h e r s who r e t a i n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c "beginners" approach w e l l i n t o t h e i r l a t e r y ears, may d e c i d e d l y b e n e f i t the sch o o l community. Furth e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the a t t i t u d e s of teach e r s at v a r y i n g ages and stages of t h e i r c a r e e r may be warranted. In e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were making a change i n t h e i r l i v e s which would a f f e c t , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the l i v e s of those around them. Although only two men were a c t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e i r parents' home while a t t e n d i n g the program, with one exce p t i o n parents were w e l l aware of t h e i r sons' c a r e e r g o a l s . Not only was i t c l e a r that parents approved of te a c h i n g , but en t r y i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n o c c a s i o n a l l y seemed to f u l f i l l a long term ambition they had h e l d f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t : 72 They t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y s p e c i a l . They r e a l l y t h i n k i t ' s something. (welder f a b r i c a t o r ) They t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y fabulous that I'm doing i t . (sheet metal worker) My mother always wanted me to be a teacher [ l a u g h t e r ] . There's some deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i n g t h e r e . She's always wanted me to be a teacher. (mechanic) I t ' s t h e i r dream. I t ' s t h e i r dream, (automotive mechanic) The wish f o r t h e i r son to become a teacher may s p r i n g from the r e c o g n i t i o n that e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g would r e s u l t in upward s o c i a l movement. There would be a move away from b l u e - c o l l a r work i n t o a p o s i t i o n of i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . One of the men quoted above h i g h l i g h t e d t h i s aspect of h i s parents a p p r o v a l : 73 But they again are very working c l a s s and t h i n k that to be a teacher i s to be u l t r a smart or something. So they are r e a l l y p l e a s e d . (sheet metal worker) However, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s and backgrounds p a r e n t s gave widespread support to the c a r e e r change of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Only two men r e p o r t e d t h e i r parents as being m i l d l y c r i t i c a l . The parents of one man were rep o r t e d as s a y i n g they d i d not b e l i e v e the change to be "necessary". However, the other p a r t i c i p a n t was the son of a school c u s t o d i a n who had spent many years i n c l o s e c o n t a c t with members of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . H i s o p i n i o n of teachers was somewhat n e g a t i v e . I t seemed he was not wholly in favour of h i s son's d e c i s i o n . W i thin the support system which a s s i s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s one group of people appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t wives and companions of p a r t i c i p a n t s were not only p r o v i d i n g support d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g program, but had o f t e n been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the d e c i s i o n to e n t e r . My wife has been the most s u p p o r t i v e . She more or l e s s f o r c e d i t on me. Pushed me towards i t , pushed me through i t and r i g h t now she's s t i l l keeping me. ( c a r p e n t e r ) 74 She's t h r i l l e d to b i t s . ( b o a t b u i l d e r ) She's t h i n k s i t ' s g r e a t . (machinist) She encouraged me to do i t . She t h i n k s i t ' s g r e a t . (welder f a b r i c a t o r ) She's the one who pushed me mainly to get i n t o i t . (carpenter) There was an ongoing flow of encouragement f o r the men. E n t r y i n t o the program appeared to e n t a i l a f a m i l y commitment. There was an atmosphere of support, working together, mutual e f f o r t l e a d i n g to mutual b e n e f i t . A very high l e v e l of support was i n d i c a t e d . A l l of the married p a r t i c i p a n t s , with one e x c e p t i o n , r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e i r wives. The theme of approval and support r e c u r r e d throughout the i n t e r v i e w s . Only one man re p o r t e d h i s wife as not o v e r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , "She seems to f e e l that what I do i s e n t i r e l y up to me". In t h i s f a m i l y i t was the teenage c h i l d r e n who were p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s d e c i s i o n . 75 Karp and Yoels (1982) p o i n t e d out that c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s can o f t e n a f f e c t other l i f e d e c i s i o n s . T h i s was w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d by a p a r t i c i p a n t who e x p l a i n e d h i s r e l a t i o n s with two women i n the context of h i s ca r e e r change. He c i t e d the f i r s t as a source of c r i t i c i s m : An e x - g i r l f r i e n d . And t h a t ' s one of the reasons she's an e x - g i r l f r i e n d . She thought the idea was f i n e , t h a t ' s very n i c e , but f i n a n c i a l l y i t wasn't a good i d e a , and timewise i t was a t e r r i b l e idea as f a r as she was concerned, ( p a i n t e r ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s c u r r e n t companion was one in which t e a c h i n g was viewed as a d e s i r a b l e g o a l . His plans to enter the program were then met with a g r e a t e r degree of congruency and u n d e r l y i n g support: One reason we got together i s because I was going to go i n t o t e a c h i n g . We met and she...was doing her f i r s t year t e a c h i n g . So that was one of the t h i n g s we had i n common. ( p a i n t e r ) 76 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program tended to be i n r e g u l a r c o n t a c t with t e a c h e r s and other a d u l t s who approved of t h e i r e n t r y i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . Bandura (1974) i n d i c a t e d that people tend to choose a s s o c i a t e s with s i m i l a r "standards of conduct". He b e l i e v e d t h i s gave s o c i a l support to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s own p e r s o n a l reinforcement. People who approve of one's behaviours are s e l e c t e d as members of a support system. In the present study the importance of such a system was r e a d i l y acknowledged by p a r t i c i p a n t s . Approval of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l g o als was sometimes a c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the system. I t was c l e a r t h a t d e c i s i o n s on c a r e e r change had been made in c o n j u n c t i o n with o p i n i o n s and support of people who f i l l e d the r o l e of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . Sarason's (1977) comment was found to be p a r t i c u l a r l y apt: The experience of c a r e e r c h o i c e has r a r e l y been independent of love r e l a t i o n s h i p s . If we have thought otherwise, i t i s because of what we wanted or were t o l d to b e l i e v e , as w e l l as of those i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s which have made men l e s s than c a n d i d and r e s e a r c h e r s more than n a i v e . (p. 159) 77 When asked to name sources of support other than parents or wives, p a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned other f a m i l y members, i n c l u d i n g s i b l i n g s and in-laws, and f r i e n d s (Item 38). Each group was named by 16 (43.2%) men. Two f i n a l sources of support were a f a c u l t y member and The Lord. There were 13 p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not name any source of support beyond parents and wives. I t was p o s s i b l e that a person who c o u l d be thought of as a p o t e n t i a l source of p o s i t i v e r einforcement had r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g . The men were t h e r e f o r e asked i f they c o u l d t h i n k of anyone important to them who had c r i t i c i s e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n (Item 39). The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s , 26 (70.3%) c o u l d not think of anyone who had been c r i t i c a l of t h e i r d e c i s i o n . The few negative comments came i n almost e q u i v a l e n t p r o p o r t i o n from f r i e n d s , 4 (10.8%), and f a m i l y members, 5 (13.5%). The p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to have a support group of t e a c h e r s e i t h e r as f r i e n d s (78.4%), or f a m i l y (59.5%). These t e a c h e r s were sources of p o s i t i v e reinforcement. Only three of the men d i d not i d e n t i f y any teacher they had e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d at s c h o o l . The other 33 (89.2%) were e n t e r i n g a p r o f e s s i o n i n which p o s i t i v e r o l e models were r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d . A f u r t h e r source of p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t , parents and wives, was found to be s t r o n g l y i n favour of the c a r e e r change i n t o t e a c h i n g . The presence of such a a c t i v e support group tends to s u s t a i n the ideas put forward i n P r o p o s i t i o n C. 78 4.1.4 P r o p o s i t i o n D An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n , or the tasks and consequences i n a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has been exposed to p o s i t i v e words and images a s s o c i a t e d with that course, o c c u p a t i o n , f i e l d of work or the a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to i t . (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 6; Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s watched a f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n program which has p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of the r o l e of school teacher? Research Question 7: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s read a book which p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of teachers or t e a c h i n g as an occupation? There were 23 (62.2%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who were able to r e c a l l a f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n program about schools or t e a c h i n g (Item 40). Only f i v e r e c a l l e d scenes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s where more d i r e c t modelling of 79 I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h i n g would have taken p l a c e . The impressions of t e a c h i n g and t e a c h e r s obtained from the f i l m s or programs are summarised i n Table 5. Table 5 Impressions of Teachers and Teaching Obtained From Film/Program and Book Impressions Film/Program Book N 1 % 2 N 3 Teaching P o s i t i v e Non-commmital Negative Both pos. and neg. Teachers P o s i t i v e Non-commital Negative Both pos. and neg. Not Relevant • 1 N=23 2 N=37 3 N=15 Almost h a l f of the viewers (12 men) i n d i c a t e d t hat t e a c h i n g as an occupation had not been p o r t r a y e d i n e i t h e r a memorably p o s i t i v e or neg a t i v e l i g h t . However, the p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher i n the f i l m or program was remembered more c l e a r l y . There were 9 (24.3%) accounts of tea c h e r s who had been p e r c e i v e d as having p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s such as warmth, p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t i v e n e s s , or e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 5 13.5 12 32.4 4 10.8 2 5.4 9 24.3 6 16.2 5 13.5 3 8.1 14 37.8 4 10.8 5 13.5 5 13.5 1 2.7 5 13.5 7 18.9 2 5.4 1 2.7 22 59.5 80 However, the next l a r g e s t group, s i x (16.2%), were again non-commital r e p o r t s on the teacher-image p o r t r a y e d . A t o t a l of 15 (40.5%) men i n d i c a t e d that they had read a book r e l a t e d to t e a c h i n g (Items 45-49). There were four p a r t i c i p a n t s who b e l i e v e d the book had p o r t r a y e d the te a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t . However, impressions of teachers presented i n the books were not s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e . Although the p o s i t i v e images, f i v e , outnumbered the negat i v e , two, uncl e a r impressions predominate. Of the 15 readers, seven (46.7% of r e a d e r s ) , had no d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y of the te a c h e r s . T h i s may be the r e s u l t of an i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t over time or perhaps of the lack of dramatic impact possessed by such f i l m s or books. When asked i f the book had a f f e c t e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n to become te a c h e r s , 11 (73.3% of readers) s a i d t h i s had not happened. The other four men (26.7% of readers) b e l i e v e d they had been i n f l u e n c e d by the books. One of these men had read a p o s i t i v e p o r t r a y a l of a teacher and a second had read a p o s i t i v e p o r t r a y a l of t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r . However, a t h i r d p a r t i c i p a n t r e p o r t e d a negative impression of t e a c h i n g and was non-commital about the teacher. The f o u r t h man r e c e i v e d negative impressions of both t e a c h i n g and the te a c h e r . Thus, negative as w e l l as p o s i t i v e images appear to have i n f l u e n c e d c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s made by these p a r t i c i p a n t s . 81 There was some i n d i c a t i o n that exposure to the media tended to c o n f i r m a d e c i s i o n that was a l r e a d y being c o n s i d e r e d . One man r e c a l l e d seeing a Canadian U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e Overseas (CUSO) f i l m and s t a t e d that i t had a " p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e " . However, h i s exposure to that f i l m was at a meeting f o r people i n t e r e s t e d i n the work of CUSO and the p o s s i b i l i t y of t e a c h i n g overseas. Another man re p o r t e d that a book "strengthened my commitment to t r y to do my best f o r my s t u d e n t s " . The wife of one p a r t i c i p a n t was a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d i n a teacher education program. He s t a r t e d to read her t e x t books and found both these and a f i l m a f f e c t e d h i s e v o l v i n g c a r e e r d e c i s i o n : [Books] I t h i n k they must have [ a f f e c t e d my d e c i s i o n ] . . . my i n t e r e s t i n methods they use to t e a c h and the p y s c h o l o g i c a l aspects of i t . I was r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n those books. They swayed me. They i n t e r e s t e d me anyway. [Film] Yes i t d i d [ i n f l u e n c e my d e c i s i o n ] . Well the reason I p a i d a t t e n t i o n to i t was that I was a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r i n g being a t e acher. (welder f a b r i c a t o r ) 82 Not a l l . media exposure acknowledged as i n f l u e n t i a l had provided a p o s i t i v e image. One man remarked that a book had a f f e c t e d h i s d e c i s i o n because a f t e r reading i t he thought he c o u l d do a b e t t e r job of teaching than t h a t which had been p o r t r a y e d . I t i s perhaps worth n o t i n g that of the seven men who re c o g n i z e d media i n f l u e n c e , four of them were r e a c t i n g to negative p o r t r a y a l s . The image presented was one which they b e l i e v e d to be r e p r e h e n s i b l e . Such ne g a t i v e images may have been remembered because they went a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g o p i n i o n s of how good teaching should be done. On the other hand, some p o s i t i v e images were remembered when they l e n t support to an a l r e a d y e v o l v i n g c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n . In these cases the media i n f l u e n c e r e i n f o r c e d , r a t h e r than a l t e r e d , o p i n i o n . Although they had decided to enter the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n l e s s than h a l f the men (15) had done any d e l i b e r a t e reading on the t o p i c . Somewhat more than h a l f (23) c o u l d r e c a l l a f i l m on teaching or t e a c h e r s . T h i s l a c k of quest f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i s of i n t e r e s t when such a major d e c i s i o n was being made. However, i n western s o c i e t y almost everyone has f i r s t hand knowledge of at l e a s t one view of te a c h i n g . The p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to r e l y on t h e i r own school experiences and those of t h e i r support groups to provide enough i n f o r m a t i o n on which to s e l e c t a f u t u r e c a r e e r . 83 From the p r e s e n t study there was l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n to lend support to the media model as put forward by Krumboltz (1979). However, widespread exposure to t e a c h i n g through p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , the i n f l u e n c e of t e a c h i n g f r i e n d s , and media p o r t r a y a l s make i t d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between co n s c i o u s and unconscious i n f l u e n c e s . Seven (18.9%) men r e p o r t e d that t h e i r d e c i s i o n had been a f f e c t e d by media exposure. However, r a t h e r than r e c e i v i n g a p o s i t i v e image, four of these men r e p o r t e d negative p o r t r a y a l s of t e a c h e r s or t e a c h i n g . They were, t h e r e f o r e , responding to n e g a t i v e r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e models. The other p a r t i c i p a n t s may have wished to appear more s e l f d i r e c t e d and not e a s i l y swayed by a book or f i l m . They acknowledged l i t t l e i f any impact that media exposure had on t h e i r c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n . Summary of R e s u l t s Four p r o p o s i t i o n s that a p p l i e d s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Three of the four were l e n t support by the f i n d i n g s of the. present study. The f o l l o w i n g trends were e s t a b l i s h e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were found to have a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d at l e a s t one i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . They had found the t e a c h i n g r o l e to be i n t r i n s i c a l l y rewarding and had o f t e n r e c e i v e d e x t r i n s i c rewards from students and o t h e r s . 84 As students themselves, the men had observed I n d u s t r i a l Education teachers at work i n rewarding environments where p r o j e c t s were completed and order maintained. Teachers were r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as p o s i t i v e r o l e models and advocates of entry i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . However, o l d e r t e a c h e r s appeared to o f f e r a more r e s t r a i n e d l e v e l of support. Other people who were both sources of reinforcement and advocates of t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r c h o i c e i n c l u d e d f r i e n d s , workmates and f a m i l y members. In p a r t i c u l a r , wives and companions of p a r t i c i p a n t s were major sources of support. The present study f a i l e d to f i n d c o n f i r m a t i o n of the f i n a l p r o p o s i t i o n i n v o l v i n g the e f f e c t of words or images r e l a t e d to t e a c h i n g . Of the seven (18.9%) men who acknowledged such i n f l u e n c e , four r e p o r t e d exposure to negative images. They had c o u n t e r - i d e n t i f i e d with the image presented. However, w i t h i n the context of contemporary s o c i e t y i t would be d i f f i c u l t to l i v e t o t a l l y f r e e of media p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , f o r the purposes of the present r e s e a r c h i t was not p o s s i b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e a p r e c i s e impact of words and images a s s o c i a t e d with t e a c h i n g . 85 4.2 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 2: What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d or  impeded the c a r e e r change process? O r i e n t i n g Statement In changing c a r e e r s there e x i s t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which a i d or hinder the t r a n s i t i o n process ( L o u i s , 1980). Research Question 8: What f a c t o r s are r e c o g n i z e d as major b a r r i e r s i n the car e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 9: What f a c t o r s are recog n i z e d as major f a c i l i t a t o r s i n the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 10: How do f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? Research Question 11: How do f a m i l y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s a f f e c t the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r change (e.g., B l o l a n d & Selby, 1980; Hi e s t a n d , 1971; Waters & Goodman, 1981) noted the e f f e c t t h a t f a m i l y and f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s had upon c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n making. For the purposes of the present study i t was, t h e r e f o r e , decided to expl o r e these a s p e c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r depth. 86 4.2.1 B a r r i e r s to Career Change By g a i n i n g entry i n t o the program the p a r t i c i p a n t s had s u c c e s s f u l l y completed a major s t e p i n t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s . Any b a r r i e r s which might have prevented t h i s entry had o b v i o u s l y been overcome. However, the men were asked to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which might have b l o c k e d or made problematic t h e i r change of occupation (Items 54 and 56). These f a c t o r s are presented i n Table 6. Table 6 Major B a r r i e r s to Career Change Type No. 1 Reported % 2 Lack of f i n a n c e s 8 21.6 Family emergency 8 21.6 Lack of f a m i l y support 5 13.5 Increased academic demand 2 5.4 Increased time demand 2 5.4 R e l o c a t i o n 1 2.7 B e t t e r company o f f e r 1 2.7 None 1 2 32.4 T o t a l 39 1 More than one b a r r i e r c o u l d be r e p o r t e d . 2 Percentages are based on N=37 Although t h e i r c a r e e r change was underway, 25 (67.6%) men presented a range of d e t e r r e n t s which might have prevented t h e i r s h i f t from tradesman to t e a c h e r . Family 87 r e l a t e d b a r r i e r s were most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned. There were 13 (35.1%) r e p o r t s that e i t h e r f a m i l y emergencies or lack of f a m i l y support would have i n t e r f e r e d with c a r e e r p l a n s . I n t e r r u p t i o n to the l i f e s t y l e of the f a m i l y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r to a change of occupation. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to c o n s i d e r any changes t h e i r f a m i l i e s had experienced as a r e s u l t of t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s (Item 5.1). These changes are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 7. Table 7 Changes Experienced by F a m i l i e s of P a r t i c i p a n t s Changes No. 1 % 2 Reported Decreased f i n a n c e s 11 29.7 S e p a r a t i o n 7 18.9 R e l o c a t i o n 4 10.8 D i f f e r e n t job 2 5.4 Other 4 10.8 None 12 32.4 T o t a l 40 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d report more than one change. 2 Percentages are based on N=37 The most commonly r e p o r t e d change was decreased income, 11 (29.7%), f o l l o w e d by s e p a r a t i o n from the p a r t i c i p a n t , 7 (18.9%). There were 12 (32.4%) men who r e p o r t e d being g e o g r a p h i c a l l y separated from t h e i r f a m i l i e s 88 f o r some or a l l of the academic term. T h i s i s f i v e more than those who rep o r t e d s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y as a change r e s u l t i n g from entry i n t o the program. However, p r e v i o u s oc c u p a t i o n s may a l s o have e n t a i l e d g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f o r these f i v e men. Twelve (32.4%) of the f a m i l i e s were d e s c r i b e d as not having gone through any major changes. Although s e p a r a t i o n from the f a m i l y had not acted as a b a r r i e r f o r a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the 20 (54.1%) men who l i v e d at home found there was much.less time to spend with f a m i l y members. Enrolment i n the program r e s u l t e d i n many hours spent away from home. There was a l s o a new set of p s y c h o l o g i c a l demands upon the men, with d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s e s . The e f f e c t t h i s had on some r e l a t i o n s h i p s was w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d by one man: We j u s t don't have as much energy, even as much d e s i r e i n a l o t of ways to be s u p p o r t i v e of one another, to spend time l i s t e n i n g . . . Sometimes the f a r t h e s t t h i n g i n your mind i s to put up with someone e l s e ' s b e e f s . When I was working f o r i n s t a n c e i t was q u i t e easy to l i s t e n to my f r i e n d ' s c o mplaints and j u s t hear her day out. Whereas now, my day i s so packed f u l l of t h i n g s I would j u s t as soon t e l l her to shut up and go 89 away, or l i s t e n to me f o r a minute. I t does cause a l o t of problems. You j u s t get so s e l f i s h I t h i n k . (sheet metal worker) D e t e r r e n t s to c a r e e r change may i n c l u d e a n t i c i p a t e d problems a s s o c i a t e d with the new c a r e e r . When asked about p o s s i b l e f u t u r e problems (Item 11) classroom management was mentioned by 16 (43.2%) men. You f e e l r e a l l y unsure at t h i s time i f you're able to cope with the classroom s i t u a t i o n . (mechanic) You don't r e a l l y f e e l t h a t r e s p e c t u n t i l you prove y o u r s e l f . ( c a r p e n t e r ) My main problem might be one of d i s c i p l i n e i n the c l a s s with the students (machinist) I t would seem that a n t i c i p a t e d . problems of beginning t e a c h e r s h o l d constant i r r e s p e c t i v e of age or p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e . Teacher education programs f o r mature student t e a c h e r s cannot assume that o l d e r students w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y 90 be c o n f i d e n t or f e e l i n c o n t r o l of the classroom s i t u a t i o n . Such programs c o u l d a l s o perhaps p o i n t out some of the r e a l i t i e s of the years ahead to such students as appear unable, or u n w i l l i n g , to do so f o r themselves. I n s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l support was r e c o g n i z e d as a p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t by e i g h t (21.6%) p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, on r a t i n g the degree of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s only 6 (16.2%) men f a i l e d to a s s o c i a t e f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s with t h e i r c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n . (Item 5). F u r t h e r d e t a i l s are given i n Table 8. Table 8 Degree of F i n a n c i a l S t r e s s Experienced During T r a i n i n g Year S t r e s s No. 1 % Reported Extreme 1 2.7 High 6 16.2 Moderate 19 51.4 S l i g h t 5 13.5 None 6 16.2 1 N=37 There were 26 (70.3%) men who r e p o r t e d that they were e x p e r i e n c i n g some degree of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s . However, for most men, 19 (51.4%), the s t r e s s was moderate. As the men had been employed f o r at l e a s t f i v e y ears, though u s u a l l y much longer, i t was of i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r what e f f e c t t h e i r c a r e e r change would have on t h e i r income. 91 They were, t h e r e f o r e , asked how t h e i r income i n f i v e years time would compare with t h e i r income f o r the year p r i o r to e n t r y i n t o the program (Item 53). Responses are summarised i n Table 9. Table 9 S a l a r y A f t e r F i v e Years Teaching Compared to Year P r i o r to Program S a l a r y No. 1 % Reported Much More 9 24.3 S l i g h t l y more 7 1 8 . 9 About the same 9 24.3 S l i g h t l y l e s s 7 1 8 . 9 Much l e s s 3 8 . 1 Don't know 2 5.4 1 N=37 Nine p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d they would earn much more a f t e r f i v e years of t e a c h i n g than d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s year. However, only three had spent the previous year working f u l l - t i m e at t h e i r t r a d e s , and one of them s a i d he was gu e s s i n g . Of the other s i x , two had spent the year working p a r t - t i m e and two had attended u n i v e r s i t y . One man had worked as a teacher's aide and the other had been running a smal l b u s i n e s s . J u s t over h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , 19 (51.4%), r e p o r t e d that a f t e r f i v e years of t e a c h i n g , t h e i r income would be the same or l e s s than what i t had been f o r the p r e v i o u s year. 92 Even those p a r t i c i p a n t s who a n t i c i p a t e d a drop i n s a l a r y f o r at l e a s t f i v e years had o b v i o u s l y come to terms with the f i n a n c i a l demands of the program. However, e i g h t men (21.6%) r e p o r t e d that l a c k of money would have completely prevented them from changing jobs and would i n f a c t have proved a major o b s t a c l e . There were a l s o seven (18.9%) men who i d e n t i f i e d s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l resources as being an important a i d i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to change oc c u p a t i o n s . The government s p o n s o r s h i p of e n t r a n t s i n t o the program removed the need f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to pay t h e i r own academic fees which a l l e v i a t e d one p o s s i b l e source of f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked whether they would have a p p l i e d to the program i f they had been r e q u i r e d to pay t h e i r own f e e s . The l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s o c c u r r i n g i s summarised i n Table 10. There were 11 (29.7%) men who i n d i c a t e d that e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l a i d i n the form of fee sponsorship was needed f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. Government payment of academic fees would, t h e r e f o r e , appear to be a f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r i n c a r e e r change of almost one t h i r d of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . There were 12 (32.4%) men who c o u l d not i d e n t i f y any f a c t o r which might have a c t e d as a d e t e r r e n t to t h e i r e n t r y i n t o the program. Now that they were e n r o l l e d , they c o u l d 93 Table 10 L i k e l i h o o d of A p p l i c a t i o n to Program Without Government Sponsorship L i k e l i h o o d No. 1 Reported % Very l i k e l y 1 7 45.9 F a i r l y l i k e l y 9 24.3 F a i r l y u n l i k e l y 9 24.3 Very u n l i k e l y 2 5.4 N=37 not envisage a s i t u a t i o n which would have prevented a c a r e e r change. In answer to another item on p r o j e c t e d b a r r i e r s , 17 (45.9%) men c o u l d foresee no problems whatsoever a r i s i n g from t h e i r c a r e e r change. The s h i f t from tradesman to school teacher was foreseen as completely smooth and t r o u b l e f r e e . A group of e i g h t (21.6%) men i d e n t i f i e d n e i t h e r past nor f u t u r e b a r r i e r s . These men appeared to possess a c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y which c o u l d perhaps be a t t r i b u t e d to a la c k of i m a g i n a t i o n or perhaps p r o f e s s i o n a l n a i v e t e . However, such a r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t with A r b e i t e r (1978) who r e p o r t e d that one t h i r d of h i s c a r e e r changers experienced or a n t i c i p a t e d no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n making t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n s . 