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Protestant funeral music and rhetoric in seventeenth-century Germany : a musical-rhetorical examination… Johnston, Gregory Scott 1987

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PROTESTANT FUNERAL MUSIC AND RHETORIC IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY GERMANY A MUSICAL-RHETORICAL EXAMINATION OF THE PRINTED SOURCES By GREGORY SCOTT JOHNSTON B.Mus., The University of Calgary, 1979 M.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1987 (c) Gregory Scott Johnston, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 29 A p r i l 1987  DE-6n/fm ABSTRACT The present thesis i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the musical rhetoric of P r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l music i n seventeenth-century Germany. The study begins with an exposition on the present state of mus i c o l o g i c a l inquiry i n t o o c c a s i o n a l music i n the Baroque, f o c u s i n g p r i m a r i l y on ad hoc f u n e r a l music. Because f u n e r a l music i s not d i s c u s s e d i n any of the b a s i c music r e f e r e n c e works, a c u r s o r y overview of e x i s t i n g c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s i s i n c l u d e d . The survey of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f discussion of methodological obstacles and procedure with regard to the present study. Chapter Two comprises a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of Protestant funeral l i t u r g y i n Baroque Germany. Although numerous examples of the Divine S e r v i c e i n the Lutheran Church have s u r v i v e d the seventeenth century, not a s i n g l e order of s e r v i c e f o r the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y from the p e r i o d seems to e x i s t . T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s both the s o c i a l and e x t r a -l i t u r g i c a l background f o r the music as w e l l as a p l a u s i b l e Lutheran funerary l i t u r g y based on documents from the period and modern studies. ££°£°££E££i£» t n e r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the dead, i s the subject of Chapter Three. A f t e r examining the t h e o r e t i c a l background of t h i s r h e t o r i c a l device, from Roman Antiquity to the German Baroque, the trope i s examined i n the context of funerary sermonic o r a t o r y . The discussion of o r a t o r i c a l r h e t o r i c i s followed by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into i i the musical a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept of prosopopoeia i n various styles of f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n , f r o m s i m p l e c an t i ona 1 - s t y 1 e works to compositions i n which the p e r s o n i f i e d deceased assumes c e r t a i n physical dimensions. Chapter Four i n c l u d e s an examination of v a r i o u s other m u s i c a l -r h e t o r i c a l figures e f f e c t i v e l y employed in funeral music. Also treated i n t h i s chapter are m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l aspects of duple and t r i p l e metre, where t r i p l e metre in p a r t i c u l a r , depending on the text, can be understood f i g u r a t i v e l y , metaphorically or as a combination of both. As this chapter makes clear , owing to the perceived a n t i t h e t i c a l properties of metre and c e r t a i n f i g u r e s , m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c was o f t e n used to i l l u s t r a t e the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s world and the next. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF EXAMPLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . LUTHERAN FUNERAL LITURGY IN GERMANY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 26 I I I . PROSOPOPOEIA: MUSICAL-RHETORICAL PERSONIFICATION OF THE DEAD 47 Rhetorical and Musical Background 47 Cantional-Style Compositions 71 Dialogue 78 Solo Arias 99 Physical P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the Dead 105 IV. AFFECTIVE ELEMENTS OF COMPOSITION: FIGURENLEHRE AND METRE 129 Catabasis and Anabasis 133 Hyperbole and Hypobole 151 Exclamatio 155 Duple and T r i p l e Metre 164 V. CONCLUSIONS 194 APPENDIX 197 Severus Gastorius: "O T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mien fast gantz entseelet." 198 Theodor Schuchardt: "Ach Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betrubt.". . . 199 Michael Wagner: "Ach wie wird mein Hertz." 201 Simon Brancovius: "Ach Gott ich muss i n Trawrigkeit." 204 Heinrich Schwemmer: "0 wie manchen Berg." 215 Kaspar Fbrkelrath: "Wer uberwindet s i c h . " 223 Heinrich Schwemmer: "Nun i s t a l l e s uberstanden." 227 iv Heinrich Schwemmer: "Hie l i e g ich u'berhaufft mit Schmertzen.". . . . 228 Go t t f r i e d Ernst Brechthold: "Ihr l i e b s t e n Freunden i h r ! " . . . . 229 I. F.: "Ich habe das Thranenthal der Welt." 229 Anon.: "Nimm mein Jesu meine Wonne." 230 Heinrich A l b e r t : "Gedenkt wie mich der Tod." 230 BIBLIOGRAPHY 231 v LIST OF EXAMPLES 1. Johann Pezel: "Es s c h a l l t die gantze Welt von lauter E i t e l k e i t , " measures 1-7 135 2. Johann Hermann Schein: "Herr dein Ohre zu mir neigen," measures 1-4 137 3. Anon.: "Fleug mein Seelgen auf zu Gott," measures 1-2 137 4. Severus Gastorius: "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich fast gantz entseelet," measures' 3-4 138 5. Martin S e i d e l : "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach Leid und Schmertzen.". . . 138 6. Severus Gastorius: "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich fast gantz entseelet," measures 1-2 140 7. F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 9-12 140 8. Johann Rosenmuller: "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden?", measures 1-3 142 9. Johann Georg L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit Dir, du falsche Welt!", measures 1-3. 142 10. Johann Rosenmiiller: "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden?", measures 4-6 143 11. Heinrich Schwemmer: "Hie l i e g ich u'berhaufft mit Schmertzen," measures 13-15 144 12. F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 18-21 145 13. Johann Hermann Schein: "Das i s t meine Freude," measures 1-4 . . 145 14. Melchior Franck: "Ist Gott fur uns," measures 1-6 146 15. Johann Rosenmuller: "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden?", measures 6-8 147 v i 16. Simon Brancovius: "Ach Gott ich muss i n Trawrigkeit," measures 29-32 149 17. Samuel Scheldt: "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-23 149 18. Johann Georg L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit Dir, du falsche Welt!", measures 3-4 150 19. Samuel Scheidt: "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-31 151 20. Simon Brancovius: "Ach Gott ich muss in Trawrigkeit," measures 53-55 153 21. Simon Brancovius: "Ach Gott ich muss in Trawrigkeit," measures 95-97 154 22. -Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 6- 12 155 23. Theodor Schuchardt: "Ach Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betriibt," measures 1-3 159 24. Simon Brancovius: "Ach Gott ich muss in Trawrigkeit," measures 1-3 160 25. Heinrich Schwemmer: "Siehe der Gerechte kommet umb," measures 7- 15 160 26. F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 1-3 163 27. Jakob Sc h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 1-5 163 28. Johann Hermann Schein: "Das i s t meine Freude," measures 1-4 . . 167 29. Theodor Schuchardt: "Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betriibt." 169 30. Johann Rosenmiiller: "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden?" . . 174 31. Samuel Scheidt: "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t . " 176 32. Jakob Scheif felhut: "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken." 178 33. Joachim Jordan: "Ach weh und pein, das Hertze mein." 182 34. Kaspar Fbrkelrath: "Wer uberwindet s i c h , " measures 36-54. . . . 184 v i i 35. Johann Rosenmiiller: "Welt ade ich bin dein mu'de." 186 36. F r i e d r i c h Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d . " 189 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my sincere appreciation to the members of my committee, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr Gregory G. Butler, whose generous assistance and thoughtful supervision were invaluable to the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . Others who have c o n t r i b u t e d i n one way or another to this thesis are Dr Maria Flirstenwald, Dr P h i l l i p E. Harding, Dr Andrea Lunsford, and Dr Wolfgang Reich. For t h e i r generous f i n a n c i a l support over the past few years, I should l i k e to thank the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Alberta Heritage Scholarship Fund, and the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I should l i k e to acknowledge the f o l l o w i n g l i b r a r i e s f o r the generous use of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s : The B r i t i s h Library, the Un i v e r s i t a t s -b i b l i o t h e k i n Erlangen, the Niedersa'chsische Staats- und U n i v e r s i t a t s -b i b l i o t h e k i n Gbttingen, the N i e d e r s a c h s i s c h e L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k i n Hanover, the Kirchenbibliothek of the Evangelisch-Lutherisches Pfarramt St. Mang in Kempton/Allga'u, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek i n Munich, the Stadtbibliothek and the Landeskirchliches Archiv i n Nuremberg, the Proske-Musikbibliothek of the Bischbfliche Zentralbibliothek in Regens-burg, the S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k R e u t l i n g e n , the U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k der Eberhard-Karls-Universitat i n Tubingen, the Herzog-August-Bibliothek i n Wolf e n b l i t t e l , the Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k i n B e r l i n , the B e r l i n e r ix S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , the Sachsische Landesbibliothek in Dresden, the For-s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k i n Gotha, the U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k der Karl-Marx-Unive r s i t a t i n Le i p z i g , Ratsschulbibliothek i n Zwickau. A s p e c i a l debt of gratitude i s owed to the faculty and s t a f f of UBC's Music Library. F i n a l l y , I am e s p e c i a l l y grateful to Susan Vedb'y for her unflagging encouragement and boundless patience. To my parents, whom I cou'ld never thank enough, I dedicate this work. x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Funeral music accounts for more than h a l f of the occasional music published i n Germany in the seventeenth century,''' yet as a genre i t has received c r i t i c a l attention from r e l a t i v e l y few scholars. There i s no doubt that the c o m p o s i t i o n of f u n e r a l music, or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the performance of i t , was one of the p r i n c i p a l sources of i n c i d e n t a l income for the Lutheran musician. The importance of this supplementary income derived from the accidentia can be seen in the popularly quoted p e t i t i o n of 1730 from Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach to Georg Erdmann, the I m p e r i a l Russian Resident Agent i n Danzig and former schoolmate of the Thomas-kantor. In the l e t t e r Bach complains that my present post amounts to 700 t h a l e r , and when there are r a t h e r more f u n e r a l s than u s u a l , the fee r i s e s in p r o p o r t i o n ; but when a healthy wind blows they f a l l accordingly, as for example la s t year, when I lost fees that would o r d i n a r i l y come i n from funerals to an amount of more than 100 thaler....