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Certification and a certification program for arborists and tree workers in the Pacific Northwest Murray, Susan Marie 1989

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CERTIFICATION AND A CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR ARBORISTS AND TREE WORKERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST By SUSAN MARIE MURRAY B . S c . ( A g r . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P l a n t S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l O Susan Ma r i e BRITISH COLUMBIA 1989 Murray, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a means by w h i c h a p r o f e s s i o n a l agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l who has a c h i e v e d a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s o f t e n v o l u n t a r y and i n d i c a t e s r e s e r v e d t i t l e . L i c e n s u r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s l e g i s l a t e d and i n d i c a t e s e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o p r a c t i c e . T h e r e a r e b o t h b e n e f i t s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be b a s e d on competency P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s have a s t r o n g r o l e t o p l a y i n b o t h c e r t i f i c a t i o n am mandated c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . A c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t i n t r o d u c e s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r o g r a m , i t s o b j e c t i v e s , d e v e l o p m e n t , r e q u i r e m e n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y and i t s e v a l u a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . DEFINITIONS 1 I I I . BENEFITS OF C E R T I F I C A T I O N 4 I V . DISADVANTAGES OF C E R T I F I C A T I O N 5 V . C E R T I F I C A T I O N AND COMPETENCY 7 V I . THE ROLE OF THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION 10 V I I . MANDATORY CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION 11 V I I I . INTRODUCING A C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAM FOR ARBORISTS AND TREE WORKERS IN THE P A C I F I C NORTHWEST A . Reasons f o r C e r t i f i c a t i o n 14 B. P l a n n i n g the P r o g r a m 15 C . The P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n 16 D. O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o g r a m 18 E . D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Program 20 F . R e q u i r e m e n t s o f the Program 27 G . A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Program 40 H . P u b l i c i z i n g t h e Program 43 I . E v a l u a t i n g the Program 43 I X . SUMMARY 59 X. FOOTNOTES 62 X I . BIBLIOGRAPHY , 66 X I I . APPENDICES i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s C o n t ' d Page A p p e n d i x A - S o r k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g M o d e l 72 A p p e n d i x B - I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e C h a p t e r Summary . . . 73 A p p e n d i x C - C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s o f T h r e e C h a p t e r V o l u n t a r y C e r t i f i c a t i o n Programs 74 A p p e n d i x D - C o m p a r i s o n o f the R e q u i r e m e n t s o f S e v e n V o l u n t a r y C h a p t e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n Programs 75 A p p e n d i x E - R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n Program - C e r t i f i e d T r e e Worker 77 A p p e n d i x F - R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m - C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t 78 A p p e n d i x G - C o m p a r i s o n o f Two E x i s t i n g C e r t i f i c a t i o n Programs and the PNW Program f o r t h e C e r t i f i e d T r e e Worker 79' A p p e n d i x H - C o m p a r i s o n of S i x C e r t i f i c a t i o n Programs and t h e PNW P r o g r a m f o r the C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t 80 A p p e n d i x I - Code o f E t h i c s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e , P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r 82 A p p e n d i x J - C e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s B r o c h u r e and A p p l i c a t i o n 84 A p p e n d i x K - Acknowledgement o f A p p l i c a t i o n 87 A p p e n d i x L - P r o m o t i o n a l L e t t e r 89 A p p e n d i x M - S o u r c e o f R e f e r e n c e s L e t t e r 91 A p p e n d i x N - C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e p o r t 94 A p p e n d i x 0 - C o r r e l a t i o n Between the O b j e c t i v e s f o u n d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e and t h e E x a m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n s t o c o n f i r m c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y 97 A p p e n d i x P - E x p e r t and P r e - T e s t P a n e l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 103 A p p e n d i x Q - P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s M a n u a l 109 A p p e n d i x R - S t u d y G u i d e f o r A r b o r i s t and T r e e Worker C e r t i f i c a t i o n E x a m i n a t i o n s 124 A p p e n d i x S - Sample E x a m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n s 195 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t and W e s t e r n C h a p t e r s o f I S A . 1 I . INTRODUCTION The w r i t e r was c h a r g e d w i t h the t a s k o f p r e p a r i n g a v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . B e f o r e t h i s t a s k c o u l d b e g i n , a few q u e s t i o n s were p o s e d . F o r e x a m p l e : What i s c e r t i f i c a t i o n ? What a r e the b e n e f i t s , as o p p o s e d t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of c e r t i f i c a t i o n ? How does c e r t i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r f r o m l i c e n s i n g ? What i s t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n ? What a r e t h e p r o s and cons o f mandated c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ? Once t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were a n s w e r e d , t h e n a c e r t i f i c a t i o n program f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s was d e v e l o p e d . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a model f o r p l a n n i n g t h e p r o g r a m , t h e s p o n s o r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , the o b j e c t i v e s and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m , as compared t o o t h e r e x i s t i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s , w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . A d i s c u s s i o n of how t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d and p u b l i c i z e d w i l l be i n c l u d e d . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m w i l l be s u m m a r i z e d . I I . DEFINITIONS The d e f i n i t i o n o f terms u s e d p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t b e g i n n i n g i n any r e v i e w . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a t e r m t h a t i s o f t e n u s e d as a synonym f o r l i c e n s i n g . A c c r e d i t a t i o n i s o f t e n u s e d as a synonym f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . E a c h t e r m has a p r e c i s e m e a n i n g . T h e r e a r e no s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a c c r e d i t a t i o n , c e r t i f i c a t i o n and l i c e n s i n g . The d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e , i n t e n t , and f u n c t i o n of t h e terms when a p p l i e d t o t h e c r e d e n t i a l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s , o c c u p a t i o n s , o r i n s t i t u t i o n s . A c c r e d i t a t i o n i s 2 t h e endorsement and p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n o r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e t h a t has met c e r t a i n f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e x c e l l e n c e i n terms o f s e r v i c e , f a c i l i t i e s , s t a n d a r d s a n d / o r p r o d u c t q u a l i t y as d e t e r m i n e d by p e e r g r o u p s , i n s t i t u t i o n s o r b u s i n e s s e s . A c c r e d i t a t i o n c a n n o t a p p l y t o i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r e x a m p l e , a c o l l e g e o r t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e may be a c c r e d i t e d but an i n s t r u c t o r o f t h e c o l l e g e o r i n s t i t u t e may n o t be a c c r e d i t e d . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s w i t h s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s s e s s i n g and m e a s u r i n g an a p p l i c a n t ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o r c o m p e t e n c e . C e r t i f i c a t i o n c a n be d e f i n e d a s : . . . [ a ] r e g u l a t o r y regime u n d e r w h i c h p e r s o n s w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e c e r t i f i e d by a body o r agency as p o s s e s s i n g t h o s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s so t h a t t h e y c a n h o l d out t h i s c e r t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c as a s i g n a l t h a t i n d i c a t e s a c h i e v e m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e . ^ o r The p r o c e s s by w h i c h a n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n g r a n t s r e c o g n i t i o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l who has met c e r t a i n p r e d e t e r m i n e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s s p e c i f i e d by t h a t agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n . Such q u a l i f i c a t i o n s may i n c l u d e : (a) g r a d u a t i o n f r o m an a c c r e d i t e d o r a p p r o v e d p r o g r a m ; (b) a c c e p t a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e i n a q u a l i f y i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o r s e r i e s o f e x a m i n a t i o n s ; a n d / o r ( c ) c o m p l e t i o n o f a g i v e n amount of work e x p e r i e n c e . ^ C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a means by w h i c h a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y o r agency g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o a p r a c t i t i o n e r who has met c e r t a i n p r e d e t e r m i n e d s t a n d a r d s . I t i s a v o l u n t a r y mechanism by w h i c h an a p p l i c a n t c a n document h i s / h e r c o m p e t e n c y . C e r t i f i c a t i o n o p e r a t e s w i t h o u t the mandate o f l a w . I t i s an i n t e r n a l s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g d e v i c e a d m i n i s t e r e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y o r agency as o p p o s e d t o e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l by g o v e r n m e n t . C e r t i f y i n g a g e n c i e s do n o t p r e v e n t u n c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s f r o m p e r f o r m i n g t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l t a s k s , b u t p r a c t i t i o n e r s , n o t a p p r o v e d by t h e a g e n c y , may n o t p r e s e n t 3 t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e p u b l i c as " c e r t i f i e d " . In the h e a l t h f i e l d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , b i o m e d i c a l e n g i n e e r s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l h e a l t h t e c h n o l o g i s t s , and m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n o l o g i s t s , among o t h e r s , a r e c e r t i f i e d . ^ O u t s i d e t h e h e a l t h f i e l d one may f i n d d o z e n s o f c e r t i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n s . L i c e n s u r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s b a s e d on a law p a s s e d by a p r o v i n c i a l o r s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e . The law makes i t i l l e g a l f o r a p r a c t i t i o n e r t o engage i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f an o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n u n l e s s h e / s h e has f i r s t been g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o do so by a l e g a l l y a u t h o r i z e d b o a r d , agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n . L i c e n s u r e i s b a s e d upon c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t r a i n i n g , e d u c a t i o n , e x a m i n a t i o n , and i n t e r n s h i p w h i c h , when s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , a l l o w s the p r a c t i t i o n e r t h e l e g a l r i g h t t o engage i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n . L i c e n s i n g e n a b l e s t h e government t o c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m i g h t e n d a n g e r the p u b l i c ' s h e a l t h , s a f e t y , o r w e l f a r e . O n l y p r a c t i t i o n e r s h o l d i n g a l i c e n c e a r e l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o engage i n t h e l i c e n s e d a c t i v i t i e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f a p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s competence o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e are many l i c e n s e d o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s ; among them, l i c e n s e d p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s , o p t o m e t r i s t s , p h a r m a c i s t s , p h y s i c i a n s , p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s and r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n does not r e s t r i c t who may p r a c t i c e a p r o f e s s i o n , j u s t who may l a b e l t h e m s e l v e s " c e r t i f i e d " . C e r t i f i c a t i o n , b e c a u s e i t i s o f t e n v o l u n t a r y , i s a l e s s r i g i d means of r e g u l a t i n g an o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n . L i c e n s u r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d and may r e d u c e t h e number o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n an o c c u p a t i o n t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t i n g o r l i m i t i n g p u b l i c c h o i c e o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . L i c e n s u r e i s more o f t e n a r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n s w h i c h , t h r o u g h t h e i r a c t i o n s , may e n d a n g e r t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y o r w e l f a r e . 4 I I I . BENEFITS OF C E R T I F I C A T I O N T h e r e a r e many b e n e f i t s t o t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n an o c c u p a t i o n - b e n e f i t s t o t h e p u b l i c , t h e i n d i v i d u a l , e m p l o y e r s , and t o the s p o n s o r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l . C e r t i f i c a t i o n h e l p s t h e p u b l i c t o i d e n t i f y q u a l i f i e d and competent p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The p u b l i c may be a s s u r e d t h a t s e r v i c e w i l l be o f a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y s i n c e a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e a b l e a s s e s s m e n t of the knowledge and competence t h a t i s u s u a l l y needed t o r e n d e r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e . Many c e r t i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s s u b s c r i b e t o a Code o f E t h i c s . A d h e r e n c e t o a Code of E t h i c s may a g a i n a s s u r e t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l p e r f o r m h i s / h e r d u t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l c o d e . A c e r t i f i c a t i o n program e s t a b l i s h e s a d e g r e e o f c r e d i t a b i l i t y t o t h e f i e l d and r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m a l l i e d o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The p r o f e s s i o n and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n c r e a s e d v i s i b i l i t y g e n e r a t e d by a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . C a r e e r advancement o f an i n d i v i d u a l , i s one o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t o e m p l o y e r s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a h i g h e r l e v e l p o s i t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n h i r i n g and i n i t i a l p l a c e m e n t as w e l l . C e r t i f i c a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n r e i n f o r c e s a p r o f e s s i o n a l image t o b o t h p e e r s and s u p e r i o r s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n h e l p s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r e v a l u a t e h i s / h e r knowledge and s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s w i t h i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n a t t e s t s t o a c h i e v e m e n t , w h i c h i m p r o v e s s e l f - e s t e e m and e n c o u r a g e s p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i d e . The s e n s e o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t and r e c o g n i t i o n r e c e i v e d , as t h e r e s u l t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , i s an i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t t o many i n d i v i d u a l s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n , i n some c a s e s , o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - t a u g h t p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o o b t a i n c r e d e n t i a l s . E m p l o y e r s b e n e f i t f r o m h i r i n g and c o n s u l t i n g c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o o . From t h e e m p l o y e r ' s v i e w p o i n t , c e r t i f i c a t i o n c r e d e n t i a l s , h e l d by a j o b a p p l i c a n t , p r o v i d e a d e g r e e o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has c e r t a i n b a s i c s k i l l s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e a d v e r t i s e d p o s i t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n does n o t g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p e r f o r m w e l l i n t h e j o b . R a t h e r , b e c a u s e c e r t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge and s k i l l s o v e r a wide range o f s i t u a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r chance t h a t t h e c e r t i f i e d a p p l i c a n t w i l l p e r f o r m t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . E m p l o y e r s , i n a d d i t i o n , a r e e a g e r t o a d v e r t i s e t h e competence o f t h e i r s t a f f . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t o an e m p l o y e r t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i d e and i s c o m m i t t e d t o p e r s o n a l g r o w t h , becoming i n the l o n g t e r m , a more v a l u a b l e and p r o d u c t i v e e m p l o y e e . In summary, v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f f e r s a f l e x i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n t h r o u g h l i c e n s i n g , w h i c h i s o f t e n r e s t r i c t i n g , s u b j e c t t o p o l i t i c a l change and e x p e n s i v e . C e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e s an i n c e n t i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o improve t h e i r s k i l l s because o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between c e r t i f i c a t i o n and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n , r e m u n e r a t i o n and p r e s t i g e r e c e i v e d . C e r t i f i c a t i o n a l s o o f f e r s b e n e f i t s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e m p l o y e r , t h e s p o n s o r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , and t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I V . DISADVANTAGES OF C E R T I F I C A T I O N S h o u l d t h e r e be c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s ? Does e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l have t h e r i g h t t o p r a c t i c e - o r on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s h o u l d the r i g h t t o p r a c t i c e be r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o t h o s e who have met a s e t o f g i v e n r e q u i r e m e n t s ? C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c can be p r o t e c t e d f r o m p o o r s e r v i c e i f o n l y t h o s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s who are " c e r t i f i e d " a r e a l l o w e d t o a d v e r t i s e t h e m s e l v e s as s u c h . T h i s may l i m i t t h e c h o i c e o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o t h e p u b l i c , w h i l e a t t h e same 6 t i m e , f u r t h e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e same p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e i r c l i m b f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . In most o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s , i t i s t h e members f r o m w i t h i n who e s t a b l i s h c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . Because o f t h i s , i n some c a s e s , c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h a r e n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f an o c c u p a t i o n , but w h i c h do l i m i t who may o r may not p r a c t i c e . In a d d i t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s may be s e t w h i c h r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s e x c e e d i n g t h o s e needed t o p r o v i d e good s e r v i c e . T h i s i n c r e a s e s b o t h the t ime and expense o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . The p u b l i c i s s u p p o s e d t o be one o f the b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , y e t s e l d o m a r e t h e y a p a r t o f t h e team u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . R o c k h i l l s t a t e s : In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c e r t i f i c a t i o n s e r v e s t o : (1) d e f i n e s o c i a l c l a s s s t a t u s ; (2) s o r t and s e l e c t out p e o p l e f o r j o b s o r t o j o i n t h e r a n k s of t h e u n e m p l o y e d ; (3) d e t e r m i n e who w i l l have a c c e s s t o k n o w l e d g e ; (4) i n c r e a s e p u b l i c dependence upon t h e s e r v i c e s o f e x p e r t s ; (5) p e r p e t u a t e a v a s t e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e d i r e c t e d a t t u r n i n g out c e r t i f i c a t e - h o l d e r s r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ; and (6) l i m i t o u r c i v i l l i b e r t i e s as we a r e f o r c e d t o s u b m i t t o c e r t a i n r i t u a l s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s w h i c h may n o t be o f o u r c h o o s i n g . ^ C e r t i f i c a t i o n has been q u e s t i o n e d as a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g competence by p u b l i c g r o u p s , e m p l o y e e s , even p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n may a t t e s t t o t h e competency o f the i n d i v i d u a l but does n o t g u a r a n t e e o r a s s u r e q u a l i t y p e r f o r m a n c e . S e v e r a l o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n a r e t h a t d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i m p l e m e n t b e c a u s e t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s n o t mandated by l a w . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f t e n do not have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n and a p r o g r a m t o improve p u b l i c awareness c a n be v e r y e x p e n s i v e and t i m e c o n s u m i n g . 7 V . C E R T I F I C A T I O N AND COMPETENCY C e r t i f i c a t i o n and t h e i s s u e o f competency a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d . S i n c e t h e p u r p o s e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e t h e p u b l i c r e c e i v e s , n o t j u s t t o make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o e n t e r an o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n , c e r t i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be b a s e d on c o m p e t e n c y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s , s u c h a s , c a n i n i t i a l competency be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t f o r l i f e l o n g p r a c t i c e , c a n competency i t s e l f be measured a c c u r a t e l y , and i f s o , how? Most c r e d e n t i a l i n g a g e n c i e s f o c u s on competence a t t h e t i m e when t h e c e r t i f i c a t e i s g r a n t e d . Once c e r t i f i e d , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r i s o f t e n n o t a s k e d t o s i t f u r t h e r t e s t s t o show t h a t h e / s h e has m a i n t a i n e d h i s / h e r c o m p e t e n c e . O f t e n a p r a c t i t i o n e r may be c e r t i f i e d f o r l i f e , as l o n g as membership dues are s u b m i t t e d . The e x c e p t i o n i s where c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n forms a r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e i n i t i a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , a p r a c t i t i o n e r may l o s e h i s / h e r c e r t i f i c a t e i f h e / s h e has d i s o b e y e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s Code o f E t h i c s o r o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d , b u t s u s p e n s i o n o r r e v o c a t i o n o f c e r t i f i c a t e s i s uncommon. W i t h i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and f r o m t h e p u b l i c , t h e r e i s c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g b o t h i n i t i a l and c o n t i n u i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r c o m p e t e n c e . I s c o m p e t e n c e , d e f i n e d as " p o s s e s s i o n of r e q u i r e d s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , o r c a p a c i t y ; a b i l i t y t o use s k i l l s t o t h e l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y r e q u i r e d " ^ b e i n g m e a s u r e d a c c u r a t e l y ? How i s competence measured? O r i g i n a l l y many o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s r e q u i r e d t e s t s o f a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s method o f Q a s s e s s i n g competence i s c o s t l y , t i m e c o n s u m i n g , and d i f f i c u l t t o s t a n d a r d i z e . P e r f o r m a n c e o r p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e n o t o f t e n u s e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s t o a s s e s s c o m p e t e n c e . P r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s are o f t e n u s e d i n t h e s k i l l e d t r a d e s and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . A p p l i c a n t s of t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C e r t i f i c a t e 8 i n H o r t i c u l t u r e , f o r e x a m p l e , i n a d d i t i o n t o a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d t o s i t a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n where t h e y may be a s k e d t o p r e p a r e g woody and h e r b a c e o u s c u t t i n g s o r t o p r e p a r e a s o i l m i x . Many b o a r d s o f e x a m i n e r s have c h o s e n t o add t o o r r e p l a c e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f p r a c t i t i o n e r p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h an o r a l a n d / o r w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n a l l o w s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f a f a r w i d e r range o f knowledge and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f knowledge and s k i l l s does n o t mean a p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l use them. C e r t a i n l y , i f a p r a c t i t i o n e r does n o t have the knowledge and s k i l l , h e / s h e w i l l n o t be a b l e t o use them, i f n e e d e d . T h e r e f o r e a t e s t o f knowledge and s k i l l s has some v a l i d i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , o r a l and w r i t t e n t e s t s a r e u s e d most o f t e n t o t e s t a p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s c o m p e t e n c e . ^ M u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s , s i m u l a t i o n s and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t b e h a v i o u r among c o - w o r k e r s and o t h e r s may be u s e d t o a s s e s s c o m p e t e n c y . ^ M u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s a r e u s e f u l when t h e r e i s a l a r g e g r o u p o f a p p l i c a n t s t o be e x a m i n e d . C o m p r e h e n s i o n and t h e a b i l i t y t o use knowledge t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s c a n be a s s e s s e d u s i n g m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . The knowledge base t o be a s s e s s e d must be c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d and t e s t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w r i t t e n t o h e l p t h e d e s i g n e r s o f the q u e s t i o n s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and t e s t q u e s t i o n s may be p r e - t e s t e d w i t h a sample g r o u p t o d e t e c t w e a k n e s s e s o r a m b i g u i t i e s . S i m u l a t i o n s a r e o f t e n u s e d i n the h e a l t h f i e l d as a means o f a s s e s s i n g c o m p e t e n c e . A p p l i c a n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h an u n d i a g n o s e d p a t i e n t . E a c h a p p l i c a n t must e v a l u a t e t h e p a t i e n t , and p r o v i d e a d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t . O t h e r a s s e s s m e n t t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e t h e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f an a p p l i c a n t ' s b e h a v i o u r i n h i s / h e r n o r m a l w o r k - d a y s e t t i n g . In a r b o r i c u l t u r e a p a r a l l e l p r o c e d u r e t o a s s e s s t r e e w o r k e r s i s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a p r a c t i c a l work c l i m b and an a e r i a l r e s c u e manoeuver . The a s s e s s m e n t o f competency v i a o r a l o r w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n s o r p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , s u c h as t h e work c l i m b , a l l o w s t h o s e a p p l i c a n t s w i t h l i t t l e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , b u t who have t h e 12 s k i l l s , knowledge and a p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e , t o become c e r t i f i e d . Good measurement o f competence r e s u l t s f r o m c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . The e x a m i n a t i o n must p o s s e s s t h r e e 13 q u a l i t i e s : (1) v a l i d i t y , (2) r e l i a b i l i t y , and (3) u s a b i l i t y . O t h e r q u a l i t i e s a r e u s e f u l but t h e s e t h r e e a r e t h e key e l e m e n t s . V a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o a t e s t ' s t r u t h f u l n e s s , r e l i a b i l i t y t o i t s c o n s i s t e n c y , and u s a b i l i t y t o i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y . Of t h e s e t h r e e q u a l i t i e s , v a l i d i t y i s p a r a m o u n t . A v a l i d t e s t i s t r u t h f u l b e c a u s e i t measures what t h e t e s t e r wants t o m e a s u r e . S e n s i b l y , any e x a m i n a t i o n w h i c h does n o t t e s t what i t i s s u p p o s e d t o t e s t i s u s e l e s s . C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , one c a t e g o r y o f v a l i d i t y , r e f e r s t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h the t e s t s a m p l e s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e a r e a t o be m e a s u r e d . The l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , upon w h i c h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n i s b a s e d , a r e o f t e n t h o s e t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e m a s t e r y o f f a c t s , and t h e r e f o r e a c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n s t o see how c l o s e l y t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s , w i l l p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y (see A p p e n d i x 0 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y i s t h e s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t y o f a t e s t . A r e l i a b l e t e s t i s one t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t so t h a t i f the t e s t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d s e v e r a l t i m e s t o t h e same g r o u p , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e group w i l l r e c e i v e a s i m i l a r s c o r e e a c h t i m e . A t h i r d i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an e x a m i n a t i o n i s i t s u s a b i l i t y . A t e s t t h a t i s e a s y t o a d m i n i s t e r , mark, and one t h a t has a c l e a r r e a d a b l e f o r m a t has a h i g h d e g r e e o f u s a b i l i t y . ^ C e r t i f i c a t i o n and competence a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . V a r i o u s methods c a n be u s e d t o measure competency r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . These i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , o r a l and w r i t t e n t e s t s , and o b s e r v a t i o n o f an a p p l i c a n t ' s b e h a v i o u r i n t h e work p l a c e . The i n s t r u m e n t s o r t e s t s u s e d t o measure competence s h o u l d p o s s e s s t h e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y 10 and u s a b i l i t y . V I . THE ROLE OF THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION A l m o s t e v e r y o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p i n o u r s o c i e t y i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o one o r more membership o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E a c h i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o m o t i n g t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p . Many a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d n a t i o n a l l y w i t h s m a l l e r b r a n c h e s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . In t h e h e a l t h f i e l d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e a r e s e v e n t y s u c h a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s s e r v i n g a u d i o l o g i s t s and s p e e c h p a t h o l o g i s t s , c h i r o p r a c t o r s , d e n t a l a s s i s t a n t s , d i e t i t i a n s , o p t o m e t r i s t s , p o d i a t r i s t s , p u b l i c h e a l t h i n s p e c t o r s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s , t o name j u s t a f e w . 1 5 P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s o r a s s o c i a t i o n s d i f f e r i n s t r e n g t h , i n t h e powers d e l e g a t e d t o t h e l o c a l b r a n c h , and i n t h e i r m a t u r i t y and a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e and c o n t r o l m e m b e r s h i p . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n on i t s membership b e g i n s w i t h t h e i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e n t r y c r i t e r i a i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n , and c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s w o r k i n g l i f e . More and more p r e s s u r e has been p l a c e d on p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o keep c u r r e n t . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e number o f a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . A s s o c i a t i o n s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , have r e s t r i c t e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o j o u r n a l p u b l i c a t i o n , s h o r t c o u r s e s and a n n u a l t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s . T o d a y , many a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n needs o f t h e i r m e m b e r s . 1 ^ Many a s s o c i a t i o n s have c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n progra ms and v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n programs have been an i m p o r t a n t means o f e n c o u r a g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . No s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n c a n l o n g a v o i d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e t t i n g a t l e a s t m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d s f o r t h o s e who p r a c t i c e . 1 ^ 11 The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s and t o m o n i t o r t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e i r members i n r e t u r n f o r t h e s t a t u s t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n a c c o r d s t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A p r o f e s s i o n i s p a r t i a l l y d e l i n e a t e d by i t s knowledge base and Code o f E t h i c s . The membership v o l u n t a r i l y adopt the a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . I f c o n t i n u e d competence i s n o t one o f t h e s e v a l u e s , t h e p r o f e s s i o n d e c l i n e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y must make e d u c a t i o n an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of 18 t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mandate . P r o b l e m s o r g a n i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s w i t h i n an a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t f o r many r e a s o n s . A s s o c i a t i o n membership i s v o l u n t a r y and members may l i v e i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , so m a i n t a i n i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o h e s i v e n e s s i s awkward. I n d i v i d u a l members l a c k a c l e a r v i e w o f b o t h t h e p a s t and f u t u r e o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e l d o m know more t h a n a h a n d f u l of a s s o c i a t i o n members. T h e s e and o t h e r r e a s o n s may make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r an a s s o c i a t i o n t o g a t h e r members t o g e t h e r t o d e f i n e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , o r t o p l a n f o r t h e l o n g 19 t e r m . T h e r e a r e o f c o u r s e many e x c e p t i o n s , where f a r - f l u n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have d e v e l o p e d s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . V I I . MANDATORY CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t once a p r a c t i t i o n e r i s c e r t i f i e d and i s t h e r e f o r e f o r e v e r competent has been a m a j o r weakness i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . I t assumes t h a t s u f f i c i e n t knowledge c a n be a c q u i r e d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d and t h a t p r a c t i c e w i l l r e m a i n s t a t i c . I t has n o t been u n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s t h a t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has been e n c o u r a g e d o r p r o v i d e d 2 0 f o r as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l o n g - t e r m p r a c t i c e . M a n d a t o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c a n be d e f i n e d s i m p l y as a m a n d a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p r e s c r i b e d number o f h o u r s o f 12 c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , i n a g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d , i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n l i c e n s u r e , c e r t i f i c a t i o n o r membership w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n . M a n d a t o r y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n may be imposed upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y o r by a s t a t e o r p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n s i n g b o a r d . T h e r e a r e two f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o m a n d a t o r y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : Does i t i n f a c t m a i n t a i n o r g u a r a n t e e competence? and Does a p r o f e s s i o n a l need t o be f o r c e d t o m a i n t a i n c u r r e n c y i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ? In answer t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n , H e i n e k e y f o u n d t h a t none o f t h e s t u d i e s he r e v i e w e d p r o v e d t h a t m a n d a t o r y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o m p e t e n c e . He s t a t e d t h a t m a n d a t o r y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n does i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , but p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l o n e does n o t g u a r a n t e e c o m p e t e n c y . In a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s a c o n c e r n t h a t mandated e d u c a t i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n p o o r l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as programs c a t e r t o t h e m e d i a n needs o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n c e n t r e s on the v e r y e s s e n c e o f what a p r o f e s s i o n a l i s . Mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d by some i n d i v i d u a l s as an i n f r i n g e m e n t of t h e i r b a s i c r i g h t s and f r e e d o m s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y are b e i n g f o r c e d t o do s o m e t h i n g t h a t as a p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e y a l r e a d y know and a c c e p t as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . R o c k h i l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t a r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t , w i t h i n a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m , w h i c h p l a c e s e m p h a s i s on a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s e s s i o n s s u c h as t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s and s h o r t c o u r s e s , i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n c o m p e t e n c e . A l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s do n o t l e a r n i n the same way and may n o t be a b l e t o use t h e new knowledge t h e y 22 have a c q u i r e d . E d u c a t i o n does n o t g u a r a n t e e l e a r n i n g , and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge o r s k i l l s does not e n s u r e a p r a c t i c e c h a n g e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s t h e d o u b t f u l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n b o a r d o r agency knows what i s " g o o d " f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l , and t h a t t h e agency i s j u s t i f i e d i n c o m p e l l i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 23 i n an a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c f r o m i n c o m p e t e n c e . M a n d a t o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , s u g g e s t s D a r k e n w a l d and M e r r i a m , i s n e i t h e r a n e c e s s a r y n o r an a d e q u a t e method t o m a i n t a i n c o m p e t e n c e . B o t h R o c k h i l l , D a r k e n w a l d and M e r r i a m s u g g e s t t h a t a more u s e f u l way t o r e c e r t i f y p r a c t i t i o n e r s i s t o p e r i o d i c a l l y e v a l u a t e competence as i t r e l a t e s t o j o b p e r f o r m a n c e . T h o s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s who f a i l t o show c o n t i n u e d p r o f i c i e n c y s h o u l d n o t be r e c e r t i f i e d . On t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the c o i n , M a t t r a n s u g g e s t s t h a t mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n does n o t l i m i t p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m and t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l competence c a n be m a i n t a i n e d and i m p r o v e d . He s u g g e s t s t h a t mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s r e a l l y a f o r m o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . In a d d i t i o n he s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c a n a c h i e v e i n c r e a s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e , i f t h e p r o g r a m i s a c c e s s i b l e , p e r t i n e n t and a t t r a c t i v e enough t o e n c o u r a g e a c t i v e l e a r n i n g , as o p p o s e d t o j u s t p h y s i c a l a t t e n d a n c e . ^ As t h e r e a d e r c a n s e e , t h e r e a r e two v i e w s ; one o p p o s i n g mandated p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , and t h e o t h e r i n f a v o u r o f mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as a means o f m a i n t a i n i n g and e n h a n c i n g c o m p e t e n c e . The w r i t e r f a v o u r e d the use of mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n . T h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e t h a t mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (MCE) m a i n t a i n s c o m p e t e n c e . The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t MCE s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t . As t o the c r i t i c i s m t h a t i t i m p i n g e d on p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m , the w r i t e r a g r e e d i t may, but members o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s e x p e c t t h a t a l o n g w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e s t h a t go w i t h c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h e r e may a l s o be some p e r s o n a l compromise n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n t h a t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . 14 V I I I . INTRODUCING A C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAM FOR ARBORISTS AND TREE WORKERS IN THE P A C I F I C NORTHWEST A . Reasons f o r C e r t i f i c a t i o n T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i s needed i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . The s a f e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s o n e . U n i t E i g h t i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e (see A p p e n d i x R) d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h s a f e work p r a c t i c e s . An i n d i v i d u a l who has c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a m and become c e r t i f i e d s h o u l d be v e r y s a f e t y c o n s c i o u s . S a f e t r e e work i s i m p o r t a n t t o p r e v e n t d e a t h o r i n j u r y t o w o r k e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , on F e b r u a r y 23, 1988, a m u n i c i p a l t r e e p r u n e r i n R i c h m o n d , B . C . d i e d as t h e r e s u l t o f i n j u r i e s s u s t a i n e d w h i l e t o p p i n g a t r e e . The c o r o n e r ' s i n q u e s t , c o n v e n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e cause of d e a t h , recommended t h a t the W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the U n i o n o f B . C . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e C a n a d i a n U n i o n o f P u b l i c E m p l o y e e s t o d e v e l o p a t r e e p r u n e r ' s s a f e t y and t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . G o r d o n B a r s t o w , t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e d e c e a s e d , s a i d t h a t i f p r o p e r p r u n i n g p r o c e d u r e s were u s e d 25 t o t o p t h e f i f t y f o o t t r e e t h e a c c i d e n t w o u l d n e v e r have h a p p e n e d . T h i s d e a t h may have been a v o i d e d i f m u n i c i p a l t r e e w o r k e r s were r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s a f e t y - c o n s c i o u s c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h i s was t h e s e c o n d f a t a l i t y i n r e c e n t y e a r s o f a l o c a l t r e e w o r k e r . The s e c o n d r e a s o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s needed i s t o r e d u c e t h e i n c i d e n c e of t r e e b u t c h e r y . T r e e work i s one of t h e e a s i e s t b u s i n e s s e s t o g e t i n t o . An i n d i v i d u a l may work f o r a t r e e c a r e company f o r a few m o n t h s , t h e n buy a t r u c k and a c h a i n s a w , and v o i l a h e / s h e i s i n b u s i n e s s . C e r t i f i c a t i o n w i l l n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e s e f l y - b y - n i g h t s , but i t w i l l g i v e t h e c l i e n t a c h o i c e . A c h o i c e between a p r o f e s s i o n a l , C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t o r a t r e e c u t t e r . E x a m p l e s o f t r e e c u t t i n g abound i n the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T r e e s a r e t o p p e d , l o p p e d and d e s t r o y e d by i n e p t and u n k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s a d v e r t i s i n g 15 t h e m s e l v e s as t r e e c a r e c o m p a n i e s . I n f a c t , a t r e e t h a t has been w e l l p r u n e d o f t e n draws no n o t i c e a t a l l , w h i l e a p o o r l y p r u n e d t r e e , w i t h i t s h e a v y s t u b s and d i s f i g u r e d c r o w n , i s e v i d e n t f o r a l l t o s e e . The S t u d y G u i d e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f good p r u n i n g , may e n c o u r a g e b e t t e r p r a c t i c e s i n t h e f i e l d . B r i a n F i s h e r , a p r a c t i s i n g a r b o r i s t , s t a t e s : We must not be so n a i v e as t o t h i n k c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i l l s o l v e o u r p r o b l e m s , o r t h a t i t w i l l be so v a l u a b l e a b u s i n e s s t o o l t h a t e v e r y o n e w i l l have t o g e t o n e , o r t h a t i f someone does become c e r t i f i e d t h a t t h e y w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y s t a r t t o p r a c t i c e good a r b o r i c u l t u r e : C e r t i f i c a t i o n w i l l n o t c r e a t e good t r e e w o r k , b u t , i t ' s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . The more p e o p l e we have who a r e p r e p a r e d t o l e a r n about t r e e s , the b e t t e r o u r c h a n c e s o f i m p r o v i n g q u a l i t y . ^ Two s i m p l e r e a s o n s , t h e n , f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f A r b o r i s t s and T r e e Workers i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , t o improve s a f e t y and a r b o r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s as a w h o l e , and t o p r e v e n t t r e e b u t c h e r y . B . P l a n n i n g t h e P r o g r a m The w r i t e r chose t o use S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g model (see A p p e n d i x A) as an a i d i n p l a n n i n g t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . The model has s i x s t e p s , w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e v a l u a t i o n and f e e d b a c k a t e a c h s t e p . In the f i r s t s t e p t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n e r a n a l y z e s t h e c l i e n t s y s t e m . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ( P a r t C) w h i c h f o l l o w s , p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c l i e n t s y s t e m . In the s e c o n d s t e p , t h e p l a n n e r i d e n t i f i e s n e e d s . E x p e d i e n t p l a n n i n g o c c u r r e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . D e c i s i o n s were made w i t h i n l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , so a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g , f o r m a l needs a s s e s s m e n t t o g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t d o n e . An i n f o r m a l needs a s s e s s m e n t , i n t h e f o r m of numerous r e q u e s t s f o r a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f r o m t h e membership o f the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r , d i d o c c u r . C e r t i f i c a t i o n a l s o , was t h e m a j o r t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n a t s e v e r a l A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g s of 16 t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and the membership i s e x t r e m e l y s u p p o r t i v e o f and i n t e r e s t e d i n b e g i n n i n g a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m as soon as p r a c t i c a l . In t h e t h i r d s t e p o f t h e m o d e l , t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n e r d e v e l o p s o b j e c t i v e s . A h i e r a r c h y of t h r e e t y p e s o f o b j e c t i v e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m as d e s c r i b e d i n P a r t D, O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . In s t e p f o u r , t h e p l a n n e r f o r m u l a t e s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n . P a r t E , Development o f t h e p r o g r a m , d e s c r i b e s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d f o r the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s . In s t e p f i v e , t h e p l a n n e r f o r m u l a t e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n . P a r t s G and H d e s c r i b e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m . In t h e l a s t s t e p o f S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g m o d e l , the p l a n n e r 27 d e v e l o p s an e v a l u a t i o n p l a n . The w r i t e r p l a n n e d t o use two e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s . In t h e f i r s t , the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and o f f i c e r s o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r were g i v e n d r a f t c o p i e s o f the S t u d y G u i d e and a l i s t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s t o r e v i e w . They were e a c h a s k e d t o s u g g e s t c h a n g e s o r r e v i s i o n s . The w r i t e r a l s o d e v e l o p e d two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see A p p e n d i x P ) , an E x p e r t P a n e l and a P r e - T e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These were g i v e n t o s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l s . P a r t I summarizes t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m by t h e s e e v a l u a t o r s . S o r k ' s b a s i c s i x - s t e p p l a n n i n g model p r o v i d e d a p l a n n i n g framework f o r t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l h o m e - s t u d y p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . C . The P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r whom the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d i s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) . Founded i n 1924, t h e ISA i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a membership of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t h o u s a n d . I n d i v i d u a l members r e p r e s e n t a l l a s p e c t s of the p l a n t i n g , s t u d y , m a i n t e n a n c e and p r e s e r v a t i o n of o r n a m e n t a l shade t r e e s . W i t h i n t h e membership are c o m m e r c i a l , u t i l i t y and m u n i c i p a l a r b o r i s t s , 17 s c i e n t i s t s , p a r k s and g r o u n d s m a n a g e r s , u r b a n f o r e s t e r s , l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s , l a n d s c a p e a p p r a i s e r s , and e d u c a t o r s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e ISA a r e numerous . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s o c i e t y e n d e a v o u r s t o promote and improve t h e p r a c t i c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r b o r i c u l t u r e . The ISA a l s o e n c o u r a g e s the p u b l i c t o p l a n t and p r o t e c t o r n a m e n t a l t r e e s . The s o c i e t y s u b s c r i b e s t o a Code o f E t h i c s ( see A p p e n d i x I ) t o e n c o u r a g e a c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n d u c t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o s u p p o r t s 28 a r b o r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h v i a t h e M e m o r i a l R e s e a r c h T r u s t . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e are t w e n t y - t w o c h a p t e r s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y of A r b o r i c u l t u r e . F o u r o f t h e s e a r e s o l e l y C a n a d i a n c h a p t e r s : t h e M a r i t i m e s c h a p t e r , t h e Quebec c h a p t e r , t h e P r a i r i e c h a p t e r ( A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a ) , and t h e O n t a r i o c h a p t e r . S i x t e e n c h a p t e r s a r e composed o f A m e r i c a n s t a t e s . Two c h a p t e r s , The P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t and t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c h a p t e r , a re i n t e r n a t i o n a l . Members o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r may r e s i d e i n A l a s k a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W a s h i n g t o n o r O r e g o n . Members f r o m t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c h a p t e r may be f r o m Denmark, F i n l a n d , I c e l a n d , Norway o r Sweden. A m e r i c a n c h a p t e r s may be m u l t i - s t a t e ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s C o l o r a d o , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , New M e x i c o , Wyoming and U t a h . The T e x a s c h a p t e r i s an example o f a c h a p t e r t h a t i s composed o f j u s t one s t a t e . (See A p p e n d i x B f o r a 29 summary o f c h a p t e r s . ) Members l i v i n g i n c o u n t r i e s o t h e r t h a n C a n a d a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s , a r e d e s i g n a t e d m e m b e r s - a t - l a r g e . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e , as i s t y p i c a l o f many p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The s o c i e t y p u b l i s h e s a m o n t h l y j o u r n a l , t h e J o u r n a l of A r b o r i c u l t u r e , w h i c h p r e s e n t s e d u c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c a r t i c l e s . The ISA s p o n s o r s an a n n u a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e and p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e are p u b l i s h e d i n t h e J o u r n a l . The ISA a l s o p r o d u c e s s p e c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m e m b e r s h i p , and a l i s t i n g of a r b o r i c u l t u r a l a b s t r a c t s 18 a n n u a l l y . A t t h e c h a p t e r l e v e l , t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g s e n c o u r a g e c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e W e s t e r n , O h i o , I l l i n o i s , New Y o r k , P e n n - D e l and W i s c o n s i n c h a p t e r s have a v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s ( see A p p e n d i x D ) . T h r e e c h a p t e r s , W e s t e r n , Canada and I l l i n o i s have a v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r T r e e W o r k e r s ( see A p p e n d i x C ) . The P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r f o r whom t h e f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d , i s one o f t h e s m a l l e r c h a p t e r s . D . O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o g r a m The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m were d i f f i c u l t t o d e l i n e a t e . B o y l e d e f i n e s an o b j e c t i v e as " a n end t o w a r d w h i c h a c t i o n i s o r i e n t e d , a c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t e o f b e i n g t o be r e a c h e d . An o b j e c t i v e r e f l e c t s how t h e s i t u a t i o n i s 30 t o be c h a n g e d , i m p r o v e d , o r m a i n t a i n e d . " Gagne and B r i g g s s u g g e s t an o b j e c t i v e " r e f l e c t what the s t u d e n t w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o do 3 1 f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e . " B o t h a u t h o r s a g r e e t h a t an o b j e c t i v e r e f l e c t some f u t u r e s t a t e . The f u t u r e s t a t e t h a n an a p p l i c a n t may a s p i r e t o upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m i s , h o p e f u l l y , i m p r o v e d a r b o r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . The e x e c u t i v e o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d l i t t l e h e l p i n d e f i n i n g s u i t a b l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e p r o g r a m . Some g u i d a n c e was g i v e n by the c h a p t e r ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n and b y - l a w s , w h i c h s t a t e t h a t t h e c h a p t e r e s t a b l i s h and 3 2 a d m i n i s t e r s t a n d a r d s f o r a r b o r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e . T h i s l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s i s n o t uncommon. In 1977 t h e A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f A s s o c i a t i o n E x e c u t i v e s s t u d i e d s e v e n t y - f i v e t r a d e and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . Of t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , o n l y s l i g h t l y o v e r o n e - h a l f had w r i t t e n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . A l m o s t a l l o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y 19 o f f e r e d s h o r t - t e r m l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r members, but o n l y o n e - t h i r d p r o v i d e d c e r t i f i c a t e , l i c e n s u r e o r d e g r e e p r o g r a m s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs o f t e n competed w i t h o t h e r 33 a s s o c i a t i o n programs s u c h as c o n f e r e n c e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s . As s u g g e s t e d by B o y l e , t h e r e a r e t h r e e l e v e l s o f o b j e c t i v e s when 34 p l a n n i n g a p r o g r a m : s o c i e t y , p r o g r a m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r ' s s o c i e t a l p u r p o s e o r o b j e c t i v e i s t o promote the c o n s e r v a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n , and p r o p e r c a r e o f t r e e s . P r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s o r g o a l s a r e s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g s p e c i f i c a r e a s t h a t r e q u i r e improvement t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . Program o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e what i s t o be a c h i e v e d i n the 35 p r o g r a m . The w r i t e r p r o p o s e d the f o l l o w i n g p r o g r a m g o a l s f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s : 1) To e s t a b l i s h a m e a n i n g f u l s t a n d a r d f o r a r b o r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t ; 2) To u p g r a d e and improve the p r a c t i c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r b o r i c u l t u r e ; 3) To e n c o u r a g e a h i g h l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m f o r members; 4) To g a i n i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m a l l i e d f i e l d s ; 5) To i n c r e a s e r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c ; 6) To p r o v i d e a m e a s u r e a b l e a s s e s s m e n t o f knowledge and s k i l l ; 7) t o g i v e c h a p t e r members the i n c e n t i v e t o improve t h e i r c o m p e t e n c y ; 8) t o p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l r e c o g n i t i o n among p e e r s ; 9) t o g i v e the p u b l i c a d e g r e e o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t a c e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t o r T r e e Worker has a c h i e v e d f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f y what t h e a p p l i c a n t w i l l be a b l e t o do a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . In A p p e n d i x R, S t u d y G u i d e f o r  A r b o r i s t and T r e e Worker C e r t i f i c a t i o n E x a m i n a t i o n s , e a c h o f t h e t e n s t u d y u n i t s p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , the S t u d y  G u i d e , on page n i n e s t a t e s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t , upon c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r o g r a m , 20 w i l l be a b l e t o "1) D i a g r a m t h e m o r p h o l o g y o r s t r u c t u r e o f a r o o t and the f u n c t i o n o f e a c h p a r t o r 2) Summarize t h e t y p e s o f r o o t s t h a t may o c c u r on a m a t u r e t r e e , i n c l u d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f e a c h t y p e . " B o y l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e b e n e f i t s t o w r i t i n g o b j e c t i v e s when p l a n n i n g a p r o g r a m . C l e a r and c o n c i s e o b j e c t i v e s g i v e t h e p r o g r a m d i r e c t i o n . O b j e c t i v e s h e l p t h e p l a n n e r s e l e c t t h e t y p e and e x t e n t o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . O b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e t h e p l a n n e r w i t h t h e l e a r n e d p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e 3 7 c r i t e r i a , and t h e c o n d i t i o n s upon w h i c h t h e e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be s t r u c t u r e d . The use o f o b j e c t i v e s a l s o e n c o u r a g e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o do t h e i r own s e l f -3 8 e v a l u a t i o n , because t h e y c a n c o n t r a s t t h e i r s k i l l s a g a i n s t a g i v e n s t a n d a r d . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t a r e t h r e e - t i e r e d , w i t h s o c i e t y , p r o g r a m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l and p r o g r e s s f r o m 39 g e n e r a l t o more p r e c i s e . The s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t s of p r e p a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m were as f o l l o w s . The l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e d a c l e a r and c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t h e knowledge t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r . T h i s e n a b l e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o f o c u s h i s / h e r e f f o r t s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e d t h e w r i t e r w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a upon w h i c h t h e t e s t i t e m s were b a s e d (see A p p e n d i x 0 ) . E . The D e v e l o p m e n t of t h e Program Rob G a r r e t t , an a r b o r i s t i n the S e a t t l e a r e a , i n i t i a t e d e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . G a r r e t t a s s e m b l e d an i n f o r m a l s t u d y g r o u p w h i c h met on December 1, 1983 and s e v e r a l t i m e s t h e r e a f t e r , t o d e v e l o p a p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m o u t l i n e . A l s o a t t h i s t i m e , M a r v i n B l a c k , P r e s i d e n t o f the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t (PNW) c h a p t e r o f I S A , a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i t t e e t o examine t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a c h a p t e r p r o g r a m . Commit tee members 21 r e v i e w e d t h e p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m o u t l i n e a t a m e e t i n g h e l d on M a r c h 23, 1 9 8 4 . ^ However , t h e r e s u l t i n g d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r was t a b l e d and p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t d i d n o t o c c u r . The D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r p r e s e n t e d two a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a PNW c h a p t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h e s e w e r e , a v o l u n t a r y c h a p t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m ( r e s e r v e d t i t l e c e r t i f i c a t e ) o r s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n s u r e . The 1984 Review Committee s u g g e s t e d t h a t a v o l u n t a r y c h a p t e r p r o g r a m w o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e . A l e g i s l a t e d p r o g r a m o r s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n s u r e w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o c o o r d i n a t e a c r o s s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l a s k a , W a s h i n g t o n and O r e g o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e PNW c h a p t e r w o u l d have t o s o l i c i t t remendous p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p p o r t b e f o r e s u c h a l e g i s l a t e d 41 p r o g r a m w o u l d be f e a s i b l e . Many A m e r i c a n s t a t e s o r c i t i e s c u r r e n t l y have l i c e n s u r e laws c o n c e r n i n g A r b o r i s t s . The s t a t e s o f A l a b a m a , C o n n e c t i c u t , L o u i s i a n a , M a i n e , M a r y l a n d , New J e r s e y , New H a m p s h i r e , Oklahoma and Rhode I s l a n d a r e among t h o s e w i t h l i c e n s u r e l a w s . ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most o f t h e s t a t e laws a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s t e r and a r e n o t e n f o r c e d due t o u n d e r s t a f f i n g . The S t a t e o f I l l i n o i s , b e g i n n i n g i n 1957, had a l i c e n s u r e law g o v e r n i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and i s s u a n c e o f " T r e e E x p e r t " l i c e n c e s . T h i s law was r e p e a l e d i n J u l y o f 1983 because i t was u n w i e l d y and u n e c o n o m i c a l . ^ In a d d i t i o n t h e t r e n d i n many s t a t e s , n o t j u s t i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e but i n o t h e r f i e l d , i s t o w a r d d e r e g u l a t i o n . F o r example i n C o l o r a d o , t h e r e i s a " s u n s e t " law w h i c h t e r m i n a t e s a l l r e g u l a t o r y b o a r d s e v e r y s i x y e a r s and r e i n s t a t e s them o n l y a f t e r a p u b l i c r e v i e w . ^ C i t y t r e e o r d i n a n c e s o r l a w s , as f o u n d i n B i s m a r k , N o r t h D a k o t a ; D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o ; M c P h e r s o n , K a n s a s ; and S i o u x F a l l s , S o u t h D a k o t a are u s u a l l y e n f o r c e d by t h e c i t y f o r e s t e r . These laws e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e a r e g i s t e r o f a r b o r i s t s , but do n o t i n v o l v e t e s t i n g o f competency.^"* The w r i t e r , i n agreement w i t h t h e 1984 D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r , d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p a v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m r a t h e r 22 t h a n a s t a t e o r p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n c e d p r o g r a m , a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e above e x i s t i n g s t a t e and c i t y l i c e n s i n g l a w s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e w r i t e r i s t h e s o l e d e s i g n a t e t o a c e r t i f i c a t i o n s u b - c o m m i t t e e p l a c e d u n d e r t h e PNW c h a p t e r s t a n d a r d s o f P r a c t i c e C o m m i t t e e , 46 c h a i r e d by R o b e r t M a z a n y . The w r i t e r had t h e t a s k o f p r e p a r i n g a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m , and t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e r e s u l t . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e PNW i n v o l v e d d e c i s i o n s by t h e w r i t e r i n t h r e e m a j o r a r e a s . T h e s e were t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s t o be i n c l u d e d , t h e components o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n i n c l u d i n g method and r e s o u r c e s , and l a s t l y , t h e e v a l u a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t a r e a s were p r o p o s e d by t h e w r i t e r f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . B a s i c B i o l o g y : U n i t 1 - T r e e M o r p h o l o g y , Anatomy and P h y s i o l o g y . R e l a t e d S u b j e c t s : U n i t 4 - S o i l Management. P r a c t i c e : U n i t 2 - T r e e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n U n i t 3 - P l a n t i n g and E a r l y C a r e U n i t 5 - P r u n i n g C o n c e p t s and T e c h n i q u e s U n i t 6 - Wounds and C a v i t i e s U n i t 7 - C a b l i n g and B r a c i n g U n i t 9 - D i a g n o s i n g Common T r e e P r o b l e m s U n i t 10 - I d e n t i f y i n g H a z a r d T r e e s . S a f e t y : { S a f e Work P r a c t i c e s { T r e e C l i m b i n g U n i t 8 { C h a i n s a w S a f e t y { M o b i l e E q u i p m e n t { B r u s h C h i p p e r S a f e t y . (See A p p e n d i x R . ) T h i s l i s t i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s s u g g e s t e d by G a r r e t t , e t . a l . ^ w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f M e t e r o l o g y , Growth R e g u l a t o r s and t h e H i s t o r y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e . The w r i t e r ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e t e n s t u d y u n i t s was as f o l l o w s . The w r i t e r , w i t h t w e n t y y e a r s of h o r t i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , i s r e g a r d e d as k n o w l e d g e a b l e among t h e membership o f t h e P a c i f i c 23 N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r and so s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t a r e a s was g u i d e d , i n p a r t , by an i n t u i t i o n o f what was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n . S t a n d a r d a r b o r i c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s were a l s o c o n s u l t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , D i c k P r o u d f o o t , P r e s i d e n t o f the O r e g o n A r b o r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , has h a i l e d A r b o r i c u l t u r e by D r . R i c h a r d W. H a r r i s and A New T r e e B i o l o g y and A New T r e e B i o l o g y D i c t i o n a r y by D r . A l e x L . S h i g o as t h e two most c u r r e n t r e f e r e n c e " b i b l e s " f o r t h e a r b o r i s t . ^ ® The s t u d y u n i t s i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e (see A p p e n d i x R) r e l y h e a v i l y on H a r r i s ' s book as the p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e and S h i g o ' s books as s e c o n d a r y r e f e r e n c e s . The s t u d y u n i t s c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d t o s p e c i f i c c h a p t e r s i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , U n i t One c o r r e s p o n d s t o H a r r i s ' s C h a p t e r Two, " P l a n t Growth and F o r m " ; U n i t Two i s b a s e d on H a r r i s ' s C h a p t e r T h r e e , " P l a n t S e l e c t i o n " ; U n i t T h r e e c o r r e s p o n d s t o C h a p t e r s Two and E i g h t , " P l a n t Growth and F o r m " and " P l a n t i n g " ; U n i t F o u r i s b a s e d on C h a p t e r s S i x , E l e v e n , T w e l v e , and T h i r t e e n , " P l a n t i n g S i t e : S o i l " , " F e r t i l i z a t i o n " , " I r r i g a t i o n " , and " S o i l Management" ; U n i t F i v e r e l i e s on C h a p t e r F o u r t e e n , " P r u n i n g " ; U n i t s S i x and Seven c o r r e s p o n d t o C h a p t e r S i x t e e n , " P r e v e n t a t i v e M a i n t e n a n c e and R e p a i r " ; U n i t N i n e i s b a s e d on C h a p t e r s S e v e n t e e n , E i g h t e e n , N i n e t e e n and T w e n t y , " D i a g n o s i n g P l a n t P r o b l e m s " , " N o n i n f e c t i o u s D i s o r d e r s " , " D i s e a s e s " , and " I n s e c t s and O t h e r R e l a t e d P e s t s " . Of t h e t w e n t y c h a p t e r s i n the t e x t book A r b o r i c u l t u r e , t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d i n d u s t r y " b i b l e " , t h e S t u d y G u i d e u t i l i z e s t h i r t e e n c h a p t e r s as p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e . Two s t u d y u n i t s , S a f e Work P r a c t i c e s and I d e n t i f y i n g H a z a r d T r e e s , a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e . S a f e Work P r a c t i c e s was i n c l u d e d because s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f equipment and s a f e t r e e c l i m b i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e i n the A r b o r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The s t u d y u n i t on I d e n t i f y i n g H a z a r d T r e e s was i n c l u d e d because a r b o r i s t s a r e o f t e n r e q u i r e d t o j u d g e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t r e e f a i l u r e o r f r a c t u r e and t h e r i s k o f i n j u r y t o p r o p e r t y , p o w e r l i n e s o r p e o p l e . Two o t h e r c h a p t e r s i n t h e I S A , W e s t e r n and I l l i n o i s C h a p t e r s , have 24 s e l e c t e d s i m i l a r s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . These two C h a p t e r s r e q u i r e t h e C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t t o p a s s a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n c o v e r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t a r e a s : S p e c i e s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , T r e e Anatomy and P h y s i o l o g y , P l a n t i n g and E a r l y C a r e , S o i l Management, P r u n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s and C o n c e p t s , C a b l i n g , B r a c i n g , Wounds and C a v i t i e s , S a f e Work P r a c t i c e s , and D i a g n o s i n g T r e e P r o b l e m s . O t h e r c h a p t e r s have s i m i l a r s u b j e c t a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s . In summary, t h e r e were a number o f r e a s o n s why t h e w r i t e r c h o s e the s u b j e c t a r e a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e . F i r s t was an i n t u i t i o n b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e o f what a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r m i g h t b e . Second was t h e d e s i r e t o base t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l on a known and r e s p e c t e d a u t h o r i t y , s u c h as A r b o r i c u l t u r e . The t h i r d r e a s o n was t o m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y between c h a p t e r s , i n t h e e v e n t t h a t a n a t i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n scheme i s o f f e r e d by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o v e r n i n g body ( I S A ) . L a s t l y , the r e a s o n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n of a t o p i c l i k e I d e n t i f y i n g H a z a r d T r e e s , was t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e g r o w i n g need w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s who c a n r e a d i l y e v a l u a t e t r e e s f o r p o t e n t i a l f a i l u r e . In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n , t h e w r i t e r made d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e method o f d e l i v e r y and t h e r e s o u r c e s t o be u s e d . T h i s was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . The p l a n n e r s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n have a v a s t a r r a y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods a v a i l a b l e t o c o n v e y s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . W o r k s h o p s , s h o r t c o u r s e s , i n s t i t u t e s , c o n f e r e n c e s , s e m i n a r s , symposiums, a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s and home s t u d y a r e a l l examples o f methods u s e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Some methods a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g r o u p l e a r n i n g w h i l e o t h e r s are b e t t e r u s e d i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . The use o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s u c h as t h e S t u d y G u i d e ( see A p p e n d i x R ) , w h i c h i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d and c o m p l e t e , i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d home s t u d y method s e l e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r . The S t u d y 25 G u i d e may be d i s t r i b u t e d e a s i l y t h r o u g h the m a i l o r a t an a n n u a l r e g i o n a l m e e t i n g . A p p l i c a n t s p r e p a r e f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n s by r e a d i n g the o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h u n i t o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e . Then the a p p l i c a n t r e v i e w s t h e r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n i n the " P r o c e d u r e " o f t h e G u i d e , and a t t e m p t s t o answer t h e " S t u d y Q u e s t i o n s " and t h e "Sample T e s t Q u e s t i o n s " . " A d d i t i o n a l R e f e r e n c e s " a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . The w r i t e r c h o s e t h i s f o r m a t because i t i s a c l e a r l y o r d e r e d l e a r n i n g s e q u e n c e . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s t o u s i n g t h e S t u d y G u i d e at home as compared t o s e m i n a r s o r s h o r t c o u r s e s . The f i r s t i s t h e members o f the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r a re g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d by h u n d r e d s o f m i l e s , making f r e q u e n t g a t h e r i n g s d i f f i c u l t . An a d d i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e t o t h e home s t u d y method o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e S t u d y G u i d e , as the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e , i s t h a t a p p l i c a n t s may p r o g r e s s a t t h e i r own r a t e . The p r i m e d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p p l i c a n t s t o ask q u e s t i o n s i f d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e . The w r i t e r , i n p r e p a r i n g A p p e n d i x M ( S o u r c e o f R e f e r e n c e s L e t t e r ) , a t t e m p t e d t o make t h e r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d i n t h e " P r o c e d u r e " o f t h e G u i d e more a c c e s s i b l e t o a p p l i c a n t s . T h e r e a r e many i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . S i n c e t h e r e i s a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f i n d i v i d u a l needs and s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g , s e v e r a l d i f f e r i n g methods of i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s o u r c e s w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e . The use of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods i n a p r o g r a m adds v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t , and may m a i n t a i n m o t i v a t i o n . How, t h e n , does t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s e l e c t a few methods o v e r t h e r e m a i n i n g d o z e n s a v a i l a b l e ? I d e a l l y t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d s e l e c t a method ( o r methods) w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e maximum a p p l i c a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as 49 t i m e , budget and f a c i l i t i e s a l l o w . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , t h e home s t u d y method and t h e S t u d y G u i d e , as t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e , were c h o s e n . B o t h p r o v i d e t h e most f l e x i b i l i t y i n terms o f t ime and the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b l e b u d g e t . A l l t h e ISA c h a p t e r s w i t h c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs i n p l a c e u t i l i z e the 26 home s t u d y i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d . S e v e r a l o f f e r , i n a d d i t i o n , an e x a m i n a t i o n p r e p a r a t i o n s e m i n a r one day p r i o r t o the w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s range f r o m t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s i m p l e l i s t o f r e f e r e n c e s , t o a c o m p l e t e s t u d y g u i d e , t o a manual o f sample e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , t o a d e t a i l e d s t u d y package (see A p p e n d i c e s G and H ) . E v a l u a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t component i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p r o g r a m . H o u l e s t a t e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s " . . . t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e has been a c c o m p l i s h e d . E v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e two c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s o f measurement and a p p r a i s a l . M e a s u r e m e n t c h e c k s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s i n a p r o g r a m have a c h i e v e d t h e c r i t e r i a o f e v a l u a t i o n . The p r o g r a m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . A p p r a i s a l i n c l u d e s a judgement of how w e l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s have been s a t i s f i e d . The G a r r e t t D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r p r o p o s e d t h a t PNW c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a n t s be e v a l u a t e d i n t h r e e w a y s : a w r i t t e n t e s t , a p r a c t i c a l t e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f p l a n t and p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a work c l i m b , p l u s t h e s u b m i s s i o n of t h r e e l e t t e r s of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n and a r e v i e w o f the a p p l i c a n t ' s w o r k . A r e v i e w o f an a p p l i c a n t ' s work m i g h t c o n s i s t o f an o n - s i t e e v a l u a t i o n by a member o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n b o a r d o r s u b m i s s i o n o f a p o r t f o l i o . T h e w r i t e r c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e f i r s t two, a w r i t t e n and p r a c t i c a l t e s t , but t h e t h i r d may cause p r o b l e m s . H e n d r i c k s e n p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e v i e w of o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' work may be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e and p r e s e n t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 52 s u b j e c t i v i t y and c o n t r o v e r s y . R a t h e r t h a n a r e v i e w o f w o r k , t h e w r i t e r recommended a s i m p l e work h i s t o r y t o v e r i f y the a p p l i c a n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e . P l e a s e see P a r t I f o r a c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n o f the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . A l t h o u g h f i r s t i n i t i a t e d i n 1983, the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e Workers i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t has been a s l o w p r o c e s s . The d e c i s i o n t o opt f o r v o l u n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n , as opposed t o 27 s t a t e o r p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n s u r e , was made a f t e r a r e v i e w o f t h e l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f e x i s t i n g s t a t e and c i t y l i c e n s u r e l a w s . D e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t a r e a , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d , r e s o u r c e s and e v a l u a t i o n were i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . F . R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e Program T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h make up a p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . These r e q u i r e m e n t s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n an a p p l i c a n t ' s knowledge and work e x p e r i e n c e . An e x a m i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t t e s t s t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e knowledge base r e q u i r e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c y . An e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t i s u s u a l l y met by a l e n g t h y work p e r i o d 53 w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . A p p e n d i c e s E and F summarize t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t and C e r t i f i e d T r e e Worker as p r o p o s e d by the w r i t e r . The p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e W e s t e r n and I l l i n o i s c h a p t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r C e r t i f i e d T r e e W o r k e r . The p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t s a l s o c o r r e s p o n d t o b o t h the W e s t e r n and I l l i n o i s c h a p t e r s . The s i x r e q u i r e m e n t s of work e x p e r i e n c e , a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , s i g n i n g t h e Code o f E t h i c s , c h a p t e r m e m b e r s h i p , p r o o f o f i n s u r a n c e , and r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e p r o g r a m . A d e c i s i o n was made by t h e w r i t e r t o i n c l u d e work e x p e r i e n c e , an e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e Code o f E t h i c s , and r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n as t h e o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f why t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n were p r o p o s e d as t h e y are l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i c e s E and F . E x p e r i e n c e i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e was p r o p o s e d as a r e q u i r e m e n t o f the program f o r b o t h T r e e Worker and A r b o r i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e was t h a t h a n d s - o n e x p e r i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n a b l e t h e a p p l i c a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d the knowledge p r e s e n t e d i n the S t u d y G u i d e . I f an a p p l i c a n t has o n l y r e a d about t r e e c a r e p r a c t i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g i n and on t r e e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h e 28 a p p l i c a n t w o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s t o do the j o b p r o p e r l y . In a d d i t i o n , h a n d s - o n e x p e r i e n c e i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f d a n g e r o u s t o o l s , s u c h as c h a i n s a w s , b r u s h c h i p p e r s and stump g r i n d e r s . An a p p l i c a n t c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d competent i n the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t y p e s o f e q u i p m e n t u n l e s s t h e y have r e a d t h e o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , watched d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and u s e d t h e t o o l s u n d e r many d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n the f i e l d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of a k n o w l e d g e a b l e p e r s o n . Work e x p e r i e n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I t e n a b l e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o g a i n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h w i l l a i d i n h i s / h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e . I t e n a b l e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o p r a c t i c e t h e s a f e o p e r a t i o n of e q u i p m e n t . The work e x p e r i e n c e p r o p o s e d by the w r i t e r , f o r a t r e e w o r k e r , was e i g h t e e n m o n t h s . E i g h t e e n months was c h o s e n o v e r s i x o r t w e l v e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . S i x months i s t o o s h o r t a t i m e p e r i o d . I t i s n o t one c o m p l e t e g r o w i n g s e a s o n . In a d d i t i o n , a s i x month p e r i o d c o u l d b e , f o r e x a m p l e , A p r i l t o O c t o b e r . