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Protestant funeral music and rhetoric in seventeenth-century Germany : a musical-rhetorical examination… Johnston, Gregory Scott 1987

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PROTESTANT FUNERAL MUSIC AND RHETORIC IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY GERMANY A MUSICAL-RHETORICAL EXAMINATION OF THE PRINTED SOURCES By GREGORY SCOTT JOHNSTON B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1979 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Music)  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1987 (c) Gregory Scott  Johnston, 1987  In  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  and study.  this  his  or  her  Department of  Music  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6n/fm  29 A p r i l  1987  that the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  requirements  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  is  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  by the  understood be  for  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  The  present t h e s i s  Protestant  funeral  i s an  music  begins w i t h an e x p o s i t i o n into  occasional  music  f u n e r a l music.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c  i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany. on  the  i n the  present  Baroque,  works, a c u r s o r y  studies  The  to  is included.  discussion  of  present  study.  the  C h a p t e r Two  focusing  s u r v e y of  methodological  comprises  obstacles  i n the L u t h e r a n C h u r c h have s u r v i v e d  Although  a s i n g l e o r d e r of s e r v i c e exist.  liturgical funerary  background  this trope  f o r the  chapter f o r the  t  n  e  i n any  of  the  critical  provides m u s i c as  well  funeral  the  of  the  Divine  century,  s o c i a l and  as a p l a u s i b l e  period  A f t e r examining the  context  of o r a t o r i c a l r h e t o r i c  of  period extra-  Lutheran  and modern s t u d i e s .  i s followed  ii  the  t h e o r e t i c a l background to the German Baroque,  funerary  sermonic oratory. by  a  of P r o t e s t a n t  l i t u r g y f r o m the  both  by  regard  the s e v e n t e e n t h  funeral  from Roman A n t i q u i t y  i s e x a m i n e d i n the  discussion  hoc  r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the dead, i s  of Chapter Three.  r h e t o r i c a l device,  ad  procedure w i t h  numerous examples  l i t u r g y based on documents from the  ££°£°££E££i£» subject  This  and  a general discussion  Service  to  discussed  on  this l i t e r a t u r e i s followed  i n Baroque Germany.  seems  primarily  study inquiry  overview of e x i s t i n g  liturgy  not  of mus i c o l o g i c a l  B e c a u s e f u n e r a l m u s i c i s not  b a s i c music reference  brief  state  The  of  an  investigation  of the The  into  the m u s i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept of prosopopoeia i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s of  funerary composition,  compositions  i n which  from  simple  c an t i o n a 1 - s t y 1 e  the p e r s o n i f i e d deceased  works  assumes c e r t a i n  to  physical  dimensions. Chapter rhetorical in  this  metre,  Four  includes  an e x a m i n a t i o n  figures e f f e c t i v e l y  employed  of v a r i o u s other m u s i c a l -  i n f u n e r a l music.  Also  treated  and  triple  chapter are m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l aspects of duple where t r i p l e  understood  metre  figuratively,  in particular,  depending  on the t e x t ,  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y or as a c o m b i n a t i o n of both.  t h i s c h a p t e r makes c l e a r , owing to the p e r c e i v e d a n t i t h e t i c a l of  metre  illustrate  and  certain  can  figures,  musical  rhetoric  was  iii  As  properties  often  the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s w o r l d and the next.  be  used  to  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF EXAMPLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  Chapter I. II.  III.  INTRODUCTION  1  LUTHERAN FUNERAL LITURGY IN GERMANY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY  26  PROSOPOPOEIA: MUSICAL-RHETORICAL PERSONIFICATION OF THE DEAD  47  R h e t o r i c a l and M u s i c a l Background C a n t i o n a l - S t y l e Compositions Dialogue Solo A r i a s P h y s i c a l P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the Dead IV.  AFFECTIVE ELEMENTS OF COMPOSITION: FIGURENLEHRE AND METRE C a t a b a s i s and Anabasis Hyperbole and Hypobole Exclamatio Duple and T r i p l e Metre  V.  47 71 78 99 105  129 133 151 155 164  CONCLUSIONS  194  APPENDIX  197  Severus G a s t o r i u s : "O T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mien f a s t gantz entseelet." 198 Theodor Schuchardt: "Ach Gott wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r u b t . " . . . 199 M i c h a e l Wagner: "Ach wie w i r d mein H e r t z . " 201 Simon B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach G o t t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t . " 204 H e i n r i c h Schwemmer: "0 wie manchen B e r g . " 215 Kaspar F b r k e l r a t h : "Wer uberwindet s i c h . " 223 H e i n r i c h Schwemmer: "Nun i s t a l l e s uberstanden." 227 iv  H e i n r i c h Schwemmer: "Hie l i e g i c h u'berhaufft m i t Schmertzen.". . . . G o t t f r i e d E r n s t B r e c h t h o l d : " I h r l i e b s t e n Freunden i h r ! " . I. F.: " I c h habe das T h r a n e n t h a l d e r Welt." Anon.: "Nimm mein J e s u meine Wonne." H e i n r i c h A l b e r t : "Gedenkt wie mich d e r Tod." BIBLIOGRAPHY  228 . . . 229 229 230 230 231  v  LIST OF EXAMPLES  1.  2.  Johann P e z e l : "Es s c h a l l t d i e gantze Welt von l a u t e r E i t e l k e i t , " measures 1-7 Johann Hermann S c h e i n :  135  "Herr d e i n Ohre zu mir n e i g e n , "  measures 1-4  137  3.  Anon.: " F l e u g mein Seelgen auf zu G o t t , " measures 1-2  4.  Severus G a s t o r i u s :  "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich f a s t  137  gantz  e n t s e e l e t , " measures' 3-4  138  5.  M a r t i n S e i d e l : "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach L e i d und Schmertzen.". . . 138  6.  Severus G a s t o r i u s :  "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich f a s t  gantz  e n t s e e l e t , " measures 1-2  140  7.  F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 9-12  8.  Johann Rosenmuller: "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", measures 1-3 Johann Georg L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit D i r , du f a l s c h e Welt!", measures 1-3. Johann Rosenmiiller: "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", measures 4-6  9. 10. 11.  Heinrich  Schwemmer: "Hie l i e g  140  142 142 143  i c h u'berhaufft m i t Schmertzen,"  measures 13-15  144  12.  F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures  13.  Johann Hermann S c h e i n : "Das i s t meine F r e u d e , " measures  14.  M e l c h i o r F r a n c k : " I s t Gott f u r uns," measures  15.  Johann Rosenmuller: "Was measures 6-8  hat der Mensch  18-21  145 1-4  1-6  . . 145 146  a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", 147  vi  16.  Simon B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach Gott i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 29-32 149  17.  Samuel S c h e l d t : "Der Gerechte ob e r g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-23  149  Johann Georg L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit D i r , du f a l s c h e Welt!", measures 3-4  150  Samuel S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob e r g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-31  151  Simon B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach Gott 53-55  153  18.  19.  20.  21.  22.  23.  24.  25.  i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures  Simon B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach Gott i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 95-97  154  -Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach H e r r ! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 6- 12  155  Theodor Schuchardt: "Ach Gott wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r i i b t , " measures 1-3  159  Simon B r a n c o v i u s : 1-3  160  "Ach Gott i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures  H e i n r i c h Schwemmer: "Siehe d e r Gerechte kommet umb," measures 7- 15  160  26.  F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 1-3  27.  Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach H e r r ! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 1-5  163  163  28.  Johann Hermann S c h e i n : "Das i s t meine Freude," measures 1-4 . . 167  29.  Theodor Schuchardt: "Gott wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r i i b t . "  30.  Johann Rosenmiiller: "Was h a t d e r Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?" . . 174  31.  Samuel S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h stirbt."  169  176  32.  Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach H e r r ! Lehre uns bedencken."  178  33.  Joachim J o r d a n : "Ach weh und p e i n , das Hertze mein."  182  34.  Kaspar F b r k e l r a t h : "Wer uberwindet s i c h , " measures 36-54. . . . 184 vi i  35.  Johann Rosenmiiller:  "Welt ade i c h b i n d e i n mu'de."  36.  F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d . "  viii  186 189  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  my committee, assistance  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  and t h o u g h t f u l  of t h i s t h e s i s . this  thesis  Lunsford, For  t o express my s i n c e r e  appreciation  t o the members o f  to Dr Gregory G. B u t l e r ,  supervision  were  invaluable  O t h e r s who have c o n t r i b u t e d  a r e Dr M a r i a F l i r s t e n w a l d ,  whose generous  t o the c o m p l e t i o n  i n one way or a n o t h e r t o  Dr P h i l l i p  E. Harding, Dr Andrea  and Dr Wolfgang Reich. t h e i r generous  financial  support  over the past  few y e a r s ,  should l i k e t o thank the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Research of Canada, the A l b e r t a British I  Heritage Scholarship  I  Council  Fund, and the U n i v e r s i t y o f  Columbia. should  like  to acknowledge  generous use of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s : bibliothek  i n Erlangen,  bibliothek  i n Gbttingen,  the f o l l o w i n g  The B r i t i s h L i b r a r y ,  the N i e d e r s a c h s i s c h e  the K i r c h e n b i b l i o t h e k  St.  Mang  i n Kempton/Allga'u,  the  Stadtbibliothek  the U n i v e r s i t a t s -  Landesbibliothek  o f the E v a n g e l i s c h - L u t h e r i s c h e s  the B a y e r i s c h e  Staatsbibliothek  and the L a n d e s k i r c h l i c h e s o f the B i s c h b f l i c h e  burg, the S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k R e u t l i n g e n , Eberhard-Karls-Universitat  f o r the  t h e Niedersa'chsische S t a a t s - und U n i v e r s i t a t s -  Hanover,  Proske-Musikbibliothek  libraries  i n Tubingen,  Pfarramt i n Munich,  i n Nuremberg, the  Zentralbibliothek  i n Regens-  the U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k der the H e r z o g - A u g u s t - B i b l i o t h e k i n  Wolf e n b l i t t e l , the Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k  ix  Archiv  in  i n Berlin,  the B e r l i n e r  Stadtbibliothek, schungsbibliothek Universitat  the S a c h s i s c h e i n Gotha,  i n Leipzig,  Landesbibliothek  t h e U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k der K a r l - M a r x -  R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k i n Zwickau.  of g r a t i t u d e i s owed to the f a c u l t y and s t a f f F i n a l l y , I am  especially grateful  encouragement and boundless p a t i e n c e . thank enough,  i n Dresden, the F o r -  I d e d i c a t e t h i s work.  x  A special  debt  of UBC's Music L i b r a r y .  to Susan Vedb'y f o r her u n f l a g g i n g To my  parents, whom I cou'ld never  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Funeral published received doubt  music  accounts  critical  attention  of  from  relatively  few  scholars.  There  t h a t the c o m p o s i t i o n o f f u n e r a l m u s i c , o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n one of the p r i n c i p a l  the L u t h e r a n m u s i c i a n .  derived 1730  from  Johann  i s no i n the  sources o f i n c i d e n t a l  income  The importance o f t h i s supplementary  income  from the a c c i d e n t i a can be seen i n the p o p u l a r l y quoted  R u s s i a n R e s i d e n t Agent kantor.  music  i n Germany i n the seventeenth century,''' y e t as a genre i t has  performance o f i t , was for  f o r more than h a l f o f the o c c a s i o n a l  S e b a s t i a n Bach i n Danzig and  to Georg former  Erdmann,  schoolmate  the  petition Imperial  of the Thomas-  In the l e t t e r Bach complains t h a t  my p r e s e n t p o s t amounts t o 700 t h a l e r , and when t h e r e a r e r a t h e r more f u n e r a l s t h a n u s u a l , t h e f e e r i s e s i n p r o p o r t i o n ; b u t when a h e a l t h y wind blows they f a l l a c c o r d i n g l y , as f o r example l a s t year, when I l o s t fees that would o r d i n a r i l y come i n from f u n e r a l s to an amount o f more than 100 thaler....^  L. Weinhold, "Die G e l e g e n h e i t s k o m p o s i t i o n des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s i n Deutschland: nach dem Stand der westdeutschen RISM-Kartei," i n Q u e l l e n s t u d i e n z u r M u s i k : Wo 1 f g a n g S c h m i e d e r zum 70. G e b u r t s t a g , ed. by K. D o r f m i i l l e r ( F r a n k f u r t , L o n d o n , New Y o r k : C F . P e t e r s , 1972), p. 172. 2 H. T. D a v i d and A. M e n d e l , eds., The Bach R e a d e r : A L i f e o f J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n Bach in L e t t e r s and D o c u m e n t s , r e v . ed. (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n & Company, Inc., 1972), pp. 125-26. "...meine i t z i g e s t a t i o n b e l a u f e t s i c h etwa auf 700 r t h l . , und wenn es etwas mehrere, a l s o r d i nairement, L e i c h e n g i b t , so s t e i g e n auch nach p r o p o r t i o n d i e a c c i d e n t i a ; i s t a b e r e i n e g e s u n d e L u f f t , so f a l l e n h i n g e g e n auch s o l c h e , w i e denn  1  Considering rites  integral  role  of the L u t h e r a n c h u r c h , the  livelihood of  the  of  composers  one  music played  that  would n a t u r a l l y  have  survived  expect  s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s on the s u b j e c t .  to  and the  a handful  century.  3  of  Even i n b a s i c  instance,  there  is  "church m u s i c , " or and M u s i c i a n s ; Geschichte cipal  pertinent  find  no e n t r y their  neither  not the  cance  is  of  toire  possible,  f u n e r a l music  International  entitled  however,  number  number  of  There  is  case.  the s u b j e c t , appeared  and  in  this  . t o p i c has been i g n o r e d :  corresponding e n t r i e s  for  music,"  that  matter  i n Die Musik  i n any o t h e r o f  the  in  prin-  encyclopedias. to o b t a i n some i n d i c a t i o n of the  i n Baroque Germany by r e f e r r i n g to de js S o u r c e s  Einzeldrucke vor  the  i n The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f Music  nor f o r and  the  have  to  manuscript  for "funeral music," "occasional  are there  und Gegenwart,  studies  works  cognates  music d i c t i o n a r i e s It  shorter  or  an a p p r e c i a b l e  But such i s  reference  funeral  large  in published  n o t a s i n g l e monograph w h i c h d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h only  i n the  importance of f u n e r a l music  and p e r f o r m i n g m u s i c i a n s ,  funerary c o m p o s i t i o n s  form,  that  Musicales).  1800,^ there  are no  In  the  RISM  nine  l e s s than 575  signifi(Repervolumes  entries  for  v o r i g e s J a h r an o r d i n a i r e n L e i c h e n a c c i d e n t i e n liber 100 r t h l . " ( C i t e d i n W. Neumann and H . - J . S c h u l z e , S c h r i f t s t i i c k e v o n d e r Hand J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n Bachs, Bach-Dokumente: Herausgegeben vom B a c h - A r c h i v L e i p z i g , supplement to Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach Neue Ausgabe s a m t l i c h e r Werke, v o l . 1 [ C a s s e l , B a s e l , P a r i s , L o n d o n , New Y o r k : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1 9 6 3 ] , pp. 6 7 - 6 8 . ) 3 The obvious e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s the c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e number of w r i t i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of Schutz's M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. In t h i s r e s p e c t see Chapter T h r e e , f o o t n o t e 111. K . S c h l a g e r , e d . , E i n z e l d r i i c k e v o r _18_9_P_> RISM ( R e p e r t o i r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l des Source M u s i c a l e s ) , i n 9 v o l s ( C a s s e l , B a s e l , T o u r s , London: B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1971). H  2  f u n e r a l m u s i c p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 1600  and  1700.  F u r t h e r m o r e , many o f  these e n t r i e s c o n s i s t of s e v e r a l independent c o m p o s i t i o n s . refer  to a n t h o l o g i e s  music  together  with  containing either  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  Reich  Sachsische  of  the  subsequent  Landesbibliothek  These works, which may  refers  to as  tradition,""' c o n s t i t u t e a rather impressive  literature,  a r e p e r t o r y t h a t has  of  the  relative  reasons  why  p u b l i s h e d works e x i s t  Indeed,  i s to go,  the "much l a r g e r body of  musical  remained, f o r the most p a r t , untouched.  t h i s music has  inaccessibility.  be  d i s c o v e r i e s and what Wolfgang  manuscript  One  others  f u n e r a l music alone or f u n e r a l  o t h e r o c c a s i o n a l music.  extensively  Still  the  escaped c r i t i c a l only  practical  scrutiny is i t s  way  to know what  e n t r y by e n t r y , through each of the  v o l u m e s o f RISM's E i n z e l d r u c k e v o r  1800  --  a chore both  nine  tedious  and  unreliable.^ Because t h e r e  i s no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f the  small  number o f m u s i c o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s on t h e s u b j e c t o f f u n e r a l m u s i c i n B a r o q u e Germany, i t may provide  a b r i e f overview of t h e i r contents.  thoroughly  i n some o f  some s e n s e w i l l music  p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l to c o n s i d e r them h e r e and  was  created  be  the  o f the h i s t o r i c a l  performed.  published Leichenpredigten  •'Reich to Johnston, l i c h e Uberlieferung."  more  f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s , i t i s a l s o hoped here that  imparted  and  Though d e a l t w i t h  to  Among the e a r l i e s t  as a source  19  April  context  i n which  s t u d i e s to draw on  of m u s i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l  1984.  "...viel  this  grbssere  information  handschrift-  ^ I t i s u n r e l i a b l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e a l w a y s to determine from the t i t l e of a c o m p o s i t i o n or of a l a r g e r work, as g i v e n i n RISM, whether the music i s f u n e r a r y or s i m p l y d e v o t i o n a l , p e n i t e n t i a l or commemorative. 3  are two  nineteenth-century  tively,  published  these a r t i c l e s  a r t i c l e s , by P h i l i p p S p i t t a and  i n the M o n a t s h e f te ^ i i r Mu_s i.kgescjijL£hte.  are concerned w i t h  The  excerpted  bodies  directly  o f the a r t i c l e s from  the  respecBoth  1  b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on w e l l -  l e s s e r - k n o w n German c o m p o s e r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h and turies.  Beyer  c o n s i s t almost  f u n e r a l sermons and  seventeenth  of and  cen-  e n t i r e l y o f passages  accompanying  curricula  8 vitae report work  of  the  published  on  the  l i v e s and  is essentially  Leichenpredigten, careers  archival;  of  the  musicians.  although  both  importance of the i n f o r m a t i o n , they r e f r a i n A  few  m u s i c o l o g i c a l works  which d e a l t a n g e n t i a l l y w i t h Otto  Riemer's  Er_har_d  providing a  contemporary  S p i t t a ' s and  authors  Beyer's  recognized  the  from e l a b o r a t i n g upon i t .  have appeared  i n the  twentieth  century  the s u b j e c t of f u n e r a l music. These i n c l u d e  Bodenschatz  und  sseiji F l ^ r i ^ e g ^ u m  Portense  P. S p i t t a , " L e i c h e n s e r m o n e a u f M u s i k e r des XVI. und X V I I . J a h r h u n d e r t s , " M o n a t s h e f t e f u r M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e 3, nos. 2-3 (1871): 24-44; Beyer, "Leichensermone auf M u s i k e r des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s , " M o n a t s h e f t e f u r M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e 7, nos. 11-12 (1875): 171-88. The composers covered by S p i t t a i n c l u d e Hans Leo H a s s l e r , J o h a n n Hermann S c h e i n , Tobias M i c h a e l , Georg Ludwig A g r i c o l a , Clemens Thieme, and Andreas Werkmeister. Those m e n t i o n e d i n Beyer's a r t i c l e i n c l u d e H e i n r i c h S c h i i t z , M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s , H e i n r i c h Bach, C h r i s t i a n G r e f e n t h a l , W e r n e r F a b r i c i u s , Johann C h r i s t o p h Hoffmann, Johann H e l l e r , B a l t h a s a r H i l d e b r a n d , Herman Koch, Johann C h r i s t o p h Kb'rber and Adam Judenfeind. 8 The t e r m " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t ( p i . L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n ) " i s most o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h as " f u n e r a l sermon." In t h e c o n t e x t o f the present study, however, the term w i l l be understood i n i t s Baroque sense and i n the sense that i t i s c u r r e n t l y used i n s c h o l a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s of German f u n e r a r y l i t e r a t u r e and m u s i c . In the Baroque, L e i c h e n p r e d i g t was a t e r m used not o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e to the f u n e r a l s e r m o n as s u c h -that i s , the o r a t i o n most o f t e n based on s c r i p t u r e s and d e l i v e r e d by the p r e s i d i n g c l e r g y i n the church or chapel; i t a l s o encompassed a l l other items w i t h which the p u b l i s h e d sermon may be found, i n c l u d i n g o t h e r ad h o £ o r a t i o n s (e.g., A b d a n k u n g e n ) , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n and s e r v i c e , e p i c e d i a and o t h e r p o e t r y , p o r t r a i t s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h e s and g e n e a l o g i e s , and, of most i n t e r e s t here, f u n e r a l music.  and  Walter  Although  Reckziegel's  Portense  f u n e r a l s , Riemer has  (Leipzig, very  of these  compositions.^  part  his  occasional  book  to  funeral  von  exemplars.^  Johan  Herman  Schein.  a  stylistic which  the  performed  on the o t h e r hand, devotes a discussion  were  1627/1645) and  incidental  were p o p u l a r l y  Q  at  to say about the o c c a s i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n  Reckziegel,  Nevertheless,  is entirely  1618/1621),  little  lieder  Cantional (Leipzig,  music  Cantional  s e v e r a l o f the works i n Bodenschatz's motet a n t h o l o g y ,  Florilegium  of  Das  g i v e s the  Reckziegel's to  later  of  those  of  incorporated l o c a t i o n s of  reference  t h e more g e n e r a l  small  Schein's into  his  individual  to Schein's  funeral  d i s c u s s i o n of  the  C a n t i o n a l as a whole. The  f i r s t m u s i c o l o g i c a l work to focus c r i t i c a l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y on  the s u b j e c t o f B a r o q u e f u n e r a l m u s i c i n Germany i s an a r t i c l e by A r n o Werner,  "Die F u r s t l i c h e Leichenpredigtensammlung  zu S t o l b e r g a l s musik-  12 ge s c h i ch 11 i c h e schung  i n 1936.  Quelle,"  published  W e r n e r e x a m i n e s the  in  A r c_h i^v  fiir  Stolberg-Stolberg  Mus i k f o r catalogue  of  9 0. R i e m e r , E r h a r d B o d e n s c h a t z und £e_in F l o r i l e g i u m P o r t e n s e (Schonigen: J u l . Kaminsky, 1928); W. R e c k z i e g e l , Das C a n t i o n a l von Johan Herman Schein: Seine g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n G r u n d l a g e n , B e r l i n e r S t u d i e n z u r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t : V e r b f f e n t l i c h u n g e n des M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n I n s t i t u t s d e r F r e i e n U n i v e r s i t a t B e r l i n , ed. Adam A d r i o , v o l . 5 ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g Merseburger, 1963). ^ A c c o r d i n g to a M a g i s t e r L e i b n i z i n the L e i p z i g e r Kirchenandachten (1694), the c o m p o s i t i o n s i n the F l o r i l e g i u m that were commonly used at f u n e r a l s were J a c o b u s G a l l u s ' s E c c e £ u o m o d o m o ^ i ^ u r J u s t u s and Medina v i t a , Hans Leo Hassler's Si^ bona suscapimus and A n n i b a l e S t a b i l e ' s Nunc dimitis. C i t e d i n F. Hamel, "Die L e i p z i g e r Funera: zur K u l t u r g e s c h i c h t e der Begrabnismusik," S c h w e i z e r i s c h e M u s i k z e i t u n g 88 (1948): 90. ^ R e c k z i e g e l , op. c i t . , pp. 140-51. 12 A. Werner. "Die F u r s t l i c h e Leichenpredigtensammlung zu S t o l b e r g a l s m u s i k g e s c h i c h t 1 i c h e Q u e l l e , " A r c h i v f i i r M u s i k f o r s c h u n g 1 (1936): 293-317. 5  Leichenpredigten information,  as  a source  reference  a study w h i c h r e c e i v e d i t s  L i l i e n c r o n as p a r t o f the  an accompanying  eighteenth  impetus  and  the  at  the  behest  of  S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g , who d i e d i n 1749. in zeal,  the  from Rochus von  Tonkunst.  subsequent  index were c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the  century  contemporaries  initial  s e r i e s Denkmaler d e u t s c h e r  The c o l l e c t i o n o f L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n of  o f music and m u s i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l  Grafin  compilation  first half  of  the  Sophie Eleonore  zu  Though p e r h a p s u n m a t c h e d by h e r  the G r a f i n ' s reasons f o r c o l l e c t i n g these works  were w e l l i n accordance w i t h the contemporary p r a c t i c e among P r o t e s t a n t s o f p r e p a r i n g f o r d e a t h t h r o u g h t h e c a r e f u l s t u d y and c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f 13 funeral  sermons.  The a c t u a l  r o u g h l y 25,000 d i f f e r e n t 1716,  when t h e  appeared. Earlier  first  publications  bringing  must h a v e begun o f the  As t h e c o l l e c t i o n g r e w , s u p p l e m e n t a r y  in this  Stolberg,  century,  issued  Leichenpredigten. reference  of  p r o v i s i o n a l catalogue  Degener & Co. o f L e i p z i g , of  process  tool,  less offers  between  1927 and 1935,  together sometime  these before  collected  works  i n d i c e s were  added.  the p u b l i s h i n g  firm  i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the " F u r s t l i c h e Kammer"  a four-volume  catalogue  A l t h o u g h the c a t a l o g u e  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard  to  o f the  a m a s s e d body o f  i t s e l f is unreliable the  musicalia,^ it  as a  nonethe-  the modern s c h o l a r access to the r i c h and v a r i e d c o n t e n t s o f  Leichenpredigten. Werner  mentions  the  importance  of  the  available  biographical  13 See W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r b a u u n g s 1 i t e r a t u r , " in L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. by R. Lenz (Cologne, V i e n n a : Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 66-81. ^Werner,  op. c i t . , p. 294.  6  information cantors,  on  musicians  of  various  p r o f e s s i o n a l types  music d i r e c t o r s , o r g a n i s t s , trumpeters,  k a n t e n ) , and together  a  S t a d t p f e i f e r and  sees i n t h e s e s o - c a l l e d P e r s o n a l i e n picture  flourished.^  He  of  c l a s s system  deictic  poetry but  musicians  of  cultural  i s a l s o able  century  directors  the  was  and  i t s social  i t seems,  inferior  social  i n which  ramifications  i n honour o f  for organists, status.^  Other  Musi-  the means o f p i e c i n g the  to shed some l i g h t on the  often written  not,  milieu  (Capellmeister,  musicians  seventeenth-  for musicians:  Capellmeister  epi-  and  music  S t a d t p f e i f e r and  other  sections  of  the  Leichen-  £redig_ten he 1 d by Werner to be o f l e s s e r i n t e r e s t t o the h i s t o r i a n or musicologist  receive  little  attention,  and  o r a t o r y known as the Abdankung i s s i m p l y  the  type  s a i d to be  Given the magnitude of the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g h i t h e r t o unexploited  wealth of m u s i c a l  t h a t Werner's work w i t h zational  than  the catalogue  interpretative.  the most g e n e r a l of terms.  He  information, was  the  Baroque  funeral  "unimportant."'''^ collection,  and  its  i t i s understandable  of n e c e s s i t y  discusses  Funeral  of  f a r more  f u n e r a l music  organi-  itself  c o m p o s i t i o n s are mentioned as  in  having  been most commonly w r i t t e n i n four or f i v e p a r t s without basso  continuo,  though p o l y c h o r a l  composi-  works w r i t t e n  f o r two  t i o n s f o r s o l o v o i c e were not r a r e .  1 5  Ibid.,  1 6  Ibid.  p.  four-part  choirs  and  Much l e s s common were f u n e r a l works  294.  ^ I b id. But see M. F u r s t e n w a I d , "Zur T h e o r i e und F u n k t i o n der Barockabdankung," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n als Quelle h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissens c h a f t e n , ed. by R. L e n z ( C o l o g n e , V i e n n a : Bb'hlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 372-89. S i n c e the time of Werner's w r i t i n g , the Baroque Abdankung has been g i v e n due r e c o g n i t i o n by German l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s as an a r t i s t i c g e n r e t h a t was w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d t h r o u g h o u t L u t h e r a n Germany i n the Baroque. 7  f o r two,  three and s i x v o i c e s .  singled  out  by W e r n e r f o r  Trauerbuhne ( L e i p z i g , vorhanden i s t "  18  brief  1678)  (Dresden and Z i t t a u ,  collection  occasional  discussion,  music,  well  as  Ernst  Otipka's  1681).  s t u d y by m a i n t a i n i n g  presents  as  such  are  and E r h a r d T i t i u s ' s "Wenn mein S t i i n d l e i n  Werner summarizes h i s Stolberg  Some unusual funerary c o m p o s i t i o n s  as  us  with  that  a largely  considerable  the  Stolberg-  untapped  biographical  source  of  information  on  20 both famous and obscure composers it  is  felt  sources in  of  its  by Werner that historical  represents  S t o l b e r g catalogue references cians,  to  L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n are  overview  of  are the  following  five  music  mentioned  poems  the  in  the  the c a t a l o g u e ;  of whose death  (Trauergedichte)  funeral  whose f a m i l y members are the o b j e c t  references  to  corrections  and  who  supplements  have to  written  the  of  f u n e r a l music (pp. the  299-317) Stolberg-  2) r e f e r e n c e s  sermons,  of  as  p r o v i d e d by Werner: 1) to m u s i -  curricula 3)  vitae  references  funerary w r i t i n g s ;  threnodic  catalogue's  significant  of  table  were w r i t t e n ;  musicians,  musicians  role  contents  indices  Furthermore,  also  P r e c e d i n g an appended  a brief  on the o c c a s i o n  threnodic  the German Baroque.  information concerning  c u l t u r a l context.  which  or  the  of  poems;  to 4)  5) Werner's  " V e r z e i c h n i s der  Lieder  und Musikstticke." 18  W e r n e r , op. c i t . ,  p.  297.  19  I b i d . , pp. 297-98. A c c o r d i n g to RISM, the s o l e exemplar of E r n s t Otipka's Trauerbuhne i s housed i n the S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k i n L i n d a u (Bodens e e ) ; h o w e v e r , a t t e m p t s by the l i b r a r y to l o c a t e the work were u n s u c c e s s f u l (Werner Dobras, L e i t e r des K u l t u r a m t e s , to Johnston, 17 November 1986). 2 0  Ibid.,  p.  298.  8  T w e l v e y e a r s a f t e r Werner's a r t i c l e was "Die L e i p z i g e r Funera: in  zur K u l t u r g e s c h i c h t e der Begrabnismusik"  an i s s u e of the S c h w e i z e r i s c h e  not  o v e r l y concerned  his  primary  aim  with  writing  this  indifference  a critical  performed  article  to the  and  a corresponding  ary  composition.  type  was  examination  in Leipzig.  L i k e Werner, Hamel i s of  the music  itself;  Among Hamel's m o t i v a t i o n s  h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s  of music  ignorance  performed  during  contemporaries'  funeral  of Germany's h i s t o r i c  funeral  music  and  ceremonies  t r a d i t i o n o f funer-  He hoped that h i s a r t i c l e might i n some way  " E n t k i t s c h u n g " o f German music  21 Musikzeitung.  appeared  r a t h e r i s to d e s c r i b e the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context i n  which f u n e r a l music was for  p u b l i s h e d , F r e d Hamel's  a revival  lead to an  o f the  funeral  22  of the Baroque. The  article  comprises  s i x main t o p i c s  of d i s c u s s i o n , each of  them  23 only b r i e f l y  touched  upon.  The  first,  t i o n of f u n e r a r y p r a c t i c e s i n L e i p z i g description  of  the  Baroque exequies  d e t a i l s the involvement als,  from  the deceased.  d u r i n g the B a r o q u e .  on v a r i o u s c i v i c  of the students of the L e i p z i g  r e q u i r e d through  Hamel p r o v i d e s  to t h e i r  Basing h i s  ordinances,  Hamel  schools at f u n e r -  s i n g i n g a t the  the modern r e a d e r  i n t o t h i s p e r i o d when d e a t h  students  is a descrip-  the f i r s t n o t i f i c a t i o n on the b l a c k b o a r d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s '  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  glimpse  "Organisation,"  was  with  interment  an o c c a s i o n a l  a s t r a n g e r t o no one.  of the T h o m a s s c h u l e , c o n j u g a t i n g L a t i n v e r b s ,  of  To  the  learning  the  F. Hamel, "Die L e i p z i g e r Funera: zur K u l t u r g e s c h i c h t e der Begrabnismusik," S c h w e i z e r i s c h e M u s i k z e i t u n g 88 (1948): 87-92, 125-32. 22 23  Ibid.,  p.  132.  I b i d ., pp. 88-89. 9  L u t h e r a n c a t e c h i s m and routine. occasions  The  s i n g i n g a t f u n e r a l s were a l l p a r t o f the same  seriousness with  which  the  students  i s intimated in a school ordinance  took  from  these  1723  mournful  whereby  the  students were expected t o wear the t i m e - h o n o u r e d b l a c k g a r m e n t s , t o k e e p them n e a t and c l e a n as much as p o s s i b l e , to walk i n a p r o c e s s i o n a l manner ahead o f t h e body; and f u r t h e r m o r e , n o t to be up t o t h e l e a s t b i t o f m i s c h i e f , c h a t t e r , t o get out o f or even l e a v e a l t o g e t h e r t h e i r l i n e , but r a t h e r to s i n g s e d u l o u s l y t o g e t h e r the l i e d e r from the s o n g b o o k s t h e y have w i t h them and, f u r t h e r m o r e , t o o b s e r v e a proper consonance, and to remain q u i e t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a c e s d u r i n g the f u n e r a l sermon, as w e l l as i n the cemetery. The  second  s e c t i o n o f Hamel's a r t i c l e  The author d i s c u s s e s here of  i s headed " M u s i k a l i s c h e P r a x i s . "  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  f u n e r a l s i n o r d e r f o r them t o c o n f o r m  c l a s s of the deceased.  The ?  the c a n t i o n a l - t y p e l i e d , performed  at L e i p z i g  third  part  the p a r t i c u l a r  social  ft  w h i c h was  f u n e r a l s , because  v a t i o n of t h i s  simple style,  Cantional,  further  t h e T h i r t y Y e a r s ' War.  with  on the e l a b o r a t e n e s s  i s g i v e n to a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f  t h e most common t y p e o f of c i v i c  the use of i n s t r u m e n t s i n c i t y churches.  was  imposed  as s e e n  promoted  owing  o r d i n a n c e s which banned  Hamel b e l i e v e s that the  i n s u c h w o r k s as J . H. to the  music  culti-  Schein's  impoverishing effects  J o h a n n R o s e n m i i l l e r i s the t o p i c o f the  of  fourth  From the "E. E. Hochw. Raths der Stadt L e i p z i g Ordnung der Schule zu S t . Thomas," 1723, X I I , 1-3. C i t e d i n H a m e l , O J K c i t . , p. 89. "...die von a l t e r s her e i n g e f u h r t e ehrbare schwarze K l e i d u n g gebrauchen, auch s e l b i g e , so v i e l nur m o g l i c h , r e i n und sauber h a l t e n , p r o z e s s i o n s weise vor der L e i c h e hergehen, dabey n i c h t den g e r i n g s t e n Unfug t r e i b e n , plaudern, aus i h r e r Reihe oder gar davongehen, hingegen aber d i e l i e d e r aus denen bey s i c h habenden Gesang-Biichern a l l e s a m t f l e i s s i g absingen, dabey e i n e r i c h t i g e Consonanz beobachten, und unter wahrenden L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n , w i e auch a u f dem K i r c h h o f an i h r e m b e h o r i g e n O r t e S t i l l e seyn." 2 5  I b i d . , pp. 89-91.  2 6  I b i d . , pp. 91-92. 10  p a r t , 27  as Hamel g i v e s a b r i e f overview of the types of f u n e r a r y  music  28 w r i t t e n by  him.  As  p a r t of the  fifth  point,  Die M o t e t t e ,  Hamel notes  that p a r e n t a t i o n  motets were w r i t t e n by  and  c o m m i s s i o n e d by the d e c e a s e d ' s f a m i l y and  1750.  Often  published  together  were most  as p a r t of the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t ,  o f t e n based  r e s u r r e c t i o n and  in Leipzig  instrument ever,  to  funerals tion..  held The  biblical  l e d to  last  eventual  and  harmonic  independent  parts  U n i v e r s i t y Church,  topic  for discussion  the  1600  eventually  parentation  motets  t o p i c s of death, s a l v a t i o n ,  Hamel p o i n t s  the  pitches  permitted i n the  t e x t s on  i n motet c o m p o s i t i o n  supply  were not  on  eternal l i f e .  technical complexity Baroque  every Thomaskantor between  out  that  i n the  the  trend  latter  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  towards  p a r t of a  the  keyboard  support.  Instruments,  except  f o r performances  that i s , out  of c i v i c  i n Hamel's a r t i c l e  howat  jurisdic-  i s the  funeral  c o m p o s i t i o n s by J. S. Bach. In 1959 an a r t i c l e by Werner B r a u n a p p e a r e d e n t i t l e d "Das  Eisen-  29 3  acher  Begrabniskantional  question (Gotha,  i s the E i s e n a c h 1653) , a  aus  dem  Jahre  1653."  The  cantional  Cantor Theodor Schuchardt's T h r e n o d i a  s i n g l e copy of which was  o f the L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k  0  Weimar.  discovered  B r a u n e x a m i n e s and  i n the  in  sacra  collection  presents  a brief  27 lb id., pp. 125-27. Hamel p o i n t s out t h a t c e r t a i n o f R o s e n m u l l er's w o r k s (Acht B e g r a b n i s l i e d e r f i i r den L e i p z i g e r T h o m a n e r c h o r , W o l f e n b u ' t t e l - B e r l i n , 1930) were a v a i l a b l e i n modern e d i t i o n e d i t e d by Hamel h i m s e l f . 2 8  Ibid.,  pp.  127-28.  2 9  Ibid.,  pp.  129-31.  30 in  W. Braun, "Das E i s e n a c h e r B e g r a b n i s k a n t i o n a l aus dem Jahre 1653," Jahrbuch fiir L i t u r g i k und Hymnologie, v o l . 4 (1958/59), pp. 122-28.  11  overview  o f the contents  relationship  of the T h r e n o d i a  cantionals,  points  traditional  melodies.  for  o f the Schuchardt  the anthology,  touching  upon the  sacra to other contemporary  of c o m p o s i t i o n a l The a r t i c l e  which  anthology,  style,  concludes  and  with  funerary  origins  of the  a table of  contents  i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o r k s by  Melchior  Franck, Johann Hermann Schein, Joachim a Burck, M e l c h i o r V u l p i u s , w i t h a particularly  large p r o p o r t i o n of compositions  by  Schuchardt.  To date, no one has c o n t r i b u t e d more to the study  and  understanding  of f u n e r a l music o f the German Baroque than has Wolfgang Reich.  Reich's  doctoral  des 17.  dissertation  Jahrhunderts Universita't studies to  "Die deutschen  a l s musikalische i n Leipzig,  gedruckten  Q u e l l e , " completed  continues  Reich  i n 1962 a t  Karl-Marx-  t o serve as the bench mark f o r modern  i n the a r e a o f German f u n e r a l music.  the d i s s e r t a t i o n ,  Leichenpredigten  In h i s p r e f a c i n g remarks  s t a t e s t h a t the p r i m a r y  goal of h i s work i s  to p r o v i d e music r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a comprehensive r e f e r e n c e t o o l f o r g a i n i n g access  t o sources o f p r i n t e d music  found  i n the l a r g e r  Leichen-  31  predigten c o l l e c t i o n s Reich's  i n the German Democratic  dissertation  begins  with  a general  Republic. d i s c u s s i o n of p u b l i s h e d 32  L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n as a h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon i n Baroque Germany. the  s u b h e a d i n g , " D i e Mus i k b e i l a g e n der gedruckten  Under  Leichenpredigten,"  Reich t r a c e s the growth and decay of the p r a c t i c e of p u b l i s h i n g L e i c h e n 31 W. R e i c h . " D i e d e u t s c h e n g e d r u c k t e n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 17. Jahrhunderts a l s m u s i k a l i s c h e Q u e l l e " (Ph.D. d i s s . , K a r l - M a r x - U n i v e r s i t a t , 1962), p. I. 3 2  Ibid.,  pp. 1-6.  3 3  Ibid.,  pp. 6-13.  12  predigten  with  music  throughout  m i d - e i g h t e e n t h century, flourished  at c e r t a i n  taking  times  Germany from i n t o account  because  of l o c a l  the m i d - s i x t e e n t h t o the the f a c t  that some c e n t r e s  composers who  specialized  35 in  funerary composition,  Leichenpredigten Y e a r s ' War,  other areas  s e p a r a t e l y , and  on the p u b l i c a t i o n of f u n e r a l  no reason i s g i v e n , t h e r e appears i n D a n z i g a f t e r 1676,  nung" from  y e t o t h e r s , as a r e s u l t  c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s or a c o m b i n a t i o n  restrictions  music  p u b l i s h e d the m u s i c  1705  music.  of the  o f the two, For  and  Thirty  imposed  instance,  to be no p u b l i c a t i o n of ad hoc  the  though funeral  and i n N u r e m b e r g a " V e r n e u e r t e L e i c h - O r d -  decreed:  And because the p r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n e r a l l i e d e r i s a l l too much abused and almost no d i s t i n c t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d thereby, thus s h a l l t h e r e be h e n c e f o r t h no more than two l i e d e r p r i n t e d i n f o l i o i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s , one i n q u a r t o i n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d , but i n the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s none whatsoever, under p e n a l t y o f s i x gulden. Reich  also  alludes  to  the  multifold  problems  of  identifying  the  37 composers whether  of the music the  name  i n Leichenpredigten.  given  on  the  printed  I t i s sometimes u n c l e a r  title  page  See Anhang I, p. 180. Schema der zahlenmassigen L e i c h e n p r e d i g t d r u c k e s zwischen 1550 und 1750.  i s that  of  the  Ausbreitung  des  35 For example, some of the more p r o l i f i c composers of f u n e r a l music i n c l u d e d , to name a few, Johann Hermann Schein and Johann Rosenmuller i n L e i p z i g ; H e i n r i c h Schwemmer and P a u l H a i n l e i n i n N u r e m b e r g ; W o l f g a n g C a s p a r B r i e g e l i n G o t h a ; J o h a n n S t o b a u s and H e i n r i c h A l b e r t i n D a n z i g and Kbnigsberg; Johann G o t t l i e b T h i l l i n Regensburg. 3ft  C i t e d i n R e i c h , op. c i t . , p. 9. "VNd w e i l e n das D r u c k e n und Aust h e i l e n der L e i c h e n - L i e d e r a l l z u w e i t missgebrauchet, und f a s t gar k e i n V n t e r s c h i e d damit g e h a l t e n worden: So s o l l e n f u r o h i n i n dem E r s t e n Stand hochstens zwey, i n F o l i o , i n dem Andern und D r i t t e n E i n s , i n Quart, bey denen f o l g e n d e n S t a n d e n a b e r g a r k e i n e L i e d e r g e d r u c k t w e r d e n , bey S t r a f e Sechs Gulden." 3 7  I b i d . , pp. 11-13.  13  composer,  the  poet  o r the  performer.  identified  o n l y by h i s i n i t i a l s ,  and  Other  these  times,  initials  the  may  composer  l i k e w i s e appear  w i t h t h o s e o f the p o e t , w h i c h o n l y compounds the p r o b l e m by t h e two.  S y m p t o m a t i c o f the t i m e ,  w i t h the r e l a t i o m y s t i c a , ties  through  acrostics  t o o , was  cryptic  messages.  for  t h e composer's name to be o m i t t e d  For  this  either was  reason  because  the German  Neither  preoccupation  entirely  authorship  was  evident  identi-  was  i t uncommon  from the  publication.  numerous composers have remained their  confusing  as composers concealed or v e i l e d t h e i r  and  is  completely  anonymous,  to everyone when the music  p u b l i s h e d , or s i m p l y because they chose to be.  38 Under  the  subheading Q u e l l e n b e r i c h t ,  Reich  v i e w of the m a t e r i a l c o n s u l t e d f o r h i s study. study  to a r c h i v e s and  65,000 L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  f o r examination.  bound t o g e t h e r  are housed  16,000),  the  bibliothek  i n the  anthologies;  Deutsche  i n Z w i c k a u ( c a . 10,000) and  The heading  major  largest  of  these  are col-  the  Ratsschul-  the L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k (now Other  significant  the  collec-  c i t e d by R e i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n l i b r a r i e s i n  G r e i f s w a l d , J e n a and  s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the  "Katalog der gedruckten I b i d . , pp.  the  (ca. 12,000),  F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k ) i n Gotha ( c a . 7,000).  Rostock, W i t t e n b e r g ,  nevertheless  S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k i n B e r l i n (ca.  S t a a t s a r c h i v i n Magdeburg  t i o n s of L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  were  Reich  Over 80 per cent of the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  i n the customary  lections  over-  Though r e s t r i c t i n g h i s  l i b r a r i e s of the German Democratic R e p u b l i c ,  remarks t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y available  gives a general  Leipzig. i n t r o d u c t o r y pages  Musikbeilagen  14-15.  14  i n den  bears  the  Leichenpredigt-  Sammlungen der Deutschen 426  Demokratischen  39  a catalogue of some  s e p a r a t e e n t r i e s o r g a n i z e d by p l a c e of p u b l i c a t i o n , year o f p u b l i c a -  tion,  and name o f the d e c e a s e d .  The  n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e by composer, t i t l e and  Republik,"  setting.  Reich  also  includes  m u s i c a l works are i d e n t i f i e d of c o m p o s i t i o n or t e x t u a l  additional  bibliographic  as  incipit,  information  a b o u t c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n s o f c o p i e s of t h e w o r k s i n r e p o s i t o r i e s o f t h e German Democratic  R e p u b l i c , i d e n t i f y i n g these l o c a t i o n s w i t h the  s i g l a e s t a b l i s h e d i n RISM. oN." the  The  former  He f u r t h e r m o r e u s e s the s i g l a " S t " and " S t  which o f the works mentioned  S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g c a t a l o g u e , and  works  the  i n the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g c o l l e c t i o n  ment.  F o r t u n a t e l y the b i b l i o g r a p h i c  recognized, The al  indicates  and  i t was  but  refers  to exemplars  l a c k i n g the music  v a l u e of Reich's  approaches  of  supple-  catalogue  was  p u b l i s h e d i n a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n i n 1966.^  of some of the music,  musical genre.^  3 9  latter  are i n c l u d e d i n  second major d i v i s i o n of Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n p r e s e n t s a  analysis  library  c a t e g o r i z e d by geographic  gener-  area and  by  In h i s a n a l y s e s , R e i c h e x a m i n e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l  to f u n e r a l music  as p r a c t i s e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Germany.  I b i d . , pp. 16-68.  ^W. R e i c h , ed., Threnodiae Sacrae: K a t a l o g der gedruckten Komposit i o n e n des 16.-18. J a h r h u n d e r t s i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t s a m m l u n g e n innerhalb der Deutschen Demokratischen R e p u b l i k (Dresden: Sachsische L a n d e s b i b l i o thek, 1966). A l s o the r e s u l t o f Reich's work w i t h f u n e r a l music i s h i s e d i t i o n T h r e n o d i a e S a c r a e : B e e r d i g u n g s k o m p o s i t i o n e n aus g e d r u c k t e n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 16. und 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s , Das Erbe Deutscher Musik, v o l . 79 (Wiesbaden: B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1975). ^ R e i c h , "Die d e u t s c h e n g e d r u c k t e n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n , " pp. 77-145. The geographic breakdown comprises Northwest Germany, N o r t h e a s t Germany, C e n t r a l Germany, and Southern Germany. Under each o f these geographic headings the c u r r e n t forms or approaches to c o m p o s i t i o n are examined, i n c l u d i n g m o t e t s and g e i s t l i c h e K o n z e r t e , L i e d f o r m s , c a n t a t a s , d i a logues and o t h e r m u l t i p a r t i t e forms.  15  He  discusses,  f o r example,  c e n t r a l Germany and this  a p p r o a c h was  fifty  how,  the  i n the  p o p u l a r i t y of d i a l o g i c  second h a l f o f the seventeenth  s u p e r c e d e d by d i a l o g i c c a n t a t a s .  pages of t r a n s c r i b e d examples  included  to  compositions  illustrate  at  the  some o f R e i c h ' s  end  of the  in  century,  Approximately dissertation  d i s c u s s i o n of  are  compositional  style. Reich concluding  summarizes  Zusammenhang and  Leichenpredigten quarter of  of  many o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s  the  s i x t e e n t h century, century,  1670s and  1680s, and  eighteenth  century.  Leichenenpredigten  with  e x p l a i n i n g the  third  momentum i n the e a r l y  years  during  the customary c a n t i o n a l s and  compositions  music  was  century,  to the standard  enumerates as  law;  H Z  Ibid.,  4 3  I b i d . , pp. 161-74.  five  p r a c t i c e of r e l y i n g  removed from the  5) a f t e r  the  middle  of  the  on  of  Leichen-  seventeenth  i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y common f o r the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t  p.  the  of  4) p e r i o d i c a l l y the p u b l i c a t i o n of the  to i n c o r -  136.  T h i s i s n o t a b l y the case w i t h many of the funerary the c o l l e c t i o n of the R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k i n Zwickau. 4 4  in  weak t r a n s m i s s i o n  E x e q u i e n , were o f t e n p u b l i s h e d independently  by  the  motet a n t h o l o g i e s ; 2) l a r g e r works, such as  contemporaries;^  forbidden  he  h a l f of  were i n c l u d e d i n the p u b l i c a -  the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t ; 3) sometimes the music was p r e d i g t e n by  the f i r s t  relatively  supplementary music,  1) o n l y ad hoc  Musikalische  i n the  a p e r i o d of e f f l o r e s c e n c e i n t h e  declined steadily In  i n the  sees p r i n t e d f u n e r a l music i n  gathered  reached  t i o n s , s i n c e they were e x c e p t i o n s  Schutz's  He  f u n e r a l music  as a l a r g e l y German phenomenon that began  the s e v e n t e e n t h  c h i e f reasons:  Thesen.  on  16  compositions  porate  only the t e x t of the m u s i c a l  work.  In h i s c l o s i n g remarks, Reich  makes a number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s o f b o t h g e n e r a l and Because Baroque composers a v a i l e d s t y l e s (though  the  c a n t a t a and  A relatively funeral  music  s o l o song were i n many ways r e s t r i c t e d ) ,  Leichenpredigten published  und  version  Schuhmacher's  of  a  paper  b e f o r e him,  to a proper  first  article  i n 1974. "^  read  at  study o f German  "Musikbeigaben  the  Erstes  of the  context  of Baroque  in a  Marburger  Schuhmacher begins h i s a r t i c l e  4  not  se.  s e l b s t a n d i g v e r b f f e n t l i c h t e Sterbekompositionen,"  s t r e s s i n g that an u n d e r s t a n d i n g requisite  genre per  r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l  Personalschriftensymposion  is  f u n e r a l music, u l t i m a t e l y , may  to as a s t y l i s t i c  i s Gerhard  natures.  themselves of a l l the c u r r e n t m u s i c a l  R e i c h s t a t e s that seventeenth-century be p r o p e r l y r e f e r r e d  specific  by  f u n e r a l music  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the music i t s e l f .  Like  others  he comments on the g e n e r a l n e g l e c t of the s u b j e c t of f u n e r a l  • 46 music. On  the  whole,  Schuhmacher's a r t i c l e  s u b j e c t of f u n e r a l music, of  non-music  eloquent  specialists.  directed  as  f o r others  i t i s at the  symposium's  of  the  audience  He mentions the p r a c t i c e of some of the more  p a s t o r s i n the Baroque, who  anthologies  i s a g e n e r a l treatment  to study  and  published emulate.  47  their  f u n e r a l sermons i n  Some o f  these  antholo-  G. S c h u h m a c h e r , " M u s i k b e i g a b e n i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n und s e l b s t a n d i g v e r b f fent l i c h t e Sterbekompositionen," i n Leichenpredigten als Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. R. Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 408-25. ^ S c h u h m a c h e r i n f o r m s the r e a d e r i n a footnote that he, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Wolfgang R e i c h (Dresden) and Hans Unger (Jena), was a t t h a t t i m e w o r k i n g on a b i b l i o g r a p h y of o c c a s i o n a l m u s i c , w h i c h o f c o u r s e would i n c l u d e the s u b j e c t of f u n e r a l music. Ibid., p. 410. 4 7  I b i d . , pp. 412-14.  17  gies also included they might serve  f u n e r a l music by the l o c a l cantor,  as models f o r study and e m u l a t i o n ,  i n g and p e r f o r m a n c e .  or merely f o r copy-  T h i s i n t u r n demonstrates to a s m a l l degree the  c l o s e p r o f e s s i o n a l and a r t i s t i c music  presumably so that  a s s o c i a t i o n between the composer o f the  and the author o f the text -- sermon,  lied  t e x t , o r both.  In h i s  subsequent d i s c u s s i o n o f where and when the p u b l i c a t i o n o f f u n e r a l music was p r a c t i s e d , and what were t h e p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , d e r i v e s much o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n Unlike  the other  Schuhmacher  48 studies.  