^ L. Weinhold, "Die Gelegenheitskomposition des 17. Jahrhunderts i n Deutschland: nach dem Stand der westdeutschen RISM-Kartei," i n Quellen- s t u d i e n zur Musik: Wo 1fgang Schmieder zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. by K. D o r f m i i l l e r ( F r a n k f u r t , London, New York: C F . P e t e r s , 1972), p. 172. 2 H. T. David and A. Mendel, eds., The Bach Reader: A L i f e of Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach in L e t t e r s and Documents, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972), pp. 125-26. "...meine i t z i g e s t a t i o n belaufet sich etwa auf 700 r t h l . , und wenn es etwas mehrere, a l s o r d i - nairement, Leichen gibt, so steigen auch nach proportion die accidentia; i s t aber eine gesunde L u f f t , so f a l l e n hingegen auch s o l c h e , wie denn 1 C o n s i d e r i n g the i n t e g r a l r o l e that music p l a y e d i n the f u n e r a l r i t e s of the L u t h e r a n c h u r c h , the i m p o r t a n c e o f f u n e r a l music to the l i v e l i h o o d of composers and performing music ians , and the large number of funerary compositions that have survived i n publ ished or manuscript f o r m , one would n a t u r a l l y expect to f i n d an a p p r e c i a b l e number of s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s on the s u b j e c t . But such i s not the case . There i s not a s i n g l e monograph which d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h the s u b j e c t , and o n l y a h a n d f u l o f p e r t i n e n t s h o r t e r s t u d i e s have appeared i n t h i s 3 . century. Even in bas ic reference works the topic has been ignored: for i n s t a n c e , there i s no e n t r y f o r " f u n e r a l m u s i c , " " o c c a s i o n a l m u s i c , " "church music," or t h e i r cognates in The New Grove D ic t i onary of Music  and Music ians; ne i ther are there corresponding en tr i e s i n Die Musik i n  Geschichte und Gegenwart, nor for that matter in any other of the p r i n -c i p a l music d i c t i o n a r i e s and encyclopedias. It i s p o s s i b l e , however, to obtain some i n d i c a t i o n of the s i g n i f i -cance of funera l music in Baroque Germany by r e f e r r i n g to RISM (Reper-t o i r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l de js Sources M u s i c a l e s ) . In the n ine volumes e n t i t l e d Einze ldrucke vor 1800,^ there are no less than 575 entr ies for v o r i g e s J a h r an o r d i n a i r e n L e i c h e n a c c i d e n t i e n liber 100 r t h l . " (Cited i n W. Neumann and H . - J . S c h u l z e , S c h r i f t s t i i c k e von der Hand Johann Sebastian Bachs, Bach-Dokumente: Herausgegeben vom Bach-Archiv L e i p z i g , supplement to Johann Sebastian Bach Neue Ausgabe samt l i cher Werke, v o l . 1 [ C a s s e l , B a s e l , P a r i s , London , New Y o r k : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1963], pp. 67-68.) 3 The obvious exception to t h i s i s the comparat ively large number of wr i t ings dea l ing with various aspects of Schutz's Mus ika l i sche Exequien. In th i s respect see Chapter Three, footnote 111. H K . S c h l ager , ed . , E i n z e l d r i i c k e v o r _18_9_P_> RISM ( R e p e r t o i r e I n t e r -nat iona l des Source Musica les ) , i n 9 vols (Cassel , Base l , Tours , London: Barenre i ter V e r l a g , 1971). 2 f u n e r a l music p u b l i s h e d between 1600 and 1700. Furthermore, many of these entries consist of several independent compositions. S t i l l others r e f e r to a n t h o l o g i e s c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r funeral music alone or funeral music together with other occasional music. These works, which may be e x t e n s i v e l y supplemented by subsequent discoveries and what Wolfgang Reich of the Sachsische Landesbibliothek refers to as the "much larger manuscript tradition,""' constitute a rather impressive body of musical l i t e r a t u r e , a repertory that has remained, for the most part, untouched. One of the reasons why t h i s music has escaped c r i t i c a l scrutiny is i t s r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Indeed, the only p r a c t i c a l way to know what published works exist i s to go, entry by entry, through each of the nine volumes of RISM's E i n z e l d r u c k e vor 1800 -- a chore both t e d i o u s and u n r e l i a b l e . ^ Because there i s no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e b i b l i o g r a p h y of the s m a l l number of m u s i c o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t of f u n e r a l music i n Baroque Germany, i t may prove b e n e f i c i a l to c o n s i d e r them here and to p r o v i d e a b r i e f overview of t h e i r c o n t e n t s . Though d e a l t w i t h more thoroughly in some of the following studies, i t is also hoped here that some sense w i l l be imparted of the h i s t o r i c a l context i n which t h i s music was created and performed. Among the e a r l i e s t studies to draw on published Leichenpredigten as a source of m u s i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l information •'Reich to Johnston, 19 A p r i l 1984. "...viel grbssere handschrift-l i c h e Uberlieferung." ^ I t i s u n r e l i a b l e i n the sense th a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e always to determine from the t i t l e of a composition or of a larger work, as given in RISM, whether the music i s funerary or simply devotional, p e n i t e n t i a l or commemorative. 3 are two nineteenth-century a r t i c l e s , by P h i l i p p S p i t t a and Beyer respec-t i v e l y , p u b l i s h e d i n the Monatshef te ^ i i r Mu_s i.kgescjijL£hte. 1 Both of these a r t i c l e s are concerned with biographical information on w e l l - and lesser-known German composers of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth cen-tu r i e s . The bodies of the a r t i c l e s consist almost e n t i r e l y of passages excerpted d i r e c t l y from the funeral sermons and accompanying c u r r i c u l a 8 v i t a e of the p u b l i s h e d L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n , p r o v i d i n g a contemporary report on the l i v e s and careers of the musicians. Spitta's and Beyer's work i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r c h i v a l ; although both authors r e c o g n i z e d the importance of the information, they r e f r a i n from elaborating upon i t . A few musicological works have appeared in the twentieth century which deal t a n g e n t i a l l y with the subject of funeral music. These include O t t o Riemer's Er_har_d B o d e n s c h a t z und sseiji F l ^ r i ^ e g ^ u m Portense P. S p i t t a , "Leichensermone auf Musiker des XVI. und XVII. J a h r -hunderts," Monatshefte f u r M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e 3, nos. 2-3 (1871): 24-44; Beyer, "Leichensermone auf Musiker des 17. Jahrhunderts," Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte 7, nos. 11-12 (1875): 171-88. The composers covered by S p i t t a i n c l u d e Hans Leo H a s s l e r , Johann Hermann Schein, Tobias Michael, Georg Ludwig Agricola, Clemens Thieme, and Andreas Werkmeister. Those mentioned i n Beyer's a r t i c l e i n c l u d e H e i n r i c h Schiitz, M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s , H e i n r i c h Bach, C h r i s t i a n G r e f e n t h a l , Werner F a b r i c i u s , Johann Christoph Hoffmann, Johann He l l e r , Balthasar Hildebrand, Herman Koch, Johann Christoph Kb'rber and Adam Judenfeind. 8 The term " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t ( p i . L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n ) " i s most o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h as " f u n e r a l sermon." In the context o f the present study, however, the term w i l l be understood i n i t s Baroque sense and i n the sense that i t is currently used i n scholarly discussions of German fun e r a r y l i t e r a t u r e and music. In the Baroque, Leichenpredigt was a term used not only i n r e f e r e n c e to the f u n e r a l sermon as such --that i s , the o r a t i o n most often based on scriptures and delivered by the presiding clergy i n the church or chapel; i t also encompassed a l l other items with which the published sermon may be found, including other ad ho£ o r a t i o n s (e.g., Abdankungen), d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p r o c e s s i o n and s e r v i c e , e p i c e d i a and other poetry, p o r t r a i t s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , b i o -graphical sketches and genealogies, and, of most i n t e r e s t here, funeral music. Q and Walter Reckziegel's Das C a n t i o n a l von Johan Herman Schein. Although s e v e r a l of the works i n Bodenschatz's motet anthology, the F l o r i l e g i u m Portense (Leipzig, 1618/1621), were popularly performed at funerals, Riemer has very l i t t l e to say about the occasional a p p l i c a t i o n of these compositions.^ Reckziegel, on the other hand, devotes a small p a r t of h i s book to a s t y l i s t i c d i s c u s s i o n of those of Schein's o c c a s i o n a l f u n e r a l l i e d e r which were l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s C a n t i o n a l ( L e i p z i g , 1627/1645) and gives the l o c a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l e x e m p l a r s . ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , Reckziegel's reference to Schein's funeral music i s e n t i r e l y i n c i d e n t a l to the more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the Cantional as a whole. The f i r s t musicological work to focus c r i t i c a l l y and exclusively on the s u b j e c t of Baroque f u n e r a l music i n Germany i s an a r t i c l e by Arno Werner, "Die F u r s t l i c h e Leichenpredigtensammlung zu Stolberg als musik-12 ge s c h i ch 11 i che Q u e l l e , " p u b l i s h e d i n A r c_h i^v f i i r Mus i k f o r -schung i n 1936. Werner examines the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g catalogue of 9 0. Riemer, Erhard Bodenschatz und £e_in F l o r i l e g i u m Portense (Schonigen: J u l . Kaminsky, 1928); W. Reckziegel, Das Cantional von Johan  Herman Schein: Seine g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n Grundlagen, B e r l i n e r S t u d i e n zur Musikwissenschaft: Verbffentlichungen des Musikwissenschaftlichen I n s t i -t u t s der F r e i e n U n i v e r s i t a t B e r l i n , ed. Adam A d r i o , v o l . 5 ( B e r l i n : Verlag Merseburger, 1963). ^Acco r d i n g to a Magister Leibniz in the Leipziger Kirchenandachten (1694), the compositions in the F l o r i l e g i u m that were commonly used at f u n e r a l s were Jacobus G a l l u s ' s Ecce £uomodo mo^i^ur Justus and Medina v i t a , Hans Leo Hassler's Si^ bona suscapimus and Annibale Stabile's Nunc  d i m i t i s . Cited in F. Hamel, "Die Leipziger Funera: zur Kulturgeschichte der Begrabnismusik," Schweizerische Musikzeitung 88 (1948): 90. ^ R e c k z i e g e l , op. c i t . , pp. 140-51. 12 A. Werner. "Die F u r s t l i c h e Leichenpredigtensammlung zu Stolberg a l s m u s i k g e s c h i c h t 1 iche Q u e l l e , " A r c h i v f i i r M u sikfo rschung 1 (1936): 293-317. 