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Keeper of the protocols : the works of Jens Bjørneboe in the crosscurrents of western literature Martin, Joseph H. 1987

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KEEPER OF THE PROTOCOLS: THE WORKS OF JENS BJjZfRNEBOE IN THE CROSSCURRENTS OF WESTERN  LITERATURE  By JOSEPH MARTIN B.A., The G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 M.F.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Programme i n C o m p a r a t i v e  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  the required  STUDIES Literature)  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1987 ©  Joseph M a r t i n ,  1987  In  presenting  degree  at the  this  thesis in partial fulfilment of  of  department  this thesis for scholarly or  requirements  for  by  his  or  her  I further agree that permission for  purposes  representatives.  permission.  Comparative  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  advanced  9 September  1987  extensive  may be granted by the head of It  is  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  Department of  an  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. copying  the  Literature  copying  my or  my written  KEEPER  OF THE  PROTOCOLS:  THE WORKS OF J E N S BJ0RNEBOE I N THE OF WESTERN  CROSSCURRENTS  LITERATURE  ABSTRACT Keeper  of the Protocols  consciously  European author,  whose w o r k s c a n n o t as  the product  remains  argues  works of Jens  supplying  a concise  lies  serves  n o v e l i s t , poet  The p o i n t  i n the spiritual  powerful  influence  commentaries The t h i r d trilogy  Bj^rneboe  into English, the to introduce the a detailed  from  c l a s s i c and  as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Bjtfrneboe,  overview  e a r l y achievements  discussed.  i n h i s works  As  simply  sources.  chapter  his  untranslated  Bjjzfrneboe, a n d t o p r o v i d e  The f i r s t  playwright,  was a  i ftreated  writer.  are two-fold:  commentary on i n f l u e n c e contemporary  understood  of a "Scandinavian"  of t h e study  J e n s Bj0rneboe  of international stature,  be p r o p e r l y  f o r t h e most p a r t  objectives  that  of h i s l i t e r a r y  and e s s a y i s t .  as a poet of departure system  of Rilke.  career  I n chapter  as two,  and n o v e l i s t a r e f o rthe earliest  of Anthroposophy The c h a p t e r  works  and t h e  culminates  with  on h i s h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l d e b a t e - n o v e l s .  chapter  i s an extended  k n o w n a s "The H i s t o r y  study  of h i s pivotal  of B e s t i a l i t y " :  Frihetens  gfyeblikk While  (1966), K r u t t a r n e t  thetrilogy  culture,  i ta l s o  represents depicts  values  and meaning.  Sartre  aretraceable.  on  violence  Foucault  dramatist recourse  final  In thetrilogy,  and s o c i e t y  who r e j e c t e d  of this  Ibsen's  form  t h e "anarchism"  final  novel,  of history.  autobiography  Haiene  thinking  i sa  As a Norwegian he f o u n d  and Tennessee  can best  be u n d e r s t o o d  The f i f t h  and f i n a l  was Bjjzfrneboe s 1  The p a r a l l e l s  with  Bj^rneboe's  letters  o f h i s own  a r e reviewed  i nlight  which  Conrad's and unpublished  preoccupation  and metaphysical  months, and h i s assessment accomplishment,  i sa sea novel  Conrad, p a r t i c u l a r l y  show a n i n c r e a s i n g  between s o c i a l  (1974), w h i c h w a s t o  o f Freedom,"  comparison with  conception  and  i n L'Homme r e v o l t e a r e r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e .  commence h i s " H i s t o r y invites  of  of Michel  chapter  which  philosophical resting place.  Bj^rneboe's  that  Strindberg  plays  Western ,  devoid  of theater,  s e to f i n f l u e n c e s .  examines  with  of Nietzsche  and t h e theater.  Bj^rneboe's major  Camus's i d e a s  split  The f o u r t h  (1973).  Bj^rneboe's  intersects with  a l t e r n a t e l y i nBrecht,  light  chapter  Here, t h e i n f l u e n c e  o f Bjszfarneboe  Williams. in  a confrontation  m o d e r n man i n a w o r l d  a n d Rene' G i r a r d .  discussion  (1970) a n d S t i l l h e t e n  with the  concerns.  His final  literary of this  conflict.  iv  CONTENTS  PREFACE  V  ONE / INTRODUCTION TO BJ0RNEBOE  1  TWO / THE EARLY WORKS  11  THREE / THE HISTORY OF BESTIALITY  64  FOUR / ILLUSION UNMASKED: BJ0RNEBOE & THE THEATER  133  FIVE / LAST WORKS: CONCLUSIONS  194  A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r t i t l e s of works by Bjtfrneboe  240  Notes . .' Works C i t e d  241 264  V  PREFACE  This  volume d e a l s w i t h  international  stature  Scandinavia.  Jens  almost  impossible  Additionally,  the works  o f an  from a small  author  language  Bj^Crneboe's w r i t i n g s  translation.  on h i s w o r k - - s u c h  Lem,  w o r k by  Janet Garton i n E n g l i s h — d o not vigorously  to place  and  as t h o s e  Steiner  about  Kaj Skagen  area:  are at present  to procure i n English  commentaries  of  his literary  achievements  traditions  works  Scandinavians or S c a n d i n a v i a n i s t s ,  invaluable his  contribution,  are the bedrock  do  not  always  v a l u e as a _ g e n u i n e l y European Having  "influence" literature  said  and  crosscurrents  and  That  m u s t be  recognition The literary examined.  i s t h e one published,  task  and  a t hand,  therefore,  w h i l e . m a k i n g . an their  lights  How  currents  of  of a  to  on  trace  Western  writer those  been p u b l i s h e d an  i f they are to  i s two-fold.  on t h e w o r k s range  of  in  author's receive  His  presented before i t i s  of the broad evident  These  large.  In order to r e f l e c t  influences  cast  i n which  i n our day,  p r o d u c t i o n m u s t be  of h i s a r t .  r o d f o r s o many o f  language  i n the world at  set  mainstream  arises:  impulses—has rarely  Bj^zJrneboe i n l i g h t artistic  problem  i s a lightning  one  author.  thought i n the oeuvre he  works  a new  from the g r e a t works  who--although  English.  that,  and  i n the  European by  which  others i n Norwegian,  by  Jens  of l i t e r a r y  and  i n h i s o u t p u t — o r works  by  vi  others  that  parallel  consciousness "walk"  a  of  reader  his  our  own  due  to  century—it  through  "trends"  is first  Bj^rneboe's  material  evolution  of  his writings, inseparable  political  and  private  stamp, i t s e l f units  of  motifs,  as  So  i s to  set  provide As dwell  on  and an  and  his  work of  overview  out,  such  as  a discussion  literary  The  career.  Bestiality"  also  used  to  exegesis  requires  I t i s i n the  that  direct influence  Nietzsche, well  as  the of  Strindberg  parallels  contemporaries  that  of a  examination  and  i n the  s u c h as  of  of  very  illuminate this  itself. the  the  such  Michel  into  of  with  same  aim  debt  this  Bj^rneboe  which of  his  of  sources  come i n t o  some o f and  of  the  trilogy  trilogy,  diverse  i t must  chapters  proportion  the  Foucault  into  are  "History  remarkable of  of  opening  beginning  large  his  time.  There  the  and  way  belongs,  the  the  Dante w i l l works  public,  t r a d i t i o n s of  w h e r e he  parts  of  text  life  important  h i s work a t large  of  Norwegian Jens  literature of  the  wove t h e i r  d i a c h r o n i c a l l y i n the  R i l k e at  be  the  story  Bjpfrneboe's  wove h i s  an  to  r e c u r r i n g themes  creations  though  B j p f r n e b o e owes t o  space  of  Bj^rneboe's works p r i m a r i l y .  exceptions,  The  to  Recourse  from the  a writer  consciously  Western  i t turns  of  a plot, with  and  the  required.  a narrative: a kind  once a g a i n ,  synchronically European  as  Bj^rneboe  creations,  life.  study  serves  life  meaning, w i t h  literary his  i s also  the  necessary  oeuvre.  biographical  in  however, as  play--as  Bj^rneboe's Rene G i r a r d .  The  vii chapter  on B j ^ r n e b o e  clearest primary  evidence  and  i n the  the  t h e a t e r s u p p l i e s some o f  investigation  o f h i s many e s s a y s  on  His  rejection  l e a d s him  and  philosophic inspiration.  influences  of  evolution  two  other  inspiration: c o n t a i n s an C o n r a d and  they  not  two  f o r the  w r i t e r s , who blood  twentieth  the  brothers  a s la  chapter  f o r a w r i t e r who  was  a Norwegian w r i t e r .  Scandinavian.  We  and  be  Joseph  esthetics By  the  clear  end  I t should author's  the  this  of  the approach  itself,  i s so many o t h e r have h e r e  for  of  that to by  of  be  are, except  things  a Norwegian  We have, i n a way,  approach to t h i s  itself.  they  terms of h i s l i t e r a r y  h i s n a t i v e language.  with  c l o s e examinations  Scandinavian writer,  being  t h e work  final  century w r i t e r .  besides  a comparatist  thought  looks  another  would not perhaps  hope i s t h a t i t w i l l  language—in  on  the  point  Bj^rneboe  a n a l y s i s of Bj0rneboe's a f f i n i t i e s  suffice  really  and  dual  i n the  a certain  The  cannot  very  After  suffice,  A l b e r t Camus, b u i l d i n g  esthetic  h e a r t of  h i s p l a y s , but  Tennessee W i l l i a m s .  Bjszhrneboe s o l e l y  not  forms t h e  for yet  i n t e r t w i n e i n the  particular chapter,  do  of  t e n s i o n between t h e  Brecht  as w e l l .  the  performance.  sources  s i d e of the A t l a n t i c  these  recognized  figures  t o new  The  only v i s - a - v i s  of h i s thought  even t h e s e  works by  Ibsen  t h e a t e r , drama and  o f S t r i n d b e r g and  matter h e r e — n o t  way  i n t o what h i s  i n f l u e n c e s were, f o r i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e n l i s t  aid  to the  the  a writer  style--was  who whose  not  become e v i d e n t  that  work i s demanded  by  v i i i Given time  what t h i s  must be g i v e n  since  plays  the world  take  impulses.  Therefore,  different  expresses  forms—all  a form  assigned  glimpses novels, lies  had i t s s p e c i a l a metaphysical  will  different t h e genres  i n which  of t h e i r  as i n s i g h t s  style  were  remarkable time.  Norwegian,  Even  provide  be t o u c h e d  The master,  became p l a y s and of thought  that  to the  use of language i s Due t o t h e f a c t  n e e d s t o be p r e s e n t e d  because questions  so, h i s peculiar use of a  will  and  of form  and  not allow f o r i t  "internationalized" sharp-hewn,  s t y l e — w h i c h favors classical  fertile  >  provide  References  study.  experiments—space  style  "split"  through  be d i s c u s s e d .  later  both  t o h i m , e v e n when a t w o r k on h i s most  h i s conscious  intuitive  of content  of Bj^frneboe's  still  as a w h o l e — a n d  formal  resolve the  two by combining  t h e system  throughout.  non-ornamental  will  into  be d i s p e r s e d  secondary  The poems  vantage p o i n t , the  own, a s t h e y  production.  work  worked,  was a n u n d e n i a b l e  his artistic  Bj^rneboe's  discussed  the  will  one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s  that  this  sorts  Bj^rneboe  A close examination not  use.  and t h e n o v e l s  t h e raw m a t e r i a l which  as w e l l  Bj^rneboe  b e c a u s e we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a  no s e c t i o n  into  behind  essays  i n which  t e n s i o n between t h e other  who  essays,  from  genre  a p o l e m i c a l approach,  dialectical  author,  has s e t out t o do, a p p r o p r i a t e  t o each  f o r him each genre  approach  are  study  t h a t i s supposed  t o be  rhetoric  "modern"—will  m a t e r i a l f o r some f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . o n i n a g e n e r a l way  here.  over  I t  ix Following extensively  t h e example o f p u b l i c a t i o n s  w i t h works  on l i t e r a t u r e  languages—inaccessible most e r u d i t e r e a d e r s Norwegian t e x t s English. provided  F o r t h e sake f o r sources  translations will the  the  will  c o u n t r i e s — t h e passages  b e my t r a n s l a t i o n s  quoted  from  notes  asked  other  from  into  of consistency, translations  i n t h e "works c i t e d . "  exception of Scandinavian appear  the Scandinavian  languages.  will  i n the original  language.  are generally content  to refer  I n most c a s e s ,  languages,  notes,  t o t h e "works c i t e d "  quotes  be  When t h e  a r e n o t my o w n , t h e E n g l i s h v e r s i o n b e i n g  be f o u n d  notes  deal  t o t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of even t h e  i n other  quoted  from  that  used  with  i n the  The r e m a i n d e r  of  and readers a r e  i fthey  want t o check  a  source. I  am i n d e b t e d  g i v e n me t h e i r  time,  among t h a t number University  and guidance.  i n Scandinavia:  of Oslo;  Rikskringkasting) Santesson  t o a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e  Magne B l e n e s s ,  i n Oslo;  a t Stockholm  i n Stockholm;  Bj^rneboe;  a n d my v e r y  Bj^rneboe.  I name h e r e Harald NRK  only  Bache-Wiig  Haagen R i n g n e s s ,  F r e d r i k Wandrup;  special  have a few atthe  (Norsk  Stadsteatern; Marta  Friteatern  who  NRK;  Rare  V e s t i n of Therese  g r a t i t u d e t o Tone  Tveteraas  1  Auf und w i e d e r gehn d i e P o s t e n K e i n e r , k e i n e r kann h i n d u r c h . F l u c h t w i r d nur das L e b e n k o s t e n V i e r f a c h i s t umzaunt d i e B u r g . Wir s i n d d i e M o o r s o l d a t e n Und Z i e h e n m i t dem Spaten Ins Moor.  Anonymous: As i t a p p e a r s in B e r t o l t Brecht's F u r c h t und E l e n d des D r i t t e n Reiches  ONE  / INTRODUCTION TO  BJ0RNEBOE  1. In the b e g i n n i n g of the through  Europe.  I t s message was  obstacles.  In the  bizarre  so a b s u r d  was  and  contemporaries—of  had  second  t o pass  through  spirits  who  look—the  terrible  of the a c t s of  human b e i n g s  but  journey  i t f a c e d many  living  barrier  so  that i t  their in their  own  w r i t t e n i n German, and  a language  i n each  new  world. the  book  land i n  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e were some s t r o n g  more d i f f i c u l t  to g i v e the m a t e r i a l a long because of the g l a r i n g  t h e book was  European languages.  urgent,  t h a t many w o u l d have d e n i e d  were w i l l i n g  reflected—and  book began a  place, i t portrayed a r e a l i t y  p l a c e , i t was  which i t appeared.  its  first  an a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t  In the  1930s a l i t t l e  In t h i s  soon t r a n s l a t e d way  message t o a w o r l d  into  truth i t the  Die Moorsoldaten^ t h a t was  hard  major  carried  not y e t ready  to  2 receive  i t : a decade before  revelations attempted the  of the existence  extermination  massive  would  o f W o r l d War  figures  with  evidence  which  took  inmates  idea  i t s name  a t the time.  from  of  course,  by  comparison with  Nazi  Absolutely  facts could  And  very  concentration  no  camps, gave  Socialism really  was, and a  f o r humanity.  who  t o o k up t h e t a s k  In fifteen  of Nazism,  only  Furcht  finally  be u s e d  when t h e w i n d s  1935 t h e l i t t l e year-old  und Elend  Bertolt  book f e l l  Norwegian.  been r a i s e d i n t h e o v e r c l a s s  This  into  tame Brecht  i n his  des D r i t t e n the facts,  f o r the future.  ceased  their  t o howl.  t h e hands o f a  particular  household  good  of getting the  come t o r e c o g n i z e  had f i n a l l y  a  In retrospect,  came t o f a c e  as lessons  few on e i t h e r s i d e would  complicity  Few  Die Moorsoldaten,  a l l t h a t was t o f o l l o w .  When t h e w o r l d  the  lying  read.  i t s d e p i c t i o n s f r o m t h e m i d - t h i r t i e s seem  expose  Reiches.  was  acknowledged t h e  o u t e a r l y , a n d drew on t h e book f o r a s c e n e  dramatic  the  a s o n g w h i c h was s u n g b y t h e  i n store  was one o f t h e a u t h o r s word  before  could  or abroad  not publicly.  o f what N a t i o n a l i theld  citizens,  Langhoff  f o r a n y o n e who  i n f l u e n c e i n Europe  did, at least  o f what  Years  groups, and  I I , t h e book by an e s c a p e d  of the e a r l i e s t  depiction  publicity.  was t h e r e  i tprovided  governments  o f "good"  camp i n m a t e named W o l f g a n g  The t r u t h  camps, o f t h e  and p o l i t i c a l  complicity of m i l l i o n s  concentration open.  of concentration  of ethnic  receive widespread  outbreak  t h e t i m e when t h e p o s t - w a r  adolescent  of a ship  owner  had  3 who  had  served  G e r m a n was a  close  raw  to  at  read  both  of  sea,  the  Since  P e r h a p s he  a l s o by  was  the  i n the  h i s knowledge  but  was of  virtue  and of  a  use  time was  to  shoes  he  later  impossible  own  account,  lay  the  a  f o r me He  read  the  "the  to  concept.  but  presupposes the  world,  a  his  first  or  he  choice  surrender  of  by  to  came t o  as  German, away  well, to  his  step  side.  "As  Since  that  years  later  world  was  sitting, the  I  i t  still  and  by  in  his  experience  reality"  r e f e r to simply  fall  e i t h e r an  resulting  virtue  look  fantasy  "meeting with  It is a  only  a l l things  of  age,  authorship.  I t i m p l i e s not  collision. the  i n one  for his entire  v i r k e l i g h e t e n " ) , as  world,  book  a young  not  "worst"  the  had  early  Several  that  and  this  grew b l a c k .  happy.  grasp  the  this  almost p h y s i c a l shock  b o o k was  passive  sun  been t r u l y  groundwork  The  v i c t i m s of  wrote,  I have never  existence.",?  med  the  his  of  at  offer—and  and  for  concentration  inability  to  his intellect  of  language  h i s times  has  one  bilingual  voraciously at  compulsive  propensity  read,"  effectively  of  playing  refined culture  fascination with  worst mankind  the  f o r the  which  Jens  yearnings:  book about the  ahead  in  French  languages.  strong  original  from even the  into  two  German l i t e r a t u r e  camp O r a n i e n b u r g  of  other  other  he  a household  Norwegian, with  the  with  might w e l l have read  date.  for Belgium,  much a s  g r o w n up  Europe.  begun t o he  had  life  central  Consul  spoken as  second  Bj^rneboe the  as  i t .  It is  a vision  from grace  ( "imzfte  of  the  and  eternal struggle  in selective  not  with  blindness,  4 complicity sort  of  with  o p p r e s s i o n and  "mauvaise f o i V "  Human b e i n g s  even b e s t i a l i t y — t h e  t o use  have o f t e n c h o s e n eyes  term.  to r e l i n q u i s h  right  their  and  frightening,"  he w r o t e i n 1972  his  first  Duke Hans  novella  to see.  S a r t r e ' s well-known  use  t h a t was  own  "The  years  world  their  i s dark,  i n his introduction  and  was  to  gruesome  (Hertug H a n s ) — a n o t h e r  dismissed i n i t s time,  twenty-four  worst  to  book  not p u b l i s h e d  until  later:  The w o r l d — o b j e c t i v e l y — w e c a n n o t p o r t r a y . Our o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e n c o u n t e r between r e a l i t y and a mind ... T h u s , t h e book t i e s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I have w r i t t e n l a t e r : t h e m e e t i n g o f mind w i t h r e a l i t y , w i t h t h e w o r l d o f i n j u s t i c e and b e s t i a l i t y — w i t h the incomprehensible f a c t t h a t a world t h a t i s i n i t s e l f b e a u t i f u l , has become e v i l and c o r r u p t . (HH 7)  2. From h i s d i s c o v e r y of L a n g h o f f ' s concentration 10th  to h i s death  the  by h i s own  Oranienburg  hand on  May  Jens  Bjo'rneboe  w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l o o k where  o t h e r s were n o t  looking.  As  and  1976,  camp up  book a b o u t  novelist  i n the vanguard  Scandinavia, and  bring  to l i g h t causes  f o r new  the time  during his l i f e  out of unpopular  forms which d e f i e d  3  he But  playwright  of post-war c u l t u r e  what p u b l i s h e r s p r e f e r r e d  i n n o r t h e r n Europe.  conscience."  essayist,  he w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l o o k i n t o  make p o p u l a r ground  a poet,  issues,  the dark  and  been s a i d  f u n c t i o n e d as Norway's his significance  places  to ignore,  the e s t h e t i c  I t has  in  break  standards o f him  "bad  as an a r t i s t  rests  of  that  5 upon the rather  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and  than  artistic  h i s adherence  "line."  exclusively personal as  opinions  art that  death  he  culture.  been s a i d t h a t  was  as  Almost a l l of have l a i n  w o r k on  writers  This, the  one  have been,  i t could  Norway's  of  his  have  most  his novels  them because i n the  the  released  shelves plays  i n the  despite  i n northern  dramatist—while and  of  novel by  of  the  succes  The  trilogy  which  U.S.  and  book  drawers  strangely,  hardcover  of  notably  of  4  i n Germany.  w r i t e r s i n the  s u f f e r i n g i n the  shadow of  but American  enthusiasm  theorist  was  edition. '  E n g l i s h and  most i n t e r e s t i n g as  i s his  publisher,  have been t r a n s l a t e d ,  Europe—both  most o t h e r  a  been  Scandinavia  a major  i n the  have  i t was  r e s t of  periodic bursts  continent,  certainly  At  with  post-war  c o n f i s c a t e d i n Norway.  h i s major  unproduced  theaters.  was  three  volume of  the  described  society evolved.  c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e reviews, on  be  playwright.  w o r k was  to die  with  h i s engagement  almost a decade  w r i t i n g only  first  through  f o r e f r o n t of  "pornography"  most i m p o r t a n t  allowed  the  poet  or  concerns—and  most p a r t  simultaneously  banned and  the  received  was  a p a i n t e r and  f o r the  i n fact  i n E n g l i s h : one  scandale  that  he  this  w h e n i t was  he  can  For  n o v e l i s t and  of  published  his  which  career,  consistent p o l i t i c a l  metaphysical  a w r i t e r at  Scandinavian  As  any  h i s engagement w i t h  was  important  to  begun as  e s t h e t i c and  c o n s e r v a t i v e - - i t was  his  du  Having  inconsistencies in his  In h i s  for time  theater and  area Ibsen  had and  been,  6 Strindberg It  f o r what w i l l  i s an  difficulties time." with in  age-old by  the  the  In  evasion  a  to  century.  e x p l a i n an  n o t i o n t h a t he  I t i s simply  fashion.  s o o n be  enough  an  "ahead  s o m e t i m e s t o be  literature,  d i s m i s s a l of  was  this  author  or  considered  "un-modern."  That i s , i t l a c k e d  the  which  from  which only  "one  i s inclined  solution  authors, that  only  Fourteen  must  lasts  novels,  volumes  of  essays,  plays of  and  Brecht,  an  a writer  over  Europe's most i m p o r t a n t best  work.  of  books, people, theater—are  direct but  the  of  and  was  "the  stamp  the  the  He  'belong  adds to  further:  their  (HH  plays  time'  (not of  Wedekind,  authors  an  had  even i f  including  poetry,  translations  fifty-six,  "Young  6).  s i x volumes  twenty  meeting with  yet  eight  (including  Sade),  age  unreserved killing  victim  reality.  prisons, cats, politics,  always deeply  with  engaged.  enthusiasm  polemics, their  of  i n each p e r i o d , as  two  screen  i s the  legacy  w h e n many  to complete  T h e y c o n s t i t u t e B j(zfrneboe ' s a c c o u n t s  "protocols"  extremes  not  regard,  Schiller,  died at  itself  and  unfinished autobiography—this who  step  period to another,  s i x major  children's plays)  of  one  a while"  several  Strindberg,  t o BjjzSrneboe,  for literature."  especially,  'time'  to  out  his  a book t h a t i s  Duke Hans, a c c o r d i n g  changes  of  often manifests  "modern."  times"  author's  The the  their  or  essays—on  third  They t e n d  of  world  and  toward  for his subject,  to  o f t e n h i g h l y humorous f o r a l l  tongue-in-cheek  irony.  Many  of  7 the  best  essays  c o n s t i t u t e m a t e r i a l which  the  test  before  developing  plays.  The  oriented  toward  form t h a t  meanwhile  s y m b o l and  i s Rilkean.  influenced display  poetry  sense  of  disturbance  and  c u l t u r e of  the  trilogy  evident,  the  an  from  than  the  to  way  the  history,  the  Strindberg,  e l u s i v e phantom t h a t  hovers  is  which Kruttarnet Here  the  Scandinavian  does  Kafka  deep  fiction  Freedom),  next  a  politics  Silence).  sooner  meanwhile,  with  Bestiality,  (The  poems  novels,  below the  No to  the  together  (Moment o f  continent  and  The  H i s t o r y of  light.  and  for  most  c e n t r a l work of  Stillheten  i t gives  Brecht  His  ffyeblikk  emerge t o  Nietzsche,  one.become  one:  Novalis  and  behind  Camus, the  and Bocaccio  trilogy  like  confessor—Dante. The  and  known as  Powderhouse)and  peninsula  a  West.  Frihetens  influences  and,  the  i n reponse  or  sense  w r i t e r who  perspectives  to  metaphysical,  myth, executed w i t h  i n f l u e n c e most c l e a r l y .  his metaphysical  (The  i s often  i t i n novels  i n his early years,  bring  includes  refining  R i l k e i s the  Bj^rneboe  the  and  Bjjrfrneboe p u t  the  p l a y s , meanwhile, other  (including itself  great  circus,  i s always  Bj^rneboe.  His  Scandinavia,  attitude  mime a n d  in a  style  second  first  towards  i n f l u e n c e of  non-naturalistic theater  that  was  as  Nordahl  originality  the  is  distinctively  an  original  i n Norway t o  cast  by  dialogue  dramatist  o f f the  Grieg—has  shared  Brecht,  traditions  w r e s t l i n g ) , though  break-through  the  leg-irons—the  show t h e  to  most of  do the  in  Ibsenite with  an  8 avant-garde lasting return  i n theater  value.  This  to theater's  whose  work  has p r o v e n t o be o f  i s an o r i g i n a l i t y origins.  The  most  achievements  here  are Fugleelskerne  Semmelweis.  With  Bj^rneboe,  have t h e a b i l i t y emerges plays  t o work  as t h e most  c a n be v i e w e d  contain  attacks  existence  which  of  Brecht  further  Bjj^rneboe  form.  the  tradition  puts  The this  In contrast  often  of an  drama  that  they  i s not t o say they  they  have t h e " d r e a m - l i k e  our  Here,  inheritance  evident  i n t h e work  undisguised  of h i s work  to this,  the novels  of  of  influence  aspect  a lonely world  That  reality  also  who  A l lof the  i n the sense  showing t r a c e s  only  relief.  are very  meeting with  social  and S t r i n d b e r g .  certainly  into  genres,  and  writers  h a v e become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .  from the Scandinavian Ibsen  Lovers)  on c e n t r a l f a c t s o f o u r s o c i e t y and  Bjo'rneboe i s o f c o u r s e  Holberg,  striking  many o t h e r  i n different  as p o l e m i c s ,  comes o f a  (The B i r d  as w i t h  explicitly  which  of  perception.  are i n t r o v e r t e d or p r i v a t e , but quality  always  has"  which (HH  our  half-conscious  7).  3. Bjo'rneboe's d e v e l o p m e n t as a w r i t e r m i g h t be b e s t as  a t r a j e c t o r y from  in  with  h i s deep  Anthroposophy, anarchism.  e s t h e t i c and s p i r i t u a l  involvement with  to his final  described  concerns  the s p i r i t u a l  tied  movement o f  philosophical resting place:  Y e t one h a s t o be c a u t i o u s  i n proposing  that  9  kind the  of  trajectory, since  beginning  and  meetings with with and  his w o r k — a l l  appear  to  be  the  t o d a y , when h i s take  on  the  been passed world:  that  appear  i f he  The  will  i n the  critical  turn  courts,  irony  place of  area  i s to  acknowledged he  a  sensibility,  example—nor  Nordic d i d he  Norwegian nature, in  Tarjei  sense  of  writer  the  shows c o n s t a n t be was  corrupted  by  surrounded  spellings brought  he  his  a  show an  He  word.  without  never  isolation  Vesaas.  was  the  would first  by  the  of  was  a  as  in exile,  fantasy,  use  the  speaking must  at  large.  like  use  with,  and  that  we  i n almost  of  pieces  to  he  find every  was  a  language  allowing  i t to  the  Swedish  Danish-like  riksmal  the  to  for  i f i t s u i t e d h i s purpose.5  travel  now  drew a t t e n t i o n  said that  g r e w up  to  particularly  consciously  and  work  And  t i l l  for northern  Bjpfrneboe's  G e r m a n he  up  d i d Hamsun,  affinity  his  him,  would  begun  world  consciously  and  his  trends  that  English  author's  I t m i g h t e v e n be  evidence  has  internationalist  language.  by  country  never  He  of  modern d e m o c r a c i e s .  where an  "Norwegian" w r i t e r . n a t i o n a l or  i n a country  s i l e n c e i n the  language  one  "unsatisfactory"  a myth, h i s work has  in virtual  charges  against  i n h i s own  i s that  media,  threats  of  his  conflicts  personal  innocent  in this  i n the  both  so,  of  most  of  Even  banning  taking  proportions  at  the  this  be  evident  increasingly into  assessments  stature  over  are  his w r i t i n g career.  outright prosecution,  ongoing  impulses  authorities—charges  countercharges  and  of  reality  s o c i e t y and  books,  in  end  both  e d i t o r of  when an  Oslo  he  he  10  daily  paper,  asked,  the e d i t o r ' s response  "Where i n t h e w o r l d  Norwegian?"  He  s a i d he  asked permission  to  was  have you  had  "never  learned seen  "translate i t into  gave t h e a s p i r i n g w r i t e r an  favorable,  advance  though  he  your  the  like,"  and  Norwegian,"  f r o m h i s own  as  he  pocket  (Ringness 1 6 ) . Late  in his life,  Bjjzirneboe r e m a r k e d theater (OT  again:  20).  would  But  never  loneliness  that  seasoned he  never  " I t smells until  he  intended  t h e end  of h i s l i f e  battles,  to v i s i t  of the p i s s of the  come d o w n — a n d which  b y many c u l t u r a l  the  barricades"  barricades  paradoxically, neither  always  associated with  a  d i d the  the discovery  truth. There of  i s , though,  the peace,  t h o s e who  are  perspective, recognizes  even  i n their  solitude.  international in their this  confederation  i t s own  circumstances.  a confederation  i n any  How  limited  their  evident  by  other.  I n 1 9 5 9 B j ^ r n e b o e was  Brecht's engaged  and  t h e ways i n w h i c h  describe  the  concentration Norwegian "Ich  little  book about  camp t h a t  child's  life.  had  spirit over  under  they often making  there,  an  borders  a l lkinds  extended  Berlin.  i n which  the  changed  says.  for  and  encounter  and of  He he  each stay  at  became  began  to  Oranienburg the d i r e c t i o n  His interlocutor  b i n L a n g h o f f , " he  disturbers  n u m b e r s a r e i s made  B e r l i n e r Ensemble i n East i n a conversation  such  Particularly  extends  place  of  stops  "I wrote  that  of  a  him. book."  5  of  11 All the  Europe c o n t r i b u t e d to making of K u r t z . Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness  TWO  / THE  E A R L Y WORKS  1. In  1948  Jens  Bjjzfrneboe w r o t e  H a n s ) , w h i c h was publisher  w o r k s , when f i n a l l y  later.  The  frail  younger  brother  to  example of  support the  Hans e x p e r i e n c e s competing Spain.  the  the  encounter  the  to  world,  self-consciously  the  on  Hans s e e s h i m s e l f  of  sake of  s t o r y of  wars  first  deep  Czar's  figure  Bj^rneboe reflected  as  much  the  i n the  faces  daughter. expediency,  of  for  Ivan  meeting  the the  between  writer. and  that  a  more  a mature  the  against  into  political  e x p l o r a t i o n of  in  the  rebellion  antipodal personality types, against the  the  Protestants,  between  journey the  most  I t i s there  Flemish  hand of  every his  to the  encounters  a  (Duke  Denmark.  times.  a theme w h i c h w i l l  absorb  IV  Hans  twenty-five  against the  i n the  f o r the  H a n s c o m e s up i s the  of  of  the  first  those  seek the  b e t w e e n two  This  of  sends him  engineers,  sensitive  mind and  Christian  Europe  Later Christian  Terrible.  novella, tells  Spaniards  cruelty  i d e o l o g i e s of  Thus C h r i s t i a n  ultra  King  Realpolitik  semibarbarous Russia  an  of  one  by  published  sends h i s despondent brother  Netherlands an  i t was  book, a l o n g  Hertug  speaking,  I t w o u l d p r o v e t o be  1  years  Christian  novel  rejected, practically  i n Norway. ,  fascinating  his first  fates  of  12 others—of absolute the  doubles,  ruler  general  Looking  youth S p i n o l a — a reflects  might say.  There i s h i s b r o t h e r ,  o f more t h a n h a l f o f  young S p a n i s h  likeness.  we  S p i n o l a who  at himself  man  in fear.  Scandinavia.  i n a mirror,  o f power d e s p i t e " I t was  sees  the  There i s a l s o  i n Hans h i s  own  the  aging  rapidly  h i m s e l f — r e f l e c t s , and  a stranger's  face":  I t showed a man who had come t o t h e b o r d e r r e g i o n o f l i f e , t o t h e l a n d o f images and o f b r o k e n r e l a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h none turned back. I t showed a p e r s o n t h a t s t o o d o u t s i d e o f t h e law and w o u l d b e l o n g t o a l l a g e s ' and a l l n a t i o n s ' b r o t h e r h o o d o f t h e r e b e l l i o u s , t h e d e s p e r a t e and t h e s u i c i d a l . (HH 57)  As  he  w a s t e s away t o w a r d s h i s d e a t h i n t h e  awaiting  the  engagement c o n f i r m a t i o n  sees something of h i m s e l f to  be  b r o k e n on  arbitrary life.  act  The  when we  courtyard. the  final  i n his later  The  book was  the  young a u t h o r  available Russia.  i s t o ask  reality, i n Axel  "For  any  not  will  last the  seemingly monk's  become c l e a r e r  compassion  c a s e by  portrayed  particularly  a p u b l i s h e r who  the  i n Russia  details of the  felt  of  time,  G y l l e n s t i e r n e ' s a c c o u n t s o f Hans's t r a v e l s i n reader  of t r u t h . "  old-fashioned  Hans  works.  with  publisher's consultant,  impression  His  Czar to spare  gesture  r e j e c t e d i n one had  while  o f a young monk w a i t i n g  r e t u r n t o B j ^ r n e b o e ' s concept of  historical  the  in life  palace  which never a r r i v e s ,  face  wheel i n the  meaning o f t h i s  (med-lidelse)  that  the  i n the  Czar's  The  any  background i n h i s t o r y , " wrote  "these  e x t e r i o r s do  consultant  chronical style,  give  the  meanwhile t h a t  the  perceived  confessing  not an  13  saga  had  "power, a t m o s p h e r e , b e a u t y , "  sensibility" still cued  (Wandrup 4 6 ) .  about the type by  the  narrative—a quite  clear  different  fiction.  o f n o v e l he  famous N o r d i c  stars.  Yet  The  c o n s u l t a n t m i g h t have been  had  b e f o r e him  both  the  fates  i t i s B r a h e who  the d e s t i n i e s which the  book t h u s  falls  history, search  a rising  or i n the  r e a l i s m , or  role  Christian  an  i n t h e a b s e n c e o f God  tradition  absent  and  The i n using  center, a  received  f a c e of a u n i v e r s e t h a t i s i n d i f f e r e n t  in  individuals  h o l d f o r them.  existentialist with  something  historical  that i t i s for  stars  i n o r d e r t o show a w o r l d  for values  the  were  o f Hans and  says  to a f f e c t  into  by  that i t s ambitions  t h a t of l i t e r a r y  Brahe sees  "musical  a s t r o l o g e r Tyge B r a h e i n t h e  indicator  from  showed a  demands f o r p e r i o d r e a l i s m were  t h e demands o f t h e t i m e .  played  the  The  and  or  beliefs, even  malignant. After  the t o t a l  Norway, B j ^ r n e b o e in  ruins.  and  The  barbarous  fact  rejection  departs  parallel lands  i n the  Germany w i l l  with  star  p r o v i d e him w h i c h was  German, and  with  c o u l d be  new  traditionally  literature  education,  between t h e  Having  bilingual  he  culture  i s deeply  t h e most E u r o p e a n o f  still  f o r the What  the  he  urban grown up  i n Norwegian  forming  and  in  the the c h a o t i c  drawn, b u t  impetus.  functionally  German a r t and  contradiction  what was  into  1  i s only preparing to r i s e .  with  f o u n d a t i o n of h i s c u l t u r a l the  Hans s quest  effort  Germany  bombed, s h e l l - w r a c k e d q u a r t e r s o f  a household  by  literary  f o r Germany i n 1 9 4 8 — a  of the Czar  t h a t Bj^rneboe's  encounters  of h i s f i r s t  in  and  the torn himself  cruelty  European  in  14 societies.  He  had  travelled  h i s m o t h e r : i n 1939 the d e c l a r a t i o n festivities through  o f war.  of t e n years  i n 1948,  chapters  they  will  t o Germany one  decade b e f o r e  had  to break  The  c o n t r a s t between t h e  b e f o r e , and  off their  the r u i n s  travels  he  p r o v i d e the menacing charge  of h i s p i v o t a l  with  due  to  feverish wandered of the  final  work, Moment o f Freedom ( F r i h e t e n s  jzSyeblikk) :  O u t s i d e t h e c r u s h and b u s t l e was g r e a t e r t h a n b e f o r e , t h e r e were s t i l l more u n i f o r m s , and l o r r i e s w i t h s o l d i e r s d r o v e through the o v e r f l o w i n g s t r e e t s . P e o p l e s h o u t e d and s a n g , and some b r o k e o u t i n t o e n t h u s i a s t i c f i g h t s o n g s . I t was a f o l k - f e s t i v a l and t h e r e was an i n t o x i c a t i o n o f j o y . I didn't u n d e r s t a n d what i t was a l l a b o u t . I t was o n l y a b i t l a t e r i n t h e e v e n i n g t h a t i t dawned on me t h a t t h e p e o p l e were c e l e b r a t i n g t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e s e c o n d w o r l d war. (FO 201)  Between t h o s e Bj^rneboe's  first  exile  two  trips  t o Germany l i e s  i n Stockholm.  During  the  the p e r i o d of  Stockholm  becomes d e e p l y  engaged w i t h A n t h r o p o s o p h y t h r o u g h  Anthroposophic  Christian  under is  Isaac Grunewald, a s t u d e n t  increasingly  obsessed  developing a special painting. he and  H i s own  i s concerned darkness,  i n works l i k e move away f r o m his  S o c i e t y , and  style,"  direction  and  Little static  Boy  form  i n medieval  the  to study  painting  (Wandrup 4 1 ) . during this  and  light,  Byzantine  t h e p l a y between  color—preoccupations that'will B l u e , o r Blctmann.  motifs.  " G r a d u a l l y he  writes his biographer,  He  time,  v e e r s towards i m p r e s s i o n i s m ,  above a l l w i t h  light  of M a t i s s e  with a r t i s t i c  interest  begins  p e r i o d he  for  light show  up  S l o w l y h i s works also  transformed  F r e d r i k Wandrup.  "He  stops  15 painting  neutral landscapes.  He  begins  to paint  narratively,  more s y m b o l i c a l l y " ( 4 5 ) . His purely e s t h e t i c later  strike  him  world  events  of those  as a b s u r d ,  awareness,  during this  or worse, i n the  times.  as a w r i t e r t o d e a l w i t h lacking  obsessions  It will  the  period  context  indifference.  We  shall  see,  interest  i n t h e power o f f o r m  example, i n 1963 of the w o r l d completely  will  never  he w r i t e s o f C e z a n n e :  "He  / so e v e r y t h i n g i s f o r c e ,  r e c a s t i n the heat  however, t h a t  rebuilds  t e n s i o n and  of h i s l o o k . . . . "  his travels  articles  which a r e p u b l i s h e d i n the major d a i l y  is  into  r e f u s e d by  with p o s i t i v e  book f o r m , t h e e s s a y  comments.  first  by  Andre B j e r k e .  critical  attention  t o form.  seldom, v e r y conscious  debutant  " t h e p a l e and Wandrup  image /  177).  After  epistles  and  Aftenposten.  volume L a n t e r n e r  (Lanterns)  Gyldendal,  handful  o f poems  T h e s e poems a r e  s o o n bound i n t o  his  ( D i k t ) i n 1951.  It  simply  Poems  style  and  obsessive  P a a l Brekke w r i t e s i n Dagbladet a t home, t h a t s u c h  comes f o r t h . "  immobile beauty  an  that i t " i s  artistically  B r e k k e compares t h e poems t o  o f smooth m a r b l e "  (qtd. i n  50).  Prior  but  and  salvos for i t s cool  seldom here  our  For  h i s c o u s i n , the well-known poet  p u b l i s h e d book, t i t l e d  receives  of t r a v e l  Meanwhile h i s f i r s t  writer,  music  (SD  t h e m a j o r p u b l i s h e r s A s c h e h o u g and  are p u b l i s h e d i n Ordet translator  i n a series  problem  dissipate.  t h e war,  Assembled  result  the  a p e r i o d of  e v e n d u r i n g h i s most engaged p h a s e s as a p o l i t i c i z e d the  of  become h i s c o r e  "hole" i n his l i f e ,  will  to the p u b l i c a t i o n  of the  first  p o e t r y volume i n  16 1951,  however, B j ^ r n e b o e  makes y e t a n o t h e r  where, w h i l e w a n d e r i n g t h r o u g h shades of a r e c e n t l y portals  d e a d e p o c h , he  lead  him  deeper  scientist-lawyer p a i n f u l medical conducted  experiments  inconceivable fact  acquaintance upstanding  notorious medical  t h o s e who possible  knew him key  this  into  he  human  who  situation  fact,  of t h i s  Documents  also  f a m i l y man,  t o t h e phenomenon o f N a z i s m , and later  s e a o f inhuman e v i l  and  reflects  the  working  he  the  pondering  an  of the  L a t c h i n g on t o R a s c h e r ' s  he  a  Dr R a s c h e r ,  then,  from  doctors  While  became one  fine  evil  They d e t a i l  butchers during h i s c l i n i c a l  best.  the  a l s o makes  f a m i l y o f one  citizen,  the  h i s hands by  scale.  of these e v e n t s ,  science with barbarism, into  into  (Wandrup 5 1 ) .  c o n f r o n t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l  intimate with the  himself at  a journey  on a m a s s i v e  forthright  and  which N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t  of the s u r v i v i n g  and  of r u i n s  finds  are put  whom he meets  on human b e i n g s  t o Germany  f o r d e c a d e s t o come.  t h e German p h y s i c i a n s ' t r i a l  While  limbo  o f a much g r e a t e r j o u r n e y ,  which w i l l  the  the  trip  most  hours.  becomes through  case  as  a  the c o m p l i c i t y  that  c r u e l t y was  "the  insight  the cause  many-year l o n g d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d " (FHG  of  of  the  52).  2. These e v e n t s  p r o v i d e the  B e f o r e t h e Cock Crows as a p l a y , w h i c h was reason  that  frame f o r h i s f i r s t  (F0r  hanen g a l e r ,  rejected  "the p u b l i c  runs  by  1952).  at least  away f r o m  published novel  one  this  Written  first  t h e a t e r f o r the  k i n d of  material,"  Bj^rneboe transformed i t i n t o c o n c i s i o n and documentary novel,  tells  tension—notably,  (52).  first  assistant  ruined  value  Max  system which  after  living  cripple  a life  rarely  The  young days  author SS  as a  who  the  inserted  impulses.  into He  through h i s l a s t  comes t h e m e e t i n g w i t h  now even  days.  peculiar  speaks h i s n a t i v e  to a l l e v i a t i n g  a  is  s c o r n s and a b u s e s  of a meeting with a  dedicated  Finally  autobiographical  o f h i s t i m e s and  of b r u t a l i t y  who  of the  i n a makeshift hospice i n a  want t o n u r s e him  named Lyngby,  t h e war.  out h i s l a s t  h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s and  a description  particular  frame  1  i s a creature  contraption  is living  The  to Reynhardt s  nurtured his cruellest  k i n d p e o p l e who  Norwegian and  i s now  during  There i s a l s o  7).  becomes Dr R e y n h a r d t .  bullet-ridden  tenement.  a cynical, the  Dr R a s c h e r  Max—who  system—taken  (OT  t o F r e d r i k Wandrup, i s p u r e l y  of h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n  debilitated,  n o v e l of  some y e a r s b e f o r e t h e  n o v e l came i n t o vogue  according  material  a documentary  human  language, suffering  Reynhardt's  family. Ensuing of  i s the f i c t i o n a l  recreation  t h e p a s t b a s e d upon t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n  present. is  on t h i s  The  dominated  book i s s p l i t  into  by t h e • a u t h o r v o i c e ,  two  or  comment.  simplistic  and  the f i r s t  the t h i r d  The  of  person  t o move f o r w a r d w i t h o u t a u t h o r  I t i s a technique that w i l l  Bjo'rneboe n o v e l s .  i n the which  the second i n which  a u t h o r a t t e m p t s t o be a b s e n t , a l l o w i n g omniscient narrative  available  tiers,  and  of the events  autobiographical  recur  s c h e m a t i c f a s h i o n when compared  and  speculation  in later  frame—used  the  in a  to the  18 s o p h i s t i c a t e d manipulation of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l material  i n h i s t r i l o g y more t h a n a d e c a d e  indicator  of h i s native country.  Juxtaposed with Reynhardt Heidebrand.  that his  "They  science,  i n q u e s t o f power a n d s t a t u s  and u n l i k e Reynhardt  Heidebrand  who a l l o w s  t h e wheel.  125).  up i n camps.  conscious of  "They  wanted t o l i e  And I wanted t o s i t up i n t h e c a r r i a g e "  But Heidebrand i s a l s o  d r o p o u t o f t h e madness. w i l l t o choose  i s quite  wanted i t t h a t way," s a y s H e i d e b r a n d o f  f r i e n d s who have ended  beneath  the  SS o f f i c e r  t o be drawn i n t h r o u g h w e a k n e s s , a n d t h e o b f u s c a t i o n  choice.  (FHG  o f t h e system,  he i s s e r v i n g  former  i s t h e hardened  He h a s c h o s e n a l i f e  the hierarchy  himself  l a t e r — i s an e a r l y  o f how t h e myth o f t h e man B j ^ r n e b o e i t s e l f has  entered the l i t e r a t u r e  in  and f i c t i o n a l  a b l e t o make t h e c h o i c e t o  He h a d once  chosen e v i l ,  h i s way o u t o f i t a g a i n .  b u t he has  I f Reynhardt i s  e v i d e n c e o f a human b e i n g ' s i n f i n i t e a b i l i t y t o be p a s s i v e l y shaped of for  by t h e w o r l d a n d s o c i a l  the opposite:  that  has b r o k e n w i t h h i s l i f e And a g a i n !  and h i s l i f e .  once,  He a s s e r t s  t h a t he  "And I c a n b r e a k o u t a g a i n .  T h e r e a r e no bounds t o how o f t e n  break w i t h h i s p a s t . Heidebrand's  Heidebrand i s evidence  a human b e i n g has i n f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  choosing h i s d i r e c t i o n  again!  forces,  a man c a n  E v e r y moment he c a n do i t ! " ( 1 6 8 ) .  resurrection  i n t h e f o r m and name o f h i s dead  Norwegian  c e l l m a t e a t t h e e n d o f t h e war p r o v i d e s a k i n d o f  hope t h a t  spirals  institutions to  carry  forth  making e v i l  out f u r t h e r  And  through the v i c i o u s men, a n d e v i l  evil.  cycle  men m a k i n g  of e v i l institutions  A l t h o u g h Bj0rneboe p o s e s a  19 contradiction  in this  a Reynhardt a g a i n s t  p o r t r a y a l o f human n a t u r e  novel  victims  reads:  of the  w h i c h has In  1967  internationally  the  critic  perversion  an  Before  an  and  career  Ole  the  dedication  memory o f  chilling  of  the  was  Bj^rneboe's  ( w h i c h i n my cynical  the  devoted to the  he  with  about  that  remarked t h a t  problem of  of  used  experiments  court action  Storm f o r l i b e l ,  novel  opinion  sensationalistically  During  citing  " T h i s , i n Norway, famous  camp d o c t o r s '  excuse to w r i t e sadism)-"v^  spirit  influential  o f Bj/zfrneboe' s e a r l i e r  Cock Crows  the  science."  Storm o f t h e  novel:  extension  Bj^rneboe took a g a i n s t literary  and  the  n o v e l , Moment o f Freedom, by  published  German c o n c e n t r a t i o n  p r i s o n e r s as  The  P o l i t i k e n w o u l d t u r n h i s s i g h t s on  B jafrneboe' s f i r s t  indignation,  of h e a r t  acclaimed  as  supplies.  " T h i s book i s w r i t t e n t o t h e  literary  serves  material  c h a r a c t e r i z e d modern  Copenhagen d a i l y  novel,  raw  blindness  long  playing off  a Heidebrand, i t cannot counteract  weight of pessimism the of the  by  his  evil:  I t i s my theme once and f o r a l l — i t i s n o t a theme I have c h o s e n f o r m y s e l f ; i t has been an a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y , n e v e r a choice. The t h i n g s I have w r i t t e n have been what nowadays i s c a l l e d "engaged" w r i t i n g . But i t has n e v e r been a w i l l f u l e n g a g e m e n t — i t w o u l d have been more p l e a s a n t t o w r i t e a b o u t i d y l l s a b o u t f l o w e r s and a b o u t h a r m l e s s t h i n g s ... I've n e v e r been a b l e t o do t h a t , I have been an "engaged" w r i t e r a g a i n s t my w i l l . . . . (Wandrup 54)  3. The  year  after  b r e a k t h r o u g h as  Before  the  Cock Crows, B j ^ r n e b o e ' s  a poet i s r e i n f o r c e d with  previous  a s e c o n d volume  of  20 p o e m s — A r i a d n e (L953 ) . overriding or  The poems i n b o t h  concern with  form—often  v a r i a t i o n s on s o n n e t  form—and  themselves are e i t h e r formal politics, matters  sensualism,  use and re-use  Bj^rneboe  i s at this  which  he q u i t e  first  wife,  upon myth d e e p l y Immersed d u r i n g an the  time  i n much o f t h i s  a teacher helped  work.  to build,  together  showing t h e t e n s i o n — m u c h c collections. The  poem  School, with h i s place  he  captures  to light  the essence  up  through  a s R i l k e d i d i n t h e Neue  "Easter:  The B a s k e t M a k e r "  tilts  ("Paske:  Gedichte  an innuendo which  is  i n the story of the Passion,  to come—both  Kurvmakeren")  t h e R i l k e a n mode t o w a r d s  themes, and w i t h  own p r o g r e s s i o n  as a  i s the barest  h i s own  h i n t o f what  and i n  writer.  H e r e I h a v e made s o m e t h i n g q u i t e new never seen before: A crown of thorns. I , who d w e l l i n J e r u s a l e m — m y home's o n t h e s t r e e t o f b a s k e t w e a v e r s - a q u i e t man w i t h w o r k s h o p , w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n ; I know t h e w o r k I do q u i t e w e l l a n d s u c h a c r o w n I ' v e n e v e r made b e f o r e . I  i s a  3  s h o w s how B j ^ f r n e b o e  Bj0rneboe's  There  as w e l l as h i s a r t .  i n t h e works o f R i l k e ,  i n i t — a i m i n g t o capture  worldly  as a c e n t r a l m o t i f .  image from a myth, a work o f a r t , and a t t e m p t s tensions  sonnets  The s u b j e c t s o f  The e m p h a s i s t h e A n t h r o p o s o p h i s t s  period  show an  and concerns  at the Steiner  affects h i s teaching this  forms,  a l c o h o l i s m and other  of the Passion  literally  Lisel.  the content  depression,  volumes  traditional  or metaphysical.  do n o t make a s h o w i n g  frequent  poetry  c u t my b r a n c h e s  from a t r e e of roses,  21 s e v e n t h i n b r a n c h e s , p l i a b l e and l o n g , s e v e n s o f t t h o r n y b r a n c h e s were enough. On t h o s e b r a n c h e s t h e r e were many, many o f t h i s y e a r ' s young r o s e s s p r o u t e d f o r t h . I p u t a l l o f t h e e x t r a s i n a mug — t h e d a r k , r e d and t h e wet, g r e e n — so t h e y gave a happy f r a g r a n c e t o my h o u s e , and b u r n o u t r a t h e r s l o w l y l i k e a f i r e . But no one a t t h e workshop h e r e c a n s e e what t h e y s h a l l do w i t h s u c h a crown a s t h a t . (SD 81)  The be  said  influence Rilke exerted t o be b a s e d on t h r e e  philosophical is  and f o r m a l .  d e s c r i b e d by b o t h  among n a t i v e s — a n d "Der  on B j ^ r n e b o e t h e p o e t  affinities:  The p e r s o n a l  might  personal, experience  as something a k i n t o b e i n g  e v e n t h a t o f an a r r i v a l  of the world  a traveler  on a new p l a n e t .  Einsame" R i l k e w r i t e s :  L i k e one who's t r a v e l e d o v e r f o r e i g n s e a s I am a l w a y s among t h e n a t i v e s ; t h e f u l l d a y s a r e d e c k e d o u t on t h e i r t a b l e s , b u t t o me t h i n g s d i s t a n t make s e n s e . Here a new w o r l d r i s e s i n my v i e w Which i s p e r h a p s u n i n h a b i t e d l i k e t h e moon....  In  "Emigranteri,"  one o f h i s f i r s t  statement t h a t i s remarkably  In in in no  poems, Bjo'rneboe makes a  similar:  a l l t h e rooms w i t h d a r k e n e d b l a n k e t s , a l l t h e beds i n w h i c h I have l a i n c i t i e s where I c o u l d n o t r e m a i n i n h a b i t a n t e v e n knows my name.  (. . .) I am a c h i l d  of f o r e i g n p l a n e t s .  In  22  A g r e a t e r n a m e l e s s t h i n g d r e w me p o w e r f u l l y f r o m f a c e s , l a n d s a n d c i t i e s r o u n d me. . 5  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e a f f i n i t y there  i s a common s t r a i n  suggest that to  a striving  illumination.  Sarcophogi") carved  ribbons  towards death  swallowed  will  which  i s t h e most d i r e c t  "Romische Sarkophage"  an ornamented  and c u t g l a s s , i n which  by t h e unknown mouth / t h a t  route  ("Roman  sarcophogus with  rings,  "wandering i n  slow decomposition / a t h i n g d i s s o l v i n g slowly was  perspective,  i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems,  R i l k e ' s poem  describes  idols,  f o rR i l k e ' s personal  l a y —  never  / t i l l i t  speaks  (Where  a b r a i n a r i s e / and t h i n k t o p u t i t t o good use.)"6  might paraphrase, similar live,  fully  motifs, flower  thought  " I f only  i s — i f , only  death death  could could  aware o f o u r m o r t a l i t y .  "Lazarus," i n t o a whole  death-awareness.7  we f i n d  the kernel  system of thought Lazarus  speak." walk:  We  Bjjrfrneboe s 1  i fonly  we  I n a poem h a n d l i n g of thought which  could similar  will  concerning  arises t o eat with  the others:  A n d t h e s e who a l l h a d d e a t h w i t h i n t h e m now s a w t h a t h e who w a s now f i l l e d w i t h t h a t a l o n e —who had eaten h i s f i l l of d e a t h — h e could f r e e himself from t h e death w i t h i n him and r e t u r n . Now h e c a m e a g a i n and h a d more l i f e i n h i m t h a n t h e y . (SD 4 8 )  23 Neither  Bj/zfrneboe n o r  darkness.  As  occasional  harlequin-like  joke—as  a poet,  i n "Das  Bj^rneboe  color,  e l e p h a n t . "i J  Bj^rneboe's  grotesque. and  "And  does n o t have  ability  Karussell",  movement and 8  R i l k e are e x c l u s i v e l y  to find  where R i l k e  e v e r y now  humor t e n d s  Epicureanism  and  Places  that  on E a r t h and we  light  describes a world a  life  can  Food  I Like"  be  the cuisine  full  s t e d e r pa  gesotten, tear  / i n i t s own  d u c t s / and  I drank Mosel  unconscious"  (SD  beacons of l i g h t Einer  growing  from  Rilke  sense  growing—a  growing  had  the t h i c k e s t  / who  s m a l l . / There  must be  I t passed  / During  S t u r m n a c h t " he w r i t e s :  sister's quite  fat.  it.  120).  lived  "On  BjjzSrneboe' s " S t i l l stormy n i g h t :  my  this  for a  "On  j o r d e n og  one  mat  of Walt  darkness, Night"  such  t o draw  n i g h t s my and  my  my brain.  /  f o g of darkness.  distant In  "Aus  little  died before  me,  nights since then:  Soon t h e y ' l l  ("Stille  / through  the a b i l i t y  b e f o r e me  you  / grazed  meal I was  have been many s u c h lovely.  gills  flash  of e x p e c t a t i o n , of something pregnant  indeed  " I n Wiirzburg / I a t e a c a r p , b l a u  went i n a l i g h t n i n g with  does, *  of p l e a s u r a b l e items  i s a c r o s s between a p a n - E u r o p e a n menu and lists.  He  I n a long-poem,  ("Om  of  white  more t o w a r d  are presented with a l i t a n y  Whitman's l y r i c a l  This  wisdom i n a  then  r e t u r n e d to the dinner t a b l e .  liker")  She  Rilke's  d r i n k are o f t e n d r i v e n to the p o i n t of the manic.  Lazarus  /  of  h e d o n i s m when i t comes t o  on o c c a s i o n , s e t o u t t o show t h a t  jeg  and  poets  a l l be  proposing."  apparently lost  might s a y — - i s Natt")  as  /  t o be  9  that i s  found  in  i t i s in Rilke's  24  The n i g h t Something I t i s not come down  tonight i s holy. w i l l happen. s i m p l y snow t h a t from heaven.  will  The n i g h t t o n i g h t i s h o l y . Someone w i l l d i e t o n i g h t . New-s>own and f e a r f u l and f a i n t heaven i s spawning i n i c e where i t ' s s h i n i n g and smooth on  the  street.  The n i g h t t o n i g h t i s h o l y . Someone w i l l be b o r n t o n i g h t . Our d a r k , f r e e z i n g g l o b e i s not f o r s a k e n , q u i t e . From h e r l u m i n o u s s i s t e r s someone i s coming t o n i g h t . (SD 50-51)  The  apprehension, t h i s  darkness—implying darkness—is will  very  d o m i n a t e one  (Stillheten).  waiting  a belief  figure  of  Bj^rneboe's  It i s also  final  poem " I s c h a r i o t " B j ^ r n e b o e  representing  novels:  The  The  to b r i n g about the  Silence conviction  ascendency of C h r i s t  for a holy  I t was a s p r i n g . And t h e was h e a v y w i t h t h e s m e l l s So we were b o t h f r u i t — o n  He  in a  good  I s c h a r i o t f i g u r e i s even a  whole t h i n g have come t o w i t h o u t me?") i n a design  which  finds less evil  a c r i m i n a l element than i n the  catalyst  destiny,  of  in solitude.  a r o u n d him.  in  essential fertility  i n d i c a t i v e of B j ^ r n e b o e ' s  citizens  the  i n the  from  s i m i l a r t o t h e . s e n s e of a p p r e h e n s i o n  that truth i s discovered In the  f o r s o m e t h i n g t o emerge  necessary  ("What w o u l d  played  his role  ritual.  branch I chose of f l o w e r s t h a t e a c h our t r e e .  snowed.  25  I t was b e f o r e P e s a h ; t h e y ' d w h i t e w a s h e d e v e r y house B e f o r e t h e S a b b a t h t h e e n d had t o be a t t a i n e d : The o t h e r s — f l e d . J u s t we two r e m a i n e d . (SD 17)  In t h e m i d - s i x t i e s t h e poem " F l o w e r s for  f o r Genet"  G e n e t " ) w o u l d expand on t h e theme, a s Bja'rneboe's  plumbing  o f t h e crown o f t h o r n s  motif  ("Blomster endless  continued:  M a r i a , mother o f a l l a f l i c t i o n Name o u r names i n y o u r b e n e d i c t i o n s We're a l l b e a r i n g crowns o f t h o r n s We a r e , e a c h one, sons o f y o u r s . P r o c u r e r s and sodomites E x h i b i t i o n i s t s and t r a n s v e s t i t e s Pederasts, fetishists Poets and m a s o c h i s t s Morphine a d d i c t s , a l c o h o l i c s V i r g i n , a l l a f f l i c t i o n s ' mother Console Genet, our poor b r o t h e r He t o o b e a r s a crown o f t h o r n s . T h i e v e s , whores a n d G e n e t We h a n g i n g one s i d e and t h e o t h e r Of y o u r s o n on a f f l i c t i o n s ' t r e e Know what t h e w o r l d ' s s a v i o r s u f f e r s V i r g i n m o t h e r , o n l y we Know what t h e cup o f mercy means: The c o r o n a l t h o r n s t u r n t o r o s e s . (SD, 137)  At t h i s  j u n c t u r e , 1965, poems l i k e  cadence, w i t h is  sharpened  also a result  poetics wields  this  one a r e t a k i n g on a new  i m a g e r y and a s e n s e o f d i r e c t n e s s w h i c h  o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e t h a t German  over  Bj^rneboe.  I t i s simply  t h a t he has moved  26 f r o m one early  dominating pole  twentieth  Brecht. the  For  poem;  those  i n der  ("Ballad  t h a t of R i l k e , t o the  know i t , t h e  content  nurtured of  the  poem a b o u t t h e  infanticide  born").. 9; 1  As  short  lines,  He  collection,  was  any  the  lies  poem "The  I  beg  from  every  always  conducive or  in  i n a meter to  i s not  b e n t upon  poem—the  his devotion one  considered  to the  of those w e l l and  c l o s e / and  o f t u r n i n g them on out.  In h i s  ("Munken I - I I " )  depicts  and  holy  who  o f two  forms.  only  love  I've  an and  their first a  which  he  desires.  sonnets—  I t opens w i t h  l o v e s / where d e a t h  weighed / are  fertile  life  h i s deepest inner  first  and  cabaret.  forms of m o n a s t i c  utmost d e v o t i o n ,  p a r t of the  " I am  earthly,  t h a t w o u l d be  Monk"  the  pain,  you,  needs h e l p  of h i s p o e t r y  w o u l d come r a t t l i n g  obeys w i t h  lines:  man  ("But  B j ^ r n e b o e had  always q u i t e capable  i s t o r n between t h e  describes  Marxist,  favoring absolution for  works, B j ^ r n e b o e  f i g u r e who  first  The  the  or d e v o u t p o r t r a y a l o f C h r i s t i a n i m a g e r y , i c o n s  head, so t h a t  The  Brecht's  for Forgiveness"),  purpose of t h e a t e r  Even i n h i s e a r l i e s t  ritual.  Brecht,  proportion  s e t t i n g s f o r the  uncritical  / For  of  Leistet"  Marie F a r r a r  scorn  with  a considerable  rhyme, o f t e n w i t h musical  of  s o c i e t y w h i c h , f o r example, comes t h r o u g h  c h e c k y o u r w r a t h and  creature  sentiment  the  for absolution in  poem n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g .  a particular  of  other—that  p e r h a p s have a c e r t a i n r i n g  of the  outcasts  written  appeal  M a c h e a t h Jedermann A b b i t t e  the  you,  who  i n f l u e n c e i n German p o e t r y  i n w h i c h M a c h e a t h Begs A l l Men  religious Brecht,  century,  above w i l l  "Ballade,  of  shown' me. n e v e r had."  the and  Need f o r It is a  any  27 life  "formed"  spheres  so t h a t  i t i s "immobile  of h i g h e s t t h o u g h t s —  meet...."  In the second  a r e t r e a t e d w i t h ominous  / and  linked  / where e a r t h and  section,  t h e forms  to the  heaven  of monastic  life  irony:  They p r a i s e d me and p r o c l a i m e d : " B r o t h e r , y o u a r e immune f r o m God's j u d g m e n t — y o u a r e j u s t . Of a l l t h e b r o t h e r s y o u ' r e t h e o n l y w o r t h y o f Him! You a r e l i k e one o f t h o s e g i a n t t r e e s w h i c h c a n ' t be b a t t e r e d down by wind and s t o r m . You s e r v e t h e L o r d , and l o y a l l y p e r s e v e r e ! " To t h i s I k e p t my s h a m e l e s s s i l e n c e : f o r t h e w h o l e t i m e I was s c r e a m i n g w i t h d e s i r e ! Y e s , i n s i d e me was a dog t h a t I had b e a t e n . W i t h b a r e d t e e t h , s n a r l i n g and a f r a i d l a y s o m e t h i n g t h e r e c r i p p l e d , b e n t and h o w l i n g and s n a r l e d a t me l i k e a t a wounded c a p t i v e . And i f I w o u l d sometimes j o i n him i n h i s s c r e a m i n g t h e e n t i r e c l o i s t e r t h o u g h t t h a t I was s i n g i n g . (SD  The  form a poet or a r t i s t  may  cover over the v e r y t h i n g  way  d e v o t i o n t o form  simultaneously  encages  felt  Bj^rneboe  begins to f e e l  constrained  It is startling  Just  older  not only c o n t a i n ,  i s trying  to express.  lie,  fools  by  forms  i n the a r t s .  saw He  this  him  painter  inherited  to look again at t h i s o f what he  In  the world around  as t h e young  constrained  but  which  by t h e medium o f p a i n t i n g ,  Ortega y Gasset's d e s c r i p t i o n against  he  t h e p o e t , and  Bj^rneboe  revolt  u s e s may  becomes a t e r r i b l e  w i t h t h e f a c a d e i t p u t s up.  forms.  25)  the  poet  literary  poem i n l i g h t  of  as a coming f o r m a l wondered i f W e s t e r n  28 man d i d n o t f e e l medieval the  something  like  t h e odium p r o f e s s i o n i s o f  monks, i n w h i c h t h e y were c o m p e l l e d  "very  rules  t h a t had shaped t h e i r  to rebel against  livesY"  1 1 ,  4. Mythology and s t o r y - t e l l i n g , w o u l d a l w a y s be B j ^ r n e b o e ' s the  heart of existence.  and  reader  powers o f c h i l d r e n .  the  Least  a way f o r b o t h  h i s proof  to teach  writer links  with  was t h e a b i l i t y o f  and n o u r i s h t h e c r e a t i v e  When t h e s o c i a l l y  "engaged" n o v e l  o f These i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ;  "Jonas-debate"  original  motives  forgotten. tradition:  on e d u c a t i o n  1 2  Jonas  ) appeared  i n Scandinavia,  outof  I t became a d e b a t e - n o v e l a tendensroman.  As a r e s u l t , by c r i t i c s  I t i s the s t o r y of a s a i l o r  a n d t h e o l d myths, b e g i n s  psychic health.  The s t o r y o f t h e i r  seem t o f i t w e l l w i t h  school motif  system.  of the s a i l o r  an i m p o r t a n t  a t t h e time who t a k e s  subplot  t h e book  t h e young  the help of s t o r i e s nursing the c h i l d  relationship,  the s t o r y of l i t t l e  For Bj^rneboe,  been  i n the Scandinavian  runaway J o n a s u n d e r h i s w i n g , a n d w i t h his travels  the author's  i n w r i t i n g t h e book seemed t o have  t h e n o v e l was d i s p a r a g e d  came o u t .  not  f o rgetting at  p e a c e f u l w e l f a r e - s t a t e h o r i z o n i n 1955, b r i n g i n g on t h e  great  in  tool  own h e a r t s , t o r e e s t a b l i s h  heritage—and  myths and s t o r y - t e l l i n g  (The  most e f f e c t i v e  They p r o v i d e d  t o plumb, t h e i r  a common c u l t u r a l  e m p l o y i n g t h e method o f p a r a b l e ,  from  back t o  though, d i d  J o n a s and t h e  i t c a n now be a s s e r t e d , t h e  and t h e castaway c h i l d  was more  important  29 t h a n much e l s e t h a t was i n t h e book.  I t i s a motif  Bj^rneboe w i l l  novel,  return to i n h i s f i n a l  which  The S h a r k s  (Haiene). Jonas i s t h e s t o r y o f a c h i l d b e c a u s e he i s a p p a r e n t l y the  others,  precocious  fantasy. children  unable t o l e a r n t o read  child,  system.  with  H i s own a n x i e t y  Jonas i s p o r t r a y e d  a powerful a t being  Kraka  unable t o read  uncovers the f a c t  ("crow", w i t h  t h a t he i s s t i l l  measures t o have him p l a c e d learning  disabilities,  children  call  i t .  like  choice,  by memory.  unable t o read,  When h i s  she t a k e s  as t h e  W i t h t h e d e a t h o f t h e o l d and humane head  "Salamanders", as t h e n a r r a t o r  of l o y a l ,  take calls  business-like—and  c o n t r o l of the school: the them, e m p l o y i n g  Capek's t e r m .  T h u s , t h e f a t e o f J o n a s seems s e a l e d .  cornered  once a g a i n  on  a ship.  draws on h i s r e s o u r c e s  and  tales  begins.  Karel The  and h i d e s o u t  A f t e r t h e s h i p embarks, he i s d i s c o v e r e d .  t h e n t h a t he meets t h e s a i l o r — a n o r d i n a r y vessel.  the help  f o r c h i l d r e n with  " I d i o t t e n " or "the I d i o t " ,  faceless—educators  child  other  a slight respelling)  i n a school  m a s t e r o f t h e s c h o o l , a new b r e e d by  by t h e  as a b r i g h t  t e s t s h i s ingenuity to the point that, with  teacher  I t i s with  like  but unharnessed c r e a t i v e  o f h i s f a t h e r , he l e a r n s a l l h i s l e s s o n s vigilant  and w r i t e  he i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p u n i s h e d and p e r s e c u t e d  adherents of the school and  who has d y s l e x i a , and  the s a i l o r  seaman on t h e  and h i s s t o r e o f myths,  from around t h e w o r l d , t h a t J o n a s s 1  And i t i s w i t h  Jonas, p a r t i c u l a r l y  them r e t u r n t o an a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l  It is  education  legends i n fact  when t h e two o f  that offers  the c h i l d  30 hope, t h a t  the sailor  teacher—by  sheer  himself  will  discover  h i s p o t e n t i a l as a  v i r t u e o f h i s empathy and s o l i d a r i t y  with  children. This Steiner  d i f f e r e n t sort of school  School  i n Norway as i t s model, w i t h  difference,  one w o u l d  half-broken  neurotics,  inclination  o f Bjjzfrneboe  ideological  or t h e o l o g i c a l Utopia  why h e e v e n t u a l l y , with  official  party  which  truly  hold  is  exacted  imagine,  without  any k i n d  out f o r reason o f them.  dropped  man  reacts  have been  i n Arabia!"  with  perhaps, of  his affiliation a  F o r when  political people  i n Bj^rneboe,  named M a r x ,  the sailor  protests  The o l d e r  of any k i n d of  n e v e r was t o j o i n  of Utopia.  asks  This  i s an i n d i c a t i o n ,  When a t e a c h e r  class, the sailor  all,  portrayals  and humanity,  geography  after  a number o f t h e f a c u l t y a r e  fanfare,  Anthroposophy—and  projected  the f i c t i o n a l  o f f alcoholism.  to resist  into alcoholism,  area."  that  fighting  relapsing  my  i n d i s p u t a b l y draws on t h e  s i c k and  to f i l l  nervously  i n for his  that  incredulity.  The s a i l o r  a price  " i t ' s not "But you,  bows t o  pressure:  The s a i l o r t o o k t h e g e o g r a p h y c l a s s , n o t i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a s u b s t i t u t e l e c t u r e r , b u t i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a s a i l o r who h a d b e e n o n l e a v e i n t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e b a z a a r s a n d who h a d r i d d e n a camel on t h e d e s e r t . As p r o o f t h a t he h a d b e e n t h e r e he t o o k w i t h h i m t o t h e c l a s s a d r i e d d e s e r t p l a n t w h i c h h e h a d s t o r e d away i n h i s s u i t c a s e s i n c e t h a t t i m e . I t was a s m a l l , black-brown b a l l of s t u f f which resembled a combination of l e a t h e r and withered grass. I t was r o l l e d up l i k e a f i s t , a n d was l i g h t a s p a p e r . This desert p l a n t had t h e c a p a b i l i t y of d r y i n g o u t a n d r o l l i n g up when t h e e a r t h b e n e a t h i t was w i t h o u t water. I t became p e r f e c t l y r o u n d a n d l i g h t a s d r y g r a s s , a n d then i t t r a v e l e d w i t h t h e w i n d — r o l l e d m i l e a f t e r m i l e back and forth across the Arabian or whichever desert. I t could l i v e f o r d e c a d e s , up t o f i f t y y e a r s t h i s way, w i t h o u t w a t e r a n d nourishment. I t s t r u c k t h e s a i l o r t h a t i t represented an e x c e l l e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l from t h e p l a n t kingdom. If i t  31 came t o a n o a s i s , t o w a t e r , t h e n i t f l a t t e n e d o u t and became s o f t and r o s e t t e - s h a p e d , i t p u t down r o o t s and became g r e e n again. I t was s o a c c u s t o m e d t o d e s e r t t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a t i t p r e f e r r e d t o be s e t i n b o i l i n g w a t e r e a c h t i m e i t was r e s u r r e c t e d from the dead. Then i t bloomed i n a n i n s t a n t . The s a i l o r t o s s e d r a p i d l y b o i l i n g w a t e r on i t i n f r o n t o f t h e c l a s s , and t h e brown b a l l s t r e t c h e d and f l a t t e n e d o u t l i k e a f i s t e d hand o p e n i n g up. He d i d n ' t g e t much f u r t h e r t h a n t o t h i s p l a n t d u r i n g t h e g e o g r a p h y c l a s s , and he t o l d t h i s t o Marx a f t e r w a r d s . " E x c e l l e n t , " s a i d Marx, " t h a t ' s how i t s h o u l d be done. So i t became a b o t a n y c l a s s i n s t e a d — a n d t h a t , a f t e r a l l , i s t h e same s u b j e c t . " (306-07)  The  sailor  continues  t o teach  discovers  that'it  leads  i n t o zoology,  The  him  sailor's  discovery the  does not  stand  geography c l a s s e s , alone  as a teacher,  and  and  as a s u b j e c t , but  b o t a n y , h i s t o r y , and  story parallels  prevailing  the  even  often  linguistics.  B j ^ r n e b o e ' s own p r o c e s s o f provides  model f o r e d u c a t i n g  a n a l t e r n a t i v e model t o  children:  He gamboled i n u n l i m i t e d f r e e d o m and g o t g r e a t p l e a s u r e o u t o f r u n n i n g t h e l e s s o n s t h i s way. I t w o u l d be e a s y t o o r g a n i z e t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h i s k i n d o f elbowroom, and g e t one t o c a s t l i g h t on t h e o t h e r . A t t h e same t i m e he e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t t o p r e c i s e l y t h a t d e g r e e he p r e p a r e d f o r a c l a s s , and t h e r e f o r e had s o m e t h i n g a m u s i n g t o t a l k a b o u t , a l l d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m s c e a s e d b e c a u s e the. c l a s s came h a l f way t o meet him and shared h i s i n t e r e s t f o r t h e t h i n g s he t o l d . (307-08)  The  debate unleashed  unprecedented  to attack well.  be t h e y  i n the  The i m p a c t  press.  was t h u s  far  I t became B j ^ r n e b o e ' s own  c a s e he l e t t h e  often himself.  establishment,  novel  i n p o s t - w a r Norway.  war--though i n t h i s part very  by t h e  debate rage without  O f f e n d e d members o f t h e  conservative  education  or social-democratic,  The d e f e n d e r s o f t h e  of i t , i r o n i c a l l y ,  taking  went  book were many a s  m i g h t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  32 very  t h i n g w h i c h some c r i t i c s  Dahl,  dean of Norwegian p r o g r e s s i v e  give  easy p o i n t s  this  particular  depiction  portrayal  of the  novel,  of a c h i l d ,  schools, enemy.  only  he  way  remarks:  who  to  perceived  book f o r i t s in attacking  " F a r weaker i s  evil—which  Willy  n e v e r wont  i t s passion  1  b e c a u s e i t i s so  the  and  Jonas s persecutors  s t u p i d and  (and  of those  A f t e r p r a i s i n g the  world  i n the  caricatures,  j u s t not  "flaw."  i t s weakness.  critics  t o B j ^ r n e b o e ) i s one  of the  uniformity  the  f o u n d t o be  are  the  only  weakens t h e  attack  of  easy to demonstrate t h a t t h a t i s  i t goes i n N o r w e g i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s "  (Dahl  108). I n one t i m e i t was  o f h i s r a r e comments upon t h e raging,  i n the  article  "Nar  S w e d i s h m a g a z i n e Bokvannen , B j ^ r n e b o e "facelessness" the  of  book i s n o t  faceless,  c e r t a i n characters  human b e i n g s , 1  demonology o f our  times;  face"  In l a t e r  (BOM  141).  something i d e n t i f i a b l e p o s t - A u s c h w i t z age, will  go  looking  the  and  who  abandoned  world  will  device,  be  sought.  i t will  i d e n t i f y with  i  i n our  rest  anonymous,  g r e a t vacuum.  authentic  child  quest  t o be  w i t h i n , the  the or  a  find of  trusted,  child  d e s c r i b e s : the  is  features  to  in  the  i n human b e i n g s  longer  "Evil  That  without  the  the  calculated.  works, i n the  t o t h a t f a c e l e s s h u m a n i t y he and  was  the  Jonas" i n  indicates that  human b e i n g  seem no  f o r the  jag skrev  i t i s the  i t is the''system —the  debate d u r i n g  the  Bj^rneboe  t h a t was  child  lost  swept away  i n c r e a s i n g l y b r u t a l confrontation with Though t h i s  i s a kind  of  metaphysical  upon Bjo'rneboe's p r o f o u n d a b i l i t y  children.  Biographer  the  Wandrup w r i t e s  to  that  1  J  •  Bjprneboe, his  own  "all  his adult  generation."  accessible  many J o n a s e s  counted  upon c h i l d r e n more t h a n  I n Norway t h e n o v e l J o n a s  Needless  but the s t o r y  was  School.  p r o v o c a t i v e work o f  reached reached  In h i s a r t i c l e  Bjjzfrneboe r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  during the p e r i o d  not  of Jonas  t o say,j i t p a r t i c u l a r l y  at the Steiner  journal,  phone c a l l  life,  t o most c h i l d r e n ,  them i n d i r e c t l y .  Swedish  1  of the debate  about  the  f o r the  anonymous his  fiction:  "Is t h a t Bjefrrneboe?" "Yes?" "Jens Bjcfarneboe?" "Yes,  that's  me."  "This  i s Jonas.  Take i t e a s y ! "  (140).  5. In  the p e r i o d  after  the r e l e a s e  anonymous phone c a l l s In  this  p e r day,  pending  jail  while  would cease  c a s e anonymous t h r e a t s  several  term  under  The is  a period  to indulge his  (sometimes  together with a for driving  of f l i g h t  from  life-long  Mediterranean.  n o v e l , Under a H a r d e r  a depiction  by phone  N o r w e g i a n laws  would p r e c i p i t a t e  N o r w a y — w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w him to the  by m a i l and  the s t i f f  next n o v e l ,  t o be a s o u r c e o f p l e a s u r e .  some t h r e a t e n i n g h i s l i f e ) ,  intoxicated,  attraction  of Bj^rneboe's  Heaven  (Under  o f what happened t o c e r t a i n  en h a r d e r e  himmel)  types of people  who  34 were t a r g e t s o f t h e world  war.  Socialists  before the  number o f l e t t e r s had  not  probed the  trials  immediately  T h e s e were N o r w e g i a n s who  degrees during  they  treason  the  occupation,  Q u i s l i n g years.  of the  on  f a m i l y o f a young g i r l  both  m o d e l e d on  the  i n Before  and  shadow o f t h e  the  Bj^rneboe's  occupation,  left  right  impending  cooperated  cynical are  opportunist  jockeying  invading  c r e a t e an  forces.  opening  The  it.  i s b u f f e t e d by  country  Norwegian  Norwegian papers, overwhelmed by  He  until  of  is swiftly  the  military  s o r r y s t a t e of  mind where N a z i  Norway's  overrun  in light  of the  propaganda  the  little  by  doubts  broods over one  a n a g g i n g and  day  can  country's  e a s y manner i n w h i c h  w h a t e v e r power wants t o t a k e  i s embroiled.  elements  Fransiska's  about the  T h i s message c u t s t h r o u g h t h e  father  action  catastrophe.  e n t e r : t h a t p r o p a g a n d a a s t u t e l y p o i n t s up  it  The  m a j o r ' s f u r y and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  i n h i s own  need f o r s t r o n g d e f e n s e s  approach  in  whose d i s g r u n t l e m e n t  the  Bj^rneboe  f o r advantage  officer  the  revenge,  felt  home town, K r i s t i a n s a n d .  international  t o agony as  large  named F r a n s i s k a i n a town  "the major," i s a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t  turns  i n varying  who  Cock Crows.  own and  second  National  category  but  father,  defenses  been  period using a f i c t i o n a l  centers  to the  who  justice  one  Prior  used  to  to the  apparently  not  the  Having r e c e i v e d a  similar  the  had  from Norwegians i n t h i s  been s u b j e c t e d  events  but  after  advantage  i n which  Fransiska's  German p r o p a g a n d a i n  his distaste  horrifying  of  f o r the  the  Germans i s  thought:  A t t h e same t i m e he b r o o d e d upon h i s own s i t u a t i o n . Upon t h e government, t h e s a b o t a g e and t h e d e f e n s e s o f t h e N o r w e g i a n  35  Army. He h a t e d t h e German o c c u p a t i o n by f a r t h e most b e c a u s e i t was p r o v o k e d and b r o u g h t on by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s became, b i t by b i t , an a l l c o n s u m i n g t h o u g h t w i t h him, t h e p o i n t t h a t h e l d , t h e a x i s a b o u t w h i c h a l l h i s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s clustered. And one day i t h a p p e n e d . . . . H a r d and d i z z y i n g l y i t s t r u c k him, i n t h e e n t i r e l y l i t e r a l s e n s e — l i k e a blow w i t h a s t i c k — i t s t r u c k him so t h a t he almost f e l l : The N a z i s were r i g h t ! (UHH 86-87)  Fransiska a nurse i n the of F l o r e n c e  goes t o Germany e a r l y d u r i n g  the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red  of a y o u t h f u l  Nightingale  German s o l d i e r . destruction  The  o f her  Cross,  idealism.  She  family  and  others  r e v e n g e a f t e r t h e war,  for  of  to a l a t e r  e d i t i o n i n 1968,  the  justice  the  suspicions  treason  out  of  i n the  never  opinion  that  customary forms of mortal was  wound t o N o r w e g i a n  transmitted  democratic  during  freedom"  H e d g i n g by despite  total  lives  other  afterword  and  morality  justice.  The  on  who,  treason  acted  though  perhaps  It  actions  b e e n , and  contagion  t h o s e d a y s when we  to  the  o f p e o p l e who  has  with  illegality,  human b e i n g s .  break of the  a  excuse  t r a c e d back  from h i s r e s e a r c h  a w a r e n e s s , and  to hurt  justice  sort  the  wrote i n h i s  be  as  the  w h i c h o f f e r e d an  found a c o n s i s t e n t  limited  "the  of  them i n  a l l could  d e s t r u c t i o n of the  intended  serve  t h a t h i s ensuing embroilments  t h a t were a r o u s e d where he  like  BjjzJrneboe  i n h i s country  i g n o r a n c e and  ignorant, his  system  trials,  brutality  inhumanity.  to  becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h  n a r r a t i v e procedes to t e l l  atmosphere of a l l kinds  out  war  from  was with  is, a Fascism  were c e l e b r a t i n g  our  p u b l i s h i n g the  book,  (227-78).  his publisher  a recommendation  A s c h e h o u g on  from a h i g h l y esteemed  progressive  36 literary  figure  transfer  the  like  Sigurd Hoel,  c o n t r a c t to another  i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n s by general The  the  "collection  Critic  while  the  confused  quarreler."  Vinduet,  KjjzJlve E g e l a n d  on  adding,  new  tasks  wrote t h a t behalf  have been  "a s t r o n g and  matter....  o f modern N o r w e g i a n  a rough d r a f t essential  The  critics,  e v e n as  simply of m a i l  and  who  served  had  settling  was  of  happen t h a t way"  telephone i n the  of accounts  book was  something which  book, a g r e a t  have b a r e l y m o d i f i e d  with  time.  from the  108).  could  book"  after  t h e war  had  felt  W i l l y Dahl  '40s  to the  becoming i n t o l e r a b l e .  And  with  '70s  "It quite  With the  number people  been i n v o l v e d i n  the  t h e m s e l v e s t o have been  critics  s e n s e o f decorum t o mount p e r s o n a l  (qtd.  from  t h r e a t s m o u n t i n g — u n d o u b t e d l y many r e s i s t a n c e and  a  important  novel,  book f a i l s :  (Dahl  dragged through the mud—and with usual  Reaction,"  gnashes h i s t e e t h . "  above e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e  documentary w r i t i n g the  d i d not  steadily  c o n t r i b u t i o n i n an  i n h i s book on N o r w e g i a n p r o s e  a  criticism  " J e n s Bja'rneboe i s  I t c o u l d have been a n o t h e r  i n Wandrup 7 9 ) . important  and  a  muckraker,  literary  a  ...  B r e k k e w r o t e i n V e r d e n s Gang t h a t t h e  work done i n h a s t e ,  country.  book as  "a t y p i c a l  d e b a t e , he  the  L i t e r a r y Work, and  u n g r o u n d e d meanness  j o u r n a l of  The  p a r c e l of  around the  d e s c r i b e d the  was  abruptly  (Wandrup 7 8 ) .  were p a r t and  Botched  author  " B j ^ r n e b o e does n o t  However, P a a l  that  ...  In the  on  "A  Beinset  of v u l g a r i t i e s  falsehoods...."  writes  critics  i n D a g b l a d e t was  Product."  taking  publisher  howl o f i n d i g n a t i o n w h i c h went up  headline  Vulgar  caused Bj^rneboe to  breaking  from  attacks—the  a l l this  their  situation  c o i n c i d i n g with  37 the  dissolution  Steiner  School, his f i r s t  alcoholism the  of h i s f i r s t  i n y e a r s and,  charges  of d r i v i n g  alcohol " ';—Bj^rneboe 1  3  central of  two  Europe  and  marriage, h i s departure from  serious  bouts with  ironically,  under  heads  the  south.  d e p r e s s i o n and  a pending  influence The  jail  term f o r  of  ensuing travels  the Mediterranean w i l l  the  last  in  the better  part  years.  6. The  novel Winter  product  i n Bellapalma (Vinter  of the Mediterranean e x i l e .  structure  of a comic  the  of ease  sense  written. the  The  and  work e i g h t  the comic,  and on  h i s t o e s and  which This  he  a bottom  period  heavy  will  coincide,  side  will  show up The  of the c o i n .  read  by  tourism  in a  Bird  a sense  Lovers  of  who  however, w i t h  of a need a period  i n the  "land  he  of chaos."  Rootlessness, wandering,  and  much  turns  burlesque is  light  the  the darker problems  I t i s born  the  probably  f i s h e r m a n — w h i c h makes from  i s a  with  f a r o f f when B j ^ r n e b o e  o f Moment o f F r e e d o m w h i c h  as t h e y e a r s of w a n d e r i n g  be  between a dancer  disengaged  been g r a p p l i n g .  the protagonist  flip  fight  can  i t was  i n the play  i s never  a fist  essentially had  which  but t h e book i s i n h a b i t e d  f a r c e — s u c h as  narrative  of  Satire  p r o s e , hung on  between growing  village  years later  (Fugleelskerne). to  pleasure with  of a s m a l l  Light  i t i s a book t h a t  theme of a c o n f l i c t  inhabitants  darker  plot,  i . B e l l a p a l m a , 1958)  to  with  escape.  i n the will  life  refer-  to  This i s the and  a  38 distanced  and  mystic  sense  o f what i t i s t o s e e k o u t  one's own  c h i l d h o o d d o m i n a t e t h e poems w h i c h c o m p r i s e  volume w r i t t e n a t a b o u t t h e 1958).  by,  The  collection  same t i m e :  The  again  Big City  i n c l u d e s t h e poem "My  the (Den  Heart  Store  ("Mitt  Hjerte"):  My It it it It  After  two  on one  h e a r t , i t i s an o r p h a n e d c h i l d has n e i t h e r home n o r abode has n e i t h e r c l o t h e s n o r s h o e s o r f o o d has no bed n o r t h e t r u s t o f c h i l d h o o d . has no r e s t . (SD 79)  years  of t r a v e l  of h i s s e v e r a l a r t i s t  g r o w t h , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and Blue  (Blimann, As  found shy  r e t u r n s t o Norway t o c o m p l e t e work n o v e l s , a Bildungsroman about  pains  s e t a p a r t from  introverted  child  normal s o c i e t y .  brought  up  by  seen  through  rather hysterical  little  of  this  in  which h i s p e n i s  is  o n l y emblematic of the apart.  experience  group of p a l l i d  he  Boy  almost  already  i s shown as  sisters  result  of  "guardian  other  depicted their  type"  The  boys f r o m  i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o v e l as and  way  incident  "blue" elements i n h i s l i f e  nature,  aunts—a  e l s e w h e r e ) by  moral guardians.  physical  a  I t i s , however,  develops  i s p a i n t e d b l u e by  Depression o f an  the  to p o r t r a y the  ("formyndermennesket"—a concept  He  dark  the eyes of the c h i l d . intent  had  h i s mother and  a o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y w h i c h m i g h t be  obviously Bj^rneboe's  him  o f a young p a i n t e r : L i t t l e  t h e n o v e l ' s p r o t a g o n i s t , Sem,  g r o u p o f o p p r e s s i v e and  being  the  1959).  a child,  himself  and  with  he  his  class  which  an  the c o l o r  fits.  set  39 C o l o r s p l a y a prominent r o l e i n g e n e r a l the sequence where the e l d e r l y a r t i s t  i n the n a r r a t i v e , as i n  Fr^ken E v j e l a n d  attempts  to t h i n k through what c o l o r s would be needed t o d e p i c t a r a i n shower:  "The c o l o r was somewhat d i f f e r e n t now, and c e r t a i n  p l a c e s i n the c l o u d cover where i t was t h i n n e s t , some blue shone through"  ( 9 9 ) . Or a g a i n :  "The f a c t of t h e matter was  t h a t there was some g o l d i n t h e gray,  a k i n d of weak gleam of  l i g h t ocher or a b i t of n e a p o l i t a n y e l l o w . g r e e n i s h tones i n t h e s e  But t h e r e arose no  e n c o u n t e r s of y e l l o w with b l a c k .  the p a l e t t e i t was d i f f e r e n t "  (96).  The n o v e l  On  methodically  takes us through t h e y e a r s w i t h young Sem and h i s comrades, until i n his early t h i r t i e s , work, h i s f i r s t disenchanted purpose.  a f t e r twenty years  attempt t o s e l l h i s t a l e n t by p a i n t i n g t h e  wife of an e n t r e p r e n e u r  l e a d s t o a c r i s i s of  He squanders h i s s u b s t a n t i a l remuneration i n a  v o l c a n i c , d e s t r u c t i v e week-long binge, l i v e s with and t h e i r c h i l d absence.  of s e c l u s i v e  l e a v i n g t h e woman he  i n a desperate  state during h i s  The f r e n e t i c binge t u r n s out t o be the end of Sem's  consumptive s c u l p t o r f r i e n d S e v e r i n .  S e v e r i n does n o t  manage  to emerge from t h e d i o n y s i a n chaos, but Sem—wounded but stronger—surfaces  t o f a c e a l l t h a t i s both p r o m i s i n g and  f r i g h t e n i n g i n the c a r e e r  of a d i s c i p l i n e d  artist.  In the s t r o n g e s t moments of the n o v e l , one senses t h a t the author i s drawing on a k i n d of p r e c i s e emotional it  i s l i k e t o come t o v a r i o u s c r o s s r o a d s  l i f e dedicated  to a r t .  memory of what  on the path  towards a  Even so, i t i s done w i t h t h e advantage  of h i n d s i g h t , and t h e use o f c o o l method.  The f i a s c o which  40 dominates the f i n a l  chapters  strikes  remembered p o r t r a y a l s i n t h e f i r s t exemplifies  a contrast to the c o o l l y  p a r t o f t h e book.  a paradox i n Bj^rneboe's  This  a u t h o r s h i p which a t t h i s  point  i n h i s c a r e e r i s coming t o t h e s u r f a c e : on t h e one hand  there  i s the white-heat  writing  man a g a i n s t t h e s k y , t h e p o e t  of the w r i t e r facing  chaos, the  p r o t e s t i n g on b e h a l f o f modern  man, and on t h e o t h e r hand t h e r e i s t h e c o o l p r a c t i t i o n e r o f form, t h e devotee  of impressionism  t h e book's weakness m i g h t a l s o strength—as  with  so much a s t h e y  and B y z a n t i n e  have p r o v e n  book.  author, a r e s e e k i n g  some way t o u n i f y .  i n t e n d e d as a r e l a t i v e l y much s t r u c t u r a l  had n o t c l a s h e d  These s t r i k i n g  d i o n y s i a n tendencies,--to apply N i e t z s c h e ' s  Perhaps  t o be i t s  J o n a s — i f t h e two t e n d e n c i e s  do i n t h i s  art.  a p o l l o n i a n and  t e r m i n o l o g y - - i n the.  For a novel  that i s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n a r r a t i v e without too  experimentation,  Little  Boy B l u e  i s not a  unity. The  novel  contains a p a r t i c u l a r l y  p e r i o d s o f weakness and v u l n e r a b i l i t y and  Bj^rneboe  will  striking  metaphor f o r  as a p r e l u d e  return to i t i n later  t o growth,  works:  P e r h a p s i t i s w i t h p e o p l e a s i t i s w i t h t h e l o b s t e r when i t i s g o i n g t o change i t s s h e l l ; i t has grown and t h e o l d armor has become t o o s m a l l . I n o r d e r t o become a b i g g e r l o b s t e r i t must d a r e t o t a k e a l e a p o f l i f e and d e a t h ; i t must g e t o u t o f t h e o l d s h e l l b e f o r e t h e new one i s f i n i s h e d ; i t p u l l s i t s e l f o u t of t h e t a i l - p l a t e s and the; c a r a p a c e , o u t o f t h e s e c u r e p r o t e c t i v e a r m o r — a n d c r e e p s o u t on t h e s e a f l o o r among c r a b s and h u n g r y wrasses, n a k e d and w h i t e , a bunch o f s o f t l i m b s , i n t e s t i n e s a n d n e r v e s a t t h e mercy o f i t s i n f e r i o r s , e x p o s e d t o p r e d a t o r s which a r e s m a l l e r than i t i s , t o a l l t h e lowest t h i n g s t h a t c r e e p i n t h e s e a , a l o n e and d e f e n s e l e s s . And f o r the l o b s t e r t h i s i s not a p l e a s a n t time a t a l l . B u t i f i t does n o t d a r e t h e n i t w i l l go t o g r o u n d i n a c a s i n g w h i c h i s s a f e and s e c u r e f o r t h e moment, and m u r d e r o u s i n t h e l o n g r u n . I f  41 t h e l o b s t e r l e a v e s i t s armor, t h e n i t must f i n d a c r e v i c e o r a s e c r e t h i d i n g p l a c e beneath a stone i n order to s u r v i v e u n t i l a new and l a r g e r s h e l l has been made. A human b e i n g must do t h e same t h i n g when t h e h o u r has s t r u c k and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is g o i n g t o t a k e p l a c e , and God's mercy on any one o f us who doesn't f i n d a h i d i n g p l a c e i n which to save h i m s e l f , b e f o r e t h e l i t t l e p r e d a t o r s have c a u g h t s i g h t o f him, so t h a t he can s t a y t h e r e u n t i l t h e new armor has grown. (56)  The  two  reflect and  to  on  y e a r s of  t r a v e l had  h i s r o l e as  return  an  for  artist,  t o Norway, where he  c h a r g e s of d r i v i n g w h i l e waiting  put  f o r h i s new  Bj^rneboe  to publish  his a r t i s t  was  on  jailed  intoxicated.  an  the  to  novel,  lingering  H i d d e n away i n  armor t o grow, he  h i s n e x t emergence as  in a position  prison,  began g a t h e r i n g  material  author.  7. With the  utmost p r e c i s i o n , w i t h the  professional later on  the  d o c u m e n t a r i a n , Bjjtfrneboe  unleashed a polemic Norwegian p r i s o n faith  democratic  institutions.  with a t e l l i n g  accusing  inmate K j e l l not  office.  1 4  The prison  the  form of  least a fair  inmate s e v e r a l a s e r i e s of  shook t h e  number o f p e o p l e  o n s l a u g h t was  i n the  met,  a u t h o r i t i e s and  for a specific Hanson, who  highest  death—the  confinement—the  s u i c i d e by  who  r e s p o n s e was  in their  however, the  State  stakes  by being  hanging warned  ended h i s d a y s still  n o t h i n g but  a  months  articles  echelons with  m e d i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s had  confinement, but  of  perhaps  When B j ^ r n e b o e r a i s e d t h e  figures  tolerate prison  solitary  at  s i l e n c e by  specific  responsible  of  i n the  system which  complacent  Prosecutor's  hard-nosed d i r e c t n e s s  of could in a  42 deafening  silence.  personally  of the h i g h e s t  s e c t i o n and no  paragraph  that  had  o f t h e law.  the e a r l i e r  documented t r u t h ,  post-war  stark,  or e f f e c t ,  had  had  by a w r i t e r  Yet even  the t e r r o r attempted as l i g h t  lives  about  a  be the  public  i n Under a H a r d e r  b a r e , u n a d u l t e r a t e d by  suicide  i n one  Inmates who ways, who  Heaven.  literary  is tied  "kummen"  (the t a n k ) ,  and n i g h t  and  up t o a month;  hand and  (VEA  foot  be t i g h t e n e d  immobile,  a state  105-13).  The  who  97).  had  In  a lock-up i n the p r i s o n  "trjtfya"  burned  i n which  citizens  lit  of t i g e r  o f an a d v a n c e d  day  remain  cage, i n  was  cool  a straitjacket  remain  a  days;  a p r i s o n e r might  (the j a c k e t ) ,  s t a t e were, n e e d l e s s t o s a y , s h o c k e d  one  described  cellar,  i n a room t h a t  he m i g h t  such  "Disciplinary  t o t h e p o i n t where a p r i s o n e r was i n which  wrists,  (the t r a p d o o r ) , t o which  "buret" (the cage), a s o r t  finally  relieve  eaten objects  f o r up t o f o u r t e e n  kept naked,  inmates  cut t h e i r  (1960) B j ^ r n e b o e  "lemmen"  sound-proofed,  a p r i s o n e r was  damp; and  had  of  behavior to  had  c a s e an i n m a t e  of matches  t r e a t m e n t s s u c h as  prisoner  the s t o r i e s  to s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e  i n painful  b u l b s , and  absorbed  Measures i n Norwegian P r i s o n s "  could  something  to  an i m p a c t w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t i n  of confinement:  out w i t h a bundle  which  citing  i f t h e r e was  c h o r d i n a m e d i a and expose  B j ^ r n e b o e had  devoted t h e i r  archaic  been a c c u s e d  Norway.  In p r i s o n ,  eye  crimes p o s s i b l e  struck a receptive  rejected  reflection  who  authorities  answer f o r t h c o m i n g f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ,  accusations  The  Individual  for.months  and  which  totally (VEA  Scandinavian welfare at this  mire of c r u e l t y i n  43 the  m i d s t of t h e i r  enough," w r i t e s reaction. platter  enlightened  "This  was  the  stinking reality,  public.  