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d v e r y l i t t l e p r u n i n g o c c u r s . S i n c e p r u n i n g o f t r e e s i s an i m p o r t a n t component o f a t r e e w o r k e r ' s j o b , a s i x month work e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y n o t i n c l u d e any p r u n i n g . A t w e l v e month work p e r i o d f o r the t r e e w o r k e r i s more r e a l i s t i c as t h e a p p l i c a n t w o u l d have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work on t r e e s t h r o u g h a l l f o u r s e a s o n s . The a p p l i c a n t w o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work i n s e a s o n a l l y r e l a t e d t a s k s , s u c h as p r u n i n g i n t h e dormant s e a s o n and p e s t and d i s e a s e c o n t r o l i n t h e s p r i n g and summer. More i m p o r t a n t l y , an e i g h t e e n month p e r i o d a l l o w s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o see t h e e f f e c t s t h e p r u n i n g c u t s , made i n t h e s p r i n g , have on t r e e g r o w t h o v e r the summer and i n t o t h e s u c c e e d i n g s p r i n g . A s i x month o r t w e l v e month p e r i o d does n o t a l l o w t h i s p r u n i n g e f f e c t f e e d b a c k . In a d d i t i o n , an e i g h t e e n month p e r i o d a l l o w s a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e where i t i s more l i k e l y h e / s h e w i l l be e x p o s e d t o a l a r g e r range o f t r e e s p e c i e s g r o w i n g 29 u n d e r many c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . E i g h t e e n months a l s o a l l o w s t h e t r e e w o r k e r s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o be e x p o s e d t o , t o l e a r n , t o g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n , and t o p r a c t i c e t h e d i f f i c u l t s k i l l s of s a f e t r e e c l i m b i n g and r e m o v a l . The e i g h t e e n month p e r i o d a l l o w s t h e a p p l i c a n t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o h a n d l e and p r a c t i c e o p e r a t i n g c h a i n s a w s t h a t a r e o f d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t s , and t o p r a c t i c e u s i n g them on t h e g r o u n d , f r o m a l a d d e r , and i n t h e t r e e on l i v e , dead and d e c a y e d t r e e l i m b s u n d e r a l l w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . The same comment c a n be made f o r o t h e r p i e c e s o f e q u i p m e n t . In many s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t r e e work w i l l i n c l u d e t r e e t o p p i n g , p r u n i n g , s p r a y i n g weeds , i n s e c t s , d i s e a s e s , d a n g e r o u s t r e e r e m o v a l and stump g r i n d i n g on a r e g u l a r s e a s o n a l b a s i s . A p r o j e c t r e q u i r i n g c a b l i n g and b r a c i n g o c c u r s i n f r e q u e n t l y . T h e r e f o r e i n a s h o r t work e x p e r i e n c e o f s i x o r even t w e l v e m o n t h s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t an a p p l i c a n t w o u l d be e x p o s e d t o a l l a s p e c t s of t r e e c a r e i n c l u d i n g c a b l i n g and b r a c i n g . The e x p e r i e n c e i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e d f o r A r b o r i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t h i r t y - s i x m o n t h s . A r b o r i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s an a d v a n c e d o r more d i f f i c u l t l e v e l o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The a r b o r i s t , as opposed t o t h e t r e e w o r k e r , i s meant t o d i r e c t o r s u p e r v i s e t r e e w o r k , answer c l i e n t q u e s t i o n s , and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t r e e s . A r b o r i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s f o r t r e e c a r e s u p e r v i s o r s , s a l e s m e n , d i a g n o s t i c i a n s and c o n s u l t a n t s . A r b o r i s t s a r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r two a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s of e x p e r t i s e ; see U n i t s N i n e and T e n i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e ( D i a g n o s i n g T r e e P r o b l e m s and I d e n t i f y i n g H a z a r d T r e e s ) . T h e r e f o r e t h e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e p e r i o d a l l o w s the a p p l i c a n t t o g a i n s u p e r v i s o r y e x p e r i e n c e . I t a l l o w s the a r b o r i s t more e x p o s u r e t o many d i f f e r e n t t r e e and s h r u b s p e c i e s , g r o w i n g i n d i v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t a l l o w s t h e a p p l i c a n t t ime t o b u i l d a w o r k i n g f i l e o f weed, i n s e c t and d i s e a s e p r o b l e m s and t h e i r r e m e d i e s . The a b i l i t y t o a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y h a z a r d t r e e s r e q u i r e s t h e a r b o r i s t t o examine d o z e n s o f t r e e s t h a t have f a i l e d , due t o d i f f e r e n t t r e e d e f e c t s u n d e r v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . I n summary, work e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n c o u n t e r , o b s e r v e and u n d e r g o t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r b o r i c u l t u r a l t h e o r y . T h i r t y - s i x months a l l o w s an a p p l i c a n t a minimum amount o f t i m e i n w h i c h t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t r e e c a r e , have them c a r r i e d out and t h e n o b s e r v e t h e r e s u l t s o v e r an e x t e n d e d g r o w i n g p e r i o d . N e l s o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e number o f y e a r s r e q u i r e d must n o t be a r b i t r a r y o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . He s u g g e s t s a s k i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h f e w e r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d be j u s t as q u a l i f i e d as t h o s e w i t h g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e . ^ In t h e c a s e o f an a r b o r i s t , an a p p l i c a n t , i n the w r i t e r ' s v i e w , w i t h two y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d n o t be as competent as one w i t h t h r e e . The arguments f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a work e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t i n the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m and a r a t i o n a l e f o r the e i g h t e e n month ( t r e e w o r k e r ) and t h i r t y - s i x month ( a r b o r i s t ) t i m e p e r i o d s a r e g i v e n a b o v e . One argument a g a i n s t t h e e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t e x t e n s i v e , t i m e - c o n s u m i n g , c h e c k i n g o f r e f e r e n c e s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a u t h e n t i c a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n . T h i s argument was r e j e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r s i n c e t h e number o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r e a c h e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l g e n e r a l l y be v e r y s m a l l ( f o u r o r f i v e , up t o t e n t o t w e l v e p e r y e a r ) . A c c e p t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r e i t h e r the t r e e w o r k e r o r t h e a r b o r i s t may be w i t h a t r e e c a r e f i r m , m u n i c i p a l p a r k s d e p a r t m e n t o r u t i l i t y f i r m , where t h e a p p l i c a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o use the s k i l l s o f a t r e e w o r k e r o r a r b o r i s t as the m a j o r component o f h i s / h e r w o r k . The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t as wide an e m p l o y e r base as p o s s i b l e be a l l o w e d , t o e n c o u r a g e as many i n d i v i d u a l s as p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Work e x p e r i e n c e may be a c c u m u l a t e d one e m p l o y e r t o t h e n e x t . I t does not have t o be c o n s e c u t i v e . The w r i t e r f e l t some f l e x i b i l i t y was w a r r a n t e d due t o t h e s e a s o n a l n a t u r e o f employment . S e l f -e m p l o y e d a p p l i c a n t s may a p p l y t h o s e h o u r s w i t h t h e i r own f i r m s t h a t a r e 31 d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a r b o r i c u l t u r e , t o w a r d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t . A maximum o f s i x months c r e d i t ( t r e e w o r k e r ) o r e i g h t e e n months ( a r b o r i s t ) may be g r a n t e d f o r a r b o r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , p o s s e s s i o n o f a t w o - y e a r , f o u r - y e a r , o r a d v a n c e d d e g r e e i n l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n , u r b a n f o r e s t r y , a r b o r i c u l t u r e , h o r t i c u l t u r e o r a r e l a t e d f i e l d o f s t u d y , p l u s a minimum o f e i g h t e e n months e x p e r i e n c e i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r e e c a r e o f o t h e r company w o u l d f u l f i l l a c o m b i n e d e d u c a t i o n and work e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r an a p p l i c a n t d e s i r i n g t o become a C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t . N e l s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s common p r a c t i c e t o s u b s t i t u t e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n c r e d i t s f o r work e x p e r i e n c e as p a r t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t . 5 5 F o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o n e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c y . The u n i v e r s i t y o r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l g r a d u a t e has a g r e a t d e a l t o l e a r n on t h e j o b . (A copy o f the d i p l o m a o r t r a n s c r i p t must be s u b m i t t e d . ) The b u r d e n o f p r o o f o f t h e work e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d i s p l a c e d upon the a p p l i c a n t , and w i l l be v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h h i s / h e r e m p l o y e r ( s ) . The C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d (see P a r t G , A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e Program) r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t t o make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e e l i g i b i l i t y o f an a p p l i c a n t ' s work e x p e r i e n c e . The s e c o n d r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t b o t h t h e a r b o r i s t and t h e t r e e w o r k e r p a s s a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h s e v e n t y p e r c e n t p a s s r e q u i r e d i n f i v e e x a m i n a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s (see A p p e n d i x S f o r sample e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n was r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e t h e r e must be some means o f r a t i n g o r a s s e s s i n g t h e knowledge and c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a n t . A w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n was c h o s e n o v e r an o r a l one f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a document t h a t c a n be k e p t on f i l e . S e c o n d l y , t h e w r i t t e n f o r m a t c a n c e l s out t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e t o n e , i n f l e c t i o n o r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f an o r a l e x a m i n e r . In a d d i t i o n , a w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e i s e a s i e r t o mark c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a n an o r a l o n e . O r a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e t i m e -c o n s u m i n g and may r e s u l t i n low s c o r e s due t o l a c k o f p r a c t i c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e a p p l i c a n t . An o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n g i v e s p o o r c o m p a r a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s and o f c o u r s e t h e r e i s no w r i t t e n r e c o r d . The a d v a n t a g e s o f an o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n a r e t h a t i t h e l p s t h o s e a p p l i c a n t s who f e a r w r i t t e n t e s t s and e l i m i n a t e s b i a s a g a i n s t t h o s e whose r e a d i n g s k i l l s may c a u s e them d i f f i c u l t y . One argument a g a i n s t a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n i s t h a t i t may t e s t an a p p l i c a n t ' s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as w e l l as h i s / h e r knowledge o r s k i l l . T h i s c o u l d be a p r o b l e m i f E n g l i s h i s t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t . The m u l t i p l e c h o i c e f o r m a t was s e l e c t e d f o r the b u l k o f t h e exam q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h i s f o r m a t i s q u i c k and e a s y t o mark , w h i c h i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when o n l y one v o l u n t e e r i s a v a i l a b l e t o g r a d e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . M u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s a r e o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n s u b j e c t i v e and c a n p r o v i d e an e x t e n s i v e t e s t sample o f f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . They c a n be d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y r e l i a b l e and c a n be a d a p t e d t o many i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s c a n be s u b j e c t e d t o i t e m a n a l y s i s and f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t . M u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s c a n a l s o be u s e d t o measure a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g s u c h as k n o w l e d g e , c o m p r e h e n s i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n . M u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be the b e s t and most v e r s a t i l e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e t e s t f o r m s . They m i n i m i z e t h e g u e s s i n g f a c t o r p r e v a l e n t i n t r u e - f a l s e t e s t s . ^ Some o f t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s a r e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e p a r e good q u e s t i o n s t o measure t h e a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g . T h i s l a s t c r i t i c i s m was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a p r o b l e m by t h e w r i t e r s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e a r e i n t h e k n o w l e d g e , c o m p r e h e n s i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n l e v e l s o r domains o f l e a r n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r weakness o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y t e n d t o o v e r -e m p h a s i z e memory l e a r n i n g . The w r i t e r f o u n d t h e w r i t i n g o f the two h u n d r e d p l u s e x t r a q u e s t i o n s a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f good t e s t i t e m s was d i f f i c u l t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e q u e s t i o n i t s e l f must c l e a r l y , w i t h o u t a m b i g u i t y , s t a t e a p r o b l e m . U n n e c e s s a r y o r u n u s u a l words s h o u l d n o t be u s e d . T h e r e s h o u l d be one c o r r e c t o r b e s t a n s w e r . The w r i t e r chose t o use t h e b e s t answer a p p r o a c h f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n . A q u e s t i o n r e q u i r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e b e s t answer i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c h o i c e s g i v e n may i n c l u d e more t h a n one c o r r e c t a n s w e r , but o n l y one w i l l c l e a r l y be the most a p p r o p r i a t e o n e . T h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t e s t . Of c o u r s e a l l t h e wrong answer c h o i c e s s h o u l d be p l a u s i b l e w i t h no g r a m m a t i c a l c l u e s . The l e n g t h and f o r m o f a l l t h e answer c h o i c e s s h o u l d be s i m i l a r . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e b e s t a n s w e r , f r o m q u e s t i o n t o q u e s t i o n , s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n , but o v e r a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e r e s h o u l d be an e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o r r e c t A , B , C , and D c h o i c e s . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n has a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y e a c h A , B , C and D a n s w e r s . Good m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s a v o i d t h e use o f t h e n e g a t i v e . T h i s i s because i t i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r an a p p l i c a n t t o know what a s p e c i f i c i t e m o f knowledge is r a t h e r t h a n what i t i s n o t . The t e s t q u e s t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h r e e t o f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e answers t o m i n i m i z e g u e s s i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the o p t i o n "none o f the a b o v e " s h o u l d be u s e d i n f r e q u e n t l y , and " a l l o f t h e a b o v e " s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a l t o g e t h e r s i n c e i t i s o f t e n t h e c o r r e c t answer and makes t h e q u e s t i o n t o o e a s y . An a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o when t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s c o n t r o v e r s i a l o p i n i o n . L a s t l y , e a c h q u e s t i o n s h o u l d c o n t a i n an i n d e p e n d e n t p r o b l e m w h i c h does not p r o v i d e a c l u e t o t h e answers o f s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n s . (See A p p e n d i x S f o r sample e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . ) Some t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . The r e a s o n s t h e t r u e and f a l s e q u e s t i o n s were u s e d a r e as f o l l o w s . T r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s c a n be u s e d t o measure b o t h knowledge and c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g . They were easy t o d e s i g n and a r e u s e f u l i n s a m p l i n g a b r o a d range o f k n o w l e d g e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e most o b v i o u s weakness o f t h e t r u e - f a l s e 34 q u e s t i o n i s t h a t i t e n c o u r a g e s a p p l i c a n t s t o g u e s s . D e s p i t e t h i s w e a k n e s s , a few t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s were u s e d t o add v a r i e t y t o t h e A r b o r i s t e x a m i n a t i o n . In w r i t i n g about the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m , t h e w r i t e r has made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . I n f a c t t h e w r i t e r d e s i g n e d a m a s t e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f two h u n d r e d q u e s t i o n s , a l l o f w h i c h must be answered by t h e a p p l i c a n t s d e s i r i n g an A r b o r i s t ' s c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Two a d d i t i o n a l exams o f n i n e t y q u e s t i o n s e a c h , l a b e l l e d T r e e Worker A and T r e e W o r k e r B were c r e a t e d as s u b s e t s o f t h e m a s t e r e x a m i n a t i o n s i n c e t h e a p p l i c a n t d e s i r i n g T r e e Worker c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e . The o b j e c t i v e s t h a t t h e t r e e w o r k e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r e marked by an a s t e r i s k i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e . A r b o r i s t s , o f c o u r s e , a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The m a s t e r l i s t o r A r b o r i s t e x a m i n a t i o n , i s based on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f a l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . (See A p p e n d i x Q, P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s M a n u a l , p p . 6 - 8 f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s f o r b o t h a r b o r i s t s and t r e e w o r k e r s . ) A d e c i s i o n was made by t h e w r i t e r t o use s e v e n t y p e r c e n t as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r p a s s i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t was s e l e c t e d because i t i s a compromise f i g u r e , s i n c e a p o r t i o n o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n i s t r u e - f a l s e and a p o r t i o n m u l t i p l e c h o i c e . In t r u e - f a l s e t e s t s , b e c a u s e t h e a p p l i c a n t has a f i f t y - f i f t y chance o f g u e s s i n g the answer , t h e a v e r a g e t e s t d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i s n o r m a l l y s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t . In a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t , w h i c h m i n i m i z e s t h e g u e s s i n g f a c t o r by p r o v i d i n g f o u r c h o i c e s , t h e a v e r a g e t e s t d i f f i c u l t y o r t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t of c o r r e c t t e s t r e s p o n s e s may be l e s s . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t i s a r e a s o n a b l y h i g h p a s s l e v e l w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the a p p l i c a n t has a s u f f i c i e n t g r a s p o f the knowledge p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S t u d y  G u i d e . T h e r e i s an argument t h a t some s e c t i o n s s u c h as U n i t E i g h t , S a f e Work P r a c t i c e s , b e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e of t h e t o p i c , s h o u l d be marked a t an e i g h t y o r n i n e t y p e r c e n t p a s s l e v e l . One a u t h o r i t y s t a t e d t h a t " t h e c h o i c e o f c u t o f f s c o r e s i s g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t i v e even a f t e r many t e s t s had been a d m i n i s t e r e d and 58 e m p i r i c a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g a c t u a l t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e . " The w r i t e r s e l e c t e d a s e v e n t y p e r c e n t p a s s f o r a l l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f f e r s a m o d e r a t e l y h i g h s t a n d a r d and p r o v i d e s c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f the e x a m i n a t i o n . The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r T r e e Worker c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . A p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f f e r s t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o v e r i f y t h a t an a p p l i c a n t c a n s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t h r o w a l i n e i n t o a t r e e , e n t e r a t r e e , and r e a c h two o r t h r e e work s t a t i o n s i n t h e o u t e r canopy o f t h e t r e e . The p r a c t i c a l t e s t a l s o o f f e r s t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o v e r i f y t h a t an a p p l i c a n t c a n e f f e c t an a e r i a l r e s c u e o f an " i n j u r e d " c l i m b e r . (See A p p e n d i x Q, p p . 9 - 1 3 f o r t h e R u l e s , S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e and G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e P r a c t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e T r e e Worker c e r t i f i c a t e . ) One l e g a l p r o b l e m a r i s e s w h i c h has n o t been a d d r e s s e d by any c h a p t e r t h a t c u r r e n t l y has a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . Who i s l e g a l l y l i a b l e i f an a p p l i c a n t f a l l s f r o m a t r e e d u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n and k i l l s o r s e v e r e l y h i m / h e r s e l f ? The w r i t e r does n o t have t h e e x p e r t i s e t o e v a l u a t e t h i s v e r y s e r i o u s p o t e n t i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The t h i r d p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m was t h a t an a p p l i c a n t must s i g n and a d h e r e t o t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s ( see A p p e n d i x I ) . S i g n i n g t h e Code i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t has r e a d and u n d e r s t o o d the r u l e s o f c o n d u c t o f the p r o f e s s i o n . I f t h e a p p l i c a n t , once c e r t i f i e d , does n o t obey t h e Code o f E t h i c s , i t g i v e s t h e c h a p t e r j u s t c a u s e t o s u s p e n d o r r e v o k e h i s / h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . A f o u r t h r e q u i r e m e n t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n some c h a p t e r s may be c h a p t e r m e m b e r s h i p . The r e q u i r e m e n t f o r membership l i m i t s t h o s e who may c a l l t h e m s e l v e s " c e r t i f i e d " t o c h a p t e r members, i t s i m p l i f i e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e c a u s e members r e c e i v e n e w s l e t t e r s r e g u l a r l y w h i c h w o u l d i n f o r m them o f r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n d a t e s , o r S t u d y G u i d e u p d a t e s o r a p p r o v e d c o u r s e s f o r r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r members may a l s o be e a s i e r t o d i s c i p l i n e i f t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d i n an i n f r a c t i o n of t h e Code of E t h i c s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f c h a p t e r membership i s a r e q u i r e m e n t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l l e g a l r a m i f i c a t i o n o f r e s t r a i n t o f t r a d e , where membership becomes a l i m i t a t i o n t o t h e p r a c t i s i n g o f t h a t t r a d e . The w r i t e r c h o s e n o t t o make c h a p t e r membership a r e q u i r e m e n t and t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d t h i s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m . A f i f t h r e q u i r e m e n t i n some c h a p t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n progra ms may be p r o o f o f i n s u r a n c e f o r p r o p e r t y damage and p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y . The argument f o r t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t i t may r e d u c e c h a p t e r l i a b i l i t y . I t a l s o o f f e r s t h e p u b l i c an a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e y may be p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y damage by a C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t o r T r e e W o r k e r . The arguments a g a i n s t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p r o o f o f i n s u r a n c e i n a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m a r e as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , once the a p p l i c a n t i s c e r t i f i e d i t i s d i f f i c u l t and t i m e consuming t o v e r i f y t h a t i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e was m a i n t a i n e d a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was g r a n t e d . A l s o t h e c h a p t e r may a c c e p t some l e g a l l i a b i l i t y by s t a t i n g i n t h e p r o m o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s a r e i n s u r e d . The w r i t e r c h o s e n o t t o i n c l u d e p r o o f o f i n s u r a n c e as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h r e e s i m p l e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t was n o t w i t h i n the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r t i s e t o d e t e r m i n e what c o n s t i t u t e d a d e q u a t e i n s u r a n c e l i m i t s o r c o v e r a g e . S e c o n d l y , i n s u r a n c e c o n d i t i o n s and l i m i t s d i f f e r f r o m Canada t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o d e v i s e a c o n s i s t e n t scheme f o r a p p l i c a n t s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W a s h i n g t o n , O r e g o n o r A l a s k a . L a s t l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h a p t e r i s f a r t o o s m a l l t o keep t r a c k of and u p d a t e a l l c e r t i f i e d p e r s o n n e l ' s i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e s . The s i x t h r e q u i r e m e n t f o r b o t h the t r e e w o r k e r and t h e a r b o r i s t i s 37 r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s v a l i d f o r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d . C e r t i f i c a t i o n may be renewed by e i t h e r r e - e x a m i n a t i o n b e f o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c e r t i f i c a t e e x p i r e s ( u n l e s s o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e made w i t h t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n Review B o a r d b e f o r e e x p i r a t i o n ) and p a y i n g a r e n e w a l f e e , OR by a t t e n d i n g e i g h t e e n h o u r s ( t r e e w o r k e r ) o r t h i r t y - s i x h o u r s ( a r b o r i s t ) o f a p p r o v e d s e m i n a r s and e d u c a t i o n a l programs w i t h i n t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d and p a y i n g a r e n e w a l f e e . E i g h t e e n h o u r s was c h o s e n f o r t h e t r e e w o r k e r as t h e minimum number o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n h o u r s a c c e p t e d because i t a p p r o x i m a t e s one and a h a l f PNW t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s . S i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t an e m p l o y e r w o u l d g i v e r e l e a s e t i m e f o r a t r e e w o r k e r e a c h and e v e r y y e a r o f t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d t o a t t e n d t h e c h a p t e r t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e , a m i d d l e - o f - t h e - r o a d compromise was s e l e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r . E i g h t e e n h o u r s o f s e m i n a r s e t c . works o u t t o a t t e n d a n c e a t one a n n u a l c o n f e r e n c e and a n o t h e r s h o r t c o u r s e o r s e m i n a r . The t h i r t y - s i x h o u r minimum c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t was c h o s e n f o r t h e a r b o r i s t as i t c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s a t t e n d a n c e a t one c o n f e r e n c e p e r y e a r . S i n c e t h e A r b o r i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n l e v e l i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o w n e r -o p e r a t o r s , f o r e m e n o f m u n i c i p a l p a r k s sys tems and o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s and m a n a g e r s , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d keep c u r r e n t by a t t e n d i n g t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s a n n u a l l y . A r e t e s t i s an o p t i o n f o r b o t h t h e t r e e w o r k e r o r a r b o r i s t . T h i s was s e l e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r , t o a l l o w some f l e x i b i l i t y i n c a s e a c e r t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l i s i n j u r e d , l a i d o f f o r f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b l e t o a t t e n d c o n f e r e n c e s o r s e m i n a r s and s t i l l wants t o m a i n t a i n h i s / h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . P r o o f o f a t t e n d a n c e at t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s o r s e m i n a r s i s r e q u i r e d and must be s u b m i t t e d a t t h e t i m e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s made. A t t e n d a n c e a t an a n n u a l t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r i s e q u i v a l e n t t o s i x h o u r s c r e d i t p e r day a t t e n d e d , w i t h a maximum t o t a l of t w e l v e h o u r s c r e d i t a l l o w e d p e r c o n f e r e n c e . A l s o a c c e p t e d a r e t h e " P r o - H o r t " 38 s e m i n a r s r e l a t i n g t o a r b o r i c u l t u r e , s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s C e n t e r f o r U r b a n H o r t i c u l t u r e . T h r e e h o u r s c r e d i t w i l l be g i v e n t o a h a l f - d a y s e m i n a r ( t h r e e t o s i x h o u r s i n d u r a t i o n ) , and a maximum o f s i x h o u r s c r e d i t w i l l be g i v e n t o a d a y - l o n g s e m i n a r ( s i x p l u s h o u r s ) . L o c a l s e m i n a r s s p o n s o r e d by c h a p t e r members w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W a s h i n g t o n o r O r e g o n w i l l a l s o q u a l i f y f o r t h r e e t o s i x h o u r s c r e d i t , d e p e n d i n g w h e t h e r t h e y a r e h a l f day o r f u l l day p r o g r a m s . A p p r o v a l o f a d d i t i o n a l s e m i n a r s , c o u r s e s , e t c . i s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f the C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d . G a r r e t t s u g g e s t e d t h a t C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t s must d e m o n s t r a t e a c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new k n o w l e d g e . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s new knowledge m i g h t be i n the f o r m o f r e - t e s t i n g a n d / o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e 59 a n n u a l c h a p t e r t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e , f i e l d days o r s h o r t c o u r s e s . In a d d i t i o n , c o l l e g e c o u r s e s t h a t a re d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a r b o r i c u l t u r e and a r e t a k e n i n a d d i t i o n t o o r i g i n a l c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e a d e g r e e may q u a l i f y f o r a maximum t w e l v e h o u r s c r e d i t . In t h e h e a l t h f i e l d s , where an i n e p t p r a c t i t i o n e r may s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e t h e p u b l i c , r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n b a s e d on j o b competency and r e t e s t i n g , as opposed t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , i s i d e a l . In a r b o r i c u l t u r e , i n j u r y t o t h e p u b l i c i s l e s s l i k e l y t o o c c u r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , and b e c a u s e t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r has l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y , t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e p r o p o s e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m was b a s e d , by t h e w r i t e r , s o l e l y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The p r o p o s e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n program f o r the PNW c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . A w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , b a s e d on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , p r o v i d e d a means t o measure the a p p l i c a n t ' s g r a s p o f the knowledge b a s e . A n o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t , work e x p e r i e n c e , was met by an e i g h t e e n ( t r e e w o r k e r ) o r t h i r t y - s i x ( a r b o r i s t ) month work p e r i o d . The a p p l i c a n t , as p e r t h e p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e m e n t s , must s i g n and u p h o l d t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s . In a d d i t i o n , r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d by r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o r by a t t e n d i n g a c e r t a i n number o f h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n c r e d i t s w i t h i n t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d ( see A p p e n d i c e s E and F ) . The f o l l o w i n g i s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f o t h e r c h a p t e r s i n t h e I S A . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e O h i o and I l l i n o i s c h a p t e r s , a l l o f t h e ISA c h a p t e r s w i t h e x i s t i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs r e q u i r e an a p p l i c a n t t o have work e x p e r i e n c e i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e . The e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t v a r i e s f r o m t w e l v e , t w e n t y - f o u r t o t h i r t y - s i x m o n t h s . A l l c h a p t e r s have an e x a m i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t . T h r e e c h a p t e r s , W e s t e r n ( C e r t i f i e d T r e e W o r k e r ) , P e n n - D e l and New Y o r k c h a p t e r s ( C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t ) , r e q u i r e an o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The s i x c h a p t e r s c u r r e n t l y o f f e r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r a r b o r i s t s a l l u t i l i z e a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y r e q u i r i n g a s e v e n t y p e r c e n t p a s s . The w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n f o r m a t o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , t r u e and f a l s e q u e s t i o n s i s u s e d by most ISA c h a p t e r s . P e n n - D e l and I l l i n o i s a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n s ; P e n n - D e l r e q u i r e s f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k , p a r a g r a p h and e s s a y answers i n a d d i t i o n t o m u l t i p l e c h o i c e and t r u e and f a l s e a n s w e r s , and I l l i n o i s a l s o u s e s f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k q u e s t i o n s . (See A p p e n d i x H ; a l s o see A p p e n d i x 0, The p o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s M a n u a l , f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r A r b o r i s t and T r e e Worker c e r t i f i c a t i o n . ) One W e s t e r n c h a p t e r r e q u i r e s a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r T r e e W o r k e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s , a work c l i m b , and an a e r i a l r e s c u e . (See A p p e n d i x 0 f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n key f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r the PNW c h a p t e r T r e e Worker c e r t i f i c a t e . ) More t h a n h a l f o f t h e c h a p t e r s r e q u i r e a p p l i c a n t s t o s i g n the ISA Code o f E t h i c s b e f o r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s g r a n t e d . More t h a n h a l f of t h e c h a p t e r s do n o t r e q u i r e c h a p t e r membership as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . One c h a p t e r , P e n n - D e l , r e q u i r e s p r o o f o f i n s u r a n c e f o r p r o p e r t y damage and p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y . A l l c h a p t e r s r e q u i r e some f o r m o f r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n 40 r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y w i d e l y f r o m s i m p l y m a i n t a i n i n g c h a p t e r m e m b e r s h i p , t o a t t e n d a n c e a t one c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s e s s i o n p e r y e a r , t o a t t e n d a n c e e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s a t t h i r t y - s i x h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , t o r e -e x a m i n a t i o n e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s (see A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . G . A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e P r o g r a m A P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e c h a p t e r . R u n n i n g t h e p r o g r a m w i l l i n v o l v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f management and r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The w r i t e r p r o p o s e d t h e c r e a t i o n of a C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d ( C R B ) , composed o f one member, e a c h , f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W a s h i n g t o n and O r e g o n , who w o u l d have t h e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e p r o g r a m . T h i s b o a r d w o u l d be a p p o i n t e d by t h e c h a p t e r p r e s i d e n t , and be c h a i r e d by a c h a p t e r o f f i c e r o r d i r e c t o r . P r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s of t h e CRB w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : The d a y - t o - d a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m , i . e . a) d e v e l o p i n g p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s s u c h as t h e a p p l i c a t i o n b r o c h u r e , t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a r d ( see A p p e n d i x J ) . b) p r o m o t i n g t h e p r o g r a m t h r o u g h a r t i c l e s i n P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t T r e e s , o t h e r m a g a z i n e s , l e t t e r s t o p a r k s d e p a r t m e n t s and e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ( see A p p e n d i x L ) . c ) m a i l i n g t h e S t u d y G u i d e and o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o a p p l i c a n t s . d) e s t a b l i s h i n g e x a m i n a t i o n d a t e s , o r g a n i z i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n v e n u e , c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s a m p l e s , i n v i g i l a t i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , m a r k i n g the w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , s e t t i n g up t h e p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , and a r r a n g i n g f o r j u d g e s , e t c . e) r e c o r d k e e p i n g o f a p p l i c a t i o n s , c o n f i r m a t i o n s , f e e s , o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e (see A p p e n d i x K ) . f ) making r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e C h a p t e r B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s c e r t i f i e d . g) p u b l i s h i n g l i s t s of a c c e p t a b l e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s e m i n a r s t h a t 41 q u a l i f y f o r r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n h o u r s . (See A p p e n d i x Q f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s M a n u a l . ) The w r i t e r p r o p o s e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n a u t h o r i t y named t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n Review B o a r d (CRB) f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m i s a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k . To p l a c e t h i s r o l e o n t o t h e s h o u l d e r s o f an a l r e a d y o v e r - b u r d e n e d v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r o r o f f i c e r o f t h e c h a p t e r as p a r t o f h i s / h e r d u t i e s w o u l d be u n f a i r . A n o t h e r r e a s o n t o e s t a b l i s h a Review B o a r d was t h e w r i t e r ' s d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f r o m t h e p a r e n t c h a p t e r . The w r i t e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d must have t h e r i g h t t o make some p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and O f f i c e r s o f t h e c h a p t e r . However , i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c h a p t e r b o a r d t o p r o v i d e g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e B o a r d o f Review s h o u l d o p e r a t e . G e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s s u c h as s e t t i n g t h e f e e s , a p p r o v i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n and t h e f o r m a t o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c h a p t e r B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and O f f i c e r s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e c h a p t e r B o a r d w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n Review B o a r d , t h e l e n g t h o f te rms and a p p o i n t m e n t - r e a p p o i n t m e n t p o l i c i e s , t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r r e m o v a l o f b o a r d members, and t h e p o l i c y f o r h a n d l i n g p r o t e s t s and a p p e a l s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e CRB s h o u l d have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e f i n i n g t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of e a c h of t h e t h r e e members, t h e t e s t c o n t e n t , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the e x a m i n a t i o n and the t y p e s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs e l i g i b l e f o r r e - c e r t i f i c a t i o n c r e d i t s and o t h e r d a y - t o - d a y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t t h e C h a p t e r B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and O f f i c e r s s h o u l d p r o v i d e o n l y g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s , f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1) i t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y t i m e consuming t o p a s s a l l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e twelve-member B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s ; 2) t h e 42 B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and O f f i c e r s l a c k a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s and may be l e s s q u a l i f i e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e d a y - t o - d a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m ; 3) l a s t , and p e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t , c e r t i f i c a t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e n o t j u s t c h a p t e r members. A p p l i c a n t s , o u t s i d e t h e c h a p t e r , may n o t w i s h t o become c e r t i f i e d ii i t i s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y and f i n a l a c c e p t a n c e i s u l t i m a t e l y t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r d i r e c t o r s and o f f i c e r s , who may be b i a s e d . To t h i s e n d , i t w o u l d be a d v i s a b l e i f t h e r e were f i v e members on t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d ; t h r e e c h a p t e r members, a f o u r t h i n d i v i d u a l f r o m an a l l i e d f i e l d and a f i f t h p e r s o n who m i g h t be s i m p l y a member o f the p u b l i c . The two u n b i a s e d a d d i t i o n a l members w o u l d h o p e f u l l y keep t h e o t h e r t h r e e members f r o m e s t a b l i s h i n g a r b i t r a r y r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s . The w r i t e r p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e v i e w B o a r d be a p p o i n t e d by the c h a p t e r p r e s i d e n t because t h e p r e s i d e n t i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o a p p o i n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m e a c h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p , c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h a p t e r , t h e s e a r e m u n i c i p a l , u t i l i t y , and c o m m e r c i a l a r b o r i c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g c o n s u l t i n g a r b o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t h e p r e s i d e n t may e n s u r e t h a t one member i s f r o m e a c h o f t h e m a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c h a p t e r . A f r e e e l e c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e CRB members w o u l d b u n l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e a w e l l - b a l a n c e d g r o u p i n terms o f g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o r membership i n s p e c i a l g r o u p s . The c h a i r of t h e CRB s h o u l d be t a k e n by a c h a p t e r o f f i c e r o r d i r e c t o r t o s i m p l i f y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between the c h a p t e r B o a r d of D i r e c t o r s and the CRB. The w r i t e r a l s o p r o p o s e d t h a t the maximum t e r m o f a p p o i n t m e n t o f a CRB member be two y e a r s f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . A t e r m g r e a t e r t h a n two y e a r s w o u l d r e q u i r e a v e r y l a r g e commitment o f t i m e and e n e r g y f r o m a v o l u n t e e r . I i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t " b u r n o u t " w o u l d o c c u r . L o n g e r te rms t e n d t o promote d y n a s t i e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s h o r t e r t e r m o f one y e a r does n o t a l l o w an 43 i n d i v i d u a l t o g e t t h e f e e l of t h e j o b and v a l u a b l e t i m e s p e n t o r i e n t a t i n g e a c h member w o u l d be l o s t w i t h e a c h new a p p o i n t m e n t . A t w o - y e a r t e r m a l l o w s an i n d i v i d u a l t o l e a r n t o do t h e j o b w i t h maximum e n e r g y and minimum b u r n - o u t . H . P u b l i c i z i n g t h e P r o g r a m One of t h e g o a l s of the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i s t o p r o v i d e t h e p u b l i c w i t h a means o f i d e n t i f y i n g c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A p r o m o t i o n a l l e t t e r ( see A p p e n d i x L ) s e n t t o members of t h e h o r t i c u l t u r a l community who o f t e n f i e l d q u e s t i o n s and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e p u b l i c , may be u s e f u l . A p r e s s r e l e a s e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d / o r t r a d e m a g a z i n e s and n e w s l e t t e r s w o u l d a l s o be o f s e r v i c e i n a l e r t i n g t h e h o r t i c u l t u r a l community . P r e s s r e l e a s e s f o r l o c a l newspapers and g e n e r a l r e a d e r s h i p m a g a z i n e s may be o f v a l u e i n making t h e p u b l i c aware t h a t s u c h a p r o g r a m e x i s t s . A b r o c h u r e f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , w h i c h C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t s may hand o u t t o p r o s p e c t i v e c l i e n t s , g a r d e n c l u b s o r o t h e r c o m p a n i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t i f y i n g t h e i r employees may be o f use t o o . S i m p l e p r o m o t i o n a l and i d e n t i f y i n g i t e m s s u c h as numbered w a l l c e r t i f i c a t e s o r p l a q u e s , numbered w a l l e t i d e n t i t y c a r d s , l o g o s f o r s t a t i o n a r y , t r u c k d e c a l s and y e l l o w page ads a r e a l s o w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^ A l l o f t h e above p r o m o t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s a i d the p u b l i c i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a q u a l i f i e d and competent a r b o r i s t o r t r e e w o r k e r . I . E v a l u a t i n g t h e Program The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m has been e v a l u a t e d i n s e v e r a l w a y s . F i r s t , i n O c t o b e r o f 1988 the t w e l v e o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C h a p t e r o f t h e ISA were g i v e n c o p i e s o f t h e d r a f t S t u d y G u i d e and a l i s t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . E a c h c h a p t e r o f f i c e r was c h a r g e d w i t h r e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e S t u d y G u i d e and c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s and o f f e r i n g t o 44 t h e w r i t e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r changes and i m p r o v e m e n t s . The s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement f r o m t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e d t h e a d d i t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l , s u c h as t h e Oregon and W a s h i n g t o n I n d u s t r i a l H e a l t h and S a f e t y C o d e , r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g c h a i n s a w use and m a i n t e n a n c e , and h a z a r d t r e e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e g r o u p d i s c o v e r e d a number o f e r r o r s s u c h as i n c o r r e c t answers t o t h e sample q u e s t i o n s and t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s . T h e s e changes and a d d i t i o n s , among o t h e r s , were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a new d r a f t o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e . On December 19, 1988, t h e o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s were a g a i n p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e S t u d y G u i d e and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A t t h a t b o a r d m e e t i n g the f o l l o w i n g m o t i o n s were made: " 1 . Move to accept the requirements for cert ification for Arborists and Tree Workers as outlined in the Policies and  Procedures Manual. T h i s m o t i o n was p a s s e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a n g e s . The o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s a g r e e d w i t h and s u p p o r t e d the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i c e s E and F w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the r e q u i r e m e n t t o s i g n t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s ( see A p p e n d i x I ) . T h e i r r e a s o n was q u i t e s i m p l e . A member o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r , who became c e r t i f i e d , a l r e a d y has s i g n e d t h e Code o f E t h i c s upon o r i g i n a l l y j o i n i n g t h e c h a p t e r . I f a non-member becomes c e r t i f i e d , s i g n i n g t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s w o u l d have l i t t l e meaning and i f t h e Code was n o t u p h e l d , what c o u r s e o f a c t i o n c o u l d be t a k e n a g a i n s t a non-member? To s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m i n a r o u n d - a b o u t way, the o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s d e c i d e d t o g i v e a u t o m a t i c membership i n b o t h the i n t e r n a t i o n a l and c h a p t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n i f a non-member a p p l i c a n t s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e s c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The non-member a p p l i c a n t must pay more t h a n d o u b l e t h e member f e e f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and S t u d y G u i d e . T h i s was f e l t t o be a d e q u a t e t o pay f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s of t h e p r o g r a m and pay f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l and c h a p t e r membership d u e s . The b e n e f i t o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s the a u t o m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n c h a p t e r m e m b e r s h i p . 45 The k e y i s r e t a i n i n g t h e s e new members i n t o t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d y e a r s . "2. Move to accept the Study Guide as presented." T h i s m o t i o n was p a s s e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e S t u d y G u i d e . S t r i k e out a l l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Code o f E t h i c s . "3. Move to accept the administration of the program as outlined in the Policies and Procedures Manual. T h i s m o t i o n was t a b l e d p e n d i n g a r e v i s i o n o f t h e P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s  M a n u a l . The d i r e c t o r s and o f f i c e r s , i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e M a n u a l , a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o l i c i e s w i t h m i n o r changes i n w o r d i n g and t h e a d d i t i o n o f a few l i n e s t o c l a r i f y t h e i n t e n t o f some p a r a g r a p h s . The m a i n r e a s o n t h i s m o t i o n was n o t p a s s e d a t t h i s t i m e was t h e c o n c e r n o f s e v e r a l o f f i c e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m a t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . The s u g g e s t i o n was put f o r w a r d t o make t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s o p e n - b o o k . H e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n e n s u e d w i t h s e v e r a l members s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f an o p e n - b o o k e x a m i n a t i o n . The w r i t e r i s s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o an o p e n - b o o k e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e e n t i r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e S t u d y G u i d e and e x a m i n a t i o n package was b a s e d on a n o n - r e f e r e n c e d e x a m i n a t i o n . S e c o n d , o p e n -book e x a m i n a t i o n s have a r e p u t a t i o n of b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y e a s y . F o r a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m t o have v a l u e , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o g a i n t h a t c e r t i f i c a t i o n must be r i g o r o u s . No o t h e r ISA c h a p t e r o f f e r s an o p e n - b o o k e x a m i n a t i o n . B o t h W e s t e r n and P e n n - D e l e x p e r i e n c e a f i f t y p e r c e n t f a i l u r e r a t e . J o h n Ward , C h a i r m a n o f the CAPD ( C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t s o f P e n n s y l v a n i a and D e l a w a r e ) s t a t e s i n t h e J o u r n a l o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e t h a t " . . . t h e exams must be d i f f i c u l t enough t o demand s t u d y o r t h e p r o g r a m w i l l n o t be w o r t h w h i l e . T h i r d l y , an o p e n - b o o k e x a m i n a t i o n w o u l d s e t a p r e c e d e n t . How w o u l d the v a l u e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n between a g r o u p who had a c c e s s t o r e f e r e n c e s d u r i n g the 46 t e s t e q u a t e w i t h a g r o u p who do n o t ? I f t h e r e i s a v e r y h i g h f a i l u r e r a t e , e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s may be e l i m i n a t e d o r r e d e s i g n e d t o make t h e t e s t e a s i e r , i f r e q u i r e d . A f o u r t h r e a s o n was b a s e d on e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . B r i e f l y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e t a x o n o m i e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e the o b j e c t i v e s o r b e h a v i o u r s f o u n d i n t h e c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e o r p s y c h o m o t o r d o m a i n s . In t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n , t h e r e a r e s i x l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y r a n g i n g f r o m t h e knowledge l e v e l ( s i m p l e s t ) t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n l e v e l (most c o m p l e x ) . H i g h e r - l e v e l o b j e c t i v e s a r e assumed t o i n c l u d e , and be d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s i m p l e r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s . E a c h l e v e l o f t h e c o g n i t i v e taxonomy has u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . 1) Knowledge l e v e l - r e q u i r e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o r e c o g n i z e o r memorize f a c t s o r t e r m i n o l o g y . 2) C o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l - r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f the f a c t s and t e r m i n o l o g y . 3) A p p l i c a t i o n l e v e l - r e q u i r e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o use t h e p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s e t t i n g o t h e r t h a n t h a t i n w h i c h i t was l e a r n e d . 4) A n a l y s i s l e v e l - r e q u i r e s t h e a p p l i c a n t t o p o i n t out d i f f e r e n c e s between f a c t s and o p i n i o n s , and t o i d e n t i f y e r r o r s . 5) S y n t h e s i s l e v e l - r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a n t t o c r e a t e o r d e s i g n s o m e t h i n g new. 6) E v a l u a t i o n l e v e l - r e q u i r e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c r i t i c i z e o r t o j u d g e t h e v a l u e o r w o r t h o f s o m e t h i n g . ^ B a s e d on t h i s h i e r a r c h y , t h e w r i t e r d e s i g n e d t h e S t u d y G u i d e so t h a t an a p p l i c a n t must memorize some f a c t s and t e r m i n o l o g y , u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , and be a b l e t o use o r d e m o n s t r a t e knowledge and p o i n t out d i f f e r e n c e s . A L L o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e S t u d y G u i d e a r e p h r a s e d t o e l i c i t t h e l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t o b j e c t i v e . F o r e x a m p l e , t a k e o b j e c t i v e one -Knowledge L e v e l , page n i n e of t h e S t u d y G u i d e (see A p p e n d i x R ) : 47 * 1 . D e s c r i b e t h e m o r p h o l o g y of a r o o t and t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h p a r t ( * o b j e c t i v e f o r b o t h a r b o r i s t and t r e e w o r k e r ) . D e s c r i b e i s a v e r b a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s l i k e , i d e n t i f y , d e f i n e and name, t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e a p p l i c a n t memorize t h e p a r t s and f u n c t i o n o f t h e r o o t . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t u d y q u e s t i o n i s g i v e n on page t e n o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e : 1. D e f i n e t h e te rms l i s t e d b e l o w . I d e n t i f y where t h e s t r u c t u r e s o r c e l l s a r e f o u n d and e x p l a i n t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n . r o o t c a p , r o o t h a i r . . . e t c . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g sample t e s t q u e s t i o n i s on page t w e l v e o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e . 1. Water and m i n e r a l e l e m e n t s are a b s o r b e d by t h e t r e e v i a w h i c h p a r t o f t h e r o o t ? a) cap b) p a l i s a d e c ) h a i r s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e a l e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n i s : What p a r t o f t h e r o o t a b s o r b s w a t e r and m i n e r a l e l e m e n t s ? a) cap b) h a i r s c ) m e r i s t e m d) p i t h e) c o r t e x . A l l p a r t s A - D r e l a t e t o one a n o t h e r . They must f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t o e x h i b i t c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . T h i s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t component i n t h e d e s i g n o f an exam. I t r e f e r s t o the d e g r e e i n w h i c h t h e exam c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h are t o be measured i n t h e t e s t . C o m p r e h e n s i o n o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s e l i c i t e d by v e r b s l i k e e x p l a i n , d i s t i n g u i s h , and s u m m a r i z e . Take o b j e c t i v e e i g h t , page f o u r t e e n o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e : " D i s t i n g u i s h u n a c c e p t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n u r s e r y s t o c k s u c h as k i n k e d and c i r c l i n g r o o t s o r i n j u r e d b a r k . " Here t h e a p p l i c a n t c a n n o t j u s t memorize t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but must have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m . The c o r r e l a t i n g s t u d y q u e s t i o n f i v e , page f i f t e e n , i s : " L i s t f i v e 48 r e a s o n s why n u r s e r y t r e e s may be r e j e c t e d p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g . " T h e r e i s no sample t e s t q u e s t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y q u e s t i o n . The r e a l e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n i s : " G i r d l i n g r o o t s t y p i c a l l y e x h i b i t what k i n d o f r o o t d e f e c t ? a) s h a r p l y bent k i n k s , b) u n i l a t e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , c ) c i r c l i n g , h o r i z o n t a l g r o w t h , d) l a c k o f f l a r e . " A g a i n P a r t s A - D r e l a t e t o one a n o t h e r . The a n a l y s i s l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by s u c h v e r b s as d i s t i n g u i s h , p o i n t o u t , and o u t l i n e . Take o b j e c t i v e e l e v e n , page n i n e : " O u t l i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between h e a r t w o o d and d i s c o l o u r e d w o o d . " Now t h e a p p l i c a n t must n o t o n l y memorize the words and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r m e a n i n g , but t h i n k a b o u t how t h e d i f f e r e n c e s may be i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e a r e no o b j e c t i v e s i n the S t u d y G u i d e a t t h e s y n t h e s i s l e v e l , t h r e e a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n l e v e l , i n d i c a t e d by v e r b s s u c h as compare , c o n t r a s t , and e v a l u a t e . The a p p l i c a t i o n l e v e l r e q u i r e s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r use o f k n o w l e d g e . T h i s t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e p r a c t i c a l work c l i m b . E a c h component o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e and e x a m i n a t i o n s have been d e s i g n e d t o  r e i n f o r c e e a c h o t h e r . E a c h o b j e c t i v e i s s t a t e d i n v e r y s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e t o e l i c i t t h e l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g d e s i r e d . The w r i t e r r a n k e d e a c h l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e , i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e , i . e . p l a c e d i t i n t h e k n o w l e d g e , c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n o r a n a l y s i s l e v e l of l e a r n i n g . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p l a c i n g an o b j e c t i v e i n one o r a n o t h e r l e v e l of l e a r n i n g was b a s e d on t h e w r i t e r ' s t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e as a h o r t i c u l t u r a l t e a c h e r . E a c h s t u d y q u e s t i o n r e i n f o r c e s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t i v e . The sample t e s t q u e s t i o n s and r e a l t e s t q u e s t i o n s a r e a l l b a s e d on t h e o b j e c t i v e s g i v e n . T h e r e a r e f i f t y - f o u r sample t e s t q u e s t i o n s g i v e n i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e a t t h e end o f t h e u n i t s . Of t h e s e , t w e n t y - e i g h t have been r e w o r d e d and u s e d i n t h e f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n . T h e r e are two h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - s e v e n s t u d y q u e s t i o n s g i v e n i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e . Of t h e s e , one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y have been r e w o r d e d and u s e d i n t h e f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n . 49 The e x a m i n a t i o n i s i n e f f e c t a l r e a d y " o p e n b o o k " , i n t h a t by w o r k i n g d i l i g e n t l y t h r o u g h a l l components t h e a p p l i c a n t a l r e a d y has a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s and answers a t h i s / h e r f i n g e r t i p s . To make t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s t r u l y " o p e n b o o k " w o u l d d e f e a t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e c o m p l e t e e d u c a t i o n a l p a c k a g e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , B r i a n F i s h e r , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r and a c o m m e r c i a l a r b o r i s t i n W h i t e R o c k , B . C . , had t h i s t o say about an open book e x a m i n a t i o n , i n h i s w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o l l o w i n g the December 19 th B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s m e e t i n g : " T h o s e who ( l i k e me) f a v o u r open book exams b e l i e v e t h a t knowing where t o f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n and knowing how t o use i t a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h a t w h i c h i s m e m o r i z e d . We b e l i e v e t h a t no c a s u a l b y s t a n d e r c o u l d p a s s a t i m e d exam by u s i n g t h e r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , u n l e s s t h e y had a p r e v i o u s i n t e r e s t and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s . " ^ M r . F i s h e r , i n d i s c u s s i n g o b j e c t i v e o n e , page n i n e o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e , s a y s : In t e n y e a r s as a p r a c t i s i n g a r b o r i s t and f i v e as a c o n s u l t i n g a r b o r i s t , I c a n t h i n k of no c a s e where I needed e i t h e r f o r b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a s o n s t o have i n memory t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f a r o o t o r t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h p a r t . T h i s i s an o b j e c t i v e w h i c h Sue s a y s s h o u l d be m e m o r i z e d . F o r t h e e d u c a t o r o r t h e n u r s e r y m a n t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t . F o r t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e p l a n t p a t h o l o g i s t i t i s v i t a l . F o r t h e p r a c t i s i n g o r c o n s u l t i n g a r b o r i s t , i t i s r e f e r e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t needed on a day t o day b a s i s . Not t h a t I o b j e c t t o a p r a c t i s i n g a r b o r i s t b e i n g a b l e t o remember t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t , i f h e / s h e d o e s n o t have i t i n i n s t a n t r e c a l l , i t i s n o t c r i t i c a l . Someone t r a i n i n g w i t h me, f o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d have r e a d about r o o t s and t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e r o o t . H e / S h e w o u l d n o t have t o know i t by r o t e as a p a r t o f h i s / h e r j o b , b u t , I w o u l d e x p e c t them t o know where t o f i n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i f i t were n e e d e d . The same a p p l i e s t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c names of t r e e s . . . o u r c l i e n t s and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c w i t h whom we i n t e r a c t want t o t a l k about Red M a p l e s n o t A c e r r u b r u m , and day t o day we n e v e r c a l l a D o u g l a s F i r a P s e u d o t s u g a . ^ M r . F i s h e r a l s o s t a t e d i n h i s l e t t e r , w h i c h e v a l u a t e d t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m , t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h e S t u d y G u i d e and p r o g r a m t o be e x c e p t i o n a l l y g o o d . He s t a t e d t h a t i t c o v e r s a wide range and has a l l t h e components o f a good i n s t r u m e n t t o a s s e s s t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t and knowledge o f a p r a c t i s i n g 50 a r b o r i s t . On one hand p r a i s e f o r t h e p r o g r a m , and on t h e o t h e r , s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m o f some o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l and t h e method needed t o r e t a i n t h e m a t e r i a l . M r . F i s h e r g i v e s h i s s u p p o r t t o an open book f o r m a t b e c a u s e i t does n o t e n t a i l memory w o r k . T h e r e i s an o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n p h i l o s o p h y between M r . F i s h e r and t h e w r i t e r . The w r i t e r ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r a c l o s e d book e x a m i n a t i o n have a l r e a d y been g i v e n . In r e s p o n s e t o the s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e m e m o r i z a t i o n o f t h a t m a t e r i a l , the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l must a t some p o i n t i n h i s / h e r c a r e e r make a s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o l e a r n t h e b a s i c s o f t h a t f i e l d . In a r b o r i c u l t u r e , as i n h o r t i c u l t u r e , t h o s e b a s i c s a r e p l a n t m o r p h o l o g y and t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s , r e s p i r a t i o n and w a t e r u p t a k e . These a r e a b s o l u t e l y f u n d a m e n t a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p l a n t w o r l d . How c a n anyone p r o f e s s t o comprehend t h e d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t s o f c o m p a r t a m e n t a l i z a t i o n o r b r a n c h a t t a c h m e n t u n l e s s t h e s e f i r s t s t e p p i n g s t o n e s a r e m a s t e r e d ? The w r i t e r a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t memory o r r o t e l e a r n i n g i s r e q u i r e d and a p p r o p r i a t e some of the t i m e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , M r . F i s h e r ' s p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f some o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r does have m e r i t . F o r e x a m p l e , N e l s o n s t a t e d t h a t " . . . e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on a s s e s s i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e j o b . T h e r e f o r e , t h e b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a d e f e n s i b l e e x a m i n a t i o n r e s t s w i t h a v a l i d a n a l y s i s of what t h e t a s k s t o be p e r f o r m e d and what a r e t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e , and a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o do the j o b . " I f , i n f a c t , t h e r e a r e many p a r t s o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e w h i c h are not needed by a p r a c t i s i n g a r b o r i s t on a day t o day b a s i s , t h e n t h i s may c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s f l a w i n d e s i g n . M r . F i s h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n a c l o s e d book e x a m i n a t i o n t h e r e w i l l be more f a i l u r e s , a p p l i c a n t s who d r o p out o r do n o t w r i t e t h e t e s t . The w r i t e r a g r e e s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r u e judgement o f t h e w o r t h o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m i s n o t the number o f a p p l i c a n t s who w r i t e t h e 51 e x a m i n a t i o n , n o r t h e number o f f a i l u r e s , n o r t h e number o f new c h a p t e r members, but an i n c r e a s e i n good a r b o r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e and a d e c r e a s e i n p o o r a r b o r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . The w r i t e r w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a g r e e s . 6 9 4. Move to accept the Tree Worker and Arborist Examinations. T h i s m o t i o n was t a b l e d p e n d i n g f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e open book i s s u e and a s e p a r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f the e x a m i n a t i o n by t h e E x p e r t P a n e l ( see A p p e n d i x P o r t h e sample E x p e r t P a n e l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . 5. Move to form a Certification Review Board.^ T h i s m o t i o n was p a s s e d as r e a d . 6. Move to accept the fee scheduled1 T h i s m o t i o n was p a s s e d w i t h two m i n o r changes i n t h e f e e s t r u c t u r e . A n o n -members e x a m i n a t i o n o n l y c a t e g o r y f o r $80 US was d e l e t e d ; t h e non-members E x a m i n a t i o n and S t u d y G u i d e c a t e g o r y was i n c r e a s e d f r o m $100 t o $150 U S ; and t h e non-members r e t a k e one c a t e g o r y a f t e r f a i l u r e was i n c r e a s e d f r o m $10 t o $15 U S . 7. Move to consider a revision of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Chapter, since they currently say nothing about the chapter's ability to grant, suspend or revoke certification. T h i s m o t i o n was p a s s e d as r e a d . The o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s o f the c h a p t e r , i n p a s s i n g m o t i o n s t o a c c e p t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t h e S t u d y G u i d e , t h e f e e s c h e d u l e , and the f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n Review B o a r d ( a l b e i t w i t h m i n o r c h a n g e s ) , i n d i c a t e d t o t h e w r i t e r t h a t t h e y have e v a l u a t e d t h e s e components of t h e p r o g r a m and f i n d them s a t i s f a c t o r y . 52 A s e c o n d way i n w h i c h the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m was e v a l u a t e d was i n a more f o r m a l manner . S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s , w e l l r e s p e c t e d w i t h i n i n d u s t r y , were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r e i t h e r a C e r t i f i c a t i o n E x p e r t P a n e l o r a P r e - T e s t P a n e l . The E x p e r t P a n e l was a s k e d t o t a k e t h e S t u d y G u i d e and t h e e x a m i n a t i o n ( w i t h a n s w e r s ) and examine them c a r e f u l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i r t e e n q u e s t i o n s ( see A p p e n d i x P ) . T h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ; a l l t h r e e r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h o u g h t f u l and d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n s . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e : D r . James C l a r k , P r o f e s s o r o f U r b a n H o r t i c u l t u r e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n and f o r m e r c h a p t e r o f f i c e r , M r . B a r r y E l l i o t t , M . S c , a f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t and d i r e c t o r o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r , and p a r k s a d m i n i s t r a t o r , M u n i c i p a l i t y o f C o q u i t l a m , B . C . , and M r . R o b e r t M a z a n y , c o n s u l t i n g a r b o r i s t and f o r m e r l y a c o m m e r c i a l a r b o r i s t , PNW C h a p t e r o f f i c e r , B e a v e r t o n , O r e g o n . T h e s e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e , by t h e w r i t e r , f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v e r s i t y o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r ; s e c o n d , t h e y r e p r e s e n t a l l f o u r o f t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , e d u c a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l , c o m m e r c i a l and c o n s u l t i n g a r b o r i c u l t u r e ; and l a s t l y , t h e y were w i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a r e f u l l y . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e i r comments. The f i r s t f i v e q u e s t i o n s of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n e d t h e S t u d y G u i d e . A l l e v a l u a t o r s f o u n d t h e S t u d y G u i d e v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e . One s t a t e d t h a t the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s g i v e n i n the S t u d y G u i d e c o v e r e d a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f knowledge r e q u i r e d by an a r b o r i s t o r t r e e w o r k e r . One p o s s i b l e a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y u n i t m i g h t be P l a n t A p p r a i s a l . Two e v a l u a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t the knowledge b a s e , as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d what an a r b o r i s t i s r e q u i r e d t o know i n e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e . One w r o t e t h a t t h e S t u d y G u i d e p r e s e n t s n o t h i n g t h a t an a r b o r i s t s h o u l d n o t know but much more t h a n t h e y may e v e r u s e . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t U n i t N i n e , D i a g n o s i n g Common T r e e P r o b l e m s , r e f l e c t e d t h e minimum l e v e l o f knowledge r e q u i r e d i n t h i s a r e a . Two 53 e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t the S t u d y G u i d e c o n t a i n e d a knowledge base a d e q u a t e t o e n s u r e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o r r e c t t r e e c a r e t e c h n i q u e s by a t r e e w o r k e r . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r e e w o r k e r c a t e g o r y c o n c e n t r a t e d on b a s i c p l a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . A n o t h e r w r o t e t h a t t h e knowledge base p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e was much more t h a n t h e t r e e w o r k e r n e e d e d and t h a t h e / s h e may be i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e S t u d y G u i d e . One v e r y p o s i t i v e p o i n t was t h a t t h e S t u d y  G u i d e r e q u i r e d t h e use and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p r e c i s e a r b o r i c u l t u r e v o c a b u l a r y . A l l t h r e e e v a l u a t o r s were g e n e r o u s i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y f o u n d no e r r o r s , o m i s s i o n s o r w e a k n e s s e s . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d s i x m i n o r i m p r o v e m e n t s . The w r i t e r a g r e e d w i t h f i v e o f t h e c h a n g e s and t h e s e were i m p l e m e n t e d as f o l l o w s . In U n i t Two, T r e e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s were r e v i s e d : t h e terms A n g i o s p e r m s and Gymnosperms were added and t h e te rms C o n i f e r o u s and D e c i d u o u s d e l e t e d , and a l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e and sample t e s t q u e s t i o n s were added t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e s e f o u r t e r m s . The s e c t i o n d e t a i l i n g f l o w e r c o l o u r and t i m e was d e l e t e d as p e r t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e s e i t e m s were t o o d e t a i l e d f o r t h i s p r o g r a m . The comment on page t w e n t y - t w o o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e c o n c e r n i n g t r e e and s h r u b f e r t i l i z a t i o n was r e v i s e d . The l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and s t u d y q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g b o r o n and s o i l s a l i n i t y were d e l e t e d f r o m U n i t F o u r , S o i l Management. On page e l e v e n o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e t h e word g l u c o s e was changed t o c a r b o h y d r a t e s , i n t h e i n t e r e s t of c o n s i s t e n c y . The s i x t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h e w r i t e r d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h . The e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h S t a n d a r d I n s t i t u t e ( B S I ) G u i d e l i n e s as r e l a t e d t o P r u n i n g w o u l d n o t be r e c o g n i z e d as w i d e l y as t h e N a t i o n a l A r b o r i s t s A s s o c i a t i o n (NAA) S t a n d a r d s . The r e a s o n the w r i t e r c h o s e t o use t h e BSI S t a n d a r d s was q u i t e s i m p l e . The r e f e r e n c e work f o r U n i t F i v e , P r u n i n g C o n c e p t s and T e c h n i q u e s , was R i c h a r d W. H a r r i s ' s t e x t b o o k A r b o r i c u l t u r e : C a r e o f T r e e s , S h r u b s and V i n e s i n t h e L a n d s c a p e . T h i s book d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l the BSI S t a n d a r d s and j u s t m e n t i o n e d i n p a s s i n g 54 t h e NAA S t a n d a r d s . Two e v a l u a t o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e S t u d y G u i d e f o r m a t be r e v i s e d so t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n between t h o s e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s meant f o r t h e t r e e w o r k e r and t h o s e meant o n l y f o r t h e a r b o r i s t . One e v a l u a t o r f e l t t h i s improvement w o u l d make i t e a s i e r t o f i n d t h e s t u d y a r e a s and r e d u c e t h e a n x i e t y o f t r e e w o r k e r s r e v i e w i n g t h e G u i d e . I n answer t o t h e l a s t E x p e r t P a n e l q u e s t i o n , number f i v e , a l l e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e S t u d y G u i d e i s c u r r e n t , c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c h a l l e n g i n g . The t h i r d made a comment c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m a t change as n o t e d a b o v e , and t h e f o r m a t o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e w i l l be r e v i s e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e t o b e t t e r d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . One s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r o g r a m w o u l d be e q u i v a l e n t t o a t w o - y e a r community c o l l e g e o r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l p r o g r a m i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e . A l a s t comment was t h a t t h e p r o g r a m may be t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r some a l r e a d y w o r k i n g i n a r b o r i c u l t u r e . The e v a l u a t o r s were a s k e d t o r e v i e w t h e e x a m i n a t i o n as w e l l . A l l t h r e e e v a l u a t o r s s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e was a good c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n the S t u d y G u i d e and t h e e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . One e v a l u a t o r s t a t e d t h a t t h i s may be t h e s t r o n g e s t component o f t h e S t u d y G u i d e . (See A p p e n d i x 0 f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g o f e a c h l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e and t h e r e l a t e d e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . ) The r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m was v e r y g r a t i f y i n g . The q u e s t i o n , "How w e l l do the e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o u n d i n t h e S t u d y G u i d e ? " was an a t t e m p t by t h e w r i t e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y i s t h e d e g r e e w i t h w h i c h t h e t e s t i t e m s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h e r e was h i g h c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . As t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n ' s o t h e r two q u a l i t i e s , r e l i a b i l i t y and u s a b i l i t y , t h e e v a l u a t o r s f o u n d t h e u s a b i l i t y a c c e p t a b l e i n t h a t the t e s t was c l e a r and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . The r e a d e r may v e r i f y i n A p p e n d i x S t h e c l e a r f o r m a t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . The 55 w r i t e r c h o s e t o use a l a r g e t y p e f a c e w i t h a maximum o f s e v e n q u e s t i o n s p e r page p l u s ample w h i t e space t o f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h e d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x S t o e a c h a p p l i c a n t , t o be r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r . The d i v i s i o n o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g o f e a c h c l e a r l y marked was an a t t e m p t t o make t h e t e s t s i m p l e t o u s e . R e l i a b i l i t y o r c o n s i s t e n c y i s an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t e s t t o o . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e methods u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e r e l i a b i l i t y r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c t u a l l y t a k e t h e t e s t . T h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n , as a s u i t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n t o t e s t t h e t e s t was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r . One e v a l u a t o r s t a t e d t h a t not a l l t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s were t e s t e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . The w r i t e r was aware o f t h i s . The l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e n o t t e s t e d were d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t u s i n g t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e f o r m a t . The e v a l u a t o r s d i s a g r e e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n two, p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . Two e v a l u a t o r s f o u n d t h e r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s and c o v e r a g e o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t o be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , b r o a d - r a n g i n g , and n e e d i n g l i t t l e r e f i n e m e n t . The o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s m a l l o v e r -e m p h a s i s i n M o r p h o l o g y and P h y s i o l o g y , and an u n d e r - e m p h a s i s i n D i a g n o s i n g Common T r e e P r o b l e m s . A l l e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n was c h a l l e n g i n g . The e v a l u a t o r s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t o p a s s , t h e a p p l i c a n t w o u l d have t o c a r e f u l l y r e v i e w the S t u d y G u i d e and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . In g e n e r a l , a l l t h r e e e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e answers o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s were p l a u s i b l e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f e l e v e n q u e s t i o n s . The e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s were e x p l i c i t and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e w i t h v e r y few ambiguous o r " t r i c k y " q u e s t i o n s . A few m i n o r e r r o r s , o m i s s i o n s o r weaknesses were p o i n t e d o u t by t h e e v a l u a t o r s . F o r e x a m p l e , one f o u n d an o b v i o u s l y i n c o r r e c t answer and t h e o t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y use PNW p r o b l e m s and p r a c t i c e . T h i s 56 e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d a f o c u s on r o o t w e e v i l , r o o t r o t , A n t h r a c n o s e , e t c . i n t h e q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o U n i t N i n e , D i a g n o s i n g Common T r e e P r o b l e m s . The w r i t e r a g r e e d and has r e v i s e d t h e S t u d y G u i d e t o i n c l u d e more i n s e c t and d i s e a s e p r o b l e m s r e l e v a n t t o the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . The e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be r e v i s e d a c c o r d i n g l y a t a l a t e r d a t e . One e v a l u a t o r w r o t e t h a t some l a y m a n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l terms w o u l d make t h e e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d an " o p e n b o o k " e x a m i n a t i o n f o r m a t f o r a t l e a s t the t r e e w o r k e r . The o t h e r two e v a l u a t o r s were s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o an " o p e n b o o k " f o r m a t f o r t h e exam. I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e e v a l u a t o r s a g r e e d t h a t upon w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e S t u d y G u i d e and a c h i e v i n g s e v e n t y p e r c e n t i n e a c h c a t e g o r y , t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t s h o u l d be c e r t i f i e d as an A r b o r i s t o r T r e e W o r k e r . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e E x p e r t P a n e l , f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r e - T e s t P a n e l . E a c h e v a l u a t o r was g i v e n a copy o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and a s k e d t o r e a d e a c h q u e s t i o n c a r e f u l l y , as i f t h e y were a c t u a l l y t a k i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n . The answers were n o t p r o v i d e d as t h e y were t o t h e E x p e r t P a n e l . The P r e - T e s t P a n e l were a s k e d t o c i r c l e t h e i r answers i f t h e y w i s h e d , but the e x a m i n a t i o n was n o t marked o r g r a d e d . E a c h e v a l u a t o r was a s k e d t o r e p o r t any t e c h n i c a l g l i t c h e s , and as t h e y worked t h r o u g h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t o keep i n mind t h r e e q u e s t i o n s ( see A p p e n d i x S ) . T h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s f i l l e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f o u r t h r e s p o n d e d v e r b a l l y . The p a n e l members were Susan Munro ( B . S c . A ) , e d i t o r o f P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t  T r e e s , C h r i s F o x o n , A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d and f o r m e r d i r e c t o r o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r , J o s e p h T a f f e ( B . S c . A ) and James M u i r ( B . S c . A ) , b o t h H o r t i c u l t u r e I n s t r u c t o r s a t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y . I t was d i f f i c u l t a s s e m b l i n g b o t h an e x p e r t p a n e l and a p r e - t e s t p a n e l s i n c e many o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t h e w r i t e r spoke t o were p l a n n i n g t o become c e r t i f i e d and t h e r e f o r e e x c l u d e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , t h e f o u r P r e - T e s t p a n e l i s t s f o u n d t h e a l t e r n a t e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e answers p l a u s i b l e ; o n l y one q u e s t i o n was s i n g l e d out f o r r e v i s i o n . One e v a l u a t o r f e l t t h a t some of t h e answers were d e b a t a b l e . The e v a l u a t o r s f o u n d t h e q u e s t i o n s e x p l i c i t and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . E i g h t q u e s t i o n s were s i n g l e d out f o r an i r r e g u l a r c o n s i s t e n c y i n w o r d i n g and one q u e s t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d awkward. The l a s t q u e s t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d i f t h e r e were any e r r o r s o r o m i s s i o n s . S e v e r a l t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s were n o t e d as was t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e words "symptom" and " s i g n " i n t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p l a n t d i a g n o s i s . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s on t r e e s e l e c t i o n f o r d i f f i c u l t s i t e s w o u l d be u s e f u l . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n was t o o l e n g t h y . The w r i t e r w o u l d l i k e t o r e s p o n d t o t h a t c r i t i c i s m w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g . W i t h i n l i m i t s , i n c r e a s i n g t h e l e n g t h o f an e x a m i n a t i o n has the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y , p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e i t e m s added are e q u a l o r b e t t e r i n q u a l i t y t o t h e e x i s t i n g t e s t q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e i s a p o i n t o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n where t h e t e s t becomes so l e n g t h y t h a t the a p p l i c a n t becomes t i r e d , b o r e d o r f r u s t r a t e d , a l l o f w h i c h 72 t e n d t o r e d u c e r e l i a b i l i t y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t a t t h i s p o i n t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e t e s t i s i n f a c t t o o l o n g and w h e t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l d e c r e a s e b e c a u s e o f i t s l e n g t h , u n t i l t h e t e s t i s a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e P r e - T e s t P a n e l , D r . B l a c k m o r e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement and R e s e a r c h G r o u p e v a l u a t e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s on two o c c a s i o n s and p r o v i d e d a number o f v a l u a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , he s u g g e s t e d t h e u s e of t h e q u e s t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e m e n t f o r m a t , t h e use o f f o u r o r f i v e a l t e r n a t e s r a t h e r t h a n t h r e e , the d e l e t i o n o f " a l l of t h e a b o v e " o r "none of the a b o v e " a n s w e r s , and a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e i n t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . In summary, t h e s e v e n e v a l u a t o r s o f t h e two p a n e l s p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e , 58 c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . I n a l l c a s e s , e x c e p t as n o t e d , t h e w r i t e r r e v i s e d t h e S t u d y G u i d e as s u g g e s t e d . The e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be r e v i s e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . The e v a l u a t o r s f o u n d no m a j o r p r o b l e m s , j u s t a few m i n o r r e v i s i o n s o r e r r o r s . O v e r a l l t h e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e e v a l u a t o r s was e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c . D r . C l a r k s t a t e d : In g e n e r a l , I f o u n d S u e ' s e f f o r t t o be e x c e l l e n t . She has d e v e l o p e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y g u i d e . The exam c l e a r l y f o l l o w s t h e f o r m a t and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h a t g u i d e . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e p r o g r a m i s e l e m e n t a r y and t h e exam i s e a s y . On t h e c o n t r a r y , many i n o u r C h a p t e r w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t . I am n o t unhappy o r c o n c e r n e d about t h i s , f o r I b e l i e v e o u r p r o g r a m w i l l meet i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e : t o u p g r a d e and enhance a r b o r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e i n t h e r e g i o n . I a l s o b e l i e v e t h e s t u d y g u i d e r e f l e c t s t h e l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t m e e t i n g s o f o u r C h a p t e r and r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Our g o a l as a C h a p t e r s h o u l d be t o c e r t i f y as many members as p o s s i b l e . But t h i s does not mean t h a t o u r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n c o m p r e h e n s i v e and r i g o r o u s . I b e l i e v e S u e ' s S t u d y G u i d e i s an e x c e l l e n t compromise i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t i s c h a l l e n g i n g , but v e r y w e l l - o r g a n i z e d and e a s y t o u s e . ^ Two o f t h e t h r e e members o f the E x p e r t P a n e l a g r e e d w i t h t h e w r i t e r i n t h a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d not be open b o o k . One e v a l u a t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f o c u s s h o u l d be on the q u a l i t y of t h e p r o g r a m n o t on t h e ease o f p a s s a g e o f t h e exam. C o n c e r n o v e r t h e a b i l i t y o f some a p p l i c a n t s i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e p r o g r a m and p a s s i n g a c l o s e d book e x a m i n a t i o n c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d and e a s e d by d e v e l o p i n g r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s aimed a t t a k i n g and p a s s i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . Of t h e members of t h e P r e - T e s t P a n e l , two were o p p o s e d t o an open book f o r m a t , a t h i r d was a m b i v a l e n t and t h e f o u r t h u n d e c i d e d . 59 IX . SUMMARY C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h a p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c y o r a s s o c i a t i o n g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o a p r a c t i t i o n e r who has met a s e r i e s o f s e t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o r s t a n d a r d s as d e t e r m i n e d by t h a t agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n . L i c e n s u r e and c e r t i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s r e s e r v e d t i t l e , but u n c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s may p e r f o r m t h e same a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n as l o n g as t h e y do not p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e p u b l i c as c e r t i f i e d . L i c e n s u r e , on the o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n , i s l e g i s l a t e d . The laws o f t h e s t a t e o r p r o v i n c e make i t i l l e g a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o engage i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s u n l e s s h e / s h e has been g r a n t e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o do so by a l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d b o a r d o r a g e n c y . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c , the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r , e m p l o y e e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e n e f i t f rom c e r t i f i c a t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n e n a b l e s t h e p u b l i c t o choose q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A c e r t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l may e n j o y a c e r t a i n s t a t u s . J o b p r o m o t i o n s and s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s may t a k e p l a c e as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . E m p l o y e r s , who a r e a n x i o u s t o a d v e r t i s e the competence o f t h e i r s t a f f , b e n e f i t f r o m h i r i n g c e r t i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i c h promote h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e among t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p , a l s o b e n e f i t f r o m c e r t i f i c a t i o n . T h e r e a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n , as w e l l . C e r t i f i c a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , may l i m i t who may e n t e r an o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n and the i s s u e of competency go hand i n h a n d . C o m p e t e n c e , as i t r e l a t e s t o j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , o r a l and w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n s , s i m u l a t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n of an a p p l i c a n t ' s b e h a v i o u r i n t h e work p l a c e a r e among t h e methods u s e d t o measure c o m p e t e n c y . A l m o s t a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s i n o u r s o c i e t y a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o one or 60 more membership o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . Many a s s o c i a t i o n s have e s t a b l i s h e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n pro g rams t o s e t s t a n d a r d s and e n c o u r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t once an i n d i v i d u a l i s c e r t i f i e d and t h e r e f o r e i s f o r e v e r competent has been a p r o b l e m i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . To overcome t h i s , many a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d e m a n d a t o r y c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n as a component o f t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . T h e r e a r e two o p p o s i n g v i e w s t o t h i s p r a c t i c e . One v i e w m a i n t a i n s t h a t mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s an i n f r i n g e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m and no g u a r a n t e e t h a t l e a r n i n g o r i m p r o v e d p r a c t i c e w i l l r e s u l t . The s e c o n d v i e w s u g g e s t s t h a t mandated c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n does n o t l i m i t i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l competence can be m a i n t a i n e d and e n h a n c e d . In p l a n n i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m , a p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g model was u s e d as a g u i d e . The p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g model ( S o r k ' s m o d e l ) , a l l o w e d t h e w r i t e r t o a p p r o a c h t h e t a s k a t hand i n an o r g a n i z e d and s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . The P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c h a p t e r o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e , f o r whom t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m has been d e v e l o p e d , i s one o f t h e s m a l l e r c h a p t e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y . The one h u n d r e d and n i n e t y members r e s i d e p r i m a r i l y i n W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon s t a t e s , w i t h a few members i n A l a s k a and a l a r g e r g r o u p i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m may be g r o u p e d i n t o s o c i e t y , p r o g r a m o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . T h e r e were a number o f b e n e f i t s t o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m . O b j e c t i v e s h e l p e d t h e w r i t e r t o c h o o s e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and p r o v i d e d the c r i t e r i a upon w h i c h t h e e v a l u a t i o n was b a s e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t has t a k e n a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e . Many 61 p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s were made c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t a r e a , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n and t h e means o f e v a l u a t i o n . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m as p r o p o s e d by t h e w r i t e r and as a c c e p t e d by t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and O f f i c e r s o f t h e PNW C h a p t e r a r e summarized i n A p p e n d i c e s E and F . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d i n g a p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , p l u s a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as work e x p e r i e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m . The p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a b o a r d a p p o i n t e d by t h e c h a p t e r p r e s i d e n t . The f u n c t i o n s of t h i s C e r t i f i c a t i o n Review B o a r d s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e day t o day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m , i n a d d i t i o n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e e x a m i n a t i o n . P u b l i c i z i n g the program i s i m p o r t a n t t o o . P r o m o t i o n a l l e t t e r s , p r e s s r e l e a s e s , s t a t i o n a r y and t r u c k l o g o s a r e means o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s awareness o f t h e p r o g r a m . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program o c c u r r e d i n two ways . The t w e l v e o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s o f t h e c h a p t e r were a s k e d t o s u b m i t t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r changes and improvements c o n c e r n i n g t h e S t u d y G u i d e and c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s t o t h e w r i t e r . H e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m r e s u l t e d f r o m t h i s p r o c e s s and r e v i s i o n s and a d d i t i o n s were made t o the S t u d y G u i d e . The p r o g r a m was a l s o e v a l u a t e d by members o f two p a n e l s , an E x p e r t P a n e l and a P r e - T e s t P a n e l . T h e s e e v a l u a t o r s were a s k e d t o work t h r o u g h e i t h e r the S t u d y G u i d e and e x a m i n a t i o n ( w i t h a n s w e r s ) o r j u s t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , and f i l l i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e two p a n e l s were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . 62 X. FOOTNOTES ^Depar tment o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , P r o f e s s i o n a l R e g u l a t i o n : A S t a f f S t u d y o f A c c o u n t a n c y , A r c h i t e c t u r e , E n g i n e e r i n g and Law i n O n t a r i o , q u o t e d i n G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f A u d i o l o g i s t s and S p e e c h Language  P a t h o l o g i s t s i n Canada ( O t t a w a , ON: A u t h o r , 1985) , p . x i i . 2 N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t on L i c e n s u r e and R e l a t e d H e a l t h P e r s o n n e l C r e d e n t i a l i n g , q u o t e d i n I n i t i a l R o l e D e l i n e a t i o n f o r H e a l t h  E d u c a t i o n : F i n a l R e p o r t (San F r a n c i s c o , C A : A u t h o r , 1980) , p . 3 . 3 B e n j a m i n S h i m b e r g , "What i s Competence? How Can i t be A s s e s s e d ? " i n Power and C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . M i l t o n R. S t e r n ( e d . ) , ( B e l m o n t , C A : Wadsworth I n c . , 1983) , p . 1 7 . ^ J o a n S. B r i t t , A c c r e d i t a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t i o n and L i c e n s u r e o f H e a l t h  Manpower i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V a n c o u v e r , B C : D i v i s i o n o f H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , H e a l t h S c i e n c e s C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977) , p . 3 4 . 5 I b i d . K a t h l e e n R o c k h i l l , "The M y s t i q u e o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n , E d u c a t i o n and P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m : In S e r v i c e o f Whom?" i n C e r t i f i c a t i o n , C r e d e n t i a l i n g ,  L i c e n s i n g and t h e Renewal P r o c e s s . James S. Long and Roger B o s h i e r ( e d s . ) , (Moscow, I D : News Review P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1976) , p . 8 . ^Depar tment o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e  C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f A u d i o l o g i s t s , p . x i i . ° S h i m b e r g , "What i s C o m p e t e n c e ? " , p . 2 2 . o A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n s and A r b o r e t a , I n c . , N o r t h  A m e r i c a n H o r t i c u l t u r a l C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m , ( S w a r t h m o r e , P A . : A u t h o r , n . d . ) , p . 7 . ^ S h i m b e r g , "What i s C o m p e t e n c e ? " , p . 2 2 . U I b i d . , p p . 23-27 . 12 C a t h e r i n e R o s e n k r a n z Cameron, " C e r t i f i c a t i o n S h o u l d be E s t a b l i s h e d , " i n E x a m i n i n g C o n t r o v e r s i e s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by B u r t o n W. 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" I S A Texas C h a p t e r P r o p o s e d C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m . " J o u r n a l of  A r b o r i c u l t u r e 11 (May 1985) :143-146 . S o r k , Thomas J . " S o r k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g M o d e l . " L e c t u r e Handout f o r P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g T h e o r y 514. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984. S t a n d a r d s and C r i t e r i a f o r the C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t o r s , C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e l i n e s , and an O v e r v i e w o f C o n t e n t i n  F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t i o n : A Framework f o r P l a n n i n g L i f e Span P r o g r a m s . M i n n e a p o l i s , MN: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s , 1983. S t e r n , M i l t o n R. " C o m p u l s o r y C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l s , o r t h e G o l d Rush o f ' 7 6 . " In James S. Long and Roger B o s h i e r ( E d s . ) C e r t i f i c a t i o n , C r e d e n t i a l i n g , L i c e n s i n g and t h e Renewal P r o c e s s . Moscow, I D : New R e v i e w P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1976. T h o r b u r n , A l e x . M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond, D e l t a , B . C . : I n t e r v i e w , 13 December 1988. Ward , J o h n B . " C e r t i f i c a t i o n Program o f t h e P e n n - D e l C h a p t e r . " J o u r n a l o f  A r b o r i c u l t u r e 11 (May 1985) :147 -148 . Ward, J o h n B . P e n n - D e l C h a p t e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , V i l l a n o v a , P A . I n t e r v i e w , 24 May 1988. Ward, J o h n B . P e n n - D e l C h a p t e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e . V i l l a n o v a , P A : C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 14 December 1988. 71 W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e N u r s e r y and L a n d s c a p e A s s o c i a t i o n , I n c . C e r t i f i c a t i o n P o l i c y  M a n u a l . Sumner, WA: A u t h o r , December 1987. W i c k , J o h n W. E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement . C o l u m b u s , OH: C h a r l e s E . M e r r i l l , 1973. W i l l i a m s , B a r b a r a V . , and H u n t l e y , J o a n A . "The R o l e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . " In P r e s t o n P . L e B r e t o n , e t . a l . ( E d s . ) The E v a l u a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l s : A  Systems V i e w . S e a t t l e , WA: C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1979. r 72 APPENDIX A SORK'S BASIC PLANNING MODEL ANALYZE PLANNING CONTEXT AND CLIENT SYSTEM IDENTIFY NEEDS DEVELOP OBJECTIVES FORMULATE INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN FORMULATE ADMINISTRATIVE PLAN DEVELOP SUMMATIVE EVALUATION PLAN Source: Sork, Thomas J . Program Pl a n n i n g and E v a l u a t i o n . Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. 73 APPENDIX B INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER NUMBER NAME E S T ' D 1988 NUMBER OF MEMBERS C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAMS IN PLACE ARBORIST TREEWORKER 1 O h i o 1942 235 Yes X 2 S o u t h e r n 1942 390 No 3 W e s t e r n 1942 588 Yes X X 4 M i d w e s t e r n 1946 223 No 5 ISA Canada 1950 168 Yes X 6 P e n n s y l v a n i a - D e l a w a r e 1960 256 Yes X 7 New E n g l a n d 1964 404 No 8 New J e r s e y 1974 99 No 9 I n d i a n a 1974 83 No 10 K e n t u c k y 1974 45 No 11 Rocky M o u n t a i n 1975 152 No 12 M i c h i g a n 1977 132 No 13 Quebec 1977 87 No 14 M i d - a t l a n t i c 1978 215 No 15 T e x a s 1978 189 No 16 New Y o r k 1978 207 Yes X 17 P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t 1980 190 No 18 W i s c o n s i n 1980 115 Yes X 19 I l l i n o i s 1983 233 Yes X 20 P r a i r i e 1987 60 No 21 S c a n d i n a v i a n 1988 92 No Members a t L a r g e : 77 TOTAL MEMBERSHIP: 4670 S o u r c e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) , 1988 Y e a r b o o k , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s , 1988 A l l i s o n , B . , F u s c o , B . , H a w t h o r n e , J . , K r u i d e n e r , W . , L i l l y , S . , Ward, J . I n t e r v i e w s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e : May, J u n e , December 1988. 74 APPENDIX C COMPARISON OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THREE CHAPTER VOLUNTARY C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAMS C h a p t e r and Date F i r s t Exam G i v e n P r o p o s e d A . R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e C e r t i f i e d T r e e Worker W e s t e r n 1984 Canada 1987 PNW 1. E x p e r i e n c e i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes Yes a) 18 months b) 36 months (up t o 24 months e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e may be i n c l u d e d ) X X X 2. E x a m i n a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes Yes a) O r a l e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d b) W r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d c ) P r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d X X X X X X X X 3. R e q u i r e d t o S i g n & U p h o l d ISA Code o f E t h i c s : Yes Yes Yes 4. C h a p t e r M e m b e r s h i p R e q u i r e d : No Yes No 5. P r o o f o f I n s u r a n c e f o r P r o p e r t y Damage and P u b l i c L i a b i l i t y R e q u i r e d : No No No 6. R e c e r t i f i c a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes Yes a) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 18 h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . X X b) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 24 h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . X c ) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by r e - e x a m i n a t i o n . X S o u r c e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) , Canada C h a p t e r , " T r e e Worker C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , W i l l o w d a l e , O n t . , 1987. I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n A p p l i c a t i o n " , S t . H e l e n a , C a l . , n . d . 75 APPENDIX D COMPARISON OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF SEVEN VOLUNTARY CHAPTER C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAMS C h a p t e r and Date F i r s t Exam G i v e n P r o p o s e d B. R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e C e r t i f i e d A r b o r i s t Penn - D e l 1981 W e s t ' n 1984 111. 1986 N . Y . W i s e . 1988 O h i o 1989 PNW 1989 1. E x p e r i e n c e i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes a) 12 months ( o r one y e a r of e d u c a t i o n ) b) 24 months c ) 3 6 months X X X X 2. E x a m i n a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes a) O r a l e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d - 75% p a s s r e q u i r e d b) W r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d - 75% p a s s r e q u i r e d c ) P r a c t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n -70% p a s s r e q u i r e d (work c l i m b ) X X X X X X X X X 3. R e q u i r e d t o S i g n and U p h o l d t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s : No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes 4. C h a p t e r M e m b e r s h i p R e q u i r e d : Yes No No Yes No No No 5. P r o o f o f I n s u r a n c e f o r $10,000 P r o p e r t y Damage and $100,000 P u b l i c L i a b i l i t y R e q u i r e d : Yes No No No No No No 6. R e c e r t i f i c a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes a) Renew c e r t i f i c a t i o n e a c h y e a r by a t t e n d i n g one a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s e s s i o n p e r y e a r . b) Renew c e r t i f i c a t i o n e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 36 h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . c ) Renew c e r t i f i c a t i o n e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 3 c r e d i t s of a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (1 c r e d i t of u n d e t e r m i n e d l e n g t h ) . d) Renew c e r t i f i c a t i o n e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by r e - e x a m i n a t i o n . e) R e t a i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n by m a i n t a i n i n g C h a p t e r m e m b e r s h i p . f ) A n n u a l Renewal Fee c h a r g e d . X X X X X X X o r X X X 76 A p p e n d i x D C o n t ' d . . . S o u r c e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y of A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) , Canada C h a p t e r , " T r e e W o r k e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , W i l l o w d a l e , O n t . , 1987. I S A , I l l i n o i s C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e Workers R e q u i r e m e n t s and A p p l i c a t i o n " , C h i c a g o , 1 1 1 . , 1986. I S A , O h i o C h a p t e r , " O h i o A r b o r i s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , Newark, O h i o , n . d . I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n A p p l i c a t i o n " , S t . H e l e n a , C a l . , n . d . A l l i s o n , B . , F u s c o , B . , Hawtho rne , J . , L i l l y , S . , Ward J . , I n t e r v i e w s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e : May, J u n e , December 1988. 77 APPENDIX E REQUIREMENTS OF THE P A C I F I C NORTHWEST C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAM - C E R T I F I E D TREE WORKER A c c e p t e d P r o p o s e d D e c . 1 9 / 8 8 by W r i t e r by PNW O f f i c e r s and D i r e c t o r s 1. E x p e r i e n c e i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) 18 months 2. E x a m i n a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) W r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d b) P r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d 3. R e q u i r e d t o S i g n and U p h o l d the ISA Code o f E t h i c s : Yes No 4. M e m b e r s h i p i n C h a p t e r R e q u i r e d : No No 5. P r o o f o f I n s u r a n c e f o r P r o p e r t y Damage and P u b l i c L i a b i l i t y R e q u i r e d : No No 6. R e c e r t i f i c a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 18 h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . b) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by r e - e x a m i n a t i o n . c ) Renewal f e e c h a r g e d . 78 APPENDIX F REQUIREMENTS OF THE P A C I F I C NORTHWEST C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAM - C E R T I F I E D ARBORIST A c c e p t e d P r o p o s e d D e c . 1 9 / 8 8 by W r i t e r by PNW O f f i c e r s and D i r e c t o r s 1. E x p e r i e n c e i n A r b o r i c u l t u r e R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) 36 months 2. E x a m i n a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) W r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n - 70% p a s s r e q u i r e d 3. R e q u i r e d t o S i g n and U p h o l d t h e ISA Code o f E t h i c s : Yes No 4. M e m b e r s h i p i n C h a p t e r R e q u i r e d : No No 5. P r o o f of I n s u r a n c e f o r P r o p e r t y Damage and P u b l i c L i a b i l i t y R e q u i r e d : No No R e c e r t i f i c a t i o n R e q u i r e d : Yes Yes a) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by a t t e n d i n g 18 h o u r s o f a p p r o v e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . b) Renew e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by r e - e x a m i n a t i o n . c ) Renewal f e e c h a r g e d . 79 APPENDIX G COMPARISON OF TWO E X I S T I N G C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAMS AND THE PNW PROGRAM FOR THE C E R T I F I E D TREE WORKER C h a p t e r and Date F i r s t Exam G i v e n W e s t e r n 1984 Canada 1987 PNW 1989 A . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t h o d : a) Home S t u d y X X X b) E x a m i n a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n Seminar X X X B. I n s t r u c t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s : a) S t u d y G u i d e * X X X b) Number o f Q u e s t i o n s on O r a l o r W r i t t e n E x a m i n a t i o n c ) Time A l l o w e d f o r O r a l o r W r i t t e n E x a m i n a t i o n ( H o u r s ) O r a l 25 No R e a s o n -a b l e L i m i t 15 O r a l W r i t t e n 50 W r i t t e n 90 3 . 0 * S t u d y G u i d e : The s t u d y g u i d e c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s o f c h a p t e r s . E a c h c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and a l i s t o f s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . The a p p l i c a n t r e v i e w s t h e r e a d i n g s , t h e n answers a s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d y q u e s t i o n s . Once t h e a p p l i c a n t has m a s t e r e d the s t u d y q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e i s a s a m p l i n g o f t e s t q u e s t i o n s w i t h a n s w e r s . The s t u d y g u i d e i s a c o m p l e t e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e . S o u r c e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e ( I S A ) , Canada C h a p t e r , " T r e e Worker C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , W i l l o w d a l e , O n t . , 1987. I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n A p p l i c a t i o n " , S t . H e l e n a , C a l . , n . d . 80 APPENDIX H COMPARISON OF SIX E X I S T I N G C E R T I F I C A T I O N PROGRAMS AND THE PNW PROGRAM FOR THE C E R T I F I E D ARBORIST C h a p t e r and Date F i r s t Exam G i v e n Penn - D e l 1981 West ' n 1984 111. 1986 N . Y . W i s e . 1988 O h i o S p r g 1989 PNW 1989 A . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t h o d : a) Home S t u d y b) E x a m i n a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n S e m i n a r X No X X X X X ? X ? X X X X B. I n s t r u c t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s : a) L i s t o f R e f e r e n c e s b) S t u d y G u i d e * c ) M a n u a l o f Sample Q u e s t i o n s w i t h B i b l i o g r a p h y d) S t u d y P a c k a g e * * X X X X X X X X C . W r i t t e n E x a m i n a t i o n F o r m a t : a) M u l t i p l e C h o i c e b) T r u e and F a l s e c ) M a t c h i n g d) F i l l i n t h e B l a n k s e) P a r a g r a p h Answers f ) E s s a y X X X X X X X X X X X X X ? ? X X D . Number o f Q u e s t i o n s on E x a m i n a t i o n : 55 200 400 ? 200 ? 200 E . Time A l l o w e d f o r W r i t t e n E x a m i n a t i o n ( H o u r s ) : No R e a -s o n -a b l e L i m i t 3 .5 4 . 0 ? 3 .0 ? 3 .5 * S t u d y G u i d e : The s t u d y g u i d e c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s o f c h a p t e r s . E a c h c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and a l i s t o f s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . The a p p l i c a n t r e v i e w s t h e r e a d i n g s , t h e n answers a s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d y q u e s t i o n s . Once t h e a p p l i c a n t has m a s t e r e d the s t u d y q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e i s a s a m p l i n g of t e s t q u e s t i o n s w i t h a n s w e r s . The s t u d y g u i d e i s a c o m p l e t e l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e . 81 A p p e n d i x H C o n t ' d . . . * * S t u d y P a c k a g e : The s t u d y package f o r t h e O h i o C h a p t e r , f o r e x a m p l e , i n c l u d e s t h e book O h i o T r e e s , a t r e e w o r k e r m a n u a l , t h e N a t i o n a l A r b o r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n S t a n d a r d s , t h e A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s I n s t i t u t e ' s S a f e t y R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r P r u n i n g , T r i m m i n g , R e p a i r i n g , M a i n t a i n i n g , and Removing T r e e s and f o r c u t t i n g b r u s h (ANSI S t a n d a r d Z 1 3 3 . 1 ) , t h r e e O h i o S t a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s , 35 h o r t i c u l t u r a l f a c t s h e e t s , sample q u e s t i o n s and s t u d y g u i d e . S o u r c e s : I S A , I l l i n o i s C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r A r b o r i s t s and T r e e W o r k e r s R e q u i r e m e n t s and A p p l i c a t i o n " , C h i c a g o , 1 1 1 . , 1986. I S A , O h i o C h a p t e r , " O h i o A r b o r i s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , Newark, O h i o , n . d . I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n A p p l i c a t i o n " , E x a m i n a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s - A r b o r i s t , E x a m i n a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s - T r e e W o r k e r , S t . H e l e n a , C a l . , n . d . A l l i s o n , B . , F u s c o , B . , H a w t h o r n e , J . , L i l l y , S . , Ward , J . , I n t e r v i e w s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e : May, J u n e , December 1988. 82 APPENDIX I CODE OF ETHICS  INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE P A C I F I C NORTH WEST CHAPTER The A r b o r i s t : 1. W i l l u t i l i z e p e r s o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s f o r t h e g r e a t e s t good t o s o c i e t y . 2. W i l l advance a r b o r i c u l t u r e by e x c h a n g i n g knowledge w i t h o t h e r a r b o r i s t s and s u p p o r t i n g a r b o r i c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , s c h o o l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , and p l a n t r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s . 3. W i l l be t r u t h f u l i n o r a l o r w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e r v i c e s q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r and the p l a n t b e n e f i t s t h a t may be e x p e c t e d t h e r e f r o m , and w i l l not a d v e r t i s e as c e r t i f i e d o r l i c e n s e d o r as i n s u r e d u n l e s s t h e e x t e n t o f c o v e r a g e i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d . 4. W i l l d i s c o u r a g e t h e p r o m o t i o n and use of t e c h n i q u e s , m e t h o d s , and m a t e r i a l s t h a t have n o t been a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d and a p p r o v e d f o r a r b o r i c u l t u r a l use by r e p u t a b l e p l a n t s c i e n t i s t s . S h o u l d an u n p r o v e n m a t e r i a l s t i l l a p p e a r t o be b e s t , the c l i e n t w i l l be c o m p l e t e l y a d v i s e d . 5. W i l l base a l l e x p e r t t e s t i m o n y on a d e q u a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t and s u b s t a n t i a t e d f a c t s and r e n d e r an o p i n i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h o n e s t c o n v i c t i o n s . 6. W i l l r e f r a i n f r o m e x p r e s s i n g , e i t h e r o r a l l y o r i n w r i t i n g , an o p i n i o n on a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t u n l e s s i n f o r m e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e m a t t e r , and w i l l n o t d i s t o r t o r w i t h h o l d r e l e v a n t d a t a t o s u b s t a n t i a t e a p o i n t o f v i e w . 7. W i l l be l o y a l t o c l i e n t s o r t o the e m p l o y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and w i l l f a i t h f u l l y p e r f o r m work a s s i g n m e n t s . 