94 4.2.2 F a c i l i t a t o r s to Career Change When asked to i d e n t i f y b a r r i e r s to t h e i r c a r e e r change, p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e a l i n g with h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Although the r e a l i t i e s of program completion and f i n d i n g a teacher p o s i t i o n were s t i l l ahead, by e n t e r i n g the program the major s t e p out of l i f e as a tradesman had al r e a d y been taken. However, i n the s e l e c t i o n of f a c i l i t a t o r s to t h e i r c a r e e r change p a r t i c i p a n t s . were d e a l i n g with r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e f a c t o r s . Each man recognized at l e a s t one f a c i l i t a t o r which had helped i n h i s career t r a n s i t i o n . These are summarised i n Table 11. Table 11 Major F a c i l i t a t o r s to Career Change F a c i l i t a t o r s No. 1 Reported % 2 Support from f a m i l y 1 4 37.8 Personal m o t i v a t i o n 1 2 32.4 Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n 8 21.6 F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y 7 18.9 Support from f r i e n d s 3 8.1 Being s i n g l e 3 8.1 P r i o r academic experience 2 5.4 Combination of circ u m s t a n c e s 2 5.4 Reaching age f o r d e c i s i o n s 1 2.7 T o t a l 52 1 More than one f a c i l i t a t o r c o u l d be r e p o r t e d . 2 Percentages are based on N=37 95 As i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change, the main group of f a c i l i t a t o r s was a l s o r e l a t e d to f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e . The support given by members of t h e i r f a m i l i e s was c o n s i d e r e d important by 14 (37.8%) men. A more d i r e c t q u e s t i o n on the t o p i c of home a t t i t u d e s suggested that there was a wide base of support (Item 58). A t o t a l of 33 (89.2%) p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d s u p p o r t i v e a t t i t u d e s at home. These responses i n d i c a t e t h a t e n t r y i n t o the program was g e n e r a l l y accompanied by s t r o n g support. Although f a m i l y members i n general were i n favour, the men acknowledged how t h e i r wives, in p a r t i c u l a r , had a s s i s t e d i n making the change: J u s t having the support from my wife and knowing i t was what I wanted to do and i t was the best t h i n g f o r me to do. (sheet metal worker) I j u s t s et my mind to i t and my wife was backing me. ( e l e c t r i c i a n ) A s u p p o r t i v e wife with the government s c h o l a r s h i p . (carpenter) My w i f e . (heavy duty mechanic) 96 The c o n t r i b u t i o n of fa m i l y members i n h e l p i n g to make the change was i n accord with the hig h l e v e l s of s o c i a l support r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r towards the complete c a r e e r concept (see Table 4 ) . However, not a l l the men h i g h l i g h t e d spousal support and some of the s i n g l e men b e l i e v e d t h e i r s i n g l e n e s s had been of de c i d e d a s s i s t a n c e . They thought the l a c k of dependents and long term commitment had made t h e i r career change much e a s i e r than i t was f o r the men who were a l r e a d y married. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the general f a m i l y a p p r o v a l accorded to p l a n s f o r second career t e a c h i n g augurs w e l l f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . The degree of support i s presented i n Table 12. Table 12 Degree of Home Support f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s ' E n t r y i n t o Teaching Degree of Support No. 1 % Reported Very s u p p o r t i v e 30 81.1 F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e 3 8.1 Non-commital 1 2.7 F a i r l y u n s u p p o r t i v e 1 2.7 Very u n s u p p o r t i v e 0 0.0 Not r e l e v a n t 2 5.4 1 N=37 Almost one t h i r d of the p a r t i c i p a n t s (32.4%) rep o r t e d that t h e i r own d e t e r m i n a t i o n had been a major f a c t o r . They had r e a l l y wanted to change c a r e e r s and enter the program. 97 They f e l t t h a t t h e i r strong m o t i v a t i o n helped them do whatever was necessary to achieve t h e i r g o a l . T h i s b e l i e f that they were doing the r i g h t t h i n g was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards the ongoing c a r e e r change (Item 12). P o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s were r e p o r t e d by a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, seven men a l s o expressed some concerns as to the heavy workload, c l a s s r o o m management or need to teach o u t s i d e t h e i r area of e x p e r t i s e . U n d e r l y i n g the p o s i t i v e tone of the responses was a f i r m statement of b e l i e f i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l t h e i r own l i v e s . Although other people helped them, they possessed an i n t e r n a l d r i v e which c a r r i e d them through the t r a n s i t i o n . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f l e c t e d Hammel and V a r d i ' s (1981) b e l i e f t h a t c a r e e r self-management was a f f e c t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f - c o n t r o l and a b i l i t y to b r i n g about change. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with working c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s job was an a i d to e i g h t (21.6%) men i n t h e i r c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . The d e s i r e to leave t h e i r job had made i t e a s i e r f o r them to move on to something e l s e . Of course i f the men had been p e r f e c t l y content being mechanics, welders or c a r p e n t e r s , f o r example, there would have been l i t t l e reason to move on. Although a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were ab l e to giv e reasons f o r l e a v i n g p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , only e i g h t (21.6%) men r e f e r r e d to t h e i r p r i o r working c o n d i t i o n s as i n c e n t i v e s to i n i t i a t e change. These men came from s i x 98 d i f f e r e n t o ccupations and gave v a r y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s of the negative a s p e c t s of t h e i r e a r l i e r work. They c i t e d s i t u a t i o n s such as lack of prospect f o r advancement, unpleasant working c o n d i t i o n s , and boredom. The d e s i r e to withdraw from p r e v i o u s occupations helped them move toward t e a c h i n g . Another f a c i l i t a t o r was that of having s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s to enable the men to spend a year i n f u l l - t i m e study. Although e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , i t was i d e n t i f i e d by seven (18.9%) men as being important. H i e s t a n d (1971) commented that having adequate f i n a n c e s was " c r i t i c a l " f o r mature students. He p o i n t e d out the added d i f f i c u l t y of reducing a standard of l i v i n g , which f o r mature students was o f t e n higher than f o r younger people. I t would appear that the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study had been i n a f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n to enter the program without i t making a memorable impact on t h e i r d e c i s i o n . Summary of R e s u l t s Although f a c i l i t a t o r s to c a r e e r change were r e c o g n i z e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s were not i d e n t i f i e d by 12 (32.4%) men. B a r r i e r s were n e c e s s a r i l y p r o j e c t e d as the men had so f a r s u c c e s s f u l l y entered the program but had not yet a p p l i e d to begin t h e i r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . However, f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s were o f t e n 99 r e l a t e d . Support from wives, other f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s was quoted as a major f a c i l i t a t o r . Lack of such support would have acted as a b a r r i e r . The support e x i s t e d f o r both the concept of car e e r change and i n meeting of immediate demands of the program. Having s u f f i c i e n t funds was e s s e n t i a l to s u c c e s s f u l s u r v i v a l d u r i n g the time spent without e a r n i n g . However, only seven (18.9%) p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s f a c t o r as an a c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r . Teaching s a l a r y i n the short-term d i d not a c t as a f a c i l i t a t o r f o r j u s t over h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . These men r e p o r t e d that t h e i r income i n the trades was as much as, i f not more than, t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d s a l a r y a f t e r f i v e years of t e a c h i n g . P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n was re c o g n i z e d as an important a i d to the c a r e e r change of almost one t h i r d of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Unpleasant working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r p r e v i o u s occupations was mentioned as an i n c e n t i v e by e i g h t (21.6%) of the men. 4.3 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 3: Do the exp e r i e n c e s and  e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e or  un s t a b l e c a r e e r p a t t e r n ? O r i e n t i n g Statement An i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y to pursue an average of three c a r e e r s (Super & Bohm, 1970). I f t e a c h i n g i s one of a s e r i e s of u n r e l a t e d occupations, an u n s t a b l e c a r e e r p a t t e r n 100 may e x i s t . I f so, such a p a t t e r n would be r e f l e c t e d i n c a r e e r h i s t o r i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Research Question 12: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s entered t e a c h i n g a f t e r a sequence of three or more u n r e l a t e d occupations? Research Question 13: Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s view entry i n t o t e a c h i n g as a temporary or permanent commitment? Research Question 14: Is t e a c h i n g one of s e v e r a l o c c u p a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d as a c a r e e r change? Research Question 15: Are the s t a t e d reasons f o r becoming a teacher r e l a t e d to e x t r i n s i c r a ther than i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s ? In the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , " o c c u p a t i o n s " are work p o s i t i o n s h e l d f o r at l e a s t two y e a r s . Those h e l d f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s are termed " f i l l e r j o b s " . Occupations are c o n s i d e r e d to be r e l a t e d when they i n v o l v e d s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y based on a s i m i l a r body of knowledge. No p a r t i c i p a n t had spent h i s working l i f e i n a s e r i e s of s h o r t term f i l l e r j o b s . There were 28 (75.7%) men who had changed t h e i r work p o s i t i o n at some point i n t h e i r c a r e e r . Of these, 12 (32.4%) had moved between u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . However, e i g h t of these men had spent at l e a s t 101 two years as f u l l - t i m e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . When the ca r e e r h i s t o r i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were examined, f i v e d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s emerged. These c a r e e r p a t t e r n s are presented i n . Table 13. Table 13 Career P a t t e r n s of P a r t i c i p a n t s Type No. 1 % Reported A Main occupation only 9 24.3 B Main occupation preceded by f i l l e r jobs 12 32.4 C Changes between r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 2 5.4 D Changes between u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 12 32.4 E Two concurrent main oc c u p a t i o n s 2 5.4 1 N=37 The f i v e c a r e e r p a t t e r n s r e l a t e the work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s to t h e i r main o c c u p a t i o n s . The p a t t e r n s are e l a b o r a t e d upon below. Numbers i n brackets i n d i c a t e the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s conforming to each p a t t e r n . Type A - Main occ u p a t i o n only ( 9 ) : These men s t a t e d that they had h e l d only one oc c u p a t i o n s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l . They had perhaps changed p o s i t i o n s , but i t was always w i t h i n the context "of t h e i r c a r e e r as, f o r example, a c a r p e n t e r or automotive mechanic. 1 02 Type B - Main occupations preceded by f i l l e r jobs  ( 1 2 ) : Before s e t t l i n g i n t o a trade these p a r t i c i p a n t s had worked at a s e r i e s of short term jobs f o r p e r i o d s of up to two y e a r s . However, a c t u a l time spent i n f i l l e r jobs was g e n e r a l l y between s i x and twelve months per job. The men had done, f o r example, c o n s t r u c t i o n work, l a b o u r i n g , b a r t e n d i n g , t r u c k d r i v i n g , or ambulance d r i v i n g . None of these jobs had been c o n s i d e r e d a main oc c u p a t i o n . Type C - Career changes between r e l a t e d o ccupations  ( 2 ) : T h i s p a t t e r n i n d i c a t e d a t r a n s i t i o n between occupations which were r e l a t e d . The jobs i n v o l v e d a s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y based on a s i m i l a r body of knowledge. There were two men who f i t t h i s p a t t e r n . One had been a d i v i n g i n s t r u c t o r i n the Royal Navy and became the owner of a scuba d i v i n g b u s i n e s s . The other was a teacher of b o a t b u i l d i n g who, through h i s knowledge of and i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t types of woods, became a bee keeping i n s t r u c t o r . The p a r t i c i p a n t e x p l a i n e d that these occupations were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . They both demanded thorough knowledge of woods and t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and d e t a i l e d e x p e r t i s e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n with v a r i o u s types of timber. The p a r t i c i p a n t l a t e r r e t u r n e d to b o a t b u i l d i n g . 1 03 Type D - Career changes between u n r e l a t e d occupations  (12): Some c a r e e r changes were made between occupations which were u n r e l a t e d . Examples of such changes were from s o c i a l worker to c a r p e n t e r , o f f i c e manager to r a c i n g car d r i v e r , elementary s c h o o l teacher to c a r p e n t e r , cook to a r c h i t e c t u r a l draftsman. Each occupation was h e l d f o r a minimum of two y e a r s . Of the 12 men i n t h i s group, e i g h t had a l s o h e l d f i l l e r j o b s . In t h e i r changes between u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , nine men had two occupations, one man had three o c c u p a t i o n s , and two had four and f i v e o c c u p ations, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Type E - Two con c u r r e n t occupations (2): There were two p a r t i c i p a n t s who s t a t e d that they had two main oc c u p a t i o n s . One was a heavy duty mechanic f o r a l a r g e company who was a l s o a commercial fisherman. The other was a l e a d hand mechanic who had h i s own t r u c k i n g and l o g g i n g b u s i n e s s . Both of these men d e s c r i b e d themselves as having two jobs. Although the c a r e e r h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d v a r i e d p a t t e r n s , there was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of r e c u r r i n g t r a n s i t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n s . As only three (8.1%) p a r t i c i p a n t s had h e l d three or more u n r e l a t e d c a r e e r s , a s t a b l e c a r e e r p a t t e r n was dominant. 104 In an examination of work h i s t o r y , Wilensky (1966) i d e n t i f i e d s i x separate c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . They were based on the complete work l i v e s of over 600 men i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Although i t was too e a r l y i n the c a r e e r s of most p a r t i c i p a n t s to determine whether or not they were e x a c t l y f o l l o w i n g Wilensky's p a t t e r n s , t h e i r work l i v e s so f a r can be u s e f u l l y viewed from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s gave l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of c o n t i n u a l c a r e e r change. Over h a l f of the men (21, 56.8%) h e l d e i t h e r v a r y i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the same trade or short term f i l l e r jobs before spending most of t h e i r working l i f e i n t h e i r main occ u p a t i o n . Both of these c a t e g o r i e s , noted e a r l i e r as Type A and Type B, f a l l w i t h i n the p a t t e r n of O r d e r l y H o r i z o n i t a l P r o g r e s s i o n as d e s c r i b e d by Wilensky (1966). Wilensky suggested that only 13% of the working male p o p u l a t i o n had s t a b l e backgrounds where at l e a s t h a l f of the work years were arranged i n a r e l a t e d h i e r a r c h y . However, there may be an age e f f e c t which at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e s comparisons. Wilensky s t u d i e d the complete c a r e e r h i s t o r y of h i s p a r t i c i p a n t s , from f i r s t job to r e t i r e m e n t , whereas the average age of p a r t i c i p a n t s in the present study was 30.8 y e a r s . They may not have had time to develop " d i s o r d e r 1 i n e s s " i n t h e i r c a r e e r s . Wilensky suggested that around 17% of men had O r d e r l y V e r t i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n p a t t e r n s . Here, s u c c e s s i v e o c c u p a t i o n s were f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d but cut a c r o s s o c c u p a t i o n a l 105 s t r a t a . In the present study two men (5.4%) had such p a t t e r n s and were i n c l u d e d i n Type C, Changes between Rel a t e d Occupations. The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s showed a p a t t e r n a k i n to O r d e r l y V e r t i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n f o r the f i r s t time when they e n t e r e d the program, becoming t e a c h e r s of t h e i r trade s k i l l s . However, although these c a r e e r s are r e l a t e d by the knowledge base, they do not perform the same f u n c t i o n . They, t h e r e f o r e , f a l l between Wilensky's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Although Wilensky d i d not note men with more than one c o n c u r r e n t occupation, there were two (5.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e p o r t e d that they had always h e l d two jobs. The p a t t e r n Wilensky d e s c r i b e d as D i s o r d e r l y V e r t i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n showed a l i f e t i m e of occupations t h a t were n e i t h e r f u n c t i o n a l l y nor h i e r a r c h i c a l l y r e l a t e d . Wilensky suggested around 29% of male workers p o r t r a y e d t h i s p a t t e r n . There were 12 (32.4%) men i n the program who had h e l d u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s f o r p e r i o d s of two years or more before e n t e r i n g (Type D). However, nine (24.3%) of them had h e l d only two o c c u p a t i o n s . For the purposes of the present study, they, t h e r e f o r e , d i d not meet the c r i t e r i o n f o r an unstable c a r e e r h i s t o r y , which was set at three or more u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s before e n t e r i n g teacher e d u c a t i o n . There were three p a r t i c i p a n t s who h e l d three or more u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s f o r a p e r i o d of at l e a s t two y e a r s . One had been a c o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o u r e r , cook and a r c h i t e c t u r a l 1 06 draftsman. Another had four separate c a r e e r s . When he decided to become a teacher, he was the owner and p r i n c i p a l mechanic of an a u t o - r e p a i r shop. Before that he worked as a c a r p e n t e r , a s o c i a l worker and completed a Bachelor of Science degree i n Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He had a l s o spent a year overseas with the Peace Corps. The other c a r e e r changer had been a mechanic and a heavy duty mechanic, a lumber m i l l worker, an o f f i c e manager, a r a c i n g car d r i v e r and a u n i v e r s i t y student of mechanical e n g i n e e r i n g . The work h i s t o r i e s of these men were n e v e r t h e l e s s a t y p i c a l of the group as a whole. The m a j o r i t y of the men (21, 56.8%) had h e l d only one f u l l time occupation over the l a s t f i v e y e a r s . T h i s i s congruent with A b r e i t e r ' s (1978) r e p o r t that people i n the process of changing c a r e e r s were not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p e a t i n g a r e c u r r i n g event. He found 42% of the c a r e e r changers had h e l d one job for the p r e v i o u s f i v e years and only 5% had had four or more. As Type D p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l l i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s , nine with two occupations and three with c o n s i d e r a b l y more, Type B was the s i n g l e most co h e s i v e c a r e e r p a t t e r n . There were 12 (32.4%) men who h e l d a main occupation preceded by short-term f i l l e r j o b s . There was a v a r i e t y of work r e p o r t e d as f i l l e r j o b s , u s u a l l y i n l a b o u r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n or s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . However, nine (24.3%) men i n d i c a t e d that such work had i n c l u d e d 1 07 h e l p i n g p o s i t i o n s which brought them i n c o n t a c t with young people or a d u l t s with s p e c i a l needs. They had worked with a l c o h o l i c s , r e t a r d e d a d u l t s , j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , or c h i l d r e n from abusive homes. There were a l s o p a r t i c i p a n t s who had l e d outdoor e d u c a t i o n camps, a s s i s t e d s o c i a l workers and taught j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . Two of these men then became teachers, one at the c o l l e g e l e v e l , the other at a p r i v a t e elementary s c h o o l . A t h i r d man had been a t e a c h e r ' s aide i n an a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . In H o l l a n d ' s (1966,1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c a r e e r s , trades are c l a s s i f i e d as R e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n s . The type of worked d e s c r i b e d above i s i n the S o c i a l grouping. Teaching i s a l s o a S o c i a l o c c u p a t i o n . As w e l l as these f u l l time o c c u p a t i o n s , i t i s worth n o t i n g that over 90% of p a r t i c i p a n t s had a l r e a d y been i n s t r u c t o r s as p a r t - t i m e or l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The move towards f u l l time teaching of I n d u s t r i a l Education would appear to suggest that the men were o r i e n t i n g t h e i r l i v e s towards a course that was a l r e a d y p r e s e n t . Although H o l l a n d p l a c e d teachers i n the S o c i a l grouping, he c l a s s i f i e d I n d u s t r i a l A r t s teachers as R e a l i s t i c , using the same code as f o r welders and e l e c t r i c i a n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the past work experiences of s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study would suggest that they may f i t q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t o a S o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . That i s , i n some ways the p a r t i c i p a n t s may be a l r e a d y more l i k e t eachers than they are l i k e tradesmen. 1 08 F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Holland's p e r s o n a l i t y types might be of value i n pursuing t h i s i s s u e . In l o o k i n g at stages of c a r e e r development, P i e t r o f e s a and S p l e t e (1975) d i v i d e d an i n d i v i d u a l s ' s work h i s t o r y i n t o 10 s t a g e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r e s e n t study were mainly at stages VII and V I I I . Stage VII l a s t e d from around age 18 to 30+ y e a r s . During t h i s time there was a tendency to o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y where men t r i e d s e v e r a l j o b s . H o l d i n g f i l l e r j obs, as w e l l as changing main occupations was o f t e n c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s stage. Levinson (1978) c o n s i d e r e d l i f e stages as opposed to p u r e l y c a r e e r stages. From about the age of 28 y e a r s , men moved out of the s t a b l e , though e x p l o r a t o r y , stage of E n t e r i n g the Adult World. They entered a p e r i o d of change, Age T h i r t y T r a n s i t i o n , which l a s t e d u n t i l around 33 y e a r s . There were 21 (56.8%) men aged between 25 and 30 y e a r s . T h i s c l u s t e r of men under 30 years concurs with Levinson's suggestion that at t h i s time men r e t h i n k l i f e s t r u c t u r e s they have b u i l t at an e a r l i e r age. E a r l i e r c h o i c e s are found to have l i m i t a t i o n s and mistakes. There -is now an o p p o r t u n i t y to " c r e a t e a l i f e s t r u c t u r e that w i l l be v i a b l e i n the world and s u i t a b l e f o r the s e l f " (p.72). The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked about t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s over a p e r i o d of f i v e and then ten y e a r s . Only one man s a i d he d i d not think he would be t e a c h i n g a f t e r f i v e y e a r s . He was l o o k i n g f o r f i v e years employment a f t e r 1 09 which he would r e t i r e and do v o l u n t e e r work. T h i s man was 52 years o l d and had spent 27 years i n the Royal Navy. A f u r t h e r two men planned to be out of t e a c h i n g i n ten y e a r s . One wanted to s t a r t h i s own b u s i n e s s , the other intended to become a p s y c h o l o g i s t . The man who hoped to become a p s y c h o l o g i s t had been a journeyman w e l d e r - f i t t e r f o r f i v e years with f i l l e r jobs before t h a t . Only the p o t e n t i a l businessman had a h i s t o r y of c a r e e r change. He had spent two and a h a l f years working as a t e a c h e r ' s aide/woodwork i n s t r u c t o r i n an a l t e r n a t e school f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . P r i o r to that he had one year i n business and one at u n i v e r s i t y . I t appeared that even plans to leave teaching were not n e c e s s a r i l y an i n d i c a t i o n of a background of c a r e e r change. Apart from these men, p a r t i c i p a n t s had entered the program wi t h the i n t e n t i o n of m a i n t a i n i n g a career w i t h i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . T h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d c a r e e r r e l a t e d g o a ls over these time p e r i o d s are summarised i n Table 14. The r e l e v a n t items i n the i n t e r v i e w schedule asked, "What do you hope to be doing i n your c a r e e r i n f i v e / t e n years time?" (Items 60,61). The open ended nature of t h i s q u e s t i o n r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t s e l e c t i o n of nature and c h o i c e of g o a l . As would be expected, p l a n s f o r the f i v e year span were more c l e a r than those f o r ten years ahead. The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s (30, 81.1%) expected to be s t i l l t e a c h i n g I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , although o f t e n i n a 1 10 , Table 14 Career R e l a t e d Goals of P a r t i c i p a n t s Career Goals A f t e r N 1 5 years % 2 A f t e r N 10 years % Teacher (Ind. Educ.) 30 81.1 19 51 .4 Teacher (other) 3 8.1 1 2.7 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3 8.1 7 18.9 Bachelor's degree 2 5.4 0 0.0 Graduate degree 1 2.7 7 18.9 Teach overseas 3 8.1 1 2.7 Out of t e a c h i n g 1 2.7 2 5.4 Don't know 1 2.7 5 13.5 T o t a l 44 42 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d r e p o r t more than one g o a l . 2 Percentages are based on N=37 s p e c i a l i s e d f i e l d . Other t e a c h i n g areas c o n s i d e r e d were s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , c a r e e r programs and general s c i e n c e . There was l i t t l e a n t i c i p a t i o n of moving i n t o school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (3, 8.1%) or of completing u n i v e r s i t y degrees (3, 8.1%) w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s . However, a f t e r 10 years the number of a n t i c i p a t e d graduate degrees rose to a t o t a l of e i g h t (21.6%) and the expectant a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n c r e a s e d to ten (27.0%). Two of the men who wanted graduate degrees mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y of t e a c h i n g at the t e r t i a r y l e v e l , one i n a community c o l l e g e and the other i n the program in which he was now a student. There were 34 (91.9%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who expected to be s t i l l t e a c h i n g i n 10 years t ime. 111 The a t t i t u d e of p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared to d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from that found by L o r t i e (1975). H i s comment, "Most men r e j e c t t e a c h i n g as an u l t i m a t e g o a l ; they see t e a c h i n g as a means towards another end - as an i n t e r i m engagement" (p.86), was not a p p l i c a b l e . The men sometimes proposed u s i n g the f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n t e a c h i n g , moving to other s u b j e c t areas, going i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or t r a v e l l i n g overseas, but they intended to commit themselves to t h e i r new c a r e e r s . There was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of p l a n s f o r f u r t h e r c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . Thomas (1980) a l s o found that a high p r o p o r t i o n of c a r e e r changers went i n t o t h e i r new work with a n t i c i p a t e d s t a b i l i t y . T h i s was the expressed plan of 89% of h i s m i d - l i f e men i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . L. G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) p o i n t e d out that j u s t a s k i n g people what job they wanted was as a c c u r a t e a f o r c a s t e r of t h e i r f u t u r e occupations as any o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y . T h i s comment was based on r e s e a r c h done with young people. I t would be of i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r how a c c u r a t e are the expressed o c c u p a t i o n a l f o r e c a s t s of c a r e e r changers. When a new c a r e e r i s being c o n s i d e r e d there may be a move towards one p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n or s e v e r a l jobs may seem a t t r a c t i v e . D e c i s i o n s must then be made as to which job w i l l be chosen. But e n t r y i n t o a c a r e e r i s d e c i d e d upon from two d i r e c t i o n s . The a p p l i c a n t s e l e c t s from a v a i l a b l e jobs and those who are h i r i n g s e l e c t from a v a i l a b l e 1 1 2 a p p l i c a n t s . In the present study t h i s two-way d e c i s i o n had p r o v i s i o n a l l y been made, at l e a s t f o r e n t r y i n t o the t r a i n i n g program. However, th e r e may be a d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y of commitment between men who c o n s i d e r e d only t e a c h i n g and those who e n t e r e d t e a c h i n g as a second or t h i r d c h o i c e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked i f they had thought of going i n t o other l i n e s of work b e s i d e s t e a c h i n g . T h e i r answers are summarised i n Table 15. Table 15 Second Career I n t e r e s t s Second Career No. 1 % Reported Teaching only 1 6 43. 2 Business 6 16 2 S o c i a l work 2 5 4 Anthropology 1 2. 7 A r c h i t e c t u r e 1 2 7 Account ing 1 2 7 B i o l o g y 1 2 7 C o n s t r u c t i o n supt. 1 2 7 E n g i n e e r i n g 1 2 7 I n d u s t r i a l s a l e s 1 2 7 Law 1 2 7 P o l i c e f o r c e 1 2 7 P r o s t h e t i c s manufacture 1 2 7 Stockbroking 1 2 .7 No f i r m d e c i s i o n 2 5 .4 1 N=37 There were 16 (43.2%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who entered the program having c o n s i d e r e d only t e a c h i n g as a f u t u r e c a r e e r . Although two men d i d not express i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r 1 13 f i e l d s , 19 (51.