prison  articles  ( " C h r i s t m a s comes b u t  into  the  again  98]).  [VEA  novel  outside  is  released  "education" family, the  society's prison, his  The  from  refuse  and  story  his  Shepherd the  book t e l l s but  due  he  I t i s curious  literary  traditions.  the  Returns  later,  T o n n i e seems t o  have  an  The last  eruption  in  the  coalesced once  I s c h i a where  a  hundred  s t o r y of a y o u t h , T o n n i e ,  prison,  cannot  him.  i t begins to  as  this can  of the  dagen, 1965)..  by  He  live  goes  as to  primary problem  in  stand  to note, that  century,  away  back t o c r i m e , back  s i n c e the  o u t l i n e of  who  and  i s turned  have h e l p e d  that  raise a question:  of  1959  written  i s l a n d of  to h i s background  dramatized version  ( T i l L y k k e med  not  material  b a c k t o t h o s e who  i s a soul  becomes l i t e r a t u r e ,  in  volcanic  destruction,  from the  a  appearance  Onde h y r d e ) ,  c r i m i n a l world,  material  one  (Den  could  from t h e r e :  final  on  C h r i s t m a s Eve,  year, the  the  anyone who  i n the  i s that  incarceration.  antique  new  i n a r e f o r m a t o r y and  route  out  remarks B j ^ r n e b o e  Peer Gynt b e f o r e  jail,  employers,  natural  the  o f Norway, on  years before.  on  once a y e a r , "  Evil  I b s e n w r o t e most o f  laid  Norwegian  were u n l e a s h e d w i t h t h e  Within  The  the  was  (89).  T r e a t m e n t o f Young O f f e n d e r s "  article  pure t r u t h  A f r e s h l y c u t - o f f head c o u l d  been more f r i g h t e n i n g "  "The  "The  F r e d r i k Wandrup, d e s c r i b i n g  f o r the  The  world.  be  once t h e  s h a p e d by  story be  prison older  i s in fact  s e e n most  an  clearly  same s t o r y : Many Happy  The  Is the  p l o t of  the  author using  story an  of  old  44 British the  s t a g e p l o t f o r a new  point  to  t h r o u g h any  say  that  the  social  dilemma?  system of  justice  e s s e n t i a l changes s i n c e the  Or has  age  of  i s i t more not  to  gone  English  melodrama? What emerges i n B j ^ r n e b o e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e between a u t h o r i t i e s and only the  with reference sixties  used to  youth i s a p r o p h e t i c  to the  issues  ("More u n c o n d i t i o n a l  counteract  the  [VEA  96]),  prison late  but  reform  fifties  Foucault's evolution prison  also  in light  of  early sixties  of  European  system—from  c h a n g e s on  the  justice  the  individual.  with Foucault,  critique  of  certain  historical  juncture,  brought s o c i e t y to the  offenders  as  the  case the  first  "juridical  crime/punishment specific  t o r t u r e to  approach of t r y i n g t o  soul  society.  and  goal  or  the  appropriate  Foucault  will  philosophers  point  of  of  or  reveal  and  the  work to  an prison  t o h i s more how,  social  at  a  thinkers  c h o o s i n g between t r e a t i n g "obedient  w o u l d have been t o  subjects."  create  i n d i v i d u a l crimes.  In  a system  i n which a l l punishments would to  the  attempting  behavior  for  the  B j ^ r n e b o e ' s work w i t h h i s  subjects"  "signs,"  calls  as  would o f f e r i n s i g h t s t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e  general  had  generation"  c o n c e r n s of  modern a p p r o a c h o f  e i t h e r the  As  His  young  (1975), which would d e t a i l  feudal  body, t o t h e  own  coming s p a t e o f  from systems of  work changes on  material  the  Attorney's  p r e f i g u r e works s u c h  S u r v e i l l e r et punir  be  emptiness which today's  State  not  revolt in  sentences cannot  i n many w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s . and  pronouncement,  a l i e n a t i o n and  prison  spiritual  p e o p l e have i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e  of  conflict  This  of  be  would  be  45 the of  punishment o f t h e " s o c i a l the obedient  the  subject,  placed  p e r s o n t o be c o r r e c t e d  that  repeated.  priority  This  was t h e c h o i c e  leading  to the  f o r a l l crimes, i . e . ,  not signs:  activities,  time-tables,  solitary  common, s i l e n c e , a p p l i c a t i o n , r e s p e c t , 128) . F o u c a u l t  will  point  out that  compulsory  meditation,  work i n  good h a b i t s "  (Foucault  the foundation  of such a  s y s t e m i s a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u n i s h e d , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u n i s h i n g p u n i s h m e n t must e x e r c i s e can  i n t h e power b e i n g  system s e c r e c y  power, w h i c h no t h i r d  exercised  i s imperative,  between t h e e x t e r n a l and  a total  legal  a punishment t h a t  being  him: "The a g e n t o f  d i s t u r b ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be c o r r e c t e d  enveloped  that  s c h e m a t a o f c o n s t r a i n t , a p p l i e d and  Exercises,  movements, r e g u l a r  approach,  on t h e o b e d i e n c e o f  to Foucault,  punishment o f t h e p r i s o n  "forms o f c o e r c i o n ,  The l a t t e r  t o some power.  s o c i e t y took, according  generalized  pact."  must be  over him."  and t h e r e  party  entirely In such a  must be a d i s c o n t i n u i t y  authorities that  establish  guilt,  i s e s s e n t i a l l y c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e shadows  (128-29). Foucault's  volume w i l l  appear  i n 1975, t h e y e a r  before  Bjo'rneboe's d e a t h — f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f h i s prison  e s s a y s , and a l s o a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n  Bestiality. not in  of h i s "History of  In the e a r l y p r i s o n m a t e r i a l ,  y e t prove himself Foucault—although  'that o f F o u c a u l t ' s e s s a y s on h i e r a r c h y  t o be t h e k i n d  of s o c i a l  h i s analysis w i l l  i n parts  does  t h e o r i s t we  come s t r i k i n g l y  of the t r i l o g y ,  and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m  Bj^rneboe  find  near  and i n h i s l a t e r  written  from t h e  46 theoretical  perspective  works on t h e p r i s o n s r e c o r d i n g what he and  complacency,  out  into  of  appeared,  saw  he was  more c o n c e r n e d  as b e i n g t h e t r u t h ,  One  i n the r o l e  servant of  At the time h i s  might  say t h a t  of a s o c i a l  first  with  t o b r e a k t h e myths  s e t the records s t r a i g h t  t h e open.  see h i m s e l f  of anarchism.  and  bring  the  dilemma  he d i d n o t a t t h e  theorist,  time  as much as a  kind  justice•  8. The  work w i t h t h e p r i s o n m a t e r i a l marks an  Bj^rneboe's a u t h o r s h i p .  A l l the r e a s s u r i n g  m e t a p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t s which hover  kind  into  social  conflict  of c o n s c i o u s imbalance  come t o e x p e c t p r i m a r i l y progression life  poses  split and  how  towards  from m a r x i s t s .  w i t h h i s w i f e and  pine-covered low m o u n t a i n s  c o n c e r n s we  hills. which  industrial  The had  The  and  have  How  to j u s t i f y  o u t e r a s p e c t s of form.  life,  i n a run-down house .  comes t o B j ^ r n e b o e  i n the  s t a n d i n g out below t h e  been t h e s i t e  c e n t e r s , which  this  While  house l o o k s o u t o n t o t h e v a l l e y once  the  t o c o n c e r n w i t h man's  small daughters  f o r m o f a young w o m a n — a s t a t u e  that  Yet the o r g a n i c  the process i n l i t e r a r y  a g l a d e a t Enebakk, t h e s o l u t i o n  first  social  c h a l l e n g e s f o r the w r i t e r :  to record  spheres  human c o n c e r n s i s e x t r e m e ,  between c o n c e r n s f o r t h e i n n e r  ensconced in  and  into  i s blown t o t h e w i n d s .  f r o m c o n c e r n w i t h man's s o u l two  i n c e n s e of  can take a w r i t e r  above t h e human c o n d i t i o n  plunge  important turn i n  rose,  o f one  f e l l , and  and  o f Norway's  has  since  been  47 reclaimed  by  the  f o r e s t and  monument t o R a g n h i l d the  earliest  The  statue  J ^ l s e n , daughter of  industrialists  o f a woman w r i t e r who the  bush.  d r u g c h o r a l , and  died was  i n the at the  I t i s the  33  of  of  an  Nordic  the  s t o r y of  her  the  basis  og a  father's  s o u l who  had  to  to  find  H e r e was resist  t e s t by  yet  the  The  writers—a  J^lsen's  Dream and  another  the  story  the  i n many p a r t s  industrialization.  and  more t r a d i t i o n a l  "beautiful."  minimized. signature  Clear  growth  of the The  w o r l d was  Dream and  being  the  return Ragnhild  w i t h o u t and forces that  of  signs  Here  requirements that  i n t e r v e n t i o n by  fiction, felt  fall  away.  the The  i n a n o t h e r way,  at  put  Wheel i s i t  has  Bj^rneboe  a work be  whole  be  author, often  a  authorial however, t h a t  we  later.  J^lsen  within.  tradition  seem t o want t o  child—still,  of  make i t s e l f to  language.  of  and  events take place  a u t h o r i a l presence appears to  of B j ^ r n e b o e  presence w i l l shall  The  (Dr^mmen  demands o f b o t h t r a d i t i o n s  n e v e r been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a m a j o r the  and form  Wheel  s t o r y of  The  of  to  p e r h a p s J e n s B j ^ r n e b o e ' s most b e a u t i f u l book, a l t h o u g h  follows  figure  a t Enebakk came t o  c o m p l e t e humanness.  a t i m e when h u m a n i t y to the  Ragnhild  enterprise  of B j ^ r n e b o e ' s n o v e l  h j u l e t , 1964).  progress  phenomenon.  of  overdose  f r o m t h a t moment e l e v a t e d  membership i n S c a n d i n a v i a ' s p a n t h e o n o f p a r i a h particularly  solitary  Holm J ^ l s e n — o n e  country. age  is a  there  i s t o r n by While and  forces  the  a t work on  i s struggling against  progress—elements  crush are  she  the  vulnerable  her both  of the  outside  interior  world  a l s o t r a d i t i o n s which p r o v i d e  her  from the world of  a  with  48 a sense  of i d e n t i t y ,  provides the world for  her  than  i n her  not  as w e l l as a k i n d o f p r o g r e s s  around her w i t h  father's world.  clashes with  her  the  t o an  valley  match f a c t o r i e s , of  her  an  the dark  farmers  lovers—all  figures  These f i g u r e s tangible, they She  be  an  no  arrived.  f o r c e s take  around her,  nickname, H i l d r  a society  the  (close  retreats  around h i s  to the  the area  forest  she  imagination.  As  forms of  forest  even  meets she  with  matures,  companions, pressure.  one,  or the d e v i l  a l l the e v i l  she  f a c e of the  himself.  finds  i n the  structuring  t h a t w o u l d deny t o women  through on  She  life. The  any  adopts  her  s o m e t h i n g so t e r r i f y i n g  and  f o r her  transform  the  five  novels  Autumn  (Den  R^de  so t r u e t h a t she  It personifies,  forest  J ^ l s e n wrote f i v e  Of  Red  the years the  life  Ragnhild  of her  final  hunter,  reality—whether  t o t h e N o r w e g i a n word h u l d e r , meaning  novels.  years  indefinitely.  converts  revolving  p a s s i o n or s e x u a l i t y .  companions w h i c h have t a k e n  write,  caught  J0lsen  i n t r o d u c e d as t o t h e i r  o r wood nymph), and  five  Holm  is  i m a g i n a t i o n under  the pact i n the  of d e s i r e ,  of her  she  populated  on t h e  i n c a r n a t i o n of a bear  society  nuclei  and  In the  of a powerful  doubts are  flaunting  fairy  more o f t e n  a r e d e p i c t e d as t h o u g h t h e y were a b s o l u t e l y  forest,  last  who  makes a p e r s o n a l p a c t w i t h  experience  outer world  While  powers w h i c h n o u r i s h h e r erotic  this  industry-town  hunters  had  frightening  attractions  adolescent Ragnhild  a n c e s t o r s , bear  before the  There are  inner world,  the wheel.  once r u r a l  hope.  But  between t h e dream and  that  and  begins  novels she  h^st)  puts  t o pay  into  was  the  i n the to  i s to  be  i t off her  personal  49 visits it.  t o demand i t s r e l e a s e , b u t  As  begins  the  time  On within  the  She  dies before  one  hand, t h e n o v e l  a human b e i n g .  woods who  The  again,  The  completing  f o r c e s of n a t u r e  another  lives,  bear  but  ties  important  the  Enebakk.  I t looks forward  sixties.  I t i s an  Bj^rneboe  calls  The  naturalistic  peculiar i n The  supra-normal  world  more t h a n  this  the  advent  Marquez.  one  I t i s , once only  landmark e v e n t s  in  as t h e y  come  industrializing  society  at  study  of the  og  of  the  "poetic naturalism" essay  virkelighet,"  between t h e p o e t i c and  t h e Wheel, t h e e x t e n t  the  t o which  tangible,  naturalism, i n fact.  There i s  a c o m p a r i s o n m i g h t be  drawn  with  o f t h e magic r e a l i s m o f G a b r i e l G a r c i a fantastic  f e a t u r e s w i t h Marquez's n o v e l  political  and  r e v e r b e r a t e not f a r  i s made c o n c r e t e , n a t u r a l ,  r e a s o n why  Bj^rneboe's  magic e n c o u n t e r s  us  the  technology,  contradiction  makes f o r a r a t h e r f a n t a s t i c  later  both without  aspect.  ("Litteratur  Dream and  life  gods of  t o o t h e r documentary n o v e l s  exemplary  Reality"  work.  the dark  f o r , among o t h e r p l a c e s , i n h i s  " L i t e r a t u r e and 1971).I?  dependency  final  them a l l i n w i t h  little  for  and i t  I t documents n o t  o f i n d u s t r y , s c i e n c e and  on E u r o p e and  ready  i s a paean t o t h e p r i m a l  a d o c u m e n t a r y n o v e l as w e l l .  the triumph  her  e c h o e s o f Knut Hamsun's Pan  n o v e l has  historical  the  feels  Autumn a p p r o a c h e s ,  I t evokes l y r i c a l l y  r e p r e s e n t the  w i t h i n us.  to  Red  never  t a k i n g s h a p e i n h e r mind, h e r m o r p h i n e  increases.  off.  t o w r i t e The  she  are taken  realities  n a t u r a l i s m shares  of t h r e e y e a r s  for granted,  a r e beyond b e l i e f :  s e v e r a l other  later,  i n which  myths become r e a l , C i e n anos de  and  soledad.  50  The  s c e n e and  large plot  the  center  of e a r t h .  o f The  This  Dream and  spot  on  through the  c o u r s e o f many d e c a d e s  story—like  that  the so  the  earth that  o f M a r q u e z ' s Macondo, o r  Wheel i s  i s observed  Enebakk's Faulkner's  Yoknapatawpha c o u n t y a c o u p l e o f d e c a d e s e a r l i e r — i s of  the  rise  society The  and  fall  undergoing  of a l i t t l e  transformations  developments t r a c e d  years.  The  original  Hundred Y e a r s "  by  title  electricity and  and  the  administration  was  in fact  incomprehensible miracles time t o o — s o c i a l i s m  social  conflicts state  be  health  plan  plants  b u r n down so  pressure  f o r the  industry;  the  great  pietism—with  that  like ideologies  attendant  even a h i n t of the  coming o f  J ^ l s e n must b u i l d  for better  disasters  them up  apparent to those around  him.  again), the  o r w o r s e , b a t t l e s on  B u e n d f a t o w a r d s an  ideal  that  of  organization  the  Through a d v e r s i t y ,  of  scientific  of growing b a n k i n g c o n g l o m e r a t e s , J 0 1 s e n ,  Marquez's C o l o n e l  progress  g l i m p s e d when Holm J ^ l s e n e s t a b l i s h e s  workers.  burning with a v i s i o n ,  "The  introduction  form of p u b l i c a t i o n s  and  they arouse;  can  the  a  hundred  time the  t o Enebakk: of  one  from mainland Europe; the  of the  story  proportions.  t o have been  a company town; t h e  d i s c o v e r i e s w h i c h come i n t h e  welfare  last  During t h i s  establishment of  of g a r g a n t u a n  narrative  W e s t e r n s o c i e t y makes i t s way  the  empire, a microcosm of  the  (Wandrup 100).  one  i s not  the a (the the  man like always  1 8  The power t h a t s h o v e d t h e t r e e s i n t o t h e s k y , t h e power o f t h e sun w h i c h drew w a t e r s t o w a r d t h e h e a v e n s and l e t i t r a i n b a c k down i n t h e r i v e r , t h e h e a t o f t h e sun w h i c h l a y s t o r e d s i n c e t h e i n f a n c y o f t h e e a r t h i n s i d e p e t r o l e u m , p h o s p h o r u s and  51 s u l f u r , a l l t h i s was now b e i n g c o l l e c t e d i n t h e l i t t l e and h a r m l e s s l o o k i n g matches i n t h e w a r e h o u s e , f i l l e d w i t h h u n d r e d s and t h o u s a n d s o f i n n o c e n t wooden s t i c k s w i t h g o l d e n h e a d s . S t o r e d t h e r e was h e a t and f i r e and e x p l o s i v e power l i k e t h a t i n t h e sun i t s e l f . I t was t h a t same sun-power t h a t t h e w o r k e r s had tamed, cowed and s t o r e d i n l i t t l e b o x e s . And i t w o u l d be r e s u r r e c t e d i n t i n y , t i n y f l a m e s w h i c h were l i t a l l o v e r t h e world. F i r e and l i g h t w h i c h w o u l d b r i n g w e l l - b e i n g , e n l i g h t e n m e n t and h a p p i n e s s , i n a word: s a l v a t i o n — t h e new time i t s e l f , i n t o t h e town. (DOH 39)  The filings  collect  t o a magnet.  Ragnhild pain,  great events  A most s i g n i f i c a n t  Ragnhild's  stay i n I t a l y ,  o f raw her  from  misery  affair  dependency.  the  suffering  where she makes a p i l g r i m a g e i n t o  social  a good t h i n g t h a t t h o s e  For  response  s h o u l d be  had  aspects  suppressed:  been t o d e c i d e  Bj^rneboe  and  her  use  of l i f e they  Ragnhild,  of  like  morphine  Already  she  are things that  as  deemed full are  logical  must embrace e v i l .  " P u b e r t e t " v i a t h e young R a g n h i l d  looks  of  which c r e a t e  the only  the  country,  a c u t e l y aware t h a t t h e w o r l d  the young, w i l l f u l  Munch's p a i n t i n g Jens  concerns  t h i n g s f o r women o f good s o c i e t y .  an a d o l e s c e n t , R a g n h i l d was  evil.  It i s after  which s c a r r e d t h a t t r a n s f o r m i n g  Both her  human b e i n g s  around i t .  w i t h m o r p h i n e becomes a r e l a t i o n s h i p  were s c a n d a l o u s  it  physical  as w e l l as t h e p a i n o f a mind w h i c h i s i n c a p a b l e o f itself  that  like  development f o r  i s t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f m o r p h i n e — t h e damper o f  separating  areas  a r o u n d t h e Jjrflsen f a m i l y  Edvard J^lsen via  this:  He had p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e o f a l i t t l e w i t c h , a t i n y l i t t l e witch. I t was a s p l i t n a k e d w i t c h , who had n o t y e t been on Bloksberg. She was s i t t i n g n a k e d a t t h e edge o f t h e bed w i t h h e r hands p r e s s e d down between h e r t h i n t h i g h s , w h i l e she s t a r e d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and w h i l e h e r shadow s t o o d on t h e w a l l  52 b e h i n d t h e b e d l i k e t h e image o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t women d o n ' t have. The p i c t u r e was c a l l e d " P u b e r t y , " b u t t h a t was n o t t h e r i g h t name f o r i t ; b e c a u s e i t was a w i t c h . And she w o u l d be burned.... T h i s e v e n i n g s h e w o u l d s p i t on t h e B i b l e a g a i n ... (107)  As  a mature a r t i s t ,  "unfeminine". propriety,  Ragnhild's  Now p r a c t i c e d  she i s s t i l l  made by mass c u l t u r e .  style  at ignoring  ("Was  women?—Was i t t h e c a s e t h a t  purposely  society's  genuinely surprised i t the case  s h o u l d be one a r t f o r men and a n o t h e r  f o r men and a n o t h e r  i s maligned  kind  kind  t h e r e s h o u l d be one k i n d  that  uncommon  among women, " i t was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y  knit"  necessity  t h i s might  have  been  widespread like  among  little  of f i n a l l y  t o Bj^rneboe's  writing  Her f i r s t  own  from  thoughts  f o r h i s subject  between a u t h o r  and s u b j e c t was  R a g n h i l d f a c e s up t o t h e  the l a s t ,  insight  of the double-ness  mask was n o t j u s t  coming  an a f f i n i t y  makes i t s v i s i t a t i o n s  of double.  light  t h a n r e a d e r s o f t h e n o v e l w o u l d have known  of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n .  Autumn i s t h a t  i n a special  i s revealing  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Autumn — w h i c h kind  cast  t i m e s , come c l o s e  f a c t much c l o s e r  at t h e time  though  Bj^rneboe  as a w r i t e r . in  and t h o u g h  (155) .  a woman o f t h o s e style.19  She has  The most o f them were o p e n l y w r i t i n g  These t h o u g h t s ,  on  of love  i s " s c a n t and h a r d and w i t h o u t  and f l o u r i s h e s , "  girls  really  of a r t f o r  lacework  men e i t h e r !  assumptions  there  o f l o v e f o r women?")  created a style  sense of  a t the  that  f o r being  fearful  book, The Red  t o h e r i n t h e form  before starting of e x i s t e n c e :  a face, but the opposite face."  into  of a The Red  "behind the Everything  53  contains forces  i t s own  of l i f e ,  contradictions Death/Eros, in  the  one  can  live  Bj^zSrneboe's  will  have s i m p l y  dying  earliest  p r o v i d e the  o f d e s t r u c t i o n and  f o r g o t t e n the  rebirth,  without  crucifixion  first"  (179).  p o e t r y , has  now  seeds f o r h i s t r i l o g y ,  embraced b e f o r e  A male a u t h o r , apparently  strong process whose v e r y  chapters  History  t o be  prepares  and  own  resurrection.  No  T h i s thought,  as w e l l . o f our  i s in fact  up  could begin.  an  own  freedom.  his  Red  case  third  showing s i g n s of  his subject—an essential  author  component openly.  a  of  The  t o t h e p o i n t where h i s Here l i e s  d i s c o v e r a new  "which n e e d s no  It  Death  the  convergence  h i s s u b j e c t i n the n a r r a t i v e .  they  present  live.  a b l e to r e c e i v e the world  t o f a c e The  of t h e i r  of d i s t a n c e through  b r i n g Bja'rneboe  together  origins  fertility.  a b o u t a woman, i n t h i s  seems t o be  between t h e w r i t e r and  the world,  can  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  of B e s t i a l i t y  authors:  one  writing  narrative,  femaleness  what i t t a k e s final  here  t a k i n g a stance  person/omniscient  the  combined  been r e d e p l o y e d .  a w a r e n e s s must come b e f o r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s D e a t h must be  into  the  the elements of which are  S h i v a , t h e god  D e a t h and  more f r i g h t e n i n g  got  Perhaps the g r e a t e s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s  or Satan/Eros,  Christians  beliefs:  s t r o n g e r and  became."  t h e H i n d u god  "The  in  o p p o s i t e , so t h a t " t h e d e e p e r one  Two  l e n s w i t h which t o  colored glass—Death."  see  Ragnhild  Autumn:  The book was a c o n t e m p o r a r y n o v e l , and she c a r e d so l i t t l e now a b o u t t h e w o r l d and p e o p l e t h a t she c o u l d use l i f e as i t was w i t h o u t g r e a t r e v i s i o n s — h e r own f a t e , w i t h o u t m a s k i n g i t — b e c a u s e e v e r y t h i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e t r u t h was unimportant.  54 What she was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d o i n g was t o h o l d t h e g r e a t c l e a r a n c e s a l e o f a l l t h a t was h e r s , t o p u t h e r l i f e on t h e b u t c h e r t a b l e , j u s t as one c o u l d see e n t i r e a n i m a l c a r c a s s e s l y i n g c a r v e d up on d i s p l a y on m a r b l e c o u n t e r s a t t h e b u t c h e r shops i n Rome. I t was more t h a n n a k e d n e s s , more t h a n u n c h a s t e n e s s ; i t was t o p u l l t h e s k i n o f f o f r e a l i t y , t o c u t t h e w h o l e t h i n g up w i t h v i s c e r a , b l o o d and n e r v e s . (200)  The after  last  chapter,  Ragnhild's  "The  death.  I t takes  when a g r o u p o f s c i e n t i s t s metals,  o f u r a n i u m and  the p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e Moment o f Freedom. t h e woods w i t h  society  again with  forest.  t h e book has that Red  Autumn:  "make a war  plutonium"  T h i s new  J^lsen  a t Enebakk i s e c l i p s e d It is finished. conclusion.  your  life's  t o be has  For  and Jens  I t i s t o be before  work s h a l l  age  heavy  age  c h i l d h o o d , and  J ^ l s e n wrote to h e r s e l f "Now  weapon o f two  (204).  of her  epilogue  t o t h e new  f o r most a l l t h e t h o u g h t  forest-men  another  Ragnhild  Enebakk up  Meanwhile, R a g n h i l d  the  industrial  S u n d i a l , " s e r v e s as an  i s also found  in  returned  to  the  overgrown  once  Bj^rneboe  though,  found  i n the  confronting  begin"  note  The  (201).  9. T h e r e was was  t o be  entered.  one  At the  slight end  interval  o f 1965,  Moment o f Freedom, Bj^z5rneboe w h i c h no aware.  one,  including  T h e r e f o r e , not  u n t o w a r d was ad a p p e a r e d  before  rapidly  h i s own ^ one  before that d i f f i c u l t setting  completed  f a m i l y and  a  closest  o f them e x p e c t e d  i n s t o r e when, on t h e  t o work  that  8th of October  i n s e v e r a l Norwegian papers  announcing  phase on  project  of  friends,  was  anything 1966,  a bold  publication  55 of  "The  trad)  first  Norwegian e r o t i c  n o v e l , Without  ... by a w e l l - k n o w n N o r w e g i a n a u t h o r . "  October book.  1966,  the p o l i c e  By June  o f 1967,  raided  On  a l l book d e a l e r s  Jens B j ^ r n e b o e would  obscenity  trial  e n t e r e d Norwegian l i t e r a r y  that  has  now  banning  o f t h e book, and  massive  upsurge  Denmark and  Sweden, l a t e r  theaters—but  n o t much e l s e ) .  tightened  their  this—and  the g r i p  this writing  and  grip  York's  42nd  remained  tight  until  or s o l d  a Stitch  undergoes  printed  sexual odyssey  regime—he  out i n t o  i n Norway a l l of  day.  in a  of  the  safe. of  2 0  an  i s unable to experience  begins with the treatment i n orgasm by t h e name o f t e c h n i q u e s o f Dr  c a n o n l y h e l p so f a r , and  she Dr  Petersons  t h e n must  the w o r l d — t h e r e i s h i s e s s e n t i a l  as t h e f o r e w o r d t o t h e  As  i n Norway, and  of the coming-out  who  A s i d e from the p h y s i c a l  therapeutic a patient  named L i l l i a n ,  Japan  be p r o c u r e d a t t h e main  i s the s t o r y  with a s p e c i a l i s t  Peterson.  cannot  this  i n O s l o , where i t i s s t o r e d  Her  and  in a  Street  Yet the a u t h o r i t i e s  university  orgasm.  resulted  on t h e book a l l t h e more d u r i n g  has  The  suitable for  edition  eighteen year-old  history.  t h e U.S.  Norwegian language  Without  Court—a  immediately i n  film,  the out a  sales  New  i t c a n n o t be b o u g h t  library  sitting  ensued  a Danish  cinemas  selling  which  i n Germany, I t a l y  eventually,  Danish a d u l t  and  ( U t e n en  the 11th of  i n Oslo Municipal  the t r i a l s  of t r a n s l a t i o n s  to mention,  certain  trial  be  s e v e r a l month l o n g  (not  a Stitch  send  teaching,  book:  P e o p l e use t h e t e r m " s e x u a l m o r a l i t y " , b u t i t ' s a m i s t a k e n expression. T h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r s e x u a l m o r a l i t y . Whatever  56 you m i g h t do w i t h y o u r s e l f — w h e t h e r you s l e e p w i t h g i r l s o r b o y s — o r w h a t e v e r i n t h e w o r l d you m i g h t f i n d y o u r s e l f d o i n g w i t h them o r y o u r s e l f ; i n t h a t r e g a r d t h e r e i s no o t h e r m o r a l i t y than t h a t which h o l d s f o r a l l a s p e c t s of l i v i n g : h o n e s t y , c o u r a g e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As i n a l l o t h e r r e l a t i o n s , t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t m a t t e r s i n s e x u a l l i f e i s t h a t i t ' s wrong t o harm o t h e r s . That i s the only sexual m o r a l i t y t h e r e i s . You s h a l l n o t use y o u r s e x u a l i t y t o a c h i e v e power o r i n f l u e n c e o v e r o t h e r s , you s h a l l n o t h u r t them or c a u s e them u n n e c e s s a r y pain. (UT 1)  with  Lillian  progresses  from  friends  i n her  surroundings,  colorful  and  own  encounters  countries.  from  Aside  one  a German e n t r e p r e n e u r , heterosexual  negative  contradiction  is  It i s this  of t e n s i o n , and  whipping  fact,  raises  i t i s even p o s s i b l e .  customary c l e a r ,  an  aspect  i n the p u e r i l e  t e r m s o f abuse and  works p r i o r cow  to these,  which cannot  H.C.  passion,  of the g e n r e . ^  descriptive  There  2  and  flat.  and  i s on In c o n t r a s t  " h o l i n e s s " w h i c h i s s t r o n g i n o t h e r Bj^zirneboe  book s t o r e t o buy and  words, t y p i c a l  It i s linear, of  as  It is  p r e c i s e Norwegian,  c h a r a c t e r development, the emphasis  to  that  the q u e s t i o n  is  developments.  with  happenings,  perhaps,  of taboo  little  scene  successful,  the outpouring very  and  "innocent" pornography i s a  i n terms, or whether  lacking  to  of l o c a l e s  sado-masochistic  consequences.  i n Bj^rneboe's  totally  in a variety  games  adventurous,  or homosexual, t h a t are e n j o y a b l e ,  whether e n t e r t a i n i n g  written  t o more  and  i t most o f t e n d e p i c t s s e x u a l  d e p r i v e s the n a r r a t i v e to  experiments  a c r o b a t i c — t o the p o i n t of b e i n g hard  visualize—sexual  without  innocent  be  the tone  debunked.  has  c h a n g e d and  Only  t h e r e i s no  when L i l l i a n  stops  c o p i e s of N o v a l i s , H o l d e r l i n ,  Andersen d u r i n g her  travels  do  we  find  holy  in a  Strindberg  anything  sacred  57 enough t o be  paid tribute  n o v e l as b r i m m i n g thought  "full  of f o r b i d d i n g  t h e norm"  (111).  of  sequence of events  and  I wrote  society.  Two  the t r i a l  itself:  on  A Thread (Saken trial  t h a n t h e book i t s e l f ,  U t e n en  with  dispatched  and  attitudes  which o f f e r e d  o t h e r p u b l i s h e r Pax  were t o i n c l u d e l e g a l collected  m a t e r i a l generated  v a l u e t a k e s us  f a r beyond t h e  contribution  by W i t h o u t slim,  of t h i s  and  arts, Trial  r e c o r d of  to cover  the  one  a Stitch  of  o r l e t i t be  the  against  perhaps  book's 200  other  writers,  proceedings  w o r k s , and  by  and  A Stitch  edited  by B j ^ r n e b o e ' s  among t h e i r  negligible  sexuality  Without an  not  immediately  by B j ^ r n e b o e  toward  the  Norwegian  almost  c o m m e n t a r i e s by t h r e e  authors  costs  i t s impact,  on  summaries and  I f one  i n t e r v i e w , "I  however, was  but  of essays  t h e volume, The  trad),  event.  the t o t a l  Bj^rneboe,  a collection  (En T r a d ) , and  om  i n an  w h i c h t h e book s e t o f f , and  speech  the  q u i t e beyond  i t with p l e a s u r e — i t  o t h e r books were g e n e r a t e d  free  humor, j u s t  (110).  f u r t h e r works by J e n s  authors  and  BjjzSrneboe h i m s e l f s t a t e d  More i m p o r t a n t  on  vivre  a book i s h y s t e r i c a l  nothing to confess that"  only  F r e d r i k Wandrup d e s c r i b e s t h e  j o i e de  such  .wrote i t i n f o u r d a y s , me  to.  should, cultural  said,  pages  themselves. It  s h o u l d be  remembered t h a t  but p a r t of a growing between t h e closed was  covers  system,  i s not  an  isolated  case,  p a t t e r n i n which the d i s c o u r s e c o n t a i n e d  o f a work by  but a  this  "system"  t h e c a s e w i t h works l i k e  Bj^rneboe  t u r n s out not  t o be  which i n t e r a c t s with s o c i e t y — a s Ibsen's  A Doll's  House,  or  a  58 Strindberg's too,"  both  The  events  Getting Married  a prolonged i n the  trial  the  and  courtroom  resemble t h a t of a c l a s s i c  (a book w h i c h e a r n e d  a reputation for indecency).  during the Without a S t i t c h  laughter.  i n the accounts  Harlequino  as  being  h i s "bad-boy" image, i s  Dorenfeldt's  fated  Bjjrfrneboe s a n t a g o n i s t i n f i g h t s future.;  obscenity is  The  Scandinavian  role  the  tradition  are  during the proceedings.  a n a r c h i s t who  Kristiania  Bondmen i n t h e  had  been i m p r i s o n e d  last  century.  r u b i n ) was  i t upon h i m s e l f t o d e f e n d  authorities'  letter  banned i n Norway i n 1956, banned t h e r e .  i n t e r v e n t i o n s with  prepared  for a fight,  a decade e a r l i e r  than  had  M y k l e by t a k i n g him  accused  the  (Sangen  om  same y e a r  as  had  on  the  h i s work more s e r i o u s l y ,  who  and  so  w r i t e r who  early  took  f a r more h u r t by  Bjjrfrneboe was  t o the D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c  1957), B j ^ r n e b o e  the  Ruby  Bj^rneboe  Mykle—a  these  was  rfide  Sexus was  authors  More t o t h e p o i n t  den  trial  passing  Fra  o f Agnar M y k l e , whose Song o f t h e Red  Henry M i l l e r ' s  system,  f o r his novel  case  less  of  Hans J a e g e r ,  the  was  justice  P r o m i n e n t among  S t r i n d b e r g i n Sweden, and  Kristiania  taken  of  judgments a g a i n s t some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  d r e d g e d up  authors  2 2  to p l a y the involving  1  p a s t and  social  t h o u g h he were p l a y i n g a k i n d o f  to State Prosecutor  Pantalone—Dorenfeldt  stiffened  or  t h e h e a l t h - n u r t u r i n g powers o f  Bjtfrneboe, e x p l o i t i n g  described  trial  c o m e d y — s a y , Commedia d e l l ' A r t e ,  c o m e d i e s o f M o l i e r e — i n w h i c h o l d and  mores a r e made t o bend by  i t s author,  by  Prosecutions"  the a u t h o r i t i e s  t o c o u r t , and  his.  by  imposing  his  I n an  own  "Open  (Aftenposten,  of t r y i n g an  to  crush  enormous  fine,  59 due  to p o l i t i c a l  of Mykle's  motives.  trial,  he w r o t e  at the  time  " i s t o d a y an a p o s t a t e s o c i a l i s t ,  and he  has  not hidden h i s a p o s t a c y . r e a d as a p o l i t i c a l  "Agnar M y k l e , "  The  novel.  he  suggests that  p r e s s t h a t Mykle  had  Ruby c a n a l s o  60-61).  In another p i e c e i n  the a u t h o r i t i e s '  invaded the p r i v a c y  whom he u s e d as models f o r c h a r a c t e r s ,  a c c u s a t i o n s i n the  of Labor P a r t y  62-66).  and  society.  became a f o r u m  Dahl's e v a l u a t i o n  a Stitch,  e n t e r e d as e v i d e n c e .  the banning.  between  for this  case—and  who  Among t h e c r i t i c a l  always  scepticism--all  i n every respect  D a h l e n t e r e d i n t h e r e c o r d was  Willy  have been  p r o g r e s s i v e , who  passages  were  to h i s  I t must c e r t a i n l y  literary  was  Professor  most l i k e l y  Bj^Jrneboe's work w i t h a c e r t a i n  more so i n t h i s  influential  on t h e r e l a t i o n  i n the courtroom.  of Without  an awkward i n c i d e n t approached  pressing  As the' b e s t j u d g e s o f a r t , t h e c r i t i c s  o f use t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n  c h a g r i n , was  t o be  2 3  Bj^rneboe's t r i a l art  figures  s h o u l d have n o t h i n g t o  do w i t h t h e o b s c e n i t y c h a r g e s t h e y were s u p p o s e d (NMN  be  I t d e a l s w i t h a young man's p a t h  o u t o f t h e L a b o r P a r t y " (NMN Dagbladet  Song o f t h e Red  opposed  the to  by t h e e x t r e m e l y the  following:  The book has no e m o t i o n a l r a n g e , o n l y two f e e l i n g s : s e x u a l a n x i e t y and t h e p l e a s u r e o f l o v e - m a k i n g . I t i s one-sidedly d i d a c t i c ... and i t i s a t t h e same t i m e a monomaniac a p p e a l t o v e r y few o f my f e e l i n g s . I t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e ... i t does n o t e q u i p t h e p r o t a g o n i s t w i t h any s t o r y , e n v i r o n m e n t ... any d i m e n s i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e s e x u a l . . . . I t i s s m o o t h l y and c o m p e t e n t l y w r i t t e n by a man who knows h i s c r a f t , b u t t h e s t y l e exudes t h e r o u t i n e ... sex o r g a n s a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h o u t v a r i a t i o n as " f l o w e r " and " s h a f t " , and one does wonder what a f l o w e r has t o do w i t h a s h a f t . . . . ( S a k e n om "L tei e n t r a d " * l 4 5 ) T  !  60 The  position  clarified  s i d e s i n the courtroom  i n an i n s t a n t when S t a t e  concluded: cases  of the d i f f e r e n t  Prosecutor  " I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n b o t h  which s h a l l  decide  a book's l i t e r a r y  Dorenfeldt  the M i l l e r  t h a t i n our l a n d i t i s , i n t h e l a s t  was  and t h e M y k l e  instance, the courts  merits.  I t i s the j u s t i c e  s y s t e m w h i c h , on t h e b a s i s o f e v i d e n c e ,  shall  question."  that, despite the fact  The j u d g e h i m s e l f  t h a t t h e book r e p r e s e n t e d  concluded  a certain  decide  improvement o v e r  this  the usual  p o r n o g r a p h y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e mass m a r k e t ,  "The book i s  obscene.  of high  value. Its  I t c a n n o t be e v a l u a t e d I t s value  as b e i n g  for illumination,  message i s s e x u a l  nihilism  literary  rather, i s less  i n novel-sauce"  than  null.  (Wandrup  117). For  Bj^frneboe,  the t r i a l s — b o t h  appeal—did  have t h e i r  p u b l i c with  another  positive  probing  side.  look  the i n i t i a l Aside  trial  and t h e  from p r o v i d i n g t h e  at the justice  s y s t e m , he  e a r n e d enough f r o m f o r e i g n s a l e s t o buy h i s f a m i l y a house i n Billingstad,  pay i t o f f , and p u t away some s a v i n g s  first  time.  He a l s o c o n c l u d e d  Allan  Edwall  (8 May 1 9 6 7 ) , t h a t f o r a w r i t e r , g o i n g  trial  had some b e n e f i t s :  i n a letter  f o r the  t o t h e Swedish  actor  through a  I am a b i t w o r r i e d by t h e t r i a l t h a t ' s coming up ... t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a r e p r e p a r i n g an e x e c u t i o n and n o t a t r i a l . But i t has i t s b r i g h t s i d e : f o r a d r a m a t i s t t h e r e i s a l w a y s s o m e t h i n g p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l and d r a m a t u r g i c a l t o l e a r n f r o m a t r i a l . The t r i a l , the procedure, i t ' s the primal p a t t e r n of a p l a y . A l l t r i a l s a r e p l a y a b l e dramas, and a l l p l a y s a r e s p i r i t u a l l y s p e a k i n g t r i a l s , a s t r u g g l e and a d i s c l o s u r e o f t r u t h .  61  A' s e q u e l t o W i t h o u t a S t i t c h U t e n en  T r a e v l IT^.0-968).  was  p u b l i s h e d i n Denmark:  I t i s a more s a t i r i c  pornography, t a r g e t i n g v a r i o u s p i l l a r s as w e l l i n d e c e n t c o m i c c a r i c a t u r e different  civil  Yet with despite  the  experienced position social  authorities  the t r i a l  and  the  courtrooms f i l l e d  their  which can  be  suspected.  dragging  on  of  down. f o r months,  s h o w i n g one  t h a t can  never  surely  i s i n the  A l l t h e more so w i t h  p r e s t i g e on  moral m o n s t r o s i t y — f o r reasons  pants  o f anyone who  "the accused."  forces pitting  their  Bj^rneboe  to o v e r f l o w i n g , Bj^rneboe  the u l t i m a t e s o l i t u d e  of b e i n g  with  appeal  of  of s o c i e t y , c o n t a i n i n g  d r a w i n g s by  caught  variant  be  official  man  proven,  T h e r e must have been some k i n d  of  and  p e r s o n a l impact.  On  the  one  that  he  had  wanted t o p r o v e .  On  the  o t h e r , he w o u l d have t o  live  with  official  label  of p a r i a h from  this  had  a  but  lasting  an  hand he  t o be  proven a l l  p o i n t onward.  10.  The  assault  material, clearly up  on  and  social  the a s s a u l t  represented  t o be  either  r o u t e of the  institutions  by  not  by  the banning  a national  celebrity,  on him  an  represented social  politician,  was  Bj^rneboe's  a g a i n s t i d e o l o g y and  the p r i s o n  institutions  o f h i s book, s e t  celebrity obvious  by  most  Bj^rneboe  or a p a r i a h — o r both.  one  f o r , say,  an  a r o u t e open t o a mind i n c l i n e d towards a c o n s t a n t  The  aspiring as inward  self-examination. This  i n no  way  implies that his preoccupations  were  always  62 d a r k and h i s a t t i t u d e morose.  He h a d a l w a y s  between t h e s o l e m n i t y o f t r u t h  and t h e l a u g h t e r  with  insight.  material, his  Bjjzfrneboe was immersed  he was w r i t i n g  favorite  from  While  topics  e s s a y s on t r a v e l ,  of a l l — c a t s .  121-28]), which personality—a  ("Om  e x p e c t a t i o n s and bowed t o no r u l e s after is  the Without  a Stitch  s t r o n g as e v e r .  that  There  trial  attitude  left  a n d one o f  example i s h i s e s s a y  en k a t t  f r a N a p o l i " [POA  p a e a n to. a  defied  everyone's  o f common d e c e n c y .  h i sacid  sense  i s every i n d i c a t i o n ,  the long-range e f f e c t s  controversy  i n the prison  i s a mischievous but l o v i n g cat's p e r s o n a l i t y — t h a t  he a s s o c i a t e d  cuisine,  A prime  1961, "On a C a t f r o m N a p l e s "  struck a balance  Even  f o r t h e comic nevertheless,  o f more t h a n a s o l i d  decade o f  i t s mark on B j ^ r n e b o e ' s W e l t a n s h a u u n g  a s an a u t h o r .  In f a c t ,  and h i s  a p e r s o n so e m o t i o n a l l y  vulnerable  could  n o t have w e a t h e r e d  curiously,  often  b r o u g h t upon h i m s e l f — w i t h o u t g o i n g t h r o u g h  some k i n d a Stitch  of metamorphosis.  t h e a s s a u l t s — w h i c h he,  Months b e f o r e t h e t r i a l  began, he h a d c o m p l e t e d Moment o f Freedom, t h e f i r s t  volume o f what was t o be h i s t r i l o g y .  R a g n h i l d J ^ l s e n had  p r e p a r e d t o meet t h e work she was n e v e r w i t h t h e words Bj^rneboe  "Now y o u r  i n fact  somewhat f l e x i b l e all  life's  heading which  fully  work s h a l l  t h e n began t h e H i s t o r y  h i s works o f f i c t i o n  he w i l l  ready t o w r i t e  b e g i n , " and  of B e s t i a l i t y — a also  up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g  later  imply covers  the t r i l o g y .  man who becomes " t h e a c c u s e d " knows what t h e m e e t i n g world  of Without  A  with the  i s like. When Duke Hans, s e e s t h e young monk b e n e a t h  h i s sickroom  63 in  t h e C z a r ' s c o u r t y a r d , w a i t i n g t o be b r o k e n  first  thinks  he s e e s  i n his.face  S p a n i s h commander S p i n o l a .  that  on t h e w h e e l ,  of h i s f r i e n d , the  After  begging,  seemingly  irrationally,  t h e C z a r ' s clemency  f o rthat  one l i t t l e  realizes  that  he h a s l i e d t o t h e C z a r , f o r " d e s p i t e h i s  powerful  likeness  had  reminded  to Spinola  him o f ..." (HH 1 0 3 ) .  any l a n g u a g e  the from  And s o , on t h e d a y o f h i s  w i t h . t h e d y i n g duke.  i t s theme o f "a mind's m e e t i n g  strange,  with i t s e l f . "  so h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d ,  paradoxically, The  oneself,  trilogy  B jjzSrneboe s f i r s t 1  unable  t o communicate  They meet, e v e n  monk s a y s a p r a y e r f o r h i s d o u b l e .  "mankind's m e e t i n g  monk, he  i t was more he h i m s e l f t h e monk  d e a t h , t h e monk comes t o h i s room, t h o u g h in  k i s s , and  The n o v e l h e r e t u r n s  with the world" t o another: T h i s double  so d i s t a n t  that  proves  a n d t h e s o u r c e o f one's  i s so  t o be,  compassion.  p i c k s up where, many y e a r s b e f o r e , J e n s literary  he  effort  left off.  64  ... s e p a d e s s a p a p p e r d a r j a g f o r f a t t e r h i s t o r i e r om o r a t t ... ... l o o k a t t h e s e p a p e r s w h e r e I w r i t e h i s t o r i e s o f i n j u s t i c e ... August S t r i n d b e r g Ett Dromspel  T H R E E / THE H I S T O R Y OF  BESTIALITY  1. At  the heart of Bj^rneboe's  known a s t h e " H i s t o r y first  volume  {ZSyeblikk, which  ritual  i n hisprior  "judgment,"  "guilt,"  o n new m e a n i n g  Certainly  Revelation,  of  the Bible  represents  which  like  into  and i t i s w i t h t h e  existence.  obscenity t r i a l  which  fiction  he h a d b e e n  "trial,"  "evidence," would  i n Bj^rneboe's  i s said  (Frihetens  a new mode o f  "justice,"  metaphysical  here  i s Saint  begin t o  lexicon.  John's  book  t o have been h i s f a v o r i t e Undoubtedly,  an i m p o r t a n t precedent  literal  trilogy  Terms h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e  "protocol,"  (Wandrup 41).  an i n d i v i d u a l  very  novels.  one o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s  of  of  he b r e a k s  of the courtroom  h i s novel  The Moment o f F r e e d o m  c h a l l e n g e d a l l t h e norms w i t h  working  take  lies  of B e s t i a l i t y " ,  of t h e group,  1966), t h a t  work  i n  Kafka's  describing  Before Bj^rneboe's took  place,  The  book  Trial  the t r i a l own a n d  Moment o f F r e e d o m ,  65 was  already  of the  on  the  H i s t o r y of  Powderhouse: Silence  Poudriere  subtitle  three  I t was  Bestiality,  (Stillheten,  bears the into  La  shelves.  distinct  the  first  volume  which a l s o comprises  (Kruttarnet,  1973 J..  "The  t o be  1970)  The  and  The  Moment o f Freedom, w h i c h  1  Heiligenberg  s e c t i o n s , the  Manuscript"  first  i s divided  of which  is  "The  Cities."  2. High i n the  Alps,  Heiligenberg, narrator  which w i l l  is daily  c o u r t r o o m as  not  be  fulfilling  a Servant  N o r w e g i a n , has meaning:  i n a German p r i n c i p a l i t y  b o t h an  f o u n d on  called  any  his obligations in  allegorical  "Rettstjener"=court  and  official.  His  keeping the  court  detailed  records  s e t of p a r a l l e l  t o be day  He  w h i c h he  explains  been many y e a r s  s i n c e he  Servant  records,  has  come t o  i n a place  calls  i n the  where he  j u s t i c e — o r b e t t e r : day  cleaning,  Aside  from  a long  his been  and  of  opening passages t h a t "land  witness the  t o day  and  encompassing  i n Heiligenberg, could  official  his History  t r a v e l i n g i n the stay  the  o f J u s t i c e has  a c c o u n t o f man's c r u e l t y t o man  Bestiality. had  or p r o t o c o l s .  d u t i e s , however, t h e  t w e l v e v o l u m e s and  the  a more mundane  i n c l u d e keeping papers i n order,  k e e p i n g h i s own  the  of J u s t i c e — a term which i n  obligations  official  map,  of Chaos," the  but  opportunity  work o f  injustice"  he  has  "day  brought  to  66 him  strength,  He  adds t h a t  my  own,  in  the  but  which  the  this  the  of these  i n the  jury,  as  accused"  He hardly  years  t o an  to suffer  at the  courtroom,  nor  said  a sort  without  song,  m u s t be  said  eyes.  "lemurian" Steiner's the  since  before  sight  he  t o be  of t h i s  defense  Of  f o r one  minute  injustice insignificant  i s t h e r e as  neither  counsel—"not  p o p u l a t i o n as  people  filled  with the Holy  Ghost."  Holy  Ghost might  of n e g a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n . without that  folklore,  they  can  heads"  Anthroposophy, itself.  