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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Finnegans wake as a deconstructive text Roughley, Alan Robert 1986

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FINNEGANS WAKE AS A DECONSTRUCTIVE TEXT By ALAN ROBERT ROUGHLEY B . A . , M . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Depa r tmen t o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 @ f A l a n R o b e r t R o u g h l e y , 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of -p^gi -j sv,  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date December 5 . ' . . . 1 9 8 6 DE-6(3/81) Supervisor: E l l i o t t B. Gose i i Abstract This d isser ta t ion considers Finnegans Wake as a deconstructive wr i t ing that exemplif ies many of the textual operations that the French c r i t i c a l theor is t Jacques Derrida attempts to define through his use of such "undecidable" terms and "non-concepts" as "d i f fe rence , " "dissemina-t i o n , " " t r a c e , " and " g r a f t i n g . " I t argues that the Wake operates much l i k e the "bi furcated wr i t ing" and "grouped textual f i e l d " that Derrida i d e n t i f i e s as the only possible s i t e for a deconstructive engagement of the terms and concepts of the Western metaphysical t r a d i t i o n , the t r a d i -t ion that Derrida terms phallogocentrism. The Wake has been an important text in the c r i t i c a l formulations of many contemporary t h e o r i s t s , and, as Derrida has recently acknowledged, his own theories of dissemination and deconstruction have been considerably affected by the Wake during the twenty-f ive to t h i r t y years that he has been learning to read i t . In drawing on Derr ida's theories to analyze the Wake, th i s d isser tat ion u t i l i z e s Derr ida's terms to "re-mark" in Joyce's tex t , the disseminative textual operations that Derrida has marked as operative in the texts of the h istory of philosophy and in " s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a r y " texts l i k e Finnegans Wake. In a cer ta in sense, i t renders unto Joyce's text that which has always already belonged to i t . Drawing on Derr ida's invest igat ion of speech and w r i t i n g , the d i s -sertat ion considers the Wake's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i t s e l f as a fusion of speech and w r i t i n g that requires a "speechreading" on the part of i t s readers. It supports this consideration by employing Umberto Eco's semiotic methodology to trace the network of metonymic lexemes by which the Wake identifies i tsel f as a writing for the ear as well as the eye. Next i t analyzes the Wake's tenth chapter as a chapter that exploits the formula 1+2+3+4=10 and produces a writing that operates as an arith-metical textual machine which problematizes the traditional concepts of presence and being and which also works towards dislodging the phal-logocentric organization of writing with such hierarchically organized binary terms as male/female and central/marginal. In order to il lustrate how the Wake disseminatively disrupts the binary terms by which phallogocentrism dominates thought, speech, and writing, the dissertation also considers how Joyce's text functions in an Intertextual relationship with some of the writings of Blake and Shakespeare. It does this by analyzing how the Wake dismantles some of the philosophical paradigms operating in the Blake and Shakespeare texts and takes important signifiers from those texts in order to set them to work as signifiers of signifieds that are radically different from those in the texts of Blake and Shakespeare. C a n d i d a t e : Alan R. Roughley i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements v C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Notes 29 C h a p t e r I I M a k i n g " S o u n d s e n s e and Sensesound K i n A g a i n " : The Wake ' s " ( c o n ) f u s i o n " o f Speech and W r i t i n g 43 No tes 97 C h a p t e r I I I W r i t i n g w i t h A r i t h m e t i c : C h a p t e r 10 as a " C o l u m k i l l e r " 120 Notes 166 C h a p t e r IV Two I n t e r t e x t s i n F i n n e g a n s Wake 182 Notes 230 C h a p t e r V C o n c l u s i o n 246 Notes 266 B i b l i o g r a p h y 270 V Acknowledgements I gratefully acknowledge the assistance from the Faculty of Graduate Studies and the Department of English that enabled me to complete the course work and candidacy examinations for my degree, and the research for my dissertation. I thank Dr. E l l i o t t B. Gose, J r . for agreeing to supervise my dissertation at a time when i t s completion seemed far from certain and for subsequently being very generous with his time in c r i t i c i z i n g and discussing my work. Dr. Sherr i l l Grace and Dr. Graham Good have been very kind and helpful members of my supervisory committee, and I owe a particular debt of gratitude to Dr. Good for helping me to see the overall organization of the dissertation as i t emerged during the course of i t s writ ing. I am very grateful to Barbara Graves for the patience, perseverance, and humour with which she typed drafts and revisions. To Bob Blair and Lois Wedderburn-Blair I express my gratitude for their generosity and hospital ity. For Megan, my wife, words are not enough. 1 I I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n examines James J o y c e ' s F i n n e g a n s Wake i n t h e l i g h t o f p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t c r i t i c a l t h e o r y a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , f r om a v a n t a g e p o i n t a f f o r d e d by t h e d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y o f w r i t i n g f o r m u l a t e d by t h e F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e r and c r i t i c , J a c q u e s DerridaJ The t h e s i s o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake, as a p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g , i s a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e x t w h i c h e x e m p l i f i e s such key t e x t u a l and i n t e r t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s as " d i f f e r a n c e , " d i s s e m i n a t i o n , " "hymenea l f u s i o n , " " t r i g g e r -i n g , " and " g r a f t i n g , " o p e r a t i o n s t h a t J a c q u e s D e r r i d a d e t a i l s and employs i n h i s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The d i s s e r t a t i o n a n a l y z e s p a r t s o f t h e Wake i n an a t t e m p t t o show how i t f u n c t i o n s as what D e r r i d a c a l l s a " g r o u p e d t e x t u a l f i e l d , " o r a " b i f u r c a t e d w r i t i n g " i n w h i c h the h i e r a r c h -i c a l l y a r r a n g e d t e rms o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n t h a t D e r r i d a sees as the c o n t r o l l i n g t e rms o f t h e Wes te rn m e t a p h y s i c a l t r a d i t i o n a r e d i s r u p t e d , i n v e r t e d and r e i n s c r i b e d i n a w r i t i n g t h a t c h a l l e n g e s ou r t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g and " t h e e n t i r e „2 s y s t em a t t a c h e d t o i t . I t i s n o t a n a c h r o n i s t i c t o l a b e l t h e Wake a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e x t . A l t h o u g h t h e t e r m d i d n o t come i n t o vogue i n c r i t i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y u n t i l some t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , J o y c e ' s f i n a l work has had a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t o n , and f u n c t i o n e d as a model f o r , the f o r m u l a t i o n o f 2 c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c a l t h e o r y . As G r e g o r y U lmer comments , i t i s v i ewed by b o t h D e r r i d a and t h e s e m i o t i c t h e o r e t i c i a n , Umberto E c o , as t h e " t o u c h -„3 s t o n e f o r t h i n k i n g a b o u t l a n g u a g e i n o u r t i m e . The re can be no d o u b t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f E c o ' s s e m i o t i c t h e o r y and D e r r i d a ' s p r a c t i c e o f d e c o n s t r u c t i o n owe a g r e a t dea l t o J o y c e ' s i n n o v a t i o n s i n l a n g u a g e . Eco s ees t h e Wake p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f " a s an e x c e l l e n t model o f a G l o b a l S eman t i c S y s t e m " t h a t " p o s i t s i t s e l f , q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y , as t h e E r s a t z o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r s e o f l a n g u a g e . " F i n n e g a n s Wake, he c o n t e n d s , " i s i t s e l f a metaphor f o r t h e p r o c e s s o f u n l i m i t e d s e m i o s i s . E c o a l s o a g r e e s w i t h D a v i d Hayman's a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Wake 's p e d a g o g i c a l v a l u e as 5 an " o p e n " o r , t o use R o l a n d B a r t h e s ' s t e r m , " w r i t e r l y " t e x t . Hayman b e l i e v e s t h e Wake i s v a l u a b l e because i t " i n v i t e [ s ] t h e r e a d e r t o p e r p e t -ua t e c r e a t i o n . Eco s t a t e s : The s e a r c h f o r " o p e n " mode l s c a p a b l e o f g u a r a n t e e i n g and f o u n d -i n g t h e m u t a t i o n and t h e g rowth a n d , f i n a l l y , t he v i s i o n o f a u n i v e r s e f ounded on p o s s i b i l i t y , as c o n t e m p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h y and s c i e n c e s u g g e s t t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , e n c o u n t e r s pe rhaps i t s most p r o v o k i n g and v i o l e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n — p e r h a p s i t s a n t i c i p a -t i o n - - i n F i n n e g a n s Wake. The i m p a c t o f t h e Wake upon D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y was , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , a l i t t l e h a r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h b e c a u s e , u n l i k e E c o , D e r r i d a has w r i t t e n l i t t l e d i r e c t l y abou t t h e w o r k . An i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h e work o f P h i l i p p e S o l l e r s - - t h e F r e n c h w r i t e r whose work owes so much t o t h e Wake-- is a p p a r e n t i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n , b u t J o y c e ' s i n f l u e n c e upon the l e a d e r o f t h e d e c o n s t r u c t i o n movement was , as J . H i l l i s M i l l e r comments , a d i r e c t i f unacknow ledged i n f l u e n c e : 3 The re i s l i t t l e t h a t d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y o f n a r r a t i v e knows a b o u t t h e u n d e c i d a b i l i t y o f words o r o f s t o r y l i n e s w h i c h J o y c e d i d n o t a l r e a d y know . . . t he work o f J a c q u e s D e r r i d a has been much i n f l u e n c e d , though r a t h e r c o v e r t l y , by h i s r e a d i n g o f F i n n e g a n s Wake d u r i n g a c r u c i a l f o r m a t i v e y e a r he s p e n t a t H a r v a r d d u r i n g t h e m id 1 9 5 0 s . In 1 9 8 4 , howeve r , D e r r i d a a l l o w e d t h e t r a n s l a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n o f an e x t e m p o r a r y t a l k t h a t he gave i n P a r i s d u r i n g November o f 1 9 8 2 . "Two Words f o r J o y c e " i s r e m a r k a b l e as an example o f how t h e ma jo r f i g u r e i n d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y a n a l y z e s p a r t s o f t he Wake, b u t i t i s , p e r h a p s , e q u a l l y r e m a r k a b l e i n r e v e a l i n g how much i m p a c t J o y c e ' s Wake has had on D e r r i d a ' s w o r k : Our a d m i r a t i o n f o r J o y c e ough t t o have no l i m i t , no more t h a n s h o u l d t h e d e b t owed t o t h e s i n g u l a r e v e n t o f h i s work . . . . Y o u ' r e n o t o n l y overcome by h i m , whe the r you know i t o r n o t , b u t o b l i g e d by h i m , and c o n s t r a i n e d t o measure y o u r s e l f a g a i n s t t h i s o v e r c o m i n g . B e i n g i n memory o f h i m : n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o remem-b e r h i m , n o , b u t t o be i n h i s memory, t o i n h a b i t h i s memory, w h i c h i s h e n c e f o r t h g r e a t e r t h a n a l l y o u r f i n i t e memory c a n , i n a s i n g l e i n s t a n t o r s i n g l e v o c a b l e , g a t h e r up o f c u l t u r e s , l a n g u a g e s , m y t h o l o g i e s , r e l i g i o n s , p h i l o s o p h i e s , s c i e n c e s , h i s t o r y o f m i n d and o f l i t e r a t u r e s . . . . [ E ] v e r y t i m e I w r i t e , and even i n t h e most a cademic o f p i e c e s o f w o r k , J o y c e ' s g h o s t i s a l w a y s coming on b o a r d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o no t e t h a t t h e t e rm " g h o s t " s h o u l d no t be t a k e n as c a r r y i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s o f shadowy, i n s u b s t a n t i a l , o r u n r e a l i n a d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f s u b j e c t , r e a d e r , theme, w r i t e r , and s u b s t a n c e ; i n D e r r i d a ' s d i s c o u r s e , t h e t e rm comes pe rhaps as c l o s e as any o t h e r t o s i g n i f y i n g a ma jo r f o r c e , i n p a r t because o f D e r r i d a ' s f u n d a m e n t a l , d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e c h n i q u e o f p r o b l e m a t i z i n g and c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e rms t h a t w r i t e r s — a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y 4 " l i t e r a r y " w r i t e r s - - t a k e f o r g r a n t e d . The most o b v i o u s o f t h e s e i s " b e i n g , " a t e rm t h a t , D e r r i d a i n s i s t s , s h o u l d a lways be p l a c e d " u n d e r e r a s u r e " and w r i t t e n as U&H*cp10 A l o n g w i t h t h i s t e r m , a l l t e rms t h a t a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y used t o s i g n i f y some s o r t o f p r e s e n c e a r e s u s p e c t . "To B e , " f o r e x a m p l e , becomes a p r o b l e m a t i c s i g n . Once c a p a b l e o f a s s u r i n g " t h e West o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f a l l o f i t s f a n t a s i e s o f m a s t e r y ( i n c l u d i n g the m a s t e r y o f i t s f a n t a s i e s ) , " " t o b e " becomes , f o r D e r r i d a , a " o n e n e s s [ t h a t ] d e s i g n a t e s n e i t h e r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( c o n ) f u s i o n no r i d e n t i t y a t ..11 p e r f e c t r e s t ; t h e is^ t h a t c o u p l e s . . . must r i p a p a r t . S i m i l a r l y , many o f t h e t e rms t r a d i t i o n a l l y used i n t h e s t u d y o f l i t e r a t u r e a r e , f o r D e r r i d a , p a r t o f an " o l d t h e a t r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n [ t h a t ] has become u n -j u s t i f i a b l e . . . t h e a u t h o r , t h e r e a d e r . . . t he a c t o r , t h e c h a r a c t e r s . . . have no s i n g l e , u n i q u e , f i x e d p l a c e . . . . Any a t t e m p t to r e t u r n t owa rd t h e u n t o u c h e d , p r o p e r i n t i m a c y o f some p r e s e n c e o r some s e l f -12 p r e s e n c e i s p l a y e d o u t i n i l l u s i o n . " " I , " f o r e x a m p l e , c e a s e s t o be t h e s i g n i f i e r o f a s p e a k e r and becomes , i n s t e a d , a t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n , a " p u r e passageway f o r o p e r a t i o n s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n . . . no t some s i n g u l a r and i r r e p l a c e a b l e e x i s t e n c e , some s u b j e c t o r ' l i f e ' , b u t o n l y , mov ing between l i f e and d e a t h , r e a l i t y and f i c t i o n , e t c . , a mere f u n c t i o n o r p h a n t o m . " ^ F o r D e r r i d a , " g h o s t " and " p h a n t o m " a r e s i g n i f i e r s o f t e x t u a l o p e r a -t i o n s . Because " t h e o u t s i d e [ o f t h e t e x t ] i s t h e i n s i d e , " and because t h e r e i s no o u t s i d e t o t h e t e x t , no f i n a l s i g n i f i e d t h a t w i l l a r r e s t t h e p l a y o f t h e s i g n , t h e s e t e r m s , l i k e a l l o t h e r s i g n s , have no r e f e r e n t o u t s i d e o f l a n g u a g e , b u t r e f e r e n c e o n l y w i t h i n i t : 5 The r e f e r e n t i s l i f t e d , b u t r e f e r e n c e r e m a i n s : what i s l e f t i s o n l y t h e w r i t i n g o f d r e a m s , a f i c t i o n t h a t i s no t i m a g i n a r y , m i m i c r y w i t h o u t i m i t a t i o n , w i t h o u t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , w i t h o u t t r u t h o r f a l s i t y , a miming o f a p p e a r a n c e w i t h o u t c o n c e a l e d r e a l i t y , w i t h o u t any w o r l d b e h i n d i t . D e r r i d a ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e " g h o s t " o f J o y c e i s " a l w a y s coming on b o a r d " s h o u l d no t be i n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n i f y i n g the same t h i n g as H i l l i s M i l l e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t J o y c e has "much i n f l u e n c e d " D e r r i d a . F o r H i l l i s M i l l e r , t he r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f one w r i t e r ' s i n f l u e n c e upon a n o t h e r ; f o r D e r r i d a , i t i s an i n t e r t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . As Leon R o u d i e z s t a t e s , i n t e r -t e x t u a l i t y " has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h m a t t e r s o f i n f l u e n c e by one w r i t e r upon a n o t h e r , o r w i t h t h e s o u r c e s o f a l i t e r a r y w o r k . " An i n t e r t e x t u a l 15 r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v e s t h e " components o f a t e x t u a l s y s t e m . " i t i s d e f i n e d by J u l i a K r i s t e v a as t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f one o r more sys tems o f s i g n s i n t o a n o t h e r , a c compan i ed by a new a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the e n u n c i a t i v e and d e n o t a -t i v e p o s i t i o n . Any S IGNIFYING PRACTICE . . . i s a f i e l d ( i n the sense o f s p a c e t r a v e r s e d by l i n e s o f f o r c e ) j n wh i ch v a r i o u s s i g n i f y i n g s y s t e m s undergo such a t r a n s p o s i t i o n . ' " W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t t o w h i c h H i l l i s M i l l e r r e f e r s , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l no t c o n c e r n i t s e l f d i r e c t l y w i t h e i t h e r D e r r i d a ' s a l l u s i o n s t o J o y c e , o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f rame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r J o y c e ' s i n f l u e n c e upon t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y . These t a s k s , i f t hey a r e t o be u n d e r t a k e n , b e l o n g more p r o p e r l y t o t h e b i o g r a p h e r and the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c c o n c e r n e d w i t h the deve l opmen t o f i d e a s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o u r c e s . The p r e s e n t 6 s t u d y i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s i g n s " J o y c e " and " D e r r i d a " as s i g n i -f i e r s o f d i f f e r e n t t e x t u a l s i g n i f y i n g p r a c t i c e s t h a t p e r f o r m s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s . I n d e e d , i t i s t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f i t s d e c o n s t r u c -t i v e a n a l y s i s o f p a r t s o f F i n n e g a n s Wake. In " s e t E t i n g ] t o w o r k , " t o use a D e r r i d e a n p h r a s e , c e r t a i n o f t h e " m a r k s " t h a t t h e D e r r i d e a n t e x t has a l r e a d y " s e t t o w o r k " ( " w i t h i n t h e t e x t o f t he h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l as w i t h i n t h e s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a r y t e x t " ) , t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l , i n a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e s e n s e , a t t e m p t a " d o u b l e m a r k , " o r a " r e - m a r k i n g , " w i t h i n t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e " J o y c e " s i g n i f y i n g p r a c t i c e s i g n i f i e d by F i n n e g a n s  Wake, o f t h e t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s t h a t t h e D e r r i d e a n t e x t has a l r e a d y " r e - m a r k e d " i n t h e t e x t o f w r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l . 1 7 To s t a t e t h e t h e s i s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i n t h e t e rms o f p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t c r i t i c i s m : a p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n t h e t e x t u a l p r a c t i c e o f F i n n e g a n s Wake i s t h e i m p u l s e t h a t f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e t e x t ' s e n u n c i -a t i o n and d e n o t a t i o n o f i t s own s t a t u s as a d e c e n t e r e d and open s y s t em o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n ; t h i s i m p u l s e o p e r a t e s i n t h e t e x t s i g n i f i e d by " D e r r i d a , " and the D e r r i d e a n t e x t t r a n s p o s e s the Wake 's s i g n i f y i n g p r a c t i c e i n t o i t s own s y s t e m , " r e - m a r k i n g " - - a s i t t r a v e r s e s t h e l i n e s o f f o r c e i n i t s own o p e n , d e c e n t e r e d , t e x t u a l s p a c e — t h e t e x t u a l movements and o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y a t work w i t h i n t h e s i g n i f y i n g p l a y o f t h e J o y c e a n t e x t . U s i n g " m a r k s " f rom t h e D e r r i d e a n t e x t t o s i g n i f y c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n s w i t h -i n t h e p l a y o f t h e Wake ' s s y s t e m o f s i g n s w i l l t h u s be a " r e - m a r k i n g , " o r a " d o u b l e s t r o k e , " by w h i c h t h e Wake ' s t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s , a l r e a d y a t work i n t h e D e r r i d e a n t e x t ( " J o y c e ' s g h o s t " i s a l r e a d y "on b o a r d " ) , w i l l be f o l d e d back t o mark t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n . 7 S i n c e i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1 9 3 9 , F i n n e g a n s Wake has been s u b j e c t e d t o a l m o s t e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e k i n d o f l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s . F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t i m p r e s s i v e e f f o r t s by J o s e p h Campbe l l and Henry Mor ton R o b i n s o n t o e s t a b -l i s h a " k e y " t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s , p l o t s , and themes o f the Wake, s c h o l a r s such as W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l , C l i v e H a r t , M i c h a e l H. Begna l and G race E c k l e y , B e r n a r d B e n s t o c k , and Dam's Rose and John 0 ' H a n i o n , have t i r e -l e s s l y c o n t i n u e d t o a s s i s t J o y c e ' s r e a d e r s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s a t under-18 s t a n d i n g the n a r r a t i v e and c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e w o r k . B i b l i o g r a p h i c and t e x t u a l s c h o l a r s l i k e James A t h e r t o n , D a v i d Hayman, C l i v e H a r t , Thomas E. C o n n o l l y , A d e l i n e G l a s h e e n , L o u i s M i n k , and R o l a n d McHugh have e s t a b -l i s h e d many o f t h e s o u r c e s f o r much o f t h e m a t e r i a l J o y c e used i n the Wake, and some o f them have r e c o n s t r u c t e d J o y c e ' s method o f c o m p o s i t i o n , 19 d e m o n s t r a t i n g how t h e Wake was w r i t t e n and r e v i s e d . One b r a n c h o f t h e J o y c e c r i t i c a l i n d u s t r y i s d e v o t e d t o c o m p i l i n g l e x i c o n s o f the more t han f o r t y l a n g u a g e s and d i a l e c t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s t h a t J o y c e employed i n w r i t i n g t h e w o r k , and w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f each new word l i s t , J o y c e ' s 20 a c h i e v e m e n t becomes more a c c e s s i b l e t o the a v e r a g e r e a d e r . S t u d i e s o f t h e Wake p r o l i f e r a t e a t a r a t e t h a t m i g h t c h a l l e n g e even J o y c e ' s " i d e a l r e a d e r s u f f e r i n g f r om an i d e a l i n s o m n i a " ( 1 2 0 . 1 3 - 1 4 ) . The c u m u l a -t i v e e f f e c t o f t h i s s c h o l a r s h i p has been t h e g r a d u a l deve l opmen t o f a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Wake ' s g e n e s i s as a n o v e l : i t s p l o t s and c h a r a c t e r s , and i t s n a r r a t i v e and t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s . As M a r go t N o r r i s comments , i t i s " t h a n k s t o t h e p a t i e n t t o i l o f i t s d e d i c a t e d e x p l i c a t o r s " t h a t " t h e c o n t o u r s o f J o y c e ' s F i n n e g a n s Wake have g r a d u a l l y come i n t o 8 W h i l e t h e Wake has o c c u p i e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f so many s c h o l a r s i n t h e more than f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s s i n c e i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , i t has a l s o c h a l l e n g e d many o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h t h e i r s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t s a r e b a s e d . In d i s c u s s i n g J o y c e ' s p o l i t i c a l use o f l a n g u a g e , f o r e x a m p l e , C o l i n MacCabe a r g u e s t h a t J o y c e ' s use o f l a n g u a g e s u b v e r t s t h e r e a d e r ' s n o t i o n s o f t he v e r y a c t o f r e a d i n g . W h i l e we t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r r e a d i n g as a " p a s s i v e " p r o c e s s , MacCabe a r g u e s , " w i t h J o y c e i t becomes an a c t i v e m e t a m o r p h o s i s , a c o n s t a n t d i s p l a c e m e n t i n l a n g u a g e . " R e a d i n g as " m e t a -m o r p h o s i s " and " d i s p l a c e m e n t " c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e a ims o f t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m : T h i s m e t a m o r p h o s i s and d i s p l a c e m e n t p r e s e n t s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m w i t h i t s own i m p o s s i b i l i t y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n as the s e a r c h f o r mean ing must c e a s e when b o t h mean ing and i n t e r p r e t e r become f u n c t i o n s o f t h e t r a v e r s e o f t he m a t e r i a l o f l a n g u a g e . N o r r i s a l s o v i e w s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e Wake upon c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s as one w h i c h poses a c h a l l e n g e . She v i e w s t h e r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s c h a l l e n g e as d i f f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s f rom " c o n s e r v a t i v e " and " r a d i c a l " c r i t i c s : A r a d i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d m a i n t a i n t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake s u b v e r t s n o t o n l y t h e l i t e r a r y s t a t u s quo bu t t h e most c h e r i s h e d i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f Wes te rn c u l t u r e as w e l l . 2 3 U n t i l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t and p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t t h e o r y , howeve r , w r i t e r s who w i s h e d t o a s s e r t a r a d i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Wake 's t e l e o l o g y were d e f e a t e d by t h e l a c k o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l f ramework i n w h i c h t o p r e s e n t t h e i r a r g u m e n t s . As a r e s u l t , Wake c r i t i c i s m has 9 been " d o m i n a t e d " by " c o n s e r v a t i v e " c r i t i c s , who, " i n c o n t r a s t " t o t h e i r more r a d i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , " p o s s e s s a s m a l l b u t s c h o l a r l y a r s e n a l . " N o r r i s c a t a l o g u e s t h i s a r s e n a l as the s t y l i s t i c and t h e m a t i c c o n s e r v a t i s m o f the e a r l y m a n u s c r i p t d r a f t s , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l , even a r c a n e , l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l i n t h e w o r k , J o y c e ' s a d m i s s i o n t h a t the w o r k ' s s t r u c -t u r a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l mode l s a r e d e r i v e d f r om [ B r u n o ] and [ V i c o ] 9 / , a n d , f i n a l l y , J o y c e ' s own d e c i d e d l y r e a c t i o n a r y t a s t e s . 4 A c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h e d i s p u t e between r a d i c a l and c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e Wake i s t h e n a t u r e o f t he t e x t . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h o s e c r i t i c s t o whom N o r r i s r e f e r s as c o n s e r v a t i v e have p e r s i s t e d i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e Wake as a n o v e l . Campbe l l and R o b i n s o n , f o r e x a m p l e , r e c o g n i z e the i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e Wake ' s l a n g u a g e , b u t a rgue t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e n t r e a d e r need o n l y p i c k up " a few compass c l u e s and [ g e t ] h i s b e a r i n g s . " T h e n , t h e y c o n t e n d , "some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s d i s -a p p e a r " and t h e Wake becomes a p p r o a c h a b l e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e rms o f t h e nove l f o r m : Then t h e enormous map . . . b e g i n s s l o w l y t o u n f o l d , c h a r a c t e r s and m o t i f s emerge , themes become r e c o g n i z a b l e . . . . As t h e t a l e u n f o l d s , we d i s c o v e r t h a t t h i s H .C . E a r w i c k e r i s a c i t i z e n o f D u b l i n . . . . He emerges as a w e l l - d e f i n e d and s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r . . . t h e p r i n c i p a l a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n D u b l i n and i t s e n v i r o n s . " A l m o s t 20 y e a r s a f t e r t h i s f i r s t ma jo r s t u d y , B e r n a r d B e n s t o c k e x p r e s s e s h i s many " r e s e r v a t i o n s " abou t i t , b u t f i n d s no p r o b l e m w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y a n o v e l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e Wake: " l i k e most r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t s 10 o f the n o v e l , J o y c e ' s R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word i s a c t u a l l y a romance o f t h e 26 w o r d . " E l s e w h e r e , B e n s t o c k te rms i t a " c o m i c n o v e l . " Some t e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1 9 7 5 , Begna l and E c k l e y i n v e s t i g a t e the N a r r a t o r and C h a r a c t e r  i n F i n n e g a n s Wake, a n d , as B e n s t o c k n o t e s i n h i s f o r e w o r d t o t h e i r s t u d i e s , t h e i r f undamen ta l a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t " J o y c e ' s book i s an e x e r -c i s e i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o w h a t e v e r e l s e i t c o n t a i n s . . . . [ i ] t i s a n o v e l w i t h a p l o t l i n e and c h a r a c t e r s , and i t i s 27 o r g a n i z e d a l o n g a r t i s t i c l i n e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . " A t abou t t h e same t i m e as t h e Begna l and E c k l e y s t u d i e s , Begna l and Senn e d i t e d a c o l l e c -t i o n o f t h i r t e e n e s s a y s f rom ma jo r J o y c e s c h o l a r s . W h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t a " v a r i e t y o f c r i t i c a l s t a n c e s seems t o be v i r t u a l l y e s s e n t i a l f o r d e a l -i n g " w i t h t h e Wake, B e g n a l , i n s u m m a r i z i n g t h e e s s a y s as a " u n i f i e d body o f w o r k , " r e i t e r a t e s t h e v i e w o f F i n n e g a n s Wake as a "many l e v e l e d 28 n o v e l . " Rose and 0 ' H a n i o n ' s U n d e r s t a n d i n g F i n n e g a n s Wake i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i lemma t h a t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e n o v e l i s t i c v i e w o f F i n n e g a n s Wake. T h i s s t u d y b e g i n s w i t h t h e t h e s i s t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake . . . r e m a i n s t h e l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d book o f a l l t i m e . . . . I f [ i t ] s t a n d s a l o n e , u n r e a d , i t s s u r f a c e as i t were h a r d l y s c r a t c h e d , t h i s i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r t h e f a u l t o f J o y c e : a good dea l o f t h e blame l i e s w i t h a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n w h i c h has r e m a i n e d t o o c o n s t r i c t e d and i n f l e x i b l e and w h i c h has r e s i s t e d the i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o i t s a r s e n a l o f t h e a c c u m u l a t e d w i s d o m , m e t h o d o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . . . . F i n n e g a n s Wake s t a n d s as a model u n i v e r s e , i l l u s t r a t i n g by e x a m p l e , w h i l e a t t he same t i m e comment ing u p o n , a newly d i s c o v e r e d l a n g u a g e : t h e l a n g u a g e o f n i g h t o r t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . 2 9 Rose and 0 ' H a n i o n s u p p o r t t h i s t h e s i s by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e Wake was no t w r i t t e n i n an n o v e l i s t i c s t y l e w i t h a l i n e a r p l o t o r g a n i z e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l de ve l opmen t w i t h r e c o g n i z a b l e , d e v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r s — w h a t 11 J o y c e r e f e r r e d t o as " c u t a n d d r y grammer" and "goahead p l o t " — b u t a c c o r d -i n g t o F r e u d ' s mechanisms o f a s s o c i a t i o n , c o n d e n s a t i o n , and d i s p l a c e -30 ment . D e s p i t e t h i s h e l p f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n , when t h e y dea l w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e Wake, t h e body o f t h e i r work d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i l emma o f a n o v e l i s t i c app roach t o i t — t h e y suspend t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e F r e u d i a n mechanisms " o p e r a t e a t a l l l e v e l s t h r o u g h o u t F i n n e g a n s Wake" and a p p r o a c h i t as a n o v e l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e a b o u t c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i n a p l o t : On t h e l e v e l o f i t s o v e r a l l n a r r a t i v e , t h e b o o k , l i k e a l l b o o k s , can be v i ewed as a s u c c e s s i o n o f e v e n t s , c o n f r o n t a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s among c h a r a c t e r s , d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s , and i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f i d e a s . As t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t e l u c i d a t i o n o f how t h e r e a d e r i s t o " u n d e r s t a n d " t h e Wake d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e i r r e l e g a t i n g o f t h e dream-work mechanisms t o a s e c o n d a r y s t a t u s l e a v e s them no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o embrace t h e Wake as a 32 " n o v e l , " a l b e i t one o f " e n c y c l o p a e d i c p o w e r . " Fundamenta l t o t h e t r a d i t i o n o f J o y c e s c h o l a r s who v i ew the work as a nove l o r some v a r i a t i o n t h e r e o f i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f the Wake 's c o n t e n t . As A t h e r t o n p o i n t s o u t i n The Books a t t h e Wake, the q u e s t i o n "What i s i t 33 a b o u t ? " i s t he f undamen ta l q u e s t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m on the Wake. Even B e n s t o c k , who a t t e m p t s t o d i s m i s s t h e q u e s t i o n as a " h o r r o r , " c o n j u r i n g up " i n t h e f l e s h . . . t h a t d i g e s t r e a d e r who p a t h e t i c a l l y r e q u e s t s a p a r a p h r a s e , " concedes t h a t i t i s one " o f t h e most b a s i c q u e s t i o n s , " 34 a d d i n g t h a t i t s t i l l , i n 1 9 6 5 , " r e m a i n [ s ] u n a n s w e r e d . " Twenty y e a r s l a t e r , we a r e i n o n l y a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r s i t u a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e v i ew o f t h e Wake as a nove l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e seems t o a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e a d t o the 12 a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t must t e l l a s t o r y a b o u t somebody d o i n g s o m e t h i n g . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s a t o t a l l y r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n , g i v e n t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l and i t s m i m e t i c n a r r a t i v e fo rm i s a h i s t o r i c a l d e s c e n d e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l , h e r o i c , e p i c f o r m . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g , howeve r , t h a t c r i t i c s who a rgue t h a t t h e work i s a nove l p r e f e r i t s m i m e t i c , n a r r a t i v e , i m p u l s e o v e r t h e s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e modes o f i t s d i s -c o u r s e . O t h e r c r i t i c s - - f o r example T i n d a l l , who c o n t e n d s t h a t the Wake " i s h a r d l y " a n o v e l — a r g u e t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake i s h i g h l y s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e and " a b o u t F i n n e g a n s Wake . . . a b o u t p u t t i n g e v e r y t h i n g down i n r e c o r d s and i n t e r p r e t i n g them" ( emphas i s a d d e d ) . " P u t t i n g . . . down . . . and i n t e r p r e t i n g " a r e , o f c o u r s e , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . The Wake, T i n d a l l n o t e s , i s " l a c k i n g o v e r t n a r r a t i v e , " o r " n a r r a t i v e , w h i c h , l e a d i n g us a l o n g , h o l d s p a r t s t o g e t h e r w h i l e i t o f f e r s them and f i x e s o u r 37 a t t e n t i o n . T i n d a l l ' s i s one o f t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h N o r r i s r e f e r s t o as a " r a d i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " and i t i s p a r t o f a s m a l l , b u t i m p o r t a n t , c o l l e c t i o n o f Wake s t u d i e s t h a t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t a k e s as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r i t s own e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Wake. S t a r t i n g w i t h the c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s t h a t J o y c e h i m s e l f e n c o u r a g e d — O u r E x a g m i n a t i o n Round H i s 38 F a c t i f i c a t i o n F o r I n c a m i n a t i o n Of Work In P r o g r e s s — t h e s e s t u d i e s have s e t a s i d e q u e s t i o n s o f genre and taxonomy i n f a v o u r o f e x a m i n i n g what N o r r i s r e f e r s t o as " t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f t h e work t h a t r e s i s t n o v e l -39 i s t i c a n a l y s i s . " These e l e m e n t s i n c l u d e t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f a s s o c i a -t i o n , c o n d e n s a t i o n , and d i s p l a c e m e n t w i t h w h i c h J o y c e t r i e d " t o t e l l t he 40 s t o r y o f t h i s C h a p e l i z o d f a m i l y i n a new w a y , " b u t , p e r h a p s more 13 i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y a l s o i n c l u d e what t h i s s t u d y t a k e s t o be t h e Wake 's ma jo r c h a r a c t e r : t h e l a n g u a g e " t h a t i s n a t l a n g u a g e i n any s i n s e o f the w o r l d " ( 8 3 . 1 2 ) . One o f t h e f i r s t w r i t e r s t o a s s e r t t h a t the Wake i s n o t abou t p l o t o r c h a r a c t e r , i n t h e sense t h a t a b o u t i s o f t e n used i n such c o n t e x t s , was Samuel B e c k e t t : Here fo rm i s c o n t e n t , c o n t e n t j_s f o r m . You c o m p l a i n t h a t t h i s s t u f f i s n o T w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h . I t i s n o t w r i t t e n a t a l l . I t i s n o t t o be r e a d — o r r a t h e r i t i s no t o n l y t o be r e a d . I t i s t o be l o o k e d a t and l i s t e n e d t o . H i s w r i t i n g i s no t a b o u t some-t h i n g ; v t jj> t h a t s o m e t h i n g i t s e l f . F o r B e c k e t t , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e Wake i s l i n g u i s t i c . I t s w r i t i n g i s a " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l e x t r a c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e and p a i n t i n g and g e s t u r e " i n a p r a c t i c e t h a t " d e s o p h i s t i c a t e [ s ] E n g l i s h . " " H e r e , " he c o n t e n d e d , " i s t h e savage economy o f h i e r o g l y p h i c s . . . [ t h e ] words a r e n o t the p o l i t e 41 c o n t o r t i o n s o f 2 0 t h c e n t u r y p r i n t e r ' s i n k . They a r e a l i v e . " B e c k e t t ' s v i e w o f t h e v i t a l i s m o f t h e Wake 's l a n g u a g e was s h a r e d by J o y c e ' s f r i e n d Eugene J o l a s , who c o n n e c t e d t h e de ve l o pm e n t s o f " t h e new a r t i s t o f t h e w o r d " w i t h an expanded know ledge o f t h e p s y c h i c mechan i sms : The d i s c o v e r y o f t he s u b c o n s c i o u s . . . as a new f i e l d f o r m a g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n s and c o m p r e h e n s i o n s s h o u l d have made i t a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f l a n g u a g e i n i t s a r c h a i c c o n d i -t i o n c o u l d no l o n g e r be u s e d . Modern l i f e w i t h i t s changed mythos and t r a n s m u t e d c o n c e p t s o f b e a u t y makes i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t words be g i v e n new c o m p o s i t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . James J o y c e . . . has g i v e n a body b l ow t o t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l i s t s . * 14 As the t i t l e o f h i s a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s , J o l a s saw i n J o y c e ' s w r i t i n g a " r e v o l u t i o n o f l a n g u a g e , " a p r o c e s s he d e s c r i b e d i n t e rms t h a t c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o D e r r i d a ' s p r a c t i c e o f d e c o n s t r u c t ! ' o n . I t i s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h words a r e s u b j e c t e d t o a " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . . . and s u b s e q u e n t „43 r e c o n s t r u c t i o n on o t h e r p l a n e s . N o r r i s p o i n t s o u t t h a t J o l a s was a w r i t e r who was " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s e n s i t i v e " t o t h e c u r r e n t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l change i n a p p r o a c h e s t o l a n g u a g e t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e m o d e r n i s t movement, and she n o t e s t h a t J o l a s l i n k e d J o y c e w i t h t h e " l i t e r a r y e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s " o f t he t i m e . J o l a s c o n n e c t e d J o y c e w i t h Leon-Pau l F a r g u e . . . [who] c r e a t e d a s t o n i s h i n g n e o l o g i s m s i n h i s p r o s e poems . . . . s l a s h e d s y l l a b l e s . . . b u i l t new words . . . and . . . [ l e f t a ] l a r g e p l a c e . . . t o the dream as a means f o r v e r b a l d e c o m p o s i t i o n . . . . The r e v o l u t i o n o f the s u r r e a l i s t s , who d e s t r o y e d c o m p l e t e l y t h e o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words and t h o u g h t . . . . M i c h e l L e i r i s [who a t t a c k e d ] u s e f u l n e s s as an a im [ f o r l a n g u a g e ] . . . and . . . . e t y m o l o g y [ a s ] a p e r f e c t l y v a i n s c i e n c e . . . . And re B r e t o n . . . [who] d i s c o v e r e d a w o r l d o f mag ic i n t h e s t u d y o f the dream v i a t h e F r e u d i a n e x p l o r a t i o n s . 4 4 The a p p r o a c h e s t o l a n g u a g e t h a t J o l a s d e t a i l e d i n t h e s e w r i t e r s a r e a l l a p t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f some o f J o y c e ' s t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e Wake. U n l i k e t h e s c h o l a r s whom N o r r i s c l a s s i f i e s as c o n s e r v a t i v e , t h e n , B e c k e t t and J o l a s e m p h a s i z e d t h e Wake as a l i n g u i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e f u n c t i o n s n o t t o t e l l a s t o r y o r e f f e c t a m i m e t i c p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , b u t as a mythos o f i t s own e x i s t e n c e . E c h o i n g , p e r h a p s , t h e m o d e r n i s t , a v a n t - g a r d e , c r y o f a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e , t h e y see c o n t e n t £ s f o r m i n an autonomous l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e f u s i n g sound and 15 w r i t i n g . In a passage t h a t a n t i c i p a t e s D e r r i d a ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i -g a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e , J o l a s l i n k e d l a n g u a g e w i t h m e t a p h y s i c s and a r g u e d t h a t t h e use o f l a n g u a g e as a t o o l f o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f non-l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e i s d e f e a t e d by t h e a r t i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e as an autonomous s t r u c t u r e : The r e a l m e t a p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m t o d a y i s t he w o r d . The epoch when the w r i t e r p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e l i f e abou t him w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c s o f words r e d o l e n t o f t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e , i s h a p p i l y d r a w i n g t o i t s c l o s e . The new a r t i s t o f t h e word has r e c o g n i z e d t h e autonomy o f l a n g u a g e a n d , aware o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c u r r e n t t o w a r d u n i v e r s a l i t y , a t t e m p t s t o hammer o u t a v e r b a l v i s i o n t h a t d e s t r o y s space and t i m e . 5 A r e t u r n t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e e a r l i e r w r i t e r s was s i g n a l l e d i n 1962 by H a r t ' s S t r u c t u r e and M o t i f , a work t h a t s ees i n t h e " d o u b l e t a l k i n h e r e n t i n [ t h e W a k e ' s ] s y m b o l i c l a n g u a g e " " a r e m a r k a b l e and o f t e n u n s t a b l e d u a l i t y o f a r t - f o r - a r t ' s sake and p e r s o n a l c o n f e s s i o n . 1 , 4 6 H a r t ' s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s how i n a d e q u a t e l i n e a r and c h r o n o l o g i c a l pa r ad igms o f p l o t a r e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e w o r k . I n s t e a d o f d e v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r s whose a c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a p l o t t h a t may be l i n e a r l y g r a p h e d , t h e Wake, as H a r t s ees i t , i s a s e r i e s o f o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e b i n a r y p o l e s " g e n e r a t e d by c y c l e s o f c o n s t a n t l y v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n — ' T h e se im a n e w ' , as J o y c e p u t s i t . " I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f d i f f e r i n g r e p e t i t i o n s , w h i c h H a r t sees g e n e r a t i n g t h e " p r i m a r y e n e r g y " o f the Wake 's p o l a r i t i e s , i s no t u n l i k e D e r r i d a ' s " d i f f e ' r a n c e . " 4 7 R e p e t i -t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s an i d e n t i t y o f some k i n d between t h a t w h i c h i s r e p e a t e d and i t s r e p e t i t i o n ; v a r i a t i o n i n the r e p e t i t i o n i n t r o d u c e s an e l e m e n t o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The re i s t h u s b o t h i d e n t i t y and d i f -f e r e n c e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . 16 N o r n ' s ' s t u d y i s , i n some ways , a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f H a r t ' s a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r o o t s o f t h e Wake ' s s t r u c t u r e . U n l i k e H a r t ' s s t u d y , how-e v e r , The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e o f F i n n e g a n s Wake draws on a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t and p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t c r i t i c a l t h e o r y . Where H a r t has t o f o r m u l a t e h i s own t h e o r i e s , as he d o e s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n a n a l y z i n g the s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e o f t h e l e i t m o t i v , N o r r i s draws on the t h e o r i e s o f H e i d e g g e r , F r e u d , L e v i - S t r a u s s , B a r t h e s , and D e r r i d a . The f a c t t h a t H a r t had t o f o r m u l a t e h i s own t h e o r y by d r a w i n g on t h o s e " s c a t t e r e d he re and t h e r e as s u b s i d i a r y m a t t e r s i n s t u d i e s o f w i d e r s c o p e " l e n d s s u p p o r t t o N o r r i s ' c o n t e n t i o n abou t e a r l i e r c r i t i c s l a c k i n g " t o o l s f o r c r i t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . t o examine . . . t h o s e a s p e c t s o f [ t h e Wake] t h a t 48 r e s i s t n o v e l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . " T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e Wake as dream r e v e a l s t h e c r i t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f H a r t ' s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h H a r t w i s h e s t o dea l w i t h what he c a l l s t h e " d r e a m - s t r u c t u r e " as a d e v i c e f o r l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , h i s r e l i a n c e on n o v e l i s t i c pa r ad igms l e a v e s him no c h o i c e b u t t o d e a l w i t h i t as a n a r r a t i v e c o n t e n t s i m i l a r t o t h e e v e n t s r e c i t e d by t h e n a r r a t o r o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l n o v e l : L i k e t h e anonymous n a r r a t o r o f more c o n v e n t i o n a l ' t h i r d - p e r s o n ' n o v e l s , t h e Dreamer i s o m n i s c i e n t ; we a re i n v o l v e d i n h i s dream as we a r e i n v o l v e d i n any n a r r a t i v e . 4 9 In c o n t r a s t , N o r r i s uses t h e t h e o r i e s o f Lacan and L e v i - S t r a u s s t o e x p l o r e t h e dream as a p r o c e s s o f a p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d w i t h l a n g u a g e . I n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g t o dea l w i t h t h e Wake 's dream as a l i n g u i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the u n c o n s c i o u s s t r u c t u r e i n the 17 te rms o f f o rm and c o n t e n t , she i s a b l e t o e x p l o r e i t w i t h the know ledge t h a t the p r e c o n s c i o u s and t h e u n c o n s c i o u s d e r i v e t h e i r s t a t u s f r om l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e : In C l i v e H a r t ' s dream l a y e r s , t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i s d e p i c t e d as f u l l , as c o n t e n t , as a r e p o s i t o r y o f . . . a n x i e t i e s . . . memories . . . and t h e t o t a l i t y o f p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y t h a t becomes a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c o n s c i o u s m ind o f t h e s u b j e c t as he s i m p l y s i n k s deepe r i n t o s l e e p . In c o n t r a s t . . . L e v i - S t r a u s s and J a c q u e s Lacan have u r g e d t h e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s i n t e rms o f l a n g u a g e , by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the ' p r e -c o n s c i o u s ' as t h e s t o r a g e p l a c e . . . t h e p e r s o n a l . . . l e x i c o n . . . and t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . . . as t h e f u n c t i o n by w h i c h l aws a r e imposed on t h i s v o c a b u l a r y t o make i t m e a n i n g f u l . 5 0 L i k e The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , C o l i n MacCabe ' s James J o y c e and t h e  R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word draws on t h e t h e o r i e s o f J a c q u e s Lacan f o r i t s a n a l y s i s o f t h e Wake. I t , t o o , a d o p t s t h e v i e w o f t h e Wake as a r e v o l u -t i o n a r y and s u b v e r s i v e p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g , a v i ew t h a t was f i r s t f o r m u -l a t e d , as we have s e e n , by J o l a s and B e c k e t t . F o r MacCabe , however , J o y c e ' s w r i t i n g c o n s t i t u t e s a p o l i t i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n p u r e l y a r t i s t i c , c r e a t i v e e n d e a v o u r . M a c C a b e ' s s t u d y i s , i n f a c t , a much s t r o n g e r r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e autonomy o f J o y c e ' s l a n g u a g e t h a n The D e c e n t e r e d  U n i v e r s e . W h i l e N o r r i s c o n t e n d s t h a t J o y c e , i n w r i t i n g t h e Wake, c o n -f i r m e d the " i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e t a l a n g u a g e , t h a t i s , t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f mak ing a c r i t i q u e i n l a n g u a g e o f t h e e p i s t e m o l o g y embedded i n l a n g u a g e , " she does no t f i n d t h i s i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n l a n g u a g e . In t h e Wake ' s " b i z a r r e d i s t o r t e d l a n g u a g e , " she comments , " a r e l o d g e d a l l o f J o y c e ' s immense, b u t t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r , p r e o c c u p a t i o n s : t h e D u b l i n o f h i s y o u t h , f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s e x u a l o b s e s s i o n s , b i t s o f m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . " MacCabe , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e 18 a g r e e i n g t h a t t h e r e i s an " a b s e n c e o f a me ta l anguage . . . f r om [ J o y c e ' s ] e a r l i e s t w r i t i n g s , " c o n t e n d s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y dependen t on t h e p r e s e n c e o f a m e t a l a n g u a g e : t h e d i s c o u r s e o f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m must a lways be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y what i s r e p r e s e n t e d , i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e fo rm o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s o n l y p o s s i b l e i f t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e c r i t i c i s i n t h e p o s i t i o n t o t r a n s f o r m the t e x t i n t o c o n t e n t , a n d , t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l a n g u a g e o f the t e x t and the l a n g u a g e o f t h e c r i t i c must be t h a t w h i c h o b t a i n s between an o b j e c t and a me ta l anguage . . . . I t i s f r om the p o s i t i o n o f t h e m e t a -l a n g u a g e t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between word and w o r l d can be e s t a b l i s h e d . 5 1 F o r MacCabe , t h e c r i t i c a l a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mean ing o f t h e Wake, t o e s t a b l i s h i t s c o n t e n t and s t a t e t h a t i t i s abou t t h i s o r t h a t , w i l l a lway s be d e f e a t e d by t h e p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g the r e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e s as he o r she t r a v e r s e s t h e t e x t o f t h e Wake. Because the Wake o p e r a t e s as a c o n t i n u a l d e f o r m a t i o n o f r e c o g n i z a b l e e t y m o l o g i c a l f o r m s — a p r o c e s s i t d e s c r i b e s as " t h e a b n i h i l i s a t i o n o f the e t ym" ( 3 5 3 . 2 2 ) ~ a n d a s u b -sequen t r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e i n t o a s e r i e s o f po l ysemous p u n s , many o f w h i c h combine o p p o s i n g o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e m a n t i c v a l u e s , t h e r e a d e r must choose between two a p p r o a c h e s : e i t h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y the o f t e n d i s p a r a t e e t y m o l o g i c a l and s e m a n t i c fo rms t h a t a r e f u s e d i n t o so many o f the Wake 's t e x t u a l u n i t s — i n w h i c h c a s e he o r she i s r e a d i n g no t o n l y t h e Wake b u t a l s o a p r o d u c t o f h i s o r h e r own o p e r a t i o n upon i t — o r a t t e m p t -i n g t o a l i g n each o f t h e f o rms w i t h an e x t r a - t e x t u a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d / o r o b j e c t , a p r o c e s s t h a t r e s u l t s i n a l i m i t i n g o f the Wake 's s e m i o s i s . Both o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e dependen t on what MacCabe c a l l s t h e " e s s e n t i a l homogene i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e " t h a t w i l l a f f o r d a p o s i t i o n f rom 19 wh i ch t h e e l e m e n t s o f e i t h e r t e x t u a l o r e x t r a - t e x t u a l e x p e r i e n c e can be d e f i n e d and t h e n a l i g n e d w i t h each o t h e r i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n . G i v e n t h e e s s e n t i a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e Wake 's d i s c o u r s e , t h e t a s k i s p r o b l e m a t i c , t o say t h e l e a s t ; g i v e n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i s a l s o h e t e r o g e n e o u s , i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e a one- to-one c o r r e s -pondence o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n between the work o f t h e Wake and t h e w o r l d o f t h e r e a d e r . As MacCabe n o t e s , t h e Wake r e f u s e s " t h e s u b j e c t any dominan t p o s i t i o n f rom w h i c h l a n g u a g e c o u l d be t a l l i e d w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . " I t i s c o n c e r n e d " n o t w i t h r e p r e s e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e b u t w i t h 52 e x p e r i e n c i n g l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h a d e s t r u c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " L i k e t h e s t u d i e s by N o r r i s and MacCabe , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l examine t h e Wake f rom t h e v i e w p o i n t s f i r s t f o r m u l a t e d by J o l a s and B e c k e t t . I t w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e Wake, n o t as a deve lopmen t o f t h e nove l f o r m , b u t as a p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g t h a t o f f e r s i t s r e a d e r s a number o f e l emen t s w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o N o r r i s , " r e s i s t n o v e l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . " In so d o i n g , i t w i l l a t t e m p t t o f i l l a gap i n Wake c r i t i c i s m t h a t r e s u l t s f rom what MacCabe t e rms " t h e p e r s i s t a n t r e f u s a l o f commenta to rs t o engage w i t h t h e r a d i c a l n o v e l t y o f J o y c e ' s w o r k . " U n l i k e The R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word , howeve r , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n does n o t d i s m i s s n o v e l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f t he Wake as a p r o c e s s by w h i c h " J o y c e ' s t e x t s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o c o m p l i -c a t e d c r o s s w o r d p u z z l e s whose s o l u t i o n i s t h e bana l l i b e r a l humanism o f t h e c r i t i c . " I n s t e a d , i t g r a t e f u l l y a c c e p t s and uses many o f t h e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e Wake t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s who have a n a l y z e d t h e work as a nove l p r o v i d e i n t h e i r e x p l i c a t i o n o f i t . A t t he same t i m e , i t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h t h e Wake poses t o i t s r e a d e r s a r e many and assumes t h a t t h e m a t i c c r i t i c i s m and nove l i s t i c 20 a n a l y s i s c a n n o t , i n t h e m s e l v e s , c o n s t i t u t e an adequa t e t h e o r e t i c a l p r a c t i c e f o r m e e t i n g them. As MacCabe n o t e s , such " l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . . . c a n n o t cope w i t h J o y c e ' s t e x t [ b e c a u s e ] t h e [ t e x t ] r e f u s e [ s ] t o r e p r o d u c e t h e r e l a t i o n between r e a d e r and t e x t on w h i c h l i t e r a r y c r i t i -53 c i s m i s b a s e d . " T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n employs t h e t h e o r i e s o f D e r r i d a t o a n a l y z e t h e Wake because t h e y c o n t i n u a l l y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p r o b -l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f t h e r e a d e r - t e x t r e l a t i o n . I f , as t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e , D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e x t u a l s t r a t e g i e s d o , i n f a c t , c o n s t i t u t e what t h o s e s t r a t e g i e s w o u l d t e rm a " r e - m a r k i n g " o f t h e J o y c e a n t e x t , t h e n t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r t e x t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i n s c r i b e d f i r s t i n t h e Wake and then r e - i n s c r i b e d i n t h e D e r r i d e a n t e x t ) s h o u l d h e l p f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e J o y c e a n t e x t - J o y c e a n 54 r e a d e r r e l a t i o n t h a t t h e Wake i n s c r i b e s . N o r r i s p l a c e s what she t e rms t h e " l i t e r a r y h e t e r o d o x y o f F i n n e g a n s  Wake" w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a ma jo r h i s t o r i c a l change i n the c o n c e p t o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t D e r r i d a d e f i n e s as a " r u p t u r e , " a " d e c e n t e r i n g . . . [ a ] t h i n k i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e . " A r e s u l t o f " J o y c e ' s a t t a c k on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f s t r u c t u r e , " t h e Wake 's " h e t e r o d o x y " marks t h e w o r k ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n what D e r r i d a t e rms the " r e v o l u t i o n s i n p h i l o s -ophy , i n s c i e n c e , [ a n d ] i n l i t e r a t u r e . . . . [ t h a t ] can be i n t e r p r e t e d as shocks t h a t a r e g r a d u a l l y d e s t r o y i n g t h e l i n e a r m o d e l . Which i s t o 55 say t h e e p i c m o d e l . " N o r r i s c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , howeve r , i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m and d e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and w h i l e the p h i l o -s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e i s a c k n o w l e d g e d as D e r r i d e a n and does a l l o w a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Wake 's r e v o l u t i o n a r y r o l e , i t s s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s does no t p roduce a r e a d i n g o f t h e work t h a t such a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e demands. F o r D e r r i d a , such a r e a d i n g 21 i s . . . a q u e s t i o n o f r e a d i n g what w r o t e i t s e l f between t h e l i n e s i n t h e vo lume . . . . one b e g i n s . . . t o r e r e a d p a s t w r i t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f space . . . . Because we a r e b e g i n n i n g t o w r i t e , t o w r i t e d i f f e r e n t l y , we must r e r e a d d i f f e r e n t l y . D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i o n engages "what w r o t e [and w r i t e s ] i t s e l f between t h e l i n e s " as t h e " t r a c e " : " t h e b e c o m i n g - u n m o t i v a t e d o f t h e symbol . . . . an o p e r a t i o n and n o t a s t a t e . . . an a c t i v e movement, a de-56 m o t i v a t i o n , and n o t . . . a g i v e n s t r u c t u r e . " The t r a c e , as D e r r i d a ' s d i s c o u r s e c o n t i n u a l l y e m p h a s i z e s , i s no t a s i g n i f i e r o f any t h i n g and c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e rms o f p r e s e n c e o r e s s e n c e : "What t h e t h o u g h t o f t h e t r a c e has a l r e a d y t a u g h t u s , " Of Grammato logy s t a t e s , " i s t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be s i m p l y s u b m i t t e d t o the o n t o - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n o f e s s e n c e . The t r a c e J_s n o t h i n g , i t i s n o t an e n t i t y , i t e x c e e d s t h e q u e s t i o n What i s ? and c o n t i n g e n t l y makes 57 i t p o s s i b l e . " D e c o n s t r u c t i v e engagement o f a t e x t r e q u i r e s t h a t t h o s e s i g n s i n i t w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n as s i g n i f i e r s o f p r e s e n c e — p r o p e r names, a l l f o rms o f the v e r b " t o b e , " f o r e x a m p l e -r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y as t e x t u a l s i g n i f i e r s and s e c o n d a r i l y as s i m u l a c r a t h a t f e i g n t h e p r e s e n t as t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f i l l u s i o n . The t e x t f u n c t i o n s , n o t as a r e c o r d o f e x t r a - t e x t u a l e x p e r i -ence o r as a t r a n s p a r e n t l i n g u i s t i c v e h i c l e i n w h i c h a ' b e i n g ' e x p r e s s e s h i s o r h e r i d e a s , b u t as an " a p p a r a t u s [ t h a t ] e x p l a i n s i t s e l f " and " a l s o r eads i t s e x p l a n a t i o n , w h i c h i s n o t some d i s c o u r s e e m a n a t i n g f rom some-where e l s e t h a t w o u l d , o u t s i d e t h e t e x t , come t o comment, i n t e r p r e t , d e c i p h e r . . . t e a c h , o r i n f o r m a b o u t t h e t e c h n i c a l s e c r e t s o f i t s ••58 a s s e m b l a g e . 