8. W i l l , i f a t e c h n i c a l judgement i n a r b o r i c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s i s o v e r r u l e d by a n o n - t e c h n i c a l a u t h o r i t y , p r e s e n t c l e a r l y the c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t may be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r as a r e s u l t of d e v i a t i n g f r o m t h e p r o c e d u r e and p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e b e l i e v e d t o be c o r r e c t . 9. W i l l n o t , i f employed as an a r b o r i s t i n p u b l i c c a p a c i t y , compete u n f a i r l y w i t h a r b o r i s t s i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s o r recommend one a r b o r i s t i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s above o t h e r s i n the community where a l l a r e e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d and a v a i l a b l e . 10. W i l l a v o i d making u n f o u n d e d s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h , i n any way, m i g h t i n j u r e the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n o f a n o t h e r a r b o r i s t . 11. W i l l n o t r e d u c e a q u o t e d f e e f o r a s p e c i f i c j o b i f i n f o r m e d o f a l e s s e r f e e by a n o t h e r a r b o r i s t f o r the same j o b . 83 A p p e n d i x I C o n t ' d . . . 12. W i l l r e f r a i n , i f engaged i n t h e p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e o f a r b o r i c u l t u r e , f r o m r e v i e w i n g t h e work o f a n o t h e r p r i v a t e a r b o r i s t f o r t h e l a t t e r ' s e m p l o y e r , b u t w i l l r e f e r t h e r e v i e w t o a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n o t engaged i n p r i v a t e a r b o r i c u l t u r e . 13. W i l l n o t o f f e r employment t o an employee o f a n o t h e r a r b o r i s t w i t h o u t t h e l a t t e r ' s k n o w l e d g e , but w i l l i n s t e a d e n d e a v o r t o t r a i n men where p o s s i b l e . 14. W i l l u p h o l d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a p p r o p r i a t e and a d e q u a t e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h o s e engaged i n a r b o r i c u l t u r a l w o r k , as an e s s e n t i a l t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f a r b o r i c u l t u r a l e n d e a v o r . 15. W i l l c o n d u c t a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t e c h n i c a l a r b o r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , and c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a manner t h a t w i l l f u r t h e r t h e s t a t u s o f a r b o r i c u l t u r e as a r e s p e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n . I h e r e b y a g r e e t o a b i d e by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A r b o r i c u l t u r e Code of E t h i c s f o r A r b o r i s t s i n a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t e c h n i c a l a r b o r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s and c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; f u r t h e r m o r e I w i l l so c o n d u c t m y s e l f as t o f u r t h e r t h e s t a t u s o f a r b o r i c u l t u r e as a r e s p e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n . Name ( p r i n t ) ( s i g n a t u r e ) ( d a t e ) S o u r c e : ISA 1988 Y e a r b o o k , U r b a n a , 1 1 1 . , I S A , 1988. 84 APPENDIX J C E R T I F I C A T I O N FOR ARBORISTS AND TREE WORKERS BROCHURE AND APPLICATION S o u r c e : I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " C e r t i f i c a t i o n S t . H e l e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , n . d . A p p l i c a t i o n " , INTRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS Anyone can take the Arborist or Tree Worker Certification examination. The program is not restricted to members of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture. Anyone working as an Arborist or Tree Worker is encouraged to become certified. PURPOSE To establish a meaningful standard of quality in arboricultural work. To provide the public with a means for identifying competent arborists. To promote and encourage continuing education in arboriculture. BENEFITS Companies may advertise that they employ Pacific Northwest Chapter Certified Arborists and Tree Workers. Employers may expect a certain level of expertise from prospective employees that have been certified. Individuals who pass the certification examination will receive a certificate and an identification card recognizing them as a PNW Certified Arborist and/or Tree Worker. A list of currently certified Arborists will be made available to the public, city governments and contractors wishing to hire certified personnel. PROCEDURE Complete and return the attached application form along with the fees. If ordered, a Study Guide will be mailed to you along with a schedule of exam dates. The Study Guide, which covers the subject material, lists references and basic arboricultural texts, most of which are available at your local college library. Work through the Study Guide carefully. Pre-exam seminars will be scheduled to help applicants prepare for the exam. Certified Tree Worker 1B months experience in arboriculture Pass a written examination covering: Tree Identification Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Planting, Early Care and Soil Management Pruning Concepts and Techniques Safe Work Practices Cabling, Bracing, and Wounds Pass a practical examination covering: Climbing Skills Aerial Rescue Procedures Renew every three (3) years by retesting or by attending 18 hours of approved educational sessions. Certified Arborist 36 months experience in arboriculture Pass a written examination covering: Tree Identification Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Planting, Early Care and Soil Management Pruning Concepts and Techniques Cabling, Bracing, Wounds and Cavities Safe Work Practices Diagnosing Common Tree Problems Identifying Hazard Trees Renew every three (3) years by retesting or by attending 36 hours of approved educational sessions. EXAMINATIONS Written and practical examinations are held at least once each year, in conjunction with the PNW Chapter Regional Meeting. Study sessions are held prior to the examinations. APPENDIX K ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF APPLICATION S o u r c e : I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " L e t t e r o f C o n f i r m a t i o n " , S t . H e l e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , 1987. 89 APPENDIX L PROMOTIONAL LETTER S o u r c e : I S A , W e s t e r n C h a p t e r , " L e t t e r t o H o r t i c u l t u r e and Farm A d v i s o r s " , S t . H e l e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , 1986 APPENDIX M SOURCE OF REFERENCES LETTER 92 Dear Certification Applicant, Following is a source list for the reference material given in the procedure sections of the Study Guide. 1. American National Standard for Tree Care Operations ANSI Z133.1-1988 International Society of Arboriculture Leal Park 303 W. University P.O. Box 908 Urbana, II. 618801 U.S.A. $ 6.00 U.S. (217) 328-2032 2. Native Trees of Canada by Hosie Canadian Government Publishing Centre $ 17.95 CDN in Canada Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9 $ 21.55 outside Canada or your local book seller plus $1.55 shipping 3. A New Tree Biology, plus A New Tree Biology Dictionary by Shigo Shigo and Trees, Associates 4DenbowRoad $ 61.00 U.S. for both or Durham, N.H. 03824-3105 U.S.A. $ 63.00 U.S. for Canadians (603) 868-7459 includes shipping 4. Tree Hazards in Recreation Sites by Wallis et al Pacific Forestry Centre 506 West Burnside Road Victoria, B.C. V8Z1M5 Free in Canada (604) 388-0600 APPENDIX N C E R T I F I C A T I O N REPORT 95 Certification Report submitted by Susan M. Murray, P.Ag. December, 1988 The Study Guide and both the Arborist and Tree Worker Examinations are now in their final form. Please destroy the draft copies distributed at the last meeting. The Board of Directors should consider and give approval, at this time, or at a subsequent meeting, to the following motions: 1. Move to accept the requirements for certification for Arborists and Tree Workers as outlined in the Policies and Procedures Manual. 2. Move to accept the Study Guide as presented. 3. Move to accept the administration of the Program as outlined in the Policies and  Procedures Manual. 4. Move to accept the Tree Worker and Arborist Examinations. 5. Move to form a Certification Review Board. 6. Move to accept the following fee schedule: (all fees in U.S. dollars) Members Non-Members Examination only $ 50.00 $ 80.00 Study Guide only 20.00 20.00 Exam and Study Guide 70.00 100.00 Retake one category 10.00 10.00 (after failure) Retake entire exam 25.00 50.00 (after failure) Recertification 25.00 25.00 (Based on comparison of 5 other Chapters' fee schedules.) 7. Move to consider a revision of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Chapter, since they currently say nothing about the Chapter's ability to grant, suspend or revoke certification. APPENDIX 0 CORRELATION BETWEEN INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES  FOUND IN THE STUDY GUIDE AND  EXAMINATION QUESTIONS TO CONFIRM CONTENT V A L I D I T Y 98 Correlation Between Unit Objectives in the Study Guide and Arborist Examination Questions Unit 1 - Tree Morphology. Anatomy and Physiology Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions 1 - 1 11 - 17 2 - 2 12 - 18,19,20 3 - 3,4 13 - 19 4 - 5,6 14 - 21,22,23 5 - 9 15 - 24,25,26,27 6 - 8 16 - 28,29 7 - 10 17 - 32 8 - 11,12 18 - 7 9 - 13,14,15 19 - none 10 - 16 20 - 33 21 - 30,31,32 Unit 2 - Tree Identification and Selection Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions 1 - 41-50 6 - 39 2 - 41-50 7 - 40,38 3 - 35 8 - 37 4 - 36 9 - 37,38,40 5 - 34 Unit 3 - Planting and Early Care Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions 1a - 141 ,142 2 - 146 b - none 3 none c - 143 4 - 147 d - 145 5 - 148 e - none f - 144 g - none Unit 4 - Soil Management Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions Fertilization Irrigation 1 149,150,151,152 1 - 164 2 156 2 - 165 3 none 3 none 4 153 4 - 166 5 155 5 - 167 6 154 6 - 168 7 156 7 none 8 157 8 - 169 9 none 9 - 170 10 • 155 11 none Cultivation 1 - 158 2 - none 3 - 159 4 - 160,161,162,163 Unit 5 - Pruning Concepts and Techniques Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions 1 100 11 57,96 2 • 55,86,88,92,99 12 • 58,59,60,61,62 3 • 56 13 -• 64 4 - 63 14 • • 51,54,80,83,87 5 - 65,89,93,94 15 • 52,53 6 • 70,73,74-79,84 16 • 95 7 • 71,72 17 81,82 8 - 91 18 • 90 9 68,69 19 97,98 10 - 66,67,85 Unit 6 - Wounds and Cavities Objectives - Questions 1 - 178 2 - 172,176,177 3 - 171 Objectives - Questions 4 - 173,174 5 - 181 6 - 179,180 Unit 7 - Cabling and Bracing Objectives - Questions 1 - none 2 - none 3 - none 4 - 101 5 - none 6 - 104 7 - 105,106 8 - 107,110 Objectives - Questions 9a - 108 b - 102,103 c - none d - none 10 - none 11 - 109 12 - none Unit 8 - Safe Work Practices Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions Personal Safety Tree Climbing 1 - 111 1 none 2 - 113,114 2a - 120 3 - 115 b - 116,117,121 4 - none 3 none 5 - 112,115 4a - 119 b - none c none d - 118 5 none Safe Work Practices Continued. Objectives - Questions Chain Saw Safety 1 none 2 122 3 none 4 none 5 123,124 6 123 7 127 8 126 9 125 10 - 128 11 - none 12a - 124 b - none c - none d - none e - none Objectives - Questions Mobile Equipment 1 none 2a none b none c - 133 d - 130 e none f none g none 3 - 129 4 none 5 - 131 6 none 7 - 132 Brush Chipper Safety 1 - 134,137,138,140 2 - none 3 - none 4 5 6 136 135 139 Unit 9 - Diagnosing Common Tree Problems Objectives - Questions 1 none 2 none 3a -• 182 b - none c 183 d • none e - none f none g • none h none i none 4a • • 184 b - 185 C none d • none e none f none g • none h • none i none Objectives - Questions 5a - 189 b - 186 c none 6a - 193 b - 190 c - 192 d - 175 7a - none b - none C 187 d - none e - 188 f - none g - 191 Unit 1 0 - Identifying Hazard Trees Objectives - Questions Objectives - Questions 1 - none 5 - 197,198 2 - none 6 - 194,195 3 - none 7 - 196 4 - 199,200 103 APPENDIX P SAMPLE EXPERT AND P R E - T E S T PANEL QUESTIONNAIRES 104 December 1988 Susan M. Murray, P.Ag. EXPERT PANEL ARBORIST AND TREE WORKER STUDY GUIDE AND EXAMINATIONS Thank you for agreeing to participate on this Certification Expert Panel. The purpose of the panel is to evaluate the Study Guide and the Examinations so that their strengths and weaknesses can be ascertained. The comments and critique that you make will help to improve and refine the Study Guide and Certification Examinations. Please specify changes or make comments in the spaces provided below. STUDY GUIDE 1. How comprehensive do you consider the Study Guide to be? Are there additional units or learning objectives required? If so, what might they be? 2. How well does the knowledge base, presented in the Study Guide, reflect what an arborist is required to know in everyday practice? 3. How well does the knowledge base, presented in the Study Guide, reflect what a tree worker is required to know in everyday practice? 105 4. What errors, omissions or weaknesses have you found in the Study Guide? Please circle the errors found. Omissions and weaknesses can be specified below. 5. Do you have any additional comments concerning the Study Guide? EXAMINATION 1 . How well do the Examination questions relate to the objectives found in the Study Guide? Please list those questions which do not relate. 2. Please comment on the relative emphasis and coverage of the Examination questions. 106 3. Please comment on the level of difficulty of the Exam. 4. Are each of the alternate multiple choice answers, a - e, plausible? If not, please specify. 5. How explicit and understandable do you consider the Examination questions to be? Please specify those questions that are vague, ambiguous or difficult to understand. 6. What errors, omissions or weaknesses have you found in the Examination? Please specify. 107 7. Do you have any additional comments concerning the Examination? 8. Do you agree that upon working through the Study Guide and achieving 70 percent in each category that the applicant should be certified as an arborist or tree worker? If you do not agree, please specify why. Thank you. -4-108 December 1988 Susan M. Murray, P.Ag. PRE-TEST PANEL Thank you for agreeing to participate on this certification pre-test panel. The comments and critique that you make will help to improve and refine the Certification Examinations. Please take your time and carefully read each question as if you were writing the examination. Circle your answers if you wish; the examination will not be marked or graded. Please note beside each question affected any technical glitches Ask yourself the following questions as you work your way through the examination. 1. Are each of the alternate multiple-choice answers, a - e, plausible? If not please specify. 2. Are the questions explicit and understandable? Watch for confusing phrases or a mismatch between the question and the answers provided (i.e., a - e). 3. Are there any errors or omissions? Thank you. 109 APPENDIX Q POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE ARBORIST AND TREE WORKER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM > POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL (Revised February 1, 1989) I l l Pacific Northwest Chapter International Society of Arboriculture Arborist and Tree Worker Certification Program Introduction The Arborist and Tree Worker Certification Program is sponsored and administered by the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA). The Program is governed by the Board of Directors of the PNW Chapter and a Certification Review Board. The Certification Review Board, appointed by the Chapter President, is composed of three Chapter members, one each from British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, and is chaired by a Chapter officer or director. The Program was officially established in 1989 with the printing of the first edition of the PNW Chapter Study Guide. Anyone can take the certification examinations. The Program is not restricted to the members of the PNW Chapter of the ISA. Anyone working as an Arborist or Tree Worker in the Pacific Northwest is encouraged to become certified. The Program is not in any way connected with any agency of government, but is solely and exclusively a voluntary program sponsored by the Pacific Northwest Chapter of the ISA. Purposes of the Program The purposes of the Program are to: 1) establish a meaningful standard of quality in arboriculture work; 2) improve the knowledge and skills of practicing arborists; 3) provide the public with a criterion for choosing an arborist; and, 4) encourage continuing education in arboriculture. -1 Requirements for Certification Certified Tree Worker 1) 18 months experience in arboriculture 2) Pass a written examination covering: - Tree Identification - Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology - Planting, Early Care and Soil Management - Pruning Concepts and Techniques - Safe Work Practices - Cabling, Bracing and Wounds 3) Pass a practical examination covering: - Climbing Skills - Aerial Rescue Procedures 4) Renew every three (3) years by attending 18 hours of approved educational sessions or by re-examination. Certified Arborist 1) 36 months experience in arboriculture 2) Pass a written examination covering: - Tree Identification - Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology - Planting, Early Care and Soil Management - Pruning Concepts and Techniques - Safe Work Practices - Cabling, Bracing and Wounds and Cavities - Diagnosing Tree Problems - Identifying Hazard Trees 3) Renew every three (3) years by attending 36 hours of approved educational sessions or by re-examination. 113 Experience Requirement Each certification applicant must obtain either 18 (Tree Worker) or 36 (Arborist) months of work experience in arboriculture, where the individual is required to use the skills and knowledge of an Arborist or Tree Worker as the major component of his or her work. Work experience may be accumulated among more than one employer. The burden of proof of the work experience required is placed upon the applicant, and will be verified through his or her employer(s). Self-employed applicants may apply those hours within their own firms, that are directly related to arboriculture work, towards the 18- or 36-month experience requirement. A maximum of 6 months credit (Tree Worker) or 18 months (Arborist) may be granted for arboricultural educational experience. For example, possession of a 2-year, 4-year or advanced degree in landscape design, urban forestry, arboriculture, horticulture or a related field of study, plus a minimum of 18 months experience in a professional tree care company, would fulfill a combined education and work experience requirement for an applicant desiring to become a certified Arborist. (A copy of the diploma or transcript must be submitted.) The Certification Review Board reserves the right to make the final decision concerning the eligibility of an applicant's work experience. Procedures of the Certification Program Examinations Written and practical examinations are scheduled once a year, in conjunction with the PNW Chapter Annual Training Conference. Additional examinations may be scheduled at any reasonable location, at the discretion of the Review Board. The written certification examinations are derived from the current addition of the Study Guide which may be purchased from the Certification Review Board. The Certified Arborist Examination is a timed exam, made up of five categories (see page 6 herein). The written Certified Tree Worker Examination is also a timed exam composed of five categories (see page 7 herein). The practical Tree Worker Examination is designed to judge an applicant's safe use, balance and proficiency with a rope and saddle (see page 9 herein). -3-114 After examinations are completed, they will be marked by the Certification Review Board members within three weeks and the results returned to the applicants by mail. Those individuals who do not pass will be permitted to re-test at a lower fee. The examination, or categories of it, may be taken again at any scheduled examination time, or at the discretion of the Certification Review Board. Files on individuals who do not pass the examination are maintained by the Certification Review Board for a period of two calendar years from the time of the last testing. Once two years of inactivity have passed, they are discarded. If, after that time, the individual would like to take the Tree Worker or Arborist certification examination again, he or she will be required to pay the regular (full) examination fee. Individuals who pass the certification examination will receive a certificate and identification card, recognizing them as Pacific Northwest Chapter Certified Arborists or Tree Workers. Non-members who become certified will receive a one year membership in the I.S.A. and P.N.W. Chapter. Maintaining Certification Pacific Northwest Chapter certification is valid for a three-year period. Certification can be renewed by either re-examination before the individual's certificate expires (unless other arrangements are made with the Certification Review Board before expiration) and paying a renewal fee, OR by attending 18 hours (Tree Worker) or 36 hours (Arborist) of approved seminars and educational programs within the three-year period and paying the renewal fee. Proof of attendance is required. Attendance at an Annual Training Conference of the Pacific Northwest Chapter is equivalent to 6 hours credit per day attended, with a maximum total of 12 hours credit allowed per conference. Also accepted are the "Pro-Hort" seminars relating to arboriculture, sponsored by the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture. Three hours credit will be given to a half day seminar (3-6 hours in duration), and a maximum of 6 hours credit will be given to a day-long seminar (6+ hours). Local seminars sponsored by Chapter members within British Columbia, Washington or Oregon will also qualify for 3 or 6 hours credit, depending whether they are half day or full day programs. Approval of additional seminars, courses etc. is at the discretion of the Certification Review Board. A list of other approved functions will be made available from time to time. In addition, college courses that are directly related to arboriculture and are taken in addition to original courses required to achieve a degree may qualify for a maximum 12 hours credit. Credit to be granted at the discretion of the Certification Review Board. -4-115 For recertification of those individuals who are certified as both an Arborist and a Tree Worker, 36 hours minimum of approved seminars shall suffice. Fees Fees for the Program shall be set from time to time by the PNW Chapter Board of Directors. Suspension and Revocation of Certification The Board of Directors of the Pacific Northwest Chapter shall have the authority to suspend or revoke the certification of any individual granted certification by the Chapter. In conducting such proceedings, the Board of Directors shall observe principles of natural justice, and due process, and will afford to the individual 1) reasonable notice of the charges against him or her, 2) a fair notice of a hearing upon such charges, 3) fair opportunity to hear evidence and confront and cross-examine witnesses, 4) fair opportunity to refute the charges, and 5) a hearing before the Board of Directors of the Pacific Northwest Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture. -5-PACIFIC NORTH WEST CHAPTER ISA CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION GUIDELINES - ARBORIST 116 Arborist Examinations 1. The examination will consist of 200 multiple choice and true/false questions. 2. A score of seventy percent in each of the following categories shall be considered a pass. Category I - 50 questions (10 questions will be specimen identification) Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Identification and Selection Category II - 50 questions Category III - 40 questions 3. If an applicant fails in more than 1 category, the entire exam shall be taken again. If an applicant fails in only 1 category, he/she must retake that category. 4. A person may retake the examination as many times as he/she wishes. 5. Examinations will not be returned. 6. Exams will be held from 8:30 a.m. -12:00 noon on the morning following the Pacific Northwest Chapter Training Conference, unless otherwise specified in your confirmation. 7. A study session will be held the evening prior to the examination. You will be notified of the session's location in your confirmation. 8. A list of tree species is included in your Study Guide (see Lists A and B). Fresh specimens from ten of these tree species will be at the examination for you to identify. Species shall be identified by both common and scientific names. 9. Applicants desiring to be certified as both an Arborist and a Tree Worker shall pass both the Arborist examination and the Tree Worker practical examination. Pruning Cabling and Bracing Safe Work Practices Category IV - 30 questions Planting and Early Care Soil Management Category V - 30 questions Wounds and Cavities Diagnosis of Tree Problems Identifying Hazard Trees Source: ISA, Western Chapter, "Arborist Examination Guidelines", St. Helena, California, n.d. -6-117 PACIFIC NORTH WEST CHAPTER ISA CERTIFICATION  EXAMINATION GUIDELINES - TREE WORKER Tree Worker Examinations 1. The examination will consist of 90 multiple choice and true/false questions. 2. A score of seventy percent in each of the following categories shall be considered a pass: Category I - 25 questions (10 questions will be specimen identification) Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Tree Identification and Selection Category II - 25 questions Category IV -15 questions 3. If an applicant fails in more than 1 category, the entire exam shall be taken again. If an applicant fails in only 1 category he/she must retake that category. 4. A person may retake the examination as many times as he/she wishes. 5. Examinations will not be returned. 6. Exams will be held from 8:30 a.m. - 2:30 p.m. on the morning following the Pacific Northwest Chapter Training Conference, unless otherwise specified in your confirmation. 7. A study session will be held the evening prior to an exam. You will be notified of the session's location in your confirmation. 8. A list of tree species is included in your Study Guide (see List A only). Fresh specimens from ten of these tree species will be at the examination for you to identify. Species may be identified by common or scientific names. Pruning Planting and Early Care Soil Management Category III - 20 questions Safe Work Practices Cabling and Bracing Category V - 5 questions Wounds -7-118 Tree Worker Exam Guidelines Cont'd... 9. The Practical Examination shall consist of two parts: a) A work climb in which the Tree Worker shall throw a line into the tree, enter the tree, and reach two (2) or three (3) work stations in the outer canopy of the tree. b) An aerial rescue of an "injured" climber, using a rope and saddle. 10. The Tree Worker shall be tested on his ability to move safely and efficiently in the tree. 11. Hooks or climbing spurs shall not be used during practical examinations. All equipment shall be furnished by the climber. Equipment shall meet ANSI Standards. 12. A score of seventy percent shall be required to pass the practical examination. Source: ISA, Western Chapter, "Tree Worker Examination Guidelines", St. Helena, California, n.d. - 8 -119 RULES. SCORING PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE  PRACTICAL EXAMINATION FOR THE TREE WORKER CERTIFICATE Rules 1. The Work Climb is designed to judge an applicant's safe use, balance and proficiency with rope and saddle. It is timed to assess overall productivity only. Judges for the Work Climb are selected by the Certification Review Board for their expertise. They will judge applicants in the Work Climb on such things as safety, skill, technique and poise. There will be two (2) Work Climb judges. 2. Pre-crotched climbing lines shall only be permitted if the Work Climb tree is too large to permit the efficient placement of a line by each applicant. A crotch 12m (40 ft.) to 18m (60 ft.) from ground level will be designated as the tie-in point. 3. A time limit for the Work Climb shall be established and announced prior to the beginning of the test. Timing begins from the moment the applicant throws his or her throwline, climbing line or starts climbing the tree. Timing stops when the climber returns to the ground. 4. From the judge's signal "Go", the applicant shall enter the designated work area. From this area they shall either climb a pre-crotched rope or set his or her own line (throw lines and weights allowed) and enter the tree using the Footlock, Body Thrust or Shinny methods. 5. Work Climb applicants shall wear the minimum equipment of a hard hat, handsaw, tree worker's safety saddle, work clothing, boots and safety strap flipline or safety rope. The judges shall have the final decision as to the suitability of a piece of equipment. 6. From the tie-in point, the applicant shall proceed to one, two or three work stations within the tree signified by bells or some other visible marker. Each applicant may choose his or her route and order in which to approach the work stations. One work station may be installed as a pole pruner station. - 9 -120 Scoring the Work Climb: The judges shall score the applicant's moves through the ascent, work stations and decent. A weight may be installed at one work station. If the applicant causes the weight to touch the ground, five (5) points will be deducted for that particular station. (See attached Judging Guidelines.) Failure to complete the test within the specified time limit will result in failure. The applicant will be called to the ground by the judges if the applicant violates the time limit. Judging Guidelines (Work Climb): 1. Climb & Dismount (Footlock) a. Is the length of bight proper in relation to the applicant's physical height? b. Is there equal use of arms and legs? c. Is the rope secure around the boot and heel? d. Does the applicant spin excessively? e. Is the dismount a free, easy, smooth motion? f. Was the tie-in easy and did the applicant safety off? g. Was there slack in the rope or did it remain taut? h. Did the knot slip or was it secure? 2. Climb & Dismount (Body Thrust) a. Is the applicant using the full length of his or her arms and is there a rhythmic motion? b. Does the applicant assist him/herself with the use of the feet? c. Is the hand hold secure? d. Are the feet being used to prevent spinning and a steady move upward? e. Review items e, f, g, h, under #1 footlock. 3. Re-Crotching a. Was the method free and easy or did the applicant struggle? b. Was the applicant in an appropriate position for re-crotching? c. Was the re-crotch in a proper location in relation to the work stations? d. Was re-crotching necessary or excessive? - 1 0 -121 4. Positioning for Work a. Did the applicant show good confidence in his or her rope and knots? b. Was the applicant in complete control of his or her moves? c. Was he or she off balance? If so, to what degree? d. Was the rope taut when necessary? e. Was the use of the taut-line hitch smooth and easy? f. Was the taut-line hitch secure? g. If free climbing, was 3-point contact obvious? 5. Descent After Last Work Station a. Was the use of the taut-line hitch smooth? b. Did the rope feed smoothly through the knot? c. Did the applicant land squarely and balanced? 6. Shinnying - This method of movement in the tree is often used by the applicants and has been questioned by the judges as to whether or not it is a safe practice without the use of a safety line. Obviously, there are many diverse opinions concerning the safety of shinnying which is best left to the discretion of the judges. a. Length of shinny 1.5m (5 ft.), 3m (10 ft.), 4.5m (15 ft.)? b. Method - one leg pushing from one side of the tree trunk, the other leg pulling from the opposite side. c. Was the shinny strong and smooth without any slipping? d. Generally, was the shinny performed in a safe and efficient manner? e. Did the applicant maintain 3-point contact at all times? -11 -122 AERIAL RESCUE TEST - Rules, Scoring Procedures, Judging Guidelines - One Applicant This is a simulated one-applicant rescue event. It is designed to test the climber's ability to bring an injured worker to the ground quickly and efficiently. Rules: 1. A simulated injured climber (dummy) shall be pre-installed in a tree 6m (20 ft.) -12m (40 ft.) above ground level with saddle and climbing rope secured with a taut-line hitch. 2. The clock shall start when the climber (rescuer) touches his or her climbing rope, throwline or begins the ascent to the injured. 3. The simulated injured climber's climbing line shall not be cut (at the taut line hitch) in the process of bringing the simulated injured climber down. 4. The clock shall stop when the simulated injured climber is fully laid out on the ground. 5. The judges may stop this event at any time if an unsafe practice is observed. 6. The judge shall shout "abort" or "scratch" if an unsafe practice is observed. Judging Guidelines One-Applicant Aerial Rescue: In this event there are basically five tasks to consider in judging as follows: (see scoring explanation) 1. The climber's method of ascending the tree. Consider and judge 1, 2 or 3 points. a. Was the climb smooth and safe? b. How did the climber get the climbing rope or throwline into the tree? Efficiently? Quickly? -12-2. Climber's tie in position. a. Was the tie in position proper in relation to the position of the injured? b. Is the climber's rope clear of the injured person's climbing line? c. Was there any wasted motion or move? 3. Examination of the injured. a. Did the climber appear to check for potentially hazardous surroundings b. Did the climber check for breathing? c. Cuts or bleeding? d. Broken bones? e. Other? 4. Climber's method of descending to the ground with the injured. a. Was the descent smooth? b. Did the climber control the position of the injured during the descent? 5. Touch down of the injured. a. Was the touch down gentle? b. Was the injured allowed a flat touch down? Source: ISA, Western Chapter", Work Climb Event Rules, Scoring Procedures and Judging Guidelines", St. Helena, California, 1987. -13-124 APPENDIX R STUDY GUIDE FOR P A C I F I C NORTHWEST CHAPTER ARBORIST AND TREE WORKER C E R T I F I C A T I O N 125 STUDY GUIDE FOR ARBORIST AND TREE WORKER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS Susan M. Murray, Editor Published By: PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER, INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The editor gratefully acknowledges assistance from the Western Chapter International Society of Arboriculture. 128 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER ISA CERTIFICATION PROGRAM 1 HOW TO USE THIS STUDY GUIDE 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR USE WITH THIS STUDY GUIDE 3 1. TREE MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 9 2. TREE IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION 14 3. PLANTING AND EARLY CARE 19 4. SOIL MANAGEMENT Fertilization 22 Irrigation and Drainage 25 Cultivation 28 5. PRUNING CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES 31 6. WOUNDS AND CAVITIES 37 7. CABLING AND BRACING 40 8. SAFE WORK PRACTICES Personal Safety 44 Tree Climbing 47 Chain Saw Safety 51 Mobile Equipment 55 Brush Chipper Safety 57 9. DIAGNOSING COMMON TREE PROBLEMS 60 10. IDENTIFYING HAZARD TREES 65 iv 129 PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM The Pacific Northwest Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) has prepared a Voluntary Certification Program for Arborists and Tree Workers. The goal of the program is to improve the standard of workmanship within the profession. It will also enable the members of the public to identify proficient arborists. Certification, in the Pacific Northwest Chapter, will eventually go hand in hand with a public information campaign. The program includes two levels of certification: Certified Tree Worker, the first level, requires 18 months of arboricultural work experience, passing a written and a practical examination. The certificate must be renewed every three years by re-examination or by 18 hours of attendance at accredited seminars, workshops, conferences or training during the three-year period. Certified Arborist. the second level of certification, requires three years of arboricultural work experience and passing a written examination. The certificate must be renewed every three years by re-examination or by attending 36 hours of accredited seminars, workshops, conferences or training during the three-year period. The two levels differ by the number of months of work experience needed and the subject matter presented in the examination. HOW TO USE THIS STUDY GUIDE This Study Guide has been developed to help aspiring Tree Workers and Arborists to prepare for the certification examination. It includes ten units. Research in the last twenty-five years has given us a clearer perception of trees and their response to pruning and cultural practices. This has led to improved arboricultural techniques. Every effort has been made to include the results of current research in this Study Guide. The adoption of new techniques will create a higher standard of workmanship in the tree care industry. To use the Study Guide: 1. Read the Objectives of each chapter. 2. Read the references given in the Procedure. Test questions are based on the reference material listed in the Procedure at the beginning of each unit. Of course, work experience is fundamental to a full understanding of the subject material presented in the references. 3. Answer the Study Questions as completely as possible. Make sure you understand the concepts and principles involved. 4. Attempt the Sample Test Questions. -1 -130 5. Read the references given in "Additional Reading" which interest you. These readings are not required but may assist if problems arise in the assigned reading, and will increase your understanding of the concepts involved. 6. Make sure you understand the meaning of all the terms used in the unit readings or study questions. *Note: Objectives and Study Questions for Tree Workers are listed with an (*). All Objectives and Study Questions shall be studied by Arborists. -2-131 REFERENCE MATERIAL Each unit of the Study Guide includes a list of references. The reference material is required reading. All the reference material mentioned in the procedure section of each unit is given below. American National Standard for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1 -1988. New York, N.Y.: American National Standards Institute Inc. Dirr, M. 1983. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification. Ornamental  Characteristics. Culture. Propagation and Uses. Champaign, II.: Stipes Publishing. Harris, Richard W. 1983. Arboriculture: Care of Trees. Shrubs and Vines in the  Landscape. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Hosie, R.C. 1979. Native Trees of Canada. Don Mills, On.: Fitzhenry and Whiteside. Industrial Health and Safety Regulations. 1980. Richmond, B.C.: Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia. Nursery. Greenhouse Vegetable and Ornamental Production Guide for Commercial  Growers. October 1988. Text by B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, co-sponsored by Crop Protection Institute of Canada (B.C. Council) and co-published by Coast Agri Fertilizers Ltd. Crop Products Division. Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code. Oregon Administrative Rules, Chapter 437. Salem, Or.: Workers' Compensation Department, Accident Prevention Division. Pacific Northwest Disease Control Handbook. 1989. Corvallis, Or.: Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho. Pacific Northwest Insect Control Handbook. 1989. Corvallis, Or.: Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho. Phillips, R. 1978. Trees of North America and Europe. London, England: Pan Books. Ray, P.M., Steeves, T.A. and S.A. Fultz. 1983. Botany. Philadelphia, Pa.: CBS College Publishing. Shigo, Alex L. 1986. A New Tree Biology. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Shigo, Alex L. 1986. A New Tree Biology Dictionary. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Wallis, G.W., Morrison, D.J. and D.W. Ross. 1980. Tree Hazards in Recreation Sites in  British Columbia, Management Guidelines. Ottawa, On.: Environment Canada Forestry Service and the Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing. -3-132 Washington Industrial Health and Safety Code. Olympia, Wa.: Washington Industrial Health and Safety Administration. ADDITIONAL READING The following is a list of all the resource material suggested in the Additional Reading List of the ten units. BOOKS AND MANUALS Agrios, George N. 1988. Plant Pathology. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Back Talk. 1987. Richmond, B.C.: Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia. Bega, Robert V., Tech. Coord. 1979. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No. 521. Bernatsky, A. 1978. Tree Ecology and Preservation. New York, N.Y.: Elsevier Publishing. Blanchard, Robert O. and Terry A. Tattar. 1981. Field and Laboratory Guide to Tree  Pathology. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Brown, George E. 1977. The Pruning of Trees. Shrubs and Conifers. London, England: Faber and Faber. Bridgeman, P.H. 1976. Tree Surgery. London, England: David and Charles. Brush Bandit Brush Chipper Operating and Parts Manual, n.d. Chalfont, Pa.: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. Chainsaw Safety Manual, n.d. Waiblingen, West Germany: Andreas Stihl. Chaster, G.H., Ross, D.W. and W.H. Warren. 1988. Trees of Greater Victoria: A  Heritage. Victoria, B.C.: Heritage Tree Book Society. Eeger Beaver Operating Manual, n.d. Winn, Mi.: Morbark Industries. Fallers' and Buckers' Handbook. 1981. Richmond, B.C.: Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia. Foster, R.E. and G.W. Wallis. 1974. Common Tree Diseases of British  Columbia. Ottawa, On.: Canadian Forestry Service. Furniss, R.L. and V.M. Carolin. 1977. Western Forest Insects. Washington, D.C.: USDA For. Service, Misc. Publication No. 1339. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of Forest and Shade Trees of the United States. Washington, D.C.: USDA For. Serv. Agriculture Handbook No.386. -4-133 The Hillier Colour Dictionary of Trees and Shrubs. 1982. New York, N.Y.: van Nostrand Reinhold. Himelick, E.B. 1981. Tree and Shrub Transplanting Manual. Urbana, II.: International Society of Arboriculture. Johnson, Warren T. and Howard H. Lyons. 1988. Insects that Feed on Trees and  Shrubs, an Illustrated Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Manion, P.D. 1981. Tree Disease Concepts. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Manual for Aerial Lift Operation. Maintenance. Installation Parts, n.d. Chalfont, Pa.: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. Meakin Poor, J. 1984. Plants That Merit Attention, Volume 1 - Trees. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. Operator's Safety Manual. 1986. Husqvarna, Sweden: Husqvarna Motor. Oregon Sawchain Maintenance and Safety Manual. January 1986. Guelph, On.: Omark Canada. Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook. 1989. Corvallis, Or.: Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University and the University of Idaho. Phillips, P.H. and D.A. Burdekin. 1982. Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. London, England: MacMillan. Pirone, P.P. 1978. Diseases and Pests of Ornamental Plants. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley. Pirone, P.P. 1988. Tree Maintenance. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. Recognition and Life History of the Major Insect and Mite Pests of Ornamental Shrubs  and Shade Trees of British Columbia. 1974. Victoria, B.C.: Province of B.C., Department of Agriculture. Robbins, Katharine. 1986. How to Recognize and Reduce Tree Hazards in Recreation  Sites. NA-FR-31. North East Region USFS: U.S. Forest Service. Shigo, Alex L. 1989. Proper Pruning of Trees. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Shigo, Alex L, Vollbrecht, K., and N. Hvass. 1987. Tree Biology and Tree Care. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Sinclair, W.A., Lyon, H.H. and W.T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. New York, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Soderstrom, Neil. 1982. Chainsaw Savvy a Complete Guide. Dobb's Ferry, N.Y.: Morgan and Morgan. Tattar, T.A. 1978. Diseases of Shade Trees. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. -5-134 Whisper Chipper Operation, Maintenance and Repair Parts Manual, n.d. Chalfont, Pa.: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. Whitcomb, Carl E. 1987. Establishment and Maintenance of Landscape Plants. Stillwater, Ok.: Lacebark Publications. Yeatman, C.W. and T.C. Nieman. n.d. Safe Tree Climbing in Forest Management. Fisheries and Environment Canada. Forestry Service - Technical Report 24. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Allen, D.C. 1984. Environmental Effects of Insect Defoliation. Volume 10, No. 4:97-103. Anderson, J.L, Campana, R.J., Shigo, A.L. and W.C. Shortle. 1985. Wound Response  of Ulmus americana - Results of Chemical Injection in Attempts to Control Dutch Elm  Disease. Volume 11, No. 5:137-142. Chaney, W.R. 1986. Anatomy and Physiology Related to Chemical Movement in Trees. Volume 12, No. 4:85-91. Fraedrich, S.W. and D.L Ham. 1982. Wood Chip Mulching Around Maples: Effect on  Tree Growth and Soil Characteristics. Volume 8, No. 4:85-89. Genau, Stephen M. 1982. A Progressive Approach in Production Improvement for Tree  Trimming. Volume 8, No. 2:53-56. Holewinski, Dennis E., et.al. 1983. Development of Improved Tree Trimming Equipment and Techniques. Volume 9, No. 5:137-140. Houston, D.R. 1985. Dieback and Declines of Urban Trees. Volume 11, No. 3:33-38. Kramer, P.J. 1987. The Role of Water Stress in Tree Growth. Volume 13, No. 2:33-38. Krizek, D.T. and S.P. Dubik. 1987. Influence of Water Stress and Restricted Root  Volume on Growth and Development of Urban Trees. Volume 13, No. 2:47-55. Kozlowski, T.T. 1985. Soil Aeration. Flooding, and Tree Growth. Volume 11, No. 3:85-96. Kozlowski, T.T. 1985. Tree Growth and Response to Stress. Volume 11, No. 3:97-111. Kozlowski, T.T. 1986. The Impact of Environmental Pollution on Shade Trees. Volume 12, No. 2:29-37. Kozlowski, T.T. 1987. Soil Moisture and Absorption of Water by Tree Roots. Volume 13, No. 2:39-46. Mayne, Leslie S. 1975. Cabling and Bracing. Volume 1, No. 6:101-106. -6-135 Moorman, G.W. 1985. Scheduling Woody Ornamental Plant Disease Management. Volume 11, No.1:22-24. Opgenorth, D.C., et.al. Transmission of Certocystis ulmi on Pruning Saws. Volume 9, No. 7:196-198. Perry, Thomas 0.1982. The Ecology of Tree Roots and the Practical Significance  Thereof. Volume 8, No. 8:197-211. Santamour, F.S. 1987. Building Walls and Breaching Walls: Truth and Consequences  in Wound Compartmentalization. Volume 13, No. 11:262-266. Shigo, Alex L. 1989. Branch Failures: A Closer Look at Crack Drying. Volume 15, No. 1:11-12. Smith, Kevin T. 1988. Wounding. Compartmentalization. and Treatment Tradeoffs. Volume 14, No. 9:226-229. Van de Werken, Hendrik. 1981. Fertilization and Other Factors Enhancing the Growth  Rate of Young Shade Trees. Volume 7, No. 2:33-37. Wargo, Philip M. 1981. Defoliation and Secondary-Action Organism Attack: With  Emphasis on Armillaria mellea. Volume 7, No. 3:64-69. Wargo. Philip M. 1983. Effects and Consequences of Stress on Root  Physiology. Volume 9, No. 7:173-176. Watson, G.W. and E.G. Himelick. 1982. Root Distribution of Nursery Trees and Its  Relationships to Transplanting Success. Volume 8, No. 9:225-229. Watson, G.W. 1988. Organic Mulch and Grass Competition Influence Tree Root  Development. Volume 14, No.8:200-203. Whitcomb, Carl E. 1981. Response of Woody Landscape Plants to Bermuda Grass  Competition and Fertility. Volume 7, No. 7:191-194. -7-136 ARBORETA. BOTANICAL GARDENS AND PARKS USEFUL FOR PLANT IDENTIFICATION British Columbia: The University of British Columbia Botanical Garden, Vancouver. Van Dusen Botanical Display Garden, Vancouver. Beacon Hill Park, Victoria. Royal Roads, Hatley Park, Victoria. Oregon: Berry Botanic Garden, Portland. Washington: Washington Park Arboretum, Seattle. IMPORTANT NOTICE: The Pacific Northwest Chapter does not endorse or recommend any brands or makes of tree care equipment. The use of brand names is purely coincidental and is based solely on the availability of information concerning those brands at the time and place of production of this study guide. -8-137 UNIT 1 TREE MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION An understanding of tree morphology, anatomy and the physiological processes by which growth occurs will give the arborist a clearer picture of how arboricultural practices affect tree performance and vigor. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Describe the morphology or structure of a root and the function of each part. *2. Summarize the types of roots that may occur on a mature tree, including the function and location of each type. 3. Describe the general anatomy of a leaf and the function of the major cells. M. Describe the structure of a dormant twig. 5. Describe the general anatomy of a woody stem and the function of the major parts. 6. Explain the basic structure of the vascular system of a tree and the function of each part. *7. Explain how a branch is attached to the trunk (see Shigo) and how this affects conduction of water and elements. *8. Explain where compression and tension wood are formed and what their function is. *9. Outline the differences between heartwood and sapwood. *10. Describe the role of the root-fungus association called mycorrhiza in the absorption of elements. 11. Outline the differences between heartwood and discolored wood. *12. Outline the differences between an excurrent and a decurrent or delinquescent branching habit in trees and how it influences pruning. Identify examples of each growth pattern. 13. Point out the differences between apical dominance and apical control. 14. Summarize the CODIT model or compartmentalization of decay in trees. -9-138 15. Summarize the purposes and products of photosynthesis and respiration. 16. Explain the mechanism and identify the cells by which photosynthetic products are translocated from the leaves to the rest of the plant. 17. Explain the process of transpiration. *18. Point out the differences between different kinds of shoots such as water sprouts and suckers. 19. Summarize the differences between a tree with co-dominant stems and one with a large trunk-small branch configuration. 20. Explain the effects of environmental influences such as sunlight on transpiration. 21. Explain the mechanism and identify the cells by which water is transported throughout the plant. PROCEDURE 1. Read Arboriculture, Harris, 2. Read Botany. Ray et al., 'Chapter 2 and pp.151 -155; pp.497-498 *Chapter3, pp.36-42 Chapter 6, pp.103-105 Chapter 7, pp.118-123 Chapter 8, pp.135-138 Chapter 9, pp.147-149 Chapter 10, pp.161-175 Chapter 13, pp.223-236 3. Read A New Tree Biology. Shigo, ^Chapter 10 'Chapter 12 Chapter 17 4. Refer to A New Tree Biology Dictionary, Shigo, as required. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Define the terms listed below. Identify where the structures or cells are found in a tree and explain their primary function. *bundle scar terminal bud *bud scale scar vascular cambium *root cap *root hair *heartwood stomate Reaction wood cork guard cell xylem phloem pith cortex *sapwood lateral root palisade cell epidermis co-dominant stem branch collar walls one, two, three & four barrier zone tracheid sieve tube vessel fiber cell -10-139 Compression wood *tension wood *epicormic branch *water sprout apical meristem *bark *latent bud chlorophyll *sucker *heart root *sinker root *annual growth ring *intemode *node sieve plate *2. What is the branching pattern of a tree with an excurrent growth habit, a decurrent growth habit? *3. How deep do the roots of most plants, including large trees, grow? *4. What are the four types of roots that may occur in a mature tree? Where are these roots located in relation to the soil surface? 5. What are the cellular components of the vascular system? *6. How does girdling a stem kill a tree? *7. Where does compression wood develop in conifers? What is its function? *8. Where does tension wood form in deciduous trees? What is its function? 9. What are stomates and by what mechanism do they open and close? 10. What are the environmental conditions which increase the rate at which transpiration occurs? *11. Why are water sprouts easily disconnected from a trunk? 12. Which component of the vascular system enables the translocation of photosynthates from the leaves to the rest of the tree? 13. What is the overall equation for the photosynthetic formation of carbohydrate? 14. What is the source of the carbon dioxide (CO2) required in photosynthesis? 15. What is the ultimate energy source for the photosynthetic process? 16. Why is respiration an important physiological process? 17. How does the transport of water in the xylem occur? 18. What is transpirational pull? 19. How does the cohesion-tension theory of water transport explain the successful movement of water from the roots to the leaves? 20. What is the difference between apical dominance and apical control? 21. What is the process of CODIT? -11 -140 22. Summarize the compartmentalization of decay in trees, identifying the location, cells which form them and the relative strengths of walls one through four. SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. Water and mineral elements are absorbed into the tree via which part of the root? a) cap b) palisade cells c) hairs 2. Photosynthesis is a process whereby carbon dioxide and water are chemically joined to produce what compound? a) mesophyll b) carbohydrate c) phosphorus 3. What is the role of the layer of cutin and waxes which is secreted onto the epidermis of the leaf? a) restricts the evaporation of water b) produces chloroplasts c) opens and closes the stomates 4. Which of the cells listed below form part of the vascular system? a) xylem b) epidermal c) palisade *5. An excurrent tree has a single dominant leader, with shorter lateral branches. One example is an Acer rubrum or Red Maple. True False ANSWERS: 1 - c; 2 - b; 3 - a; 4 - a; 5 - False. ADDITIONAL READING PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Chaney, W.R. 1986. Anatomy and Physiology Related to Chemical Movement in Trees. Volume 12, No. 4:85-91. -12-141 Perry, Thomas 0.1982. The Ecology of Tree Roots and the Practical Significance  Thereof. Volume 8, No. 8:197-211. Santamour, F.S. 1987. Building Walls and Breaching Walls: Truth and Consequences  in Wound Compartmentalization. Volume 13, No.11:262-266. Wargo, Philip M. 1983. Effects and Consequences of Stress on Root  Physiology. Volume 9. No. 7:173-176. -13-142 UNIT 2 TREE IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION INTRODUCTION Tree identification is important to the arborist. Knowing the identity of a tree allows the arborist to accurately assess a tree's suitability to a particular site. Tree identity helps determine pruning and other cultural practices such as insect and disease control. It is also useful to be able to select in the nursery bare-root or container-grown trees which will survive and perform well in the landscape. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Identify, using both scientific and common names, the twenty-five trees of List A that are commonly found growing in the Pacific Northwest. 2. Identify, using both scientific and common names, an additional twenty-five trees found in List B that are commonly found growing in the Pacific Northwest. *3. Describe characteristics of the trees from List A including mature height, spread and habit of growth. 4. Describe characteristics of the trees from List B including mature height, spread and habit of growth. *5. Explain what a scientific name is, why they are used and how they are correctly written. *6. Outline the differences between bare-root, balled and burlapped and container-grown nursery stock. 7. Distinguish desirable characteristics of nursery stock such as adequate trunk taper, caliper, crown configuration and a moderate top-to-root ratio. 8. Distinguish unacceptable characteristics of nursery stock such as kinked and circling roots or injured bark. 9. Explain which plant features may or may not be desirable when selecting trees. *10. Explain the differences between the following terms: angiosperm, gymnosperm, coniferous and deciduous. PROCEDURE *1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 3. -14-143 *2. Read Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Dirr, pp. 23-26 and as required. *3. Read Native Trees of Canada. Hosie, as required for tree identification. *4. Read Trees of North America and Europe. Phillips, as required for tree identification. *5. Visit a botanical garden or arboretum in your area. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Explain when flowers or fruit in a landscape tree may or may not be desirable. *2. Summarize the information required under the headings below for the trees in List A. a) leaf description b) bark description c) mature height, spread and habit of growth d) dormant twig characteristics 3. As above, but for trees given in List B. 4. What can be done through plant selection to reduce surface rooting of street trees in turf, curb or sidewalk areas? 5. List five reasons why nursery trees may be rejected prior to planting. *Tree Study List A Scientific Name Gymnosperms: 1. Cedrus atlantica 2. Cedrus deodara 3. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 4. Ginkgo biloba 5. Picea abies 6. Pinus nigra 7. Pinus sylvestris 8. Pseudotsuga menziesii 9. Thuja plicata 10. Tsuga heterophylla Common Name Atlas Cedar Deodar Cedar Lawson's False Cypress Maidenhair Tree Norway Spruce Austrian Pine Scot's Pine Douglas Fir Western Red Cedar Western Hemlock -15-144 Scientific Name Angiosperms: 11. Acer macrophyllum 12. Acer platanoides 13. Acer rub rum 14. Aesculus hippocastanum 15. Betula pendula 16. Catalpa speciosa 17. Cornus nuttallii 18. Fagus sylvatica 19. Liquidambar styraciflua 20. Liriodendron tulipifera 21. Platanus xacerifolia 22. Prunus serrulata 23. Que reus rubra 24. Sorbus aucuparia 25. 7/7/a cordata Common Name Bigleaf Maple Norway Maple Red Maple Common Horsechestnut European White Birch Western Catalpa Pacific Dogwood European Beech American Sweet Gum Tulip Tree London Pine Japanese Cherry Red Oak European Mountain Ash Littleleaf Linden Tree Study List B  Scientific Name Gymnosperms: 1. Araucaria araucana 2. Cryptomeria japonica 3. xCupressocyparis leylandii 4. Metasequoia glyptostroboides 5. Piceapungens 6. Pinus contorta 7. Pinus wallichiana 8. Sequoia sempervirens 9. Sequoiadendron giganteum Common Name Monkey Puzzle Tree Japanese Cedar Leyland Cypress Dawn Redwood Colorado Spruce Shore Pine Himalayan White Pine Redwood Giant Sequoia -16-145 Scientific Name Angiosperms: 10. Acer circinatum 11. Acer palmatum 12. Albizia julibrissin 13. Alnus oregona 14. Carpinus betulus 15. Cercidiphyllum japonicum 16. Cercis siliquastrum 17. Comus florida 18. Davidia involucrata 19. Fraxinus ornus 20. Gleditsia triacanthos 21. Koelreuteria paniculata 22. Magnolia xsoulangiana 23. Populus nigra cv Italica 24. Quercus palustris 25. Robinia pseudoacacia SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. Which one of the following best describes a Gymnosperm? a) plant having naked seeds b) plant producing spores c) plant bearing a palmately compound leaf 2. Which one of the following best describes an Angiosperm? a) plant producing a coniferous fruit b) plant having seeds borne within a pericarp c) plant bearing needle or scale-like foliage *3. A pine tree usually has two or more needles attached to twigs in bundles or fascicles, whereas the needles of a spruce are attached singly to the branchlet. True False *4. Which one of the following scientific names is correctly written? a) Pinus Nigra b) pinus nigra c) Pinus nigra ANSWERS: 1 - a; 2 - b; 3 - True; 4 - c. Common Name Vine Maple Japanese Maple Silk Tree Red Alder European Hornbeam Katsura Tree Judas Tree Flowering Dogwood Dove Tree Flowering Ash Honey Locust Golden Rain Tree Saucer Magnolia Lombardy Poplar Pin Oak Black Locust -17-146 ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Chaster, G.H., Ross, D.W. and W.H. Warren. 1988. Trees of Greater Victoria: A  Heritage. Victoria, B.C.: Heritage Tree Book Society. The Hillier Colour Dictionary of Trees and Shrubs. 1982. New York, N.Y.: van Nostrand Reinhold. Meakin Poor, J. 1984. Plants That Merit Attention. Volume 1 - Trees. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. ARBORETA. BOTANICAL GARDENS AND PARKS USEFUL FOR PLANT  IDENTIFICATION British Columbia: The University of British Columbia Botanical Garden, Vancouver. Van Dusen Botanical Display Garden, Vancouver. Beacon Hill Park, Victoria. Royal Roads, Hatley Park, Victoria. Oregon: Berry Botanic Garden, Portland. Washington: Washington Park Arboretum, Seattle. -18-147 UNIT 3 PLANTING AND EARLY CARE INTRODUCTION The importance of correct planting techniques and the initial care received by newly-transplanted trees and shrubs should not be underestimated. Success in transplanting trees and shrubs from a controlled nursery environment into the landscape requires preparation of the planting hole, removal of twine and burlap wrapping, initial pruning and occasionally, staking. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without references notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Explain the importance of the following: a. Proper handling of plants prior to planting. b. Preparing the planting hole. c. Setting the plant in the hole. d. Removing twine and burlap wrapping around the base of the tree or shrub. e. Backfilling the hole. f. Pruning. g. Care following planting. *2. Point out the differences in growth characteristics between a staked and an unstaked tree. *3. Explain what type of staking a tree may require. *4. Explain how to stake a tree, depending on its requirement for: a) protection b) root anchorage c) trunk support *5. List two injuries caused by improper staking. PROCEDURE *1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 2, pp.31 -33 and Chapter 8, pp.208-226. -19-148 STUDY QUESTIONS *1. How should deciduous, bare-root trees be handled in between digging in the nursery and planting in the landscape? *2. What precautions should be taken in handling container-grown plants between the nursery and planting? *3. What problem may be encountered by digging planting holes deep to "loosen" the soil? How can this problem be minimized? *4. Should back-fill soil be amended? Why? *5. How can "glazing" the sides of the planting hole be minimized? *6. How should the roots of plants be handled prior to placing them in the planting hole? *7. Explain three considerations when deciding how to orient a tree in the planting hole. *8. What problem occurs when burlap wrapping is left exposed to the air once the plant has been placed into the planting hole? *9. Why is it best to irrigate newly planted trees? *10. What pruning, if any, should be done at planting? Why? *11. If fertilization appears necessary, how and when should it take place? *12. Compare and contrast the growth characteristics of a staked versus an unstaked tree. *13. How can the height of the support be determined when support staking is required? *14. Discuss three reasons why a tree may require staking. SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. 1. What is the most important reason to prune a young tree at planting? a) To balance the top and root growth. b) To begin developing tree structure. c) To invigorate the young tree. ANSWER: 1 - b. -20-149 ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Himelick, E.G. 1981. Tree and Shrub Transplanting Manual. Urbana, II.: International Society of Arboriculture. Whitcomb, Carl E. Establishment and Maintenance of Landscape Plants. 1987. Stillwater, Ok.: Lacebark Publications. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Fraedrich, S.W. and D.L Ham. 1982. Wood Chip Mulching Around Maples: Effect on  Tree Growth and Soil Characteristics. Volume 8, No. 4:85-89. Kramer, P.J. 1987. The Role of Water Stress in Tree Growth. Volume 13, No. 2: 33-38. Krizek, D.T. and S.P. Dubik. 1987. Influence of Water Stress and Restricted Root  Volume in Growth and Development of Urban Trees. Volume 13, No. 2:47-55. Kozlowski, T.T. 1987. Soil Moisture and Absorption of Water by Tree Roots. Volume 13, No. 2:39-46. Van de Werken, Hendrik. 1981. Fertilization and Other Factors Enhancing the Growth  Rate of Young Shade Trees. Volume 7, No. 2:33-37. Watson, G.W. and E.B. Himelick. 1982. Root Distribution of Nursery Trees and Its  Relationship to Transplanting Success. Volume 8, No. 9:225-229. Whitcomb, Carl E. 1981. Response of Woody Landscape Plants to Bermuda Grass  Competition and Fertility. Volume 7, No. 7:191-194. -21 -150 UNIT 4 SOIL MANAGEMENT FERTILIZATION INTRODUCTION Fertilization of woody plants is a time-honored horticultural practice. However, it may or may not be justified. Whether fertilization is required depends on the plant, the nutrient status of the soil, and the amount of growth required. Shallow-rooted plants such as turf, bedding plants and ground covers may require fertilization, while trees and shrubs may not. This unit should provide an understanding of soil-nutrient-plant relationships, the techniques used to determine nutrient requirements, and the means to correct nutrient deficiencies. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: 1. Explain the influence of the more important physical and chemical properties of soil on the availability of nutrients and therefore the growth of trees and shrubs. 2. Explain what form(s) of nutrients are absorbed by roots. 3. Evaluate the adequacy of methods used to determine the need for additional nutrients. *4. Identify the deficiency symptoms associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and iron. *5. Explain the treatments for each of the above deficiencies, including the method of application and timing. 6. Point out the differences between the chemical forms of different nitrogen fertilizers and their effects on nutrient availability. *7. Summarize the benefits of applying: inorganic or organic sources of nutrients, complete fertilizers, and slow-release fertilizers. *8. Explain how the nutrient levels in a complete fertilizer are expressed. *9. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of applying fertilizer via surface application, soil incorporation, foliar sprays and trunk injection. -22-151 10. Summarize the measures that can be taken to minimize pollution by fertilizers. PROCEDURE *1 - Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 3, pp.141 -151 and Chapter 11. *2. Read Supplementary Discussion which follows. Supplementary Discussion The above assigned reading can be summarized by the following. In many landscape plantings nitrogen is the only element which may be deficient. Nitrogen can be applied to the soil surface and, in the nitrate or urea form, will move into the soil during irrigation. In alkaline (high pH) soil, iron may be deficient. Because of leaf and twig fall and decomposition, original surface soil is more fertile than deeper soil. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Which chemical soil property determines soil fertility? How? 2. How does the pH of the soil influence plants? What is the soil pH range considered satisfactory for most plants? 3. In what form(s) are nutrients absorbed by roots? 4. Why may a shrub respond differently to two different fertilizer products with the same nitrogen content? *5. Compare inorganic and natural organic sources of fertilizers for use in landscape settings. 6. Summarize three methods used to determine fertilizer needs for landscape plants. What are the problems of each method used? 7. What are the common chemical forms of nitrogen used as fertilizers? Do these forms influence how they might be used? How? *8. What is the simplest effective way to apply nitrogen fertilizer? Why? *9. Compare the symptoms of nitrogen and iron deficiencies of broadleaved shrubs. *10. What is a "complete" fertilizer? Discuss the value of a complete fertilizer for use on trees. *11. How are the nutrient levels of a complete fertilizer expressed? -23-152 *12. If needed, how would you apply potassium? *13. What are some of the advantages of using a slow release fertilizer in the landscape? *14. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of applying fertilizer via surface application, putting it into drilled holes, liquid injection, foliar sprays, and trunk injection. *15. Of what importance is time of application of nitrogen fertilizers? *16. Describe control measures for iron deficiency. 17. Explain fertilizer pollution by nitrogen and phosphorus in a landscape setting near a stream or lake. SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS 1. Fill in the blanks: a) In poorly drained soiled, a (low, high, neutral) pH may reduce the availability of iron and manganese. b) Nitrate ion are (weakly, strongly) adsorbed by soil colloids. 2. True or False (T or F): a) Root absorption of nutrients is generally passive, that is, elements are absorbed in proportion to their concentration in the soil or soil solution. b) Soil analysis can more accurately reflect the toxicity levels of soil chemicals than the nutrient status. c) A plant with yellowish leaves in the spring which become green during the growing season, and normal length shoots of small diameter, is exhibiting typical nitrogen deficiency symptoms. 3. True or False (Tor F): a) The three nutrients in a "complete fertilizer" are always listed in the same order on the label, but are not necessarily the same chemical formulation. b) One of the benefits of applying phosphorus to trees in most soils is the stimulation of root growth. -24-153 ANSWERS: 1 (a) - high; 1 (b) - weakly 2(a) - false; 2(b) - true; 2(c) - false 3(a) - true; 3(b) - false ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS Whitcomb, Carl E. 1987. Establishment and Maintenance of Landscape Plants. Stillwater, OK.: Lacebark Publications. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Van de Werken, Hendrik. 1981. Fertilization and Other Factors Enhancing the Growth  Rate of Young Shade Trees. Volume 7, No.2:33-37. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE INTRODUCTION Water is of paramount importance to all living things. In plants, water plays an important role in photosynthesis. It provides a solvent for nutrient and carbohydrate movement within plants. Transpiration cools plants. Water is vital, yet too much water can be detrimental. This unit will present information on the practices of irrigation and drainage. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: 1. Explain the following terms: -25-154 Evapotranspiration (ET) Field capacity (FC) Permanent wilting point (PWP) Available moisture Infiltration 2. Summarize the factors which influence evapotranspiration. 3. Describe the uses and limitations of the different ways to determine when to irrigate landscape plants. 4. Explain how to roughly estimate moisture adequacy by feeling the soil. *5. Compare and contrast the methods of applying water to landscape plants via: Basin Sprinkler Furrow Drip irrigation 6. Explain the advantages of minimum irrigation of landscape plants where less water is applied than is evapotranspired. 7. Explain how antitranspirants reduce transpiration, the problems associated with their use, their effectiveness, and their most promising uses. *8. Describe the methods used to improve drainage in an existing landscape planting. PROCEDURE 1. Read Arboriculture, Harris, Chapter 6, pp.155-162 and Chapter 12. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What do the following terms mean? Evapotranspiration (ET) Field capacity (FC) Permanent wilting point (PWP) Available moisture Infiltration *2. Describe the following irrigation methods: Basin; Sprinkler; Furrow; and Drip irrigation. *3. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of drip irrigation for landscape plantings? -26-155 4. Outline the methods to estimate when to irrigate by: observing plants, feeling the soil, using tensiometers, using electrical resistance meters, estimating evapotranspiration (ET), and measuring foliage temperatures. 5. What are some of the advantages of minimum irrigation where it can be practiced? *6. Explain "water-jetting" of landscape trees. 7. In what ways can antitranspirants reduce transpiration and what are their most promising uses? *8. Describe the methods used to improve soil drainage in an existing landscape planting. SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS *1. True or False (T or F): a) An irrigation basin that allows more water to enter the soil near the water inlet than across the basin, can be given more uniform water distribution by reducing the flow into the basin. b) Drip irrigation usually uses more water for a given area than does a sprinkler because of the frequent and long periods of drip application. c) Sprinkler or drip, compared to basin, application of water is preferred in mulched shrub plantings. 2. Fill in the blank: Factors outside the plant which influence the rate of transpiration include: i) soil moisture, ii) temperature, iii) sunlight, and iv) . 3. True or False (T or F): a) The duration of antitranspirant effectiveness depends, in large measure, on plant vigor. b) The temperature of leaves exposed to the sun compared to that of shaded leaves can be used to determine when to irrigate. ANSWERS 1 (a) - False; 1 (b) - False 1 (c) - True 2 - Humidity, Wind or Radiation; 3(a) - True; 3(b) - True -27-156 ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS Whitcomb, Carl E. 1987. Establishment and Maintenance of Landscape Plants. Stillwater, OK.: Lacebark Publications. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Kramer, P.J. 1987. The Role of Water Stress in Tree Growth. Volume 13, No.2:33-38. Krizek, D.T. and S.P. Dubik. 1987. Influence of Water Stress and Restricted Root  Volume on Growth and Development of Urban Trees. Volume 13, No.2:47-55. Kozlowski, T.T. 1985. Soil Aeration. Flooding, and Tree Growth. Volume 11, No.3:85-96. Kozlowski, T.T. 1987. Soil Moisture and Absorption of Water by Tree Roots. Volume 13, No.2:39-46. * * * * * * CULTIVATION INTRODUCTION Soil surfaces may be protected and maintained in one of three ways: with ground cover plants; by clean cultivation or chemical weed control; or with mulches. Mulches help to retain soil moisture, reduce soil erosion and weed competition. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Summarize the effect of turf and ground cover plants around trees. *2. Explain the purposes and disadvantages of cultivation and chemical weed control. -28-157 *3. Distinguish between the action of contact, translocated, selective, and fumigant herbicides and when each should be used. *4. Point out the advantages and disadvantages of mulching, the basis for selecting a mulch material, and management practices. PROCEDURE 1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 13. STUDY QUESTIONS *1. What are the advantages of keeping turfgrass at least twelve inches (30 cm) from the trunks of young trees? *2. What are the primary purposes of cultivating soil in landscapes? *3. Why should cultivation be eliminated or kept to a minimum? *4. Distinguish between contact, translocated, selective, and fumigant herbicides. When would you use each one? *5. List five benefits of mulching the soil in a shrub bed. *6. What are five problems associated with the use of mulches around plants? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS *1. Match the appropriate type of herbicide with each of the following statements. A type of herbicide can only be used once. a) Used before planting a shrub bed to free it of A. Contact weeds and weed seeds. B. Selective b) Will only kill plant parts to which it is applied. C. Fumigant c) Kills broadleaved plants in turfgrass. D. Pre-emergent d) Effective on perennial weeds. E. Translocated *2. A four-inch (10 cm) thick, coarse organic mulch in a shrub planting on a sandy loam slope will improve moisture relations in the planting by: a) reducing runoff, b) condensing dew and soil vapor under high radiation conditions, and c) d) -29-158 e) ANSWERS 1 (a) - Fumigant; 1 (b) - Contact; 1 (c) - Selective; 1 (d) - Translocated 2(c) - Reducing surface evaporation 2(d) - Reducing weeds 2(e) - Water infiltrates near where applied ADDITIONAL READING MANUALS Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook. 1989. Corvallis, Or.: Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Fraedrich, S.W. and D.L Ham. 1982. Wood Chip Mulching Around Maples: Effect on  Tree Growth and Soil Characteristics. Volume 8, No. 4:85-89. Watson, G.W. 1988. Organic Mulch and Grass Competition Influence Tree Root  Development. Volume 14, No. 8:200-203. Whitcomb, C.E. 1981. Response of Woody Landscape Plants to Bermuda Grass  Competition and Fertility. Volume 7, No. 7:191-194. -30-159 UNIT 5 PRUNING CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION Pruning is one of the oldest horticultural treatments. Pruning is a valuable tool, used to increase fruit and flower production, to improve the characteristics of timber-producing trees, to improve the structural strength of fruit and ornamental trees, and to promote healthy, visually appealing landscape plants. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. List five reasons why plants are pruned. *2. Identify the location for a correct pruning cut using the Natural Target pruning method. Describe what a proper cut will look like after one growing season. Describe the negative consequences of leaving a stub. *3. Explain how young and mature plants respond to pruning. *4. Explain the relationship of the branch bark ridge to decay. *5. Explain how included bark and co-dominant stems affect pruning, stem strength and decay. *6. Summarize in detail the practices of cleaning out, crown thinning, crown reduction, crown restoration, and lifting the crown. (British Standards Institution) *7. Explain the precautions required to prevent the spread of disease while pruning. *8. Explain the differences between callus, branch and trunk collars. *9. Explain why young trees need training and how to best structure their branches. *10. Summarize the benefits of leaving temporary branches. Summarize how to develop adequate vertical spacing and radial distribution of the branches. *11. Describe the relationship between top pruning and root growth. *12. Summarize how the timing of pruning affects plant growth as well as flower and fruit production. *13. Summarize why wound dressings have not proven effective in preventing decay in trees. -31 -160 *14. Point out the difference between the technique used and plant response to heading and thinning cuts. Explain what flush cut, drop crotch, pollarding and topping cuts are and the consequences of each type of cut. *15. Point out the difference between the two types of pruning shears and how to use the least effort when making a close cut. *16. Explain how to remove branches larger than two inches (5 cm) without tearing the bark. *17. Summarize the problems associated with "topping" cuts. *18. Explain the characteristics of a tree which add to the structural strength of the trunk and scaffold branches. *19. Explain how to prune both whorl and random branching conifer species. PROCEDURE *1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 14. *2. Read A New Tree Biology. Shigo, Chapters 12,13, 33, 34, 35 and 41. STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Define the terms listed below. Identify where the structures are found in a tree and explain their primary function. branch bark ridge temporary branches scaffold branches leader crown branch collar trunk collar callus collar callus tissue included bark protection zone whorled branching random branching stub Describe the pruning cuts listed below, of each type. flush topping pollarding heading back thinning out Explain the advantages or disadvantages drop crotching dehorning pinching shearing stubbing *3. What parts should be pruned from a vigorous, healthy mature tree? -32-161 *4. Where should a normal pruning cut be made and how does the position of the cut relate to the possibility of decay? *5. Describe the steps required to remove a long or heavy limb. What problems result from not taking these steps? *6. What is the tree's response to "topping" cuts? *7. What is the probable long-term effect of topping? *8. What are the steps involved in retraining a tree which has been severely topped? *9. When thinning-out a limb or leader, what is the minimum size lateral branch (in relation to the limb or leader) to which the cut should be made? *10. How can pruning help develop or discourage fruit and flower production? *11. What is the effect of crown thinning on the branches and roots of a tree? *12. What is meant by cleaning out (BSI) a tree? How does cleaning a tree guard against disease and pests? *13. What is crown thinning (BSI)? When is it advisable to thin a crown? What is a thinning cut? *14. Explain crown reduction (BSI). What maintenance problems can result? *15. What is crown restoration (BSI) or renewal? When is this practice called for? *16. What is accomplished by crown lifting (BSI)? *17. Why is it important to keep one-half of the foliage on the lower two-thirds of the trunk, particularly in young trees? *18. What is the objective of pruning a young landscape tree? *19. What benefits are achieved by leaving low branches on a young tree? *20. What is the effect of pruning a newly planted bare-root tree "to balance root loss"? Why is it often better not to prune trees for this reason? *21. Explain scaffold limb development. BSI (British Standards Institution) -33-162 *22. What considerations must be made for structural development of young trees related to: a) mature size and use in the landscape, i.e., shade, screen, fruit, specimen; b) use of space around tree re: streets, sidewalks, views; c) future maintenance. *23. Explain the advantage of using a hooked anvil type hand pruner or lopper. *24. What does time of year a tree is pruned have to do with: *25. What precautions should be considered when pruning a tree with an infectious disease? *26. Why is it unnecessary to paint pruning cuts and other wounds with wound dressing? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. Where must pruning cuts always be made outside of? *2. What does the leaving of lower small branches on a young tree help to do? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) bark tearing plant invigoration size reduction corrective pruning callus development cold injury flowering a) abscission layer b) annual ring c) branch bark ridge a) Increase trunk taper. b) Protect the trunk from summer branch drop. c) Reduce insect infestations. -34-163 *3. Why is it important to leave one-half of the foliage of the tree on the lower two-thirds of the trunk? a) Reduces insect infestations. b) Increases trunk caliper. c) Reduces height growth. d) Increases wind stability. *4. A strong scaffold branch structure is best developed when a tree is young. True False *5. A tree may grow too large for a given site. How should size control be accomplished? a) Crown restoration. b) Topping. c) Stopping or reducing phosphorus fertilization. d) Crown reduction. ANSWERS: 1 - c; 2 - a; 3-d; 4 - True; 5 - d. ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Bridgeman, P.H. 1976. Tree Surgery. London, England: David and Charles, pp.57-74. Brown, George E. 1977. The Pruning of Trees. Shrubs and Conifers. London, England: Faber and Faber. Pirone, P.P. 1978. Tree Maintenance. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. Shigo, Alex L. 1986. A New Tree Biology Dictionary. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Shigo, Alex L. 1989. Proper Pruning of Trees. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. Shigo, Alex L., Vollbreght, K., and N. Hvass. 1987. Tree Biology and Tree Care. Durham, N.H.: Shigo and Trees, Associates. -35-164 PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Genau, Stephen M. 1982. A Progressive Approach in Production Improvement for Tree  Trimming. Volume 8, No. 2:53-56. Holewinski, Dennis E., et al. 1983. Development of Improved Tree Trimming Equipment  and Techniques. Volume 9, No. 5:137-140. Opgenorth, D.C., et al. 1983. Transmission of Ceratocystis ulmi on Pruning Saws. Volume 9, No. 7:196-198. Perry, Thomas 0.1982. The Ecology of Tree Roots and the Practical Significance  Thereof. Volume 8, No. 8:197-198. -36-165 UNIT 6 WOUNDS AND CAVITIES INTRODUCTION Wounds on trees may be the result of normal branch drop, improper pruning, equipment damage, injections, vandalism, or damage by animals and birds. A few small to moderate wounds inflicted on healthy trees are usually of little consequence. Large wounds or those occurring on trees of low vigor or of low resistance to decay can become discolored, begin to decay, and may develop into a cavity. Correct tree care practices can prevent wounds or keep them from becoming troublesome. This unit will present information concerning tree wounds and a tree's response to being wounded. Treatment of tree wounds and cavities will be discussed. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Summarize compartmentalization with regard to wounding and explain its importance to decay caused by wounds. 2. Explain how decay caused by wounds can be detected and minimized. *3. Explain factors that affect wounds and wound closure. *4. Summarize how wounds should be treated. 5. Explain how cavities develop and the likelihood that they will continue to expand into wood formed after the initial wound occurred. 6. Summarize how cavities in tree trunks should be treated. PROCEDURE *1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapter 2, pp.25-27; Chapter 14, pp.390-392; Chapter 16, pp.496-514. 2. Read A New Tree Biology. Shigo, Chapters 38, 39, 40 and 41. -37-166 STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Why is a tree described as being highly compartmented? *2. Describe the compartmentalization process that takes place in a healthy tree following wounding. *3. What determines a tree's ability to compartmentalize wounds? *4. How should pruning cuts be positioned to minimize any decay that may occur? 5. What are the ways that decay can be detected? *6. What factors will hasten callusing of a wound? *7. How should injections be made into tree trunks to minimize injury and the possibility of decay? *8. How should wounds through the bark be shaped? *9. From the tree's standpoint, why is it not advisable to dress (paint) wounds? For what reason would painting a tree wound be acceptable? 10. Why are termites and ants seldom a problem in cavities? 11. Of what value is the callus roll that may form at the edges of a cavity? 12. How can you determine the extent of a cavity? 13. What may be the problem if wall four is violated when checking for decay, cleaning a cavity or injecting pesticides? 14. As far as tree health is concerned, what is most important if a cavity is to be cleaned? 15. Why should most cavities not be filled? 16. If cavities are to be filled, what are two materials that would be most satisfactory? 17. What is the best way to handle a tree that has: a) a fairly small cavity? b) an extensive trunk cavity? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS 1. Match the tissue on the right with the correct description on the left. -38-167 a) The strongest barrier against A. Vertical decay in wood present at the conducting wood time a trunk is wounded. B. Xylem rays b) The weakest barrier against decay. C. Wood formed soon c) The weakest barrier against after wounding physical stress and strain. D. Springwood d) The strongest barrier against decay. in xylem '2. True or False (T or F): a) Pruning cuts should be made inside the branch bark ridge to minimize the possibility of decay occurring in the main trunk. b) Wounds need only be traced in order to remove loose bark. c) Wound paints should be used to minimize infection. d) The callus roll at the edges of a cavity can add to the structural strength of the wood around the cavity. ANSWERS: 1(a)-B; 1(b)-A; 1(c)-C; 1(d)-C 2(a)-F; 2(b)-T; 2(c) - F; 2(d)-T ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS Pirone, P.P. 1988. Tree Maintenance. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. PERIODICAL Journal of Arboriculture Smith, Kevin T. 1988. Wounding, Compartmentalization, and Treatment Tradeoffs, Volume 14, No. 9:226-229. -39-168 UNIT 7 CABLING AND BRACING INTRODUCTION Cabling and bracing are used to preserve landscape trees and to prevent extensive damage from occurring when trees do fail. Cabling is an important and useful tool that every arborist should be familiar with. It is necessary to know and understand the limits of cabling systems. This knowledge enables the arborist to judge when a cabling system may not be appropriate. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: 1. Explain when a tree may require cabling or bracing. 2. Summarize the limitations of cabling systems. 3. Explain the necessity of preceding cabling work by thinning the tree to be supported. 4. Summarize the different cabling systems and point out when each is used. 5. Describe the materials used in cabling and their specific purposes. 6. Compare and contrast the use of forged or cast eye bolts and lag eyes over bent or formed eye bolts. *7. Explain how to properly install bolts, lags and cables in trees. 8. Summarize how wounds caused by cabling and bracing can be made to minimize tree injury. 9. Explain how to correctly cable or brace: a) weak or split crotch b) weak or heavy horizontal limb c) decayed limbs d) multi-stemmed trees. 10. List the reasons for propping trees. -40-169 11. Explain the methods and materials with which trees or limbs are propped, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 12. State how often cabling and propping systems must be inspected. PROCEDURE 1. Read Arboriculture, Harris, Chapter 16, pp.481 -496. 