music,  think.  calculating.  in their  mark t h e m s e l v e s  even  (9).  He  the  o f f from  b a n k b o o k s , and  Everyone  some s t r a n g e way  they  see  so, i t  i t in  their  or  comes f r o m  word Rudolph made  history  f o r human b e i n g s  The  a l l o w e d t o do  still  can  but  people  Even  i n human  i f necessary,  is in conflict  does  connection i s not  a time  animals.2,  He  comes upon t h e  This term  though  "can  signify,  dance."  "You  who  "They a r e  They a r e a d d i n g  I t denotes  d i s c o v e r what t h e y a r e  neighbors.  force.  t h e most  c o n s c i o u s n e s s made i t p o s s i b l e  town r e a d  transformed  local  t o d e s c r i b e them.  text  I hadn't  just  (8).  They a r e  subtracting  injustice—not  incredible  has  p r o s e c u t i o n nor  describes the be  He  7-8).  (FO  done t o o t h e r s — h a s  d e s c r i b e , y e t , what t h i s  offers  to  to tolerate  permeates e v e r y t h i n g . "  the  order to h i s l i f e  o n l y happened because  judge,  in  brought  injustices  ability  position  not  has  his "ability  course  course, lost  and  inhabitants their to  the  l a w s — i n order their  w i t h everybody,  manage t o s t i c k  of  to  but  together.  in It  67 is  a  "lemurian"  concord.  the winter they the v a l l e y s is  go  "over  to the tops and  over  himself exploited,  vampires.  They a r e m a r v e l o u s s k i e r s ,  as  o f t h e m o u n t a i n s and  again."  i f by a b r e e d  electricity,  and  before they tax i t . goal  At times,  aquit  The justice  Servant ("rett"  and  especially  for  forty  and  or  pass  "right")  w i t h w h i c h he the  although  has  i n the  i s growing  recalls  paper The of  ways,  their  "just  own  now  the system  g i v e n him  c a n make s e n s e  also the  has For  world,  wandered in fact,  o f my  a p e r i o d of f o r t y  has  He and  something  i s now he  years  It i s a  he  that w i l l  t h a t when S o c r a t e s was  g i v e n the c h o i c e t o l i e or f l e e ,  he  of  a name t h a t  forty-six  senses  he  long  l e n g t h of the wandering  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he  white,  of  a k i n d of  of the  surrounding v a l l e y .  come f a c e t o f a c e w i t h  was  But  name—"an a f t e r e f f e c t  n e g a t i v e , d e p r e c a t i n g name.  He  in painful  the time.  suggests:  the C h i l d r e n of I s r a e l .  him.  food  unfair.  years, i t i s a pyrrhic victory.  i s known by  on  h i s income on  " l a n d o f C h a o s " where he  remember h i s own  beard  Justice  economic  i s cheated  people  explains that,  which i s , of c o u r s e ,  his  down t o  (10).  w a n d e r i n g y e a r s " he  he  of  o n e s e l f a t the expense  they k i l l  them"  scheme o r map  cannot  of  They a r e i n e v e r y way  t o amuse t h e m s e l v e s courts  He  they double  i s obviously to enrich  others.  Servant  in  They a r e a l w a y s f i n d i n g ways t o g e t more r e n t  o u t o f h i s p o v e r t y - l e v e l wages. prices,  The  and  i s about  be d e c i s i v e  facing had  years o l d ,  death,  answered:  to for and "No  68 ...  I can't.  name?" of  A man o f my a g e , a n d w i t h s u c h  (11).  truth  Like  ("sannhetens ^ y e b l i k k " ) .  willing  t o accept  "little  bears"  creatures. group, the  Aside  which  family  The  a world which  from  he c a l l s  he c a l l s  bears  blows  over  there  are outbursts of cruelty  fire  the Mediterranean  on each  down. his find  Besides  and prepared  t h e Foehn wind,  which  the North  and v i o l e n c e  African almost  o t h e r , hunt  can unleash  each  there i s another The l o c a l  leads to a special  cider,  type  of  i n the l i t t l e as w e l l ,  eventually  f o r these  i f consumed  intoxication  bears.  wine.)  The S e r v a n t , however, has h i s methods  injustice  to Kirsch  reality  other  trigger  occasionally  the harsh  beyond  as ever.  applies  both  desert,  c a n open  them on meat h o o k s — c a n  the worst  wind  a s t h e b u t c h e r who s l a u g h t e r e d  i n the area.  caution,  less  i n H e i l i g e n b e r g i s made  back a t work and as s o c i a b l e  spasms o f chaos without  possibly  belong t o  B u t when t h e F o e h n  from  o t h e r , a t t a c k each  themselves  who a l s o  and w e l l - r e g a r d e d c i t i z e n s  Even s o , m a n y — s u c h  family  another  the "escatologists" (14).  good c i t i z e n s .  Normal  with  h i s fellow  b e a r s , he c i t e s  A third,  population of l i t t l e  of essentially  now h e h a s b e e n  i s populated  "the scholastics,"  "homo c o n s u m e n s . "  description.  Up u n t i l  he s a y s  the l i t t l e  well-known  f o r h i s own moment  ( "smabj,0rn" ) , a s he c a l l s  dangerous group,  up  S o c r a t e s , he i s r i p e  a  but never  (This white  f o r escaping  o f t h e town, and t h e customary  of the courtroom.  He r e t r e a t s  "Zum H e n k e r n , " w h e r e h e i m b i b e s  to h i stavern,  r e d wine and i n d u l g e s i n  69 speculative Ringer  dialogues with h i s drinking  and t h e S e x t o n .  most a b s t r a c t  i n particular  exercises i n l o g i c — f o r  on t h e o r i g i n s believes  Kirsch  of consciousness.  i n t h e law o f c a u s a l i t y ,  victory  over  Servant  argues  originally,  the Servant that  like  partners the B e l l leads to the  example t h e i r  dispute  The B e l l  Ringer,  achieves  something  of J u s t i c e  who  i n the debate.  of a The  c o n s c i o u s n e s s must come o f m a t t e r ,  energy.  The B e l l  Ringer  gets the f i n a l  word:  When y o u o b s e r v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e n y o u have p r o o f o n l y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s — a n d when y o u o b s e r v e e n e r g y , t h e n y o u have proved only the e x i s t e n c e of energy. That's a l l there i s to i t . Otherwise you b e l i e v e i n m i r a c l e s : t h a t i s t o say, a v i o l a t i o n i n t h e law o f c a u s a l i t y . (42)  This  i s an uncommon argument f o r a man o f t h e s p i r i t  using  against a materialist  consciousness. Curiously,  He u s e s  not theology but p o s i t i v i s m .  In the debate,  Yet t h i s  narrative,  will  underlying  t h e w h o l e book.  prove  a prerequisite  freedom.  no one has been a s k e d t o  i n anything, l e t alone  e x i s t e n c e o f God.  is  theory of the o r i g i n s of  i t i s an argument i n f a v o r o f t h e autonomy o f  consciousness. "believe"  t o be  b e g i n by p o s i t i n g t h e  argument, e a r l y  t o be v i t a l  on i n t h e  to the proposition  The autonomy o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  f o r any m e a n i n g f u l  d e f i n i t i o n of  The d i a l o g u e s i n Zum H e n k e r n a r e n o t m e a n i n g l e s s  bar  harangues  i n c l u d e d f o r t h e sake  of a s a t i r e  of types.  The  n a r r a t o r a t t h e p o i n t where we meet him i s a p e r s o n on  70 the verge of  of a d e f i n i t i v e  the world  long  around  break  him.  with the i n h e r i t e d  The p r e c i p i t a t i n g  day he n o t i c e s t h a t  on t h e p r o c e e d i n g s punishments t h a t attention  t h e judge's  i n t h e courtroom,  i s instead  upon i n s p e c t i o n , judge's  other.  The  f o c u s e d on s o m e t h i n g (43).  the Servant d i s c o v e r s that  distraction  s e x u a l poses  i s a collection  with animals,  i s not  judge's  between t h e pages  After  show many o f t h e town's most p r o m i n e n t explicit  attention  d e s p i t e the severe  a r e t o be handed o u t .  of h i s volume o f c o u r t r e c o r d s  he  i s not  i n coming. One  the  event  values  work  hours,  the source of  of photos. citizens  children  They  engaged i n  and e a c h  The n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e moment a s " p a i n f u l , " f o r  had t a k e n  the m o r a l i t y of these  w h e t h e r o r n o t he s h a r e d  their  citizens  as a g i v e n ,  views:  H a v i n g s e r v e d many y e a r s as a s e r v a n t o f j u s t i c e , o b v i o u s l y I s h o u l d n o t be amazed by a n y t h i n g , and a s a t r a v e l e r , s a i l o r and s i n g e r i n my y o u n g e r y e a r s , I s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h a n y t h i n g t h a t i s human. B u t one has t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e a l p i n e town i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d my horror. The c i t y i s C a l v i n i s t i c , and s e v e r e t o t h e e x t r e m e i n i t s moral code. (46)  From t h i s we c a n s e e t h a t t o be i n s e a r c h o f a m o r a l what we commonly c a l l is  clear  that  vision,  morality.  any m o r a l  dispense w i t h t h e easy  i f the narrator i s intended  vision  i t will  After  this  n o t come o u t o f discovery,i t  of the world w i l l  have t o  h y p o c r i s y of the m o r a l i s t i c .  Despite the claims of a t l e a s t  one c r i t i c  that  the Servant  71 of  Justice  to  this  proves  moralism,  b o o k we w i l l first  Meanwhile,  i tremains  define  i t .  I t will  an open one--through  the crisis  he i s wrong.  refers twist  echo  i s typical  de-familiarizing symbols being  conscious  truth  shall  confesses, holes."  "Rabbi  completely t o be,  dominant  we h a v e  peculiar  i s no t u r n i n g i s right"  and i t s attendant  t h e words  Joschua  o f Bj/zfrneboe's  o f a man h e  ben J o s e f f " :  a  bent f o r  t o g e t us t o r e e v a l u a t e t h e  inherited  make y o u f r e e . "  hislife  a  "the world  truth  o f i t . The " R a b b i ' s "  confronting—this writing  with  Christianity,  and values  There  s e v e r a l times  t o as the c r u c i f i e d which  In the  3  t o t h e end o f t h e book.  believe that  He i s a l o n e  He w i l l  of the  d e s c r i b e d a s t h e "moment o f t r u t h "  He c a n n o l o n g e r  darkness.  juxtapose  i s supposed  remain a  been s e t o f f i n t h e n a r r a t o r .  back. and  to substantiate this.  as t o what a moral v i s i o n  question—and  has  little  segment o f t h e book a t l e a s t  who w i l l  to  i f we comb t h e l e n g t h a n d b r e a d t h  find  open q u e s t i o n and  t o h a v e h i s own m o r a l v i s i o n  i n t h e West  famous words:  Yet there  i s a truth  n a r r a t o r who c l a i m s  a s we a r e r e a d i n g .  without "The he i s n o t  t o be  The e v i d e n c e ' i s , a s he  t h a t h i s m e m o r y i s p e r f o r a t e d w i t h many " r a w  He h a s e v e n  f o r g o t t e n h i s own name a n d a l l t h a t  happened t o him i n h i s years his  suppressed  the  cross-roads  past,  of wandering.  and r e c a l l  I f he c a n f i n d  h i s name, he w i l l  stand a t  t o freedom:  W i t h o u t memory, no c o n t i n u i t y , no r e a l i t y , no p e r s p e c t i v e o v e r my l i f e , n o J. am. I l i e i n sweat and darkness, half  72 awake, and i n f e v e r and dreams, s u r r o u n d e d by s c r a p s o f p i c t u r e s t h a t were once w h o l e . I c a n n o t d e s c r i b e how I am f i g h t i n g t o g e t my c o n s c i o u s n e s s b a c k , t o a v o i d g o i n g u n d e r and f i n d i n g m y s e l f among t h e l i t t l e b e a r s . (34)  He was  b e g i n s by r e c o l l e c t i n g  a c o r r e c t man,  suffering heart a  full  capitalist.  flows over with  heartfelt  of a suppressed l u s t  "Each t i m e I see a b u s i n e s s m a n ,  my  sympathy  suspicion  His  memories o f h i s f a t h e r  and  and c o m p a s s i o n  every time I look  he has b u i l t  his l i f e  l e a d him a l s o  he r e f e r s  a p e n t up a r s e n a l  weaponry a g a i n s t the  the great  s e e d s o f a w o r l d war  calls  the currency  model  of economic  for  Germany.  that  culture  despair,  to childhood  to alternately  of p o e t i c  a  on s a n d " ( 2 5 ) .  " T e u t o n i a " b e f o r e t h e Second W o r l d War.  unleashed  ... I become  F o r I know o f h i s deep  his  memories o f t h e l a n d  and  as  "Germania"  Here i s  polemical  of Europe which  and a h o l o c a u s t w i t h i n  stability  after  t h e war  "The moment t h e f i r s t  where no German c a n s e l l  T h e r e one  new  the Third  t h e end o f hope  mark was  printed,  World War"  p o r n o g r a p h y , buy  e a r n money on V e r d u n ,  i s forced  sell  stocks,  (36).  "A  place  speculate  "After  What t h e s e p a s s a g e s  i s the opening to the n a r r a t o r ' s  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h German c u l t u r e ,  (33).  h i s grandmother."  t o be p o o r - - t o do p e n a n c e .  d e a t h , Germans go t o DDR" constitute  He  r e f o r m w h i c h h e l p e d make West Germany a  same s e c o n d , Germany won  property,  carried  it.  E a s t Germany i s s e e n as Germany's bad c o n s c i e n c e :  in  father a  i n the eye. that  His  for l i f e :  anarcho-communist  businessman  his childhood.  symbiotic  a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s  73 paradoxical  i n the  not,  major c r i t i c  as  attack  one  i n which the  intentions.4  own  extreme—a  The  a u t h o r has  s e n s e t h a t we  yet  an  outsider,  have come t o use  existentialism.  or a t  that  In g e o g r a p h i c a l  So  he  places  What i s more, he in  the  b e c a u s e no  loves  i t as The  the  has  an  loved  love him  But  the  says t h a t  it  the  ones who  will  be  as w e l l  are  introduces  signifies  malady h e r e ,  am  sick  the  a great  hell  or  is fluent  I have.  No  one  (37).  and  can  not  narrator  syphilis.  d e a l more t h a n t h e clear.  the  as  emblem f o r b o t h t h e apart  novel  diseased  him  world  is  f i t into in  this  That  the  physical  Curiously,  term throughout the  to  its  t h a t the  The of  of e m o t i o n I t provides  war  t h o s e who  subject  i s immediatly  " s i c k n e s s " which s e t s  is  allowed a l l  a thread  conclusion  using an  ("I  memories of t h e  sick.  world  the  geographically.  G e r m a n i a as  back on  to the  disease  in  allegorical  must come t o t e r m s w i t h . The  culture.  i t " [36]).  b r i n g him  connection  not  with  since  i n "Germania"  atrocities  are  of  literature  has  t i r a d e leads  opening.  that  least  term  case  s t u d i e d Germany t h o r o u g h l y ,  one  I still  memories he  with  himself  t o n g u e , knows t h e  this,  i s the  his  early  terms, H e i l i g e n b e r g  German, e v e n i f i t i s a l s o a k i n d limbo.  racial  obvious at t h i s  i s w r i t i n g from i n s i d e of  i s not  of  i n a d v e r t e n t l y undermined  S e r v a n t o f J u s t i c e , as  himself,  narrator  dependency—and  suggested, a kind  What i s n o t  stage i s t h a t the Bjjzfrneboe  has  love-hate  Bj^rneboe  and  the  trilogy  s o c i e t y , and  c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s from  the the  74 norms w h i c h  that  society  to want i t both ways. metaphor might at  s t r a w s as  syphilis looking  tries  as  emblem f o r t h e  It  and  large,  individual. stands  contradiction  t o p i n down t h e work.  We  thing  solidarity  with  Servant  same t h o u g h t  with  the  i s grasping  return  to this  I t can  be  in  asserted  syphilis  genius  deem s i c k  Bj^rneboe  finds  heretics  speaking, but  i n h i s essays  he  of  is  used  provides for difference  societies  a l l of Europe's  seems  c o n n o t a t i o n s of  shall  I t i s associated  outsiders.  Here i t i s the  which  author  i n t h e use  i n Moment o f F r e e d o m ,  for a l lthat  children—the  the  The  a t volume t h r e e of the t r i l o g y .  by  the  healthy.  make a r e a d e r f e e l  i n Bj^rneboe's  that, an  The  possibly  he  calls  and  and  freedom.  in their reasons  and  in  problem  for  their dis-ease.  Bjjzfrneboe has  echoed  plays:  B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , what w o u l d h a v e become o f o u r b e l o v e d , s t i n k i n g b e a u t i f u l Europe w i t h o u t our a d d i c t s , drunks, homosexuals, consumptives, insane, s y p h i l i t i c s , b e d - w e t t e r s , c r i m i n a l s and e p i l e p t i c s ? A l l our c u l t u r e has b e e n s h a p e d b y c r i m i n a l s , madmen a n d p a t i e n t s . T h e r e i s n o t one n o r m a l p e r s o n t h a t has d o n e a u s e f u l o r lasting thing: I t was n o r m a l p e o p l e who b u i l t t h e s l a v e l a b o r camps b o t h i n Germany and i n R u s s i a . I k n o w w h a t I'm t a l k i n g a b o u t . To s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g i n the l e m u r i a n chaos i s l i k e s e a r c h i n g f o r a needle i n a haystack. (37)  There  i s another  thing  terminal  disease which  emblem.  This i s the  ("d^dsbevissthet") increasingly  about  Europe's  underscores  i t s importance  consciousness of  that  culture.  as  an  death  i t brings with  death-denying  traditional  it,  The  in  close  an relation  75 between t r u t h first  and d e a t h  i s brought  few pages o f Moment o f Freedom.  c a n be c o r r e c t e d never  be f i n a l  disclosed,  by y e t a n o t h e r  or absolute.  And")  refers  look death truth"  i n the face,  echoes  verdad."  raised one  to the s p i r i t  sword  of l i f e  "the Holy Ghost"  i n t h o s e who have t h e a b i l i t y t o  a s i t were  of the o r i g i n s the raison  term  " e l momento de  between i c e - c o l d  that violence,  foundations of almost  the  work o f Rene G i r a r d , w h i c h  into  The  and t h e " r i t u a l  i n the courtroom":  of s a c r i f i c e  a l l human c u l t u r e ,  '80s.  the truth,  verdad—is a prerequisite  i s an  theater.... In the t r i a l i n drama, t r a g e d y - - a n d i n s u c h o p e r e t t a , opera and m u s i c a l same: someone s h a l l w i n and  and a r i t u a l  the  i n t h e '70s a n d  debate,  specialists  W i t h o u t t h e f i g h t t h e r e i s no a l l i t s f o r m s : f a r c e , comedy, s u b - s p e c i e s o f J u s t i c e as t h e comedy, t h e main theme i s t h e someone s h a l l d i e . (18)  A glimpse  of the  d ' e t r e o f a l l forms o f  struggle  la  "The moment o f  of a l l r i t u a l .  stage p l a y s , w r e s t l i n g ,  familiar  (15).  Implied i n these passages  theater:  idea  ("Den H e l l i g e  the true c h a r a c t e r of the s t r u g g l e , "  and d e a t h .  phenomenon i s a l s o  This  brother of death" (12).  I t i s t h e moment when t h e g l i m p s e  interpretation  It will  "But t r u t h — o n c e i t i s f i r s t  the Spanish b u l l f i g h t i n g  "exposes  i n the  A l i e , f o r example,  l i e , and so o n .  becomes i n e v i t a b l e — a  Bjjzfrneboe's u s e o f t h e t e r m  la  t o our a t t e n t i o n  has become  lying at  foreshadows  increasingly  5  of f i n a l i t y — e l  momento de  t o t h e moment o f f r e e d o m .  It  76 echoes truth  that shall  frightening it  has  formulation make y o u  free."  than t r u t h .  freedom,  consciousness An  o f R a b b i J o s c h u a ben  Freedom i s t h e o n l y t h i n g mo-re  but u n f o r t u n a t e l y w i t h o u t  of d e a t h . "  "complete  (16)  o n g o i n g c o n c e r n i n Moment o f Freedom, and i n i s that  after  Auschwitz  H i r o s h i m a , t h e West had an o p p o r t u n i t y  historical  change i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h was  l o o k e d away i n s t e a d f r e e d o m may the  awareness  of l o o k i n g  o n l y be t o l e r a t e d  Holy Ghost"  into  missed.  the t r u t h .  by human b e i n g s by  "grace of  i f this  i s lacking,  o f i t s own  freedom  becomes a d u b i o u s g i f t .  c o u l d do w h a t e v e r  discovered  that  they pleased"  mankind's  illusory  and d a n g e r o u s  practice  i t becomes o n l y t h e f r e e d o m  after this  freedom  age  b e a r s have.  t o buy,  us b e f o r e t h e moment o f t r u t h — h a s been  not t h a t  against  easy.  existentialist  chase of  disastrous.  has  come f o r  perceived  by o t h e r  I t i s n o t meant as e i t h e r  It i s this  and  f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e book.6  humanism and human f r e e d o m ,  moralism.  sell  In  the consequences  T h i s p r o b l e m — t h a t t h e moment o f f r e e d o m  is  the  unpunished,  c o u l d prove, t o say the l e a s t ,  commentators as t h e m o r a l  It  So i t i s an  the l i t t l e  power. I n t h e p o s t - n u c l e a r development  they,  (155).  We  True  and  bears i n f a c t  and  for a  came t o o s o o n , b e f o r e d e a t h - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , "so t h a t little  "The  Humanity has become c o n s c i o u s t h a t  B j ^ r n e b o e ' s work i n g e n e r a l , after  Joseff:  an  Yet i t  argument  nor i s i t advocacy  w h i c h marks i t o f f , however, f r o m  concept of freedom,  most n o t a b l y  that  of  of the  77 Sartre, to  w i t h whom t h e t h o u g h t  have much i n common.  initially  the concepts  and  We have  t o be b l u r r e d .  after  each o t h e r .  A reader w i l l  begins  occur is  t o understand  i n our f a m i l i a r  a process.  "here"  new s o r t  linear  because  They seem t o be each  other  have t r o u b l e f o l l o w i n g  of Bildungsroman,  that these  seems  and t h e  which a r e t a k i n g p l a c e c o n s t a n t l y , b e f o r e  the developments i n t h i s he  jumped ahead h e r e  o f t h e moment o f t r u t h  moment o f f r e e d o m t e n d events  expounded i n t h e n o v e l  until  a r e n o t "moments" w h i c h  time.  The moment o f f r e e d o m  I t i s a moment w h i c h t a k e s  place i n the  t h a t i s a l l p l a c e s and t h e "now" t h a t i s a l l t i m e s  (178) . The  section  description exile  "The C i t i e s "  of the years  i n the author  BjjzSrneboe, much l i k e  as h i s n a r r a t o r . ^  as m a t e r i a l .  i n the text  infected  him.  using  society  and which  He s t u d i e s a r t , p a i n t s , and  indulges e s p e c i a l l y  his interest  in  of e x i l e s  t h e war r a g e s  manipulates  the i d e n t i f y i n g  symptoms o f t h e " s i c k n e s s " w h i c h p e r v a d e s  full  again  by b t a t a n t l y  i s i n S t o c k h o l m t h a t he f i n d s  a household  Once  Strindberg i n h i s novels,  autobiography  logically,  he had l i v e d  same y e a r s , and s t u d i e d p a i n t i n g  presence  has,  ina  t h a t has c l e a r  1  the a u t h o r i a l  It  an e p i s o d e  Bj/zirneboe s own l i f e :  Stockholm d u r i n g those  under t h e same t e a c h e r  culminates  d u r i n g which t h e n a r r a t o r l i v e d i n  i n S t o c k h o l m . ' Now b e g i n s  parallels in  titled  i n medieval  and r e f u g e e s  outside i t s borders.  art.  He  lives  i n Sweden,  while  In the t h i r d  s e c t i o n of  78 the  book t i t l e d " L e m u r i a , "  diagnosing he  he  will  look  i t as  the  source  of  w i l l describe  the  impact  i t had,  moments o f wiped  out  the by  world  new  war,  two  h i s bad  back  on  this  conscience.  when, d u r i n g  cities  are  time, Later  the  almost  final  instantly  technology:  B u t my own l i f e i n S t o c k h o l m was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s . By a n d l a r g e , I was s t r o n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n B y z a n t i n e p a i n t i n g t h a t summer. I n A u g u s t came t h e g r e a t change. The p l a n e t s U r a n u s a n d P l u t o s t o o d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s i g n o f S c o r p i o , a n d I d e c i d e d t h a t i t no longer c o n c e r n e d me w h a t t h e l i t t l e b e a r s d i d t o o n e another. I n my d e f e n s e i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t i t was t o b e s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e we g o t c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h a t happened.... But the t r u t h i s , a l s o , t h a t n o t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r h a p p e n e d i n me. The t r u t h i s a l s o t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n c e n s o r s h i p was e f f e c t i v e . The t r u t h i s a l s o t h a t we w e r e t i r e d , t i r e d a s p e o p l e a r e a f t e r w a r s — w e w e r e s o t i r e d o f i t , t h a t we q u i t e s i m p l y d i d n ' t g i v e a s h i t a b o u t what happened i n J a p a n . As a S e r v a n t o f J u s t i c e I w o u l d l i k e t o r e p e a t and u n d e r s c o r e t h e p o i n t t h a t I c o u l d n ' t be b o t h e r e d t o h e a r anything about i t . T o t a l p e a c e r u l e d now, not the l e a s t i n those two cities. I n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e a c t was c a r r i e d o u t , a n d many p e o p l e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t f r o m now o n t h e l i t t l e b e a r s h a d e n t i r e l y new a n d u n h e a r d - o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o h u r t e a c h o t h e r ; no a m o u n t o f d e s t r u c t i o n was i m p o s s i b l e a n y longer: The M o m e n t o f F r e e d o m h a d a r r i v e d . (155)  Nevertheless, Stockholm section the  came o v e r  - SS  1  man,  years.  through  house  keeps to  something  of the  This the  in flight  i s revealed  The  in a  himself.  b e e n a t w o r k on  vignettes  exiles. sea  had  first  small  I t turns from  he  the  writes i s the  boat out, Red  i n the  him  during  book's  of  the  s t o r y of  first  residents Otto  from E s t o n i a , in fact, Army.  that  His  the  who  a man he  is  loyalty  in  who an  to  his  79 origins,  his class.of industrious  of  when t h e  favor  first  Communist government had  power, and  Otto's graphic  ensued are  duly  describes "like  the  recorded  arrival  God's a n g e l s . "  terms the w h i c h he  him.  (67). fled  descriptions and  He  now  describes  before  is different.  faith.  the  Otto's case  were h i s e n e m i e s . part  side's  of  practical The the  He  the  One  i s because That He  This  are  sense  Army.  candid  towards  Communists  i s , of  i s a true  to  Otto's  equally  "the  course,  his  believer—as  for himself,  barbarism  Jews i n  SS.  It i s his attitude  side's  graphic  and  Waffen  Red  which  liberators,  i n equally  c r u e l t y are  (64).  come t o  t h o u s a n d s , none  doesn't think  i s holy.  but  is evil.  i s perhaps the  most  only His extreme  consequence of  Sartre's  "mauvaise f o i . "  second v i g n e t t e  presents  a more complex c a s e .  s t o r y o f a German J e w i s h p h y s i c i a n ,  M a r i a Rosenbaum. her  and  i s simple.  a group.  barbarism  of  cause but  m a i n t a i n s an a p p r e h e n d s as arrogance"  She  aloof a i r of "the  (81).  i s a dedicated  from the  others  s u p e r i o r i t y which the German i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s  Her  brothers  and  the  Communist, i n the  out  he  of  e v e n t s make p e r f e c t  This  faith"  that  j o i n e d the  arrival  repression  Then  sympathizers  hundreds of  upon t h e  don't recognize  is  he  him  atrocities  vignette.  Germans as  These l a t t e r  of  the  the  c r e d i b l e i n both cases.  them t h a t  as  i n the  m a s s a c r e s o f Communists, took p a r t  He  account of  of  " T h e y ' r e a l l d e a d now, alive"  businessmen, put  It  refugee loyal  house.  She  narrator grandiose  husband'had f l e d  to  to  80 Russia. refer  The  narrator,  t o h i s dismay, hears  t o them a l l as t r a i t o r s .  "Traitor"  was  f r e e - f l o a t i n g word d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s , and the s u b j e c t to understand further  d i s m a y he  Russia,  and  Soviet  two  finds  nothing  else,  and  t h e P a r t y " as r e c o u n t e d an despair,  complete  as t h e f i r s t appear  hysteria,  where she  loses  "We're l o s i n g  irrationality  be  The  fact  of  must be  She  comforted  and  breaks and  too!"  The  loyalties  i s not  and  ruled  here, not  several:  authority.  loyalty.  True  elucidate  t h e meaning o f t h i s ,  put to  her t e a r s  a good German a t t h e her  down i n  amidst  What a r e we  There  left by  i s o n l y one  "Guardian-type" personality  bed,  says:  p u z z l e of Maria at  the  t o make o f a l l i n one  person:  same t i m e her  life  while  contradictory principle  a t work  Thus, t h e r e i s o n l y  b u t Bjjz>rneboe  one not  i n h i s essay  ("Formyndermennesket") type:  a  i n ruins?  t o h i s c h a r a c t e r , t h e S e r v a n t does  this  has  bombardment  at a l l .  just  he  to  r e p o r t s of the a l l i e d  loyalties  outlined  like  of  have o p p r e s s e d  on t h e o b e d i e n t  the  "traitors  Earlier,  e x p l a i n e d away by a s i g h  she  by  in  in a crisis  contradictory  i s that  jailed  her  o f humankind.  good Communist and sides  found  the w a r — t h i s time  these a b s o l u t e l y  both  i n w h i c h he  i n the papers^  and  pursue  i n these a u t h o r i t i e s  (86).  a  To h i s  to the Gestapo  saboteurs  a l l control,  Rosenbaum c a n n o t  it.  so d e c l a r e s h e r whole f a m i l y  s p i e s and  German c i t i e s  believes  day  of course  t h e y have l o n g s i n c e been  She  incident  one  he must  what she means by  o f them d e l i v e r e d  authorities.  her  t h o s e who  are at  81 peace w i t h and in  can  life  k i c k those  the world.  Servant Maria  o n l y when t h e y below.  They have  confesses  8  a r e b e i n g k i c k e d from  They a r e t h e most l o y a l  "the  faith,"  t h e h a t r e d w h i c h came o v e r  Rosenbaum—for  her  need t o s u b m i t ,  H o w e v e r — " T h a t means t h a t a t t h a t t i m e foreboding  o f my  as O t t o p u t  own  sickness  ...  above people  i t .  him  The  towards  to kneel.  I a l r e a d y had  the process  was  a  underway"  (88).  3. The  second  section,  "The  have been w r i t t e n , we period  i n which  recorded Servant with  "The  Praiano  are t o l d , Cities"  once a g a i n — e n t e r e d of J u s t i c e .  several gates,  The and  city  Papers" ten years  child talent  (91).  occasions.  childhood at was As  the  By he  t h e p r o t o c o l s by  the  he  describes i s a red  and  the  same t i m e .  born  out  appear t o Ages.?,  got t h e r e from  narrator w i l l  appears  t o be  this  He  of years  city,  have says  he  h i s dreams as  i t turns out,  knew a  is a  d e m o n s t r a t e on s e v e r a l geographical c i t y  bringing together his  c h i l d h o o d o f modern E u r o p e a n That  the  into  i t does n o t  his locating  than  being  "Remembering f o r w a r d , "  which t h i s  childhood,  ever  earlier  to  i s w r i t t e n . I t i s now  undergone changes s i n c e the M i d d l e t h e town b e f o r e he  i s supposed  c i v i l i z a t i o n , we  of rampaging  t h e n a r r a t o r roams t h e town, he  own  civilization  should  remember,  s i c k n e s s : the comes a c r o s s  in his  plague. a  82 quarantined  z o n e , m a r k e d by  doesn't understand ten  years  after It  the  that  he  society 1 0  -:  "The  the  has  to  Although  Cities,"  word  supposedly  events  take  period described  i n the  first  p e r i o d of  his  "travels  h i s stay here  shed the  the  really  In i t s place, i n a t o r r e n t , society calls  i n the  i n the  o l d s k i n s of  bequeathed h i m — w i t h o u t  something which  a Latin  these  I t i s during begins  sign with  "lxo  Stockholm  i s p a r t of  chaos."  it.  before  a  come t h e  he  written  place  well  section.  land  Italian  of  town  sickness  which  acknowledging symptoms  of  sick:  The c o n d i t i o n c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d . I'm i n b l o o d o v e r t h e a n k l e s , I'm a w a s h i n b l o o d . In f a c t — t h a t ' s the whole of the matter. T h e r e i s b l o o d f l o w i n g f r o m a l l t h e w a l l s , and i t r u n s t o g e t h e r on t h e s t r e e t , i n t h e g u t t e r , o r i t j u s t floods along the sidewalk. S o m e t i m e s i t r e a c h e s t o my knees. I know v e r y w e l l w h a t t h i s i s . The l i g h t i s t u r n e d off. I am i n a t o t a l , c o a l b l a c k c e l l a r - d a r k n e s s , imprisoned i n the color black. I t i s a known phenomenon. I know b o t h t h e p o p u l a r and t h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s f o r i t — a man o f my e x p e r i e n c e a n d my r e a d i n g ! But i t doesn't h e l p m u c h , o t h e r t h a n t o g i v e me t h e p r e c i s e p o s s i b l i t y t o s a y t h a t t h i s i s a s i c k n e s s — I have s i c k n e s s - a w a r e n e s s ; I can g i v e i t a name. I t ' s one t h i n g t o l i v e i n a w o r l d w h e r e b l o o d f l o w s f r o m t h e w i n d o w s i l l s , f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n s and from the c l o u d s — b u t i t i s another t h i n g to put a l i t t l e L a t i n name t o i t . In a w o r l d of pure p a i n , where a l l e x t e r i o r i m p r e s s i o n s a r e l i k e b e i n g t o u c h e d a t a p o i n t on your body where t h e s k i n has been f l a y e d o f f . It's a state of c o m p l e t e p i t c h - b l a c k d a r k and p a i n — w h e r e you a r e h e l d p r i s o n e r u n d e r a dome w h i c h d o e s n ' t a l l o w y o u t o p e r c e i v e any o t h e r l i v i n g b e i n g i n t h e w o r l d t h a n y o u r s e l f . There i s n o t h i n g o u t s i d e of m e — w h i c h i s H e l l . (101-02)  It  is a description  active depicts own  almost  violent  i n Inferno.  bestiary,  of  1 1  i s the  depression forms  of  A l s o , as figure  of  which  has  melancholia i f emerging the  echoes that from  leopard which  of  the  Dante Dante's the  83 narrator becomes  meets i n P r a i a n o an emblem  self-absorption  (115).  for this  other  i n blood—and  It i s this  animal  which  sickness—this  i t s concomitant  alcoholism.  The n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s i t as s i c k n e s s , b u t paradoxically health.  1 2  In lively  i m p l i e s t h a t t o be aware o f i t i s a s i g n o f  "The P r a i a n o Italian  Papers"  the Servant  also v i s i t s  town, a town much more a p a r t o f t h e  m a i n s t r e a m o f modern  life.  white  e n r i c h e d and c o r r u p t e d by  and c l e a n , now  tourism.  Yet without  presents  a basically  distance  and a t t i m e s  the to  story  also  (after  the t a l e  barber's  I t i s a former  imposing lusty  w i t h warmth.  tourist  assistant,  eventually  tries  a t times  to get r i c h  i n the a c t of deflowering h i s  Giovanni,  of c o u r s e ) .  a boy who  becomes  of the two--the b e t r a y a l of c h i l d r e n  doing  business.  memory. in  t a l e s - - a n d a s t r u c t u r e o f open f a r c e i n  stories  so much i s l i e s "  associated with  a  Despite the i r o n y of the  the  where  There i s  and whose m y s t i f y i n g " s i c k n e s s " i s  t r a c e d to the barber.  i n these  ironic  by a r r a n g i n g  i n these  t h e theme  burgeoning  with  discourse first  village,  T h e r e i s f o r example  the a c t i s completed,  of l i t t l e  fishing  judgment, t h e n a r r a t o r  populace,  o f t h e f a t h e r who  catch a wealthy  daughter  a more  opening  of t h e "white  (133).  and c l e a n town,  Love and s e n s u a l i t y  up e x p e r i e n c e ,  A l lthis  i s juxtaposed  with  are not  but a r e p a r t of with  The n a r r a t o r ' s s t a y i n t h e w h i t e  a t h r e e day b i n g e  i s i n fact  another  town  culminates  some d r i n k i n g p a r t n e r s  resulting  84  in  a black-out.  near  He comes t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s  the sea i n the presence  holding  a child  suggestive burst  She t h e n  of love-making,  She t h r o w s him a c u s t o m a r y ,  initiates  t h e sudden,  while the c h i l d  furious  i s s e a t e d on t h e one  side  o f them, a n d on t h e o t h e r , u n s e e n a t f i r s t ,  pile  of excrement.  t a k e s money f r o m that  he s e e s  implication  After  the violent  him, b u t w i t h  that  the pair  i s that  least  indifference.  " i n the a c t than  the narrator joins of t h i s ,  he a p p e a r s  to.  employed  contradictions—knots  act  And h e r e  poor.  The  t h e money"  elsewhere  and t h e p r e s e n c e In the t r i l o g y ,  of l o g i c - - t h a n  i n the  Bj^rneboe  inexplicable he was i n e a r l i e r counts.  p o r t r a y e d as a s t i l l .  moment, a s so much o f t h e t r i l o g y  contrasting latter  styles  o f Bosch,  two i n f l u e n c e s  the n a r r a t o r t u r n s round  over t h e  i s much  o f l o v e w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e i n between t h e c h i l d  visual  (138).  of the c h i l d — o r a t  i t i s t h e s t r o n g image t h a t  excrement i s v i r t u a l l y  the  I t i s then  the readers i n puzzling  more wont t o l e a v e t h e r e a d e r s w i t h  works.  a  embrace t h e woman  are not i n fact  Consistent with the technique  significance  lies  t h e money was o n l y a p r e t e x t , and t h a t  she was more i n t e r e s t e d  novel,  later  o f a woman i n b l a c k who i s  by t h e hand.  line.  some t i m e  Breughel,  The  and t h e  I t i sa  i svisual  i n the  Cezanne and C a l l o t :  a r e acknowledged.  The f a c t  that  t o s e e t h e same woman and c h i l d ,  " g r a c i o u s and d i s t i n g u i s h e d , "  approach  same manner, s e r v e s t o t h r o w t h e r e a d e r the t r a c k o f t h e immediate, r a t i o n a l  another  man i n t h e  even f u r t h e r o f f  meaning t h a t  he m i g h t  85 be  looking The  image w h i c h  trilogy double  f o r i n the  i s the  have never  betray  him:  has  me, no  In as  he  "The  lived  become a  questions, others  easily.  morning." eats "I me" of  i n the  see  He  He  a  He  in  holy,  has  mirror  the will  i t will  always  give  turned  unknown and  double  a  separate  strange  man"  i n the He  watches  strange....  he  man  does not  uses  uses a  the size  the  he  sleeps  asserts  that  him,  has  he  no with  wash  every  in his  washrooms t o 43  himself  "Once  rapport  "shave and him,  t h i n k , but  memories from a l l over  He  answers  superficial  this  and  entity.  (102).  is silent, a  establishes  same r o o m w i t h  Europe w i t h  hotels  from h i s heels  (103).  motivated  body i n a  man  the  as  summon u p  travels  best  own  something which  mirror  Papers"  bear.  can  as  completely  f o r decades  but  his  the  (56-57).  with  cross.to  naked  this  flesh  reflection:  alone  with  i n the  i s t o me  book of  discovers  d e s i r e s , i t i s not  man  first  most r e a l i s t i c a l l y  h i s own  Praiano a  i n the  narrator  familiar  freedom"  I'm  has  sees  and  more t h a n  again  felt  "The  act.  e x a m i n e s h i s own  I t has  to pain.  against He  He  The  the  most  The  i n many f o r m s .  mirror").  in  recurs  double.  e x a m p l e i s when he ("I  image and  shoe.  is filled  The  car,  bathe. same  with  as  images  world:  A n d I am b e s i d e h i m a n d w i l l g e t t o k n o w h i m . B u t w h a t do I h a v e t o do w i t h h i m ? A f u l l - g r o w n s t r a n g e r who I know nothing about. I h a v e , a c t u a l l y , my own, t o t a l l y negative t h e o r y about him: I t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t h a t he i s a f i n i s h e d man; empty, d u l l and i d i o t i c . He i s m o s t l i k e l y a c r e t i n , a completely stupefied c r e t i n , almost without  86 expression. He i s s t r a n g e s t o f a l l when he goes a b o u t d o i n g l i t t l e t h i n g s — t a k e s t h e b l a n k e t o f f h i s bed, spreads i t o u t p r o p e r l y so t h a t i t l i e s t a u t , o r a r r a n g e s h i s clothing i n some way. (104)  I n an e p i s o d e of time  o b s e r v i n g a chimpanzee.  kinship with wrinkled says  a t t h e zoo t h e n a r r a t o r . s p e n d s  the t e n year  beast  Although  o l d animal,  look each other  over,  a t i t s age, a t a l l t h e time  creature. species,  " I t i s clear  he f e e l s  a  as he and t h e he i s a s t o u n d e d  collected  he  i n the  t h a t i t was t h e t e r r i b l e  age o f t h e  o f t h e ape f a m i l y , t h a t I saw, n o t t h e  individuals'"  (110).  provides a double,  The ape i n t h i s  insignificant"  (111).  self,  "Beside  I f the double  phenomenon i n l i t e r a t u r e externalized  c a n be s e e n  that i s not l i m i t e d  time.  B u t a g a i n , .Bj0rneboe b u i l d s it.  contradiction,  t o r e p r e s e n t an o f o r unknown  at the existence  t o one d e c a y i n g  but of a l a r g e r  interpreting  as a g e n e r a l  who h i n t s  flesh,  reflection in  him, t h e p y r a m i d s a r e  perhaps a p a r t disapproved  t o o n e s e l f — t h e ape i s a d o u b l e of a s e l f  episode/image  which u n l i k e t h e decaying  the m i r r o r , t r a v e r s e s time.  the  a length  body w h i c h r e p r o d u c e s h i s image  body o f itself  through  without  And once a g a i n he r e s o l v e s i t on a  so t o s p e a k ;  He u n d e r m i n e s t h e s o l e m n i t y o f  o b s e r v a t i o n s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n t o r t i o n s t h e chimp  makes w i t h reveals  h i s f a c e , and h i s m a s t u r b a t o r y  an a s p e c t  gesture  which  o f him w h i c h i s q u i t e young, i n f a c t  (112). Depression  t o o becomes p e r s o n i f i e d  i n t h e form  of a  87 presence  that  experienced him  from  noted  above,  In  something  "Just  I t also He  1  alone. The  as  outside.  blood." 'him.  i s nothing other than a double.  sits  There  future,  met  at the verge  of t a k i n g  resembles there,  forward, appear  living  way  several  certainly  exists  myths and  tales  of  with  "man"  self  an  or  ego-bound  (144).  not  (134). double.  sees  himself  the p a s t u r e s : " I have time  Death  sequences one's  The  I  remember  too, w i l l  doubling?  double  in religious  always  later  grappled w i t h — a s with "angel"  i n the desert.  e m e r g e s one self  identity:  that,  here But  and  has  many  long  been  mysticism.  a  To  day  that,  meeting  Dostoevsky's  to begin doing  with  can  Jacob's  use  same' name s h o w s a k i n d  i t s moribund  1 3  i s "man's m e e t i n g  discussed  It  makes t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c r e t e  i s , doomed t o l o s e .  Bjjtfrneboe's works  about  over  i n h i s novel of the  which  proclivities  the  of a  f o r w a r d " he  of a l l of t h i s  teaching  a double  the double  social  shape  t i m e s ; each  of p o s s e s s i o n .  i t c a n be  the  call i t  I k n o w I'm  elsewhere, i n the Scriptures  f o r a r t and  begin with,  with  almost  and  a double.'  What i s t h e m e a n i n g  so t h a t  and  been  i n flesh  b e i n g i n t h e room"  "remembering staring  form  "I could  too, i s experienced i n the  I m e e t t h e o l d man"  as  device  a man:  when I wake up,  i s another  this  I t meets  a b e a s t of p r e y , has  bent, whitehaired, myself  comes f r o m w i t h i n .  I t resembles  another example of  old,  that  I t i s not  be  A telling with  i t can  combat  childish refrain  himself,"  mistaken  of  in  which  in  for confusion  fairly  be  said,  is  88 what t h e d o u b l e s double  implies  destructive. for  distance  from  Bj,0rneboe  something  adopts  a s we know i t was b o r n  were famed and f e a r e d cruelty coolly  Above a l l ,  the presence  (116).  the position i n Tuscany,  for their  Such p e o p l e  enough t o l e a r n  v i s i o n and that  of a people  A r e t i n o went so f a r a s t o  laughter.  could  come s t r a i g h t  But t h e f l i p  out of Bergson's  side of the proposition  "where l a u g h t e r i s l a c k i n g ,  insanity  begins."  here i s : In t h i s  force.  I t implies  consciousness.  The f a c t i s ,  when l a u g h t e r d i s a p p e a r s , so does t h e d o u b l e . noted  "as soon  gone"—and  totally  as l a u g h t e r s t o p s , t h a t  he c a n mark t h e p r e c i s e  unwittingly  identical  second--"I  The d o u b l e  The h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h  vis-a-vis follows:  this  become  with myself, a condition  u n - f r e e " (117).  world.  The n a r r a t o r  the distance i s  that i s  i s t o man's  w i t h h i m s e l f as l a u g h t e r i s t o h i s e n c o u n t e r  the  e s s a y on  t h e d o u b l e , as a form o f e x p e r i e n c e , i s seen as a  positive  has  in a  " L a u g h t e r means d i s t a n c e " w r i t e s B j ^ f r n e b o e , a  remark w h i c h  sense  who  to look a t the world  l a u g h h i m s e l f t o d e a t h when he f o u n d h i s s i s t e r bordello.  Western  laughter—even laughter at  learn  from i t .  of a  p a i n f u l or  I t i s a necessary d i s t a n c e — f o r  survival.  culture  a r e about.  encounter  with the  seems t o emerge f r o m  confrontation with s e l f ,  might  this,  r u n as  I f t h e d o u b l e = d i s t a n c e , and d i s t a n c e = f r e e d o m ,  then  double=freedom. There  people  i s a further  suffer  twist  only within  t o come i n t h i s  themselves,  logic.  If  sickness w i l l set  89 in.  But  word  " m e d - l i d e n h e t " b r e a k s down t h e  term, of  corn-passion i s to  but as  t h e two  i t i s not a L a t i n  Norwegian  modern Norwegian the  surface  than the English  the  double  i s not  of  identity.  connotations prevalent twist  an  of the word  opening  for  The  has  the  of doubles self,  English  "with-suffering,"  Any  say—closer  compassion  indicates  in  to  that Thus,  a confusion  self-awareness which fact  little  that t o do  "individualism"  I t i s closer  from the  as  o u r s e l v e s i s probably a pose.  individual  i n the use  distance  term.  Norwegian  i s constructed  i s — o n e might  t o emerge.  today.  but  units,  I t i s individuation,  the  The  s a m e way  a phenomenon w h i c h  compassion  begins with  with."  cognate  signifying  the meaning  does not b e g i n w i t h  allows  "suffer  the  process  with  which  the  are  to the opposite.  The  ironic  i n Moment o f F r e e d o m i s t h a t  the creation  o f two  selves,  creates  compassion.  4. The  most r e v e a l i n g  section back  use  of the book,  or f i n a l  Justice.  He terrible  present.  The  brings fear  form  the  of a  accounting begins to plague  I t comes i n t h e  liberation  occurs i n the  "Lemuria," , w h i c h  to the narrator's  "trial"  of a double  third reader  coming  the Servant  of a p a r a d o x i c a l  dream  of  about  (155-57).  i s i n the g a l l e r y revolt.  The  of a p r i s o n  prison  guards  and  are  i s witness to  "white with  a  fear"  90 as  thousands  endless, (156). the  of  imprisoned  powerful, The  surging  prisoners  immense p r i s o n  costumes." howling  of  to  to  break  loose  resemble  a thousand  on  the  and  "A  throats, a  go  or  and  mad  of  a  1  screaming  song,  awh  throughout  carnival  h o a r s e and  long  "one  revenge"  howling  f o r c e the  form  a dance.  i n unison  hatred  i n rags  r e v o l t gathers take  scream  howl of  "dressed  the  begins  activity roar  As  voices  ...  and  and  the  terrifying awh  ...  