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d other occupations which they c o n s i d e r e d . The range of commitment extended from s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to a c t u a l l y being o f f e r e d , but r e f u s i n g , p o s i t i o n s . T h i s range i s presented i n Table 16. Of the 19 men who c o n s i d e r e d other work, 13 (35.1%) went beyond the stage of merely t h i n k i n g or making g e n e r a l i n q u i r i e s about another o c c u p a t i o n . The f i v e men who r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n had each c o n t a c t e d companies, s c h o o l s and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d . T h e i r reasons f o r going no f u r t h e r towards these o c c u p a t i o n s tended to be r e l a t e d to the l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d . Formal a p p l i c a t i o n to other c a r e e r s had been made by two men, but they had not been s u c c e s s f u l . The four who had some t r a i n i n g i n f i e l d s other than t e a c h i n g had each taken c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s . In two cases these courses had been taken c o n c u r r e n t l y with f u l l time employment. None of these men completed requirements f o r e n t r y i n t o other p r o f e s s i o n s . The two p a r t i c i p a n t s who had been o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s turned them down in favour of e n t e r i n g the program. A l t e r n a t i v e c a r e e r s c o n s i d e r e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s were f o r the most p a r t i n the w h i t e - c o l l a r category. Few had c o n s i d e r e d e n t e r i n g other t r a d e s as replacements f o r t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n . The d e c i s i o n to apply to t e a c h i n g r a t h e r than a r c h i t e c t u r e or e n g i n e e r i n g , f o r example, may have been a f f e c t e d by the entry requirements or l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g 1 1 4 Table 16 Degree of Commitment to Occupations Other Than Teaching Commitment No. 1 % Reported Considered e n t r y 6 16.2 Business Received i n f o r m a t i o n 5 13.5 A r c h i t e c t u r e Engineer ing P r o s t h e t i c s manufacture S o c i a l work Stockbroking Entered a p p l i c a t i o n 2 5.4 Law P o l i c e f o r c e Received t r a i n i n g 4 10.8 Accounting Anthropology B i o l o g y S o c i a l Work O f f e r e d p o s i t i o n 2 5.4 C o n s t r u c t i o n supt. I n d u s t r i a l s a l e s Not r e l e v a n t 18 48.6 N=37 r e q u i r e d . The ease of e n t r y i n t o teaching as a p r o f e s s i o n may lend a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to i t s s e l e c t i o n as a second c a r e e r route to i n t r a - g e n e r a t i o n a l s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . 1 15 Of the 19 (51.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who had c o n s i d e r e d occupations other than t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n , only one planned on l e a v i n g the p r o f e s s i o n w i t h i n ten years. T h i s -was the p o t e n t i a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r . He a n t i c i p a t e d s t u d y i n g f o r both b a c h e l o r ' s and master's degrees and becoming a p s y c h o l o g i s t . In making a c a r e e r change i n t o t e a c h i n g , a l t e r n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d by s l i g h t l y more than one-half of the respondents. However, having decided upon t e a c h i n g , a commitment to the p r o f e s s i o n was made. L o r t i e (1975) used the a term from Economics, " a l t e r n a t i v e s foregone", and suggested that t e a c h i n g was o f t e n a s u b s t i t u t e f o r other c a r e e r g o a l s , which f o r v a r i o u s reasons were un o b t a i n a b l e . For men the a l t e r n a t i v e s were u s u a l l y i n business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the p r o f e s s i o n s . T h e i r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s were overshadowed by a sense of f i n a n c i a l l o s s and r e g r e t that they had given up these a l t e r n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s . L o r t i e went on to d i s c u s s the l a c k of enthusiasm f o r t e a c h i n g shown by such men. As models f o r younger male teachers t h e i r e f f e c t was not conducive to r e c r u i t m e n t . Although 19 (51.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study had c o n s i d e r e d other f i e l d s , only two (5.4%) i n d i c a t e d t h at they had chosen teaching because they were not accepted elsewhere. 1 16 In t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e new c a r e e r s , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r e s e n t study were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. Almost h a l f of them (16, 43.2%) had c o n s i d e r e d only t e a c h i n g . Of the r e s t , a c l u s t e r of s i x men had thought about going i n t o b u s i n e s s , two c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l work and 11 others spread i n d i v i d u a l l y over a range of o c c u p a t i o n s . Using Holland's (1960;1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i t has been suggested that c a r e e r changers i n R e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n s , such as tradesmen, u s u a l l y s h i f t or would l i k e to s h i f t i n t o the E n t e r p r i s i n g c a t e g o r y , which i n c l u d e s business (Dwight, 1977; G. G o t t f r e d s o n , 1977). However, t h i s t r e n d was not apparent i n the present study. Of the s i x (16.2%) men who c o n s i d e r e d business as an a l t e r n a t i v e , none had gone past the stage of j u s t t h i n k i n g about i t as a p o s s i b i l i t y . None mentioned c o n t a c t i n g b u s i n e s s establishments or banks, or even d i s c u s s i n g i t s e r i o u s l y with f r i e n d s . A l l s i x p r o j e c t e d a s t a b l e c a r e e r i n teaching over the next ten years. Another p a r t i c i p a n t had a c t u a l l y been o f f e r e d a p o s i t i o n i n an E n t e r p r i s i n g f i e l d , i n d u s t r i a l s a l e s . However, he had passed i t over i n favour of becoming a teacher. There was l i t t l e evidence from the present study to show that the men were f o l l o w i n g the usual p a t t e r n of career change which had been found i n men from trade-based o c c u p a t i o n s . They were e n t e r i n g a S o c i a l r a t h e r than E n t e r p r i s i n g o c c u p a t i o n as a second c a r e e r c h o i c e . 1 1 7 The degree of commitment to t e a c h i n g d i d not appear to be less e n e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other c a r e e r s . There were 19 (51.4%) men who showed v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e r e s t i n other o c c u p a t i o n s . Of these men, 18 of them a n t i c i p a t e d being i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n f o r at l e a s t ten y e a r s . There was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of teaching as a temporary p o s i t i o n r a t h e r l e s s d e s i r a b l e than some other new c a r e e r . As another i n d i c a t i o n of s e r i o u s commitment to the tea c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , i t appeared r e l e v a n t to d i s c o v e r i f teaching had been an impulsive c h o i c e or i f i t had been c o n s i d e r e d over some p e r i o d of time. I t i s p o s s i b l e that an impulsive d e c i s i o n to enter teaching c o u l d be f o l l o w e d by an e q u a l l y impulsive d e c i s i o n to leav e . However, a t o t a l of 29 (78.4%) men r e p o r t e d that they had c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h i n g as a caree r at an e a r l i e r p o i n t of t h e i r l i v e s . E n t r y i n t o the program had not r e s u l t e d from a sudden d e c i s i o n , but was the outcome of ongoing i f spasmodic d e l i b e r a t i o n . Some of the men (6, 16.2%) had s t i l l been at school when they f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d being t e a c h e r s themselves. To use Ginzberg's (1964) term, by becoming teachers they were were a c t u a l i z i n g a " f a n t a s y " . However, most of the men (16, 43.2%) had been o l d e r and a l r e a d y at work when t e a c h i n g was f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s worth n o t i n g that while working, each of these p a r t i c i p a n t s had a l s o been i n v o l v e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e s . The experience gained i n such a r o l e had c l e a r l y not ac t e d as a d e t e r r e n t to t e a c h i n g . Two of the th r e e men who 118 had no p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d experience had a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h i n g before e n t r y i n t o the program. One had delayed entry to gain more trade experience and the other had been working i n a p r o v i n c e where a program was not a v a i l a b l e . Reasons f o r e a r l i e r non-entry i n t o the program are summarised i n Table 17. Table 17 Reasons f o r E a r l i e r Non-entry i n t o Teaching Reasons No. 1 Reported % Lack of f i n a n c e s 9 24.3 Academic demands of program 4 10.8 Need f o r more trade experience 4 10.8 Too young f o r program 3 8.1 Peer p r e s s u r e 2 5.4 Appeal of other work 2 5.4 Quit elementary education program 2 5.4 Entered f a t h e r ' s trade 1 2.7 M a r i t a l breakup 1 2.7 Program not a v a i l a b l e 1 2.7 Not r e l e v a n t 8 21.6 1 N=37 Lack of s u f f i c i e n t funds was the most commonly r e p o r t e d response and was r e p o r t e d by 9 (24.3%) men. T h i s concurs with the e a r l i e r comments by 7 (18.9%) p a r t i c i p a n t s that l a c k of funds would have acted as b a r r i e r to t h e i r c a r e e r change. However, some men had a l s o f e l t e i t h e r unready to face the amount of s t u d y i n g demanded by the program or too i n e x p e r i e n c e d to teach t h e i r t r a de to o t h e r s . 1 19 Two of the three p a r t i c i p a n t s who f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d teaching when they were at school had succumbed to peer p r e s s u r e and on graduation had entered the work f o r c e . They were now attempting to reach a goal which had e a r l i e r been put a s i d e . In order to become a teacher, i t was necessary f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to make a d e c i s i o n which was to have a wide-spread impact upon t h e i r l i v e s . I t was found that although the d e c i s i o n had sometimes been c o n s i d e r e d f o r a number of years i t was o f t e n p r e c i p i t a t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r event. T h i s f i n d i n g supported the concept of "marker events" (Levinson, 1978) or " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " (Krantz, 1977). These s p e c i f i c moments of d e c i s i o n making were embedded i n an ex t e n s i v e p e r i o d when the change was d e l i b e r a t e d . S i x (16 . 2 % ) p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i d e r e d a p p l i c a t i o n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y over a p e r i o d of f i v e years or more. A f u r t h e r 13 (35.1%) had f i r s t thought of i t between two and f i v e y e ars p r i o r to e n t r y . For p a r t i c i p a n t s there was a g e n e r a l s t a t e of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with o c c u p a t i o n s . However, f o r some of the men p a r t i c u l a r events s t i m u l a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n to the program. As Levinson noted, such events c o u l d l a s t f o r s e v e r a l days or c o u l d be t r a c e d to a very s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n : One Sunday night with my room-mate, a f t e r d r i n k i n g too much t e q u i l a and g e t t i n g up i n the morning and not f e e l i n g so w e l l - I remember i t d i s t i n c t l y . I t was an October morning, p o u r i n g r a i n , r e a l l y gruesomely awful, f e e l i n g p r e t t y hungover. I got up i n the morning. I looked o u t s i d e . A non-pay week. And I looked and I thought, Oh my God, i t ' s awful. Only ten more months to go and I get two weeks o f f . And I thought, "No, I t h i n k i t ' s time I went back to s c h o o l . " ( e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n ) W e l l , January i s my slow time and I got to do a l o t of t h i n k i n g and so u l s e a r c h i n g . I took a l i t t l e t r i p around the p r o v i n c e and looked at where do we go next. I f we're not happy at e x a c t l y what we're doing now th e r e must be something b e t t e r . And I deci d e d to make the commitment, (greenhouse owner/operator) Boat b u i l d i n g i s q u i t e c o m p e t i t i v e .... Two years ago at the Boat Show they found that 45 Vancouver companies were no longer i n business a f t e r two y e a r s . And I heard that p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n and i t s t a r t e d to make me t h i n k , ( b o a t b u i l d e r ) 111 Almost h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s (17, 45.9%) were ab l e to p i n p o i n t the event which focussed t h e i r f e e l i n g s of d i s c o n t e n t i n t o a c t i o n . In a c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n a s t a t e of "career d i s c o n t e n t " e x i s t s . The onset of new i n f o r m a t i o n upsets the e q u i l i b r i u m to such an e x t e n t t h a t the worker i s f o r c e d to make a d e c i s i o n . The d e c i s i o n c o u l d be to remain i n the present o c c u p a t i o n , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t i s . However, other p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t i n c l u d i n g e n t r y to a new c a r e e r . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s may evolve i n t o another s t a t e of c a r e e r d i s c o n t e n t . In t u r n , such a s t a t e may be j o l t e d by new i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t i n g f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n making. This process i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 below. F i g u r e 2: Model of c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . 1 22 The case of the b o a t b u i l d e r quoted above can be used to demonstrate a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model. He was g e n e r a l l y aware of the c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e of the b o a t b u i l d i n g b u s i n e s s and the i n s e c u r e nature of h i s p o s i t i o n . However, i t was the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l companies had been f o r c e d to c l o s e down t h a t f i n a l l y s p u r r e d him i n t o a c t i o n (see F i g u r e 3) . Information on recent closure ' of 45 companies / Awareness of / competition / in / — * boat building business 1 1 I Stay in | I boat |« I building? | I I I I Leave I I work | I force? | I I I Enrolment in > • teacher education program F i g u r e 3: Ca r e e r change of p a r t i c i p a n t , b o a t b u i l d e r . B e f o r e p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t e r e d the program, they had been engaged i n f u l l - t i m e work which they d e c i d e d to l e a v e . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , what i t was they had found u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . D e t a i l s of these f a c t o r s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 18. 1 23 Table 18 Reasons fo r Leaving P r e v i o u s Occupations Reasons No. 1 % 2 Reported I n t r i n s i c S e l f concept incongruency 13 35.1 Lack of job s a t i s f a c t i o n 5 13.5 Lack of c h a l l e n g e .3 8.1 Want time with f a m i l y 2 5.4 S u b t o t a l 23 E x t r i n s i c Poor working c o n d i t i o n s 15 40.5 Lack of c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s 8 21.6 Age/health 4 10.8 Lack of c o n t a c t with people 3 8.1 Lack of job s t a b i l i t y 3 8.1 S u b t o t a l 33 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more than one response. 2 Percentages are based on N=37 The most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned e x i t f a c t o r was unpleasant working c o n d i t i o n s which was r e p o r t e d by 15 (40.5%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . They were t i r e d of being wet, c o l d and d i r t y . Although there was an o v e r a l l emphasis on e x t r i n s i c i n f l u e n c e s which l e d to q u i t t i n g p r i o r o c c u p a t i o n s , the second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned e x i t f a c t o r was i n t r i n s i c i n nature and r e l a t e d to s e l f - c o n c e p t . There were 13 (35.1%) men who s a i d they c o u l d not see 124 themselves spending the r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s work. They b e l i e v e d they were capable of something e l s e , something which they f e l t to be a more a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n . However, the a c t u a l number of men, 12 (32.4%), who gave e x c l u s i v e l y e x t r i n s i c reasons was the same as those who o f f e r e d s o l e l y i n t r i n s i c reasons. An almost e q u i v a l e n t group, 11 (29.7%), gave both types of responses. I t would appear that although e x t r i n s i c reasons were more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n e x p l a i n i n g the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n , i n t r i n s i c reasons a l s o p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t i n moving out of one c a r e e r i n t o another. T h i s i n c l u s i o n of i n t r i n s i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n supports the f i n d i n g s of Altimus and T e r s i n e (1973). However, with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study such d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n d i d not j u s t e x i s t but was i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c a r e e r change. The men were not merely d i s c o n t e n t e d with the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r work, but a l s o f e l t d i s s a t i s f i e d with the p e r s o n a l rewards they were r e c e i v i n g . Although two p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d that they had j u s t been l a i d o f f work at the time of d e c i s i o n making, c a r e e r s had not been changed because of lac k of employment. A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been employed p r i o r to e n t r y i n t o the program. A d e c i s i o n to change oc c u p a t i o n s i m p l i e s examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to i d e n t i f y a s p e c t s of work which they b e l i e v e d to be important. They were a l s o asked to a n t i c i p a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l gains which would 1 25 r e s u l t from t h e i r e n try i n t o t e a c h i n g (Items 9 and 10) Summaries of responses are given i n Table 19. Table 19 O c c u p a t i o n a l Values and Gains Achieved by Entry i n t o Teaching Values No. 1 Reported % 2 Gains No. Reported I n t r i n s i c Job s a t i s f a c t i o n Challenge Match s e l f concept Be with youth New outlook S e l f knowledge S u b t o t a l 20 10 4 4 0 0 39 54 27 10 10 0 0 1 7 5 6 6 4 2 40 45 1 3 1 6 16 1 0 5 ,9 ,5 ,2 ,2 ,8 ,4 E x t r i n s i c Career o p p o r t u n i t y 4 10. .8 Job s t a b i l i t y 5 13. .5 Working c o n d i t i o n s 4 10. .8 F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y 2 5. .4 Opportunity to l e a r n 3 8. . 1 Change of environment 1 2. .7 New l i f e s t y l e 1 2, .7 Pass on knowledge 0 0. .0 Pr e s t ige 0 0. .0 S u b t o t a l 19 4 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 23 10.8 1 8 8.1 8.1 10.8 7 ,7 ,7. ,7 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more than one response, 2 Percentages are based on N=37 Responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n both values and g a i n s , i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s were mentioned approximately twice as 126 o f t e n as e x t r i n s i c . In g e n e r a l there i s p a r a l l e l i s m between the work valu e s expressed and the a n t i c i p a t e d gains to be o b t a i n e d by becoming t e a c h e r s . T h i s congruency augurs w e l l f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n and s t a b i l i t y once the men enter t e a c h i n g . In only two cases was there d i s p a r i t y . The need f o r a job to be c h a l l e n g i n g was mentioned by 10 (27.0%) men, a l t h o u g h only 5 (13.5%) a n t i c i p a t e d that teaching would b r i n g a c h a l l e n g e . The second divergence i n responses was i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a new outlook on l i f e which would r e s u l t from becoming a teacher. No p a r t i c i p a n t c o n s i d e r e d that to be an o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e , but four (10.8%) reco g n i z e d that i t might occur once they e n t e r e d the teaching p r o f e s s i o n . To have d e s c r i b e d t h i s change as a gain i n d i c a t e s that the outlook of teachers was d e s i r a b l e . T h i s suggests t h a t teachers were viewed as a r e f e r e n c e group by p a r t i c i p a n t s . Reasons f o r s e l e c t i o n of teaching as a new c a r e e r were c e n t r e d around two items. The f i r s t asked 'What i s i t about t e a c h i n g that makes i t a good job f o r you?' (Item 15). The second was even more d i r e c t . 'Why do you want to be a teacher?' (Item 62). The l a t t e r q u e s t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r tended to r e s u l t i n some h e s i t a t i o n before answers were gi v e n . There were a few comments such as "I suppose t h a t ' s the hardest q u e s t i o n you've asked me" or " I t ' s a simple q u e s t i o n , but i t ' s a d i f f i c u l t one". A f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , two men d e c i d e d that they d i d n ' t r e a l l y know why they wanted 1 27 to be t e a c h e r s . One s a i d that he d i d n ' t p a r t i c u l a r l y want to be, but he supposed i t c o u l d be fun. Apart from these t h r e e , p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to give m u l t i p l e reasons f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . Reasons for entry i n t o t e a c h i n g are presented i n Table 20. In h i s work on f i r s t c a r e e r s teachers L o r t i e (1975) re p o r t e d that the reasons most f r e q u e n t l y given f o r entry i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n r e f l e c t e d an ' i n t e r p e r s o n a l theme'. The teachers wanted to work with other people, e s p e c i a l l y young people. He found 34% of t e a c h e r s gave reasons of t h i s type. A second important c o n s i d e r a t i o n was being a b l e to o f f e r a s e r v i c e c o n s i d e r e d to be worthwhile" and important. T h i s s e r v i c e theme was i n d i c a t e d by 23% of secondary teac h e r s and 35% o v e r a l l . Reasons given by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study provided an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison with L o r t i e ' s (1975) f i n d i n g s . The primary reason f o r e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g was a l s o to be with young people but only one man (2.7%) gave a reason which c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as r e f l e c t i n g a s e r v i c e theme. Hi s r e p l y was the only one which i n d i c a t e d t h a t to become a teacher would be to provide a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e : W e l l , I t h i n k i t ' s a r e s p e c t a b l e p r o f e s s i o n . I t ' s something that needs doing. I t ' s good to h e l p with e d u c a t i o n . ( p a i n t e r ) 1 28 Table 20 ^ Reasons f o r S e l e c t i o n of Teaching as a Career Item 15 No. 1 Reported % 2 Item 62 No. % Reported I n t r i n s i c Be with youth 20 54 0 1 5 40. 5 Match s e l f concept 8 21 6 1 2 32. 4 Job s a t i s f a c t i o n 3 8 1 9 24. 3 Work with hands 5 13 5 0 0 0 Challenge 2 •5 4 3 8. 1 Pass on knowledge 0 0 0 4 10. 8 Combine s k i l l & p r o f e s s ion 0 0 0 3 8. 1 Be c r e a t i v e 0 0 .0 1 2 7 Be with f a m i l y Copy f a t h e r ' s model 0 0 .0 1 2 7 0 0 .0 1 2 7 Have i n f l u e n c e 0 0 .0 1 2 7 S u b t o t a l 41 50 E x t r i n s i c Good working c o n d i t i o n s 8 21.6 Job s t a b i l i t y 1 2.7 F l e x i b i l i t y 4 10.8 Career o p p o r t u n i t y 1 2.7 F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y 1 2 Respect 1 2 Opportunity to l e a r n 0 0 P r e s t i g e 0 0 S u b t o t a l 16 Don't know 0 0.0 Does not want to be teacher 1 2.7 .7 7 .0 ,0 1 5 2 1 21 , 2 2. 2 2 2 2 2 5.4 2.7 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d g i v e more than one response. 2 Percentages are based on N=37 129 The other men seemed to ignore the concept of t e a c h i n g as a v e h i c l e to provide a s e r v i c e . They were perhaps more pragmatic i n t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s than f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s . T h e i r goals were p r a c t i c a l and s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g r a t h e r than a l t r u i s t i c . Reasons gi v e n f o r becoming teachers o f t e n r e f l e c t e d the s e l f - c o n c e p t s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and a l s o the knowledge of what gave them a f e e l i n g of s a t i s f a c t i o n : I l i k e k i d s . I t h i n k I c o u l d teach them something. I'm good at i t . I l i k e to t e l l people t h i n g s , I l i k e to i n s t r u c t , ( c a r p e n t e r ) I l i k e i n s t r u c t i n g , I always have. I l i k e t a l k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y to young people and p a s s i n g things on to them. I enjoy t h a t . I get a c e r t a i n amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n from i t . (marine engineer) Most l y because I think my p e r s o n a l i t y i s very conducive to a l l o w i n g k i d s to grow. I know enough about myself and about k i d s and about manual s k i l l s that can h e l p k i d s f i n d a c a r e e r , f i n d a g o a l , f i n d something to do with t h e i r time other than be s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . (sheet metal worker) 1 30 I t was apparent that the p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s with young people had confirmed p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of themselves as e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t o r s . A f u r t h e r theme i d e n t i f i e d by L o r t i e was time c o m p a t i b i l i t y . T h i s was recognized by 8 (21.6%) men. They h i g h l i g h t e d the long h o l i d a y s as an o p p o r t u n i t y to be with t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s was a higher p r o p o r t i o n than L o r t i e ' s 14.4% and may be r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t 10 (27.0%) p a r t i c i p a n t s a l r e a d y had c h i l d r e n when they d e c i d e d to become t e a c h e r s . They were aware of the l a c k of time spent with t h e i r c h i l d r e n while i n past o c c u p a t i o n s . Four (10.8%) men mentioned m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s , money, s e c u r i t y and p r e s t i g e . T h i s i s higher than the 6% r e p o r t e d by L o r t i e and r e f l e c t s the pragmatic p e r s p e c t i v e of the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . As there was l i t t l e mention of t e a c h i n g being a worthy occupation the present f i n d i n g s were p a r t i a l l y incongruent with reasons f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e as given by f i r s t c a r e e r teachers ( L o r t i e , 1975; Haubruch, 1960; Ryans, 1960; Yamamoto & Davis, 1966). When compared to p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t o c a r e e r change (Hiestand, 1971; Krantz,1977; Thomas, 1979, 1980) the goals of p a r t i c i p a n t s are again i n p a r t i a l agreement o n l y . As with e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , the c h o i c e of a second c a r e e r was o f t e n not f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n , but to meet s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l g o a l s . However, there was l i t t l e mention of t e a c h i n g being 131 a worthwhile c a r e e r , i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e , worth doing f o r i t s own sake and morally p r e f e r a b l e to t h e i r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . Although the men sometimes complained about working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r t r a d e s , there was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i r e a r l i e r work was c o n s i d e r e d t r i v i a l or l a c k i n g i n v a l u e . Rather, they b e l i e v e d that what they had l e a r n e d in the t r a d e s was worth p a s s i n g on to o t h e r s . Lack of i n t r i n s i c v a l u e i n previous work had e a r l i e r been given as a reason f o r c a r e e r change, but t h i s d i d not seem to motivate p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study. The appeal of t e a c h ing f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared to be grounded i n both past experience and awareness of present needs. They wanted to be with young people, o f t e n r e f l e c t i n g the p e r s o n a l rewards they had experienced e a r l i e r . They wanted more time o f f , an o p p o r t u n i t y to share t h e i r - knowledge and a job which they b e l i e v e d would s u i t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t was r e f l e c t e d i n the d e s i r e to be i n an occupation which demands ongoing contact and i n t e r a c t i o n with other people. The reasons given by p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l f - o r i e n t e d . The d e c i s i o n to become a teacher r e f l e c t e d an awareness of the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the needs of s o c i e t y as a whole. These men were not becoming teachers i n order to serve s o c i e t y , but i n order to round out t h e i r own l i v e s . 1 32 As with most a d u l t d e c i s i o n s there was no s i n g l e reason f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . However, t e a c h i n g was regarded as an oc c u p a t i o n which answered many of the needs of these men. One p a r t i c i p a n t a r t i c u l a t e d h i s reasons f l u e n t l y . Although h i s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n was not as secure as most of the men, h i s answer r e f l e c t e d much of the t h i n k i n g of the group as a whole: I t ' s a good trade o f f . I can have a p r o f e s s i o n where I'm not a lunch p a i l , not a b a s i c nine to f i v e , down at the saw m i l l . I s t i l l have my semi-freedom, making a l o t of my own d e c i s i o n s , c a r r y i n g them through, d e v e l o p i n g programs. I ' l l have f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n t h a t I don't have to worry about h u s t l i n g to make sure you have a pay o f f on a f i n a n c i a l o u t l a y . I l i k e the f a c t t h a t I've got the surnmmers o f f . . . B u t t h a t ' s r e a l l y important, to be with my f a m i l y . and my Christmases, t h a t ' s important. But i t ' s a l s o that I enjoy doing i t . Everytime I've had L i t t l e League b a s e b a l l . . . I r e a l l y enjoyed i t . I t has been so rewarding. The k i d s came up at the end of the season and s a i d , 1 33 'Wow! That was g r e a t . You d i d a f a n t a s t i c job. W i l l you be coaching next year.?' You know, t h a t ' s a b i g pay o f f . I t ' s more than d o l l a r s and c e n t s . Money i s only important when you haven't got any. (greenhouse owner/operator) Summary of R e s u l t s I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e v e a l e d a ge n e r a l p a t t e r n of s t a b i l i t y . Only three (8.1%) men had h e l d three or more occupations p r i o r to enrolment i n the teacher education program. There was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t e a c h i n g would be c o n s i d e r e d one of a s e r i e s of o c c u p a t i o n s . A high turnover r a t e was not i n d i c a t e d . Those p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g a range of occupations were not t y p i c a l of the group. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the average age of p a r t i c i p a n t s , 30.8 y e a r s , may r e s u l t i n a m i s l e a d i n g appearance of s t a b i l i t y . Career change d e c i s i o n making at t h i s age concurs with an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n when e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s are o f t e n r e c o n s i d e r e d . The men re p o r t e d that they intended to remain i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , with only three (8.1%) p l a n n i n g to leave w i t h i n a ten year span. There was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of t e a c h i n g being a secondary c h o i c e or s e l e c t e d only because a more a t t r a c t i v e goal was uno b t a i n a b l e . T h i s was in c o n t r a s t to e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h about male te a c h e r s . 