from e a r l i e r  w r i t e r s , S c h u h m a c h e r i n h i s s t u d y does  address  p e r i o d i c a l l y and c u r s o r i l y t h e m a t t e r o f t h e r h e t o r i c o f f u n e r a l  mu-  49 sic.  He remarks  upon  the shortage  of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  i n the music owing to the s t r o p h i c nature o f most works.  In the case o f  H e i n r i c h Schwemmer's m u s i c , h o w e v e r , he n o t e s t h a t t h e r e apotheosizing as  a gradual  e f f e c t i n each verse vowel t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  the treatment  ments b r i e f l y represent  of the s t r i n g  perceived  from dark to l i g h t  T h i s , he  characters  songs,  the s i n n e r  i n dialogues:  i s often  p e r s o n i f i e d with a greater  i s r e f l e c t e d t o some degree  of assigning  s o p r a n o s , God o r J e s u s by a t e n o r , solo  I b i d . , pp. 414-15.  4 9  I b i d . , pp. 418-20.  He com-  p a r t i c u l a r voice-types  to  are depicted  by  m o r t a l men o r women by a l t o s .  In  represented  angels  by a b a s s v o i c e ,  sense o f v e r i t y by the composer.  suggests that woodwinds a r e r a r e l y used because o f the 4 8  vowels.  accompaniment by the composer.  on the p o p u l a r i t y  specific  i s a kind of  o f t e x t that can be a u r a l l y  adds, though w i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o much d e t a i l , in  elaboration  18  unless  Schuhmacher  inappropriateness  of  their bright  symbols.  The  tone c o l o u r , area  of  i n f o r m s h i s audience, consideration of  funeral  trombones were s t i g m a t i z e d music  and  its rhetoric,  as i n f e r n a l Schuhmacher  i s wanting both i n s c h o l a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  of the music, as an element of the Baroque, i n the  contemporary  It  and  context  theory.  is generally  agreed  upon  that  r h e t o r i c a l concepts  m u s i c a l t h o u g h t i n B a r o q u e Germany, and  we  pervaded  s h o u l d l i k e w i s e be a b l e  assume t h a t these same m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l p r i n c i p l e s were a p p l i e d to c o m p o s i t i o n of  f u n e r a l music.  studies  have b e e n w r i t t e n  figures  i n the  Over the  about  the  more g e n e r a l  genre.  In the p r e f a c e  k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n from  use  years,  a number o f  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  works o f s p e c i f i c  sidered  following  in  c o m p o s e r s , ^ " but  of musical  the  the  detailed  musical-rhetorical none has  yet  rhetoric in a specific  e d i t o r , Giinther G r a u l i c h ,  con-  musical  to the S t u t t g a r t e r S c h u t z - A u s g a b e o f the 1973  to  Musi-  makes  the  observation:  No h i s t o r y o f p r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l m u s i c has y e t b e e n w r i t t e n . In recent t i m e s the baroque f u n e r a l o r a t i o n has begun to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of s c h o l a r s as a r h e t o r i c a l l i t e r a r y genre; i t s m u s i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t a l s o w a r r a n t s more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i t s l i t u r g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and i t s p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y o f music. For the p e r i o d from H e i n r i c h Schutz to Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the g e n r e i t s e l f and i t s m u s i c o - r h e t o r i c a 1 c o n t e n t  F o r e x a m p l e see, G. T o u s s a i n t , "Die Anwendung d e r m u s i k a l i s c h r h e t o r i s c h e n F i g u r e n i n den Werken von H e i n r i c h S c h u t z " (Ph.D. d i s s . , Mainz U n i v e r s i t y , 1949) and H. Rauhe, "Dichtung und Musik im w e l t l i c h e n Vokalwerk J. H. Scheins: S t i l i s t i s c h e und k o m p o s i t i o n s t e c h n i s c h e Untersuchungen zum W o r t - T o n - V e r h a l t n i s im L i c h t e der r h e t o r i s c h a u s g e r i c h t e ten Sprach- und M u s i k t h e o r i e des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s " (Ph.D. d i s s . , Hamburg U n i v e r s i t y , 1959 [I960]). Rauhe s t a t e s a d d i t i o n a l l y i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n (p. 2) that h i s S t a a t s e x a m e n s a r b e i t at the Hamburg Hochschule f u r Musik i n 1955 was an e x a m i n a t i o n of the F i g u r e n l e h r e i n Schein's sacred music. See a l s o H. H. Eggebrecht, H e i n r i c h Schutz: Musicus P o e t i c u s (Gbttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959).  19  would c e r t a i n l y uncover much of While effect  Graulich's introductory  o b s e r v a t i o n s are no  upon the academic community,  above-mentioned a r t i c l e by Gerhard this  reponse  as a genre.  The  the p o s s i b l e  valid,  Schumacher, has been n e g l i g i b l e .  p r e s e n t study,  i n some ways,  demonstration f u n e r a l music detailed  of c o n s c i o u s l y applied o f the L u t h e r a n C h u r c h examination  device w i l l  serve as the  For  arising  reasons  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i n Chapter primary  chiefly  primary  from  sources  by  investiand  of musical rhetoric i n  i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany. Three o f the p r i n c i p a l  backing  to warrant  such  rhetorical  a conclusion.  the extreme d i s c r e p a n c i e s between on  But  is written  i t i s an e x a m i n a t i o n  elements  the  e x c e p t i o n of the  to the u n q u e s t i o n a b l e need f o r f u r t h e r m u s i c o l o g i c a l  g a t i o n i n t o f u n e r a l music.  The  with  doubt  i s s i m p l y i n keeping w i t h the g e n e r a l s t a t e o f n e g l e c t s u f f e r e d  f u n e r a l music in  interest.  the  one  hand  and  the  paucity  the  abundance  of  secondary  s o u r c e s on the o t h e r , i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o i m p o s e a t the  o u t s e t some r e s t r i c t i o n s upon the scope o f the p r e s e n t work; i n t h i s alone can  the aims o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  of  way  achieved.  The v a l u e of Wolfgang Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n and c a t a l o g u e of  printed  G. G r a u l i c h , ed., H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : M u s i k a 1 i s c h e E x e q u i e n . Op. 7. Begrabnismusik i n d r e i T e i l e n fiir sechs, acht oder mehr Stimmen m i t G e n e r a l b a s s , t r a n s , by D. M c C u l l o c h , V o l . 8 i n S t u t t g a r t e r S c h i i t z Ausgabe (Neuhausen, S t u t t g a r t : H a n s s l e r V e r l a g , 1973), p. XXIV. " D i e G e s c h i c h t e der p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e n Trauermusik i s t noch n i c h t g e s c h r i e b e n . Wie d i e T r a u e r r e d e des Barock a l s r h e t o r i s c h e Gattung i n j i i n g e r e r Z e i t zunehmend w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e s I n t e r e s s e auf s i c h z i e h t , so ware s i c h e r l i c h auch d e r e n m u s i k a l i s c h e s G e g e n s t u c k e i n g e h e n d e r l i t u r g i e - und m u s i k g e s c h i c h t l i c h e r Untersuchung wert; und zumal u n t e r den Aspekten der G a t t u n g s t r a d i t i o n und der m u s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e n T o p i k waren h i e r fiir die Z e i t von H e i n r i c h S c h u t z b i s J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n Bach w e s e n t l i c h e A u f s c h l i i s s e zu e r w a r t e n . " ( i b i d . , p. VII.)  2.0  music  supplements  cratic  R e p u b l i c has  existing of  to L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  collections  a l r e a d y been mentioned  secondary  sources.  I t too has  self  with  sizeable  funeral  its built-in  Schutz's  of f u n e r a l music.  music  body of music  works as study  sources  printed  which  further s t i l l  w i t h i n the borders  N e i t h e r does he  include  Finally,  by u t i l i z i n g o n l y t h o s e of the German Democratic  t h e f o r e s i g h t to draw up such b o u n d a r i e s  First  concern  him-  of the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t , a  would  M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien.  limitations.  of  any c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of  independently  literature  German Demo-  i n the p r e c e d i n g overview  a l l , R e i c h e l i m i n a t e s from h i s e x a m i n a t i o n  the manuscript  i n the  such  monumental  Reich delineates h i s  sources a v a i l a b l e to Republic.  f o r the f i r s t  Had  him  Reich lacked  major study  of  the genre,  he no doubt would have been overwhelmed by the sheer mass o f  unassessed  material.  The printed in  present sources  t h i s way,  study,  from  i t was  the  like  Reich's,  seventeenth  is also  century.  limited  By  entirely  delineating  p o s s i b l e to make use of the two  the  to  work  i n d i c e s p u b l i s h e d by  Werner and R e i c h , and a l s o o f t h e n i n e v o l u m e s o f RISM's E i n z e l d r u c k e vor  1800.  Although  these  three  sources  alone do not p r o v i d e many c l u e s  about the g e n e r i c n a t u r e of the f u n e r a l music, they at l e a s t p r o v i d e researcher with Reich and  RISM, the p r e s e n t  compositions. sources to  of  attempt  this  some i n d i c a t i o n  of  texts,  settings  and,  i n the case  l o c a t i o n s of s u r v i v i n g exemplars of  Without c o m p a r a b l e r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s f o r  this  repertoire,  i t would be  to b r i n g u n p u b l i s h e d  nothing  the of  certain  manuscript  short of f o o l h a r d i n e s s  f u n e r a l works i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r  study. Unlike  does not  Reich's  dissertation,  focus e x c l u s i v e l y  on  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p r e s e n t  the r e p o s i t o r i e s 21  of a s i n g l e  one  country;  neither i s i t restricted  to those  funerary compositions  as m u s i c a l  supplements to L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n .  confronted  by  indices.  a problem  Werner's  included  which  index  is  stems  from  limited,  i n published Leichenpredigten,  Thus one  to  secondly,  i n d e x pose two  cross-references listed  from  i n Reich's  different Reich  index  to RISM  printed German  Nor  Democratic  i s simply  RISM's E i n z e l d r u c k e  f o r those  may  i n fact  be  (based  i n order  of  to determine  which  archives  works  outside  of the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t  solution  f o r one texts  to  these  of the  problems,  as  t o c h e c k each o f the e n t r i e s i n  which  suggest  that  a musical  work  funerary.  on  s e t t i n g s , and  limitations  e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e the e x i s t e n c e  The  Upon examining the contents list  The  housed o n l y i n c o u n t r i e s o t h e r than  Republic.  mentioned before,  compositions  However, i t i s not so e a s y t o l e a r n  can one  funeral compositions  other  I t i s easy enough to make  f u n e r a l works p u b l i s h e d independently  e x i s t i n that country.  of the  to L e i c h e n p r e d i g -  are d u p l i c a t e d i n l i b r a r i e s and  t h e German D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b l i c . which ad hoc  problems.  solely  immediatley  those  t e n which comprise the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g c o l l e c t i o n . Reich's  is  limitations  first, and,  published  abbreviated on  titles,  the c r i t i c a l  a b o v e ) was  compiled  sentative  of  the  seventeenth-century  of these  three r e f e r e n c e s a p r o v i s i o n a l  textual incipits,  a s s e s s m e n t s o f the  comprising  i n d i c a t i o n s of  s c h o l a r s mentioned  f u n e r a r y w o r k s p r e s u m e d t o be  various  musical  Germany.  The  forms  and  subsequent f i e l d  styles work was  repre-  current  in  conducted i n  52 Europe,  time  which  allowed  f o r an  examination  o f the d a t a and  for  verifi-  A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s v i s i t e d d u r i n g i s g i v e n i n the "Acknowledgements," pp. v i i i - i x .  22  this  cation genre  that  the gathered  compositions  or u n i q u e l y a b e r r a n t (and  believed  that  sampling  an  will  assessment  permit  an  of  funeral  second  the  rhetorical).  musical-rhetorical inference  compositions  of  certain  a r e an  of a speech,  important  the l i t u r g i c a l  h a v e been p r a c t i s e d  the l i t u r g y i t s e l f ,  music.  c o n t e x t was I t i s the  service  was  found  i t i s not p o s s i b l e  an  later discussions  rhetoric  will  jectured  placement  further  be  better  third  of  funeral  in this  chapter  l i t u r g y as i t may  performed.  compositions  of was  discusHowever,  and  their  o f t h e i r known o r  I t m i g h t be added at t h i s l i t u r g y and m u s i c o f t h i s  conpoint  period  p r o d u c t i v e study. chapter  i s an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f what may  c a r d i n a l r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e employed by f u n e r a l m u s i c -While  factor in  t o be t r e a t e d as f r e e l y as  in l i g h t  as  i n the  Because the placement  specific  i n the c e r e m o n y . funeral  Just  here to enter i n t o a f u l l  understood  research into  would be a v e r y  this  principles  important  intention  s i o n of when or where i n the ceremony the music was  The  of  rhetorical consideration  i n the L u t h e r a n C h u r c h .  m u s i c i n the f u n e r a l  the  It is  as a whole.  to o u t l i n e a p l a u s i b l e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  that  content  l i t u r g y i n L u t h e r a n Germany i n the seventeenth century.  the c o m p o s i t i o n o f f u n e r a l  some o f  o f the  c h a p t e r o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a c u r s o r y s t u d y o f t h e  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s writing  t h u s more h i g h l y  accurate  g o v e r n i n g the genre of f u n e r a l  The  were e i t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  composers  of  well  be  the  seventeenth-century  n a m e l y , the r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e dead.  o t h e r elements  of r h e t o r i c a l p e r s u a s i o n are  23  e v i d e n t i n the  music,  none f o u n d  i n the c o u r s e o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n  musical animation  o f the deceased.  c a r r i e s the f o r c e o f t h e  By e n t e r i n g i n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s -  s i o n o f the most e f f e c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e found hope  to demonstrate  extremely  not  only  the  presence  in this repertoire, I  i n funeral  music  p e r s u a s i v e m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c but a l s o of a m u s i c a l  t h a t can be seen,  i n c e r t a i n ways, to bear  c l o s e comparison  of  an  rhetoric  to sermonic  oratory. In  t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l  chapter,  a number  of r h e t o r i c a l or  a f f e c t i v e d e v i c e s employed by Baroque composers w i l l  be examined.  ceivably,  no doubt o t h e r s --  any one of these c o n c l u d i n g t o p i c s  c o u l d be e x a m i n e d w i t h the personification. rhetorical present figures,  dissertation. will  independent  study.  53  exceed  the  The F i g u r e n l e h r e , the  be l o o k e d  of i t s role  as the p r e c e d i n g  treatment of  s u c h d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f e a c h and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n would q u i c k l y  examination an  But  same d e p t h  -- and  at,  though  Con-  every  intended  scope o f the  so-called  doctrineof  a concentrated  and d e t a i l e d  i n f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n would be best served i n Secondly,  the  incorporation of metric  changes,  I t would a l s o be i l l - a d v i s e d h i s t o r i c a l l y , f o r the F i g u r e n l e h r e o u g h t t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a s i n g l e f a c e t o f m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c . See M. Ruhnke, " M u s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e F i g u r e n und i h r e m u s i k a l i s c h e Q u a l i t a t , " i n Ars Musica Ars S c i e n t i a : F e s t s c h r i f t H e i n r i c h Huschen zum 65. G e b u r t s t a g , ed. by D. A l t e n b u r g ( C o l o g n e : G i t a r r e und L a u t e V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t , 1980), pp. 385^86. B a s i n g h i s comments on the p e d a g o g i c a l w r i t i n g s o f Joachim B u r m e i s t e r , Ruhnke reminds the r e a d e r t h a t m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s e s too o f t e n focus on the F i g u r e n , to the e x c l u s i o n o f other e q u a l l y important m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l elements. Burmeister himself encouraged h i s students and the readers o f h i s Musica a u t o s c h e d i a s t i k e ( R o s t o c k , 1601) and M u s i c a p o e t i c a ( R o s t o c k , 1606) a l w a y s t o l o o k f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the r h e t o r i c s o f m u s i c and o r a t o r y . See a l s o M. Ruhnke, J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r : e i n B e i t r a g z u r M u s i k l e h r e urn 1600 ( C a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1955), pp. 144, 145.  24  particularly  from duple to t r i p l e metre, w i l l be viewed as f u l f i l l i n g  antithetical  rhetorical  in  funeral  f u n c t i o n analogous to a f f e c t i v e  oratory.  25  an  changes employed  CHAPTER I I  LUTHERAN FUNERAL LITURGY IN GERMANY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY  The  p r o c e s s o f r h e t o r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n t h e Baroque  number o f s t e p s t h a t composers of music. the i n v e n t i o  were s h a r e d e q u a l l y by w r i t e r s o f o r a t i o n s and A t the f i r s t  say i t , and (3)  o r a t o r might  t i o n a l process.  (1) what he had to say,  the f i r s t  cal  The  forensic  the a p p r o p r i a t e e t h i c a l ,  to whom he was Although the  w i t h l i t t l e o r no  step i n the composi-  can be e a s i l y  rhetoric  account  used  or epideictic. logical  He would  and p a t h e t i c  then  arguments  The p a r a l l e l s between m u s i c a l and o r a t o r i imagined.  i n the L u t h e r a n  c e n t u r y Germany would i m m e d i a t e l y The  -- i.e.,  and c o n t e x t , the o r a t o r c o u l d then d e c i d e whether h i s  t o the s i t u a t i o n .  compositon  steps immediately,  i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s an e s s e n t i a l  o r a t i o n was to be d e l i b e r a t i v e , begin s e l e c t i n g  (2)  A f t e r d e c i d i n g upon the s u b j e c t and t a k i n g i n t o  the audience  pertinent  an o r a t i o n  the c o n t e x t i n which i t was to be s a i d .  complete  conscious e f f o r t ,  both  stage o f composing  t h e B a r o q u e r h e t o r w o u l d have h a d to t a k e a number o f  factors into consideration: to  involved a  funeral  suggest  service  i n seventeenth-  much t o t h e p a s t o r - o r a t o r .  type o f audience would be made up p r i m a r i l y o f mourners who knew the  deceased  personally.  We can deduce  2-6  from  the f u n e r a l  o r a t o r y i t s e l f and  gather  from r h e t o r i c  Leich=Redner orator  was  (Jena,  and  references  t o and  was  with  to  console  a lengthy p r o c e s s and  from  as C h r i s t o p h Weissenborn's P o l i t i s c h e r  the  fundamental  Lob)  and  of the  i s , the  seventeenth  to a u d i e n c e  lamentation  with  the  burial.  t y p e and  what we  say and how  Concerning we  the  bereaved  The  with  affective  or  to f i n a l c o n s o l a t i o n time of death  Three c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , changed  (and we  significantly  the r h e t o r i c a l a i m s o f the c l e r g y ;  e x p e r i e n c e , h o w e v e r , i s the  f u n e r a l s e r v i c e i n the Lutheran century.  the  which e s s e n t i a l l y began at the  concluded  task of  ( l a m e n t a t i o , Klage) the  Tros t)  see t h a t P r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l r i t e s have n o t respect  rhetorical  resurrection.  a state of  p e r h a p s more f o r e i g n t o our own that  lament  (consolatio,  assurances  progression  even b e f o r e ) can  1707)''' t h a t  to honour ( l a u d a t i o ,  deceased,  emotional  manuals such  context,  context,  Church as p r a c t i s e d i n the  Q u i n t i l i a n says: "For not  say i t i s o f i m p o r t a n c e ,  b u t a l s o the  only  circum-  3 stances  u n d e r w h i c h we  say  it."  In o r d e r  r o l e of f u n e r a l music i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  to u n d e r s t a n d  the  suasory  P r o t e s t a n t Germany, i t w i l l  C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner w e l c h e r d i e p r a c t i c a b e l ^ s t e n K u n s t = R e g u l n von d e r I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n d e r e r nach h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n Abdanckungen bey o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer= Solennien z u r Be f b r d e r u n g fe i n e r O r a t o r i schen C o l l e g i o r u m durch d e u t l i c h e Exempel e r l e u t e r t (Jena: H e i n r i c h C h r i s t o p h Crbker, 1707), pp. 1-2. M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , "Zur T h e o r i e und F u n k t i o n der Barockabdankung," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e n h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , p. 379. F i i r s t e n w a l d s t a t e s i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e Abdankung that " d i e l a m e n t a t i o w i r d n i c h t besonders behandelt, w e i l s i e vom P e r s o n e n l o b kaum zu t r e n n e n i s t ; s i e i s t g l e i c h s a m e i n k l a g e n d e s Echo, das dem Lob antwortet." ("The l a m e n t a t i o i s not s e p a r a t e l y d e a l t w i t h , because i t i s s c a r c e l y s e p a r a b l e from p e r s o n a l p r a i s e ; i t i s , so to speak, a p l a i n t i v e echo that answers the laudation.") 3  . . . . . Q u i n t i l i a n , I n s t i t u t i o Ora_torjLa, 3.3.2; L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . ; C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 385. "Non t a n t u m enim r e f e r t , q u i d et quo modo d i c a mus, sed e t i a m quo loco."  27  prove  beneficial,  then,  t o have  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  the  liturgy  f u n e r a l l i t u r g y must d e a l w i t h an  initial  itself. Any problem: exequiae  study of Lutheran  u n l i k e the C a t h o l i c Church, which had f o r the s e v e n t e e n t h  the L u t h e r a n funeral  Church never  liturgy.  In  established i t s  c e n t u r y i n the R i t u a l e Romanum o f 1 6 1 4 ,  did arrive  fact,  firmly  Friedrich  at a s e t , u n i v e r s a l l y  Kalb,  in h i s Grundriss  employed der  g i k , w r i t e s at the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n of R e f o r m a t i o n liturgy  that  already  in  ordinances...offer a p i c t u r e  the  sixteenth  of almost  to v a r i e t y ; Hermann Caspar  and p u b l i s h e d i n 1721  a catalogue  "the  Liturfuneral  funeral  bewildering d i v e r s i t y . B u t  f u n e r a l o r d e r s were not t h e o n l y a r e a subject  century  of the L u t h e r a n  Kbnig, Archdeacon documenting 351  4  liturgy  in Celle,  the  to  be  compiled  changes and a d d i t i o n s  6  to the b a s i c L u t h e r a n  liturgy.  T h e s e c h a n g e s , o f c o u r s e , w e r e not  u n i v e r s a l but r a t h e r were independent over  the y e a r s and  i n various areas.  the numerous other s e c u l a r ordinances  a l t e r a t i o n s which came i n t o I t m i g h t be n o t e d h e r e (Polizeiordnungen,  effect  too t h a t  Schulordnungen,  S e e F. K a l b , G r u n d r i s s d e r L i t u r g i k : E i n e E i n f i i h r u n g i n d i e Ge^ s c h i c h t e , Grundsa'tze und Ordnungen des l u t h e r i s c h e n G o t t e s d i e n s t e s (Munich: C l a u d i u s V e r l a g , 1965), p. 271. 4  ^ I b i d . p. 273. " d i e Begrabnisordnungen...bieten verwirrender Mannigfaltigkeit."  ein Bild  fast  ^E. S e h l i n g , ed., Die e v a n g e l i s c h e n Kirchenordnungen des XVI. J a h r h u n d e r t s, 6 v o l s . ( L e i p z i g : 0. R. R e i s l a n d , 1902), l : x . The c a t a logue i s e n t i t l e d " B i b l i o t h e c a Agendorum, bestehend aus einem v o l l s t a n digen Catalogo d e r e r Kirchen-Ordnungen, Agenden und anderer d e r g l e i c h e n S c h r i f f t e n , welche Ihro Hoch-Ehrwurden Herr C h r i s t i a n J u l i u s Bokelmann, A r c h i d i a c o n u s E c c l e s i a e C e l l e n s i s e t Cons i s t o r i a l i s d u r c h mehr a l s d r e y s s i g j a h r i g e s Bemuhen g e s a m m l e t ; und aus E i n e m Anhange e i n i g e r S c h r i f t e n von s o l c h e r Gattung welche man b i s s h e r n i c h t e r h a l t e n kbnne."  28  E h e o r d n u n g e n , Cons i s t o r i a l o r d n u n g e n , directly  or i n d i r e c t l y , the continuous  e t c . ) a f f e c t e d i n t h e i r own changes i n the  liturgy  from  way, place  to p l a c e . The in  the  liturgical  flexibility  w r i t i n g s of  i n the P r o t e s t a n t  the R e f o r m e r h i m s e l f ,  Luther never p r o v i d e d  Church has  Martin Luther.  the Reformed Church w i t h  7  i t s roots In  fact,  a c o d i f i c a t i o n of h i s  v i e w s on what o u g h t t o c o m p r i s e the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y .  (He had done so  8 with  the b a p t i s m a l  1533,  Luther  rules  i n the  priest  was  and  still  as  Seven y e a r s  later,  in  of the o p i n i o n that " t h e r e should not be r e q u i r e d  ceremonies,  to t r e a t  wedding ceremonies. )  will  r a t h e r they serve best,"^  should  be  i n the  b e l i e v i n g that  a u t h o r i t y of the  liturgy  the  would  See M. L u t h e r , "Deudsche Mess und o r d n u n g G o t t i s d i e n s t , " D. M a r t i n L u t h e r s Werke, (Weimar: Hermann Bbhlaus N a c h f o l g e r , 1897), 19:7273. ( E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n M. L u t h e r , "The German Mass and O r d e r o f S e r v i c e , 1526," Luther's Works, t r a n s l a t e d by Augustus S t e i n l e [ P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s P r e s s , 1965], 53:61-62.) In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s Deudsche Messe und Ordnung G o t t i s D i e n s t s i n 1526, a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of an e a r l i e r d r a f t from 1523, L u t h e r w r i t e s : Denn es n i c h t meyne meynunge i s t , das ganze deutsche land so eben m u s t e u n s e r W i t t e m b e r g i s c h e o r d n u n g an nemmen.... S o n d e r n f e y n were e s , wo ynn e y n e r i g l i c h e n h i r s c h a f f t d e r G o t t s d i e n s t a u f f e y n e r l e y weyse gienge und d i e umbligende s t e d l i n und d b r f f e r mit e y n e r s t a d g l e y c h b a r d e t e n ; ob d i e ynn a n d e r n h i r s c h a f f t e n d i e s e l b i g e n auch h i e l t e n o d d e r was b e s o n d e r s d a z u t h e t t e n , s o l f r e y und u n g e s t r a f f t seyn. For I do not propose that a l l Germany should u n i f o r m l y f o l l o w our W i t t e n b e r g order.... But i t would be w e l l i f the s e r v i c e i n every p r i n c i p a l i t y w o u l d be h e l d i n t h e same manner and i f t h e o r d e r observed i n a given c i t y would a l s o be f o l l o w e d by the surrounding towns and v i l l a g e s ; whether those i n other p r i n c i p a l i t i e s h o l d the same o r d e r or add to i t ought to be a m a t t e r of f r e e c h o i c e and not of constraint. Q  Seh l i n g , op. c i t . ,  1:10-11.  Q  W i t t e n b e r g e r K i r c h e n - O r d n u n g 1533, c i t e d i n S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , l:vi. "...es s o l l e n d i e c e r e m o n i e n n i c h t n o t i g e g e s e t z e s e i n , s o n d e r n i n des p f a r r e r s gewalt stehen, d a r i n zu handeln, wie es zum b e s t e n diene  29  take  i t s own  developed  form  "through  throughout  wide v a r i e t y seventeenth 1613/14,  practice."  t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and  Thus was  the  adapted  liturgy to s u i t  of c u s t o m s and c o n d i t i o n s , so t h a t a l r e a d y i n the  century,  a c c o r d i n g t o the Sachsen-Coburgischen  " i n almost  Judging by  actual  every  village  a  different  ordinance  the numerous amendments to the b a s i c  liturgy  a  early  V i s i t a t i o n of holds t r u e . " ^ as  evidenced  in  12 • the  church  ordinances  o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  to assume t h a t the L u t h e r a n flexible  and  funeral  liturgy  i t i s reasonable  of t h i s  c o u l d be m o d i f i e d to s a t i s f y  p e r i o d was  here  likewise  the e x i g e n c i e s o f t i m e  and  place. What is  little  found  eight  Luther  says  about h i s v i e w s on  i n the p r e f a c e to a c o l l e c t i o n  Latin  chants  and  of  the P r o t e s t a n t  f u n e r a l music  funeral  containing  s i x German c h o r a l e s p u b l i s h e d by Johann K l u g i n  13 1542.  In t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n L u t h e r t a k e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o condemn  c e r t a i n "papal a b o m i n a t i o n s " Church, such Furthermore, Protestant  as v i g i l s , Luther  churches  p r o c e s s i o n s , purgatory,  writes were no  or p l a c e s of mourning;  p e r t a i n i n g to f u n e r a l r i t e s and  r a t h e r , they  used  Catholic  Masses f o r the dead.  t h a t , u n l i k e the C a t h o l i c longer to be  i n the  churches,  as houses o f  the  lamentation  were to be " K o e m i t e r i a " ,  or  dormi-  wird." 1 Q  Ibid.  ^Ibid.  "...durch "...beinahe  t h a t s a c h l i c h e Ubung." i n jedem Dorf  eine  andere Ordnung  gait."  12 R e v i s i o n s to f u n e r a r y procedures i n s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y P r o t e s t a n t Germany can be found i n Sehling's Die e v a n g e l i s c h e n Kirchenordnungen..., op. c i t . 1 3  Luther,  See L u t h e r , "Die G e s a n g b u c h v o r r e d e n , " Werke " L i t u r g y and Hymns," Luther's Works 53:325-31. 30  35:478-83;  and  tories  or r e s t i n g  the C h r i s t i a n state  and  purpose  places.  burial rites  sung  over,  and  Those  f e a t u r e s which had  were p r e s e r v e d : the graves  with  o f the c e r e m o n y , a c c o r d i n g t o L u t h e r , was  It funeral  seems t h a t  no  s e r v i c e have  r e a s o n s we was  the bodies  were adorned  member of the c o n g r e g a t i o n the a r t i c l e  not  liturgical  survived  different  Sunday i n L u t h e r a n Germany.  Had  to  were c a r r i e d  in  tombstones.  The  t o i m p l a n t i n each  for a  seventeenth-century  the t w e n t i e t h century.  s h o u l d be a b l e t o assume a p r i o r i  significantly  belonged  of the r e s u r r e c t i o n .  outlines  into  always  from  For  t h a t the f u n e r a l  several service  the D i v i n e S e r v i c e h e a r d  t h e r e been any p r o n o u n c e d  each  liturgical  c h a n g e s at the o u t s e t o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , L u t h e r , as he d i d w i t h Mass, would most l i k e l y have p u b l i s h e d h i s r e f o r m s , and c e r t a i n l y c o l l e c t i o n of music ing those views. seventeenth sary  addressed,  S i m i l a r l y , throughout no  i t was  done  funeral  locally  In the  the r e s t of t h e s i x t e e n t h  t h e o l o g i a n s or  the order of the  church o r d i n a n c e s .  ecclesiastics  When the  i t neceswas  by means o f e m e n d a t i o n s t h r o u g h  the  of s t u d y i n g p r i n t e d L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n ,  E x c e p t i o n s are n o t i c e a b l e through degree changes  documents, possible in  i n the  and  liturgy.  and  subject  course  liturgy.  found  most o f the sources tend to support a r e g u l a r de tempore d i v i n e  actual  Klug's  would have p r o v i d e d the obvious v e h i c l e f o r e x p r e s s -  centuries,  to c o d i f y  the  Based  modern l i t u r g i c a l  and  of extravagance  on Luther's w r i t i n g s ,  service.  rather  historical  musicologica1 writings,  to c o n s t r u c t a p l a u s i b l e L u t h e r a n  than  i t is  f u n e r a l ceremony as p r a c t i s e d  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany. Funeral  music  in  e x c l u s i v e l y to the music  the  seventeenth  of the l i t u r g y ;  31  century  was  not  restricted  the church s e r v i c e was  preceded  by  a funeral  p r o c e s s i o n i n which music played  funeral r i t u a l deceased  a significant  l a y i n s t a t e f o r a p e r i o d o f at l e a s t twelve hours.  religious  diagnosed revived.''  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r death  i n the s e v e n t e e n t h  was  as p o s s i b l e , g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n a few d a y s . and  probably  until  wealth,  were o f t e n embalmed  s e v e r a l months l a t e r .  This allowed  was o f t e n extremely biblical  churches  R o y a l t y , d e p e n d i n g on r a n k at death  and were not b u r i e d  f o r a s u i t a b l e p e r i o d of s t a t e  other  and  r e h e a r s a l o f music;  The century to  e p i c e d i a , and a l l o t h e r m a t t e r s  of  class  Germany had much to do w i t h  e n t e r the f u n e r a l ceremony.  which  p i c t u r e s and at the c h a p e l  i n the deceased's domain; commissioning,  observance  f o r the  the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the c o f f i n ,  to the pomp and pageantry  strict  t o arrange  s e v e r a l sermons to be read v a r i o u s l y  and  contributing  occasionally  o r n a t e , w i t h s c u l p t e d legs and engraved  scriptures;  pragmatic  c l a s s e s were b u r i e d as soon  mourning and a l s o made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the e x e c u t o r s many e l a b o r a t e f u n e r a r y d e t a i l s :  According  not always a c c u r a t e l y  c e n t u r y , and t h e " d e c e a s e d "  Members of the lower and m i d d l e  4  The  began i n the home or c o u r t chapel where the body of the  to T h u r i n g i a n and Saxon c h u r c h o r d i n a n c e s , t h i s was more a than  part.  composition  p e r t a i n i n g and  o f the o c c a s i o n . distinctions  in  seventeenth-  the degree of extravagance  Ordinances  of various kinds  allowed provide  us w i t h much of the i n f o r m a t i o n about the m a t e r i a l and m u s i c a l e l a b o r a tions  1 4  of  funerals.^  As  i n a l lother  Church  ceremonies,  the  S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , 1:320.  ^ S e e F. H a m e l , " D i e L e i p z i g e r F u n e r a : z u r K u l t u r g e s c h i c h t e d e r B e g r a b n i s m u s i k , " S c h w e i z e r i s c h e M u s i k z e i t u n g 88 (1948): 88-90; and W. Reich, "Die deutschen gedruckten L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s a l s m u s i k a l i s c h e Q u e l l e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , K a r l Marx U n i v e r s i t y , 1962), pp. 69-76. 32  funeral  service  included adiaphora (indifferent  Wilhelm Baier defines Moralis of  1698  in general  terms  m a t t e r s ) which Johann  i n h i s Compendium T h e o l o g i a e  as:  M a t t e r s , whose use i n the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of sacred t h i n g s or i n the p r i v a t e e x e r c i s e o f d i v i n e w o r s h i p i s i n d i f f e r e n t , as not b e i n g i n themselves p a r t of d i v i n e w o r s h i p and n e i t h e r p r o m o t i n g nor h i n d e r i n g the e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n of men, but i n s t i t u t e d f o r the sake of good order and decency, add a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y , w i t h r e s p e c t to men, to r e l i g i o n and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e (p. 10). Thus,  l i t e r a l l y a n y t h i n g c e r e m o n i a l that  worship i t s e l f "supports  --  in fact,  and ornaments"  the ceremonies to  divine  cious  powers.  worship'*'  m e t a l u s e d i n the  duration of  the  The type  of  7  - - was  subject  counted  act  among  to the r u l i n g  c l o t h i n g worn,  ceremonial cross,  funeral service,  the  of  themselves were seen m e r e l y as  adiaphora of the Church, and was t h e r e f o r e and e c c e s i a s t i c a l  d i d not a f f e c t  the  type  the  secular of  the number o f c o a c h e s ,  the number of students a l l o w e d to  prethe sing,  the number and t i t l e s o f p i e c e s sung, a l l were p r e s c r i b e d by the governi n g and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  authorities  to  assure  that  class  boundaries were  18 not  transgressed.  C i t e d i n F . K a l b , Theology of Worship i n 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y L u t h e r a n i s m , t r a n s , by H e n r y P. A. Hamann ( S a i n t L o u i s , M i s s o u r i : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1965), p. 1 0 5 f n . F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the adiaphora i n the L u t h e r a n Church of t h i s p e r i o d , see K a l b , Theology, op. c i t . , pp. 1 0 4 - 3 7 . ^ F r i e d r i c h B a l d u i n , T r a p t a t u s l u c u l e n t u s . . . de . . . c a s i b u s . . . c o n s c i e n t i a e ( W i t t e n b e r g , 1628), p. 1135. C i t e d i n K a l b , Theology, op. c i t . , p. 106. 7  18 F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n Germany at t h i s t i m e , see D. K r i c k e b e r g , Das p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e K a n t o r a t im 17. Jahr-hundert: S t u d i e n zum Amt des deutschen K a n t o r s , B e r l i n e r S t u d i e n zur M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t : V e r b f f e n t l i c h u n g e n des m u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n I n s t i t u t s d e r F r e i e n U n i v e r s i t a t B e r l i n , e d . by A . A d r i o , v o l . 6 ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g M e r s e b u r g e r , 1965), pp. 94-114.  3.3  By way  o f e x a m p l e , one c a n c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h  governed  musical performances  century.  There  one  at L e i p z i g f u n e r a l s i n t h e  were at that time  f o r each o f the c i t y ' s  three separate c a t e g o r i e s of  three d i s t i n c t  social  classes,  cy a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g above such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . used  at the  could  funeral,  only  expect  "Viertelschule" consisted and  of  tertia,  while  the  the members o f the to  have  present  the  at  "kleine  the  funeral.  at  successive  the  social  halbe  class  Schule"  The  c o n s i s t e d of  funerals  f o u r t e e n o f the  p e r m i t t e d at t h i s tiefer  Not" and  Corresponding general  was  social  level  the  prima  youngest  one  music  of the  that  was  were such R e f o r m a t i o n a l c h o r a l e s as  "Aus  to  the  simplicity  of  the  music  and  the modest fee of 3 t h a l e r , 6 groschen  Members o f L e i p z i g middle vagance f o r t h e i r from  the  " E r b a r m d i c h m e i n , " w h i c h were t o be sung i n u n i s o n .  S c h u l e and a mere 21 g r o s c h e n  citizens  Examples  Schule  school's  of  school.  the  Thomasschule,  junior  the  even  between  h i m s e l f was  at  in Leipzig  halbe  s t u d e n t s s i n g i n g u n d e r t h e " B a k k a l a r e u s " , who instructors  aristocra-  or  Kleine  and t h e t e r t i a and q u i n t a c l a s s e s f r o m t h e  Viertelschule  funerals,  In terms of the m u s i c  lowest  the  alternation  seventeenth  ceremony  f o r the k l e i n e  o f the  in  halbe  Viertelschule.  c l a s s were p e r m i t t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more e x t r a -  funerals.  this  f o r the s e r v i c e s  the  social  A t a c o s t o f 7 t h a l e r , 22 g r o s c h e n , stratum  could secure  "grosse h a l b e Schule," a l s o known as the chorus  the  musicus,  services  the  of  which was  the made  up of the students of the Thomasschule's t h r e e s e n i o r c l a s s e s as w e l l  as  t h e q u i n t a p e r f o r m i n g u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f the c a n t o r h i m s e l f .  In  accordance  with  the h i g h e r s o c i a l  station,  the music performed  f u n e r a l s c o n s i s t e d o f harmonic s e t t i n g s of music o f f o u r and  34  at  these  f i v e parts.  Also,  unlike  the  f u n e r a l s a t w h i c h the  halbe Schule p a r t i c i p a t e d , music was tery  at  the  grave  society  were the  patrons  of  the  side.  V i e r t e l s c h u l e and  permitted  Numbered among the  members o f  Thomasschu l e .  the A  city fee  to be  the  sung i n the  was  forces  of  the  "ganze Schule."  c o u n c i l , learned ranging  On  anywhere  citizens from  these o c c a s i o n s  sung from the F l o r i l e g i u m Portense and  other  of course, works commissioned s p e c i f i c a l l y depending on be  expected  the e s t i m a t i o n to s i n g b e f o r e  I t should at a s p e c i f i c have had  be  figural  accorded the deceased,  limited influence  a single city, even on  to  cities  of  the  and,  Sometimes,  the c h o i r might  also  city.  and  one  ordinance  that t h i s ordinance  surrounding  communities.  may  Just  how  e x t r e m e were the d i v e r g e n c e s can be s e e n i n the a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s i n c l u s i o n of m u s i c a l  24  music  motet a n t h o l o g i e s ,  noted that these r e g u l a t i o n s make up but  time w i t h i n  15  and  secure  f o r the o c c a s i o n .  the gates of the  ceme-  uppermost c l a s s of L e i p z i g  t h a l e r , f o r the f u n e r a l s of the m o n i e d s o c i a l c l a s s , c o u l d singing  kleine  the  i n s t r u m e n t s i n performances of f u n e r a l music i n the  Nuremberg and  Luneburg.  Heinrich  Schwemmer  shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as D i r e c t o r c h o r i m u s i c i  (1621-1696),  who  i n Nuremberg,  received  a l a r g e number of commissions f o r f u n e r a l music, most of which  included,  i n a d d i t i o n to v o i c e s , continue  The  a three- or  four-part  such as D a v i d S c h e d l i c h  (1626-1686) who  at t h i s  (1607-1687) and  Paul  time were a l s o a c t i v e i n Nuremberg,  accompaniment was  t i m e i n L u n e b u r g on cantor  basso  music of Schwemmer, as w e l l as that of o t h e r composers of  f u n e r a l music,  instrumental  s t r i n g ensemble w i t h  the o t h e r  at St Johannis, was  the norm f o r f u n e r a l music.  Hainlein shows  At  that  the  same  hand, F r i e d r i c h F u n c k e (1642-1699),  fined a half-year's  35  salary, simply  for  the  using  a r e g a l at the f u n e r a l of h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . that  t h i s a c t i o n was  taken  because  t h e r e may  H a r o l d E. Samuel s t a t e s  the r e g a l "had  at the b u r i a l of a d i s t i n g u i s h e d c i t i z e n , " that  19  have been a precedent  and  for this  never been  permitted  Wolfgang Reich  suggests  i n f r a c t i o n of the  law  in  21 order  f o r i t to have e l i c i t e d  as s t r i c t  such  a harsh  fine.  The  ordinances  were  as they were d i v e r s e .  Funeral processions the b e g i n n i n g  were o c c a s i o n a l l y d e s c r i b e d  i n great d e t a i l  pages of p r i n t e d L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n under  c e s s i o n und  Ordnung."  For  Wurtemberg  (d. 24 M a r c h  example,  the  the heading  funeral for Friedrich,  1682), b e g a n a t s e v e n o ' c l o c k  in  "Pro-  Duke of  i n the m o r n i n g 22  with  the  preceptors  c e s s i o n was  and  students  l e d by t o r c h - b e a r e r s  s i n g i n g i n the c o u r t y a r d . f o l l o w e d by the m u s i c i a n s .  ant mourners were a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c u s u a l l y d e p e n d i n g on their  their  rank i n s o c i e t y .  fying  each  of  the these  are  illustrations  detailed  mourners  Processionen  processions  o f such  t o g e t h e r and  carefully  relationship  These d e s c r i p t i o n s can  accompanying  of  The  pro-  attend-  p o s i t i o n s i n the f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n ,  familial  principal  The  by  to t h e d e c e a s e d  go on  name  f o r pages,  and  status.  or  identiOften  und  Ordnungen i n the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  the  procession,  l e n g t h t h a t they folded into  consist  often  depicting  of s e v e r a l pages  glued  the book.  The d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s found i n the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n 19 R e i c h , " D i e d e u t s c h e n g e d r u c k t e n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n , " op. c i t . , p. 75. ^ H. E. S a m u e l , " F u n c k e , F r i e d r i c h , " The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y o f Mus i c and Mus i c i a n s (1980), 7, p. 31. 21 R e i c h , " D i e d e u t s c h e n g e d r u c k t e n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n , " op. c i t . , p. 75. W  2 2  R e u t l i n g e n , S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Rt. 36  467.  are  i n v a l u a b l e sources  compositions church,  of m u s i c a l  were used before  and  what s p e c i f i c  had  Ferdinand I  Schmidlin  them we  procession.  find  funeral procession  For  what  to  s t y l e s were used and  funeral service.  the  where  Furthermore,  we  were n o t the o n l y ones instance,  the  funeral  Duke of Wurtemberg (d. 15 October  1693)  f o u r t h s e c t i o n i n the p r o c e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d  e r m e l d t e n Regiment,"  t h e i r students,  F r i d e r i c h Engel  t i o n s we  i n the  groups: the  of "zwey Trompeter von and  the  musical  of t h e  f o r Johann F r i d e r i c h ,  three m u s i c a l  ceptors  during  From  s t u d e n t s , a l u m n i and p r e c e p t o r s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r music procession  and  works and  t h e y were u s e d i n the c o u r s e l e a r n t h a t the  information.  and  the  / Johann Bolch  the  seventh was  t h i r t e e n t h s e c t i o n the "6 / Balthasar L e i c h t l i n  & Georg M e l c h i o r Fenckel."  a c q u i r e some s e n s e o f the  Also  the  Trompeter  / M a r c e l l Kerbs  from these  manner i n w h i c h  pre-  these  descrip-  w o r k s were  performed. When the f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n had the  coffin  was  placed  Johann F r i d e r i c h ,  directly  the body was  a r r i v e d at t h e c h u r c h or  beneath  the p u l p i t ;  chapel,  25 • i n the c a s e  p o s i t i o n e d between the a l t a r and  of  the open  2 6  crypt. in  The  black,  Friderich,  congregation,  and  in  the  as one  would expect,  "Procession  und  was  Ordnung"  traditionally of  the  funeral  Duke of Wurtemberg (d. 1682), the c h r o n i c l e r r e p o r t s t h a t  2 3  Ibid.  2 4  Ibid.  clad of the  25 W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r b a u u n g s l i t e r a t u r , " i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a 1£ Que l i e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. R u d o l f L e n z (Cologne and Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), p. 67. 2 6  Reutlingen,  S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Rt.  37  467.  pulpit,  the o r g a n and  c h u r c h pews were a l l d r a p e d w i t h b l a c k  cloth.  T h i s seems not to have been too uncommon a p r a c t i c e , f o r i t was  also  the  28 custom  i n the  l a r l y draped was  Schlosskapelie i n b l a c k and  most o f t e n dressed The  order  was  i n Dresden.  l i t candles.  i n the  simi-  The  body  seventeenth-century  T r a c t ( ? ) , G o s p e l or s u b s t i Collect, Benediction.  l i t u r g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the standard  f u n e r a l s e r v i c e would latter.  was  have e x i s t e d as f o l l o w s : I n t r o i t , Ky r i e , G l o r i a ,  t u t e , C r e d o , Sermon, the L o r d ' s P r a y e r ,  case of the  itself  i n white.  S a l u t a t i o , C o l l e c t , E p i s t l e , G r a d u a l and  the  coffin  o f t e n surrounded by  o f the a c t u a l f u n e r a l l i t u r g y  L u t h e r a n C h u r c h may  chief  The  seem to be  The  Sunday G o t t e s d i e n s t  and  the absence of the E u c h a r i s t i n the  A second d i f f e r e n c e would be the o p t i o n a l i n s e r t i o n  o f the p e r s o n a l i a o r c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e a t some p o i n t a f t e r the  funeral  M. Furstenau, Zur G e s c h i c h t e der Musik und des Theaters am Hofe zu D r e s d e n , 2 v o l s i n 1 (1861; f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t ed., L e i p z i g : P e t e r s , 1971), 1:179. 2 8  Ibid.  F o r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of the w i d e - r a n g i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s i x t e e n t h - and s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y L u t h e r a n l i t u r g y see H. J . M o s e r , D i e e v a n g e l i s c h e K i r c h e n m u s i k i n D e u t s c h l a n d ( B e r l i n and D a r m s t a d t : V e r l a g C a r l M e r s e b u r g e r , 1954), p. 325 ( M o s e r g i v e s as the three most important r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sources o f the Lutheran l i t u r g y i n Germany the works of Johannes Spangenberg [1545], Lucas L o s s i u s [1553] and Johannes Keuchenthal [1573]); F. Blume, "The P e r i o d of the Reformat i o n , " i n P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h Mus i c : a H i s t o r y , r e v i s e d by Ludwig F i n s c h e r , t r a n s l a t e d by F. E l l s w o r t h Peterson (London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , L t d . , 1975), pp. 51-62; E. S c h m i d t , Der G o t t e s d i e n s t am K u r f u ' r s t l i c h e n Hof zu Dresden: e i n B e i t r a g z u r l i t u r g i s c h e n T r a d i t i o n s g e s c h i c h t e v o n Johann W a l t e r b i s zu H e i n r i c h Schutz. V e r b f f e n t l i c h u n g e n der E v a n g e l i s c h e n G e s e l l s c h a f t f i i r L i t u r g i e f o r s c h u n g , ed. by 0. Sbhngen and G. Kunze, H e f t 12 ( G o t t i n g e n : V a n d e n h o e c k & R u p r e c h t , 1961); 0. B r o d d e , H e i n r i c h S c h i i t z : Weg_ und Werk ( B e r l i n : E v a n g e l i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985), p. 65; R. von L i l i e n c r o n , L i t u r g i s c h - M u s i k a l i s c h e G e s c h i c h t e der e v a n g e l i s c h e n G o t t e s d i e n s t e von 1523 b i s 1700 ( S c h l e s w i g : D r u c k und V e r l a g von J u l i u s Bergas, 1893; p h o t o - r e p r i n t H i l d e s h e i m and New York: G e o r g 01ms V e r l a g , 1970), pp. 121-22, 159; F u r s t e n a u , op. c i t . , 1:182.  38  sermon. There i s no i n the  doubt that  seventeenth-century.  the  Mass was  In H e i n r i c h  to the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien, he w r i t e s the  i n t e g r a l to the Schutz's own  funeral l i t u r g y  prefatory  comments  of having composed the music " i n  f o r m o f a German M i s s a , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  t y p e o f the L a t i n  Kyrie, 30  Christe, Kyrie Following towards the the  Eleison.  Gloria in excelsis.  the K y r i e , G l o r i a and a l t a r f o r the  theme of death and  a four-part  the  "Amen, amen."  The  i n t e r r a pax  S a l u t a t i o , the  C o l l e c t , a short  resurrection 31  Et  de  &  p r i e s t would  tempore p r a y e r —  -- a f t e r which the  turn  i.e., on  c h o i r would  p r i e s t , or the d e a c o n as was  c."  the  sing case  32 in Leipzig,  would  then approach  the  lectern  the s e r v i c e i n a s i m p l e r e c i t a t i o n a l t o n e . was  to be r e a d i n the e i g h t h  t o n e and  and  read  the  E p i s t l e for  A c c o r d i n g to L u t h e r , t h i s  at the same l e v e l as t h a t used i n  • M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien, ed. by Georg Schumann, V e r o f f ent 1 i c h u n g e n d e r Neuen Ba c h g e s e 11 s ch a f t , J a h r g a n g 29, Heft 1. ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1982), n.p. "...in Form e i n e r T e u t s c h e n Missa, nach a r t der L a t e i n i s c h e n K y r i e , C h r i s t e , K y r i e E l e y s o n . Gloria in exceIs i s . E t i n t e r r a pax & c/' But see F. K a l b , G r u n d r i s s, op. c i t . , p. 275. Kalb omits the G l o r i a from the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y , though he does not s p e c i f y the p e r i o d to which he i s r e f e r r i n g . Kalb does d e t a i l the L u t h e r a n f u n e r a l l i t u r g y , but h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o b a b l y o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y s e r v i c e , and much o f what he s a y s has l i t t l e b e a r i n g on seventeenth-century p r a c t i c e s . I t may be a d d i t i o n a l l y noted here that Schutz a l s o p o i n t s out i n the p r e f a c e t h a t the music of the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien could "an s t a t t e i n e r Teutschen M i s s a vnd v i e l l e i c h t i n F e s t o P u r i f i c a t i o n i s o d e r D o m i n i c a XVI pos t T r i n i t a t i s , a u c h n i c h t l i b e l gebrauchen," which p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f the assumption t h a t the s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f u n e r a l s e r v i c e d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Sunday or other de tempore d i v i n e s e r v i c e s . 31 • L i l i e n c r o n , op. c i t . , p. 122. the  30 C o lH.l e cSchutz, t. 3 3  3 2  Ibid.,  33  p.  159.  L u t h e r , "Deudsche M e s s e , " op.  39  c i t . , p. 87;  L u t h e r , "The  German  Friedrich instability liturgy  Blume,  of  the  in  Protes tant  Gradual  in general,  and  and  mentions  continued  to weaken throughout t h e  appearing  from  the  the  liturgy  Church  Mu_s_i£,  Sequence that  within  Lutheran  funeral  liturgy  eventually dis-  a l t o g e t h e r i n most p l a c e s .  However, s i n c e  something liturgy.  Protestant  i t s p o s i t i o n i n the  retain  the  Tract,  used  Mass of the C a t h o l i c Church to r e p l a c e the A l l e l u i a , that  the  the  sixteenth century,  the P r o t e s t a n t Church d i d i n f a c t  assume h e r e  discusses  similar  may  Blume goes on  s e c t i o n o f t h e Mass c o u l d be,  and  Requiem  i t i s reasonable  h a v e been to p o i n t  i n the  practised in  out  that  o f t e n was,  r e p l a c e d by  of the Mass.  Standing  this  to the  entire  a congrega-  315  tional  hymn.  The and  Gospel was  f a c i n g the  recitational  the next  item  congregation,  manner —  normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  i n the the  the  priest  fifth  Gospel  tone, a c c o r d i n g  reading  f o r o r a t o r i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n i n the Sermon. Gospel and  the Sermon w i t h i n the context  discussed The  in greater d e t a i l reading  of  the  s a n g the  served The  c i t . , p.  op.  in a  to Luther. the  basic  simple Under  material  f u n e r a l ceremony w i l l  be  presently.  