5 Le ichenpred ig t en as a source reference of music and m u s i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a study which r ece ived i t s i n i t i a l impetus from Rochus von L i l i e n c r o n as par t of the s e r i e s Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst. The c o l l e c t i o n of Le i chenp red ig t en and the subsequent c o m p i l a t i o n of an accompanying index were c a r r i e d out dur ing the f i r s t h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t the behes t o f the G r a f i n Soph ie E l e o n o r e zu S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g , who d i e d i n 1749. Though perhaps unmatched by h e r contemporar ies i n z e a l , the G r a f i n ' s reasons for c o l l e c t i n g these works were w e l l i n accordance w i t h the contemporary p r a c t i c e among P r o t e s t a n t s o f p r e p a r i n g f o r dea th t h r o u g h the c a r e f u l s t u d y and c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f 13 f u n e r a l se rmons . The a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r these roughly 25,000 d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s must have begun somet ime b e f o r e 1716, when the f i r s t p r o v i s i o n a l c a t a l o g u e o f the c o l l e c t e d w o r k s a p p e a r e d . As the c o l l e c t i o n g rew , s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n d i c e s were added. E a r l i e r i n t h i s c e n t u r y , be tween 1927 and 1935, the p u b l i s h i n g f i r m Degener & Co. o f L e i p z i g , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the " F u r s t l i c h e Kammer" o f S t o l b e r g , i s s u e d a f o u r - v o l u m e c a t a l o g u e o f the amassed body o f L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n . A l t h o u g h the c a t a l o g u e i t s e l f i s u n r e l i a b l e as a reference t o o l , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to the m u s i c a l i a , ^ i t nonethe-l e s s o f f e r s the modern scho la r access to the r i c h and v a r i e d contents of L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n . Werner m e n t i o n s the i m p o r t a n c e o f the a v a i l a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l 13 See W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r b a u u n g s 1 i t e r a t u r , " i n Le i chenpred ig t en a l s Que l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissenschaf ten , ed. by R. Lenz (Cologne, V ienna : Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 66-81. ^ W e r n e r , op. c i t . , p. 294. 6 information on musicians of various professional types (Capellmeister, cantors, music d i r e c t o r s , organists, trumpeters, S t a d t p f e i f e r and Musi- kanten), and sees i n these s o - c a l l e d P e r s o n a l i e n the means of p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r a p i c t u r e of the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u i n which the m u s i c i a n s f l o u r i s h e d . ^ He i s a l s o able to shed some l i g h t on the seventeenth-century class system and i t s s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s for musicians: e p i -d e i c t i c poetry was often w r i t t e n i n honour of Capellmeister and music d i r e c t o r s but not, i t seems, f o r o r g a n i s t s , S t a d t p f e i f e r and other musicians of i n f e r i o r s o c i a l s t a t u s . ^ Other sections of the Leichen-£redig_ten he 1 d by Werner to be of l e s s e r i n t e r e s t to the h i s t o r i a n or musicologist receive l i t t l e attention, and the type of Baroque funeral oratory known as the Abdankung i s simply said to be "unimportant."'''^ Given the magnitude of the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g c o l l e c t i o n , and i t s hitherto unexploited wealth of musical information, i t is understandable that Werner's work with the catalogue was of necessity far more organi-zational than i n t e r p r e t a t i v e . He discusses the funeral music i t s e l f i n the most general of terms. Funeral compositions are mentioned as having been most commonly written i n four or fiv e parts without basso continuo, though polychoral works written for two four-part choirs and composi-tions for solo voice were not rare. Much less common were funeral works 1 5 I b i d . , p. 294. 1 6 I b i d . ^ I b i d . But see M. FurstenwaId, "Zur T h e o r i e und Funktion der Barockabdankung," in Leichenpredigten als Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissen-s c h a f t e n , ed. by R. Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bb'hlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 372-89. Since the time of Werner's w r i t i n g , the Baroque Abdankung has been given due r e c o g n i t i o n by German l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s as an a r t i s t i c genre that was w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d throughout Lutheran Germany i n the Baroque. 7 18 for two, three and s ix vo ices . Some unusual funerary compositions are s i n g l e d out by Werner f o r b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n , such as E r n s t O t i p k a ' s Trauerbuhne ( L e i p z i g , 1678) and Erhard T i t i u s ' s "Wenn mein Sti indlein vorhanden i s t " (Dresden and Z i t t a u , 1681). Werner summarizes h i s s tudy by m a i n t a i n i n g that the S t o l b e r g -S t o l b e r g c o l l e c t i o n p r e s e n t s us w i t h a l a r g e l y untapped source of occas ional music, as w e l l as cons iderable b iograph ica l informat ion on 20 both famous and obscure composers of the German Baroque. Furthermore, i t is f e l t by Werner that the Leichenpredigten are also s i g n i f i c a n t as sources of h i s t o r i c a l in format ion concerning the ro le of funeral music i n i t s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . P r e c e d i n g an appended t a b l e (pp. 299-317) which r e p r e s e n t s a b r i e f overv iew of the c o n t e n t s o f the S t o l b e r g -Stolberg catalogue are the fo l lowing f ive indices provided by Werner: 1) references to music mentioned in the catalogue; 2) references to musi-c ians , on the occasion of whose death funeral sermons, c u r r i c u l a v i tae or t h r e n o d i c poems ( T r a u e r g e d i c h t e ) were w r i t t e n ; 3) r e f e r e n c e s to music ians , whose fami ly members are the object of funerary w r i t i n g s ; 4) references to musicians who have w r i t t e n threnodic poems; 5) Werner's correc t ions and supplements to the catalogue's "Verzeichnis der Lieder und Musikstticke." 18 Werner , op. c i t . , p. 297. 1 9 I b i d . , pp. 297-98. According to RISM, the sole exemplar of Ernst Otipka's Trauerbuhne i s housed i n the S tadtb ib l io thek i n Lindau (Boden-see); however, a t t empts by the l i b r a r y to l o c a t e the work were unsuc -ces s fu l (Werner Dobras, L e i t e r des Kulturamtes, to Johnston, 17 November 1986). 2 0 I b i d . , p. 298. 8 Twelve years a f t e r Werner's a r t i c l e was p u b l i s h e d , Fred Hamel's "Die Leipziger Funera: zur Kulturgeschichte der Begrabnismusik" appeared not overly concerned with a c r i t i c a l examination of the music i t s e l f ; his primary aim rather is to describe the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context in which funeral music was performed i n L e i p z i g . Among Hamel's motivations f o r w r i t i n g t h i s a r t i c l e was h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ' in d i f f e r e n c e to the type of music performed during funeral ceremonies and a corresponding ignorance of Germany's h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n of funer-ary composition. He hoped that his a r t i c l e might i n some way lead to an " E n t k i t s c h u n g " of German f u n e r a l music and a r e v i v a l of the f u n e r a l 22 music of the Baroque. The a r t i c l e comprises six main topics of discussion, each of them 2 3 only b r i e f l y touched upon. The f i r s t , "Organisation," i s a descrip-t i o n of f u n e r a r y p r a c t i c e s i n L e i p z i g during the Baroque. Basing h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Baroque exequies on various c i v i c ordinances, Hamel d e t a i l s the involvement of the students of the L e i p z i g schools at funer-a l s , from the f i r s t n o t i f i c a t i o n on the blackboard that the s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n was required through to th e i r singing at the interment of the deceased. Hamel p r o v i d e s the modern reader w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l glimpse i n t o t h i s p e r i o d when death was a s t r a n g e r to no one. To the students of the Thomasschule, c o n j u g a t i n g L a t i n verbs, l e a r n i n g the in an issue of the Schweizerische Musikzeitung. 21 Like Werner, Hamel i s F. Hamel, "Die Leipziger Funera: zur Kulturgeschichte der Begrab-nismusik," Schweizerische Musikzeitung 88 (1948): 87-92, 125-32. 22 Ibid., p. 132. 23 I b i d ., pp. 88-89. 9 Lutheran catechism and s i n g i n g at f u n e r a l s were a l l part of the same routine. The seriousness with which the students took these mournful o c c a s i o n s i s i n t i m a t e d i n a s c h o o l ordinance from 1723 whereby the students were expected to wear the time-honoured b l a c k garments, to keep them neat and clean as much as possible, to walk in a processional manner ahead of the body; and furthermore, not to be up to the l e a s t b i t of m i s c h i e f , c h a t t e r , to get out of or even leave a l t o g e t h e r t h e i r l i n e , but rather to sing sedulously together the l i e d e r from the songbooks they have w i t h them and, furthermore, to observe a proper consonance, and to remain quiet i n t h e i r respective places during the funeral sermon, as well as in the cemetery. The second section of Hamel's a r t i c l e i s headed "Musikalische Praxis." The author discusses here the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on the elaborateness of f u n e r a l s i n order f o r them to conform w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l class of the deceased. The t h i r d part i s given to a b r i e f discussion of ? ft the c a n t i o n a l - t y p e l i e d , which was the most common type of music performed at L e i p z i g funerals, because of c i v i c ordinances which banned the use of instruments i n c i t y churches. Hamel believes that the c u l t i -v a t i o n of t h i s s imple s t y l e , as seen i n such works as J. H. Schein's Cantional, was further promoted owing to the impoverishing e f f e c t s of the T h i r t y Y ears' War. Johann Rosenmiiller i s the t o p i c of the f o u r t h From the "E. E. Hochw. Raths der Stadt L e i p z i g Ordnung der Schule zu St. Thomas," 1723, XII, 1-3. C i t e d i n Hamel, O J K c i t . , p. 89. "...die von a l t e r s her eingefuhrte ehrbare schwarze Kleidung gebrauchen, auch selbige, so v i e l nur moglich, r e i n und sauber halten, prozessions-weise vor der Leiche hergehen, dabey nicht den geringsten Unfug treiben, plaudern, aus ihrer Reihe oder gar davongehen, hingegen aber die l i e d e r aus denen bey s i c h habenden Gesang-Biichern allesamt f l e i s s i g absingen, dabey eine r i c h t i g e Consonanz beobachten, und unter wahrenden Leichen-p r e d i g t e n , wie auch auf dem K i r c h h o f an ihrem behorigen Orte S t i l l e seyn." 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 89-91. 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 91-92. 