134 Almost 80% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h i n g at an e a r l i e r time. F i n a l d e c i s i o n s were sometimes p r e c i p i t a t e d by a r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e marker event. A model of the d e c i s i o n making process was c o n s t r u c t e d to i l l u s t r a t e the e f f e c t of new i n f o r m a t i o n on a s t a t e of ca r e e r d i s c o n t e n t . Reasons f o r l e a v i n g e a r l i e r occupations were o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d to unpleasant working c o n d i t i o n s . Teaching was re p o r t e d to be chosen because i t met p e r s o n a l s p e c i f i c needs r a t h e r than f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n . Improved working c o n d i t i o n s were acknowledged. The main reason f o r becoming teachers was given as wanting to be with young people. T h i s was i n accord with f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , but was s t r e s s e d much more by p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s t a t e d m o t i v a t i o n of f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s and other c a r e e r changers, to be of s e r v i c e i n a worthwhile occupation, was ignored by a l l but one p a r t i c i p a n t . However, the absence of f i n a n c i a l gain was congruent with much e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h about ca r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . 1 35 4.4 Area of I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4: Do the socio-demographic backgrounds of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e that entry i n t o  t e a c h i n g w i l l p r o v i d e upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? O r i e n t i n g Statement Male teachers tend to come from blue c o l l a r backgrounds. Entry i n t o t e a c h i n g w i l l provide an a c c e s s i b l e route to the middle c l a s s (Schalock, 1979). Research Question 16: What were the occupations of p a r t i c i p a n t s before e n t e r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l Education program? Research Question 17: What were the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a n t s before e n t e r i n g the program? Research Question 18: What were the occupations of parents of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? Research Question 19: What were the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of parents of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 1 36 Research Question 20: What were the p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 4.4.1 P a r t i c i p a n t Data In order to b e t t e r understand the p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t s i n which c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n s were being made, some socio-demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained. The ages of p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from 24 t o 54 years, with a mean of 30.8 yea r s . The m a j o r i t y , 26 (70.3%), of the men were 30 years of age or l e s s and only f i v e (13.5%) were 40 years of age or more. A t o t a l of 21 (56.8%) men were married, three were were l i v i n g with companions, one was separated and 12 (32.4%) were s i n g l e . Years of marriage ranged from one to 29, although the m a j o r i t y of married men, 15 (71.4% of married group), had been married f i v e years or l e s s . There were 10 (27.0%) men with c h i l d r e n . Ages of the c h i l d r e n ranged from under f i v e to over 20 y e a r s . Although, as L o r t i e (1975) p o i n t e d out, there i s no s i n g l e p a t t e r n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which t y p i f i e s t eachers as a group, c e r t a i n s o c i a l t r e n d s can be i d e n t i f i e d . One such t r e n d suggests that male teac h e r s come from working c l a s s backgrounds and f o r them t e a c h i n g presents a route from a b l u e - c o l l a r to a w h i t e - c o l l a r l i f e s t y l e (Schalock, 1979). 1 37 Before e n r o l l i n g i n the teacher education program the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been employed i n one of 17 d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . These occupations are l i s t e d i n Table 21. As Table 21 Socio-economic Rank 1 of P a r t i c i p a n t Occupations Occupation No. 2 Reported % L e v e l B o a t b u i l d e r 2 5.4 II Cabinet maker 1 2.7 I Carpenter (journeyman) 6 16.2 I Carpenter (foreman) 2 5.4 II I D i v i n g i n s t r u c t o r 1 2.7 II I Draftsman 1 2.7 V E l e c t r i c i a n 1 2.7 I I I E l e c t r i c i a n (foreman) 1 2.7 IV E l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n 2 5.4 II Greenhouse owner/operator 1 2.7 II Marine engineer (C.P.O.) 1 2.7 II I Mechanic ( v e h i c l e ) 5 13.5 II Mechanic (heavy duty) 2 5.4 III Machini st 2 5.4 III P a i n t e r (foreman) 1 2.7 III Sheet metal worker 1 2.7 II Teacher's a i d e (woodwork) 1 2.7 . IV Too l maker 1 2.7 IV W e l d e r - f a b r i c a t o r 5 13.5 II 1 C l a s s e s ranked on B l i s h e n S c a l e with C l a s s I low and C l a s s VI h i g h . 2 N=37 a measure of socio-economic l e v e l , c l a s s rankings on the B l i s h e n S cale ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts, 1976) are a l s o i n d i c a t e d . T h i s s c a l e i s the accepted index of Canadian socio-economic l e v e l s . 138 The most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d occupation was that of c a r p e n t e r , with e i g h t members. There were f i v e v e h i c l e mechanics and f i v e w e l d e r - f a b r i c a t o r s . Three men d e s c r i b e d themselves as s e l f - e m p l o y e d . They were the c a b i n e t maker and two c a r p e n t e r s . Another f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s owned t h e i r own businesses b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the program. T h i s group i n c l u d e d the greenhouse o p e r a t o r , d i v i n g i n s t r u c t o r , an automotive mechanic and both b o a t b u i l d e r s . C l a s s rankings of occupations on the B l i s h e n Scale ranged from I to V. C l a s s II o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y , with the occupations of 16 men f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Before e n t e r i n g the workforce, i t was the o ccupations of t h e i r parents which had i n d i c a t e d the s o c i a l c l a s s ranking of p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , of i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r whether e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g r e f l e c t e d d i r e c t upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y or a r e t u r n to a s o c i a l c l a s s c l o s e r to that of t h e i r o r i g i n s . Occupations of f a t h e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s with B l i s h e n S c a l e c l a s s e s are l i s t e d i n Table 22. F a t h e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s had been engaged i n a range of 28 occupations r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l s i x s o c i a l c l a s s e s . While L e v e l III (seven occupations) was the most common there was a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the other f i v e l e v e l s . Comparison between occupation of each f a t h e r and son i n d i c a t e d that p r i o r to program e n t r y . 21 (56.8%) p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n o c c u p a t i o n s ranked lower than that of 1 39 Table 22 Socio-economic Rank1 of Occupations of Fathers of Participants Occupation No. 2 Reported % Level Boilermaker 1 2.7 III Buttermaker 1 2.7 II Buyer (wholesale/retail) 1 2.7 IV Cabinet maker 1 2.7 I Carpenter 1 2.7 I Commissioned o f f i c e r (R.A.F.) 1 2.7 V Diamond d r i l l e r 1 2.7 III E l e c t r i c a l equipment i n s t a l l e r 1 2.7 III E l e c t r i c i a n (supervisor) 5.4 III Engineer ( e l e c t r i c a l ) 1 2.7 VI Engineer (mining) 1 2.7 V Farmer 1 2.7 I Janitor 1 2.7 I Manager (department store) 1 2.7 V Manager (t r a n s i t system) 1 2.7 V Mechan ic 1 2.7 II Mechanic (foreman) 5.4 III Mechanic (heavy duty) 5.4 III Milkman 1 2.7 II Millworker 1 2.7 II Painter 1 2.7 I Physic ian 1 2.7 VI Real estate agent 1 2.7 IV Salesman 1 2.7 III Schoolteacher (secondary) 1 2.7 VI Social worker 1 2.7 IV University professor 1 2.7 VI Welder-fabricator 3 8.1 II Don't know 2 5.4 — 1 Classes ranked on Blishen Scale with Class I low and Class VI high. 2 N=37 t h e i r f a t h e r s . F i v e (13.5%) were i n e q u i v a l e n t c a t e g o r i e s and nine (24.3%) were ranked h i g h e r . Two men d i d not know t h e i r f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . Secondary s c h o o l teaching i s p l a c e d i n C l a s s VI on the B l i s h e n S c a l e . There were s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s with f a t h e r s whose oc c u p a t i o n s p l a c e d them i n that c a t e g o r y . For the other 31 (83.8%), e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g would indeed present o p p o r t u n i t y f o r upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . However, i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , 56.8% of p a r t i c p a n t s were p l a c e d i n c a t e g o r i e s lower than that of t h e i r f a t h e r s . They had chosen ocupations which lowered r a t h e r than r a i s e d t h e i r socio-economic l e v e l . T h e i r upward movement r e s u l t i n g from entry i n t o t e a c h i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o r p o r a t e d a rebound movement r a t h e r than a d i r e c t upward s h i f t from the s o c i a l c l a s s of t h e i r f a t h e r s . Occupations of mothers of p a r t i c i p a n t s were noted. The m a j o r i t y had been f u l l - t i m e homemakers, with 25 (67.6%) engaged i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . There were 12 r e p o r t s of mothers working o u t s i d e the home. Two of these were p a r t - t i m e , one of whom worked on a farm and the other attended u n i v e r s i t y . Those with f u l l - t i m e o ccupations were three t e a c h e r s , two nurses, a d i e t i c i a n , dressmaker, manager of c h a i n r e s t a u r a n t , n u t r i t i o n i s t , and s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . With two e x c e p t i o n s , wives of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were employed o u t s i d e the home. I t was not i n d i c a t e d t h a t any of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s had been taken up ^ as a r e s u l t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e n t r y i n t o the program, although two wives had 141 moved i n t o d i f f e r e n t jobs. Occupations of wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s with B l i s h e n S c a l e rankings are l i s t e d i n Table 23. Table 23 Socio-economic Rank 1 of Occupations of Wives of P a r t i c i p a n t s Occupation No. 2 Reported % L e v e l Book keeper 2 5.4 IV C h i l d c a r e worker 1 2.7 II Dental a s s i s t a n t 1 2.7 III Farmer 1 2.7 II Homemaker 2 5.4 -H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t 1 2.7 II L aboratory t e c h n i c i a n 1 2.7 IV Manager ( f i r s t a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n ) 1 2.7 V Music teacher ( p r i v a t e ) 1 2.7 III Nurse 2 5.4 IV P o s t a l c l e r k 1 2.7 III R e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r 1 2.7 IV Schoolteacher 4 10.8 V S e c r e t a r y 2 5.4 IV Speech p a t h o l o g i s t 1 2.7 V Student ( d o c t o r a l ) 1 2.7 -Student (undergraduate) 2 5.4 -Not a p p l i c a b l e 1 2 32.4 — 1 C l a s s e s ranked on B l i s h e n Scale with C l a s s I low and C l a s s VI h i g h . 2 N=37 The occupations of the wives covered 17 f i e l d s . There were more te a c h e r s , f o u r , than any other s i n g l e area of employment. There were three u n i v e r s i t y s tudents and two s e c r e t a r i e s . Two of the students planned to enter t e a c h i n g . Both homemakers had been employed when f i r s t m arried, one as 142 a nurse's a i d e ( C l a s s I I I ) and the other as a r e a l e s t a t e agent ( C l a s s I V ) . For purposes of comparison i t was assumed that u n i v e r s i t y students, who formed an u n c a t e g o r i z e d group, were at a h i g h e r l e v e l than tradesmen. There were 19 (76.0% of married men) p a r t i c i p a n t s married to women in higher c l a s s rankings than they were themselves. There were 29 (78.4%) men i n occupations ranked lower than that of e i t h e r t h e i r wives or t h e i r f a t h e r s and 11 (29.7%) i n occupations ranked lower than both. The upward d i r e c t i o n of the rebound e f f e c t noted e a r l i e r would appear to be accompanied by the presence of a spouse in higher s t a t u s employment than that of the p a r t i c i p a n t . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t s was i n v e s t i g a t e d . In order to enter the program i t was necessary f o r them to have u n i v e r s i t y entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . They a l l had completed h i g h school and 30 (81.1%) a l r e a d y had some t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n . D e t a i l s of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s are presented i n Table 24. There were 16 (43.2%) men who had a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d i n a u n i v e r s i t y program but l e f t before completion of a degree. They had dropped out on the f i r s t attempt but were now t r y i n g a d i f f e r e n t route. In t h i s aspect of t h e i r background, p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i m i l a r to the group with h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y as d e s c r i b e d by Byrne (1975). That group was a l s o male and had dropped out of c o l l e g e . However, i n c o n t r a s t to the p a r t i c i p a n t s , they were mostly under 25 years of age and s i n g l e . 143 Table 24 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of P a r t i c i p a n t s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l No. 1 % Reported High s c h o o l 7 18.9 Some c o l l e g e 8 21.6 C o l l e g e diploma 1 2.7 Some u n i v e r s i t y 16 43.2 Bachelor's degree 5 13.5 1 N=37 F i v e (13.5%) men h e l d b a c h e l o r ' s degrees i n the f o l l o w i n g areas, Bachelor of A r t s (General A r t s ) , Bachelor of A r t s (Psychology), Bachelor of Science (Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , Bachelor of Science (Geography) and Bachelor of R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n . The General A r t s and R e l i g i o u s Education degrees were o b t a i n e d at p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s , the others were awarded by u n i v e r s i t i e s . One higher l e v e l diploma was h e l d i n bee-keeping and was awarded o u t s i d e Canada. The percentage (16.2%) of tradesmen with completed t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would appear to be higher than would be expected i n tradesmen as a whole, where only 2.1% have u n i v e r s i t y degrees (see Table 27). Courses on i n s t r u c t i o n had been i n c l u d e d i n e i t h e r the formal or inf o r m a l education of 12 (32.4%) of the men. There were e i g h t who s t u d i e d E d u c a t i o n courses at u n i v e r s i t y , one completed i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o u r ses i n the Royal 1 44 Navy, one r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g as a c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r , and two had taken short t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s . One t r a i n i n g course was taken p r i o r to s e r v i n g with V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e Overseas and the other was i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r work in St. John's Ambulance Brigade. The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s , 31 (83.8%) had completed Grade 12 before l e a v i n g secondary school f o r the f i r s t time. There were three men who f i r s t l e f t a f t e r Grade 11 and two a f t e r Grade 10. One p a r t i c i p a n t who f i r s t l e f t s c h o o l with Grade 9 e q u i v a l e n t had o r i g i n a l l y attended s c h o o l i n Europe and had l e f t at the customary age. Informal education o b t a i n e d through routes such as on-the-job t r a i n i n g , courses i n armed f o r c e s , upgrading courses and night s c h o o l , had been taken by 29 (78.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s . In order to d i s c o v e r the e d u c a t i o n a l environment of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of t h e i r parents was noted. The l e v e l s a t t a i n e d by both mothers and f a t h e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from completion of elementary school to graduate degree. D e t a i l s are summarised i n Table 25. Twice as many mothers as f a t h e r s stopped t h e i r formal education at the high school l e v e l . A t o t a l of ten f a t h e r s and e i g h t mothers had u n i v e r s i t y degrees. Coming from a g e n e r a t i o n where male u n i v e r s i t y graduates f a r outnumbered female graduates, these women may have presented r o l e models where a value f o r education was c l e a r l y s t a t e d . 1 45 Table 25 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Parents of P a r t i c i p a n t s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l F a t h e r s 1 Mothers 1 N % N % Elementary 6 16. ,2 6 16. .2 Some secondary school 13 35. , 1 10 27. .0 Completed secondary school 5 13, ,5 10 27. ,0 Some c o l l e g e 0 0. ,0 1 2. .7 Completed c o l l e g e 0 0. ,0 1 2. .7 Bac h e l or's degree 7 18. .9 6 16, .2 Graduate degree 3 8. . 1 2 5. ,4 Don't know 3 8. , 1 1 2. .7 1 N=37 There were 14 (37.8%) p a r t i c i p a n t s who had at l e a s t one parent who was a u n i v e r s i t y graduate. Of these 14, there were three men who d i d not enter t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n . The other 11 e n r o l l e d at u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e , with one completing a c o l l e g e diploma and two graduating with b a c h e l o r ' s degrees. Parents with u n i v e r s i t y education tended to have sons who entered c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . However, the m a j o r i t y of the sons (78.6% of group) had given up formal education to enter the t r a d e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from completion of high school to graduate degree. Table 26 c o n t a i n s the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of p a r t i c p a n t s ' wives. Wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s were i d e n t i f i e d as key f a c t o r s i n both the ca r e e r change d e c i s i o n and i n m a i n t a i n i n g the e f f o r t needed i n the course. These women were encouraging t h e i r husbands to leave the b l u e - c o l l a r world of tradesmen and e n t e r , or r e - e n t e r , the middle c l a s s through t e a c h i n g . 146 Table 26 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l of Wives of P a r t i c i p a n t s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l No. 1 % Reported Completed secondary school 5 13.5 C o l l e g e diploma 7 18.9 Some u n i v e r s i t y 5 13.5 Bachelor's degree 6 16.2 Master's degree 2 5.4 Not a p p l i c a b l e 12 32.4 1 N=37 Research i n ca r e e r change has tended to focus on the c a r e e r changers themselves. Although Oscherson (1980) s t r e s s e d the importance of examining events o u t s i d e work, perhaps s t i l l g r e a t e r emphasis c o u l d be p l a c e d on the impact of people who f i l l the r o l e of s i g n i f i c a n t other and whose l i v e s would be a f f e c t e d by the c a r e e r change. P a r t i c i p a n t s were mostly Canadian c i t i z e n s (33, 89.2%), with four (10.8%) being n o n - c i t i z e n Permanent R e s i d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y (28, 75.7%) had been born i n Canada, almost h a l f (18, 48.6%) coming from B r i t i s h Columbia. Three men had emigrated from the U n i t e d Kingdom, three from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and three from Western Europe. Over h a l f (57%) of the men had at l e a s t one immigrant pa r e n t . E n g l i s h was the f i r s t language of 32 (86.5%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . German was spoken i n four f a m i l i e s and Dutch, Romanian, or Greek i n each of three o t h e r s . 1 47 The high p r o p o r t i o n of men from immigrant f a m i l i e s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the r e c o g n i z e d p a t t e r n of s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g as a route to the middle c l a s s . The ease of entry a s s o c i a t e d with t e a c h i n g p l a c e s i t among the more a c c e s s i b l e of the p r o f e s s i o n s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t r a - g e n e r a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . 4.4.2 Comparison with P r o v i n c i a l and N a t i o n a l Data No d i r e c t comparison group was used i n t h i s study. However, some v a r i a b l e s were compared with i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on tradesmen a c r o s s Canada and i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983a, 1983b). There were 17 trades represented i n the present study. However, as foremen are c a t e g o r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the S t a t i s t i c s Canada data, a t o t a l of 19 occupations were examined. Table 27 summarizes the comparison between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n a t i o n a l samples of men i n the r e l e v a n t t r a d e s . As shown in the t a b l e , p a r t i c i p a n t s resembled a n a t i o n a l sample on m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p l a c e of b i r t h . However, some d i f f e r e n c e s were apparent. P a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be younger (p<.001), more l i k e l y to have E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language (p<.02) and had a c o n s i d e r a b l y higher l e v e l of education (p<.00l). Table 27 Summary of Comparison of P a r t i c i p a n t s With Tradesmen i n Canada 1 Category P a r t i c i p a n t s 2 N a t i o n a l Sample t - t e s t / X 2 Mean Age (years) 30.8 36.6 t=5.37 P<.001 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l (%) X 2=158.0 3 No High School C e r t i f i c a t e P<.001 or Diploma 0.0 38. 1 High School Completion with C e r t i f i c a t e or Diploma 0.0 8.7 Trade C e r t i f i c a t e 8.1 36.9 Some C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y 78.4 14.3 U n i v e r s i t y Graduate 13.5 2.1 M a r i t a l Status (%) X 2=4.23 3 S i n g l e 32.4 21 .7 p<. 20 Mar r i e d 67.6 72.5 Other 0.0 5.8 Place of B i r t h X 2=.042 3 Canada 75.7 77. 1 p<. 98 Other 24.3 22.9 F i r s t Language X 2=8.96 3 E n g l i s h 81.1 56.7 p<. 02 Other 18.9 43.3 1 Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1983, Catalogue Tables 3 and 4; Catalogue 92-918, Table 1. 2 N=37 92-917, 3 C a l c u l a t e d by Chi Square One Sample T e s t . Expected f r e q u e n c i e s based on n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by category. 149 In order to examine these d i f f e r e n c e s i n more d e t a i l , Table 28 presents comparisons f o r each o c c u p a t i o n a l group. The same socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . However, the reader should keep i n mind that when p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i v i d e d i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l groups c e l l s i z e s of one or two p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s u l t , except f o r c a r p e n t e r (n=6), mechanic - v e h i c l e (n=5), and w e l d e r / f a b r i c a t o r (n=5). The mean age of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 14 (73.7%) of the 19 occupations was lower than that of the n a t i o n a l sample. Where p a r t i c i p a n t s were younger, the d i f f e r e n c e ranged from 15.5 years ( e l e c t r i c i a n foreman) to 2.9 years (draftsman). The mean age d i f f e r e n c e f o r a l l trades where p a r t i c i p a n t s were younger was 8.2 y e a r s . Place of b i r t h of p a r t i c i p a n t s was recorded. In 11 (57.9%) of the 19 o c c u p a t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a n t s were more l i k e l y to have been born i n Canada than tradesmen i n the n a t i o n a l sample. F i v e of the remaining occupations were each represented by two men, one of whom had been born i n Canada. Two f u r t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s were represented by s i n g l e p a r t i c i p a n t s who had emigrated to Canada. In 15 (78.9%) of the 19 occupations p a r t i c i p a n t s were more l i k e l y than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the n a t i o n a l sample to speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. The other t r a d e s were represented by e i t h e r two p a r t i c i p a n t s , one of whom spoke E n g l i s h , or by a s i n g l e tradesman. A hig h p r o p o r t i o n of n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers among p a r t i c i p a n t s was apparent. Table 28 Comparison of Participants with Tradesmen in Canada 1 Occupation [n] Mean Mode Marital Status [%] Place of B i r t h [%] F i r s t Language [%] Age [years] Educational Level [%] Boatbuilder ( 2 ) 39 0 (36 3 ) 3 College diploma 5 0 . 0 / S i ngle 0 0 ( 2 7 2) Canada 50 0 ( 8 2 4 ) Eng1i sh 100 0 ( 7 0 5) Some university 50.0 Marri ed 100 0 ( 6 9 6 ) U.S.A. 0 O ( 1 4 ) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 30 .4) Other 0 0 ( 3 2) U.K. 5 0 0 ( 5 8 ) Europe 0 0 ( 13 0 ) Cabinet Maker ( 1 ) 38 0 (34 0 ) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 100 .0/ S i ngle 100 0 ( 3 4 1 ) Canada 100 0 ( 6 9 2) Engli sh 100 0 ( 3 7 5 ) (Some high school 27. 5) Marr i ed 0 0 ( 6 3 3) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 0 ) Other 0 0 ( 2 7) U.K. 0 0 ( 1 9 ) Europe 0 o ( 2 0 5 ) Carpenter ( 6 ) 28 0 (37 8) Some university 6 0 . 0 Single 66 6 ( 2 3 1 ) Canada 100 0 ( 7 9 2 ) Engli sh 83 3 ( 5 5 0 ) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 27 .6) M a r ri ed 33 3 ( 7 4 0 ) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 2) German 16 7 ( n/a) Other 0 0 ( 2 9 ) U.K. 0 0 ( 3 0 ) Europe 0 0 ( 17 4 ) Carpenter - 29 0 ( 4 0 5) Some university 5 0 . 0 / S i ngle 0 0 ( 8 6 ) Canada 50 0 ( 7 3 0 ) Engli sh 100 0 ( 5 5 9 ) Foreman ( 2 ) Bachelor degree 50.0 Marr ied 100 0 ( 8 8 3) U.S.A. 50 0 ( 1 0 ) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 32 .4) Other 0 0 ( 3 1 ) U.K. 0 0 ( 4 0 ) Europe 0 0 ( 2 4 4 ) Diving 52 0 (28 9 ) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 100 0 S i ngle 0 0 ( 5 2 6 ) Canada 100 0 ( 8 7 9 ) Engli sh 100 0 ( 5 5 7 ) Instructor ( 1) (University degree 31 2) Marr i ed 100 0 ( 4 4 5) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 2 0 ) Other 0 0 ( 3 0 ) U.K. 0 0 ( 3 4 ) Europe 0 0 ( 7 8 ) Draftsman (1) 31 0 ( 3 3 9 ) Some college 100.0 Si ngle 0 0 (31 0 ) Canada 0 0 ( 6 5 2) Engli sh 100 0 ( 5 8 3 ) (Un i vers i ty, Marr i ed 100 0 ( 6 6 5) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 1 ) non-university Other o 0 ( 2 5 ) U.K. 100 0 ( 8 4 ) cert i f i cate/ Europe 0 0 ( 2 1 9 ) diploma 3 8 . 5 ) 1 Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1983, Catalogue 9 2 - 9 1 7 , Tables 3 and 4; Catalogue 9 2 - 9 1 8 , Table 1. 2 Results from the present study 3 Figures for tradesmen in Canada L n O Table 28 continued Occupation [n] Mean Mode Marital Status [%] Place of B i r t h [%] F i r s t Language [%] Age [years] Educational Level [%] E l e c t r i c i a n (1) 25 0 (34 0) Some col 1ege 100.0 Single 100 0 (24 • 8) Canada 100 0 (82 9) German 100 0 ( n/a) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 55.5) Marr i ed 0 0 (72 .8) U.S.A. O 0 ( 0 8) Other 0 0 ( 2 • 3) U.K. 0 0 ( 4 2) Europe 0 0 ( 13 7) E l e c t r i c i a n - 26 0 (41 5) Some col lege 100.0 Single 0 0 ( 5 .5) Canada 100 0 (84 4) Engli sh 100 .0 (64.4) Foreman (1) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.6) Marr i ed 100 0 (91 9) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 8 ) Other 0 0 ( 2 .6) U.K. 0 0 ( 5 1 ) Europe 0 0 ( 13 7) E1ectroni cs 28 0 (33 5) Some university 50.0/ S i ngle 0 0 (29 9) Canada 50 0 (78 6) Engli sh 100 0 (51.7) Technician (2) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 Married 100 0 (68 0) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 6) (Univ/Non-univ cert 40.1 Other 0 0 ( 2 O) U.K. 50 0 ( 5 5) Europe 0 0 (12 9) Greenhouse 36 0 (39 9) Some university 100.0 S i ngle 0 0 ( 17 8) Canada 100 0 (79 6) Eng1 i sh 100 0 (64.6) Owner (1) (Some high school 24.5) Marr i ed 100 0 (79 6) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 1 ) Other 0 0 ( 2 5) U.K. 0 0 ( 3 3) Europe 0 o ( 17 8) Marine Engineer 44 0 (42 5) Some university 100.0 S i ngle 0 0 ( 16 2) Canada 100 0 (81 4) Engli sh 100 0 (76.0) (C.P.O.) (1) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.9) Marr i ed 100 0 (79 6) U.S.A. o 0 ( 1 O) Other 0 0 ( 4 2) U.K. 0 0 ( 8 3) Europe 0 0 ( 13 6) Mechanic - 25 0 (33 2) Some university 60.0 Single 40 0 (28 9) Canada 80 0 (83 2) Engli sh 80 0 (58.7) Vehicle (5) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 43.8) Marr i ed 60 0 (68 6) U.S.A. 20 0 ( 0 7) Greek 20 0 ( n/a) Other 0 0 ( 2 5) U.K. 0 0 ( 2 5) Europe 0 0 ( 1 1 2) Mechanic - 33 0 (37 0) Some university 50.0/ S i ngle O 0 ( 18 1 ) Canada 50 0 (82 3) Engli sh 50 o (59.2) Heavy Duty (2) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 Married 100 0 (79 2) U.S.A. 50 0 ( 0 7) German 50 0 ( n/a) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 42.5) Other 0 0 ( 1 9) U.K. 0 0 ( 4 9) Europe 0 0 ( 13 8) Machinist (2) 36 0 (36 0) Some college 50.0/ S i ngle 0 0 (25 1 ) Canada 50 0 (65 4) Engli sh 50 0 (50.4) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 50.0 Marr i ed 100 0 (72 0) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 8) Dutch 50 0 ( n/a) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 40.8) Other 0 0 ( 2 9) U.K. 0 0 ( 6 7) Europe 50 0 (24 2) Table 28 continued Occupation [n] Mean Mode Marital Status [%] Place of B i r t h [%] F i r s t Language [%] Age [years] Educational Level [%] Painter - 26 0 (40 5) Some university 100.0 S i ngle 0 0 ( 8 6) Canada 100 0 (73 0) Engli sh 100 0 (55.9) Foreman (1) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 32 4) Marr i ed 100 O (88 3) U.S.A. O o ( 1 O) Other 0 0 ( 3 1 ) U.K. 0 0 ( 3 9) Europe 0 0 (24 4) Sheet Metal 28 0 (35 3) Some col 1ege 100.0 Single 0 0 (26 5) Canada 100 0 (74 1) Engli sh 100 0 (59.2) Worker ( 1 ) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 36 7) Marr i ed 100 0 (70 6) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 5) Other 0 0 ( 2 8) U.K. 0 0 ( 4 4) Europe 0 0 ( 19 5) Teacher's Aide - 24 0 ( (37 8) Some col 1ege 100.0 S i ngle 100 0 ( 19 2) Canada 100 0 (83 9) Engli sh 100 0 (44.2) Woodwork (1) (University degree 45 9) Married 100 0 (77 7) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 1 7) Other 0 0 ( 3 0) U .K: 0 0 ( 4 9) Europe 0 0 ( 10 5) Tool Maker ( 1 ) 40 0 (38 9) Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 100 0 S i ngle 100 0 (20 3) Canada 0 o (53 8) German 100 0 ( n/a) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 48 1) Marr i ed 0 0 (76 5) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 7) Other 0 0 ( 3 1 ) U.K. 0 0 ( 12 7) Europe 100 o (39 5) Welder/ 26 0 (34 4) Some university 60.0 S i ngle 20 0 (23 5) Canada 80 0 (74 2) Engli sh 80 0 (54.5) Fabricator (5) (Trade c e r t i f i c a t e 44 0) Marr i ed 80 0 (73 5) U.S.A. 0 0 ( 0 6) Romanian 20 0 ( n/a) Other 0 0 ( 3 0) U.K. 0 0 ( 2 9) Europe 20 0 ( 17 2) 1 53 As language f l u e n c y i s a b a s i c e x p e c t a t i o n f o r teachers, t h i s r e s u l t seems congruent with t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s . The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and tradesmen a c r o s s Canada was i n t h e i r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n . The modal l e v e l of education of men i n the n a t i o n a l sample was trade c e r t i f i c a t e . For p a r t i c i p a n t s t h i s l e v e l was some u n i v e r s i t y and represented 78.4% of the group. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed high s c h o o l , whereas 38.1% of the n a t i o n a l sample had l e f t s c hool without a diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e . In two c a t e g o r i e s , d i v i n g i n s t r u c t o r and t e a c h e r ' s a i d e , the n a t i o n a l l e v e l was higher than that of p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, i n each case p a r t i c i p a n t education was n e c e s s a r i l y grouped with a range of occupations which r e q u i r e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . Teacher's aide as an o c c u p a t i o n was grouped with t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . D i v i n g i n s t r u c t o r was grouped with s p o r t s i n s t r u c t o r s i n g e n e r a l . A t o t a l of f i v e (13.5%) p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d u n i v e r s i t y degrees. T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t with 2.1% of the n a t i o n a l sample. P a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r e d from the l a r g e r group i n s e v e r a l important a r e a s . They were more l i k e l y to be younger, to have been born i n Canada and to speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. They a l s o had a much higher e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . Each of these a t t r i b u t e s i s r e l a t e d to r e c o g n i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a r e e r changers (Byrne, 1975; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1977) and/or f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s ( L o r t i e , 1975; Ryans, 1960). 