awh  ...'":  From t h e r o o f were hung r o p e s w i t h g r e a t , s h a r p f i s h i n t h e m , and one by one t h e g u a r d s and f u n c t i o n a r i e s l i f t e d i n the a i r w i t h the hooks i n t h e i r mouths. A o f f e e t s w u n g p a s t me, n a k e d , a n d b l e e d i n g f r o m t h e ... The s o n g h a d a f e w w o r d s w h i c h w e r e r e p e a t e d continuously through the groaning, rythmic roar: " . . . C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s — t h i s b e a u t i f u l day . . . ! " (157)  The  explosiveness  potential Filled  until  with  of  the  the  prisoners  anxiety,  the  f l o o d of  humanity  the  faces  the  happen  " w o u l d be  prisoners only He  stream  thought  sees  "there him" :  of  a was  no  mob  one  the out  into  about him  boy who  was  the that  the  in  has  "freedom"  to the  grow  and  with  the  look  t h i n g which  will  believed." and  Then comes a  the  him  dreamer's  change  or  on  The  in  been f o r g o t t e n , c r y i n g  looking after  in  walls.  is carried  streets,  anyone had  away.  who  proceeds  smash t h r o u g h  foretells  get  only  narrator/dreamer  worse than  i s to  little  event  hooks were pair heels  tone. while  thinking  of  91 W i t h an i n t e n s e e f f o r t I overcame my f e a r o f d e a t h , and s t o p p e d b e s i d e him. I t o o k him by t h e hand and w a l k e d w i t h him. He s t o p p e d c r y i n g . I knew a t once t h a t he was c a l l e d Iwan, and t h e c i t y a r o u n d us was b e a u t i f u l , i t had b r o a d s t r e e t s and r e d b r i c k b u i l d i n g s b e h i n d a p a r k , w i l d v i n e s and h i g h p o p l a r s w i t h d a r k , l u s h f o l i a g e . The a i r was c l e a r and a u t u m n a l , t h e s k y r e v e a l e d t h a t i t was a f t e r n o o n w i t h a l i g h t r e d d i s h g l o w i n t h e a i r . The p r i s o n e r s s t i l l r a n d a n c i n g and r o a r i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s , p a s t us and f u r t h e r on. I w a l k e d c a l m l y h o l d i n g Iwan by t h e hand. He l o o k e d up a t me and s m i l e d , and t h e f e a r i n my h e a r t was gone. I n s t e a d I f e l t s e r e n e and s e c u r e . (158)  T h i s dream, once a g a i n , attitude  toward freedom.  frightening.  human b e i n g s  reasons.  The m i x e d  horror—the  terrible  seen as b e i n g guilty. final  this  fear of the observer, the j a i l e r s  The d r e a m . i s a f o r e b o d i n g  justice.  that i t s e l f  fear of "the great  i t i s an a b s u r d  oppressed.  1 4  This  both  found  a  without  resolves  I f no one t h i n k s  liberation  has no  o f steam by t h e  i s n o t b y - p a s s e d , once h i s p s y c h i c and s o c i a l  image o f t h e d u o — t h e  young boy h o l d i n g h a n d s - - w i l l compassion  of the c h i l d  letting-off  Once t h e c h i l d  accounting,  t o be a p p l i e d  freedom, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  hand has been c l a s p e d ,  and j u d g e d  transformation."  meaning:  overcome.  care  who c o u l d be  of a f i n a l  threatens  The d e c i s i o n t o t a k e  of t h e c h i l d ,  of "the b e a u t i f u l day"  h e a v i l y weighted toward t h e  c o m p l i c i t with  justice,  a s o c i e t y of  i s e q u a l l y f r i g h t e n i n g , i f f o r other  j o y and h o r r o r  t h e dream i s i n f a c t  ambivalent  Freedom f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i s  Freedom—liberation—for  oppressed  in  displays a highly  c h a o s c a n be  o l d e r man and t h e  p r o v e t o be an emblem f o r  ( " m e d l i d e n h e t " ) i n B j/zfrneboe s o e u v r e : i t i s  i n t h e form of t h e s a i l o r  1  and t h e young stowaway i n  92 Jonas,  and  i t will  Jensen  and  young P a t  again,  i n t h e dream s e q u e n c e , we  double.  The  appear a g a i n i n the  i n the  final  forms o f f i r s t  n o v e l , The  Sharks.  Once  are confronted with  dreamer knows, w i t h o u t  mate  being t o l d ,  a .  that  the  child's  name i s I w a n — t h e N o r w e g i a n f o r w h i c h i s J e n s .  Russian  name c o n j u r e s up  of  Duke Hans when, n e a r  Terrible,  t h e memory o f t h e to death  t h e young Duke a s k s  young monk o u t  i n the p a l a c e  w h e e l : f o r t h e monk i s a f i g u r e  spared  t h e dream i n Moment o f Freedom, he  as  h i s "own,  ("eget, u k j e n t e  c o m p a s s i o n t o come t o l i f e .  unknown s e l f the  last  w h i c h he  Bjo'rneboe  will  refrain  volume o f t h e t r i l o g y . u s e s as an  "Buddha i n d e r  epigraph  Glorie"  K e r n d e r K e r n e , " and  The  to  begins  ends w i t h ,  [158]).  t h e poem by  of  this  until  Rilke  provides a  clue.  Mitten,  (143).  The  H i s t o r y of  r e a d as a k i n d o f m e t a - B i l d u n g s r o m a n , i n  of N o v a l i s , ^ i n which a t i n y 1 5  only into  a s o u l or a s e l f ,  what Mahayana Buddhism r e f e r s child  t o as  act  of t a k i n g the  the  laws o f n e c e s s i t y o r s u r v i v a l .  "Only  jeg"  Iwan  "Doch i n d i r i s t s c h o n  be  grows n o t  to l i t t l e  "Mitte a l l e r  Bestiality style  the  himself.  defining,  "Lemuria"  d i e Sonnen u b e r s t e h t "  the  of  makes i t p o s s i b l e  from  begonnen / was can  the  one  p r e c i s e nature  But  with  sees  refers  Once a g a i n , t h e emergence o f t h e d o u b l e for  for  the t o r t u r e  i n w h i c h he  In  episodes  o f Iwan  quite a r b i t r a r i l y  o f a g r o u p t o be  unknown s e l f "  final  The  seed  but  or  nucleus  grows  towards  "the Great  Self."  The  by t h e hand seems d i s o b e d i e n t t o  i n the courage born  That  i s the very p o i n t :  of d e s p e r a t i o n can  you  grasp  a  93 h a n d f u l o f freedom." given,  but something  anyone i f t h e t h i n g good."  w h i c h one must t a k e  itself  languages  i s called  people  one i s  "without  you a r e d o i n g i s moral  As a w i t n e s s t o t h e t r u t h  language all  Freedom i s n o t s o m e t h i n g  asking  or harmful or  of t h i s  assertion,  upon by B j ^ r n e b o e  to t e s t i f y : In  say "I take the l i b e r t y . . . . "  For example: I h e r e b y t a k e t h e l i b e r t y o f s t a t i n g my c r i t i q u e o f a l l e s t a b l i s h e d c u s t o m s , p r a c t i c e , methods, and above a l l t h e dogma and p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h a r e t h e i r foundation. (179)  The  echoes  of Nietzsche's t r a n s v a l u a t i o n  of values are  r i n g i n g h e r e , and a human b e i n g who i s u n d e r t a k i n g a r e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l norms and v a l u e s , who must g i v e a new name t o e v e r y t h i n g i f n e e d be, s t a n d s b e f o r e an a b y s s . Nietzsche described just Tragedy,  s u c h an a b y s s  i n The B i r t h o f  and S a r t r e d e p i c t e d i t anew i n Nausea.11  1 6  Strindberg  i n t h e second  volume o f Son o f a S e r v a n t  d e s c r i b e d h i s sudden d i s c o v e r y o f something t h e powers o f l a n g u a g e  abyss.  1  Peter Weiss's  8  v a s t and beyond  t o i d e n t i f y when he f o u n d  the h e i g h t s over t h e Stockholm  also  h i m s e l f on  archipelago, a very  literal  n a r r a t o r i n h i s t r i l o g y The  Esthetics  o f R e s i s t a n c e has an e x p e r i e n c e o f " f l y i n g "  his  and l o o k i n g down i n wonder on a w o r l d o f o b j e c t s  city,  which a r e suddenly w i t h o u t Bj^rneboe  names ( W a l l e n s t r o m ,  1:  over  103).  t u r n s once a g a i n t o a dream i n o r d e r t o r u n t h i s  psychic  state  special  form  into  an image o f a "nausea"  of v e r t i g o .  which takes t h e  The image i s t h a t o f a man a t t h e  94 abyss. The  n a r r a t o r i s climbing a rocky  steeper, feeling  the landscape of having  continues finally side.  vanishes  the heavens  slope.  i n the f o g .  I t grows Without  (himmelen) a b o v e " him, he  f o r what seems t o be d a y s  (183-84).  t o a w a l l which p r e v e n t s passage t o the He l i e s  i n a narrow cave,  (184).  Creeping  beyond i t the  flaming sunshine  forward  he s e e s  He comes other  wedged i n t h e r o c k s o f t h e  m o u n t a i n , when t h e w a l l moves t o one s i d e , before a "blinding,  "any  full  and  he s t a n d s  of every  a fertile  valley  color" and  sea:  I s t o o d f a r o u t a t t h e edge o f t h e a b y s s , w h i l e t h e d i z z i n e s s a n d f e a r grew i n my body. I t was t h o u s a n d s o f m e t e r s down t o l a n d , a n d I l e a n e d o u t f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n ledge. T h i s e n t i r e s i d e o f t h e m o u n t a i n was a s v e r t i c a l a s a w a l l , but i n any case w i t h c r a c k s and f o o t h o l d s t o c l i m b on. A f t e r g o i n g a few m e t e r s a l o n g t h e r o c k w a l l t h e f e a r had m u l t i p l i e d t o a p o i n t f a r g r e a t e r t h a n what i t had been i n t h e d a r k n e s s and t h e c a v e . To t u r n b a c k was n o t possible. The o n l y t h i n g l e f t , was t o hang o v e r t h e a b y s s u n t i l I t u m b l e d down i n t o a l l o f t h e w o n d e r f u l s p l e n d o u r below me, o r t o manage t h e c l i m b down. (185)  U n l i k e the v e r t i g o - l i k e  experiences of his  predecessors, Bj^rneboe's abyss The  that  e x p e r i e n c e t a k e s p l a c e a t an  i s quite specific.  It i s fixed geographically.  s e a below i s t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n .  probably  The c l i m b downward  southward t o " A n t i q u i t y ' s M e d i t e r r a n e a n "  constitute through  existentialist  the course  the t r i l o g y ,  so t h e t r a v e l s  end,  the n a r r a t o r takes until  he r e a c h e s  Columbus."  the  and  will  i n his pilgrimage final  w o r d s : "And  95  5. The  p o i n t where t h e p r o c e s s  narrator is,  i s isolated  the Servant  chronological the  i n the f i n a l  records  time  o f change has t a k e n section  i ti n this  i t appears  final  root i n the  "Lemuria." section,  t o have t a k e n  "Praiano" p e r i o d described e a r l i e r .  place  That  buti n during  I t i s i n the  catacombs o f Rome t h a t t h e " K e r n d e r K e r n e " b e g i n s t o germinate. he  I t i s the experience  h a d been r e l e n t l e s s l y  beginning that  drawn—which  of h i s doubts,  most c l o s e l y  w h i c h have now grown so s t r o n g  resembling  N i e t z s c h e and S a r t r e — i n meaning, drop illumination  away..  The f i n a l ,  ambiguous moment o f  i s a moment o f  t h e moment o f f r e e d o m .  Bj^rneboe,  a s many o f h i s L a t i n  of s o l i t u d e "  death.  mythic In  O r , one m i g h t  1 9  time,  sacred  that i s a l l  I t i s an e x p e r i e n c e  s a y , i t i s an e x p e r i e n c e o f  time.  t h e catacombs  along with  contemporaries.  l e a d s t o t h e "here  p l a c e s a n d t h e now t h a t i s a l l t i m e s . " of  Here t h e N o r d i c  d i s c o v e r s the s e c r e t of the l a b y r i n t h  a b o u t t h e same t i m e "labyrinth  t h e n a u s e a d e s c r i b e d by  ( " d j r i d s b e v i s s t h e t " ), t h e a w a r e n e s s w h i c h  must come b e f o r e author,  I t i s the  w h i c h words, names, i n s h o r t ,  i n t h e catacombs  death-awareness  which  represents the actual  he c a n no l o n g e r remember h i s own name.  experience  The  of the c a t a c o m b s — t o  sequence, as t h e n a r r a t o r f o l l o w s  a custodian through  the miles of endless  tunnels  96 under  Rome—where  without  such  that  being  of  and  English at  starts  to hear  simultaneous  song,  him to  and  the  asks  him  lost  who  he  He  who  t o him.  In  labels And  and  signs are  i t i s in this  growth  can  6. While  the  He  the  of  altars scene  change of h i s ,  emerges  the  I thought Not  the  she i s .  utters  name s h e  back  i t was where  a  I'd  upon him  metaphor  of  come  from  a  when a l l names,  things-in-the-world.20  essences  without  labels  that  begin.  central  to  attributes  . the  from  "humming"  recognize who  of of  Like Sartre's Rouquentin,  descends  removed  He  and  asks  " I knew n o t h i n g .  ferment  images  names she  fact  German  accompaniment  does not  "because  (196).  massive d i s o r i e n t a t i o n  a primeval  Europe.  with.  But  I was"  He  him,  completely  tombs and  the  images,  trace  about  speaking  become a c q u a i n t a n c e s of  a  sensation i s  glide  voice  into  Again  lingers.  adds,  to  s i n g i n g to the  i n the  laugh  The  images of  transmute  i s .  makes him  without  I t i s "a p e r f e c t ,  The  been t r a v e l i n g  w r o n g name." Not  custodian's  v a r i o u s tongues  mean n o t h i n g  from.  the  figures  inside  has  herself  Images b e g i n  voices  s t i l l  felt  woman he T h e n he  about  i n the  he  begins.  unknown l a n g u a g e .  catacombs  which  process  same t i m e .  joyful  i n an  speaking the  the  people  character,  disappear  translation."'  dance,  flutes  easily  i n a dream.  he  the  can  a guide—the  and  and  one  a disease  associated  with  97 d e c a y r u n s t h r o u g h Moment o f Freedom, t h e in  the  der a  catacombs  Kerne" can  cure.  The  begin  final  the  after  ironic  book s w i t c h with  laughter  and  t o Germany a t t h e  war s  end  occupation  narrator's  1  of the  assistance  Germany. empire  He  above.  text.  after  uses the  Schweinhund  home c o u n t r y  served as  his prisoners  respond  to r e b u i l d  Nazi  having  assistance  a  on  to  start  the  prison  to d i s p l a y  anything  the  returns  in  worse  to h i s l e t t e r s  his l i f e  a  thereafter  black  kicked  they  boots,  a p r i m e example o f t h e  humor w i t h o u t d o i n g  for  sequences  comic  guard  peculiar  war  many  prison  only  the  fact,  into a black  Shortly  g u a r d : b e c a u s e he  them, a f t e r  the  good f e l l o w s h i p — d u r i n g  bordello.  i s woven t h r o u g h t h e  sense of  In  d e c l a r a t i o n of w a r — t r a m p i n g  "true" parable  of the  the  from  of  t o a memory o f Germany i n  Schweinhund, w h i c h p r o v i d e s humor t h a t  germination  in Heiligenberg.  abruptly  the  I t i s the  volume i s w r i t t e n  sharply  to a Nazi-operated  comes t h e  the  world"  howling party-goers, visit  "Kern  passages i n the  n a r r a t i v e cuts  jubilation  a w a k e n i n g , a moment when t h e  i t s growth.  mode, w h i c h c o n t r a s t s The  truth  remainder of  " c o o l e r view of of the  i s an  moment of  his  to  appealing  ruins  of  a vast  business  (204-09).  These f i n a l reasons that situations  are  strike  more t h a n  stylistic.  i n which a complete  reigns, while pendulum.  sequences  The  a stark  l a c k of  contrast  They  portray  death-awareness  death i s hanging over everyone l i k e Servant  for  of J u s t i c e r e c o u n t s  now  how  a  lead he  began  98 to  keep h i s p r o t o c o l s .  He t e l l s  o f how t h e f i r s t  comprehensive documentation of Nazi medical fell  into  h i s hands a f t e r  transcripts  of t r i a l s  the outbreak  afterwards crimes.  he i n v e s t i g a t e d  " A l l of t h i s , "  introductory is,  That  describes Before  the " f a m i l i a r "  of a u t h o r i a l  author  Bj^rneboe  had w r i t t e n up t o t h i s  recorded  i n his first  began t o c a s t i t s e l f  in  isolated  over  (219).  his life  This bracketed  sums up a t r u t h  (209).  o f a new  sort  One o f t h e  p a g e s o f t h e book i s street,  or detached  of our times,  memory, o f  serves to  away once a g a i n f r o m t h e  Bj^rneboe,  Servant  The  a mound o f dog e x c r e m e n t , by a man  the discourse further  persona—the  I t also  o f t h e s u b j e c t s he  memories i n t h e f i n a l  of Jens  novel,  and t h e n a r r a t o r  point.  l e d g e r s , a darkness  h i s head n e a r  a g e s t u r e which  biography  i n the  includes a l l ten  o f b e i n g k i c k e d s e n s e l e s s on an empty  a uniform  take  presence  of the H i s t o r y of B e s t i a l i t y .  that the H i s t o r y of B e s t i a l i t y  bleeding,  This  i s a p o i n t of  between t h e a u t h o r  r e p o r t s t h a t as a r e s u l t  that  i n the  (209).  to h i s f i r s t  (F0r hanen g a l e r ) ,  narrator  several  protocol"  i t , and t h a t i t gave r i s e  internal  novels  doctors  background of the  he w r i t e s , " i s r e c o r d e d  of the f i r s t  identification  suggests  regime's  Bj^Srneboe h i m s e l f was g i v e n t h e documents as he  t h e Cock Crows  absolute  The  I g n a t i u s Feuermann, and  once a g a i n , a m a n i p u l a t i o n  text.  or  chapters  of peace.  a g a i n s t t h e former  were g i v e n t o h i m by a D o c t o r  experiments  and b a c k t o t h e a l l e g o r i c a l  of J u s t i c e .  99  Finally,  i n the Alpine  city,  there  w i n d , a n d s e v e r a l more good c i t i z e n s impulsive  killers.  Drinking  S e x t o n and t h e B e l l - r i n g e r ,  with  i s another  are converted  finishes  the Servant  remarks t h a t t h e  by a n n o u n c i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n  volume o f h i s p r o t o c o l s . completed—there  The f a c t  t o what  t h e moment o f t r u t h must grow, b e f o r e i t  may bloom i n t o t h e moment o f f r e e d o m . dilemma o f t h e k e e p e r  I t also brings the  o f t h e p r o t o c o l s c h e e k by j o w e l  the  dilemma o f t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f .  ebb  and f l o w  and  the narrator rise  of the l a s t  t o be done i n t h e  n e x t two books o f t h e t r i l o g y — s h o u l d t e s t i f y  given  The  that i t i s not  i s further recording  d e p t h s and l e n g t h s  into  h i s companions, t h e  w o r s t months o f t h e Foehn w i n d a r e y e t t o come. Servant  Foehn  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  I t i s , i n part,  between t h e a u t h o r  of the H i s t o r y of B e s t i a l i t y  t o t h e myth o f B j ^ r n e b o e  with  this  Bj^rneboe  w h i c h has  i n h i s own  country.  i  7. The  Powder House  poudriere" is  ( K r u t t a r n e t , 1969),  i s t h e s e c o n d volume i n B j ^ r n e b o e ' s t r i l o g y .  also described  postscript  on t h e t i t l e  and f i n a l  protocol."  a p p e a r s t o be i n t e n d e d explanation initially  s u b t i t l e d "La  page a s : " S c i e n t i f i c T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , which  i n earnest,  might p r o v i d e  f o r t h e lukewarm c r i t i c a l  received.  The t h i r d  an  r e s p o n s e t h e book  volume i n t h e c y c l e ,  It  100 although  i t w o u l d r e c e i v e a f a r more e n t h u s i a s t i c  than  this  than  t h e Moment o f Freedom.21  that  the  and  volume, a l s o  later  initially  fact  the  case,  on  what comes b e f o r e with  i t s own  i t and  to the  from  the  The  pilgrim  as a n o v e l .  at the time.  is still  destination.  I n The  and  t h e use  deepening the e a r l i e r The  any  longer.  hospital tongues: still  i n the  The  a l l call Jean,  fact  a grasp  Poudriere—in  was  not  of  by  met the  does n o t  stand  final is  extending  w h i c h he  t o h i m s e l f as  i s now  south  "Jean."  him  by  He  where he  p o i n t s out staff  t h e name f a m i l i a r and  began  Superior at the  He  Jochanaan  i s in fact  institution"  of e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s going the world  of nature  "Servant  and  unique is that  at  (KT  own  119).  his  He  official  "combined  (19).?? on  the  the  in their  his protocols, while pursuing handyman.  the  c a r e t a k e r of a  of France,  Iwan, G i o v a n n i  keeping  and  his  a s s e m b l a g e o f p a t i e n t s and  v o c a t i o n as h o s p i t a l Caretaker  be  It is in  i t , and  techniques  refer  He  t o most o f t e n as  international  should  novel.  mental h o s p i t a l referred  of c e r t a i n  popular  I t i s b o r n e up  Powder House B j ^ r n e b o e  n a r r a t o r does n o t  Justice"  f a r from  fact  Powder House does  i s t h a t e v e n Moment o f Freedom i t s e l f  alone.  has  The  what comes a f t e r  some i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n  matter  he  due  w i t h Moment o f Freedom.  however, t h a t t h e  seem t o s t a n d up  is  be  open p r a i s e  a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what a modern n o v e l d i d the experiment  of  T h i s may  books s t r a y e d much f u r t h e r  than  in  received less  response  at  Thus,  La  i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l  101 world  of the l i t t l e  characters  closed  includes:  society  the c h i e f  confidant  and  the h a b i t  o f demanding a s t o r y  there.  p h y s i c i a n Dr  d r i n k i n g mate, who  from  anarchist  a French  lover  a suicidal  of wealthy with both and  a  Russian  e x e c u t i o n e r ; Dr B a r t h o r y , a  Hungarian  s e r v e d w i t h t h e German SS  F o r e i g n L e g i o n and  as p a r a t r o o p e r and suffers  US  and  "interrogator";  from  no  remorse over  an  the  wolf;  finally  and  the case  scandal  returned  t h e w i f e o f t h e R u s s i a n Ambassador  criticism the  of her  c o u n t r y and  howls l i k e  " e x t r a s , " t h e p a t i e n t s and  i n so many o t h e r works o f l i t e r a t u r e  The  of the o u t s i d e world manifest  difference  conflicts  i s that  powerful  versus  world  versus the powerless.  "we  live  beautiful  a  a l l the here.  and  versus  south,  the  c e n t r a l metaphor o f  by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a s s e r t i o n  i n a world  have t u r n e d t h i s  The  As  underdeveloped,  c o l o n i z e d , north versus  madhouse i s j u s t i f i e d , t h o u g h we  versus  superpower  a  i n which  themselves  case the t e n s i o n s  are o f t e n g e o - p o l i t i c a l :  superpower, developed colonizer  in this  who  staff.  madhouse i s p r e s e n t e d as a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e w o r l d , tensions  later  Army i n A l g e r i a  on by h i s murder o f a b l a c k maid when he  tolerates  is  IIja,  murderer;  the French  f r o m V i e t n a m ; and  has  F o n t a i n e , a B e l g i a n sex  A m e r i c a n g e n e r a l who brought  Jean's  becomes a  l i n e a g e who  Indochina  Lefevre,  n u r s e , who  to the n a r r a t o r ;  Lacroix,  of  the n a r r a t o r ; a l  assistant;  Christine,  cast  i n moments o f d e s p a i r  Assadun, L e f e v r e ' s A l g e r i a n nurse;  The  the  that  beyond a l l i m a g i n a t i o n ,  paradise to a slaughterhouse,  a morgue  102 and  (39).  a c r i m i n a l asylum"  Here Bje'rneboe has l a t c h e d  o n t o a k e y m e t a p h o r a l s o employed by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s Peter  W e i s s , i n M a r a t / S a d e , and D u r r e n m a t t  —and  looking  b a c k 100  Begriffenfeldt's The  claims  novels,  resembles  i n Peer  the  Gynt.  slightly  that  the threads which bind  pages a t a t i m e .  the into  former  SS and F o r e i g n  the "material"  i s that  first,  and h o i s t e d  unusual p o l i t i c a l Poudriere,  The q u e s t i o n  "someone o r o t h e r  Algerian;  with h i s anarchist strength;  not hold  A l l they  death, that  Considering  be g u i l t y — a n d  i s , by  the  the s t a f f  a l A s s a d u n , as an  as a French a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n ;  Ilja,  i n c l i n a t i o n s and s u r p r i s i n g p h y s i c a l  perhaps even t h e n a r r a t o r  believes  delved  i n v o l v e m e n t s of almost everyone a t La  many o f t h e p a t i e n t s narrator  killed  had b r o k e n h i s n e c k  him up a f t e r w a r d s . "  a l m o s t anyone c o u l d  Lefevre,  hanging  o f who  Legion t o r t u r e r i s not  w o u l d be among t h e p r i m e s u s p e c t s :  did  i s found dead,  i t was n o t a " n a t u r a l  hanging" but that  together,  from s i g h t f o r t h i r t y ,  d e e p l y by e i t h e r p o l i c e o r d e t e c t i v e s .  discover  thriller  And a l t h o u g h t h e p l o t  Dr B a r t h o r y  t h e grounds of t h e h o s p i t a l .  types of  of a t h i r d - w o r l d  t h r e a d s a r e so t h i n as t o v a n i s h  forty  i t to maintain the  t o k i n s h i p w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l  t h e s t y l e o f Graham G r e e n e .  supplies  on  clinic  Ibsen, i n t h e scene a t  p l o t o f t h e book, w h i c h a l l o w s  vaguest  in  years,  i n The P h y s i c i s t s  are capable of the crime.  that  Barthory  himself.  there  Certainly The  was no one i n L a P o u d r i e r e  i n c o n t e m p t , b u t he i s c o r r e c t e d  who by  103 IIja, him:  who  points  out t h a t  t h e r e were two  " t h a t nymphomaniac L e n i n i s t - f a s c i s t  who  k e e p s on w i t h t h o s e S i b e r i a n  the  wolf  lady  black-killer  from the Pentagon."  throughout the  the e n t i r e  unique the  police  "suicide" slow,  family. living  little  helped "spread the c u l t u r e  of  France  underdeveloped  but cannot  to address  world"  h i m s e l f , who  Dr  L e f e v r e , who  (118).  suggests  requested for a f i n d i n g He  h i m s e l f to the deceased  owns h a l f  of Bretagne  family  i n the  them t h a t  the p o l i c e  require  less  embarassing  death  will  attest  he  after  that  a fall  half  In t h i s  nagging  characters  knowledge t h a t could  Another involves  to  for a  broken  manner, t h e c a s e i s  the reader i s l e f t one  of the  with  principal  out the " e x e c u t i o n . "  s u b p l o t , drawn i n a b l a c k , s a t i r i c a l  the a f f a i r  case—the  J e a n , as c a r e t a k e r ,  a l m o s t any  have c a r r i e d  in their  francs  found B a r t h o r y w i t h h i s neck  from a t r e e .  Since  should intimate  a million  certificate.  closed without being s o l v e d — a n d the  he  now  (132).  own  know a l l t h e f a c t s  to  Barthory's  suicide  suggests to Lefevre that  of  i s t o ask the p o l i c e  t h e y would.do a n y t h i n g t o h i d e a p o s s i b l e  narrator  a  wants t o s a v e h i s  B a r t h o r y comes f r o m a g r e a t b a n k i n g  f a m i l y — t h e y don't  It is  come up w i t h t h e amount o f money  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  i n France, that  night,  admire  have d i s c r e e t l y  and  Ambassador,  to  to the embattled  asylum,  that  admired  They a r e s a i d  c a r e t a k e r , the narrator  solution  go  who  Mrs  howls o f h e r s a t  from the K r e m l i n — a n d  B a r t h o r y as a man  p e o p l e who  between t h e A m e r i c a n  style,  g e n e r a l and  the  104 S o v i e t Ambassador's w i f e , who d e s p i t e t h e i r driven together p a r t l y  as a r e s u l t  of the  chauvinism, are anti-superpower  o s t r a c i s m on t h e p a r t o f t h e o t h e r s a t t h e h o s p i t a l . narrator like all  objects to t h i s  La P o u d r i e r e w i l l  ostracism:  Christine  "No one a t a p l a c e  be g i v e n t h e c o l d  of us, e q u a l l y great c r i m i n a l s "  shoulder.  (189).  The  We a r e  nurse  r e p o r t s t h e p r o b l e m s among t h e p a t i e n t s , w i t h a  p a r o d i c edge i n h e r words w h i c h , i t m i g h t be s a i d , with  The  belongs  t h e n a r r a t o r , and n o t w i t h h e r :  I t ' s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h o f t h e m — t h e Ambassador's w i f e and t h e g e n e r a l — h a v e been g o i n g a r o u n d s a y i n g t h a t t h e w o r l d t o d a y c a n o n l y be m a s t e r e d by t h e g e n u i n e s u p e r p o w e r s ; a l l o t h e r c o u n t r i e s have t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y and come t o t e r m s w i t h b e i n g s a t e l l i t e s t a t e s w i t h o u t t h e i r own f o r e i g n , m i l i t a r y o r e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s . S m a l l i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s a r e an a n a c h r o n i s m f r o m t h e l a s t century. (189)  An  additional  twenty year The  o l d nurse  episodes  scenes,  s u b p l o t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  reflections  southern  French  contrast  to the cold,  the other  supposedly  and t h e m i d d l e - a g e d  d e p i c t i n g them t o g e t h e r ,  are textured with  narrator's  with  Christine,  i n t i m a t e and s e x u a l that brings the  close to the p u l s i n g l i f e  landscape.  staff  a lyricism  These  razor-edged  Jean.  "scenes" satire  i n the  stand i n sharp  of the dialogues  members, and t h e i r o n i c  tone  of the  s c i e n t i f i c / a c a d e m i c l e c t u r e s , which, i t soon  becomes e v i d e n t , a r e t h e r a i s o n  d ' e t r e o f t h e book.  Powder House t h e s t o r y i s t h i n ,  but the h i s t o r y  I n The  i s dense.  105 8. According  to Lefevre's policy,  the  right  to give lectures  the  course  given. and  on  of the n a r r a t i v e ,  The  first  is entitled:  lecture "The  everyone a t La P o u d r i e r e a topic  t h r e e such  i s g i v e n by  Witches'  C o n q u e s t o f Power, t h e W i t c h e s ' Great in  Fear"  (61-98).  so f a r as  they  of the  T h e s e 37  has  taken  and  condemns t h o s e w i t h whom we  identify. begins  lecturer—in  lectern—is  Citing  with  R e v o l u t i o n : On  "Paulus,  ironic.  Black Majesty,  Augustine,  Christians,  with  (62).  Luther's Iuditium" detailed of  "De  Re.bus C i v i l i b u s "  (63-64),  The  he  description  of  Calvin  and  launches of w i t c h  and  i n the  into  he  of  "Several tens  of  f o r His  small  children,  course  Christi  of  ad  and  the  used,  200  hunt i n  Reditu  a prolonged  instruments  to  Luther"  f o r the witch "De  him  "the Gospel  symptomatology,  c o n f e s s i o n s , the  references.  agents  often very  fire"  only  p r a i s e s h i s enemies,  agents:  Finding justification  extracting  practice  and  and  the  the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f  s p i e s and  s p o u s e s and  were s u b j e c t e d t o p i l l o r y years  He  on  "scientific"  t h e work o f t h e t h e o l o g i a n s o f  of f a l s e  Satan's  w o u l d have e x p e c t e d  Love" t o r i d the e a r t h of Satan's millions  are  W o r l d D o m i n i o n , and  h i s case  In  the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f ,  c o n t a i n myriads of f a c t s  tone  choice.  lectures  pages a r e  The  the  of t h e i r  has  science and  the  witchburning.  description  t h e D e v i l ' s work. narrator/lecturer  extends  to other  Among o t h e r g i v e s an  " t y p e s " who  c a r r y out  t h i n g s , the  account  of the p u b l i c  torture  106 and  q u a r t e r i n g o f Damien a f t e r  L o u i s XV--a  motif Bj^rneboe  e s s a y on  the Marquis  lecturer  brings forth  bestiality  i n the  de  so-called  age  of enlightenment.  curiously,  used  Sade. ;  The  23  forward,  scope  Each  time  of the Church  hunts  "Church's  variant  eternal witch t r i a l s race which i n h a b i t s  o f The  (93).  "The  of a  this is  century are  For  the  simply  of  that  the p l a n e t . "  i s a result  up  The  acceleration  t o our  fear  own  time,  and maimed, h a s ,  traces  of C o p e r n i c u s  summed up  and  i n the  and  last  i n the  Galileo,  The  into  the  origins  following  the g r e a t e r the  staggering insights  their  of the witch  of the Great Fear.  c a n be  and  (93).  the o r i g i n s  g r e a t e r the i n s i g h t ,  Humanity's  And  take  w h i c h a r e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  as d u r i n g t h e t i m e  growth of t h i s  equation:  activity,  human t h o u g h t  y e a r s a l o n e , been c o l o s s a l "  the w i t c h hunt and  Renaissance—the  the  narrator/lecturer  Now,  d i d not occur i n  of  "numbers o f condemned, b u r n e d  hunt.  of  Permanent W i t c h - h u n t ,  of the w i t c h t r i a l s  fifty-sixty  the  of the Renaissance.  i n the 17th  of  earlier  modern age  "the Great F e a r " i s unleashed.  witch  The  of t h i s  s c i e n c e and  t o the w i t c h hunts  expansion  the f i r s t  Dark A g e s , b u t d u r i n g t h e The  i n an  evidence that  of the w i t c h hunt  not l i m i t e d  the  first  on t h e l i f e  seems t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e d e g r e e  enlightenment. leap  had  shows t h a t  form  the  h i s attempt  fear"  forces  g o v e r n i n g t h e cosmos as i t e n t e r e d t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y once a g a i n u n l e a s h e d  this  fear.  To u n d e r s c o r e  the  c o n t i n u i t y , o f t h e phenomenon, t h e n a r r a t o r / l e c t u r e r  names  107 some o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  f i g u r e s who t o o k  awesome d u t i e s o f p r o s e c u t i n g w i t c h the  epoch i n which they  apostle  Paul  lived:  and t h e l a w y e r  charge of the  hunts without  " I m e n t i o n , among many, t h e  Lenin"  ( 9 6 ) . These a r e t h e  type  o f men who t u r n h u m a n i t y ' s s t r i v i n g s  that  facilitate  Christianity,  the witch-hunt.  into  institutions  " I n t h e Church t h e r e  i s no  i n t h e P a r t y no S o c i a l i s m . " I n p u r s u i n g t h e  Saboteur o f t h e world and  regard to  i t was i m p o r t a n t  names o f c o - c o n s p i r a t o r s b e f o r e  died.  Thus  " t h e method" was b o r n :  Calvin  to Adolfus  to get confessions  the accused  witches  " A l l great hunters,  from  Germanicus and S t a l i n i s s i m u s t h e G r e a t ,  have depended upon i t " ( 9 6 ) . H u m a n i t y ' s i n s i g h t was so great  i n o u r own t i m e ,  Homo L u p u s , who t o o k  that i t brought  over  after  forth  the f i r s t  a new man,  decades o f t h i s  century (97). The  author's  the witch The  again,  power o f new s c i e n t i f i c  s h o r t , whenever a n o l d f a i t h by new k n o w l e d g e .  that  only t o our age.  h u n t " h a s been p r e s e n t  o r dormant s t a t e — r e a d y  threatened  i s not t o imply  h u n t i s a phenomenon b e l o n g i n g  "permanent w i t c h  active the  intention,  t o be c h a r g e d  f o r e o n s , i n an up a g a i n on  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n s i g h t s , i n o r an o l d w o r l d  order i s  W i t h t h e emergence o f Homo  L u p u s , however, i t a c q u i r e s e n t i r e l y  new p o t e n t i a l f o r  destruction:  A f t e r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e g r e a t men, The G r e a t Work has come t o c o m p l e t i o n : t h e human b e i n g h a s been unmasked, t h e mask i s t o r n away, a n d t h e w o l f t e e t h a r e v i s i b l e . Homo Lupus h a s s t o o d f o r t h i n a l l h i s s p l e n d o r . This  108 phenomenon, t h a t t h e Permanent W i t c h Hunt a d v a n c e s t o a h u r r i c a n e o f p e r s e c u t i o n s , happens e a c h t i m e t h e f a i t h i s threatened. No p a r t i c u l a r f a i t h , b u t t h e f a i t h t h a t e v e r y t h i n g has a s e c u r e and c e r t a i n m e a n i n g . When t h e f a i t h t h a t t h e c o s m o s — t h e f i r e b e n e a t h us a n d t h e empty, d e a d and e n d l e s s s p a c e above u s — h a s m e a n i n g , i s t h r e a t e n e d , t h e n t h e f a i t h r i s e s up t o c r u s h t h e I n f i d e l . T h i s i s t h e G r e a t F e a r , and i t a r i s e s i n times o f s k e p t i c i s m , r e a s o n and e n l i g h t e n m e n t , criticism.  Now t h a t M a n k i n d b e l i e v e s i t s e l f conquering  space,  what w i l l  juncture the lecturer caretaker  now " s p e a k s "  Zarathustra—an  t o be on t h e v e r g e o f  become o f Homo L u p u s ?  changes h i s tone, with  At this  a n d t h e madhouse  t h e cadence of a  a p o c a l y p t i c , p s e u d o - b i b l i c a l language, not  u n l i k e t h a t which N i e t z s c h e  f o r g e d f o r h i s own a n t i - G o s p e l :  My d e a r f r i e n d s ! I have m y s e l f s e e n a l l o f t h i s i n a dream, a n d y o u know t h a t a man l i k e me c a n p r o p h e s y . Wolf s h a l l h u n t w o l f , and t h e u n i v e r s e s h a l l echo w i t h t h e w o l f howls o f t h e p l a n e t , a n d t h e f e a r w i l l grow and grow, a n d t h e h u n t s h a l l c o n t i n u e and c o n t i n u e . And homo l u p u s i s s t i l l new i n t h i s w o r l d , b u t homo l u p u s s h a l l r u l e o v e r i t .  [...] And t h e b e a u t y i n t h e s t a r s and t h e w i n d a n d t h e d e s e r t and t h e f o r e s t s , i n t h e s k y , and t h e p l a i n s a n d t h e m o u n t a i n s and t h e r i v e r s and t h e s h o r e s , e v e r y t h i n g s h a l l be drowned by t h e w o l f howl w h i c h i s h u m a n i t y ' s l a s t v o i c e . And t h e f e a r s h a l l t e a r a t t h e w o l f ' s h e a r t . (97)  Returning thanks  t o h i s more s c i e n t i f i c  hislisteners,  problem c o r r e c t l y  and s u g g e s t s  c a n we f i n d  voice, the lecturer  t h a t o n l y by p o s i n g a  o u r way t o a c o r r e c t  answer.  109 9. The  second l e c t u r e  executioner throat  Lacroix, s t i l l  after  execution  his recent  and  (134).  and  one  who  suicide  has  attempt.  "the  c o m p a s s i o n as  text,  description  of the  from the  high Middle  Ages t o our  techniques  forms, the  Inquisition, finally  hanging, the  more t h a n  else,  by  possession  of s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s "  Bj^rneboe  state,  chair.  of k i l l i n g  again,  the  observes  contemporary F o u c a u l t note  t h a t the  and  supposedly spaces  "without  which shroud  modern p u b l i c . certain  who  in Surveiller sanctity  suffering,"  scientific  and  the  The  focus  the  speaking,  on  of the  nature  "men  same t r e n d s  in Once  as  They  his both  body l e d t o  to a demonstration out  i n an  and  the  c a r r y i t out.  carried  Whereas F o u c a u l t  of  those  et punir.  the  squad,  changing  coldly  p a i n l e s s methods, i n  event  art,  traditional  firing  i t s effect  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of p u b l i c t o r t u r e , atonement  oldest  have"  page  t r a d e and  the  i s on  some of t h e  n o t i o n of the  two  Generally  guillotine,  anything  the  t o r t u r e s associated with  the American e l e c t r i c  lecture,  day.  be  respect,  i s a forty  executioner's  b l o c k and  to  human c r e a t u r e s  d e s c r i b e d range from the  chopping  topic w i l l  the p o i n t of view of  a l l other  What f o l l o w s , i n t h e  His  same r i g h t  detailed  the  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  w e a r i n g h i g h bandages a b o u t h i s  executioners—"from  executioner," kindness  (134-77) i s g i v e n by  the  of  with  secluded  a i r of mystery  for  seems t o a c k n o w l e d g e  the a  i n c r e a s i n g humaneness—coupled, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , with  growing a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m - - i n d i s c i p l i n i n g  and  punishing,  110  Bjp'rneboe' s s t a n d p o i n t the  i s only  a myth  which  new methods o f c a r r y i n g o u t a n d s t a g i n g e x e c u t i o n s a r e  designed  t o promote.24  From t h e p o i n t the  i s that this  executioner  public being  of view of the e x e c u t i o n e r / l e c t u r e r ,  has a l w a y s been an a r t i s t  of hypocrites. without  pain  "To t a k e  the l i f e  and b r u t a l i t y ,  observed  by a  of another  human  i s he n o t an a r t i s t ? "  But my c o l l e a g u e s a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y f a r f r o m a r t i s t s o f t h i s dimension. S e n t i m e n t a l i t y and weak n e r v e s a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e x e c u t i o n e r ' s work, a s w i t h t h a t o f a great v i o l i n i s t . Or t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a g r e a t p i a n i s t . Not t o m e n t i o n t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r s a n d p o e t s : h e r e e v e r y t h i n g , i s c o o l n e s s , a w a r e n e s s and p r e c i s i o n . (137)  A c h a n g e i n p u b l i c t a s t e a t t h e e n d o f the. 1700s made t h e work o f an e x e c u t i o n e r his  n e r v e and s e l f  d e a t h by t h e mob,  control, will  (137).  s p e c t a c l e which caused  successful  first  procedures>  hardly  attempts  the frequent  the l o s s of nerve, by e x e c u t i o n e r s  disasters.  Deiblers,  the F l u r a t s ,  hereditary the  nature  the Deussers—are  story told.  There  to  i n the e r a  the half  i nthe  The g r e a t  of European e x e c u t i o n e r s — t h e  b u r d e n upon them.  loses  I t was t h e p u b l i c n a t u r e o f  dynasties  chance t o have t h e i r  who  be t r a m p l e d  s u c h as happened many a t i m e  of p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n s " the  d a n g e r o u s , a n d "a p i a n i s t  "houses" or  Langs, t h e here g i v e n the  S o c i e t y , had f o r c e d t h e  seemed t o be no e s c a p e  from t h e  o f t h e work, n o r f r o m t h e o s t r a c i s m o f  community w h i c h  required that  saga, t h e s o c i e t y they  serve  i t be done.  i s i n fact  their  In t h e i r nemesis.  The  Ill henchmen become v i c t i m s , d i o n y s i a n p e r f o r m e r s repeating  ritual,  that  must c a r r y t h e  to  they  kill  time  on t h e i r  s a c r e d and  thinking  here  the  sacred mission  accursed.  They a r e  It  h o l y and  accursed  i s i n 1793  d u r i n g the  innovation: effective with the  the age  "The  year  quick,  same i d e a s  the  devoted  had  usually  the  humanitarianism  i s i n t r o d u c e d as a s e r i o u s  i n mind, and  chapters  the  sacred  one  hundred  O t h e r methods were  i n n o v a t i o n s can  Thus, the  become  p h i l o s o p h i e s of  p a i n l e s s and  (145).  Bj^rneboe's  who  the  same  Revolution—when  i n t h i s way  lookout  d e m a r c a t e new of t h i s  to Lacroix's lecture,  use  revolution: Lacroix's lecture  percent  introduced  Europe  These passages  B j ^ r n e b o e i s c o n s t a n t l y on t h e  history.  French  guillotine  execution"  which s o c i a l  of  to increased  o f t h e mass e x e c u t i o n .  t h e way  one  Great  have been t h r o w n open by  a t the  themselves.^5  ax  o f R e a s o n and  humanism--that the  figures,  in antiquity  to the v i c t i m s of the  d o o r s t o t h e Age should  figures  A curious aspect  o u t c a s t s — t h e pharmakos—that referred  o f s o c i e t y ' s need  i s t h a t i t i s the executioners  simultaneously  great  of which p r e s c r i b e s  responsibility  shoulders.  in a  exemplify f o r ways i n  "ages" i n  volume, such the  entered  as  calendar  i s dated  24.  this  of  the  prairial,  176. The  counter  lecturer the  claims  innovations. invalidate  the  now  puts  of the  Scientific  forth  b o u n t i f u l evidence  to  exponents of these t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and  c l a i m s of the p e r i o d .  The  long  experience  evidence:  life  is  112 observed  i n a m p u t a t e d heads by  authorities; shock or truth  the  "burning"  a b o u t why  procedure; squads.  the  i n the  American e l e c t r i c  i r o n y and  the  humor o f  off a l i s t  scaffold  social  (148).  "no  Remarking t h a t  what k i n d o f h o r r o r  capital  the  who  theory  out  continues:  c o i n are the  sentence—and  Germany, E n g l a n d compilation behalf  lecture  effect"  and  firing  turns  these  execution,"  "The  best  America. the  men,  he  scaffold  of  more  executions? and  amputated  historical  bodies  of  and  punishment's  (148).  On  the  other  his  lecturer  asks  "Who  turned  has  have  themselves,  Finishing  gentlemen?"  to  executions  o f e x e c u t i o n e r s who  executioners:  ladies  lecturer  f e a r the  i t out—against  of a c c o u n t s ,  of the  suicides,  and  the  executioners  None, l a d i e s  a g a i n s t the  accounts  carried  i t had?  are the  evidence  general-preventative the  the  thousands of  gentlemen.  psychological  o f names o f  should  has  executioners  with  knew b e t t e r t h a n  "What d e t e r r i n g e f f e c t  executed  after  the  general preventative e f f e c t  F o r who  He  and  Witches'  f u n c t i o n of  one  of the  have c a r r i e d  None!"  "The  i s i n v o l v e d i n an  punishment.  t h a n men  chair,  a cool directness,  themselves,  t h e modern myth o f t h e  addresses  prolonged  are h e l d immediately  i s explored with  Rolling  e n d e d on  the  remarkable r e c o r d of f a l l i b i l i t y  A l l of t h i s  Revolution."  scientific  need t o r e p e a t  autopsies  which l a c k s the  who  frequent  reputable  (175).  i s a segment w h i c h c o u l d w e l l be  s i d e of passed in  long  a question us  on  into  Lacroix's t h e most  long potent  113 literary  case  t o be made a g a i n s t c a p i t a l  language, and t h i s  m i g h t be s a i d  p u n i s h m e n t i n any  to apply  a s w e l l t o The  Powder House as a w h o l e . The "The  final  lecture  i s g i v e n by D o c t o r  Heretic-Burning Culture"  [203]). raised  ("Kjetterbalenes  I t i s he who p o s e s t h e c u l m i n a t i n g by t h e l e c t u r e  series.  mould and o r g a n i c cruelty?"  there  of heresy  lecturer  begins  bestiality"  and t h e h e r e t i c  layer of  (205).  provides  from t h e i r  of the e a r l y g n o s t i c s — o f  and C a t h a r i s t s .  fate  Church bathed  T h e s e were p e o p l e  " o n l y by c h a n g i n g  i n the blood  of t h e m a r t y r s  i t made  (209-10).  the b e l i e f  and d e a t h — a t  their  (209).  t h a t they  The  i t l o s t , but  The " h e r e t i c " the miracle.  who were  themselves  minds"  not of the martyrs  t h i n g w h i c h i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d have m a i n t a i n e d  But t h e  a k e y . The  by t h e t h o u s a n d s , who c o u l d have s a v e d  torture  other  o f o u r modern h e r e t i c s a n d  to the persecutions  the A l b i g e n s e s  i s the  T h o s e who  are right,  through  t h e hands o f t h e C a l v i n s , t h e  Luthers,  the H i t l e r s ,  strength  of consciousness.  the S t a l i n s — t h e y are proof The l e c t u r e r  concludes  of the by  t h e a n a r c h i s t v i c t i m s o f t h e Haymarket e x e c u t i o n s i n  Chicago, should  this  each  p u t r e f a c t i o n , c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  traces the genesis  "traitors"  citing  questions  He h a s no hope o f an answer, f o r "where t h e  answers b e g i n , concept  life,  crust,  himself:  kultur"  "Why do we t r e a t  t h e way we do on t h i s m i c r o c o s m i c  killed  Lefevre  whose l a s t  words o f d e f i a n c e were  g i v e the American people  "words t h a t  something t o l i v e f o r . "  114 Then Hebrew m y t h o l o g y 37 be"  i s cited:  j u s t men  i n the world,  so  (214).  T h i s i s a new  facet  Laamed vov  tzadik  revelation  l o n g can  the world  of the Jewish  i n the  significance  Bj^rneboe's  riddles  continue  myth o f  and  to  the  Bj^rneboe)  s e a r c h f o r meaning  of h i s t o r y  still  t h e myth h o l d s f o r  i n myth, when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e  dilemmas and of h i s  l o n g as t h e r e a r e  ( n o t m e n t i o n e d by name by  which i s u n s e t t l i n g humankind t o d a y .  "so  and  insoluble  e x i s t e n c e , i s the  heart  approach.  10. The  lectures  are q u i t e r e l e n t l e s s ,  subject matter, of  "breaks"  the  first  two  f o r c o f f e e and  are c o n t r a s t e d with p e d a n t i c nor  linear,  but  is  how  these c h i l d r e n  mentions  I n . b e t w e e n , however,  partial,  of l a n d s c a p e ;  i n deprived areas  o n l y by  of the world  descriptive.  memories o f (a r e c u r r i n g  l o o k when t h e y a r e d r i n k i n g ) ;  n a r r a t o r ' s m e d i t a t i o n s on t h e hedgehog w h i c h comes around  h i s house l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g  i n t i m a c y with the French  nurse  Christine,  also  c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e u n t e x t u r e d moments o f  not  important.  