10 27 part, as Hamel gives a b r i e f overview of the types of funerary music 28 written by him. As part of the f i f t h point, Die Motette, Hamel notes that parentation motets were wr i t t e n by every Thomaskantor between 1600 and 1750. Often commissioned by the deceased's f a m i l y and e v e n t u a l l y published together as part of the Leichenpredigt, the parentation motets were most often based on b i b l i c a l texts on topics of death, salvation, res u r r e c t i o n and eternal l i f e . Hamel points out that the trend towards t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y i n motet c o m p o s i t i o n i n the l a t t e r part of the Baroque i n L e i p z i g l e d to the e v e n t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n of a keyboard instrument to supply pitches and harmonic support. Instruments, how-ever, were not permitted independent parts except for performances at funerals held in the University Church, that i s , out of c i v i c j u r i s d i c -tion.. The l a s t topic for discussion in Hamel's a r t i c l e i s the funeral 29 compositions by J. S. Bach. In 1959 an a r t i c l e by Werner Braun appeared e n t i t l e d "Das E i s e n -3 0 acher B e g r a b n i s k a n t i o n a l aus dem Jahre 1653." The c a n t i o n a l i n q u e s t i o n i s the E i s e n a c h Cantor Theodor Schuchardt's Threnodia s a c r a (Gotha, 1653) , a single copy of which was discovered in the c o l l e c t i o n of the L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k Weimar. Braun examines and presents a b r i e f 2 7 lb i d . , pp. 125-27. Hamel p o i n t s out that c e r t a i n of Rosen-mu l l er's works (Acht B e g r a b n i s l i e d e r f i i r den L e i p z i g e r Thomanerchor, W o l f e n b u ' t t e l - B e r l i n , 1930) were a v a i l a b l e in modern e d i t i o n edited by Hamel himself. 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 127-28. 2 9 I b i d . , pp. 129-31. 30 W. Braun, "Das Eisenacher Begrabniskantional aus dem Jahre 1653," in Jahrbuch fiir L i t u r g i k und Hymnologie, v o l . 4 (1958/59), pp. 122-28. 1 1 overview of the contents of the Schuchardt anthology, touching upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Threnodia s a c r a to other contemporary f u n e r a r y c a n t i o n a l s , p o i n t s of c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e , and o r i g i n s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l melodies. The a r t i c l e concludes with a table of contents f o r the anthology, which i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works by M e l c h i o r Franck, Johann Hermann Schein, Joachim a Burck, Melchior Vulpius, with a p a r t i c u l a r l y large proportion of compositions by Schuchardt. To date, no one has contributed more to the study and understanding of funeral music of the German Baroque than has Wolfgang Reich. Reich's doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n "Die deutschen gedruckten Leichenpredigten des 17. Jahrhunderts a l s musikalische Quelle," completed i n 1962 at Karl-Marx-Universita't i n Lei p z i g , continues to serve as the bench mark for modern studies i n the area of German funeral music. In h i s prefacing remarks to the d i s s e r t a t i o n , Reich states that the primary goal of his work is to pr o v i d e music r e s e a r c h e r s with a comprehensive r e f e r e n c e t o o l f o r gaining access to sources of printed music found i n the larger Leichen-31 predigten c o l l e c t i o n s i n the German Democratic Republic. Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n begins with a general discussion of published 32 Leichenpredigten as a h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon in Baroque Germany. Under the subheading, "Die Mus i k b e i l a g e n der gedruckten Leichenpredigten," Reich traces the growth and decay of the practice of publishing Leichen-31 W. Reich. "Die deutschen gedruckten L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 17. Jahrhunderts a l s musikalische Quelle" (Ph.D. diss., Karl-Marx-Universi-t a t , 1962), p. I. 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 1-6. 3 3 I b i d . , pp. 6-13. 12 predigten with music throughout Germany from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth century, taking into account the fact that some centres flourished at c e r t a i n times because of l o c a l composers who s p e c i a l i z e d 35 i n f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n , other areas p u b l i s h e d the music and the Leichenpredigten separately, and yet others, as a r e s u l t of the T h i r t y Years' War, c l a s s consciousness or a combination of the two, imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on the pu b l i c a t i o n of funeral music. For instance, though no reason i s given, there appears to be no publication of ad hoc funeral music i n Danzig a f t e r 1676, and i n Nuremberg a "Verneuerte L e i c h - O r d -nung" from 1705 decreed: And because the p r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n of funeral l i e d e r is a l l too much abused and almost no d i s t i n c t i o n i s maintained thereby, thus s h a l l there be henceforth no more than two l i e d e r printed in f o l i o i n the f i r s t c l a s s , one i n quarto i n the second and t h i r d , but in the following classes none whatsoever, under penalty of s i x gulden. Reich a l s o a l l u d e s to the m u l t i f o l d problems of i d e n t i f y i n g the 37 composers of the music i n Leichenpredigten. It i s sometimes unclear whether the name g i v e n on the p r i n t e d t i t l e page i s th a t of the See Anhang I, p. 180. Schema der zahlenmassigen Ausbreitung des Leichenpredigtdruckes zwischen 1550 und 1750. 35 For example, some of the more p r o l i f i c composers of funeral music included, to name a few, Johann Hermann Schein and Johann Rosenmuller in Leipz i g ; Heinrich Schwemmer and Paul H a i n l e i n i n Nuremberg; Wolfgang Caspar B r i e g e l i n Gotha; Johann Stobaus and H e i n r i c h A l b e r t in Danzig and Kbnigsberg; Johann Gottlieb T h i l l i n Regensburg. 3ft C i t e d i n Reich, op. c i t . , p. 9. "VNd w e i l e n das Drucken und Aus-th e i l e n der Leichen-Lieder a l l z u w e i t missgebrauchet, und fast gar kein Vnterschied damit gehalten worden: So s o l l e n furohin in dem Ersten Stand hochstens zwey, i n F o l i o , i n dem Andern und D r i t t e n Eins, i n Quart, bey denen folgenden Standen aber gar k e i n e L i e d e r gedruckt werden, bey Strafe Sechs Gulden." 3 7 I b i d . , pp. 11-13. 13 composer, the poet or the performer. Other times, the composer i s i d e n t i f i e d only by his i n i t i a l s , and these i n i t i a l s may likewise appear wit h those of the poet, which only compounds the problem by c o n f u s i n g the two. Symptomatic of the time, too, was the German p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the r e l a t i o mystica, as composers concealed or v e i l e d t h e i r i d e n t i -t i e s through a c r o s t i c s and c r y p t i c messages. Neither was i t uncommon f o r the composer's name to be o m i t t e d e n t i r e l y from the p u b l i c a t i o n . For t h i s reason numerous composers have remained completely anonymous, either because t h e i r authorship was evident to everyone when the music was published, or simply because they chose to be. 38 Under the subheading Quellenbericht, Reich gives a general over-view of the m a t e r i a l c o n s u l t e d f o r h i s study. Though r e s t r i c t i n g h i s study to archives and l i b r a r i e s of the German Democratic Republic, Reich remarks that approximately 65,000 L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n were n e v e r t h e l e s s available for examination. Over 80 per cent of the Leichenpredigten are bound together i n the customary anthologies; the largest of these c o l -l e c t i o n s are housed i n the Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k i n B e r l i n (ca. 16,000), the S t a a t s a r c h i v i n Magdeburg (ca. 12,000), the R a t s s c h u l -b i b l i o t h e k i n Zwickau (ca. 10,000) and the L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k (now the Forschungsbibliothek) i n Gotha (ca. 7,000). Other s i g n i f i c a n t c o l l e c -t i o n s of L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n c i t e d by Reich are l o c a t e d i n l i b r a r i e s i n Rostock, Wittenberg, Greifswald, Jena and L e i p z i g . The major s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t o r y pages bears the heading "Katalog der gedruckten M u s i k b e i l a g e n i n den L e i c h e n p r e d i g t -Ibid., pp. 14-15. 14 39 Sammlungen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik," a catalogue of some 426 separate entries organized by place of publication, year of publica-t i o n , and name of the deceased. The m u s i c a l works are i d e n t i f i e d as nearly as possible by composer, t i t l e of composition or textual i n c i p i t , and setting. Reich also includes a d d i t i o n a l b i b l i o g r a p h i c information about c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n s of c o p i e s of the works i n r e p o s i t o r i e s of the German Democratic Republic, i d e n t i f y i n g these locations with the l i b r a r y s i g l a e s t a b l i s h e d i n RISM. He f u r t h e r m o r e uses the s i g l a "St" and "St oN." The former indicates which of the works mentioned are included i n the Stolberg-Stolberg catalogue, and the l a t t e r refers to exemplars of works in the Stolberg-Stolberg c o l l e c t i o n but lacking the music supple-ment. F o r t u n a t e l y the b i b l i o g r a p h i c value of Reich's catalogue was recognized, and i t was published in a revised version in 1966.^ The second major d i v i s i o n of Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n presents a gener-a l analysis of some of the music, categorized by geographic area and by m u s i c a l g e n r e . ^ In h i s a n a l y s e s , Reich examines the c o m p o s i t i o n a l approaches to f u n e r a l music as p r a c t i s e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of Germany. 3 9 I b i d . , pp. 16-68. ^W. Reich, ed., Threnodiae Sacrae: Katalog der gedruckten Komposi- tionen des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts i n Leichenpredigtsammlungen i n n e r h a l b der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Dresden: Sachsische Landesbiblio-thek, 1966). Also the r e s u l t of Reich's work with funeral music is his e d i t i o n Threnodiae Sacrae: Beerdigungskompositionen aus gedruckten Leichenpredigten des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, Das Erbe Deutscher Musik, v o l . 79 (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1975). ^ R e i c h , "Die deutschen gedruckten Leichenpredigten," pp. 77-145. The geographic breakdown comprises Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany, Central Germany, and Southern Germany. Under each of these geographic headings the current forms or approaches to composition are examined, i n c l u d i n g motets and g e i s t l i c h e Konzerte, L i e d forms, c a n t a t a s , d i a -logues and other m u l t i p a r t i t e forms. 15 He discusses, for example, the popularity of d i a l o g i c compositions in ce n t r a l Germany and how, in the second h a l f of the seventeenth century, t h i s approach was superceded by d i a l o g i c c a n t a t a s . Approximately f i f t y pages of transcribed examples at the end of the d i s s e r t a t i o n are i n c l u d e d to i l l u s t r a t e some of Reich's d i s c u s s i o n of c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e . Reich summarizes many of h i s observations on funeral music in the concluding Zusammenhang and Thesen. He sees printed funeral music in Leichenpredigten as a l a r g e l y German phenomenon that began in the t h i r d quarter of the sixteenth century, gathered momentum in the early years of the seventeenth century, reached a p e r i o d of e f f l o r e s c e n c e i n the 1670s and 1680s, and d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century. In explaining the r e l a t i v e l y weak transmission of Leichenenpredigten with supplementary music, he enumerates as the f i v e c h i e f reasons: 1) only ad hoc compositions were included i n the publica-tions, since they were exceptions to the standard practice of r e l y i n g on the customary cantionals and motet anthologies; 2) larger works, such as Schutz's M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien, were often published independently of the Leichenpredigt; 3) sometimes the music was removed from the Leichen- p r e d i g t e n by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ; ^ 4) p e r i o d i c a l l y the publication of the music was f o r b i d d e n by law; 5) a f t e r the middle of the seventeenth century, i t became increasingly common for the Leichenpredigt to incor-H Z I b i d . , p. 136. 