1 54 In order to f u r t h e r examine d i f f e r e n c e s d i s c o v e r e d at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , p r o v i n c i a l data, a v a i l a b l e only on two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The three l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l groups i n the present study were examined as to t h e i r p l a c e of b i r t h and e t h n i c o r i g i n / f i r s t language. The groups were w e l d e r - f a b r i c a t o r s ( 5 ), mechanics (5) and c a r p e n t e r s ( 8 ) . Although nationwide data were a v a i l a b l e on s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s , p r o v i n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n was based on more widely d e f i n e d groups. Each of the occupations was i n c l u d e d with many o t h e r s . Data on c a r p e n t e r s , f o r example, were a v a i l a b l e as i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n trade o c c u p a t i o n s . Welders and mechanics were s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d . As a r e s u l t of t h i s lack of more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , comparisons with the n a t i o n a l r e s u l t s may be l a c k i n g i n p r e c i s i o n . However, g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s do emerge and are pre s e n t e d i n Table 29. On both of the v a r i a b l e s , p l a c e of b i r t h and f i r s t language, d i f f e r e n c e s found i n the n a t i o n a l comparison were upheld at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l three o c c u p a t i o n a l groups were more l i k e l y to have been born i n Canada and more l i k e l y to have E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language than t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l peers. There were four areas where p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study tended to d i f f e r from tradesmen i n g e n e r a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be c o n s i d e r a b l y more educated and somewhat younger than t h e i r n a t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . They Table 29 Comparison of Selected Participants with Tradesmen in B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada 1 Weiders Mechani cs Carpenters Participant 2 B.C.3 Canada" Pa r t i c i p a n t 5 B.C.6 Canada.' Participant" B.C.9 Canada 1 0 Place of B i r t h (%) Canada 80.0 U.S.A. 0.0 U.K. 0.0 Europe 20.0 Ethnic O r i g i n / F i r s t Language (%) English 80.0 German 0.0 Romanian 20.0 Greek 0.0 71 1 6 3 51 9 68.8 0.0 4 . 7 12.3 68 4 80.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 70. 7 1.4 5.7 2 . 4 53 . 1 10. 2 76 . 6 1 . 2 1 . 5 6.5 59 . 3 8.4 87.5 12.5 0.0 0.0 87 . 5 12.5 O.O 0.0 75 .0 1 .8 5.4 5.4 50. 5 12. 1 82.9 4 . 3 1 .0 4.0 66 . 1 5.7 1 Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1983, Catalogue 92-917, Tables 3 and 4; 92-918 Tables 1 and 2 2 N=5 3 N=74955 (Fabricator occupations) 4 N=1270 6 N = 5 6 N=45485 (Mechanical occupations) 7 N=1615 s N=8 9 N=107100 (Construction trade occupations) 1 0 N=1490 1 56 were a l s o more l i k e l y to have been born i n Canada and speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. The e f f e c t s of such d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be expected to f i l t e r through the l i v e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . People are r e c o g n i z e d as f i n d i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s among others s i m i l a r to themselves (Bandura, 1974). I t i s p o s s i b l e that p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s s i m i l a r to t h e i r workmates than they were to t h e i r support group. T h i s group i n c l u d e d teachers i n a v a r i e t y of r o l e s . Such s i m i l a r i t y p a r a l l e l s an e a r l i e r f i n d i n g when i t was noted that past work experiences of s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s had been, i n H o l l a n d ' s (1966, 1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n the S o c i a l group. Teaching i s a l s o i n t h i s S o c i a l group. Trade o c c u p a t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d by H o l l a n d as R e a l i s t i c . P a r t i c i p a n t s had p r e v i o u s work exp e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d to t e a c h i n g and had a number of teachers as members of t h e i r immediate s o c i a l network. Through entry i n t o a program l e a d i n g to teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n i t would appear that some respondents were r e t u r n i n g to a work c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Holland, 1966) or category more c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r work experiences p r i o r to e n t r y i n t o trade occupat i o n s . There i s a suggested image of p a r t i c i p a n t s being " i n the wrong p l a c e . " They were o f t e n from backgrounds which are not u s u a l l y sources of tradesmen, they were younger and more h i g h l y educated than most tradesmen, t h e i r wives and f r i e n d s tended to be more educated and i n higher s t a t u s 1 57 p o s i t i o n s than they are themselves. I t i s p o s s i b l e that a sense of s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r c a r e e r d i s c o n t e n t . None of the men spoke c r i t i c a l l y of t h e i r p r i o r work as tradesmen. These were not i n themselves seen as i n a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s . However, i n the c a r e e r development o f . p a r t i c i p a n t s such occupations were no longer regarded as s a t i s f a c t o r y . Summary of R e s u l t s D e s c r i p t i v e data were c o l l e c t e d i n order to d i s c o v e r the p e r s o n a l backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s helped c o n s t r u c t a more complete p i c t u r e of the s o c i a l context of t h e i r c a r e e r change. As no comparison group was examined, r e s u l t s cannot be assumed to apply e x c l u s i v e l y to tradesmen i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . Examination of socio-demographic backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s upheld the view t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r men, e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g o f f e r s upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . In Canada t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common as secondary school teachers are i n the hi g h e s t socio-economic l e v e l . However, p r i o r to e n t e r i n g the program, 56.8% of p a r t i c i p a n t s entered trades i n a socio-ecomomic l e v e l lower than that of t h e i r f a t h e r s . T h e i r d e c i s i o n to become te a c h e r s appears to be a rebound e f f e c t with r e s p e c t to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . 1 58 The men o f t e n come from f a m i l i e s where the mothers' e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l suggested an emphasis on education as being of v a l u e . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of wives and some f r i e n d s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t was found t h a t 64% of p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s educated than t h e i r wives. P r i o r to en t r y i n t o the program the m a j o r i t y of men, 76.0%, were i n lower s t a t u s occupations than t h e i r wives. Occupations of wives showed that teachers and student te a c h e r s formed the l a r g e s t group (28%). The background of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that almost h a l f of them came from immigrant f a m i l i e s . Comparison on s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s with tradesmen a c r o s s Canada or i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s were l i k e l y to be younger, to have been born i n Canada and to come from E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g f a m i l i e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o had a much higher l e v e l of education than would be expected of men i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . I t was found that even before e n t e r i n g the program p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d i n a s o c i a l m i l i e u where t e a c h e r s p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a pter. 1 59 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, UNEXPECTED FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 5.1 Summary of Study In s p i t e of decades of re s e a r c h about teachers and t e a c h i n g , l i t t l e i s known of the m o t i v a t i o n or background of people who chose to enter t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r . In an e x p l o r a t o r y study the present r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e d the ca r e e r change of a p o p u l a t i o n of 37 tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher education program. They came from 17 separate o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e i r ages ranged from 24 to 54 years with a mean of 30.8 ye a r s . Over 70% of the men were 30 years of age or l e s s . A t o t a l of 25 men, over two t h i r d s of the group, were married. Four main r e s e a r c h areas were i n v e s t i g a t e d . These i n c l u d e d a set of four p r o p o s i t i o n s put forward i n the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of career d e c i s i o n making ( M i t c h e l l , Jones & Krumboltz, 1979), the e x i s t e n c e of an i d e n t i f i a b l e set of f a c i l i t a t o r s and b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r change, the s t a b i l i t y , or otherwise, of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' work h i s t o r i e s , and t h e i r socio-demographic backgrounds. 160 A s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule was developed u s i n g a seven step procedure. The steps were as f o l l o w s : (1) D i s c u s s i o n with key informant, (2) F i r s t p i l o t study, (3) I n c l u s i o n of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making, (4) Arrangements of items, (5) Second p i l o t study, (6) Development of codebook, and (7) V a l i d a t i o n of instrument. P a r t i c i p a n t s were informed of the e x i s t e n c e of the study as they s t a r t e d t h e i r academic year. Each p a r t i c i p a n t was c o n t a c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r and arrangements made f o r the i n t e r v i e w s . Each i n t e r v i e w was tape-recorded with f u l l knowledge and consent of the p a r t i c i p a n t . Taped i n t e r v i e w s were then coded a c c o r d i n g to the codebook. R e l i a b i l i t y of coding was e s t a b l i s h e d . Data were analysed using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . R e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that of the four p r o p o s i t i o n s put forward by the theory, three of them were l e n t support by present f i n d i n g s . These p r o p o s i t i o n s suggested that people would be l i k e l y to choose a c e r t a i n occupation i f they had been rewarded for an a c t i v i t y s i m i l a r to that occupation or i f they had observed other people who were sources of p o s t i t i v e reinforcement e i t h e r being rewarded f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o c c u p a t i o n , or m o d e l l i n g or a dvocating the o c c u p a t i o n . I t was found that 34 (91.9%) men had a l r e a d y performed some type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . 161 T h e i r experiences i n c l u d e d working at group and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s i n areas such as spo r t s coaching, n i g h t s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n and sc h o o l t e a c h i n g . They r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g rewards both i n f e e l i n g s of plea s u r e and p r a i s e from o t h e r s . Nearly a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to i d e n t i f y teachers whom they had p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d when a t s c h o o l . Although these t e a c h e r s were predominantly t e a c h e r s of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n they were not e x c l u s i v e l y so. Most p a r t i c i p a n t s had taken I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s and had observed i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s r e c o g n i z e d as being rewarding to t e a c h e r s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s showed a hig h degree of support f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y forthcoming from the men's wives and companions. However, other f a m i l y members, workmates and f r i e n d s , many of whom were t e a c h e r s , were a l s o i n favour of the c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n . The present study f a i l e d to f i n d support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n which suggested that o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e would be a f f e c t e d by exposure to p o s i t i v e words and images r e l a t e d to the o c c u p a t i o n . Media commentary about t e a c h i n g i s so commonplace i n western s o c i e t y t h a t , w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the present study, i t was not p o s s i b l e to determine i t s unique e f f e c t . Examination of d e l i b e r a t e exposure to l i t e r a t u r e or f i l m on tea c h i n g i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e e f f e c t on career d e c i s i o n s . What e f f e c t there was i n c l u d e d a degree 1 62 of counter i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g n e g a t i v e p o r t r a y a l s of t e a c h e r s . As the men were a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d i n a teacher education program they c o u l d more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y f a c i l i t a t o r s than b a r r i e r s to t h e i r c a r e e r change p r o c e s s . Lack of f a m i l y support or f i n a n c i a l r esources were suggested as b a r r i e r s , and t h e i r presence as f a c i l i t a t o r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , support from wives and companions was acknowledged as important i n both d e c i s i o n making and s u c c e s s f u l completion of the program. F u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t o r s were the p e r s o n a l d r i v e of p a r t i c i p a n t s to achieve t h e i r goal and t h e i r d e s i r e to leave p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . Examination was made of the work h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i v e c a r e e r p a t t e r n s were determined. A sequence of three or more u n r e l a t e d occupations before entry i n t o the program was set as the c r i t e r i o n f o r " u n s t a b l e " c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . I t was found that 33 (89.2%) men had e s t a b l i s h e d a s t a b l e work h i s t o r y . Future c a r e e r plans were i n v e s t i g a t e d to determine p o t e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s when they entered the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . A t o t a l of 34 (91.9%) men a n t i c i p a t e d remaining w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n f o r a minimum of ten years. Although o c c u p a t i o n s other than t e a c h i n g had been c o n s i d e r e d by almost h a l f of the men, only one of t h i s group planned on l e a v i n g t e a c h i n g w i t h i n a decade. Having decided on t e a c h i n g a f i r m commitment had been made. 163 Reasons given by the men f o r l e a v i n g p r i o r o c cupations emphasized both e x t r i n s i c working c o n d i t i o n s and i n t r i n s i c s e l f - c o n c e p t incongruency. Reasons given f o r e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g s t r e s s e d i n t r i n s i c b e n e f i t s such as f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r wish to work with young people or congruency of s e l f - c o n c e p t . However, they a l s o acknowledged the working c o n d i t i o n s of teaching to be more p l e a s a n t than that of t h e i r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . Socio-demographic backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h at by becoming tradesmen 21 (56.8%) men had entered o c c u p a t i o n s which lowered t h e i r s o c i a l c l a s s . T h e i r e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g , c l a s s i f i e d i n the h i g h e s t category on the B l i s h e n S c a l e ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts, 1976), l e d to upward m o b i l i t y . T h i s downward then upward p a t t e r n was d e s c r i b e d as a "rebound movement". P r i o r to t h e i r enrollment i n the c u r r e n t u n i v e r s i t y program 30 (81.1%) men a l r e a d y had some experience of t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n . F i v e men had completed bac h e l o r ' s degrees and one had a c o l l e g e diploma. Twelve p a r t i c i p a n t s had a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d some form of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of married p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that 64% of them had married women more h i g h l y educated than they were themselves. Examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s showed that 76% of wives were, or had been, i n higher s t a t u s work than that of t h e i r tradesmen husbands. The c u r r e n t occupations of wives covered a range of 17 f i e l d s . The most 164 common f i e l d of employment was e d u c a t i o n , with a q u a r t e r of the wives being p r a c t i s i n g or p o t e n t i a l t e a c h e r s . N a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s showed that almost 90% were Canadian c i t i z e n s . However, almost h a l f of them came from f a m i l i e s where at l e a s t one parent had immigrated to Canada. T h i s i s congruent with the recognized s e l e c t i o n of a t e a c h i n g career as a route to p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s w i t h i n the dominant s o c i e t y . Comparison of p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l samples of tradesmen i n d i c a t e d s i m i l a r i t y i n many r e s p e c t s . However, p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be younger, more l i k e l y to have E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language and more h i g h l y educated than e i t h e r of the samples. 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The p r e s e n t study e n t a i l e d an in-depth d e s c r i p t i o n of a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n . Emphasis was on the comparison of second ca r e e r teachers with what i s a l r e a d y known about f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , combined with d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n as c a r e e r changers, presented in c o n j u n c t i o n with e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . There was no c o n t r o l group of tradesmen who e i t h e r stayed i n t h e i r trades or entered c a r e e r s other than t e a c h i n g . The present study focussed on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of one group of c a r e e r decision-makers, who were, in t h i s case, s e l e c t i n g a second c a r e e r . 1 65 However, the l a c k of a c o n t r o l group l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the e x p e r i e n c e s of tradesmen who decide to become teachers would not c h a r a c t e r i z e the experiences of other second ca r e e r t e a c h e r s . The f i n d i n g s may not be r e l e v a n t , f o r example, to women who enter teaching a f t e r years as homemakers. Aspects such as spousal support or work h i s t o r i e s are p o t e n t i a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . However, r e s u l t s may be more a p p l i c a b l e to men i n process of career change between any f i e l d s . Although the complete p o p u l a t i o n of tradesmen e n r o l l e d i n a teacher education program was i n v e s t i g a t e d , the t o t a l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s was 3 7 . The small s i z e of the group, t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the e x p l o r a t o r y nature of the study r e s t r i c t s the g e n e r a l i z a -b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s . Due to the p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h about c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canadian teachers, many r e f e r e n c e s i n the study are to r e s e a r c h conducted in the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n . I t i s acknowledged that there may be some c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n s . V a l i d i t y of s e l f - r e p o r t i s an accepted d i f f i c u l t y with i n t e r v i e w r e s e a r c h . However, by r e p e a t i n g key q u e s t i o n s i n a d i f f e r e n t format the responses were able to be c r o s s - c h e c k e d with regards to congruence of i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r found l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t responses were other than s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and d i r e c t . 166 5.3 C o n c l u s i o n s Of the four p o s i t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s based on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , three of them were l e n t support by f i n d i n g s of the present study. The e x p e r i e n c e s of a minimum of 70% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n a c c o r d with each of the p r o p o s i t i o n s . There was c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of people who were sources of p o s i t i v e reinforcement and e i t h e r modelled and/or advocated the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a c a r e e r . P a r t i c i p a n t s had a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d and enjoyed i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s before e n t e r i n g the teacher e d u c a t i o n program. The r o l e of i n s t r u c t o r had been taken on as a hobby or short term o c c u p a t i o n . The study f a i l e d to f i n d support f o r the f o u r t h p r o p o s i t i o n which advocated the i n f l u e n c e of the media model. Only seven (18.9%) men r e p o r t e d that books or f i l m s had a f f e c t e d t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . Conscious and d e l i b e r a t e exposure to media through f i l m s and books was sometimes found to r e s u l t i n negative i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Rather than form an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with a p o s i t i v e model the men r e a c t e d to a n e g a t i v e model and d i d not want to be l i k e the teachers p o r t r a y e d . D i s c u s s i o n and p o r t r a y a l of t e a c h i n g i s so commonplace i n Western c u l t u r e that some l e v e l of i n f l u e n c e seems i n e v i t a b l e . However, f o r an o c c u p a t i o n l e s s widely 167 exposed to p u b l i c view i t i s p o s s i b l e that p o s i t i v e media p o r t r a y a l s c o u l d be i n f l u e n t i a l . The work by Spokane and Herzog-Spokane (1981), i n d i c a t i n g p o s i t i v e media e f f e c t s on p e r c e p t i o n s of the f i e l d of medical technology, tend to support t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . As w e l l as the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making, other t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r c h o i c e were l e n t support, a l b e i t somewhat l i m i t e d , by the present study. For example, Super's (1957) sug g e s t i o n that occupations are chosen which match the s e l f - c o n c e p t was supported by over 20% of the men who s a i d they j u s t c o u l d not see themselves c o n t i n u i n g i n t h e i r p r i o r t r a d e . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l l e a v i n g one " r e a l i s t i c " c h o i c e (Ginsberg, Ginsburg, A x e l r a d & Herma, 1964) to enter another. However, 29.7% of the men were s t i l l at school when they f i r s t thought of being a t e a c h e r . T h i s suggested that they were f u l f i l l i n g what was d e s c r i b e d by Ginsberg and h i s a s s o c i a t e s as a "Fantasy " stage d e c i s i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making, i n common with other v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e o r i e s , was not s u c c e s s f u l i n o f f e r i n g a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n of the c a r e e r change. I t appears t h a t , although c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s may p a r t i a l l y account f o r c a r e e r change, none p r e s e n t s a comprehensive base. They have a l s o been widely c r i t i c i s e d f o r l a c k of l o n g i t u d i n a l data and over-emphasis on design as opposed to v a l i d i t y , l o g i c and 168 f o r m u l a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s (Harmon & Farmer, 1983; S c o t t , 1983; Westbrook, 1983). The i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s of c a r e e r changers are based on many v a r i a b l e s . Even w i t h i n grouped f a c t o r s , such as economic or s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s , there e x i s t uncountable nuances of s i t u a t i o n . No two people change t h e i r c a r e e r s f o r e x a c t l y the same reasons, i n e x a c t l y the same ci r c u m s t a n c e s . However, c e r t a i n u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s are c o n s t a n t . Career d i s c o n t e n t i s present and another o c c u p a t i o n appears not only more d e s i r a b l e but a c c e s s i b l e . There were s e v e r a l f i n d i n g s i n the present study which suggest that the concept of r e f e r e n c e group theory (Merton, 1957; S h i b u t a n i , 1955) may be r e l e v a n t to the c a r e e r change p r o c e s s . T h i s theory p o s t u l a t e s that as w e l l as groups of which an i n d i v i d u a l i s a member there are c e r t a i n other groups whose va l u e s or standards may be used as a frame of r e f e r e n c e . These groups are used fo r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and f u t u r e membership i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . The relevance of r e f e r e n c e group theory to the c a r e e r change of p a r t i c i p a n t s was i n v e s t i g a t e d . A s e l e c t i o n of sociodemographic v a r i a b l e s was compared with other data. For each of the 17 t r a d e s , p l u s two foremen, comparisons were made with S t a t i s t i c s Canada records from the 1981 census ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983(a), 1983(b)). Both n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l data were used. 169 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r e s e n t study who had decided to become teachers were found to d i f f e r from tradesmen i n both n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l samples. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was i n d i c a t e d i n four r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They were more l i k e l y to be younger, to have been born i n Canada and to have E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. The most notable d i f f e r e n c e was that they were much more h i g h l y educated than tradesmen in g e n e r a l . In an o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d where t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s were most o f t e n high school dropouts, p a r t i c i p a n t s were co m p a r a t i v e l y well-educated. A l l of them had completed high school and f i v e respondents (13.5%) h e l d b a c h e l o r ' s degrees. In a d d i t i o n , these men had f a t h e r s and wives, who, f o r the most p a r t , h e l d higher s t a t u s occupations than the t r a d e s . These respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggest that p a r t i c i p a n t s were a t y p i c a l of tradesmen i n g e n e r a l . D i f f e r e n c e s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and f a m i l y socio-economic s t a t u s would decrease the l i k e l i h o o d that tradesmen, in g e n e r a l , would have teachers as t h e i r f r i e n d s or r e f e r e n c e group. Because comparisons showed that p a r t i c i p a n t s were not t y p i c a l of t h e i r membership group, the i n f l u e n c e of the membership group was d i m i n i s h e d . Being o l d e r and l e s s educated than p a r t i c i p a n t s , the average tradesman would be l e s s l i k e l y than p a r t i c i p a n t s to change c a r e e r s (Byrne, 1975). 170 As a r e f e r e n c e group f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, teache r s appear to r e p r e s e n t a v i a b l e source. Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia are f l u e n t E n g l i s h speakers and h i g h l y educated, as were p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with a f a m i l y background not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with tradesmen, would be conducive to a s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n u n l i k e l y i n the average tradesman. A r e f e r e n c e group such as teachers would appear to be more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the s o c i a l c i r c l e of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Exposure to such a r e f e r e n c e group may a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g as the new c a r e e r . Through t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of teaching as a new c a r e e r , the behaviour of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s i n many ways congruent with the e x p e c t a t i o n s of r e f e r e n c e group theory. F i r s t , the norms of teachers were w e l l known to p a r t i c i p a n t s as they tended to have teach e r s who were f r i e n d s or f a m i l y members. T h e i r s o c i a l environment t h e r e f o r e h e l d a wide r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n of t e a c h e r s . T h i s i s a b a s i c requirement of r e f e r e n c e group s e l e c t i o n (Hyman, 1960). S i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would be u n l i k e l y among the f r i e n d s of tradesmen who were high school dropouts. Second, becoming a member of the teacher r e f e r e n c e group would place p a r t i c i -pants i n a group whose va l u e s and norms were s i m i l a r to t h e i r own. H a r t l e y (i960) suggested such p r i o r s i m i l a r i t y helped determine c h o i c e of a r e f e r e n c e group. I t i s p o s s i b l e that a d i s s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t e d between 171 p a r t i c i p a n t s and other tradesmen. T h i r d , the r e f e r e n c e group was " r e l e v a n t " (Turner, 1955) to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t i t s standing was n e i t h e r too high nor too low to be meaningful. Teaching was a p r o f e s s i o n whose accepted ease of e n t r y made membership a r e a l i t y . The sociodemographic background of p a r t i c i p a n t s combined with t h e i r trade s k i l l to make tea c h i n g an a c h i e v a b l e g o a l . As p o i n t e d out by Hollander and Hunt (1971) i n the s e l e c t i o n of a r e f e r e n c e group, both the p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e and the r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e are at work. When choosing between a r e f e r e n c e group of tradesmen c o l l e a g u e s on one hand and teacher a s s o c i a t e s on the o t h e r , p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared to have more i n common with the teaching group. They a l r e a d y were members of the tradesmen group, but they a s p i r e d elsewhere. For them the d e s i r a b l e r e f e r e n c e group was t h a t of t e a c h e r s . Both s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and r e f e r e n c e group t h e o r i e s emphasize the e f f e c t of other people on the behaviour of an i n d i v i d u a l . The present study i n d i c a t e d the extent to which teachers f e a t u r e d i n the p e r s o n a l l i v e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i n f l u e n c e of these t e a c h e r s , as i n s t r u c t o r s , f r i e n d s , parents or wives, was noted. On the b a s i s of present f i n d i n g s the p o s i t i o n of r e f e r e n c e group theory i n a d u l t career d e c i s i o n making appears r e l e v a n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s theory has much to c o n t r i b u t e to the study of second c a r e e r c h o i c e . I t may a l s o a s s i s t i n meeting the 1 72 need f o r t h e o r e t i c a l data i n the c o u n s e l l i n g of a d u l t s i n c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n (Harmon & Farmer, 1983). F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o c a r e e r change, using the p e r s p e c t i v e of r e f e r e n c e group theory may y i e l d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l phenomenon. Fur t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on p a t t e r n s of c a r e e r change may be d i s c o v e r e d through a l o n g i t u d i n a l approach such as that of Levinson (1978). Although Levinson's work fo c u s s e d on developmental r a t h e r than v o c a t i o n a l aspects of a d u l t l i f e , he d i s c o v e r e d stages of behaviour. The d e l i n e a t i o n of h i s stages has been c r i t i c i s e d (Peacock, Rush & M i l k o v i c h , 1980), yet the concept may have much to c o n t r i b u t e towards f u r t h e r understanding of c a r e e r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y second c a r e e r , c h o i c e . The present study supported the f i n d i n g of a stage termed by Levinson the "Age T h i r t y T r a n s i t i o n . " Over h a l f the men were w i t h i n three years of being t h i r t y years o l d . T h e i r c a r e e r change was not the r e s u l t of a m i d - l i f e c r i s i s , but perhaps the e f f e c t of r e a c h i n g a c e r t a i n l e v e l of m a t u r i t y . T h i s may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e of past and f u t u r e suggesting i t was now time to a l t e r e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s . Using c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s put forward by Thomas (1980), the p a r t i c i p a n t s were "opt-outs". M o t i v a t i o n behind the c a r e e r change came more from i n t e r n a l p e r s o n a l d r i v e than from e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The men made the d e c i s i o n to leave, i t was not f o r c e d upon them. They had d e c i d e d to use 1 73 t h e i r s k i l l s and knowledge i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g . In t h i s , t h e i r c h o i c e of second c a r e e r was t y p i c a l of the ca r e e r t r a n s i t i o n c l a s s i f i e d by Heistand (1971) as a 45 degree change. A repeated theme d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s i n the present study was the important r o l e played by wives and companions of p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s concurs with other f i n d i n g s on the i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s have on c a r e e r change ( B l o l a n d & Selby, 1980; N e a p o l i t i a n , 1980; Waters & Goodman, 1981). From f o r m u l a t i o n of the ca r e e r change d e c i s i o n to the achievement of program requirements, these women were very i n f l u e n t i a l . Career change was not a process attempted in i s o l a t i o n . The ready acknowledgement of t h i s support group was marked and the men were quick to pay t r i b u t e . There i s some evidence that c a r e e r change, as found i n men at m i d - l i f e , may be r e l a t e d to a wider l i f e change, perhaps i n v o l v i n g a l t e r a t i o n s i n pe r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m a r i t a l s t a t u s (Oscherson, 1980; Sarason, 1977). Yet f o r married men i n the present study, there was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of concurrent c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l l i f e changes. However, the caree r change of p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed to be b r i n g i n g them c l o s e r to the l i f e s t y l e s of t h e i r wives, not s e p a r a t i n g them. I t may be that i n circumstances of support and common purpose, the p e r s o n a l changes accompanying c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n are i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s p e c t . 