Gospel  was  followed the  by  the  c h o i r or  Apostolisches i n German  by  72.  Blume, op. c i t . , p. 3 5  Gospel  lectern  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  of the  Glaubensbekenntnis or Credo sung i n L a t i n by  Mass," op.  as  at the  57.  Ibid.  L u t h e r , "Deudsche Messe," op. c i t . , p. 74.  40  c i t . , p. 90;  Luther,  "German Mass,"  the c o n g r e g a t i o n  as " W i r  glauben  a l l an e i n e n G o t t . "  t i o n a l l y w r i t e s t h a t the German creed c o u l d be  37  sung by  Luther  the  addi-  congregation  38 at the g r a v e s i d e or w h i l e d e p a r t i n g from s i n g i n g of the Credo i n the c h u r c h , pulpit  from  directly  priest  beneath the p u l p i t ,  and  differed Catholic directly The  w h i c h the Sermon was  fundamentally Church,  which  b e f o r e the  delivered.  the l i t u r g i c a l  prescribed that  would proceed  to  the  B e c a u s e the c o f f i n  was  thus 39  congregation.  F o l l o w i n g the  s i t u a t e d between  T h i s P r o t e s t a n t custom  p r a c t i c e at that time the  the  body be  i n the  placed instead  altar. ^ 4  f u n e r a l sermon was  ceded by a s h o r t votum. 37  from  the p r i e s t  the body was  t h e members o f the  the g r a v e .  The  almost  always g i v e n i n German, and  was  pre-  sermon i n the Sunday d i v i n e s e r v i c e custom-  • L i l i e n c r o n , op. c i t . , pp. 122,  159.  38 L u t h e r , "Die G e s a n g b u c h v o r r e d e n , " op. c_i_t«, p. 483; Luther, " L i t u r g y and Hymns," op. c i t . , p. 331. 39 . . . . . . . . C. T i t i u s , L o c i T h e o l o g i c i H i s t o r i c i , oder T h e o l o g i s c h e s ExempelBuch j_ Darinnen aus A l t e n und Neuen S c r i b e n t e n j_ s o n d e r l i c h r e i n e n und C h r i s t l i c h e n K i r c h e n - L e h r e n u n t e r den gewbhnlichen L o c i s T h e o l o g i c i s zu f i n d e n j_ m e h r e n t h e i l s s o l c h e Exempel und H i s t o r i e n / welche i n gewbhnl i c h e n P r e d i g t e n zur h e i l s a m e n Lehre ]_ T r o s t j_ Vermahnung und Warnung n l i t z 1 i c h a n g e z o g e n und e i n g e f u h r e t w e r d e n kbnnen, nunmehr a b e r v o n Autore a u f f s neue mit mehr a l s 2000 H i s t o r i e n und n i i t z l i c h e n R e g i s t e r n v e r m e h r e t , L e i p z i g , 1684. C i t e d i n W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r a b a u u n g s l i t e r a t u r , " i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que 1 l e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. by R u d o l f Lenz (Cologne and Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g ) , p. 67. C a s p a r T i t i u s ' s L o c i T h e o l o g i c i H i s t o r i c i was originally p u b l i s h e d i n 1633. ^ K a l b , G r u n d r i s s d e r L i t u r g i k , op. c i t . , p. 271. "Der S a r g w i r d so vor dem A l t a r a u f g e s t e l l t , dass b e i der L e i c h e e i n e s N i c h t - P r i e s t e r s d i e Fiisse zum A l t a r g e r i c h t e t s i n d , b e i einem P r e i s t e r aber umgekehrt zum Volk h i n , 'als ob er Dominus vobiscum sagen w o l l t e ' (Muller-Umberg, Zeremonienbiichlein)." ("The c o f f i n i s so p o s i t i o n e d b e f o r e t h e a l t a r t h a t , w i t h the body of a n o n - p r i e s t , the f e e t are d i r e c t e d towards the a l t a r , but w i t h a p r i e s t t u r n e d a b o u t t o w a r d s t h e p e o p l e , 'as i f he wanted to say the Dominus vobiscum'....") 4  41  arily  served  as  immediately  and  the  exegesis  as one  i n the  case  century,  favoured Luke  orations  instances  sense,  and  i t would be  1 3 : l f f as  p e r t a i n i n g to  known f o r h i s i m p o r t a n t  of v e r s e s  from Luke.  differed  of  base  i n the a  c o l l e c t i o n o f 147  late  student  Valerius  f u n e r a l sermons  (1612-20), a l s o made o c c a s i o n a l use  But numerous o t h e r b i b l i c a l books, from both  as  o f r e l e v a n t s e r m o n i c themes.  c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y produce f a r the most  suitable  fruitful  Though many b i b l i c a l  books  f u n e r a r y t e x t s f o r sermonic e l a b o r a -  book i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and  Psalms.  r e p l a c e d by a Pslam or some other  or whether the Gospel  and  was  the one  for appropriate verses,  was  the  ( i f not more so) to the f u n e r a l  which p r i e s t s most o f t e n turned Whether the Gospel  of  for h i s funerary 4  Testament, were as important  t u r a l reading,  death  p o s s i b l e to a s s o c i a t e  a c c i d e n t a l death. ^  Old and New  by  the t o p i c  Pancratius,  a scriptural  intoned  for funeral  t h e theme o f t h e c e r e m o n y :  i n G e i s t l i c h e Trauerbinden  tion,  been  Themes  dealt invariably with  published  sources  which had  however, must have  f u n e r a l sermons.  f o r i n s t a n c e , Andreas  Melanchthon, in  verse  This d e t a i l ,  of  In one  t h e r e a d i n g o f the G o s p e l  Herberger,  the Gospel  would expect,  resurrection.  sixteenth  of  b e f o r e the Credo.  substantially sermons,  an  Sermon r e m a i n e d  to  the Book of scrip-  unrelated  A. P a n c r a t i u s , C h r i s t l i c h e L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n . Darinnen d i e f i i r nembsten Sprviche A l t e s und Newes Testaments j_ a u f f a l l e r e l y N a t i i r l i c h e und U n n a t u r l i c h e T o d t s f a ' l l j_ nach R h e t o r i s c h e r D i s p o s i t i o n ]_ mit sonderbarem F l e i s s e r k l a r e t w e r d e n . Sampt a n g e h e n c k t e n s i e b e n be s o n d e r n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n j_ d a r i n n e n s i e b e n A n f ec t u n g e j_ we l c h e d i e E l t e r n bey Absterben i r e r K i n d e r am m e i s t e n zu betriiben p f l e g e n j_ und wie denselben a u s s G o t t e s Wort zu b e g e g n e n , T e i 1 3_ ( F r a n k f u r t / M a i n , 1588), pp. 93, 101, 105. C i t e d i n E. W i n k l e r , Die L e i c h e n p r e d i g t im deutschen L u t h e r tum b i s Spener, ed. by E. Wolf, Forschungen zur G e s c h i c h t e und Lehre des P r o t e s t a n t i s m u s , s e r i e s 10, v o l . 34 (Munich: Chr. K a i s e r V e r l a g , 1967), p. 77. See  Winkler,  op. c i t . , p.  105.  42  w i t h i n the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y i s unknown. Luther  writes  paraphrased from  the  century  the Sermon was  or  from  To what extent funeral  liturgy  the  i s unknown,  r u b r i c " V a t e r u n s e r u." f o r Wilhelm  altar  followed d i r e c t l y  according  t h i s p r a c t i c e was  L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n examined  predigt  t o be  v e r s i o n o f t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r , w h i c h c o u l d be  pulpit  43 priest.'  that  for this  At t h e end  to  the  said  of  f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the study  concluded  with  wir  printed  the  o f the P e t e r L i m b u r g e r ' s  w i t h "... / sprechen  the  seventeenth-  simple  Leichen-  and J o b s t K r e s s e n von K r e s s e n s t e i n i n 1640,  of the c l o s i n g votum concludes  either  wishes  f o l l o w e d i n the  by a  the t e x t  auss Andacht e i n  h e i l i g e s V a t t e r v n s e r / u," t h a t i s , a l i t e r a l r e n d e r i n g of the Lord's Prayer century  t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n g r e g a t i o n . i n Dresden,  Prayer was  said  the Sermon as  and  likely  immediately  4 4  in other  Throughout the places  as  well,  seventeenth the  b e f o r e the Sermon, ^ and o c c a s i o n a l l y 4  Lord's after  well. ^ 4f  In t h e f u n e r a l l i t u r g y , the p e r s o n a l i a o r c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e o f t e n f o l l o w e d the Sermon, as i n the case of Duke W i l h e l m  Luther, "Deudsche Messe," op. Mass," op. c i t . , pp. 78-79.  c i t . , pp.  Ludwig of Wurtemberg  95-96; L u t h e r "The  German  P . Limburger, Leich-Sermon, Bey der B e s t a t t u n g Des E d l e n / Ehrenv e s t e n / F u r s i c h t i g e n / Hoch= und W o l w e i s e n H e r r n W i l h e l m K r e s s e n v o n K r e s s e n s t e i n j_ a u f f K r a f f t s h o f / . . . So woln auch Bey der B e s t a t t u n g dess E d l e n vnd E. Herrn J o b s t Kressens von K r e s s e n s t e i n / a u f f R e z e l s d o r f f ... G e h a l t e n von P e t r o Limburgern p. t. P f a r r e r n zu K r a f f t s h o f (Nuremberg: W o l f f g a n g E n d t e r , 1640). M i c r o p u b l i s h e d as No. 714.2 on R e e l 74A i n Goldsmiths'-Kress L i b r a r y of E c o n o m i c L i t e r a t u r e (New Haven: R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n s , Ltd., 1974). 4 4  45 S c h m i d t , 46  I b i d . , pp. 113-14.  43  (d. 1 6 7 7 )  and  4 7  Duke F r i d e r i c h .  than the p r i e s t  4 8  I t c o u l d be r e a d by someone o t h e r  as p a r t of the Abdankung " e i t h e r b e f o r e the  h o u s e o f m o u r n i n g , a f t e r the the r e t u r n f r o m of  the  burial."  The was  church  ceremony  concluded the  the p r a c t i c e  Wurtemberg.  the g r a v e , o r at t h e  Since  they  with  Collect  and  in Stuttgart were  a Collect  r e a d i n g of the C o l l e c t to g i v e the church the c o n g r e g a t i o n  ceremony a to  leave  p r o c e s s i o n had entered.  and  by  was  according  The  stronger  the c h u r c h  Benediction. the  chapel  and  i n use  to the "Des  It  inter-  because  i n t e r r e d , the  the  later  have been d e c i d e d upon i n o r d e r sense  of  finality,  signaling  to  i n t h e same o r d e r i n w h i c h  the  f o l l o w i n g C o l l e c t recommended by L u t h e r  was  n e a r l y a l l the church o r d e r s as an E a s t e r or f u n e r a l  still  site  f o r t h e b u r i a l o f the Dukes o f  b u r i e d i n the  and b l e s s i n g may  and  Benediction after  m o u r n e r s were t o r e m a i n s e a t e d u n t i l the body was  adopted  the  4 9  a l s o p o s s i b l e to read  ment as was  door o f  i n Saxony  at  the  end  of the  Collect,  s i x t e e n t h century  D u r c h l a u c h t i g s t e n , Hochgebornen F u r s t e n U.  H e r r n A u g u s t e n , H e r z o g e n zu S a c h s e n , O r d n u n g " o f 1580."^  Herrn,  I t reads  as  follows: [V.] [R.]  4 7  C h r i s t u s von den t o d t e n e r w e c k e t , s t i r b t h i n f u r t n i m e r , Haleluia. Der Tod w i r d h i n f u r t uber i n n i c h t h e r r s c h e n , H a l e l u i a .  Reutlingen,  AO  Reutlingen,  S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Rt.  467.  S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Rt.  468.  W e i s s e n b o r n , op. c i t . , p. 1. "...entweder v o r d e r Thiir Trauer=Hauses / nach der Ruckkunfft vom Grabe / oder an der S t e l l e Begrabnisses." 4 9  des des  " ^ S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , p. 275. The two p a i r e d v e r s e s and r e s p o n s e s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d i n the K i r c h e n o r d n u n g , and t h e r e i s some s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s i n the t e x t of the C o l l e c t i t s e l f .  44  [V.] [R.]  Ich weis das mein e r l o s e r l e b e t , H a l e l u i a . Der w i r d mich hernach aus der Erden aufferwecken,  Haleluia.  A l m e c h t i g e r Gott, der du durch den Tod deines Sons d i e Siind und Tod zu n i c h t gemacht, Und durch s e i n a u f f e r s t e h e n Unschuld und ewiges L e b e n w i d e r b r a c h t h a s t , a u f f das w i r von d e r G e w a l t des T e u f e l s e r l b s e t , i n deinem R e i c h leben. V e r l e i h e uns, das w i r s o l c h e s von gantzem Hertzen gleuben, und i n solchem Glauben b e s t e n d i g d i c h a l l e Z e i t l o b e n und d i r d a n c k e n , D u r c h d e n s e l b i g e n d e i n e n Son, I h e s u m Christum, unsern HErrn, Amen. A f t e r the C o l l e c t , L u t h e r u s e d the f o l l o w i n g B e n e d i c t i o n to c o n clude the German Mass of Der  Herr  1526:  segene d i c h und  behutte  dich.  Der Herr e r l e u c h t e s e i n a n g e s i c h t u b i r d i r und sey d i r gnedig. Der H e r r hebe seyn a n g e s i c h t a u f f d i c h und gebe dyr f r i d . ^ 2  T h i s same B e n e d i c t i o n , w i t h only s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n , was at  the  end  of Paul M a r t i n A l b e r t i ' s  funeral  sermon  also  printed  f o r Sigmund  von  53 B i r k e n i n 1681.  That  t h i s B e n e d i c t i o n s u r v i v e d more t h a n 150  years  - ^ L u t h e r , Werke, op. c i t . , 35:553-54; L u t h e r , "The C o l l e c t s , " i n Luther's Works ( t r a n s l a t e d by P a u l Z e l l e r Strodach; r e v i s e d by U l r i c h S. L e u p o l d ) , op. c i t . , p. 134: V. R.  C h r i s t , b e i n g r a i s e d from the dead, d i e t h no more. Alleluia: Death hath no more dominion over him A l l e l u i a [Rom. 6:9]. or: V. I know that my Redeemer l i v e t h . Alleluia: R. Who s h a l l at the l a t t e r day wake me from the e a r t h . Alleluia: [Job 19:25]. " A l m i g h t y God, who by t h e d e a t h of t h y Son h a s t b r o u g h t t o n a u g h t s i n and death and by h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n hast brought a g a i n innocence and e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e so t h a t , d e l i v e r e d from the d e v i l ' s power, we may l i v e i n t h y k i n g d o m : G r a n t us t h a t we may b e l i e v e t h i s w i t h a l l our h e a r t and, s t e a d f a s t i n t h i s f a i t h , p r a i s e and t h a n k t h e e always; through the same thy Son Jesus C h r i s t our Lord. Amen." 5 2  L u t h e r , "Deudsche Mass," op. c i t . , p. 84:  Messe,"  op.  c i t . , p.  102;  Luther,  "German  The L o r d b l e s s thee and keep thee. The L o r d make h i s face s h i n e upon thee, and be g r a c i o u s unto thee. The L o r d l i f t up h i s countenance upon thee, and g i v e thee peace. 53  • Cited  i n M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , ed., T r a u e r r e d e n  45  • des B a r o c k , B e i t r a g e  with v i r t u a l l y  no change  to the t e x t would seem  a l s o a c c e p t e d as a s t a n d a r d well  as s u p p o r t i n g  services  the  the e a r l i e r  were l i t u r g i c a l l y  Finally  formula  to suggest t h a t  f o r concluding  suggestion  that  funeral  i t was  s e r v i c e s , as  funeral  and Sunday  closely related.  a de tempore v e r s i c l e was t o be sung, which was  frequently  C a n t i c u m S i m e o n i s , " H e r r nun l a s s e s t du d e i n e n D i e n e r i n F r i e d e n  fahren," which was s i m p l y a German t r a n s l a t i o n o f the Nunc D i m i t t i s the  Roman R e q u i e m , o r a v e r s i o n  During  the s i n g i n g  buried."'  4  o f "Nun l a s s t uns den L e i b  of the l a t t e r  Other songs that  hy mn,  t h e body  and  gleuben a l l an einen the L a t i n  songs,  a c t u a l l y be  from the c e m e t e r y  include  [ G o t t ] , " "Nu b i t t e n w i r den h e i l i g e n [ G e i s t ] , "  "lam moesta Quesce," " S i enim  Sanctorum," and "In pace  begraben."  were recommended by L u t h e r as b e i n g s u i t a b l e  to be sung by t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n on r e t u r n i n g "Wir  could  from  credimus,"  "Corpora  sumus."^  z u r L i t e r a t u r des XV. b i s X V I I I . J a h r h u n d e r t s , e d i t e d by H a n s - G e r t R o l o f f , v o l . 4 (Wiesbaden: Franz S t e i n e r V e r l a g , 1973), p. 333. 5 4  and  Reutlingen, Stadtbibliothek,  Rt. 467  and Rt. 468.  "'"'Luther, "Die Gesangbuchvorreden," op. c i t . , 483; Hymns," op. c i t . , p. 331.  46  Luther,  "Liturgy  CHAPTER I I I  PROSOPOPOEIA: MUSICAL-RHETORICAL  PERSONIFICATION  OF THE DEAD  R h e t o r i c a l and M u s i c a l Background Recognition of personification appears  t o date back t o r h e t o r i c ' s  some degree der  as an e f f e c t i v e o r a t o r i c a l d e v i c e  f o r m a t i v e years.  i n H e i n r i c h Lausberg's overview  literarischen  of the trope i n h i s Handbuch  R h e t o r i k , where he d i s c u s s e s o r a t o r i c a l  t i o n u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g f i c t i o p_ersonae. berg's b r i e f appellations  We can see t h i s to  s u r v e y , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y and the range  struck  personifica-  Upon e x a m i n i n g  by t h e d i v e r s i t y o f  of c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a s c r i b e d  concept.  fewer  than e i g h t names f o r the t r o p e : s e r m o c i n a t i o , c o n f o r m a t i o , ethodialogous, f i c t i o  personae,  texts,'' Lausberg  to the  basic  poeia,  R e f e r r i n g t o twelve c l a s s i c a l  Laus-  prosopopoeia, e i d o l o p o e i a ,  g i v e s no  simulacri  2 factio.  Some of these l a b e l s  c i n a t i o = ethopoeia, f i c t i o eidolopoeia),  a r e synonymous w i t h one another  personae  = prosopopoeia, s i m u l a c r i  (sermofactio =  w h i l e o t h e r s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d but d i s t i n g u i s h e d by denota-  ^H. Lausberg, Handbuch der l i t e r a r i s c h e n Max Hueber, 1960), 1:411-12.  Rhetorik, 2 v o l s .  (Munich:  2 . . . . . . L a u s b e r g h i m s e l f i s c i t i n g h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m two o t h e r secondary s o u r c e s : C. Halm, Rhetores L a t i n i minores... ( L e i p z i g , 1863), and L. Spengel, Rhetores G r a e c i , 3 v o l s . ( L e i p z i g : v o l . 1 edendum c u r a v i t C. Hammer 1894; v o l . 2 1854; v o l . 3 1856).  47  tive  shadings  see b e l o w ) .  (prosopopoeia  vis-a-vis  s i m u l a c r i f a c t i o and e i d o l o p o e i a ,  I t m i g h t be w e l l t o n o t e h e r e t h a t L a u s b e r g ' s l i s t  supplemented  with  personificatio  and c o n f o r m a t i o  c a n be  mentioned  i nthe  3 Rhetorica  ad H e r e n n i u m ,  and one c o u l d go f u r t h e r s t i l l ,  bringing i n  s u c h c o t e r m i n o u s t r o p e s as m i m e s i s , a p o s t r o p h e and even  hypotyposis.  T h e r e i s a p o i n t t o be made i n l i s t i n g t h e s e t h e r e are others only  current  t e r m s : a l l o f them -- and  -- are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l tropes,  i n an a b s t r a c t  sense  many of which were not  in rhetorical  and  philological  w r i t i n g s i n t h e B a r o q u e , b u t were r e g u l a r l y a p p l i e d i n o r a t o r i c a l and musical  composition.  The present dead  specific study  mimetic  trope  which  i s o f most  i s t h a t w h i c h , by d e f i n i t i o n , r h e t o r i c a l l y  t o speak.  Edward  P. J . C o r b e t t  (=prosopoeia) i n i t s g e n e r a l  concisely defines  sense as a r h e t o r i c a l  by  one i n v e s t s " a b s t r a c t i o n s or i n a n i m a t e  or  abilities."  classical  importance  4  With  literary  this  definition  theorists cited  objects  Corbett  i n the  enables the prosopopoeia  trope or t o p i c wherewith  human q u a l i t i e s  upholds what most o f the  as b e i n g  the d i s t i n c t i o n  between  p r o s o p o p o e i a ( f i c t i o p_ersonae) and e t h o p o e i a ( s e r m o c i n a t i o ) . only  implied  explicitly  i n Corbett's  definition,  c l e a r that e t h o p o e i a  the c l a s s i c a l  cation  of  inanimate  objects  w r i t e r s make i t  g e n e r a l l y p e r t a i n e d t o the l i v i n g ,  prosopopoeia, on the other hand, r e f e r r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y -- i n c l u d i n g ,  Though  while  t o the p e r s o n i f i -  of course,  t h e dead.  3 • • R h e t o r i c a ad H e r e n n i u m , 4.16. C i t e d i n L. A r b u s o w , Co l o r e s R h e t o r i c i : e i n e Auswahl r h e t o r i s c h e r F i g u r e n und Gemeinplatze a l s H i l f s m i t t e l f u r Ubungen an m i t t e l a I t e r l i c h e n Texten, 2nd rev. ed. e d i t e d by H. Peter (Gbttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1963), p. 25. E . P. J . C o r b e t t , C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c f o r t h e M o d e r n S t u d e n t , 2nd (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 485. 4  ed.  48  Quintilian,  commending the c o n s i d e r a b l e r h e t o r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  offered  by t h i s t r o p e , w r i t e s of prosopopoeia: "Nay, we a r e even a l l o w e d i n t h i s form  of speech  to b r i n g down t h e gods f r o m h e a v e n and r a i s e t h e dead,  w h i l e c i t i e s a l s o and peoples may f i n d a voice."^ of A q u i l a e Romani de f i g u r i s to  say o f f i c t i o  personae  sententiarum et e l o c u t i o n i s  (i.e.,  as i t were, and, p l a c e d w i t h i n speech."  Finally  same sense  i n the  i n this  AXE£O<  Similarly,  liber  prosopopoeia): "when we r a i s e s i g h t o f the judge,  has t h i s the dead,  we p r o v i d e them w i t h  respect, prosopopoeia  y Jp.Qxr 7T£p£ O^yskTt^V  the author  i s d i s c u s s e d i n the  as f o l l o w s : "Prosopopoeia i s  the f o r m a t i o n of a v i s a g e which e i t h e r never was a l i v e or was a l i v e once b u t i s no l o n g e r . " Other  7  sources broadened  not o n l y the dead,  but a l s o  taxonomical borders  the d e f i n i t i o n of prosopopoeia to encompass i m a g i n a r y people.  between p r o s o p o p o e i a  Further b l u r r i n g  of the  and e t h o p o e i a came about as  some t h e o r i s t s i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n t h e m i m e t i c t r a y a l of l i v i n g ,  but absent, people.  Thus e t h o p o e i a became a t l e a s t i n  some cases a subcategory o f prosopopoeia, also  draws  the reader's a t t e n t i o n .  por-  a matter  An a t t e m p t  t o which  Quintilian  to r e - e s t a b l i s h the  r h e t o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  o f a n i m a t e and i n -  Q u i n t i l i a n , I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 9. 2. 31. "Quin deducere deos i n hos genere d i c e n d i e t i n f e r o s e x c i t a r e concessum e s t ; urbes e t i a m popul i q u e vocem a c c i p i u n t . " Halm, op. c i j t . , pp. 2 2 f f . C i t e d i n L a u s b e r g , op. c ^ t . , p. 411. "cum... d e f u n c t o s a l i q u o s q u a s i e x c i t a m u s ab i n f e r i s e t i n c o n s p e c t u i u d i c i s c o l l o c a n t e s o r a t i o n e hos circumdamus." 7  S p e n g e l , op. c i t . , 3:19, 15. C i t e d i n L a u s b e r g , op. c i t . , p. 411.  "rj TTpo6oo7ro7tc?uoc;^e £<rrc. TipaoowvS&^fxoiQ^oi ^COWtE(i.e., t h e dead)."  inanimate  Trjv 6cpxf}v junr| yevoflivoV tti $£ cVroc, (i.e.,  ob je c t ) K Y£Vou£VoT/ U - £ V , OT)|C ' ' 1  49  animate  objects resulted  poeia or i t s L a t i n  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f y e t another term,  cognate  simulacri  factio,  ascribing  eidolo-  to the dead the  8 f a c u l t y o f speech. used  In the p r e s e n t study, the term prosopopoeia w i l l be  i n i t s most g e n e r a l sense. Of  a l l t h e c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l m a n u a l s Q u i n t i l i a n ' s was unques-  tionably  the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n Germany -- indeed,  throughout  the Renaissance  Quintilian's medieval  I n s t i t u t i o was found  philologists  ments o f the work. Humanism  exerted  Until  a complete  copy o f  at the monastary  o f St G a l l  i n 1416,  s t u d y i n g Q u i n t i l i a n were  No doubt  forced  t o r e l y on f r a g -  promoted by the c u l t i v a t i o n and growth o f  i n the Renaissance,  Quintilian's discovery  and B a r o q u e .  i n a l l o f Europe --  more  than  one h u n d r e d  editions  of  work were p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n t h e t i m e o f t h e e x e m p l a r ' s  and the b e g i n n i n g o f the seventeenth century. considerable influence  The I n s t i t u t i o  on, and i s d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d  to in,  9 Johann M a t t h a u s which  figures  language  Meyfart's Teutsche  as t h e most  i m p o r t a n t book o n r h e t o r i c  to be p u b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t  and j u s t over a c e n t u r y l a t e r , edition  of Quintilian  R h e t o r i c a oder Redekunst  i n which  half  o f 1634,  i n t h e German  o f the seventeenth c e n t u r y ,  i n 1738, Johann M a t t h i a s Gesner to pen h i s e u l o g i s t i c  S. Bach's prowess as o r g a n i s t and c o n d u c t o r . ^  Indeed,  chose an  description  of J.  Bach h i m s e l f has  8 E i d o l o p o e i a i s t h e t e r m u s e d i n Hermogenous p r o g u m n a s m a t a ( S p e n g e l , op. c i t . , 2:1f) and A p h t h o n i o u s o p h i o t o u p r o g u m n a s m a t a ( S p e n g e l , i b i d . , 2 : 1 9 f ) . C i t e d i n L a u s b e r g , i b i d . , p. 412.  9  J. (Coburg:  M. M e y f a r t , T e u t s c h e R h e t o r i c a o d e r Redekuns t , 2 v o l s , F r i d e r i c h Gruners, 1634), 1:409.  in 1  ^ H . T. D a v i d and A. M e n d e l , e d s , The Bach R e a d e r : a L i f e o f Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach i n L e t t e r s and Documents, rev. ed. (New York, London: W. W. N o r t o n & Company, 1966), pp. 22, 231. One m i g h t n o t e t h a t n o t o n l y was Q u i n t i l i a n s t i l l c u r r e n t w e l l i n t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b u t so too was r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , as s e e n h e r e i n Gesner's a p o s t r o 50  been c r e d i t e d Quintilian's cited  in recent years with being i n t i m a t e l y acquainted  Institutio.^  I t might  i n Johann G o t t f r i e d Walther's  be  added  that Q u i n t i l i a n  Mus i c a l i s c h e s  Lexicon  was  i n 1732  with also for  12 h i s d i s c u s s i o n of music i n the I n s t i t u t i o More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the Baroque manuals i n Germany, i n t h e i r  t i o n s of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , with  any  other  (Frankfurt,  classical  1625)  Heinrich Alsted,  by  defini-  compare more c l o s e l y w i t h the I n s t i t u t i o source.  rhetorician,  i t i s suggested  for instance i n admonitions figure."  oratoria.  In  the  Triumphus  composer,  and  Bibliorum  champion  that prosopopoeia  Meyfart's c o n c e p t i o n of p r o s o p o p o e i a  Sacrorum  of C a l v i n i s m ,  " i n serious  and vehement r e p r o a c h e s ,  than  is a  matters,  remarkable  i s e v e n more c l o s e l y  phizing. ^ S e e U. K i r k e n d a l e , "The S o u r c e s o f Bach's M u s i c a l O f f e r i n g : The I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a of Q u i n t i l i a n , " The J o u r n a l of the American Musicol o g i c a l S o c i e t y 33, no. 1 (1980): 88-141. 12  • • . . . . J . G. W a l t h e r , Mus l k a l i s c h e s L e x i k o n oder M u s i k a l i s c h e B i b l i o t h e k , f a c s . r e p r . ed. by R. S c h a a l ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1953; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , L e i p z i g : Wolffgang Deer, 1732), p. 509. W a l t h e r r e f e r s the r e a d e r to the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 1. 17, f o r Q u i n t i l i a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of music. However, there are o n l y ten c h a p t e r s i n the f i r s t book. Q u i n t i l i a n ' s most e x t e n s i v e treatment of music i n the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a i s i n 1. 10. 9-33. 13 H. A l s t e d . Triumphus B i b l i o r u m Sacrorum Seu E n c y c l o p a e d i a B i b l i ca Exh^benjs Tr^umohum p h i l o s o p h i a e , i u r i s p r u d e n t i a e , e t m e d i c i n a e sacrae, itemque s a c r o s a n c t a e t h e o l o g i a e , quatenus i l l u a r u m fundamenta ex S c r i p t u r a V. e t N. T. c o l l i g u n t u r ( F r a n k f u r t , 1625), 9. 9. 483. Cited i n J . Dyck, T i c h t - K u n s t : D e u t s c h e B a r o c k p o e t i k und £h£t.££i££h£ T r a d i t i o n , Ars P o e t i c a : Text und B e i t r a g e zur D i c h t u n g s l e h r e und D i c h t k u n s t , e d i t e d by A. Buck, H. L a u s b e r g and W. Mause, v o l . 1 (Bad Homburg v o r d e r Hbhe, B e r l i n , Z u r i c h : V e r l a g Dr. Max G e h l e n , 1966), p. 94. " . . . i n r e b u s g r a v i o r i b u s , puta i n admonitionibus et o b j u r g a t i o n i b u s v e h e m e n t i o r i b u s , e s t o r n a t u m p r ae s t ab i l e." Compare I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 9. 2. 30. "... et n o s t r o s cum a l i i s sermones et a l i o r u m i n t e r se c r e d i b i l i t e r i n t r o d u c i u m , e t s u a d e n d o , ob i u r g a n d o p e r s o n a s i d o n e a s damus." ("... we may i n t r o d u c e c o n v e r s a t i o n s between o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s , or o f o t h e r s among themselves, and put words o f a d v i c e , reproach... i n t o the mouths  51  aligned outset  with Quintilian's  work.  Like  Q u i n t i l i a n , Meyfart  o f h i s c h a p t e r on p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  constitutes  a kind  of  prosopopoeia,  f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f the  (Chapter  prefacing  40)  w r i t e s at  that  the  dialogismus  his discussion  with  the  term:  Prosopopoeia i s , i f one wants to render i t c l e a r l y , a Representat i o n - F i g u r e , whereby the o r a t o r assumes the charge o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n and s p e a k s as t h a t p e r s o n ; o r a l s o p o s s i b l y i n t r o d u c e s inanimate o b j e c t s and speaks f o r them. However, i t i s more through Meyfart's examples, the pseudo-Cicero's his  R h e t o r i c a ad Herennium and  less than l u c i d d e f i n i t i o n  similarity  of h i s i d e a  S o r r o w , Rome, and power  t o speak.  Caldenbach, To  introduce that  rhetoric  was  figure,  of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  that  we  to that  i s d e f i n e d as  o b j e c t s ' we  attribute  speaking j u s t  active  not  at the U n i v e r s i t y  as  o n l y as  follows:  personality  of  the living."'''"' a composer  i n Tubingen,  one o f M e y f a r t ' s e x a m p l e s , t a k e n f r o m  but  illustrates  the  from  through close  Quintilian's:  invested  "What and  than  see  I n t h e Compendium R h e t o r i c e s o f 1682  the dead,  time  Savonarola,  t h e dead L u c i u s B r u t u s a r e e a c h  prosopopoeia  inanimate  of the  drawn as they are  with  the  by C h r i s t o p h  is  prosopopoeia?  d i s c o u r s e , or Caldenbach,  who  we at  as  a p r o f e s s o r of  the  t r o p e by u s i n g  t h e R h e t o r i c a ad H e r e n n i u m , i n  of a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n s . " ) •"^Meyfart, op. c i t . , 1:387. "Prosopopoeia i s t / wenn man es deutl i c h geben w i l / e i n e V o r b i l d u n g s - F i g u r / wenn der Redener e i n e r andern Person Ampt a u f f s i c h nimmet / vnd i n d e r s e l b i g e n Namen das Wort t h u t : oder auch wol l e b l o s e Ding e i n f i i h r e t vnd ihnen das Wort redet." ^ C . Caldenbach. C o m £ e n d i u m R h e t o r i c e s , p_ro S ^ h o J i i l i i i D u c a t u W i r t e m b e r g i c o o l i m a d o r n a t u m 5 C h r i s t o p h o r o C a l d e n b a c h i o , In A c a d . T u b i n g . E l o q . H i s t o r . ac. Poes. P r o f . P u b l , 2nd ed. ( T u b i n g e n , 1709; f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n T u b i n g e n , 1682), p. 137. "Quid e s t P r o s o p o p o e i a ? Cum rebus i n a n i m a t i s personam sermonemque t r i b u i s m u s , aut mortuos t a n quam v i v o s i n t r o d u c i m u s loquentes." 52  which the dead L u c i u s Brutus Prosopopoeia, ness  as a  i s g i v e n the a b i l i t y  persuasive device,  i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  what F e r d i n a n d van Ingen using  the  term  calls  Indeed,  "Augenkultur," van  celestial Baroque  and v i s u a l a r t s .  scenes  Ingen  By way  More  those i n churches  towards sublime thoughts  poeia,  one  personification  stresses  the  importance  a  than  just  f r e s c o e s found i n  d e c o r a t i o n , the  textually  eternal  s i d e , through  hypotypotic  life  and  effect  T h r o u g h the p o e t i c  f o r him  by  evoking  words  clearer,  images c o n j u r e d  force of prosopopoeia  as used  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f u n e r a l ceremony, the e f f e c t  o r a t o r a c t i n g i n the c a p a c i t y o f a medium and,  but r a t h e r o f  as i t were,  to the c o n g r e g a t i o n messages from beyond the grave,  giving  of  conwas the  transmitting the mourners  Ibid.  "• F. van Ingen, V a n i t a s und Memento M o r i i n der deutschen l y r i k ( G r o n i n g e n : J . B. W o l t e r s , 1966), p. 299. 7  1 8  prosopo-  with The  from  t o move the a f f e c t i o n s  not that of the o r a t o r h i m s e l f s p e a k i n g d i r e c t l y ,  1 6  freedom  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  -- i n the. t r u e sense o f the word -- the  i n the  paintings,  s t i m u l i to s t i r the i m a g i n a t i o n  of r e s u r r e c t i o n ,  up by the o r a t o r , t h e e a s i e r i t was h i s audience.  i n the  w i t h the h e r e a f t e r by means o f  comparable p r o p h e t i c images i n the minds of the audience. the more v i v i d  In  7  and c h a p e l s , were i n p a r t meant to p r o v i d e  On the l i t e r a r y  achieved  thrived in  o f example, van Ingen mentions the  the c o n t e m p l a t i v e C h r i s t i a n w i t h v i s u a l  w o r l d l y woes.  none of i t s e f f e c t i v e -  so f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d i n the c e i l i n g  architecture.  especially  speak.  the Augenkultur o f Baroque Germany.*  B a r o q u e o f c o n n e c t i n g the h e r e and now the l i t e r a r y  lost  to  Ibid.,  p.  275.  53  Barock-  a c o n s o l a t o r y and Like  the  and  the aim  course,  i t was  by  in i t s e l f . which  Rather,  the  orator  S i n c e a n t i q u i t y , one  to teach  (docere,  the  could  funeral oratory —  admonitory  was  others  beliefs  lesson exhorting  19  This  o f the  manner of  of  poeia,  and  effect, served  tool,  a  achieve  a  d e l e c t a r e and  of  movere),  the c o n g r e g a t i o n  to  leading a C h r i s t i a n l i f e  and  by  for  • • i s an a t t i t u d e which d i f f e r e d i n that Luther as  the  ensure their  from  to r e c o g n i z e  We  to a s s u r e  the any on  them-  must remember t h a t prosopo-  were u n d o u b t e d l y u s e d e f f e c t alone.  t h e o l o g i c a l ends of the enabled  refused  P r o t e s t a n t s had  death.  rhetoric in general,  fundamentally  the  a means of o b t a i n i n g God's mercy  Instead,  s a l v a t i o n before  preparing  to the  s e c o n d was  congregation  C a t h o l i c Church  Prosopopoeia  Of p r i m a r y importance was  the  i n t e r c e s s i o n a l prayer  their  members  according  of  but n e v e r f o r d r a m a t i c the  easily  the r e s u r r e c t i o n , and  the  the s o u l s o f the d e c e a s e d . selves  a persuasive  more  being  to i n s t r u c t  l e s s o n o f d e a t h and  s a l v a t i o n by  death.  intended  of sermonic r h e t o r i c i n the Baroque Church -- i n c l u d i n g , of  consolatory  own  not  of the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l g o a l s  the t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of the Church.  their  afterlife.  an end  means  was  of the  prosopopoeia was  r h e t o r i c a l end. rhetoric  vision  a r t of r h e t o r i c i n g e n e r a l ,  to be u s e d as rhetorical  transcendent  Rhetoric  for  dramatic  i n the  Church  Church.  funeral  orator  simultaneously  to  employ,  See W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r b a u u n g s 1 i t e r a t u r , " i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissenschaften, ed. by R. Lenz ( C o l o g n e and V i e n n a : B b h l a u V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 67-81; v a n I n g e n , op. c i t . , pp. 61-112; R. Mohr, P r o t e s t a n t i s c h e T h e o l o g i e und Frbmmigkeit im Angesicht des Todes wahrend des B a r o c k z e i t a I t e r s hauptsa'chlich auf Grund h e s s i s c h e r L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n (Marburg: G. N o l t e , 1964), pp. 78-117, 229308.  54  to v a r y i n g degrees,  the  an a p p e a l t o the l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y of  the p e r s o n a l i t y  at  this  lines  of the l i s t e n e r  briefly  by  an  In o r d e r b e t t e r  to  t r o p e , i t may  t o c o n s i d e r prosopopoeia  (3)  ( e t h o s ) ; and  (pathos).  the rhetor's a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  point  by  t o r e a s o n ( l o g o s ) ; ( 2 ) by an a p p e a l  or c h a r a c t e r o f the o r a t o r  a p p e a l to the emotions appreciate  means of p e r s u a s i o n : ( 1 )  three A r i s t o t e l i a n  be  worthwhile  i n terms o f these  three  of persuasion. T h r o u g h t h e p r o s o p o p o e i a l e v o c a t i o n o f the dead, w h e t h e r or n o t  this  occurs  i n the context of the  the persona o f the deceased, congregation. own  beliefs  believe  Though and  funeral  thus p l a y i n g  the o r a t o r  o p i n i o n s , the  may  ceremony, fully  i n these  congregation  the o r a t o r  on the sympathies  more  credence  t o the  was  psychologically  w o r d s o f the o r a t o r .  p r i m a r y g o a l s o f t h e o r a t o r was  o f the  i n s t a n c e s be v o i c i n g h i s  t h a t t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d were t h o s e o f t h e d e p a r t e d ,  giving  assumed  S i n c e one  l e d to in turn of  the  to c o n v i n c e the c o n g r e g a t i o n o f  the  r e s u r r e c t i o n , prosopopoeia a l l o w e d f o r an i m p l i c i t enthymematic argument which,  though  considered  untenable  and  i n terms of s t r i c t  effective  one.  For  syllogism,  instance,  deceased  i s heard a t t e s t i n g  then one  can only reason that the statement  posthumous t e s t i m o n y was for  example,  to s a l v a t i o n ,  was  i f the  r e s u r r e c t i o n and must be true.  nonetheless a v o i c e of eternal  i n the a s s u a s i v e v e r s e w r i t t e n i n the seventeenth  Weint n i c h t , j h r meine Lieben, Weint n i c h t , es i s t n i c h t Noht, Wolt j h r euch so betruben? Ach! b i n i c h doch n i c h t t o d t , So k l a g l i c h niemand thue, Ich lebe jmmerdar, Worauff i c h j e t z u n d ruhe I s t keine T o d t e n - B a h r 55 20  life,  T h i s brand o f  common i n Baroque f u n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e ,  by Johann Sand:  the  as  seen,  century  Weep not, my beloved, Weep not, there i s no need, Do you w i s h t o g r i e v e so? A l a s , I am not r e a l l y dead, So do not a c t so p i t e o u s l y , I l i v e f o r ever and ever, On what I now r e s t , Is n o t a c o r p s e ' s b i e r . In  1670 Sigmund v o n B i r k e n  l i n e s i n the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  includes  for h i s wife,  the f o l l o w i n g which a g a i n  personifying  i s a repudiation  of death and an a f f i r m a t i o n o f the r e s u r r e c t i o n : Ich  l i g e i n der Ruh  i c h S c h l a f f e / sonder Sorgen / Ich s c h l a f f e s i c h e r zu / b i s an den l e t z t e n Morgen...*"''*' I l i e i n rest I s l e e p without concern, I sleep securely, until By  a d o p t i n g the i d e n t i t y o f the deceased w h i l e w r i t i n g and d e l i v e r -  ing a funeral tial  the judgement day.  sermon,  to s t r e n g t h e n  h i s own c h a r a c t e r deceased,  even  immediately gregation  the r h e t o r - p a s t o r  the e t h i c a l  side  had a t h i s d i s p o s a l  of the o r a t i o n , that  i n t h e eyes o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . through  associate  brief  quotation,  the speaker w i t h  i s , to enhance  By s p e a k i n g as t h e  the c o n g r e g a t i o n 22  the deceased.  w o u l d h a v e b e e n made up c h i e f l y  the poten-  Since  would  the con-  o f m o u r n e r s , one n a t u r a l l y  w o u l d e x p e c t t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n to have been a 20 • C i t e d i n v a n Ingen, op. c i t . , p. 277.  favourable  21 S. v. B i r k e n , T o d e s - G e d a n k e n und T o d t e n - A n d e n k e n (Nuremberg, 1670), p. 353. C i t e d i n I n g e n , op. c i t . , p. 277. 22 L. C o o p e r . The R h e t o r i c o f A r i s t o t l e : an E x p a n d e d T r a n s l a t i o n w i t^h S u p p l e m e n t a r y E x a m p l e s f o r S t u d e n t s o f Compos i t i o n and Pub l i e Speaking (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1932), pp. 236-37.  56  one.  As a r e s u l t o f the h e i g h t e n e d e t h i c a l  s t a t u s of the o r a t o r , t h e  c o n g r e g a t i o n w o u l d have been more r e c e p t i v e e x p r e s s e d by t h e s p e a k e r , a t t i t u d e s w h i c h characteristic fictitious,  o f the deceased.  Even  to attitudes  were p e r h a p s  and dogma  not e n t i r e l y  i f the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was t o t a l l y  i f e v e r y t h i n g s a i d by t h e o r a t o r were h i s i d e a s a l o n e b u t  were n e v e r t h e l e s s expressed by him as the w o r l d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e deceased,  of the  the c o n g r e g a t i o n , u n w i l l i n g to d i s p u t e the v o i c e o f the person  whom t h e y mourned, s t i l l w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n c l i n e d t o g i v e c r e d e n c e t o the  orator. Although prosopopoeia argued p e r s u a s i v e l y by both l o g i c a l  cal  means, i t was u n d o u b t e d l y  argument. used  and e t h i -  most p e r s u a s i v e as a p a t h e t i c  form o f  Q u i n t i l i a n remarks i n the I n s t i t u t i o that p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was  to i n c r e a s e the p e r s u a s i v e n e s s of a speech,  themselves  were no doubt  capable  f o r though  of moving a l i s t e n e r  bare  towards  facts  assent,  the r i n g o f a f a m i l i a r p e r s o n a l note, i n combination w i t h the f a c t s , was 23 known t o be even more e f f e c t i v e . deceased the  The s p e a k e r not o n l y a n i m a t e d t h e  by p u t t i n g words i n t o h i s mouth, he was a l s o expected to mimic  p a t t e r n s of the deceased's  voice  and g e s t u r e s ,  when a p p r o p r i a t e .  23 I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 6. 1. 25. "Nudae tantum r e s movent; a t cum i p s o s l o q u i f i n g i u m , ex p e r s o n i s quoque t r a h i t u r a d f e c t u s . " ("The bare f a c t s a r e no doubt m o v i n g i n t h e m s e l v e s ; b u t when we p r e t e n d t h a t t h e persons concerned themselves a r e speaking, the p e r s o n a l note adds to the e m o t i o n a l effect.") See I n s t i t u t i o ora_toria., 1. 8. 3 and 11. 1. 41-42 and v a n I n g e n , op. c i t . , pp. 299-300. See a l s o M e y f a r t , op. c i t . , 2:23. " I n d e r Prosopopei muss der Redener der Person / welcher e r d i e Rede a u f f d i c h t e t / auch d i e S t i m a u f f d i c h t e n / v n d z u s c h a w e n / was s o n s t e n d i e Rede l e y d e t . " ("In p r o s o p o p o e i a , t h e o r a t o r must a l s o a s c r i b e the v o i c e t o the person t o whom he a s c r i b e s the o r a t i o n , and c o n s i d e r whatever e l s e the o r a t i o n can use.")  57  When we we  prosopopoeia  must assume that the e f f e c t i v e  tion  expressed  Sigismund be  read s e c t i o n s employing  text.  preacher would have f e i g n e d the emo-  I n t h e T r a u e r - R e d e w r i t t e n i n 1693  H e i n r i c h , F r e i h e r r von B i b r a n , to whose f u n e r a l music we  returning  bereaved  i n the  i n Baroque f u n e r a l sermons  shortly,  the preacher p e r s o n i f i e s ,  at d i f f e r e n t  shall  times,  widow, the b r o t h e r , and the c h i l d r e n o f the d e c e a s e d .  t h e members  of  the  lamentive pathos. whose lament  f a m i l y are The  represented,  following  the  text  the  Where  i s laden  i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the  i s a c o n f l a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e s c r i p t u r a l  for  with  widow,  passages:  Alas! I see now b e f o r e me the t e a r s of a deeply g r e a v i n g widow who s a d l y weeps..., she c r i e s t o the L o r d h e r God w h a t e v e r she c a n : See, LORD, how s o r e l y I am d i s t r e s s e d . My b o w e l s w r i t h e i n a n g u i s h : a t home t h e r e i s as d e a t h [ l i t e r a l l y , a t home D e a t h has made me a widow]. Lam. 1:20. the A l m i g h t y hath d e a l t v e r y b i t t e r l y w i t h me. R u t h 1:20. F o r t h e s e t h i n g s I weep; mine eye, m i n e eye r u n n e t h down w i t h w a t e r , b e c a u s e t h e c o m f o r t e r t h a t s h o u l d r e l i e v e my s o u l i s f a r from me. Lam. 1:16.^ Certainly preacher  the e m o t i o n a l  w o u l d be  l e v e l o f the v o i c e assumed by  modified significantly  the  skilled  when p e r s o n i f y i n g the r e a s -  s u r i n g v o i c e s o f t h e a n g e l s o r the c o n s o l a t o r y v o i c e o f t h e  deceased.  M. Wiedemann. I.N.I! Pass das L i e b r e i c h e Andencken Gottes j_ der be s t e und l e z t e W u n t s c h e i n e s R e c h t g l a ' u b i g e n Chr i s t e n s e i ; wo L t e Be i H o c h = F r e i h e r r l i c h e r B e = E r d i g u n g des_ w e i l a n d Hoch= und W o h l g e b o h r n e n Herrn j_ Herren Sigissmund=Heinrichs j_ F r e i = H e r r n von B i b r a n und Modlau; ... durch e i n e e i l i g s t = a b g e f a s s e t e ]_ und dahero e i n f a ' l t i g e TRAUER=REDE a u f gn'adigst = e r t h e i l t e n H o c h - F r e i h e r r l . B e f e h l j_ im H o c h = F r e i h e r r 1. Trauer=Zimmer zu O s s i g j_ den 9. Decembr. des 1693sten H e i l . Jahres J_ i n e i n e m k u r t z e n E n t w u r f f zeigen.... ( L a u b a n : J o h a n n G o t t f r i e d Dehne, c a . 1 6 9 3 ) , p. 15. B e r l i n , B e r l i n e r S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Grauenklostersammlung VII. "Ach! i c h sehe a n i t z o v o r m i r T h r a n e n e i n e r t i e f = L e i d e t r a g e n d e n Witwen / welche h e r z l i c h weinet ... / s c h r e i e t S i e zu dem HErren ihrem GOtt / was S i e immer k a n n : Ach HERR! S i e h e doch / w i e bange i s t m i r / i n meinem L e i b e / denn i c h b i n h o c h s t b e t ru'bet: d e r T o d t h a t m i c h im Hause zur Witwen gemacht. Thren. 1/20. der A l l m a c h t i g e hat mich sehr betrubt. Ruth. l / 2 [ 0 ] . darum w e i n e i c h so / und m e i n e b e i d e Augen f l i i s s e n m i t Wasser / dass der T r b s t e r / der meine Seele s o l t e erkwikken / f e m e v o n m i r i s t / T h r e n . 1/16."  5-8  Taken from  the same f u n e r a l as the above j e r e m a i c , the f o l l o w i n g rhymed  v e r s e s p e r s o n i f y i n g Sigismund an e m o t i o n a l  H e i n r i c h are s o o t h i n g i n rhythm and  tenor,  a n t i t h e s i s o f the widow's p l a i n t .  I d i e now, i t i s true; n e v e r t h e l e s s I s h a l l not p e r i s h , Not I; my d e s p a i r d i e s , my m i s e r y , f e a r and need, Through death d i e s my death. T h e r e f o r e I am happy to d i e , For whoever d i e s i n Jesus, d i e s w i t h o u t death. Death o f t e n came w i t h o u t fatality plague  rate  and  among i n f a n t s  other  indiscriminate  epidemics o f age  the T h i r t y Y e a r s ' War  chill  c o u l d soon be  today,  was  never  was  were  i n the  seventeenth  extraordinarily  Hardly  less  century.  The  high; outbreaks  frequent, widespread,  or s t a t i o n .  d i s e a s e s were the armies of  warning  of  d e v a s t a t i n g and  discriminating  than  that sacked and plundered Germany i n the course (1618-48).  I n t h a t age  when even a  f o l l o w e d by o b s e q u i e s , D e a t h ,  f a r away  and  seldom  out  slight  much more so  o f mind;  than  i t occupied  the  t h o u g h t s o f the s o c i e t y to a p o i n t w h i c h we can o n l y see as o b s e s s i v e . Because the people were aware, or were made to be aware, that "the f i n a l 27 hour  comes l i k e  of energy  a thief,"  the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y  expended  upon t e a c h i n g t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n to prepare  a great deal  f o r death's  unan-  M. Wiedemann. I_^ N^ Jj_ Der G e i s t l i c h e H e r r e n = S t a n d d e r G o t t s fu'rchtigen... i n e i n e r C h r i s 1 1 i c h e n Gedenck=Predigt a l s Der Hoch = W o l g e b o h r n e H e r r j_ H e r r S i g i s m u n d H e i n r i c h j_ F r e y h e r r v o n B i b r a n und M o d l a u /•.. u.s.w. w e l c h e r den 14. Septembr. Anno 1693 zu R e i s i c h t i_n s e i n e m J E s u h o c h s e 1 i g e n t s c h l a f f e n war j_ den d a r a u f f f o l g e n d e n 9. Decembr. mi_t e i n e m F r e y h e r r l i c h e n Leichen=Begangniss i n O s z i g beehret wurde.... ( L a u b a n : J o h a n n G o t t f r i e d Dehne, c a. 1693), p. 33. Berlin, B e r l i n e r S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Grauenklostersammlung VII. Ich s t e r b e zwar izund / doch d a r f f I c h n i c h t v e r d e r b e n / Nicht Ich / mein Jammer s t i r b t / mein E l e n d / Angst und Noth / Durch s t e r b e n s t i r b t mein Tod. Drum f r e u Ich Mich z u s t e r b e n / Denn wer i n JEsu s t i r b t / der s t i r b e t ohne Tod. 27  Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 71. "...die l e t z t e S t u n d kommt a l s e i n D i e b . " I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s maxim has b i b l i c a l o r i g i n s (2 P e t e r 3:10). 59  nounced a r r i v a l . bound  The l a r g e number o f L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n p u b l i s h e d and  as a n t h o l o g i e s d u r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  evidence  o f t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h death.  h e a l t h and e s p e c i a l l y funeral  sermons  Trauerbinden Heermann:  such  as those  (Leipzig,  Schola  Euthanasias  in illness,  such  communication  as t h e s e ,  with  I t was e x p e c t e d  that, i n  oneself with Geistliche  and t h e f o u r v o l u m e s  by J o h a n n  m o r t i s : Todes S c h u l e  (Leipzig,  1628), C h r i s t i a n a e  1630), Parma c o n t r a m o r t i s arma 2  collections  graphic  i n V a l e r i u s Herberger's  1618/1619),  1650), D o r m i t o r i a ( R o s t o c k ,  offers  one w o u l d f a m l i a r i z e  found  Statutae (Leipzig,  century  (Rostock,  8  1650).  Reflecting  the reader  in effect  on t h e c o n t e n t s o f came i n t o a k i n d o f  t h e h e r e a f t e r , n o t d i s s i m i l a r to the a s s o c i a t i o n s  mentioned e a r l i e r by van Ingen.  Based on the e x p e r i e n c e s  had gone b e f o r e , one l e a r n e d i n t h i s way how t o p r e p a r e to d i e a p r o p e r C h r i s t i a n death,  how  successfully  o f o t h e r s who f o r d e a t h , how  t o make t h a t most  29  peaceful By  t r a n s i t i o n from leaving  t h i s world  one's w o r l d l y a f f a i r s  humously p r e s e n t e d the l i v i n g h i s or h e r s p i r i t u a l  at  i n good o r d e r ,  w i t h a s t r o n g case f o r the assumption  sides o f death,  either  postthat  In p r e p a r a t i o n o f  i t was n o t uncommon f o r a  to d i c t a t e h i s or her own c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e ,  the f u n e r a l  the deceased  a f f a i r s were l i k e w i s e i n order.  t h e m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l person  t o the next.  which c o u l d be read  f o l l o w i n g the sermon o r at the g r a v e s i d e as p a r t  F o r a b r i e f c r i t i c a l s t u d y o f H e r b e r g e r ' s and Heermann's work, see E. W i n k l e r , D i e L e i c h e n p r e d i g t i^m d e u t s c h e n L u t h e r t u m b i s Sp_e_ner, Forschungen z u r G e s c h i c h t e und Lehre des P r o t e s t a n t i s m u s , ed. by E. Wolf, v o l . 34 ( M u n i c h : Chr. K a i s e r V e r l a g , 1967), pp. 104-27, 135-58. 29  Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 66-71.  60  of  the Abdankung.  s e l e c t the b i b l i c a l as  a l s o common p r a c t i c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s  d i d not  have a  to w r i t e the f u n e r a l sermon.  favourite b i b l i c a l  f u n e r a l sermons p r o v i d e d  which to chose.  scripture,  the  i n advance t h a t t h e i r  If  anthologies  an ample s e l e c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e verses  Other documents show t h a t some went f u r t h e r to  t e x t , as m e n t i o n e d  to  s c r i p t u r e s or some other a p p r o p r i a t e t e x t to be used  the theme upon which the p a s t o r was  the person of  I t was  f u n e r a l sermon be b a s e d on a p a r t i c u l a r  from  request chorale  i n t h i s n o t i c e from a W i t t e l s b e r g Kirchenbuch  in  1665: E l i s a b e t h , Henchen P r e i s e n , b l e s s e d posthumous widow i n B e l t e r s hausen was b u r i e d on 3 February i n her e i g h t y - f i f t h year; and t r u e t h e f u n e r a l s e r m o n , on h e r r e q u e s t , was d e l i v e r e d from the C h r i s t i a n c h o r a l e : H e r z l i c h t u t mich v e r l a n g e n nach einem s [ e l i g e n ] Ende, through the e n t i r e v e r s e l.p. Still  o t h e r s had  the presence  which would then be read  of mind to w r i t e t h e i r own  f o r them at the ceremony.  One  f u n e r a l sermon, i n s t a n c e of t h i s  I b i d . , p. 67. I t h a r d l y needs m e n t i o n i n g t h a t much o f what we know b i o g r a p h i c a l l y of m u s i c i a n s from t h a t p e r i o d i s d e r i v e d from the c u r r i c u l a v i t a e found i n f u n e r a l sermons. I n t h i s r e s p e c t see, P. S p i t t a , " L e i c h e n s e r m o n e a u f M u s i k e r des XVI. und XVII. J a h r h u n d e r t s , " Monatshefte fiir M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e 3 (1871): 24-44; Beyer, "Leichensermone des 17. Jahrhunderts," Monatshefte fiir M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e 7 (1875): 171-88. For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the r o l e of the Abdankung at P r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l c e r e m o n i e s , see M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , "Zur T h e o r i e und F u n k t i o n d e r B a r o c k abdankung," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e , " pp. 372-89. A l s o see C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher d i e p r a c t i c a b e l s t e n Kunst =Reguln von d e r I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n d e r e r n a c h d e r h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n A b d a n c k u n g e n bey o f f e n t l i c h e n T r a u e r = S o l e n n i e n zu Befbrderung s e i n e r O r a t o r i s c h e n C o l l e g i o r u m durch d e u t l i c h e Exempel e r l e u t e r t (Jena: H e i n r i c h C h r i s t o p h Crbker, 1707), pp. 11-12.  31 C i t e d i n A. Hock, " B e g r a b n i s b r a u c h t u m und L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n i n l a n d l i c h e n B e r e i c h e n H e s s e n s , " i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Q u e l l e , p. 296. " E l i s a b e t h , Henchen P r e i s e n s(el.) nachgelassene w i t t i b zu B e l t e r s h a u s e n wurde begraben den 3*". F e b r u a r i j i h r e s s A l t e r s s 85 j a h r . Undt wahr d i e L e i c h Sermon uf i h r s e l b s t eigenes begehre g e h a l t e n aus dem C h r i s t l i c h e n K i r c h e n g e s a n g : H e r t z l i c h t h u t m i c h v e r l a n g e n nach e i n e m s. e n d t . p e r totum v e r s i c u l u m l.p." 61  is  the  Seele;  funeral  sermon on Psalm  116:7, " S e i nun  wieder z u f r i e d e n ,  denn der Herr t u t d i r Gutes," w r i t t e n by Superintendant  K l e i n of Weissenfels  and  d e l i v e r e d on 2 F e b r u a r y 1580,  and  meine  Balthasar was  later  32 published  in Leipzig  with  a preface  by  Nikolaus  Selnecker.  