2. Read A New Tree Biology. Shigo, Chapter 43. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Under what circumstances might cabling a tree be recommended? 2. Is the purpose of cabling primarily to hold trees together or to assist in supporting weak branches? 3. How often should cabling and propping systems be inspected? 4. Why is cabling preceded by crown (canopy) thinning a tree? 5. What is a simple, direct cabling system and when is it used? 6. What is a triangular system, when is it used, and how do the cables restrict movement in the tree? 7. What is a box cable system? When is it used, and how do the cables restrict movement in the tree? *8. Where should a cable be attached in the tree relative to the crotch of the limb being supported? At what angle should a cable be placed relative to a crotch? *9. When supporting a horizontal branch, how should the cable be attached and at what angle? *10. Describe the following materials and their specific uses in cabling: a) eye bolts e) pre-formed cable tree-grip b) lag screw hooks deadends c) thimbles f) through-bolts d) washers and nuts g) wood screw rod 11. What are the advantages of forged or cast eye bolts and lag eyes over bent or formed eye bolts? 12. Why are diamond shaped washers no longer recommended when installing bolts in trees? -41 -170 *13. What size holes should be drilled for lags? For bolts? *14. At what angle should lags and bolts be inserted into tree limbs? *15. Why should lags and bolts be in direct line with the cables attached to them? *16. Explain the importance of balancing the relative strengths of the bolting and the cabling materials in a cabling system. 17. Explain the use of seven-strand cable, and extra high strength cable. *18. What is the proper way to eye splice seven-strand cable during installation? *19. What are pre-formed tree-grip deadends? How and when are they used in cabling trees? *20. Why are cable bolts (U-bolts) not recommended for attaching cables to trees? 21. Under what conditions are turnbuckles considered to be a weak link in cabling systems, and why? 22. When are threaded wood screw rods used in trees? 23. In what situations are through-bolts recommended over threaded wood screw rods, and why? In what situations are threaded rod bolts recommended over through-bolts, and why? 24. When gusty winds are a factor, where should rods be placed to provide the greatest stability for a weak crotch? 25. What considerations should be taken into account when propping trees? 26. What is the importance of movement within a limb or trunk in developing its strength? 27. Point out the advantages and disadvantages of using the following materials for propping limbs or trees: a) metal props b) wood props c) curved cradles or forks d) through-bolts. SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. When installing lag screws and cables, care should be taken to make sure the cable is in line with the screw. True False -42-171 *2. When cabling a limb which is decayed, what is the proper hardware to use called? a) J-lag screws b) Threaded rods c) Forged eye bolts 3. What shape should the washers be when installing through-bolts? a) round b) diamond c) square ANSWERS: 1 - True 2 - c 3 - a ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Bernatsky, A. 1978. Tree Ecology and Preservation. New York, N.Y.: Elsevier Publishing. Bridgeman, P.H. 1976. Tree Surgery. London, England: David and Charles. Pirone, P.P. 1988. Tree Maintenance. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Mayne, Leslie S. 1975. Cabling and Bracing. Volume 1, No. 6:101-106. -43-172 UNIT 8 SAFE WORK PRACTICES PERSONAL SAFETY INTRODUCTION SAFETY BEGINS AND ENDS WITH THE TREE WORKER. The goal of safety in tree work is to recognize the hazards inherent in the equipment used and the many operations required to maintain the health of trees. Basic to all operations in tree care is the Tree Worker. Considering the Tree Worker as the most important tool, this section of safety devotes itself to the care and maintenance of you--the Tree Worker. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Explain what parts of the body are under the most stress in tree care and how to avoid injury during normal working procedures. *2. Describe the types and characteristics of both clothing and personal protective equipment essential to safety. *3. Explain how proper nutrition and care of the body is as essential to personal safety as clothing and other safety practices. *4. Identify laws that have been written for the protection of the Tree Worker and the employer (or employee). Explain how these laws apply to you and your employer (or employees). *5. Describe the symptoms of and means to prevent and treat heat exhaustion and muscle cramps. PROCEDURE *1. Read Operating and Safety Instructions for each of the following pieces of equipment: chain saw; brush chipper; aerial lift; stump grinder. *2. Read a basic First Aid book (see heat exhaustion and muscle cramps). -44-173 *3. Read American National Standard for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1-1988r American National Standards Institute Inc. (see Appendix of the Standard, too). *4. Read the British Columbia Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (13.21,13.93 and Section 14), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code, or the Washington Industrial Health and Safety Code. STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Identify the limitations of the back in lifting and describe how to lift heavy objects to avoid back injury. *2. Describe the symptoms of heat exhaustion, how to prevent and treat it. *3. What causes muscle cramps? What can be done to prevent them and how are they treated? *4. When should eye protection be worn? *5. When and what type of hearing protection should a tree worker wear? *6. Explain why proper clothing is essential to safety. Describe proper or adequate clothing under: a) mild weather conditions b) cold conditions c) hot conditions. *7. Name three qualities of a proper work boot for tree work. *8. What is an approved hard hat? When does a tree worker wear a hard hat and when is one not worn? *9. Know the advantages and disadvantages of wearing gloves. Name three tree care operations that require the use of gloves. *10. Describe the importance of proper nutrition to safety. *11. What constitutes an adequate lunch? *12. Name the best liquids for consumption during heavy work in hot weather. *13. Will coffee or other caffeine-containing drinks increase energy and quench thirst? *14. Describe the effect nicotine has on circulation and how this may relate to safety as a tree worker. *15. Name the effects of sleep deprivation on the body's system. *16. Name three effects that alcohol has on the body's system. -45-174 *17. Explain the importance of "warming up" before climbing or lifting. *18. Describe the characteristics of an appropriate saddle belt or safety belt used when climbing a tree. *19. How serious does an injury have to be for it to be reported to your foreman, supervisor or employer? *20. Why should every employee know the name, address and phone number of the emergency treatment centers in their area? *21. What is Workers' Compensation? Who is required to carry it? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. Ear muffs and ear plugs are approved hearing protection devices. True False *2. What is the work situation that would most require the use of a hard hat? a) Climbing. b) Groundman during a removal. c) Chipping brush. d) During all tree care operations, regardless of duty. *3. While sharpening your chainsaw, you slip and cut your finger on the chain. You take a bandaid from the first aid kit on the truck and finish the day. It is no big deal and will heal without any problem. Should you report it or forget it because you are not hurt badly? a) report it b) forget it. ANSWERS: 1-True; 2 - b; 3 - a. ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Back Talk. 1987. Richmond, B.C.: Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia. Fallers' and Buckers' Handbook. 1981. Richmond, B.C.: Workers'Compensation Board of British Columbia. -46-175 * * * * * * TREE CLIMBING INTRODUCTION Safe work methods must integrate physical work tasks and safety training. Tree workers readily identify with work tasks as opposed to what often becomes a separate program of safety training. Physical work tasks and safety are synonymous and must not be separated. As an example, climbing a tree is a work task; how to enter the tree is a method that involves safety. It is effective training in job planning and controlling of methods that reduces accidents. If workers are trained to plan and control, they are essentially managing their work methods. ACCIDENTS ARE UNPLANNED EVENTS THAT ARE USUALLY THE RESULT OF HUMAN ERROR AND ATTITUDE. By emphasizing personal planning and control in the work environment, human error will be minimized. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Identify the six most commonly used methods of entering a tree. *2. Distinguish obscure and obvious hazards and safety precautions to take during tree entry and climbing. a) Tree entry - footlocking, body thrust, aerial lifts, free climbing, spurs, ladders. b) In tree movement - tie-in location, reties and transfers, rigging of bull ropes, chain saws and other small tools. *3. Describe the minimum requirements for proper storage, size, breaking strength and durability of climbing ropes. M. Summarize basic procedures for working around electrical hazards. a) Name whom to call. b) Define an energized conductor (hot wire). c) Identify a high-voltage line and its approximate voltage. d) Point out the difference between direct and indirect contact of conductors. -47-176 *5. Explain how to rescue an injured climber: a) using rope and saddle b) using an aerial device c) when contact with an electrical conductor has been made. PROCEDURE Very few references exist on the topic of tree climbing and safety. To assist the student, answers are provided for the study questions. Further reading of reference material and on-the-job training will be necessary, however, to answer all questions correctly. *1. Read American National Standards for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1-1988r American National Standards Institute Inc. *2. Read the British Columbia Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (14.30,14.50, 24.08), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code or the Washington Industrial Health and Safety Code (see Tree Trimming Near Energized Conductors). STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Identify the six most commonly used methods of entering a tree. a) high lifts (mechanical aerial devices) b) footlocking (rope climbing) c) body thrust (pulling oneself up) d) tree climb (climbing limbs) e) spurs (using tree climbing spurs) f) ladders (using ladders to enter the tree). *2. What are the obscure and obvious hazards associated with each tree entry method? Obscure - All entry methods (Remember, accidents are unplanned events. It's usually those obscure hazards that cause safety problems.): a) use of improper personal and mechanical equipment b) lack of pre-job planning and control plan for hazards c) lack of mental alertness d) fatigue: lack of physical conditioning and training e) not warming up prior to climbing. -48-177 Obvious - Hazards associated with the six most popular methods of tree entry: a) Aerial lifts - electrical conductors, unstable surface for outrigger pads, hydraulic leaks, weak cables, lack of safety line in the bucket, improper bucket entry from the tree, lack of aerial rescue procedure. b) Footlock - improper size rope, obstructions or sharp stubs, brush and limbs, electrical conductors, difficulty in dismounting the rope, lack of training in on-rope methods. c) Body thrust - improper size rope, improper rope angle, obstructions of sharp stubs, brush and limbs, electrical conductors, difficulty in dismounting on a limb, lack of assistance from ground worker. d) Free climb - loose or slippery bark, weak limbs, sharp stubs, decayed trunk areas, electrical conductors, improper body weight distribution, improper clothing. e) Spurs - improper shank length, dull shanks, weak straps, climbing around limbs, unsnaps and resnaps with tag and climbing lines, loose bark, obstructions, sharp stubs, brush nails, wire and electrical conductors. f) Ladders - electrical conductors, unstable ground surface, uneven ground surface, ladder to limb angle. *3. What are the hazards associated with an improper tie-in location? a) The tie-in location should be at a height of at least three times the distance out from the trunk of the tree. This is known as the work area ratio. b) A minimum rope angle from the tie-in location to work area causes balance problems for the climber. c) Recovery time from a slip-off of a limb is usually not adequate to hit the trunk feet first if the rope angle is not proper or at about a three to one ratio. *4. What are the hazards associated with reties and location changes in the tree? a) The climber must never be untied. A safety or flip line must be used when retieing and recrotching the climbing line. *5. What are the hazards associated with the use of bull ropes in the tree? a) Bull rope may cross over the climbing line when roping off limbs. b) Narrow crotch that may cause the bull rope to hang up. c) Improper selection of knots. d) Communication problems with the ground worker. e) Improper size bull rope. -49-178 *6. What are the hazards associated with the use of a chain saw in the tree? a) Chain saws that weigh more than fifteen pounds (6.8 kg) and are not supported by a separate line. b) Improper footing or position when starting the saw. c) Improper adjustment of idling speed. d) Kickback of saw. *7. What are the hazards associated with electrical conductors? a) Direct contacts b) Indirect contacts c) Lack of job planning *8. What steps are taken when performing an aerial rescue using a rope and saddle? *9. What steps are involved in rescuing an injured worker who is in an aerial lift bucket? *10. What steps are taken to rescue a worker who has contacted an electrical conductor and is unconscious in the tree? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. What do you do before entering any tree? a) Identify potential hazards. b) Throw a climbing rope into the tree. c) Safety check tree entry equipment. *2. What do you do next? a) Identify potential hazards. b) Check the gas in the chain saw. c) Safety check tree entry equipment. *3. Which one of the following is an obscure safety hazard? a) Vehicular traffic is heavy. b) Lack of pre-job planning and control plan for hazards. c) Pedestrian traffic is heavy. d) Many children are playing in work area. -50-179 *4. What is the most important safety precaution used in tie-in transfers or reties in the tree? a) Allow for free movement. b) Remain tied-in. c) Be able to shinny. *5. What type of hazard is created by an improper rope angle from tie-in location to work area? a) The taut line hitch slips. b) Too much slack in the climbing line. c) Balance problems for the climber. d) The ground worker cannot reach the rope. *6. Whom do you call first when working around electrical conductors? a) The systems operator. b) Workers' Compensation. c) Your employer. ANSWERS: 1 - a; 2 - c; 3 - b; 4 - b; 5 - c; 6 - a. ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Bridgeman, P.H. 1976. Tree Surgery. London, England: David and Charles. Yeatman, C.W. and T.C. Hieman. Safe Tree Climbing in Forest Management. Fisheries and Environment Canada. Forestry Service - Technical Report 24. * * * * * CHAIN SAW SAFETY INTRODUCTION The chain saw is as basic to modern tree care as the rope and saddle. Modern chain saw technology has reduced the saw weight considerably and, simultaneously, has increased power. Automatic oiling of the chain, and a reduction in vibration are important design improvements. -51 -180 Unfortunately, if the chain saw is not used by a competent worker who, through training, has learned the necessary handling skills, the user will be exposed to serious injury, either from losing control of the falling tree or the saw itself. Central to the theme of this section is the concept that THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A MINOR CHAIN SAW WOUND. The best treatment for chain saw injury is PREVENTION. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Describe the major parts of a chain saw and their functions. *2. Describe the proper way to carry a chain saw: *3. Describe the kinds of clothing and other protective gear which should be worn when working with a chain saw. *4. Explain how to safely start a chain saw. *5. Explain what is meant by "kickback". What causes it, and how can it be avoided? *6. Summarize the importance of correct chain saw maintenance and what is involved in such maintenance. *7. Explain how to properly sharpen a chain. Explain the purpose and function of cutter teeth and the depth gauge. *8. Summarize the basic procedure for a simple felling task, including the sequence and the names and purpose of the cuts made. *9. Summarize how tension wood and compression wood might affect safe bucking procedures. *10. Identify when chain saws should be supported from a separate line when working in a tree. *11. Describe the proper method to buck logs lying on a slope. *12. Explain the following terms: a) on level ground b) uphill c) by vehicle. a) b) a safe wedge saw vibration chain tension c) d) spark arrester muffler compression release e) -52-181 PROCEDURE *1. Read operating and safety instructions for a chain saw (owner's manual). *2. Read American National Standards for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1 -1988, American National Standards Institute, Inc. *3. Read the British Columbia Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (14.04 and 16.130), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code'or the Washington Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (see Chainsaws). STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Describe the main parts of a chain saw. *2. Describe the proper way to carry a chain saw. a) on level ground b) uphill c) in a vehicle *3. Describe the function and necessity of hearing protection. *4. When is the use of protective leg devices required? *5. List proper clothing for use with a chain saw in fair weather, a) head gear b) clothing c) footwear *6. What is meant by "drop starting"? *7. Describe the safe procedure for starting a large chain saw. *8. Where is the thumb put in relationship to the forward handle on a chain saw? *9. What is "kickback"? *10. Why should gloves be worn when sharpening a chain? *11. Name a material that makes a safe wedge for use with a power saw. *12. What effect can excessive saw vibration have on the operator? *13. Explain the importance of proper chain tension. *14. Explain the hazards inherent with use of a dull or improperly sharpened chain. *15. Explain the purpose of a spark arrester muffler. *16. When should power saws be supported from a separate line when working aloft? *17. Describe some daily procedures for chain saw maintenance. -53-182 *18. When bucking logs on a slope, on which side should the worker stand: uphill or downhill? *19. What is a compression release? *20. What is the function of the depth gauge on the chain? *21. What is the "face cut" in falling a tree? (felling notch) *22. What is the "back cut" in falling a tree? (felling cut) *23. Where is the "hinge" located when falling a tree? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. It is acceptable when using a chain saw weighing less than fifteen pounds, (6.8 kg) to hang it from the climbing saddle via a saw lanyard. True False *2. What is the name of the first cut made when falling a tree? a) back b) face c) hinge *3. When bucking logs on a slope, a worker should stand downhill from the logs. True False ANSWERS: 1 - True; 2 - b; 3 - False. ADDITIONAL READING MANUALS Chainsaw Safety Manual, n.d. Waiblingen, West Germany: Andreas Stihl. Fallers' and Buckers' Handbook. 1981. Richmond, B.C.: Workers' Compensation Board. Oregon Sawchain Maintenance and Safety Manual. 1986. Guelph, On.: Omark Canada. Operator's Safety Manual. 1986. Huskvarna, Sweden: Husqvarna Motor. -54-183 Soderstrom, Neil. 1982. Chainsaw Sawy a Complete Guide. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Morgan and Morgan. * * * * * * MOBILE EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION Tree care is an increasingly mechanized profession. Mobile equipment greatly increases production and reduces the worker's physical effort. The goal in safe operation of mobile equipment is an understanding of how it works and what must be done to maintain control. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Identify the standard that requires all equipment, regardless of type, to be equipped and operated in compliance with manufacturer's operating instructions. *2. Explain the safety precautions needed for the following: a) exposed drive belts and gears e) storage of equipment b) mufflers and exhaust pipes f) storage of gasoline and oil c) aerial lift equipment g) unmanned vehicles d) detection of hydraulic leaks. *3. Describe the procedure used to back and park trucks and trailered equipment. *4. Describe the proper way to secure parked and unattached trailered equipment. *5. Explain the safety procedures for setting up hoisting or lifting equipment. *6. Explain why manufacturers' recommended maintenance procedures should be followed. *7. Explain how to determine what the maximum capacity of a crane or aerial lift is. -55-184 PROCEDURE *1. Read operating and safety instructions for an aerial lift device (owner's manual). *2. Read American National Standards for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1-1988. American National Standards Institute, Inc. *3. Read the British Columbia Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (sections 26 and 32.36), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code or the Washington Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (see Mobile Equipment: Elevating Work Platforms). STUDY QUESTIONS *1. Should exposed drive belts and pulleys or gears be guarded, and why? *2. Why should trucks with obscured rear vision or trucks backing trailered equipment be moved only with outside guidance? *3. How should equipment and material be stored on a truck for transportation? Why should ropes and gasoline be stored in separate compartments? M. How does a worker determine what the maximum lifting capacity of a crane or aerial lift is? *5. When, where and how are outrigger feet and pads to be used for safe operation of an aerial lift device? *6. Is it a safe practice to locate hydraulic leaks by feeling for them with your hands? Why? *7. Why should ignition keys be removed from equipment when left unattended? *8. What is the proper procedure for parking unattached trailered vehicles? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. You are putting tools away at the end of the day. The tool boxes are such that they go up with the bed when the truck dumps. Where do you put the gas and oil? a) In the front box with the ropes. b) By itself in the rear lowest box. c) In the cab of the truck. -56-185 *2. It is acceptable to back a chipper down a driveway without guidance if the truck is equipped with large mirrors on both sides. True False *3. You are using a hydraulic pruner in the aerial lift. You notice a pin hole leak in the hose. Since it is such a small leak, you put your hand over it to see if it is under pressure. True False ANSWERS: 1 - b; 2 - False; 3 - False. ADDITIONAL READING MANUALS Manual for Aerial Lift Operation. Maintenance. Installation. Parts, n.d. Chalfont, Pa.: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. * * * * * * BRUSH CHIPPER SAFETY INTRODUCTION Brush chippers, like chain saws, are a tremendous boon to tree care. They also have the potential to maim and/or kill. Knowledge and understanding are the keys to safety. NOTHING IS SAFE IF IT IS MISUSED. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: *1. Summarize the basic rules of safety which apply to chipping machines that are unattended, prior to start-up and during operation. *2. Explain the function and purpose of traffic cones and signs and their proper use. -57-186 *3. Describe the proper way to attach a chipper (or any trailered vehicle) to a truck. *4. Describe when eye protection is required during chipper use. *5. Describe the correct position and tools for the operator to assume and use when feeding a brush chipper. *6. Explain how to inspect chipper blades and general safety procedures to follow when changing chipper blades. PROCEDURE *1. Read operating and safety instructions for a brush chipper (owner's manual). *2. Read American National Standard for Tree Care Operations. ANSI Z133.1 -1988. American National Standards Institute, Inc. *3. Read the British Columbia Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (sections 16.126,16.130, and 52), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code, or the Washington Industrial Health and Safety Regulations (see Traffic Control and Mobile Chippers). STUDY QUESTIONS *1. When should traffic cones be used to define a work area? How should they be placed? *2. When should eye protection be worn when using a chipper? *3. What is the safest position for the operator to assume when feeding a brush chipper? *4. Why should chipper blades be covered by a guard during blade changing? *5. With what parts of the body may the operator touch the feed table during chipping operations? *6. What should the operator use to push brush through the chipper? Will a pitchfork or scoop shovel work? -58-187 SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. *1. When hooking safety chains from the chipper to the truck, the chains should be crossed underneath the tongue to form a cradle. True False *2. You are chipping maple brush and the brushy ends keep catching on the sides of the hopper without going through the rotor. What do you do to push the brush through? a) Use your hands. b) Use a forked stick about four feet (1.2 m) long, or the next long piece of brush. c) Use a pitchfork, broom or aluminum scoop shovel very carefully. *3. A blade guard is vital when installing sharp blades but not necessary when removing dull blades, since they can't hurt you anyway. True False ANSWERS: 1 - True; 2 - b; 3 - False. ADDITIONAL READING MANUALS Brush Bandit Brush Chipper Operating and Parts Manual, n.d. Chalfont, Pa: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. Eeger Beaver Operating Manual, n.d. Winn, Mi.: Morbark Industries. Whisper Chipper Operation. Maintenance and Repair Parts Manual, n.d. Chalfont, Pa.: Asplundh Manufacturing Division, Asplundh Tree Expert. -59-188 UNIT 9 DIAGNOSING COMMON TREE PROBLEMS INTRODUCTION Determining the cause of tree problems requires close observation of symptoms and considerable training and experience. It begins with simple observation of a well-known problem of a specific tree and ends with a thorough understanding of the complexities which may befall a tree in its location. Diagnosing plant problems is a skill that is never completely mastered. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: 1. List tools necessary to properly diagnose tree problems. 2. Prepare a diagnostic checklist. 3. Describe symptoms and recommendations for the following problems related to the soil or roots: a) impervious soil coverings and fill soils b) poor drainage c) gas injury d) loss of roots e) drought f) girdling roots g) leaf scorch h) leaf chlorosis i) animal damage 4. Describe the symptoms and recommendations for the following non-infectious disorders: a) air pollutants b) herbicide injury c) salt injury d) injury from chemical sprays e) lawnmower injury f) vandalism g) staking problems h) ice and wind damage -60-189 5. Identify the symptoms of some diseases NOT specific to one kind of plant, such as: a) Verticillium wilt b) Armillaria root rot c) powdery mildew d) Phytophthora root rot e) Anthracnose f) scab 6. Identify the symptoms of some insect problems NOT specific to one kind of plant, such as: a) scales b) aphids c) mites d) root weevils e) caterpillars f) wood borers g) cypress tip moth 7. Identify and compare the symptoms of some of the more common problems of trees and shrubs. Examples: a) leaf spots b) crown gall c) fire blight d) brown rot e) wetwood/slime flux f) viral diseases g) mistletoes PROCEDURE 1. Read Arboriculture. Harris, Chapters 17,18,19 and 20. 2. Pacific Northwest Disease Control Handbook. 1989. Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. 3. Pacific Northwest Insect Control Handbook. 1989. Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. or Nursery. Greenhouse Vegetable and Ornamental Production Guide for  Commercial Growers. October 1988. Text by B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, co-sponsored by the Crop Protection Institute of Canada ( B.C. Council) and co-published by Coast Agri Fertilizers Ltd. Crop Products Division. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Describe several procedures (activities) which should be undertaken before the problem tree is inspected. 2. Describe differences between symptoms of problems caused by disease and those caused by insects. 3. How might changes in grading or topography affect a tree? -61 -190 4. Describe the symptoms of phenoxy-herbicide contamination. 5. Describe the danger of making a quick diagnosis when one problem is very obvious. 6. When would a Verticillium wilt problem be suspected? 7. How do the symptoms of Phytophthora root rot differ from those of Armillaria mellea? 8. Describe how you would know if the cause of the problem was due to one of the following: a) aphids b) scales c) root weevils d) leaf scorch e) powdery mildew f) Anthracnose g) tightly staked tree h) soil compaction i) mite injury on leaves/needles SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. 1. A soil auger, pocket knife, hand lens and a shovel are essential tools to aid in diagnosing tree problems. True False 2. What is the first question to ask when a tree problem occurs? a) What kind of tree is it? b) Where is the tree located? c) How old is the tree? 3. What is an important way to determine whether growth is normal as compared with a non-affected tree? a) Length of last year's shoots. b) Appearance of the bark. c) Angle of the branches. 4. The presence of exit holes, frass and engraving indicate the presence of which problem? a) insect b) disease c) environmental -62-191 5. Which one of the following could cause a non-infectious disorder to occur? a) root weevils b) nutrient excesses c) Phytophthora root rot Bleached outer foliage on the upper and southwest side of some plants is often caused by Anthracnose. True False ANSWERS: 1 - True; 2 - a; 3 - a; 4 - a; 5 - b; 6 - False ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS AND MANUALS Agrios, George N. 1988. Plant Pathology. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Bega, Robert V., Tech. Coord. 1979. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No. 521. Blanchard, Robert 0. and Terry A. Tattar. 1981. Field and Laboratory Guide to Tree  Pathology. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Foster, R.E. and G.W. Wallis. 1974. Common Tree Diseases of British  Columbia. Ottawa, On.: Canadian Forestry Service. Furniss, R.L. and V.M. Carolin. 1977. Western Forest Insects. Washington, D.C.: USDA For. Service, Misc. Publication No. 1339. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of Forest and Shade Trees of the United States. Washington, D.C.: USDA For. Serv. Agricultural Handbook No. 386. Johnson, Warren T. and Howard H. Lyon. 1988. Insects That Feed on Trees and  Shrubs, An Illustrated Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Manion, P.D. 1981. Tree Disease Concepts. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Phillips, P.H. and D.A. Burdakin. 1982. Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. London, England: MacMillan. Pirone, P.P. 1978. Diseases and Pests of Ornamental Plants. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley. -63-192 Recognition and Life History of the Major Insect and Mite Pests of Ornamental Shrubs  and Shade Trees of British Columbia. 1974. Victoria, B.C.: Province of B.C., Department of Agriculture. Sinclair, W.A., Lyon, H.H. and W.T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. New York, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Tattar, Terry A. 1978. Diseases of Shade Trees. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Allen, D.C. 1984. Environmental Effects of Insect Defoliation. Volume 10, No. 4:97-103. Anderson, J.L, Campana, R.J., Shigo, A.L. and W.C. Shortle. 1985. Wound Response  of Ulmus americana - Results of Chemical Injection in Attempts to Control Dutch Elm  Disease. Volume 11, No. 5:137-142. Houston, D.R. 1985. Dieback and Declines of Urban Trees. Volume 11, No. 3:65-69. Kozlowski, T.T. 1985. Soil Aeration. Flooding, and Tree Growth. Volume 11, No. 3:85-96. Kozlowski, T.T. 1985. Tree Growth and Response to Stress. Volume 11, No. 3:97-111. Kozlowski, T.T. 1986. The Impact of Environmental Pollution to Shade Trees. Volume 12, No. 2: 29-32. Moorman, G.W. 1985. Scheduling Woody Ornamental Plant Disease Management. Volume 11, No. 1:22-24. Wargo, Philip M. 1981. Defoliation and Secondary-Action Organism Attack: With  Emphasis on Armillaria mellea. Volume 7, No. 3:64-69. -64-193 UNIT 10 IDENTIFYING HAZARD TREES INTRODUCTION Any tree or part of a tree that is a high risk upon failure or fracture for damage or injury to property, powerlines or people is a hazard tree. A TREE DOES NOT HAVE TO BE HEAVILY DECAYED TO BE A HAZARD TREE. Trees and their parts fail in one of three ways: they may overturn at the roots; the branches may fracture; or the trunk may fail. OBJECTIVES Be able to, without reference notes, answer correctly seventy percent of the test questions based on the following objectives: 1. Define what constitutes a hazard tree. 2. Describe the three basic ways a tree and its parts may fail. 3. Describe four ways live branches may fall from trees. 4. Summarize the non-pathological causes of tree failure. 5. Summarize the pathological causes of tree failure. 6. Describe the warning signs that indicate potential branch failure. 7. Describe the warning signs that indicate potential trunk failure. PROCEDURE 1. Read A New Tree Biology. Shigo, Chapters 14, 34, 35, 36 and pp.553-554. 2. Read A New Tree Biology Dictionary. Shigo, p.53. 3. Read Tree Hazards in Recreation Sites of British Columbia, Wallis, Morrison and Ross. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What is a hazard tree? 2. Describe the three basic ways a tree may fail. 3. Why might a recent edge tree be a potential hazard tree? -65-194 4. Why are cracks a major indicator of a potential hazard tree? 5. Why are vertical cracks, especially when they are in opposite sides of a tree, indicators of serious trouble? 6. What are some examples of the non-pathological causes of tree failures? 7. What are some examples of the pathological causes of tree failures? SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS Circle the best answer. 1. Recent edge trees are susceptible to root, trunk and branch failure. True False 2. Which one of the following is a non-pathological cause of tree failure? a) dwarf mistletoe b) canker c) forked stems ANSWERS: 1 - True; 2 - c. ADDITIONAL READING BOOKS Robbins, Katharine. 1986. How to Recognize and Reduce Tree Hazards in Recreation  Sites. NA-FR-31. North East Region U.S.F.S.: U.S. Forest Service. PERIODICALS  Journal of Arboriculture Shigo, Alex L. 1989. Branch Failures: A Closer Look at Crack Drying. Volume 15, No.1:11-12. -66-195 APPENDIX S SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER I 9 6 INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE ARBORIST CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION Candidate Name: Address: Telephone: Date: Guidelines 1. This examination consists of 200 multiple choice and true/false questions. 2. A score of at least 70% in each of the following categories is required to pass this examination: Category I - 50 questions (10 questions are specimen identification) Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Tree Identification and Selection Category II - 50 questions Pruning Category III - 40 questions Cabling and Bracing Safe Work Practices Category IV - 30 questions Planting and Early Care Soil Management Category V - 30 questions Wounds and Cavities Diagnosing Common Tree Problems Identifying Hazard Trees 3. Time allowed 3.5 hours. Instructions 1. Circle the best answer,from the multiple choice alternatives given, directly on the examination sheet. 2. Circle true or false directly on the examination sheet. Examination Designed by Susan M. Murray, P.Ag. -1 197 CATEGORY I Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Tree Identification and Selection 1. What part of the root absorbs water and mineral elements? a) cap b) hairs c) meristem d) pith e) cortex 2. What is the name of the root on a mature tree which grows downward providing stability to the tree canopy? a) heart b) primary c) fibrous d) adventitious 3. Which one of the following is a part of the mesophyll of a leaf? a) parenchyma b) guard cell c) cuticle d) stomata 4. Which one of the following cells is a part of the vascular tissues of a leaf? a) epidermis b) palisade c) phloem d) chloroplast 5. Which one of the following best describes a dormant terminal bud? a) inactive bud on a one-year-old twig b) inactive bud that is two years old c) inactive bud that is three years old d) inactive accessory bud 6. Which one of the following structures is found on a dormant shoot? a) latent or suppressed axil b) pedicel c) radicle d) bundle scar e) receptacle -2-CATEGORY II Pruning 198 51. When two identical trees are pruned in early summer, one by heading back and one by thinning, at the end of the growing season what would the thinned tree exhibit? a) greater new shoot growth b) slower callus formation c) more leaf chewing pests d) less new shoot growth 52. When selecting hand pruners, what do you look for to enable you to make a good pruning cut? a) a strong return spring b) a broad hand anvil that will not chip c) a curved or hooked anvil d) insulated handles for winter tree work 53. Where should the anvil or stationary part of pruning shears be placed in relation to the branch when pruning small trees? a) on the upper side b) on the lower side c) it does not really matter 54. What type of cut is the removal of a lateral branch to its point of origin called? a) orchard b) heading c) thinning d) shearing 55. Where is a proper pruning cut located in relation to the branch bark ridge? a) close to its outer edge b) close to but inside it c) through it d) into the center of it 56. What is the response of a young plant to pruning? a) the top and roots will be larger than if the plant had not been pruned b) there will be more stored carbohydrates c) the plant will have a larger total leaf area for photosynthesis d) dwarfing may occur - 9 -199 CATEGORY III Cabling and Bracing Safe Work Practices 101. Which one of the following cabling systems joins the large branches of a multistem tree and allows a limited range of movement of the individual limbs? a) triangular b) simple direct c) rotary d) multiple direct 102. Where should a cable be attached in a tree relative to the crotch of the weak horizontal branch being supported? a) 1/3 of the branch's length from the crotch b) 2/3 of the branch's length from the crotch c) 1/4 of the branch's length from the crotch d) 1/2 of the branch's length from the crotch 103. When supporting a heavy horizontal limb, at what angle should the cable be attached? a) the cable and limb should form an angle of at least 30 degrees b) the cable and limb should form an angle of at least 45 degrees c) the cable and limb should form an angle of at least 60 degrees d) the cable and limb should form an angle of at least 90 degrees 104. What is the advantage of drop-forged eye bolts over formed eye bolts? a) greater tensile strength b) greater compressive strength c) greater resistance to contraction stresses d) greater resistance to rusting 105. What size holes should be drilled for lag screws in comparison to the lag diameter? a) 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) smaller b) 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) smaller c) 1/8 inch (3 mm) smaller d) 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) smaller -17-200 CATEGORY IV Planting and Early Care Soil Management 141. Which part of a deciduous, container-grown tree being held for planting is the most sensitive to the sun? a) branches b) bark c) trunk d) rootball 142. In what condition should the tops of bare-root trees be maintained prior to planting? a) dormant b) actively growing c) just beginning to grow d) senescent 143. How deep should trees be planted in a clay loam soil as compared to their depth, as previously grown in the nursery? a) the same depth b) slightly higher c) slightly lower 144. Which one of the following is the best reason to prune newly planted trees, in an irrigated setting, at planting? a) to reduce the top in relation to the reduced root system b) to stimulate tree growth c) to improve tree structure d) to reduce the number of terminals to encourage root growth 145. When planting a balled and burlapped (B & B) tree, what is the best reason to remove or bury the burlap sack so it does not protrude above the soil surface? a) it interferes with the movement of surface runoff b) while the micro-organisms decompose it, the sack competes with the tree for nitrogen c) it acts like a wick, drying the soil under the ball d) it is unattractive -24-201 CATEGORY V Wounds and Cavities Diagnosing Common Tree Problems Identifying Hazard Trees 171. Rapid callusing, which is important to wound closure, occurs under which one of the following conditions? a) wound is large with a pointed apex b) wound is wide with few peninsulas of live bark c) wound is located directly above a vigorous root d) would is located below a sunken spot on the trunk 172. How can tree wounds and decay resulting from the injection of chemicals be minimized? a) make holes moderately wide and deep b) drill holes annually c) drill subsequent holes directly above old holes d) drill holes at the groundline 173. A thin coat of asphalt wound dressing is normally applied for what reason? a) improves appearance b) prevents the development of discolored wood c) speeds wound closure d) blocks infection by pathogens 174. Trees that have been girdled may be repaired using what technique? a) cleft grafting b) chip budding c) bark implants d) T grafting 175. Bead-like galls on the roots of plants in combination with leaf chlorosis indicates damage by which pest? a) nematodes b) Japanese beetle grubs c) gall wasps d) Japanese beetle adults -29-PACIFIC NORTHWEST CHAPTER INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE TREE WORKER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION A 202 Candidate Name: Address: Telephone: Date: Guidelines 1. This examination consists of 90 multiple choice and true/false questions. 2. A score of at least 70% in each of the following categories is required to pass this examination: Category I - 25 questions (10 questions are specimen identification) Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Tree Identification and Selection Category II - 25 questions Pruning Category III - 20 questions Cabling and Bracing Safe Work Practices Category IV -15 questions Planting and Early Care Soil Management Category V - 5 questions Wounds 3. Time allowed 2 hours. Instructions 1. Circle the best answer.from the multiple choice alternatives given, directly on the examination sheet. 2. Circle true or false directly on the examination sheet. Examination Designed by Susan M. Murray, P.Ag. 1 -203 CATEGORY I Tree Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology Tree Identification and Selection 1. What part of the root absorbs water and mineral elements? a) cap B b) hairs c) meristem d) pith e) cortex 2. What is the name of the root on a mature tree which grows downward providing stability to the tree canopy? A a) heart b) primary c) fibrous d) adventitious 3. Which one of the following best describes a dormant terminal bud? A a) inactive bud on a one-year-old twig b) inactive bud that is two years old c) inactive bud that is three years old d) inactive accessory bud 4. Which one of the following structures is found on a dormant shoot? a) latent or suppressed axil b) pedicel c) radicle D d) bundle scar e) receptacle 5. What are fast-growing, vertical shoots that originate above the ground or graft union called? a) spurs b) suckers C c) water sprouts d) offsets e) runners 6. In the branch attachment model developed by Shigo, the trunk tissues from above the branch connect with the branch. F True False -2-

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