22 N o r n ' s emp loys D e r r i d a ' s w r i t i n g i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the Wake as a " f r e e p l a y t h a t makes c h a r a c t e r s , t i m e s , p l a c e s , and a c t i o n s i n t e r c h a n g e -a b l e . . . t h a t b r e a k s down t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between the s e l f and o t h e r , and t h a t makes u n c e r t a i n t y a g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e w o r k , " b u t she does n o t do t h i s u n t i l t h e end o f h e r p r i m a r i l y s t r u c -59 r u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n c r e a t e d between t h e way i n w h i c h she a n a l y z e s t h e Wake ' s s t r u c t u r e and he r c o n c l u d i n g a s s e s s m e n t o f i t as a d e c e n t e r e d f r e e p l a y gove rned by u n -c e r t a i n t y . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s n o t e d by Mary R o b e r t s o n , who o f f e r s t h e v a l i d , a l b e i t somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c , a rgument t h a t : The most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w i t h he r book i s he r f a i l u r e even t o acknow ledge t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t v i e w o f myth and p o s t -s t r u c t u r a l i s t " f r e e p l a y " t e n d t o be t h e o r e t i c a l a n t a g o n i s t s t h a t can be accomodated [ s i c ] t o each o t h e r o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , i f a t a l l . . . . N o r r i s i g n o r e s . . . t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a -t i o n s o f the word " d e c e n t e r e d " i n s t r u c t u r a l i s t and p o s t -s t r u c t u r a l i s t c i r c l e s . . . . a l t h o u g h she i n v o k e s D e r r i d e a n t h e o r y , [ s h e ] makes no a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t D e r r i d e a n f i g u r e s d i s r u p t . . . b a l a n c e d s t r u c t u r a l i s t f i g u r e s i n the W a k e . 6 0 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s much i n N o r r i s ' s t u d y t h a t i s v a l u a b l e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Wake. T h i s s t u d y a d o p t s N o r r i s ' i n s i g h t s on D e r r i d e a n t h e o r y , a n d , t a k i n g what c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o l a r s m i g h t c a l l a r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h , a t t e m p t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e the v a l i d i t y o f he r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Wake 's d e c e n t e r e d n e s s t h r o u g h d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a n a l y s i s . The n e x t c h a p t e r o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n b e g i n s a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a n a l y s i s by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e Wake 's e x t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p a r o n o m a s i a and i t s s t a g i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g . I t a r g u e s t h a t t h e Wake works t o w a r d a d i s l o d g i n g and o v e r t u r n i n g o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l 23 r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g , a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h o p e r a t e s as a f undamenta l o r g a n i z i n g p a r a d i g m o f t h e Wes te rn p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c t r a d i -t i o n . By s t a g i n g i t s e l f as " s o u n d c o n d u c t i n g " ( 1 8 3 . 0 9 ) and as a " s t u d y " " a s y o u s i n g i t " ( 4 8 9 . 3 3 ) , t h e Wake o f f e r s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t i s t o be hea rd as w e l l as r e a d . Many commenta to rs have n o t e d t h a t the Wake has a s t r o n g a u r a l e l e m e n t , and t h e n e x t c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s t h i s a u r a l e l e m e n t f rom a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . I t b e g i n s by c o n s i d e r i n g some o f the comments on the Wake 's a u r a l q u a l i t i e s made by b o t h J o y c e h i m s e l f and J o y c e s c h o l a r s . N e x t , i t o u t l i n e s t h e n o t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c autonomy t h a t emerged i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n f l u e n c e d m o d e r n i s t t h e o r i e s o f l a n g u a g e i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g J o y c e ' s a t t e m p t a t f u s i n g speech and w r i t i n g . I t t h e n employs Umberto E c o ' s s e m i o t i c method f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e Wake as a 61 model o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r s e o f l a n g u a g e and a p p l i e s t h i s method i n t r a c i n g o u t t h e s e m i o t i c ne twork o f l exemes w i t h w h i c h the Wake i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as w r i t i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h s p e e c h , an a u r a l w r i t i n g t o be h e a r d as w e l l as r e a d . F i n a l l y , i t c o n s i d e r s t h e Wake as a " s o u n d -c o n d u c t i n g " w r i t i n g o p e r a t i n g as t h e k i n d o f " b i f u r c a t e d w r i t i n g " t h a t works t o w a r d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " d i s l o d g i n g " and " o v e r t u r n i n g " t h e p h a l -l o g o c e n t r i c c a t e g o r i e s o f speech and w r i t i n g . T h i s " d i s l o d g i n g " and " o v e r t u r n i n g " " b i f u r c a t e d " i n s c r i p t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d e c o n s t r u c -62 t i v e t e x t s . The t h i r d c h a p t e r o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e t e n t h c h a p t e r o f t he Wake and a n a l y z e s i t f r om t h e D e r r i d e a n p e r s p e c t i v e o f w r i t i n g as a t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n t h a t can f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a r i t h m e t i c a l p r i n -c i p l e s . I t b e g i n s w i t h a g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f the more 24 o b v i o u s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o p e r a t i v e i n t h i s most m a r g i n a l - - i n a l l s e n s e s o f t h e w o r d - - y e t c e n t r a l c h a p t e r o f t h e Wake. Nex t i t o u t l i n e s how C h a p t e r 10 o p e r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e one and z e r o o f t e n and by e x p l o i t i n g t h e f o r m u l a 1+2+3+4=10. T h i s f o r m u l a o p e r a t e s i n t h e f o u r s e t s o f i n s c r i p t i o n and i n the t h r e e - p l u s - o n e a r r angemen t o f m a r g i n a l and c e n t r a l d i s c o u r s e . The t h r e e - p l u s - o n e f o r m u l a a l s o o p e r a t e s i n t h e Wake ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e " p l u p r e s e n t " t e n s e , and C h a p t e r T h r e e c o n s i d e r s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f o r m u l a i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t e n s e . C h a p t e r Th ree a l s o c o n s i d e r s t h e Wake 's p e d a g o g i c a l i m p u l s e f rom t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t a f f o r d e d by D e r r i d a ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t " r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a r e one . . . . r e a d i n g i s w r i t i n g [ i n a ] oneness [ t h a t ] d e s i g n a t e s n e i t h e r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( c o n ) f u s i o n nor i d e n t i f y a t p e r f e c t r e s t ; t h e ji_s t h a t c o u p l e s r e a d i n g w i t h w r i t i n g must r i p a p a r t . " I t a r g u e s t h a t pa s sages such as " Pose t h e p e n , man, way me d o e s " ( 3 0 3 . 2 - 3 ) f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y as a s i m u l a c r u m o f c o n v e r s a t i o n between t h e two m i m e t i c a l l y d e p i c t e d b r o t h e r s Shem and Shaun , b u t a l s o as i m m o t i v a t e d s ymbo l s w i t h w h i c h the t e x t e x p l a i n s i t s e l f and poses i t s own r e l a t i o n t o i t s r e a d e r . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s a r g u m e n t , i t s o l i c i t s t h e c h a p t e r a t t h e l e v e l o f t he l e t t e r and examines how i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s f u n c t i o n i n a p l a y o f D e r r i d e a n d i f f e r e n c e , as bo th s i g n s and s y m b o l s . The d o u b l e f u n c t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r s - - a d o u b l e f u n c t i o n t h a t a l s o o p e r a t e s i n t h e Wake ' s d e s i g n a t i o n o f i t s e l f as a l e t t e r i n b o t h t h e s ense o f an e p i s t l e and an i n d i v i d u a l u n i t o f an a l p h a b e t — p r o d u c e s a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e " ( c o n ) f u s i o n " o f m i m e t i c d i s c o u r s e and s e i f - r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g . 25 The f u n c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s as i n t e r t e x t s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n o f d e c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , and t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n examines p a r t s o f t h e Wake i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e Wake o p e r a t e s as a d i s s e m i n a t i v e i n t e r t e x t . The c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s two o f t h e Wake 's i n t e r t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the f i r s t p a r t , i t a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e Wake 's i n t e r t e x t u a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h some o f the w r i t i n g s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e . A f t e r d e t a i l i n g some o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f t he J o y c e - B l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p and o u t l i n i n g t h e c r i t i c a l pa rad igms o p e r a t i v e i n t h e s e s t u d i e s , t h e c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s how t h e Wake d e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y r e i n s c r i b e s f r a g m e n t s f r om t h e B l a k e t e x t i n t o i t s own t e x t u a l p l a y . In t h e second p a r t , t h e c h a p t e r f o c u s e s upon one f r a g m e n t f rom S h a k e s p e a r e ' s M a c b e t h — t h e d runken p o r t e r s c e n e — a n d o u t l i n e s how t h i s f r a g m e n t i s d i s s e m i n a t e d i n t h e Wake ' s n a r r a t i v e o f HCE and A L P . T h i s s cene i s , o f c o u r s e , i m p o r t a n t i n M a c b e t h , b u t the Wake g i v e s i t more emphas i s t h a t i t has i n t h e t a l e o f M a c b e t h ' s t r a g i c d o w n f a l l . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e Wake employs d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r what was a r e l a t i v e l y m a r g i n a l p a s s a g e , i n i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m , a p o w e r f u l i n t e r t e x t u a l f o r c e i n b o t h t h e n a r r a t i v e o f HCE and t h e Wake 's s t a g i n g o f t h e t e x t - r e a d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c l u d e s , i n C h a p t e r F i v e , w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f i t s c e n t r a l p o i n t s and a c o n d e n s a t i o n o f t h e s e i n t o a s y n o p t i c v i e w o f t h e Wake as a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t e x t . I t c o n s i d e r s J o y c e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f D e r r i d a ' s comments on the Wes te rn t r a d i t i o n o f w r i t i n g as a m e t a p h y s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the model o f t h e l i n e and domina ted by t h e c o n c e p t s o f p a t e r n i t y , p r e s e n c e , and t r u t h , and compares h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n ' s m a s c u l i n i s t economy w i t h t h e Wake 's 26 d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s own l a n g u a g e as a f e m a l e f o r c e . N o t i n g S p i v a k ' s c o n s t r u i n g o f D e r r i d a ' s "hymeneal f a b l e " as a " f e m i n i s t g e s t u r e " and S o l o m o n ' s r e a d i n g o f J o y c e " g r a p h i c a l l y " and " i n s i s t e n t l y " " o f f e r i n g us . . . h i s ' g e o m a t e r ' , " t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n ends w i t h a s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a d i n g t h e Wake as a g y n o c e n t r i c d i s c o u r s e p r o d u c e d by a CO male w r i t e r who w r i t e s f rom t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r . As P h i l i p p e S o l l e r s s t a t e s : i n f e m a l e p a r a n o i a t h e r e i s a f o r e c l o s u r e o f t he w o r d , t h e v e r b , w h i c h s i g n s a k i n d o f a b s o l u t e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c c e e d i n g t o t h e s y m b o l i c . J o y c e w r i t e s , I t h i n k , p r e c i s e l y f rom t h a t r a d i c a l n e g a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . He w r i t e s and speaks i n t h a t i m p o s s i b l e p l a c e where t h e r e ough t n o t t o be a n y t h i n g s p e a k i n g o r w r i t i n g , and he b r i n g s i t t o h i g h l y worked s p e c u l a t i o n . As Bonn ie Kime S c o t t n o t e s , i n t h e most t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f J o y c e and f e m i n i s m t o d a t e , t h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s f o r a male w r i t e r who w i s h e s t o w r i t e f rom a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . Not the l e a s t o f t h e s e p rob l ems i s t h e v i e w h e l d by some f e m i n i s t s t h a t ma les a r e b o t h b i o l o g i -c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and w r i t i n g on f e m i n i s m . 6 5 In o r d e r t o a v o i d compounding t h i s p r o b l e m by o f f e r i n g a m a l e ' s a n a l y s i s o f a n o t h e r m a l e ' s w r i t i n g as a f e m i n i s t t e x t , the c h a p t e r w i l l no t a n a l y z e t h e Wake as a f e m i n i s t t e x t . I n s t e a d , i t w i l l c o n s i d e r some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e Wake 's d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p h a l -l o g o c e n t r i s m has f o r t h e n o t i o n o f g e n d e r - d e t e r m i n e d l a n g u a g e and t h e l o g o c e n t r i c i d e a l o f t h e u n i t o f t h e b o o k . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e Wake ' s r e i n s c r i p t i o n o f l a n g u a g e as t h e D i v i n e Word o f a ma le God . In Wes te rn C h r i s t i a n m y t h o l o g y , t h e "Word" i s t h e Son o f " t h e A l p h a and Omega . . . t h e L o r d God , who i s and who was and who i s t o 27 c o m e , " and t h i s L o r d God c r e a t e s t h e w o r l d by s p e a k i n g i t i n t o e x i s t e n c e . F i n n e g a n s Wake d e c o n s t r u c t s t h i s m y t h o l o g y and s t a g e s a l a n g u a g e c o n t r o l l e d by a f e m a l e , a "g ramma 's grammer" ( 2 6 8 . 1 7 ) , and t h i s l a n g u a g e spoken by ALP i n f o r m s t h e r e a d e r t h a t "Anna was , L i v i a i s , P l u r a b e l l e ' s t o b e " ( 2 1 5 . 2 4 ) . From t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a f f o r d e d by D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e s o l i c i t a t i o n o f p h a l l o g o c e n t r i s m , the Wake can be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c e r t a i n t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s t h a t c a n n o t be w r i t t e n o r r e a d " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i n e and the b o o k , e x c e p t by i m i t a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n t e a c h i n g modern m a t h e m a t i c s w i t h an a b a c u s . " These o p e r a t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d n o t i n a " s i m p l e r e g r e s s i o n t o w a r d t h e mythogram" b u t i n p r o v i d i n g t h e r e a d e r w i t h " a c c e s s t o p l u r i - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y " and t h e " d e l i n e a r i z e d t e m p o r a l i t y " o f t h e Wake 's " p r e s s a n t " ( 2 2 1 . 1 7 ) , t he t h r e e - p l u s - o n e t e m p o r a l i t y o f t h e " p l u p r e s e n t " examined i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . ^ In t e rms o f i t s a n a l y s i s o f t h e Wake, t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n r e p r o d u c e s a p a t t e r n o f t h r e e - p l u s - o n e , o r t h r e e t o w a r d o n e , t h a t o p e r a t e s i n b o t h t h e Wake i t s e l f and i n D e r r i d a ' s D i s s e m i n a -t i o n . As C h a p t e r Th ree a t t e m p t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e , t h i s p a t t e r n i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e Wake 's t e n t h c h a p t e r as a m a t h e m a t i c a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f 68 t h e number 10 as number d e r i v e d f rom t h e s e r i e s 1+2+3+4. The f o l l o w -i n g f o u r c h a p t e r s , f o r w h i c h t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r c o n s t i t u t e s a s o r t o f i n t r o d u c t o r y p r e f a c e , c o n s i s t o f t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h a t a n a l y z e t h e Wake f rom p a r t i c u l a r d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a n g l e s and a f o u r t h c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r t h a t draws i n c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s f r om t h e p r e c e d i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s . These a n g l e s a r e t h e Wake ' s " ( c o n ) f u s i o n " o f speech and w r i t i n g ; i t s d i s s e m i n a t i v e use o f t h e t e n t h c h a p t e r ' s number (10) and i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n 28 o f t h e f o r m u l a 1 , 2 , 3 , + 4 = 1 0 ; and i t s i n t e r t e x t u a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h p a r t s o f t he t e x t s i g n e d " B l a k e " and " S h a k e s p e a r e . " The f i f t h c h a p t e r ( b u t i n t h e f o u r t h i n t h e sequence o f c h a p t e r s t h a t a n a l y z e t h e Wake as a d e c o n -s t r u c t i v e w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e ) r e t u r n s t o a more g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Wake 's d e c o n s t r u c t i v e o p e r a t i o n s and some c o n c l u d i n g t h o u g h t s on t h e Wake 's s t a t u s as a b o o k . T h i s p a t t e r n was n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y f o l l o w e d as an o u t l i n e b u t emerged d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g . 29 Notes 1 James J o y c e , F i n n e g a n s Wake (New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s and P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s c e n t e n n i a l e d i t i o n i s used t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n . R e f e r e n c e s t o i t a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t u s i n g page and l i n e r e f e r e n c e s . 3 . 1 , f o r e x a m p l e , r e f e r s t o the f i r s t l i n e o f t he t h i r d page . 2 J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , P o s i t i o n s , t r a n s . A l a n Bass ( C h i c a g o : The U. o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 4 2 . See a l s o P o s i t i o n s ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 5 8 . Wherever p o s s i b l e , r e f e r e n c e s t o D e r r i d a ' s t e x t s a r e t o E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s . T h i s p r a c t i c e r a i s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f the v a l u e o f a t r a n s -l a t e d t e x t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o - c a l l e d o r i g i n a l t e x t . The n o t i o n o f r e f e r r i n g t o an o r i g i n a l t e x t f o r g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i s a n o t i o n t h a t D e r r i d a ' s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e ' o r i g i n a l ' t e x t b e f o r e the c u t t i n g , o r i n c i s -s i o n o f w r i t i n g , r e n d e r s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . D e r r i d a compares t h i s p r o b l e m t o t h e " d o u b l e b i n d de YHWH q u a n d , avec l e nom de son c h o i x , avec son nom, p o u r r a i t - o n d i r e , B a b e l , i l donne a t r a d u i r e e t a ne pas  t r a d u i r e . " T h i s " d o u b l e b i n d " i s t h a t " i l f a u t t r a d u i r e e t i l f a u t ne pas t r a d u i r e " ( D ' u n t o n a p o c a l y t p i q u e adopte " nague re en p h i l o s o p h i e [ P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l i l e e , 1 9 8 3 ] , p. 1 0 ) . In r e f e r r i n g t o t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f D e r r i d a ' s w o r k , t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n f o l l o w s the p r a c t i c e o f w r i t e r s l i k e G r e g o r y L. U lmer whose use o f D e r r i d a ' s t r a n s l a t e d t e x t s has p r o d u c e d what D e r r i d a t e rms a " f u l l , r i g o r o u s . . . r e a d i n g [ and ] . . . . 30 f a i t h f u l " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o p r o d u c e a " f u l l " and " r i g o r o u s " r e a d i n g and " f a i t h f u l " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i l e w o r k -i n g f rom E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f D e r r i d a ' s F r e n c h works by no means g u a r a n t e e s t h a t such a r e a d i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l be a c h i e v e d . I t d o e s , howeve r , s u g g e s t a p r a c t i c a l way o f w r i t i n g f r om w i t h i n the " d o u b l e b i n d " o f u n t r a n s l a t a b i l i t y . T h i s d o u b l e b i n d o p e r a t e s n o t o n l y i n an E n g l i s h r e a d i n g o f D e r r i d a ' s c r i t i c a l t h e o r y b u t a l s o i n a r e a d i n g o f F i n n e g a n s Wake. S t ephen Hea th a r g u e s t h a t t h e " s t a t u s o f n o n - t r a n s l a t -a b i l i t y d e f i n e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f J o y c e ' s t e x t , w h i c h i s a l r e a d y a m u l t i -t ude o f t r a n s l a t i o n s . " He f u r t h e r comments t h a t J o y c e ' s w r i t i n g " b a f f l e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s i n g l e e q u i v a l e n c e s between one l a n g u a g e and a n o t h e r o p e r a t e d by t r a n s l a t i o n . " ( " A m b i v i o l e n c e s , " t r a n s . , I. M a h i e u , P o s t - S t r u c t u r a l i s t J o y c e : E s s a y s f r o m t h e F r e n c h , e d s . D. A t t r i d g e and D. F e r r e r [ C a m b r i d g e : Cambr idge U. P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ] , p. 6 0 ) . T h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n a c c u r a t e l y summar i zes t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h o s e " c e r t a i n m a r k s , " o r " u n d e c i d a b l e s " t h a t D e r r i d a has " s e t t o w o r k , w i t h i n t h e t e x t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y , as w e l l as w i t h i n t h e s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a r y t e x t . " Marks such as d i s s e m i n a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , (a F r e n c h t e rm t h a t s h a r e s s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e s e m a n t i c v a l u e s w i t h t h e E n g l i s h t e rm ' d i s s e m i n a -t i o n ' ) " c a n n o t be r e a s s e m b l e d i n t o a d e f i n i t i o n " i n e i t h e r F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h , and " i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s d i s s e m i n a t i o n means n o t h i n g " ( P o s i t i o n s , p. 42 and p. 4 4 ) . To t r a n s l a t e , o r t r a d u i r e , " t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m e a n i n g , t o i s o l a t e t h e s i g n i f i e d i n o r d e r t o pass i t t h r o u g h the a l t e r n a t i v e s i g n i f i e r o f a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e " ( A m b i v i o l e n c e s , p. 6 0 ) . The p r o b l e m f o r b o t h t h e c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f D e r r i d a and t h e " s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a r y t e x t " o f 31 F i n n e g a n s Wake i s t h a t b o t h w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e s pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f u n c -t i o n s o f t h e s i g n i f i e r a t t h e expense o f p r o v i d i n g c o n s t a n t s i g n i f i e d s w i t h w h i c h t h e s i g n i f i e r c o u l d e x i s t i n some s o r t o f s t a b l e , i d e a l , u n c h a n g i n g and ha rmon ious u n i t y o f t he s i g n . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e t e x t s o f f e r a s o r t o f d o u b l e " d o u b l e b i n d . " As a p r a c t i c a l r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h i n o r d e r t o p roduce a d i s s e r t a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o a d e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h . The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s a r e t h e q u o t a t i o n s o f F i n n e g a n s Wake and t h e s e t t i n g t o work w i t h i n t h i s " s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a r y t e x t " o f t h o s e D e r r i d e a n " u n d e c i d a b l e s " w h i c h , l i k e " d i s s e m i n a t i o n , " " d i f f e r a n c e , " "hymen" and " b r i s s u r e " " c a n n o t be r e a s s e m b l e d i n t o a d e f i n i t i o n . " These te rms a r e r e t a i n e d i n F r e n c h as a p r e f e r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c r e a t i n g E n g l i s h n e o l o g i s m s o r u s i n g a c c e p t a b l e E n g l i s h words i n a n e o l o g i s t i c f a s h i o n . I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f D e r r i d a ' s work have been compared w i t h t h e i r s o - c a l l e d " o r i g i n a l " " r e - c i t a t i o n s " w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . In o r d e r t o a s s i s t t h e r e a d e r , page r e f e r e n c e s t o D e r r i d a ' s F r e n c h works a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n s o f h i s t e x t s . C e r t a i n key p a s s a g e s i n w h i c h D e r r i d a d i s c u s s e s h i s " c e r t a i n m a r k s " and " u n d e c i d a b l e s " ( " c e r t a i n e s marques " and " i n d e c i d a b l e s " ) and d e s c r i b e s t h e i r t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n s have a l s o been p r o v i d e d t o h e l p t h e r e a d e r t o compare t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s o f D e r r i d a ' s t h e o r y t h a t f o rm t h e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a -t i o n . 3 G r e g o r y L. U l m e r , A p p l i e d G rammato logy : P o s t ( e ) - P e d a g o g y f r om  J a c q u e s D e r r i d a t o J o s e p h Beuys ( B a l t i m o r e : J ohns H o p k i n s U . P . , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 3 0 8 . 32 Umberto E c o , "The S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r , " i n The R o l e o f t h e R e a d e r : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t h e S e m i o t i c s o f T e x t s ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U . P . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 6 8 - 7 0 . 5 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , S/Z , t r a n s . R i c h a r d M i l l e r (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang) , p. 4 . 6 D a v i d Hayman, "Some W r i t e r s i n t h e Wake o f t h e Wake , " i n The  A v a n t - G a r d e T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , e d . R i c h a r d K o s t e l a n e t z ( B u f f a l o , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 1 7 7 . Quoted i n A p p l i e d G rammato !ogy , p. 3 0 8 . T h i s a r t i c l e f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n In t h e Wake o f t h e Wake, e d s . D. Hayman and E. A n d e r s o n ( M a d i s o n : U. o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , pp . 3-38 . ^ Umberto E c o , La o b r a a b i e r t a ( B a r c e l o n a , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 1 2 . Quoted i n A p p l i e d G rammato !ogy , p. 3 0 8 . g J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , " F rom N a r r a t i v e Theo r y t o J o y c e ; From J o y c e t o N a r r a t i v e T h e o r y , " i n The Seven th o f J o y c e , e d . B. B e n s t o c k ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U . P . , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 4 . g J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , "Two Words f o r J o y c e , t r a n s . G. B e n n i n g t o n , i n P o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t J o y c e , e d s . Derek A t t r i d g e and D a n i e l F e r r e r ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambr idge U . P . , 1 9 8 4 ) , pp . 