On  these  the sniffing  are s t i l l s .  his  figure  depictions  A Stitch:  landscape.  a  bound up w i t h t h e F r e n c h  i n Without  motif  t o d r i n k ; and  intimately  action  they  often l y r i c a l episodes—neither  broken,  They i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s children  interrupted  cake.  softer,  considering their  The  sexual sexual  Action i s  the c o n t r a r y , i t i s the attempt  to  115 preserve  t h e image w h i c h m a t t e r s .  much i n o r d e r to  create  to f o s s i l i z e  This  a moment  i s done, n o t so  of ecstasy,  but i n s t e a d  an e t e r n a l moment, a moment o f a r t , an  alternative  t o t h e e t e r n a l and b r u t a l i z i n g  world  o f human  action. Yet  even i n l o v e ,  i n the " s t i l l "  moments, t h e r e a r e  always t h e reminders o f t h e t h i n g t h a t nags.  Christine  s e e s a p i c t u r e above t h e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e s k . partisan, as  I t shows a  a b o u t t o be hanged, b o t h arms r a i s e d i n d e f i a n c e  he i s s u r r o u n d e d by o f f i c e r s  and h i s c a p t o r s .  Christine  a s k s h i m why he h a s i t h a n g i n g o v e r h i s d e s k :  "I have i t t h e r e so t h a t e v e r y t h i n g I c o p y i n t h e p r o t o c o l s w o u l d b e a r b e i n g r e a d by him," I a n s w e r e d . "You l e t him r e a d i t f i r s t ? " "Yes. I want i t t o be t r u e , w h a t e v e r I w r i t e down. So he r e a d s i t f i r s t . " "How l o n g have y o u had i t h a n g i n g t h e r e ? " "At l e a s t a y e a r h e r e . B u t I had i t up i n t h e p l a c e where I l i v e d b e f o r e t o o . And i t ' s h a n g i n g on t h e o t h e r w a l l — o v e r there." She t u r n e d a n d c a u g h t s i g h t o f t h e same p i c t u r e on t h e opposite wall. " D o e s n ' t i t d r i v e y o u mad?" "Yes," I s a i d . (108)  Thus, even t h e i n t e r n a l between w a l l s cruelty The  that  and e t e r n a l moments o f l o v e  reflect  the very  and h e r o i s m b a c k a t e a c h Powder House, a g a i n ,  anti-novel. naturalism" juxtaposed  On t h e f i r s t and s o u r c e s  exist  p i c t u r e o f human  other.  i s s t r u c t u r e d a s an  page i t i s d e s c r i b e d  are c i t e d .  But a l y r i c  t o t h e t e x t which p u r p o r t s  as " p o e t i c text i s  t o be e m p i r i c a l and  116 historical.  The  what a n o v e l  i s are  the  of t e x t s  pressure  conflicts  boundaries which d e f i n e  The  actually  presages the  trilogy.  A l Assadun  Barthory's who  death.  scene, with  recalls  in  first  the  prisoners this  the  content  ("Lion"  are  the  held  birth But  another of  execution,"  paradoxical  and  i s united  with  yet  dream o f t h e  scene, of  murder. the  one  reality  Dante's  more—know This  death  there  and  "beautiful  freedom of the  Now  the  Dr  says a l Assadun.  new  in  celebrates  o f h i s i n f a n t son "Allah—and  two  Barthory  next novel  gateway t o H e l l )  only  between  murder o f Dr  i n Arabic,  book, i n w h i c h t h e  small  of  i n w h i c h so many  main t h r u s t o f t h e  a t the  the  one,  i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n of  birth,  in  the  c a r r i e d out  this  p l o t concerning  beasts  simultaneously  s u c h as  f o r m and  covers.  allegorical  conception  f o r c e d t o expand or e v e n d i s s o l v e under  in style, thin  our  day"  escaped  comes a h i n t ,  behind the  dream.  11. I n The  Silence  anti-novel,  and  contradictory moment o f world. state,  absolutely  dream o f  freedom, f i n d  The one  (Stillheten,  narrator  1973)—subtitled final  liberation their  lives  now  protocol"—the and  the  fear  inspiring  c o r r e l a t i v e s i n the in a city  of those r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d "The  "An  city"  i n a North A f r i c a n  from the  bondage o f  colonialism.  bird's-eye  v i e w f r o m h i s window i s a c i t y  real  o f w h i c h he o f man  political has  a  which i s  117 imbued w i t h French  a Dante-esque s i g n i f i c a n c e .  windows, b e y o n d t h e b a l c o n y ,  b e n e a t h me"  (SH 6 ) .  The e f f e c t s  economic dependency a r e s t i l l  "Outside  the great  of past  city  t o be s e e n i n t h e r o v i n g  o f h u n g r y c h i l d r e n w h i c h roam t h e s t r e e t s .  corner  a l l w e s t e r n e r s who emerge f r o m b a r s  heads. they  o n l y when b r e a d  They o f f e r  are capable  post-colonial referred  sexual  favors t o white  world  and r e s t a u r a n t s ,  I t i s i n this  capital  deprived,  that the narrator,  d a y s w a n d e r i n g t h e s t r e e t s and m e e t i n g partner  Ali—a  Ali's  preparing  spends h i s  i n cafes with h i s  European educated r e v o l u t i o n a r y  who i s h i d i n g f r o m t h e s e c u r i t y Somewhere i n A f r i c a ,  their  visitors—and  t o a s " J e a n " when r e f e r r e d t o a t a l l ,  conversation  They  o r money a r e t h r o w n o v e r  of anything.  third  lies  e x p l o i t a t i o n and  flocks  scattering  of the  f o r c e s o f h i s own  country.  comrades a r e moving i n d a r k n e s s  in  the forest,  f o r the future.  by  t h e n a r r a t i v e from t h e f i r s t  The mood  conveyed  p a g e s i s one o f  apprehension.  The i n e v i t a b l e w i l l come. T h i s t i m e i t w i l l h a p p e n . B u t f o r t h e moment a l l I h e a r i s t h e s i l e n c e . There i s nothing but s i l e n c e l e f t . Nothing i s happening. Everything i s waiting. F o r s o m e t h i n g w h i c h has n e v e r been b e f o r e , and no one knows t h e n a t u r e o f . We h a v e n ' t a c l u e what w i l l h a p p e n — w e know o n l y t h a t i t i s c o m i n g . After the silence comes t h e g r e a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . (6)  Between t h e l u s t y Ali,  political  dialogues  t h e n a r r a t o r s t u m b l e s upon a s u n l i k e l y  a crew o f  interlocutors  and i r o n i c  a s c a n be i m a g i n e d .  First,  there  with  are the  118 inhabitants Besides live he  of the c i t y  A l i , there  with  i n t h e h e r e a n d now.  i s a l s o the "nice American"  h i s own c o u n t r y ' s  h a s come t o t h i s  gift  itself  poor  enemies d u r i n g  country  t h e Vietnam war:  independently,  o f h i s w e s t e r n know-how i n d e v e l o p i n g  resources.  He i s c o n s t a n t l y  who w e n t t o  t o make  a  their o i l  i n e b r i a t e d , and throws t o o  much money o u t t o t h e s t a r v i n g f l o c k s o f c h i l d r e n , d u e t o some k i n d  o f deep seated  young Arab g i r l offer  later,  these  favors:  f o r a place  partners  i s a l l places  in  of  i s obsessed  human h i s t o r y .  the  i n the street to  she i s d i s a p p o i n t e d as Jean  narrator, that  them, and s h a l l  depressed  The other  city  mulling  narrator  over  i s an acquaintance  the question  "Was  i tthat  with  bloodier nerves  h i s dinner  I t took  I apprehended  box he  place  opened with  h a d no r o v i n g now o v e r r u n  "Mea m a x i m a c u l p a . "  recalls  o f man.  Christopher  learn, i n h i s dialogues  t h e New W o r l d - - w h i c h  partner  i nthe  i s a l l times."  about t h e Pandora's  -He s h a l l  conclude:  "city"  a n d t h e now w h i c h  s t a r v i n g c h i l d r e n upon h i s a r r i v a l — i s  conversation  realizes  o f f t h e s t r e e t s t o sleep._  inhabiting this  One o f t h e m i s a m o r o s e a n d d e e p l y C o l u m b u s , who  i sthe  i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e here-and-now, t h e r e a r e  conversation  "here which  sexual  money f o r n o t h i n g — f o r  she i s hoping  Besides  Then t h e r e  follows the narrator  t h e "monsieur"  when s h e g e t s  other  who  shame he f e e l s .  bands with  Yet another  f r o m Rome: G o d . with  God i n t h a t  one d a y when he h a d b e e n  o f h i s own s o u n d n e s s the encounter with  t h a n most p e o p l e ?  of mind: the world  Is i tsickness  or  119 health?" am  He  decides i t i s a sign  h e a l t h y , the others are s i c k "  doubt has  that  no  dinner, this  his protocol w i l l  b e g i n n i n g and he has  reached  the i l l n e s s  cannot  force"  imagine  (86).  c o u r s e God  e v e r be  We  as t h e f i n a l a society  God's a r r i v a l  that  subjects,  very d i f f e r e n t destructive  to  "because i t joins  him  imagine  for  a world  into  upon  rule 1  raw  his brooding.  spoken and  "rather  Of  often"  the n a r r a t o r  j u s t what i s a t t h e s o u r c e o f  s i c k n e s s w h i c h human b e i n g s have b r o u g h t  here  The  role  of t h i s  by t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  w h i c h endows Him doubles.  The  to express  "God"  o f him  with q u a l i t i e s narrator  they can d i n e t o g e t h e r . begins  at a l l ,  a l t h o u g h God  i d e a s of  the world.  underscored  God  begins  i s i n a manner o f s p e a k i n g t h e u l t i m a t e d o u b l e ,  on t h e s e  that  who  conclusion: "It i s i n  i s not b u i l t  breaks  him  Bj^rneboe  he  argument o f t h o s e who  the n a r r a t o r mentions having  beggar,  B e f o r e God  cannot,  "It is I  But  finished  the f o l l o w i n g  and  them i n t o  (85-86).  end...."  lies:  without b e s t i a l i t y We  no  of h e a l t h .  concern  has  In t h i s  typical  this with is  itinerant of other  him  particular  for h i s host.  have  as a d o u b l e  as an  to lend  with  money so discussion  God:  C a n ' t you f i n i s h w i t h t h e H i s t o r y o f B e s t i a l i t y ? That's t h e t h i n g w h i c h i s d e s t r o y i n g y o u r a p p e t i t e and y o u r stomach. I f you're g o i n g t o s i t around t h i n k i n g about f r e s h l y c a r v e d up c h i l d r e n e v e r y t i m e you e a t a c r a y f i s h t a i l , t h a t c a n ' t be t o any g o o d . F i n i s h with t h a t wretched stuff. The  response:  I s h a l l never f i n i s h . . . . hook so e a s i l y I (88)  You're not g o i n g t o get o f f the  120  God  promises  returned  him t h a t h i s d i g e s t i o n  t o n o r m a l i f he s t o p s .  yours,"  he p r o m i s e s .  wealth,  h e a l t h , and  he  fall  will  on h i s k n e e s  matter--thorn you east  o r w e s t , i t can  i s here  first city  "fig-cactus" temptation:  In peur"  (sic),  he w i l l  " W o r s h i p , and  south.  "God"  offer  you  the  final  section  the  shall  Robespierre's  drawn w i t h  be i n fall  down  tail  f o r the  African  t o him from a  p o s s i b l e example o f theological  volume,  reasoning.  "La Rue du g r a n d  i s introduced.  It is  Maximilien  o f w h i c h a p p e a r t o be g l e a n e d  Max G a l l o ' s p o l i t i c a l  the d i a l o g u e , the  doesn't  n a r r a t o r the u l t i m a t e  dialogue with  contents  only  be w o r s h i p p e d I"  conversation partner  Robespierre—the  him  be t h i n e ! "  nearby the  clearest  of this  "It  But  shall  speaking  advocacy o f h i e r a r c h y through  a further  attempt  meet  T h i s i s perhaps the  political  adding,  t h i s world  This time,  d o m i n a t e d by an e x t e n d e d  from  i n UNESCO—if  w o r s h i p — i t can  be i n n o r t h o r  L a t e r , he w i l l  i n the d e s e r t .  age-old  position  " i n worship,"  worship—and  s h a l l be  t h a t God's h o s t n o t i c e s h i s g u e s t ' s  time.  (88-89).  world  t h e p o i n t by o f f e r i n g  k n e e l t o , whom you  on t h y k n e e s and It  "The  He p u r s u e s a salaried  a n d a p p e t i t e w i l l be  biography  of Robespierre.^6  j  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and changes i n  positions  career are  in his fierce  outlined.  and i d e a l i s t i c  The i m p l i c i t  parallel i s  t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s f a c e d by a l l t h o s e who  revolution  a cafe dialogue  or s o c i a l  Maximilien  transformation i s informed  (173-89).  o f the  In  success of  n  121 the  man n a m e d L e n i n ,  similarities assesses press,  whose p o l i c i e s — d e s p i t e h i s marked  t o Robespierre  with  skepticism.  the abolition  penalty,  absolute  revolutionary advocate  In this  of slavery, a b o l i t i o n  human r i g h t s ,  and  demands, a l l o f w h i c h  t h e need t o improve  out c o r r u p t i o n wherever  enemies.  This  e n d o n many o f t h e s e  intention  here  Robespierre supported and  Robespierre's  voice  my h o n o r e d That's  dutiful, feudal  engaged  rulers,  aristocracy to  and e x t e r n a l terror. took i n  i ti s Bj^rneboe's  think twice.  He h a s  populations  insists  the death  penalty,  i n the colonies.  i t w a s S a d e who s p o k e  which  has from time  b e c a u s e he h a s k i l l e d  i n s t e a d o f one" (184).  Bj^rneboe's He w a s a  t o t h e end, and as a p r i s o n e r of  he was p r e o c c u p i e d  and t h e mighty,  u s e h i s own w o r d s ,  die,  another.  Sade f r o m h i s r e p u t a t i o n .  citizen  with  t o time  r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s : " Y o u l e t a man  colleagues,  defends  against  conditions quickly,  campaign a g a i n s t  sense,"  of true  t w o d e a d men  Robespierre  pitted  of internal  questions,  of the black  o f "common  been a t r a i t  greatest  t h e M a r q u i s d e S a d e , who e a r l y o n  B jjzfrneboe' s R o b e s p i e r r e the  had t h e i r  what p o s i t i o n s R o b e s p i e r r e  t o make a r e a d e r  defending  the rights  of the death  i s the' p r o b l e m o f f r e e d o m v e r s u s  history recalls  of the  i ta r i s e s i n o f f i c i a l  and t o h a l t t h e a t t a c k s  Although  freedom  equality—traditional  living  quarters,  the  dialogue,  i n the figure of Robespierre—are  necessity: to wipe  the" i n c o r r u p t i b l e " — M a x i m i l i e n  with  of a dying  "a c o r r u p t e d  the vices of the age.  century"  He  portrayed,  (185).  122 Much as t h e B e l l r i n g e r  and  the Sexton,  the  c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s i n Moment o f Freedom, speak language  which  fits  more c l o s e l y  that  a  of the n a r r a t o r  than  t h e m s e l v e s , M a x i m i l i e n ' s d i s c o u r s e on Sade v e e r s  toward  editorializing,  vanishes  and  a l l sense  o f agons o r d e b a t e  f r o m t h e d i a l o g u e as t h e v o i c e s merge. that  This  i s evidence  the d i a l o g u e i s not d r a m a t i c , but d i d a c t i c .  Bj^rneboe's different  pen,  these h i s t o r i c a l  from the c a r e f u l l y  untampered-with the Wheel.  characterizations  are f a r  individualized,  characterizations  I t i s one  From  i n , s a y , The  of those openings  of the author s u r f a c e s through the  Dream  where t h e  and  presence  narrative.  12. Emerging with  i n The  revolutions  alongside The  Silence and  of t h i s ,  protocols  this  Cortes's conquest The Europe's that  narrator meeting  outside  the H i s t o r y time of  Mexico.  has  posed  picture  t h e q u e s t i o n : "What of the w o r l d ? "  " I n a way,  t o meet o n e s e l f ,  and  one  of t h a t p a r t  of  was He  suggests  individual must  perhaps  to achieve greater c l a r i t y  of the i l l n e s s  but  chronicle  t o be drawn w i t h t h e  with r e a l i t y .  o u t s i d e of Europe  concern  of B e s t i a l i t y c o n t i n u e s .  i n c l u d e a condensed  with the r e s t  of o n e s e l f  overriding  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n a modern age,  there i s a p a r a l l e l  mind's m e e t i n g  go  i s an a p p a r e n t  go  one  has  to  i n our  of the world"  (14).  As  123 one  mind e n c o u n t e r s a r e a l i t y  culture The  encounter  S i l e n c e , "On  Uninhabitable," told  other the  the  i n a compact  history or De  an  Las  cultures.  pages—an  short  does  second  one  s e c t i o n of  conquest of Mexico i s  economy w h i c h g i v e s  I f one  form of n a r r a t i v e which s e r v e s  so  World  which might elude  (56-79).  incomprehensible  In the  h i s t o r y of the  23  others,  A r t of making the  icy clarity Casas  made by  defines  a reader  can  of  "myth" as  t o make t h e  i n t o something t h a t  the  be  vast  Dfaz  that  and  grasped,  this  s t o r y v e r s i o n of h i s t o r y , h i s t o r y i n i t s b a r e s t  outlines  and  i n i t s essence, might q u a l i f y  is,  not  because i t i s f a l s e ,  its  function.  H i s t o r y i s turned  can  be  interpret history.  used to  as  myth:  f o r i t i s t r u e , but  that  because  i n t o myth w h i c h , i n t u r n , Bj^rneboe h i g h l i g h t s  moments o f h i s t o r y , t h e n e x p l o d e s them f o r a d i s c h a r g e meaning: C o r t e s s 1  him;  the  d e c i s i o n t o b u r n h i s own  amputation  of peace; the  of the  mass s l a u g h t e r hosted  palace  of C h o l u l a ;  the  stoning  the  systematic  Aztec  capital  protocols history are  people;  has  stone not  i n t o myth.  by  by  of the  festivities  h i s own  stone.  simply  ships  the  invited  f o r the  gathering,  and  behind  Spanish  Indian  i n the  o f Montezuma t h e  The  recorded,  leveling recorder but  of  nobility  enclosed compromiser  of the  vast  the  rather translated  W a l t e r B e n j a m i n once p o s i t e d t h a t  "moments" i n human h i s t o r y w h i c h become t h e  points  processes i t i s they  of  hands o f Montezuma's m e s s e n g e r s  at the  by  of  and  there  discharge  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h have been  which g i v e  " h i s t o r y " i t s meaning  124 in  retrospect.27;  the approach historical  Bjjzfrrneboe a p p l i e s  here.  f o r understanding  He h a s l i n k e d  moments w h i c h have s t o r e d i n them enormous  potential chain  This idea i s important  f o r a d i s c h a r g e o f m e a n i n g , and t h e r e s u l t i n g  of s i g n i f y i n g  episodes  produces  an a r t i f a c t  with the  a u r a o f h i s t o r y — a n epos most c l o s e l y  resembling  myth.  C o r t e s becomes an Agamemnon  Odysseus.  Mexico  becomes a T r o y quest  Greeks.  outline,  the spread  diseases  returned  Once a g a i n , s y p h i l i s of the c u l t u r e  t o them.  t o Europe from  effect.  life  takes  stands  through  a s t h e metaphor  of t h e "tradesmen": t h e easily  And t h i s  among p e o p l e  particular  t h e New W o r l d w i t h  T h i s i s as i f t o s a y ,  who  disease  i m m e d i a t e and  the oppressor  but h i m s e l f .  Cortes  ends  i n S p a i n w i s h i n g he c o u l d be back i n M e x i c o i n  order to s e t t l e "So  The  mission  sickness are threaded  damages n o t o n l y t h e o p p r e s s e d , his  p o i n t of view.  the mission of the ancient  of t h e Europeans spread  no immunity  deadly  like  Images o f g r o w i n g  the n a r r a t i o n .  had  as i f from V i r g i l ' s  o f modern E u r o p e and i t s c h r i s t i a n i z i n g  on a c l e a r  for  or a dark  h i s accounts  he d i e d a C h r i s t i a n  w i t h God.  syphilitic's  The b i l l  death  i n God's name.  H i s work was done: t h e p a r a d i s e was a d e s e r t . years nineteen m i l l i o n man who i s v o u c h s a f e d  were s l a u g h t e r e d .  i s long.  In t h i r t y  I t ' s not every  the task of d e s t r o y i n g a c u l t u r e "  (78) . Just  as i n t h e meeting  crushed—as  was H e r t u g  with the world  Hans i n B j ^ r n e b o e ' s  a soul  c a n be  youthful  125 novel—so  i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e modern mind,  after  t h e age  world  in a futile  as w i t h  Cortes  parallel age  to destroy  t o make i t o v e r  Inquisition.  f o r t h o s e who  live  the  i n i t s own  T h e r e i s an i n the next  t h e m e e t i n g between mind and balance  can  s i c k n e s s i n the world.  which d i s t a n c e s i t s e l f not  attempt  image,  obvious age:  the  atom.  the necessary or  attempt  or the  in this  of the In  o f gunpowder, c a n  particularly  be But  from  t h e mind t h a t c a n n o t  upset the  by  been  i n our  times,  s i c k n e s s i n the  s i c k mind i s n o t  the world's  deal with  mind w h i c h , t o o much, has  world,  sickness.  the world.  mind  that It is  I t i s the  infected.  13. Despite the n a r r a t o r ' s ongoing  concern  or  preoccupied  l e d g e r s , he  i s increasingly  c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e t o be giving  way  made c l e a r  expected.  The  with h i s c h r o n i c l e s  the  opening  lines  the  great  problem of e v i l  t o the problem of r e v o l u t i o n . from  with  o f The  T h i s has Powder  is  been  House:  I t i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r we l i k e them o r want them.... They w i l l n o t a s k us what we t h i n k o f them b e f o r e t h e y come. They w i l l n o t c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h common c o u r t e s y , b u t j u s t come, one r e v o l u t i o n a f t e r t h e o t h e r , t h e y w h i c h t o g e t h e r w i l l c a r r y o u t The R e v o l u t i o n , t h e g r e a t t i d a l wave w h i c h w i l l a r i s e and p l o u g h o v e r u s , a wave o f h a t e and f i r e and b l o o d . The o n l y t h i n g we c o u l d have done, w o u l d have been t o do t h e r e v o l u t i o n ' s work o f our f r e e w i l l , t o do i t o u r s e l v e s . . . . B u t we w e r e n ' t c a p a b l e o f d o i n g t h e work o f our own f r e e w i l l . . . . (5)  126 The  revolution  becomes c l e a r  has i t s m a t e r i a l that  revolution  m e t a p h y s i c a l meaning.  causes,  i s a term  be back i n t h e c o u r t r o o m  with  the mistreated, the powerless,  listen  (198).  in  understand  T h i s time, though,  he w i l l  the duties  Moment o f Freedom.  He w i l l  that  here—"omveltning", apocalyptic not.  t h e Norwegian term  asserted, though  now c l a i m t o  has r e t u r n e d t o t h a t  here,  wrong  arrives.  Bj^rneboe  uses  "revolusjon"  an does  i t can j u s t i f i a b l y  of the Servant  he " s e r v e s " i n a d i s t i n c t l y  that  or upheaval—has  which t h e loan-word  The v o i c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r  and t h e  o f h i s o f f i c e as  o f judgment  meaning r e v o l u t i o n  resonance  together  be t h e r e t o  t h e " h i g h e r meaning" o f t h e t r i a l :  s h o u l d be n o t e d  with  i n t h e end,  the oppressed  c a n be t u r n e d t o r i g h t when t h e hour It  imbued  where he b e l o n g s ,  t o them, n o t t o f u l f i l l  described  here  The S e r v a n t o f J u s t i c e ,  will  helpless  t o be s u r e , b u t i t  new  be  of J u s t i c e ,  capacity:  F o r what i s t h e r e v o l u t i o n i f n o t t h e a b s o l u t e t r i a l ? The r e v o l u t i o n i s t h e l a s t and h i g h e s t and most t e r r i b l e f o r m of s e t t l i n g t h e a c c o u n t s . - - T h e hangmen s i t now a s t h e a c c u s e d — t h e o p p r e s s e d , t h e h u m i l i a t e d and t h e w r e t c h e d s i t as p r o s e c u t o r s , j u d g e and j u r y i n t h e c a s e . This w i l l not p r e v e n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f new i n j u s t i c e , b u t t h i s t i m e t h e i n j u s t i c e i s on t h e o t h e r s i d e . That i s : Even i f t h e r e v o l u t i o n b e a r s i t s own g u i l t t o o , t h a t g u i l t i s p a r t o f the j u s t i c e . I r e c a l l a k i n g who s a i d : A f t e r us t h e d e l u g e w i l l come. I n d e e d , i t came ... j u s t i c e i s f r i g h t e n i n g — b u t h o l y a r e t h e y who have a hunger and a t h i r s t f o r j u s t i c e . A l t h o u g h t h e b e s t w o u l d be i f God f o r g a v e us o u r d e b t s , a s we f o r g i v e o u r d e b t o r s . (199)  It this  i s certainly  "justice"  will  not immediately  apparent  what  form  t a k e , f r o m what q u a r t e r s i t w i l l  arise,  127 and  who  will  define i t .  Is i t simply the  i m p o s i t i o n of  someone e l s e ' s m o r a l  vision  of  so amply d e m o n s t r a t e d  t h e p r o t o c o l s has  justice found  into  i t s opposite?  i n one  source  "along the  toward lines  unconscious,  individual  unconscious....  conscious "selves"  self  we  but  keeper  often turns  justice  be  A l i d e s c r i b e s the  as an u n c o n s c i o u s  of t h a t which Jung  collective  w h i c h i s s t r o n g e r and  which the  Some o f t h e a n s w e r s c a n  of the d i a l o g u e s w i t h A l i .  of the d r i v e  "self",  on t h e w o r l d ,  " I " or  calls  I t h i n k i t has  t o do w i t h  A self  don't  t h a t we  more d e c i s i v e  know a b o u t "  come i n c o n t a c t w i t h e a c h  know, b u t  t h a n t h e awake  (136).  Can  these  an  and  two  other?  Of c o u r s e ; i t ' s t h i s w h i c h we c a l l s o r c e r y o r m a g i c , i f you will. F o r you E u r o p e a n s t h e whole t h i n g i s j u s t b l a c k s u p e r s t i t i o n and madness. F o r us t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i s j u s t as n a t u r a l as p l a n t s and t r e e s , as a n i m a l s and p e o p l e . T h a t w h i c h we d a i l y n o t i c e o f t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s and i n n e r " I " i s o u r c o n s c i e n c e and s e n s e o f j u s t i c e .  Through the c h a r a c t e r of A l i a metaphysics emerging.  I t suggests  a social  a t t u n e m e n t w i t h one's s e l f . self-ishness  or egotism  individualism.  I t i s an  self-knowledge.. ' 2 8  intimately world. that  i s the  consciousness  I t i s f a r from  of bourgeois  source  depth,  a greater self,  the  the  the s e l f  and  shadows, t h e  is  humanity, perhaps  o f t h e numerous d o u b l e s  Bjcfrneboe's t r i l o g y :  upon  i n d i v i d u a l i s m which i m p l i e s  At a c e r t a i n  exists  based  or P r o t e s t a n t - e t h i c  bound up w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e ,  There  of r e v o l u t i o n i s  which  Iwans, t h e  the  i t is this people Giovannis,  128 t h e man i n t h e m i r r o r , t h e v i s i t room—the  of death  l o n g sequence o f Bj^rneboe  i n the hotel  doubles  b e g i n w i t h t h e young monk i n w h i c h H e r t u g himself,  a n d begs t h e C z a r  to spare.  which  Hans  actually  sees  Corn-passion (med-  l i d e n h e t ) a n d common h u m a n i t y o r s o l i d a r i t y (medmenneskelighet)  spring  from  an i n n e r s o u r c e a f t e r a l l .  Human b e i n g s have o n l y t o f i n d t h e i r source.  T h i s i s humanity's meeting  Concluding that good o r e v i l , to  choose  the n a r r a t o r something  with  i t i s up t o human b e i n g s  s i d e of themselves  themselves  t h e y want t o n u r t u r e ,  comes t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  important  itself.  he does n o t know i f human b e i n g s a r e  and t h a t  which  way back t o t h a t  that  he h a s l e f t  out of the proceedings:  On a p l a n e t where human b e i n g s have c h o s e n t o l e t t h e m s e l v e s be b u r n e d a l i v e f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e t r u t h , t h e good must have g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The c o u r t was convened, t h e a c c u s a t i o n s r e a d o u t , t h e w i t n e s s e s heard, t h e e v i d e n c e s e t o u t , h u m a n i t y was f o u n d g u i l t y . I kept the c o u r t p r o t o c o l s . B u t I am m i s s i n g one v o i c e i n t h e courtroom, t h e Defense. (200)  14. The  c u l m i n a t i n g words o f t h e H i s t o r y  F r e d r i k Wandrup's a s s e s s m e n t Bj/^rneboe find  of B e s t i a l i t y  i n h i s biography  was b e c o m i n g more c o n c e r n e d  support  that  w i t h what he c o u l d  by way o f hope f o r t h e many young p e o p l e who were  becoming h i s d e v o t e d  readers i n the s e v e n t i e s .  his  o f Freedom" c a n be s e e n  planned  "History  2 9  Seeds o f  sprouting i n  129  the dark  soil  never  completed--barely  be  of the  last  book i n t h e t r i l o g y . begun, i n f a c t .  movement o f i d e a s i n t h e t r i l o g y , those  i d e a s i n The  Sharks  and  (Haiene,  which i s f r e q u e n t l y connected  quest  Lem  has  suggested  As  has  been seen,  moment i n l i n e a r process  i n the  as a c h a l l e n g e , an activate  the  seed  w i t h t h e words  trilogy—might  a reader and  o f f on h i s daily  life,  I t i s an  i s a l l times."  electric Rilke  charge,  refers  "Mitte a l l e r individual  own as  i n h i s book on Moment o f Freedom .30  I t surrounds.  that  the  book  t h e moment o f f r e e d o m i s n o t  time.  "now  fourth  1 9 7 3 ) — a  f o r s i g n s of freedom i n h i s t o r y  Steiner  Even so,  the c u l m i n a t i o n of  with the  s u p p l y enough p r o v o c a t i o n t o s e n d  I t would  ongoing  trilogy  stands  w h i c h i s meant t o  t o i n "Buddha i n d e r  M i t t e n , Kern  self  The  a  Glorie"  d e r K e r n e " and  in  which both  an  and  a greater self  are  addressed:  "Doch i n d i r i s t s c h o n  begonnen / Was  d i e Sonnen  ubersteht." As w i t h any books a l m o s t Commedia.  trilogy,  immediately  In t h i s  case,  e l a b o r a t e l y woven i n . Western c u l t u r e , emblematic society  leopard, Servant  "city"  o f man,  structuring  and  simple  configuration  conjures associations the  The  the  links  use  source an  a g r e a t e r community  or  suspicions that  some o f  m i g h t be p r e s e n t as w e l l .  encounters,  Dante's  o f F l o r e n c e as  mentioned above, i s the a n i m a l  of J u s t i c e  three  a r e c o n s c i o u s l y and  f r e q u e n t use  reinforces  of  with  o f T u s c a n y as t h e  which connotes  principles  as was  the  Dante's The  which  as D a n t e e n c o u n t e r e d  of  the i t at  130 the  edge o f t h e d a r k wood.  was  n o t an emblem f o r b e s t i a l i t y ,  the  s i n s of self-indulgence. ' .  is  F o r Dante, though, t h e l e o p a r d  3  present  as a h a r b i n g e r  b u t o f i n c o n t i n e n c e and  I n Bjj/rneboe,  1  of depression,  recurring  sickness with  its  manifestation: alcohol.  other  the leopard  t h e deep,  w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r must b a t t l e , and Bjjzfrneboe w r i t e s i n  Moment o f Freedom t h a t anyone who has n o t e x p e r i e n c e d full the  and extended d e p r e s s i o n  i s like  a child,  and d e s c r i b e s  c o n d i t i o n as t h a t o f " m e e t i n g s o m e t h i n g e x t e r n a l , a  beast  of prey,  bones."  a w i l d beast  He a d d s ,  city  which t e a r s t h e f l e s h  "Dante's i m a g e — t h e  p r e c i s e and t r u e ; I s u s p e c t  fraud,  (FO 1 1 4 - 1 5 ) .  usury,  entirely  s u i t e d t o extended  The w o l f  and e x p l o i t a t i o n  volume o f t h e t r i l o g y  leopard—is  o f f your  he met i t h e r e i n F l o r e n c e , a  which i s a b s o l u t e l y s u p e r b l y  depressions"  i s D a n t e ' s emblem f o r  of a l l kinds.  i t i s the wolf  L u p u s " w h i c h comes t o p r o m i n e n c e .  i n t h e f o r m o f "Homo  The l i o n  sins  and b e s t i a l i t y . ? 2 \ The name a l A s s a d u n ,  assigned  to a character  an e p i s o d e  i n The Powder House, a l s o  f o r the  appears  the vanished  t o have c o n v e r t e d  t o Islam  Jew  before  b u r i e d f a c i n g Mecca u n d e r t h e name " a l  A s s a d u n " — w h i c h means l i o n spelling with  reserved  f r o m The S i l e n c e c o n c e r n i n g  L o e v i , who i s d i s c o v e r e d being  of H e l l  i s Dante's  f o r those  of heresy  circles  In t h e second  representative  in  a  ( a s does t h i s  o f t h e J e w i s h name).  How t h e p a r a l l e l s  t h e b e s t i a r y o f Dante i s n o t c l e a r  f i g u r e s who t a k e  particular  the p a r t of oppressed  here. peoples  h o l d up  Are these or regions  131 of  t h e w o r l d meant t o be c o m p l i c i t  the p a r a l l e l s  s h o u l d n o t be p u s h e d t o o h a r d .  these are p o r t r a i t s  o f f i g u r e s who have  beast" t o confront i t , himself  has a t t e m p t e d  a s we m i g h t  The  also  would t r a n s l a t e  o r t h e p l a c e where t h e b e a r  trilogy  Or  say t h a t  I t s motion  moves t o w a r d s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . to that  (Till  Damaskus).  h i s course  second is  town o f H e i l i g e n b e r g i s t a k e n t o be t h e  i s downward a n d s o u t h w a r d  obsessed  of  from  t o note  there.  The  and t h e t h i r d  of the d e s e r t south of the  L i k e Dante's inmates  t h e p a s t and f u t u r e ,  like  S t r i n d b e r g ' s To Damascus  i n volume one, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  on t h e f l a t l a n d  of H e l l ,  who c a n s e e  but not the present, the narrator i s  w i t h h i s p a s t , and c l a i m s v i s i o n a r y  me c a n p r o p h e s y " ) — b u t  he f i n d s  powers  ("A man  i t h a r d t o make  sense  t h e p r e s e n t and t h e i m m e d i a t e p a s t , s a y i n g he has  wandered i n " t h e Land the n a r r a t o r  living  i t  of a pilgrimage  volume i s s e t i n s o u t h - c e n t r a l F r a n c e ,  Mediterranean.  Even s o ,  i n which t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s a w r i t e r  confused with h i s author:  the alpine  i t moves  I n t h i s way, i t b e a r s a  often  that  bears or  lives.  i s lateral,  other great t r i l o g y  towards enlightenment  journeyer's H e l l  Bj^rneboe  r o u g h l y t o "bear  over the s u r f a c e of the e a r t h g e o g r a p h i c a l l y .  If  perhaps  does n o t move on an upward i n c l i n e , as  does D a n t e ' s Commedia.  resemblance  Perhaps  "embraced t h e  to grapple with the l i t t l e  "smabj£frn": " B j ^ r n e b o e " dwelling,"  i n bestiality?  o f Chaos."  i n a mental  The Powder House hospital,  finds  i n a kind of  132  convalesence:  S t r i n d b e r g , t o o , p l a c e s a madhouse  in  where  a cloister  "the Stranger" i s  convalescing—precisely I.  Bj^rneboe's  i n the middle  o f To Damascus,  n a r r a t o r i n the asylum i s s t r o n g e r ,  d o m i n a t e d by d e p r e s s i o n and s p e c t e r s o f d e a t h . sanatorium an  and p u r g a t o r y .  apocalyptic vision.  i d e o l o g y must this is  The f i n a l  In f a c t ,  (190-98).  a final  notch  book i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y  a l l anarchist  It tells  The a n a g o g i c  i n the f i n a l  political  thrust  o f t h e book  Nietzschean  o f a young r e l i g i o u s  No s o o n e r  does he f i n d  t h e new answer g i v e s r i s e horror  a t the world.  preconceptions  parable  disciple  who  to learn  world's  an answer t o a dilemma,  than  t o a new p r o b l e m , a n d renewed  After  many y e a r s , a f t e r  a r e overthrown, a f t e r  the a p p a r e n t l y s e n s e l e s s s u f f e r i n g him  less  I t i s both  wanders i n t h e d e s e r t t o s e e f o r h i m s e l f t h e whole pain.  Part  i n t h e e n d be s e t t o t h e s i d e t o make way f o r  book o f r e v e l a t i o n s .  raised  scene—set  h i s experiences  of a l l l i f e  o n l y t o u n - l e a r n and r e - l e a r n  home and i s a g a i n a b l e t o s m i l e l i k e  a l l his  have f o r c e d  again—he  a child.  amidst  comes  133 Denn wovon l e b t d e r Mensch? Indem er s t i i n d l i c h Den Menschen p e i n i g t , a u s z i e h t , a n f a l l t , abwurgt und f r i s s t . Nur d a d u r c h l e b t d e r Mensch, d a s s e r so g r i i n d l i c h V e r g e s s e n k a n n , d a s s e r e i n Mensch doch i s t . B e r t o l t Brecht Die Dreigroschenoper  FOUR / ILLUSION UNMASKED: BJ0RNEBOE AND  THE  THEATER  1. Theater  i s t h e most s o c i a l  out of r i t u a l and  like  and  a l l ritual  " t h e r e and  who  i t i s always  i s a " h e r e and  then" events.1.  N i e t z s c h e ' s view ritual.  dance,  I t was  carried  of the a r t s .  the c r e d i t  i t still  a resurrection  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i f we  for societies  of m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , of chaos, which  threat might  of chaos tumble.  2  With  i n t o which  give  of great d i o n y s i a n  abyss  life.  are to  d e s e r v e s , emerged  shoulders.  t o day  Tragic  figure  their  born  e x p e r i e n c e of  their  f r o m day  The  been  a shared experience,  now"  Tragedy,  Having  figures,  o f man  on  looked deeply into  ritual  communities,  society  the  supresses  death d i e d i t was  from  the  feared,  Comedy, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s n o t  an  e x p e r i e n c e where s p e c t a t o r s merge w i t h t h e c e n t r a l  figure  in that  emerge  kind  of r i t u a l .  f r o m dance and  Comedy d i d , however, a l s o  ritual—but  i t i s the c r i t i c a l  mode.  Comedy  134 is  always  social  improving always,  i n t h e sense t h a t  society  d e m o n s t r a t i n g how s o c i e t y  as B e r g s o n  vulgarized  figures  life—like  t h e Greek  it  had t h e f u n c t i o n o f  t e n d s t o make human  beings  satyrs,  a r e dehumanizing. a possible  portrays.  says, or are turned  r e s e m b l i n g lower  known as b u f f o o n s — C o m e d y  exists  I t has  Whether human b e i n g s a r e shown as b e i n g  3  "automatized,"  that  to play i n  through the prod of i t s c r i t i q u e .  a c c o r d i n g t o Bergson,  un-human.  i t has a r o l e  forms  of animal  or the t r a d i t i o n a l  has a l w a y s  I t has a l w a y s  correction  into  clowns  been a b o u t implied  situations  that there  t o t h e dehumanized  situation  In accordance with the notion that  emerged f r o m r i t u a l s  associated with spring,  Comedy  the romantic  f o r m o f Comedy c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e d e h u m a n i z e d l o s i n g the humanized: youth triumphs over r e p r e s s i o n , flexible  ones,  stiffened  outdoes  its  portrayal  And  sometimes, i t appears  cycle  i n i t s grimness, i n  a t work on human b e i n g s .  t o do t h i s w i t h  significantly  N o r t h r o p F r y e , who a s s o c i a t e s t h e  modes o f t h e drama w i t h d i f f e r e n t  of seasons,  sees t h e s a t i r i c  corresponding with winter. tends t o disengage stimulate  mores g i v e way t o  Tragedy  of the dark f o r c e s  compassion.  different  social  their  most extreme  triumphs-  t h e inhumane becomes humane.  Y e t Comedy o f t e n  less  o v e r age, l i b e r a t i o n  out t o  4  cruelty.  i n the  o f Comedy as  In i t s c o o l detachment,  t h e emotions  intellect,  phase  points  which  o f an a u d i e n c e t o b e t t e r  i t i s capable of d i s p l a y s  In the c l a s s i c  comedies  we  of the  find  calculated, savagely cynical  beats  that  revenge,  plague  treatments;  fooling him.  lies  not  his rival  The  he  is tied  and  torment t h e i r  willing  malicious cruelty  inside  victim  f o r i t s own  bag; the  with  sake,  like  1  only i n c u c k o l d i n g the bourgeois, into plotting  dehumanizing rack  comes t o m i n d .  a  i n M a c h i a v e l l i s Mandragola—whose  murder and  i n which  But  i n almost  then  but  by  exposing  Chaplin's  a s s e m b l y - l i n e worker i s p l a c e d i n the also  up  Scapin  as when, i n Le M a l a d e i m a g i n a i r e ,  o f t h e young h e r o  pleasure  as when M o l i e r e ' s  h i s master w h i l e  exploitation,  physicians their  sadistic  film  every  l e a d s back t o s p r i n g : a b e t t e r w o r l d ,  Modern  Times  case, the  new  hope.  winter  This i s  t r u e even i n t h a t savage sub-genre s a t i r e — a l h o u g h i t s happy e n d i n g s  are o f t e n a l s o  contrived—as  i s the ending  ironic, of the  or  purposely  Beggar's Opera.  comedy comes c u r i o u s l y  c l o s e t o T r a g e d y on  points—just  be  overlap.  as  i t can  They b o t h  gone t e r r i b l y  Tragedy,  i t ij3 f a t e d  Jens  They b o t h  wrong.  The  t o be  Bj^zfrneboe c a n  be  of d i s t a n c e , of his  own  direction. result  difference way.  said  t o be  Bertolt  "Verfremdung."  countryman,  Ibsen,  with  Brecht,  naturally  Man  something  Scandinavian  His o u t r i g h t  l e d him  premise—that  forces at  i s , that i n  the  B r e c h t ' s v i e w o f T r a g e d y was  of a flawed  dark  winter  d e m o n s t r a t e how  that  d r a m a t i s t most i n f l u e n c e d by  some  t h a t autumn and  o f t e n have t o do  work i n human s o c i e t y . has  said  Black  the  dramatist  rejection  i n Brecht's  t h a t i t was  cannot  of  improve.;  the 5  136 Brecht  felt  flawed  society.  adopt  this  c o u l d be s e t s t r a i g h t  the t r a g i c  been s e e n  plays,  w o u l d be much more l i k e l y t o  premise.  Brecht's  already.  he w o u l d a d o p t  stylized  any  one way t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n  ongoing  rules  there i s rarely  all.  f i g h t with  good c a n be done.  form  t o blame f o r  a sense  that there i s  c a n be f i x e d .  I t i s simply  I t i s not  t h a t man i s f a t e d  i f he h a s t h e c o u r a g e ,  So f a r , t h i s  has n o t been t h e c a s e .  s o c i e t y with  He was most i n t e r e s t e d or  t o an  himself--and  Bjp'rneboe s e t o u t t o s t a g e h i s l i t e r a r y hierarchical  does n o t  Even i f  kind of s o c i e t y  faults  fate  to writing  episodic,  hard  i n the i n t e n t .  the  that  comic,  The c o o l ,  a particular  he f i n d s ,  turned  B r e c h t ' s , b u t w i t h an  of the t r a g i c .  holds  was n o t s i m p l y  b u t t h a t of a comedian, as  an e s s e n t i a l l y  always hide t h e compassion Bj^rneboe  attitude  When Bj^'rneboe  form, r e s e m b l i n g  undercurrent  r i d of a  Bj^rneboe  the p e r s p e c t i v e of a marxist, has  by g e t t i n g  a s s a u l t on  an e x t r o v e r t e d f o r m  i n illuminating  much  of t h e a t e r .  the guardian-type,  " f o r m y n d e r m e n n e s k e t , " t h e word w h i c h he h e l p e d  t o make  common u s a g e i n N o r w e g i a n , a n d w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d i n various  essays. . 5  These g u a r d i a n - p e o p l e  by  nature,  b u t n e e d n o t be a u t h o r i t i e s  it  helps.  They l o o k upon t h e m s e l v e s  take  i t upon t h e m s e l v e s  moral as t h e y , The  who  t h a t o t h e r s a r e j u s t as  are only secure  a r e b e i n g k i c k e d from  themselves—though  a s good p e o p l e ,  and t h a t everyone w i l l  guardian-people  that they  t o ensure  are authoritarian  f i t into  i f they  above, w h i l e  society.  have t h e s e n s e they  have  137 someone t o k i c k everybody's  below.  But  contradiction  the  across,  employ a s t y l e w h i c h  trilogy,  the H i s t o r y  Justice,  the keeper  of  perception that  works o f drama and  figure  i n his novel  referred  i s narrated t o as The  of the p r o t o c o l s .  prevails  there  Bj^rneboe  seems t o be e n t i r e l y i n  of B e s t i a l i t y — w h i c h  alienated  of  Still,  the d r a m a t i s t  t o t h e method he employed  isolative,  gone.  i t i s for  best.  To g e t h i s c r i t i q u e would  i n t h e end  lonely  similarity  a consistent  a l o n g way  f r o m t h e S t e i n e r i s m , m e t a p h y s i c s and  extroverted was  style  of language.  and v e r y d e c e p t i v e  and d i r e c t n e s s  t h a t dominated  his thinking  of h i s p l a y s  B j ^ r n e b o e had  H i s p l a y Amputation  with a l l i t s a c r o b a t i c  surrealism,  by F i r i t e a t e r n performance It  i n Stockholm.  t h a t was  i s clear  Ibsen t r a d i t i o n of  1970,  had  which—with  I t had  the  first  produced  to wait f o r a s t y l e enough"  (SS  of  239).  Bj^zSrneboe had t o b r e a k w i t h t h e the very notable exception  Norwegian  theater.  "has become a b u r d e n , an u n s h a k e a b l e preserves that  seventies  (Amputasjon),•  when i t was  b e f o r e the second w o r l d  dominated  and  The  to wait f o r a  "acrobatic/physical  then, that  Nordahl Grieg  completely  until  Rilkean  w i t h an eye t o w a r d  performance-as-event.  f r o m 1966  come  i n the f i f t i e s .  i n the s i x t i e s  d e v e l o p e d e v e r y s t e p o f t h e way  production  world  between h i s  simplicity  esthetics  Servant  i n much o f h i s f i c t i o n i s  is a stylistic fiction:  The  by  form of t h e a t e r  war—had " I b s e n " he  tombstone  over which  writes,  which  Ibsen r u l e d  and  138 therefore this  shall  remain unchanged"  c o u l d a l s o be s a i d  (BOM 1 9 3 ) .  of Ibsen's  i n f l u e n c e i n much o f  Western t h e a t e r t o d a y — p a r t i c u l a r l y Bj^rneboe's realistic than  source  and r e s o u r c e  illusion-theater  a simple  influences  case  from  t h a t of North  America.  i n h i s break with t h e  was B r e c h t ,  of i n f l u e n c e .  the arts  Of c o u r s e ,  and t h i s  Still,  and l i t e r a t u r e ,  i s more  as w i t h  a l l his  his attitude  t o w a r d B r e c h t w o u l d t u r n o u t t o be a n y t h i n g  but simple.  N e v e r t h e l e s s many c r i t i c s  continue to  make t h e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h  would  justifiably  Brecht well a f t e r  BjjzSrneboe's  death.  2. In t h e notes  t o h i s p l a y Many Happy R e t u r n s  dagen, 1 9 6 5 ) , w h i c h was h i s f i r s t putting  ( T i l l y k k e med  s u c c e s s f u l attempt  one o f h i s p l a y s on a m a j o r N o r w e g i a n  at  stage,  Bjjefrneboe p o i n t s up t h e emergence o f a new d r a m a t u r g y : he suggests  t h a t many o f t h e assumed g r o u n d r u l e s  d r a m a t u r g y were j u s t  as a n t i q u a t e d as t h e a n c i e n t s '  a b o u t t h e need f o r t h e u n i t i e s writes,  inherited with  no  from  i n t h e form  i s a typical  and p l a c e .  rules He  naturalistic  of c o n v e r s a t i o n , which i s  t h e G r e e k s and b r o u g h t  S c r i b e and I b s e n  out!'),  of time  " F o r example, t h e . t r a d i t i o n a l ,  retro-technique  i n modern  to i t s high-point  ( ' S i t down and w e ' l l s a y i t a l l reflection  l o n g e r hem us i n t o d a y ,  of t h e a t e r c o n d i t i o n s which  other than  i n t h e form of  139 conventions Brecht's  and dogmas."  epic  as w e l l .  The change i s " n o t o n l y owing t o  d r a m a t u r g y " b u t a number  The laws w h i c h g o v e r n  t h a n we t e n d t o b e l i e v e " For Bj^rneboe, Many Happy R e t u r n s  who  almost  t h e s t a g e a r e " f a r fewer  employs a f o r m  and The B i r d  naturalism."  always used  The s o n g s ,  a side  over  from  or even c o n t r a r y t o t h e events  this  c o n t r a s t method b o t h  statement  break  with  therefore, are  as a c o n t r a s t t o t h e d r a m a t i c  cast  of songs,  (Fugleelskerne,  a "total  "They d o n ' t  use  of music-theater i n  Lovers  they are s e t i n . light  influences  (SS 7 7 ) .  1966), songs s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e illusionistic  of other  lead  it--from  the action  forward, but  a p o i n t of view on s t a g e .  i n t h e scene  i t has been a t t e m p t e d  situations  distant By a p p l y i n g  s e q u e n c e s and t h e  to i n t e n s i f y the  and ' c o n t e n t ' o f t h e c h a n g i n g  phases of t h e p l o t  (-.' f a b e l ' ) upon w h i c h t h e p l a y b u i l d s " ( 7 7 ) . These statements dramaturgy i n f a c t Furthermore,  make i t f a i r l y  he due in  i t was t h e e n c o u n t e r  with Brecht's  to a consistent  Hans—a  rivaled  book t h a t  Bj^rneboe's  i t i n the f i r s t  rejection  The  reason  p l a c e , was  partly  of h i s e a r l y  the r e j e c t i o n s  Berliner  heretofore a  d r a m a t i s t , back t o t h e t h e a t e r .  