This  p a r t i c u l a r c a s e comes u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n i n the M a n s f e l d p a s t o r Titius's  "Theo1ogisches  Historici.  Exempe 1-Buch"  C o m p r i s e d of a l a r g e number o f o l d e r and  writings,  most of the m a t e r i a l  Titius  1633,  War,  by  the  after  but,  Titius's  f o r the book had  owing to the  c o l l e c t i o n was  pathetic  entitled  death.  argument  as  first  Clearly, Titius in  this  too  "that  and  stir  more the h e a r t . "  funeral, oratory  they  [funeral  It i s in connection  that T i t i u s  mentions the  custom  the d e c e a s e d d i r e c t l y b e n e a t h the p u l p i t , t h a t l e s s between the o r a t o r prominence orator  nor  to  the  and  body,  audience,  was  the  audience.  i t assumed nevertheless  by  1684,  power in  of his  Leichenpredigten") sermons] a f f e c t more  with his w r i t i n g  of p l a c i n g  the  body  on of  i s , at a p o i n t more or  By g i v i n g t h i s k i n d  a status an  the  d i d a c t i c anthology;  Titius  fact 33  been compiled  recognized  f u n e r a l s e r m o n s ("Von  the  contemporaneous  in a revised version in  d i s c u s s i o n i n the c h a p t e r on acknowledges  Theologici  s a v a g i n g e f f e c t s o f the T h i r t y Y e a r s '  published  presented  already  Loci  Caspar  that,  of v i s u a l  although  i n e x t r i c a b l e component  neither of  the  C. T i t i u s , L o c i T h e o l o g i c i H i s t o r i c i , oder T h e o l o g i s c h e s ExempelBuch [_ Darinnen aus A l t e n und Neuen S c r i b e n t e n j_ s o n d e r l i c h r e i n e n und C h r i s t l i c h e n K i r c h e n - L e h r e n u n t e r den gewbhnlichen L o c i s T h e o l o g i c i s zu f i n d e n I m e h r e n t h e i l s solche Exempe 1 und H i s t o r i e n /_ welche i n gewbhnl i c h e n P r e d i g t e n zur h e i l s a m e n Lehre j_ T r o s t / Vermahnung und Warnung n u t z l i c h a n g e z o g e n und eing_ef_Uhret. w e r d e n kbnnen, nunmehr a b e r vom Autore a u f f s neue mit mehr a l s 2000 H i s t o r i e n und n l i t z l i c h e n R e g i s t e r n v e r m e h r e t ( L e i p z i g , 1684), p. 1291. C i t e d i n Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 67. 3  und  3 . . C i t e d i n Z e l l e r , op. naher zu H e r t z e n gehen."  £i_t., p. 67.  62  "...dass s i e mehr  afficiren  rhetorical was  process.  Thus,  according  to T i t i u s ,  the  funeral  oration  g i v e n by t h e p a s t o r , the c o n g r e g a t i o n of m o u r n e r s d i d n o t  s a r i l y hear  the p r i e s t  comforting  h i m s e l f p r e a c h i n g per p r o s o p o p o e i i a n  were."  In the most u n e x c e p t i o n a l ,  visual  sensations  would  from the c o f f i n ,  p r o s a i c cases  have  been  the  moving;  w r i t t e n by  the  as i t  combined  where  o r n a m e n t e d h i s s e r m o n w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l p r o s o p o p o e i a 1 e f f e c t would have s t i r r e d  neces-  and admonishing them, but r a t h e r "the  deceased  and  as  audial  the  pastor  passage, the  deep emotions; where the o r a t o r read a sermon  deceased,  personally addressing  the m o u r n e r s  i n the  c o n g r e g a t i o n , perhaps going so f a r as to mimic the deceased's speech 35  .  gestures, century  we  .  .  can h a r d l y b e g i n to imagine  .  the impact  on a  seventeenth-  congregation.  Musicians funerals  by  l i k e w i s e suggested  prearranging  an  certain  active  aspects  p e r s o n a l presence of  the  Hermann Schein on h i s deathbed asked H e i n r i c h Schutz a f u n e r a l motet on SWV  277),  Bernhard  and  the t e x t "Das  Schutz  erant  a five-part  opportunity  1:12,  m o t e t on the  tuae" (Psalm t o c h e c k and  text  119:54), a work  aus  Ibid, "...g l e i c hs am p e r p r o s o p o p o i i a n den V e r s t o r b e n e n Sarge h e r f i i r p r e d i g e n . " f o o t n o t e 24  Johann  Christoph  Schutz  See  their  to compose f o r him  that h i s student  Palestrinian  justificationes had  ceremony.  which  35  actually  at  i s t j e g e w i s s l i c h wahr" (Timothy  i n turn requested  compose f o r h i m  "Cantabiles mihi  dem  and  approve w e l l i n selbst  above.  S. K b h l e r , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : A n m e r k u n g e n ( L e i p z i g : VEB Deutscher V e r l a g f u r Musik, 1985), p.  63  zu L e b e n 112.  und  Werk  advance o f h i s death  i n 1672.  Bernhard's  motet p l u s t h r e e o t h e r works  38 by and  Schutz  were performed  at the  S c h e i n , the b i b l i c a l  texts  funeral.  In the case  of both  Schutz  c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s e r v e d as themes f o r  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f u n e r a l sermons.  I t might  be added t h a t o t h e r com-  p o s e r s , among them, S e t h C a l v i s i u s , T o b i a s M i c h a e l and Z a c h a u s F a b e r , had o c c a s i o n to compose t h e i r own not  function  p u r e l y as  swan songs.  t r u e prosopopoeia,  It  the way  i s not mere chance  that  brought  personification  f a m i l i a r w i t h the concept of prosopopoeia sense.  Having  obtained a s o l i d  had  disciplines  studied either which  what r h e t o r i c a l levels  required  into  the  t e x t s and  i n i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and  practi-  f o u n d a t i o n i n the L a t e i n -  t h e o l o g y o r j u r i s p r u d e n c e at mastery  of r h e t o r i c .  prosopopoeia as a r h e t o r i c a l  they  device.  subse-  university, No  l i t e r a t u r e were s t u d i e d at the lower and  of e d u c a t i o n , i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t  to understand  music  t h a t German c o m p o s e r s were  linguistic  a complete  have  music.  s c h u l e n , most of the c o m p o s e r s i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany quently  that  of the works would  i n which they e x p e r i e n c e d the  o f t h e f u n e r a l , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t  cal  these works d i d  i t can h a r d l y be d e n i e d  the congregation's knowledge of the o r i g i n s significantly affected  Although  matter upper  would not have come Especially  as  well-  37 H. S c h u t z , G e s a m m e l t e Br i e f e und S c h r i f t e n , ed. by E. H. M u l l e r ( R e g e n s b u r g , 1931), p. 383. C i t e d i n S. K b h l e r , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : Anmerkungen zu Leben und Werk ( L e i p z i g : Deutscher V e r l a g fiir Musik, 1985), p. 185. S c h u t z , a f t e r e x a m i n i n g the work, w r o t e t o Bernhard i n Hamburg, s a y i n g , "Mein Sohn, er hat m i r e i n e n Grossen G e f a l l e n e r w i e s e n durch Ubersendung der verlangte'n Motette. Ich weiss keine Note d a r i n zu verbessern." (My son, you h a v e [ l i t e r a l l y , he h a s ] done me a g r e a t favour by sending the d e s i r e d motet. I know o f no note i n i t that c o u l d be improved upon.)  38 C i t e d i n 0. B r o d d e , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : Weg und Werk, ( B e r l i n : E v a n g e l i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985; o r g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d C a s s e l : Barenr e i t e r V e r l a g , 1972), pp. 278-79. 64  educated L u t h e r a n s , steeped i n the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f the German s c h o o l s Church  and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  o r i n an a r i s t o c r a t i c  well-acquainted  with  popular  throughout  funeral  oratory  ability  chapel,  the a n t h o l o g i e s  the seventeenth  with  g e n e r a l l y expected  and e v e n t u a l l y  a critical  employed  e i t h e r by the  t h e y c e r t a i n l y w o u l d have b e e n  o f f u n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e which were so century,  and they would have viewed  eye f o r i t s r h e t o r i c .  I t was  also  o f c o m p o s e r s as l i t e r a r y men t o d e m o n s t r a t e some  to w r i t e p o e t r y  for various  occasions,  which o f c o u r s e  included  39 funerals, sections versions The  and t h e y w o u l d s u r e l y have r e a d t h r o u g h t h e o f t e n of epicedia  or funeral  odes  usually  included  i n printed  of the f u n e r a l sermons. e p i c e d i a were f r e q u e n t l y w r i t t e n as a c o n s o l a t o r y p e r s o n i f i c a -  t i o n o f t h e d e c e a s e d , and s o m e t i m e s b o r e t h e s i m p l e poeia."  lengthy  J u s t how conscious  heading "Prosopo-  were composers of the concept o f prosopopeia  can be seen i n a s i n g l e pubished work by Johann Kemp (Kempe, Kempius). ^ 4  In 1985 t h e a u t h o r d i s c o v e r e d t h r e e e p i c e d i a i n t h e Gotha F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , F i l l 34(5), two w r i t t e n by C o n s t a n t i n C h r i s t i a n D e d e k i n d (1628-1715) and t h e t h i r d by S c h l i t z ' s b e s t - k n o w n p u p i l C h r i s t o p h Bernhard (1627-88). The poems a r e found among o t h e r e p i c e d i a w r i t t e n on t h e o c c a s i o n of t h e d e a t h o f Dedekind's son, Stephan C h r i s t i a n , who d i e d i n 1672. The poems by D e d e k i n d a r e nowhere mentioned i n F r i t z Hermann Stege's " C o n s t a n t i n C h r i s t i a n Dedekind: e i n D i c h t e r und M u s i k e r d e s 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s , " (Ph.D. d i s s . , F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m - U n i v e r s i t a t zu B e r l i n [Humboldt], 1922) which i s s t i l l r e f e r r e d to by J o h n H. B a r o n i n t h e New G r o v e P i c t i o n a r y o f Mus i c and Mus i c i a n s as the a u t h o r i t a t i v e l i s t o f Pedekind's p o e t i c works. N e i t h e r i s Stege a b l e t o i d e n t i f y any o f Dedekind's c h i l d r e n (p. 8). T h i s f i n d i n g , though i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s at length i n t h i s study, c o n t r i b u t e s t o the b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on C. C. D e d e k i n d , b r i n g s t o l i g h t two p o e t i c w o r k s by an i m p o r t a n t German poet o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a t t e s t s f u r t h e r t o t h e c l o s e p e r s o n a l and a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n D e d e k i n d and h i s t e a c h e r B e r n h a r d , and p r o v i d e s a l i t e r a r y work f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Bernhard's b i o g r a p h e r s . 4  ®J.  Kemp,  2j_ Moteten,  Auff  den t r a w r i g e n  65  vnd U n v e r h o f f t e n  Todes-  Kemp had  been  cantor  i m p e r i a l poet l a u r e a t e  i n Wingzig i n Gustrow  i n 1619  and  around 1634. ^ 4  became  H o f c a n t o r and  As court cantor, Kemp  composed two motets on the death of Anna M a r i a , Duchess o f Machlenburg, etc. six,  A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r o f the motets, one f o r e i g h t v o i c e s the other f o r i s w r i t t e n i n a manner which p e r s o n i f i e s the Duchess,  of the p u b l i c a t i o n  the l a s t  page  i s a p r o s o p o p o e i a l poem w r i t t e n by Kemp: Prosopopoeia  Qua p i e d e f u n c t a P r i n c e p s Conjugem I l l u s t r i s i m u m & moestisimum a l l o q u i t u r ACH a l l e r l i e b s t e r Schatz / es mag zwar a u f f der Erden K e i n g r o s s e r Hertzens Schmertz jemals gefunden werden / A l s s wann zwey L i e b / d i e s t e t s g e l e b t i n F r e u n d i g k e i t / Z e r t r e n n e t werden durch des Todes Grawsambkeit. Drumb kan i c h auch bey mir l e i c h t s c h l i e s s e n vnd gedencken / Wie schmertz: vnd b i t t e r l i c h Euch mein A b s c h i e d muss krancken / Jedoch weis I c h / dass Ihr mit dem geplagten Mann Hiob / des Hbchsten Raht Euch werd g e f a l i e n l a n . Hat der n i c h t Macht / der Mich an Ewre S e i t gegeben/ Mich abzufodern / wann Er w i l / i n s Frewden Leben? Ihr w i s t j a wie meine Seel nach dem l i e b e n GOTT / Bey dem i c h nun auch b i n / gedurst i n meiner Noth. Betrawrt Mich n i c h t / dass Ich b i n von der bbsen Erden / Sondern Euch / dass I h r n i c h t habt s o l l n mein Gleitsmann werden / Meins L e i b e s Pf'ande l a s t Ewrn T r o s t vnd Frewde seyn / An welchen Ihr werd sehn vnd splihrn d i e Tugend mein. Nach trlibem Wetter / vnd nach h a r t e n Donnerschlagen / Nach B l i t z vnd Sturm / thut s i c h d i e l i e b e Sonn bewegen; Nach F r o s t vnd K a l t e kompt der L e n t z / nach C r e u t z vnd Leyd Frewd / nach trawren / lachen / vnd F r i e d kompt nach dem S t r e i t . Gesegn Euch GOtt mein Schatz / vnd a l l e l i e b e Meinen! Trawt Ihm i n a l l e r Noth / vnd l a s s e t j a das weinen /  f a l l Der w e i l a n d Durchleuchtigen... Frawen ANNA MARIA Gebohrnen zu Ost F r i e s z l a n d t j_ H e r z o g i n n e n zu M a c h l e n b u r g . . . D e i n e r nunmehr in G o t t r u h e n d e n H o c h s e l i g e n g n a d i g e n F i i r s t i n n e n vnd F r a w e n : D i e E r s t e m i t 8. D i e A n d e r m i t 6^ Stimmen c o m p o n i r e t ^ Von JOHANNE KEMPIO, P.L.C. vnd F u r s t l . M. H o f f Cantore (Glistrow: Johann Jagern, 1634). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , K. 5. c. 28. ^ E . L. G e r b e r , "Kemp, J o h a n n I I I , " H i s t o r i s c h - b i o g r a p h i s c h e s L e x i k o n d e r T o n k l i n s t l e r (1790-1792), 2 v o l s . , ed. by 0. W e s s e l y ( G r a z : A k a d e m i s c h e D r u c k - u. V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1977; o r g i n a l l y published, L e i p z i g : J . G. I. B r e i t k o p f , 1790), v o l . 1, c o l . 716.  66  Ich komm n i c h t mehr zu Euch / zu M i r werdt kommen Ihr / An den Orth da l i e b l i c h Wesen i s t f u r vnd f u r . In Tempus M o r t i s S E R E N I S S I M A E  P R I N C I P I S  Cronostichon Nomina, Annum, Mensem & Diem f e l i c i s s i m a complectens:  migrationis  QVInta Dies FebrVI n o s t r a t e s Verbere C o e p l t : Anna M a r i a p_I§ V e r g l t In a s t r a VIS. Observ. & i n Comm. hoc l u c t u d e c l a r . an. a f f e c t . grati§ f e c i t J O H A N N E S P.L.C.  K E M P I U S & A.C.  Prosopopoeia With what p i e t y the dead P r i n c e s s addresses her most i l l u s t r i o u s and most t e a r f u l Husband A l a s sweetest t r e a s u r e , there could be found i t i s t r u e On e a r t h no g r e a t e r h e a r t ache, Than when two l o v e s , who c o n t i n u a l l y l i v e d i n amity, Become separated by death's c r u e l t y . For that reason, I too can e a s i l y sympathize and c o n s i d e r , How p a i n f u l l y and b i t t e r l y my p a r t i n g must wound you, However, I know that you, w i t h the tormented man Job, submit y o u r s e l f t o the h i g h e s t c o u n c i l . Has He not the power t h a t put me by your s i d e , to c l a i m me, when He wishes, f o r the L i f e o f Joy? You know how my s p i r i t t h i r s t e d i n my need For the b e l o v e d God, w i t h Whom I too am now. Mourn me not, that I am gone from the wicked w o r l d , Rather y o u r s e l f , that you c o u l d not have been my e s c o r t , L e t the f o r f e i t s of my body be your c o n s o l a t i o n and joy, In which you can see and p e r c e i v e my v i r t u e , A f t e r cloudy weather and a f t e r harsh peals o f thunder, A f t e r l i g h t n i n g and storm, the dear sun s t i r s i t s e l f ; A f t e r f r o s t and c o l d comes s p r i n g , a f t e r a f f l i c t i o n and g r i e f Joy, a f t e r sorrow l a u g h t e r , and peace comes a f t e r c o n f l i c t . God b l e s s you my t r e a s u r e and a l l my loved ones! T r u s t Him i n need, and abandon the weeping, I come no more to you, t o me s h a l l you come, To the p l a c e where the l o v e l y s o u l i s f o r e v e r and ever. In Time o f Death  67  of  the Most Serene  Princess  Chronost ichon Comprising the Names, Y e a r ,  Month and most happy Day o f m i g r a t i o n  F i f t h Day of February Anna M a r i a PIA t u r n s towards the path to the  stars  Johann Kemp, I m p e r i a l Poet L a u r e a t e and Court C a n t o r , performed the s e r v i c e out of g r a t i t u d e a n d , a t a t i m e of common g r i e f , w i t h a s o u l that was touched, made the e x p o s i t i o n  Of the numerous a u t h o r s o f seventeenth century, his  writings  Universalis appears from  was  to be  Joachim  incorporate  the  1650).  result  4 4  of  Thuringus's  in his  musical-rhetorical [ s i c ] C o n f u s e d transliteration,  on the F i g u r e n l e h r e i n  the o n l y one to a d d r e s s  Athanasius  (Rome,  treatises  own book,  Kircher, His  in  the t e r m p r o s o p o p o e i a Book  application  a misunderstanding. Opusculum Kircher  f i g u r e pathopoeia, p e r h a p s by t h e  the  Musurgia  term,  however,  In b o r r o w i n g m a t e r i a l  bipartitum  (Berlin,  1624)  uses Thuringus's d e f i n i t i o n which T h u r i n g u s c a l l s  similarities  musikalischen  in  his  i r r e g u l a r orthography,  certain affective  D. B a r t e l , Handbuch d e r L a a b e r V e r l a g , 1985), p. 30.  of  V of  the  of  to the  parthopoeia matters  b e t w e e n the  Figurenlehre  of  actual  (Laaber:  ^ J . T h u r i n g u s , Opusculum b i p a r t i t u m ( B e r l i n , 1624), p. 126. "Quid est Parthopoeia? E s t , quae d i c t i o n e s a f f e c t u u m , d o l o r i s , g a u d i i , timoris, r i s u s , luctus, misericordiae, exultationis, tremoris, t e r r o r i s , & s i m i l i e s i t a o r n a t , ut tam Cantores quam a u d i t o r e s moveat." ("What i s parthopoeia? I t e x i s t s when the [ m u s i c a l ] o r a t i o n i s o r n a m e n t e d by f e e l i n g s of p a i n , j o y , f e a r , l a u g h t e r , l a m e n t a t i o n , p i t y , e x u l t a t i o n , dread, t e r r o r and s i m i l a r a f f e c t i o n s of that type, so that it^ moves the s i n g e r s as w e l l as the l i s t e n e r s . " ) C i t e d i n B a r t e l , o p . c i t . , p. 235. M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l pathopoeia is g e n e r a l l y understood as the s e m i t o n a l movement of a m e l o d i c l i n e o u t s i d e the e s t a b l i s h e d harmony or s c a l e i n o r d e r to express such a f f e c t i o n s as sorrow, f e a r , and the l i k e . 4  68  figures,  or p o s s i b l y  a combination  m i s t a k e n l y a p p l i e s the new The  to use  prosopopoeia  this  term  these and  l a b e l prosopopaeia  musical-rhetorical  rhetorical  of  f i g u r e which comes c l o s e s t i n meaning to the  i s hypotyposis.  Joachim  in i t s musical-poetical  whereby i n a n i m a t e  o b j e c t s appear  described." ^  defines  He  Kircher  [sic].  sense,  i n h i s Hypomnematum musicae p o e t i c a e as "the  4  o t h e r reasons,  it a  animate, second  B u r m e i s t e r i s the and  first  defines i t i n  interpretation  of a  1599 text,  p l a c e d b e f o r e the e y e s  time  in  1606  in his  or  Musica  poetica: Hypotyposis i s that ornament whereby the meaning of the t e x t i s so d e s c r i b e d t h a t t h e s e t h i n g s , w h i c h a r e h i d d e n i n the t e x t and do n o t have a s p i r i t o r l i f e [ i . e , i n a n i m a t e ] , a p p e a r to be endowed with l i f e . T h i s ornament i s most common among true a r t i s t s . Would that the same were s k i l f u l l y a p p l i e d by a l l c o m p o s e r s ! 47  In m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c , h y p o t y p o s i s most o f t e n s e r v e s as a g e n e r a l heading  for a variety  f i g u r e s was  to suggest  t e x t as v i v i d l y are  fuga  hypobole fast  of r e l a t e d  musically particular  as p o s s i b l e . .  (Kircher),  figures.  anabasis  role  of t h i s  and  catabasis (Kircher),  of s h o r t notes used  48  For  group of  d e s c r i p t i v e passages  I n c l u d e d among these t a x o n o m i c a l  ( B u r m e i s t e r ) , to name a f e w .  passages  The  and  i n the subtypes  hyperbole  and  i n s t a n c e , fuga c o n s i s t s o f  to r e p r e s e n t such a c t i o n s as f l i g h t  or  J . B u r m e i s t e r , Hypomnematum m u s i c a e p o e t i c a e ( R o s t o c k , 1599), n.p. C i t e d i n B a r t e l op. c i t . , p. 197. "...textus i l i a e x p l i c a t i o , qua quaecxy-if)fo* sunt, v i d e a n t u r EJATJ/X ^ ad oculum s t a t u t a , v e l deumbrata." 0  J . B u r m e i s t e r , M u s i c a p o e t i c a ( R o s t o c k , 1606), p. 62. Cited in B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 197-98. " H y p o t y p o s i s e s t i l l u d o r n a m e n t u m , quo textus s i g n i f i c a t i o i t a deumbratur, ut ea, quae t e x t u i subsunt & animam v i t a m q u e non h a b e n t , v i t a e s s e p r a e d i t a , v i d e a n t u r . Hoc o r n a m e n t u m u s i t a t i s s i m u m e s t apud a u t h e n t i c o s A r t i f i c e s . Utinam eadem e x t e r i t a t e ab omnibus a d h i b e r e t u r Componistis." 4  7  F o r a more complete l i s t o f f i g u r e s under the g e n e r a l heading o f h y p o t y p o s i s , see G. B u e l o w , " R h e t o r i c and M u s i c , " The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s (1980), v o l . 15, p. 798. 4 8  69  fleeing,  w h i l e the ascending and descending s c a l e passages  which c o n s t i -  t u t e a n a b a s i s and c a t a b a s i s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were u s e d t o d e p i c t concerned figures  with,  will  be  say, heavenly  i d e n t i f y i n g what are now  typosis  infernal  d e v i s e d by  descent.  i n the  composers  next  (These  two  chapter.)  as a means o f  The  verbally  commonly r e f e r r e d to s i m p l y as m a d r i g a l i s m s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r h e t o r i c a l and m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l hypoi s very  comparing  and  discussed in greater d e t a i l  names w e r e p r i n c i p a l l y  The  ascent  texts  close.  The  Burmeister's f i r s t  similarities  can  be  readily  d e f i n i t i o n of the f i g u r e w i t h the  d e f i n i t i o n o f o r a t o r i c a l hypotypos i s The pseudo-Cicero d e f i n e s the term  from  the R h e t o r i c a  i n the f o l l o w i n g  ad  seen  by  following  Herennium.  way:  The f i g u r e [ h y p o t y p o s i s ] so e x p l a i n s t h i n g s w i t h words t h a t we a p p r e h e n d them as though b e f o r e o u r e y e s . We b r i n g t h i s a b o u t by d e s c r i b i n g what the t h i n g has done, does and w i l l do, the c i r c u m stances and consequences of i t s e x i s t e n c e . 9  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p o t y p o s i s and prosopopoeia close,  especially  with  r e s p e c t to Burmeister's  second  i s also  quite  definition.  the p r i n c i p a l  characteristic  that d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  Essentially,  the r h e t o r i c a l  purpose of both f i g u r e s i s to s u g g e s t  presence o f someone or something  the two  that i s not present.  is  But  noteworthy.  Whereas  the  hypotypo-  s i s p e r m i t s the o r a t o r to achieve t h i s sense of presence through a v i v i d narrative person its  portrayal,  or t h i n g ,  ability  prosopopoeia  i s the a c t u a l  which demonstrates  t o speak.  We  may  i t s own  thus  r h e t o r i c a l presence  continue  f i g u r e s as b e i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e l a t e d ,  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of  but we  thinking  of  through  these  s h a l l presently  that  see  two that  R h e t o r i c a ad H e r e n n i u m , 4. 68. C i t e d i n L. A. S o n n n i n o , A Handbook t o S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y R h e t o r i c ( L o n d o n : Rout l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1968), p. 71.  70  musica1-rhetorical  prosopopoeia  clearly  transcends  the c a t e g o r y  of  madrigalisms.  Cantional-Style The readily  Compositions  simplest  application  of  prosopopoeia  type, by  i n seventeenth-century  f a r the most  homophonically  by  cantionals.  commonly performed  five  syllabic One  (SSATB) p a r t s ,  of  the  most  of sacred music  Schein's  by the c o n g r e g a t i o n  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  popularity  in Lutheran  reissued  i n 1645  Michael.  The  by  1627  i n 1627,  Schein's of  l a r g e number o f c o m p o s i t i o n s  successor  at  funerals.  was  Konfession.^ enjoyed  expanded v e r s i o n o f at  the  Johann  Thomaskirche,  it  such was  Tobias  the C a n t i o n a l c o n t a i n s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r o f the  w h i c h were composed s p e c i f i c a l l y performance  an  style.  style  Schein's c o l l e c t i o n  that  their  seventeenth-century  Gesangbuch A u g s b u r g i s c h e r  Germany  edition  influential  w r i t t e n i n the c a n t i o n a l  C a n t i o n a l oder  published i n L e i z p i g  and  either  U s u a l l y w r i t t e n f o r f o u r (SATB)  these compositions  enduring  be  of t h i s  f u n e r a l s , were sung  s e t t i n g s of s t r o p h i c t e x t s i n a simple homophonic  collections Hermann  at  can  c h o r a l e s as  Compositions  the c h o i r alone, or monophonically  w i t h the harmonic support of the c h o i r .  First  music  seen i n the newly composed and t r a d i t i o n a l hymns and  represented  or  i n funeral  Under  total)  f o r , or were f a v o u r a b l y s u i t e d the h e a d i n g  "Bey  Begrabnissen"  to, (At  J. H. Schein, C a n t i o n a l oder Gesangbuch A u g s b u r g i s c h e r K o n f e s s i o n 1627/45, 2 v o l s . , Johann Hermann Schein: Neue Ausgabe s a m t l i c h e r Werke, ed. by A. A d r i o , Band 2 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1967). F o r a c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f S c h e i n ' s C a n t i o n a 1 , see W. R e c k z i e g e l , Das C a n t i o n a l von J o h a n Herman S c h e i n : S e i n e n g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n Grundlagen, Band 5 i n B e r l i n e r S t u d i e n zu M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t , ed. by A. A d r i o ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g Merseburger, 1963). 71  F u n e r a l s ) i n the p r e f a c i n g K i r c h e n o r d n u n g , are mentioned: "Vom  Tod vnd  five  of  them by name,  S t e r b e n " ("Of  52  seventy-one  forty-six  compositions  under the  subheading  D e a t h and D y i n g , " nos. 216-63), and  twenty  53 under the  subheading  "Psalm."  Additionally,  at l e a s t  two  o t h e r works  f r o m t h e C a n t i o n a l s e r v e d as f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n s , and a r e under nun  the h e a d i n g  "Am  Tage M a r i a e  included  R e i n g i u n g " ("At Candlemas"):  "Herr,  l a s s t du d e i n e n D i e n e r " (no. 28) and " M i t F r i e d und F r e u d i c h f a h r  d a h i n " (no. 29).  The  1645  mented w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l as w e l l  e d i t i o n o f S c h e i n ' s C a n t i o n a 1 was twenty-two  as f i v e by T o b i a s M i c h a e l .  f u n e r a r y works by  century, h i s Cantional w i l l which  personification  was  serve here  applied  Schein h i m s e l f ,  Because of Schein's  m u s i c a l and p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e on L u t h e r a n church music  to Baroque  far-reaching  i n the  to d e m o n s t r a t e  supple-  seventeenth  the manner i n  funerary compositions  in  - ^ S c h e i n , op^ c i t . , pp. XV-XVI. " I n d i c h hab i c h g e h o f f e t H e r r " (no. 151), "Wer G o t t v e r t r a u t , hat wohl gebaut" (no. 187), "Wenn w i r i n hb'chsten Nbten s e i n " (no. 188), "Wenn d i c h Unglu'ck t u t g r e i f e n an" (nos. 196a-b), "Mag es denn j e n i c h t a n d e r s s e i n " (no. 190). 5 2  53  • • • The c a n t i o n a l s e t t i n g s o f t h e v e r s i f i e d P s a l m t e x t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e to the Psalm i t s e l f r a t h e r than by l o c a t i o n i n the C a n t i o n a l . Those s e t t i n g s i n Schein's C a n t i o n a l s a i d to be s u i t e d to performance at f u n e r a l s a r e : "Kehr d i c h , ach Herr, von deinem Zorn" (no. 139), " H e r r , w i e v e r g i s s t du m e i n so l a n g " (no. 143), " H e r r , wer w i r d wohnn und s i c h e r s e i n " (no. 145), "Der Herr der i s t mein H i r t " (no. 148), "Ach H e r r , n a c h d i r v e r l a n g e t m i c h " (no. 149), " D i c h f i i r d e i n W o h l t a t p r e i s e i c h " (no. 150), " I n d i c h hab i c h g e h o f f e t , H e r r " (no. 151), "Kein Siind, hab i c h m i r f u r g e s e t z t " (no. 153), " E i n mud und mattes H i r s c h e l e i n " (no. 154), " E r b a r m d i c h m e i n , o H e r r e G o t t " (no. 157) and "0 H e r r e G o t t , begnade m i c h " (no. 158), "Wie l i e b l i c h s i n d d i e Wohnung d e i n " (no. 164), " H e r r G o t t , m e i n H e i l a n d fromm" (no. 165), " H e r r G o t t , du u n s e r Z u f l u c h t b i s t " (no. 166), "0 w i e w o h l i s t dem immer d o c h " (no. 171), "Wohl m i r , das i s t m i r l i e b " (no. 172), " I c h heb m e i n Augen s e h n l i c h a u f " (no. 174), "Wenn G o t t d e r H e r r Z i o n e r l b s e n w i r d " (no. 178), "Aus t i e f e r Not s c h r e i i c h z u d i r " (no. 181), " I c h s c h r e i zu meinem l i e b e n G o t t " (no. 184), "Ach l o b den H e r r n , o S e e l e m e i n " (no. 185).  72  the c a n t i o n a l Despite  style. the i n h e r e n t m u s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s  o f these works, t h e r e i s  e x t e n s i v e u s e o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n d i v e r s e ways by S c h e i n . which the deceased  i s personified  account  p r o s o p o p o e i a l c o m p o s i t i o n s i n the C a n t i o n a l . conforms  to the s o - c a l l e d  considerable poetic deceased  While  style,  closely  the texts  display  S e v e r a l of the p i e c e s p o r t r a y the ( n o s . 29, 216, 223, 289,  the deceased's  The d e c e a s e d  number o f  the music  addresses h i s S a v i o u r i n these works,  to d e p i c t  C h r i s t i a n death. the L o r d ,  imagination.  a d d r e s s i n g God o r J e s u s  Though the deceased designed  cantional  f o r the l a r g e s t  Works i n  303).  5 4  the t e x t s are  p a s s i n g as an e x a m p l e o f a p r o p e r  i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s i s made t o p e t i t i o n  thereby a l l o w i n g him or her to g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to church  d o c t r i n e r e g a r d i n g death, s a l v a t i o n ,  r e s u r r e c t i o n and e t e r n a l  life.  The  c o n g r e g a t i o n o f m o u r n e r s , made p a r t y t o t h e s e p e t i t i o n s , i s meant t o f i n d c o n s o l a t i o n i n t h e i r sorrow in  and renewed c o n f i r m a t i o n i n t h e i r  faith  the Church. Typical  o f these c o m p o s i t i o n s ,  "Wenn m e i n S t i i n d l e i n v o r h a n d e n  the f o l l o w i n g two v e r s e s taken  ist"  (no. 223) a p t l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e  d i d a c t i c manner i n which the p e r s o n i f i e d  4. W e i l du vom Tod e r s t a n d e n b i s t , werd i c h im Grab n i c h t b l e i b e n ; mein h b c h s t e r T r o s t d e i n A u f f a h r t ist, Tods F u r c h t kann s i e v e r t r e i b e n . Denn wo du b i s t , da komm i c h h i n , dass i c h s t e t s b e i d i r l e b und bin; drum f a h r i c h h i n m i t Freuden.  from  deceased  addresses  the Lord.  Because you a r e r i s e n from the dead, I w i l l not remain i n the grave; Your ascent i s my g r e a t e s t comfort I t can d r i v e away f e a r o f death. For where your are, t h e r e come I, That I might always l i v e and be w i t h You; T h e r e f o r e I d i e w i t h happiness.  -^"Mit F r i e d und Freud i c h fahr d a h i n " (no. 29), " H e r z l i c h l i e b hab i c h d i c h , o m e i n H e r r " (no. 216), "Wenn m e i n S t i i n d l e i n v o r h a n d e n i s t " (no. 223), " L a s s d i r , o m e i n H e r r J e s u C h r i s t " (no. 289), "Machs m i t m i r , G o t t , n a c h d e i n e r Gut" (no. 303). 73  5. So f a h r i c h h i n zu J e s u C h r i s t , mein Arm tu i c h a u s s t r e c k e n , i c h s c h l a f e e i n und ruhe f e i n , k e i n Mensch kann mich aufwecken. Denn J e s u C h r i s t u s Gottes Sohn der w i r d d i e Himmelstur a u f t u n , uns f u h r n zum ewign Leben.  Elsewhere  i n the c a n t i o n a l ,  Thus I go to Jesus C h r i s t , I reach out my hands, I go to s l e e p and q u i e t l y r e s t , No m o r t a l can wake me. For Jesus C h r i s t , Son of God W i l l open heaven's gate, And lead us to e t e r n a l l i f e .  the deceased  addresses  the L o r d  as i n  the p i e c e s j u s t mentioned, but then a l s o turns h i s a t t e n t i o n towards the mourning  congregation  specifically sitions,  family  (nos.  personifying text  through  consoles  prosopopoeia  288,  295)"'"'  congregation  to God,  composed  and  both  immediately  A good e x a m p l e of t h i s  Mentioned  f o r the f u n e r a l  i n the  i n 1620  C a n t i o n a l as b e i n g  or  In these compo-  type  i s " K l a g t m i c h n i c h t mehr, i h r l i e b e n L e u t " (no. 259),  work o r i g i n a l l y 7  259,  the  the deceased's s u p p l i c a t i o n  by d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s i n g the m o u r n e r s .  Pose."'  224,  towards members of the f a m i l y (no. 222)."'*'  the  vicariously  and  of a c e r t a i n  s u i t a b l e "For  of a  Katharina  the  Funeral  58 o f a Spouse," addressing  and  of the c o m p o s i t i o n  the c o n g r e g a t i o n  (alternatively 7,  the t e x t  in verses  the w i f e ) i n v e r s e s  1-3,  5-6,  the g e n e r a l assembly of mourners  begins  God  the  w i t h the  i n verse  4,  the  surviving children  i n v e r s e 8.  The  deceased  text  husband in verse  concludes  w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n f o r the c o n g r e g a t i o n t o j o i n i n the s i n g i n g o f the "'"'"Hie l i e g i c h armes W u r m e l e i n und r u h " (no. 224), " K l a g t m i c h n i c h t mehr, i h r l i e b e n L e u t " (no. 259), "Ach H e r r , e r z e i g e Gnade m i r " (no. 288), " C h r i s t e J e s u , G o t t e s Sohn" (no. 295). Herzlich  5 6 l l  t u t mich v e r l a n g e n " (no.  222).  "* But see W. R e i c h , ed., Threnodiae Sacrae: K a t a l o g der gedruckten Kompositionen des 16. j- 18. J a h r h u n d e r t s i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t s a m m l u n g e n i n n e r h a l b der D e u t s c h e n D e m o k r a t i s c h e n Republik (Dresden: Sachsische L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k , 1966), p. 28. R e i c h g i v e s as the surname "Bose." 7  58  "Bey  Begrabnis  eines  Ehegatten."  74  German  Sanctus.  The  deceased  does  Schein's C a n t i o n a l . speaks  directly  others  i n which  special  not  There  247,  the  Lord  i n a l l the  the  253,  deceased  255,  addresses  251,  the assembly  254,  "Ihr l i e b e n  In t h e c o u r s e  6 0  of  the n i n e  the mourners t h a t he was  T r a u e r l e u t " (no.  verses  victorious  the  animate E l f e l d  mourning,  admonishes  reasons, based adjures  of  e d i t i o n of the  text,  the  address w i t h a b l e s s i n g and  deceased  in his spiritual battle  as they are on h i s own  the c o n g r e g a t i o n  them to keep t h e i r  297),  f o r the f u n e r a l o f Johannes  no l o n g e r d e s i r o u s o f t h e v a i n and t r a n s i t o r y p l e a s u r e s o f a For these  with  256).  i n c o r p o r a t e d by M i c h a e l i n t o the 1645  existence.  and  5 9  the members of the s u r v i v i n g f a m i l y  Elfeld,  informs  297)  towards  composed by Schein i n 1629  Cantional.  of  deceased  of mourners,  f o r example, was and was  hymns  a r e numerous i n s t a n c e s where t h e  t o t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n (nos. 235,  remarks d i r e c t e d  (nos. 246,  petition  faith,  to put and  an  and  temporal  experience,  end  to  concludes h i s  their final  farewell:  8. So weint doch nun n i c h t mehr, euch bass b e s i n n e t und gerne gonnet mir s o l c h e Freud und E h r . H a l t Gott nur s t i l l , i h r werd dergleichen i n k u r z e r Z e i t mit mir e r r e i c h e n .  So weep now no more, Remember w e l l And h a p p i l y grant Me such joy and honour. Abide by God, you w i l l l i k e w i s e  9. E i a , Gott gsegne euch, a l l mein Verwandte, a l l mein Bekannte;  Now, God b l e s s you, A l l my f a m i l y , A l l my f r i e n d s ;  J o i n me  i n a s h o r t time.  ^ "0 W e l t , i c h muss d i c h l a s s e n " (no. 235), " I c h hab m e i n L a u f v o l l e n d e t " (no. 251), "In F r i e d und F r e u d i c h f a h r d a h i n " (no. 254), "Ihr l i e b e n T r a u e r l e u t " (no. 297. 9  " S o f a h r i c h h i n m i t Freuden" (no. 246), " S e l i g k e i t , F r i e d , Freud und Ruh" (no. 247), " D i e Z e i t nunmehr v o r h a n d e n i s t " (no. 253), "Nun s c h i e d i c h ab i n F r b h l i c h k e i t " (no. 255), " M i t F r e u d e n f a h r i c h h i n zu G o t t " (no. 256). 6 0  75  i c h b l e i b im Himmelreich. 0 G o t t , e r h a l t d e i n Wort [ a l l h i e ] auf Erden, l a s s deine F e i n d zu Schanden werden.  Amen.  I t has been mentioned effectiveness purely  I remain i n the heavenly kingdom. Oh God, keep Your word here on earth, L e t your enemies go t o r u i n . Amen.  that  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f prosopopoeia and i t s  i n cantiona1-style  textual  level.  With  c o m p o s i t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d  s e v e r a l o f these c o m p o s i t i o n s , however,  Schein s t r o v e t o impart as much as p o s s i b l e a p e r c e i v e d presence deceased. funeral suited  Some p i e c e s ,  which  ihr  originally  than o t h e r s f o r performance  "bey Begrabnis  schied  vorhanden  the p e r s o n i f i e d  i c h ab i n F r b h 1 i c h k e i t " (no. 255) and " M e i n  ist"  (no. 287) w e r e recommended  funeral of a m i n i s t e r " ^ ich  n i c h t mehr,  as b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y  i n each c a s e a d d r e s s e s t h e s u r v i v i n g spouse and c h i l d r e n . "Nun  f o r the  For instance,  i s t " (no. 253) and " K l a g t m i c h  e i n e s Ehegatten" because  of the  by S c h e i n t o be b e t t e r  at l a t e r f u n e r a l s .  l i e b e n L e u t " (no. 259) a r e i d e n t i f i e d  priate  h a d b e e n composed  o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , were t h o u g h t  "Die Z e i t nunmehr v o r h a n d e n  to a  approdeceased  Similarly, Zeit  f o r performances  nunmehr "at the  and the d i m i n u t i v e forms o f words i n "Hie  lieg  armes Wurmelein" (no. 224) made t h a t work most a p p r o p r i a t e "at the f\ 9  funeral  of small children."  (no. 256), w h i c h  was b e s t s u i t e d  s c h o o l t e a c h e r , the t e x t  In "Mit Freuden  fahr  f o r performance  i c h h i n zu G o t t "  at the funeral of a  c l o s e s w i t h the deceased b l e s s i n g and admonish-  i n g h i s c o l l e a g u e s and s t u d e n t s : 10. Mein l i e b s t e H e r r n K o l l e g e n a l l , s e i d eurem Gott nur t r e u , er wirds v e r g e l t e n gwiss einmal mit Segen m a n c h e r l e i . ^"bey  My d e a r e s t c o l l e a g u e s a l l , Be true to your God, He w i l l c e r t a i n l y reward you One day w i t h many b l e s s i n g s .  B e s t a t t u n g eines S e e l s o r g e r s . "  69  "bey  dem Begrabnis d e r k l e i n e n 76  Kinderlein."  Und, o du z a r t e Jugend, gwbhn d i c h von K i n d h e i t auf zu G o t t e s f u r c h t und Tugend, f o l g n i c h t dem bbsen Hauf.  And, Oh you tender youth Accustom y o u r s e l f from c h i l d h o o d on To v i r t u e and f e a r of God, Do not f o l l o w the wicked m u l t i t u d e .  11.  To C h r i s t , my  C h r i s t meinem Herrn i c h nun befehl die ganze Schul zusamm und a l l d a r i n mit L e i b und S e e l , b l l i h t , wachst i n Gottes Nam. 0 a l l e r l i e b s t e Kinder, nehmt eure Z e i t i n Acht, Gott macht eur A r b e i t l i n d e r . H i e r m i t zu Guter Nacht. Schein d i d not  Most o f the t e x t s i n these compoJesu C h r i s t ,  ich  s c h r e y zu d i r " (no. 228), "Ach G o t t und H e r r " (no. 240), o r " M i t t e n  wir  in  Leben  penitential  e x c l u s i v e l y to  i n a number of the hymns t h a t i t i s i n f a c t  the c o n g r e g a t i o n t h a t i s p e r s o n i f i e d . are  commend  The e n t i r e s c h o o l t o g e t h e r And a l l t h e r e i n w i t h body and s o u l , Blossom, and grow i n God's name Oh d e a r e s t c h i l d r e n , Be a t t e n t i v e of your time, God makes your work e a s i e r . With these words, good n i g h t .  l i m i t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia  the dead, f o r i t i s apparent  sitions  L o r d , I now  sind"  (no.  i n c h a r a c t e r , as  239),  which  is actually  i n c l u d i n g "Auf m e i n l i e b e n G o t t " (no. 226) weiss  gar wohl" (no. 227),  "Nun  lasst  uns  den  The  L e i b begraben" (no. 241),  rhetoric  the  choir  With  the dead, was  to p e r s o n i f y the  By  an e f f e c t i v e  abstractly  sung by  the  in  persuasive  a b l e to  employ  representing a  a b l e to p r e s e n t to the  c o u l d sometimes be  77  as  the removal of  i f different  the poet/composer was  he was  of  century  served doubly  C h r i s t i a n model worthy o f e m u l a t i o n .  these c o m p o s i t i o n s  One  ich  itself.  nonetheless  congregation.  l i v i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n i n t h i s way,  hand,  which  o f p e r s o n i f y i n g the c o n g r e g a t i o n ,  these c o m p o s i t i o n s ,  t i o n an e l o q u e n t  "Herr J e s u C h r i s t ,  of s i g n a l l i n g both  the c o n c l u s i o n to the ceremony  approach to a n i m a t i n g device.  and  Others,  f u n e r a r y p i e c e s i n the seventeenth  a means of c o n s o l i n g the mourners and the body and  a Kyrie trope.  are c o n s o l a t o r y e x p r e s s i o n s of f a i t h .  the most f r e q u e n t l y performed was  i n "Herr  On real  congregathe  other  congrega-  tion,  thereby p e r s o n i f y i n g themselves,  these  circumstances  congregation, they i n f a c t  were  imbued  collectively  felt  so t o speak.  with  giving  the  spirit  The of  mourners i n an  idealized  v o i c e t o p e r s o n a l sentiments  o r s h o u l d have f e l t .  Needless  which  to say, m e l d e d  with  t h e s e c o n g r e g a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e n i t e n c e and c o n s o l a t i o n was s m a l l amount of c h u r c h d o c t r i n e ; i n d e e d , c h u r c h d o c t r i n e was essence  o f these t e x t s .  in  cantional  the  themselves  from  the v e r y  Through the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the c o n g r e g a t i o n  hymns,  the  mourners  w i t h i n and one  reinforcing their  no  faith  i n the  were  persuaded  to  console  a n o t h e r from w i t h o u t , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y Church.  Dialogue Compositions funeral  music  poeia.  In  in dialogue constitute  i n which  literary  rhetoric,  d i s c u s s i o n of l i t e r a r y cal  dialogue  composers  prosopopoeia, and  with  1° Quintilian  sacrificing  the  rest  reproach,  the  we  complaint,  6 3  Institutio  6 4  the  rhetoriof  to be the Greek e q u i v a l e n t to the  course  describes  credibility  appropriate persons."  of  to  of h i s d i s c u s s i o n  may  of  his  dialogue  as  praise  discussion follows:  of  "...or  i n t r o d u c e c o n v e r s a t i o n s between  o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s , o r o f o t h e r s among t h e m s e l v e s , advice,  prosopo-  always been i n t e g r a l treatment  of  3  n  personification,  major category  musical-rhetorical  Quintilian's  i s c o n s i d e r e d by him  P_£i .£  without  d i a l o g u e has  together  ft  Latin  employed  prosopopoeia.  i s found  a second  or  pity  into  and put w o r d s o f the  mouths  of  As e x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ,  oratoria,  9. 2.  31.  I b _ i d . , 9. 2. 30. "...et n o s t r o s cum a l i i s s e r m o n e s et a l i o r u m i n t e r se c r e d i b i l i t e r i n t r o d u c i m u s , e t suadendo, obiurgando, querendo, laudando, miserando personas idoneas damus." 6 4  78  Quintilian  r e f e r s the  reader  to  t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s of i n t e r e s t not  identify  specific  namely the G o r g i a s extant  rhetorical  the  Socratic dialogues  to n o t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h  works by P l a t o , two  and  the P h a e d r u s ,  o f Plato. "*  In  6  Quintilian  does  of Plato's S o c r a t i c d i a l o g u e s ,  a r e i n f a c t among the  earliest  tracts.  B e c a u s e o f the g r e a t the f l e x i b i l i t y o f r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e , a p p r o a c h e s to i t a r e v i r t u a l l y many the  similarities dividing  b 1 ur r e d . which  lines  A t one  6 7  the  and  orator  shared between  end  l i m i t l e s s , and  elements types  between  of  o f the d i a l o g i c  rhetorically  speakers.  In  order  to  personified  characters,  evokes  sustain  a  i t i s necessary  o c c a s i o n a l l y , owing to the  dialogue  various can  approaches,  easily  multiple  real  distinction  f o r the  or  i n t o which  the d i a l o g u e  i s introduced.  s p e a k e r a l w a y s to  stronger  the be  rhetorical  Lausberg remarks that  t h e v i v i d n e s s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s can be e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h the i m i t a t i o n of the  in  fictitious  between  m i n d f u l b o t h o f t h e c h a r a c t e r b e i n g p e r s o n i f i e d and of the situation  become  spectrum i s a c t u a l dialogue  clear  the  a f f e c t i o n s through such o r a t o r i c a l  speaker's devices  as  f\ r\  pathopoeia. naturally 6 5  As  a  corollary  to  Lausberg's  statement,  it  would  f o l l o w that g r e a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n between p e r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s  Ibid.,  5. 7.  28.  S e e P l a t o , G o r g i a s , t r a n s , by W. C. H e l m b o l d ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1952) and Phaedrus, trans, by W. C. H e l m b o l d and W. G. R a b i n o w i t z ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1956). 6 6  S e e L a u s b e r g , op. c i t . , 1:409. The d e n o t a t i v e and s e m a n t i c problems of t h i s type are a l s o l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the many c u r r e n t terms used to i d e n t i f y the trope of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . 6 7  6 8  Ibid.,  1:408.  79  would  result  affections.  from The  the  o r a t o r ' s use  o t h e r extreme  form  of  oppositive  or  antithetical  o f d i a l o g u e i s i n n e r or m e d i t a t i v e  r e f l e c t i o n , w h e r e b y one e n g a g e s i n a d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s o f m e n t a l l y posing and  answering q u e s t i o n s .  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s view rhetoricians in  the  title  i n the  to  of o r a t o r i c a l  seventeenth  to M e y f a r t ' s  R h e t o r i c a : "What  6 9  d i a l o g u e was  century.  chapter  on  7  Judging  d e v i c e s , i t would seem that, to him, multiple application  colloquendi systems  through  Paedologia read  was  both  d e v i c e which sides  6 8  i n use  Ibid.,  whatsoever  d i a l o g u e was  i n the  Teutsche  the  dialogic  in this  used  conveniently allowed  any  argument.  (1518),  The  t o be a  throughout the  study  writer of  the  of  both  Erasmus works  (1518) and  which  were  to ars  s i v e d i a l o g i (1588-94) by J a c o b u s  the  widely  P r o t e s t a n t Germany i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  into  the  i n the P r o s t e s t a n t e d u c a t i o n  Colloquia  i n Germany w e l l  to  c h a p t e r to  thought merely  D i a l o g u e was  already evident early  Progymnasmata l a t i n i t a t i s were s t i l l  of  o f P e t r u s Moseallanus  throughout  demonstrated  from M e y f a r t ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e  of prosopopoeia.  a didactic  lucidly  German  To Meyfart's mind, d i a l o g u e i s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  discuss i t independently.  present  by  i s . L i k e w i s e , what d i a l o g u e i s  p r o s o p o p o e i a t h a t he makes no a t t e m p t  Baroque as  is clearly  prosopopoeia  the noble prosopopoeia  the o r a t o r s . " ^  This  adopted  The  Pontanus  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , as were  1:408.  69  . . . . H. Lausberg, Elemente der l i t e r a r i s c h e n R h e t o r i k : e i n e E i n f i i h r u n g fiir S t u d i e r e n d e der k l a s s i s c h e n , romanischen, e n g l i s c h e n und deutschen P h i l o l o g i e , 2nd ed. (Munich: Max Hueber V e r l a g , 1963), p. 144. was  ^ ^ M e y f a r t , op. c i t . , p. 38 7. "Was D i a l o g i s m u s bey den Redenern sey." 80  d i e E d l e Prosopopoeia  sey.  Item  the  classical  relevance  of  dialogues rhetorical  eighteenth-century Weisheit  Cicero  dialogue  rhetoric  Terence.  was  still  such  as  The  educational  acknowledged  Carl  mid-  a p p l i c a t i o n o f d i a l o g u e i n f u n e r a r y s e r m o n i c o r a t o r y of  the  1748).  P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h d a t e s b a c k to none o t h e r t h a n i t s f o u n d e r Luther.  in  Die  Redners (Jena,  manuals  and  Gotthelf Miiller's  des  The  of  Luther  though only  two  r e c o g n i z e d d i a l o g u e as a p o w e r f u l f u n e r a l sermons by L u t h e r  rhetorical  --  Martin  device,  have come down to us  --  and both  o f them were w r i t t e n on the d e a t h o f J o h a n n I o f Saxony i n 1532  --,  are a b l e n o n e t h e l e s s  i n the  following  to see a good example of  sermonic  dialogue  we  excerpt':  But when some keep c o m i n g w i t h the law and a r g u i n g : Now my d e a r , who knows w h e t h e r God w i l l c o n s i d e r you to be good? T h i s i s the d i s m a l d e v i l h i m s e l f . . . . T h e r e f o r e , i t was a v e r y good t h i n g t h a t happened w i t h our p r i n c e , that he was not drawn i n t o t h i s d i s p u t a t i o n , o t h e r w i s e the d e v i l would d o u b t l e s s have a s s a i l e d him: L i s t e n t o me; how have you l i v e d , how h a v e you r e i g n e d ? ...so t h a t f i n a l l y you...say: D e v i l , r a g e as much as you p l e a s e , I do not b o a s t o f my good w o r k s and v i r t u e s b e f o r e o u r L o r d God a t a l l . . . . T h e r e f o r e , d e v i l , begone w i t h both my r i g h t e o u s n e s s and my s i n . I f I have committed some s i n , go eat the d u n g . 73  Interrogatio,  W. B a r n e r , l i c h e n Grundlagen  o r the  rhetorical  question,  was  a l s o p o p u l a r l y used  B a r o c k r h e t o r i k : U n t e r s u c h u n g e n zu i h r e n g e s c h i c h t (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1970), p. 290.  72 U. S t b t z e r , Deutsche Redekunst im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert ( H a l l e : Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1962), pp. 224-25. 73 M. L u t h e r , Works, 51:240-41. "Das man a b e r v i e l m i t dem G e s e t z komen w i l und d i s p u t i r e n L i e b e r , wer w e i s , ob d i c h G o t t auch f u r f r o m halten wil? Das i s t d e r l e i d i g e t e u f f e l . . . Darumb i s t u n s e r m F u r s t e n r e c h t w o l g e s c h e h e n , das e r n i c h t j n n d i e d i s p u t a t i o n komen i s t , Der t e u f f e l s o l t j n s o n s t w o l a n g r i f f e n h a b e n : H b r e s t du, w i e h a s t du g e l e b e t , w i e h a s t du r e g i r e t ? . . . das man doch e n d l i c h . . . s a g e n mus: T e u f f e l , s e y so z o r n i g du immer w i l t , I c h riihme m e i n e g u t e w e r c k und tugent gar n i c h t f u r unserm Herr Gott... Darumb T e u f f e l , f a r e h i n , beide m i t meiner g e r e c h t i g k e i t und sunde, Habe i c h etwas gesundigt, so f r i s du den m i s t da von." (M. L u t h e r , Werke, 36:250 f f . ) Max  81  in  f u n e r a l sermons  to  introduce  dialogue  mentioned above the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n dialogic  process  whereby  the  on  a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l .  i s simply  speaker  provides  quest i o n - a n d - a n s w e r sequence, or puts f o r t h implies  an  obvious  answer.  As  an  aspect  both  parts  of  a q u e s t i o n which  of d i a l o g u e ,  the p o t e n t i a l f o r v i r t u a l l y e n d l e s s v a r i a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t examples taken  an a b s t r a c t i o n of  as  from seventeenth-century  the the  itself  interrogatio  shown below  As  has  i n three  funeral orations:  What c a n men do to one when t h e L o r d i s w i t h h i m ? a s k s the magnanimous K i n g David. I t i s y e t good to t r u s t i n t h e L o r d and n o t to r e l y on men. I t i s y e t good t o t r u s t i n t h e L o r d and n o t to r e l y on p r i n c e s .  Now what s h o u l d I s t i l l add, l a d i e s and g e n t l e m e n ? Nothing what we a l l knew a l r e a d y ; I s h o u l d o n l y g u e s s y o u r t h o u g h t s express your h e a r t .  but and  But a l a s ! Where d i d i t go? and where d i d the ornament stay? Are a r t and s c i e n c e a l s o a n n i h i l a t e d by death? No, although the b e l o v e d maiden and her d e l i c a t e body succumb, The b e a u t i f u l resonance of her v i r t u e n e v e r t h e l e s s remains i n the world. 7 6  C. S c h u l t z , Trauer= und Ehren=Rede j_ Bey dem... Leichbegangniiss j_ des H e r r n H e i n r i c h v o n R e i c h e 1 ( B r e s l a u , 1646), i n T r a u e r r e d e n des B a r o c k , ed. by M. F i i r s t e n w a l d ( W i e s b a d e n : F r a n z S t e i n e r V e r l a g , 1973), p. 54. "Was kbnnen einem d i e Menschen thuen / <wenn> der HERR m i t ihm? f r a g e t der Grossmlithige Kbnig David. Es i s t dennoch gut a u f f den HERREN v e r t r a u e n / und s i c h n i c h t v e r l a s s e n a u f f Menschen/ Es i s t dennoch gut a u f f den HERREN v e r t r a u e n / und s i c h n i c h t v e r l a s s e n a u f f Fiirsten." ^ J . L a n g e , Abdanckungs=Rede ]_ bey B e e r d i g u n g des... H e r r n J o h . C a s p a r S c h a d e n s ( B e r l i n , 1698), i n T r a u e r r e d e n , p. 357. "Was s o i l i c h nun noch h i n z u t h u n / h o c h g e s c h a t z t e Anwesende? N i c h t s / a l s was w i r a l l e schon zuvor wissen; i c h s o i l nur eure Gedancken e r r a t h e n und euren Sinn aussprechen." 7  G. Neumark, P o e t i s c h e L e i c h r e d e v o n d e r S t e r b l i c h k e i t . . . d e r F r e u l e i n W i l h e l m i n e n = E l e o n o r e n H e r z o g i n n zu S a c h s e n ( J e n a , 1653), i n T r a u e r r e d e n , p. 98. 7 6  82  Dialogue another  prior  and music had a l r e a d y enjoyed to the seventeenth  century.  As e a r l y  7 7  eleventh  c e n t u r i e s , d i a l o g u e was  tropes.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m u s i c a l  number o f p o s s i b i l i t e s the  f o r employing  s i x t e e n t h century.  polychoral  music  used  a long a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h one  i n the c o m p o s i t i o n dialogue,  of sacred  as w e l l as t h e  i t , increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y  for chori  spezzat i ,  as f i r s t  heard  i n Venice  d i a l o g u e r e c e i v e d renewed impetus i n the e a r l y y e a r s  the  aid of  continuo  and  and h i s f o l l o w e r s .  