4 3 I b i d . , pp. 161-74. 4 4 T h i s i s notably the case with many of the funerary compositions in the c o l l e c t i o n of the Ratsschulbibliothek in Zwickau. 16 porate only the text of the musical work. In h i s c l o s i n g remarks, Reich makes a number of o b s e r v a t i o n s of both g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c natures. Because Baroque composers availed themselves of a l l the current musical s t y l e s (though the cantata and solo song were in many ways r e s t r i c t e d ) , Reich states that seventeenth-century funeral music, u l t i m a t e l y , may not be properly referred to as a s t y l i s t i c genre per se. A r e l a t i v e l y recent contribution to the h i s t o r i c a l study of German f u n e r a l music i s Gerhard Schuhmacher's a r t i c l e "Musikbeigaben i n Leichenpredigten und selbstandig v e r b f f e n t l i c h t e Sterbekompositionen," a p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of a paper f i r s t read at the E r s t e s Marburger Personalschriftensymposion i n 1974.4"^ Schuhmacher begins h i s a r t i c l e by st r e s s i n g that an understanding of the context of Baroque funeral music is r e q u i s i t e to a proper appreciation of the music i t s e l f . Like others before him, he comments on the general neglect of the subject of funeral • 46 music. On the whole, Schuhmacher's a r t i c l e i s a general treatment of the subject of funeral music, directed as i t is at the symposium's audience of non-music s p e c i a l i s t s . He mentions the practice of some of the more eloquent pastors i n the Baroque, who published t h e i r funeral sermons i n anthologies for others to study and emulate. 4 7 Some of these antholo-G. Schuhmacher, "Musikbeigaben i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n und s e l b -s t a n d i g v e r b f fent l i c h t e Sterbekompositionen," i n Leichenpredigten als  Quelle h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissenschaften, ed. R. Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 408-25. ^Schuhmacher informs the reader in a footnote that he, i n c o l l a b -oration with Wolfgang Reich (Dresden) and Hans Unger (Jena), was at that time working on a b i b l i o g r a p h y of o c c a s i o n a l music, which of course would include the subject of funeral music. Ibid., p. 410. 4 7 I b i d . , pp. 412-14. 17 gies also included funeral music by the l o c a l cantor, presumably so that they might serve as models for study and emulation, or merely for copy-in g and performance. T h i s i n turn demonstrates to a s m a l l degree the close professional and a r t i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n between the composer of the music and the author of the text -- sermon, l i e d text, or both. In h i s subsequent discussion of where and when the publ i c a t i o n of funeral music was p r a c t i s e d , and what were the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , Schuhmacher 48 derives much of h i s information from e a r l i e r studies. U n l i k e the other w r i t e r s , Schuhmacher i n h i s study does address p e r i o d i c a l l y and c u r s o r i l y the matter of the r h e t o r i c of f u n e r a l mu-49 s i c . He remarks upon the shortage of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l elaboration i n the music owing to the strophic nature of most works. In the case of H e i n r i c h Schwemmer's music, however, he notes that there i s a kin d of apotheosizing e f f e c t i n each verse of text that can be aur a l l y perceived as a gradual vowel transformation from dark to l i g h t vowels. This, he adds, though without going into much d e t a i l , i s r e f l e c t e d to some degree in the treatment of the s t r i n g accompaniment by the composer. He com-ments b r i e f l y on the popularity of assigning p a r t i c u l a r voice-types to re p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s i n d i a l o g u e s : angels are d e p i c t e d by sopranos, God or Jesus by a tenor, m o r t a l men or women by a l t o s . In so l o songs, the s i n n e r i s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d by a bass v o i c e , unless p e r s o n i f i e d with a greater sense of v e r i t y by the composer. Schuhmacher suggests that woodwinds are r a r e l y used because of the inappropriateness 4 8 I b i d . , pp. 414-15. 4 9 I b i d . , pp. 418-20. 18 of t h e i r bright tone colour, and trombones were stigmatized as i n f e r n a l symbols. The area of f u n e r a l music and i t s r h e t o r i c , Schuhmacher informs his audience, i s wanting both i n scholarly i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n consideration of the music, as an element of the Baroque, in the context of contemporary theory. It i s g e n e r a l l y agreed upon that r h e t o r i c a l concepts pervaded m u s i c a l thought i n Baroque Germany, and we should l i k e w i s e be able to assume that these same m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l p r i n c i p l e s were applied to the c o m p o s i t i o n of f u n e r a l music. Over the years, a number of d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s have been w r i t t e n about the a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n the works of s p e c i f i c composers,^" but none has yet con-sidered the more general use of musical rh e t o r i c i n a s p e c i f i c musical genre. In the p r e f a c e to the S t u t t g a r t e r Schutz-Ausgabe of the Musi-k a l i s c h e Exequien from 1973 the e d i t o r , Giinther G r a u l i c h , makes the following observation: No h i s t o r y of p r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l music has yet been w r i t t e n . In recent times the baroque funeral oration has begun to a t t r a c t the attention of scholars as a r h e t o r i c a l l i t e r a r y genre; i t s musical c o u n t e r p a r t a l s o warrants more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i t s l i t u r g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and i t s place i n the h i s t o r y of music. For the period from Heinrich Schutz to Johann Sebastian Bach an inves-t i g a t i o n of the genre i t s e l f and i t s m u s i c o - r h e t o r i c a 1 content For example see, G. T o u s s a i n t , "Die Anwendung der m u s i k a l i s c h -r h e t o r i s c h e n F i g u r e n i n den Werken von H e i n r i c h Schutz" (Ph.D. d i s s . , Mainz University, 1949) and H. Rauhe, "Dichtung und Musik im weltlichen Vokalwerk J. H. Scheins: S t i l i s t i s c h e und kompositionstechnische Unter-suchungen zum Wort-Ton-Verhaltnis im Lichte der rhetorisch ausgerichte-ten Sprach- und Musiktheorie des 17. Jahrhunderts" (Ph.D. diss., Hamburg University, 1959 [I960]). Rauhe states a d d i t i o n a l l y i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n (p. 2) that his Staatsexamensarbeit at the Hamburg Hochschule fur Musik i n 1955 was an examination of the Figurenlehre in Schein's sacred music. See also H. H. Eggebrecht, Heinrich Schutz: Musicus Poeticus (Gbttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959). 19 would c e r t a i n l y uncover much of in t e r e s t . While Graulich's introductory observations are no doubt v a l i d , the e f f e c t upon the academic community, with the possible exception of the above-mentioned a r t i c l e by Gerhard Schumacher, has been n e g l i g i b l e . But th i s i s simply in keeping with the general state of neglect suffered by funeral music as a genre. The present study, in some ways, i s written in reponse to the unquestionable need for further musicological i n v e s t i -gation into funeral music. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s an examination and d e m o n s t r a t i o n of c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e d elements of musical rhe t o r i c i n f u n e r a l music of the Lutheran Church i n seventeenth-century Germany. The d e t a i l e d e xamination i n Chapter Three of the p r i n c i p a l r h e t o r i c a l device w i l l serve as the primary backing to warrant such a conclusion. For reasons a r i s i n g c h i e f l y from the extreme discrepancies between the abundance of p r i m a r y sources on the one hand and the p a u c i t y of secondary sources on the other, i t becomes necessary to impose at the outset some r e s t r i c t i o n s upon the scope of the present work; i n this way alone can the aims of the d i s s e r t a t i o n be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y achieved. The value of Wolfgang Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n and catalogue of printed G. G r a u l i c h , ed., H e i n r i c h Schutz: Musika1ische Exequien. Op.  7. Begrabnismusik i n d r e i T e i l e n fiir sechs, acht oder mehr Stimmen mit Generalbass, t r a n s , by D. McCulloch, V o l . 8 i n S t u t t g a r t e r Schiitz-Ausgabe (Neuhausen, S t u t t g a r t : H a n s s l e r V e r l a g , 1973), p. XXIV. "Die Geschichte der protestantischen Trauermusik i s t noch nicht geschrieben. Wie die Trauerrede des Barock a l s rhetorische Gattung i n jiingerer Z e i t zunehmend wissenschaftliches Interesse auf sich zieht, so ware sicher-l i c h auch deren m u s i k a l i s c h e s Gegenstuck eingehender l i t u r g i e - und musikgeschichtlicher Untersuchung wert; und zumal unter den Aspekten der Gattungstradition und der musikalisch-rhetorischen Topik waren h i e r fiir d i e Z e i t von H e i n r i c h Schutz b i s Johann S e b a s t i a n Bach w e s e n t l i c h e A u f s c h l i i s s e zu erwarten." ( i b i d . , p. VII.) 2.0 music supplements to Leichenpredigten c o l l e c t i o n s i n the German Demo-c r a t i c Republic has already been mentioned in the preceding overview of e x i s t i n g secondary sources. It too has i t s b u i l t - i n l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , Reich eliminates from his examination any c r i t i c a l evaluation of the manuscript sources of funeral music. Neither does he concern him-s e l f with funeral music printed independently of the Leichenpredigt, a sizeable body of music l i t e r a t u r e which would include such monumental works as Schutz's Musikalische Exequien. F i n a l l y , Reich delineates his study f u r t h e r s t i l l by u t i l i z i n g only those sources a v a i l a b l e to him wi t h i n the borders of the German Democratic Republic. Had Reich lacked the f o r e s i g h t to draw up such boundaries f o r the f i r s t major study of the genre, he no doubt would have been overwhelmed by the sheer mass of unassessed material. The present study, l i k e Reich's, i s a l s o l i m i t e d e n t i r e l y to printed sources from the seventeenth century. By delineating the work in t h i s way, i t was possible to make use of the two indices published by Werner and Reich, and a l s o of the nine volumes of RISM's E i n z e l d r u c k e  vor 1800. Although these three sources alone do not provide many clues about the generic nature of the funeral music, they at least provide the researcher with some i n d i c a t i o n of texts, settings and, i n the case of Reich and RISM, the present locations of surviving exemplars of c e r t a i n compositions. Without comparable r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s f o r manuscript sources of t h i s repertoire, i t would be nothing short of foolhardiness to attempt to b r i n g u n p u b l i s h e d f u n e r a l works i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h i s study. U n l i k e Reich's d i s s e r t a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, the