1 74 The s t r o n g support from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' wives i s p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d to the f i n d i n g t h at many wives were not only more h i g h l y educated (64%) but were a l s o i n higher s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s (76%) than t h e i r husbands. The upwardly mobile s h i f t from tradesmen to teacher would r e s u l t i n p a r t i c p a n t s being brought c l o s e r to t h e i r wives on two important f r o n t s . The need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the s o c i a l context of c a r e e r change was h i g h l i g h t e d by Krantz (1977) and Wilensky (1966). The present study has helped meet t h i s need. In the c a r e e r change process, e x i s t e n c e of s u f f i c i e n t funds to support both changer and dependents was e s s e n t i a l . Although p e r s o n a l funds were used by p a r t i c i p a n t s , almost one t h i r d of them r e q u i r e d e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l support. In order f o r the needs of a changing t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y to be met, an a v a i l a b l e source of funding f o r r e t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d . Without such funding, from government, business or other sources, c a r e e r change w i l l be u n o b t a i n a b l e f o r some. However, given the economic r e s t r a i n t s of the 1980s, a s t a t e of c o n f l i c t may a r i s e between the need f o r r e t r a i n -ing and lac k of a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l support. While acknowledging the importance of f i n a n c i a l and p e r s o n a l support as f a c i l i t a t o r s i n t h e i r c a r e e r change, p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r own m o t i v a t i o n as an important i n f l u e n c e . T h i s approach had a l s o been found i n c a r e e r changers by N e a p o l i t a n (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e d 175 they were doing what was the r i g h t t h i n g f o r them to do. T h i s b e l i e f i n the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h e i r behaviour c o n t r i b u t e d to an atmosphere of enthusiasm and commitment. Such q u a l i t i e s i n beginning t e a c h e r s are d e s i r a b l e at the best of times. When combined with m a t u r i t y and a range of s k i l l s and experience they h o l d c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r the classroom. Although p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n a pr o c e s s of career change there was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s was a r e c u r r i n g event i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s f i n d i n g upheld e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h ( A r b e i t e r et a l . , 1978) which concluded that to be i n ca r e e r t r a n s i t i o n was not an i n d i c a t i o n of c a r e e r i n s t a b i l i t y . Second c a r e e r teachers were not l i k e l y to be poor employment r i s k s with a h i g h turnover of p e r s o n n e l . Wilensky's (1966) d e l i n e a t i o n of c a r e e r p a t t e r n s f a i l e d to account f o r the work h i s t o r i e s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study. An a l t e r n a t i v e framework was c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d were as f o l l o w s : Type A - Main occ u p a t i o n only; Type B - Main oc c u p a t i o n preceded by f i l l e r jobs; Type C - Career changes between r e l a t e d occupations; Type D - Career changes between u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ; Type E - Two concurrent occupations. These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s may be of value i n f u t u r e c a t e g o r i z a -t i o n of c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . 1 76 The examination of commitment to te a c h i n g as a long-term c a r e e r i n d i c a t e d that such commitment was not i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other f i e l d s . I t appeared t h a t depth of commitment may be enhanced when an occupation i s a mature, d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e , s e l e c t e d from p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Only two (5.4%) men had made a p p l i c a t i o n to other o c c u p a t i o n s , with only one of them i n t e n d i n g to leave t e a c h i n g w i t h i n ten ye a r s . Teaching i s what these second car e e r t e a c h e r s wanted to do. There was a p o s i t i v e tone to both t h e i r d e c i s i o n making and f u t u r e p l a n s . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t to the suggestion by L o r t i e (1975) that t e a c h i n g was o f t e n a somewhat secondary c h o i c e , l e a d i n g to r e g r e t f o r " a l t e r n a t i v e s foregone". The p a r t i c i p a n t s were not f a i l e d c a r p e n t e r s or mechanics. They had been d i s s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r f i r s t c a r e e r but they looked forward to the rewards of t h e i r second. The c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s was made f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of ca r e e r d i s c o n t e n t . An i d e n t i f i a b l e i n c i d e n t o f t e n acted as a c a t a l y s t , p r e c i p i t a t i n g the a c t u a l c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n . The l e n g t h of such i n c i d e n t s ranged from s e v e r a l days to a p r e c i s e moment. A model of the car e e r change process was c o n s t r u c t e d . I t showed a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e at a time of c a r e e r d i s c o n t e n t and the e f f e c t of a c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t . The model helped to co n f i r m the d e c i s i o n making process found by Levinson (1979) and Krantz (1977) i n t h e i r work on a d u l t l i f e changes. I t 1 77 may be u s e f u l as a means of examining a v a r i e t y of d e c i s i o n s made throughout adulthood. Socio-demographic and p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s of the men gave more complete i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r background. As a r e s u l t of t h e i r d e c i s i o n to become teach e r s 31 (83.8%) men entered a higher socio-economic l e v e l than that of t h e i r f a t h e r s . However, as tradesmen 21 (56.8%) men had f i r s t e n t ered a lower l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s delayed e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g suggests a rebound m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n f o r these i n d i v i d u a l s . Such a p a t t e r n c o n t r a s t s with the common i n t r a - g e n e r a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y found i n Canada. In s p i t e of the contemporary emphasis on edu c a t i o n , the s t a t u s of sons i s s t i l l best p r e d i c t e d by the occupation of t h e i r f a t h e r s ( M i f f l e n & M i f f l e n , 1982). M o b i l i t y i s g e n e r a l l y i n an upward d i r e c t i o n and between neighbouring socio-economic l e v e l s . However, over h a l f of p a r t i c i p a n t s not only moved downwards before upwards, but a l s o c r o s s e d m u l t i p l e l e v e l s . Although they themselves had been tradesmen, f r i e n d s and wives of p a r t i c i p a n t s were o f t e n r e p o r t e d as t e a c h e r s . F r i e n d s h i p s are recognized as u s u a l l y based on work r e l a t i o n s h i p s , yet 29 (78.4%) p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d having c l o s e f r i e n d s who were t e a c h e r s . By becoming teachers themselves the men were moving i n t o an occupation more c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r s o c i a l network. E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of both wives and mothers of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that 178 e d u c a t i o n was an important v a l u e . I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s value system, twice found, would be i n f l u e n t i a l on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s i n a d u l t l i f e . The e f f e c t of such an i n f l u e n c e supported the advocacy p r o p o s i t i o n put forward by M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979). When asked d i r e c t l y why they wanted to become tea c h e r s the most common reason g i v e n by the men was that they wanted to be with young people. T h i s i s a l s o the most common reason given by f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s ( L o r t i e , 1975; Wood, 1978). I t i s , of course, the essence of sch o o l t e a c h i n g . To have determined i t s presence was not s u r p r i s i n g , but to have d i s c o v e r e d i t s absence would have been cause f o r concern. In c o n t r a s t to f i r s t c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , however, p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not emphasize the i n s t r i n s i c worth of t e a c h i n g as an oc c u p a t i o n . There was l i t t l e mention of t e a c h i n g as being worthy or s o c i a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e . Such asp e c t s of te a c h i n g d i d not appear i n f l u e n t i a l . Nor d i d the men i n d i c a t e that they were l o o k i n g f o r more meaningful work. T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t with the motives rep o r t e d by busin e s s men i n care e r t r a n s i t i o n (Thomas, 1980). I t appeared that p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p r e v i o u s work worthwhile i f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . To use Osherson's (1980) term, they had a " s c u l p t e d " , or balanced, approach to t h e i r c a r e e r change. In r e c o g n i z i n g that the trade they l e f t was not wholly unpleasant, and t h e i r new o c c u p a t i o n u n l i k e l y to 1 79 be t o t a l l y p l e a s a n t , they were i n a p o s i t i o n to make a more i n t e g r a t e d commitment to t e a c h i n g . C e r t a i n l y p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not d e n i g r a t e t h e i r t r a d e s . They b e l i e v e d they had l e a r n e d something v a l u a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e to the classroom, a s k i l l to pass on, an a t t i t u d e to o f f e r . I t was with t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e that they approached t e a c h i n g as a second c a r e e r . 5.4 Summary of Unexpected F i n d i n g s The e x p l o r a t o r y nature of the study f a c i l i t a t e d d i s c o v e r y of s u r p r i s i n g and/or u n a n t i c i p a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . Such f i n d i n g s lend a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y to resea r c h of t h i s n ature. They are summarized below. 1. The vast m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d i n a s o c i a l environment which i n c l u d e d many members of the te a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Teachers f i l l e d the r o l e s of f r i e n d , spouse, parent, s i b l i n g and ot h e r s to an extent which seemed s u r p r i s i n g i n the l i v e s of tradesmen. 2. Reactions of f r i e n d s of p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s i m i l a r to those found i n pr e v i o u s c a r e e r change r e s e a r c h . However, even i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the verbatim s i m i l a r i t y of the response of one man quoted i n the 180 study and a d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n from Krantz (1977) was remarkable. 3. Teachers r e p o r t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as being somewhat u n e n t h u s i a s t i c about p a r t i c i p a n t s ' plans to enter the p r o f e s s i o n had a l l been t e a c h i n g f o r many ye a r s . I t was s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y , even over a very few responses. 4. Personal support from f r i e n d s and f a m i l y was a major aspect of the c a r e e r change. The acknowledgement of the impact of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' wives was e s p e c i a l l y prominent at s e v e r a l p o i n t s d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . The high degree of t h i s p e r s o n a l support was more than would be a n t i c i p a t e d from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . 5. Past r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h at c a r e e r change was o f t e n accompanied by changes i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Apart from the immediate time demands of the program, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study tended to i n d i c a t e t h at t h e i r wives were c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n d e c i s i o n and p r o c e s s . There was l i t t l e impression of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l s o being i n t r a n s i t i o n . 181 6. Over 35% of p a r t i c i p a n t s had worked with a d o l e s c e n t s or a d u l t s , o f t e n with s p e c i a l needs, at some p o i n t i n t h e i r c a r e e r h i s t o r y . T h i s s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e of a second ca r e e r but was absent i n the " R e a l i s t i c " ( H o l l a n d , 1960; 1973) nature of t h e i r t r a d e s . 7. When asked f o r second c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s other than t e a c h i n g , p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d a set of white c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . The upwardly mobile nature of t h e i r c a r e e r change i n t o t e a c h i n g was r e f l e c t e d i n these other c h o i c e s . An i n t e r e s t i n other t r a d e - r e l a t e d occupations was not apparent. 8. Almost 80% of p a r t i c i p a n t s had c o n s i d e r e d e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g at some e a r l i e r p o i n t . Past r e s e a r c h d i d not suggest such a high percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s would be r e t u r n i n g to an e a r l i e r i n t e r e s t . 9. Reasons f o r e n t e r i n g teaching d i d not i n c l u d e t e a c h i n g as a worthwhile or i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e o c c u p a t i o n . Comments on past occupations d i d not suggest that the tra d e s had been l a c k i n g i n val u e . The l a c k of such data p r o v i d e d an i n t r i g u i n g c o n t r a s t with p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g on one hand and career change on the ot h e r . 1 82 10. The rebound e f f e c t with respect to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , where p a r t i c i p a n t s f i r s t went down the s o c i a l s c a l e to be tradesmen and then went up again as they became teachers, was not a n t i c i p a t e d . 11. E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared higher than would u s u a l l y be expected i n tradesmen, p a r t i c u l a r l y when f i v e men had u n i v e r s i t y degrees and one had a c o l l e g e diploma. 12. Seventy-six percent of married p a r t i c i p a n t s had wives who were i n h i g h e r s t a t u s occupations than t h e i r husbands. 13. The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of r e f e r e n c e group theory to the career change of p a r t i c i p a n t s g r a d u a l l y became apparent. As with s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory, r e f e r e n c e group theory s t r e s s e s the i n f l u e n c e other people have on behaviour. 1 83 5.5 Recommendations f o r Fu r t h e r Research Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are p r e s e n t e d i n three main themes. Recommendations r e l e v a n t to the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making are f o l l o w e d by those r e l a t e d to c a r e e r change i n gen e r a l and to l a t e e n t ry t e a c h e r s . Some i n d i v i d u a l recommendations complete the l i s t . 1. The s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d by M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979) produced not onl y a set of p o s i t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s , as used i n the present r e s e a r c h , but a l s o a set of ne g a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s and a group of s i x types of l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and events which a f f e c t s k i l l s r e l a t e d to c a r e e r c h o i c e . A more encompassing examination of a t a r g e t group c o u l d be made using these p r o p o s i t i o n s . 2. In order to t e s t both encompassing and r e s t r i c t e d a s pects of the work of M i t c h e l l , Jones and Krumboltz (1979) the use of comparison groups i s recommended. For example, the p o p u l a t i o n of s k i l l e d tradesmen used i n the presen t study c o u l d be compared to any one of the f o l l o w i n g groups: matched tradesmen who do not leave t h e i r t r a d e ; matched tradesmen who leave to enter occupations other than t e a c h i n g ; l a t e e n t r y t e a c h e r s from backgrounds other than t r a d e s . 1 84 3. Jones and Jung (1979) set out a l i s t of ten recommended p r i o r i t i e s f o r research r e l a t e d to s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s as a p p l i e d to c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. I t i s suggested that these p r i o r i t i e s be c o n s u l t e d p r i o r to undertaking f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h which i n c o r p o r a t e s t h i s approach. 4. The d i s c o v e r y approach used i n the present study e l i c i t e d s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of c a r e e r change which were congruent with the p r i n c i p l e s of r e f e r e n c e group theory. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o c a r e e r change u s i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l base would y i e l d more i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r e n g t h of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . 5. The p a r t i c i p a n t s planned on l e a v i n g the t r a d e s and e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g . There was a p u s h - p u l l e f f e c t at work. The c a r e e r change d i s c u s s i o n was made at a p o i n t where these two f a c t o r s i n t e r s e c t e d . Further r e s e a r c h may develop a q u a n t i f i a b l e statement to h e l p i n d i c a t e when a c a r e e r change i s most l i k e l y to occur. 185 6. Although there i s i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of a d u l t development (e. g. Levinson, 1978; Oscherson, 1980; Sheehy,1976), there i s need f o r more l o n g i t u d i n a l evidence on c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n over the span of working l i f e . As Harmon and Farmer (1983) p o i n t e d out, without such evidence e x p l a n a t i o n s of c a r e e r c h o i c e may be based on f a l s e assumptions. 7. Career change d e c i s i o n s were found i n the present study to be taken i n the context of f a m i l y and s o c i a l support. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l context of c a r e e r change may e l i c i t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the r o l e of spouses. As Thomas commented, "Career change s t a r t s at home" (1975, p.37). 8. None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r e s e n t study used the s e r v i c e s of a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r . T h i s was a l s o found i n a d u l t c a r e e r changers by Armstrong (1981). Casual reading of the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s of newspapers i n d i c a t e that c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . Research i n t o the use and non-use of t h i s s e r v i c e c o u l d a s s i s t i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s work. 186 9. When a d u l t s change c a r e e r s i t r e s u l t s i n a new and o f t e n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t set of c o l l e a g u e s . I t would be r e l e v a n t to d i s c o v e r i f c a r e e r changers a l r e a d y had a l i f e s t y l e , i n terms o f , f o r example, i n t e r e s t s or pastimes, which was more common to members of t h e i r new occupations than of t h e i r o l d . In the present study t h e r e was some i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s . An approach somewhat along these l i n e s was proposed by H o l l a n d (1966; 1973) and developed by B o l l e s (1985) i n h i s s e l f - h e l p manual f o r c a r e e r changers. However, f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may l e a d to a deeper understanding of second ca r e e r c h o i c e . 10. In the present study 56.8% of the men worked at t r a d e s i n a lower socio-economic l e v e l than t h a t of t h e i r f a t h e r s . On becoming teachers they would move up i n t o the h i g h e s t l e v e l . T h i s change of d i r e c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a rebound e f f e c t . Second c a r e e r c h o i c e would be f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e d i f t h i s p a t t e r n were examined i n other groups of people who change c a r e e r s . Late entry t e a c h e r s would be of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . 11. When p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study d i s c u s s e d t h e i r c a r e e r change with f r i e n d s who were t e a c h e r s , they found that o l d e r teachers were somewhat l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c than younger members of the p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s not known i f 187 t h i s a t t i t u d e g e n e r a l l y e x i s t s among o l d e r t e a c h e r s . I f l o s s of enthusiasm i s found to be a f a c t o r of age r a t h e r than e x p e r i e n c e , second ca r e e r t e a c h e r s may be a poor r i s k f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . But i f the beginner's approach i s r e t a i n e d i n s p i t e of age, l a t e e n try t e a c h e r s would doubly b e n e f i t the classroom with t h e i r combination of m a t u r i t y and beginning t e a c h e r ' s optimism. The phenomenon of teacher a t t i t u d e to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n over time warrants i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 12. Teaching i s a p r o f e s s i o n which a t t r a c t s l a t e e n t r a n t s from a wide range of backgrounds, such as homemakers, p r i e s t s and businessmen. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c a r e e r change d e c i s i o n of l a t e e n t r y teachers i s recommended. L o n g t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s are needed to examine p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l experiences a l o n g the contour of t h e i r new c a r e e r . Such i n f o r m a t i o n would b e n e f i t the p r e p a r a t i o n of f u t u r e l a t e e n try t e a c h e r s . 13. C e r t a i n t e a c h i n g r o l e s , such as coach, are r e c o g n i z e d as being conducive to the c r e a t i o n of a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and student. Although some teachers are not o f f i c i a l l y c o u n s e l l o r s they o f t e n f u n c t i o n as such. I t may be that the nature of t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t y for c a s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s l e s s 188 formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e i s present i n areas such as I n d u s t r i a l E d ucation, Home Economics and Outdoor Educ a t i o n . I t i s recommended that the e x i s t e n c e of a c o u n s e l l o r r o l e f o r t e a c h e r s of these and other s u b j e c t areas be i n v e s t i g a t e d . A p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g would have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r teacher education program where i n c l u s i o n of some coursework i n c o u n s e l l i n g may be b e n e f i c i a l . 14. Almost 80% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h i n g as a p o s s i b l e occupation at some e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t h e i r l i v e s . Research i n t o second c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the occurrence of t h i s phenomenon. I t may be that second c a r e e r c h o i c e s are merely f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e s postponed. 189 BIBLIOGRAPHY 190 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l t i m u s , C. A., & T e r s i n e , R. J . C h r o n o l o g i c a l age and job s a t i s f a c t i o n : The young blue c o l l a r worker. 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J o u r n a l of  Teacher Education, 1978, 29(6), 48-50. Yamamota, K., & Davis, 0. L. J r . Teacher i n p r e p a r a t i o n : 1. M o t i v a t i o n , i d e a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c y , and i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e . J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 1966, 17, 205-209. Zytowski, D. G. The concept of work v a l u e s . V o c a t i o n a l  Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1970, J_8, 1 76-186. 199 APPE NDIX A THE SPONSORED PROGRAM IN THE D I V I S I O N OF I N D U S T R I A L E D U C A T I O N , U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 200 THE SPONSORED PROGRAM T h i s program leads to a Bachelor of Education degree. S u c c e s s f u l c a ndidates may q u a l i f y f o r t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r i o r to completion of the degree. The program i s sponsored by the M i n i s t r y of Education and i s open to q u a l i f i e d journeymen tradesmen of 25 years or o l d e r . Extended Winter Term (Burnaby campus) T e c h n i c a l courses; p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s ; student t e a c h i n g 24 u n i t s Summer Session (Main U.B.C. Campus) P r o f e s s i o n a l courses 6 u n i t s I n t e r n s h i p The student teacher o b t a i n s an i n d u s t r i a l education t e aching p o s i t i o n and i s then a s s i g n e d to an e i g h t month i n t e r n s h i p . During t h i s i n t e r n s h i p the student works under the d i r e c t i o n of a f a c u l t y member and upon completion r e c e i v e s 3 u n i t s of p r o f e s s i o n a l course c r e d i t . Six or e i g h t Summer Sessions i n which the Candidates complete the B.Ed. Degree requirements. Normal summer s e s s i o n fees are charged. 42-48 u n i t s . T o t a l 75-81 u n i t s . A P P E N D I X B D E S C R I P T I O N OF P A R T I C I P A N T S APPENDIX B DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS Part i c i pant Occupat i on Age Mar i tal Status Educational Level Place of B i r t h F i r s t Language Ci t i z e n s h i p Status 1 Carpenter - foreman 29 M B . Sc. Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 2 Architectural draftsman 31 M Some Col 1ege < U.K. Engli sh C i t i zen 3 Weider/fabr icator 24 M Some University Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 4 Cabi netmaker 38 S Secondary School B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 5 Welder/fabricator 24 M Some Col 1ege B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 6 Painter - foreman 26 M Some University Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 7 Carpenter 28 S Some University B.C. Eng1i sh C i t i zen 8 Carpenter 26 M B.A. Canada English Ci t izen 9 Greenhouse operator 36 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 10 Boatbu i1der 54 M College D i p1oma U.K. Engl i sh C i t i zen 1 1 Carpenter 26 S Secondary School B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 12 Mechanic - heavy duty 38 M Secondary School U.S.A. German Permanent Res i dent 13 Mach i n i st 45 M Some Col 1ege Hoi land Dutch C i t i zen 14 Mechanic - heavy duty 28 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i z e n 15 E l e c t r i c i a n - foreman 26 M Some Col 1ege B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 1G Marine engineer - CPO 44 M Some University Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 17 Carpenter - foreman 29 M Some University U.S.A. Engli sh Ci t i z e n 18 Mechanic - vehicle 25 S Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 19 Electronics technician 27 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 20 Teacher's aide - woodwork 24 S Some Col 1ege B.C. Engli sh C i t izen 21 Electronics technician 29 M Secondary School U.K. Engli sh Permanent Res i dent 22 Weider/fabricator 28 M B.A. B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 23 Mechanic - vehicle 33 S B.Sc. U.S.A. Engli sh Permanent Resident 24 Mechanic - vehicle 30 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 25 Mechanic - vehicle 26 M Some Col 1ege B.C. Greek C i t i zen 26 Mechanic - vehicle 27 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 27 Tool maker 40 S Secondary School Germany German Permanent Res i dent 28 Weider/fabricator 25 M Some University B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 29 E1ectr i c i an 25 S Some Col 1ege B.C. German C i t i zen 30 Mach i n i st 27 S Secondary School Canada English C i t i zen 31 Weider/fabr i cator 29 S Some University Roman i a Roman i an C i t i zen 32 Sheetmetal worker 28 M Some Col 1ege B.C. Engli sh C i t i zen 33 Diving instructor 52 M Secondary School Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 34 Carpenter 35 M Some University Canada Engli sh C i t i zen 35 Carpenter 29 S B . R . E . Canada German C i t i zen 36 Carpenter 24 S Secondary School B.C. Engl.i sh C i t i zen 37 Boatbu i1der 24 M Some University Canada Engli sh C i t i zen O 203 A P P E N D I X C I N I T I A L V E R S I O N OF I N T E R V I E W S C H E D U L E 204 INITIAL VERSION OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. What kind of work are you doing now? 2. How long have you been doing t h i s ? 