h a d t u r n e d away f r o m  number  that  owes a g r e a t d e a l t o B r e c h t .  Ensemble i n 1959 w h i c h l e d B j ^ r n e b o e , disillusioned  clear  scripts,  of h i s f i r s t  which  n o v e l , Duke  he a s s e r t e d was t u r n e d down by e v e r y  publisher  i n Norway.  I t was i n f a c t  rejection  o f Duke Hans t h a t  after  he had f i r s t  the t o t a l  turned to  140 playwriting. Crows  (F0r  H i s debut n o v e l  her  (Om  Teater,  1978)  i t s present  from  this  1959 he  The  ready  in fact—we  form, s i m p l y  t o be  Tone  On  theater's letter  would not  be  7).  be  able to take i t runs  i n F i n l a n d , he  decided  contact with  contact with  rehearsal process  t h e members o f t h e  the B r e c h t i a n s would  lead  compose a s c o r e t o  Wekwerth, and Bird  Lovers  The  C a r l Weber, who  Bird  and  came  into  This close  relationships would  L o v e r s ) , Manfred  would e v e n t u a l l y d i r e c t  at the N a t i o n a l Theater  was  impetus  w i t h W o l f K a i s e r , composer Hans D i e t e r H o s a l l a (who later  to  Ensemble i n  company. to  a  the d r a m a t i s t  stay a t the B e r l i n e r  watched the  away  which,  a t the h e i g h t of i t s r e p u t a t i o n p r o v i d e d the He  Theater of  L a t e r he w r o t e  made h i s mark, b u t  on  Bj^rneboe,  of e s s a y s ,  S t r i n d b e r g i a n overtones  His  Cock  experiments  because the p u b l i c  produced  w r i t e r had  to debut.  needed.  close  one  the  " [ E ] v e n t h o u g h t h e theme may  comedy w i t h  t h o u g h i t was  not  from  k i n d o f m a t e r i a l " (OT  "realistic"  abort.  Before  as a p l a y .  to h i s c o l l e c t i o n  quotes  i n 1950:  current—timeless in  written f i r s t  introduction  rejection  1952,  hanen g a l e r ) a b o u t N a z i m e d i c a l  human b e i n g s , was in  of  The  i n Oslo.7  3. Bj^rneboe's  book On  Brecht  (Om  Brecht,  1977), p u b l i s h e d  p o s t h u m o u s l y , c e r t a i n l y w o u l d seem t o s t a n d as a t r i b u t e the master.  He  would a l s o  clearly  have a g r e e d  with  Peter  to  141 B r o o k ' s remark t o t h e e f f e c t theater  can  theater  history  Bj^rneboe him." other  i n some way  work t o d a y  suffer  a more f a l s e  nor  " i t s line  t h i n g s , a thorough  practice will be  that  a l l modern work i n t h e  t r a c e d back t o B r e c h t .  n e i t h e r begins  insists  Theater  be  that  that  ends w i t h  Although  Brecht,  o f d e v e l o p m e n t goes does n o t b u i l d  upon, among  knowledge o f B r e c h t ' s t h e o r y  lopsidedness.  understanding  and  Even so, use  of Brecht's  experimentally...."  He  was  theories—even  t h e o p p o s i t e o f what he  14).  to depart  T h e s e were t h e a s s e r t i o n s Bjp'rneboe  from  a loyal  Bj^rneboe's  translation  of Die D r e i g r o s c h e n o p e r  The  depth  and  Ensemble, the sense  of the  t o o , has  importance  in  experimentally to their  a laboratory—this  impressions  of t h i s  would l e a v e t h e i r gest,"  had  mark on t h e  "alienation"—the  final  the t a s t e  high l e v e l  i t s place. Berliner  of minute d e t a i l ,  consequences—as i f  of t r u t h .  of p r a c t i c a l  The  t h e a t e r work  future dramatist.  techniques  choice—all  "Social  of b r a c k e t i n g o f f  t h e s e d e v i c e s a r e t o be And  would u t i l i z e  the  moments  moments when c h a r a c t e r s / p e r f o r m e r s c a n d e m o n s t r a t e make a f r e e  (OB  is  o f t h e work a t t h e  commitment t o work a l l g e s t u r e s , a c t i o n s and through  own  Brecht enthusiast.  Fidelity,  precision  his  made i n a p e r i o d  essentially  faithful.  and  espoused  when he was  extraordinarily  would  works  B r e c h t worked u n d o g m a t i c a l l y willing  and  "Nothing  than dogmatic l o y a l t y .  t o do  through  although  these Brechtian techniques  how  found  Bj^rneboe  so u s e f u l  to a  they  142 fighter  i n the  social  caution  should  be  Brecht His  solely  used not  to the  attuned  who  to the  facial  mask.  his  essays  on  face:  " I have n e v e r  and  the  impression  mime i n g e n e r a l , f o r the  key  writing  made by  Unlike  (1968), the  containing  is  himself,  a change.  When he  toilet-cleaners' associated  with  are,  with  M a r c e a u , and  (OT  that  of  i s capable  gesture  p a r t of i n the  Semmelweis's  finally  scenes  techniques, bucket  of a r o t t i n g then s n i f f s  cat.  makes t h e  discovery  i n the  He  the a i r ,  bucket to determine  death epidemic  In  text, a de-scription  antiseptic  carcass  the  of  in his plays.  c h l o r i d e - o f - l i m e e l i m i n a t e s the the  i t  q u a l i t y of  h i s b a r e arms i n t o a  the  sniffs  and  gratuitous—stage  washing t e c h n i q u e s , and  pain,  the  on  the  of h i s a r t "  Bj^rneboe  to discover  e x c r e m e n t and  attempts v a r i o u s sniffs  deeply  and  greater  Attempting  from  of  in  In a p i e c e  imbued w i t h  Marcel  hardly  Semmelweis  Semmelweis d i g s  so  Brecht,  f o r movement, g e s t  of g e s t u r e .  power  i n Bj^rneboe's w r i t i n g about  directions  discovery  highly  power o f o b s e r v a t i o n  is characteristic  long d e t a i l e d — b u t  of experimental  poet  movement, t h e  to understanding  i s evident  stage.  theater.  The  seems t o come m o s t l y  seen a f a c e  unfathomable, which The  and  European performers.  impact  s u r e l y here l i e s  that  of B r e c h t i a n  e s t h e t i c as w e l l .  applies this  various  K i n s k i , the  obvious  t u r n s o n n e t s t o p e r f e c t i o n , was  He  Klaus  191).  angle  b e a u t y of g e s t u r e  the  the  political  could  i s so  to a s c r i b e h i s i n t e r e s t s i n  i n t e r e s t s were c l e a r l y  Bj/irneboe,  is  arena—this  i f there that  the  smell  hospitals—the  143 discovery is—for  i s made i n s i l e n c e .  i t underscores  Bj^rneboe, alone,  truth  the  e v e n i n t h a t most s o c i a l  to w i l d  character this  the  The  the  drama.  doubt, to r e a l i z a t i o n ,  entrance  room p u n c t u r e s  For  always d i s c o v e r s  of genres,  goes f r o m  desperation.  into  of d i s c o v e r y .  the  of  to  another  incredible  t e n s i o n of  silence. So,  although  Bj^rneboe's  p e r f o r m a n c e a r e w i d e and inspiration  writers  as  he  and  our  vital.  Brecht"  he  assesses  p r a i s e s them f o r f i g h t i n g to overlook  being  "among t h e  brink  of c a t a s t r o p h e . "  concise  130).  truth,"  But  an  illusion"  (131).  The  concerned  to whatever degree w i t h  latter us t o  Nevertheless, Brecht w i l l ambivalence. Bj^rneboe>  In the  essay  "The  t h e message o f  call  (OB  comes c l o s e t o a c c u s i n g B r e c h t  claimed  theater  artists  i n fact  up  a  certain  132-36)  of t h e f t  t o have w r i t t e n D i e Tage d e r  Days o f t h e Commune), when i t was  to  awareness.  i n t h e end Defeat"  the  startlingly  anti-illusionist  social  above  traditions  the  comes t o a somewhat  i s therefore c o n s i s t e n t with  having  (OB  c o n c l u s i o n : " I t i s becoming a moral crime  maintain  both  something t h a t  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h have b r o u g h t He  "Ernest  t h e works o f  "conventions, the  and  initial  In h i s essay  "the morale of the t r o o p s "  inclination  i n theater  Brecht's  "healthy, invigorating",  strengthens all  Bertolt  interests  varied,  i s undeniably  Hemingway and  form  solitude  i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t one  Semmelweis, i n s i l e n c e , joy,  A l l t h e more t e r r i b l e i t  in  Commune  a not  very  (The  144 extensive the  rewrite  Norwegian  o f t h e p l a y N e d e r l a g e t (The D e f e a t ) by  p o e t and d r a m a t i s t N o r d a h l G r i e g ,  most s i g n i f i c a n t  i n European  Brecht's dramatization beautiful,  Grieg's  Postscript"  which  Brecht—actually states  that  content  drama."  8  "one o f t h e  And t h o u g h  he  finds  o f t h e P a r i s Commune i s more  i s truer has been  (OB 134). included  In a  "Dialectical  by t h e e d i t o r s  a hand-written note l e f t  i n On  by B j ^ r n e b o e — h e  B r e c h t ' s o e u v r e i s , so f a r a s t h o u g h t and  go, and e v e n h i s f o r m ,  unoriginal:  A l l t h e t h o u g h t we f i n d i n B r e c h t i s u n i n d e p e n d a n t and unoriginal. I t i s , i n t h e w o r s t s e n s e o f t h e word, v u l g a r m a r x i s t , b u t s p i c e d up w i t h a l i t t l e L e n i n i s t c y n i c i s m h e r e and t h e r e , when t h e w h o l e t h i n g t h r e a t e n s t o g e t b o r i n g . One c a n go t h r o u g h B r e c h t ' s c o l l e c t e d w o r k s — f r o m t h e f i r s t t o t h e l a s t a c c e s s i b l e l i n e — a n d one f i n d s n o t one s i n g l e thought which i s n o t borrowed, n o t t a k e n from others.... Worst: Brecht l a c k e d t o a p a t h o l o g i c a l degree s i m p l e h u m a n i t y i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he w r o t e . (OB 122)  This reaction written  c a n be u n s e t t l i n g ,  by a man who c o n s i d e r e d B r e c h t o r i g i n a l l y  spiritual  "brother,"  much B r e c h t p o e t r y ("Von  n o t o n l y because  but also  s u c h a s "The I n f a n t i c i d e M a r i e  f o r compassion  and "To Those  among t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t from t h e f i r s t  however b l e a k t h e y may be. l a c k o f humanity ambivalence.  Farrar"  Us" ("An d i e N a c h g e b o r e n e n " ) — p o w e r f u l  t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d appeals  t o be h i s  b e c a u s e he was t r a n s l a t o r o f  der Kindesmorderin Marie F a r r a r " ) ,  Are Born A f t e r  i t is  half  of t h i s  Who poems  literary century,  I t c a n n o t be a p u r e and s i m p l e  i n B r e c h t .which a c c o u n t s f o r B ^ r n e b o e ' s  I t i s clear,  however, t h a t  Brecht's apparent  145 belief  that  one  temporarily with to  could  for certain  B j^rneboe.  of  might  butcher"  changing,  but  to  this  from  in  H i s t o r y of  Bestiality.  a  " i s the  sentimental  precise  9  the  poet's  ability  makes a  This  brings  Bjj^rneboe's  case  particularly  i n Lear  among t h o s e  well.  affinity  to  be  turns  out  much W i l l i a m s ' s of  the  though,  of  theoretical to  For solutions pressing  a  to  p o s i t i o n s on  protocols  writer—not  his  Edward  and  prophetic  society—and  one,  There  the  however  antithetical  i n f l u e n c e on  of  "pity,"  of W i l l i a m s ,  conscious  drama and  that  Bond—who  human  case  an  compassion  change a  Bj^rneboe.  strong  in a  seer,  calls  in  writes  This  A m e r i c a n d r a m a t u r g y was  another  the  thinking close to  In the  quite a  ultra-European yet  be  fighting  as  of  o b j e c t i v e , exact  such as  f o r w h a t he  Tennessee W i l l i a m s  and  to  contemporary dramatists,  closer  quality  1  power."  that  an  need  have e l i c i t e d  "Compassion"  compassion—but  a  desperately  Bjp'rneboe' s k e e p e r  most i m p o r t a n t  s i t well  perceive  would  suffering-with ('med-lidelse ).  represents  other  occasion  attitude  lambasting  Bj0rneboe,  on  away  not  change a w o r l d  ironic the  h i s humanity  human c a u s e s w o u l d  Brecht  "embrace t h e  need  negotiate  is  to  evidence,  Bj^rneboe's  theater which  i s much  home. a Norwegian dramatist to  the  question  most obvious  method or v a l u e s  crisis  of  who,  for  modern drama r e j e c t e d I b s e n ,  i s , " I f not  Ibsen,  a n s w e r was  Brecht.  are  into  called  i n looking  who  then?"  But  when  question,  the  The  the  first  Brecht's dilemma  146 becomes: August  " I f not  Brecht,  Strindberg's  compete w i t h insights,  and  who  l e a d us  For  Bj^rneboe,  i n s i g h t s i n t o modern t h e a t e r  Brecht's.  He  was  aware t h a t  to b e l i e v e .  and  only  could  Strindberg's  h i s methods f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g  were f a r more c l e a r - h e a d e d would  now?"  modern  p r e c i s e than h i s  theater,  reputation  1 0  4. For  Bj^rneboe, the  theater and  form, i n the  taste.  so-called the  itself  an  theater  t h a t has  a r t form.  p e r f o r m a n c e , he  theater of t h e i r  decadent empty,  common d e n o m i n a t o r  their  first  of  s u c h as  hatred the  American  descendants  on  to contradict his an  physicality"  (OT  harmless  i s smug enough t o  proclaim  "Theater  Tomorrow," p r o b a b l y on  the  tendency of  television  in  It is  e v o l u t i o n of a  formulation  t e c h n i c a l progress  list  "circus-like  i s the  In  Brecht's  adds t o t h e  condemns t h e  t o compete w i t h  cites  ("Teater imorgen") f o r  which l a c k s a r t , yet as  modern,  commercial,  "entertainment"  Tomorrow"  most c e n t r a l t h e o r e t i c a l and  he  He  c o m e d i e s and  What c o n c e r n s him  theater  first  lowest  T h i s m i g h t seem a t  i n "Theater  entertaining  But  forms of  shows, l i g h t  television.  154).  to the  "pure e n t e r t a i n m e n t . "  condemned o t h e r  call  the  T h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e modern p a r a l l e l s .  f o r m as w e l l .  variety  was  s e n s e t h a t i t was  i n i t s time c a t e r e d  public  for  operetta  and  film,  a r t of  his  theater  mainstream w h i c h by  "have b r o u g h t n a t u r a l i s m  way to i t s  147 pinnacle." imitating nothing he and  T h e a t e r ' s a t t e m p t t o o u t d o t h e s e m e d i a by them i s a t r e n d  short  turns  of r e a c t i o n a r y .  to Strindberg.  Grundgens"  admiration  w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d  To r e i n f o r c e t h i s  In the essay  i n the f i r s t  no c o a t c h e c k f e e s , e q u a l  decade of t h i s  Strindberg, social no  the s p i r i t u a l  aristocrat,  and e c o n o m i c q u e s t i o n s  enemy t o t h e a t e r  i n film,  from t h e a t e r  Strindberg itself.  w h i c h he r e f e r s  Brecht's  forty  years  enemy i s and w i l l operetta's driving is  a r t form. Bj^rneboe  main enemy  He q u o t e s an e s s a y by  later:  He saw  emerging  Strindberg,  i n which t h e  i s remarkably c l o s e to "The t h e a t e r ' s  most  dangerous  I grew up d u r i n g t h e  day o f g l o r y , when t h e arch-demon O f f e n b a c h  h u m a n i t y mad  contemptible  ..." ( 1 3 2 ) . the hatchery  shares,  especially Ensemble  contemptible  of that  after  i n pieces,  we c a l l  a trick....  while  genre  equally  contempt  h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s  (Strindberg:  was  the "star."  too, Strindberg's  handkerchief that  This  and d a n g e r o u s c r e a t u r e ,  Bj^rneboe  Berliner  t o compete.  be t h e o p e r e t t a .  accused of being  tricks,  (131).  but a separate  saw t h e a t e r ' s  position  "low t i c k e t  was a d e m o c r a t i n  t o a s "The S t a r A c t o r , "  Swedish d r a m a t i s t ' s  century.  and so o n .  to the l a s t "  T h e r e was no n e e d f o r t h e a t e r suggests that  seating,  Ekman  Strindberg's  I t was, i n i t s e s s e n c e , a d e m o c r a t i c a r t f o r m : prices,  time  argument,  "Strindberg,  (OT 1 2 7 - 3 3 ) , he comments on  for film  at that  f o r stage  a t the  "The hands t o r e t h e t h e f a c e was s m i l i n g .  sphinx-like smiles,  artful  Today pauses,  148 false The  exits,  point  arm movements, f l i r t i n g  i s that  learning  methods and o l d e f f e c t s . with The  a public "star"  o f t e n means And b e c a u s e  the winning  tricks  something  aging—this  even  o v e r and o v e r .  see such  i s a phenomenon t h a t  "witchcraft"  (133). S t r i n d b e r g ,  negative value of s u s t a i n i n g  succeeds  a r t i s present.  becomes so t a k e n i n by a l l t h i s  through the years i t cannot  And when  trickery,  that  performers  Strindberg  d e s c r i b e s as  t o o , was c o n c e r n e d  petty  1 1  forgetting old  does n o t a t a l l i m p l y t h a t  uses  the p u b l i c  with the p u b l i c " ) .  illusions  with the  f o r a theater  public. If  Bj^rneboe  Strindberg's committed tribute  t o o k p l e a s u r e and c o m f o r t  contempt f o r s t a r s ,  and c o l l e c t i v e  t o h i s moral  as w e l l  from  as h i s a d v o c a c y  work i n t h e t h e a t e r — h e a l s o  fiber.  the A b s u r d i s t s f o r having missed  retrieving  vital  modern i d e a s w h i c h  they  their  "could  found w i t h B r e c h t , " but h i s primary c r i t i c i s m their  the world  g e n e r a t i o n had s e e n t h e e v i l ,  lives  Auschwitz,  under  i n t h e age a f t e r  they lack a d r i v e  necessary to give a play bluntly  traces  the e n t i r e  lasting  value."  be  found  Sonata  o n l y have  i s this:  that  and t h e shadow  "which i s He  somewhat  s c h o o l o f the Absurd t o t h e scene  human b e i n g emerges on s t a g e t o s p e a k The G h o s t  chance a t  H i r o s h i m a and  for justice  S t r i n d b e r g ' s mummy i n t h e c l o s e t ,  in  paid  I n " T h e a t e r Tomorrow" he  criticizes  though  of  (Spoksonaten).  i n which  and a c t l i k e  Even  a  a parrot  i f a r e d l i n e can  r u n n i n g from t h e A b s u r d i s t s back t o S t r i n d b e r g ' s  149 inkwell,  the  religious  Absurdists  have a l s o c h o s e n t o o v e r l o o k  temperament—an unconventional  temperament:  "he  b e l i e v e d i n God  as  religious  Brecht  did in  They b o t h b e l i e v e d i n j u s t i c e — h e r e o r b e y o n d " Because the justice,  Theater  b e c a u s e i t was  illusions"—the  school  by  Bj^rneboe.  in  h i s w r i t i n g s on  high  of the  The  p r a i s e , as  intellect  into  Absurd  not  of the  theater.  "pure  are  in  Bj^rneboe, h i s own  as w e l l .  as  who  the  only  narrator  a u t h o r Bj^Trneboe, and critics  have f a l l e n  identifying  the  d o m i n a t e d by life the  with  two.  playwright  Strindberg's  into  the  And  autobiographical under the  trilogy,  but the  a number o f  even the who  merit  Strindberg "presence"  i n the  of  ones—in  with  Semmelweis i s  principal  names J o h a n n , A x e l ,  The  live  a  t h a t many o f  mouths o f  character.  which the  the  Norwegian  t o Bj^zfrneboe' s own  plays—the  of  completely  play  i n both the  plays  History  at times appears to  o f many o f t h e and  drawn between  snare  his historical  novels  name  pure  i s often a strong  in fact,  f i t well  o f t e n been s a i d  dismissed  m e n t i o n e d by  transform  in his f i c t i o n  so many p a r a l l e l s  and  toward  is virtually  seems t o m e l d t o g e t h e r  a character  l i n e s would  going  latter  In Bj#rneboe's n o v e l the  drive  "break  rarely  can  157).  physicality."  work, n o t  Bestiality,  the  Lenin.  (OT  Only Durrenmatt w i l l  O t h e r c o m p a r i s o n s m i g h t be and  to  Absurd  'Absurdists  a dramatist  lacked  prepared  his  the same  characters  has in  so-called various  protagonists  Strindberg,  or  the  150 Stranger  a r e c o n s i d e r e d t r a n s p a r e n t masks f o r t h e  himself. distance  Y e t i n any work o f f i c t i o n t h e r e i s a p u r p o s e f u l between t h e r e a l  author—and closeness novels.  a u t h o r and  and  that  That  distance  i s their  art.  be  Semmelweis.  autonomy f r o m t h e i r fully  created  A striking is  Christian and  T h i s goes a l l t h e more f o r  Father  (Till  of  (Fadren), or i n  Damaskus) ,, o r i n  authors they deserve, they  between S t r i n d b e r g  e x a m i n e s t h e way  affected  cannot  own  their  work.  times  and  Bj^rneboe  the s p i r i t u a l  T h e i r works,  in social  and  systems  highly  political  a r e a t t h e same t i m e d e e p l y s t e e p e d i n myth, and  pagan m y t h o l o g y ,  O l d Testament  time-bound backdrops  their  I f these c h a r a c t e r s are not g i v e n  similarity  engaged w i t h t h e i r questions,  in  that  on t h e s t a g e .  a p p a r e n t when one  they adopted  both  F o r example i n t h e c a s e  o r i n To Damascus  Bj^rneboe's the  implied  to great e f f e c t  S t r i n d b e r g ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s i n The XIV,  the  both of t h e s e w r i t e r s manipulate  dramatic characters:  Erik  author  mythology  settings  of t h e i r  for timeless  "system"—comprised  and  Greek mythology,  p a r a b l e s , so t h a t  works seem t o become  conflicts.  of elements  a d o c t r i n e was  and  Jewish  the special  Strindberg's s p i r i t u a l  of Theosophy,  B u d d h i s m and m y s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y — h e e x t e n s i o n of h i s p o l i t i c a l  and  social  Swedenborg,  f o u n d t o be a views.  an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s p i r i t  of  logical  Socialism  Christianity,  whether t h e s o c i a l i s t s had  come t o a d m i t  Bj^rneboe's  h i s profound grasp of the O l d  Anthroposophy,  as  i t y e t or  not.  1 2  151 T e s t a m e n t and  h i s understanding  of the  submerged somewhat i n h i s y e a r s but  they  that  he  remain only wrote.  foundation searching urgent  f o r an  West:  liberalism,  great  nearly years  class  "Strindberg  communism.  of the  highest  system, the  feud."  was  once a g a i n  chauvinism  attempt  i n t o the  sixties  t o b r e a t h e new  During social  i n Sweden, t h e  policies  of the  who,  and  life  of the  allies  establishments  of t h i s  kind  c u l t u r e feud. against  him,  Strindberg  face  the  anti-Russian  was  engaging  in  reduced the  hypocrisy  of a l l t h i s .  perceived  i n h i s own  three  arena to attack  powerful—and  i n the  recall  political  "feud,"  imperialistic  s u p e r p o w e r s , as w e l l as  justice  trial  and  into  occupied  last  i n h i s v i e w , had  a u t h o r i t i e s of both the  of  the  the  press—which  B j/z>rneboe' s p o l e m i c s a g a i n s t  obscenity  In the  e m e r g i n g m i l i t a r i s m and  of h i s o l d l i b e r a l  the  the  prevailing  That event, which  order.  themselves to f l a t t e r e r s  with  to  free-market  a European c u l t u r a l  h e r o - w o r s h i p of a r t i s t s  war  spiritual is  of the  Swede's powers d u r i n g  of h i s l i f e ,  plunged  and  of r e s p o n d i n g  failures  everything  H i s methods i n p u t t i n g i t i n t o p r a c t i c e  a l l of the  battle  in  i n w h i c h he  Christianity,  seventies, Bj^rneboe w i l l  the  years  the  surface  intellectual  capable  r a i s e d by  of the  anarchism.  the  ideology  questions  capitalism,  during  an  were  i n c r e a s i n g engagement,  beneath the  They p r o v i d e  f o r him  ideologies  just  of  Gnostics,  education country,  There i s the as w e l l as  cold  his battles  and  criminal  bear the case of  other  stamp the  appearances  152 in  t h e d o c k e t t o answer f o r c h a r g e s he made  against still  the courts  and p r i s o n s  a denigrating attack  wide-ranging p u b l i c debates novels All be  or t o defend c o l l e a g u e s ,  f u r t h e r a p p e a r a n c e s and t e s t i m o n y  against  political  in Politiken.  important  predecessor  a Christiania confiscated  i n Scandinavia.  from t h e l a s t  a literary  Bohehne ( F r a K r i s t i a n i a  by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , and r e s u l t e d i n h i s  "culture  tradition  feud.  feud"  "Strindberg  (BOM  190).  Ibsen. contest,  the F e r t i l e "  of S t r i n d b e r g ,  him o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  n o t become  a sacred  In t h i s  essay,  i f one i s l o o k i n g  by c i t i n g  "His l a s t  the Strindberg  outburst  of rage  t o d i e an u n p o p u l a r man.  he s e t s S t r i n d b e r g  open new d o o r s o f p e r c e p t i o n  i n o u r own  it  he  who  he  up  clear that there  f o r a dramatist  Of I b s e n ,  feud.  ("Strindberg-den  national treasure while  I t becomes i m m e d i a t e l y  i s not Brecht.  example o f t h i s  i s that of the Strindberg  1963) B j ^ r n e b o e b e g i n s  He w r i t e s  assured  century i s  Boh^men) was  But perhaps the g r e a t e s t  fruktbare",  One  p o l e m i c i s t whose From  imprisonment.  In  Shepherd.  b a t t l e s m i g h t be s a i d t o  tradition  Norway's own Hans J a e g e r ,  did  T h e r e were  1 3  f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s  and c u l t u r a l  an i n h e r i t e d l i t e r a r y  and  t o d e f e n d h i s work  J o n a s , Under a H a r d e r Heaven and The E v i l  these  other  publicly  He  lived"  against i s no  can  still  century—again, i f  says:  Ibsen's p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of departure c o n s i s t s of i n h e r i t e d m o r a l i d e a l s and n o t i o n s a b o u t i d e a l s — a n d h i s e n t i r e l i f e he w i l l t h i n k a l o n g t h e same l i n e s : The w o r l d i s ordered, moral, l o g i c a l . He won't have i t any o t h e r  153 way. I n t h e same way, h i s whole d r a m a t u r g i c a l and t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e i s i n h e r i t e d and t r a d i t i o n a l . He g o t h i s d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e f r o m S c r i b e , among o t h e r s , and he has g o t t e n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a o f t h e b o u r g e o i s drama, t h e d i n i n g room as t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w o r l d , f r o m Hebbel.... I b s e n c o n c l u d e s and c l o s e s an e p o c h , a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r d e r e d a r c h i v e o f a cosmos. When he comes t o t h e p o i n t where r e a s o n no l o n g e r s u f f i c e s , he u s e s a l o n g - t e s t e d m y s t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , b o t h s c e n i c a l l y and philosophically: He g i v e s a g l i m p s e down i n t o an i r r a t i o n a l and N o r w e g i a n a b y s s , w h i l e he p r o f o u n d l y and a m b i g u o u s l y adds t h a t God and m o r a l i t y a r e i n f a c t down t h e r e as w e l l ; f o r e v e r y t h i n g has a r e a s o n a b l e m e a n i n g , above a l l t h o s e t h i n g s we u n d e r s t a n d n o t h i n g a b o u t . . . . Heaven, H e l l and t h e a b y s s must be j u s t as w e l l o r d e r e d as an o f f i c e i n p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s i n S k i e n . The w o r l d o r d e r i s an a l l e m b r a c i n g a r c h i v e o f j u s t i c e . I t i s the b o u r g e o i s w o r l d w h i c h comes t o a c l o s e w i t h I b s e n . (BOM 192-93)  Strindberg,  on t h e o t h e r hand, has  an e n t i r e l y  v i e w o f t h i n g s , t h o u g h h i s i n h e r i t a n c e may Ibsen's. from  He  examines, observes  b e i n g as  estimation, things  "perfect"  he  uses  entirely  as  and  Ibsen,  his literary  be  different the  describes.  but  in  same as  He  i s far  Bj^rneboe's  inheritance  to  begin  new:  He gave f r e e p l a y t o h i s i n h e r i t a n c e , he t o o k i t f u r t h e r , he d e v e l o p e d i t . His world view i s changing, i t i s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f , he c h a n g e s b o t h h i s c o n t e n t and h i s d r a m a t i c f o r m ; he was t h e f i r s t t o i n t r o d u c e t h e most b r u t a l n a t u r a l i s m , and he was t h e f i r s t to break w i t h n a t u r a l i s m a g a i n . U n t i l shortly before h i s d e a t h he was o c c u p i e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l t h e a t e r , w i t h transforming theater, with experimentation. In terms of p u r e t h e a t r i c a l i t y , S t r i n d b e r g has been an i n s p i r a t i o n , whereas I b s e n has b e e n a b u r d e n . . . . (193)  Here, c l e a r l y , Brecht—and theatrical  i s a common d e n o m i n a t o r  Bj/Jrneboe. rules  and  for Strindberg,  Even i f i t i s t r u e t h a t  inherited  a l l the  theories for writing  plays  154 and  p e r f o r m i n g on s t a g e c a n be b r o k e n , t h e r e  r u l e w h i c h c a n n o t be i g n o r e d : characters,  most  i n words, i n a c t i o n s ,  between  between p e r f o r m e r s , between p e r f o r m e r s a n d  public—everything the  i s o n l y one  social,  anti-social  must  be s t r u g g l e .  but i n t h i s  of thearts.  Theater  i snot only  s e n s e a l s o t h e most  I t i sp o t e n t i a l l y  t h e most  polemical. Bj^rneboe intended as  a dialectical  Bestiality.  that  life  He c o n s i d e r e d  direction.  1 4  /  a large  published.  1  Semmelweis h i s f i r s t completed play  Emma Goldman  f r a g m e n t , Red Emma  Barely  5  t i m e , was t o have been i n t h e  A partially  of American a n a r c h i s t  pivotal:  o f Freedom"  r e s p o n s e t o h i s own H i s t o r y o f  Much o f i t , t h i s  f o r m o f drama. in  t o embark on a " H i s t o r y  begun, t h i s  effort  on t h e  was t o have  been  (Rjtide Emma), h a s been  History  o f . F r e e d o m was t o  have been t h e s t o r y o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s o c i e t y ' s u n r e p e n t a n t h e r e t i c s , f r e e d o m ' s most u n c o m p r o m i s i n g partisans.  But i t could  Bj/frneboe e v e n t u a l l y self-imposed of  resources  place  but  struggle  not only  of a polemic  that  with  comparatively  short  t h e most  they a r e t h e  society.  They demand  i n the a r t of controversy.  i n an extended H i s t o r y  o f freedom.  which  a long  and n o t h i s t o r i c a l l y  They a r e s t u d i e s  They a r e l i n k s  after  i n a land  to i t s innovators,  p r o d u c t s o f an ongoing a response.  of a l ltheplays  came t o w r i t e ,  apprenticeship,  theatrical  friendly  be s a i d  o f Freedom,  155  5. Although  B r e c h t and S t r i n d b e r g s u p p l i e d B j ^ r n e b o e  he n e e d e d by way  o f new  fulfill  he r e q u i r e d o f t h e drama.  place,  a l l that  o f t h e p r e - n u c l e a r age.  articulated.  entirely  "The J u n g l e B e h i n d  assesses the c o n t r i b u t i o n  he h i m s e l f a d m i r e s  There  that  When he w r i t e s a b o u t  and sole  outsiders:  Bj^rneboe (OT  reflect  h i s own  s t r u g g l e s and  criminals, inhabit  about  himself.  questions of e s t h e t i c s ,  statement,  The cause,  of the w r i t e r  outcasts that  1962)  of the  W i l l i a m s — u n l i k e h i s works on  The a r t i s t ' s  a cause.  only that  The N i g h t  t h e comments he makes on  dramaturgy a r e put t o the s i d e .  up l i k e  for a  and i f n o t B r e c h t o r  he c o u l d be w r i t i n g  and B r e c h t - - a l l  focus.  The c a s e  a r e p l a c e s i n t h e e s s a y where t h e p a r a l l e l  comes so c l o s e ,  Strindberg  age, a sense of  of Tennessee W i l l i a m s  As i s o f t e n t h e c a s e ,  figure  large  i d e a o f c o m p a s s i o n , must be  ("Skogen bak I g u a n a n a t t e n " ,  103-10).  first  then?  In t h e essay Iguana"  new  T h e r e f o r e , i f not Ibsen,  Strindberg—who  goals.  I n t h e new  what  d i d not  In the  a r e by and  d e s t i n y must t a k e t h e f o r e g r o u n d .  renewed, a l m o s t  the  even t o g e t h e r they  t h o u g h t h e y were modern, t h e y  writers shared  forms,  with  i n this  Content  becomes t h e  t h e message, i s t a k e n case, though, i s not  h i m s e l f , i t i s t h e cause  drug  method  addicts, misfits,  of the  heretics  the p l a y s of Tennessee W i l l i a m s .  and  156 R e m a r k i n g on W i l l i a m s ' e a r l y States, all  he  notes  America  sides.  at a certain  t u r n e d a g a i n s t him.  "un-American"—he  Bjvarneboe,  announcing  that  that  he  Bj^rneboe  have been W i l l i a m s ' s r e a l considers  one  the world has  o f God. has  He  post-Auschwitz  On  f o r t h w i t h a remark t h a t health":  "He  nerves,  ' h e a l t h y ' and but  heart"  (104).  cites  this  they  suffer  theme i s  of humanity,  he  today  that  and  suffers  view of  with  good  not o n l y of a  Orpheus D e s c e n d i n g ,  souls,  with  a breakdown  of t h a t which i s worse: a  The  of  p o i n t , Bj/frneboe comes  goes a b o u t  hands o f t h e good c i t i z e n s . of s u f f e r i n g  Suddenly  t h a t Williams's encounter  Val—the outsider—suffers  gallery  He  playwright's  the c r u e l t y  positive,  intellect,  poet  and  e n c a p s u l a t e s h i s own  who  dulled  He  Iguana t o  Williams i s a post-Hiroshima  writer.  "mental  (103).  of t h e  long breakdown—but  i t s good g r o u n d s .  acute,  W i l l i a m s ' s fundamental  senses  been one  dirt."  to crack,  past"  Night  of the American  i n three v a r i a t i o n s " :  and  i n the  answer t o t h e o n s l a u g h t .  "sovereign masterpieces."  nature  appeared  judges  "unhealthy,"  became so  i t , a l o n g w i t h Orpheus D e s c e n d i n g  Summer, t o be  "cruelty  life  h i s " n e g a t i v e p e r i o d was  Despite t h i s ,  Last  " r o o t e d around  finally  United  a t t a c k s came f r o m a l l  a p p r a i s e d as  a t t a c k on h i s v i e w o f A m e r i c a n  writes  i n the  p o i n t i t seemed as i f  The  I n t h e m e d i a W i l l i a m s was  "negative," The  that  smashing success  dulled  i n which  a diabolical  death  at  p l a y i s s e t up w i t h  t o o , however.  For t h e i r  e v e n more a t t h e hands o f t h e p e o p l e  the  who  the a sins have  157 " n e v e r b r o k e n down, have n e v e r b e e n o u t on t h e s t r e e t ,  been l o c k e d up, have  and have n e v e r  are t h e r e f o r e without compassion" young woman i n S u d d e n l y  Last  edge o f t h e m a d h o u s e — a f t e r  seen t h e w o r l d — a n d  (106).  He c i t e s  to write  having escorted  one poem a y e a r .  attitudes  brought  witness.  Bjjzfrneboe l a t c h e s  this  i n particular.  play If  at the  her wealthy he u s e s a s  H i s Western  on h i s own d e a t h , t o w h i c h  increasing  also the  Summer who moves a l w a y s  poet c o u s i n t o t h e underdeveloped w o r l d , which inspiration  never  she was  sole  onto t h e c e n t r a l metaphor o f  numbers o f p e o p l e l a c k t h e c o m p a s s i o n t o  stop the repeating pattern  of c r u e l t y  and c a t a s t r o p h e , t h e  q u e s t i o n t h e n becomes how t o g e t t h e message a c r o s s t o so many h e a r t s f r o z e n by t h e Medusa c a l l e d Night  o f t h e Iguana  contains a figure  p r o v i d e an answer, and c r e a t e The  central  figure  defrocked p r i e s t as a t o u r  t o be s u r e — w h o  bring  priest—a  i n h i s present occupation  ladies  t o the worst  them t o some v i s i o n ,  hell-holes i n  e x a c t s from  t h r e a t e n e d with the mental oblivion  according  he i s i n f a c t  I n t h e e n d , o f c o u r s e , he p a y s  the world often  towards  some a p p r e h e n s i o n a s w e l l .  h e r e i s a b r o k e n man, a  American  v e r y good p r i e s t .  force,  both  As he l e a d s h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n a l o n g a p a t h t h a t he  intends w i l l  which  t h a t might  guide takes h i s congregation of decent,  middle-aged Mexico.  "the normal."  such p e o p l e . hospital,  i n the shark i n f e s t e d  t o Bj^rneboe, t r i e d  a  the p r i c e  Bound by  he i s drawn  s e a . He h a s ,  t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s , "How  158 can  I overcome t h e w o r l d ? "  world?"  He  The  has  questions  defrocked official  priest or  are  novel  he moves t h r o u g h a scripture  can  of J u s t i c e , "  grapples  terrain  of t r u t h .  the  farcical,  to  Williams's The  t h o u g h he  plays,, the The  these  questions  figure  of  he  as  does  the  prison chaplain i n  f u n c t i o n s as  "guardian-types"  i s likewise breaking  court  n a r r a t o r of  o f E u r o p e , c r e a t i n g as  In the  well-meaning  108).  h i s work.  with  emerges i n v a r i o u s f a s h i o n s .  Bj^rneboe's  i n the  (OT  attributes  echoed throughout  the  I live  answer t o n e i t h e r  trilogy,  Many Happy R e t u r n s ,  being  the  "How  which Bj^rneboe  "Servant  Bj^rneboe's  priest  found  and,  one  of  to the p o i n t  of  down, and c e a s e l e s s l y  consuming t r a n q u i l i z e r s .  T h i s i s of course  member o f two  a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the  essentially  C h u r c h and  t h e p r i s o n s y s t e m , he  In the  he  end  asks  imparter before is  he  to take  as d e f e n s e  counsel.  into  s y s t e m , and  latter. who,  who  he  I n The  i s thereby  i s defending  created that?  by  of  call. the  faith,  Bird  and  an  defrocked  Lovers, i t  originally  former  war  his fellow partisans  f o r c e d to launch on  a  built-in  t h o u g h he  execution  a challenging inquiry  those  is a  of  w o u l d have t o be  himself appointed He  his  cell  a m i n i s t e r of the  priest  p a r t i n the  finds  evil—for  both  This p r i e s t  a defrocked  criminals,  "court"  Perhaps t h e r e  c o u l d become t h e  in fact  intends  i n being  of v i s i o n .  to betray  f o r f o r g i v e n e s s i n the  y o u n g , hanged p r i s o n e r . contradiction  has  b e c a u s e as  the  origins  are products  of  o f an  I n Semmelweis t h e  the  evil  doctor  159 himself  i s a k i n d of  physician, teachings  "defrocked p r i e s t . "  p e r s e c u t e d by on a n t i s e p t i c  the a u t h o r i t i e s , techniques  t o by h i s c o l l e a g u e s as a doctrine"  (SS  Taking a writer,  Fired  "new  are  he  as  finds  scornfully  religion,  a  chief that  referred  salvation  228 ) .  into  account  i t m i g h t be  Bj0xneboe's s e l f - d e c l a r e d  said  that  these p e c u l i a r  s e r v e as m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e a u t h o r  and  role  priests  his task.  The  l e d D a n t e , and  mortality,  so t h a t  must come f i r s t  they w i l l  to that  b e f o r e he  can  B^errneboe  singles  to consciousness  really  the  light  out a speech  and  One .  vision,  by W i l l i a m s ' s sums up  T e n n e s s e e W i l l i a m s and  I t i s quoted  h i s work.  s i n c e Bj^frneboe i n d i c a t e s  artist's  evil,  o f t h e "moment of freedom."  p r i e s t / t o u r - g u i d e w h i c h , f o r him,  length,  can  own  have a c h a n c e t o s e e .  "moment o f t r u t h "  see  of t h e i r  as  poet  t o o must t a k e h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n on t h e p i l g r i m a g e i n t o as V i r g i l  his  that  the  success here  of  at  i t illustrates  an  highest goals:  The whole w o r l d ... God's w o r l d has b e e n t h e r a n g e o f my travels. I haven't stuck to the schedules of the brochures and I've a l w a y s a l l o w e d t h e ones t h a t were w i l l i n g t o s e e , t o see 1 — t h e u n d e r w o r l d s o f a l l p l a c e s , and i f t h e y had h e a r t s t o be t o u c h e d , f e e l i n g s t o f e e l w i t h , I gave them a p r i c e l e s s c h a n c e t o f e e l and be t o u c h e d . And none w i l l e v e r f o r g e t i t , none o f them, e v e r , n e v e r ! ( W i l l i a m s 83)  Once a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s o f method and aside,  then  esthetics  comes t h e q u e s t i o n o f v a l u e s — w h i c h  must a l w a y s come b a c k t o .  are  put  art  B j/frneboe' s m i s s i o n as an  itself artist  160 is  encapsulated  i n these  lines.  6. Bj^rneboe  had  m a t u r e d as a t h e a t e r t h i n k e r and  essayist  somewhat b e f o r e he  reached  fact  w i t h the v a s t m a j o r i t y of h i s  i s i n keeping  undertakings,  m a t u r i t y as a p l a y w r i g h t .  even s t r i c t l y  research  a l w a y s came f i r s t .  attempts  quite early,  at  the  S t e i n e r School  completed by  literary He  actually  Brothers"  i n the e a r l y  ("Joseph og hans brgfdre") and  these plays with h i s p u p i l s ,  produced  a g a i n by  but  do n o t  myths, was  S t e i n e r School  form  f o r him  i s of s p e c i a l  his  concerns,  students  a t the time  interest,  while  as  i t bears  I t i s a small epic  and  seen  His or  The  He  t h e y have been in later plays.  years, Theater,  reach  spontaneous,  a way  of  cultural heritage. i t d i s p l a y s many o f  certain  traits  d e v e l o p m e n t as  play, set partly  most n o t a b l y i n t h e T u s c a n y w h i c h w i l l much i n more m a t u r e w o r k s , b u t  teacher  first  and  a means t o  direct,  come t o bloom d u r i n g h i s l a t e r  dramatist.  and  p a r t of a c o n t i n u o u s  "Raneiro" early  The  "Raneiro  p a r t of h i s c o l l e c t e d  i n a manner t h a t was  making them f e e l  will  eller  a  L j u s l a g e n " ) . 1,6  produced  children  still  T h e s e s h o r t p i e c e s were " J o s e p h  ("Raneiro,  first  t o be p e r f o r m e d  Flame"  like  made h i s  fifties.  Candle's  they  A p e r i o d of  however, w h i l e he was  p l a y s were f o r c h i l d r e n ,  children.  ones.  This  in  which a Italy,  come t o r e p r e s e n t  i t t r a v e r s e s the  so  161 Mediterranean.  I t i s the s t o r y  of a former  t h e c r u s a d e s , who  l e a v e s t h e wars t o c a r r y  burns  tomb i n J e r u s a l e m  in Christ's  Italy. who  When a t r o u b a d o r  carries  a light  must have no fire.  Day  asks  flame  a l l t h e way  c a n keep i t l i t , he  n i g h t the f i r e  the  responds:  other happiness must be  your  which  back t o  the repentant f i g h t e r  o t h e r c o n c e r n , no  and  warrior during  how  one  "You  than  the  whole l i f e "  (UMH  143) . His of  serious  Evil  Shepherd  (Den  were t h e d r a m a t i c v e r s i o n s  although  becoming a s u c c e s s f u l for (Til  a play—this l y k k e med  comedy he  successful  his  encounter  One  theater  eventually  would e v e n t u a l l y ,  The  same f a t e was  and w h i c h was Has  Seen Us  h i s own  after material  Returns  i n store  for a  apparently offered  (Ingen har  by h i s own  with the B e r l i n e r  i n the e a r l y  b o t h were  t h e e p i c - s t y l e Many Happy  attempts,  B r e c h t ' s work, and  and  B o t h were i n t e n d e d t o  n o v e l , once a g a i n s u p p l y t h e  dagen).  p r o d u c t i o n s : No His  i n form, the l a t t e r  time  completed,  ( F ^ r hanen g a l e r ) and  Onde h y r d e n ) .  rather n a t u r a l i s t i c  discarded,  THE  efforts  h i s n o v e l s B e f o r e t h e Cock Crows  The be  first  sett  two  o s s ) ,\7.:  e s t i m a t i o n , come  after  Ensemble, h i s immersion  literary  investigations  into  sixties.  PLAYS  Many Happy R e t u r n s  ( T i l l y k k e med  d a g e n , 1965)  was  to  be  in  162 Bj/zJrneboe s b r e a k t h r o u g h  on  was  o f t h e m a t e r i a l from  1  a complete  S h e p h e r d and "J'accuse"  a series  directed  were c h a r g e d lives  by  of essays  a t t h e p r i s o n and  Bj^rneboe  with  were s e r i o u s , as he  authorities could not  had  legal  had  The  charges  the  social  arena,  met  t h e n o v e l was  with  The case,  that  Bj^rneboe  he  t o put  The  Evil  Krog  was  ailing  Only  one  of Krog's scenes  The  story  Tonnie, cannot friends parole. having by  who  a t the time,  p u b l i s h e d , one another  fighter  d i e d not  remains i n the  imprisonment.  long  afterward.  finished version.  his girlfriend,  the  authorities,  and  respectability  who  and  easy  i n prison.  He  has  been t a u g h t  her  also  H i s m o t h e r , who  He  on after  i s rejected  wants n o t h i n g more t h a n life.  of h i s  f o r him  h i s term  who  from  one  h i m s e l f i s l e t out  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i n g s are not been stamped by  graduate,  nevertheless  About the time  hangs h i m s e l f , he  q  stage.  becomes a r e p e a t i n g o f f e n d e r , b u t  in jail  employment.  the  i s t h a t o f a young r e f o r m - s c h o o l  tolerate  of  to discuss a  S h e p h e r d on and  to  young  1  collaboration  the  amounted  were k i l l i n g  Norway's e s t e e m e d p l a y w r i g h t s , H e l g e K r o g , in  young  specific  experts  his  They  hanged h i m s e l f a f t e r  authorities  inmates d i r e c t l y A f t e r  comprise  h e l d much p o t e n t i a l .  imprisonment.  the a c c u s a t i o n t h a t the  Evil  the d e s t r u c t i o n of  been warned by m e d i c a l  tolerate  It  systems.  s e i z e d upon one  o f a young p r i s o n e r who  The  which t o g e t h e r  t h a t m i g h t have o t h e r w i s e  charges that  reworking  a major Norwegian s t a g e .  lesson  by  comfort  i s t u r n e d down f o r  s e n t him  to the  reformatory  in  163 the  first  place years before to give herself  carry  on a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man,  him.  Tonnie  also w i l l  p l a n a j o b , which  first  will  also  conspirators  in isolation.  complete  their  h o m e — t h e y t o y w i t h him minimal—Tonnie's well-adapted  in  R,0dtopp  Together  they  to take h i s  cruelly,  girlfriend  citizen  and  and  cell,  After  the  was  two  "mugging" o f Padda i n h i s b u t t h e damage i s  Kari  p l a y s the r o l e  b e t r a y s him,  to having cared a great deal  his j a i l  him,  allow Tonnie  to  have  on o l d Padda, t h e r e f o r m s c h o o l t e a c h e r who  to p l a c e Tonnie  while  not  i s t a k e n i n , however, by h i s f r i e n d  ("Red"), a c u n n i n g d w e l l e r o f t h e s t r e e t s .  revenge  the freedom  of a  professing  f o r him.  a l l the  Tonnie,  back  makes t h e c h o i c e h i s mate t o o k b e f o r e  t a k e s h i s own  life—as  the p r i s o n doctor  had  predicted. One  c a n wonder i f t h e r e i s n o t a t r a c e  theatrical  tradition  s u c h as T i c k e t cannot it.  are  of Leave  get a second  I t s f o r m was  theater.  which  chance.  sequence  Tonnie  Still,  and  other.  his g i r l  Kari,  l e a s h by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .  who She  i n which  i s one  in  songs  with the a c t i o n .  so t h a t  There  criminal  f o r Norwegian  theater,  conflict  melodramas  t h e r e i s much new  t w i c e , i n c o n t r a s t i n g moods.  finds  a branded  breakthrough  too i s c o n t r i v e d  c o n t r a s t w i t h each portrayed  i n which  I t i s a p i e c e of music  s e t up t o c o n t r a s t  scene  goes b a c k t o E n g l i s h  Man,  a total  h e r e o f an o l d  the scenes scene  The  strike  a  that i s 7,  In A c t I, scene  i s b e i n g k e p t on a expresses reluctance  tight to  go  164 back w i t h Tonnie. from K a r i ' s decent is  Y e t t h e scene  intentions  to live  is full  a brighter  p e r s o n , w i t h a house and a home"  called  t h e "Pink Scene".  o f hope,  Later  life,  stemming  t o be "a  (SS 2 5 ) .  Here i t  t h e same s c e n e , word f o r  word, i s p l a y e d a g a i n , b u t w i t h a f o r e b o d i n g o f K a r i ' s betrayal—based which  upon t h e s e same p e r s o n a l g o a l s she h a s ,  f o r m e r l y seemed q u i t e  normal  and i n n o c e n t .  This  it  i s evident that  t h e woman i s b r o k e n ,  to  the authorities  and " t h e J o n e s e s " t h a n t o h e r own  for  love.  Tonnie's Green  The d i s t a n c e between them c a n n o t fury  surfaces.  Scene."  