present one does not focus e x c l u s i v e l y on the r e p o s i t o r i e s of a s i n g l e country; 21 neither i s i t r e s t r i c t e d to those funerary compositions published s o l e l y as m u s i c a l supplements to L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n . Thus one i s immediatley c o n f r o n t e d by a problem which stems from l i m i t a t i o n s of the other i n d i c e s . Werner's index i s l i m i t e d , f i r s t , to those compositions included i n published Leichenpredigten, and, secondly, to Leichenpredig- ten which comprise the Stolberg-Stolberg c o l l e c t i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n s of Reich's index pose two d i f f e r e n t problems. I t i s easy enough to make cross-references from Reich to RISM in order to determine which works l i s t e d in Reich's index are duplicated in l i b r a r i e s and archives outside the German Democratic R e p u b l i c . However, i t i s not so easy to l e a r n which ad hoc funeral works published independently of the Leichenpredigt e x i s t i n that country. Nor can one e a s i l y determine the e x i s t e n c e of p r i n t e d f u n e r a l compositions housed only i n c o u n t r i e s other than the German Democratic R e p u b l i c . The s o l u t i o n to these problems, as mentioned b e f o r e , i s simply f o r one to check each of the e n t r i e s in RISM's Einzeldrucke for those texts which suggest that a musical work may in fact be funerary. Upon examining the contents of these three references a p r o v i s i o n a l l i s t (based on a b b r e v i a t e d t i t l e s , t e x t u a l i n c i p i t s , i n d i c a t i o n s of s e t t i n g s , and on the c r i t i c a l assessments of the s c h o l a r s mentioned above) was compiled c o m p r i s i n g funerary works presumed to be r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f the v a r i o u s m u s i c a l f o r m s and s t y l e s c u r r e n t i n seventeenth-century Germany. The subsequent f i e l d work was conducted i n 52 Europe, which allowed for an examination of the data and for v e r i f i -A complete l i s t of l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h i s time i s given i n the "Acknowledgements," pp. v i i i - i x . 22 cation that the gathered compositions were either representative of the genre or u n i q u e l y a b e r r a n t (and thus more h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l ) . I t i s believed that an assessment of the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l content of this sampling w i l l p e r m i t an a c c u r a t e i n f e r e n c e of c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s governing the genre of funeral compositions as a whole. The second chapter of the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a c u r s o r y study of the funeral l i t u r g y i n Lutheran Germany in the seventeenth century. Just as the c i r c u m s t a n c e s are an important r h e t o r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the w r i t i n g of a speech, the l i t u r g i c a l context was an important factor i n the composition of funeral music. I t i s the int e n t i o n in this chapter to o u t l i n e a p l a u s i b l e seventeenth-century f u n e r a l l i t u r g y as i t may have been p r a c t i s e d i n the Lutheran Church. Because the placement of music i n the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e was found to be t r e a t e d as f r e e l y as was the l i t u r g y i t s e l f , i t i s not possible here to enter into a f u l l discus-sion of when or where in the ceremony the music was performed. However, some of the l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s of s p e c i f i c c o m p o s i t i o n s and t h e i r r h e t o r i c w i l l be b e t t e r understood in l i g h t o f t h e i r known or con-j e c t u r e d placement i n the ceremony. I t might be added at t h i s p o i n t that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o f u n e r a l l i t u r g y and music of t h i s p e r i o d would be a very productive study. The t h i r d chapter i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of what may w e l l be the cardinal r h e t o r i c a l device employed by composers of seventeenth-century f u n e r a l music -- namely, the r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the dead. While other elements of r h e t o r i c a l persuasion are evident i n the music, 23 none found i n the course of t h i s e xamination c a r r i e s the f o r c e of the musical animation of the deceased. By entering into a detailed discus-sion of the most e f f e c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l device found in t h i s r e p e r t o i r e , I hope to demonstrate not o n l y the presence i n f u n e r a l music of an extremely p e r s u a s i v e m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c but a l s o of a m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c that can be seen, in c e r t a i n ways, to bear close comparison to sermonic oratory. In the f o u r t h and f i n a l chapter, a number of r h e t o r i c a l or af f e c t i v e devices employed by Baroque composers w i l l be examined. Con-ceivably, any one of these concluding topics -- and no doubt others --co u l d be examined w i t h the same depth as the p r e c e d i n g treatment of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . But such d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of each and every r h e t o r i c a l consideration would quickly exceed the intended scope of the present d i s s e r t a t i o n . The F i g u r e n l e h r e , the s o - c a l l e d d o c t r i n e of f i g u r e s , w i l l be looked at, though a c o n c e n t r a t e d and d e t a i l e d examination of i t s role in funerary composition would be best served i n 53 an independent study. Secondly, the incorporation of metric changes, It would also be i l l - a d v i s e d h i s t o r i c a l l y , for the Figurenlehre ought to be understood as a s i n g l e f a c e t of m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c . See M. Ruhnke, "Mu s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e Figuren und ihre musikalische Quali-tat," in Ars Musica Ars S c i e n t i a : F e s t s c h r i f t Heinrich Huschen zum 65.  Geburtstag, ed. by D. A l t e n b u r g (Cologne: G i t a r r e und Laute V e r l a g s -g e s e l l s c h a f t , 1980), pp. 385^86. Basing his comments on the pedagogical writings of Joachim Burmeister, Ruhnke reminds the reader that musical-r h e t o r i c a l analyses too often focus on the Figuren, to the exclusion of other equally important m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l elements. Burmeister himself encouraged hi s students and the readers of his Musica autoschediastike (Rostock, 1601) and Musica p o e t i c a (Rostock, 1606) always to look f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r h e t o r i c s of music and o r a t o r y . See a l s o M. Ruhnke, Joachim B u r m e i s t e r : e i n B e i t r a g zur M u s i k l e h r e urn 1600 (Cassel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1955), pp. 144, 145. 24 p a r t i c u l a r l y from duple to t r i p l e metre, w i l l be viewed as f u l f i l l i n g an a n t i t h e t i c a l r h e t o r i c a l function analogous to a f f e c t i v e changes employed in funeral oratory. 25 CHAPTER II LUTHERAN FUNERAL LITURGY IN GERMANY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY The process of r h e t o r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n the Baroque i n v o l v e d a number of steps th a t were shared e q u a l l y by w r i t e r s of o r a t i o n s and composers of music. At the f i r s t stage of composing an oration -- i.e., the invent i o the Baroque r h e t o r would have had to take a number of factors into consideration: (1) what he had to say, (2) to whom he was to say i t , and (3) the context in which i t was to be said. Although the o r a t o r might complete the f i r s t steps immediately, w i t h l i t t l e or no conscious e f f o r t , i t was nevertheless an es s e n t i a l step i n the composi-t i o n a l process. After deciding upon the subject and taking into account both the audience and context, the orator could then decide whether his oration was to be d e l i b e r a t i v e , forensic or e p i d e i c t i c . He would then begin s e l e c t i n g the appropriate e t h i c a l , l o g i c a l and pathetic arguments pertinent to the s i t u a t i o n . The p a r a l l e l s between musical and o r a t o r i -c a l compositon can be e a s i l y imagined. The r h e t o r i c used i n the Lutheran funeral service i n seventeenth-century Germany would immediately suggest much to the p a s t o r - o r a t o r . The type of audience would be made up p r i m a r i l y of mourners who knew the deceased personally. We can deduce from the funeral oratory i t s e l f and 2-6 gather from rhetoric manuals such as Christoph Weissenborn's P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner (Jena, 1707)''' that the fundamental r h e t o r i c a l task of the orator was to honour (laudatio, Lob) and lament (lamentatio, Klage) the deceased, and to console ( c o n s o l a t i o , Tros t) the bereaved w i t h r e f e r e n c e s to and assurances of the r e s u r r e c t i o n . The a f f e c t i v e or emotional progression from a state of lamentation to f i n a l consolation was a lengthy process which e s s e n t i a l l y began at the time of death (and even before) and concluded with the b u r i a l . Three centuries l a t e r , we can see that P r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l r i t e s have not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t to audience type and the r h e t o r i c a l aims of the c l e r g y ; perhaps more f o r e i g n to our own e x p e r i e n c e , however, i s the context, that i s , the funeral service in the Lutheran Church as practised in the seventeenth century. Concerning context, Q u i n t i l i a n says: "For not only what we say and how we say i t i s of importance, but a l s o the c i r c u m -3 stances under which we say i t . " In order to understand the suasory role of funeral music in seventeenth-century Protestant Germany, i t w i l l C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher die p r a c t i c a b e l ^ sten Kunst=Reguln von der I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n derer nach heutigen Mode eingerichteten Abdanckungen bey o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer= So l e n n i e n zur Be fbrderung fe i n e r O r a t o r i schen C o l l e g i o r u m durch deutliche Exempel e r l e u t e r t (Jena: Heinrich Christoph Crbker, 1707), pp. 1-2. M. Fiirstenwald, "Zur Theorie und Funktion der Barockabdankung," in L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e n h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , p. 379. F i i r s t e n w a l d s t a t e s i n her d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the Abdankung that "die lamentatio wird nicht besonders behandelt, w e i l sie vom Personenlob kaum zu trennen i s t ; s i e i s t g l e i c h s a m e i n klagendes Echo, das dem Lob antwortet." ("The lamentatio i s not separately dealt with, because i t i s scarcely separable from personal praise; i t i s , so to speak, a p l a i n t i v e echo that answers the laudation.") 