3. Is that the kind of work you have been doing most of your working l i f e ? If 'no'... 3a. What other kinds of work have you done? 3b. How long were you doing t h a t ? If 'yes'... 3c. You d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g e l s e ? 4. What i s making you change your mind about ing? 5. When d i d you s t a r t t h i n k i n g about changing your job? 6. Was there anything i n p a r t i c u l a r that made you want to change at t h i s time? 7. What i s important to you i n choosing a new l i n e of work? ( P i l o t as open ended) Probe: What makes a job a t t r a c t i v e to you? 8. What do you thi n k you w i l l g ain by e n t e r i n g a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? 9. Do you a n t i c i p a t e any problems going i n t o a new job at t h i s time? 10. Is there anything you are going to miss i n your o l d l i n e of work? 11. Is there anything y o u ' l l look forward to l e a v i n g behind? 12. Have you c o n s i d e r e d other l i n e s of work b e s i d e s teaching? 13. How f a r d i d you go towards e n t e r i n g these other jobs? 14. What i s i t about t e a c h i n g that makes i t a good job' f o r you? 15. What kind of people do you t h i n k make the best teachers? 205 16. Is t h i s the f i r s t time you have c o n s i d e r e d being a teacher? 17. Have you ever done any teach i n g , or coaching or t u t o r i n g ? 18. Is there anyone you can think o f, e i t h e r r e c e n t l y or long ago, who may have i n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n to t h i n k about t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r ? 19. What p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s do you f e e l you have that would f i t w e l l with teaching? 20. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how the people you l i v e with f e e l about your going i n t o teaching? (Card) (A) Very s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) Non-commital s u p p o r t i v e (D) F a i r l y unsupportive (E) Very unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e alone Probe: How do you c h i l d r e n f e e l ? 21. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how your income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r about f i v e years w i l l compare with your present income? (Card) (A) Much higher (B) S l i g h t l y higher (C) About the same (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Dont'know 22. Do you t h i n k there w i l l be any changes to your l i f e s t y l e i f you become a teacher? 23. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much you w i l l be l i v i n g apart from your f a m i l y i f you enter the I n d u s t r i a l Education program? (Card) (A) A l l of the time (B) Most of the time (C) Part of the time (not weekends e t c . ) (D) None of the time (E) Not married 2 0 6 24. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s you expect d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g year? (Card) (A) Extreme (B) High (C) Moderate (D) S l i g h t (E) None 25. W i l l you f a m i l y experience any major changes i f you enter the t r a i n i n g program? 26. What do you t h i n k y o u ' l l l i k e most about going to school next year? 27. What do you t h i n k y o u ' l l enjoy l e a s t ? 28. What are you l o o k i n g forward to most i n your job as ' a teacher? 29. What do you t h i n k w i l l be your b i g g e s t problems? 30. Where do you hope to be i n your c a r e e r i n 5 years time? 31. Where do you hope to be i n 10 years time? 32. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s the s i z e of community i n which you would l i k e to teach? (Card) (A) P o p u l a t i o n 500,000 or more? (B) P o p u l a t i o n 100,000 to 500,000 (C) P o p u l a t i o n 50,000 to 100,000 (D) P o p u l a t i o n 10,000 to 50,000 (E) P o p u l a t i o n 2,500 to 10,000 (E) P o p u l a t i o n 2,5000 or l e s s 33. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s the s i z e of community i n which you have spent most of your l i f e ? (Same c a r d as i n Question 32) 34. Where do you l i v e now? Do you know what the p o p u l a t i o n i s ? (Cue: "Now I'd l i k e to f i n i s h up with a few background d e t a i l s . " ) 35. How o l d were you on your l a s t b i r t h d a y ? 36. And your sex i s male/female. 37. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 207 38. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 39. How o l d are they? 40. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s your present l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) Completed high school (B) Some c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n (C) Completed c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n 41. What was your f a t h e r ' s occupation? Probe: What d i d he do i n that job? 42. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s your f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) Elementary school (B) Some high school (C) Completed high school (D) Some c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , or other post h i g h school i n s t i t u t i o n (E) Completed c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n 43. What was your mother's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 42 above) 44. What was your mother's occupation? Probe: Did she work f u l l time or pa r t time? 45. Where were you born? 46. Where was your f a t h e r born? 47. And your mother? 48. When you were growing up, what language d i d you speak at home? (Cue: "And the l a s t q u e s t i o n i s ...") 49. Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n , a Landed Immigrant or do you have another s t a t u s ? 208 APPENDIX D AREAS OF INVESTIGATION WITH PROPOSITIONS, RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND RELEVANT ITEMS ON INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 209 AREA OF INVESTIGATION 1 Did the p r o p o s i t i o n s a p p l y i n g s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s to  c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the c h o i c e of  tea c h i n g as a second c a r e e r ? P r o p o s i t i o n A An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n , or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has been p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d for engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has l e a r n e d are a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 1: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d p r a i s e f o r t h e i r behaviour i n a t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n ? 19. Have you ever done any t e a c h i n g , coaching or t u t o r i n g ? (probe) Have you spent any time with youth groups, summer camps, anything l i k e t h a t ? 22. D i d anyone comment on how you did? (probe) What s o r t of t h i n g d i d they say? 210 Research Question 2: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s experienced a f e e l i n g of p l e a s u r e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r behaviour i n a t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n ? 19. Have you ever done any t e a c h i n g , coaching or t u t o r i n g ? (probe) Have you spent any time with youth groups, summer camps, anything l i k e t h a t ? 20. How d i d t h a t go? 21. How d i d you f e e l about i t ? P r o p o s i t i o n B An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a pr e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an occ u p a t i o n or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has observed a valued model being r e i n f o r c e d f o r engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s s/he has l e a r n e d are a s s o c i a t e d with the s u c c e s s f u l performance of that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.39) Research Question 3: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s observed student behaviours i n I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s which are re c o g n i z e d as rewarding to teachers? 23. When you were at secondary s c h o o l , d i d you take I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s ? 21 1 24. How much do you think the students l e a r n e d i n the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from' t h i s c a r d . 25. How o f t e n d i d they get t h e i r p r o j e c t s completed? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . 26. How much of a d i s c i p l i n e problem was there i n the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? ' Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . 27. How w e l l d i d the students get along with the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teacher? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . 28. Do you t h i n k the students tended to be c l o s e r to the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teacher than to other members of s t a f f ? 29. How w e l l do you t h i n k the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teachers got a l o n g with the other members of s t a f f ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . P r o p o s i t i o n C An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an o c c u p a t i o n or the tasks and consequences of a f i e l d of work i f t h a t person has been c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d by a valued person who models and/or advocates engaging i n that course, occupation or f i e l d of work. (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 4: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s known a teacher who was a source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement? 30. Do you have any f r i e n d s who are t e a c h e r s ? 31. Are t h e r e any teachers i n your f a m i l y ? 32. When you were i n school were there any teachers that you p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d ? 212 Research Question 5: Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s have f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y members who support t h e i r c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g as an occupation? 33. How do your c l o s e f r i e n d s f e e l about your d e c i s i o n to go i n t o teaching? 34. What about the people you worked with? 35. Do your parents know about your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? 36. What do they think about t e a c h i n g as a job? 37. What does your wife t h i n k ? 38. Can you think of anyone e l s e important to you who has been s u p p o r t i v e i n making the change? 39. Can you think of anyone important to you who was a b i t c r i t i c a l ? P r o p o s i t i o n D An i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to express a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a course of study, an occupation or the tasks and consequences i n a f i e l d of work i f that i n d i v i d u a l has been exposed to p o s i t i v e words and images a s s o c i a t e d with that course, o c c u p a t i o n , f i e l d of work or the a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to i t . (Krumboltz, 1979, p.40) Research Question 6: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s have watched a f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n program which has p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of the r o l e of school teacher? 213 40. Have you seen any f i l m s or t e l e v i s i o n programs about schools or teaching? 41. Can you r e c a l l any scenes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? 42. What impression of t e a c h i n g d i d you get from the film/program? 43. What s o r t of person was the teacher? 44. Do your think t h i s film/program had any i n f l u e n c e on your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? Research Question 7: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s have read a book which p o r t r a y e d a p o s i t i v e image of teachers or te a c h i n g as an occupation? 45. Have you read any books about s c h o o l s or teaching? 46. Can you r e c a l l any scenes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? C l a s s ? 47. What impressions of t e a c h i n g d i d you get from the book? 48. What s o r t of person was the teacher? 49. Do you think t h i s book a f f e c t e d your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? AREA OF INVESTIGATION 2 What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d or impeded the c a r e e r change  process? O r i e n t i n g Statement Whenever a change i n c a r e e r i s c o n s i d e r e d there e x i s t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which a i d or h i n d e r the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s . ( L o u i s , 1980) 214 Research Question 8: What f a c t o r s are r e c o g n i z e d as major b a r r i e r s i n the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? 11. Do you a n t i c i p a t e any problems going i n t o a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? (probe) What kind of problems?/ None at a l l ? 54. When you were t h i n k i n g of changing jobs was th e r e anything i n p a r t i c u l a r t h at made the move d i f f i c u l t f o r you? 55. Can you thin k of an y t h i n g that would have completely prevented you from changing jobs? Research Question 9; What f a c t o r s are r e c o g n i z e d as major b a r r i e r s i n the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? 12. Now that you've more or l e s s decided to change your job, how do you f e e l about making the change? 56. What s o r t of t h i n g helped you make the change? Research Question 10: How do f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t the c a r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? 52. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s you expect dur i n g your t r a i n i n g year? (A) Extreme (B) High (C) Moderate (D) S l i g h t (E) None 215 53. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much your income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r about f i v e years w i l l compare with your income f o r the year before you entered the Program? (A) Much higher (B) S l i g h t l y h igher (C) About the same (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Don't know 57. If you had to pay your own u n i v e r s i t y fees r a t h e r than being sponsored, how l i k e l y i s i t that you would have a p p l i e d for entry i n t o the program? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (A) Very l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) Very u n l i k e l y Research Question 11: How do fa m i l y f a c t o r s a f f e c t the ca r e e r change from tradesman to teacher? 50. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much you are l i v i n g a p a r t from your f a m i l y now that you have entered the I n d u s t r i a l Education program? (A) A l l of the time (B) Most of the time (C) Part of the time (not weekends e t c . ) (D) None of the time (E) Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e alone 51. Have your f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d any major changes now t h a t you have entered the t r a i n i n g program? (probe) What s o r t of changes? 58. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how the people you l i v e with f e e l about your going i n t o teaching? (A) Very s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) Non-commital (D) F a i r l y unsupportive (E) Very unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e alone 59. How do your c h i l d r e n f e e l ? 216 AREA OF INVESTIGATION 3 Do the experiences and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e  a s t a b l e or u n s t a b l e career p a t t e r n ? O r i e n t i n g Statement An i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y to pursue an average of t h r e e c a r e e r s (Super & Bohm, 1970). If t e a c h i n g i s one of a s e r i e s of u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , an unstable c a r e e r p a t t e r n may e x i s t . I f so, such a p a t t e r n would be r e f l e c t e d i n c a r e e r h i s t o r i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Research Question 12: Have the p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t e r e d t e a c h i n g a f t e r a sequence of three or more u n r e l a t e d occupat ions? 1. What kind of work were you doing before you entered the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. program? (probe) What do you do i n that job? Were you a foreman, s u p e r v i s o r , anything l i k e that? 2. How long d i d you do t h a t ? 3. Is that the kind of work you have been doing most of your working l i f e ? 4. What other kind of work have you done? 5. About how long were you i n each job? 217 Research Question 13: Do the p a r t i c i p a n t s view entry i n t o t e a c h i n g as a temporary or permanent commitment? 60. What do you hope to be doing i n your c a r e e r i n 5 years time? 61. What do you hope to be doing i n 10 years time? Research Question 14: Is te a c h i n g one of s e v e r a l occupations c o n s i d e r e d as a car e e r change? 13. Have you c o n s i d e r e d other l i n e s of work besides teaching? (probe) What have you thought about? 14. How f a r d i d you go towards e n t e r i n g these other jobs? 16. Is t h i s the f i r s t time you have c o n s i d e r e d being a teacher? 17. Why d i d you not go i n t o t e a c h i n g then? Research Question 15: Are the s t a t e d reasons f o r e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d to i n t r i n s i c or e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s ? 6. What made you change your mind about being a ? 7. When d i d you s t a r t t h i n k i n g about changing your job? 8. Was there a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r that made you want to change jobs at t h a t time? 9. What i s important to you i n choosing a new l i n e of work? (probe) What makes a job a t t r a c t i v e to you? 10. What do you t h i n k you w i l l gain by e n t e r i n g a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? 15. What i s i t about t e a c h i n g that makes i t a good job f o r you? 62. Why do you want to be a teacher? 218 AREA OF INVESTIGATION 4 Do the socio-demoqraphic backgrounds of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n d i c a t e t h a t e n t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g w i l l p r o v i d e upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? O r i e n t i n g Statement Male teac h e r s tend to come from blue c o l l a r backgrounds. En t r y i n t o t e a c h i n g w i l l t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e an a c c e s s i b l e route to the middle c l a s s . (Schalock,1979) Research Question 16: What were the o c c u p a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s before e n t e r i n g the program? 1. What k i n d of work were you doing before you e n t e r e d the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. program? (probe) What do you do i n that job? Were you a foreman, s u p e r v i s o r , a n y t h i n g l i k e t hat? Research Question 17: What were the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a n t s before e n t e r i n g the program? 18. Have you had any teacher t r a i n i n g of any kind? 219 70. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s your l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g before you entered the program? (A) Elementary school (B) Some hig h school (C) Completed high school (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y graduate (F) Graduate degree (G) Some c o l l e g e or other post high s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H) Completed c o l l e g e or other post h i g h school i n s t i t u t ion (I) Don't know 71. What grade were you i n when you l e f t secondary school f o r the f i r s t time? 72. Have you had any i n f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g such as i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e t h a t ? Research Question 18: What were the occu p a t i o n s of parents of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 74. What was your f a t h e r ' s occupation? (probe) What d i d he do i n that job? 75. What was your mother's occupation? 76. Was that f u l l - or part-time? Research Question 19: What was the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of parents of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 77. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s your f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 70) 78. And your mother's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 70) 220 Research Question 20: What were the p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 63. How o l d were you on your l a s t b i r t h d a y ? 64. And your sex i s male. 65. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 66. ( I f married) How long have you been married? 79. Where were you born? 83. Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n , a Landed Immigrant, or do you have another s t a t u s ? 67. (If married) What i s your wife's occupation? 73. (If married) And your wife's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 70) 68. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 69. How o l d are they? 80. Where was your f a t h e r born? 81. And your mother? 82. When you were growing up what language d i d you speak at home? APPENDIX E ITEMS ELIMINATED FROM INITIAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 222 ITEMS ELIMINATED FROM INITIAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 10. Is there anything you are going to miss i n your o l d l i n e of work? 11. Is there anything y o u ' l l look forward to l e a v i n g behind? 18. Is t h e r e anyone you can t h i n k o f , e i t h e r r e c e n t l y or long ago, who may have i n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n to think about t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r ? 19. What pe r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s do you f e e l you have that would f i t w e l l with teaching? 22. Do you t h i n k there w i l l be any changes to your l i f e s t y l e i f you become a teacher? 26. What do you t h i n k y o u ' l l l i k e most about going to s c h o o l next year? 28. What do you t h i n k you w i l l enjoy l e a s t ? 29. What do you t h i n k w i l l be you b i g g e s t problems? 32. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r which t e l l s the s i z e of community in which you would l i k e to teach? 33. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r which t e l l s the s i z e of community in which you have spent most of your l i f e ? 34. Where do you l i v e now? Do you know what the p o p u l a t i o n i s ? A P P E N D I X F CODEBOOK 224 CODEBOOK CODE ON ROW 1 1. What kind of work were you doing before you entered the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. program? (probe) What d i d you do i n that job? /Were you a foreman, s u p e r v i s o r , a n y t h i n g l i k e that? V a r i a b l e : Previous o c c u p a t i o n and subsequent c l a s s on B l i s h e n S c a l e Necessary number of columns: 4 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 7-10 (Leave empty pro tern.) Coding: Occupation as r e p o r t e d Code c l a s s i n row 3 column 48 2. How long d i d you do that? -V a r i a b l e : Number of years i n recent occupation Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 11-12 Coding: Record number of years as r e p o r t e d 3. Is that the kind of work you have been doing most of your working l i f e ? Var i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of other o c c u p a t i o n s Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 13 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 225 4. What other kind of work have you done? V a r i a b l e : Number and type of other occupations Necessary number of columns: 10 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 14-23 Coding: Occupations as r e p o r t e d 5. About how long were you i n each job? V a r i a b l e : Number of years i n other occupations Necessary number of columns: 10 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 24-33 Coding: Record number of years as r e p o r t e d 6. What made you change your mind about being a ? V a r i a b l e : Type of reason given f o r career change Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 34-39 Coding: 10 20 30 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c Other 11 s a t i s f a c t i o n 21 work cons. 31 h e a l t h 12 match s-concept 22 f i n ' l s e c u r i t y 32 f a m i l y 13 be with youth 23 job s t a b i l i t y 14 be with f a m i l y 24 p r e s t i g e 15 c h a l l e n g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 16 s e l f improvement 26 c a r e e r opp'y 19 other 29 other 39 other 7. When d i d you s t a r t t h i n k i n g about changing your job? Var i a b l e : Number of years spent i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 2 226 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 40-41 Coding: Record number of years as rep o r t e d 8. Was there anything i n p a r t i c u l a r that made you want to change jobs at that time? V a r i a b l e : Type of reason g i v e n f o r ca r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 42-47 Coding: 10 20 30 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c Other 11 s a t i s f a c t i o n 12 match s-concept 13 be with youth 14 be with f a m i l y 15 c h a l l e n g e 16 s e l f improvement 19 other 21 work cons. 22 f i n ' l s e c u r i t y 23 job s t a b i l i t y 24 p r e s t i g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 26 c a r e e r opp'y 29 other 31 h e a l t h 32 f a m i l y 39 no p a r t i c 9. What i s important to you i n choosing a new l i n e of work? (probe) What makes a job a t t r a c t i v e to you? Var i a b l e : Work value Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 48-53 Coding: 10 20 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c 1 1 s a t i s f a c t i o n 12 match s-concept 13 be with youth 14 be with f a m i l y 15 c h a l l e n g e 16 s e l f improvement 19 other 21 work cons. 22 f i n a ' 1 s e c u r i t y 23 job s t a b i l i t y 24 p r e s t i g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 26 c a r e e r opp'y 29 other 227 10. What do you thin k you w i l l gain by e n t e r i n g a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? Var i a b l e : Type of reward a n t i c i p a t e d as a r e s u l t of c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 54-59 Coding: 10 20 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c 11 s a t i s f a c t i o n 21 work cons. 12 match s-concept 22 f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y 13 be with youth 23 job s t a b i l i t y 14 be with f a m i l y 24 p r e s t i g e 15 c h a l l e n g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 16 s e l f improvement 26 c a r e e r opp'y 19 other 29 other 11. Do you a n t i c i p a t e any problems going i n t o a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? (probe) What kind of problems?/ None at a l l ? Var i a b l e : Type of problem a n t i c i p a t e d as a r e s u l t of c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 60-62 Coding: 2 none 2 f a m i l y f a c t o r s 3 f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s 4 work r e l a t e d f a c t o r s 5 s o c i a l f a c t o r s 9 other 228 12. Now that you've more or l e s s decided to change your job, how do you f e e l about making the change? Var i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of r e a c t i o n to c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 63-64 Coding: 1 p o s i t i v e ("pleased; e x c i t e d ; good idea") 2 negative ("worried; nervous; r e g r e t d e c i s i o n ; e t c . " ) 3 both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e 4 non-commital ("don't t h i n k about i t ; not much") 13. Have you c o n s i d e r e d other l i n e s of work b e s i d e s teaching? (probe) What have you thought about? Var i a b l e : Type of oc c u p a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 4 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 65-68 Coding: 1 none 2 own business 3 other p r o f e s s i o n 9 other 14. How f a r d i d you go towards e n t e r i n g these other jobs? Var i a b l e : Degree of commitment to car e e r other than t e a c h i n g Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 69 Coding: 1 j u s t thought about i t 2 i n q u i r e d about job 3 a p p l i e d f o r w o r k / t r a i n i n g 4 was o f f e r e d job but r e f u s e d 9 d i d not c o n s i d e r other jobs 229 15. What i s i t about t e a c h i n g that makes i t a good job f o r you? V a r i a b l e : Type of reward a n t i c i p a t e d from c a r e e r change i n t o t e a c h i n g Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 70-75 Coding: 10 20 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c 11 s a t i s f a c t i o n 21 work cons. 12 match s-concept 22 f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y 13 be with youth 23 job s t a b i l i t y 14 be with f a m i l y 24 p r e s t i g e 15 c h a l l e n g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 16 s e l f improvement 26 car e e r opp'y 17 worthwhile work 19 other 29 other 16. Is t h i s the f i r s t time you have c o n s i d e r e d being a teacher? (probe) When d i d you t h i n k about i t before? V a r i a b l e : Time of f i r s t i n t e r e s t i n te a c h i n g as c a r e e r c h o i c e Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 76 Coding: 1 f i r s t time c o n s i d e r e d 2 elementary school 3 hi g h school 4 hi g h school graduation 5 p r e v i o u s t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n 6 when employed 9 other 230 17. Why d i d you not go i n t o t e a c h i n g then? V a r i a b l e : Reason f o r delayed entry i n t o t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 77-78 Coding: 1 not r e l e v a n t , f i r s t time c o n s i d e r e d 2 too much stu d y i n g 3 f i n a n c i a l reasons 4 r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a d v i c e 9 other 18. Have you had any teacher t r a i n i n g of any kind? V a r i a b l e : Presence of t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d experience Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 79-80 Coding: 1 none 2 c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g 3 m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n 4 i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g program 5 a p p r e n t i c e t r a i n i n g 9 other CODE ON ROW 2 19. Have you ever done any t e a c h i n g , coaching or t u t o r i n g ? (probe) Have you spent any time with youth groups, summer camps, an y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? V a r i a b l e : Presence of t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 7-12 231 Coding: 1 0 Group t e a c h i n g 20 30 In d i v . Teaching None 11 sc h o o l 21 a p p r e n t i c e 12 n i g h t s c h o o l 22 t u t o r i n g 13 m i l i t a r y 23 v o l u n t e e r work 14 s p o r t s coaching 24 s p o r t s coaching 15 summer camps 16 youth groups 19 other 29 other 31 no tchg, 20. How d i d that go? Var i a b l e : Expressed f e e l i n g s towards t e a c h i n g or r e l a t e d experience Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 13-14 Coding: 1 0 20 30 P o s i t ive Negative Other 11 very p o s i t i v e 12 q u i t e p o s i t i v e 21 very negative 22 q u i t e negative 31 no T 39 pos+neg 21. How d i d you f e e l about i t ? Var i a b l e : Expressed f e e l i n g s towards t e a c h i n g or r e l a t e d experience Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 15-16 Coding: 10 20 30 P o s i t i v e Negative Other 11 very p o s i t i v e 12 m i l d l y pos. 21 very negative 31 no T 22 m i l d l y neg. Pos+neg 232 22. Did anyone comment on how you did? (probe) What sort of thing did they say? Variable: Source and type of feedback received Necessary number of columns: 6 Allocated Fortran columns: 17-22 Coding: 10 20 30 Positive Negative Other 11 superior 12 peer 13 students 19 other 21 superior 22 peer 23 student 29 other 31 no T 32 no Cs 23. When you were at secondary school, did you take In d u s t r i a l Education classes? Variable: P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Industrial Education classes as student Necessary number of columns: 1 Allocated Fortran columns: 23 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 24. How much do you think the students learned in the Ind u s t r i a l Ed. classes? Please select a l e t t e r from thi s card. (Card) (A) Very much (B) A lot (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) Very l i t t l e Variable: Amount of learning observed by participant in I ndustrial Education classes Necessary number of columns: 1 Allocated Fortran columns: 24 233 Coding; 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 Did not take I.E. 25. How o f t e n d i d they get t h e i r p r o j e c t s completed? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very o f t e n (B) Often (C) Sometimes (D) Seldom (E) Very seldom V a r i a b l e : Rate of p r o j e c t completion observed by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 25 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 Did not take I.E. 26. How much of a d i s c i p l i n e problem was there i n the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . (Card) (A) Very much (B) A l o t (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) Very l i t t l e V a r i a b l e : Degree of lack of classroom c o n t r o l observed by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 26 234 Coding; 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 Did not take I.E. 27. How w e l l d i d the students get along with the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teacher? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) very w e l l (B) Quite w e l l (C) Non-commital (D) Quite badly (E) Very badly V a r i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n between I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h e r s and students Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 27 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E - 9 Did not take I.E. 28. Do you t h i n k the students tended to be c l o s e r to the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teachers than to the other members of s t a f f ? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h e r s and students Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 28 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 3 non-commital 4 don't know 9 Did not take I.E. 235 29. How w e l l do you think the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teachers got along with the other members of s t a f f ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . (Card) (A) very w e l l (B) Q u i t e w e l l (C) Non-commital (D) Quite badly (E) Very badly Var i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of observed i n t e r a c t i o n between I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and other members of s t a f f Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 29 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 Did not take I.E. 30. Do you have any c l o s e f r i e n d s who are teachers? Var i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of teacher as source of p o s i t i v e re inforcement Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 30 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 31. Are there any teachers i n your f a m i l y ? Var i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of teacher as source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 31-32 236 Coding: 1 none 2 parent 3 s i b l i n g 4 wife 5 grandparent 9 other 32. When you were i n school were there any teachers t h a t you p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d ? (probe) What d i d they teach? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of teacher as source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 4 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 33-36 Coding: 11 none 21 Elementary teacher 22 I n d u s t r i a l Education 23 P h y s i c a l education 24 E n g l i s h 25 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 26 Mathematics 27 Science 29 Other 33. How do your c l o s e f r i e n d s f e e l about your d e c i s i o n to go i n t o teaching? V a r i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of response from source of p o s t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 37-38 Coding: 1 0 20 30 P o s i t i v e Negat ive Other 11 very pos. 12 q u i t e pos. 21 very neg. 22 q u i t e neg. 31 non-comm. 32 don't know 38 pos+neg 39 other 237 34. What about the people you worked with? V a r i a b l e : Q u a l i t y of response from source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 39-40 Coding: 10 20 30 P o s i t i v e Negative Other 11 very pos. 21 very neg. 31 non-comm. 12 q u i t e pos. 22 q u i t e neg. 32 don't know 38 pos+neg 39 other 35. Do your parents know of your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of support from source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 41 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 3 not r e l e v a n t (deceased; no c o n t a c t etc.) 36. What do they t h i n k about t e a c h i n g as a job? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of support from source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 42-43 238 Coding: 10 20 30 P o s i t i v e Negative Other 11 very pos. 12 q u i t e pos. 21 very neg. 22 q u i t e neg. 31 non-comm. 32 don't know 33 not t o l d 39 not r e l . 37. What does your wife t h i n k ? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of support from reinforcement source of p o s i t i v e Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 44-45 Coding: 10 20 30 P o s i t i v e Negative Other 11 very pos. 12 q u i t e pos. 21 very neg. 22 q u i t e neg. 31 non-comm. 32 don't know 39 no wife 38. Can you thin k of anyone e l s e important to you who has been s u p p o r t i v e i n making t h i s c a r e e r change? Var i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of support from source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 46-48 Coding: 1 no one 2 f a m i l y member 3 f r i e n d 4 workmate 5 c o u n s e l l o r 6 f a c u l t y 9 other 239 39. Can you thin k of anyone important to you who was a b i t c r i t i c a l ? V a r i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of c r i t i c i s m from source of p o s i t i v e reinforcement Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 49-50 Coding: 1 no one . 2 f a m i l y member 3 f r i e n d 4 workmate 5 c o u n s e l l o r 6 f a c u l t y 7 wife 9 other 40. Have you seen any f i l m s or TV programs about s c h o o l s or teaching? V a r i a b l e : Exposure to v i s u a l images a s s o c i a t e d with t e a c h i n g Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 51 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 41. Can you r e c a l l any scenes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? V a r i a b l e : Exposure to v i s u a l images a s s o c i a t e d with t e a c h i n g of I n d u s t r i a l Education Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 52 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 9 has not seen film/program 240 42. What impression of teaching d i d you get from the f ilm/program? Var i a b l e : P o r t r a y e d image of teaching as an o c c u p a t i o n Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 53 Coding: 1 p o s i t i v e ("worthwhile; rewarding; e t c . " ) 2 negative ("waste of time; unpleasant; e t c . " ) 3 both p o s i t i v e and negative 4 non-commital response 9 has not seen film/program 43. What s o r t of person was the teacher? V a r i a b l e : P o r t r a y e d image of teacher Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 54 Coding: 1 p o s i t i v e ("leader; p a t i e n t ; warm; etc . " ) 2 negative ("weak; impatient; withdrawn; e t c . " ) 3 both p o s i t i v e and negative 4 non-commital response 9 has not seen film/program 44. Do your t h i n k t h i s film/program had any i n f l u e n c e on your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? V a r i a b l e : E f f e c t of p o r t r a y e d image of teacher or t e a c h i n g on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 55 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 3 don't know 9 has not seen film/program 241 45. Have you read any books about schools or teaching? V a r i a b l e : Exposure to v e r b a l image a s s o c i a t e d with t e a c h i n g Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 56 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 46. Can you r e c a l l any episodes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? V a r i a b l e : Exposure to v e r b a l image a s s o c i a t e d with the t e a c h i n g of I n d u s t r i a l Education Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 57 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 9 has not read book 47. What impressions of teaching d i d you get from the book? V a r i a b l e : P o r t r a y e d image of teaching as o c c u p a t i o n Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 58 Coding: 1 p o s i t i v e ("worthwhile; rewarding; e t c . " ) 2 negative ("waste of time; unpleasant; e t c . " ) 3 both p o s i t i v e and negative 4 non-commital response 9 has not read book 48. What s o r t of person was the teacher? V a r i a b l e : P o r t r a y e d image of teacher Necessary number of columns: 1 242 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 59 Coding: 1 p o s i t i v e ("leader; p a t i e n t ; warm; e t c . " ) 2 negative ("weak; impatient; withdrawn; e t c . " ) 3 both p o s i t i v e and negative 4 non-commital response 9 has not read book 49. Do you t h i n k t h i s book a f f e c t e d your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? V a r i a b l e : E f f e c t of p o r t r a y e d image of teacher or t e a c h i n g on career d e c i s i o n making Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 60 Coding: 1 yes 2 no 3 don't know 9 has not read book 50. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much you are l i v i n g apart from your f a m i l y now that you have en t e r e d the I n d u s t r i a l Education program? (Card) (A) A l l of the time (B) Most of the time (not weekends etc.) (C) Part of the time (D) None of the time (E) not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e alone V a r i a b l e : Amount of time spent apart from f a m i l y as a r e s u l t of ca r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 61 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 243 51. Have your f a m i l y experienced any major changes now that you have entered the t r a i n i n g program? (probe) What s o r t of changes? V a r i a b l e : Type of change experienced by f a m i l y as a r e s u l t of car e e r change Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 62-64 Coding: 1 none 2 s e p a r a t i o n from p a r t i c i p a n t 3 r e l o c a t i o n 4 change of job 5 change of schools 6 f i n a n c i a l 8 not r e l e v a n t , I l i v e alone 9 other 52. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s you expect d u r i n g your t r a i n i n g year? (Card) (A) Extreme (B) High (C) Moderate (D) S l i g h t (E) None V a r i a b l e : Degree of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 65 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 53. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how much your income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r about f i v e years w i l l compare with your income f o r the year before you entered the program? (Card) (A) Much higher (B) S l i g h t l y higher (C) About the same 244 (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Don't know V a r i a b l e : Comparative f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s r e s u l t i n g from c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 66 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 F 54. When you were t h i n k i n g of changing jobs was there a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r that made the move d i f f i c u l t f o r you? (probe) What s o r t of thing? V a r i a b l e : Major b a r r i e r to c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 67-69 Coding: 1 f a m i l y f a c t o r s 2 f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s 3 r e l o c a t i o n 4 s o c i a l f a c t o r s 5 academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 9 other 55. Can you t h i n k of anything that would have completely prevented you from changing jobs? V a r i a b l e : Major b a r r i e r to c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 70-72 Coding: 1 none 2 f a m i l y exigency 3 f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s 245 4 r e l o c a t i o n 5 lack of f a m i l y support 9 other 56. What s o r t of t h i n g helped you make the change? V a r i a b l e : Major f a c i l i t a t o r to c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 3 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 73-75 Coding: 1 f a m i l y support 2 f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s 3 p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n 4 d e s i r e to leave c u r r e n t job 9 other 57. If you had to pay your own u n i v e r s i t y fees rather than being sponsored, how l i k e l y i s i t that you would have a p p l i e d f o r e n t r y i n t o the program? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) Very u n l i k e l y Var i a b l e : E f f e c t of f i n a n c i a l o u t l a y as b a r r i e r to ca r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 76 Coding: 4 A 3 B 2 C 1 D 58. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how the people you l i v e with f e e l about your being a teacher? (Card) (A) Very s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) Non-commital (D) F a i r l y u n supportive (E) Very unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t 246 V a r i a b l e : Support from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h ers for c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 77 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 F 59. How do your c h i l d r e n f e e l ? (Card) (A) Very s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) Non-commital (D) F a i r l y unsupportive (E) Very unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t Var i a b l e : Support from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s f o r c a r e e r change Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 78 Coding: 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 9 F 60. What do you hope to be doing i n your c a r e e r i n 5 years t ime? V a r i a b l e : A n t i c i p a t e d c a r e e r g o a l s a f t e r 5 years Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 79-80 Coding: 1 teacher 2 head of department 3 a d m i n i s t r a t o r 4 out of t e a c h i n g 5 completion of B. Ed. Degree 6 graduate degree 7 t r a v e l 8 don't know 9 other CODE ON ROW 3 61. What do you hope to be doing i n 10 years time? Var i a b l e : A n t i c i p a t e d c a r e e r g o a l s a f t e r 10 years Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 7-8 Coding: 1 classroom teacher 2 head of department 3 a d m i n i s t r a t o r 4 out of t e a c h i n g 5 completion of B. Ed. Degree 6 graduate degree 7 t r a v e l 8 don't know 9 other 62. Why do you want to be a teacher? V a r i a b l e : Type of reason given f o r e n t e r i n g teaching as a second c a r e e r Necessary number of columns: 6 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 9-14 Coding: 10 20 I n t r i n s i c E x t r i n s i c 11 s a t i s f a c t i o n 21 work cons. 12 match s-concept 22 f i n a n c i a l 13 be with youth 23 s t a b i l i t y 14 be with f a m i l y 24 p r e s t i g e 15 c h a l l e n g e 25 f l e x i b i l i t y 16 s e l f improvement 26 c a r e e r opp'y 19 other 29 other 63. How o l d were you on your l a s t b i r t h d a y ? V a r i a b l e : Age of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 15-16 Coding: Record number of years as r e p o r t e d 64. And your sex i s male. Var i a b l e : Sex of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 17 Coding: 1 male 2 female 65. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? Var i a b l e : M a r i t a l s t a t u s of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 18 Coding: 1 married 2 s i n g l e 3 other 66. ( I f married) How long have you been married? Var i a b l e : Number of years p a r t i c i p a n t has been married Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 19-20 Coding: Record number of years as r e p o r t e d 98 s i n g l e 99 other 249 67. (If married) What i s your w i f e ' s occupation? V a r i a b l e : Occupation of wife of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 21 Coding: 1 c l e r i c a l 2 homemaker 3 nurse 4 student-graduate 5 student-undergraduate 6 teacher 7 not married 9 other 68. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? V a r i a b l e : Number of c h i l d r e n of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 22 Coding: Record number as r e p o r t e d 69. How o l d are they? Var i a b l e : Ages of c h i l d r e n Necessary number of columns: 5 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 23-27 Coding: T no c h i l d r e n 2 under 5 years 3 5-10 years 4 11-15 years 5 16-20 years 6 21+ years 70. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s your l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g before you entered the program? (Card) (A) Elementary s c h o o l (B) Some hig h s c h o o l (C) Completed high s c h o o l 250 (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y degree (F) Graduate degree (G) Some c o l l e g e or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n (H) Completed c o l l e g e or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n (I) Don't know Var i a b l e : E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 28 Coding: 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 71. What grade were you i n when you l e f t secondary school f o r the f i r s t time? V a r i a b l e : Grade at i n i t i a l completion of secondary sc h o o l Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 29 Coding: 1 grade 8 2 grade 9 3 grade 10 4 grade 11 5 grade 12 72. Have you had any i n f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g such as i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e that? Var i a b l e : E x i s t e n c e of formal education o u t s i d e f u l l - t i m e route Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 30-31 251 Coding: 1 none 2 i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g 3 upgrading 4 union l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g 5 n i g h t school 6 armed f o r c e s 9 other 73. ( I f married) What i s your wife's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) Elementary s c h o o l (B) Some hig h s c h o o l (C) Completed hi g h school „(D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y degree (F) Graduate degree (G) Some c o l l e g e or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n (H) Completed c o l l e g e or other post high s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (I) don't know Var i a b l e : E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of spouse Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 32 Coding: 1 A 2 B 3 C -4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I (Use f o r 'Not married'.) 74. What was your f a t h e r ' s occupation? (probe) What d i d he do i n that job? Var i a b l e : Occupation and subsequent ranking on B l i s h e n S c a l e Necessary number of columns: 4 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 33-36 coding: Occupation as re p o r t e d Code c l a s s i n row 3 column 49 252 75. What was your mother's occupation? Var i a b l e : Occupation of mother Necessary number of columns; 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 37-38 Coding; 1 homemaker 2 c l e r i c a l 3 nurse 4 teacher 9 other 76. Was that f u l l - or part - t i m e ? V a r i a b l e ; P r o p o r t i o n of mother's time spent i n employment o u t s i d e the home Necessary number of columns; 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns; 39 Coding; 1 no o u t s i d e employment 2 par t - t i m e o u t s i d e employment 3 f u l l - t i m e o u t s i d e employment 77. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Card) a l e t t e r that t e l l s your (A (B (C (D (E (F (G (H (I) Elementary s c h o o l Some hig h s c h o o l Completed hi g h school Some u n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y degree Graduate degree Some c o l l e g e or other post h i g h school i n s t i t u t i o n Completed c o l l e g e or other post high school i n s t i t u t i o n don't know V a r i a b l e : E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of f a t h e r Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 40 253 Coding: 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 78. And your mother's l e v e l of sc h o o l i n g ? (Card) (A) Elementary school (B) Some hig h school (C) Completed high school (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y degree (F) Graduate degree (G) Some c o l l e g e or other post high s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H) Completed c o l l e g e or other post h i g h s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (I) don't know Var i a b l e : E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of mother Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 41 Coding: 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 79. Where were you born? Var i a b l e : B i r t h p l a c e of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 42 Coding: 1 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Canada elsewhere 3 U.K. 254 4 U.S.A. 5 Western Europe 6 Eastern Europe 9 other 80. Where was your f a t h e r born? Var i a b l e : B i r t h p l a c e of f a t h e r of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 43 Coding: 1 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Canada elsewhere 3 U.K. 4 U.S.A. 5 Western Europe 6 Eastern Europe 9 other 81. And your mother? V a r i a b l e : B i r t h p l a c e of mother of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 44 Coding: 1 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Canada elsewhere 3 U.K. 4 U.S.A. 5 Western Europe 6 Eastern Europe 9 other 82. When you were growing up what language d i d you speak at home? Var i a b l e : F i r s t language of p a r t i c i p a n t ; e t h n i c a f f i l i a t i o n Necessary number of columns: 2 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 45-46 255 Coding: 1 E n g l i s h 2 French 3 German 4 I t a l i a n 5 Ukranian 9 other 83. Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n , Landed Immigrant, or do you have another s t a t u s ? V a r i a b l e : N a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t Necessary number of columns: 1 A l l o c a t e d F o r t r a n columns: 47 Coding: 1 Canadian c i t i z e n 2 Landed Immigrant 3 other s t a t u s A P P E N D I X G F I N A L V E R S I O N OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 257 FINAL VERSION OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Before the i n t e r v i e w s t a r t e d the respondents were thanked f o r a g r e e i n g to take p a r t i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The purpose of the re s e a r c h was summarised. Assurance was given as to anonymity of t h e i r responses. Each p a r t i c i p a n t was reminded that the i n t e r v i e w was to be tape-recorded and that he had the r i g h t to ref u s e to answer any q u e s t i o n or stop the i n t e r v i e w at any time. 1. What kind of work d i d you do before e n t e r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. program? (probe) What d i d you do i n that j o b ? / Were you a foreman,supervisor, anything l i k e that? 2. How long d i d you do that ? 3. Is that the kind of work you have been doing most of your working l i f e ? 4. What other kind of work have you done? 5. About how long were you i n each job? 6. What made you change your mind about being a ? 7. When d i d you s t a r t t h i n k i n g about changing your job? 8. Was there anything i n p a r t i c u l a r that made you want to change jobs at that time? 9. What i s important to you i n choosing a new l i n e of work? (probe) What makes a job a t t r a c t i v e to you? 10. What do you think you w i l l g a i n by e n t e r i n g a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? 11. Do you a n t i c i p a t e any problems going i n t o a new l i n e of work at t h i s time? (probe) What kind of problems?/ None at a l l ? 258 12. Now that you've more or l e s s decided to change your job, how do you f e e l about making the change? 13. D i d you c o n s i d e r other l i n e s of work besides teaching? 14. How f a r d i d you go towards e n t e r i n g these other jobs? 15. What i s i t about t e a c h i n g t h a t makes i t a good job f o r you? 16. Is t h i s the f i r s t time you have c o n s i d e r e d being a teacher? (probe) When d i d you th i n k about i t before? 17. Why d i d you not go i n t o t e a c h i n g then? 18. Have you had any teacher t r a i n i n g of any kind? 19. Have you ever done any t e a c h i n g , coaching or t u t o r i n g ? (probe) Have you spent any time with youth groups, summer camps, an y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? 20. How d i d that go? 21. How d i d you f e e l about i t ? 22. D i d anyone comment on how you did? (probe) What s o r t of t h i n g d i d they say? 23. When you were at secondary s c h o o l , d i d you take I n d u s t r i a l Education c l a s s e s ? 24. How much do you th i n k the students l e a r n e d i n the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very much (B) A l o t (C) Some (D) A l i t t l e (E) Very l i t t l e 25. How o f t e n d i d they get t h e i r p r o j e c t s completed? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very o f t e n (B) Often (C) Sometimes (D) Seldom (E) Very seldom 259 26. How much of a d i s c i p l i n e problem was there i n the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s e s ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . (Same c a r d as i n Question 24 above.) 27. How w e l l d i d the students get along with the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teacher? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very w e l l (B) Q u i t e w e l l (C) Non-commital (D) Qui t e badly (E) Very badly 28. Do you t h i n k the students tended to be c l o s e r to the I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h e r s than to other members of s t a f f ? 29. How w e l l do you thin k the I n d u s t r i a l Ed. teach e r s got along with the r e s t of the s t a f f ? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r . (Same c a r d as i n Question 27 above.) 30. Do you have any c l o s e f r i e n d s who are teachers? 31. Are there any teach e r s i n your family? 32. When you were i n sc h o o l were there any teachers that you p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d ? (probe) What d i d they teach? 33. How do your c l o s e f r i e n d s f e e l about your d e c i s i o n to go i n t o teaching? 34. What about the people you worked with? 35. Do your parents know of your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? 36. What do they t h i n k about t e a c h i n g as a job? 37. What does your wife t h i n k ? 38. Can you think of anyone e l s e important to you who has been s u p p o r t i v e i n making t h i s career change? 39. Can you think of anyone important to you who was a b i t c r i t i c a l ? 260 40. Have you seen any f i l m s or TV programs about schools or teaching? 41. Can you r e c a l l any scenes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? 42. What impression of t e a c h i n g d i d you get from the film/program? 43. What s o r t of person was the teacher? 44. Do your think t h i s film/program had any i n f l u e n c e on your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? 45. Have you read any books about schools or teaching? 46. Can you r e c a l l any episodes i n an I n d u s t r i a l Ed. c l a s s ? 47. What impressions of t e a c h i n g d i d you get from the book? 48. What s o r t of person was the teacher? 49. Do you thin k t h i s book a f f e c t e d your d e c i s i o n to become a teacher? 50. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much you are l i v i n g apart from your f a m i l y now that you have entered the I n d u s t r i a l Education program? (Card) (A) A l l of the time (B) Most of the time (not weekends etc.) (C) Part of the time (D) None of the time (E) not r e l e v a n t ; I l i v e alone 51. Have your f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d any major changes now that you have entered the t r a i n i n g program? (probe) What s o r t of changes? 52. From t h i s c a r d , would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s how much f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s you expect d u r i n g your t r a i n i n g year? (Card) (A) Extreme (B) High (C) Moderate (D) S l i g h t (E) None 261 53. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how much your income from t e a c h i n g a f t e r about f i v e years w i l l compare with your income f o r the year before you entered the program? (Card) (A) Much high e r (B) S l i g h t l y higher (C) About the same (D) S l i g h t l y l e s s (E) Much l e s s (F) Don't know 54. When you were t h i n k i n g of changing jobs was there anything i n p a r t i c u l a r that made the move d i f f i c u l t f o r you? (probe) What s o r t of thin g ? 55. Can you thin k of a n y t h i n g that would have completely prevented you from changing jobs? 56. What s o r t of t h i n g helped you make the change? 57. If you had to pay your own u n i v e r s i t y fees r a t h e r than being sponsored, how l i k e l y i s i t that you would have a p p l i e d f o r en t r y i n t o the program? Please s e l e c t a l e t t e r from t h i s c a r d . (Card) (A) Very l i k e l y (B) F a i r l y l i k e l y (C) F a i r l y u n l i k e l y (D) Very u n l i k e l y 58. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r that t e l l s how the people you l i v e with f e e l about your being a teacher? (Card) (A) Very s u p p o r t i v e (B) F a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e (C) Non-commital (D) F a i r l y unsupportive (E) Very unsupportive (F) Not r e l e v a n t 59. How do your c h i l d r e n f e e l ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 57) 60. What do you hope to be doing i n your c a r e e r i n 5 years time? 262 61. What do you hope to be doing i n 10 years time? 62. Why do you want to be a teacher? Cue: Now I'd l i k e to f i n i s h up with a few background d e t a i l s . 63. How o l d were you on your l a s t b i r t h d a y ? 64. And your sex i s male. 65. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 66. ( I f married) How long have you been married? 67. ( I f married) What i s your wife's occupation? 68. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 69. How o l d are they? 70. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s your l e v e l of, s c h o o l i n g before you entered the t r a i n i n g program? (Card) (A) Elementary school (B) Some secondary school (C) Completed secondary school (D) Some u n i v e r s i t y (E) U n i v e r s i t y degree (F) Graduate degree (G) Some c o l l e g e or other post h i g h s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n (H) Completed c o l l e g e or other post h i g h school i n s t i t u t i o n (I) Don't know 71. What grade were you i n when you l e f t secondary s c h o o l f o r the f i r s t time? 72. Have you had any i n f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g such as i n p l a n t t r a i n i n g , upgrading c l a s s e s , anything l i k e t h a t ? 73. ( I f married) What i s your wife's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 69) 263 74. What was your f a t h e r ' s occupation? (probe) What d i d he do i n that job? 75. What was your mother's occupation? 76. Was that f u l l - or part-time? 77. From t h i s c a r d would you s e l e c t a l e t t e r t h a t t e l l s your f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 70) 78. And your mother's l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g ? (Use same c a r d as i n Question 70) 79. Where were you born? 80. Where was your f a t h e r born? 81. And your mother? 82. When you were growing up what language d i d you speak at home? (cue) And the l a s t q u e s t i o n i s . . . 83. Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n , Landed Immigrant, or do you have another s t a t u s ? APPENDIX H L E T T E R OF CONTACT 2 6 6 APPENDIX I PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM 267 PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM I hereby g i v e my v o l u n t a r y consent to be int e r v i e w e d f o r the purposes of re s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h i n g as a second ca r e e r c h o i c e . The nature of the r e s e a r c h has been e x p l a i n e d to me and I am aware that the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be tape-recorded. I understand that my i d e n t i t y w i l l not be d i s c l o s e d and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n given w i l l be t r e a t e d as anonymous and conf i d e n t i a l . I f u r t h e r understand that I may re f u s e to answer any q u e s t i o n and may terminate the i n t e r v i e w at any time. Signed Date 

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