B a r o q u e w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b a s s o c o n t i n u o and t h e m o n o d i c With  during  T h i s i n c r e a s e was due t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  F l o r e n c e i n the works o f A d r i a n W i l l a e r t The  as the t e n t h and  accompaniment,  i t became  o f the style.  possible in  p e r f o r m a n c e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y and e a s i l y b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e and dialogic of  sections of polyphonic  dialogue with  the f u l l  the f u l l  works: s o l o i s t s  harmonic support  could sing  the s e c t i o n s  o f the basso c o n t i n u o ,  c h o i r c o u l d be e m p l o y e d t o p r o v i d e t h e n a r r a t i v e  while  s e c t i o n s of  the t e x t . The  seventeenth-century  m u s i c a l d i a l o g u e i n German church music was  an e s s e n t i a l f o r e r u n n e r o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c a n t a t a as e x e m p l i f i e d  Abr ach! wo i s t es h i n ? und wo i s t d i e Z i e h r g e b l i e b e n ? Wird d i e Kunst und W i s s e n s c h a f t durch den Tod auch a u f g e r i e b e n ? Nein / obschon das l i e b e F r e u l e i n und i h r z a r t e r L e i b h i n f a l l t / B l e i b e t doch d e r schbne N a c h h a l l i h r e r Tugend i n d e r Welt. D . N u t t e r and J . Whenham, "Dialogue," i n The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Mus i c and Mus i c i a n s (1980), 5? 417. See L a u s b e r g , E l e m e n t e d e r l i t e r a r i s c h e n R h e t o r i k , p. 120. L a u s b e r g m e n t i o n s t h e d i a l o g i c j e u p a r t i and the tenzone, i n a d d i t i o n to the Lehrgesprach and eclogue, i n t h e i r s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y sense. 77  &3  by t h e w o r k s o f J . S. Bach.  M u s i c a l d i a l o g u e i s d e f i n e d by M i c h a e l  P r a e t o r i u s i n t h e S y n t a g m a m u s i c u m I I I i n 1619 as "a c o n v e r s a t i o n , as when one a n s w e r s t h e q u e s t i o n p u t by a n o t h e r ,  or s i m i l a r l y  when one  79 alternates  with  another  i n chorus,"  and adds  f u r t h e r to t h i s  defini-  t i o n t h a t the Echo c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d as an aspect o f d i a l o g u e . term i s s t i l l  c u r r e n t i n the f i r s t  seen i n J . G. Walther's  The  t h i r d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y as  M u s i k a l i s c h e s Lexikon  i n 1732:  D i a l o g u e . . . i s a c o m p o s i t i o n o f a t l e a s t two v o i c e s , o r as many i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i c h a r e h e a r d a l t e r n a t e l y , and when t h e y come t o g e t h e r a t the end, make a t r i o w i t h the basso c o n t i n u o ; there are a l s o c o m p o s i t i o n s f o r 2, 3 and 4 c h o i r s , which a l t e r n a t e conversationally. O r g a n i s t s a l s o i m i t a t e t h o s e same exchanges on organs when they have more than one keyboard. ^ Most o f the e a r l y  i n f l u e n c e on the Baroque development  i n Germany was e x e r t e d d i r e c t l y the music  of G a b r i e l i  and i n d i r e c t l y by I t a l y .  and h i s s c h o o l , an e a r l y  o f the d i a l o g u e In a d d i t i o n to  seventeenth-century  i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d i a l o g u e i n Germany was  Ludovico  For an e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f s a c r e d d i a l o g u e s i n German music o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s e e H.-O. Hudemann, " D i e p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e D i a l o g k o m p o s i t i o n im 17. J a h r h u n d e r t " (Ph.D. d i s s . , K i e l U n i v e r s i t y , 1941). M. P r a e t o r i u s , Syntagma musicum, 3 v o l s . ( W o l f e n b u t t e l , 1614/1519; f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t ed. by W. G u r l i t t ; C a s s e l , B a s e l , L o n d o n , New Y o r k : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1958), 3:16. "...ein G e s p r a c h / a l s wenn e i n e r dem a n d e r n v f f b e s c h e h e n e F r a g e a n t w o r t e t / v n d e i n s vmbs a n d e r g l e i c h per Choros vmbgewechselt wird." ( T r a n s l a t i o n i n A. Kirwan-Mott, The S m a l l - S c a l e Sacred C o n c e r t a t o i n the E a r l y Seventeenth Century, 2 v o l s . [Ann Arbor: UMI Research P r e s s , 1981], 1:323.) 79  80 J . G. W a l t h e r , M u s i k a l i s c h e s L e x i k o n oder M u s i k a l i s c h e B i b l i o thek. ( L e i p z i g : W o l f f g a n g D e e r , 1732; f a c s . r e p r . ed. by R. S c h a a l , C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1953), p. 204. " D i a l o g o . . . i s t e i n e Composition wenigstens von zwo Stimmen, oder so v i e l Instrumenten, so wechse l s = w e i s e s i c h h o r e n l a s s e n , und wenn s i e am Ende zusammen kommen, m i t dem G^ Bj_ e i n T r i o machen; es g i e b t aber auch Compositiones a u f 2. 3. und 4 C h o r e , so G e s p r a c h s = w e i s e A l t e r n i r e n . Die Organisten i m i t i r e n d e r g l e i c h e n Umwechselungen auch a u f den Orgeln, wenn s i e mehr a l s e i n C l a v i e r haben."  84  Viadana's Musical  w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d Cento  d i a l o g u e was  sixteenth  century  readily  sectional  forms  textual  well-suited  lent  themselves  i n a s a c r e d c o n t e x t as was  effective doctrinal  dialectical  method  Musically,  it  to s e t t i n g Textually,  textual  composi-  dialogues,  the d i a l o g u e ,  o f t e n t h e c a s e , was  when  an e x t r e m e l y  of p r e s e n t i n g Church dogma and  stressing  points.  Dialogue  was  used  in single  c o m p o s i t i o n s by  composers  J o h a n n Hermann S c h e i n i n the s a c r e d c o l l e c t i o n Ope 11a Nova 1626) and by Samuel S c h e i d t  ££AiLLLi£j!§. ^£H£^.£i£H between  late  to the t a s t e s of Baroque Germany;  have appealed to German composers.  employed  reasons.  1602.  o f the  and c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s of m a d r i g a l and motet  t i o n , which n a t u r a l l y would  accepted by German composers  f o r m u s i c a l and  suggested a s t y l e that was  c o n c e r t i e c c l e s i a s t i c i of  allegorical  characters  1634)  Christ  the Damned (tenor and bass).  as  (Leipzig,  i n "Kommt her, i h r besegneten" from the Newe  (Halle,  the p e r s o n i f i e d  such  i n which  (bass),  the c o n v e r s a t i o n  the E l e c t  i s held  (soprano and bass) and  Other d i a l o g u e s on sacred s u b j e c t s between  include  Johann  Erasmus Kindermann's Des  Jesu C h r i s t i und siindigen Menschen heylsames  Erlosers  Gesprach (Nuremberg,  1643),  Book I of Viadana's Cento c o n c e r t i e c c l e s i a s t i c i was p u b l i s h e d by N i k o l a u s S t e i n i n F r a n k f u r t - a m - M a i n as e a r l y as 1609. The c o m p l e t e e d i t i o n was l a t e r p u b l i s h e d by S t e i n ( F r a n k f u r t , 1620). Some o f Viadana's comments from the Cento c o n c e r t i were t r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s and i n c l u d e d i n S y n t a g m a musicum I I I ( W o l f e n b i i t t e l , 1618). The c o n c e r t a t o s t y l e o f Viadana was a l s o q u i c k l y taken up by composers i n Germany, f i r s t by Gregor A i c h i n g e r i n h i s Cantiones e c c l e s i a s t i c a e t r i u m e_t q u a t u o r vocum...cum B a s s o G e n e r a l i . e_t C o n t i n u o i n usum Organistarum ( D i l l i n g e n , 1607) and by Adam Gumpeltzhaimer i n Book I I o f h i s S a c r i concentus (Augsburg, 1614). See H. F. R e d l i c h , " E a r l y Baroque Church Music," i n The Age of Humanism 1540-1630, The New Oxford H i s t o r y o f M u s i c , v o l . 4, ed. by G. Abraham ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), pp. 536-37, 544-49.  85  August i n 1661),  Pfleger's  Dialog  z w i s c h e n Adam, Eva und  and Kaspar F b r s t e r ' s  der Schlange  Congregantes P h i l i s t e i : Such  was  the  dialogi  popularity  (Hamburg,  Davidis  of  the  cum  Phi 1 i s t e o  ( D a n z i g ? , 1667).  sacred  dialogues  i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany that c o l l e c t i o n s o f d i a l o g i c  c o m p o s i t i o n s began to appear around the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y , b e g i n n i n g with  Andreas  einer  Hammerschmidt's D i a l o g i ,  glaubigen  S e e l e n (Dresden,  Ahle's G e i s t l i c h e D i a l o g e ( E r f u r t , Gespra'ch  u'ber  die Evangelien  Briegel's  Evangelische  G e i s t l i c h e Harmonien who  also  Gesprache  oder Gesprache  1645),  by  Johann  1648), H a m m e r s c h m i d t ' s (Dresden, (Gotha,  (Dresden, 1665).  contributed  followed  z w i s c h e n Gott und  significantly  1655/56),  1660)  Among  Musikalische  Wolfgang  Caspar  Christoph  Bernhard's  the n o t e w o r t h y  composers  to d i a l o g i c  and  Rudolf  works o f t h i s p e r i o d are  Johann Rosenmliller, S e b a s t i a n Kniipfer, Johann P h i l i p p K r i e g e r and Thomas Selle.  8 2  There a r e two century  funeral  and m u s i c a l .  principal  music:  one  is strictly  Compositions belonging  works f o r chorus i n which deceased,  types o f d i a l o g u e employed  are t e x t u a l l y  two  i n seventeenth-  t e x t u a l , the o t h e r to the f i r s t  both  type are  textual  strophic  or more persons, i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d i n g  personified.  A typical  the  example of the a p p l i c a r  t i o n of t h i s k i n d o f c h o r a l d i a l o g u e c a n be f o u n d i n a work by S e v e r u s G a s t o r i u s (1646-82) o f Jena w r i t t e n f o r the f u n e r a l i n 1679 o f a c e r t a i n Herr  Wilken  von  Berglasen.  (See  Appendix,  p.  198)  We  know f o r  For a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f the sacred music d i a l o g u e i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany, see E. Noack, " D i a l o g , " D i e M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und G e g e n w a r t (1954), 3, c o l s . 393T99. See a l s o , K i r w a n M o t t , op. c i t . , 1:323-46. 83 dess...  S. G a s t o r i u s , K l a g - und T r a u e r - G e s p r a c h bey L e i c h - B e g a n g n u s s H e r r n W i l k e n v o n B e r g l a s e n . . . den 18. A u g u s t i des 1 6 7 9 s t e n 86  c e r t a i n t h a t t h e work i s w r i t t e n as a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n the m o t h e r and h e r dead 8 are  son not because  labelled  h e a d i n g "Sohn."  of the music,  " M u t t e r " and The  each  but because  v e r s e s 1, 3, 5, 7 and  of the r e m a i n i n g v e r s e s b e a r s  music, p r i n t e d  i n score format, i s w r i t t e n  s i m p l e , f o u r - p a r t (SATB) homphonic s t y l e w i t h basso c o n t i n u e and unchanged f o r each o f the e i g h t v e r s e s .  the in a  i s used  The t e x t , on the o t h e r hand, i s  a c l e a r e x a m p l e o f t h e a p p r o a c h to f u n e r a r y d i a l o g u e s o f the L u t h e r a n church i n which the  text  the deceased  and  the mourners are r e p r e s e n t e d .  to Gastorius's' c o m p o s i t i o n i s t y p i c a l  of  d i a l o g u e , i n both form and c o n t e n t , i t w i l l  in  f u l l and t o comment b r i e f l y  of t h i s  Because  particular  kind  be of use t o g i v e i t here  on i t .  Mutter 0 T r a u e r = F a l l ! Der mich f a s t gantz e n t s e e l e t / Ach! was empfind i c h doch v o r b i t t e r n Schmertz! Muss denn a l s o mein Leben seyn gequalet / Und angsten s i c h mein Jammer=volles H e r t z ; Mein T r o s t und Stab / mein gantz V e r l a n g e n / Ist durch den Tod d a h i n gegangen.  Mother Oh death that a l l but k i l l s me, A l a s ! Yet what I f e e l o f b i t t e r pain! Must my l i f e then be thus tormented, And my wretched h e a r t be afraid; My comfort and s t a f f , my complete d e s i r e , Has, through death, departed this l i f e .  Sohn Was hbr i c h doch f u r Weh= und Jammer=Klagen / Dass mich der Tod e n t r i s s e n von der Welt / Was wo It i h r Euch umb mich so h e f f t i g plagen / Bedenckt / dass es dem hb'chsten so g e f a l l t / Ich b i n i n Himmel aufgenommen /  Son What k i n d of l a m e n t a t i o n and w a i l i n g do I hear, That death t e a r s me from the world, Why torment y o u r s e l v e s so p a s s i o n a t e l y f o r me, Remember that i t p l e a s e s the Most High, I have been taken up i n t o heaven,  Jahres•.. i n e i n e r A r i e g e s e t z e t ( J e n a : Johann Werther, B a y e r i s c h e S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , S l g . Her 0 238/5.  87  1679).  Munich,  Zu a l i e n Ausserwehlten Frommen.  to a l l the e l e c t e d  Mutter Ach wie so u n v e r h o f f t w i r d nun entzogen M i r meine Lust und gantze Zuversicht! Es w a l l e t mir mein H e r t z wie Meeres=Wogen / S o l i d i e s e r H i n t r i t t mich betruben n i c h t ? Mein H e r t z / ach Schmertz! i s t weg g e r i s s e n Hat d i e s e Welt v e r l a s s e n miissen.  Mother A l a s how unexpectedly now are my j o y and a l l c o n f i d e n c e s t r i p p e d from me! I t rocks my heart l i k e ocean waves, Should not t h i s departure g r i e v e me? My h e a r t , o g r i e f ! has been t o r n away, has had to leave t h i s w o r l d .  Sohn Die Welt l e g i c h durch d i e s e n T r i t t Zuru'kke / Und a l l e s d i s s / was S t e r b l i c h e betrubt / Wer es bedenckt / missgbnnt mir n i c h t mein Gliikke / Wenn er mich noch f u r andern hat g e l i e b t ; Der Tausch i s t gut / und noch wohl g e t r o f f e n / Die Seele f i n d e t den Himmel offen.  Son With t h i s step, I lay a s i d e the world, and a l l t h i s that g r i e v e s mortals, Who bears i t i n mind does not envy me my l u c k , I f he s t i l l loved me f o r another; The exchange i s good and opportune, The s o u l f i n d s heaven open.  Mutter Mein G e i s t thut n i c h t s / a l s s t e t i g s e h n l i c h klagen / Ich steh gantz einsam und verlassen hier / » Was s o i l i c h thun / a l s s e u f f z e n / k l a g l i c h sagen: G e f a l i e n i s t d i e Krone / meine Zier; Ach r i n n e t / f l i e s s e t meine Zehren! Weil niemand meinen Schmertz kan wehren.  Mother My s p i r i t does n o t h i n g but c o n s t a n t l y l o n g i n g l y lament, I stand here completely alone and abandoned, What should I do but s i g h [and] p i t e o u s l y say: F a l l e n i s the crown, my delight; A l a s , run, flow my t e a r s !  Sohn Gehabt Euch wohl / und s t i l l e t eure Thranen / Ich b i n j a wo man ewig s i c h e r bleibt / Es i s t umsonst a l l / euer s e h n l i c h e s Sehnen / B e f r i e d g e t euch / und d i e s e s  Son Farewell,  Because no one pain.  and  can  pious.  subdue  my  stay your t e a r s ,  I am where one s t a y s s a f e forever, I t i s a l l i n v a i n , your ardent longing, Be c o n t e n t , and b e l i e v e t h i s 88  feste glaubt: Die / so i n C h r i s t o s e e l i g sterben / Die kbnnen nimmermehr verderben.  firmly: Those who d i e b l e s s e d l y Christ Can never p e r i s h .  Mutter  Mother So then, sleep w e l l you sunken bones, U n t i l the Redeemer on Judgement Day C a l l s you from the b l a c k c r y p t to the heavenly community, To him i n h i s heavenly c i t a d e l  o  So ruht denn wohl i h r e i n g e s e n k t e n Beine / B i s s der E r l b s e r euch aus schwartzer Grufft / Am j i i n s t e n Tag zur h i m m l i s c h e n Gemeine / In seine Himmels=Burg zu s i c h berufft: Wo Jesus s e l b s t d i e Himmels=Sonne / B e s t r a h l t d i e Frommen s t e t s mit Wonne.  Where Jesus h i m s e l f , the heavenly sun, C o n s t a n t l y shines w i t h b l i s s upon the pious.  Die Seele l e b ' i n ungekrankten Freuden / Sie i s t von a l l e r Angst und Schmertzen l o s s / Sie f i i h l e t n i c h t / was wir noch mu'ssen l e i d e n / Sie ruhet s a n f f t bey Gott i n Abrams=Schoss: Wir w o l l e n e i n s t nach d i e s e n Leben / Ihr ewig da G e s e l l s c h a f t gebe n. At the in  the  beginning  l o s s of her verses  assurances heaven.  6,  that  his  death  soul  lives  composition,  the  the  sorrow and  mother  was  the  is  grieving  accepts  and  through  that  his  with  the  consolation  personified  in  life.  mother  89  her  soul  the the  dialogue  son  son's was  in  argu-  accordingly  knowledge  that  her  In the performance of t h i s  work at the f u n e r a l , the r e a l m o u r n e r s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o themselves  laments  t h e o l o g i c a l or d o c t r i n a l  mother of  eternal  mother  to the p e r s o n i f i e d  consoled  God's w i l l  personified  s a l v a t i o n and  in undiminished  It i s f r e e of a l l f e a r and sorrow, It does not f e e l what we must s t i l l suffer, It r e s t s i n peace w i t h God i n the lap of Abraham: One day a f t e r t h i s l i f e , we will Be i t s company t h e r e f o r eternity.  a C h r i s t i a n to r e f u t e  type,  achieved  The  T h r o u g h the t e x t a s c r i b e d  and  this  abandons her  the  4  Unable as  ments of  son has  2,  son.  of  in  of  the  dialogue  associate and  would  c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y be  a f f e c t e d by the s o l a c e o f f e r e d by these arguments.  The number of p e r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d this  t y p e i s not r e s t r i c t e d ,  Gespra'chs-Ode which was Frau D i e t z s c h i n . ^ des of 3  W i t t i b e r s " (lament the deceased  and  4  personified  storbene"  (the  after  to  the  v e r s e s are w r i t t e n as the  identified  blessed  f o r comfort.  "Eltern"  The  ( p a r e n t s ) as  i n the  deceased),  composition  appears  in  they,  Subsequently  "Klage husband  in  their  The v o i c e of  as "Die  the  of a  t e x t of v e r s e s  to console t h e i r son.  addresses her g r i e f - s t r i c k e n h u s b a n d . text  funeral  of the widower) i n which the p e r s o n i f i e d  c a p a c i t y , attempt  wife,  the sermon at the  two  c a l l s upon h i s parents  i n e f f e c t u a l wordly the  performed  is attributed  of  as c a n be s e e n i n Adam K r i e g e r ' s T r a u e r -  Here, the f i r s t  4  in dialogues  fifth  Selig=Ververse  identified  and  i n the  s i m p l y as the " W i t t i b e r " (the s u g g e s t i o n of l a m e n t a t i o n h a v i n g been  n o t a b l y removed), the widower b i d s h i s w i f e "gute Nacht",  acknowledging  that  that death i s  d e s p a i r i n the  but a n e c e s s a r y  presence  of death  i s purposeless  and  s t e p towards the a t t a i n m e n t  of e t e r n a l  were a b l e  greater d i s t i n c t i o n  between  p e r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s o f d i a l o g i c f u n e r a l m u s i c by e m p l o y i n g  either  • Composers  to h i g h l i g h t  r e a l or i m p l i e d p o l y c h o r a l e f f e c t s . the  music  were  still  represented  the  Although chorally  a p p l i c a t i o n o f o p p o s i n g b o d i e s o f sound was suggesting works,  m u l t i p l e c h a r a c t e r s than  where  persons  the  were o n l y t e x t u a l l y  life.  the p e r s o n s d e p i c t e d i n by  several voices,  the  a more e f f e c t i v e means o f  chorus  alone  in  cantional-like  identified.  As  an example of  A . K r i e g e r , T r a u e r - G e s p r a c h s - O d e w e l c h e Bey der... F r a u D i e t z s c h i n B e e r d i g u n g j_ Nach g e h a l t e n e r Le i c h e n = P r e d i g t l_ \vi d e r Got t e s = Acker= K i r c h e j_ zum S a l v a t o r genant f_ abgesungen worden von Joh. Mich. •^E^iH^ ^ a n t ^ Cob. ( C o b u r g : J o h a n n C o n r a d M b n c h , F u r s t l i c h e Buchdruckerei, 1667). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Ee 700-695. 8 4  90  this  type of c o m p o s i t i o n ,  one c a n c i t e "Ach G o t t w i e i s t m e i n H e r t z  b e t r i i b t " composed by the E i s e n a c h c a n t o r 1656  Theodor Schuchardt (1601-77) i n  f o r t h e f u n e r a l o f Johann H e i n r i c h W e i s s e , who d i e d a t twenty-two Q r  weeks o f age. voice the  choirs,  father,  (See Appendix, pp. 199-200) I n t h i s work f o r two f o u r the chorus p r i m u s i d e n t i f i e d  as the "Quereus"  represents  and t h e chorus secundus c a l l e d the "Respondens" p e r s o n i f i e s  the i n f a n t son. Schuchardt a p p r o p r i a t e l y a s s i g n s  the t e x t o f the f a t h e r  to the f i r s t c h o i r c o m p r i s e d o f l o w e r v o i c e s (ATTB), and the t e x t o f the r e s p o n d i n g son i s g i v e n  to a c h o i r o f higher  t h i s work, the two c h o i r s p e r f o r m laments h i s l o s s , while doctrine  section  i n alternation.  Following  l a b e l l e d "Conelusio"  which  i s derived  I n the C o n c l u s i o  can see, at t h i s  towards r h e t o r i c a l assent w i t h musically contesting  "father"  point,  church  v a i n l y placed  musically  on  musical from t h e  the two c h o i r s  alter-  c a d e n c e o f e a c h t e x t u a l and  c l a u s e of the chorus secundus being We  The b e r e f t  him f o r the value  n a t e a t much s h o r t e r i n t e r v a l s , w i t h t h e  primus.  Throughout  t h e s i x t h v e r s e i s an a d d i t i o n a l  m a t e r i a l o f the chorus secundus.  musical  (SSAB).  the "son" comforts h i s f a t h e r w i t h  and f u r t h e r m o r e c h a s t i s e s  worldly things.  voices  q u i e t l y e c h o e d by c h o r u s  the father  t h e son.  Instead  gradually  moving  o f t e x t u a l l y and  the p o i n t w i t h h i s h i s p e r s o n i f i e d son, the f a t h e r  b e g i n s t o e c h o h i s w o r d s and m u s i c .  Assent i s u l t i m a t e l y achieved i n  t h i s work as t h e p e r s o n i f i e d f a t h e r and son a r e u n i t e d  t e x t u a l l y ("wenn  85  T. Schuchardt, C h r i s t l i c h e s Gesprach e i n e s betru'bten V a t e r s m i t seinem a b g e l e i b t e n Sbhnlein. A u f f den... H i n t r i t t . . . Johann-Henrici, des... H e r r n M. J o h a n n i s Weissen... S b h n l e i n s Welches... anno 1656... ehtschlaffen. M i t 8. S t i m m e n z u 2 u n t e r s c h i e d e n e n C h o r e n g e s e t z t ( G o t h a : J o h a n n M i c h a e l S c h a l l , 1656). B e r l i n , D e u t s c h e S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 2 i n Ee 700-3882.  91  wir  zusamen kommen") and  composition, to  musically  when, f o r t h e f i r s t  the two c h o i r s j o i n f o r c e s and there i s a change from  a joyous t r i p l e Similar  i n approach  to Schuchardt's c o m p o s i t i o n , the Q u e d l i n b u r g e r  who  Appendix,  died  pp.  11  September  201-03)  (SATTB) which,  Wagner has  1671  and was  further  29 December. for a  or even  three c h o i r s .  first  and  As  choirs.  second tenor, and  (See  five-part  a c c o r d i n g to the composer's i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  the p i e c e arranged f o r two  i s made up o f a l t o ,  buried  Wagner's c o m p o s i t i o n i s w r i t t e n  e f f e c t i v e l y performed by two score,  w i r d mein Herz" goes  i n i t s a t t e m p t a c c u r a t e l y t o p e r s o n i f y t h e l a t e F r a u H e d w i g nee  Busche,  choir  duple  metre.  M i c h a e l Wagner's p o l y c h o r a l "Ach! Ach! wie still  t i m e i n the  could  i t exists  i n the  The chorus  primus  bass v o i c e s ,  the cantus  p a r t b e a r i n g Wagner's i n s t r u c t i o n s : " T a c e t h. V. u s q ; ad V e r s . 6." chorus  primus,  performs  presumably  the f i r s t  woman i s mourned. chorus  secundus,  two  representing  the  v e r s e s o f the t e x t  disconsolate  i n which  be  The  husband,  the d e a t h o f t h e  The c o m f o r t i n g t e x t o f v e r s e s 3 and 4, sung by t h e  i s intended  s o l a c e t o her husband.  to r e p r e s e n t the deceased  A l t h o u g h the music  woman  offering  i s performed c h o r a l l y , Wagner  M. Wagner, A r i a i n D i a l o g o i.e. Traur= und Trost=Gesprach j_ A u f f s e l i g e s Abs t e r b e n Der Hoch=Ede l g e b o r n e n j_ und mij: Chr i s t=Ade l i c h e n Tugenden begabten Frauen j_ Frauen Hedwig [_ Gebornen dem Busche ]_ aus dem Hause Ippenburg j_ u^ Des hoch=Edelgebornen Gestrengen und Vesten H e r r n j_ Hn. C h r i s t i a n W i l h e l m Hahnen j_ ^ \u_ Wei land Hertz= E h e g e l i e b t e s t e n j_ Nachdem D i e s e l b e am 11. S e p t e m b r . Anno 1671. n a c h M i t t a g e urn 2^ Uhr s e l i g i n dem HERRN e n t s c h l a f f e n ]_ und d a r a u f f den 29. Novembris s e l b i g e n Jahres m i t Hoch=Adelicher j_ a n s e h n l i c h s t e r und v o l c k r e i c h e r B e g l e i t u n g i n d i e K i r c h e Seeburg b e y g e s e t z t wurde ji_ A n g e s t e l l t und a u f f g e s e t z e t von M. GEORGIO SICELIO, P a s t o r e i n B e s s e n s t e t / Und a u f f Begehren i n einem fu'nf f s t i m m i g e n C o n t r a p . S^_ e y l f e r t i g s t v e r s e t z e t / und n a c h Be l i e b e n a u f f 2j_ o d e r 3j_ C h o r e a n z u s t e l l e n e i n g e r i c h t e t von MICHAELE WAGNERO, M u s i c o und C a n t o r e Ord. in Q u e d l i n b u r g ( L e i p z i g : J . B a u e r , 1672). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 2 i n Ee 658 4°.  92  comes c l o s e r  to l e n d i n g f e m i n i n e  of the dead woman by more draws the labelling again  by  lamentation,  t h e "vox  the this  chorus time  to his- p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  the Cantus v o i c e to the c h o i r  performers' a t t e n t i o n  i t as  sung  adding  characteristics  to the  principalis." primus  with  importance  Verses the  c o n t i n u e s i n t h e s e v e r s e s . We  further-  of t h i s p a r t by  5 through  tacit  r e p r e s e n t i n g the e n t i r e  and  soprano  7 are  once  part.  The  f a m i l y of  mourners,  see i n t h e s e v e r s e s where t h e m u l t i p l e  c h o i r s c o u l d p o s s i b l y h a v e been e m p l o y e d : Wagner s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u s e s three d i f f e r e n t children,  t e x t s the b e t t e r  and b r o t h e r s and  sisters  to r e p r e s e n t t h e m o u r n i n g as they address  Der grimme Tod hat s i c h unser Mutter Und meiner l i e b s t e H e r t z unser Schwester As  the mourners are e v e n t u a l l y persuaded  their  sadness  to t r i p l e forces  with  metre.  joy, the music The  text  c o m p o s i t i o n concludes  as the v a r i o u s p e r s o n i f i e d  v e r s e 11, and f i n a l l y  and  figures  the  husband,  deceased:  gerochen gebrochen.  by  the deceased  to r e p l a c e  undergo a change from w i t h the two sing  first  choirs  t o one  duple  joining  another  in  i n a c o l l e c t i v e s u p p l i c a t i o n to J e s u s a t t h e end  of verse. 12:  11.  waret waret i h r bey mir Ach waren / ach |waren wir a l l e z u g l e i c h e / In JEsus versiissetem h i m l i s c h e n Reiche.  wir sie zugleiche / 12. H i l f f JEsu dass a l l e B a l d komen zum ewigen h i m l i s c h e Reiche. In 1651 composition  Simon B r a n c o v i u s ,  cantor i n Raniss,  f o r nine v o i c e s and basso  93  composed  a polychoral  c o n t i n u o on the death of Frau Agna  Elisabeth  von  Breitenbauch.  (See Appendix,  pp.  204-14)  The  p o i n t s o u t on t h e t i t l e page of t h e w o r k t h a t t h e w o r k was for  two  choirs,  w r i t t e n "...  as i f the Most Noble deeply d i s t r e s s e d Herr von  bauch i n the f i r s t c h o i r ,  composer  Breiten-  i n the second however the Most Noble F r a u  von  88  B r e i t e n b a u c h , on p a r t i n g , as i t were, t h u s the widower, with  the f i r s t  accompanying  choir i s written for Alto,  basso  continuo.  i s made up o f S o p r a n o I and Appropriate  to a r e a l i s t i c  husband and  the deceased  the lower  spoke...."  The  II, Alto,  second Tenor,  Representing  Tenor and  Bass v o i c e s  p o r t r a y i n g the dead Lady B a s s and b a s s o  continue  i f a b s t r a c t m u s i c a l d e p i c t i o n of the widowed  wife,  the two  choirs  emphasize,  respectively,  and h i g h e r v o i c e types.  Brancovius  d i d compose a soprano  part  f o r the  comments on i t at the b e g i n n i n g of the p a r t book as  chorus  secundus  and  follow:  The f i r s t c h o i r , when i t a l t e r n a t e s w i t h the second c h o i r , always proceeds w i t h o u t the D i s c a n t . At the end, however, the f o l l o w i n g D i s c a n t i s added to i t , and not w i t h o u t s p e c i a l E f f e c t ; f o r such a S. B r a n c o v i u s , M u s i c a l i s c h e C h r i s t l i c h e E i n b i l d u n g e i n e s r e c h t b e w e g l i c h e n C l a g = und T r o s t = G e s p r a c h s V f f das f r l i e z e i t i g e doch s e l i g e Absterben Der Weyland Hoch E d e l g e b o h r n e n E h r e n und V i e 1 T u g e n d r e i c h e n F r a w e n / Agnae E l i s a b e t h e n v o n B r e i t e n b a u c h j_ G e b o h r n e n v o n V i p p a c h j_ Des auch Hoch Edelgebornen [_ Gestrengen und Mannvesten Herrn ]_ M e l c h i o r n von Breitenbauchs u f f Raniss und B r a n d e n s t e i n j_ e t c . Churf 1. D u r c h l . zu Sachsen W o h l v o r g e s a t z t e n Ober = S t e u r E i n n e h m e r s d e r Land= und T r a n c k = S t e u r i^n d e n A f f e c u r i r t e n A e m p t e r n H e r t z g e l i e b t e n gewesenen Haussfrawen g e r i c h t e t / Vnd Bey dero A d e l i c h e n L e i c h e = P r o c e s s i o n , so den 21. J u l i i Anno 1651. a n g e s t e l l e t wurde j_ u f f zwey Chor j_ a l s wenn im e r s t e n C h o r d e r Hoch Ade 1. h o c h b e t r u b t e H e r r von B r e i t e n b a u c h j_ lm a n d e r n a b e r di^e H^ A d l . F r a w von B r e i t e n b a u c h zum A b s c h i e d e g l e i c h s a m a l s o r e d e t e n j_ z u s i n g e n / Hochgedachten A d e l i c h e n W o h l s e l i g e n Matron zu s c h u l d i g e n l e t z t e n E h r e n = G e d a c h t n i i s s Mi_t 9j_ S t i m m e n c o m p o n i r e t und numehro u f f Begehren neben beygefligten Basso Continuo zum Druck aussgea n t w o r t e t j_ Von Simone B r a n c o v i o Gub. Lusato, Cantorn zu R a n i s s . (Jena: Caspar Freyschmied, 1651). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , H i r s c h I I I 666. 1  i  88  "... u f f zwey Chor / a l s wenn im e r s t e n Chor d e r Hoch A d e l . hochbetrubte Herr von B r e i t e n b a u c h / Iiri andern aber d i e H. A d l . Fraw von B r e i t e n b a u c h zum Abschiede g l e i c h s a m a l s o redeten...."  94  D i s c a n t c a n a l s o r e p r e s e n t , as i t were, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e M o s t N o b l e L o r d o f B r e i t e n b a u c h , o t h e r a t t e n d i n g Most N o b l e mourners .... The  composer  goes  further  sopranos of the chorus primus  to say t h a t ,  they might at l e a s t f o l l o w along. the text  Breitenbauch now  bears  t o keep t h e  from becoming bored because o f the long  p e r i o d o f s i l e n c e , he i n c l u d e d t h e f u l l  enters,  i n order  such  As e a c h o f t h e p e r s o n i f y i n g  headings  speaks here...," ^ which  as "The M o s t  Noble  choirs  Lord of  i s f o l l o w e d by "The M o s t  9  b l e s s e d l y d i s e m b o d i e d Lady  t e x t o f t h e work f o r them t h a t  Noble,  o f B r e i t e n b a u c h t h u s r e s p o n d s , so t o  91 speak, t o her... d i s t r e s s e d w i d o w e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way...."  In the  second entrance o f the chorus secundus, the p e r s o n i f i e d woman "renounces this  transitory  world,"  92  and c o n c l u d e s w i t h  a "Valediction  to the  93 g a t h e r i n g o f Most N o b l e  friends."  choirs addressing a p e t i t i o n  The work c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e two  to God.  The next work to be d i s c u s s e d i s the second o f two works w r i t t e n i n 1672 by Nuremberg o r g a n i s t H e i n r i c h Schwemmer f o r the f u n e r a l o f A m a l i a , H e r r i n von S t u b e n b e r g .  94  (See Appendix,  pp. 215-22)  The deceased woman  89 I b i d . "Der e r s t e Chor / wenn e r m i t den andern Chor abwechselt / g e h e t immer ohne D i s c a n t , zum B e s c h l u s s a b e r kbmmet n a c h f o l g e n d e r D i s c a n t dazu / und n i c h t ohne sondern E f f e c t , den s o l c h e r D i s c a n t neben dem H o c h A d e l . H e r r n v o n B r e i t e n b a u c h auch a n d e r e H o c h A d e l . a n g e h b r i g e B e t r u b t e g l e i c h s a m b r e p r a e s e n t i r e n kan...." 90 Ibid. "Der Hoch A d e l . Herr von Breutenbauch redet hier...." 91 Ibid. " D i e Hoch a d e l i c h e numehr s e e l , a b g e l e i b t e F r . v o n B r e u t t e n b a u c h i n / r e s p o n d i r e t g l e i c h s a m b Ihrem... b e t r i i b t e n H e r r e n Witber / n a c h f o l g e n d e r m a s s e n also...." 92 " . . . v e r n i c h t e t d i e s e v e r g a n g l i c h e Welt,..."  93 . . . V a l e d i c t i o n an d i e s a m b t l i c h e Hoch A d e l . F r e u n d s c h a f f t . " 94 H. Schwemmer,  Zwey Klag= und A b s c h i e d s = L i e d e r j_ liber den L e i c h =  95  is  personified  accurate previously  and  in* this vivid  composition  i n a manner which approaches a more  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased  mentioned  works.  The  work begins  f o r f o u r v i o l e da b r a c c i a and b a s s o throughout  the work as a u n i f y i n g  voices, lamenting  the  three-part choir's f i r s t interlude,  by one  i n the  five-part  instrumental r i t o r n e l l o . work by  "sonata"  four l i n e s of text  and  The  the a l t o ,  l o s s of t h e i r beloved Amalia.  members  tenor  accompaniment  and  F o l l o w i n g the  a brief  instrumental  the soprano e n t e r s i n a c l e a r p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the  woman, s i n g i n g c o m f o r t i n g l y to the ensemble.  a  seen  continuo, which i n f a c t f u n c t i o n s  of the c o n g r e g a t i o n are r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s bass  with  than  o f the  deceased  instrumental  Whether Schwemmer intended t h i s p r o s o p o p o e i a l t e x t to be sung  or s e v e r a l s o p r a n o s  cannot  be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m  the m u s i c ,  but  there can be no doubt t h a t the composer intended to i n v e s t the t e x t w i t h m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s which would most c l o s e l y living  correspond  to the v o i c e of a  Amalia.  Whereas Schwemmer's a p p l i c a t i o n o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  prosopopoeia  f i t t i n g l y d e p i c t e d the v o i c e s of the c o n g r e g a t i o n of m o u r n e r s and deceased, music funeral  K a s p a r F b r k e l r a t h , o r g a n i s t a t St M a r i e n  to an a l l e g o r i c a l of S i b y l l a  the  i n Flensburg, set  d i a l o g u e i n a work composed  i n 1671  f o r the  U r s u l a , Duchess of Brunswick, LUneburg, etc. "' 9  (See  Text und T i t u l j_ Der Hoch=Wolgebornen Frauen j_ Frauen Amaliae j_ H e r r i n v o n S ^ u b e n b e r g j_ G e b o r n e r H e r r i n v o n L i e c h t e n s t e i n j_ und Murau u. a u f g e s e z e t v o n T o b i a F r a n c k e n : i.n d_ie N o t e n a b e r v e r s e z e t j_ und bey; H o c h a n s e h n l i c h e r Beerdigung m u s i c i r e t von H e i n r i c h Schwemmer /_ D i r e c t . Mus. (Nuremberg: C. Gerhard, 1665). Nuremberg, S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , W i l l I I 1121.4°. K. F b r k e l r a t h , C h r i^s__t I i c h e s S t e r b - L i e d . . . der... S i b y l l a e U r s u l a e . . . v e r f a s s e t von H e n i n g o P e t e r s e n . . . und Anno 1672 den 6_^ F e b r . gesungen und m u s i c i r e t (Hamburg: Georg Rebenlein, 1672). Wolfenbiittel,  96  A p p e n d i x , pp. 223-26) siegende  angels).  group  identified  More so t h a n  application  as "Der E n g e l  i n F b r k e l r a t h ' s c o m p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s as  as p o s s i b l e the a c t u a l v o i c e - t y p e s of a l l the c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g The p a r t o f J e s u s , as was c u s t o m a r y , i s sung by a b a s s ,  the v o i c e o f the woman's s o u l i s a s s i g n e d i s given  to a f o u r - p a r t chorus  c o m p o s i t i o n , Jesus her  acceptance  to t r i p l e , into  Chor" ( t h e c h o i r o f  i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned composition, the  of prosopopoeia  personified.  choir  p l a c e between Jesus, "Die  S e e l e " ( t h e v i c t o r i o u s s o u l ) -- i . e . , t h e l a t e S i b y l l a U r s u l a  -- and a t h i r d  closely  The d i a l o g u e t a k e s  to a soprano,  (SATB).  and the a n g e l i c  In the course  o f f e r s e n t r y i n t o heaven to the deceased  o f the o f f e r ,  of the  woman.  Upon  the metre o f the music changes from  and the a n g e l i c c h o i r e n t e r s welcoming the v i c t o r i o u s  duple spirit  heaven. The  overall  design  of this  funeral  composition  by F b r k e l r a t h  d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h a t of the o t h e r d i a l o g i c works m e n t i o n e d thus  far.  First,  the c h a r a c t e r s represented i n the music are wholly  a l l e g o r i c a l , that i s , a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the mourners i s n o t i c e a b l y absent.  Secondly,  as a c o n s e q u e n c e t o t h i s , t h e t e n o r o f t h e t e x t had  n e c e s s a r i l y t o assume a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t rath's c o m p o s i t i o n of  the text  upon  ( R e v e l a t i o n s 3:5).  i s i n fact which  a musical  literary direction.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or m a g n i f i c a t i o n  the subsequent  funeral  What the c o n g r e g a t i o n heard  Herzog-August-Bibliothek,  Gn. 4 ° 1592  Fbrkel-  sermon  was  was a most p e r s u a s i v e ,  (2). •  96  based  •  In t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f u n e r a l c e r e m o n y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the p u b l i s h e d L e i c h e n p r e d i g t o f 1672, t h e u n i d e n t i f i e d a u t h o r w r i t e s t h a t F b r k e l r a t h ' s m u s i c was p e r f o r m e d , f o l l o w e d by t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e Duchess's b e l o v e d " H e r r J e s u C h r i s t wahr M e n s c h und G o t t , " and t h e  97  almost  dramatic  r e a l i z a t i o n of a narrative b i b l i c a l  case o f a composer e x p l o i t i n g The nature,  the Augenkultur  t e x t s of the d i a l o g i c comparable  f u n e r a l sermons.  in their  an exemplary  o f the p e r i o d .  compositions  intent  text  are c l e a r l y  to t h e ^ p r i n c i p l e s  didactic in  v o i c e d i n Baroque  C h r i s t o p h Weissenborn s t a t e s near the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s  P o l i t i s c h e r L e i c h = R e d n e r o f 1707 t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e Abdankung, a type o f f u n e r a r y o r a t o r y , was t o p r a i s e the deceased lament the death o f the deceased mourners ( T r o s t , ;  attending  consolatio),  the s e r v i c e  (Lob, l a u d a t i o ) , t o  (Klage, l a m e n t a t i o ) , to c o n s o l e the and  to thank  the c o n g r e g a t i o n f o r  (Danksagung, g r a t i a r u m a c t i o ) .  9 7  Honouring the 98  deceased and  and l a m e n t i n g h i s o r h e r d e a t h a r e i n e f f e c t t h e same a c t ,  thanking  formality basic  the c o n g r e g a t i o n  than  elements  for their  of necessity. of d i a l o g i c  attendance  the mourners,  communication  with  funeral  music  and s e r m o n i c  i n one s e n s e ,  the h e r e a f t e r  are given  i n that  a direct  they,  by t h e dead.  At the b e g i n n i n g  compositions,  personified  mourners  sermon.  97  oratory are  Through p r o s o p o p e i a l  p e r s o n a l l y addressed the  more o f  Thus, we a r e a b l e t o s e e t h a t t h e two  e s s e n t i a l l y the same: l a m e n t a t i o n and c o n s o l a t i o n . dialogues  i s a matter  give  the  line  living,  of are  o f the d i a l o g i c voice  in  music  I b i d . , p. 4.  .  .  .  C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher d i e p r a c t i c a b e l s t e n Kunst=Reguln von der I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n d e r e r nach der h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n Abdanckungen bey o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer=Solennien z u r Befbrderung f e i n e r O r a t o r i s c h e n C o l l e g i o r u m durch d e u t l i c h e Exempel e r l e u t e r t ( J e n a : H e i n r i c h C h r i s t o p h C r b k e r , 1707), p. 6. 98 See a l s o M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , " T h e o r i e und F u n k t i o n d e r B a r o c k a b dankung," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. by Rudolf Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), p. 379.  98  to  emotions  mourners. reduced their  which  would  I n the course  to i t s essence,  sorrow  i n heaven.  the emotional  o f the c o m p o s i t i o n , the s o u l  and t o r e p l a c e  deceased, according happily  reflect  persuades  i t with  state  like  o f the r e a l  a funeral  the s u r v i v o r s  I t was hoped by the composers o f the t e x t  method can s c a r c e l y be imagined  feel  vicariously  Solo  Arias A third  —  Compositions  for  solo  with  voice  of this  basso c o n t i n u o  type were most accompaniment,  s o l o v o i c e w i t h an accompanying i n s t r u m e n t a l There a r e s e v e r a l The f i r s t  the mourners. the  and a more themselves t o  type o f f u n e r a l music i n which prosopopoeia was employed i s  solo aria.  type.  would a l l o w  possible is  frequently  ensemble.  approaches t o p r o s o p o p o e i a l  characterized  1670.^  written  less frequently f o r  settings of  by the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f one o f  One example i n which one o f the mourners i s p e r s o n f i e d i s  s e c o n d o f two w o r k s f o r C a n t u s and c o n t i n u o w r i t t e n  Schwemmer  and music  consoled.  the  this  that the  t e s t i m o n y , was s a f e l y and  t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e m o u r n e r s i n t h i s way persuasive  to abandon  j o y i n the knowledge  to h i s o r h e r p e r s o n a l  sermon  f o r the  funeral  (See A p p e n d i x ,  o f Johann  p. 227)  Sigmund  In t h i s  by H e i n r i c h  H a l l e r von H a l l e r s t e i n  composition,  "Nun i s t a l l e s  iiberstanden," which was performed d i r e c t l y a f t e r the f u n e r a l sermon, t e x t was sung as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f H a l l e r ' s s o n . tone of the text  i s much the same as that o f other  in  The  the  consolatory  works that have been  99 H. Schwemmer, L e t z t e r Z u r u f f j_ w e l c h e r nach g e h a l t e n e r Predigt a b g e s u n g e n und a u f g e s e z z t worden durch Obennanten [ i . e . H e i n r i c h Schwemmer] (Nuremberg: M. Endter, 1670). Zwickau, R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k , M. 105, l j ; Nuremberg, S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , W i l l V I I , 1 3 0 8 . 4 ° . 99  examined:  the son b i d s t h e d e c e a s e d  congregation  with  words  of  farewell  consolation.  t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g the  Because  we  are  given  no  i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e age o f the son, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know e x a c t l y what degree of r e a l i s m Schwemmer has if  hoped  H a l l e r ' s son p o r t r a y e d i n the work was  to achieve still  in this  setting:  a young c h i l d  at the  t i m e o f J o h a n n Sigmund's d e a t h , Schwemmer's c h o i c e o f a s o p r a n o v o i c e w o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d to the a c c u r a c y o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; i f n o t , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p r o s o p o p o e i a elements of number and  w o u l d have been l i m i t e d  to the  text.  A s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n another work by Schwemmer  i s an a r i a from  1661  (See A p p e n d i x , p. 228) continuo,  the c o m p o s i t i o n  followed  by  beginning  the  "Hie  f o r the f u n e r a l of M a r i a Magdalena W i n c k l e r . * ^ Written  viol  c o n s o r t and  the  soprano.  The  eleven  verses  it  As  of  text,  i c h uberha'ufft mit Schmertzen," c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  d i s p l a y the g r a d u a l a f f e c t i v e change i n the mourner from consolation.  basso  begins w i t h a b r i e f i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t i o n  entry of  lieg  f o r soprano,  i n the case  of Schwemmer's "Nun  i s not p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e  i s t alles  w h e t h e r or n o t he was  t h e work a g r e a t e r s e n s e  lamentation  libers tand en,"  attempting  to  infuse  into  selecting  a high  voice.  S i n c e the p e r s o n i f y i n g v o i c e p a r t i s not a s c r i b e d to any  person  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  o f r e a l i s m by  to  a c t i n g r a t h e r as a k i n d of a b s t r a c t i o n o f a s i n g l e  even of a group o f mourners,  the  rhetorical  effect  of  the  or  prosopopoeia  *^H. Schwemmer, T e x t - L i e d l i b e r den se 1 i g s t e n H i n t r i t t und bey C h r i s t l i c h e r B e s t a t t u n g der E d l e n und T u g e n d r e i c h s t e n Frauen Marien=Magdalenen j_ gebohrnen PELLERINNEN / Des E d l e n und Vesten Junckherrn Bened i c t Winckler... Eh=Schatzes... ( L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661). Nuremberg, S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , W i l l I I 1208.4°.  100  is  not d i m i n i s h e d . Although  the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  o f m o u r n e r s i n t h e s o l o a r i a was  common and p e r s u a s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased s o l o a r i a s where a mourner was personifying  the  deceased.  i n w h i c h the deceased where  the q u a l i t y  by  One  Gottfried  Appendix, father  The We  w r i t t e n as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  them f r o m  verses of text that he  school  the t i t l e  to t h a t of the  deceased  portrayed h i s father  rector  i s found i n a work  i n Neustadt.*^  (See  f u n e r a l o f Brechthold's  o f the work t h a t  i t was  in fact  o f B r e c h t h o l d ' s f a t h e r as he " t a k e s h i s  his remaining  i s a s h o r t note  f o r s o l o v o i c e and  compositions  t e x t u a l l y by a s o l o s i n g e r , b u t  w r i t t e n f o r the  the grave."  t i o n both to h i m s e l f and tion  the  a r i a was  from  by  o r a l t o v o i c e i n c o r p o r a t e d t o p e r s o n i f y an  know from  world  As i n  p o s s i b l e means o f  is characterized  example o f t h i s k i n d o f prosopopoeia  p. 229)  leave of t h i s  first  of v o i c e does not correspond  Ernst Brechthold,  i n 1668.  addresses  d e p i c t e d , t h e r e are two  The  prosopopoeia,  more f r e q u e n t l y employed.  is personified  -- f o r e x a m p l e , a s o p r a n o a d u l t male.  was  a  wife  Appended  and  children,  i n t h i s work as a way  ( u n f i g u r e d ) basso  m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia,  thus  t o t h e end o f the n i n e  i n which the composer informs  to the g r i e v i n g f a m i l y .  and  the reader  of o f f e r i n g consola-  Although  this  composi-  c o n t i n u o i s a c l e a r example o f  the composer, f o r some reason, chose  to  G. E. B r e c h t h o l d , Trauer=Musica, Der S e l i g = v e r s t o r b e n e H. Johann B r e c h t h o l d von seinem h i n t e r = l a s s e n e n Eheweib und K i n d e r n den Abschied aus d i e s e r Wel_£ Bi . .e_t / und ^ i f . g l e i c h s a m aus dem G r a b e aj. so_ a n r e d e t (Coburg: Johann Conrad Mbnch, 1668). Gotha, F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , RIII 10(32). m  i  m  n o  Ibid, "...von s e i n e m h i n t e r = l a s s e n e n E h e w e i b und K i n d e r n den Abschied aus d i e s e r Welt nimmet / und s i e g l e i c h s a m aus dem Grabe a l s o anredet." 101  write  the v o c a l  line  f o r a soprano  voice.  Why  would  d e l i b e r a t e l y p o r t r a y h i s f a t h e r w i t h a soprano v o i c e ? no  Brechthold  Perhaps there  was  a v a i l a b l e a d u l t male at the time t o s i n g the a r i a , or perhaps f i n d i n g  a voice  to correspond  consideration  to that  o f the deceased  f o r the composer.  A third  was n o t an  and p l a u s i b l e  a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t t h e v o c a l l i n e , though w r i t t e n could  have been  While t h i s would  sung  latter  certainly  comfortably  an o c t a v e  important  performance  f o r soprano v o i c e ,  l o w e r by a t e n o r  voice.  a l t e r n a t i v e may n o t have been t h e c a s e a t a l l ,  make m u s i c a l  and r h e t o r i c a l  sense,  i t  and such a p r o p o s i -  t i o n c a n be f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e , as we s h a l l  now  see. In  the same year  that  Brechthold  a n o t h e r composer, i d e n t i f i e d wrote a s o l o a r i a  published  h i s composition,  i n t h e p r i n t o n l y by t h e i n i t i a l s  1668, I. F.,  f o r the f u n e r a l o f Dr Johann V a l e n t i n Majer o f C r a i l s -  . 1 0 3  heim.  (See Appendix,  habe das T h r a n e n t h a l and  basso continuo.  the v o c a l  p. 229)  der Welt" i s o s t e n s i b l y w r i t t e n I t i s noted  voice  l i n e c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d by " C a n t u s s i v e T e n o r s o l u s . "  One  t o h a v e sung t h e p r o s o p o p o e i a 1 t e x t i f t h e  performance  sought  deceased p h y s i c i a n as an animate s p i r i t . by  f o r soprano  that  i n this  i n the piece  composition, "Ich  by I. F., h o w e v e r ,  would e x p e c t a tenor v o i c e musicians  As was Brechthold's  I. F. i s n o t a n o m a l o u s  f o r that  to p o r t r a y  r e a l i s t i c a l l y the  Assuming that  the c o m p o s i t i o n  t i m e -- i n d e e d , i t i s t y p i c a l o f  103 I. F., M u s i c Dess s e e l i g v e r s t o r b e n e n H e r r n . D. M a j e r s l e t z t e V a l e d i c t i o n £3o n a c h g e h a l t e n e r L e i c h = P r e d i g t in d e r S t a t t k i r c h e n zu C r a i l s h e i m d u r c h e i n e n D i s c a n t i s t e n von der Orge1 abgesungen worden (Ansbach: Johann Hornung, 1668). Erlangen, U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k , T h l . XIX, 9 4 Qu. (X 307). a  102  vocal  and i n s t r u m e n t a l  would  be r e a s o n a b l e  possibility  s u b s t i t u t i o n as p r a c t i s e d i n the Baroque  t o assume  that  this  alternative  works o f t h i s type i n the seventeenth  German composers  of f u n e r a l music g e n e r a l l y  texts.  The l a t e  Anthonius  an anonymously w r i t t e n  mein J e s u meine Wonne."^ originally written parts  a final  Heinrich  occasional tion,  first  farewell.  i s identified  1684 e n t i t l e d  "Nimm  The c o m p o s i t i o n was (the  of the e i g h t  string verses,  the temporal  A second example of the funerary  solo a r i a i n  i s accurately Thei1  i n 1648.*^^  "Gedenkt w i e mich der Tod" (no.  continuo,  i s personified  and then b i d s  Siebender  music p u b l i s h e d  mindful  to p r o s o p o -  of three v i o l s  In the course  p e t i t i o n s Jesus  o f the deceased  Albert's  from  p. 230)  a consort  a r e l o s t ) and basso c o n t i n u e  which the v o i c e in  (See Appendix,  4  music  f o r instance,  funeral composition  f o r tenor v o i c e ,  the p e r s o n i f i e d Schott world  Schott,  century.  appeared t o be  o f t h e s e x o f t h e d e c e a s e d when s e t t i n g s o l o v o c a l  in  performance  was l i k e w i s e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p e r f o r m e r s o f B r e c h t h o l d ' s  work and t o other  poeial  it  represented  der Arien,  can be found  an a n t h o l o g y  One o f the a r i a s i n t h i s 81), w r i t t e n  as the " L e t z e r  rede  Einer  of  collec-  f o r soprano and basso vormals  s t o l t z e n und  Anon., Gewbhnlicher Wahl=Spruch oder Himmels=Verlangen j_ Dess... Herrn Anthonius S c h o t t ]_ I h r e r C h u r f u r s t l . Durch. zu Sachsen w i i r c k l i c h e n Geheimden Raths /... nunmehro s e e l i g e n Andenckens j_ Bey dessen hochans e h n l i c h e n und v o l c k r e i c h e n B e e r d i g u n g . . . I n e i n e r T r a u e r = O d e j_ v o n E i n e m M i t b e t r i i b t e n e n t w o r f f e n und d a s e l b s t a b g e s u n g e n j_ am Tage d e r Beysetzung J_ den 2. Decembris, 1684 (Regensburg: Paul D a l n s t e i n e r s s e e l . W i t t . , c a . 1685). R e g e n s b u r g , B i s c h b f l i c h e Z e n t r a l b i b l i o t h e k (Proske-r M u s i k b i b l i o t h e k ) , An. 84. ^"*H. A l b e r t , S i e b e n d e r T h e i 1 d e r A r i e n , e t 1 i c h e r t h e i I s g e i s t l i c h e r : s o n d e r l i c h zum T r o s t i n a l l e r h a n d C r e u t z und W i d e r w e r t i g k e i t , w i e auch z u r E r w e c k u n g s e e l i g e n S t e r b e n s L u s t ; t e i l s w e l t l i c h e r ; zu geziemenden Ehren-Freuden und Keuscher L i e b e dienender L i e d e r , zu singen g e s e t z e t . (Kbnigsberg: 1648). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , G. 62. b.  103  und  gleich  jetzt  Characteristic  sterbenden  of Albert  w r i t t e n more i n a s p i r i t seen  i n the opening  Jungfrawen."^^  (See A p p e n d i x ,  i n many o f t h e s e c o m p o s i t i o n s , of admonition  p. 230)  the a r i a i s  t h a n o f c o n s o l a t i o n , as c a n be  lines:  Gedenkt w i e mich der Tod So s c h e u s s l i c h hat gemacht Ich tanze nur v o r an i h r werdet f o l g e n mussen. C o n s i d e r how hideous death has made me I o n l y lead o f f the dance you w i l l have t o f o l l o w . Interestingly,  on the word "tanze," there i s a change  i n the score  from duple to t r i p l e metre i n a r a r e m u s i c a l r e f e r e n c e i n Baroque f u n e r al  music  to the T o t e n t a n z . ^  Hans J o a c h i m that A l b e r t ' s  7  Moser, i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f H e i n r i c h Schutz, w r i t e s  prosopopoeial compositions  o f the more g r a p h i c type "were  108 often  i n r a t h e r bad t a s t e "  Albert's  setting  of Robert  -- p o s s i b l y  R o b e r t h i n ' s "Wie l i e g  the Siebender T h e i l d e r A r i e n . origin,  "...last  address  a r i a s as  i c h h i e ! " , no. 32 i n  T h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , presumably o f f u n e r a r y  i s d e s c r i b e d as the "Rede e i n e r v e r s t o r b e n e n  ^ Ibid. 6  i n r e f e r e n c e t o such  of a once proud  J u n g f r a u auss  dem  and now dead maiden."  ^ S e e R. Hammerstein. Tanz und Musik des Todes: d i e m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n T o t e n t a n z e und i h r N a c h l e b e n ( B e r n und M u n i c h : F r a n c k e V e r l a g , 1980). A l t h o u g h Hammerstein has r a t h e r l i t t l e t o say about the Totent a n z i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , he does m e n t i o n t h a t r e f e r e n c e s i n f u n e r a l s e r m o n s t o t h e dance were common (p. 14), and t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, the Totentanz was most o f t e n d e p i c t e d m u s i c a l l y through t r i p l e m e t r e (p. 4 9 ) . 7  108 See H. J . Moser, H e i n r i c h Schutz: H i s L i f e and Work, t r a n s , from 2nd ed. by C. F. P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959), p. 487.  