1 4 6 - 4 9 . T h i s e s s a y was d e l i v e r e d o r a l l y i n F r e n c h as a "more o r l e s s e x t e m p o r a r y t a l k . . . a t t h e C e n t r e Georges P o m p i d o u , P a r i s , i n November 1 9 8 2 . " The t r a n s l a t i o n by G e o f f B e n n i n g t o n marks i t s f i r s t appea r ance i n E n g l i s h ( t r a n s , n. 1 , p. 1 5 8 ) . ^ J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , Of G r a m m a t o l o g y , t r a n s . G a y a t r i C h a k r a v o r t y S p i v a k ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n s H o p k i n s U . P . , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp . 1 8 - 1 9 , p a s s i m . See De  l a g r a m m a t o l o g i e ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1 9 6 7 ) : "On ne p e u t c o n t o u r n e r c e t t e r e p o n s e , s a u f a r e c u s e r l a forme meme de l a q u e s t i o n e t 33 commencer a p e n s e r que l e s igneXfc cette CTTJ8«£ mal nomme'e, l a s e u l e , q u i echappe a l a q u e s t i o n i n s t i t u t r i c e de l a p h i l o s o p h i e : ' Q u ' e s t - c e que . . . ? ' " ( p . 3 1 ) . 1 1 See e s p . " W r i t i n g B e f o r e the L e t t e r , " Of G r ammato l ogy , p t . 1 and D i s s e m i n a t i o n , t r a n s . B a r b a r a J ohnson ( C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o U . P . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 6 3 - 6 4 . Compare D i s s e m i n a t i o n w i t h La d i s s e m i n a t i o n ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1 9 7 2 ) : " s i l a l e c t u r e e s t l ' e ' c r i t u r e , c e t t e u n i t e ' n e de ' s igne n i l a c o n f u s i o n i n d i f f e r e n c i e e n i 1 ' i d e n t i t e ' de t o u t r e p o s ; l e est q u i a c c o u p l e . . . d o i t en de ' coudre " ( p . 7 2 ) . l ? J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 2 9 6 - 9 7 . La D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 3 2 9 - 3 0 . 13 I b i d . , p. 3 2 5 ; La d i s s e m i n a t i o n , " p u r l i e u de passage l i v r e aux o p e r a t i o n s de s u b s t i t u t i o n , n ' e s t p l u s une s i n g u l i e r e e t i r r e m p l a g a b l e e x i s t e n c e , un s u j e t , une ' v i e 1 , ma i s s e u l e m e n t , e n t r e v i e e t m o r t , r e ' a l i t e e t f i c t i o n , e t c . , une f o n c t i o n ou un f an t&me" ( p . 3 6 1 ) . 14 Of Grammatol o g y , p. 4 4 ; D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p. 2 1 1 . De l a g r a m m a t o l o g i e , p. 6 5 ; La d i s s e m i n a t i o n , p. 2 3 9 . 15 Leon S. R o u d i e z , I n t r o d . , D e s i r e i n L a n g u a g e : A S e m i o t i c  A p p r o a c h t o L i t e r a t u r e and A r t , by J u l i a K r i s t e v a (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U . P . ) , p. 1 5 . 1 g I b i d . As R o u d i e z n o t e s , K r i s t e v a d e f i n e s i t i n La R e v o l u t i o n du  l a n g a g e p o e " t i q u e . K r i s t e v a a c k n o w l e d g e s he r deb t t o M i k h a i l B a k h t i n i n "Word , D i a l o g u e , and N o v e l " ( D e s i r e i n Language pp . 62-91) where she d i s -c u s s e s l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e as i t i s " g e n e r a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e . " K r i s t e v a d e a l s w i t h i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y as an " i n t e r s e c t i o n o f 34 t e x t u a l s u r f a c e s " and a r g u e s t h a t i t i s t h i s " c o n c e p t i o n o f the ' l i t e r a r y w o r d ' " by B a k h t i n w h i c h " a l l o w s a dynamic d i m e n s i o n t o s t r u c t u r a l i s m " ( p p . 6 4 - 5 ) . 1 7 P o s i t i o n s , p. 4 2 ; P o s i t i o n s ( F r . v e r s i o n ) , p. 5 8 . On t h e " d o u b l e mark " see "The Doub l e S e s s i o n , " i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 173-219 e t p a s s i m and La d i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 1 9 9 - 2 4 7 . 18 The f o l l o w i n g a r e s e m i n a l s t u d i e s o f t h e Wake t h a t h a v e , by and l a r g e , p r o d u c e d t h e mos t f r u i t f u l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the w o r k . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f T i n d a l l , t h e y c o n c u r i n a c c e p t i n g t h e pa rad igms o f t h e nove l as t h e b e s t c o n t e x t f o r a n a l y z i n g i t : J o s e p h Campbe l l and Henry Mor ton R o b i n s o n , A S k e l e t o n Key t o F i n n e g a n s Wake ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 4 7 ) ; W i l l i a m Yo rk T i n d a l l , A R e a d e r ' s G u i d e t o F i n n e g a n s Wake (New Y o r k : The Noonday P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) ; C l i v e H a r t ' s S t r u c t u r e and M o t i f i n F i n n e g a n s Wake ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U . P . , 1962) i s a b r i l l i a n t s t r u c -t u r a l a n a l y s i s ( o f t h e Wake ' s m o t i f s , l e i t m o t i v s , and g e o m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ) t h a t makes s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s o f c h a r a c t e r and p l o t seem l i k e a c u r i o u s r e s t a t e m e n t o f Campbe l l and R o b i n s o n ' s e a r l i e r s t u d y ; B e r n a r d B e n s t o c k , J o y c e - A g a i n ' s Wake: An A n a l y s i s o f F i n n e g a n s Wake ( S e a t t l e : U. o f Wash ing ton P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) ; M i c h a e l H. Begna l and G race E c k l e y , N a r r a t o r and C h a r a c t e r i n F i n n e g a n s Wake ( L e w i s b u r g : B u c k n e l l U . P . , 1 9 7 5 ) ; Dam's Rose and J ohn O ' H a n l o n ' s U n d e r s t a n d i n g F i n n e g a n s Wake^ A Gu ide t o t h e N a r r a t i v e o f James J o y c e ' s M a s t e r p i e c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b . , I n c . , 1982) has a p r o m i s i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n o f J o y c e ' s " n e w l y d i s -c o v e r e d l a n g u a g e " and use o f F r e u d ' s dream-work mechanisms t h a t l e a d s i n t o a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e Wake 's p l o t and c h a r a c t e r s . 35 S e v e r a l s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s have become i n d i s p e n s a b l e r e f e r e n c e g u i d e s t o t h e Wake. These i n c l u d e : James S . A t h e r t o n , Books a t t h e  Wake: A S tudy o f L i t e r a r y A l l u s i o n s i n F i n n e g a n s Wake ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r ; 1 9 5 9 , r p t . Mamaroneck , N . Y . : P au l P. A p p e l , 1 9 7 4 ) ; Thomas E. C o n n o l l y , S c r i b b l e d e h o b b l e : The Ur-Workbook f o r F i n n e g a n s Wake ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U . P . , 1 9 6 1 ) , an a n n o t a t e d e d i t i o n o f one o f J o y c e ' s n o t e -b o o k s ; C l i v e H a r t ' s A C o n c o r d a n c e t o F i n n e g a n s Wake ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U. o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) ; D a v i d Hayman's A F i r s t - D r a f t V e r s i o n o f F i n n e g a n s Wake ( A u s t i n : U. o f Texas P r e s s , 1963) i s an i m p r e s s i v e and a c c u r a t e s c h o l a r l y e d i t i o n o f J o y c e m a n u s c r i p t s g i v i n g " t h e c o m p l e t e s k e l e t o n o f t h e Wake r e d u c e d t o i t s s i m p l e s t l a n g u a g e and a r r a n g e d i n i t s d e f i n i t i v e o r d e r " ; A d e l i n e G l a s h e e n ' s T h i r d Census o f F i n n e g a n s Wake: An Index o f  t he C h a r a c t e r s and T h e i r R o l e s ( B e r k e l e y : U. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977) i s t h e second r e v i s i o n o f t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t o f names o f p e o p l e and p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e t o r e a d e r s o f J o y c e ; L o u i s 0 . M i n k , A F i n n e g a n s Wake G a z e t t e e r ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U . P . , 1 9 7 8 ) ; R o l a n d McHugh 's A n n o t a t i o n s  t o F i n n e g a n s Wake i s , as McHugh p o i n t s o u t , a d i s t i l l a t i o n o f t h e f o r e g o i n g and t h e l e x i c o n s l i s t e d be l ow and o f n o t e s and comments f rom a number o f J o y c e s c h o l a r s . B o o k - l e n g t h l e x i c o n s o f t h e n o n - E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s i n FW i n c l u d e : He lmut B o n h e i m , A L e x i c o n o f t h e German i n F i n n e g a n s Wake ( B e r k e l e y : U. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) ; B rendan 0 H e h i r and J o h n M. D i l l o n , A C l a s s i c a l L e x i c o n f o r F i n n e g a n s Wake ( B e r k e l e y : U. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . Word l i s t s a p p e a r i n g i n A Wake N e w s l i t t e r and R o s e ' s The Index M a n u s c r i p t a r e i n d e x e d i n U n d e r s t a n d i n g "FW", p p . 3 3 8 - 3 9 , and A n n o t a t i o n s , pp . v i i - v i i i . 36 21 M a r g o t N o r r i s , The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e o f F i n n e g a n s Wakej A S t r u c t u r a l i s t A n a l y s i s ( B a l t i m o r e : J ohns H o p k i n s U . P . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 1. 22 C o l i n MacCabe , James J o y c e and t h e R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word ( L o n d o n : The M a c M i l l a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 2 . D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 1. 24 T . . . I b i d . 25 S k e l e t o n K e y , p p . 1 3 - 1 5 . J o y c e - A g a i n ' s Wake, p. 1 0 8 . 27 N a r r a t o r and C h a r a c t e r , p. 9 . 28 M i c h a e l H. Begna l and F r i t z S e n n , e d s . , A C o n c e p t u a l G u i d e t o F i n n e g a n s Wake ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , P a . : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U . P . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p p . x - x i . 29 U n d e r s t a n d i n g "FW" , p. v i i . 30 J o y c e ' s comment on p l o t and grammar a p p e a r s i n a l e t t e r t o H a r r i e t Shaw Weaver on November 2 4 , 1 9 2 6 . See L e t t e r s o f James J o y c e , v o l . I, e d . S t u a r t G i l b e r t , 1 9 5 7 , new e d . 1 9 6 6 ; v o l s . I I and I I I , e d . R i c h a r d E l l m a n n , 1966 ( N . Y . : The V i k i n g P r e s s , and L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r ) , v o l . I I I . U n d e r s t a n d i n g "FW", p p . x i v - x v i i i . A l t h o u g h Rose and O ' H a n l o n c i t e t h e s e F r e u d i a n t e c h n i q u e s , t h e y do no t d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e y f u n c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r p a s s a g e s . The b e s t d i s c u s s i o n o f the Wake ' s com-p o s i t i o n r e m a i n s Hayman's A F i r s t - D r a f t V e r s i o n . The b e s t d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s o p e r a t e i n p a r t i c u l a r p a s s a g e s i s The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p p . 9 8 - 1 1 8 . 31 U n d e r s t a n d i n g "FW" , p. x v . 32 I b i d . , p p . v i i i and x i v . 33 Books a t t h e Wake, p. 1 5 . 37 3 4 J o y c e - A g a i n ' s Wake, p. 3 . 35 The m i m e t i c f u n c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what N o r t h r o p F r y e , u s i n g A r i s t o t l e ' s t e r m s , c a l l s a m i m e s i s p r a x e o s and a m i m e s i s l o g o u (Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s [ P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U . P . , 1 9 5 7 ] , p p . 8 2 - 3 ) , o p e r a t e s i n a l l l i t e r a r y g e n r e s , a c c o r d i n g t o the v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d by t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . I t i s t h i s m i m e t i c f u n c t i o n t h a t D e r r i d a p r o b l e m a t i z e s i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m i m e s i s . See e s p . D i s s e m i n a t i o n , pp . 1 8 5 - 9 4 . A p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c i d a c c o u n t o f t h e n o v e l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e ' s h i s t o r i c a l g e n e s i s i s p r o v i d e d by R o b e r t S c h o l e s and R o b e r t K e l l o g g i n The N a t u r e o f N a r r a t i v e ( N . Y . : O x f o r d U . P . , 1 9 6 6 ) . 3 7 A R e a d e r ' s G u i d e , p p . 2 3 7 - 3 8 . 38 Our E x a g m i n a t i o n Round H i s F a c t i f i c a t i o n F o r I n c a m i n a t i o n Of Work In P r o g r e s s ( P a r i s : S h a k e s p e a r e and Company, 1 9 2 9 ) . 39 The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 2 . 40 Eugene J o l a s r e c o r d s J o y c e ' s comment i n "My F r i e n d James J o y c e . " See James J o y c e : Two Decades o f C r i t i c i s m , e d . Seon G i v e n s ( N . Y . : The Vangua rd P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 1 . 4 ^ Samuel B e c k e t t , " D a n t e . . . B r u n o . V i c o . . . J o y c e , " i n Our  E x a g m i n a t i o n , p p . 1 4 - 1 6 . 4 ^ Eugene J o l a s , "The R e v o l u t i o n o f Language and James J o y c e , " i n Our E x a g m i n a t i o n , p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . 4 3 I b i d . 44 N o r r i s c i t e s p a r t s o f t h i s pa s sage i n The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 3 ; "The R e v o l u t i o n o f L a n g u a g e , " p p . 8 4 - 5 . 45 "The R e v o l u t i o n o f L a n g u a g e , " p. 8 0 . 38 46 S t r u c t u r e and M o t i f , p. 2 4 . 47 I b i d . , p. 3 1 ; c f . " D i f f e r a n c e , " i n M a r g i n s o f P h i l o s o p h y , t r a n s . A l a n Bass ( C h i c a g o : U. o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p p . 3 - 2 7 , and " L a d i f f e r a n c e " i n Marges de l a p h i l o s o p h i e ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp . 1-29. 48 S t r u c t u r e and M o t i f , p. 1 6 1 ; The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 3 . ^ S t r u c t u r e and M o t i f , p. 8 4 . 50 The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 2 7 . 51 I b i d . , p p . 1 4 0 , 1 3 1 ; C o l i n MacCabe , James J o y c e and t h e  R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word ( L o n d o n : The M a c M i l l a n P r e s s L t d . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p p . 14 and 1 3 . 52 The R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word, p. 4 . 53 The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 2 ; The R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Word, p. 3 . 54 D e r r i d e a n d i s c o u r s e s e t s " r e - m a r k " t o work i n "The Doub l e S e s s i o n , " i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 1 7 3 - 2 8 6 . S e e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s o l i c i t a t i o n o f Mai 1 arme"' s Mi mi q u e , e s p . p p . 219-24 (La d i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 2 0 3 - 4 5 ) . L i k e " h y m e n , " " s u p p l e m e n t , " " t r a c e , " and " d i f f e r a n c e , " re-mark has a t l e a s t t h e d o u b l e v a l u e o f a s y l l e p s i s o r zeugma and i s one o f t h o s e s i g n s w i t h a p i v o t a l f u n c t i o n . I t can s i g n i f y a l l u s i o n o r t e x t u a l s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y , a p r o c e s s i n w r i t i n g a n d / o r i n s p e e c h . I t i s an o p e r a t i o n o f t h e hymeneal w h i t e b l a n k o f t h e p r i n t e d page and o f the i n s c r i b e d l e t t e r o r mark . The hyphen j o i n i n g the " r e " t o t h e " m a r k " f u n c t i o n s between them t o b o t h s e p a r a t e and j o i n , t o c o n f u s e , i n the D e r r i d e a n s ense o f j o i n w i t h , and t o p r o d u c e a c o n f u s i o n o r d i s o r d e r . 55 The D e c e n t e r e d U n i v e r s e , p. 1 2 1 ; J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , " S t r u c t u r e , S i g n and P l a y i n t h e D i s c o u r s e o f t h e Human S c i e n c e s , " i n W r i t i n g and  D i f f e r e n c e , t r a n s . A l a n Bass ( C h i c a g o : U. o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 280 40 comment a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Wake and t h e n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y e v e n t t h a t D e r r i d a t e rms a " r u p t u r e " i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e were made w e l l ahead o f t h e i r t i m e and a r e s t i l l , more t h a n t e n y e a r s l a t e r , a s s i s t i n g s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s o f J o y c e t o come t o t e rms w i t h t h e Wake. R o b e r t s o n ' s c r i t i q u e o f N o r r i s ' s t u d y was no t made f o r some f i v e y e a r s a f t e r N o r r i s f o r m u l a t e d he r i d e a s . By t h a t t i m e , o f c o u r s e , D e r r i d a ' s t h e o r i e s had become much more f a m i l i a r t o s c h o l a r s . R o b e r t s o n ' s a rgument i s p r o b l e m a t i c i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t N o r r i s s h o u l d have a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between s t r u c -t u r a l i s t and p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t t h e o r y a t a t i m e when t h e l a t t e r was s t i l l b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d . 61 See "The S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r , pp . 6 8 - 7 2 . 62 See P o s i t i o n s , p. 4 2 , and P o s i t i o n s ( F r . v e r s i o n ) , pp . 5 7 - 5 8 . 63 G a y a t r i C h a k r a v o r t y S p i v a k , P r e f . , Of Grammatol o g y , p. l x v i ; M a r g a r e t C. S o l o m o n , E t e r n a l Geomate r : The Sexua l U n i v e r s e o f F i n n e g a n s Wake ( C a r b o n d a l e and E d w a r d s v i l l e , 1 1 1 . : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U . P . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 109 . P h i l i p p e S o l l e r s , " J o y c e & C o . " i n D a v i d Hayman and E l l i o t A n d e r s o n e d s . and t r a n s . , In t h e Wake o f t h e Wake ( M a d i s o n : U. o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 1 1 9 . 6 5 B o n n i e Kime S c o t t , J o y c e and F e m i n i s m ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U . P . , 1 9 8 4 ) . S c o t t o u t l i n e s t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n " F e m i n i s t F rameworks f o r J o y c e , " p p . 1-8. As t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e Wake ' s d i s l o d g i n g o f t h e p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c b i n a r y t e rms m a l e / f e m a l e and s p e e c h / w r i t i n g , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n does n o t c o n t e n d t h a t t h e Wake p r i v i l e g e s w r i t i n g as a f e m a l e f o r m . As w i l l be n o t e d i n C h a p t e r Th ree 41 (and e l s e w h e r e ) t h e Wake i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as A L P ' s l e t t e r , b u t t h e l e t t e r i s n o t w r i t t e n by A L P . T h i s t a s k i s a s s i g n e d t o Shem who o c c u p i e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f a son who s u s t a i n s t h e m o t h e r ' s d e s i r e and a s s i s t s i n ' d e - s i r e - i n g ' t h e f a t h e r by a p p r o p r i a t i n g the f a t h e r ' s p e n c i l and p e n i s . As a " L e t t e r " ( 4 2 0 . 1 7 ) , t h e Wake i s " w r i t t e n o f Shem" and " u t t e r e d f o r A L P " ( 4 2 0 . 1 7 - 1 8 ) . Shem's a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r ' s ( H C E ' s ) p e n c i l and p e n i s i s s i g n i f i e d when t h e Wake s t a t e s t h a t Shem uses " e a r w i c k e r ' s p e n s i l e " t o " r o o t " i n t h e " o u t e r o f h i s l a u s c h e r " ( 1 7 5 . 9 - 1 0 ) . Much f e m i n i s t t h e o r y has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y , w r i t i n g has a l w a y s been c o n s i d e r e d as a ma le p r e r o g a t i v e . S and ra M. G i l b e r t and Susan Gubar n o t e t h a t " b e c a u s e he i s an a u t h o r , a 'man o f l e t t e r s ' i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , l i k e h i s d i v i n e c o u n t e r p a r t , a f a t h e r , a m a s t e r o r r u l e r , and an owner " (The Madwoman i n t h e A t t i c : The Woman W r i t e r and t h e N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  L i t e r a r y I m a g i n a t i o n [New Haven and L o n d o n : Y a l e U . P . , 1 9 7 9 ] , p. 7 , e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . The t r a d i t i o n t h a t G i l b e r t and Gubar t r a c e i s a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n w h i c h i s a p a r t o f t h e Wes te rn m e t a p h y s i c a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t D e r r i d a t e rms p h a l l o g o c e n t r i s m . T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a r g u e s t h a t l i k e D e r r i d a ' s d i s s e m i n a t i v e c r i t i c i s m , t h e Wake a t t e m p t s a d i s l o d g i n g and o v e r t u r n i n g o f t h e t e rms o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n t h a t s u s t a i n t h e p h a l -l o g o c e n t r i c d o m i n a t i o n o f Wes te rn t h o u g h t . T h i s d i s l o d g i n g i s n o t a s i m p l e i n v e r s i o n t h a t r e v e r s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between such t e rms as t r u t h / e r r o r , m a l e / f e m a l e , and speech and w r i t i n g , bu t one t h a t a l l o w s f o r t h e emergence o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y h i g h e r t e r m (and i t s a t t e n d a n t s i g n i -f i e r s ) f r om w i t h i n t h e s i g n i f y i n g p l a y o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y l o w e r f o rm and i t s s i g n i f i e r s . Thus t h e Wake i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f n o t as a s u b o r d i n a t e w r i t t e n i m i t a t i o n o f speech b u t as a w r i t i n g t h a t s e t s p h o n e t i c a s p e c t s 42 o f l a n g u a g e t o work w i t h i n w r i t i n g . S i m i l a r l y , ALP r e i g n s o v e r t h e t e x t u a l t o p o s as "Woeman's L a n d " ( 2 2 . 8 ) and t h e male p o s i t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h i s t o p o s . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h e Wake p r o v i d e s an answer t o t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n posed by G i l b e r t and G u b a r : " I f t h e pen i s a m e t a p h o r i c a l p e n i s , w i t h what o r g a n can f e m a l e s g e n e r a t e t e x t s ? " ( p . 7 ) . The Wake i d e n t i f i e s i t s l a n g u a g e a s , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e s t r e a m o f A L P ' s u r i n e , and i t s d i a g r a m o f he r " t r i c k k i k a n t " ( 2 9 7 . 9 ) f u n c t i o n s as a me taphor f o r t h e t e x t as a ' h o m e ' , 'womb' and p o i n t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( 'who m e ' ? ) , a "whome o f y o u r e t e r n a l geoma te r " ( 2 9 6 . 3 0 - 2 9 7 . 1 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Wake ' s f e m a l e l a n g u a g e a r e made w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t Shem i s t h e s c r i b e who w r i t e s t h e l e t t e r b u t t h a t i t i s ALP who g e n e r a t e s the t e x t by u t t e r i n g i t . 66 R e v e l a t i o n s 1 : 8 , The New E n g l i s h B i b l e : O x f o r d S tudy E d i t i o n (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U . P . , 1 9 7 6 ) . ^ Of G r ammato logy , p. 8 7 . See De l a g r a m m a t o l o g i e , p. 1 3 0 . 68 As C h a p t e r T h r e e d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s f o r m u l a w i t h i n t h e Wake ' s a r i t h m e t i c a l t e x t u a l m a c h i n e r y i s c e n t r a l t o b o t h D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e p r a c t i c e and S o l l e r ' s comments on J o y c e ' s m e d i t a t i o n on t h e t r i n i t y . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , "The Doub l e Bo t tom o f t h e P l u p r e s e n t " ( D i s s e m i n a t i o n , p p . 3 0 6 - 1 3 ; La d i s s e m i n a t i o n , " L e d o u b l e f o n d du p l u s - q u e - p r e s e n t , " p p . 340-48) and " J o y c e & C o . , " pp . 113-14 . 43 I I M a k i n g " S o u n d s e n s e and Sensesound K i n A g a i n " : The Wake ' s " ( c o n ) f u s i o n " o f Speech and W r i t i n g J o y c e compared F i n n e g a n s Wake ' s use o f t h e pun w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e w e l l - k n o w n pun on P e t e r and r o c k ( L . P e t r a ; Gr . rreTpof) i n C h r i s t ' s d e c l a r a t i o n "You a r e P e t e r , t h e R o c k ; and on t h i s r o c k I w i l l b u i l d my c h u r c h , " (Mt . 1 6 . 1 8 ) J o y c e t o l d Budgen : "The H o l y Roman C a t h o l i c A p o s t o l i c C h u r c h was b u i l t on a p u n . I t ough t t o be good enough f o r m e . " 1 O p e r a t i n g a t t h e r o o t o f t h e Wake ' s l a n g u a g e i s t h e p a r o n o m a s i a t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e f u s i o n o f a m a s c u l i n e , l o g i c a l and l i n e a r w r i t i n g w i t h a f e m i n i n e , c i r c u l a r , and a s s o c i a t i v e ne twork o f r e l a t i o n s between sound and s e n s e . The Wake does no t r e j e c t o r d i s m i s s t h e p h a l 1 o g o c e n t r i c p a r a d i g m s o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s b u t i n c o r -p o r a t e s them w i t h i n i t s p a r o n o m a s t i c l a n g u a g e . The r e s u l t o f t h i s i n c o r -p o r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e Wake ' s l a n g u a g e o p e r a t e s on t h e v e r y b o r d e r s t h a t mark t h e l i m i t s o f t h e P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t i o n t h a t D e r r i d a f i n d s c o n s o l i -d a t e d i n H u s s e r l ' s phenomenology o f t h e s i g n . In the Wake, t h e s e b o r d e r s (be tween ma le and f e m a l e , l i f e and d e a t h , c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s , t r u t h and e r r o r , i d e n t i t y and d i f f e r e n c e , and speech and w r i t i n g ) become f l e x i b l e and s h i f t i n g m a r g i n s t h a t o p e r a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s i m i l a r i t y j j i sound o f w r i t t e n f o r m s . As ALP s t a t e s , "On l i m p i d y marge I ' v e made me hoom" ( 6 2 4 . 1 5 ) . Because t h e Wake s t a g e s a 44 l a n g u a g e o f the u n c o n s c i o u s , any r e a d i n g o f i t t h a t i s c o n d u c t e d a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e ( l o g o c e n t r i c ) c o n c e p t s o f a s u b j e c t o r d e r e d by a l o g i c a l , r e a s o n a b l e , l i n e a r , and p u n c t u a l w r i t i n g w i l l a lway s be d e f e a t e d by t h e t e x t . F o r the u n c o n s c i o u s , as L a c a n ' s r e a d i n g o f F r e u d s u g g e s t s , can neve r become f u l l y s u b j e c t i f i e d o r p r e s e n t t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The gap t h a t F r e u d opens up i n h i s use o f t h e metaphor o r w r i t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e network o f f o r c e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s r e v e a l s t h a t " D i s -c o n t i n u i t y i s t h e e s s e n t i a l f o rm i n w h i c h the u n c o n s c i o u s f i r s t a p p e a r s t o us as a p h e n o m e n o n — d i s c o n t i n u i t y , i n w h i c h s o m e t h i n g i s m a n i f e s t e d as a v a c i l l a t i o n . " I n t e rms o f t h e Wake ' s w r i t i n g as a s t a g i n g o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , t h i s v a c i l l a t i o n i s marked i n the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g and h e a r i n g . To e x p e r i -ence t h i s p u l s i n g v a c i l l a t i o n , t h e r e a d e r must " s p e e c h r e a d " t h e Wake and r e a d , i n a d o u b l e s t r a t e g y , t h e Wake as an " e p i s t o l e a r " ( 3 8 . 2 3 ) , o r an ' e p i s t l e t o l ' e a r ' and ' e p i s t l e t o 1 i r e . ' A c c o r d i n g t o the s y l l o g i s t i c and p r e d i c a t e pa r ad igms o f l o g i c t h a t have been used t o e n f o r c e t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e , t h o u g h t , and w r i t i n g by the b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s o f p h a l l o g o c e n t r i s m , the s t a t e m e n t t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake s t a g e s a w r i t i n g w i t h i n speech i s u n r e a s o n a b l e o r a b s u r d . The r e t h i n k i n g o f the c a t e -g o r i e s o f speech and w r i t i n g t h a t D e r r i d a p r o d u c e s i n h i s d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f H u s s e r l and F r e u d , howeve r , f a c i l i t a t e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t , i n a c e r t a i n s e n s e , F i n n e g a n s Wake does a c h i e v e the d i s m a n t l i n g o f t h e s i g n i -f i e r s o f speech and w r i t i n g a n d , by mak ing much o f i t s w r i t i n g dependen t o f p a r o n o m a s i a , p r o d u c e s a w r i t i n g a g a i n s t the b o r d e r s between speech and w r i t i n g i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e t h e " d i s s o n a n c e [ a b s u r d i t y ] o f a w r i t i n g " 3 encased w i t h i n t h e p h o n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between spoken l a n g u a g e s . 45 The i m p o r t a n c e o f speech and sound i n t h e " s e n s e s o u n d " ( 1 2 1 . 1 5 ) w r i t i n g o f F i n n e g a n s Wake i s q u i t e commonplace know ledge i n J o y c e s c h o l a r s h i p . J o y c e h i m s e l f f r e q u e n t l y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e sound o f t h e t e x t was as i m p o r t a n t t o i t s mean ing as was i t s w r i t t e n f o r m , and he c l e a r l y f e l t t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h i s f i n a l work were o f f s e t by t h e p l e a s i n g q u a l i t i e s o f i t s s o u n d . " L o r d knows what my p r o s e m e a n s , " he t o l d h i s d a u g h t e r , L u c i a . " I n a w o r d , i t s p l e a s i n g t o t h e e a r . . . . T h a t i s e n o u g h , i t seems t o me . " Many c r i t i c s have commented on the Wake ' s m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s , a n d , as R i c h a r d E l l m a n n n o t e s i n James J o y c e , t h e w o r k ' s " m u s i c a l a s p e c t . . . was one o f i t s j u s t i f i c a -4 t i o n s . " A t t i m e s , J o y c e seems t o have v a l u e d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e Wake more t h a n he v a l u e d i t s l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y . When a s k e d " i f t he book were a b l e n d i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e and m u s i c , " f o r e x a m p l e , J o y c e r e p l i e d , " N o , i t ' s pu re m u s i c . " A n o t h e r example d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e J o y c e p l a c e d on t h e sound o f t h e Wake ' s puns and on t h e rhy thms t h a t mark i t s g e n e r a l s o n o r i t y . J o y c e a s k e d h i s f r i e n d N i n o F r ank t o a s s i s t i n t r a n s l a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e work i n t o I t a l i a n . N i n o t h o u g h t I t a l i a n u n s u i t a b l e f o r the Wake 's many puns b u t a g r e e d . As E l l m a n n r e c o r d s the c o l l a b o r a t i o n , F r ank found h i m s e l f i n t h e s u r p r i s i n g p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o r e m i n d J o y c e o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e mean ing i n t h e p a s s a g e s t h e y t r a n s l a t e d . J o y c e was much more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e " s o n o r i t y , r h y t h m , and v e r b a l p l a y , " and he "seemed i n d i f f e r e n t " t o r e p r o d u c i n g t h e e x a c t s ense o f the o r i g i n a l t e x t . The d i f f i c u l t i e s J o y c e endu red w h i l e mak ing a gramophone r e c o r d o f p a r t s o f t h e Wake ' s "Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e " c h a p t e r s e r v e t o u n d e r l i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t J o y c e p l a c e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f h e a r i n g , as w e l l as 5 r e a d i n g , t h e t e x t . 