Suddenly  portrayal  or contrast-method,  prevents Tragedy turns Tonnie  from  ("Elegi  i n the play  "Flowers  the r i t u a l - l i k e  f o r en h e n g t  mephistophelian  the play.  that After  she b r e a k s  Kari  into,  "0 y e s  get a kitchen yet!" (58).  of a kind.  i s also  Y e t i t i s word f o r  i s the thing  seeping into  Many o f t h e songs  There  10: "The  This type of  i n to the a u t h o r i t i e s ,  0 yes 0 y e s ! ; / I ' l l  need  t h e d i a l o g u e g i v e s up a M u n c h - l i k e  o f a n g u i s h and i s o l a t i o n .  counterpoint,  loyal  be overcome.  I t i s now A c t I , s c e n e  word t h e same a s t h e " P i n k S c e n e . "  elegies  and i s more  time  f o r G e n e t " i s one example. "Elegie  s o p e r " ) , sung  friend  Red.  are l y r i c a l — t h e y are  f o r a Hanged  by K a r i ,  The s c e n e  Tonnie  Bugger" and h i s  i s the funeral of  hanged p r i s o n e r 613:  We f o u n d him and we c a r r y h i m As h i s mother c a r r i e d h i m b e f o r e P u r e , u n t a i n t e d a s a lamb We f o u n d him and we have him h e r e  165 L e t him be g r a s s and w i n d and t r e e s And r o s e h i p t h o r n s and r o a n b e r r i e s He was t u r n e d n i n e t e e n y e a r s , and t a l l We f o u n d him b e h i n d a p r i s o n w a l l A l l - n a t u r e , p l e a s e t a k e him i n ! Our y o u n g e s t b r o t h e r , t a k e c a r e o f him.  (50)  Although the Director in  and  the  f i g u r e s of the other  Chaplain,  the  Prison  members o f o f f i c i a l d o m a r e  a c o o l , c l a s s i c a l - c o m i c manner—an approach  B j ^ r n e b o e u s e s o f t e n , and w e a k e s t and  strongest  show i n t h e i r interesting  which r e p r e s e n t s  points  i n his  a t t i t u d e s towards the  the  e n t i r e way.  reaches comic h e i g h t s  This  i n the  f i g u r e of the  encouraging to give  E m p l o y e r , a t o m b s t o n e mason, i s t o l d  explains poet.  reasonable way  stay  behind  He  goes on  and  that prisons  i n prison already a poet  prison walls.  ("Ved  has  h i s hands," The  should  ...  What p o e t s up  elegy  till  I need o n l y m e n t i o n :  t o Behan:  B r e n d a n Behans B a r e " ) .  "At The  he  employer a  produce  i m p l i e s t h a t a man  t o name O s c a r W i l d e , G e n e t ,  an  that Tonnie  foremost t h a t of  now  a  is haven't  Villon!"  Koestler,  D o s t o y e v s k y , D a n t e , V e r l a i n e , Pound and then sings  When  so many p o e t s have been i n p r i s o n , t h a t  to being  sat  T o n n i e work.  good w i t h  is first  It i s his expectation "And  e m p l o y e r , whom  "With h i s h a n d s ! "  that his vocation  good p o e t s :  half  i s "very  astonishment:  the  sense of c o n t r a d i c t i o n  the  reacts with  b o t h some o f  e v e n t s w h i c h k e e p them  a u t h o r i t i e s are  and  which  work—contradictions  the  been g e t t i n g t r a i n i n g  described  Behan  (31-32).  B r e n d a n Behans B i e r " poetic  stone-cutter  He  166 finally  c o n f r o n t s the p r i s o n  various poets imprisonment ending I'm  and  as w e l l ,  the t i r a d e  sorry.  children  But  him  monologue i n T o n n i e ' s  speaking, who  study  He  attempts  then  f o r Tonnie's  finally,  asks  C h a p l a i n ' s deeper pulling  him  shape o f e v e n t s . He man  has  Tonnie  understanding  understanding  priest  late  here  as he,  t h e r e c a n be  between c o n s c i e n c e and  The  Bird  international ways f a l l s  Lovers  o n l y one  i s the long scrape  that  with  is  Christ,  than  to  o f h i s own course,  position,  the  forces that  are  j u n c t u r e change has  his frock  apparatus,  and  the on.  for a  outcome i n t h e  choice  duty.  ( F u g l e e l s k e r n e , 1966)  p l a y i n both  theme and  i s an  setting,  and  s q u a r e l y i n the B r e c h t i a n t r a d i t i o n .  production at the N a t i o n a l Theater result  (31-34).  consolation f i r s t ,  still  h i s p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l  such  sense  of the  at t h i s  man  to.whom he  to Tonnie  f o r f o r g i v e n e s s . Of  The  young  i s a close  Tonnie,  i s closer  to o f f e r  a p a r t cannot  gentlemen,  C h a p l a i n , whose f i n a l  begins with the  d i e d between t h i e v e s ,  himself.  and  sorry  a s t o n e mason"  c e l l , f o r him,  He  by  in contradiction  unbeknownst t o him,  i s dead.  asks  "I'm  t o be  that  embarrassment,  y o u ' v e done n o t h i n g f o r t h i s  tense, p i l l - p o p p i n g prison  fact  have b e e n d e s t r o y e d  w i t h h i s remark,  interesting  a deep t r u t h :  with the  to the d i r e c t o r ' s  w h i c h w o u l d have p r e p a r e d Another  director  i n O s l o was  o f t h e work of B r e c h t c o l l a b o r a t o r s . , . 2 0  i n many The  1966  partly  the  The  167 contradiction for  justice  right  versus  price—is  before  the  Bj^rrneboe had  i n human n a t u r e  read  brought to the play  in a local  nationality  Italian  i s in fact  As  hunting  pastime of the  having  this  locals.  the  Are  they  i t s income? Friends  assistant  apparently  fowl  must f i r s t  turns  out  poor v i l l a g e r s  of the  a story  tourist  impose a ban  t o be  there,  the the  t o change t h e i r village  once p u n i s h e d  the  locals  P o l e — a f t e r the  interrogations.  l a t t e r had  execution—and  leader  of  and  his  occupying Greifenklau  h i s henchman J o h a n n e s t r i e d to help  death.  was  with  out  in  sentenced  to  C a r u s o , however, had  h i s l i v i n g body was  a  A m e c h a n i c named  h i s eyes put  Rosa, Caruso's w i f e ,  in prison.  the  were e x e c u t e d t o g e t h e r had  of  lifestyle  war.  rescued  survived from  a  pleasure  prospect  t h a t the  f o r having  t o e v a d e t o r t u r e and  to  gain q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  the  G r e i f e n k l a u and  is  on a l l  only  been i n c h a r g e o f t h e  his brother-in-law  twenty years  can  apparatus during  judge.  Pole  he  trade  Birds Association, Greifenklau,  J o h a n n e s , had  had  own  was  Next, i t i s d i s c o v e r e d  himself  the  tension  newspaper.  they  so t h a t t h e  was  C a r u s o and  of  the  comes t o a c l o s e .  to bring t h e i r  willing  power's " j u s t i c e "  suspect  point  c o n d i t i o n imposed c a u s e s c o n f l i c t among  qualitatively, in  bought f o r  n e v e r named s p e c i f i c a l l y , b u t  Italian village,  hunting.  thirst  a s s o c i a t i o n o f German " b i r d - f r i e n d s " — t h e  somewhat o b v i o u s — d e c i d e s  and  highest  s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e  1  i t portrays—the  t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o be  a c t i o n of the  When an  small  that  the  the  his  168 corpses is  the  at the w a l l story  "present" partisan t h e war  from  by t h e v i l l a g e  priest  the occupation years.  o f t h e drama, t h e r e s u r r e c t e d group  And  become a d e f e n d e r  Caruso  Johannes,  The  two  are kidnapped  group  put  on  humanists  both  time  to  bring  he  has  the  teaches people by t h e  to  partisan  trial.  This play also  has  a reversal i n the  i t s priest.  He  i n the d i r e c t i o n " P r e f a c e " or  introduces the v i l l a g e  T o r r e Rosse,  his old  and  "sing").  Cavalli  and  of w i l d l i f e ,  (i.e.,  Appropriately,  i n the  G r e i f e n k l a u , meanwhile,  t e a c h e s music  about  That  to j u s t i c e .  interrogator,  bring  now,  a r e once a g a i n m o b i l i z e d , t h i s  criminals  and  Piccolino.  and  will  be t h e one  events  are  "Prologue," the  former  to  taking.  i n which partisans  in  i t i s revealed that Michaelangelo Piccolino i s  a former  partisan  and  a defrocked  priest:  T h a t F r a n c - t i r e u r and h u n t e r t h e r e Is our p r i e s t M i c h a e l a n g e l o (He's been c a s t o u t o f t h e c l e r g y And c l o s e d o u t o f t h e s a c r i s t y B u t a p r i e s t ' s a p r i e s t as we a l l know From now u n t o E t e r n i t y ) . (SS 88)  So  i t i s the p r i e s t ,  assumed t o mean t h a t will  be  called  protest, reticence  For  be  he  who  has  been t r u e t o h i s i d e a l s ,  upon t o d e f e n d  d u r i n g the i s that  switches from  whose h a v i n g been d e f r o c k e d c a n  "people's  he  trial."  knows what w i l l  his role  ah a u d i e n c e ,  the accused,  as p a r t i s a n the scene  over h i s  own  Piccolino's happen when  to the r o l e  of  he defender.  i s s e t f o r an e x e c u t i o n ,  169 not  s i m p l y by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g a l l o w s , b u t b e c a u s e a s  early of  as scene  the t r i a l  4,  during  past—"bracketed" the  the v i l l a g e r s  the occupation.  undeniably g u i l t y .  duties,  "interrogations"—the to  appear  out  the v i l l a g e r s  a l l their  demanding  P o l e ' s e y e s have been Justice,  put out p r i o r  as f a r as t h e  o f t h e o c c u p y i n g power i s c o n c e r n e d , has been  by t h e book, n o t e v e n e x c l u d i n g a j u r y .  given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y contempt  of court:  stage d i r e c t i o n s , (93).  pasts,  a s t h e y were: c a r r y i n g o u t  conducting long,  the beginning of the t r i a l .  court  the accused are  scene i n which  dominates  and J o h a n n e s  military  i s shown t h a t  In t h i s  perform t h e event which  their  scene from t h e  a s c e n e f r o m t h e p a s t a s i f i t were  i n the n o w — i t  Greifenklau  In t h i s  memory  o f f i n t h e B r e c h t i a n manner, by h a v i n g  characters play  happening  have r e e n a c t e d t h e i r  to deal  out lashes  carried  Johannes i s t o Caruso f o r  "A p a n t o m i m e - l i k e p r o c e s s , " s a y t h e a l t h o u g h " t h e blows  c a n be c l e a r l y  heard"  The w h i p p i n g i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e j u d g e ' s  evaluation  of the l o c a l  birdsong:  JUDGE: I have n e v e r h e a r d t h e n i g h t i n g a l e sound so m a r v e l o u s , so b e a u t i f u l , as h e r e . (Whipcrack) JOHANNES  (lashing):  Yessir,  your  Honor.  JUDGE: I t ' s l i k e when I was a c h i l d a n d h e a r d i t f o r the f i r s t time. (Whipcrack) These g r e a t , h e a v e n l y f l u t e melodies. (Whipcrack) JOHANNES JUDGE:  (lashing):  Yessir,  your  My God, i t i s a s a c r a m e n t  Honor. of beauty!  (94)  170 The  following  present,  scene, which  echoes  sensibility,  this  this  b r i n g s the a c t i o n  juxtaposition  worst, like  of c r u e l t y  t i m e among t h e I t a l i a n  some o f them a r e d i s c u s s i n g w h i c h  forms  others are e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y  their  back t o t h e and  esthetic  villagers.  While  of executions are  describing  t h e ways t h e y  fowl prepared:  FIDELE: They jump and s p r a w l i n t h e c h a i r f o r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s , and t h e w h o l e room s m e l l s o f b u r n t f l e s h . PICCOLINO:  Do  you  roast  them on a s p i t ,  CAVALLI: When t h e power i s t u r n e d on, i t themselves!  Rosa?  i f they don't  smell  CARUSO: They a r e f i n e i n t h e pan as w e l l . Both w i t h o i l and b u t t e r , and s a g e , and a l i t t l e r e d wine t o t o p i t off. CAVALLI: B u t i n t h e gas chamber, t h e r e t h e y s m e l l i t . To s i t i n t h e chamber, and s m e l l t h e gas coming ... (95)  A parallel in  between t h e two  these back-to-back  reasonable case t h a t justice  scenes. Caruso's  i m p o s s i b l e ("The  am  uses  an e n t i r e l y  t h e most q u a l i f i e d  a man  who  has  former  suggested  as  judge  of the c o u r t  renders h i m s e l f has  supreme p u n i s h m e n t " ) ,  the v i l l a g e r s  the p r i e s t  overruled"  a r e n o t t o be pursuit  Caruso's  s p e c i e s of l o g i c .  i n t h e w o r l d , " he  Objection  oppressors i n t h e i r  Piccolino  been  says.  h i m s e l f been condemned t o d e a t h and  knows what t h a t means. Clearly,  position  different  judge  has  A l t h o u g h G r e i f e n k l a u makes a  president  been s e n t e n c e d t o t h e law's response  groups  of  i s c o m p e l l e d t o a c t as  "Only  shot,  (132).  compared w i t h justice.  "I  But  defense  their when  171  counsel, roles  t h i s would-be e x e c u t i o n e r  i n deadly  fulfill  my  number one  before death" assessment. products and  t h e m u r d e r e r o f my  moment on he (133). He  begins  proceeds  by  "Where have you obey o r d e r s ? " civilian  of the accused  t h a t has  roots he  this to  be  before  asks,  h i g h e s t duty  shows t h a t d u r i n g war,  p o p u l a t i o n i s a l w a y s wrong, as t h e y  power, and  alone  to act according to  society  I  defendant  standing  learned that a soldier's He  Now  many o t h e r s .  " D e f e n d a n t number one,"  (135).  will  now,  nephew and  showing both  of a h i e r a r c h i c a l  beyond f a s c i s m .  Until  i s a human b e i n g He  that I  of  c o u n s e l t o the utmost.  p l a c e s , changed t a s k s .  was  h i s change  " I make i t c l e a r  d u t i e s as d e f e n s e  have s h i f t e d  From t h i s  earnest:  takes  i s to  the  do  not  the governments are always r i g h t — o n  have  both  sides. Previously, the here  state,  now  they  undaunted  are c i v i l i a n s — a n d  Despite Piccolino's in their  the p r i e s t  guilty  are not  i s convinced t h e s e men  g o v e r n m e n t s . . . . Who is loyalty  by  b e f o r e us,  the  first  to authority?  answer t o t h a t , t h e n we're on (138).  As  h i s own  the group c o n t i n u e s  as t h e p a r t i s a n s have been  the p a i r arguments:  but  superiors, their  was  of  arguments, the group i s  o b j e c t i v e of f i n d i n g  uncles, grandparents,  duty  Germans r e p r e s e n t e d t h e power  r e p r e s e n t armed power, t h e p o s i t i o n s  reversed.  But  but  t h e two  their people  t o say  When we  and  have f o u n d  to i n s i s t  "The  fathers,  t h a t the  the t r a c k of the  guilty.  highest the  guilty"  t h a t some men  are  172 evil, very the  and some a r e good, he l e a d s beginnings  world?"  punished  disloyal.  did evil  himself  of the v i l l a g e r s .  unrepentant G r e i f e n k l a u .  tourist  boom a s h i s f i n a l  argument.  last  standing  hold-out  Sandro—receives to help  to their  their  prisoner,  i s able to get a  l a n d l e s s peasant to contribute to  him buy l a n d , once t h e money comes  respective businesses  awaiting  h i s former tormentors.  appears a t e r r i b l e  riddle:  choose t o l i v e ,  asking  with  Why  and t r a d e s .  [149]).  a p p e a r e d t o be e i t h e r Suddenly, t h i s  third  Caruso  B u t a t t h e end t h e r e does C a r u s o d r o p h i s r e s o l v e  the f o r g i v e n e s s of h i s  Up u n t i l  this  has p r e s e n t e d  to resolve h i s c o n f l i c t .  Can y o u  p o i n t , h i s c h o i c e has  t o carry out j u s t i c e choice  rolling  t h e r o p e t h a t had been  ("You w h i p p e d me and s h o t me....  f o r g i v e me?"  give  The d i e i s c a s t when t h e  a promise from t h e o t h e r s  now t o hang h i m s e l f  oppressors  Greifenklau w i l l  by C a r u s o — t h e  prepares  blue  to the  on h i s s i d e by u s i n g t h e huge b e n e f i t s o f a  terms, of course.  and  Piccolino  They a r e now i n a p o s i t i o n  Piccolino  them t h e b e s t  a fund  was  as he seems t o  logic,  He a p p e a l s  sign a highly favorable contract with  majority  into  who was  the others  through r e l e n t l e s s  t o s p e c i a l maneuvers.  self-interest  the  come  He h i m s e l f  In t h a t case,  unable to convince  have c o n v i n c e d  in  "How  or L u c i f e r ?  Finally,  to  the question:  The answer c a n n o t be L u c i f e r .  f o r being  evil—God,  resorts  with  them b a c k t o mankind's  or d i e . itself  The s u g g e s t i o n  out of the  that the  173 victim ring  should  both  h i s tormentor,  s e t s of p o t e n t i a l the  Germans i n t h e  were t h e i r  potential  society  has  foisted  i t s own  C a r u s o see Even t h i s descent very  but  present—are  solution  of the  absolved  executioners.  role  occupation  i s not  by  f o r hangmen, and  a g a i n s t man  riddle  has  who  that therefore Does  s p e a k f o r us  i s u n d e r m i n e d by  emblem—the  past  those  o n t o them? he  And  i n the  Is i t perhaps  in this—does  to the  the  q u i t e — s i n c e he  victims—the villagers  inhumanity  h i s own  not  has  asking his forgiveness.  c r e a t e d the need  bird  all?  the  of w a r — a t  the  end. Although  priest  said  to get  continues Yet by way  t h a t he  the  intention  fails.  t o p e r p e t r a t e the Bj^rneboe  end,  Maxima C u l p a , "  elegiac  type  tending  as  "The  do  guilt.  The  ("DXdssangen"), t h e e s t of the  t o be  play:  has  "right,"  audience  Song,"  t o buy  but  them the  everyone  with  exception  else  which are s c a t t e r e d  Song"—are.rarely  i n Many Happy  satires  something  "Song o f H i r o s h i m a  Soldiers'  reprise  he  i t  evil.  f r e q u e n t l y found  they  defrocked  h i s view a g a i n s t k i l l i n g  many song l y r i c s  the p l a y — " R o s a ' s  collective  In the  leaves the The  of the  to enlightenment,  E v e r y o n e ' s arguments a r e  of a song.  through  missa  be  them t o a g r e e w i t h  criminals.  "Mea  i t may  to bring h i s "congregation"  must be off  f o r g i v e n e s s of h i s e x e c u t i o n e r  o f a C h r i s t i a n message, b u t  forgiving  and  ask  Town," of  Returns,  or c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h i s the  of which  "Song o f  serves  Death"  as t h e i t e  the  174  When t h e day has come and t h e hour has come And y o u ' r e p u t t o t h e w a l l where y o u ' l l b l e e d u p r i g h t And t h o s e who c a r e d f o r y o u Long s i n c e have gone f r o m y o u Then y o u w i l l s e e i t i s l o n e l y t o d i e ! F o r t h e day w i l l come and t h e hour w i l l come And y o u ' l l c o l o r t h e s a n d y o u a r e s t a n d i n g on r e d And when t h e y come f o r y o u Remember I t o l d y o u My b r o t h e r ! I t ' s s t r a n g e how i t ' s l o n e l y t o d i e !  (148)  The  concepts  moment o f t r u t h " some l i g h t  o f " t h e moment o f f r e e d o m " and " t h e from  on t h e e l u s i v e  B j^zfrneboe' s t h o u g h t , glimpse  Bj^rneboe's  into  outcome o f The B i r d  t h e moment o f t r u t h ,  h i s own m o r t a l i t y ,  "moment o f f r e e d o m " i f f r e e d o m g h a s t l y parody  of i t s e l f .  moment o f f r e e d o m , i n t h i s come b e f o r e t h e moment death-awareness: has  efforts  their  from  case t h e i r  of t r u t h .  Only  and r i s e n  however, t h e  e c o n o m i c f r e e d o m , has C a r u s o has from  t h e dead.  It  to the others despite the best So " t h e H o l y  the t r i l o g y — h a s  Though P i c c o l i n o  not found  And t h i s has s a v e d  i s abandoned by h i s c o m r a d e s .  Ghost"—again i t s way  into  i s the human l i v e s , t h e  t e r m s on w h i c h he has done i t o n l y p e r p e t u a t e Caruso  In  i s n o t t o be t u r n e d i n t o a  consciousness or s p i r i t s .  contradiction.  Lovers.  cast  must come b e f o r e t h e  o f t h e renegade p r i e s t .  to use a term  might  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  For the v i l l a g e r s ,  he h a s d i e d  n o t been i m p a r t e d  novel t r i l o g y  injustice.  I n t h e e n d he makes  t h e c h o i c e o f a man. who s h o u l d be f r e e — b u t one who i s faced with a l o n e n e s s — t h e  u l t i m a t e most h o r r i f y i n g  solitude  175 at t h e moment of death, abandoned by a l l those who shared the b e l i e f s he has l i v e d by.  One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : he j o i n s  the r e s t of humanity, r e a l i z i n g t h a t i t has c a s t i t s worst hangmen and butchers i n the r o l e s they must p l a y .  A  c o n t r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : a t t h a t i m p o s s i b l e and t e r r i f y i n g moment, even the most aware of beings, with the s t r o n g e s t t h i r s t f o r j u s t i c e , can buy-in t o the c h i c a n e r y .  Human  f r a i l t y i s i n f i n i t e l y strong. What would the v i l l a g e r s have done i f P i c c o l i n o had r e a l l y succeeded  i n f i l l i n g them with the "Holy Ghost", and  they had a c t e d on the b a s i s of the moral t h a t "the moment of t r u t h " imparts? i n freedom. of freedom ending. truth.  responsibility  They would have a c t e d  But i t would have been a very d i f f e r e n t  kind  than t h a t which i s promised t o them i n t h i s  I f they are a c t i n g i n freedom, they do not a c t i n The ending i s a t the same time t r a d i t i o n a l and  subversive.  I t i s the r e s o l u t i o n of Comedy, i n which  e v e r y t h i n g i s r e s o l v e d on a note of concord, however ironic.  I t i s a l s o a c o n t r a c t t h a t s e l l s out a l l human  v a l u e s and n o t i o n s of j u s t i c e .  T h i s i s how the c l a s s i c a l l y  comic r e s o l u t i o n of concord i s undermined.  I t i s concord  between the c h a r a c t e r s — w h i c h ends on a note which a c o n f l i c t between the stage and the a u d i e n c e .  2 1  Semmelweis was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the tumultuous 1968,  but was premiered a t the Abo Svenska  F i n l a n d i n 1969.  produces  year of  Teater i n  The Norwegian premiere took p l a c e a t the  176 National  Theater  the excitement Baltic. by  i n Oslo  later  that  year.  the authorities  (in theater, that  i s ) almost  The c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e s  2 2  p l a y was a c c l a i m e d  i n Norway and  Denmark t o t h e O s l o p r o d u c t i o n w i t h J o a c h i m gargantuan The  lead  story  role,  f o r once, a l s o  of the Hungarian-Austrian  episodes  medicine.  a story that  that  await  search of t r u t h a society all  that  else.  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  o f modern s c i e n c e a n d  as t h e founder  Semmelweis was i n h i s t i m e General  works and e x p e r i m e n t a l driven  into  revolt  o f 1848 a g a i n s t  political  Hospital,  empire,  results  fired  antiseptic  from h i s  ridiculed  banned.  back t o Hungary.  o f modern  above  by h i s  and t h e p o l i c e , h i s He was  finally  He t o o k p a r t i n t h e  Hapsburg a b s o l u t i s m , which d i d not  him w i t h many o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s , and w i t h t h e authorities  collaboration powerful  and e v e n  and i t s w o r l d - v i e w  c o l l e a g u e s , hounded by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s  ingratiate  Brecht's  o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n , i n  reveres authority  exile  like  shows t h e p i t f a l l s  and improvement  a t Vienna  Ignaz  t h e man o f s c i e n c e , who i s g e n u i n e l y i n  Today h a i l e d  techniques, position  the annals  i n the  enthusiasm.  physician,  Bjjzfrneboe ' s S e m m e l w e i s — m u c h  Galileo—is horrors  from  Calmeyer  rang with  Semmelweis, i s one o f t h e most t r a g i c revealing  time,  h a d a l r e a d y begun t o make i t s way a c r o s s t h e  The a v o w e d l y a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n  unanimously.  By t h a t  even l e s s .  between t h e m e d i c a l  professional  The f a c t s  authorities,  and p o l i t i c a l  and t h e p o l i t i c a l  point to a  lobby  authorities.  themselves  i n t h e Hapsburg  The c o n s p i r a c y t o  a  177 silence  Semmelweis was due t o h i s d i s c o v e r y  insistence being  that  tens of thousands  k i l l e d throughout Europe  child-bed  fever  o f p r e g n a n t women were  each  y e a r by t h e d r e a d e d  (now known as p u e r p e r a l f e v e r )  d o c t o r s a n d s t u d e n t s were n o t w a s h i n g worst  epidemics appeared  directly  and s t u b b o r n  their  hands.  to the obstetrics  wards where t h e y e x a m i n e d p r e g n a n t m o t h e r s . had demonstrated  be e l i m i n a t e d  entirely  that  by w a s h i n g  between p r o c e d u r e s , t h e f a c t  that  Although  the mortality with  rate  the r i d i c u l e  he h a d g o t t e n t h e  by h i s e n e m i e s .  suppression of h i s s t a t i s t i c s Hungary, and t h e s i l e n c e repression attempts mad.  Due t o t h e  a n d method, h i s e x i l e t o  imposed  on h i m by t h e g r o w i n g  to get the truth  o u t made h i m a p p e a r  increasingly  Semmelweis, who began a s a p r o m i s i n g p r o d i g y a n d a i n t h e p l a y becomes a g r a y , d o t t e r i n g o l d  b e f o r e o u r e y e s — b e f o r e he r e a c h e s m i d d l e a g e .  twenty perhaps  y e a r s p a s s , a n d he h a s s t r u g g l e d hundreds  unnecessarily, dies  of thousands  hopelessly  female  After while  o f women have d i e d  h i s "madness" becomes a f a c t .  o f t h e d i s e a s e which  "specifically an  only  of the Austro-Hungarian a u t h o r i t i e s , h i s  young i d e a l i s t , man  could  chloride-of-lime  c h l o r i d e method f r o m t h e V i e n n a t o i l e t c l e a n e r s increased  The  where m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s went  f r o m a u t o p s i e s i n t h e morgue  Semmelweis  because  He h i m s e l f  he f o u g h t , s u p p o s e d l y a  illness,"  after  cutting  his finger i n  autopsy. As o f t e n  i s t h e c a s e i n B j ^ r n e b o e ' s work, d i s e a s e i s  178 also  a metaphor f o r t h e p r e v a i l i n g  age.  The " d o c t o r s a r e t h e d i s e a s e " h e r e - - a n d  hierarchical  form  of society  much d i f f e r e n t disease, that  sense.  h e n c e he i s a b n o r m a l .  who a r e u n c o m p r o m i s i n g After  the truth  He i s n o t p a r t  the disease i n society  suddenly hierarchy  i s "sick,"  T h i s does n o t mean,  does n o t t a k e i t s t o l l  i n their  but i n a  of the p r e v a i l i n g  fight  though, on t h o s e  against the disease.  Semmelweis r e a d s h i s "Open l e t t e r  Europe"  so i s t h e  o f which they a r e a p a r t .  M e a n w h i l e , anyone who p u r s u e s  of  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f an  to the physicians  t o h i s w i f e and h i s companion M a r k u s o v s z k y , he  shows how t h e i n v i s i b l e and nepotism,  enemy, t h e d i s e a s e o f  i s indeed taking  its toll  on a man  who r e f u s e s t o be i n f e c t e d : .  And t o t h i s t h e d o c t o r s o f E u r o p e r e p l y t h a t t h e y l o y a l l y a d h e r e t o t h e g r e a t V i r c h o w — t h e mass m u r d e r e r ! They c o l l e c t i v e l y d i s s o c i a t e themselves from t h e c h l o r i d e p r o p h e t Semmelweis, f r o m t h e mad p r o p h e t o f s e p t i c v i r u s . And t h e y go on m u r d e r i n g . They b l i n d l y f o l l o w a t t h e c o a t t a i l s o f t h e i r f e e b l e - m i n d e d Pope V i r c h o w t h e M i g h t y ! They murder b l i n d l y and l o y a l l y — f a i t h f u l a s b l o o d h o u n d s — f a i t h f u l a s t h e R u s s i a n p o l i c e — o n e woman a f t e r the other—hundreds of t h o u s a n d s — i t ' s a l l nothing b u t b l o o d a n d pus a n d sewage a n d t o x i n s a n d m u r d e r . They k i l l and k i l l ... (He t a k e s h o l d o f Marko's arm) ... I s e e n o t h i n g b u t d e a d women, Marko ... why d o n ' t t h e y l i s t e n t o me? I dream o f dead women e v e r y n i g h t ... and o f t h e secret police....  Markusovszky remarks t h a t way of  that  the story,  unwilling and  i skilling  Semmelweis i s now p r o c e e d i n g i n a  him, n o t h i s enemies  (230).  This  side  t h e p e r s o n a l t r a g e d y o f t h e r o m a n t i c who was  t o compromise w i t h a w o r l d w h i c h h a t e s  innocence  g o o d n e s s , who r e f u s e d t o be a d i p l o m a t where t h e t r u t h  179 was concerned, was emphasized i n C e l i n e ' s e a r l y book on Semmelweis, a c t u a l l y h i s medical  d i s s e r t a t i o n — t h e only  l i t e r a r y r e c o u n t i n g of Semmelweis's l i f e before B j^rneboe's p l a y .?^3 Semmelweis i s a p l a y t h a t i s , d e s p i t e a l l of the above, f u l l  of l i f e , and spry b l a c k humor.  which r e c r e a t e s the conference  The e a r l y scene  of the C o l l e g e of  Physicians—convened  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the m o r t a l i t y r a t e of  the h o s p i t a l — w o u l d  almost seem t o be the commentary of an  A b s u r d i s t on s c i e n t i f i c  jargon and other forms of  p r o f e s s i o n a l hocus-pocus. and  full  The b o r d e l l o scenes are l u s t y ,  of i r o n y i n the way they r e f l e c t on the p l a y as a  whole: Semmelweis gets h i s f i r s t  "washing" l e s s o n from the  whore S o p h i e - - f o r whom s u r v i v a l r e q u i r e s c l e a n l i n e s s . Semmelweis's encounter with the Goldoni t h e a t e r troupe i n Venice  i s painted i n garish F e l l i n i - l i k e c o l o r s — w i t h  masked a c t o r s , drunkenness on the p i a z z a , opera parody, and with the sense of the grotesque imagery of d i s e a s e and decay.  pumped up by c o n t i n u i n g One of the a l i e n a t i o n  e f f e c t s the s c r i p t c a l l s f o r i s r e m i n i s c e n t of some of S t r i n d b e r g ' s w i t t y t h e a t r i c a l d e v i c e s i n h i s dream p l a y s . In the "Prologue  i n the Auditorium,"  a r e c t o r i s reading a  t r i b u t e t o Semmelweis, as the p u b l i c i s supposedly w i t n e s s i n g the u n v e i l i n g of a new s t a t u e t o medicine's dead, but g r e a t , hero (161).  The s t a t u e Semmelweis  will  f o l l o w the c h a r a c t e r Semmelweis from scene t o scene, s e t i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of h i s l i f e .  Those acquainted  with  180 S t r i n d b e r g ' s A Dream P l a y reminded of the mobile during also  Indra's  (Ett Dromspel)  door, which appears  Daughter's quest  reminiscent  of the  o b j e c t s which are  on  screens  so a c t i v e  agents of the d r a m a t i c  monument.  i n G e n e t ' s Les  It is  Paravents,  i n t h a t p l a y as t o become  action.  In V e n i c e ,  everywhere  planet earth.  In the  b o r d e l l o scene i n  Semmelweis t h e young Semmelweis hangs up own  w o u l d be q u i c k l y  f  he  h i s c l o t h e s on  embraces i t i n an  ecstatic  stupor.  I t i s a h i g h l y s e n s u o u s p l a y , w i t h much e a t i n g  drinking  and  smocks and  pleasure—as  buckets  Many o f t h e with  the  written  of  w e l l as p u s ,  blood-spattered  f e a t u r e s of the  p e r i o d i n w h i c h i t came i n t o d u r i n g a time  were t a k i n g p l a c e a c r o s s international  borders,  p l a y have t o  being.  It  when p o l i t i c a l  Europe, spreading  i n both  E a s t e r n and  the  young s t u d e n t s  streets.  More o f t e n t h a n  p r o v o k e d them was g r e a t powers who peoples  of  less  Czechoslovakia  and  their  own  Western  trampling  countries—be  or V i e t n a m .  of the  Europe.  from  Poznan  taken  things  to that  governments' c o m p l i c i t y w i t h  were s e e n t o be powerful  one  was  over  o f t e n w o r k e r s had not,  do  upheavals  From P a r i s t o P r a g u e , f r o m L i s b o n t o B e l g r a d e , to B e r l i n ,  The  on  the  i t Greece  enemy was  seen t o  rights  be  s y s t e m s , w h i c h were b e c o m i n g more o f a menace  hardening  was  of t h e s e for  revolts  in.  In the  l o n g and  short run,  l e d t o c h a n g e s i n a number o f  b e t t e r or f o r worse.  I n many c a s e s ,  the  of  or  sclerotic  setting  and  excrement.  peculiar  i n 1968,  his  as  some  governments,  immediate  181 r e s u l t was an open show o f f o r c e  by t h e o p p r e s s i v e  a p p a r a t u s o f t h e s t a t e — w h i c h was l a i d  bare even i n  countries  of democracy.  the in  practicing  different  degrees  same t i m e , t h e u p h e a v a l t o o k t h e f o r m o f a r e v o l u t i o n culture,  Theaters  aimed  a t debunking  i n Paris,  inherited  i s against  first  major  been w r i t t e n its  this  prior  works.  "Prologue  backdrop  work t h a t  that  c a n be s a i d ,  be  This  found,  to  1983.  i n t h e T h e a t e r " which  Eugenio  Barba,  theater  was n o t u s e d  elsewhere—most  Theater production i n to his o l d  director  of Odin T e a t r e t . a frame  o f some s o r t would  and r e s p o n d e d  f o r the  f o r the  h a s been u s e d  i n o r d e r t o p u t on t h e p l a y  took the a d v i c e ,  though  . varying degrees, i n  suggested that  students or r e b e l s  t o have  of h i s anarchism,  B j ^ r n e b o e had s e n t t h e s c r i p t  seems i t was B a r b a who which  indisputably,  i n t h e Norwegian T e l e v i s i o n  collaborator  Antonin Artaud.  also provides the explanation  Norwegian p r e m i e r e , b u t which notably  norms.  Bj^frneboe c o m p l e t e d h i s  from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  i n f l u e n c e may  cultural  f o r example, h a d been o c c u p i e d i n t h e  name o f t h e " m a r t y r " o f t h e new t h e a t e r , It  At  It  be c r e a t e d i n  occupy t h e  Semmelweis.  B^efrneboe  t o Barba with t h e f o l l o w i n g  letter:  Grandissimo escataloge ed A p o c a l y p i t i c u s ! Thank y o u f o r y o u r l a s t d o c u m e n t s . You w i l l l a u g h , when you s e e t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f Semmelweis: I t makes u s e o f a l m o s t a l l o f y o u r s u g g e s t i o n s . . . . I have done my u t m o s t n o w — a n d h o p e f u l l y I have s u c c e e d e d i n making t h e p l a y a b s o l u t e l y u n p l a y a b l e i n every normal b o u r g e o i s t h e a t e r .  182 In any c a s e , t h e p l a y s h o u l d n ' t be p r o d u c e d . I t was bad enough t o have t o w r i t e i t , w i t h o u t a l s o h a v i n g t o go t h r o u g h a l l t h e s o r r o w , v e x a t i o n and g a r b a g e t h a t a premiere brings with i t . . . . (OT 14)  The  i d e a was  assault  t h a t the performance should begin with  of disenchanted  would announce: operetta,  you  in  any  will  be  (SS  i n 1967,  in fact the year  accused  a Stitch  en t r a d ) ,  of  a good d e a l o f B j ^ r n e b o e in  t h e p r o v o c a t i v e and  He  was  was  i t i s not  as  he  such  "Pity  the  the  "problem c h i l d r e n " posterity,  invoke  of  as was  trial.  time  d i d not  hate  creative  that i t  people  to  the  modeled  the  Though i t i s t r u e  case with  t h e words o f G a l i l e o  l a n d t h a t needs  had  as h e r o i c  Semmelweis,  i n Brecht's  play:  heroes."  Semmelweis i s a n t i - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n i t s s t y l e , " S o m e t h i n g , " he w r i t e s i n t h e Nordic  t h e a t e r people  find  letter  why  present  at t h i s  are o f t e n regarded the  Without  Semmelweis.  wrote i n h i s l e t t e r s  E d w a l l — f o r whom he  that  also  who  also  to understand  figure  convinced  f o r those  of S e m m e l w e i s — d u r i n g  can  hard  drafts  was  h i m s e l f m i g h t seem t o be  role  by  i n which Bj^rneboe  to accept that a l l " t r u l y  are problem c h i l d r e n "  figures  begun, i t s f o r m a t i v e  unrepentant  impossibly d i f f i c u l t  Swedish a c t o r A l l a n  idiotic  "obscenity" for his novel  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  authoritarianism  They  s e e i n g a p l a y a b o u t a u t h o r i t y and  standing t r i a l (Uten  stage.  161).  Semmelweis was case,  on t h e  "Instead of t o n i g h t ' s s t u p i d ,  anti-authority" As  young p e o p l e  an  to Edwall,  "that  indescribably d i f f i c u l t  to  one  183 comprehend."  But  here to a p o i n t classical in  the  play  Bj/zfrneboe  that  takes the  goes b e y o n d B r e c h t ,  drama, w h i c h q u a l i f i e s  sense t h a t  i s only  as  The  man  and  Semmelweis's i n d i v i d u a l b a t t l e s w i t h proto-totalitarian Doktor K l e i n , are  imbued w i t h t h e  seem j u s t s h o r t  of  that  can  the  It the is  can  be  life  impossible  story  portrayed  of  as  that  similarly,  the  quite  100  another  are  that  this  ruthless  and  of  that  truly  Professor  It  to  with may  conflict  this  use  of  exaggerate.  i n a play  where  rebellious individual  with  forces  of  society  Peer Gynt.  s e e k e r a f t e r t r u t h can  other  Even  a conflict  kind  claim  t h a n he:  an  quintessential  force.  earlier  chaotic  greater  plausible that Without  epic play.  thrall  precedent To  of can  this  influence  l e a v i n g the  drama, w h i c h B j ^ r n e b o e  trilogy  years  out  a c l a s s o f men.  social  to  the  so  be  found.  Damascus  (Till  realm of  severely  realistic-illusion The  is  be  found  Stranger  in  Ibsen's i t  entirely Scandinavian  chastises  theater,  and  And  i s a p p a r e n t h e r e , t h o u g h u n a c k n o w l e d g e d , and  unconscious.  the  Yet  ongoing c o n f l i c t  Brand, Ibsen's only influence  i t plays  i s w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t w o u l d be  found almost  existence  is  stage.  drama  It is a  sense of  and  shown on  in  from A u s t r o - H u n g a r i a n t i m e s ,  a c l a s s , a group, a p o l i t i c a l  theater  conflict  i n a s m u c h as  between one  e v e n most  non-psychological  B j ^ r n e b o e means.  problem c h i l d ,  ongoing c o n f l i c t  epic  and  r a r e l y between i n d i v i d u a l s .  dramaturgical  be  anti-psychological  for being  another  clear  i n Strindberg's  Damaskus) i s a c h a r a c t e r  in  epic  that  has  184 been  so c o n n e c t e d w i t h  performing  "Den  been d i r e c t e d protagonist  h i s author that  the  Okanda," t h e h e r o o f t h e drama, have  to play  Strindberg.  i s up a g a i n s t  w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l  forces  o r a few  And that  b u r e a u c r a t s , whose i n f l u e n c e  c a n n o t be  individuals.  They  b e g i n t o seem as p o i n t l e s s  of t h a t  other  h i e r a r c h y and h i s own unquenchable d e s i r e  striking  just  once. find  to bring  the t r u t h  once a g a i n ,  the  scientific  enemies.  sometimes  i n the c o n f l i c t  f o r Klam  i n The  the  to  This  called  the  is—this  one  above, i t combat  i s the secret  of the  " K a f k a - e s q u e " : one o f  i s everywhere  Castle.  and  light.  cannot e x i s t ,  and nowhere a t  I t i s impossible  stops"—as  i n K's  to  fruitless  D u r i n g t h e more t h a n  s p a n o f Semmelweis's s t o r y ,  p r o v e he i s r i g h t .  between  insane the c o n f l i c t  t h e p o i n t where " t h e buck  twenty-year  K.  As was  sense of compassion  I t i s a b u r e a u c r a c y of enemies.  search  Josef  In h i s speech t o Markusovszky  how  conflict  the partners  Semmelweis's  by t h e c o n f l i c t  with nameless, f a c e l e s s dramatic  and as e n d l e s s as t h o s e  an a b s t r a c t i o n .  dangerous  and t r u t h ,  without the other. is  Kafka-esque  w i n o u t i n t h e end, b u t n o t t h e m a n — n o t  b e f o r e he i s d e s t r o y e d  Compassion  forces.  m i g h t be Camus's D o c t o r R i e u x , whose  case with Brecht's G a l i l e o , will  are  hapless Austro-Hungarian subject,  enemy, t h e p l a g u e , i s v i r t u a l l y  efforts  identified  i s so w i d e s p r e a d t h a t h i s  efforts  to the l i s t  often  here t o o , the  Semmelweis's o p p o n e n t s a r e n o n r e a l i s t i c ,  Added  actors  He must t a g a f a c e  he has n o t o n l y t o o r a name on h i s  185 enemy. Whereas B r e c h t ' s self-preservation convincing  G a l i l e o has t h e w i l y ,  instinct  characters,  of a l l of Brecht's  Semmelweis  lacks i t .  uncompromising,  even from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  self-interest.  Whereas G a l i l e o w i l l  plaster  tormented  the s t r e e t s with  B o t h Semmelweis the  relent after  him  whose  be a c h a r a c t e r  whose  I n t h e same way, aside,  treatment  approach,  instinct  bring  himself.  t o put compassion  the n o n - n e g o t i a b i l i t y of h i s  to l i v e  with  injustice,  C e l i n e , whose  o f Semmelweis's l i f e  i s not  a l l this  of h i s plays to  They a r e both b i o g r a p h i e s  of autobiographies.  two  G a l i l e o may  to Brecht  him c l o s e s t o f a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s  Bj^rneboe himself. lieu  characters  out. to get  Yet these  scientific  Semmelweis's i n a b i l i t y  h i s anger, outrage,  to  managed  of each o t h e r .  t r u t h , and canny s u r v i v a l  humanity, h i s i n a b i l i t y brings  attempting  to get h i s teachings  caution,  c l o s e s t of a l l Brecht's  being  broken,  t i m e had come.  are the antitheses  f a s c i n a t i o n with  is still  posters  enlightened  and G a l i l e o were f i g u r e s who  truth out—truths  characters well  Semmelweis  He i s  of  shown t h e i m p l e m e n t s o f t o r t u r e , an a l r e a d y mentally  most  written i n  biographical  specifically  acknowledged i n Bj^rneboe's notes or correspondence concerning without  the play,  described  him as a R o m a n t i c , a  "diplomacy," or the a b i l i t y  man  t o accomodate h i m s e l f  enough t o c o n t r i v e d norms and manners t o be a b l e t o negotiate.  Celine's  Semmelweis  i s a man  whose  downfall  was  186 his  faith  i n t h e p o t e n t i a l g o o d n e s s o f h i s f e l l o w men, i n a  world that  i s essentially  treacherous.  B j^rneboe's  2 4  Semmelweis, a s a man who t a k e s upon h i m s e l f o f many o t h e r question  human b e i n g s ,  w h i c h Bjjzfrneboe  the sufferings  i s t o r m e n t e d by t h a t  saw T e n n e s s e e W i l l i a m ' s  priest  confronting:  108).  Semmelweis i s on h i s way t o an a n s w e r .  biblical defrocked  "How c a n I overcome t h e w o r l d ? " (OT The p l a y  t a k e s Bj/arneboe i n t h e d i r e c t i o n he hoped t o go once he completed h i s H i s t o r y of B e s t i a l i t y 1973.  Much o f h i s p l a n n e d  been w r i t t e n the  i n dramatic  five  years  later i n  " H i s t o r y o f Freedom" was t o have  form.  Semmelweis b r o u g h t him t o  threshold.  In a b r i e f  foreword t o Amputation  Bj^rneboe explains  that  though t h e p l a y  of a d r a f t s i x o r s e v e n y e a r s production, theater possible  with  a style  match t h e s t y l e  to i t s f i r s t  o f p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h w o u l d make  of t h e i n f l u e n c e s Grotowsky—made  t h a t was a c r o b a t i c / p h y s i c a l enough t o  of the play"  performance techniques  (SS 2 4 1 ) . The r e v o l u t i o n i n  i n t h e s i x t i e s — w i t h t h e convergence  of Brecht  and A r t a u d  the venture p o s s i b l e .  then a s s o c i a t e d with  company S v e n s k a R i k s t e a t e r n , Vestin,  prior  e x i s t e d i n t h e form  he " h a d n ' t c o u n t e d , a t t h a t t i m e , on f i n d i n g a  a production  Friteatern,  ( A m p u t a s j o n , 1970)  that of  The p r o d u c t i o n  the national  by  touring  under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Martha  was a 1 1/2 h o u r l o n g  of which has been d e s c r i b e d  met w i t h  one-act play,  as b o r d e r i n g  the performance  on p u r e  187 surrealism.  The  2 5  one-dimensional,  language  itself  often fierce,  a r e made t o o r d e r  f o r those  i s direct,  violent,  skilled  and  i n playing  Once a g a i n t h e p l a y opens i n a v a r i a t i o n lecture  hall.  operating distant  T h i s time  theater.  future,  Pathology  i n the  lecturers  table,  crude  surgical  S u r g e o n P r o f . Dr.  Vivaldi  c o n f u s i n g perhaps,  but  medical  technology,  Minsk  to  Social  and  the  (slightly  t h e p o i n t i s made).  Dr.  Social  more  The  "medical"  q u e s t i o n a t hand i s how  best to normalize  people  fit  society.  and F o r t i n b r a s  into  have two  a well  ordered  contradictory  deviance.  Vivaldi  F o r t i n b r a s claims to achieve success system,  transplants.  that  Vivaldi  insists  cerebral  cortex.  a couple  of r e d clowns i n H e l l — o r  in  the  debate  age  subjects, with should probably action  go  t o work on  staff  like  t h e Marx their  and  into  they  Like  theoretical experimental  However,  f l a s h - b a c k scenes  p a t i e n t s show how  the  Brothers  personnel  d e s c r i b e d as henchmen. by  of  anatomical.  the a s s i s t a n c e of m e d i c a l be  not  through  must d r i l l  some e x e m p l a r y  i n the p r e s e n t i s broken  which the  one  keep up  do  i . e . , gland  His theory i s s t r i c t l y  of t e c h n o l o g y — t h e y  as t h e y  who  t e a c h i n g s on t h e c o r r e c t i o n  m a n i p u l a t i o n of the e n d o c r i n e  a  two  Surgeon P r o f .  seems o b v i o u s ) , and  from  school  i s confronted with  Supreme C o u r t  (whose n a t i o n a l i t y  university  of the not  Clinic's  where t h e p u b l i c  f o r the evening:  Fortinbras  "arena"—a  "University  caricature.  of the  I t i s set i n a society  Institute,"  dissection  i t i s an  the c h a r a c t e r s  who this in  l e a r n e d , o r were  188 ...  taught,  to  bracketed  "fit"  self-denial. which t h e i r  not  alone,  taken  tendencies another, is  Vivaldi  culminates  cure  hold.  competitor  responds,  dialogue,  s p e c t a t o r s i n the  speed race  their  anti-social away.  of c o m p a s s i o n  "He's  as  she  competition—which  i n v o l v i n g s k u l l - b o r i n g s and  sawing, of  not  For  lecture hall.  limbs  under  falling  l o n g enough t o n o t e breathing."  To  "Is i t a b s o l u t e l y necessary  i n s t a n c e , Bj^rneboe's meeting with  surreal.  of  The  matched w i t h  a c r o b a t i c s which the  Swiftian satire  the  into the  this  his  that  he  reality  t h a t i t has  veered  purposeful  t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , of  the  timed  finely  script  a r a z o r e d g e d boomerang. duck.  on w i t h  means  284).  such a p i t c h  the  symptoms t h a t g i v e him outburst  police.  social  patient, i t i s his  F o r t i n b r a s stops  condition:  into  p r o b l e m s by  in  their  the  the  sounds o f  patient's  attains  or  i n t i m e by  forced  past,  i n which p a r t s of p a t i e n t s disappear  buckets—until  In t h i s  their  one  unfortunate  i n a high  (SS  reenact  i n love a f f a i r s ,  f o r these  F o r t i n b r a s go  there are  breathe?"  These  exaggerated,  For  amidst the  amputations, sheets,  the  i t i s an  and  ..i  society..26' contain  were d i s c o v e r e d  which are  sitting  past  " p a t i e n t s " too,  c r i m i n a l conduct  t o be  their  s c e n e s o f h u m i l i a t i o n , t o r t u r e and The  Unfortunately, has  to serve  reenactments of the  semi-acrobatic  desire  and  calls  For  the  movement  f o r , turns p u b l i c , the  the  the  and play  impulse  into i s to  189 The  Case of T o r g e r s e n  docu-drama. Frederik  (Tilfellet  BjjzSrneboe h i m s e l f had  Fasting  Torgersen  t o be  as t h e  had  made i t a c a u s e  consensus  advance—because w h i c h he was constant  had  of a  combined  i n 1957.  The  a l l declared Torgersen  of a supposed  " p a s t " and  most p r o b a b l y n o t g u i l t y .  "necrophilia," about  charges  had  earlier  rape  based this  never  conduct  of  inasmuch  dubious  material,  he  Oslo  evidence.  came