104  Grabe,"  109-  animate  i n which  haven  demonstrates  the  personified  f o r worms. greater  In  sympathy  these than  corpse  becomes  i n s t a n c e s at Moser  for  a decaying  least,  the  van  world  but  Ingen  view  of  P r o t e s t a n t Germans i n the seventeenth century: f o r the Baroque poet, the theological  ends,  in this  case e f f e c t i v e  admonition,  justified  the  p o e t i c means: But that i s e x a c t l y what the poets wanted to achieve! In o r d e r t o work at any c o s t , no method was too c r a s s , no p l a c e too v i l e . The Baroque helped i t s e l f to a l l t h i n g s , animate as w e l l as i n a n i m a t e , to e x p l a i n them e m b l e m a t i c a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , man must s u f f e r a t every stage of h i s l i f e . For the Memento m o r i , he becomes a l l the more u s e f u l as a d y i n g o r d e a d man: h i s f i n a l hours, h i s f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e and h i s decaying, p u t r e f i e d body p r o v i d e t h i s genre w i t h t h e most e f f e c t i v e means of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . . . . He p a i d no a t t e n t i o n to taboos; a l s o , he was p r o b a b l y unaware o f any. In poeial  the same way  that g r a p h i c extremes pervaded much o f the  funerary l i t e r a t u r e  i n the seventeenth  century,  prosopo-  composers,  too,  used every a r t i s t i c  means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l t o p o r t r a y as v i v i d l y  possible  presence o f the  the animate  as  deceased.  P h y s i c a l P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the Dead The  last  type o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  prosopopoeia  to be c o n s i d e r e d  h e r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e x t u a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e c e a s e d ,  by  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased  by a s o l o v o i c e , and by an added p h y s i c a l  dimension  displacement  through  ^^"Address  the s p a t i a l  o f a dead maiden from  of  the p e r s o n i f y i n g  voices.  the grave."  ^^Van Ingen, op. c i t . , p. 299. "Aber das w o l l t e n d i e D i c h t e r gerade e r r e i c h e n ! Um zu w i r k e n um j e d e n P r e i s , war k e i n M i t t e l zu k r ass, k e i n O r t zu g a r s t i g . Das B a r o c k e b e d i e n t e s i c h a l l e r D i n g e , l e b e n d i g e r wie l e b l o s e r , s i e s i n n b i l d l i c h auszudeuten. Dazu muss auch der Mensch, auf a l i e n S t u f e n s e i n e s Lebens, h e r h a l t e n . Fiir das Memento m o r i w i r d e r e r s t r e c h t a l s Sterbender oder a l s T o t e r brauchbar: Seine l e t z t e n Stunden, s e i n e l e t z t e R u h e s t a t t e und s e i n z e r f a l l e n e r , v e r f a u l t e r Kbrper fuhren d i e s e r Gattung d i e e f f e k t r e i c h s t e n S t e i g e r u n g s m i t t e l zu.... Um Tabus kummerte er s i c h n i c h t ; e r kannte s i e wohl auch n i c h t . " 105  The two w o r k s to be e x a m i n e d h e r e a r e H e i n r i c h S c h i i t z ' s Exequien (SWV 279-81) of  Musikalische  1635 and t h r e e f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n s  written  in  1693 by M i c h a e l Wiedemann. The M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien of  H e i n r i c h Schutz  most s t r i k i n g i n s t a n c e s of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g the o c c a s i o n  for the  recounted,  has  and the  musicological  work i t s e l f  scrutiny.***  prosopopoeia.  b e e n the  subject  Strasbourg)  and  after  He was an e d u c a t e d able  of  his  father's  ruler,  well  Lobenstein,  travelled,  often  considerable  death),  man ( h a v i n g s t u d i e d  the  The c i r c u l a r  M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien are  Plauen, G r e t z , C r a n i c h f e l d , Gera, S c h l e i z ,  b o r n 6 J u l y 1572.  one of  Count H e i n r i c h I I von Reuss (named  b e c a u s e he was b o r n t h r e e months over  represents  Posthumus Sovereign etc.,  rhetoric  was in  diplomatically  See R. G e r b e r , "Die ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n ' v o n H e i n r i c h S c h u t z , " M u s i k und K i r c h e 7 ( 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 9 6 - 3 1 0 ; H. J . M o s e r , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : H i s L i f e and Work, t r a n s , f r o m 2nd r e v . ed. by C. F . P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1959; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , C a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1936), p p . 1 5 5 - 5 9 , 4 8 5 - 8 8 ; F . S c h b n e i c h , "Zum Aufbau des G l o r i a - T e i l s i n Schutzens M u s i k a l i s c h e n E x e q u i e n , " Musik und K i r c h e 20 ( 1 9 5 0 ) : 1 8 2 - 9 0 ; G. A . T r u m p f f , "Die ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n ' von H e i n r i c h Schutz," Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Musik 123 (1962): 12023; G. M i t t r i n g , " T o t e n d i e n s t und Chr i s t u s p r e d i g t : zum T e x t d e r M u s i k a l i s c h e n E x e q u i e n von H e i n r i c h S c h u t z , " i n M u s i k a l s L o b g e s a n g : Festschrift fu'r W i l h e l n r Ehmann, e d . G. M i t t r i n g and G. R b d d i n g ( D a r m s t a d t : T o n k u n s t V e r l a g K a r l M e r s e b u r g e r , 1964), pp. 4 3 - 6 3 ; H. R e i c h , "Handels Trauer-Hymne und d i e M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien von Schutz," M u s i k und K i r c h e 36 (1966): 7 4 - 7 8 ; 0. B r o d d e , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : Weg und Werk, ( B e r l i n : E v a n g e l i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1972), pp. 1 4 4 - 5 4 ; G. G r a u l i c h , ed., H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. Op. 7., S t u t t g a r t e r Schu'tz-Ausgabe, v o l . 8 (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: H a n s s l e r V e r l a g , 1973), pp. v i i - x l i i ; R. H e n n i n g , " Z u r T e x t f r a g e d e r ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n ' v o n H e i n r i c h Schutz," S a g i t t a r i u s 4 (1973): 44-57; M. G r e g o r - D e l l i n , H e i n r i c h Schutz: s e i n L e b e n , s e i n W e r k , s e i n e Z e i t ( M u n i c h , Z u r i c h : R. P i p e r GmbH & C o . , 1984), pp. 215-19; S. K b h l e r , H e i n r i c h Schutz: Anmerkungen zu Leben und Werk ( L e i p z i g : Deutscher V e r l a g fiir Musik, 1985), pp. 143-46.  106  skilled,  and  socially  education  and  the a r t s , he h i m s e l f  singer  capable  thems...."  of  singing  Heinrich  servant's  adroit.  A  "the  Posthumus's  was  generous  a proficient  bass love  patron  i n many  secondarily  f o r t h e i r domestic  of music was  skills.**  4  lowly  Musikanten,**^ and  would  act  church,  motets  such that  times  an-  even h i s  Though an a r i s t o c r a t ,  at  as  and  and  q u a l i t i e s and  not h e s i t a t e to c r o s s s e v e r a l c l a s s b a r r i e r s to partake with  the  instrumentalist  fine  were h i r e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r m u s i c a l  of  only  he  did  i n music-making  Capellmeister,  to  1 1 6  use  h i s own  regards  the  term, during latter,  c h u r c h s e r v i c e s a t the c o u r t c h a p e l .  Christoph  H e i n r i c h Posthumus t h a t " i t was when e v e r y t h i n g  R i c h t e r mentions  i n the o b s e q u i e s  a p a r t i c u l a r source of joy to His  went s m o o t h l y and  As  i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n i n the  for  Grace church  112  H. R. Jung, " E i n unbekanntes Gutachten von H e i n r i c h Schutz iiber d i e N e u o r d n u n g d e r Hof-, S c h u l - und S t a d t m u s i k i n G e r a , " B e i t r a g e z u r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 4 (1962): 19. 113  G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. v i i i , xxv ( t r a n s , o f G r a u l i c h ' s p r e f a c e by Derek M c C u l l o c h ) . " . . . v i e l e n k u n s t l i c h e n a n m u t h i g e n M o t e t t e n und C o n c e r t e n den Bass...." ** Ibid. 4  **^Schiitz p r a i s e s t h i s aspect of H e i n r i c h Posthumus's c h a r a c t e r i n the e l e g y w h i c h p r e f a c e s the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Musikalische Exequien of 1636. A c c o r d i n g to the "Kursachsische L a n d e s k l e i d e r o r d n u n g " o f 1612, the a r i s t o c r a c y b e l o n g e d t o the f i r s t c l a s s , w h e r e a s c o u r t M u s i k a n t e n were d e s i g n a t e d as members o f the f i f t h c l a s s . See D. K r i c k e b e r g , Das p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e Kantorat im 17. Jahrhundert: S t u d i e n zum Amt des deutschen Kantors, B e r l i n e r Studien zur M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t , ed. by A. A d r i o , v o l . 6 ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g M e r s e b u r g e r , 1965), pp. 79-80; and K b h l e r , op. c i t . , p. 45. ** C. R i c h t e r , Gott vber a l l e s . Das i s t : Frommer C h r i s t e n l i e b s t e r Schatz... Bey des Wey l a n d Hoch wo l g e b o r n e n H e r r n j_ H e r r n H e i n r i c h d e s s Jiingern... L e i c h P r e d i g t . . . g e z e i g t ( G e r a , [ 1636]). C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. i x , xxv ( t r a n s . ) . 6  107  and  at services."'''''  7  Because Schutz was b o r n i n K b s t r i t z i n the area b i r t h a s u b j e c t o f t h e Reuss f a m i l y . sonal  He e n j o y e d a l o n g - s t a n d i n g  and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  spanned some twenty years  of Gera, he was by  H e i n r i c h Posthumus,  up to the Count's death i n 1635.  During  perwhich that  p e r i o d , S c h u t z h a d c a u s e t o meet w i t h H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s on numerous occasions, 1617,  their  f i r s t d o c u m e n t e d e n c o u n t e r t a k i n g p l a c e as e a r l y as  when Schutz was e n t r u s t e d  with  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the m u s i c a l 118  affairs  i n the c o u r t ,  s c h o o l and town o f Gera.  As d i d a l l c o n s c i e n t i o u s P r o t e s t a n t s many, H e i n r i c h Posthumus spent t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n for death.  i n s even t e e n t h - c en t u r y G e r -  time i n p r i v a t e c o n t e m p l a t i o n  prepara119 t i o n s : he chose the t e x t s f o r the three f u n e r a l and b u r i a l sermons, s e l e c t e d a s s o r t e d c h o r a l e s t o be sung d u r i n g t h e s e r v i c e s , and had an active  hand  Nor d i d he n e g l e c t  and s p i r i -  i n the r e c o r d i n g o f h i s c u r r i c u l u m  the m a t e r i a l  v i t a e which was read a t  12 0 the  funeral.  Part  of these  preparations  also  included the  I b i d . , " E i n e W u n d e r - h e r t z 1 i c h e F r e w d war es I h r Gn. wann es a l l e s i n der K i r c h e n vnd beym G o t t e s d i e n s t / f e i n o r d e n t l i c h vnd z i e r l i c h / vnd a l s o zugieng." 7  118 The a c t u a l t i e s between the Schutz and Reuss f a m i l i e s date back at l e a s t another two years, a t which time Schu'tz's b r o t h e r , Georg, was i n s t a l l e d as t u t o r t o H e i n r i c h Posthumus's s o n s . See H. R. J u n g , " E i n n e u a u f g e f u n d e n e s G u t a c h t e n v o n H e i n r i c h S c h u t z aus dem J a h r e 1617," A r c h i v f i i r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 18 (1961): 241-47; and J u n g , " E i n unbek a n n t e s G u t a c h t e n , " op. c i t . F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on S c h i i t z ' s p e r s o n a l and f a m i l i a l t i e s t o G e r a , s e e E. P. K r e t s c h m a r , " S c h u t z i n G e r a , " i n F e s t s c h r i f t z u r E h r u n g v o n H e i n r i c h S c h u t z , ed. by G. K r a f t (Weimar: B u c h d r u c k e r e i Uschmann, 1954), pp. 57-60. 119 M o s e r , op. c i t . , p. 156. 12 0 omitted  G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. v i i i . (Mention of the "Lebenslauf" i s by M c C u l l o c h from the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 108  clandestine painted  construction  of a copper  coffin,  which  he t h e n had  and e n g r a v e d -- t h e f o u r s i d e s and t o p o f t h e l i d , and t h e two  s i d e s o f the case -- w i t h a s e l e c t i o n o f b i b l i c a l his  choice.  his  death, i t s existence  and c h o r a l e  verses of  Although the c o f f i n had been prepared a y e a r i n advance o f was k e p t s e c r e t by H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s  until  122 just  a few days be fo r e he d i e d .  used v a r i o u s l y  The i n s c r i b e d v e r s e s w e r e i n t u r n  i n t h e s e r m o n s and a l s o s e r v e d a s t h e t e x t s  Schutz s e t the music.  to which  The t e x t s were e m p l o y e d i n such a manner as t o  g i v e a s e n s e o f c o h e s i o n to a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e c e r e m o n y : f o r i n s t a n c e , the t e x t f r o m P s a l m ich  73:25-26, " H E r r / wenn i c h n u r d i c h habe / so f r a g  nichts  nach  H i m m e l vnd E r d e n , " w h i c h  right-hand  side  of the c o f f i n ,  was e n g r a v e d  s e r v e d as t h e b i b l i c a l  on t h e u p p e r text  f o r the  sermon at the b u r i a l s e r v i c e on 4 February 1636, was quoted by Schutz i n the f i r s t  s e c t i o n o f the M u s i k a 1 i s c h e E x e q u i e n ( C o n c e r t i i i Form e i n e r  t e u t s c h e n Begra'bnis-Missa) performed for  b e f o r e the sermon, and was the t e x t  t h e e i g h t - v o i c e m o t e t (SWV 280) w h i c h was p e r f o r m e d  immediately  f o l l o w i n g the sermon. Conflicting Musikalische Richter's  reports  as to who commissioned  the music  E x e q u i e n and when i t was a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n .  of the  Appended t o  s e r m o n i s a l i s t i n g o f t h e s c r i p t u r a l v e r s e s and hymn t e x t s  which had been chosen and  exist  the t i t l e these,  f o r the d e c o r a t i o n  o f the appendix  o f H e i n r i c h Posthumus's  coffin,  says i n p a r t :  a l s o at the behest of o f T h e i r  Most Noble  Graces,  Her Lady-  121 But see G r e g o r - D e l l i n , op. c i t . , p. 216. G r e g o r - D e l l m suggests t h a t t h e c o f f i n was made o f p e w t e r , c o n t r a r y t o C h r i s t o p h R i c h t e r ' s statement i n the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t . 12 2 C. R i c h t e r , C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. i x .  109  s h i p t h e C o u n t e s s Widow and h e r two s o n s , were s e t t o m u s i c and sung by t h e c h o i r t o t h e o r g a n b e f o r e t h e Sermon a t t h e s o l e m n b u r i a l service.... On t h e o t h e r  hand, on t h e t i t l e  Musikalische  Exequien  Schutz  page o f t h e p u b l i s h e d  writes  l a t e Grace, at repeated request  that  during  v e r s i o n o f the  the work was "...sung f o r H i s his lifetime  to a d i s c r e e t l y  10/  registrated at  organ."  h i s word.  confidence  In t h i s  First  case  o f a l l , Schutz already  protestant  had been taken  i t was  no s e c r e t  practices  of the v a r i o u s that  Heinrich  a n d b y h i s own  musical  personal  i n order.  T h i r d l y , there  appears  changing  the f a c t s , f o r he had l i t t l e  Dresden,  he a l r e a d y  the wife  possessed  tried  to gain.  t h a t i t had i n f a c t a l r e a d y  construction  driven  by  f o r Schutz's  As H o f k a p e l l m e i s t e r musical  in  appointment i n Posthumus's  music f o r the f u n e r a l , unaware  been p r e p a r e d ; h e r husband, a f t e r a l l , had  s u c c e s s f u l l y kept h e r i n the dark w i t h r e g a r d and  i n Gera.  to h i s v a l e d i c t i o n  I t i s possible Heinrich  t o commission Schutz to w r i t e  given  inclination for  t o be no r e a s o n  the most e n v i a b l e  most p r e s t i g i o u s German c o u r t .  was  Schutz  i n t o the  affairs  Posthumus  o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o assure that a l l arrangments r e l e v a n t were  to take  o f H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s as e a r l y as 1617, when he was  charge of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n Secondly,  i t i s most tempting  o f the c o f f i n .  to t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r  I t i s conceivable  too t h a t R i c h t e r , i n  123 R i c h t e r , op. c i t . C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. i x , x x v i (trans), " d i e auch V f f Gna'dige A n o r d n u n g D e r e r H o c h W o l g e b o r n e n / I h r Gn. h i n t e r l a s s e n e n G r a f f l i c h e n Fraw W i t t b e n / v n d H e r r e n Sbhne i n d i e Music v e r s e t z e t / vnd bey dero... a n g e s t a l t e r H e r r l i c h e n L e i c h b e y s e t z u n g v o r d e r P r e d i g t i n d i e O r g e l / nach I h r W o l s e l . Gn. h i e b e v o r n m e h r m a l s w i e d e r h o l t e r a n l e i t u n g f i g u r a l i t e r abgesungen werden s o l l e n . " 10/  See f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. l i . T r a n s , i n G r a u l i c h , i b i d . , p. x x v i i . "...ihrer w o l s e h l i g e n Gnaden / bey dero l e b z e i t e n w i e d e r h o l t e n b e g e h r e n nach / i n e i n e s t i l l e v e r d a c k t e O r g e l a n g e s t e l l e t vnd abgesungen worden." 110  writing  the  sermon  understandably,  and  assumed  the  appendix  that  the  to  i t , wrongly,  members  of  Heinrich  but  Posthumus's  immediate f a m i l y were the o n l y ones i n a p o s i t i o n to make the arrangements methodical  f o r the  music,  that  Schutz  unkown, t h o u g h i t was  1635,  composed  when he  i n the  c e d i n g the death There has  i n t h e summer o r f a l l o f 1635.  is  In  r e s i d e n t t h e r e f r o m e a r l y December 1633  returned  to Germany b e c a u s e  I t seems most l i k e l y ,  period  f o l l o w i n g the  death  of  then,  the  1633  until  death  4  of  his  t h a t the music  was  of Schutz's  of H e i n r i c h Posthumus on 3 December  mother and  pre-  1635.  been a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of d i s c u s s i o n about the degree  obsequies  remark s u g g e s t i n g himself  and  the M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n  w h i c h H e i n r i c h Posthumus s u p e r v i s e d the  musical  conscientious  had b e e n named R o y a l D a n i s h K a p e l l m e i s t e r a t the C o u r t o f K i n g  mother, Euphrosyne.  to  composed  probably  C h r i s t i a n IV, and was May  the  necessary  Count.  When i t was  Schutz  underestimating  quite  or,  indeed,  i f he  t h a t t h e r e was  i n the o r d i n a n c e  to  was  composition  actively  of  Schutz's  i n v o l v e d at a l l .  o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e i s made by  the p e r f o r m a n c e  r e f e r e n c e to the c o n f l a t i o n of c h o r a l e t e x t s and  o f t h e work.  One  Schutz  Here,  in  modes, he w r i t e s :  S i n c e I h a v e had t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n one body v e r s e s o f German hymns i n a v a r i e t y o f modes, I hope d i s c e r n i n g m u s i c i a n s will f o r g i v e me, where I have had on o c c a s i o n to t r a n s g r e s s the N i n t h Mode i n o r d e r to f o l l o w these hymn tunes.  H. Schutz, " A b s o n d e r l i c h V e r z e i c h n u s deren i n diesem W e r c k l e i n b e f i n d l i c h e n M u s i c a l i s c h e n Sache...," f a c s i m i l e i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. l x i i , x x i v ( t r a n s . ) " w e i l d i e G e s e t z l e i n d e r T e u t s c h e n Kirchen Gesange von a l l e r h a n d T o n i s , i c h i n e i n Corpus zusammen b r i n g e n s o l l e n / h o f f e i c h v e r s t a n d i g e Mus i c i m i r v e r z e i h e n w e r d e n / wo i c h aus den S c h r a n c k e n N o n i T o n i b i s s w e i l e n a u s s s c h w e i f f e n vnd s o l c h e n K i r c h e n Melodeyen nachgehen miissen."  Ill  Presumably Schutz would h i s m u s i c had  he had  not  have f e l t  the need to w r i t e  an a p o l o g i a  f r e e r e i g n o f the c o m p o s i t i o n : he  instead  have w r i t t e n the work d i f f e r e n t l y , f o r s u r e l y these modal offended  h i s ear  dresses. scribed  as much as  Furthermore, on  Heinrich  consider  the  Posthumus's c o f f i n ,  and  in turn, incorporated Musikalische  t h o s e o f the " v e r s t a n d i g e  i f we  Exequien, we  see  that  then,  that  order  the o r d e r i n g of the  3  clear,  represented  on  The on  the  2 February  coffin  of the t e x t  terestingly was  the and  at which  h e l d by  time  the  Subsequently,  embalmed, a p r a c t i c e ,  We  were b o r n i n t o  then l a i d  Pastor  the  coffin  Bartholomaus  and  1636.  Schwarz  body were  the  trans-  f a m i l y c r y p t was  lo-  e x e c u t e d on 4 F e b r u a r y , i n -  c e r t a i n l y i n t e n t i o n a l l y , the b u r i a l  day  of  Simeon.  It  ceremony t h a t S c h u t z p e r s o n a l l y d i -  the performance of the M u s i k a l i s c h e must b e a r i n m i n d how  the  in state in  numerous i n s c r i p t i o n s on  f i n a l b u r i a l c e r e m o n y was  i n the c o u r s e of t h i s l a t t e r  rected  provided  to set to music.  common among t h o s e who  sermons was  were r e f e r r e d to.  and  coffin.  O s t e r s t e i n , where i t remained u n t i l February  three  1636,  the  f o r him  f e r r e d t o the P f a r r k i r c h e St J o h a n n i s , where the cated,  the  t e x t s i n Schutz's  E x e q u i e n , o r a t l e a s t the Count  c o u l d a f f o r d i t . H i s body was  of S c h l o s s of  Schutz,  on  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  first  i n which  Schutz e i t h e r c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h H e i n r i c h Posthumus  Upon h i s death, H e i n r i c h Posthumus's body was  the chapel  t e x t s as i n -  is  Schutz w i t h a s p e c i f i c o r d e r i n g  u p p e r c l a s s e s and  ad-  It  the t e x t of the M u s i k a l i s c h e  as was  M u s i c i " he  each o f t h e s e t e x t s i n t o the c o m p o s i t i o n o f  Mill - - b r e v i s a r e c o r r e s p o n d e n t l y 8  would  transgressions  l a y o u t o f the the  for  Exequien.  h e a v i l y the d e a t h of H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s  w e i g h e d upon the m o u r n e r s among the f a m i l y and  112  friends.  From the  de-  s c r i p t i o n s we have o f R e u s s , he a p p e a r s sociable  person  sudden absence  t o have been a g r e g a r i o u s and  l o v e d by h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s  -- i n every  sense  and s u b j e c t s , and h i s  but the c o r p o r e a l -- was sure t o have  b e e n d e e p l y f e l t as a p e r s o n a l l o s s by t h o s e a t t h e G e r a C o u r t .  These  d o u b t l e s s i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s were g i v e n l i t t l e c h a n c e t o a b a t e , f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y and c o u r t i e r s c o u l d h a r d l y p u t o u t o f m i n d t h e f a c t that  throughout  the Christmas  the c o u r t c h a p e l . lasted  season  t h e Count's body was i n s t a t e i n  During the l e n g t h y p e r i o d of o f f i c i a l mourning, which  at l e a s t  the two months between H e i n r i c h Posthumus's death and  eventual b u r i a l ,  the f a m i l y c o n s t a n t l y would have been reminded of t h e i r  l o s s , and t h e y no d o u b t w o u l d have r e m i n i s c e d i n t h e m e a n t i m e a b o u t h a p p i e r days.  Since v i g i l s  such  as those p r a c t i s e d  t i o n had been denounced by Luther, behaviour  was expected  they s t i l l  spend time  were they expected Were de tempore year) s t i l l  of the f a m i l y w i t h r e g a r d  periodically  services (especially  ceremony,  D i d they or  c o n s i d e r i n g the time o f  period?  probably  i n a lengthy  funeral  t o those d e p i c t e d i n contemporaneous engravings,  church  f o r the b u r i a l  ceremony.  Throughout  t h e body o f H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s p r e s u m a b l y  pulpit.  Whether  unknown,  though  eral  this  or n o t t h e c o f f i n  published  Did  i n t h e c h a p e l at S c h l o s s O s t e r s t e i n on 2  the body was t r a n s p o r t e d ,  Johannis  t o the deceased.  r e s p e c t s t o the deceased?  intriguing  h e l d i n the chapel d u r i n g  cession s i m i l a r St  t o pay t h e i r  tradi-  t o know what k i n d o f  i n p r a y e r and d e v o t i o n i n the chapel?  F o l l o w i n g t h e ceremony February,  i t is difficult  i n the Roman  113  t o the  this  final  l a y beneath the  was open d u r i n g t h e c e r e m o n y i s  seventeenth-century  frequently included i l l u s t r a t i o n s  pro-  Leichenpredigten  depicting  i n gen-  c l o s e d as w e l l as open  coffins,  and  suggests  that  casket  sermons a l s o made o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e to the body,  funeral  i t was would  additional visual  exposed prove  impact.)  to the c o n g r e g a t i o n .  to be The  an  open-  e m o t i o n a l l y more moving owing to the  ceremony began w i t h the f i r s t  Schutz's M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. 73:25 ("HErr / wenn i c h nur  (Naturally  which  section of  F o l l o w i n g t h e sermon b a s e d on  d i c h habe"),  the c h o i r  performed  the  Psalm second  s e c t i o n o f S c h u t z ' s work, t h e s e t t i n g o f the same t e x t as a m o t e t f o r two  four-part choirs.  a Collect  Rather than drawing  and B e n e d i c t i o n a f t e r  would have been the customary  the ceremony to a c l o s e w i t h  the p e r f o r m a n c e  o f the m o t e t , w h i c h  procedure, the c h o i r i m m e d i a t e l y  commenced  w i t h the t h i r d p o r t i o n o f the work. The  s e t t i n g o f t h e movement and  Schutz's d i r e c t i o n s f o r i t s p e r -  formance are amply d e s c r i b e d i n the " S p e c i a l Index o f the M u s i c a l Items contained gracious heading  in this  reader."  slight The  work t o g e t h e r w i t h relevant  " I I I . O r d i n a n t z des  ordinance  the O r d i n a n c e s  i s the t h i r d  Gesanges Simeonis:  HErr nun  f o r the  and bears  lassestu  D i e n e r i n F r i e d e f a h r e n , " and i t w i l l p r o v e u s e f u l t o quote  the  deinen  i t here i n  full. 1. I t i s t o be noted that t h i s c o n c e r t e d motet i s f o r two c h o i r s , e a c h c h o i r s i n g i n g i t s own t e x t . C h o r u s P r i m u s i s i n f i v e p a r t s and r e c i t e s t h e w o r d s o f S i m e o n : H e r r , nun l a s s e s t du d e i n e n D i e n e r . C h o r u s Secundus i s i n t h r e e p a r t s , f o r two t r e b l e s and a b a r i t o n e o r h i g h bass, s i n g i n g the f o l l o w i n g t e x t and o t h e r s : S e l i g s e i n d d i e T o t e n , d i e i n dem H e r r n s t e r b e n . W i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h i s second c h o i r the Author has attempted to i n t i m a t e and convey something o f the j o y of the b l e s s e d disembodied Soul i n Heaven i n the company of Heavenly S p i r i t s and h o l y Angels. 2. Primus Chorus i s to be p l a c e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e o r g a n , b u t t h e Secundus C h o r u s i s to be s e t up a t a d i s t a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e way t h a t  G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. x x x i x . " A b s o n d e r l i c h V e r z e i c h n u s d e r e n i n d i e s e m W e r c k l e i n b e f i n d l i c h e n M u s i c a 1 i s c h e n S a c h e n / n e b e n s t den O r d i n a n t z e n an den G u n s t i g e n L e s e r . " ( F a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i _ t . , p. x i i i . )  114  seems most p r a c t i c a b l e . 3. By making another one or two c o p i e s o f t h i s Second Choir, and by s e t t i n g i t up a t d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s around the church, a c c o r d i n g to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t present themselves, t h e A u t h o r hopes t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e w o r k m i g h t be g r e a t l y enhanced. I n t r o d u c e d by 2:29-32), Primus  the tenor's i n t o n a t i o n o f the Canticum  " H e r r nun  lassest  (Mezzo-Soprano,  Chorus  A l t o , Tenor I - I I , Bass) c o n t i n u e s f o r t i t e r  with a  S c h u t z ' s d i r e c t i v e s , was  t o be p o s i t i o n e d  rangement which  i n i t s e l f was  four  a drop  the v o i c e s  and  succession,  different  text  i n dem  i n no way  i n the dynamic  of the Secundus Chorus  imitative  (Luke  du d e i n e n D i e n e r , " the f i v e - p a r t  homophonic statement of " i n F r i e d e fahren."  breves  Simeonis  from h i g h e s t  T h i s c h o i r , a c c o r d i n g to  close  to t h e o r g a n , an a r -  extraordinary. level  (Soprano to  from  After  fortiter  to  the  first  submisse,  I-II, Baritone) enter in  lowest v o i c e ,  taken from R e v e l a t i o n s 14:13, " S e l i g  with a completely s i n d d i e Toten, d i e  Herren sterben," l a t e r incorporating a d d i t i o n a l  text  from  the  a p o c r y p h a l Wisdom of Solomon (3:1). We  can see from  the o r d i n a n c e that  Schutz composed  conscious c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s r h e t o r i c .  this  work w i t h  The t a s k he s e t b e f o r e h i m -  Ibid. "1. I s t zu w i s s e n das d i e s e s C o n c e r t zwey Chor vnd i e g l i c h e r Chor s e i n e a b s o n d e r l i c h e Wort habe. Chorus primus i s t Quinque Vocum vnd r e c i t i r e t d i e Wort Simeonis: HErr nun l a s s e s t u deinen Diener. Chorus Secundus i s t Trium Vocum, hat zwene D i s c a n t vnd e i n e n Baritonum oder hohen Bass, s i n g e t folgende vnd andere Wort mehr: S e l i g seynd d i e T o d t e n d i e i n dem H E r r n s t e r b e n . M i t w e l c h e r i n v e n t i o n o d e r Choro Secundo der A u t o r d i e Freude der a b g e l e i b t e n S e h l i g e n S e e l e n im Himmel / i n G e s e 1 1 s c h a f f t d e r H i m m l i s c h e n G e i s t e r vnd h e i l i g e n E n g e l i n e t w a s e i n f i i h r e n vnd andeuten w o l l e n . 2. Primus Chorus werde a l l e r n e c h s t bey d i e O r g e l / Secundus Chorus aber i n d i e f e m e geordnet / vnd wie es etwa e i n e m i e d e m f u r das r a h t s a m b s t e b e d i i n c k e n w i r d . 3. Wer auch d i e s e n Chorum Secundum noch e i n : oder zweymahl a b s c h r e i b e n l a s s e n / vnd nach g e l e g e n h e i t d e r K i r c h e n an v n t e r s c h i e d e n e n O r t e n s o l c h e P a r t h e y e n a n s t e l l e n w o l t e / wiirde des A u t o r i s H o f f n u n g nach / den e f f e c t des Wercks n i c h t wenig vermehren." ( I b i d , p. x l . )  115  self,  w i t h the i n v e n t i o ,  of the disembodied  was  spirit  h i s wish  to r e p r e s e n t i n music  i n the company of angels.  the j o y  Schutz was  unques-  t i o n a b l y employing a m u s i c a l p r o s o p o p o e i a at t h i s p o i n t , i m p l y i n g much i n the o r d i n a n c e .  First  o f a l l the t e x t u a l  to the p e r c e p t i o n of disembodiment. Canticum  Simeonis had long been employed  at L u t h e r a n f u n e r a l s and, the mourners.  i n this  i s addressed to God.  and  Chorus's  text  from  the  is clearly  a representation  of  i n n a t u r e and r e m i n d f u l o f promised The t e x t o f the t h r e e - v o i c e Secundus  on the o t h e r hand, i s a c o n s o l a t o r y r e s p o n s e i n t h a t i t i s an  a f f i r m a t i o n of a covenant o f death and God  Primus  contribute  c h o r a l i t e r to accompany b u r i a l s  case,  The t e x t , p e t i t i o n a r y  resurrection, Chorus,  The  differences  as  Man.  Interestingly,  though,  resurrection  that e x i s t s  between  i t seems to l a c k the almost  t i o n i n g e m o t i o n a l c h a r g e o f the C a n t i c u m  ques-  S i m e o n i s ; r a t h e r i t i s much  more a d i s t a n c e d , somewhat a p a t h e t i c statement of f a c t , made i n what an e x t r e m e l y p a t h e t i c Secondly,  was  situation.  Schutz t h o u g h t f u l l y  selected  the p a r t i c u l a r v o i c e s to be  used i n the Secundus Chorus.  The v o i c e s o f t h e a n g e l s , a p p r o p r i a t e l y  bearing  I and  the  sopranos.  labels I t was  Seraphim  Seraphim  I I , a r e a s s i g n e d to  two  common at t h a t t i m e t o have boy s o p r a n o s r e p r e s e n t  s e r a p h i c f i g u r e s ; Hans J o a c h i m M o s e r w r i t e s t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d  travel  l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o h e a r C h r i s t m a s m a t i n s a t Reuss's C o u r t , and t h a t i n 1623  Heinrich  Posthumus p e r s o n a l l y d i r e c t e d  a performance  c h o i r b o y s were d r e s s e d as a n g e l s w e a r i n g g r e e n w r e a t h s  f o r which and  holding  The f i v e s t e p s i n w r i t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s i c a l r u l e s r h e t o r i c are i n v e n t i o , d i s t r i b u t i o , e l o c u t i o , memoria, p r o n u n t i a t i o .  116  the  of  burning voice,  torches. significantly,  Convenient harmonic  though  was  i t was  states  written  of Heinrich  specifically  f o r "einen Baritonum  that  anthems."  Posthumus's r e p u t a t i o n  Schutz fact  that  could  clearly this  supported  Count by  was  the  makes  a baritone.  statement  much g r e a t e r ,  undoubtedly  as a capable m u s i c i a n ,  every  This  i n Reuss's  effort  i s i n fact  i s tempted  w i t h b e i n g able to s i n g the bass p a r t n o t e -- m o t e t s  third  oder hohen Bass."  handle "the bass i n many f i n e  low v o i c e  the H e i n r i c h Posthumus, and one the  the  that a bass p a r t would p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y  as a s i n g e r who  e s t a b l i s h the  that  i n the o r d i n a n c e  f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c o n c e r t a t o c h o i r , S c h u t z was  thinking  and  Schutz  in this  and  motets  work  to  a personification  of  to conclude from the evidence  supposition  would  " L e b e n s l a u f " where he i n many -- but not a l l ,  seem  to  be  i s credited one should  and a n t h e m s : i n B a r o q u e f u n e r a r y p e r s o n a l i a , i t was and  widely  acknowledged,  tendency  to e x a g g e r a t e  a  the  d e c e a s e d ' s q u a l i t i e s t h a n to d i m i n i s h them, as w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e here.'' ^ 3  T h i r d l y , the s p a t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t of the c o n c e r t a t o Secundus figures  Chorus  p r o m i n e n t l y i n S c h u t z ' s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of H e i n r i c h Posthumus.  Since the time of h i s s t u d i e s i n Venice w i t h Giovannni G a b r i e l i ,  M o s e r , op. c i t . , p.  Schutz  156.  S e e R. L e n z , " G e d r u c k t e L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n (15 50-17 50)," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que 1 l e , op. c i t . , pp. 43-44. B e c a u s e o f -the growing tendency i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t towards e x c e s s i v e l y h y p e r b o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e d e c e a s e d , L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n came i n c r e a s i n g l y to be r e f e r r e d to i n the seventeenth century as Lugenpredigten. 1 3 0  117  was w e l l - a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e a c o u s t i c and d r a m a t i c chori  spezzati,  a d e v i c e w h i c h he u s e s  k a l i s c h e Exequien.  t o good e f f e c t  In h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  the e f f e c t o f the disembodied t h e d i s t a n c e , most l i k e l y  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  of the Count,  i n the MusiSchutz  s o u l by p l a c i n g the Secundus Chorus o f f i n  i n the g a l l e r y .  f o r the a l t e r n a t i n g  S i n c e the m u s i c i s w r i t t e n  sectionally  to allow  two  Schutz saw a d d i t i o n a l p r o s o p o p o e i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  choirs,  achieves  concertato e f f e c t  between the He takes  advantage of the ample pauses between e n t r i e s i n the Secundus suggesting tional  that  the t r i o  be d u p l i c a t e d  o r even t r i p l i c a t e d .  Chorus,  The a d d i -  c h o i r s were then t o be p l a c e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the church, again  probably seraphim  i n the g a l l e r y .  Most  likely  the s i n g e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the  and H e i n r i c h Posthumus were not v i s i b l e  t o the c o n g r e g a t i o n , an 131  e f f e c t i v e p l o y Schutz himself  replicated  had been aware o f as e a r l y as 1623.  the v o i c e s of the Secundus Chorus,  I f Schutz  as he p r e s c r i b e s  i n t h e o r d i n a n c e , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n w o u l d have h e a r d n o t o n l y the p e r s o n i f i e d v o i c e of H e i n r i c h Posthumus c o m f o r t i n g l y s i n g i n g they would have h e a r d  from  t h e v o i c e s , i n c o r p o r e a l and m i g r a n t ,  above,  emanating  from d i f f e r e n t but i n d e t e r m i n a t e p a r t s o f the church. Schutz full  composed  the l a s t  s e c t i o n of the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien  i n t e n t i o n s o f making a p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n a l  mourners.  T h i s i s made q u i t e c l e a r  impact  with  on the assembly o f  when he w r i t e s at t h e end o f t h e  H. Schutz, "Preface t o H i s t o r i a d e r Auferstehung J e s u C h r i s t i , " i n Readings i n the H i s t o r y o f Music i n Performance, t r a n s , and ed. by C. M a c C l i n t o c k (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 142. A f t e r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f how a performance of the H i s t o r i a was to be executed, Schutz concludes the p r e f a c e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g statement: " I t s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind t h a t t h i s H i s t o r y w i l l be p e r f o r m e d w i t h b e t t e r grace o r e f f e c t i f o n l y the E v a n g e l i s t i s seen, the o t h e r p e r sonages and o t h e r s r e m a i n i n g hidden."  118  relevant hoped power  o r d i n a n c e t h a t , through the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o s o p o p o e i a ,  the " e f f e c t of  des Werkes" might  personification  must  c o n g r e g a t i o n of mourners.  of  have  had  i n c r e a s e d . The  a  i n the J o h a n n i s k i r c h e .  first  i n state  months,  the time  upon  the  the body o f  i n the c o u r t c h a p e l and  During the two-month p e r i o d ,  t h e Count's p a s s i n g u n t i l  emotional  strong effect  During the p r e c e d i n g two  H e i n r i c h Posthumus l a y l i f e l e s s , later  be g r e a t l y  from  of h i s interment,  the  of H e i n r i c h Posthumus's remains.  logical  guarantee  resurrection  and  that  eternal  concepts  were p r o c l a i m e d  evidence  that  before  a  death  was  life,  period,  unprepared  and  death  present  l a y the body the r e a l i t y ,  the i n t e r m e n t which  emotional  Christian  Although  resurrection  ended a prolonged,  The  gregation singing  Schutz  offered  as c o n c r e t e and  actual  W e i n e n und  a l l of which  v e s s e l was  concrete  a promise.  Moments  and  exhausting  Heinrich's incorporeal friends.  the mourners t a n g i b l e  evidence  incontrovertible  Klagen,"  Collect  and  appears  the c o n g r e g a t i o n c o u l d r e s t  being interred,  f o r t h e y had  und  Freud  the coni c h fahr  t h e hymn " H S r t  t o be  little  assured that  j u s t heard  s i n g i n g from above i n the heavenly company o f angels.  119  as Reuss's corpse  accompanied by  t h e o l d b u r i a l hymn " M i t F r i e d the c l o s i n g  But  those  to h i s f a m i l y and  act o f i n t e r m e n t was  d a h i n , " f o l l o w e d by  denouement.  where  by  Posthumus,  stressful  u n s u s p e c t i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n to hear  the r e s u r r e c t i o n , of death.  theo-  followed  church  of Heinrich  the  the  i t must have come as n o t h i n g l e s s than a shock to the  Through the prosopopoeia,  was  t h e r e was always  i n the  v o i c e u t t e r i n g v a l e d i c t o r y words o f assurance  of  was  day  the i d e a o f  d e a t h must have been u b i q u i t o u s i n the G e r a C o u r t , m a n i f e s t e d by presence  he  more  auf  mit  than  a  o n l y an empty  the l i v i n g  spirit  As an example of prosopopoeia performing  forces,  a more s t r i k i n g  Exequien  can be found  in  f o r the  1693  e f f e c t e d by s p a t i a l deployment of the  i n two  funeral  example than Schutz's M u s i k a l i s c h e  of three works by M i c h a e l Wiedemann w r i t t e n  of Sigismund  Heinrich, Freiherr  von  Bibran  und  Modlau. Rather of  peasant  1659.  133  little  i s known about  the composer.  Wiedemann was  s t o c k i n G e i l s d o r f o r G e i b s d o r f i n O b e r l a u s i t z on 13  as p a s t o r  i n O s s i g near  Liegnitz  Schweidnitz.  B e t t e r known f o r h i s l i t e r a r y  Wiedemann was  the  author  of F i d o ,  l a t e r p u b l i s h e d another  der  literary  work e n t i t l e d  Musikant  Owing to the J e s u i t s ' p e r c e i v e d calumny i n t h i s  work, Wiedemann was  consequently  i n December  1693,  C h r i s t l i c h e Gedenck-Predigt Ossig.  In 1702  c o u r t preacher. Sigismund  He  f o r he  where he  appointed  Superintendent  a l s o served  as  Heinrich, Freiherr  von  published with  Bibran  latter He  und  was  i n the  as t h e p a s t o r i n by  the Count of  s e n i o r (Oberprediger)  d i e d i n S t o l b e r g 1 September  the c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e  Geschichten  is identified,  f o r H e i n r i c h Sigismund,  Wiedemann was  Stolberg-Wernigerode,  12 a u s e r l e s e n e n  removed from h i s p a s t o r a l post. however,  n.d.),  Historisch-poetischer  (Leipzig,  1690).  in  output,  (s.l.,  bestehend  there  April  subsequently  than h i s m u s i c a l  unbesorgte  i n E r z e h l u n g von  and  Gefangenschaften,  still  born  • • what must have been a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n theology,  After  Wiedemann worked  and  132  and  1719. Modlau,  according  t h e L e i c h e n p r e d i g t , was  to  born i n  132 The b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on M i c h a e l Wiedemann i s taken from Gerber, op. c i t . , c o l . 804, and R. E i t n e r B i o g r a p h i s c h - b i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s Que 1 l e n L e x i k o n , 11 v o l s , i n 6 ( G r a z , A u s t r i a : A k a d e m i s c h e V e r l a g s Druck- u. V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1959), 10:255. 13 3 G e r b e r i d e n t i f i e s Wiedemann's b i r t h p l a c e as G e i l s d o r f , and E i t n e r , on the o t h e r hand, g i v e s G e i b s d o r f as the name of the town. 120  Liegnitz  on  March. it  26 F e b r u a r y  Although  we  1640,  throughout  Leipzig  Dresden,  and  was  do not know very  i s known t h a t he s p e n t  travelling  and  b a p t i z e d f i v e days much about  f i v e y e a r s , most  Europe.  subsequently  his earliest  years,  i n the mid  1660s,  likely  From L i e g n i t z ,  he  l a t e r on 3  travelled  t o the R h i n e l a n d and  first  to  the N e t h e r l a n d s .  He a l s o spent time i n France and n o r t h e r n I t a l y , e v e n t u a l l y c r o s s i n g  the  Alps  i n t o Germany and  was  used  as grooming p e r i o d  foreign  customs  and  finally  r e t u r n i n g home.  i n t e n d e d to prepare  languages,  This itinerant  him,  through  time  immersion  in  f o r h i s a c c e s s i o n to the baronetcy.  He  m a r r i e d on 14 November 1 6 6 9 , and i n the next twenty-three years f a t h e r e d t w e l v e sons and  s i x daughters.  died  on 14 S e p t e m b e r  sons,  four daughters  1693.  1693  A f t e r a s h o r t i l l n e s s Sigismund  a t the age o f f i f t y - t h r e e ,  and h i s w i f e .  His funeral  was  s u r v i v e d by  h e l d on  two  9 December  1 3 5  Funeral ficantly  procedures  different  from  f o r Sigismund those  H e i n r i c h were probably not  for Heinrich  Posthumus von  there were a p p r o x i m a t e l y two-months between the Baron's burial, was  Heinrich  i t should be safe to assume that  embalmed at death.  the body,  Reuss.  signiSince  p a s s i n g and h i s  a c c o r d i n g to custom,  Considering h i s s t a t i o n in l i f e , this period  l i k e l y a t i m e o f o f f i c i a l m o u r n i n g d u r i n g w h i c h t h e body o f the  was  Baron  1 Q /  The b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Sigismund H e i n r i c h i s d e r i v e d from the L e b e n s l a u f which was p u b l i s h e d w i t h the other s e c t i o n s of the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t from 1693. The L e i c h e n p r e d i g t , which c o n s i s t s o f more than one hundred pages of sermon, an eight-page Abdankung, a nine-page c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e , a six-page p r o s o p o p o e i a l poem, v a r i o u s t i t l e pages, an e n g r a v i n g o f t h e c o f f i n and s e v e n t y pages o f m u s i c , is in Berlin, B e r l i n e r S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , Grauenklostersammlung VII. 1 3 5  p.  I.  N. J ! Dass das L i e b r e i c h e A n d e n c k e n G O t t e s  1.  121  /... TRAUER=REDE,  lay  i n state.  short  service  church,  As i n t h e c a s e o f H e i n r i c h P o s t h u m u s , where t h e r e was a i n the court chapel before  the obsequies  f o r Sigismund  carried al  h e l d i n the "Trauer-Zimmer,"  Following this  first  o r a t i o n , t h e body was  i n p r o c e s s i o n to the E v a n g e l i s c h e K i r c h e i n O s s i g f o r the f u n e r -  service  proper.  Before  the f u n e r a l  sermon, w h i c h was b a s e d  werde n i c h t s t e r b e n / sondern u.),  to the  H e i n r i c h began w i t h a t h i r t y - t h r e e -  page " T r a u e r - R e d e , " a f u n e r a r y o r a t i o n , presumably at the court.  t h e body was moved  the f i r s t  performed.  on P s a l m  118:17 ( I c h  l e b e n / und des H E r r n Werck v e r k l i n d i g e n  " B e g r a ' b n i s - C o n c e r t " composed by M i c h a e l Wiedemann was Because  this  poeial characteristics,  particular  composition  i t i s not necessary  here  e x h i b i t s no  prosopo-  to d i s c u s s i t i n de-  tail. Following  the f u n e r a l  sermon, t h e second "Begra'bnis Concert" was  137 performed.  The c o m p o s i t i o n  i s a p o l y c h o r a l p i e c e w r i t t e n f o r three  M. Wiedemann, Begra'bnis=Concert von zehen Stimmen unter denen A l t , T e n o r und B a s s e t l i c h e B i b l i s c h e T e x t e v o r s i n g e n f_ w e l c h e s Zwey D i s c a n t e m i t e i n e m T r o s t = und Bet = C h o r a l aus g e i s t l i c h e n K i r c h e n Gesa'ngen beantworten. Dabey 2 V i o l i n e n und 3 V i o l e n massig d a r z w i s c h e n s p i e l e n bey dem F r e y h e r r l i c h e n Leichen=Begangniss Welches Dem Hochwohlg e b o h r n e n H e r r n ]_ HERRN S i g i s m u n d H e i n r i c h F r e y h e r r n v o n B i b r a n und Modlau... Den 9. Decembris des 1693sten Jahres i n O s s i g g e h a l t e n wurde ]_ V o r d e r P r e d i g t z u M u s i c i r e n g e s e z t v o n M i c h a e 1 Wiedemann ( L a u b a n : Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 137 M. Wiedemann, Begra'bnis Concert a u f f 3. Chbren u n t e r welchen 1. Der Lehr=Chor a l l e r h a n d B i b l i s c h e Texte i n A l t [ , ] Tenor und Bass nebst 2. F l b t e n v o r s i n g e t J_ D e r G l a u b e n s Chor m i t e i n e r A r i e aus dem L e i c h e n = T e x t i.n d i s c a ' n t e n n e b s t 3. V i o l d i Gamb. e i n s t i m m e t 3. D i e Seelen Stimme den C h o r a l ^ H e r t z l i c h thut mich v e r l a n g e n i n einem D i s c a n t n e b s t e i n e r L a u t e ( h i n t e r m S a r g e v e r b o r g e n ) n a c h s i n g e t bey dem F r e y h e r r l i c h e n L e i c h b e g a n g n i s s w e l c h e s Dem hochwohlgebohrnen Herrn Herrn S i g i s m u n d H e i n r i c h j_ F r e y h e r r n y o n B i e b r a n und Modlau... den 9. Decemb r i s des 1693 J a h r e s i n O s z i g g e h a l t e n wurde Nach d e r P r e d i g t zu musici-^ ren g e s e t z t von M i c h a e l Wiedemann (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 122  separate  performing  groups.  The f i r s t  i s labelled  "Der Lehr  Chor" and  i s w r i t t e n f o r a l t o , t e n o r and b a s s v o i c e s , and f o r two o b b l i g a t o r e corders. direct  scriptural  second ing  The t e x t s f o r f o u r o f t h e f i v e v e r s e s sung by t h i s c h o i r a r e  choir  quotations  is identified  the c o n g r e g a t i o n ,  da gamba.  The t e x t  sermon,  beginning  sterben  /  t h e O l d and New  Testaments.  f o r the second the t e x t  leben."  The  of two sopranos  and three  c h o i r i s d e r i v e d from of Psalm  third  text  and m u s i c  118:17: " I c h w e r d e  group  mented note organ  values  provides  groups,  sung by t h e p e r s o n i f i e d i s the c h o r a l e " H e r z l i c h  the basso  continuo  viole  the f u n e r a l  i s called  nicht  the "Seelen  Stimme," which c o n s i s t s o f a s o l o soprano and an accompanying The  The  as "Der Glaubens Chor," presumably r e p r e s e n t -  and i s comprised  with  sondern  from  lutenist.  v o i c e of the s o u l i n augthut  mich  verlangen."  The  accompaniment f o r the f i r s t  two  and an a d d i t i o n a l f i g u r e d b a s s p a r t i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t h i r d  ensemble,  with  indications  i n both  continuo p a r t s t o suggest  to the  p e r f o r m e r s where they were and were not to p l a y . The  three groups perform  i n a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h one another,  f i r s t w i t h t h e " L e h r Chor," f o l l o w e d by t h e e n t r a n c e Chor" and f i n a l l y  the "Seelen  Stimme."  v e r s e s i n fragments r a t h e r than The  beginning  o f the "Glaubens  The a l t e r n a t i n g  c h o i r s s i n g the  i n complete statements  of the t e x t s .  t e x t s of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g verses are t h e m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r ,  a p p o s i t i o n of the s c r i p t u r a l , sermonic allows  for a three-fold  and c h o r a l e t e x t u a l  magnification of their  content.  and the  fragments  At the end o f  the p i e c e , t h e " L e h r C h o r " and t h e " G l a u b e n s C h o r " s h a r e t h e same for  the l a s t v e r s e ,  the l a s t  two l i n e s o f which (Das[s] i c h mag  frblich  s i n g e n das Consummatum e s t ) b e i n g e c h o e d by t h e " S e e l e n Stimme."  123  text  The  alternation of material also allows of the  more f r e q u e n t  ensembles: and  concertato  c o n t r a s t s are p r o v i d e d  makeup of each of the  elements are p r o m i n e n t l y  m e n t a l bodies  three  by  page o f  this  particular  work.  which proclaims  is reflected  i n the  i s w r i t t e n i n s u c h a way tion.  The  music no  the v a r i e d v o c a l  instru-  w i t h i n each of the i n d i v i d u a l c h o i r s .  entity  scriptures  concerting  heard between the v o c a l and  The  b a s e d as i t i s e n t i r e l y on s c r i p t u r e s , physical  because  c h o i r s , and a d d i t i o n a l  T h a t Wiedemann meant to use p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n title  variety  c o n t r a s t s between the m u s i c o f the  the main m u s i c a l  instrumental  for greater musical  the  Chor," w i t h  from  the  i t s text  r e p r e s e n t s an a b s t r a c t , m e t a Word o f God.  t e x t sung by  as t o r e p r e s e n t  prosopopoeial  "Lehr  is evident  congregation  the  The  sense  of  the  "Glaubens Chor," which  the members o f t h e  congrega-  c o l l e c t i v e l y represented  i n the  longer laments the death of the Baron, f i n d i n g i n s t e a d c o n s o l a -  t i o n i n i t s p r o f e s s e d a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f s a l v a t i o n , r e s u r r e c t i o n and eternal l i f e . the  I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t some o f t h e t e x t t h r o u g h w h i c h  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l congregation  of  the  "Glaubens Chor" expresses  s t a t e of c o n s o l a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y d e r i v e d from c o n s o l a t o r y p r e v i o u s l y made i n the sermon by Wiedemann's w i s h having in  that,  been consoled  the sermon,  by  the r e a l  themselves to f e e l  i f the the  congregation  r a t h e r he  a soprano v o i c e .  Chor" c o u l d  statements  Perhaps i t be  was  depicted  as  to the Sigismund H e i n r i c h  of mourners would s i m i l a r l y  allow  consoled.  Stimme" i n order  the deceased;  "Glaubens  words a t t r i b u t e d  Wiedemann, u n l i k e Schutz, the "Seelen  the p e r s o n i f i e d Baron.  its  One  d i d not compose the p r o s o p o p o e i a l p a r t of  f o r i t to  decided  correspond  to express  to  the v o i c e - t y p e  the v o i c e of the s p i r i t  can o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e composer's 124  of  with  criteria  for  chosing  Baron. any  First,  other  case  t o d e p i c t more a c c u r a t e l y the  there  of H e i n r i c h  lengthy  Leichenpredigt  Posthumus  i n p a r t by  court Capellmeister  the  or  a d d i t i o n t o most  Wiedemann personify  may the  not  fact  cantor of  have  and  von  the  t h a t i t was  (This  the  same  the seventy  As  in  may  and  be  not  a  pages of music,  If this as  mentioned  of  existed  suggestion  compulsion  deceased to such a degree.  that  the c o u r t p a s t o r  funeral oratory.)  felt  the  to suggest the k i n d  deceased  Reuss.  that composed  the  v o i c e q u a l i t y of  i n the Baron's c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e or i n  a s s o c i a t i o n between music  supported  in  i s nothing  p a r t s o f the  affinitive the  not  i s the did  case,  Schutz  earlier,  it  to was  common p r a c t i c e i n the Baroque to d e p i c t s e r a p h i c v o i c e s w i t h  the v o i c e s  o f boy  trying  s o p r a n o s , and  project  i t may  to the c o n g r e g a t i o n  Baron than the image of t h e c a s e , we animation. strictly  the  be p o s s i b l e t h a t Wiedemann was l e s s the  living  seraphic  or apotheosized  w o u l d be d e a l i n g t h e n w i t h  flesh-and-blood  considerations,  realizing  that  stand  most c l e a r l y heard as s o l o i s t .  as being  what were the m u s i c a l  availability o f the  of m u s i c a l  f u n e r a l music.  one  r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l of the composer and selecting  whatever  musical  rather  than  governed  at  by  perwould  Without knowing more  the  Baron's Court  to say t o what d e g r e e ,  f o r c e s a f f e c t e d the Finally,  this  types, a soprano v o i c e  conditions  t i m e of h i s d e a t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  Were  in this p a r t i c u l a r  of the p o s s i b l e v o i c e  precisely  spirit.  