46 Commentators on t h e Wake were q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e t he i m p o r t a n c e sound p l a y s i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r k . In Our E x a g m i n a t i o n Round H i s F a c t i f i c a t i o n F o r I n c a m i n a t i o n Of Work In P r o g r e s s , t he c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s on t h e Wake t h a t J o y c e s u p e r v i s e d w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g t h e w o r k , R o b e r t McAlmon c a l l e d t h e Wake an " I r i s h word b a l l e t " and drew h i s r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f sound i n J o y c e ' s " p r o s e ,,6 m u s i c . S i n c e t h a t e a r l y e s s a y , t h e know ledge t h a t t h e Wake demands n o t o n l y t o be r e a d , b u t a l s o t o be r e a d a l o u d , l i s t e n e d t o , and e v e n , a t c e r t a i n p a s s a g e s , s u n g , has become an i m p o r t a n t t o o l f o r s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d t h e i r way t h r o u g h t h e l a b y r i n t h o f J o y c e ' s " E c h o l a n d " (13.5). The Wake d e f i n e s i t s e l f i n te rms t h a t emphas i ze t h e a u r a l and p h o n o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s t o be f o u n d i n h e a r i n g i t s l a n g u a g e . I t p r o v i d e s a m u s i c a l s c o r e f o r i t s " B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " — a t i t l e t h a t puns on t h e F r e n c h p e r c e o r e i l l e , o r e a r p i e r c e r , s u g g e s t i n g , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e Wake ' s l a n g u a g e t o p e n e t r a t e t he e a r as w e l l as t h e e y e — a n d i n f o r m s t h e r e a d e r t h a t i t s l a n g u a g e i s " s o u n d c o n d u c t i n g " (183.9). I t a l s o i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as an a t t e m p t " t o make soundsense and s e n s e s o u n d k i n a g a i n " (121.15). 7 One o f t h e Wake ' s s t o r i e s i s t h a t o f i t s own i d i o s y n c r a t i c " l a n g w e d g e " (73.1), and t h i s " S i n g a l i n g a l y i n g . S t o r i e l l a as she i s s y u n g " (267.7-8) s h o u l d be h e a r d as w e l l as r e a d . The Wake t e l l s t h e r e a d e r , "As y o u s i n g i t i t ' s a s t u d y " (489.33). W h i l e most commenta to rs w o u l d p r o b a b l y ag r ee t h a t sound i s t o some e x t e n t an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e Wake 's l a n g u a g e , t h e r e have been few s t u d i e s t h a t have g i v e n any ma jo r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l and s e m a n t i c e l e m e n t s i n J o y c e ' s " s p e e c h r e a d i n g " (568.31) and l i t t l e , i f a n y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t he i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s 47 r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t have f o r an a s s e s s m e n t o f e i t h e r t h e Wake 's l i n g u i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o u l d b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t f r o m w h i c h s c h o l a r s h i p has d e a l t w i t h t h e h e a r d sound-seen s ense r e l a t i o n s h i p has been t h a t a f f o r d e d by m u s i c o l o g y — a s i n Song i n t h e Works o f James J o y c e and M u s i c and James J o y c e — o r , more o f t e n , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f J o y c e ' s use g o f t he p u n . I t i s common know ledge amongst J o y c e ' s r e a d e r s t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake c o n t a i n s many p u n s , b u t , as E l l m a n n n o t e s i n The C o n -s c i o u s n e s s o f James J o y c e , t h e f u l l s cope o f J o y c e ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e pun i s n o t a l w a y s r e c o g n i z e d . I t was , E l l m a n n a r g u e s , " J o y c e ' s s t o c k i n Q t r a d e beyond what i s g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . " The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e Wake as a " p u n n e r m i n e " ( 5 1 9 . 3 ) , o r mine f u l l o f p u n s , a r e such t h a t An thony B u r g e s s c o n s i d e r s t h e t e rm ' p u n ' i n a d e q u a t e t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f J o y c e ' s t e c h n i q u e . I t w i l l " n o t r e a l l y do f o r the w o r d - p l a y o f F i n n e g a n s  Wake , " B u r g e s s c o n t e n d s . "We need a word l i k e — l e t us go f u r t h e r : we need t h e word i t s e l f - - j a b b e r w o c k y . " E v e n t u a l l y , Bu rges s f i n d s even L e w i s C a r r o l l ' s t e rm t o o l i m i t e d and c o i n s t h e n e o l o g i s m " o n e i r o p a r o n a m a s t i c s " t o i n d i c a t e how i m p o r t a n t p a r o n o m a s i a i s t o t h e Wake 's " n i g h t y n o v e l " ( 5 4 . 2 1 ) d e p i c t i o n o f a d r e a m . 1 0 T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e J o y c e ' s use o f the pun as a r a d i c a l use o f p a r o n o m a s i a i n w h i c h J o y c e manages t o make a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t he Wake 's s e m a n t i c ne twork dependen t on s o u n d . As a " p u n t o m i n e " ( 5 8 7 . 8 ) — o n e o f t h e Wake 's many s e l f - d e f i n i n g m u l t i p l e p u n s — t h e t e x t i s b o t h a pun t o m i n e , o r a p a r o n o m a s t i c " p l a y i n g on words t h a t sound a l i k e " (OED, emphas i s added) t o be h e a r d , and a pan tomime , o r s i l e n t s t a g i n g o f t h e w r i t t e n n a r r a t i o n t h a t p l a c e s t h e E a r w i c k e r s ' b o u r g e o i s f a m i l y m i s e 48 en s c e n e . J o y c e ' s use o f p a r o n o m a s i a i s a p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n t h e Wake 's u n l i m i t e d s e m i o s i s , a n d , as t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e , i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e d e c o n s t r u c t i v e w r i t i n g t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e Wake ' s i n d e t e r m i n a n c y o f m e a n i n g . The Wake c o n t i n u a l l y p o s i t s c h a r a c t e r s who, l i k e HCE, t h e f a t h e r , o r Shem, t h e a u t h o r , a r e p o s s i b l e f i g u r e s o f a u t h o r i t y , b u t , as M a r g o t N o r r i s has d e m o n s t r a t e d , i t a l s o s u b v e r t s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s e f i g u r e s by a t e x t u a l f r e e p l a y t h a t " b r e a k s down t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between the s e l f and t h e o t h e r , and . . . makes u n c e r t a i n t y a g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e 12 w o r k . " Shem t h e Penman, f o r e x a m p l e , who i s b o t h a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f HCE and a p o r t r a i t o f t h e a r t i s t f i g u r e , i s p a r o n o m a s t i c a l l y d i s p l a c e d i n t o a " sham" and even t h e command f o r h i s r e j e c t i o n : "Shun the Punman ! " ( 9 3 . 1 3 ) . J o y c e t h u s employs p a r o n o m a s i a w i t h s o m e t h i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l s ense o f i t s Greek r o o t , Trotpavopi'* . an a t t a c k on a u t h o r i t y , o r " t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f l a w , " and makes i t a ma jo r d e v i c e i n a w r i t i n g t h a t i s , i n a c e r t a i n sense,:rr<xpc*. V O J J O S , o r " l a w l e s s " and " v i o l e n t " ( L i d d e l l and  S c o t t ) . In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e l i n e a t i o n o f J o y c e ' s use o f p a r o n o m a s i a as a s u c c e s s f u l example o f a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e " d o u b l e w r i t i n g , " t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n by c o n s i d e r i n g some o f t h e p rob l ems w h i c h , as many J o y c e commenta to r s have n o t e d , c o n f r o n t a t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e x t . N e x t , i t w i l l o u t l i n e some o f t h e ma jo r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f w r i t i n g t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t f r om w h i c h t h e Wake, as a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e , m o d e r n i s t , t e x t , emerged . T h i r d l y , i t w i l l employ E c o ' s t h e o r y on t h e s e m i o t i c p r o d u c t i o n o f me taphor i n t h e Wake i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e how the Wake 49 p r o d u c e s t h e c h a i n o f m u l t i p l e puns w i t h w h i c h i t i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as a p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h s p e e c h . F i n a l l y , i t w i l l c o n s i d e r J o y c e ' s r a d i c a l p a r o n o m a s i a f r om t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f J a c q u e s D e r r i d a ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o r y on w r i t i n g i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e how F i n n e g a n s Wake o p e r a t e s as wha t D e r r i d a t e r m s a " g r o u p e d t e x t u a l f i e l d , " a " b i f u r c a t e d w r i t i n g . . . t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v o k e s the o v e r t u r n i n g o f t h e h i e r a r c h y s p e e c h / w r i t i n g , and t h e e n t i r e s y s t em a t t a c h e d t o i t , and 14 r e l e a s e s t h e d i s s o n a n c e o f a w r i t i n g w i t h i n s p e e c h . " S t ephen Heath comments i n " A m b i v i o l e n c e s " t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake i s n o t so much a c o m b i n i n g o f v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y e l e m e n t s as a v i o l e n t c o l l i s i o n between them, a " c o l l i d e o r s c a p e " ( 1 4 3 . 2 8 ) " d i s t u r b i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t c l a i m t o d e f i n e and r e p r e s e n t l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e , l e a v i n g t h e l a t t e r i n 15 r u i n s , and c r i t i c i s m t o o . " H e a t h ' s comments on the w o r k ' s e f f e c t upon t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m a r e b e i n g i n c r e a s -i n g l y echoed by a number o f J o y c e s c h o l a r s who, l i k e P a t r i c k P a r r i n d e r , see t h e Wake " i n some ways g e t t i n g more d i f f i c u l t , even as s c h o l a r s h i p I.16 r e n d e r s i t e a s i e r t o m a s t e r . The p r o b l e m t h a t the Wake poses f o r such c r i t i c a l commenta to r s i s , i n p a r t , i t s e v a s i o n o f the t a x o n o m i c c a t e g o r i e s w i t h w h i c h c r i t i c i s m a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t e x t s i n o r d e r t o c o n s e r v e them as o b j e c t s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The re s t i l l r e m a i n s a f undamen ta l d i s a g r e e m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , between t h o s e c r i t i c s l i k e B e r n a r d B e n s t o c k and Dam's R o s e , who a rgue t h a t t h e work i s a n o v e l , and p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t c r i t i c s l i k e H e a t h , who deny t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f such c a t e g o r i z i n g on t h e g rounds t h a t t h e r e " i s no c o n c l u s i o n t o be r e a c h e d i n a r e a d i n g o f J o y c e ' s t e x t . " 1 7 A D e r r i d e a n d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Wake as an example o f " p i u r i - d i m e n s i o n a l s y m b o l i c " 50 w r i t i n g w o u l d d i s m i s s the q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r no t t h e Wake i s a nove l as i r r e l e v a n t t o a work t h a t e x c e e d s t h e c a t e g o r y " l i t e r a r y , " ; i n f a c t , on t h e b a s i s o f D e r r i d a ' s " O f Grammato logy as a p o s i t i v e s c i e n c e , " one m i g h t go so f a r as t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r o r no t F i n n e g a n s Wake i s a . . 18 b o o k . H a v i n g worked so h a r d a t a t t e m p t i n g t o s t a b i l i z e t h e i n t r i n s i c a l l y u n s t a b l e d i s c o u r s e o f J o y c e ' s f i n a l work i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y i t s p l o t s , c h a r a c t e r s , t h e m e s , and m o t i f s , J o y c e s c h o l a r s a r e g r a d u a l l y becoming aware t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f o r g a n i c u n i t y w i t h w h i c h the c o m b i n i n g o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n a l i t e r a r y work i s e f f e c t e d may i t s e l f be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Wake. A g r e a t amount o f t i m e , f o r e x a m p l e , has been d e v o t e d t o i d e n t i f y i n g and t r a n s l a t i n g t h e more than f o r t y l a n g u a g e s upon w h i c h J o y c e drew w h i l e compos ing t h e Wake; b u t w h i l e the e x p e n d i t u r e o f l a b o u r upon t h i s n e c e s s a r y t a s k has made t h e t e x t much more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e b e g i n n i n g Wake r e a d e r , i t may a l s o have had a c o n -c o m i t a n t e f f e c t o f i m p o s i n g a s t a t i c s t r u c t u r e upon t h e i n f i n i t e s e m i o s i s t h a t J o y c e a c h i e v e d i n h i s s t a g i n g o f t h e n a r r a t i v e o f l a n g u a g e i t s e l f . As Heath comments : J o y c e m i g h t have p r e f a c e d F i n n e g a n s Wake w i t h t h e remark t h a t " t h e p r e s e n t work c a n n o t be . . . t r a n s l a t e d . . . . " The s t a t u s o f n o n - t r a n s l a t a b i l i t y d e f i n e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f J o y c e ' s t e x t , w h i c h i s a l r e a d y i t s e l f a m u l t i t u d e o f t r a n s l a t i o n s . C r o s s i n g an immense number o f l a n g u a g e s . . . i n o r d e r t o open up t h e n a r r a t i v e o f l a n g u a g e , J o y c e ' s w r i t i n g b a f f l e s t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f t h e s i n g l e e q u i v a l e n c e s between one l a n g u a g e and a n o t h e r o p e r a t e d by t r a n s l a t i o n . To t r a n s l a t e i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m e a n i n g , t o i s o l a t e t h e s i g n i f i e d i n o r d e r t o pass i t t h r o u g h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s i g n i f i e r o f a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e . N o t h i n g i s more m o n o ! o g i c a l t h a n t r a n s l a t i o n i n i t s dependence on t h e compromise o f t h e s i g n . The w r i t i n g o f F i n n e g a n s Wake i s a w r i t i n g a g a i n s t t h i s l o g i c i n i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e work o f t h e s i g n i f i e r . " ^ 51 The d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g any commenta to r on the Wake ' s c h a r a c t e r s can r e a d i l y be seen i n a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the ALP c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a t i s d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t and s e r v e s , i n p a r t , as a g e n e r a t o r o f v a r i o u s s i g n i f y i n g c h a i n s . Mos t J o y c e s c h o l a r s ag r ee t h a t t h e s e l e t t e r s s i g n i f y Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e , t h e ma jo r f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o r k , t h e w i f e o f HCE, and t h e mothe r o f Shem, S h a u n , and I s s y . The a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h t h i s f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r as one m i g h t dea l w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i n a nove l by D i c k e n s o r even W o o l f , howeve r , i s q u i c k l y u n d e r c u t by t h e f a c t t h a t ALP a l s o s i g n i f i e s t h e r i v e r L i f f e y and t h a t the t e x t a l l o w s f o r no c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two s i g n i f i e d s . The c o m m e n t a t o r ' s p r o b l e m i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by such p a s s a g e s as " A p p r o a c h t o l e a d o u r p a s s a g e . " ( 2 6 2 . 2 ) , w h i c h , as R o l a n d McHugh p o i n t s o u t , a n a g r a m a t i c a l l y 20 f u s e s A n n a ' s i n i t i a l s w i t h t h e name o f P l a t o . Commentary on ALP as a n o v e l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r who s y m b o l i c a l l y d e p i c t s a r i v e r r e a c h e s the l i m i t s o f i t s v o c a b u l a r y w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t ALP a l s o s i g n i f i e s a m o u n t a i n o r a l p — o n e o f t h e many s i g n i f i e d s o f t h e HCE c o n f i g u r a t i o n — a n d t h a t Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e s t a g e s a m i c r o c o s m i c n a r r a t i o n o f b o t h the Wake and t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f l a n g u a g e . A L P , o r A , as J o y c e s i g n i f i e d t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n h i s n o t e b o o k s , i s , as McHugh a r g u e s i n h i s book on 21 J o y c e ' s s i g l a , " u l t i m a t e l y a l l w r i t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y FW i t s e l f . " The sequence o f s i g n s known as Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e comb ines s i g n i f i e r s o f t h e Wake 's n a r r a t i v e f r om t h e i n i t i a l " r i v e r r u n " ( 3 . 1 ) t h r o u g h , o r " v i a , " t h e " L i f f e y i n g w a t e r s o f " ( 2 1 5 . 3 3 - 4 ) t h e t e x t ' s r i v e r o f l a n g u a g e , t o t h e f i n a l " t h e " ( F r e n c h \e i n " P l u r a b e l l e " ) . As a p a r a d i g m o f what Umberto Eco c a l l s t h e Wake ' s " p r o p o s i n g o f i t s e l f as a model o f l a n g u a g e "22 i n g e n e r a l , t n e sequence Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e t r a c e s t h e l i n g u i s t i c 52 e v e n t s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e , as D e r r i d a p o i n t s o u t , t h e " c r u c i a l h i n g e s " i n t h e l i n q u i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Wes te rn w o r l d : t h e deve l opmen t o f l a n g u a g e and t h o u g h t f rom G r e e k , t h r o u g h L a t i n , t o t h e 23 ? N 9/ Modern l a n g u a g e s . Anna i s a pun on t h e Greek :»y_r*f a n d J£ . v o v . i l ( L i d d e l l and S c o t t ) ; L i v i a i s t h e L a t i n f e m i n i n e d e c l e n s i o n o f t h e Roman f a m i l y name L i v i u s ( L e w i s and S h o r t ) ; and P l u r a b e l l e f u s e s t h e F r e n c h 24 f o rms p l u , b e l l e , e l l e , and l_e w i t h t h e L a t i n c o m b i n i n g form p l u r a . A l l o f t h e s i g n i f y i n g e l e m e n t s i n c h a i n s such as Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e can f u n c t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d i f f e r e n t n e t w o r k s o f s i g n i f i -c a t i o n , each one t u r n i n g , t o use D e r r i d a ' s w o r d s , "on i t s s t r a n g e and 25 i n v i s i b l e p o l e . " The Wake i s a d e c e n t e r e d t e x t o f f e r i n g i t s r e a d e r s a p r a c t i c e o f u n l i m i t e d s e m i o s i s , a n d , as M a r g o t N o r r i s n o t e s , none o f i t s " f o r m a l " s i g n i f y i n g e l e m e n t s a r e " a n c h o r e d t o a s i n g l e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e , " o r " r e f e r back t o a c e n t e r . " The d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t f o r t h e r e a d e r who a t t e m p t s t o l i m i t t h e t e x t ' s p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n by f o r c i n g any e l e m e n t t o f u n c t i o n r e f e r e n t i a l l y t o w a r d a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i -f i e d i s t h a t s u c h an a t t e m p t i s " a l w a y s a l r e a d y , " d e f e a t e d by t h e t e x t . Commenting on Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e as a n o v e l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r , a r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f a f e m a l e human b e i n g , a w i f e and m o t h e r , i s a t a s k t h a t w i l l be d e f e a t e d by t h e Wake 's i n s c r i p t i o n o f ALP as a c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g r i v e r o f l a n g u a g e , a " l a n g u o o f f l o w s " ( 6 2 1 . 2 2 ) . The a t t e m p t t o dea l w i t h ALP as t h e t e x t ' s l a n g u a g e i s p r o b l e m a t i c because the Wake i d e n t i -f i e s i t s l a n g u a g e w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l , l i n g u i s t i c u n i v e r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o E c o , i t " p o s i t s i t s e l f , q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y , as the e r s a t z o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l 27 u n i v e r s e o f l a n g u a g e . " The Wake e x p l i c i t l y d e t a i l s i t s t e x t u a l s l i p p a g e as a c o n t i n u a l a l t e r a t i o n i n the i d e n t i t y o f i t s s u b j e c t s : 53 e v e r y p e r s o n , p l a c e and t h i n g i n t h e chaosmos o f A l l e anyway c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e gobb lydumped t u r k e r y was mov ing and c h a n g i n g e v e r y p a r t o f t h e t i m e . ( 1 1 8 . 2 1 - 3 ) The r e a d e r s who f e e l t h a t t h e y have g r a s p e d t h e s u b j e c t o f mean ing o f any o f t h e Wake a r e warned what t h e y a r e d e a l i n g w i t h : as t i m e went on as i t w i l l v a r i o u s l y i n f l e c t e d , d i f f e r e n t l y p r o n o u n c e d , o t h e r w i s e s p e l l e d , c h a n g e a b l y mean ing v o c a b l e s c r i p t s i g n s . ( 1 1 8 . 2 6 - 8 ) S u b j e c t s s h i f t and mean ings c h a n g e . As C o l i n MacCabe s t a t e s : J o y c e ' s t e x t s . . . r e f u s e t h e s u b j e c t any dominan t p o s i t i o n f r om w h i c h l a n g u a g e c o u l d be t a l l i e d w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . . . . F i n n e g a n s Wake [ i s ] c o n c e r n e d n o t w i t h r e p r e s e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h Ianguage b u t w i t h e x p e r i e n c i n g l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h a d e s t r u c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 0 J o y c e was n o t a l o n e i n h i s a t t e m p t t o f r e e l a n g u a g e f r o m the c o n -s t r a i n t s imposed upon i t by t h e demands o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t o p roduce a 29 work i n w h i c h , as he s t a t e d , " [ t ] h e r e a r e i n a way no c h a r a c t e r s . " The p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t t h a t " a b j u r e d e x t e r n a l i t y i n t h e name o f i m a g i n a -t i o n , " was , as E l l m a n n n o t e s , t h e goa l o f b o t h J o y c e ' s f r i e n d Eugene J o l a s and t h e o t h e r a r t i s t s who s i g n e d J o l a s ' " M a n i f e s t o : The R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e W o r d . " I t ' s t r u e t h a t J o y c e d i d no t s i g n t h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n o f the " l i t e r a r y c r e a t o r [ ' s J " f r eedom t o employ an " au tonomous " i m a g i n a t i o n and f r e e l a n g u a g e f r om t h e e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f " e x i s t i n g g r a m m a t i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l l a w s . " He d i d , howeve r , choose f o u r o f t h e w r i t e r s who d i d s i g n t o w r i t e e s s a y s on t h e Wake. These f o u r — E u g e n e J o l a s , R o b e r t S a g e , 54 E l l i o t Pau l , and Stuart G i l b e r t — a p p l i e d the aesthetic p r inc ip les of the i r manifesto, in varying degrees, as they contributed c r i t i ques of the Wake for Our Exagmination Round His F a c t i f i c a t i o n For Incamination Of Work In Progress, and Joyce was quite s a t i s f i e d with his work's being assessed according to these p r i n c i p l e s . He c l e a r l y wished to have the Wake presented in the terms of the manifesto because he directed most of the essays himself . As he to ld Larbaud, he stood behind his "twelve Marshals more or less d i rec t ing them what l i n e s of research to 30 f o l l o w . " The autonomy of language was not only the concern of the wr i ters who signed J o l a s ' manifesto, but also of many of the wr i ters who par t ic ipated in what i s now c a l l e d the Modernist movement. Influenced by such diverse forces as the philosophy of Nietzsche, the symbolism of Blake, and the poetic theories developed by Mallarme' and the other French symbolists, wr i ters l i k e Joyce, E l i o t , and Pound a l l focused c lose ly upon such questions as the re la t ionsh ip between language and expression and the formal constraints imposed upon the wr i ter by h i s t o r i c a l poetic con-ventions. Each, in his own way, attempted to free his wr i t ing from what the manifesto terms the "hegemony of the banal word, monotonous syntax, s t a t i c psychology, [and] descr ipt ive natura l ism," in order to achieve 31 what Hugh Kenner terms "Words Set Free." In a somewhat paradoxical manner, the attempt to free language from h i s t o r i c a l constraints involved a return to some of i t s most d is tant h i s t o r i c a l forms, as in Pound's invest igat ion of the Chinese ideogram and E l i o t ' s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c exploration of the C lass ica l t r a d i t i o n . The return to the past, however, i s always made with the ins ight afforded by Skeat's D ic t ionary : "that 55 m e a n i n g s , a r r a y e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence d i s p l a y a s e a m l e s s i n t e l -l i g i b l e c o n t i n u i t y , " and c l a s s i c a l fo rms can be j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e i r modern d e s c e n d a n t s i n o r d e r t o r e v i t a l i z e l a n g u a g e , o r as the Wake 32 d e s c r i b e s i t , make t h e " s e i m anew" ( 2 1 5 . 2 3 ) . The r e s u l t i s a l a n g u a g e t h a t i s much more a b s t r a c t t han t h a t o f e v e r y d a y speech even though i t may c o n t a i n t h e r h y t h m s , c a d e n c e s and i d i o l e c t i c p a t t e r n s o f t h a t speech w i t h i n i t s e l f . T h u s , two charwomen can s i t and n a t t e r i n the m i d s t o f E l i o t ' s Waste L a n d , and J o y c e c o u l d c l a i m o f the Wake: " R e a l l y i t i s no t I who am w r i t i n g t h i s c r a z y book . I t i s y o u , and y o u , and y o u , 33 and t h a t man o v e r t h e r e , and t h a t g i r l a t t h e n e x t t a b l e . In o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e Wake 's a t t e m p t a t f u s i n g speech i n t o i t s w r i t t e n fo rm w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , i t i s h e l p f u l t o g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e v o l u t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o r i t i s t h e r e , and n o t i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y M o d e r n i s t w r i t i n g , t h a t t h e autonomy o f l a n g u a g e w h i c h J o y c e e m p h a s i z e s i n t h e Wake emerged i n what M i c h e l F o u c a u l t c a l l s t h e 34 " b e g i n n i n g o f the modern a g e . " In t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n l o s t some o f i t s c o n t r o l on l a n g u a g e . I n d e e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n g u a g e and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a ma jo r p o i n t o f c o n t r a s t between t h e l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e N e o - C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d — a p e r i o d F o u c a u l t t e rms C l a s s i c a l — a n d t h a t w h i c h emerged d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The t r a n s p a r e n t q u a l i t y t h a t marked l a n g u a g e ' s d o m i n a t i o n by t h e N e o - C l a s s i c a l c o n c e p t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was r e p l a c e d a t t he b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by a g r o w i n g awareness o f l a n g u a g e ' s d e n s i t y and o p a c i t y . F o u c a u l t s ees t h e s h i f t t h a t o c c u r s i n the v i e w o f l a n g u a g e 56 between t h e s e two p e r i o d s as a p a r t o f one o f the " two g r e a t d i s c o n t i n u i -t i e s i n the e p i s t e m e o f Wes te rn c u l t u r e . " The f i r s t was marked as l a n g u a g e l o s t i t s R e n a i s s a n c e q u a l i t y o f autonomy when i t was g r a d u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e d by N e o - C l a s s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; t h e second i s marked by t h e w e a k e n i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as t h e p r i m a r y means o f o r d e r i n g l a n g u a g e and the g r o w i n g awareness t h a t l a n g u a g e can f u n c t i o n t o s i g n i f y i t s e l f : The t h r e s h o l d between C l a s s i c i s m and m o d e r n i t y . . . had been d e f i n i t e l y c r o s s e d when words c e a s e d t o i n t e r s e c t w i t h r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e a s p o n t a n e o u s g r i d f o r t h e know ledge o f t h i n g s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e y r e d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r a n c i e n t , e n i g m a t i c d e n s i t y . . . . Once d e t a c h e d f r om r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , l a n g u a g e has e x i s t e d , r i g h t up t o o u r own d a y , o n l y i n a d i s p e r s e d way: . . . f o r t h o s e who w i s h t o a c h i e v e a f o r m a l i z a t i o n , l a n g u a g e must s t r i p i t s e l f o f i t s c o n c r e t e c o n t e n t . . . l a n g u a g e may somet imes a r i s e f o r i t s own sake i ru an a c t o f w r i t i n g t h a t d e s i g n a t e s n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i t s e l f . 