3 . . . . . Q u i n t i l i a n , I n s t i t u t i o Ora_torjLa, 3.3.2; Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London: William Heinemann Ltd.; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969), p. 385. "Non tantum enim r e f e r t , quid et quo modo d i c a -mus, sed etiam quo loco." 27 prove b e n e f i c i a l , then, to have some understanding of the l i t u r g y i t s e l f . Any study of Lutheran f u n e r a l l i t u r g y must deal with an i n i t i a l problem: unlike the Catholic Church, which had f i r m l y established i t s exequiae f o r the seventeenth century i n the R i t u a l e Romanum of 1614, 4 the Lutheran Church never d i d a r r i v e at a s e t , u n i v e r s a l l y employed funeral l i t u r g y . In fact, F r i e d r i c h Kalb, in h i s Grundriss der L i t u r -g i k , w r i t e s at the b e g i n n i n g of h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Reformation f u n e r a l l i t u r g y t h a t a l r e a d y i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y "the f u n e r a l ordinances...offer a picture of almost bewildering d i v e r s i t y . B u t the f u n e r a l o r d e r s were not the only area of the Lutheran l i t u r g y to be subject to variety; Hermann Caspar Kbnig, Archdeacon in Cel l e , compiled and published in 1721 a catalogue documenting 351 changes and additions 6 to the b a s i c Lutheran l i t u r g y . These changes, of course, were not universal but rather were independent a l t e r a t i o n s which came into e f f e c t over the years and i n v a r i o u s areas. I t might be noted here too that the numerous other secular ordinances (Polizeiordnungen, Schulordnungen, 4See F. Kalb, G r u n d r i s s der L i t u r g i k : Eine E i n f i i h r u n g i n d i e Ge^ s c h i c h t e , Grundsa'tze und Ordnungen des l u t h e r i s c h e n G o t t e s d i e n s t e s (Munich: Claudius Verlag, 1965), p. 271. ^ I b i d . p. 273. " d i e Begrabnisordnungen...bieten e i n B i l d f a s t verwirrender Mannigfaltigkeit." ^E. Sehling, ed., Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des XVI. Jahr-hunder t s, 6 v o l s . ( L e i p z i g : 0. R. R e i s l a n d , 1902- ), l:x. The c a t a -logue is e n t i t l e d "Bibliotheca Agendorum, bestehend aus einem v o l l s t a n -digen Catalogo derer Kirchen-Ordnungen, Agenden und anderer dergleichen S c h r i f f t e n , welche Ihro Hoch-Ehrwurden Herr C h r i s t i a n J u l i u s Bokelmann, A r c h i d i a c o n u s E c c l e s i a e C e l l e n s i s et Cons i s t o r i a l i s durch mehr a l s d r e y s s i g j a h r i g e s Bemuhen gesammlet; und aus Einem Anhange e i n i g e r Schriften von solcher Gattung welche man bissher nicht erhalten kbnne." 28 Eheordnungen, Cons i s t o r i a l o r d n u n g e n , etc.) affected in t h e i r own way, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the continuous changes in the l i t u r g y from place to p l a c e . The l i t u r g i c a l f l e x i b i l i t y in the Protestant Church has i t s roots i n the w r i t i n g s of the Reformer h i m s e l f , M a r t i n L u t h e r . 7 In f a c t , L u t h e r never p r o v i d e d the Reformed Church w i t h a c o d i f i c a t i o n of h i s views on what ought to comprise the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y . (He had done so 8 with the b a p t i s m a l and wedding ceremonies. ) Seven years l a t e r , i n 1533, Luther was s t i l l of the opinion that "there should not be required rules in the ceremonies, rather they should be in the authority of the p r i e s t to treat as w i l l serve best,"^ b e l i e v i n g that the l i t u r g y would See M. Luther, "Deudsche Mess und ordnung G o t t i s d i e n s t , " D.  Martin Luthers Werke, (Weimar: Hermann Bbhlaus Nachfolger, 1897), 19:72-73. ( E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n M. Luther, "The German Mass and Order of Service, 1526," Luther's Works, translated by Augustus S t e i n l e [P h i l a -d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s Press, 1965], 53:61-62.) In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s Deudsche Messe und Ordnung Gottis Diensts in 1526, a revised version of an e a r l i e r draft from 1523, Luther writes: Denn es nicht meyne meynunge i s t , das ganze deutsche land so eben muste unser Wittembergische ordnung an nemmen.... Sondern feyn were es, wo ynn eyner i g l i c h e n h i r s c h a f f t der G o t t s d i e n s t a u f f eynerley weyse gienge und die umbligende s t e d l i n und dbrffer mit eyner stad gleych bardeten; ob d i e ynn andern h i r s c h a f f t e n d i e s e l b i g e n auch h i e l t e n odder was besonders dazu t h e t t e n , s o l f r e y und ungestrafft seyn. For I do not propose that a l l Germany should uniformly follow our Wittenberg order.... But i t would be well i f the service in every p r i n c i p a l i t y would be h e l d i n the same manner and i f the order observed in a given c i t y would also be followed by the surrounding towns and v i l l a g e s ; whether those in other p r i n c i p a l i t i e s hold the same order or add to i t ought to be a matter of free choice and not of constraint. Q Seh l i n g , op. c i t . , 1:10-11. Q W i t t e n b e r g e r Kirchen-Ordnung 1533, c i t e d i n S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , l : v i . "...es s o l l e n d i e ceremonien n i c h t n o t i g e gesetze s e i n , sondern i n des pfarrers gewalt stehen, darin zu handeln, wie es zum besten diene 29 take i t s own form "through a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . " Thus the l i t u r g y developed throughout the s i x t e e n t h century and was adapted to s u i t a wide v a r i e t y of customs and c o n d i t i o n s , so that a l r e a d y i n the e a r l y seventeenth century, according to the Sachsen-Coburgischen V i s i t a t i o n of 1613/14, " i n almost every v i l l a g e a d i f f e r e n t ordinance holds t r u e . " ^ Judging by the numerous amendments to the basic l i t u r g y as evidenced i n 12 • the church ordinances of the sixteenth century, i t is reasonable here to assume that the Lutheran funeral l i t u r g y of t h i s period was likewise f l e x i b l e and could be m o d i f i e d to s a t i s f y the e x i g e n c i e s of time and place. What l i t t l e Luther says about hi s views on the Protestant funeral i s found i n the p r e f a c e to a c o l l e c t i o n of f u n e r a l music c o n t a i n i n g eight L a t i n chants and six German chorales published by Johann Klug in 13 1542. In t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n L u t h e r takes the o p p o r t u n i t y to condemn ce r t a i n "papal abominations" pertaining to funeral r i t e s in the Catholic Church, such as v i g i l s , processions, purgatory, and Masses for the dead. Furthermore, Luther w r i t e s that, u n l i k e the C a t h o l i c churches, the Protestant churches were no longer to be used as houses of lamentation or places of mourning; rather, they were to be "Koemiteria", or dormi-wird." 1 Q I b i d . "...durch that sachliche Ubung." ^ I b i d . "...beinahe in jedem Dorf eine andere Ordnung gait." 12 Revisions to funerary procedures in sixteenth-century Protestant Germany can be found in Sehling's Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen...,  op. c i t . 1 3 See Luther, "Die Gesangbuchvorreden," Werke 35:478-83; and Luther, "Liturgy and Hymns," Luther's Works 53:325-31. 30 t o r i e s or r e s t i n g places. Those features which had always belonged to the C h r i s t i a n b u r i a l r i t e s were preserved: the bodies were ca r r i e d i n state and sung over, and the graves were adorned with tombstones. The purpose of the ceremony, a c c o r d i n g to Luther, was to implant i n each member of the congregation the a r t i c l e of the resurrection. It seems that no l i t u r g i c a l outlines for a seventeenth-century funeral service have survived into the twentieth century. For several reasons we should be able to assume a p r i o r i that the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the D i v i n e S e r v i c e heard each Sunday i n Lutheran Germany. Had there been any pronounced l i t u r g i c a l changes at the o u t s e t of the Reformation, Luther, as he d i d w i t h the Mass, would most l i k e l y have published his reforms, and c e r t a i n l y Klug's c o l l e c t i o n of music would have provided the obvious vehicle for express-ing those views. S i m i l a r l y , throughout the r e s t of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth centuries, no theologians or e c c l e s i a s t i c s found i t neces-sary to codify the order of the funeral l i t u r g y . When the subject was addressed, i t was done l o c a l l y by means of emendations through the church ordinances. In the course of studying printed Leichenpredigten, most of the sources tend to support a regular de tempore divine service. E x c e p t i o n s are n o t i c e a b l e through degree of extravagance r a t h e r than actual changes in the l i t u r g y . Based on Luther's wr i t i n g s , h i s t o r i c a l documents, and modern l i t u r g i c a l and m u s i c o l o g i c a 1 w r i t i n g s , i t i s possible to construct a p l a u s i b l e Lutheran funeral ceremony as practised in seventeenth-century Germany. F u n e r a l music i n the seventeenth century was not r e s t r i c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to the music of the l i t u r g y ; the church service was preceded 31 by a funeral procession i n which music played a s i g n i f i c a n t part. The funeral r i t u a l began i n the home or court chapel where the body of the deceased lay in state f o r a period of at least twelve hours. According to T h u r i n g i a n and Saxon church o r d i n a n c e s , t h i s was more a pragmatic than r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r death was not always a c c u r a t e l y diagnosed i n the seventeenth century, and the "deceased" o c c a s i o n a l l y revived.'' 4 Members of the lower and middle classes were buried as soon as p o s s i b l e , g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n a few days. Royalty, depending on rank and probably wealth, were often embalmed at death and were not buried u n t i l several months l a t e r . This allowed for a suitable period of state mourning and also made i t possible for the executors to arrange for the many elaborate funerary d e t a i l s : the preparation of the c o f f i n , which was often extremely ornate, with sculpted legs and engraved pictures and b i b l i c a l scriptures; several sermons to be read variously at the chapel and other churches i n the deceased's domain; commissioning, composition and rehearsal of music; epicedia, and a l l other matters pertaining and contributing to the pomp and pageantry of the occasion. The s t r i c t observance of c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n seventeenth-century Germany had much to do with the degree of extravagance allowed to enter the f u n e r a l ceremony. Ordinances of v a r i o u s kinds p r o v i d e us with much of the information about the material and musical elabora-t i o n s o f f u n e r a l s . ^ As i n a l l o t h e r Church c e r e m o n i e s , the 1 4 S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , 1:320. ^ S e e F. Hamel, "Die L e i p z i g e r Funera: zur K u l t u r g e s c h i c h t e der Begrabnismusik," S c h w e i z e r i s c h e M u s i k z e i t u n g 88 (1948): 88-90; and W. Reich, "Die deutschen gedruckten L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n des 17. Jahrhunderts a l s m u s i k a l i s c h e Q u e l l e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , K a r l Marx U n i v e r s i t y , 1962), pp. 69-76. 