a transformation  formance context, out  image of the  I t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t Wiedemann was  musical  to  composition  and  must a l s o c o n s i d e r his inventiveness  means were r h e t o r i c a l l y  and  most  at  i f any,  the the  performance  the  musical-  discretion in s u i t e d to  the  situation. What i s most noteworthy about Wiedemann's a p p l i c a t i o n of 12 , 5  musical-  rhetorical  prosopopoeia i s the p h y s i c a l element  three p e r f o r m i n g ensembles. cular  location  i n the church  the organ,  striking  for either  of  as was g e n e r a l l y  about  the "Lehr Chor" or the "Glaubens  lutenist:  practised  t h e y were b o t h at that  t h i s p i e c e a r e Wiedemann's d i r e c t i v e s  the soprano  voice  Wiedemann  of the "Seelen  states  o f the  Because Wiedemann does not s p e c i f y a p a r t i -  C h o r , " i t i s most r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t near  o f placement  time.  positioned  What i s most  f o r the p o s i t i o n i n g  S t i m m e " and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g  on the t i t l e  page  that  this  third  ensemble  138  was  to p e r f o r m  while  on  the placement  third  Heinrich's  behind  the c o f f i n . "  Before  of the "Seelen Stimme" and the l u t e n i s t ,  us b r i e f l y mention The  "hidden  the l a s t  commenting  however, l e t  o f Wiedemann's t h r e e f u n e r a l works.  and f i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n w r i t t e n by Wiedemann f o r Sigismund  funeral  was the German  translation  o f the Consummatum e s t ,  139  "Es  i s t vollbracht."  Throughout  this  work o f t h r e e v e r s e s , the s o l o  soprano,  h a r m o n i c a l l y supported  by a l u t e ,  represent  the v o i c e of the Baron's  s o u l and s i n g s the opening s e c t i o n o f  the t e x t .  The c h o i r ,  with  ment, s u b s e q u e n t l y e c h o e s s e t t i n g (SSATB). through  each  soprano's  3  realizing  t h i s statement  9  continues to  the c o n t i n u o  i n a homophonic,  accompanifive-part  T h i s t y p e o f a l t e r n a t i o n c o n t i n u e s p h r a s e by p h r a s e  of the three verses, concluding f i n a l l y  f i n a l u t t e r a n c e o f "es i s t v o l l b r a c h t . "  Ibid. 1  the organ  presumably  "hinterm  Sarge  with  the solo  As i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  verborgen."  .  M. Wiedemann, K u r t z e s B e s c h l u s s = L i e d g e n a u f f das CONSUMMATUM EST. von 8 Stimmen a u f f zwey Choren (1.) E i n D i s c a n t nebst der Laute ( i n d e r G r u f f t v e r d e c k e t ) i n t o n i r e t w e l c h e s (2.) Der g a n t z e Chor h e r n a c h w i e d e r h o l e t (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 3  126  "Begra'bnis-Concert," i t i s the p h y s i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f the p e r s o n i f y i n g v o i c e o f the s o u l t h a t i s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t tion.  Whereas the s o p r a n o  and  c o n c e a l e d b e h i n d the Baron's mann's i n s t r u c t i o n s this  time,  There it  i s no w r i t t e n  i s e v i d e n t that  the l u t e n i s t had p r e v i o u s l y  and  the e n c o f f i n e d  on  musical  s o u l would undoubtedly  the c o n g r e g a t i o n ,  just  be " h i d d e n i n the  of the Baron's  sometime between the performances  animate  performed  page o f the l a s t p i e c e r e q u i r e  the l u t e n i s t  description  Wiedemann's g r a p h i c  body was  of the second and depiction  of  crypt."l  f u n e r a l ceremony,  conveyed  Sigismund H e i n r i c h ' s impression  physical  displacement  and Wiedemann's use o f prosopopoeia, one might  trope.  and  levels  Schutz's  funeral'music for Heinrich  doubt  Schutz's  o f success of the r e s p e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the  w i t h w h i c h Schutz  There can be l i t t e  per-  w e l l compare the r h e t o r i -  Posthumus has  discussed in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l , d e m o n s t r a t i n g facility  Post-  o f the  s o n i f y i n g v o i c e s i s t h e most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b o t h  results  crypt  pieces.  have made a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l  Although  4 n  though  to the f a m i l y final  the  that,  as Schutz's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of H e i n r i c h  humus d i d on h i s audience.  cal  composi-  c o f f i n i n the s e c o n d c o m p o s i t i o n , W i e d e -  on t h e t i t l e  the soprano  i n the c o n c l u d i n g  both  d e p i c t e d the l i v i n g  a l r e a d y been  t h e p r o f u n d i t y and spirit  that Wiedemann's assignment  o f the Count.  o f the p e r s o n i f y i n g  v o i c e to a p o s i t i o n b e h i n d the c o f f i n and l a t e r i n the c r y p t must h a v e had a p o w e r f u l d r a m a t i c e f f e c t  on the c o n g r e g a t i o n , but  the composer i n  t h i s i n s t a n c e seems to have f a i l e d t o use t h i s m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l to  achieve a s u i t a b l e t h e o l o g i c a l  Exequien,  1 4 Q  end.  effect  In the case of the M u s i k a l i s c h e  the c o n g r e g a t i o n heard the p r o s o p o p o e i a l v o i c e of H e i n r i c h  Ibid.  "...in der G r u f f t v e r d e c k e t . "  127  Posthumus s i n g i n g  f r o m t h e h e a v e n s , w h e r e a s the p e r s o n i f i e d v o i c e  S i g i s m u n d H e i n r i c h was first,  heard  where the c o f f i n was  the body had  been c a r r i e d  placed  to the  i n suggesting  but  seems t o have b e e n f a r l e s s of  the  the  body,  proximity  f o r the c e r e m o n y and  crypt.  ful  leaving  to  always i n close  congregation  Wiedemann was the  concept  of  t o the  body,  finally  after  no doubt life  since  c o m p o s i t i o n c l e a r l y s t a t e s that "the  the  spirit  text  i s now  itself  success-  after  s u c c e s s f u l i n d e p i c t i n g the  especially  of  of  w i t h God,  death,  spirit's the  final  the body i n  t h i s c r y p t , " * * a statement c l e a r l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what Wiedemann  was  expressing  and  4  through  the  musical  prosopopoeia.  Wiedemann produced e x t r e m e l y v i v i d applications  of  Although both  Schutz  images of the deceased through  musical-rhetorical  prosopopoeia,  there  can  their be  no  I / O  question  4  that Schutz was  "Die  the s u p e r i o r  S e e l ' i s t nun  bey  musicus  poeticus.  GOtt / der L e i b i n d i e s e r Gruf f t . . . . "  I / O  The manner i t s e l f i n w h i c h Wiedemann s i m u l t a n e o u s l y applied s c r i p t u r a l and c h o r a l e t e x t s i n the f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n , s c r i p t u r a l and o t h e r n o n - s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s i n the s e c o n d c o m p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as the p r o s o p o p o e i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e c e a s e d i n the s e c o n d and t h i r d c o m p o s i t i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t the s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n S c h u t z ' s and Wiedemann's music are more than mere c o i n c i d e n c e .  128  CHAPTER IV  AFFECTIVE ELEMENTS OF COMPOSITION: FIGURENLEHRE AND METRE  The  F i g u r e n l e h r e , the d o c t r i n e of f i g u r e s , has been one o f the main  focuses  o f modern s t u d i e s o f m u s i c a l  torically, first  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  codified  1601  between m u s i c a l  i n the t h e o r e t i c a l  and 1606.^  c o n s i d e r a t i o n both  seventeenth and  century  currency  first  half  musical  works  A practice cultivated  c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l important  rhetoric  o f Joachim  into  of the e i g h t e e n t h  s t y l e s and concepts  century,  Burmeister  i n 1599,  o f Johann A d o l f  rhetoric caused  century.  The number  d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the  i n part  by changes i n  of m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n c o m b i n a t i o n  Scheibe's  was an  and t h e o r i s t s throughout the  w i t h the  g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f p h i l o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the s c h o o l s . time  was  i n Germany, the a p p l i -  the e i g h t e e n t h  of d i s c u s s i o n s o f musical  His-  figures  i n musical compositions  f o r composers  and w e l l  and o r a t o r i c a l  primarily  figures  i n the Baroque.  By t h e  and Johann N i k o l a u s Forkel's w r i t i n g s i n 2  the  second  half  o f the e i g h t e e n t h  century,  t h e F i g u r e n l e h r e as a  '''The f i r s t of Burmeister's treatises to d e a l w i t h m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i s Hypomnematum m u s i c a e p o e t i c a e ( R o s t o c k , 1599). The i n i t i a l l i s t o f twenty-two f i g u r e s was supplemented and developed two y e a r s l a t e r i n h i s Mus i c a a u t o s c h e d i a s t i k e ( R o s t o c k , 1601) and Musica p o e t i c a (Rostock, 1606). Scheibe's w r i t i n g s on m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c appeared over a number o f y e a r s i n C r i t i s c h e r Musicus ( L e i p z i g , 1737-90). Forkel's d i s c u s s i o n s o f m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c a r e f o u n d i n h i s A l l g e m e i n e Ge_£C_hi £h_te d e r Mujsik 1  1 2 9  p r a c t i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l and a n a l y t i c a l system was Beginning  with  Arnold  Schering's  study  effectively  of  at an end.  musical-rhetorical  3 figures  from  1908,  a varied with  the  assortment  articles  dealing  subject  century.  Some of these are c h i e f l y  primarily  comparative  or c a t a l o g i c  have t r e a t e d m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c tively  have  o f books,  dissertations  appeared  reference works, i n nature."*  i n the 4  (Gbttingen,  7  Still  twentieth  w h i l e o t h e r s are  A number o f the s t u d i e s  i n a f a i r l y general sense,  l a r g e p o r t i o n have focused on the works o f s p e c i f i c  composers.  and  6  and a r e l a -  theorists  o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d m a i n l y on  and  specific  1788).  A. S c h e r i n g , "Die Lehre von den m u s i k a l i s c h e n F i g u r e n , " Kirchenmus i k a l i s c h e s Jahrbuch 21 (1908): 106-14. S e e A. S c h m i t z , " F i g u r e , m u s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e , " D i e M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und G e g e n w a r t (1955), 4, c o l s 176-83; G. J . Buelow. " M u s i c , R h e t o r i c , and the Concept o f the A f f e c t i o n s ; a S e l e c t i v e B i b l i o g r a p h y , " N o t e s 30 (1973): 250-59; G. J . B u e l o w , " R h e t o r i c and M u s i c , " The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f Music and M u s i c i a n s (1980), 15, pp. 793-803. 4  lehre  ^See, f o r example, D. B a r t e l , Handbuch der m u s i k a l i s c h e n F i g u r e n (Laaber: L a a b e r - V e r l a g , 1985).  S e e S c h e r i n g , op. c i t . ; W. G u r l i t t , "Musik und Rhetork," H e l i c o n 5 (1944): 67-86; H.-H. Unger, Die Beziehungen zwischen Musik und R h e t o r i k im 16.-18. Jahrhundert (Wurzburg: K. T r i l t s c h , 1941). 6  Some o f the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l s t u d i e s that d e a l w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e s i n c l u d e : A. S c h m i t z , " D i e F i g u r e n l e h r e i n den t h e o r e t i s c h e n Werken J. G. Walthers," A r c h i v f u r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 19 (1952): 79-100; M. Ruhnke, J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r : e i n B e i t r a g z u r M u s i k l e h r e urn 1600, L a n d e s i n s t i t u t f u r M u s i k f o r s c h u n g , v o l . 5 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1955); F. F e l d m a n n , " M a t t h e s o n und R h e t o r i k , " B e r i c h t i i b e r den i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r m u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t i e r Kongress, Hamburg 1956, ed. by W. G e r s t e n b e r g e t a l . ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1957): 99-103; F. Feldmann, " M u s i k t h e o r e t i k e r i n eigenen Kompositionen; Untersuchungen am Werk des T i n c t o r i s , Adam von F u l d a und N u c i u s , " Deutsches Jahrbuch der M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 1 (1957): 39-65; F. Feldmann, "Das 'Opusculum b i p a r t i t u m ' des J o a c h i m Thuringus (1625), besonders i n s e i n e n Beziehungen zu Joh. Nucius (1613)," A r c h i v flir M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 5 (1958): 123-42; B. V. R i v e r a , German M u s i c T h e o r y i n the E a r l y 17th 7  130  compositions,  compositional  There have of  yet  to  musical-rhetorical  precedures  be any m u s i c o l o g i c a l figures  the  the  results  scholar  critically genus  of  would  an e x a m i n a t i o n need  assessed.  studies  in a specific  Such an u n d e r t a k i n g would of course for  and even s p e c i f i c  a valid  genus o f  be a f o r m i d a b l e  of  a single  means  by  of  the  application  occasional  task,  for  in  which  the  data  order  could  C o m p a r i s o n w i t h the m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c of  understanding of at  music.  type to be of much v a l u e ,  w o u l d be the most l i k e l y m e t h o d o f e v a l u a t i o n ,  r e q u i r e a comprehensive  figures.  but  be  another  this  l e a s t one other genus.  would With  Century: The T r e a t i s e s o f Johannes L i p p i u s , S t u d i e s i n M u s i c o l o g y , ed. by G. J . B u e l o w , no. 17, (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1980). S t u d i e s that focus on the works of s p e c i f i c composers i n c l u d e G. T o u s s a i n t , "Die Anwendung der m u s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s chen F i g u r e n i n den Werken v o n H e i n r i c h S c h u t z " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Mainz U n i v e r s i t y , 1949); H. Rauhe, " D i c h t u n g und M u s i k i n w e l t l i c h e n V o k a l w e r k J . H. S c h e i n s : S t i l i s t i s c h e und k o m p o s i t i o n s t e c h n i s c h e U n t e r s u c h u n g e n zum W o r t - T o n - V e r h a l t n i s im L i c h t e der r h e t o r i s c h a u s g e r i c h t e t e n Sprach- und M u s i k t h e o r i e des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Hamburg U n i v e r s i t y , 1959 [ I 9 6 0 ] ) ; J . Mii 1 l e r - B l at t a u , D i e Kompos i t i o n s l e h r e S c h l i t z e n s i n d e r Fas sung s e i n e s S c h u l e r s C h r i s t o p h B e r n h a r d , 2nd e d . (C a s s e l , B a s e l , P a r i s , L o n d o n , New Y o r k : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1963); A. S c h m i t z D i e B i l d l i c h k e i t in d e r w o r t g e b u n d e n e n M u s i k J . S. Bachjs, 4 t h ed. (Laaber: Laaber V e r l a g , 1983). 8 Works w h i c h f o c u s p r i m a r i l y on t h e m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c o f s i n g l e c o m p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d e C. V. P a l i s c a , "Ut o r a t o r i a musicae: the R h e t o r i c a l B a s i s of M u s i c a l M a n n e r i s m , " i n The M e a n i n g o f M a n n e r i s m , ed. by F . W. R o b i n s o n and S. G. N i c h o l s ( H a n o v e r , N. H . : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f New England, 1972), pp. 37-65; U. K i r k e n d a l e , "The Sources of Bach's M u s i c a l O f f e r i n g : The I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a o f Q u i n t i l i a n , " The J o u r n a l o f the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 33, no. 1 (1980): 88-141. The r h e t o r i c o f fugue as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e i s d e a l t w i t h i n G. G. B u t l e r , "Fugue and R h e t o r i c , " J o u r n a l o f M u s i c T h e o r y 21 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 49-109. S t u d i e s which d e a l m a i n l y w i t h s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l d e t a i l s i n c l u d e C. Dahlhaus, "Die F i g u r a e s u p e r f i c i a l e s i n den T r a k t a t e n C h r i s t o p h Bernhards," i n B e r i c h t liber den i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r musikwissenschaftlicher K o n g r e s s , B a m b e r g 1_9_53, e d . by W. B r e n n e c k e et a l . ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1954). pp. 1 3 5 - 3 8 ; G. M a s s e n k e i l , "Die W i e d e r ho lungs f i g u r e n i n den Orator i e n G. C a r i s s i m i s , " A r c h i v fiir M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 13 (1956): 42-60.  131  regard  to the  present  study,  f o r example,  the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e  r o l e of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n seventeenth-century music c o u l d best be  seen i n the  yet  body  contemporary,  of  ad  i n a u g u r a l or c o r o n a t i o n music the two  genres should  light  of another,  hoc  literature  -- and  counterparts,  that  would a g a i n orations  i n funerary i s , the  i n order  to  and  f u n e r a l sermon and  involve detailed  German f u n e r a l  --  such  rhetorical  or  wedding,  one  another. the  the music's  compari-  oratorical  the Abdankung.  analyses  a s c e r t a i n whether  as  i f the r h e t o r i c s of  of e v a l u a t i o n might be  compositions  not  of  a  But  Baroque  this  rhetorical  respect.  treatises  themselves  C h r i s t o p h Weissenborn,  offer  this  l a r g e number  there  was  indeed  d e m o n s t r a b l e tendency towards f a v o u r i n g c e r t a i n f i g u r e s over The  the  preferably contrasting  only  prove to be at v a r i a n c e w i t h  A p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e method son o f f i g u r e s used  even then  of  little  of a  others.  assistance in  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of e l o c u t i o i n  Q  his  Politischer  study to  and  Leich=Redner,  i m i t a t e the  the v a r i o u s r h e t o r i c In s p i t e of these  simply  advises  the  novice  parentator  works o f the b e s t German o r a t o r s , ^ and manuals of the  to  to  refer  day.^  inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  i t i s p o s s i b l e to view i n  C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner w e l c h e r d i e p r a c t i c a b e l ^ s t e n K u n s t = R e g u l n von d e r I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n d e r e r n a c h d e r h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n A b d a n c k u n g e n bey_ o f f e n t l i c h e n T r a u e r = S o l e n n i e n zu B e f b r d e r u n g s e i n e r O r a t o r i s c h e n C o l l e g i o r u m durch d e u t l i c h e Exempe 1 e r l e u t e r t . ( J e n a : H e i n r i c h C h r i s t o p h Crbker, 1707), pp. 177-84. Weissenborn begins t h i s t h i r d s e c t i o n on e l o c u t i o (p. 177) by d e f i n i n g i t as t h e " m i t g e s c h i c k t e n W o r t e n und R e d e n s = A r t e n a u s g e s c h m i i c k t e n A u s a r b e i t u n g d e r e r d i s p o n i r t e n Thematum." ("...elaboration o f the o r d e r e d s u b j e c t s , d e c o r a t e d w i t h s k i l f u l words and m a n n e r s o f speech.") Ibid.,  p.  183.  Ibid.,  p.  184.  1 0  U  132  a limited figures  c a p a c i t y the  used  r o l e o f a s m a l l number o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  i n funerary  compositions.  f u n e r a l music d e p i c t a s p i r i t u a l  Because  transition  the  texts  from t h i s w o r l d  heading  o f t h e two  of h y p o t y p o s i s  C a t a b a s i s and The  achieved  that  they  f i g u r e s t h a t come u n d e r t h e  seem to be most e f f e c t i v e  through  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  rhetorical  are d e s c r i p t i v e and  by  The  opposite  i n this  general  regard.  Anabasis  hypotypotic  best  defined  realms.  most  to the next,  t h e a u t h o r s ' c h o i c e of words w o u l d have to d e m o n s t r a t e t h e natures  of  Athanasius  temporal  figures  antithetical  and  heavenly  c a t a b a s i s and  to each other.  K i r c h e r i n h i s Musurgia u n i v e r s a l i s  worlds i s anabasis  in  Catabasis i s (Rome,  1650)  as f o l l o w s : C a t a b a s i s o r d e s c e n t i s a m u s i c a l p e r i o d , w h e r e b y we e x p r e s s t h e o p p o s i t e a f f e c t of the p r e c e d i n g [i.e., a n a b a s i s ] , as of s e r v i t u d e , i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , d e p r e s s i o n , and moreover of most i n f e r n a l t h i n g s , as i n M a s s a i n u s ' s 'I am however very i n s i gn i f i c an t ' and Massentius's 'the l i v i n g have descended i n t o h e l l . ' 2  M a u r i t i u s J o h a n n V o g t , i n h i s Cone l a v e t h e s a u r i magnae a r t i s mus i c a e (Prague, figure:  1719), sheds a l i t t l e more l i g h t on t h e m u s i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e "Catabasis  or descent  exists  when one  descends w i t h  the v o i c e ,  13 as w i t h  the t e x t Tie descends i n t o h e l l ' . "  The  f i g u r e i s also treated  i n much .the same manner i n the w r i t i n g s o f Thomas B a l t h a s a r J a n o w k a , A. K i r c h e r , M u s u r g i a u n i v e r s a l i s (Rome 1650), 50. 8, p. 145. " C a t a b a s i s s i v e descensus p e r i o d u s harmonica e s t , qua o p p o s i t o s p r i o r i a f f e c t u s pronunciamus s e r v i t u t i s , h u m i l i t a t i s , d e p r e s s i o n i s a f f e c t i b u s , atque i n f i m i s rebus exprimendes, ut i l l u d M a s s a i n i : Ego autem h u m i l i a t u s sum n i m i s , & i l l u d M a s s e n t i i : descenderunt i n infernum v i v e n t e s . " C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 115. M. J . V o g t , Cone l a v e t h e s a u r i magnae a r t i s mus i c a e ( P r a g u e , 1719), p. 150. " C a t a b a s i s d e s c e n s u s cum vox d e s c e n d i t , ut cum t e x t u d e s c e n d i t ad i n f e r n o s . " C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 115.  133  Johann W a l t h e r and  Meinrad  Musical-rhetorical the  opposite  of  through which and  The  anabasis  catabasis.  we  express  eminent t h i n g s ,  etc.)."*"'  Spiess.*  term  as  He  4  or  ascensio,  describes  i s again defined  text,  as  in  'he  ascends  "a m u s i c a l  something  lofty,  i n i t s more m u s i c a l  into  indicates, is  ( C h r i s t ascending  Cone l a v e t h e s a u r i : " A n a b a s i s i s an a s c e n t , and  Kircher  anabasis as  something e x a l t e d ,  i n moral matters  as  w h e r e b y we  heaven'."*  6  As  period  or  noble  i n t o heaven,  sense i n Vogt's ascend i n v o i c e  with  catabasis, 17  anabasis i s d e a l t w i t h  i n the w r i t i n g s of Janowka, Walther and  When c o n s i d e r i n g  the  treatment  of  a p p l i c a t i o n o f a n a b a s i s or c a t a b a s i s , composers d i d not suggestive achieve in  slavishly  of ascent  either  independently  possibly  sensations  rhythm, or  circumstances,  I t was by  or tempo.  i n conjunction  i n c l u d i n g , of course,  i t should  possible,  instituting  suggest i n mind  with  one  of p h r a s i n g  and  or more of  to  be  treated  the  others,  Depending on  melodic  was  contrasts  shape, or  * F o r the d e f i n i t i o n s o f c a t a b a s i s g i v e n by Janowka, W a l t h e r S p i e s s , see B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 115-16. 4  that  f o r example,  appropriate  catabasis.  the  text that  These elements c o u l d  anabasis and  considerations  be k e p t  these f i g u r e s to every  or descent.  s i m i l a r musical  dynamics, metre,  apply  t e x t s w h i c h may  Spiess.  the of and  *^A. K i r c h e r , op. c i t . , 50. 8. p. 145. "...periodus harmonica, quam [ s i c ] e x a l t a t i o n e m , ascensionem v e l res a l t a s & eminentes exprimimus, ut i l l u d M o r a l i s (Ascendens C h r i s t u s i n altum etc.)." C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 84. 1 f\  M. J . V o g t , op. c_i_t., p. 150. "Anabasis ascensus e s t , ut cum v o c e & t e x t u a s c e n d i m u s : ut a s c e n d i t i n c a e l u m . " C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. cit., 85. * S e e B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 115-16. 7  134  keeping the melody w i t h i n singers,  the ambitus  of the mode and  o f t e n o v e r r u l e d a s t r i c t adherence  descending m e l o d i c  line  otherwise  implied  measures o f Johann Pezel's f o u r - p a r t  canon,  the range of the  to a c o n t i n u i n g a s c e n d i n g or by  the t e x t .  In the  opening  f o r example, w r i t t e n  on  the  18 death of Stephan line  C h r i s t i a n Dedekind  should i d e a l l y  1 0  have c o n t i n u e d i t s descent  entire  p h r a s e "Es s c h a l l t  lowest  note  1.)  i n 1672,  the c a t a b a t i c  melodic  f o r the d u r a t i o n  of  the  d i e gantze Welt von l a u t e r E i t e l k e i t , " the  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the  final  syllable  of text.  (See  Example  However, i n o r d e r t o k e e p w i t h i n the r a n g e s of the v o i c e s as w e l l  as t o shape t h e m e l o d i c minor  third  on  line,  Pezel a l l o w s a concluding ascent of a  "Eitelkeit."  Example 1. J . P e z e l : "Es s c h a l l t d i e gantze Welt von k e i t , " measures 1-7.  lauter  Eitel-  J. P e z e l , Des Menschen-Lebens E i t e l k e i t / A l s Der Wohl-Erenveste / Vor-Achtbare und W o h l g e l a h r t e Hr Stephan C h r i s t i a n DEDEKIND j_ S. S. Theologize Cultor, & Philosophiae Baccal. Auff dieser l b b l . U n i v e r s i t a t zu L e i p z i g j_ den 18. J u n i j des 1672sten Jahres j_ m i t einem a n s e h n l i c h e Leich=Begangnus j_ C h r i s t l i c h b e e r d i g e t wurde [_ Dem S e l i g e n J_ a l s einem werthe M i t g l i e d e j_ zu s t e t e n Ehren j_ e n t w a r f f s In e i n e r Trauer=Ode j_ das C o l l e g i u m Musicum.... [at the end o f the c o m p o s i t i o n ] In honorem atqve sempiternam memoriam beate DEFUNCTI compositus, proecedentiq, h u i c Odae accommodatus h JOHANNE PEZEL10, D i r e c t . C o l l e g . ( s . l . [ L e i p z i g ? ] , 1672). G o t h a , F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k F i l l 34 ( 5 ) . See C h a p t e r 3, f o o t n o t e 39 above.  135  The  degree of p e r s u a s i v e n e s s of a n a b a s i s  governed by the  form of c o m p o s i t i o n i n which the  one would expect, compositions the  music  verse.  written in a cantional style d i d not  focused  Thus  the  Hermann S c h e i n ' s Corvinus neige."*^  was  his  change  catabasis  conceived  for  E x a m p l e 2.)  melody and t e x t i n subsequent coincidental. did  used  as  simple  i n 1625  which  the o p e n i n g  Thomas.  of  solo  (See  F l e u g ("fly"),  strophic.  As  this  soprano  voice  first  i n Johann  f u n e r a l o f Anna  Maria  " H e r r d e i n Ohre zu m i r  Any f u r t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e v e r s e s would most  composer the  word-painting  text,  between  l i k e l y have been  portrays  pure and s i m p l e ,  anonymously composed  a prosopopoeial the  deceased  The k e y e v o c a t i v e  words  the  totally  straightforward figures.  can be seen i n the  E x a m p l e 3.)  of  in  Because  the  text  However, m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l s o l e c i s m s ,  example  the  also  were used.  verse,  the  f o r the  "Fleug mein Seelgen auf zu Gott" from 1664, in  to  on s e t t i n g  o c c u r i n the use o f t h e s e two q u i t e  excellent  i.e.,  from v e r s e  attention  music w r i t t e n  (See  figures  was  the a p p l i c a t i o n of such f i g u r e s was most r e s t r i c t e d  itself  customarily  and c a t a b a s i s  aria  composition  Maria of  An  the  Elisabeth text - r  auf zu Gott ("up to God") - - u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y r e q u i r e  some  J . H. S c h e i n , C u p r e s s u s l u c t u s a c e r b i o r i s . . . p r o c a p u l o . . . Annae M a r i a e , p u e l l u l a e s u p r a a e t a t u l a m . . . Dn. M. A n d r e a e C o r v i n i . . . f i l i o l a e . . . 4. A p r i l i s , anno M.DC.XXV. mortuae... emblematis m u s i c i s v e r m i c u 1ata.... ( L e i p z i g : s. n. [ F . L a n c k i s c h ] , 1625). Z w i c k a u , R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k , M. 6. 6. 32. 20  E x c e p t i o n s would be those works i n which the tenor of the t e x t u a l r h e t o r i c r e m a i n s more o r l e s s the same i n e a c h v e r s e . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s F r i e d r i c h Funcke's "Ach H e r t z e l e i d ! " (See f u l l r e f e r e n c e footnote 25 below.) 21  •  •  •  A n o n . , D i e r u f f e n d e S t i m m des h i m m l i s c h e n B r ' a u t i g a m s . . . z u . . . li!l£ .£ia£fi££}!.tBHiL d e r . . . F r a u e n M a r i a E l i s a b e t h a d e s . . . H e r r n Iohann Thomasen... E h e f r a u e n , a l s d i e s e l b e . . . d i e s e s . . . 1 6 6 4 . I a h r s . . . v e r s c h i e d e n (Regensburg: C. F i s c h e r , 1664). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i t o h e k , 4 i n Ee 651. e  136  s o r t of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  a n a b a s i s , e i t h e r as an ascending m e l o d i c  o r l e a s t some i n t e r v a l l i c  i n t i m a t i o n of upwards m o t i o n .  common p r a c t i c e steadily  and  good t a s t e ,  descending  E x a m p l e 2. 1-4.  Ae«r>  5^*fr J*^ ^'*  ^CA  Herr  d«t^  OUre  nai  T  z  u  1  rot'r  and  s o r r o w ; the  earthly the  One  Gastorius's  "0  the  catabasis  t h i r d and  the  to  t e x t to a  ex Wore  i n funeral text.  One  wick  neigen," measures  e\r»w\T>\  /  rmcU l i n m a l /  zu  In  the  example  of of  first the  instance,  T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der  mich  f o u r t h p h r a s e s o f the  m e i n g a n t z V e r l a n g e n , I s t d u r c h den  137  be  icW  W  "axm  nd  i s most o f t e n  asso-  concerns p e r s o n a l  catabasis  our  on  seen i n the  the  suffering  transitory  i s used  to  enhance  loss  Cantus of  f a s t gantz e n t s e e l e t "  of  the  Severus  (SATB), where  f i r s t v e r s e , " M e i n T r o s t und Tod  w  1-2.  music  mourners' laments  t h i s can  ~&e«r*  Gott," measures  o t h e r d e a l s w i t h m a t t e r s o f d e a t h and  portrayal  deceased.  .^a-  g e n e r a l types o f  existence.  textual  <L*-\not"t  *  Anon.: "Fleug mein Seelgen auf  Musical-rhetorical two  Contrary  line.  \Wx~  with  composer i n e p t l y sets  J . H. S c h e i n : " H e r r d e i n Ohre zu m i r  Example 3.  ciated  the  line  d a h i n gegangen," are  Stab,  set to a  w i n d i n g but c l e a r l y descending m e l o d i c l i n e .  (See E x a m p l e 4.)  An  e v e n c l e a r e r e x a m p l e c a n be s e e n i n M a r t i n S e i d e l ' s t r e a t m e n t o f  the  Cantus  for  the  phrase " J a a l l e s L e b e n s l u s t v e r d o r b e n " i n h i s  "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach L e i d und Schmertzen!" (SATB),  where  the  four-part catabatic  l i n e , w h i c h c o v e r s a f u l l o c t a v e , b e g i n s p r e c i p i t o u s l y w i t h downward leap of a perfect 5,  measures  f o u r t h before  •J  -  p  i  descent.  (See Example  9-10.)  Example 4. S. G a s t o r i u s : e n t s e e l e t , " measures 1-2. f 1)  continuing i t s  —  i +  "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der m i c h f a s t  Q-  |—_  1  I  1  *  1  1  gantz  .  ,  ' " °  S. G a s t o r i u s , K l a g - und T r a u e r - G e s p r a c h bey L e i c h - B e g a n g n u s s d e s s . . . H e r r n W i l k e n v o n B e r g l a s e n . . . den 18. A u g u s t i des 1679sten J a h r e s . . . i n e i n e r A r i e g e s e t z e t (Jena: Johann W e r t h e r , 1679). Munich, B a y e r i s c h e S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , S l g . Her 0 238/5. 23 M . S e i d e l , K1 ag_- u n d T r o s t - L i e d ^ n we 1 c h e n . . . D e s H e r r n DanDechants...a 1 s . . . W i t t b e r seiner Eheliebsten tbdlichen H i n t r i t t hertzund s c h m e r t z l i c h b e k l a g t ; dargegen aber auss G o t t e s Wort s i c h k r a f f t i g l i c h wiederumb t r b ' s t e t und a u f f r i c h t e t I n e i n e r g e r i n g f u g i g e n P o e s i e und M e l o d i a v e r f a s s e t ( s . l . , s.n., s.d.). M u n i c h , B a y e r i s h e S t a a t s b i b l i o thek, S l g . Her. 0 238/12. 138  Example 5. continued.  iii  !U  r  i  a  p  f  M. S e i d e l :  r  f  r r r r  JJ J  roe;«ex EW  ,—.  -0-4  "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach L e i d und Schmertzen,"  ^ r  J  J—j  J  —I 1  ,.1  ,J  s  r-^T 1*  \;eV%\e« T«n'  =4  Specific typically  w o r d s e x p r e s s i v e o f an a n g u i s h e d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e a r e  s e t t o some  sort  of catabasis.  Schmertz  ("pain"), f o r  i n s t a n c e , appears r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y i n these laments and i s commonly s e t to a descending melodic l i n e ,  as c a n be r e a d i l y  phrase o f Severus G a s t o r i u s ' s "0 T r a u e r - F a l l !  seen  Der m i c h  i n the second f a s t gantz e n t -  o/  seelet."  (See Example 6.)  F o r the most p a r t , the l a m e n t i v e t e x t "was  e m p f i n d i c h doch v o r b i t t e r n Schmertz!", w i t h o n l y s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n , i s s e t t o a s t e a d i l y d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e i n t h e C a n t u s f r o m e " t o e", the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of which i s p a r a l l e l e d t o l e s s e r degrees i n the A l t u s and B a s s u s . 25 Of c o u r s e , t h e s e d e s c e n d • ing m e l o d i c passages are rhetorically  a p p r o p r i a t e t o any t e x t s e x p r e s s i n g g r i e f , such as t h e  Gastorius,  op.  cit.  25 • S i m i l a r m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f " p a i n " can be found i n w o r k s by o t h e r c o m p o s e r s , among them F r i e d r i c h F u n c k e , H e i n r i c h Schwemmer and M a r t i n S e i d e l . See "Works C i t e d " f o r F. Funcke, Klag=und T r o s t = Z e i l e n . . . ( L u n e b u r g , 1665); H. Schwemmer, T e x t - L i e d l i b e r d e n s e l i g s t e n H i n t r i t t . . . ( L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661); S e i d e l , op. c i t .  139  first  and f i n a l phrases  of the opening  v e r s e o f F r i e d r i c h Funcke's music  the f u n e r a l of Leonhard von D a s s e l i n 1665.  for  (See Example  E x a m p l e 6. S. G a s t o r i u s : "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! e n t s e e l e t , " measures 1-2.  Example 7.  rf-4  ft f  r  I I I <}> »•> |  1 ^, f *<— •' — •' == r  =• ,r  :• »>1»•>  A<V.  1  a  fast  gantz  H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 9-12.  F. Funcke: "Ach!  r  Der m i c h  7.)  C  -  ftcW.  ttw  j^ —•—— \ix -  ,  n  -WA. - Wd-  ~  j i  1 | "VswllrV*-  f  _ | . .  <^u««.\Cs  = = = j  U.n  ? S  > J »,). EEEpE •fed.  T 3  r  1  f  .WA.  AcV  f Ac>N  tt^T.*  Pj,^  ^  \ W  ftcV  _\.aCe». •  W__Yf<A.  F. F u n c k e , K l a g = u n d T r o s t = Z e i l e n / i i b e r d e n s c h m e r t z l i c h e n H i n t r i t Des Weiland j_ Wohl=Edlen j_ Vesten / Gross=Achtbaren und Wohlfiirnehmen H e r r n j_ H e r r n L e o n h a r d v o n D a s s e l j_ Vornehmen und u h r - a l t e n B e s c h l e c h t e r a l l h i r ]_ Welcher durch e i n e n u n v e r h o f t e n und f r u h - z e i t i g e n / j d o c h h b c h t s = [ s e l i ? ] g e n H i n r i s s d e s Todes d e n 12. J a n u a r i i i n d i s e m i t z t l a u f f e n d e n 1665 J a h r e d i s e K u m m e r = v o l i e W e l t g e s e g n e t [_ und d e r Seelen nach / s i c h Himmel-an geschwungen / Aus t i f s t - s c h u l d i g e m j_ auch h e r t z l i c h e m M i t l e i d e n [_ Wi^e a u c h A l l e n j_ l i b e r d i s e m u n v e r h o f t e n Todes=Fall s c h m e r t z l i c h Betriibeten ]_ zu T r o s t / und d i n s t - f r e u n d l i c h e m Gefallen... j_ g e s c h r i b e n und a b g e s u n g e n v o n FRIDERICO FUNCCIO, C a n t o r e S c h o l e S e n a t o r i a e ( L u n e b u r g : s.n., 1665). Gotha, F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , Theol. f o l . 357-358 13/15. 140  The way  second a p p l i c a t i o n of c a t a b a s i s  r e s t r i c t e d to d e p i c t i o n s  rhetorical  and  of  all  life,  voices  mourning  of  with  the  life  and  varying  the f i g u r e was  congregation.  the use  on  earth.  degrees  of  descending  (SSATB), Johann Rosenmuller w r i t e s  hat  der  that  In h i s  greater  judging  reference  melodic  motion  Mensch a u f f d i e s e r  i t i s "Nur  i n no  by  o f t h i s f i g u r e as a  death  f i v e - p a r t "Was  Of  i n these c o m p o s i t i o n s ,  l a r g e number o f c a s e s , was  portraying  transitory  the  t h e o l o g i c a l importance  the r e l a t i v e l y means  of  shows that  to in  Erden?"  Elend, Jammer, Angst  97  und  Noth."  (See  Example 8.)  of t r a n s i t o r y l i f e , for  ing  a literary  melodies.  The  opening i n t e r r o g a t i v e i n t h i s line,  at once the baseness of t h i s e a r t h / l i f e w h i l e m u s i c a l l y  figure  r h e t o r i c a l question  i s Rosenmuller's d e c i s i o n  i n f l e c t i o n usual Johann P e z e l  itself. not  Contributing to employ  to the  the  catabasis  to  the  beginning of h i s  depicts  implying  an  e f f e c t of  rising  to m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s o f t e x t u a l q u e s t i o n s .  applies  symbol  as b e i n g s u i t a b l e  i s a l s o set to a p r i m a r i l y descending m e l o d i c  answer to the this  i n t h i s context  i s a l s o a word which composers saw  settings with catabatic  composition  Earth,  melodic  Similarly  four-part  canon  98  "Es  schallt  d i e gantze Welt von  Leibnitz,  writing  protracts  his  lauter E i t e l k e i t , "  somewhat more f r e e l y though no  catabasis  over  two  phrases of  while  Johann Georg  less e f f e c t i v e l y ,  t e x t , "Weg  mit  Dir,  du  99  f a l s c h e Welt! Du  f a l s c h e s Heergetummel."  (See  Example  9.)  27 J. Rosenmuller, L e t z t e r Abschied j_ Des E h r e n v e s t e n j_ V o r a c h t b a r n /_ W o l g e l a h r t e n und Wohlweisen Herrn Bartholoma'i Hayns j_ Welcher nach Got t e s u n e r f o r s c h l i c h e m Ra_th und W i l l e n den 7_^ Ma_i i^m J a h r 1650. i.n C h r i s t o s e i n e m ErK>s_er d i e s e Wel_t g e s e g n e t . Und den 9j_ H e r n a c h m i t a n s e h n l i c h e B e g l e i t u n g i n seine Ruhestatt getragen warden j_ Zu Bezeigung s e i n e s2 8 Peze C h r i1,s top. l i cchietn . M i t l'e i d e n s e y l f e r t i g a u f f g e s e t z t von Johann R o s e n m i i l l e r ( L e i p z i g : F r i e d r i c h L a n c k i s c h ' s Erben, 1650). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358, 2 of M u s i c a l i a . 141  E x a m p l e 8. J . R o s e n m u l l e r : "Was Erden?", measures 1-3.  :  r  p  J  Example measures  J  d<  9. J . G. 1-3.  J i  "  Leibnitz:  -t • "fervor  n  -w  •  •  ^  «l  Musical-rhetorical text  i n which death or d y i n g  being  infirmity; example  representative dying,  D i r , du  dieser  falsche  gr~  f  Welt!",  -c\\  Wso^a -0 •—•  *  •  VMA-,t * VtL«rv  — .-VCY^W>«.V  \0  p >,  -PoWe Vies  "XC-U K ^ K  physical interment;  The  J —- Vy-,^U< WitW  figure  is particularly  can be r e a d i l y understood  and  spiritual  hell  (See Example  weakness  and d a m n a t i o n .  10.)  Immediately  a b r i e f m e l o d i c a s c e n t on t h e w o r d s ''So b a l d w i r nur g e b o r e n 29  #  most o f t e n a p p l i e d t o passages o f  A  o f t h i s i s t o be f o u n d , once a g a i n , i n Rosenmu'ller's "Was  der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?"  VnrAif  _  the descending l i n e  d e a t h and  auff  i^—  rt  i s mentioned.  of  Mensch  ,  mit  CaWW^ —•  c a t a b a s i s was  a p p r o p r i a t e here i n t h a t as  \M«M\  der  t  y  1*  •  if— —  ,  "Weg  v  -%  ,  :  VldH'.  AWs  hat  and fine hat  following werden,"  • J . G. L e i b n i t z , E c k e l , Ob d e r e i t l e n W e l t e m p f a n g e n / und n a c h JESU s e h n l i c h = g e t r a g e n e s V e r l a n g e n Des... H. I o h a n n - G e o r g L e i b n i t z . . . W e i l a n d / P f a r r e r zu R a s c h und V i c a r i i i n A l t d o r f f i A n f a n g s v o n ihm s e l b s t e i g e n h a n d i g a u f g e s e t z e t : j e t z o a b e r , n a c h s e i n e m den 3. M a r t i i d i e s e s J a h r s j_ geschehenem se 1 igem A b l e i b e n ]_ Zum D r u c k b e f o r d e r t (Nuremberg: Wolfgang Eberhard F e l s e c k e r , 1671). Zwickau, RatsschuTBTb^ l i o t h e k , M. 53, 6. 142  the m e l o d i c an b i s s  i n den Todt."  emphasizes death.  l i n e r e v e r s e s d i r e c t i o n and descends  both  Other  the  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the change o f m e l o d i c inevitability  compositions  of c o r p o r e a l death  to the t e x t "da geht es  o f death  which i n t h i s  and  way  i n c l u d e w o r k s by Jakob  direction  the p r o x i m i t y l i f e  mention  the  Scheiffelhut  and  inevitability and  Heinrich  31 Schwemmer.  Catabasis is applied  d e a t h and b u r i a l consort  w i t h the t e x t  song "Hie l i e g  by  Schwemmer to suggest c o r p o r e a l  "Es g r a b e t a l l g e m a c h  der Todt" i n h i s  i c h i i b e r h a u f f t mit Schmertzen."  (See E x a m p l e  11.) E x a m p l e 10. J. Rosenmuller: Erden?", measures 4-6.  ^ 7  m  „  Sa  VaU-Wir r\ur ^atooTCn  ,r  wt/f  "Was  r  r  .den / da  1 i  J  1 J  hat  .den/ da. eji»v  Mensch  auff  dieser  / J J  M  an  i  t  I J  der  J K  i ^  \>;^ ^  i J  i  y ,„  o  ,jei\  =  \r J  1„ „  r  \  y  \^ V ^  ^  i  d c n  J. S c h e i f f e l h u t , Die urn d i e Sterbens-Lehr b i t t e n d e und zum Leben und Tod Gott ergebene Seele m i t ihrem f r e u d i g e n W e l t - V a l e t . Der w e i l a n d J a c o b i n a Thurmin...zu l e t z t - s c h u l d i g e n Ehren...in N o t e n g e b r a c h t , das e r s t e von Jacob S c h e i f f e l h u t , das andere von D a n i e l Merk (Augsburg: J. J. Schbnigk, 1693). Kempten/Allgau, K i r c h e n b i b l i o t h e k der E v a n g e l i s c h L u t h e r i s c h e n P f a r r a m t S t . Mang, V. 3. 16. c. 31  • • H. Schemmer, T e x t - L i e d u'ber den ££j^g_££ en H i n t r l t t und b e y C h r i s t l i c h e r B e s t a t t u n g d e r E d l e n und T u g e n d r e i c h s t e n F r a u e n M a r i e n = M a g d a l e n e n /_ g e b o h r n e n PELLERINNEN / Des_ E d l e n und V e s t e n J u n c k h e r r n B e n e d i c t W i n c k l e r . . . Eh=S c h a t z e s... ( L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661). N u r e m b e r g , . S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , W i l l I I 1208.4°. 143  '  E x a m p l e 11. H. Schwemmer: "Hie tzen," measures 13-15.  |fc=^  ij,  =3= j  p  f  .  1  L.  1  i  J-'**)  L  H i  J •  r 1  p  J  J  ••' 1 • •• •  , 1  J  *  rJ  e  'j  1  J  J  |  •••• \  j  I  lieg  J  J  ]"  r  •  J  J  r  J  .1  1  J  J  i c h u'berhaufft  P  r*  J i. 1  p  — t — U - f  1  1  mit  Schmer-  J  1  J  II  J  J  J  i  i  i  r  r4  J  P  J  i  •>  f  l  r f J t=J  1  f  r  In c o n t r a s t w i t h Baroque  f u n e r a l music  mainly  c o n s o l a t i o n , s a l v a t i o n and resurrection. rhetorical the 12.) the  The  gradual  anabasis  can  be  to p o r t r a y  t r a n s c e n d e n c e , God quickening easily  C o n t r i b u t i n g a d d i t i o n a l l y to of  triple  i n c r e a s i n g dynamic l e v e l .  reference  "und  *  used i n  of joy  and  Heaven, C h r i s t  and  effect  the  Freud."  joyous a f f e c t thickening  Anabasis on a s m a l l e r  f i g u r a t i o n s on  to God,  vitalizing  0 Wonn und  the  metre,  i n J o h a n n Hermann S c h e i n ' s "Das short anabatic  and  and  J  of  musical-  seen i n F r i e d r i c h Funcke's s e t t i n g of  t e x t "schbnes K l ingen hb'ren w i r ,  presence  textual aspects  1 1 1  i  c a t a b a s i s , m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anabasis was  J  (See  32  i n Funcke's work i s vocal  texture  s c a l e i s used  word " F r e u d e " and,  meine Z u v e r s i c h t . "  3 3  (See  later  Example  and  similarly  i s t m e i n e F r e u d e , " where he  the  Example  on  employs i n the  13.)  F u n c k e , op. c i t . 33 J . H. S c h e i n , Symbolum o d e r T a g l i c h e r T r o s t = S p r u c h v e r s . 28. M i t w e l c h e m ]_ a u f f s e i n e n l a n g w i e r i g e n C r e u t z b e t t l e i n ]_ s i c h g e t r b s t e t / ^ Herr V i n c e n t i u s Schmuck...Mit sampt dem G e n e r a l - B a s s . . . ( L e i p z i g : G e o r g R i t z s c h , 1628). Niedersachsische S t a a t s - und U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 4 ° 252/27.  144  / P s a l m 73. und S t e c h 5^ Stimmen Gbttingen, Cone. f u n .  .  Example 12.  F. Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 18-21.  H  5  1  Wore* iK.a.-  i  a  A, .it.!  — e  .1 n  J  J.. J ,  &J  -Jy—j  *f=  f  "  J]  t O  Wt>re.ry ^ — ^  j  i  S o  , ',  P,  1  i  —  J-  H  ita • •  P • •r , ... . \*Jo*viO u.v\d ^-<"«LW<^- •  ^  l  1  d  Tt 1  J  '  *t>l.  :  J tto  Wofws und. freed* 1  11 ff, o  ia,.—ft-4^-5—"  •—,d  p—*s  w i f.. iiJ Vorc^ WW / 1  p  Example 13.  —p  p  •••• I Y  \ . •• 1>—P  .  ^  ^  m 4  M  ftd  ^4  ^iiJi  •  ^  •Pre**- _ _ ,  L i n x J  lift!  1  fr«*~ n  Tre**„  1  '  _  o A  p  o  Textual  a o  i i J T  J  J  =4  r u n .  „_  T—PT  —°-  j d * y—  j _  _ d*.  _  foj.  u  bo  •  ta  °  "  -  as b r i e f a s c e n d i n g m o t i v e s  (SATB) f u n e r a l  l  -  —  m  de  e  s e t t o anabatic melodies.  t h e a n a b a s i s may u n f o l d o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d composition  The  f o r t h e word i t s e l f , o r of time  as i n M e l c h i o r  o f 1614, " I s t G o t f i i r  tt 3 A-  uns."  1  =  dt-  r e f e r e n c e s to God are o f t e n  four-part  Jo  1  £r*^  f i g u r e s may a p p e a r  Franck's  n  *<  i m - — —  i,  d*  n  Free*. _  u  j  Fre*^.......  dt  1  H  —  1  J . H. S c h e i n : "Das i s t meine Freude," measures 1-4.  -tm  A^j  ••••r ••Jto  (See E x a m p l e 14.) I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e m e l o d i c  ascent  M. Franck, T r o s t r e i c h e r Text, auss dem achten C a p i t e l der E p i s t e l P a u l i an d i e Rbmer. so bey C h r i s t l i c h e r L e i c h b e s t a t t u n g der... F r a u e n Hellenen...Hackens g e p r e d i g t . . . m i t v i e r Stimmen...componirt (Coburg: J u s t u s Hauck, 1614). L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , C. 193. 2. 145  develops  over  a p e r i o d of three t e x t u a l r e p e t i t i o n s o f " I s t Gott f u r  uns," each o f the two r e p e t i t i o n s ending a t h i r d h i g h e r than the preceding  statement.  I t might be noted a d d i t i o n a l l y  ments o f the t e x t symbolic  may have b e e n used  r e f e r e n c e t o the Holy T r i n i t y .  composition  duple by  metre w i t h  a downwards  the t e x t  intentionally  "Ich b i n z u r s a n f f t e n Ruhe kommen," f o l l o w e d  T h i s moment o f r e p o s e  rather  than conjunct  triple  metre,  o f the phrase  together  with  a  slight  the i d e a of " g e n t l e  i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e r e s u m p t i o n  of the  t h i s time a c c e l e r a t e d or compressed by d i s j u n c t  motion and a l s o by a change  significantly,  on t h e w o r d s " H e r r J e s u . "  first  M. Franck:  to t r i p l e  metre.  The  becomes p e r c e p t i b l e t o the l i s t e n e r  C o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e change o f m e t r e on t h e  word "Jesu" i s the h i g h e s t p i t c h  Example 14.  as a  (See E x a m p l e 15.) The a n a b a s i s b e g i n s i n  rounding-off  melody's upwards ascent,  by F r a n c k  i n R o s e n m i i l l e r ' s "Was h a t d e r  e x t e n s i o n o f the harmonies at the cadence t o convey rest."  state-  In a s i m i l a r v e i n to the Franck  i s the r e f e r e n c e t o Jesus  Mensch a u f f d i e s e r E r d e n ? "  t h a t the t h r e e f o l d  ( f " ) o f the c o m p o s i t i o n .  " I s t Gott  146  f u r uns," measures 1-6.  Example Erden?",  .0  •j^itj  15. J . Rosenmii 1 l e r : measures 6-8.  <Vo?*  i •  «Ua»  V  \)  .  .  ev^ _  now*^  "  "Was h a t d e r M e n s c h  »* * *' '  • *  ~»  f  t  — i" W—V V • w—i  f u n e r a l music i t passed  t o r e p r e s e n t migrant  from t h i s w o r l d  departs  this  Brancovius's music Breitenbauch.  J  Were e5e*^  _  P  p e r c e p t i o n o f music  ©  / di<  P  ewic^  _  .—  -- a p e r c e p t i o n  i n the p o l y p h o n i c age o f suggests  direc-  F o r t h i s r e a s o n a n a b a s i s was f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d i n  t e x t s were a v a i l a b l e it  -mevi  century -- anabasis by i t s very nature  t i o n and m o t i o n .  P  o  J—,  linear  dieser  l u x SanWV^ ft-V>- V ; ^ _  t h a t may c o n c e i v a b l y have been more pronounced seventeenth  o  Jfto vwm tm I -  Because o f our l a r g e l y  the  i ..  auff  states  t o the n e x t .  to the composer.  life. written  A very  of the transcendent s p i r i t as I n t h i s r e s p e c t , two t y p e s o f  The f i r s t  clear  p o r t r a y s the s p i r i t as  example  of this  i s Simon  i n 1651 f o r the f u n e r a l o f Agna E l i s a b e t h von  (See Example  16.) The phrase  "obs euch  bringt  Schmertz  S. B r a n c o v i u s , M u s i c a l i s c h e C h r i s t l i c h e E i n b i l d u n g e i n e s r e c h t b e w e g l i c h e n C l a g = und T r o s t = G e s p r a c h s V f f das f r l i e z e i t i g e doch s e l i g e Absterben Der Weyland Hoch E d e l g e b o h r n e n E h r e n und V i e l T u g e n d r e i c h e n F r a w e n J_ Agnae E l i s a b e t h e n v o n B r e i t e n b a u c h j_ G e b o h r n e n v o n V i p p a c h / Pes auch Hoch Edelgebornen j_ Gestrengen und Mannvesten Herrn j_ M e l c h i o r n von B r e i t e n b a u c h s u f f Raniss und B r a n d e n s t e i n / e t c . Churf1. D u r c h l . zu Sachsen W o h l v o r g e s a t z t e n Ober = S t e u r E i n n e h m e r s d e r Land= und T r a n c k = Steur i n den A f f e c u r i r t e n Aemptern^ H e r t z g e l i e b t e n gewesenen Haussfrawen g e r i c h t e t j_ Vnd Bey dero A d e l i c h e n L e i c h e = P r o c e s s i o n , so den 21. J u l i i Anno 1651. a n g e s t e l l e t wurde ]_ u f f zwey Chor [_ a l s wenn i m  147  und L e i d e n , d a s s i c h so b a l d m u s s t s c h e i d e n " s t e a d i l y r i s e s f r o m a' t o g " i n semiminimae d".  Two  in Cantus  p o i n t s s h o u l d be  I, r o u n d i n g  o f f the ornamented  made h e r e .  First,  the  cadence  application  a s c e n d i n g m e l o d y to the w o r d s " S c h m e r t z und L e i d e n " i n t h i s should  not  be  thought  i s meant to d e p i c t the mourners.  of as m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  the d e p a r t i n g s p i r i t  In f a c t ,  the ascending  and  line  the e m o t i o n a l  would almost  and  irrevocable  b r e v i s r e s t s i n the two surrounding spirit's  musical  material,  passage from  "Drumb e i l t  Example 17.) represented  Again as  departure.  state  this  Secondly,  the  ensuing  world  imply  to the next  to the was  listener  complete.  the  that  the  Similar  to  i s Samuel S c h e l d t ' s c o n c e r t e d s e t t i n g (SSB) o f  er  the  strongly  of  deceased's  cantus p a r t s , a n o t a b l e t e x t u r a l change from  Brancovius's treatment the text  rapturous  anabasis  seem to demon-  s t r a t e the f u t i l i t y and v a n i t y o f m o u r n i n g i n l i g h t o f t h e inevitable  an  instance  s o l e c i s m s ; the  not  of  on  [God]  spirit  i t leaves t h i s  mit  ihm  auss  dem  b b s e n Leben."  (See  of the deceased  i n the company of God  world.  p o i n t i n the  At  this  S c h e i d t q u i c k e n s the r h y t h m i c pace t h e b e t t e r t o e x p r e s s  is  composition the sense  of  "eilt."  e r s t e n Chor d e r Hoch Ade 1. h o c h b e t r u b t e H e r r v o n B r e i t e n b a u c h j_ Im a n d e r n a b e r d i e H. A d l . F r a w von B r e i t e n b a u c h zum A b s c h i e d e g l e i c h s a m a l s o r e d e t e n ]_ zusingen/ Hochgedachten A d e l i c h e n W o h l s e l i g e n Matron zu s c h u l d i g e n l e t z t e n Ehren=Geda'chtnliss M i t 9. Stimmen c o m p o n i r e t ^ und numehro u f f Begehren neben beygefiigten Basso Continuo zum Druck aussgea n t w o r t e t [_ Von Simone Brancovio Gub. Lusato, Cantorn zu R a n i s s . (Jena: Caspar Freyschmied, 1651). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , H i r s c h I I I 666. ^ ft  S. S c h e i d t , Grab L i e d t A u s s dem Buch d e r W e i s s h e i t am 4_^ C a p i t . v. 1_ vnd 14. Zu C h r i s t l i c h e n A b d e n c k e n Das E h r w i i r d i g e n j_ A c h t b a r n v n d W o l g e l a h r t e n H e r r n THOMASE ANDREAE, S e e l s o r g e r s zu Glaucha v o r H a l l e / i n t z i g h e r t z l i e b e n Sb'hnleins M i c h a e l i s Reinholden j_ Welches d i e s e r Welt a b g e f o r d e r t vnd f o l g e n d e n 18. M a r t i j d a s e l b s t C h r i s t l i c h b e s t a t t e t w o r d e n j_ S e i n e s A l t e r s 24. Wochen C o m p o n i r e t vnd a u f f g e s e t z e t mi_t 3. Stimmen von Samuele S c h e i d t H a l l e n s e ( H a l l e : M e l c h i o r O e l s c h l e g e l , 1635). Gotha, F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , T h e o l . f o l . 357-358. 148  E x a m p l e 16. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach G o t t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 29-32.  iTJLt  A  h  J  f  ^  i  J  •< .  7  frc J j '" 1  J  1  i  l  j J  >  J  ^  r  /Lbftbp  J  .  .  1 1  I  I -r-t  1  1 \ J  >  l  -  J  J  '  J  J  r \  f ^ r r r r r r r  LLL[  J i  J  1| J  1  J  '  P  '•  r  F  -  r  1  ^  J J  ^  • j ' ^-f*—-p-—p—j• j •  J  i  J  ,  M  J  '  dafj CcV\ f  J  i  ,  *  '  W<* T*<^M  ' i  ScVic^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ —•  t^V* 0- V > «A  _^eh "  p'  _  .  1  .1 T ' •«  -  f  •  •  hp  r  u r  1  Kl i C M .  f'"f* f  V. eA^wAae-V  _ — _<***i  .  =  ^  n  scVieX  S<W .  _  =  ^  R  _  ^  ,  p °  R  ScW-  J  °  fp _ 1 p p  ' H^'J  i  .  Leaden '*'V'j'Jtr  r  j  ij i  i  P'  —  «A».CU Y\ttWV i>eYir  ^ P  M  ^ -  P  f _ —  ^  l l —  E x a m p l e 17. S. S c h e i d t : "Der G e r e c h t e ob e r ^ g l e i c h z u z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-23.  A slight emphasis  variation  i s upon  even a r r i v i n g  this  37  set to catabatic  Leibnitz,  soul  striving  or moving  i n which the towards, o r  An example o f anabasis b e i n g a p p l i e d  to this  t r a n s i t i o n can be found i n L e i b n i t z ' s "Weg m i t D i r ,  Welt!" (SATB).  life  37  the transcendent  i n , Heaven.  kind of s p i r i t u a l falsche  on the idea o f d e p a r t u r e are t e x t s  op.  (See Example  18.)  Framed  du  by r e n u n c i a t i o n s o f  l i n e s , the heavenward ascent o f the s p i r i t i s  cit. 149  depicted  by  Leibnitz  with  " I c h nunmehr  nach  D i r streb,  Du  schbn  gezie.rter Himmel!" s e t t o a s t e a d i l y r i s i n g melody i n the Cantus.  E x a m p l e 18. J . G. L e i b n i t z : measures 3-4.  Because  heaven  communication music,  and e a r t h a r e h e l d  m i t D i r , du f a l s c h e  Welt!",  t o be a n t i t h e t i c a l c o n c e p t s , the  o f w h i c h was e s s e n t i a l to f u n e r a l o r a t o r y and f u n e r a r y  composers  used a n a b a s i s and c a t a b a s i s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y i n order  to demonstrate t h i s a n t i t h e s i s treatment  "Weg  can be seen  to greatest  effect.  One example o f t h i s  i n Samuel Scheidt's "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu  3 8  zeitlich  stirbt."  (See E x a m p l e  19.)  Immediately  following  numerous r e p e t i t i o n s o f anabasis f o r the text "Darumb e i l t Scheidt  employs  several  dem bosen Leben."  