3 5 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g - - a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s so i m p o r t a n t t o t h e Wake ' s " s p e e c h r e a d i n g " - - a l s o underwent c o n s i d e r a b l e changes as t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y d e s c r i b e d by F o u c a u l t e f f e c t e d a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n t h e v i e w o f l a n g u a g e , a n d , as t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y u n f o l d e d , the autonomy o f l a n g u a g e and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g became the f o c a l p o i n t s f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e . The i n q u i r y i n t o t h e e s s e n c e o f l a n g u a g e became a c o n c e r n t o p h i l o s o p h e r and w r i t e r a l i k e . In l i t e r a t u r e , t h e autonomy o f l a n g u a g e a s s e r t e d i t s e l f w i t h a f o r c e f u l n e s s t h a t r e c a l l s t h e R e n a i s s a n c e v i e w o f l a n g u a g e ' s dense and opaque c h a r a c t e r : 57 f rom H o l d e r l i n t o M a l l a r m e and on t o A n t o n i n A r t a u d — 1 i t e r a t u r e a c h i e v e d autonomous e x i s t e n c e , and s e p a r a t e d i t s e l f f rom a l l o t h e r l a n g u a g e w i t h a deep s c i s s i o n , o n l y by f o r m i n g a s o r t o f " c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e " , and by f i n d i n g i t s way back f rom the r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o r s i g n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e t o t h i s raw b e i n g t h a t had been f o r g o t t e n s i n c e the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 3 6 I f l i t e r a t u r e f u n c t i o n e d as what F o u c a u l t t e rms a " c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e " i n mak ing i t s way back t o a c o n c e p t o f l a n g u a g e ' s au tonomy, i t s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y became i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e s t h a t f o c u s e d upon l a n g u a g e as a key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p y s c h o l o g i c a l m y s t e r i e s o f M a n ' s b e i n g . Thus F r e u d s t u d i e d l i t e r a t u r e i n o r d e r t o comprehend t h e t e x t o f t h e Human p s y c h e , and N i e t z s c h e f u s e d h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g . F o r N i e t z s c h e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o j e c t , a n d , as F o u c a u l t p o i n t s o u t , i n t h e " p h i l o -s o p h i c a l - p h i l o l o g i c a l s p a c e " t h a t N i e t z s c h e o p e n s , " l a n g u a g e w e l l s up i n an e n i g m a t i c m u l t i p l i c i t y t h a t must be m a s t e r e d . " The i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e o f the powers o f good and e v i l were l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o N i e t z s c h e t han t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s p e a k e r who uses t h e te rms i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the s e l f and o t h e r . " I t was n o t , " F o u c a u l t c o n t e n d s , " a m a t t e r o f know ing what good and e v i l were i n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t o f who was b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d , ' o r r a t h e r who was s p e a k i n g " i n u s i n g " A g a t h o s t o d e s i g n a t e o n e s e l f and D e i ! o s t o d e s i g n a t e o t h e r s . " The i m p o r t a n c e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e S y m b o l i s t movement, s h o u l d n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . As F o u c a u l t p o i n t s o u t , t h e " g r e a t t a s k " o f M a l l a r m e ' s e n t i r e w r i t i n g p r o j e c t i s " f u n d a m e n t a l l y a r e p l y t o the q u e s t i o n [ o f who s p e a k s i n l a n g u a g e ] imposed upon p h i l o s o p h y by N i e t z s c h e : 58 To the Nietzschean question: "Who is speaking?", Mallarme replies—and constantly reverts to that reply—by saying that what is speaking i s , in i t s solitude, in i t s fragi le vibration, in i t s nothingness, the word i t se l f—not the meaning of the word, but i t s enigmatic and precarious being. 5 ' The major discontinuity Foucault finds manifest in the texts of Nietzsche and Mallarme' is one which Margot Norris l inks directly to Joyce's production of Finnegans Wake's " l i terary heterodoxy" by con-sidering the Wake as a part of the radical alteration in the concept of structure that occurs in the discontinuity. Derrida details this al tera-tion in the terms of a "rupture,"- a "disruption," and an "'event' ," and sees i t occurring with a reflection upon the concept of structure i t s e l f . "The event I called a rupture," he states, "presumably would have come about when the structural i ty of structure had to begin to be thought." Like Foucault, Derrida considers the rupture as inextricably involved with the return of language's autonomy and the philosophical and l i terary manifestations of this autonomy, or the "moment when language invaded the universal problematic, the moment when, in the absence of a 38 center or or ig in , everything became discourse." Referring to Derrida's account of this rupture, Norris sees the Wake in terms of an attack on structure: The l i terary heterodoxy of Finnegans Wake is the result of Joyce's attack on the traditional concept of structure i t s e l f . This attack was not isolated, but belonged to an "event" or "rupture" in the history of the concept of structure. 59 N o r n ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Wake i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s " r u p t u r e " i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s t r u c t u r e i s s t r e n g t h e n e d somewhat by t h r e e s u r p r i s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between J o y c e and N i e t z s c h e . The N i e t z s c h e s c h o l a r W a l t e r Kaufmann d e s c r i b e s t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s between some o f N i e t z s c h e ' s w r i t i n g s and t h e " c r y p t o g r a m s o f t h e l a t e r J o y c e , " t h e i r " a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r e l i g i o n , " and t h e i r " a d d i c t i o n t o p l a y s i .40 on w o r d s . T h i s i s n o t t o a rgue f o r any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f N i e t z s c h e upon J o y c e , b u t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e Wake ' s " l i t e r a r y h e t e r o d o x y " i s n o t , as N o r r i s n o t e s , an " i s o l a t e d e v e n t , " b u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t and p r a c t i c e o f a d e c e n t e r e d (and d e c e n t e r i n g ) p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g t h a t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e most p o w e r f u l p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s i n the Modern p e r i o d . D e r r i d a l i s t s t h e " N i e t z s c h e a n c r i t i q u e o f m e t a p h y s i c s . . . t h e F r e u d i a n c r i t i q u e o f s e l f - p r e s e n c e . . . and t h e H e i d e g g e r e a n d e s t r u c t i o n o f m e t a p h y s i c s , " as i m p o r t a n t examp les o f d i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h d e c e n t e r i n g and t h e " t h i n k i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e " has " k e p t most c l o s e l y t o 41 i t s r a d i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . " To t h i s l i s t o f examples can be appended t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t i n l a n g u a g e , the p s y c h o -l o g i c a l o r g a n i z i n g o f l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e , and t h e d e c o n s t r u c t i v e d i s -r u p t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f w r i t i n g and speech t h a t J o y c e a c h i e v e s i n F i n n e g a n s Wake. J o y c e ' s d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f speech and w r i t i n g i s n o t a s i m p l e o v e r t u r n i n g o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s and c a n n o t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e t e rms o f a d i a l e c t i c p r o c e s s . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o see i n J o y c e ' s n a r r a t i v e o f l a n g u a g e , as t h e spoken n a r r a t i v e o f Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e , a s i m p l e o v e r t u r n i n g o f the R e n a i s s a n c e v i e w o f speech 60 as the i n f e r i o r f e m a l e p a r t o f l a n g u a g e , b u t the Wake i s o b v i o u s l y no t a l l t o be s p o k e n , o r r e a d a l o u d , o f f t he page . The d i ag r am ALP and t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c p i c t o g r a m s t h a t c o n c l u d e t h e t e n t h c h a p t e r a r e o b v i o u s l y e l e m e n t s i n t h e Wake t h a t c a n n o t be a u r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h o u t b e i n g m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h t h e v i s u a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e page t h a t must p r e c e d e any o r a l d e s c r i p t i v e commentary . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e m u s i c a l s c o r e f o r "The B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " (44)— a p a r t o f t he Wake 's w r i t i n g t h a t appea r s t o demand t h a t t h e r e a d e r p e r f o r m and hea r t h e t e x t r a t h e r t han e x p e r i e n c e i t s o l e l y by r e a d i n g i t on t h e p a g e — c o n t a i n s e l e m e n t s such as t h e c l e f , t h e key s i g n a t u r e , and o t h e r s t a n d a r d e l e m e n t s o f m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e v i s u a l a p p r e h e n s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h i s one p a r t o f t h e t e x t where the r e a d e r m i g h t f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t p a r t s o f t h e Wake demand t o be h e a r d , t h e t e x t s u b v e r t s o r a l p e r f o r m a n c e and a u r a l r e c e p t i o n . Even a c u r s o r y c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e no te and s y l l a b l e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e f i r s t v e r s e w i t h t h e v a r y i n g s y l l a b i c c o u n t i n the s u b s e q u e n t v e r s e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n i s no t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e o r a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e e n t i r e s o n g . The t e x t t h u s f r u s t r a t e s t h e r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n by d e n y i n g him o r he r any s u b j e c t t h a t c o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an o r t h o d o x e x p e r i e n c e o f m u s i c . A b a l l a d , p a r t i c u l a r l y one accompan ied by m u s i c , i s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e , e i t h e r a l o n e o r t o a c com-pany a d a n c e ; "The B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " o f f e r s v e r s e s t h a t c a n n o t be so p e r f o r m e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , much o f t h e Wake does r e q u i r e t h a t the r e a d e r e x p e r i -ence i t a u r a l l y . J o y c e h i m s e l f " d e f e n d e d i t s t e c h n i q u e o r f o rm i n te rms o f m u s i c , " as E l l m a n n n o t e s , " i n s i s t i n g . . . on the i m p o r t a n c e o f sound and rh y thm" as i n t e g r a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e Wake ' s " i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f meaning 61 f r o m f o r m . " He c l e a r l y f e l t t h a t much o f t h e Wake 's mean ing depended on i t s s o u n d , a n d , i n r e s p o n d i n g t o c o m p l a i n t s made by p e o p l e l i k e E z r a Pound and H a r r i e t Weaver t h a t t h e Wake was an o b s c u r e and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r k , J o y c e t o l d C l a u d S y k e s , " I t ' s a l l so s i m p l e . I f anyone d o e s n ' t 43 u n d e r s t a n d a p a s s a g e , a l l he need do i s r e a d i t a l o u d . " The i m p o r -t a n c e o f t h e o r a l a s p e c t o f t h e Wake has even been n o t e d , by W a l t e r J . Ong , a c r i t i c who s t r o n g l y d e n i e s t h a t J o y c e was much i n f l u e n c e d by t r a d i t i o n a l f o rms o f o r a l l i t e r a t u r e . F o r Ong , the Wake i s " v e r y o r a l " 44 because i t " r e a d s w e l l a l o u d . " A g a i n , howeve r , a s s e r t i o n s l i k e t h i s r e q u i r e some q u a l i f i c a t i o n because n o t a l l o f t h e Wake i s " v e r y o r a l . " C h a p t e r E i g h t i n Book One, o r t h e ALP c h a p t e r , i s v e r y o r a l . T h i s i s t h e c h a p t e r f r om w h i c h J o y c e s e l e c t e d t h e f r a g m e n t t h a t he r e c o r d e d a t t h e O r t h o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e and t h e c h a p t e r i n w h i c h he a t t e m p t e d t o o n o m a t o p o e i c a l l y c a p t u r e t h e sound o f f l o w i n g w a t e r , o r , as he t o l d a f r i e n d , " s u b o r d i n a t e words t o [ i t s ] r h y t h m . " 4 5 C h a p t e r Two o f t h e second Book , w i t h i t s t r i p a r t i t e m a r g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n s , t y p o g r a p h i c a l v a r i a t i o n s , and " d r a w i n g s on t h e l i n e " ( 3 0 8 , f n . 2 ) , does n o t l e n d i t s e l f as r e a d i l y t o o r a l p e r f o r m a n c e . A L P ' s m o n o l o g u e , t h e f i n a l passage o f t h e Wake, i s a pa s sage t h a t r e a d s a l o u d v e r y w e l l , and i t i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as " l e a f y " ( l i f f e y o r ALP ) " s p e a f i n g " ( s p e a k i n g ) ( 6 1 9 . 2 0 ) . The r e c o r d o f t h e c o u r t t r i a l s ( 5 7 2 . 1 9 - 5 7 6 . 9 ) , w i t h i t s p a r o d i c i m i t a t i o n o f a c a r e f u l l y - q u a l i f i e d , l a t i n a t e , l e g a l s t y l e o f p r o s e , i s , by way o f c o n t r a s t , a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p a s sage t o r e a d a l o u d and l a c k s the s o n o r o u s and m e l o d i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e f i n a l mono logue . 62 I t wou ld be i n a c c u r a t e t o s u g g e s t t h a t the Wake can be n e a t l y d i v i d e d i n t o such c l e a r examp les o f o r a l and n o n - o r a l s t y l e s . I t o b v i o u s l y c a n n o t . The re a r e , f o r e x a m p l e , many puns i n I I . 2 t h a t depend on the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n sound between w o r d s , and t h e ALP c h a p t e r , no m a t t e r how s u c c e s s f u l i t s o n o m a t o p o e i c e f f e c t , o r how p l e a s i n g i t s s o u n d , r e m a i n s a p r i n t e d and t y p o g r a p h i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f w r i t t e n p r o s e t h a t can be r e a d s i l e n t l y on t h e p a g e , so t o s p e a k . The Wake i s no t composed o f c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t pa s sages t h a t can be n e a t l y d i v i d e d and then l a b e l l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l o r d e g r e e t o w h i c h each p a s s a g e i s s u i t a b l e ( o r u n s u i t a b l e ) f o r o r a l p e r f o r m a n c e , and h e r e , once a g a i n , i t d e f e a t s t h e r e a d e r who w i s h e s t o e s t a b l i s h a s u b j e c t t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e h i m , o r h e r , t o c o r r e l a t e t h e t e x t w i t h t h e e x t r a t e x t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n between spoken and w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , o r between v o c a l i z e d speech and t h e s i l e n t a p p r e h e n s i o n o f w r i t t e n m a r k s . I n s t e a d , t h e Wake p r o f f e r s a n a r r a t i v e o f l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h sound and sense a r e i n t e r w o v e n so t i g h t l y t h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r -d e p e n d e n t . An example o f t h i s i n t e r w e a v i n g i s p r o v i d e d by some o f the c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s ( 2 3 6 . 8 - 1 8 ) o f t h e s e c t i o n B e n s t o c k d e s c r i b e s as t h e "Ra inbow g i r l s s i n g t h e i r paean o f p r a i s e t o t h e i r Sund-God, C h u f f " ( 2 3 6 . 1 - 1 4 ) . These g i r l s a r e o b v i o u s l y w e l l - r e a d p o l y g l o t s , a n d , as t h i s s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s , t h e y s l i p i n r e f e r e n c e s t o I r i s h h i s t o r y ( t h e F o m o r i a n s and P a r t h a l o n ) , T . S . E l i o t ' s P r u f r o c k , B l a k e ' s T h e l , and s n i p p e t s o f Bog L a t i n ( n i o n o n , o r h e a v e n ) , German ( h i n and h e r , o r t h e r e and h e r e , and p a a r , o r p a i r ) , and I t a l i a n ( p a r o l o n e , o r b i g w o r d s ) . These r e f e r e n c e s a r e d e f o r m e d , howeve r , and t h e " r a i n b o w g i r l s " o b v i o u s l y e x p e c t C h u f f t o depend on p a r o n o m a s i a i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s o n g . " P r u f r o c k , " f o r 63 e x a m p l e , i s embedded i n " w i b - f r u r o c k s - f u l 1 " (236.13); " F o m o r i a n s " i s t r u n c a t e d and comb ined i n a pun w i t h " f a r m e r " t o p r o d u c e " F o m o r ' s " (236.9); t h e German Jrm and h e r puns w i t h t h e E n g l i s h " h i m and h e r " ; and t h e name o f t h e I r i s h c o l o n i z e r P a r t h a l o n i s combined i n a m u l t i p l e pun w i t h t h e I t a l i a n p a r a ! o n e and German paa r t o p roduce " p a a r a l o n e " (236.9 & 10), w h i c h a l s o puns on t h e E n g l i s h p a r a d o x i c a l f o r m , " p a i r - a l o n e . " The o b v i o u s i m p o r t a n c e o f sound i n t h i s h e a v i l y p a r o n o m a s t i c pa s sage i s r e i n f o r c e d by i t s use o f t h e rhy thms f rom t h e songs "The Fa rmer i n t h e D e l l , " " S i n g a Song o f S i x p e n c e , " "God R e s t Ye M e r r y G e n t l e m e n , " and "The 46 H o l l y and t h e I v y . " The p a s s a g e c a n , o f c o u r s e , be r e a d s i l e n t l y on t h e p a g e , b u t b o t h t h e song rhy thms and puns a r e f u s e d w i t h the w r i t t e n n a r r a t i v e and s u g g e s t t h a t t h e pas sage s h o u l d be h e a r d as w e l l as r e a d . As two o f t h e few u n e q u i v o c a l l y m o d e r n - E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s i n the passage d e c l a r e : " H e r e a r e n o t e s . T h e r e ' s t h e k e y " (236.11). Of c o u r s e , t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s a l s o a m b i g u o u s : a " n o t e " i s no t o n l y a " w r i t t e n c h a r a c t e r o r s i g n , e x p r e s s i n g t h e p i t c h and d u r a t i o n o f a m u s i c a l s o u n d , " b u t a l s o a " m a r k , s i g n , t o k e n , o r i n d i c a t i o n o f some q u a l i t y , c o n d i t i o n , o r f a c t " (OED) , and a s h o r t , w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t . The key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e d i s t i n c t s u b j e c t s a r e f u s e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s e d e c e p t i v e l y s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s . The " n o t e s " a r e : t h e l e t t e r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e p a s s a g e , a n d , i n d e e d , the e n t i r e t y o f t he Wake 's t y p o g r a p h i c a l f o r m s ; t h e m u s i c a l n o t e s o f the songs f rom w h i c h t h e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s a r e d e r i v e d ; and the v a r i o u s fo rms o f A L P ' s n o t e o r l e t t e r , a l e t t e r w h i c h , as many commenta to rs have n o t e d , e x i s t s i n a s y n e c d o c h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Wake as a w h o l e . The " k e y " t h e s e n o t e s p r o v i d e i s n o t o n l y t he m u s i c a l key o f t h e s o n g s , 64 b u t a l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u r i o u s c i r c u l a r i t y by w h i c h t h e Wake c o n -t i n u a l l y " r e m a r k s " i t s own l a n g u a g e , one o f the " k e y s " t o t h e " d r e a m l a n d " ( 6 1 5 . 2 8 ) o f t h e e n t i r e t e x t . 4 7 The f u s i o n o f sound and s ense i n t h e Wake as a " s e n s e s o u n d " ( 1 2 1 . 1 5 ) p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g i s one o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s by w h i c h the t e x t e f f e c t s 48 what Heath d e s c r i b e s as an o p e n i n g up o f t h e n a r r a t i v e o f l a n g u a g e . F i n n e g a n s Wake does n a r r a t e a s t o r y a b o u t t h e e x p l o i t s o f HCE and the E a r w i c k e r f a m i l y , b u t t h i s s t o r y i s c o n t i n u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e d by b o t h t h e Wake 's s e l f - c o n s c i o u s s t a g i n g o f i t s own l a n g u a g e and i t s e x p l i c i t p o s i t -i n g o f t h a t l a n g u a g e as what Umberto Eco te rms an " E r s a t z o f t h e 49 h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r s e o f l a n g u a g e . " The Wake ' s f u s i o n o f speech and w r i t i n g c an more a c c u r a t e l y be d e s c r i b e d w i t h J a c q u e s D e r r i d a ' s t e rm 50 " ( c o n ) f u s i o n . " T h i s ( c o n ) f u s i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f what Eco d e s c r i b e s as i t s " p r o p o s i n g [ o f ] i t s e l f a s a model o f l a n g u a g e i n 51 g e n e r a l . " U n l i k e U l y s s e s ' "Oxen o f the Sun " c h a p t e r , howeve r , where t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e i s t r a c e d i n a more o r l e s s c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , t h e Wake o p e r a t e s by d i s m a n t l i n g e t y m o l o g i c a l fo rms f r om t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d c o n t e x t - - a p r o c e s s i t t e rms t h e " a b n i h i l i s a t i o n  o f t h e e t ym" ( 3 5 3 . 2 2 ) - - a n d r e c o m b i n i n g them i n o r d e r t o s e t them t o work i n t h e Wake 's u n l i m i t e d s e m i o t i c n e t w o r k . The f r a g m e n t e d fo rms r e t a i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d s i g n v a l u e b u t a l s o a c q u i r e new v a l u e s t h r o u g h t h e i r v i o l e n t c o l l i s i o n w i t h o t h e r fo rms i n the comp lex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Wake 's m u l t i p l e p u n s . An example o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s t h e c o m b i n i n g o f t h e L a t i n aj> n i h i l , o r " f r o m , " " o u t o f , " " s i n c e , " and " a f t e r , " " n o t h i n g " ( L e w i s and S h o r t ) , w i t h t h e modern E n g l i s h fo rm " a n n i h i l a t e , " " t o r e d u c e t o n o t h i n g " (OED, t h e fo rm d e r i v e s , o f c o u r s e , f rom a n - n i h i l o , 65 " t o b r i n g t o n o t h i n g " [ L e w i s and S h o r t ] ) . In the p h r a s e " a b n i h i l i s a t i o n  o f t h e e t y m , " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e o u t o f n o t h i n g and t h e modern r e d u c t i o n o f t h e atom t o n o t h i n g a r e comb ined t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e Wake o p e r a t e s by d i s m a n t l i n g o r t h o d o x l i n g u i s t i c fo rms i n t o t h e i r component morphemes and r e c o m b i n i n g them i n i t s m u l t i p l e puns (much as t h e atom i s b r o k e n down and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c o m b i n e d i n t o new f o r m s ) . E l s e w h e r e , t h e t e x t i s d e s c r i b e d as " p r e p r o v i d e d " w i t h a " s m e l t i n g w o r k s " where l a n g u a g e i s m e l t e d down i n t o " s e p a r a t e d e l e m e n t s o f p r e c e d e n t d e c o m p o s i t i o n f o r t h e v e r y p e t p u r p o s e o f s u b s e q u e n t r e c o m b i n a t i o n " ( 6 1 4 . 3 1 - 3 5 ) . A t t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l , t h i s p r o c e s s i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e f u s i n g t o g e t h e r o f such d i s p a r a t e n a r r a t i v e p a r t i c l e s as t h e f a l l o f t h e towe r o f Babe l and t h e n u r s e r y rhyme "Rockabye Baby " i n t o " R o c k a b y , b a b e l , f l a t t e n a w a l l " ( 2 7 8 . 1 4 ) . The l a c k o f any p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the l i n e a r c h r o n o l o g i c a l deve l opmen t o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e Wake 's p o s i t i n g o f i t s e l f as a model o f the h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c u n i v e r s e i s , i n p a r t , a r e s u l t o f J o y c e ' s d e c i s i o n t o a t t e m p t a w r i t i n g o f l a n g u a g e a s i t o c c u r s i n s l e e p , o r , as he s t a t e d , t o " p u t 52 t he l a n g u a g e t o s l e e p . " The Wake i s a model o f t he h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r s e o f l a n g u a g e as t h i s l a n g u a g e m i g h t appea r i n the dream w o r l d . T h i s "d reambookpage " ( 4 2 8 . 1 6 ) l a n g u a g e i s e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o a work t h a t p o s i t s i t s e l f as a dream w h i c h i t s c h a r a c t e r s e x p e r i e n c e because the u n c o n s c i o u s , as J a c q u e s Lacan has s u g g e s t e d , r e c e i v e s i t s s t a t u s f rom t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c u n i v e r s e . I t i s , Lacan n o t e s , " t h e c o m b i n a -t o r y o p e r a t i o n [ o f l i n q u i s t i c s ] f u n c t i o n i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y , o f i t s e l f , i n a p r e s u b j e c t i v e way" t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h " a s s u r e s us . . . t h e r e i s benea th t h e t e r m u n c o n s c i o u s , s o m e t h i n g d e f i n a b l e , a c c e s s i b l e 66 and o b j e c t i f i a b l e . " In o r d e r t o s i m u l a t e t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s r e a l m o f t h e Wake 's " d r e a m l a n d , " J o y c e based much o f t h e Wake, as e a r l i e r n o t e d , on t h e r a d i c a l t e c h n i q u e o f the u n i v e r s a l p u n , and s t r u c t u r e d h i s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e l i n q u i s t i c u n i v e r s e s y n c h r o n i -54 c a l l y . J o y c e had used t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f s y n c h r o n y i n U l y s s e s , as Hugh Kenne r d e m o n s t r a t e s , b u t n o t as e x t e n s i v e l y as he l a t e r u sed i t i n t h e Wake where e l e m e n t s o f Hebrew, c l a s s i c a l Greek and L a t i n a r e f u s e d w i t h e l e m e n t s f r om o l d , m i d d l e , and modern E n g l i s h , t he o l d f o rms o f Chu r ch S l a v o n i c , F r e n c h , I c e l a n d i c , and N o r s e , and t h e modern fo rms o f 55 more t h a n f o r t y l a n g u a g e s . In t h e Wake, t h e s e l a n g u a g e s e x i s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n a n a r r a t i o n o f t h e Wes te rn h i s t o r y o f l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e d s y n c h r o n i c a l l y , o r , t o use K e n n e r ' s w o r d s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t " a l l t h a t e x i s t s e x i s t s o n l y now, and the p a s t i s r e a l 56 o n l y as I i m a g i n e i t . " In t e rms o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g , t h e Wake ' s use o f s y n c h r o n y , combined w i t h i t s r a d i c a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e p u n — a n d t h e p u n ' s dependence on p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y needs t o be c o n t i n u a l l y e m p h a s i z e d — e n a b l e s i t t o s t a g e w r i t i n g as a fo rm o f l a n g u a g e t h a t c o e x i s t s w i t h speech i n an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Umberto E c o ' s "The S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r " p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s y s t em o f a n a l y s i s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e Wake ' s p a r o n o m a s i a n f u s i o n o f speech and w r i t i n g . Each o f t h e puns i s , as Eco n o t e s , a m u l t i p l e me taphor and a " f o r c e d c o n t i g u i t y between two o r more w o r d s . " 5 7 " E p i s t l e , " p l u s " p i s t o l , " p l u s " t o l l , " p l u s " e a r , " f o r e x a m p l e , p r o d u c e s " e p i s t o l e a r " ( 3 8 . 2 3 ) , one o f t h e many t e rms w i t h w h i c h t h e Wake i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f . The f o r c e d c o n t i g u i t y between t h e te rms t h a t a r e e l i d e d i n t h i s p u n , howeve r , a l l o w s f o r a s e r i e s o f d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g s . The i m m e d i a t e 67 c o n t e x t f o r t h i s t e r m i s a d i s c u s s i o n between t h e C a d ' s w i f e and he r " r e v e r e n d , t h e d i r e c t o r " ( 3 8 . 1 8 - 1 9 ) , i n w h i c h rumours a b o u t HCE ' s i n d i s -c r e t i o n and h i s m e e t i n g w i t h t h e Cad i n t h e pa rk a r e s p r e a d by word o f mouth a l o n g a c h a i n o f p e o p l e who a r e o b v i o u s l y o n l y t oo e a g e r t o d i s -s e m i n a t e t h e g o s s i p . The C a d ' s w i f e i s w i l l i n g to i n f o r m t h e r e v e r e n d as l o n g as " t h e g o s s i p l e so d e l i v e r e d i n h i s e p i s t o l e a r , b u r i e d t e a t o a s t a l l y i n t h e i r I r i s h s t ew w o u l d go no f u r t h e r t h a n h i s J e s u i t ' s c l o t h " ( 3 8 . 2 3 - 4 ) . The f a c t t h a t t h e w i f e ' s c o n f i d a n t i s a " r e v e r e n d " who wears a " J e s u i t ' s c l o t h " p r o v i d e s an o b v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f " t o l l " and " e p i s t l e " i n t h i s t e rm w h i c h i s a pun on the " r e v e r e n d " as an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l " e p i s t o l e r . " The rumour o f t he C a d ' s m e e t i n g w i t h HCE p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h e news t h a t t h e r e v e r e n d h e a r s c o n c e r n s a " p i s t o l " b e c a u s e d u r i n g t h e p a r k e n c o u n t e r HCE f e e l s " u n w i s h f u l " o f " b e i n g h u r l e d i n t o e t e r n i t y r i g h t t h e n , p l u g g e d by a s o f t - n o s e d b u l l e t f r om t h e s a p " ( 3 5 . 2 4 - 6 ) . The pun " e p i s t o l e a r , " t h e n , p r o v i d e s a n e a t a c c o u n t o f t he r e v e r e n d as an e p i s t o l e r who w o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t o l l i n g o f b e l l s and who h e a r s a b o u t HCE ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h someone whom he f e a r s m i g h t s h o o t h i m . As Eco d e m o n s t r a t e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e rm " m e a n d e r t a l e " and " J u n g f r a u d m e s s o n g e , " t h e m u l t i p l e m e t a p h o r s t h a t compose the Wake 's puns f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e i m m e d i a t e n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r , b u t a l s o as " p u n - l e x e m e s " t h a t o p e r a t e as a "me ta-••58 p h o r i c s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t can be s a i d abou t the b o o k . T h i s s e cond f u n c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e be cause each pun i s s u p p o r t e d by c h a i n s o f " s u b j a c e n t c o n t i g u i t i e s " t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e m i o t i c and s e m a n t i c 68 network o f t h e book . The l exemes t h a t o c c u r i n t h e s e c h a i n s a r e a s s o c i -a t e d t h r o u g h e i t h e r a s e m a n t i c o r p h o n e t i c r e s e m b l a n c e t o the l exemes w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e c o n t i g u o u s , and t r a v e r s i n g t h e s e a s s o c i a t i v e c h a i n s r e v e a l s t h a t each o f t h e l exemes c a n , i n t u r n , " f u n c t i o n as the a r c h e t y p e o f an a s s o c i a t i v e s e r i e s w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o the r e c u p e r a t i o n , s o o n e r o r l a t e r , o f t he a s s o c i a t i v e t e r m i n a l s o f a n o t h e r l e x e m e . " Such a ne twork s u p p o r t s the Wake 's s t a t u s as a "model o f t he G l o b a l S eman t i c S y s t e m , " b e c a u s e , as Eco p o i n t s o u t , i t p r o v i d e s : t h e v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l a n g u a g e c o n s i d e r e d as t h e p l a c e o f u n l i m i t e d semi os i s . . . where each t e rm i s e x p l a i n e d by o t h e r t e rms and where each one i s , t h r o u g h an i n f i n i t e c h a i n o f i n t e r -p r e t a n t s , p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l a i n a b l e by a l l o t h e r s . 5 9 E c o ' s method f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e Wake a l l o w s the r e a d e r t o t r a c e t h e c i r c u l a r , s e m a n t i c and p h o n e t i c c h a i n s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e t e x t ' s l e x e m a t i c f i e l d and o b s e r v e how t h e Wake 's mean ing i s d e t e r m i n e d no t o n l y by i t s l i n e a r and c o n t i g u o u s s y n t a c t i c a l u n i t s , b u t a l s o by a c i r c u l a r ne twork o f l exemes t h a t do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p e a r t o g e t h e r i n the s e n t e n c e s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e l i n e a r , n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u u m . In the n a r r a -t i o n o f t h e C a d ' s w i f e d e l i v e r i n g t h e " g o s s i p l e " t o t h e " e p i s t o l e a r " o f t he " r e v e r e n d , " f o r e x a m p l e , t h e l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e s an a c c o u n t o f t he w i f e o f one o f HCE ' s enemies g o s s i p i n g t o he r c l e r g y m a n abou t some-t h i n g t h a t she has h e a r d c o n c e r n i n g HCE. In t h e c i r c u l a r ne twork o f l exemes t h a t f u n c t i o n t h r o u g h s e m a n t i c a n d / o r p h o n e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n , howeve r , t h i s e p i s o d e i s a m e t a p h o r i c r e m a r k i n g o f the e n t i r e book as the l e t t e r t h a t i s d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e midden heap and t h e words t h a t ALP employs t o p i e r c e t h e e a r o f t h e f a l l e n HCE. As t h e C a d ' s w i f e i s 69 g o s s i p i n g , she can be s a i d t o be d i r t y i n g , o r ' d u m p i n g ' ' d i r t ' on H C E ' s r e p u t a t i o n , and t h i s i s t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s r e p e a t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g o f A L P ' s l e t t e r : " D e a r . And we go on t o D i r t d u m p " ( 6 1 5 . 1 2 ) . T h i s s a l u t a -t i o n i s r e p e a t e d e l s e w h e r e as " D e a r . . . and I go on t o , " b u t i n t h e r e p e t i t i o n t h e " R e v e r e n d " i s s u p p r e s s e d f o r the moment and the i n i t i a l s " F . M . " a r e u sed ( 2 8 0 . 8 - 1 2 ) . Because t h e s e a r e the i n i t i a l s o f b o t h F i n n M a C o o l , one o f H C E ' s a v a t a r s , and " F a t h e r M i c h a e l " t he p r i e s t whose " f u n f e r a l l " i s d e s c r i b e d i n y e t a n o t h e r r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r ( 1 1 1 ) , t h e r e a d e r i s a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e t h e two and r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e C a d ' s w i f e i s a d d r e s s i n g HCE i n t h e g u i s e o f t h e " r e v e r e n d . " The Wake 's i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f i t s e l f as a b i b l e i n " c h i n o o k b i b l e " ( 2 1 2 . 3 3 ) , " g o s p e l l y p e w m i l l i e u " ( 5 5 2 . 2 7 - 8 ) , and " a u t h o r d u x Book o f L i e f " ( 4 2 5 . 2 0 ) e n a b l e s t h e r e a d e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n c o m b i n i n g ' g o s p e l ' w i t h ' g o s s i p ' i n he r " g o s s i p l e , " t h e C a d ' s w i f e i s r e p e a t i n g A L P ' s message t o HCE and i s , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h A L P . In mak ing t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , t he r e a d e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a t e x t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d p r o c e s s , o r , as Eco s t a t e s , " t h e r e a d e r o f FW, c o n t r o l l e d by t h e t e x t , i s i n f a c t l e d i n t o [ t h i s ] 60 game o f a s s o c i a t i o n . " These a s s o c i a t i o n s can be e i t h e r p h o n e t i c and h e a r d , o r t y p o g r a p h i c a l and s e e n . In o r d e r t o employ E c o ' s method t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e Wake 's i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f i t s e l f as a w r i t i n g f o r t h e e a r as w e l l as t h e e y e , t h e p r e s e n t e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Wake w i l l t r a c e a c h a i n o f c o n t i g u o u s l exemes t h a t s u p p o r t t h e t e x t ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f i t s e l f a s a w r i t t e n l e t t e r f o r t h e h e a r i n g , o r an ' e p i s t l e ' ' t o ' ' V ' ( F r . l_a e l i d e d t o V) ' e a r ' — a n " e p i s t o l e a r . " Eco n o t e s i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f " m e a n d e r t h a l t a l e " t h a t t h e r e a r e two ways i n w h i c h t h i s t r a c i n g can be done . The f i r s t i s t o 70 f o l l o w t h e c h a i n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e l exeme ' e p i s t o l e r ' (a l exeme t h a t does n o t a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t ) i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e the mechanisms t h a t l e d J o y c e t o m o d i f y i t t o " e p i s t o l e a r . " The s e c o n d , o r " i n v e r s e p r o c e s s , " i s t o s t a r t w i t h t h e m u l t i p l e pun " e p i s t o l e a r " and then " t r a c e " i t back t o i t s o r i g i n a l c o m p o n e n t s . " These two p a t h s c o i n c i d e , howeve r , and i n E c o ' s w o r d s , " t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t we can c o n c e i v e o f two p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s i n d i -c a t e s " t h i s c o i n c i d e n c e : i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n v e n t the pun because i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e a d i t ; l a n g u a g e , as a c u l t u r a l b a s e , s h o u l d be a b l e t o a l l o w bo th o p e r a t i o n s . 6 ^ As w i t h E c o ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l t r a c e t h e c i r c u l a r c h a i n o f l exemes by r e a s o n i n g " i n t e r m s — h o w e v e r i m p e r f e c t l y d e f i n e d — o f ' a s s o c i a t i o n ' ( p h o n e t i c and s e m a n t i c ) , " i n o r d e r t o map o u t t h e Wake 's s e m a n t i c n e t w o r k . U n l i k e E c o ' s s t u d y , howeve r , t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l f o c u s p r i m a r i l y on metonymic te rms t h a t s u p p o r t t he Wake ' s c o d i f i c a -t i o n o f i t s w r i t i n g as an " e a r i s h " ( 1 3 0 . 1 9 ) l a n g u a g e . The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f ' e p i s t o l e r ' t o " e p i s t o l e a r " p r o d u c e s a pun i n w h i c h the l exeme ' e a r ' i s f u s e d w i t h the l exeme ' e p i s t l e . ' ' E a r ' i s an i m p o r t a n t l exeme i n t h e Wake ' s c o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t s e l f as a w r i t i n g i n e x t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d w i t h phonog raphy . I t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n the t e x t a l o n e , a n d , i n t h e puns " E a r w i c k e r , " " e a r w a k e r s " ( 3 5 1 . 2 5 ) , " e a r s i g h t e d " ( 1 4 3 . 9 ) , and " e a r w a n k e r " ( 5 2 0 . 0 6 ) , o p e r a t e s as p a r t o f t he ma jo r t e x t u a l u n i t s g e n e r a t e d by t h e HCE c o n f i g u r a t i o n . In t h e n a r r a t i v e o f HCE as " t h e b i g c l e a n m i n d e d g i a n t H .C . E a r w i c k e r " ( 3 3 . 2 9 - 3 0 ) , " e a r " i s i m p o r t a n t as a p a r t o f t h e l exemes t h a t s i g n i f y HCE ' s d e a f n e s s (he i s " e a r s h o t " 71 [ 4 2 6 . 3 5 ] ) as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f h i s f a l l e n c o n d i t i o n . As a f a l l e n , s l e e p i n g , g i a n t , a " b r o t o i c h t h y a n f o r m o u t l i n e d a s l umbered ( 7 . 2 0 - 2 1 ) , HCE l i e s " a u d i u r i e n t " ( 2 3 . 2 1 ) , o r , as J o y c e e x p l a i n e d t o Weaver , " l o n g [ i n g ] t o h e a r , " and the Wake 's r i v e r o f l a n g u a g e , o r " l a n g u o o f f l o w s " ( 6 2 1 . 2 2 ) , has e v a p o r a t e d t o fo rm a c l o u d c o v e r , o r " W o l k e n c a p " ( 2 3 . 2 1 ) , o v e r t h e " H i l l " ( 2 3 . 1 7 ) o f h i s s l e e p i n g f o r m . H i s " h i l l b e g i n s t o be c l o u d e d o v e r , " J o y c e e x p l a i n e d t o Weaver , " i n t h e e f f o r t t o „63 h e a r . The i n a b i l i t y t o h e a r i s an i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e o f HCE s f a l l e n and s l e e p i n g c o n d i t i o n . ALP a t t e m p t s t o t a l k t o H C E — " W i t h l i p t h she l i t h p e t h t o h im a l l t o t i m e o f t h u c h on t huch and thow and thow" ( 2 3 . 2 3 - 4 ) — b u t H C E ' s o n l y r e s p o n s e i s s t a g e d as a c u r s e (a pun on the German v e r f l u c h t ) and l a m e n t o v e r h i s i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r , " H a i r f l u k e , i f he c o u l d bad t w i g h e r " ( 2 3 . 2 5 ) . HCE ' s h e a r i n g r e m a i n s i m p a i r e d , and t h e sound o f A L P ' s v o i c e f a i l s t o t o u c h him as " I m p a l p a -b u n t , he a b h e a r s " ( 2 3 . 2 5 - 6 ) . As J o y c e ' s e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s h o r t s e n t e n c e r e v e a l s , H C E ' s d e a f n e s s keeps h im i n a f a l l e n and h o p e l e s s s t a t e : " H i s e a r s h a v i n g f a i l e d , he c l u t c h e s w i t h h i s h a n d , m i s s e s and 64 t u r n s away h o p e l e s s and u n h e a r i n g . " The theme o f H C E ' s d e a f n e s s and the p a r t t h i s d e a f n e s s p l a y s i n t h i s f a l l e n c o n d i t i o n and c o n c o m i t a n t s e p a r a t i o n f r om ALP i s s u s t a i n e d by a s e r i e s o f puns i n v o l v i n g t h e l exeme " e a r , " and many o f t h e s e puns a r e d e v e l o p e d i n v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e " E a r w i c k e r " name. As a t e x t t h a t a t t e m p t s t o combine speech and w r i t i n g o r " t o make soundsense and s ensesound k i n a g a i n " ( 1 2 1 . 1 5 ) , t h e Wake i s an a t t e m p t t o awaken ( t h e pun i s o b v i o u s l y o p e r a t i v e i n t h e t i t l e ) t h e s l e e p i n g HCE, and i t p o s i t s i t s e l f as a p r o d u c t o f Shem, who p o s s e s s e s an " e a r w a k e r ' s p e n s i l e " ( 1 7 3 . 9 - 1 0 ; 72 emphas i s a d d e d ) . Shem, as many commenta to rs have n o t e d , i s one m a n i -f e s t a t i o n o f HCE ( s i n c e one o f HCE 1 s names i s "Here Comes E v e r y b o d y " [ 3 2 . 1 9 ] , a l l o f t h e Wake ' s c h a r a c t e r s can be c o n s i d e r e d as such ) a n d , i n a me taphor l i n k i n g w r i t i n g (a p r o c e s s t h a t can be d e s c r i b e d as t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a p e n c i l o r o t h e r t o o l f o r i n s c r i p t i o n ) , Shem i s a p p r o -p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as u s i n g h i s p e n c i l , o r " p e n s i l e , " t o p e n e t r a t e h i s own e a r , o r " r o o t w i t h e a r w a k e r ' s p e n s i l e i n the o u t e r o f h i s l a u s c h e r " ( 1 7 3 . 9 - 1 0 ) . Whether o r n o t HCE does wake up i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t has s p a r k e d c o n -s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e , and t h e Wake i t s e l f , a t l e a s t as i t i s u n d e r s t o o d a t t he p r e s e n t t i m e , seems t o s u p p o r t two o p p o s i n g v i e w s . F o l l o w i n g t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f " A r r a y ' S u r r e c t i o n " ( 5 9 3 . 3 - 4 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e q u e s t i o n "You mean t o see we have j u s t been h a d d i n g a sound n i g h t ' s s l e e p ? " ( 5 9 7 . 1 - 2 ) ( " s e e " as a pun on " s a y " a l s o s u s t a i n s t h e Wake 's f u s i o n o f w r i t t e n s ense and h e a r d sound) c o u l d be a s k e d by a w a k i n g HCE, w h i c h w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e v i ew o f c r i t i c s , l i k e B e n s t o c k , who see the Wake as a " c o m i c e p i c " i n wh i ch HCE does awaken and e x p e r i e n c e a r e s u r r e c t i o n . The f i n a l passage o f the Wake, howeve r , i s the monologue i n w h i c h , " s p e a f i n g " ( 6 1 9 . 2 0 ) , o r s p e a k i n g , t o HCE, ALP commands him " R i s e u p , man o f t h e h o o t h s , you have s l e p t so l o n g " ( 2 1 9 . 2 5 - 6 ) , and t h i s monologue i s c i t e d by c r i t i c s l i k e F r y e , who v i e w s the Wake as " t h e c h i e f 65 i r o n i c e p i c o f o u r t i m e " because " F i n n e g a n n e v e r r e a l l y wakes u p . " The f i n a l v e r s i o n o f A L P ' s l e t t e r (615-619) o f f e r s a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r such d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n by p o s i t i n g two w o r l d s and two v e r s i o n s o f HCE: 73 Here g i v e s y o u r a n s w e r , p i g s and s c u t s . 1 Hence w e ' v e l i v e d i n two w o r l d s . He i s a n o t h e r he what s t a y s under t h e himp o f h o l t h . The he r ewake r o f o u r hamefame i s h i s r e a l namesame who w i l l g e t h i m s e l f up and e r e c t , c o n f i d e n t and h e r o i c . ( 6 1 9 . 9 - 1 3 ) Because o f t h e Wake ' s c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e , whereby t h e f i n a l s e n t e n c e l e a d s t h e r e a d e r back t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t e x t , t h i s " a n o t h e r h e " w i l l , o f c o u r s e , r e m a i n u n d e r t h e "h imp o f h o l t h " o r "Howth " as the " r i v e r r u n " ( 3 . 1 ) o f t h e t e x t ' s l a n g u a g e a lways " b r i n g s us . . . b a c k " ( 3 . 2 ) t o t h e t e x t ' s r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e " g r e a t f a l l " ( 3 . 3 0 - 3 1 ) . In t e rms o f t h e ne twork o f l exemes t h a t s u s t a i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f HCE as s l e e p i n g and c o n s e q u e n t l y u n a b l e t o h e a r A L P ' s v o i c e , HCE r e m a i n s s l e e p i n g . More i m p o r t a n t l y f o r t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , howeve r , A L P ' s l e t t e r does p r e d i c t t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e , he r v o i c e w i l l f i n a l l y p e n e t r a t e HCE ' s " e a r s h e l l s " ( 4 3 5 . 1 9 ) and t h a t , upon h e a r i n g he r command " R i s e u p , man o f t h e h o o t h s , y o u have s l e p t so l o n g . . . R i s e up now and a r u s e " ( 6 1 9 . 2 5 - 9 ) ( a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e Greek f o r m _ c ( v c A i s a c o n t r a c t i o n o f <xvwtf-T_r)9 liv"upJ_ a r i s e ! " [ L i d d e l l and S c o t t ] ) , " E a r w i c k e r w i l l become " h e r e w a k e r " r e g a i n i n g , as he " g e t [ s ] h i m s e l f u p , " h i s " r e a l namesame." T h i s " r e a l namesame," w i t h i t s pun on the s i m i l a r i t y i n sound between the l exemes " h e a r " and " h e r e , " o p e r a t e s , i n p a r t , on a c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e P l a t o n i c l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t p r e f e r s speech o v e r w r i t i n g because o f i t s power t o g u a r a n t e e an immed iacy and p r e s e n c e ( o f t h e s p e a k e r t o h i s o r h e r l a n g u a g e , o f t h e l i s t e n e r t o t h e s p e a k e r , o f l a n g u a g e t o the mean ing i t c a r r i e s , a n d , i n t h e Wake 's pun on " h e a r " and " h e r e , " o f HCE fifi t o A L P ) , an immed iacy o f w h i c h w r i t i n g i s i n c a p a b l e . 74 The lexeme " e a r " a l s o f u n c t i o n s as an a r c h e t y p a l t e r m i n a l i n t h e s e r i e s o f l exemes t h a t s u p p o r t t h e m u l t i p l e pun by w h i c h HCE i s i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h " P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y . " As E l l m a n n n o t e s , J o y c e a s s o c i a t e d the word " e a r w i g " w i t h E a r w i c k e r , and he s p e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e t im e i n v e s t i g a t i n g the i n s e c t , " e ven t o t h e p o i n t o f w r i t i n g t h e e n t o m o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r y o f t h e Museum N a t i o n a l d ' H i s t o i r e N a t u r a l l e f o r p a p e r s on f o r f i c u l a . " He knew o f a l e g e n d i n w h i c h " C a i n g o t t h e i d e a o f b u r i a l f rom w a t c h i n g an e a r w i g b e s i d e h i s dead b r o t h e r A b e l , " and i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e e a r w i g ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d e a t h and b u r i a l i n t o t h e s t o r y o f HCE ' s f a l l . The F r e n c h t e rm p e r c e - o r e i l l e , o r " p i e r c e e a r , " a p p e a l e d t o J o y c e , and i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e name o f P e r c y O ' R e i l l y , " a famous p l a y e r . . . i n t h e A l l I r e l a n d P o l o C l u b , " p r o v i d e d a pun t h a t e n a b l e d him t o g i v e HCE y e t a n o t h e r i d e n t i t y . 6 7 "The B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " (44-47) p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t , a l b e i t f rom t h e p r e j u d i c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f " H o s t y , " o f HCE ' s f a l l , a n d , l i k e t h e l e t t e r d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e midden h e a p , f u n c t i o n s 68 as a m i c r o c o s m o f the Wake ' s n a r r a t i o n o f t h i s l a p s e . The s e m a n t i c l i n k o f " i n s e c t " t h a t o p e r a t e s i n t h e e a r w i g - - p e r c e - o r e i 11 e pun i s , i n t u r n , a l s o i n v o l v e d i n a pun on t h e d e s i r e o f " i n c e s t " t h a t the Wake ' s dream n a r r a t e s . As B u r g e s s n o t e s : " E a r w i c k e r , " s u g g e s t i n g e a r w i g , i s a l s o a b e g e t t e r o f s y m b o l i c e n t o m o l o g y . [HCE] . . . f e e l s c a r n a l d e s i r e f o r h i s d a u g h t e r , a n d , one t h i n k s , a l s o f o r h i s son K e v i n , b u t h i s dream i s u n -w i l l i n g t o p r e s e n t h im w i t h t h e d r e a d e d word i n c e s t . T h i s has t o be m e t a t h e t i s e d t o i n s e c t , w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s t h e d e r m a p t e r a l t o c r a w l o u t o f h i s surname t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t h i s P r o t e s t a n t N o r d i c i n n k e e p e r can p r e s e n t h i m s e l f as the I r i s h p a t r i o t P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y . 6 9 75 I t i s s o m e t h i n g o f an i r o n y , o r what t h e Wake, w i t h a l exeme g e n e r a t e d f r om " e a r , " t e rms an " e a r n y " ( 1 2 5 . 2 2 ) , t h a t the I r i s h a v a t a r o f HCE p o s s e s s e s a name t h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n a pun on the F r e n c h fo rm o f e a r w i g , b u t i t s h o u l d be k e p t i n m ind t h a t f o r a l l o f i t s use o f I r i s h h i s t o r y , m y t h , and g e o g r a p h y , F i n n e g a n s Wake n a r r a t e s a u n i v e r s a l , r a t h e r t han I r i s h - n a t i o n a l i s t , s t a g i n g o f Man and l a n g u a g e . The Wake i s d e s -c r i b e d as an " I r i s h s t e w " ( 1 9 0 . 9 ) t w i c e i n i t s n a r r a t i v e , b u t on one o c c a s i o n t h e t e rm i s used by t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c Shaun i n a d i s p a r a g i n g d i a t r i b e a imed a t h i s b r o t h e r ( 1 8 9 . 2 8 - 1 9 0 . 9 ) , a n d , on t h e o t h e r , i t appea r s as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o m p l i c i t y between t h e C a d ' s w i f e and h e r J e s u i t " r e v e r e n d " i n t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f g o s s i p a b o u t HCE ' s i n d i s c r e -t i o n s . 7 ^ In t h e m u c h - l e s s p a r t i s a n n a r r a t i v e o f grammar (266-70) t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n i g h t ! e s s o n c h a p t e r ( 1 1 . 2 ) , t he Wake i s a s tew com-posed o f books and e v e n i n g e v e n t s : " S t ew o f t h e e v e n i n g , b o o k s y f u l s t e w " ( 2 6 8 . 1 4 - 1 5 ) . The I r i s h d i a l e c t i c v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e E n g l i s h l anguage p r o v i d e , as Ron E. Bucka l e w n o t e s , a " m i n d - b o g g l i n g " "number o f p o s s i b i l -i t i e s f o r p u n n i n g and o t h e r w o r d p l a y , " and J o y c e c e r t a i n l y e x p l o i t e d t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s as much as he c o u l d i n o r d e r t o p roduce a w r i t i n g i n w h i c h sound i s i n c o r p o r a t e d . 7 1 Such I r i s h v a r i a t i o n s o f the E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t n o t because t h e y a r e I r i s h , howeve r , bu t because t h e y appea l t o t h e e a r and p r o v i d e , as Bucka l ew p o i n t s o u t , a w ide r ange o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p u n n i n g . The Wake 's b a s i c l a n g u a g e i s , as P a r r i n d e r n o t e s , " s p e c i f i c a l l y , modern E n g l i s h , " b u t i t s p a r o n o m a s t i c f u s i o n o f t h i s E n g l i s h w i t h f o rms f r o m o v e r f o r t y o t h e r l a n g u a g e s a t t e m p t s t o p r o d u c e n o t an E n g l i s h o r I r i s h l a n g u a g e , b u t one t h a t i s b o t h " e a r o p e a n " ( 5 9 8 . 1 5 ) and " e a r i s h " ( 1 3 0 . 1 9 ) . 7 2 76 The F r e n c h sound o f t h e I r i s h name n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e l exemes " P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " s t a g e a name t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t r a y a l and s c e p t i c i s m — t w o t e rms w h i c h a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f 73 J o y c e ' s own v i e w s on I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s m . The b a l l a d t h a t b e a r s O ' R e i l l y ' s name, f o r e x a m p l e , i s a c e l e b r a t i o n o f HCE ' s f a l l . HCE i s c a l l e d a " s o f f s o a p i n g s a l e s m a n " ( 4 5 . 2 9 ) , and t h e song s c e p t i c a l l y r emarks on h i s b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s : " S m a l l wonder H e ' l l C h e a t E ' e rawan o u r l o c a l l a d s n i cknamed h i m " ( 4 6 . 1 ) . The " B a l l a d " a l s o g l e e f u l l y d e s c r i b e s how HCE w i l l be r u i n e d : So snug he was i n h i s h o t e l p r e m i s e s sumptuous Bu t soon w e ' l l b o n f i r e a l l h i s t r a s h , t r i c k s and t r u m p e r y And ' t i s s h o r t t i l l s h e r r i f C l a n c y ' 1 1 be w i n d i n g up h i s u n l i m i t e d [company W i th t h e b a i l i f f ' s bom a t t h e door ( C h o r u s ) Bimbam a t t h e door Then h e ' l l bum no more . ( 4 6 . 5 - 1 1 ) " O ' R e i l l y " o p e r a t e s on a t e r m i n a l l exeme t h a t g e n e r a t e s a s e r i e s o f l exemes w h i c h f u n c t i o n i n s c e p t i c a l , q u e s t i o n i n g comments on t h e n a r r a -t i v e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t s e l f as a f u s i o n o f the " s o u n d o f I r i s h s e n s e " and t h e w r i t t e n , o r " s e e n , " f o rm o f E n g l i s h : Behove t h i s sound o f I r i s h s e n s e . R e a l l y ? Here E n g l i s h m i g h t be s e e n . R o y a l l y ? One s o v e r e i g n punned t o p e t e r y p e n c e . R e g a l l y ? The s i l e n c e speaks t h e s e e n . Fake. ' ( 1 2 . 3 6 - 1 3 . 3 emphas i s added) 77 The s c e p t i c a l comment t h a t such a f u s i o n o f " s o u n d " and " s e e n " p r o d u c i n g a " s i l e n c e t h a t s p e a k s t h e s e e n " i s a " f a k e ! " m i g h t be c o r r e c t , b u t i t a l s o c o n t a i n s "much e a r n y " ( 1 2 5 . 2 2 ) , o r i r o n y , t h a t r e s u l t s f r om t h e f u n c t i o n o f " P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " as an a r c h e t y p a l l exeme o f c o n t r a r y , o r o p p o s i n g , a s s o c i a t i v e c h a i n s . As i t i s "The B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " t h a t n a r r a t e s HCE ' s f a l l and s u b s e q u e n t b u r i a l w i t h t h e o t h e r " d e a f and dumb Danes " ( 4 7 . 2 4 ) , " P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " has a s e m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h HCE ' s d e a f n e s s t h a t i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e l e x e m e ' s f u n c t i o n as an i d e n t i t y f o r HCE. Because " O ' R e i l l y " c a n n o t h e a r t h e f u s i o n o f t h e " s o u n d o f I r i s h s e n s e " i n t h e " E n g l i s h . . . s e e n , " he can o n l y p r o d u c e t h e s c e p t i c a l comment " R e a l l y ? " and p r o n o u n c e t h e a t t e m p t a t t h e f u s i o n a " F a k e ! " . As a l exeme t h a t s i g n i f i e s t h e Wake ' s a b i l i t y t o p i e r c e t h e e a r , howeve r , " P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " o p e r a t e s as p a r t o f t he a s s o c i a t i v e s e r i e s o f l exemes t h a t c o d i f i e s t h e Wake as a w r i t i n g to be h e a r d , t h a t i s w r i t t e n f o r t h e e a r ( F r . o r e i l l e ) p e r se ( t h u s " P e a r c y , " t h e name J o y c e f o u n d amongst t h e I r i s h p o l o p l a y e r s , i s m o d i f i e d and g i v e n an o r t h o g r a p h i c f o rm s i m i l a r t o per se). In t h i s a s s o c i a t i v e s e r i e s , t h e comment " F a k e ! " f u n c t i o n s as an e x c l a m a t i o n o f the s u c c e s s w i t h w h i c h " s o u n d " and " E n g l i s h . . . s e e n " a r e f u s e d . A ' f a k e ' i s a ' p h o n e y ' , and t h i s s e m a n t i c l i n k c o n n e c t s t h e comment w i t h t h e Wake 's a c c o u n t o f i t s e l f as a p h o n e t i c o r " p h o n e y " w r i t i n g . Such a use o f t h e l a t t e r word i s e v i d e n t on two o c c a s i o n s when t h e Wake f u s e s the rhy thm o f the song "Yankee D o o d l e " i n t o i t s s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e : a n d : F l u n k e y F o o t l e f u r l o u g h e d f o u l , w r i t i n g o f f h i s phoney ( 4 1 8 . 2 - 3 ) 78 y u n k e r d o o d l e r wanked t o w a l l a w r i t i n g o f f h i s phoney ( 4 6 4 . 2 1 - 2 2 ) . W h i l e t h e Wake i s e n c y c l o p e d i c i n i t s l i s t i n g o f I r i s h p l a c e n a m e s , t h e s e names a r e somet imes d i s t o r t e d i n o r d e r t o s u s t a i n t h e ne twork o f t e rms t h a t p r o d u c e l exemes w h i c h o p e r a t e i n t h e a s s o c i a t i v e s e r i e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e l exeme " e a r . " In HCE ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A L P , f o r e x a m p l e , " I r e l a n d " i s f u s e d w i t h a f r a g m e n t o f t h e w e l l -known i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A n t o n y ' s e u l o g y i n J u l i u s C a e s a r i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e Wake ' s s cene o f w r i t i n g , n o t as " I r e l a n d , " b u t as " E a r a l e n d " 74 ( 5 4 6 . 3 3 ) . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , HCE b e g i n s h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n by a d d r e s s i n g " M r . T e l e v o x " and "Mrs T a u b i e s t i m m " ( 5 4 6 . 2 9 ) , o r Mr " f a r o f f " " v o i c e " (OED) and Mrs " d e a f " (G . t a u b ) , " b r u t e " (G . B i e s t ) , " v o i c e " (G . S t i m m e ) . The pun o f " T a u b i e s t i m m " and taubstumm ( " d e a f and dumb") n o t e d by McHugh a l l o w s " T a u b i e s t i m m " t o be h e a r d as an a d d r e s s t o someone who i s dea f and dumb a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c a p a b l e o n l y o f r e a d i n g , and n o t h e a r i n g , t h e s a l u t a t i o n . The Wake 's f u s i o n o f sound and speech i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d by HCE ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t he has " h e a r d " t h e a c c o u n t o f A L P ' s b e h a v i o u r "by mmummy goods w a i f " ( 5 4 7 . 4 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . He has h e a r d i t f rom h i s " g o o d w i f e " (who has been abandoned i n H C E ' s f a l l and l e f t l i k e a " w a i f " ) , and t h e o n l y p l a c e he c o u l d h e a r t h i s a c c o u n t i s , o f c o u r s e , F i n n e g a n s Wake. The r e p e t i t i o n o f the rhy thm p r o d u c e d by t h e vowel and c o n s o n a n t p a t t e r n o f t h e Wake ' s t i t l e i n HCE ' s s t u t t e r i n g "mmummy goods w a i f " f a c i l i t a t e s what t h e Wake t e rms a " s o u n d h e a r i n g " ( 2 3 7 . 1 7 ) by w h i c h t h e s h a r e d i d e n t i t y o f F i n n e g a n s Wake and HCE ' s "mmummy goods w a i f " i s 79 r e v e a l e d i n t h e sound o f t h e t e x t as a "murma l aden " ( 5 8 3 . 3 6 ) , " s o u n d -c o n d u c t i n g " ( 1 8 3 . 8 ) , " E c h o l a n d " ( 1 3 . 5 ) . These te rms c a n , o f c o u r s e , a l l be t r a c e d back t o t h e a r c h e t y p a l l exeme " e a r . " " E r i n , " t h e a n c i e n t name f o r I r e l a n d i s s i m i l a r l y m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e s e r i e s o f l exemes g e n e r a t e d by " e a r . " In t h e s t o r y o f J a r l von H o o t h e r and t h e P r a n k q u e a n , J o y c e a d a p t e d the I r i s h l e g e n d o f G race O ' M a l l e y t o p r e s e n t a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n o f the HCE-ALP s t o r y . T h i s e p i s o d e , i n w h i c h t h e P r ankquean s t e a l s J a r l ' s t w i n s , i s a t r i - p a r t i t e n a r r a t i v e t h a t p r o v i d e s what M a r g a r e t Solomon d e s c r i b e s a s : t h e f i r s t s u s t a i n e d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how J o y c e w i l l c o n t i n u a l l y employ an i n v e r t e d s y n e c d o c h e — t h e who l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t s , t h e m u l t i p l e s t a n d i n g f o r t h e o n e - - t o advance h i s homely theme o f r e c u r r e n t l i f e . ' 5 The s t o r y r e p e a t s t h e theme , n o t e d e a r l i e r , o f HCE ' s f a l l and c o n c o m i t a n t s e p a r a t i o n f rom ALP as an e v e n t t h a t i s marked by HCE ' s l o s s o f h e a r i n g . When J a r l , i n t h e g u i s e o f "Mark t h e wans " ( 2 1 . 1 8 ) , f a i l s t o answer t h e P r a n k q u e a n ' s r i d d l e and s h u t s t h e d o o r i n h e r f a c e , " g r a c e o ' m a l i c e k i d s n a p p e d up t h e j i m i n y T r i s t o p h e r and i n t o t h e shandy w e s t e r n e s s she r a i n , r a i n , r a i n " ( 2 1 . 2 0 - 2 2 ) . J a r l ' s r e s p o n s e i s t o send h e r a w i r e l e s s t e l e g r a m i n w h i c h he p l e a d s f o r h e r r e t u r n t o E r i n . L i k e the f a l l e n HCE who l a m e n t s h i s i n a b i l i t y t o h e a r A L P ' s v o i c e ~ " i f he c o u l d bad t w i g h e r " ( 2 3 . 2 5 - 6 ) — J a r l s t a t e s i n h i s t e l e g r a m t h a t he i s d e a f , o r " d e e f , " and h i s p l e a f o r t h e P r a n k q u e a n ' s r e t u r n i s a l s o a p l e a f o r t h e r e t u r n o f h i s h e a r i n g and a r e q u e s t f o r h e r t o come w i t h i n h i s h e a r i n g : " S t o p d e e f 80 s t o p come back t o my e a r i n s t o p " ( 2 1 . 2 3 - 4 , emphas i s a d d e d ) . J a r l i s d e a f ( " d e e f " ) and w i s h e s t o h e a r , and he wan ts the P r ankquean t o "come back t o " w i t h i n t h e r ange o f h i s " e a r i n " o r h e a r i n g . " E r s e , " t h e name f o r t h e I r i s h G a e l i c p e o p l e , i s a l s o m o d i f i e d t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e c h a i n o f l exemes g e n e r a t e d by " e a r . " F u s i n g t h e myth o f the A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d i n t o i t s n a r r a t i v e , t h e Wake p r e s e n t s HCE as an A r t h u r i a n f i g u r e who, upon h i s a w a k e n i n g , w i l l l e a d h i s p e o p l e : " H e ' d be ou r c h o s e n one i n t h e m a t t e r o f B r i t t a s more t han a n a r t h u r " ( 3 7 5 . 7 - 8 ) . T h e r e i s , howeve r , some doub t a b o u t HCE ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m as such a l e a d e r , so a dua l d e c i s i o n i s made: t o w a i t and see what o c c u r s when HCE awakens and t o "wake " h im and see what w i l l happen . These two a r e ( c o n ) f u s e d i n " B u t w e ' l l wake and s e e . " ( 3 7 5 . 