contrastive  catabatic  the  e r m i t ihm,"  f i g u r e s t o the t e x t  "auss  S c h e i d t sharpens the m u s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n by r e p l a c i n g  the f l e e t i n g , p r e d o m i n a n t l y consonant f i g u r a t i o n w i t h s l o w e r , f r e q u e n t l y dissonant  movement  (striking  m e l o d i c and harmonic  harmonies, s u s p e n s i o n s ) .  S c h e i d t , op. c i t .  150  tritones,  augmented  E x a m p l e 19. S. S c h e i d t : "Der G e r e c h t e ob e r g l e i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-31.  L e .  _  / a«(b dew  _ _  Il H i  »r r r  i  Le-  b e i / »ufi <*e*  ^°  U_  Vic, / \4**fj ^ Vie*,/  Vi$cn  ^_ u  v>  1  e  Lc  _  44  o  _ fee*,  '  Hyperbole and The  c  S s  *  J  1  1  J  ben.  Le  r"—e  zeitlich  .  Le  Le_  zu  J  J  ^  «,)  J  Hypobole  musical-rhetorical  figures  h y p e r b o l e and  hypobole  are  closely  on  related  to anabasis and c a t a b a s i s .  d e f i n e s h y p e r b o l e as f o l l o w s : above i t s h i g h e s t  boundary." ^ 4  B u r m e i s t e r , i n h i s Musica  poetica,  "Hyperbole i s the c r o s s i n g of a melody I t s c o u n t e r p a r t hypobole  i s subsequently  d e f i n e d by him as "the c r o s s i n g o f a melody below the lowest boundary its  ambitus." * 4  of  Judging from Burmeister's m u s i c a l example o f h y p e r b o l e ,  w r i t t e n i n the b a s s c l e f f w i t h a r a n g e o f C t o c, and  from h i s d e f i n i -  t i o n of hypobole, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the r e a d e r to a r r i v e at two  denota-  M e y f a r t d e f i n e s h y p e r b o l e i n h i s Teutsche R h e t o r i c a as f o l l o w s : " H y p e r b o l e i s a s t y l e when one makes t h i n g s e n t i r e l y t o o l a r g e o r e n t i r e l y too s m a l l . " ("Hyperbole i s t e i n e A r t / wenn man d i e D i n g e e n t w e d e r g a r zu g r o s s / o d e r g a r zu k l e i n machet.") M e y f a r t , op. c i t . , 1:178. H y p o b o l e ( a p p a r e n t l y a n e o l o g i s m by B u r m e i s t e r ) i s d e f i n e d by M e y f a r t u n d e r t h e name l i t o t e s as "a s t y l e where the o r a t o r . . . i m p l i e s more t h a n he s a y s . " ("...eine A r t / wenn d e r Redener...mehr a n d e u t e t / a l s e r s a g e t . " ) I b i d . , 1:144. ^ B u r m e i s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 64. C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 195. "Hyperbole e s t M e l o d i a e supra supremum e j u s terminum s u p e r l a t i o . 11  *Ibid. jectio." 4  "...Melodiae i n f r a  ejus infimum  151  Ambitus  terminum  sub-  tive  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f these f i g u r e s .  In the f i r s t  seem t h a t any n o t e o f a m e l o d y t h a t a s c e n d s staff  would  i n s t a n c e , i t would  above t h e t o p l i n e o f t h e  be c o n s i d e r e d an e x a m p l e o f m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l h y p e r b o l e .  C o n v e r s e l y , based  on that  definition,  one would  m e l o d i c e x t e n s i o n below  the lowest  l i n e o f a s t a f f would  musical-rhetorical  hypobole.  I f this  i n t e n t i o n , hyperbole and hypobole  naturally  expect  i n f a c t had been  that a  constitute  Burmeister's  would be so p e r v a s i v e i n Baroque  as t o be r h e t o r i c a l l y i n e f f e c t u a l .  music  I t w o u l d seem most r e a s o n a b l e t o  assume, t h a t B u r m e i s t e r ' s h y p e r b o l e , based on h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f h y p o bole, of  p e r t a i n e d more to an a c t u a l m e l o d i c  transgression  a mode r a t h e r t h a n t h e l i n e s o f a s t a f f .  b o l e would  seem  transgressions, quickly  lose  increasingly  t o be most i tis s t i l l  relevance  effective possible  o f the ambitus  W h i l e h y p e r b o l e and h y p o -  i f understood  primarily  as modal  to see t h a t these two f i g u r e s would  i n the course  o f the Baroque  as  composers  turned away from the church modes, and as extended  melodic  ranges became p a r t o f a standard m u s i c a l v o c a b u l a r y . Although  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s both  common o c c u r r e n c e s nevertheless effect  i n this  body o f m u s i c  to see e x a g g e r a t e d  i n f u n e r a r y music.  i n B r a n c o v i u s ' s "Ach G o t t  first  i n s t a n c e , an a n a b a t i c  and modal  literature,  ambitus a r e  i tis possible  e x t e n s i o n s o f t h i s k i n d u s e d t o good  i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t . "  melody  i n the Cantus  i t s apogee w i t h the t e x t "meiner  T h i s s h o r t s e c t i o n of music the s y m b o l i c  line  Two s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e s o f h y p e r b o l e c a n be  found  secundus reaches  of staff  i s rhetorically  4 2  I o f the chorus  Frewd und Wonne  effective,  op.  —  cit.  Co  152  hoch."  f i r s t , because o f  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a n a b a s i s and, secondly, because  Brancovius,  In t h e  of the  hypotypotic of  the  setting  Cantus past  then b^".  the  the  word "hoch."  g " (an o c t a v e  Brancovius above  the  extends  finalis),  Thus the m e l o d y i s h y p e r b o l i c on b o t h c o u n t s  Burmeister's attained  of  definitions.  through the  However,  the  true  the to  range  a " and  according  hyperbolic  effect  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h range of the v o i c e ;  to is  a"  is  v e r y s p a r i n g l y used i n the c h o r a l m u s i c o f t h i s p e r i o d , and t h e b ^ " i s rare  enough  to  Example 20.) range  later  be  classed  as  an a n o m a l y  B r a n c o v i u s a g a i n employs in  the  composition  singen  f e i n , " a p p r o p r i a t e l y to  suggest  their  b ". b  (See  "fine  Example  in  this  setting  depict  s i n g i n g " w i t h the  in  repertory.  (See  unusually high or h y p e r b o l i c the  the  rapid  this  text  "und m i t den E n g e l n  angels passagi  i n heaven, i n c l u d i n g the  and  to  novel  21.)  E x a m p l e 20. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach G o t t i c h muss measures 53-55.  One m i g h t a r g u e t h a t  the b " c o u l d have D  153  i n Trawr i g k e i t,"  been a c c o m m o d a t e d  by  E x a m p l e 21. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach G o t t i c h muss measures 95-97.  in Trawrigkeit,"  An e x a m p l e o f h y p o b o l e c a n be seen i n a J a k o b Sche i f f e l h u t ' s "Ach Herr!  Lehre  uns b e d e n c k e n . "  s t e r b e n miissen" i s  aptly  set  w h i c h i s then r e p e a t e d t w i c e fourth  lower  breves, eleventh.  the  than the bass  4 4  to  (See  E x a m p l e 22.)  a catabatic melodic  i n sequence,  p r e c e d i n g statement.  melody  The t e x t "dass w i r  steadily  line  i n the  bassus,  each r e p e t i t i o n b e g i n n i n g a Thus,  descends  i n the course of  from  a to  E,  a  W h i l e the c o n g r e g a t i o n no doubt would have n o t i c e d the  five  perfect signi-  p e r f o r m i n g the the work at a lower p i t c h . That n o t i o n can be countered t o some d e g r e e by n o t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e same c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o c c a s i o n a l D i n the Bassus, which i n i t s e l f i s a l r e a d y uncommonly low. 4 4  Scheiffelhut,  op.  cit.  1-54  ficance  o f the descending  bass  line  as a p o r t r a y a l  composer f u r t h e r emphasizes the i d e a t e x t u r a l l y , from  of "to d i e , " the  isolating  the bass  line  the upper t h r e e p a r t s by an i n t e r v a l of a t w e l f t h .  E x a m p l e 22. J . S c h e i f f e l h u t : measures 6-12.  "Ach H e r r !  Lehre  uns b e d e n c k e n , "  Exclamatio The  last  h i s Teutsche the  figures  rhetorical  Rhetorica, Meyfart discusses exclamatio which have to do w i t h  what Exc l a m a t i o i s . " - * 4  exclamation  f i g u r e t o be mentioned here i s e x c l a m a t i o .  Meyfart  i n Chapter  In  36, "On  speaking s h a r p l y and, to b e g i n  with,  i n f o r m s the reader that the f i g u r e o f  i s the most common i n t h i s  type o f s p e e c h , ^  and d e f i n e s i t  as the f i g u r e whereby "the o r a t o r r e v e a l s the nature o f h i s f e e l i n g , and employs  such  sorrowful  with  a c o n s i d e r a b l y and n i c e l y a u d i b l e tone  matters."  4 7  He s t a t e s  i n joyous and  i n a d d i t i o n that " t h i s f i g u r e  is easily  M e y f a r t , op. c i t . , 1:347. "Von den F i g u r e n / welche i n s c h a r f f e n Spru'chen b e s t e h e n / v n d e r s t l i c h / was Exc l a m a t i o sey." The c h a p t e r i t s e l f (pp. 347-60) -is made up m o s t l y o f q u o t a t i o n s e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e figure. 4 6  Ibid.  4 7  Ibid.,  1:348.  "...der Redner 155  s e i n e s Gemu'ths B e s c h a f f e n h e i t e n t -  recognized the  on the w o r d s 0, A c h , S i h e , w o l t e G o t t , L e i d e r , Ey Wehe and  like."  4 8  Exclamatio  was  f e e l i n g s of sorrow. the  oration  funerary the  where  often  As s u c h i t the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  Abdankung f o r  employed  the  is  of  can be  oratory  f o u n d i n the  mourned.  figure  funeral  funeral  is usually  deceased this  in  A clear  seen  Johann E r h a r d  i n the  to  express  f i r s t part  example  of  introduction  Michael,  written  C h r i s t o p h Weissenborn and appended as a model o r a t i o n to h i s  of the to by  Politischer  Leich=Redner: Alas! I the u n f o r t u n a t e s p e a k e r , I do not know w h e t h e r I s h o u l d remain s i l e n t or speak; f o r I stand by the open c o f f i n of the l a t e H e r r J o h a n n E r h a r d M i c h a e l , m e r i t o r i o u s p a s t o r . . . a t S i e g l i t z and Schleusckau.... But a l a s ! I the u n f o r t u n a t e speaker, how s h a l l I comfort others, since this loss i t s e l f so p a i n f u l l y s t i r s my heart? 4 9  Musical-rhetorical  exclamatio,  a v e r y p o p u l a r and e f f e c t i v e popularity  in compositions,  the  musica1-rhetorical  the  few composers  to  reach  decket thut /  an  because of i t s  figure  i n Baroque m u s i c .  however,  treatises  of  dramatic q u a l i t y , I n s p i t e of  the f i g u r e was c u r i o u s l y ignored the  seventeenth c e n t u r y .  and t h e o r i s t s who d i d d i s c u s s the f i g u r e  agreement  as  to  what  precisely  / vnd m i t einem z i m l i c h e n vnd z i e r l i c h e n i n f r b l i c h e n vnd t r a w r i g e n Sachen."  49  its in  Moreover,  seemed unable  constitutes  musical-  l a u t b a r n Thon  solches  Ibid. "Diese F i g u r w i r d l e i c h t l i c h erkennet an den Wbrten / Ach / Sihe / w o l t e Gott / Leyder / Ey Wehe vnd d e r g l e i c h e n . " 4 8  was  0 /  "• C. W e i s s e n b o r n , D i e GOtt = g e f a ' l l i g e Bu'cher=Lust e i n e s frommen P r i e s t e r s Zum Ruhm=wiirdigen A n d e n c k e n Des Weyland Wohl=Ehrwu'rdigen j_ Gross=Achtbaren und W o h l g e l a h r t e n HERRN J o h a n n E r h a r d M i c h a e l i s . . . , i n P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner, op. c i t . , pp. 5-6. "Ach! i c h u n g l u c k s e e l i g e r Redner / i c h w e i s s n i c h t / ob i c h schweigen oder reden s o l l e ? Denn i c h s t e h e bey dem a u f g e m a c h t e n S a r g e des W e y l a n d . . . H e r r n J o h a n n E r h a r d Michaelis / Wohl = v e r d i e n t e n S e e l = S o r g e r s . . . z u S i e g l i t z und S c h l e u s ckau.... Aber ach! i c h ung luck s e e l i g e r Redner / was w i l l i c h andern vor e i n e n T r o s t zusprechen / da m i r d i e s e r V e r l u s t s e l b e r so s c h m e r t z l i c h zu H e r t z e n gehet." 156  rhetorical of  exclamatio.  Michael P r a e t o r i u s , f o r instance, i n Part  h i s Syntagma musicum ( W o l f e n b i i t t e l ,  Three  1619) d e s c r i b e s the e x c l a m a t i o as  follows: E x c l a m a t i o , which must occur w i t h the r a i s i n g of the v o i c e , i s the c o r r e c t means to move the a f f e c t i o n s ; and descent, i n d o t t e d minims and s e m i m i n i m s , c a n be b r o u g h t i n and used. And t h e f o l l o w i n g note, which proceeds somewhat q u i c k l y , e s p e c i a l l y moves t h e a f f e c t i o n s and i s a l s o b e t t e r r e g a r d e d , more t h a n the s e m i b r e v e which o c c u r s more o f t e n i n r a i s i n g and l o w e r i n g the v o i c e w i t h o u t exclamation. In in  the f i r s t h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the f i g u r e was  several  Syntagma  w r i t i n g s on m u s i c .  musicum,  Walther's when one well  hundred  M a u r i t i u s Vogt v a g u e l y  G r e e k name E c p h o n i s i s as "an forth.""^  One  Exclamatio  or  exclamation  (Leipzig,  exclaims something movingly, the upwards  after Praetorius's  d e f i n e s the as  1732)  figure  i n '0 what  ecphonisis is defined  Musicalisches Lexicon  through  years  defined  under i t s  p a i n ' and  i n Johann  so  Gottfried  as "a r h e t o r i c a l  figure  w h i c h i n m u s i c can o c c u r q u i t e  l e a p o f a minor s i x t h . "  In Der  vollkommene  M. P r a e t o r i u s , Syntagma musicum I I I ( W o l f e n b i i t t e l , 1619), Documenta m u s i c o l o g i c a ( E r s t e Reihe: D r u c k s c h r i f t e n - F a k s i m i l e s ) , No. 15, ed. by W i l i b a l d G u r l i t t ( C a s s e l , B a s e l , L o n d o n , New York: B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1958), p. 231. " E x c l a m a t i o i s t das r e c h t e M i t t e l d i e a f f e c t u s zu moviren, so m i t erhebung der Stimm geschehen muss: Und kann i n a l i e n M i n i m i s und S e m i m i n i m i s m i t dem P u n c t / d e s c e n d e n d o a n g e b r a c h t und gebraucht werden. Und m o v i r e t s o n d e r l i c h d i e folgende Nota, so etwas g e w s c h w i n d e f o r t g e h e t / mehr a f f e c t u s , a l s d i e S e m i b r e v i s , w e l c h e i n erhebung und v e r r i n g e r u n g der Stimm ohn E x c l a m a t i o n mehr s t a d t f i n d e t / auch b e s s e r g r a t i a m hat." " ^ V o g t , op. c i t . , p. 151. Cited " I n c l a m a t i o , ut o, proh d o l o r etc."  in  Bartel,  op.  c i t . , p.  168.  J . G. W a l t h e r , M u s i c a l i s c h e s L e x i c o n ( L e i p z i g , 1732), p. 233. "Exclamatio fi^ptov^tc, i s t e i n e R h e t o r i s c h e F i g u r , wenn man etwas bewegl i c h a u s r u f f e t ; w e l c h e s i n der Music gar f i i g l i c h durch d i e a u f w e r t s springende Sextam minorem geschehen kan."  15-7  Capellmeister  (Hamburg,  1739),  Johann Mattheson d i v i d e s  exclamatio  53 three cal  separate settings  pertinent  categories. of  to  . The second  petitions,  this  study.  of  invocations  these, and  For exclamatory  into  .  .  which i n c l u d e s m u s i -  lamentations,  expressions  of  is  most  this  type  M a t t h e s o n recommends t h a t "now l a r g e (but not common), now s m a l l and extraordinary  intervals  must  be  introduced  according  to  circum-  .,54 stances. The a r r a y of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s music shows that  the p r e c e p t s  a n y t h i n g but immutable. matio  foregoing  definitions.  not  of t h i s  a single  musical-rhetorical excla-  study conforms  For example,  it  was  fully  possible  to  for  s i m p l y to i g n o r e t h e m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f exclamatio. "Ach  Gott  composer  This wie  does  is  ist  evident mein  nothing  of  first  any o f  the  Hertz  betriibt."  5 5  (See  the  a mus i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  beat of  subsequent  Example nature  the  composer textual  i n Theodor Schuchardt's s t r o p h i c s e t t i n g  d i s t i n g u i s h t h e e x c l a m a t o r y "Ach" f r o m o t h e r , a p p e a r i n g on the  in funeral  o f P r a e t o r i u s , W a l t h e r and Mattheson were  Indeed,  seen i n the c o u r s e  of t e x t u a l e x c l a m a t i o n s  23.)  that  less significant  of The  would words  measures.  CO  J . Mattheson, Der vollkommene C a p e l l m e i s t e r (Hamburg, 1739, Docum e n t a m u s i c o l o g i c a , e d . by M a r g a r e t e R e i m a n n ( E r s t e R e i h e : D r u c k s c h r i f t e n - F a k s i m i l e s ) , No. 5 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1954), p. 193. Ibid. "...miissen, nach Befinden der Umstande, b a l d g r o s s e , doch n i c h t gemeine, b a l d k l e i n e und a u s s e r o r d e n t l i c h e I n t e r v a l l e angebracht werden." 5 4  T. S c h u c h a r d t , C h r i s t l i c h e s Gespra'ch e i n e s b e t r i i b t e n V a t e r s m i t seinem a b g e l e i b t e n S b h n l e i n . A u f d e n . . . H i n t r i 1 1 . . . J o h a n n - H e n r i c i , des H e r r n M. J o h a n n i s W e i s s e n . . . S b ' h n l e i n s W e l c h e s . . . anno 1656...entschlaffen. M i t 8. Stimmen zu 2 u n t e r s c h i e d e n e n Choren g e s e t z t (Gotha: Johann M i c h a e l S c h a l l , 1656). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 2 i n Ee 7003882. 5 5  158  Example 23. T. Schuchardt: measures 1-3.  "Ach Gott wie  ist  mein H e r t z  ftUu  r  ftcV Q„u  w  v««;->  WtrVi.  VMA»SW /  T  1  CIV*  r  r  W « V \, V aV^e  F = P  J  J J  cation  f  r  r  J  r r r J^EgE  t r e a t m e n t s of exclamatory  syncopated  e n t r y and ascending  the A l t u s and T e n o r .  figuration  is  in fact  opening i n v o c a t i o n on the  Heinrich  Example viole  (See  used  texts.  J  Schwemmer,  The opening  on the  first  25.)  The second, Schwemmer's  invocation  the  though s u b t l y ,  "Siehe,  "Siehe  •^Brancovius,  siehe."  op.  same m u s i c a l  words  later  to enhance  more pronounced example  string  thirds  on,  the  beat and the p r o l o n g a t i o n of the harmony  der  Gerechte  F o l l o w i n g an i n s t r u m e n t a l  by  invo-  effected  in p a r a l l e l  W h i l e the  insignificant  da b r a c c i o and b a s s o c o n t i n u o ,  accompanied  semifusae  E x a m p l e 24.)  on r a t h e r  word " G o t t " does s e r v e ,  exclamation. is  J  i n B r a n c o v i u s ' s "Ach G o t t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t " i s  through the of  J J. J ' f f  J  3  Two w o r k s , one e a c h by S i m o n B r a n c o v i u s and H e i n r i c h show more e f f e c t i v e  betrubt,"  ensemble,  kommet  three  enter  The homophonic  textual  to be mentioned umb."^  i n t r o d u c t i o n played the  the  with  singing voices  with  invocation  a is  broadly repeated  here (See three  (SSB), stated twice  cit.  57 H. Schwemmer, L e i c h = T e x t : S i e h e ! d e r G e r e c h t e kommet umb: In N o t e n g e s e t z t [_ M^t 2_j_ C a n t . 1. B a s . 3. V i o l da b r a z z . ( N u r e m b e r g : W. E n d t e r d. J . , 1659). Z w i c k a u , R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k , M. 105. I c . The p r i n t of t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n was removed from the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t i n which i t was o r i g i n a l l y bound. 159  to changing harmonies, the s t a t e m e n t s . silent  while  kommen umb." partly  w i t h semiminim r e s t s  A f t e r the t h i r d  the Bassus  i n t r o d u c e d between each o f  s t a t e m e n t , the Cantus  proceeds  with  the text  Schwemmer a c h i e v e s t h e e x c l a m a t o r y  I and I I f a l l  "Siehe d e r Gerechte effect  i n h i s music  through the c o n t r a s t between the p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l ensemble and  the p r e c i p i t o u s ,  full-voiced  e n t r y by t h e v o c a l i s t s .  This  forceful  opening then g i v e s way t o the new t e x t , a t h i n n e r t e x t u r e , and c o n t r a s t ing melodic  f i g u r a t i o n s sung by the s o l o  Bassus.  E x a m p l e 24. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach G o t t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 1-3.  E x a m p l e 25. H. Schwemmer: measures 7-15.  "Siehe  160  der Gerechte  kommet  umb,"  S u s t a i n e d harmonies o f the type seen i n Schwemmer's considered technique  to be an e f f e c t i v e  expression  c a n be s e e n i n more d r a m a t i c  of t e x t u a l  work were g e n e r a l l y exclamations.  c o n t e x t s i n two o t h e r  funerary  w o r k s , one by F r i e d r i c h F u n c k e , t h e o t h e r by J a k o b S c h e i f f e l h u t . Funcke's treatment Hertzeleid,"  of e x c l a m a t i o  the composer  i n the f i r s t  gives  three breves  the i m p r e s s i o n  161  The  In  o f h i s "Ach  of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  emotional outbursts.  He a c h i e v e s t h i s e f f e c t  through a s u c c e s s i v e  l o w e r i n g of the dynamic l e v e l i n each o f the f i r s t "Ach!",  from  followed  an u n m a r k e d but  by  a pianissimo.  i m p l i e d mezzo f o r t e  Corresponding  piano to p i a n i s s i m o i s a melodic striking  exclamations  i s f o l l o w e d by  the precedent exclamation  i n the T e n o r  of  the  first  i s shortened  a n a c r u s i s by the f u l l the unexpected, change  from  The  Rather  than  Example  Like  27.)  Schwemmer  (SATB) h o m o p h o n i c a l l y with  considerable  contrast with  a minim  the f i r s t  Funcke,  i n minims and rest.  The  subsequent  the A l t u s , Tenor and Bassus so that  more s t e a d f a s t  Cantus.  Funcke, op. c i t . Scheiffelhut,  the  followed d i r e c t l y  uses  an  section.  op. c i t .  162  third  The e f f e c t  of  dynamic  (See Example  treats  semibreves,  26.)  s t a t e d at (See  59  the  four  s e p a r a t i n g each  i n v o c a t i o n stands  musical material.  they descend  the  abbreviated ver-  Scheiffelhut  opening  of  to  on  Lehre uns bedencken."  g r a v i t y of the i n t r o d u c t o r y e x c l a m a t i o n s , S c h e i f f e l h u t  59  conforming  the pause a f t e r  Funcke a l s o  "Ach Herr!  and  from  chordal  e n t r y i s m a g n i f i e d by the a b r u p t  Scheiffelhut's  exclamation  58  two  i n v o c a t i o n on t h e words "Ach H e r r ! " i s b o l d l y of  in  i n dynamics  e x c l a m a t i o n o f "Ach H e r t z e l e i d . "  syncopated  the b e g i n n i n g  voices  rest.  to a semiminima r e s t  technique t o conclude  threefold  drop  i n the Cantus I and I I and  exclamations,  p i a n i s s i m o to f o r t e .  sion of t h i s  to a w r i t t e n p i a n o  E a c h o f the f i r s t  a minima  of  i n f i v e of the s i x v o i c e s , most  fifth  II part.  two  to the  descent  i n the descent o f a p e r f e c t  a minor seventh  three exclamations  Adding  to  in the  s c o r e s the v o i c e s  t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t the  Example  26.  F. Funcke: "Ach  E x a m p l e 27. measures 1-5.  By examining exclamatio o t h e r and Mattheson, exclamatio  J. S h e i f f e l h u t :  funeral  compositions,  the d e f i n i t i o n s  i t i s easy were  "Ach  Herr!  Lehre  limited  t o see  and  and  why  provided  by  bedencken,"  o f the  textual  them w i t h  each  P r a e t o r i u s , Walther  and  that approaches to m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l  o n l y by  the  i m a g i n a t i o n of the  composer.  h e l p to  The  understand  f o r Vogt's noncommital d e f i n i t i o n of e x c l a m a t i o ( e c p h o n i s i s )  the  seventeenth-century  Praetorius) avoided exclamatio  uns  comparing  l a r g e number of p o s s i b l e approaches to the f i g u r e may the reasons  1-3  each of the v a r i o u s m u s i c a l treatments  i n these with  H e r t z e l e i d , " measures  can  theorists  d e a l i n g w i t h the t e r m  clearly  be  seen  as  a 163  (with  the  altogether.  rhetorical  figure  exception In any  whose  of  event,  affective  p r o p e r t i e s were v a l u e d h i g h l y by p a r e n t a t o r s , poets and composers  Duple  alike.  and T r i p l e Metre The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s examined i n the course of  t h i s study a r e w r i t t e n i n duple metre throughout, or  p a r t s as e i t h e r C o r (£.  indicated  i n the score  In c o m p i l i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling o f  t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s s t u d y , n o t a s i n g l e f u n e r a r y work was seen i n which that  triple  metre was p e r v a s i v e .  such music  was not w r i t t e n  more e x t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n that  kind  duced  of assertion  occasionally  T h i s i s not to suggest  i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y , f o r a much  o f the r e p e r t o i r e  c o u l d be made.  into  seem  worthwhile  subject of t r i p l e Triple  motet  at t h i s  i n the Baroque  of t r i p l e  (SWV 373) f r o m  point  i s intro-  Because the  a composer's reasons  f o r doing  considerations,  to focus c r i t i c a l l y  Year,  was  frequently  on t h e  used  as a t y p e o f  In moderate tempi, f o r example, the  m e t r e c o u l d be used  or r o c k i n g motion. f o r New  metre  i n p a r t by m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  musical-rhetorical hypotyposis.  lating  triple  before  metre.  metre  introduction  be r e q u i r e d  f u n e r a r y works i n d u p l e m e t r e .  so may have been m o t i v a t e d would  would  However,  p r a c t i c e d e v i a t e s from the norm, because  it  f o r a moment  to s u g g e s t a g e n t l e undu-  T h i s i s n o t a b l y the case i n Schutz's c h o r a l e  "Gib unsern  F u r s t e n e i n g e r u h i g und s t i l l e s  the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik (Dresden, 1 6 4 8 ) .  c h a n g e s f r o m d u p l e to t r i p l e  6 0  Leben"  The m e t r e  f o r t h e t e x t " g e r u h i g und s t i l l e s  Leben"  fid  An i n t e r e s t i n g study o f Schutz's a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre i n the c o m p o s i t i o n s o f the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik was undertaken by Johannes M i t t r i n g : see J . M i t t r i n g , "Der D r e i e r t a k t -- Ausdruck der Freude? Zu H e i n r i c h Schu'tzens ' G e i s t l i c h e r C h o r m u s i k ' von 1648," Musik und K i r c h e 34 (1964): 271-84. 164  thereby  evoking  H ij^_t o r ^ a  von  the " q u i e t  der  and  tranquil  und  £££d^nrei.chen  freuden-  (Christmas O r a t o r i o , SWV  435) of 1664,  life."  Years  later,  Geburt...Jesu  Schutz uses t r i p l e  in his Christi  metre a g a i n t o  an o s t i n a t o b a s s p a t t e r n , w h i c h the c o m p o s e r d e c l a r e s i s i n t e n d e d t o represent  the r o c k i n g m o t i o n  l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t on tempo and note  e f f e c t may  tranquility  Both  and  use  i t on  funeral  --  toire  the one  metre to a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n  hand to evoke f e e l i n g s  t h o s e o f e x h u b e r a n c e or e x c i t e m e n t and  flow,  and  a r e r e l e v a n t to the c o m p o s i t i o n  consideration for a rhetorical  i s number as s y m b o l .  T r i n i t y appears  of peace  on the o t h e r .  the e v o c a t i o n s of of  the  seventeenth-century  associated  study of t h i s  sacred reper-  The number t h r e e as a s y m b o l o f the  triple  m e t r e o r t e m £ u s E££J-.££t.HE had  s y m b o l i c a l l y w i t h the Holy T r i n i t y as e a r l y as the  c e n t u r y by F r a n c o o f C o l o g n e . course  Holy  to have l o s t none o f i t s f o r c e i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  German t h o u g h t . In m u s i c ,  of  Though  music.  Another  was  triple  a p p l i c a t i o n s -- the g e n t l e ebb  Sprungtanz  child's c r a d l e . ^  i n t e r n a l rhythms, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  that a composition employing  rhetorical and  of the C h r i s t  i n no  way  made i n w r i t i n g s on  eighteenth  c e n t u r i e s seem  thirteenth  The n u m e r o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n c e to t h r e e  confined  statements  been  to  music  to r e f e r  treatment i n the  most  of  metre;  seventeenth  f r e q u e n t l y to  in and  fact, early  trinitarian  See H. J . M o s e r , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : H i s L_ife and Work, t r a n s , f r o m t h e 2nd ed. by C. F. P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959), p. 65 3; and S. K b h l e r , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : A n m e r k u n g e n z u Leben und Werk ( L e i p z i g : VEB Deutscher V e r l a g fiir Musik, 1985), pp. 17778. f\ ?  R. H. H o p p i n , M e d i e v a l Mus i c (New Inc., 1978), p. 334.  165  Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n  & Company,  symbols as they p e r t a i n to m a t t e r s of t e r t i a n harmony -- t r i a s musica ft  figura  3  trinitatis.  greater  (Perhaps  amount o f a t t e n t i o n  developments  of  tertian  principles  o f metre.)  shows that  the concept  foremost  At  being  any  rate,  was  partly  focused  harmony  of t r i p l e  rather the  level,  the  at t h a t than  evidence  result  time  on  of  the  constant  on l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d available  metre as a t r i n i t a r i a n  types o f f u n e r a l music.  of t r i p l e metre at t h i s ought  this  i n the m i n d s o f the t h e o r i s t s , was  composers of c e r t a i n  or  to us  symbol,  nonetheless  amply i f not  important  Before l o o k i n g at the  t h o u g h , o t h e r , more d i r e c t  uses  to use  of i t  to be c o n s i d e r e d . An  anomalous a p p l i c a t i o n  r h e t o r i c a l h y p o t y p o s i s has chapter  of t r i p l e  m e t r e as a t y p e o f m u s i c a l -  a l r e a d y been mentioned  i n regard to H e i n r i c h Albert's continuo a r i a ,  der Tod."^ m e t r e was  4  i n the  preceding  "Gedenkt wie  I n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , the change f r o m d u p l e t o  mich  triple  r h e t o r i c a l l y r e q u i r e d by the t e x t " i c h t a n z e nur v o r a n , i h r  werdet f o l g e n miissen." portray  anything  abstract  sense,  I f the change o f metre was  more c o n c r e t e  i t i s most l i k e l y  In what i s perhaps  than  the  verb  intended by A l b e r t to "tanzen"  i n r e f e r e n c e to the  i n i t s most  Totentanz.^  i t s most s i m p l e a p p l i c a t i o n , t r i p l e metre can be  R. Damman, Der M u s i k b e g r i f f i.m d e u t s c h e n B a r o c k ( C o l o g n e : A r n o V o l k V e r l a g , 1967), pp. 439-56. ^ H. A l b e r t , S i e b e n d e r T h e i 1 d e r A r i e n , e t l i c h e r t h e i 1 s g e i s t l i c h e r : s o n d e r l i c h zum T r o s t i n a l l e r h a n d C r e u t z und W i d e r w e r t i g k e i t , w i e a u c h z u r E r w e c k u n g s e e 1 i g e n S t e r b e n s L u s t ; t e i l s w e l t l i c h e r : zu geziemenden Ehren-Freuden und Keuscher L i e b e dienender L i e d e r , zu singen g e s e t z e t . (Kbnigsberg: 1648). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , G. 62. b. 4  For a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Totentanz Tanz und Mus i k des; T o d e s : d i e m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Nachleben (Bern und Munich: Francke V e r l a g , 1980).  166  see R. Hammerstein, Totenta'nze und i h r  employed affect "Das  i n f u n e r a l music  of joy.  T h i s can  i s t meine F r e u d e , "  (See E x a m p l e 28.) Vincentius  66  be  ist ((f).  means o f c o n v e y i n g  seen  the  intervals  the  i n J o h a n n Hermann  basic  Schein's  motet (SSATB) w i t h basso c o n t i n u o .  S c h e i n composed the work i n 1628  Schmuck,  at r e g u l a r  clearly  a five-part  Superintendent  t h e o l o g y at the U n i v e r s i t y . nate  as a d i r e c t  f o r the f u n e r a l o f  in Leipzig  and  p r o f e s s o r of  In the motet, duple and t r i p l e metre  i n accordance  with  alter-  the t e x t : the opening  "Das  meine" i s w r i t t e n i n three ((j)3/2), and the f o l l o w i n g "Freude" i n Although  triple  m e t r e a l o n e i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d  with  two the  l i g h t e r a f f e c t i o n s , the j o y o u s f e e l i n g i n t h i s e x a m p l e i s e n h a n c e d by the i n v i g o r a t i n g  c h a n g e s o f m e t r e on one  consequent  upon the  quality  effect  that  internal  level  elements  S c h e i n s e t s out t o c o m m u n i c a t e  metres i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d f u r t h e r s t i l l , p a s s a g i or anabasis on  the word "Freude"  the q u a s i - s e q u e n t i a l ascent f o r each  and,  on a n o t h e r ,  o f rhythm.  The  through the  exuberant  alternating  f i r s t , by a d d i n g t h e a s c e n d i n g and,  of the  secondly,  following  two  by  instituting  textual  repe-  titions.  Example 28.  66  Schein,  J . H. S c h e i n : "Das  i s t meine Freude." measures  Symbolum oder T a g l i c h e r Trost=Spruch, 167  the  op. c i t .  1-4.  A slightly Theodor  more complex  treatment  Schuchardt's s e t t i n g of "Gott wie  double  c h o r u s , a work w h i c h  was  m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia.^ is  of t r i p l e metre can be  i s t mein Hertz b e t r u b t " f o r  earlier The  7  d i s c u s s e d as an e x a m p l e  chorus  deceased  primus  child  o r "Quereus,"  i n the chorus  w h i l e v e r s e s 2, 4 and  secundus  or  father in  6 portray  "Respondens."  c o m p o s i t i o n s w r i t t e n i n d i a l o g u e , the b e r e f t  a l t e r n a t i n g v e r s e s , g e n t l y c h a s t i s e s him transitory  tion  r a t h e r than the e t e r n a l .  i s f o l l o w e d by a new  content  of  the  phrases of text,  tones,  quietly  point,  the c h i l d  life  foremost  abandoning son.  echoes  Here,  for placing  than  an  t h e e n d i n g o f each  primus, phrase.  i n h i s m i n d ; the f a t h e r ,  i n subdued  Textually  at l a s t showing  h i s f e e l i n g s of d e s p a i r , appears  the  sings s i x  at  a d v i s e s h i s f a t h e r to keep the r e s u r r e c t i o n and  this  eternal  c l e a r s i g n s of  to accept the c o u n s e l of h i s  F o l l o w i n g t h e l a s t o f the s i x p h r a s e s , "0 Wie  seyn," and  musical  extension of  singing  on  composi-  The  however, the chorus secundus  w h i l e the chorus  i n the  such vane worth  The s i x t h v e r s e of the  more  of  f a t h e r g r i e v e s over the  l a b e l l e d "Cone l u s i o . "  Conelus i o i s l i t t l e  p r e c e d i n g chorus secundus. short  section  the  Typical  u n t i m e l y l o s s o f h i s b e l o v e d son, w h i l e t h e p e r s o n i f i e d c h i l d ,  the  of  d i a l o g i c t e x t of the c o m p o s i t i o n  s t r o p h i c , w i t h v e r s e s 1, 3 and 5 r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e b e r e f t  the  found i n  i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g echo i s a b r i e f coda sung  w i r d da e i n F r e u d e by both c h o i r s i n 68  triple  metre,  Example  29.)  s e t t o the  Schuchardt,  text  "Wenn w i r  zusammen kommen."  (See  op. c i t .  "0 such a happiness there w i l l be t h e r e , when we  168  come together."  Example 29.  T. Schuchardt:  "Gott wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r u b t . "  E x a m p l e 29. continued.  T. S c h u c h a r d t :  "Gott  l\i«e CVyiWt a\tamaV«Mi tar««rv;tu.5 \attvJe.*vt ^e<^^J\^*r c«ncWv« • L  J  170  wie i s t mein H e r t z  betriibt  In  i t s most  can c l e a r l y be  seen  the " j o y " proposed i n "Das text of  figurative  sense,  the u l t i m a t e change  to t r i p l e  as a h y p o t y p o t i c or m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l  by the t e x t ,  i s t meine Freude."  similar  The  to the e f f e c t  depiction  employed by  p a r t i c u l a r happiness  metre  imparted  of  Schein i n the  r e f e r s t o the j o y f u l r e u n i o n of a f a t h e r and h i s son a f t e r a p e r i o d  separation.  human emotion  Thus the j o y expressed  at t h i s p o i n t r e f e r s  i n the most w o r l d l y sense.  Although  -- t h a t i s , l a y i n g s t r e s s upon what i s o t h e r w i s e literature  such  i n order  to p r o v i d e  the  mourners w i t h  means by which they c o u l d c o n c e p t u a l i z e heavenly triple  metre  on  fact  would  i s not  anticipated  serve  effectively  t h a t the r e u n i o n  ness of the here  fact,  application  as w o r l d l y v a n i t y -- seems i n many ways to stand  intentional  expressed  an  construed i n funeral  d i c t i o n t o t h e i n t e n d e d message of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n ,  the  to a s t r o n g  was  t o be  intended p r i m a r i l y and  j o y , the  now  but  to  focus  rapture. the  affective  The  change to  listeners' attention  i n heaven.  a joy  have been  a concrete  to be understood  r a t h e r as  i t may  in contra-  that  The  joy  that i s  as a mundane h a p p i i s yet  t o be,  joy of C h r i s t i a n s a l v a t i o n and e t e r n a l l i f e . ^  i t i s n o t uncommon  in this  literature  to f i n d  heaven  j o y o f the h e r e a f t e r t o be i n many ways synonymous w i t h  another;  f o r t h e son e v e n s a y s t h a t t h e r e , i n the company o f the  Trinity,  "leb i c h j e t z t  We  begin  t o see  in  now  Freuden."  In  and  imminent  an  the one Holy  70  that t r i p l e  metre  i s not  simply  a type  of  S e e J . M i t t r i n g , "Der D r e i e r t a k t -- A u s d r u c k d e r F r e u d e ? Zu H e i n r i c h S c h i i t z e n s ' G e i s t l i c h e r C h o r m u s i k ' von 1648," Musik und K i r c h e 34 (1964): 271-84. T h i s i s one of the p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d at by M i t t r i n g i n h i s c o n v i n c i n g l y argued study o f Schutz's a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r i p l e metre i n the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik. 6 9  7 0  " . . . I now  live  i n joy." 171  musical-rhetorical its  exclusive  hypotyposis  association  used  by composers  to s k i p p i n g  to depict  or dancing.  j o y through  Rather, a c l o s e r  understanding of i t s r h e t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e requires  that  triple  metre  be thought o f more i n metaphoric terms, that i s , as a m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l trope  rather  than a h y p o t y p o t i c  the number three significant  figure.  Of course  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  as a symbol f o r the Holy T r i n i t y can a l s o be seen as a  mus i c a l - r h e t o r i c a 1 c o n s i d e r a t i o n  f o r composers o f f u n e r a l  music. Continuing phoric  with  nature of t r i p l e  composition. earth  two  representative  the  father  insists  we can a p p r e c i a t e  metre through h i s choice  -- i s emphasized at the o u t s e t choirs  gain,  lamenting  the a b s o l u t e  primus/ephemeral  the  h i s loss separation  instead  choirs  between  tutti  time  father/chorus  i s maintained.  Lutheran  to share  In  church  texts,  doctrine,  and  cadential  the c h o i r s are heard, which may be p e r c e i v e d  as a k i n d  with  the c o n c l u d i n g  would a t l a s t  be r e u n i t e d  172  spheres.  change to t r i p l e  mourners ( i n c l u d i n g the f a t h e r )  two s p i r i t s  the  moves t o w a r d s r h e t o r i c a l a s s e n t  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f e a r t h l y and h e a v e n l y  occurs only  the a t t e n d a n t  f o r the f i r s t  as t h e f a t h e r  o f f i n d i n g comfort i n  and the son/chorus s e c u n d u s / e t e r n a l  begin  of s y m b o l i c  for his  by the use of the  As l o n g  between  the son whose speech n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t s  overlaps  the  o f the p i e c e  of the son.  the C o n e l u s i o , as t h e f a t h e r f i n a l l y with  of s e t t i n g  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the anguished s t a t e o f  and t h e t r a n q u i l s t a t e  on s e l f i s h l y  son's  even more the meta-  The d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s o n and f a t h e r -- i . e . , h e a v e n  and  his  Schuchardt,  metre,  The  allowing  to see to the f u t u r e  i n heaven.  full  Thus t r i p l e  when metre  c a n be s e e n h e r e as d e p i c t i n g b o t h w o r l d l y j o y i n a f i g u r a l heaven  i n a metaphoric  The  rhetorical  s e n s e and  sense.  r e a s o n s f o r the changes  o f m e t r e i n t h e n e x t two  f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d a r e b e s t understood i n a m e t a p h o r i c or  symbolic  sense.  The f i r s t  Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden."''*  i s Johann  Rosenmuller's  (See Example 30.)  "Was  In t h i s s t r o p h i c  s i t i o n f o r f i v e v o i c e s (SSATB), Rosenmu'ller makes a c l e a r between the mundane and the heavenly, and  both  through  through the m u s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f metre.  verse  begins  with  the r h e t o r i c a l  hat der compo-  distinction  the t e x t u a l  content  The t e x t o f t h e f i r s t  q u e s t i o n posed  by  the deceased,  f o l l o w e d by the expected answer: Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden? Nur E l e n d , Jammer, Angst und Noth. What does man have on t h i s e a r t h ? Only m i s e r y , d e s p a i r , f e a r and sorrow. And t h i s , we a r e a d d i t i o n a l l y t o l d , i s a l l t h e r e i s i n l i f e , the  moment  of b i r t h u n t i l  h o w e v e r , l e a v e no d o u b t successfully  death.  The c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s o f t h e v e r s e ,  i n the l i s t e n e r s ' mind t h a t  made the t r a n s i t i o n  from  from  this  world  the deceased has  to the next w i t h the  text: Herr J e s u , d i r sey ewig P r e i s s , Durch d i c h l e b i c h im P a r a d e i s Lord Jesus, p r a i s e be e t e r n a l l y unto You Through You I l i v e i n P a r a d i s e . The  poet's c h o i c e o f words make c l e a r  the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s  l i f e ( E r d e n , E l e n d , Jammer, A n g s t , Noth, T o d t ) and t h e a f t e r l i f e Jesu,  ewig,  leb, Paradeis).  ^*Rosenmuller,  I n Rosenmuller's  c o m p o s i t i o n , the e x i s t e n -  L e t z t e r A b s c h i e d , op. c i t .  173  (Herr  Example Erden?" liL  r  P  i y  1  V  \  F F H  ^  V  *—*  " *  A_  ,  30.  .  j  ,  z)  d  i  1  1  r  j  , t  1  1r W — J  i  u^r^v  r r T  T  J  J  "Was h a t d e r Mensch  1  ,  »  W d wir nor < £ - W « A V . . j  J. Rosenmiiller,  J  1 •  1  .  I I  J-  J — J  p  J  1  1  1  I  f  n  ,  J  Todtt / <J*w  P  J  —4 1  j ^  J  J  J  ,  j  ft r <)-.  H''  f 1  J  t  T  \  i J  —  J  "  _  ^  ^  ' ' i  r  H0">«>«n /left ttvi  y — J  \  ^  2.^  ^  \  j d  \  =^ i  e)  5»nWW  J  1 J  i J  ftu\\«.  .  t!<w  •  174  J  j  •  d• ,  I — —  J  =  o.\Uv> bi*i i*A  ¥  n  u  -  A  =  , a»J-  J - i ^ J r -  1—:.-r-r—rr- t—^Vi 1 J y V '  j  J.  Vt 1 —  ''J-  — I,  1  4 , i  '  1  dieser  I I I  \  , \  J W  auff  d  J  *  \  • |  j  \  .  —"  J,  >  L. .  b v  4  * > j, I U  «  j J ' \  J  * *=^=-  tial  polarity  i s expressed  with  comparable v i v i d n e s s through the change  of metre from the opening C to the c o n c l u d i n g 3/1. note  that  the change o f metre  t i o n o f "happiness." explicit Christ  i s by no means a d i r e c t l y  C e r t a i n l y a joyous a f f e c t  use o f t r i p l e  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  metre  is entirely  f i g u r a l depic-  i s implied  metaphoric  here,  but the  or s y m b o l i c of  and heaven.  A s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r i p l e metre can be seen i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  work by Samuel S c h e i d t , "Der Gerechte  ob e r g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h  72 stirbt.  (See Example  31.)  W r i t t e n f o r the f u n e r a l of the i n f a n t son  of Thomas Andreas R e i n h o l d , h i m s e l f a clergyman tion  i n Glaucha,  i s b a s e d on t h e Wisdom o f Solomon (4:7,14).  composition  by Rosenmuller,  the composi-  As i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  the change to t r i p l e metre,  appearing  this  t i m e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n , i s s y m b o l i c o f God and h e a v e n , whereas mundane.  the s u r r o u n d i n g t e x t The f i n a l  the opening  return  C, c e r t a i n l y  and m u s i c  to duple metre  i n duple  metre  i s indicated  s i g n i f y the  as § i n s t e a d o f  to d e p i c t  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the wicked 73 the h a s t e w i t h which the deceased was removed from i t . C Der Gerechte, ob e r . g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , i s t e r doch i n d e r Ruhe. 3 Denn s e i n e Seele g e f e l l e t Gott, § Darumb e i l t e r m i t ihm auss dem bbsen Leben. But the good man, even i f he d i e s an u n t i m e l y W i l l be at r e s t . His s o u l was p l e a s i n g to the L o r d , Who removed him e a r l y from a wicked world.  world and  death,  S c h e i d t , op. c i t . 73 The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s v e r s e i s t a k e n f r o m The New E n g 1 i s h B i b l e , S t a n d a r d E d i t i o n (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972). A l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e l a s t l i n e of German t e x t w o u l d read: T h e r e f o r e He hastens w i t h him from the wicked world. 175  E x a m p l e 31. stirbt."  S. S c h e i d t : "Der G e r e c h t e ob e r g l e i c h zu  zeitlich  — w c\Wc.V,  a s  . . .  h—i.  he.  1  :  /  a .Wt/  . Aft,  „—=\  ' P  ;=  qt —  C  f  \<LV  qt—U \ —\«A e  -0 fj  j  <$MI  Z J  o  Ce\  •>  QM/ o,t  \«A  o ^oU  M  :  i  —'•  i  ^  r m  i  i  i i i  ~ * 0—•  _  —*  c^e^\  L  .  QoU  i  P* i '' ' • . f ' *r n  <\« —  — ie. —W*  *Se.e.\e  .  f f f  -i  _.  \  176  .-,  , .  V  Id.  ;  o  ,  K  K  »< n  l .  '  - —  E x a m p l e 31. S. S c h e i d t : "Der G e r e c h t e s t i r b t , " continued.  ob e r g l e i c h  te~v /  ^  U  — te^i  £  o  zu z e i t l i c h  iy  -©  u  /  .  . . r—  J""  1 1  j  J  i  a  *  u v  1  -4The  practice  i n funeral  composition  between heaven and e a r t h through t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  c o n t r a s t i n g metres was s t i l l  century.  the l a t e J a c o b i n a Thurmin i n 1 6 9 3 , musical-rhetorical principles in  the p r e c e d i n g works. ^  o f s i g n i f y i n g the s e p a r a t i o n  74  In the " f r e u d i g e s W e l t - V a l e t " o f Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t employs the same  of metaphor as d i d Rosenmuller (See E x a m p l e 32.)  7  portrayed  i n the t e x t .  f u l e n t r e a t y to the Lord, duple  m e t r e as a t h r e e f o l d  74  "...joyous  farewell  The p i e c e opens w i t h  with  and S c h e i d t  Scheiffelhut  c o n t r a s t between duple and t r i p l e metre to accentuate worlds  c u r r e n t at  uses the  the two d i f f e r e n t the c h o i r ' s p r a y e r -  t h e i n v o c a t i o n "Ach H e r r ! " w r i t t e n i n  rhetorical  exclamatio.  The t e x t  at t h i s  to t h e world..."  ^ J . S c h e i f f e l h u t , D i e um d i e Sterbens-Lehr b i t t e n d e und zum Leben und Tod Gott ergebene Seele m i t ihrem f r e u d i g e n W e l t - V a l e t . Der w e i l a n d J a c o b i n a Thurmin...zu l e t z t - s c h u l d i g e n Ehren...in No t e n g e b r a c h t , d a s e r s t e von Jacob S c h e i f f e l h u t , das andere von D a n i e l Merk (Augsburg: J . J. Schbnigk, 1693). Kempten/Allgau, K i r c h e n b i b l i o t h e k der E v a n g e l i s c h L u t h e r i s c h e n P f a r r a m t S t . Mang, V. 3. 16. c. 7  17:7  Example  •+«  32.  .  J.  Scheiffelhut:  Tew  •  j'  "jr  vw.  bedencken."  dcntW  r  1  "  1  n  ,  1  C.^ / b e .  ^e-c  Le-We.  'i  <o  r-Y—|  uns  S-»D  «—o i  1  Aa.  Lehre  ;  -  bassus  Herr!  'i  1 W.  •*»  "Ach  o  r~  f—  y  1  da(b un*  •**"<•  T^J -devitkan -ft* - ' * i ii  da&wif ^Vex, »J m mVf r. 1 .  n  7"  :  1—  1  Y~V—' — r  ton  / ^ ,  -i  YnU^an  /  j  dd(b wi<  J  J  •3W-  .  .  "i * P f m  f  VI'  Wir*  . -  T  f  AafcwW  o J  id-  J  ,.  J  P  r*  t  dad  a  J  J  ' d  .1  f  UV.^  r* ^r€Y Ott ^  .Vievi ,  *  ^  *a  SVA^  da^  )^ j  i  r>  f  V  •  a  f*  J J * o  '  re wir VVu<^ ui«-  d^aft  w  ;  r  *  VVw^  da(S wi<  «r r "  \  d de« /  • "~ '' . J .  6  — ^t>&nr\  u,i>SC<  Mk  .  44  .  „ _ _ . d CAN  s-L  -—SI  J  *  wt*"  y-  1  HO'  .  p  p  1  ur-w  NctU'n^r  1  p  1  J  _<Jfr>>/ VW^ W«^r—  UW.  c*«W VcW^  *-=  M rt. -  1  a• *  w  <  3 0 — d —  ft-  1  w  -  <*«^'®  Tya-*-  WW*- ;V,w<  . la.W* wir devA*rAe*t/ So -6H—4 O**' C — -\ J  So 178  &•  Ic-Ucvx voir den^. V\ex<c« /  £ 6^ S.W'- -  \W  StWiw  VIG^  VlKVJ.C  f  E x a m p l e 32. J . S c h e i f f e l h u t : continued.  ss  JU  r  « *—* o  «ji  M  o  ^*ttrf - - - - - -  Lehre  uns b e d e n c k e n , "  1 i  —2  "*  "Ach H e r r !  V .  *°-  *l\ef. .  W*-. w^W  SWH-- _  t«« U3\<"  1  WvC  d*v*>.  H-*-«-«-.  2  a  . fet* wir 2  SVcv -fe SW  V>«* v-J.r 2  .U  ,-TTT,  lio '  dew*  UevT->*> /  {^^TI>V^ /  •'_  dewv  Uexfe^ /  dirww /  •'.  /  ft'-  .  \  \  •  il  II  II  V>e~  Jl*  •  f  f f rl  P'  P  1* fv  ° '  /  w;<-  /  Uir  "  ^  • P  °  J  "  ' ' tj  P  °  '  ° '  1  _oir  \t  Ui<" Ve.\_a«  LVjc^ /  Oiv-  ii - — a _  S^e-r  _  fee*  -  ,  .  W  /  odo<  wiV  Vie../  ' 'j  / ori^r w i r '  iscjw ,  i  odt/< \-o»r  p  %\t*-\_a..  ... "i-WWr.  . _ te«-v / -U*  \_oi<r  n  a  S;»\CL  1 o  0  J  ,1 •»(><  wir \«.  \JB*> / w*V  \«too  f"  /  f  fl^T it) i l  1 rl  J  0'  q  Jk  y  \  J  |  '  l  '  '  °  p  4 ^ **  u  ;  M)  ;  i  )* | 1 -j  »  1 ' rl />  h  ' r)  So  '  te^ /U>.>  ^frirf.  .,  J  W r « ".  ° d-lvt—  •• J  «'i  W  PTP' f i  V  A  P  • •  '^«-'- -  • •  / .''j  o  -  ui^r d«(j, "t^e^-  •  -1  -  \ r. o  — °  O G oder coiY  1  .j  \  1  -KZT-V—1»  © d * < " ^if*" ~"^.er-_ _ \ i e T \ /  1 1 A A ,.  '  9  — n V V \ ''  O  - 7 T ~ ^ -  »t) "  ren/  Oe "SVerV>en /  j)  be-w  \e  .1 . .  J J J . . 1  v  \O.V \ t  r  ° d a - TV^/  ..V>an  -o ^ 6 ^mtf wir ^e(S Uer _ _ -ran / ;^ .1  CJ  r  .  \j  \c  \'c-  c  m  \\«-»re»\/  "  « d t r w'r  wir  It-  ^  i"  ^»™* w i r <kfo  So  c J a „ H A M / <_,  A - i  Wir c>«|_,  SCr«J  /  /  a  jts O  .. r  ' ' .1 taev^  Wecr^  e 1  So  \ W .  bei-,/ii,  t  daft  .  •  .Ve^  ^\^C  0»W  d /  W*/u>\V  V)ft« / ij  \«  Jj,v V  voir"  ' .  .  fn.  r  *  P  _o;<-  a  -e <iVacV_e*\  _fl*_  P  ~  1  W*.  .a...  f  /od«^r  4*  .. „ P a n  '  °  Wi<"  —  ^_=r  wi<  " m .  \  .UP  ij  J _ l j . i l  A  — " t(Jd  j  .1  J  -e—H—u  J  J  _  u u v  _  e*-  Sa ^ i n d V^iCr- d«A Wer". - - rav, /  /  •  ' •j  ^ j—g 179  -j  ^  )  o  ^ rl  tJJ  p  point  suggests  Lord  to  opening  the  supplication  teach  them  section  of  t o be  second,  mindful  congregation  of  the c o m p o s i t i o n  the t r a n s i t o r y w o r l d w i t h The  of the  we  i t s mortal  their see  in petitioning  mortality.  duple  metre  Thus  a c t s of prayer and  dying.  and c o n c l u d i n g , p a r t o f the c o m p o s i t i o n  is placed mainly  i s marked by  wir  sterben...."^  The  The  musical  on the words "Leben w i r , so l e b e n w i r  H e r r e n ; s t e r b e n w i r , so s t e r b e n w i r dem change  of  H e r r e n , darumb w i r l e b e n  metre,  once  the  i m p l i c a t e d with  the change to c o n t r a s t i n g t r i p l e metre set to Romans 14:8. emphasis  in  the  again,  dem oder  assists  the  l i s t e n e r i n m a k i n g the c o n c e p t u a l t r a n s i t i o n f r o m e a r t h t o h e a v e n o r , more p r e c i s e l y  in this  case,  from  the p h y s i c a l  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the way notations  of  the  word " s t e r b e n " are  to the s p i r i t u a l .  the p h y s i c a l and  treated.  or  mortal  life,  suggests  t r a n s p o r t s the  Here, the metre, joyous  meaning of the word  through  i t s associative  a f f e c t , h e l p s to i l l u s t r a t e  rewarded w i t h through through  eternal  touch  Lord.  i n the  first  transitory  world  life.  The  into  the  effect  on h i s audience,  to the o t h e r w i s e  esoteric  other realm.  e v o c a t i o n of a  and dying i n the Lord  of a s p i r i t u a l  death  the t e x t u a l p r o x i m i t y o f r e f e r e n c e s to e t e r n a l the use of the buoyant metre and  on the  spiritual  or s y m b o l i c  that l i v i n g sense  metre,  are  i s implied  life  and  also  rhythms set to "sterben."  Perhaps s u s p e c t i n g t h a t t h i s s u b t l e approach might didactic  con-  " s t e r b e n " as the p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f d y i n g .  Treatment of " s t e r b e n " i n the s e c t i o n set to t r i p l e hand,  spiritual  Duple metre  p o r t i o n of the work, as a m e t r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s  This  or w i s h i n g  simply  treatment,  Scheiffelhut  l a c k the d e s i r e d  to add  an  ornamental  s i n g l e s out  key  ^"If we l i v e , we l i v e f o r t h e L o r d ; i f we d i e , we d i e f o r Whether t h e r e f o r e we l i v e or d i e , we belong to the Lord."  the  180  words f o r s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t  n a m e l y , " l e b e n " and " s t e r b e n . "  t e x t u a l phrase concludes w i t h t h e word " l e b e n , " S c h e i f f e l h u t the  prolongs  note v a l u e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y adding a s l i g h t l y animated m e l i s m a t i c  flourish. to  When a  In phrases ending on " s t e r b e n , " the note o f the cadence  the second s y l l a b l e  i s shortened and f o l l o w e d by s i l e n c e  the  audience the sense of n i h i l i t y .  one  o f the v o i c e p a r t s  fifth  or  octave  finally,  the  Scheiffelhut These  on  tone  will  the  quality  scores the v o i c e s  first  to convey  At each o f these cadences,  have a c a t a b a t i c or descending  first  syllable  darkens  of  the  noticeably  i n a lower  word at  at  "sterben."  And  these  points  I t also  textual  dichotomy  tessitura.  serves to accentuate m u s i c a l l y ,  unspeakable,  i n these works that  the  e x i s t s between m o r t a l i t y  and  T h i r d l y , t r i p l e m e t r e , as t h e tempus p e r f e c t u m , can be  reduced armen  to  t h a t d u p l e m e t r e o r tempus  i s symbolic of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d .  symbolic or metaphoric  use  through  impli-  contrast,  s e e n t o s y m b o l i z e h e a v e n i n t h e same way  their  as  examples have shown c l e a r l y enough that t r i p l e metre i s  cation.  The  least of a  heavenly j o y , unspoken i n that the t e x t s suggest j o y o n l y through  imperfectum  to  motion  c a p a b l e o f p o r t r a y i n g o r i m p l y i n g an u n s p o k e n , p e r h a p s  immortality.  given  to c o n t r a s t their  q u a l i t i e s o f duple and  i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y German  essence  i n Joachim  a n g s t l e i d e n d e n Sunders  mit  Jordan's Gespra'ch  Christo.^  t r i p l e metre  funeral und  (See Example  music  and are  Gesang e i n e s 33.)  Jordan,  ^For an e d i t e d v e r s i o n of t h i s p i e c e see W. R e i c h , ed., Threnodiae Sacrae: Beerdigungskompositionen aus gedruckten L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 16. und 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s , Das E r b e D e u t s c h e r M u s i k , Band 79 ( W i e s b a d e n : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1975), p. 1. A reduced photographic r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l may be f o u n d i n t h e a p p e n d i x o f : R. L e n z , ed., L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n ( C o l o g n e , V i e n n a : B b h l a u V e r l a g , 1972), n.p. The r e p r o d u c t i o n i s i n c l u d e d t h e r e as a  181  pastor  at  St  Catherine in Brunswick,  between C h r i s t  and the  sinner  Wri