8 ) . The d e a f n e s s t h a t o c c u r s a t HCE ' s f a l l seems i n p a r t t o be a r e s u l t o f h i s e a r s b e i n g waxed u p , as the l a m e n t i n g a d d r e s s a t H C E ' s wake r e f e r s t o him as " h i v e , comb, and e a r w a x , " ( 2 5 . 6 ) . In t h e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e c a s e a g a i n s t HCE t h a t o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e f u n e r a l games, howeve r , t h e c o n d i t i o n o f HCE ' s e a r s i s f u s e d i n t o a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f h i s r e s p o n s e t o the m a t u r i n g o f h i s sons and a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t HCE w i l l r e g a i n t h e a b i l i t y t o h e a r and awaken , pe rhaps t o l e a d t h e E r s e p e o p l e i n t o f r e e d o m . The f o l l o w i n g passage r e f e r s t o b o t h h i s sons and h i s e a r s , and a c o n n e c t i o n between them i s made i n t h e s e r i e s o f puns on ' s o n s ' and ' s i n s ' ( 4 9 8 . 2 9 ) , ' h e i r s ' and ' h e r e ' s ' ( 3 1 6 . 9 ) , ' s o n n e ' ( F r . , sound) and ' s o n ' ( 5 6 9 . 8 - 9 ) and ' h a i r ' and ' h e i r ' ( 4 8 3 . 3 4 ) . HCE i s t o l d "You f o u g h t as how t h e y ' d n e v e r waxen up , d i d y o u c r u c k e t ? I t w i l l wecke r y o u r e a r s e , t h a t i t w i l l " ( 3 7 5 . 1 8 - 2 0 ) . As McHugh 's A n n o t a t i o n s s u g g e s t s , "woxen " i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e D a n i s h vokse  o p , and "Wecke r " i s t h e German f o r a l a r m c l o c k , so the passage i n d i c a t e s 81 HCE ' s r e s p o n s e t o h i s s o n s ' g r o w i n g up and h i s ' a l a r m ' (he " f o u g h t " a g a i n s t them) a t t h e i r m a t u r i n g . On a n o t h e r l e v e l , howeve r , "woxen " o p e r a t e s i n a pun on ' w a x e n ' t o p r o d u c e a t y p i c a l l y Wakean f u s i o n o f o p p o s i t e s . 7 6 HCE t h o u g h t ( " f o u g h t " ) t h a t h i s e a r s wou ld no t ' w a x e n ' , o r become " c o v e r e d o r c o a t e d w i t h wax" (OED) , b u t t hey d i d , and t h i s w i l l wreck ( " w e c k e r " ) h i s e a r s ( " e a r s e " ) , a n d , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , HCE " f o u g h t t o r e g a i n h i s h e a r i n g , t o have h i s e a r s "waxen " o r " t o advance i n power " and "become g r a d u a l l y g r e a t e r . . . t o i n c r e a s e i n p o t e n c y " (OED) and a l l o w him t o awaken (G. w e c k e n , wake , r o u s e , awaken ) . I f HCE does r e g a i n h i s a b i l i t y t o h e a r , he can t h e n f u n c t i o n as " a n a r t h u r " and awaken (G . wecken) h i s " e a r s e " ( E r s e ) p e o p l e and l e a d them as A r t h u r i s t o l e a d h i s p e o p l e . E c o ' s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e " E c h o l a n d " ( 1 3 . 5 ) o f F i n n e g a n s Wake e n a b l e s t h e r e a d e r t o o b s e r v e how t h e t e x t g e n e r a t e s a s e r i e s o f l exemes t h a t f u n c t i o n m e t o n y m i c a l l y t o s u p p o r t t h e me taphors wh i ch a r e f u s e d t o g e t h e r t o p roduce t h e puns w i t h w h i c h t h e Wake d e f i n e s i t s e l f . I t a l s o a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o o b s e r v e how t h e a s s o c i a t i v e l exemes f u n c t i o n t o p r o d u c e t h e s e m i o t i c codes t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s l e d i n t o mak ing as he o r she i n v e s t i g a t e s the Wake 's f i e l d o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n . The s e r i e s o f l exemes t h a t a r e g e n e r a t e d by t h e t e r m i n a l l exeme " e a r " e n a b l e the r e a d e r t o f o l l o w t h e a s s o c i a t i v e c h a i n w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e Wake 's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i t s e l f as n o t o n l y a w r i t t e n t e x t t h a t n a r r a t e s H C E ' s f a l l , b u t a l s o as an " e a r w i t n e s s " ( 5 . 1 4 ) , o r " e p i s t l e " t o "V" " e a r . " The Wake p r e s e n t s HCE as a w r i t t e n t e x t u a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a t g e n e r a t e s t h e numerous sequences o f v a r i o u s i d e n t i t i e s f o r E a r w i c k e r , b u t i t c a u t i o n s t h e r e a d e r , as w e l l , t o l i s t e n t o the t e x t 82 because HCE a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a w r i t i n g t h a t v e r y e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f as " s o u n d c o n d u c t i n g " ( 1 8 3 . 9 ) : "HushJ C a u t i o n i E c h o l a n d l " ( 1 3 . 5 ) . F o l l o w i n g E c o ' s mapping o f the l exemes g e n e r a t e d by the m u l t i p l e pun " m e a n d e r t h a l t a l e , " t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s p r o d u c e d by t h e c h a i n s o p e r a t i v e i n " e p i s t o l e a r " can be d i s p l a y e d i n an o r i e n t i v e g raph l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 7 7 The most o b v i o u s o b j e c t i o n t o be made a g a i n s t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f F i n n e g a n s Wake as a w r i t i n g t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s sound i s t h a t , u l t i m a t e l y , t h e work i s a p r i n t e d t e x t . I t e x i s t s , so t o s p e a k , on the page , and t h e r e a d e r i s unde r no o b l i g a t i o n t o v o c a l i z e any o f the p a s s a g e s t h a t he o r she r e a d s . The b a s i s o f t h i s o b j e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s a c o n c e p t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between speech and w r i t i n g t h a t needs t o be e x a m i n e d , f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between speech and w r i t i n g e n t a i l e d by t h i s c o n c e p t t h a t i s d i s t u r b e d by t h e w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e o f F i n n e g a n s Wake. The 83 work o f D e r r i d a i s , f r om one p o i n t o f v i e w , a c o n t i n u a l m e d i t a t i o n on and w r i t i n g o f , and a g a i n s t , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , and the D e r r i d e a n p r a c t i c e o f d i s s e m i n a t i v e w r i t i n g p r o v i d e s a s t r a t e g y w i t h w h i c h F i n n e g a n s Wake can be r e - r e a d and remarked as a d e c o n s t r u c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t a t t e m p t s t o d i s m a n t l e t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n o f speech and w r i t i n g i n o r d e r t o r e i n s c r i b e w r i t i n g w i t h i n s p e e c h . As D e r r i d a ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P l a t o n i c t e x t i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s , t he d i s t i n c t i o n between speech and w r i t i n g i s one s u s t a i n e d by a s e r i e s o f numerous b i n a r y t e rms whose h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o m i n a t e d Weste rn t h o u g h t u n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a n d , i n some a r e a s o f w r i t i n g , c o n t i n u e t o do so t o d a y . The f undamen ta l a r r angemen t o f such b i n a r y t e rms as " s p i r i t " and " b o d y , " " p r e s e n c e " and " a b s e n c e , " " t r u t h " and " e r r o r , " " m a l e " and " f e m a l e , " and " s p e e c h " and " w r i t i n g " r e f l e c t s the Weste rn d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b e i n g by t h e i d e a l s o f s p i r i t , t r u t h , and p r e s e n c e . The s e cond t e r m o f each b i n a r y p a i r i s a lway s c o n s i d e r e d as a l a c k , a c o r r u p t and n e g a t i v e v e r s i o n o f the f i r s t . The h i e r a r c h i c a l p r i v i l e g i n g o f t h e f i r s t t e rms r e s u l t s i n a p r e f e r e n c e f o r u n i t y , t r u t h , s p i r i t , mind and p r e s e n c e o v e r d i f f e r e n c e , d i s s i m u l a t i o n , b o d y , m a t t e r , and a b s e n c e . In t e rms o f l a n g u a g e , such p r i v i l e g i n g p r o d u c e s t h e i d e a l o f a s e l f - p r e s e n t , u n i f i e d m e a n i n g ; a n d , h i s t o r i c a l l y , speech has been p r e f e r r e d as b e i n g more c a p a b l e t han w r i t i n g o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s i d e a l . I t i s t h i s i d e a l t h a t D e r r i d a t e rms " l o g o c e n t r i s m " o r " p h a l l o g o c e n t r i s m " (because o f i t s p r e f e r r i n g o f t h e m a s c u l i n e and i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the s i n g l e u n i t and t h e l i n e ) . 84 In t e rms o f t h e s e u n i t s o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n , F i n n e g a n s Wake can r e a d i l y be seen as a w r i t i n g t h a t s u b v e r t s t h e l o g o c e n t r i c i d e a l ( a l t h o u g h a more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s s u b v e r s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , a b r i e f r e s t a t e m e n t i s made h e r e t o p r o v i d e a f ramework f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e x t ' s d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e s p e e c h / w r i t i n g h i e r a r c h y ) . The Wake e x p l i c i t l y p o s i t s i t s e l f as a l e t t e r spoken by t h e f e m a l e ALP t o t h e a b s e n t ( s l e e p i n g and i n t e r r e d ) ma le HCE. I t f u s e s t h e c o n c e p t o f s p i r i t ( i n a t h e o l o g i c a l s e n s e ) w i t h t h e much more m a t e r i a l s p i r i t o f a l c o h o l i n i t s f u s i o n o f w a t e r and p o r t e r and i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e e t y m o l o g y o f w h i s k y ( I r . and S c . G a e l i c usquebaugh ' w a t e r o f l i f e ' [OED ] ; c f . 2 4 . 1 4 and 3 1 9 . 0 4 ) and eau de v i e ( ' w a t e r o f l i f e ; ' c f . 5 7 6 . 0 3 ) ; i t r e f u s e s any s t a b l e i d e n t i t y f o r i t s c h a r a c t e r s and d e c l a r e s i t s e l f a " s c h e r z a r a d e . . . i n w h i c h t h e sword o f c e r t a i n t y w h i c h w o u l d i d e n t i f i d e t h e body n e v e r f a l l s " ( 5 1 . 4 - 6 ) ; i t r e j e c t s t h e p a t r i l i n e a r i t y t h a t d o m i n a t e s ( as me taphor and economic c o n t r o l ) t h e p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c t r a d i t i o n as " p a t r i l i n e a r p l o p " ( 2 7 9 . 4 ) ; and i t s c a l l s t h e c o n c e p t s o f u n i t y and o r d e r i n t o q u e s t i o n by i t s f u n c t i o n as a " b e i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e " ( 2 6 9 . 1 5 ) i n w h i c h " i s o r d e r o t h e r e d " ( 6 1 3 . 1 4 ) . A l a r g e p a r t o f D e r r i d a ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l o g o c e n t r i s m f o c u s s e s upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and w r i t i n g . D e r r i d a does n o t a t t e m p t a s i m p l e r e v e r s a l o f t h e two t e r m s , as B a r b a r a J ohnson p o i n t s o u t . I n s t e a d , he a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f o p p o s i n g t h e two t e r m s on t h e b a s i s o f p r e s e n c e vs absence o r immediacy vs r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n i s an i l l u s i o n , s i n c e speech i s a l r e a d y s t r u c t u r e d by d i f f e r e n c e as much as w r i t i n g i s . The v e r y f a c t t h a t a word i s 85 d i v i d e d i n t o a p h o n i c s i g n i f i e r and a menta l s i g n i f i e d . . . t h a t . . . l a n g u a g e i s a s y s t em o f d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t han a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y mean ing u n i t s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t l anguage i s a l r e a d y c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i t s eeks t o o v e r c o m e . ' 8 Speech can no more p r e s e n t , o r 'make p r e s e n t ' , a u n i t y o f s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d t han can w r i t i n g . L i k e w r i t i n g , f r om t h e moment o f i t s u t t e r -a n c e , speech i s " a l w a y s a l r e a d y " s t r u c t u r e d by d i f f e r e n c e , a n d , l i k e w r i t i n g , i t c an p r o v i d e no g u a r a n t e e o f a f u l l and u n i f i e d m e a n i n g . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t F i n n e g a n s Wake e x p l i c i t l y d i s r u p t s the c o n c e p t o f u n i f i e d mean ing as i t makes an i n t e r t e x t o f t he t i t l e o f Ogden and R i c h a r d ' s The Mean ing o f Mean ing by d e c a p i t a l i z i n g and i n t e r r u p t i n g t h e rhy thm o f i t s s p a c i n g ( bo th a r e i m p o r t a n t d e c o n s t r u c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s ) i n o r d e r t o d i s s e m i n a t e i t s v a l u e as an i n d i c a t o r o f t r u t h f u l m e a n i n g . F u s i n g t h e d e c a p i t a l i z e d t i t l e w i t h M e i n u n g , M inne ( G . , " o p i n i o n " and " l o v e " ) and meann ( I . " s t u t t e r i n g " ) , i t i n s c r i b e s t h e t i t l e as " t h e 79 maymeaminning o f m a i m o o m e i n i n g . " ( 2 6 7 . 3 ) . The s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f w r i t i n g by speech i s i n i t i a t e d by the d e v e l o p -ment o f a p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t . As G r e g o r y U lmer n o t e s i n h i s deve l opmen t o f an A p p l i e d G rammato logy , i t "began w i t h p h o n e t i c i z a t i o n i n h i e r o -„80 g l y p h i c w r i t i n g and a p p r o a c h e d c o m p l e t i o n i n the p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t . D e r r i d a i s e m p h a t i c i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t c a n n o t be c o m p l e t e d and t h a t the p r i n c i p l e o f a p h o n e t i c w r i t i n g c a n n o t be met i n p r a c t i c e . R e s p o n d i n g t o S o c r a t e s ' c o n c e p t o f a " l o g o s . . . above w r i t t e n d i s -c o u r s e " i n t h e P h a e d r u s , D e r r i d a a r g u e s : 86 D e c l a r a t i o n o f a p r i n c i p l e , p i o u s w i s h and h i s t o r i c a l v i o l e n c e o f a speech d r e a m i n g i t s f u l l s e l f - p r e s e n c e , l i v i n g i t s e l f as i t s own r e s u m p t i o n ; s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d l a n g u a g e , a u t o p r o d u c t i o n o f a speech d e c l a r e d a l i v e , c a p a b l e , S o c r a t e s s a i d , o f h e l p i n g i t s e l f . . . . S e l f - p r o c l a i m e d l a n g u a g e b u t a c t u a l l y s p e e c h , d e l u d e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g i t s e l f c o m p l e t e l y a l i v e , and v i o l e n t . . . t h r o u g h e x p e l l i n g t h e o t h e r , and e s p e c i a l l y j j t s own o t h e r . . . unde r t h e name o f w r i t i n g . Bu t however i m p o r t a n t i t m i g h t b e , and were i t i n f a c t u n i v e r s a l o r c a l l e d on t o become s o , t h a t p a r t i c u l a r model w h i c h i s p h o n e t i c w r i t i n g does n o t e x i s t ; no p r a c t i c e i s e v e r t o t a l l y f a i t h f u l t o i t s p r i n c i p l e . 8 1 The p r a c t i c a l a t t e m p t a t m e e t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a p h o n e t i c w r i t i n g c a p a b l e o f s i g n i f y i n g a l l o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n speech e n t a i l s an " a p r i o r i n e c e s s a r y i n f i d e l i t y . " B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h i s i n f i d e l i t y , D e r r i d a p o i n t s t o i t s " m a s s i v e phenomena" i n p u n c t u a t i o n and " s p a c i n g i n g e n e r a l . " P u n c t u a t i o n and s p a c i n g a r e more t h a n " s i m p l e a c c e s s o r i e s o f w r i t i n g . " The f u n c t i o n o f t e m p o r a l s p a c i n g i n speech has t h e same i n t e r -r u p t i v e e f f e c t t h a t t h e s p a c i n g ( o f t h e l e t t e r s ) has i n w r i t i n g as i t l i m i t s the p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e l e v e l o f t he l e t t e r . A t t h e same t i m e , i t r ema rks t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each i n s c r i b e d l e t t e r even as i t f u s e s t h e l e t t e r s i n a p l a y o f r e p e t i t i o n and d i f -f e r e n c e t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s w r i t i n g ' s r h y t h m . The e f f e c t , o f t e m p o r a l s p a c i n g i n s p e e c h , i s d r a m a t i c : " T h a t a speech s u p p o s e d l y a l i v e can l e n d i t s e l f t o s p a c i n g i n i t s own w r i t i n g i s what r e l a t e s i t o r i g i n a r i l y t o 82 i t s own d e a t h . " The d i f f e r e n c e between s p a c i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n i n w r i t i n g p r o v i d e s a f undamen ta l d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between speech and w r i t i n g . In s p e e c h , t empora l pauses f u n c t i o n as b o t h s p a c i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n . In w r i t i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n and s p a c i n g combine t o r e g u l a t e r h y t h m , b u t w h i l e p u n c t u a t i o n f u n c t i o n s as a n o n - p h o n e t i c i n s c r i p t i o n 87 (and t h i s r emarks a l i m i t o f t h e a t t e m p t t o p h o n e t i c i z e w r i t i n g ) , s p a c i n g r e m a i n s a b l a n k , an absence o f i n s c r i p t i o n . F i n n e g a n s Wake d i s t u r b s t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n by f u s i n g , o r " ( c o n ) f u s i n g , " p u n c t u a t i o n and p h o n e t i c i n s c r i p t i o n . I t p h o n e t i c i z e s p u n c t u a t i o n i n r e m a r k i n g i t s own p u n c t u a t i o n w i t h a p h o n e t i c d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t o p (G. P u n k t ) i n " D u b l i r e , pe r N e u r o p a t h s . Punk " ( 4 8 8 . 2 6 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . I t a l s o r e p l a c e s t h e l e t t e r s o f t h e p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t w i t h p u n c t u a t i o n marks i n i t s s t a g i n g o f the l e t t e r as A : ? 0 ! ( 9 4 . 2 1 - 2 2 ) 8 3 In i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f o u r " p a p e r wounds" o f t h e l e t t e r as marks made by t h e " f o r k " o f a " g r a v e B r o f e s o r " d u r i n g a meal o f "Thee . . . smea rb read and b u t t e r . . . Him . . . and n e w l a i d i l l s " ( 1 2 4 . 1 3 - 1 4 ) , t he Wake s t a g e s an a l m o s t p a r o d i c example o f t h e use o f d i a c r i t i c a l marks i n t h e p h o n e t i c i z a t i o n o f w r i t i n g : f o l l o w i n g up t h e i r one t r u e c l u e , t he c i r c u m f l e x u o u s w a l l o f a s i n g l e m i n d e d men ' s a s y l u m , a c c e n t u a t e d by b i t s o f b rok eng l a s s an d s p l i t c h i n a , : Y a r d i n q u i r i e s p o i n t e d o u t >that t h e y ad b t n " p r o v o k e d " ay A f o r k , o f k g r a v e B r o f & s o r ; a t h I ' s ^ B r e a k f a s t t a b l e ; ; a c u t e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y p i q u e d , t o = i n t r o d u c e a n o t i o n o f t i m e [upon a p l a n e ( ? ) su 1 1 fetge 1 e ' ] by p u n c t l i n g h o l e s ( s i c ) i n i S p a c e ? ! ( 1 2 4 . 6 - 1 2 ) V a l u a b l e as i t i s f o r i t s a t t e m p t a t r e p r o d u c i n g the c o m i c , c l i c h e , " S c o t l a n d - Y a r d , " a c c e n t o f a s e r i o u s - m i n d e d , b u t somewhat d u l l , c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h i s passage a l s o d e p l o y s m a t h e m a t i c a l s y m b o l s , and i t i s p r e c i s e l y such s y m b o l s t h a t D e r r i d a c i t e s as examp les o f w r i t i n g ' s 84 a b i l i t y t o evade t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f s p e e c h . As U lmer n o t e s : 88 The m o d e r n i s t a e s t h e t i c s o f s i l e n c e and t h e m a t h e m a t i c i z a t i o n o f s c i e n c e a r e f o r D e r r i d a s i g n s t h a t t h e c u l t u r e i s s h i f t i n g away f rom a p a r a d i g m based on l a n g u a g e t o w a r d one based on w r i t i n g . The h u m a n i t i e s need n o t become m u t e , a r e n o t h e l p l e s s i n t h e f a c e o f modern s c i e n c e , b u t may f i n d s u p p o r t p r e c i s e l y i n t h e n o n p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s o f m a t h e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s o f s p a c i n g i n w r i t i n g . 8 5 The Wake 's use o f t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s i g n s " — > " and " = " a r e s t a g e d i n a passage w h i c h t h e m a t i c a l l y a d d r e s s e s t h e s h i f t f rom t i m e t o s p a c e , o r the s p a t i a l i z a t i o n o f t e m p o r a l i t y , and i t i s t h i s a r e a t h a t D e r r i d a o f t e n e m p h a s i z e s i n h i s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d o m i n a t i o n o f w r i t i n g by s p e e c h . In h i s a n a l y s i s o f H u s s e r l ' s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f s i g n s , D e r r i d a a d d r e s s e s wha t he s ees as a " r e d u c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e " i n t h e deve l opmen t o f H u s s e r l ' s t h e o r y f r om t h e L o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o The  O r i g i n o f Geomet r y . T h i s r e d u c t i o n " t e r m i n a t e s i n The O r i g i n o f  G e o m e t r y , " a work t h a t " c o n f i r m s t h e u n d e r l y i n g l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e t o a s e c o n d a r y s t r a t u m o f e x p e r i e n c e and . . . c o n f i r m s the t r a d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i s m o f m e t a p h y s i c s . " 8 6 Domina ted by t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between body and s o u l , H u s s e r l ' s t h e o r y v a l u e s l a n g u a g e o n l y i n so f a r as i t can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f " i d e a l o b j e c t s . " Speech i s i n v a l u a b l e be cause t h e phoneme i s t h e "mos t i d e a l o f s i g n s , " and the " a p p a r e n t t r a n s c e n d e n c e " o f t h e v o i c e i s c a p a b l e o f mak ing the s i g n i f i e d (wh i ch i s " a l w a y s i d e a l i n e s s e n c e " ) " p r e s e n t i n t h e a c t o f e x p r e s s i o n . " W r i t i n g i s v a l u a b l e o n l y i f i t i s r e a n i m a t e d by b r e a t h i n t o t h e l i v i n g f o rm o f s p e e c h : " w r i t i n g i s a body t h a t e x p r e s s e s s o m e t h i n g o n l y i f we a c t u a l l y p ronounce t h e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n t h a t a n i m a t e s i t , i f i t s space i s 89 t e m p o r a l ! z e d " ( emphas i s a d d e d ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between speech and w r i t i n g t h a t h o l d s speech as t h e o r i g i n a l f o rm o f l a n g u a g e i s ba sed on t h e i d e a l i t y o f s p e e c h ' s t e m p o r a l i t y : What c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f s p e e c h , what d i s t i n -g u i s h e s i t f r o m e v e r y o t h e r e l e m e n t o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , i s t h a t i t s s u b s t a n c e seems t o be p u r e l y t e m p o r a l . And t h i s t e m p o r a l i t y does n o t u n f o l d a sense t h a t w o u l d i t s e l f be n o n t e m p o r a l ; even b e f o r e b e i n g e x p r e s s e d , s ense i s t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h t e m p o r a l . A c c o r d i n g t o H u s s e r l , t h e o m n i t e m p o r a l i t y o f i d e a l o b j e c t s i s b u t a mode o f t e m p o r a l i t y . In t h i s i d e a l p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v i e w o f l a n g u a g e , s e n s e , as t h e i d e a l t h a t i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l i v i n g v o i c e o f l a n g u a g e , c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d i n w r i t i n g , u n l e s s t h a t w r i t i n g i s r e a n i m a t e d by t h e l i v i n g v o i c e and made p r e s e n t t o t h e s e l f . In t h e p r o c e s s o f s p e a k i n g , m o r e o v e r , as s e l f h e a r s i t s e l f s p e a k , i t e x p e r i e n c e s an " a u t o - a f f e c t i o n , " a pure p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e l f t o i t s e l f t h a t H u s s e r l c o n s i d e r s a u n i t y o f s o u n d , v o i c e , and s e l f t h a t t r a n s c e n d s t h e l i m i t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l i t y o f s o u n d . As D e r r i d a p o i n t s o u t , h o w e v e r , i t i s t h e v e r y t e m p o r a l i t y o f speech t h a t d e f e a t s t h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t u n i t y , f o r : The word " t i m e " i t s e l f , as i t has a lways been u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s , i s a me taphor w h i c h a t t h e same t i m e b o t h i n d i c a t e s and d i s s i m u l a t e s t h e movement o f t h l s a u t o -a f f e c t i o n . A l l t h e c o n c e p t s o f m e t a p h y s i c s - - i n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e o f a c t i v i t y and p a s s i v i t y , w i l l and n o n w i l l , and t h e r e f o r e t h o s e o f a f f e c t i o n o r a u t o - a f f e c t i o n , p u r i t y and i m p u r i t y , e t c . — c o v e r  up t h e s t r a n g e "movement" o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . 8 8 90 D e r r i d a sees H u s s e r l ' s r e f u s a l o f w r i t i n g as b e i n g d e f e a t e d i n h i s a c c e p t a n c e t h a t " s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h , i e a b s o l u t e i d e a l o b j e c t s , " a r e f o u n d o n l y i n " s t a t e m e n t s " and t h a t b o t h speech and " i n s c r i p t i o n " were " i n d i s -p e n s a b l e f o r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f i d e a l o b j e c t s . " As i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f P l a t o ' s w r i t t e n denouncement o f w r i t i n g i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n , D e r r i d a f i n d s H u s s e r l ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s a r y " i n c a r n a t i o n s " o f speech i n w r i t i n g o p e r a t i n g as a " b e n e f i c i a l t h r e a t " p r o v i d i n g an " u n d e r l y i n g m o t i f " t h a t d i s t u r b s and c o n t e s t s the " s e c u r i t y o f H u s s e r l ' s t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . " In H u s s e r l ' s t h e o r y o f " a u t o - a f f e c t i o n " as an i d e a l c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s e l f v o i c e s t h o u g h t s , p r e s e n t i n g them t o i t s e l f i n t h e i d e a l i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e d , D e r r i d a f i n d s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e f f e c t s o f t i m e d e s t r o y i n g t h e v e r y p u r i t y t h a t s p e e c h ' s t empora l n a t u r e i s supposed t o g u a r a n t e e . He f i n d s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f w r i t i n g a l r e a d y " d w e l l i n g w i t h i n s p e e c h " and w r i t i n g i t s e l f a l r e a d y " a t work i n t h e 89 i n w a r d n e s s o f t h o u g h t . " In H u s s e r l ' s t h e o r y , speech i s an o r i g i n a r y phenomena t h a t h i s t o r -i c a l l y p r e c e d e s w r i t i n g , and s i l e n t t h o u g h t , o r the s e l f ' s i n n e r s i l e n t v o i c e i n c a r n a t i n g i t s i d e a s , p r e c e d e s t h e e x t e r n a l u t t e r a n c e o f t h e s e i d e a s . As speech p r e c e d e s w r i t i n g , so t h o u g h t ( i n w h i c h t h e s e l f speaks s i l e n t l y t o i t s e l f i n the p r e s e n t o f i t s own i n t e r i o r i t y ) p r e c e d e s s p e a k i n g . W r i t i n g , t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f a n i m a t e i d e a s i n an i n a n i m a t e f o r m , i s t h u s a t h i r d s t a g e i n w h i c h t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e l f ( t o i t s e l f and i t s i d e a s ) i s l o s t . F i n n e g a n s Wake s t a g e s a s i m i l a r p a r a d i g m , o f f e r i n g w r i t i n g as t h e ' u n p r o v e d ' (G . u n b e w i e s e n ) , ' u n c o n s c i o u s ' (G . u n b e w u s s t ) , and ' u n w i s e ' ( t h e s e t e rms a r e f u s e d i n t h e pun " u n b e w i s e d " ) f o rm o f l a n g u a g e . D e f o r m i n g t h e B i b l i c a l passage " I n t h e b e g i n n i n g was 91 the Word" ( John I . i ) , w h i c h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d t o l i n k C h r i s t as t h e Word o f God w i t h t h e G e n e s i s a c c o u n t o f G o d ' s c r e a t i o n o f the w o r l d t h r o u g h s p e e c h , t h e Wake p o s i t s " I n the b u g i n n i n g i s t h e w o i d , i n t h e muddle i s t h e soundance and t h e r e i n a f t e r y o u ' r e i n t h e unbew i sed a g a i n " ( 3 7 8 . 2 9 - 3 0 ) . I t f o l l o w s t h i s d e f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between spoken l a n g u a g e and t h o u g h t , as t h e s i l e n t and i d e a l f o rm o f s p e e c h , i n w h i c h t h e s o u l e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f : "You t a l k e r d u n s k e r ' s b rogue men we o u r s o u l s speech o b s t r u c t h o s t e r y . S i l e n c e i n t h o u g h t ! S p r e a c h ! " ( 3 7 8 . 3 1 - 2 ) . I t t h e n comments on t h i s p a r a d i g m as " a n a r t f u l o f o u t e r n o c e n s e " ( 3 7 8 . 3 2 - 3 ) . The p a r a d i g m i s ' u t t e r n o n s e n s e ' b e cause " s i l e n c e i n t h o u g h t " i s n o t a mark o f t h e " s o u l " c o n t e m p l a t i n g such i d e a l t h o u g h t s as ' a b s t r a c t h i s t o r y ' ( " o b s t r u c t h o s t e r y " ) , b u t an " o u t e r " mark o f g u i l t o r " n o c e n s e " ( L . n o c e n t i a , g u i l t ) . " S o u l s s p e e c h " c a n n o t " o b s t r u c t " t h e a c c u s a t i o n o f g u i l t t h a t H o s t y makes a g a i n s t HCE. ( "The B a l l a d o f P e r s s e O ' R e i l l y " t h a t g l e e f u l l y r e c o u n t s HCE ' s s i n s and h i s f a l l i s a good example o f " H o s t e r y . " ) L i k e F r e u d ' s t h e o r y i n I n h i b i t i o n s , Symptoms, and 90 A n x i e t y , t h e Wake p r o f f e r s w r i t i n g as a l w a y s i n v o l v e d w i t h g u i l t . The i d e a l s o f t h o u g h t , o f a " s o u l s s p e e c h , " o r o f a speech f r e e f r o m the g u i l t t h a t i s i n v o l v e d w i t h w r i t i n g i s " a good o n e , h a ! " ( 3 7 8 . 3 4 ) . HCE ' s ' s p e e c h ' i s a l w a y s marked by s t u t t e r i n g and t h e " h o s e t a n z i e s , d a t s u r e . . . s u l l i b r a t e d w o r d " ( 3 7 9 . 7 ) t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s g u i l t , and t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Wake as a w r i t i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r e s H C E ' s speech w i l l a lway s r e v e a l t h i s g u i l t : " k i c k n u c k , k n o c k c a s t l e ! Muck! And y o u ' l l nose i t , 0 y o u ' l l nose i t w i t h o u t warnward f r om we" ( 3 7 9 . 1 - 2 ) . 92 In h i s a n a l y s i s o f F r e u d ' s t h e o r y on the s t r u c t u r e o f p s y c h i c o r g a n i -z a t i o n and the metaphor d e v e l o p e d i n " N o t e on the M y s t i c W r i t i n g - P a d , " D e r r i d a a p p r o a c h e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a w r i t i n g f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n s p e e c h . As one o f t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s f o r t h i s l e c t u r e r e v e a l s , D e r r i d a p l a c e s t h e p r o b l e m o f w r i t i n g and speech w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f h i s p h i l o -s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f "The Enigma o f p r e s e n c e ' p u r e and s i m p l e '