32 f u n e r a l s e r v i c e i n c l u d e d a d i a p h o r a ( i n d i f f e r e n t matters) which Johann W i l h e l m B a i e r d e f i n e s i n g e n e r a l terms i n h i s Compendium T h e o l o g i a e Mo ra l i s of 1698 as: Mat ters , whose use in the publ ic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of sacred things or i n the p r i v a t e e x e r c i s e o f d i v i n e w o r s h i p is i n d i f f e r e n t , as not being in themselves part of d iv ine worship and ne i ther promoting nor h inder ing the e t erna l s a l v a t i o n of men, but i n s t i t u t e d for the sake of good order and decency, add a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y , with respect to men, to r e l i g i o n and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e (p. 10). Thus, l i t e r a l l y anything ceremonial that d id not a f f e c t the act of worship i t s e l f - - in fac t , the ceremonies themselves were seen merely as "supports and ornaments" to d iv ine worship'*'7 - - was counted among the adiaphora of the Church, and was therefore subject to the r u l i n g secular and e c c e s i a s t i c a l powers. The type of c l o th ing worn, the type of pre-c i o u s m e t a l used i n the c e r e m o n i a l c r o s s , the number o f coaches , the durat ion of the funeral s erv ice , the number of students allowed to s ing, the number and t i t l e s of pieces sung, a l l were prescr ibed by the govern-ing and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to assure that c lass boundaries were 18 not transgressed. Ci ted i n F. Ka lb , Theology of Worship i n 17th-century Lutheran-i s m , t r a n s , by Henry P. A. Hamann ( S a i n t L o u i s , M i s s o u r i : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965), p. 105fn. F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the adiaphora i n the Lutheran Church of th i s per iod , see Ka lb , Theology, op.  c i t . , pp. 104-37. ^ 7 F r i e d r i c h B a l d u i n , T r a p t a t u s l u c u l e n t u s . . . de . . . c a s i b u s . . .  consc ient iae (Wittenberg, 1628), p. 1135. Ci ted i n Kalb , Theology, op. c i t . , p. 106. 18 F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s in Germany at this t ime, see D. Kr ickeberg , Das protes tant i sche Kantorat im 17. Jahr--hundert: Studien zum Amt des deutschen Kantors, B e r l i n e r Studien zur Musikwissenschaft: Verbffent l ichungen des musikwissenschaft l ichen I n s t i -tu t s der F r e i e n U n i v e r s i t a t B e r l i n , ed. by A. A d r i o , v o l . 6 ( B e r l i n : Ver lag Merseburger, 1965), pp. 94-114. 3.3 By way of example, one can c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the c o n d i t i o n s which governed m u s i c a l performances at L e i p z i g f u n e r a l s i n the seventeenth century. There were at that time three separate categories of funerals, one for each of the city's three d i s t i n c t s o c i a l classes, the a r i s t o c r a -cy a p p a r e n t l y being above such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In terms of the music used at the funeral, the members of the lowest s o c i a l class i n L e i p z i g c o u l d o n l y expect to have the " k l e i n e halbe Schule" or even the " V i e r t e l s c h u l e " p r esent at the f u n e r a l . The K l e i n e halbe Schule consisted of the a l t e r n a t i o n at successive funerals between the prima and t e r t i a , and the t e r t i a and q u i n t a c l a s s e s from the Thomasschule, while the V i e r t e l s c h u l e consisted of fourteen of the school's youngest students s i n g i n g under the "Bakkala reus", who h i m s e l f was one of the j u n i o r i n s t r u c t o r s at the s c h o o l . Examples of the music that was permitted at t h i s s o c i a l l e v e l were such Reformational chorales as "Aus t i e f e r Not" and "Erbarm d i c h mein," which were to be sung i n unison. Corresponding to the s i m p l i c i t y of the music and the ceremony i n general was the modest fee of 3 thaler, 6 groschen for the kleine halbe Schule and a mere 21 groschen f o r the s e r v i c e s of the V i e r t e l s c h u l e . Members of L e i p z i g middle class were permitted considerably more extra-vagance f o r t h e i r f u n e r a l s . At a cost of 7 t h a l e r , 22 groschen, the c i t i z e n s from t h i s s o c i a l stratum could secure the s e r v i c e s of the "grosse halbe Schule," also known as the chorus musicus, which was made up of the students of the Thomasschule's three senior classes as well as the q u i n t a p e r f o r m i n g under the d i r e c t i o n of the cantor h i m s e l f . In accordance with the higher s o c i a l station, the music performed at these funerals consisted of harmonic settings of music of four and f i v e parts. 34 A l s o , u n l i k e the f u n e r a l s at which the V i e r t e l s c h u l e and the k l e i n e  halbe Schule p a r t i c i p a t e d , music was permitted to be sung in the ceme-tery at the grave side. Numbered among the uppermost class of Leipzig s o c i e t y were the members of the c i t y c o u n c i l , l e a r n e d c i t i z e n s and patrons of the Thomasschu l e . A fee r a n g i n g anywhere from 15 to 24 t h a l e r , f o r the f u n e r a l s of the monied s o c i a l c l a s s , c o u l d secure the singing forces of the "ganze Schule." On these occasions f i g u r a l music was sung from the F l o r i l e g i u m Portense and other motet anthologies, and, of course, works commissioned s p e c i f i c a l l y for the occasion. Sometimes, depending on the estimation accorded the deceased, the choir might also be expected to sing before the gates of the c i t y . It should be noted that these regulations make up but one ordinance at a s p e c i f i c time w i t h i n a s i n g l e c i t y , and that t h i s ordinance may have had l i m i t e d influence even on surrounding communities. Just how extreme were the d ivergences can be seen i n the a t t i t u d e s towards the i n c l u s i o n of musical instruments in performances of funeral music in the c i t i e s of Nuremberg and Luneburg. Heinrich Schwemmer (1621-1696), who shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as Director chori musici in Nuremberg, received a large number of commissions for funeral music, most of which included, in addition to voices, a three- or four-part s t r i n g ensemble with basso continue The music of Schwemmer, as well as that of other composers of f u n e r a l music, such as David S c h e d l i c h (1607-1687) and Paul H a i n l e i n (1626-1686) who at t h i s time were also a c t i v e in Nuremberg, shows that instrumental accompaniment was the norm for funeral music. At the same time i n Luneburg on the other hand, F r i e d r i c h Funcke (1642-1699), the cantor at St Johannis, was fined a half-year's salary, simply for using 3 5 19 a regal at the funeral of his brother-in-law. Harold E. Samuel states that t h i s a ction was taken because the regal "had never been permitted at the b u r i a l of a distinguished c i t i z e n , " and Wolfgang Reich suggests that there may have been a precedent for t h i s i n f r a c t i o n of the law i n 21 order for i t to have e l i c i t e d such a harsh fine. The ordinances were as s t r i c t as they were diverse. Funeral processions were occasionally described in great d e t a i l in the beginning pages of printed Leichenpredigten under the heading "Pro- cession und Ordnung." For example, the funeral for F r i e d r i c h , Duke of Wurtemberg (d. 24 March 1682), began at seven o'clock i n the morning 22 with the preceptors and students singing in the courtyard. The pro-cession was led by torch-bearers followed by the musicians. The attend-ant mourners were assigned s p e c i f i c positions in the funeral procession, u s u a l l y depending on t h e i r f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the deceased or th e i r rank in society. These descriptions can go on for pages, i d e n t i -f y i n g each of the p r i n c i p a l mourners by name and s t a t u s . Often accompanying these P r o c e s s i o n e n und Ordnungen in the Leichenpredigten are d e t a i l e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the p r o c e s s i o n , o f t e n d e p i c t i n g p r o c e s s i o n s of such l e n g t h that they c o n s i s t of s e v e r a l pages glued together and c a r e f u l l y folded into the book. The d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s found in the Leichenpredigten 19 Reich, "Die deutschen gedruckten Leichenpredigten," op. c i t . , p. 75. ^ WH. E. Samuel, "Funcke, F r i e d r i c h , " The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Mus i c and Mus i c ians (1980), 7, p. 31. 21 Reich, "Die deutschen gedruckten Leichenpredigten," op. c i t . , p. 75. 2 2 R e u t l i n g e n , Stadtbibliothek, Rt. 467. 36 are invaluable sources of musical information. From them we f i n d what compositions were used before and during the funeral procession to the church, and what s p e c i f i c works and musical styles were used and where they were used i n the course of the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e . Furthermore, we l e a r n t h a t the students, alumni and p r e c e p t o r s were not the only ones r e s p o n s i b l e f o r music i n the p r o c e s s i o n . For i n s t a n c e , the f u n e r a l procession for Johann F r i d e r i c h , Duke of Wurtemberg (d. 15 October 1693) had three musical groups: the fourth section in the procession consisted of "zwey Trompeter von ermeldten Regiment," the seventh was the pre-ceptors and t h e i r students, and the thirteenth section the "6 Trompeter Ferdinand Schmidlin / Johann Bolch / Balthasar L e i c h t l i n / Marcell Kerbs I F r i d e r i c h Engel & Georg Melchior Fenckel." Also from these descrip-t i o n s we a c q u i r e some sense of the manner i n which these works were performed. When the f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n had a r r i v e d at the church or chapel, 2 5 • the c o f f i n was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y beneath the p u l p i t ; i n the case of Johann F r i d e r i c h , the body was positioned between the a l t a r and the open 2 6 crypt. The congregation, as one would expect, was t r a d i t i o n a l l y clad i n b l a c k , and i n the " P r o c e s s i o n und Ordnung" of the f u n e r a l of F r i d e r i c h , Duke of Wurtemberg (d. 1682), the chronicler reports that the 2 3 I b i d . 2 4 I b i d . 2 5 W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und Erbauungsliteratur," i n Leichen-p r e d i g t e n a 1£ Que l i e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. Rudolf Lenz (Cologne and Vienna: Bbhlau Verlag, 1975), p. 67. 2 6 R e u t l i n g e n , Stadtbibliothek, Rt. 467. 37 p u l p i t , the organ and church pews were a l l draped w i t h b l a c k c l o t h . This seems not to have been too uncommon a practice, for i t was also the 28 custom i n the Schlosskapelie in Dresden. The c o f f i n i t s e l f was s i m i -l a r l y draped in black and was often surrounded by l i t candles. The body was most often dressed i n white. The order of the actual funeral l i t u r g y i n the seventeenth-century Lutheran Church may have e x i s t e d as f o l l o w s : I n t r o i t , Ky r i e , G l o r i a , S a l u t a t i o , C o l l e c t , E p i s t l e , Gradual and T r a c t (?), Gospel or s u b s t i -t u t e , Credo, Sermon, the Lord's Prayer, C o l l e c t , B e n e d i c t i o n . The chief l i t u r g i c a l d ifference between the standard Sunday Gottesdienst and the funeral service would seem to be the absence of the Eucharist i n the case of the l a t t e r . A second difference would be the optional i n s e r t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i a or c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e at some p o i n t a f t e r the f u n e r a l M. Furstenau, Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am Hofe zu Dresden, 2 v o l s i n 1 (1861; f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t ed., L e i p z i g : P e t e r s , 1971), 1:179. 2 8 I b i d . For g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s and demonstrations of the wide-ranging p o s s i b i l i t i e s of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Lutheran l i t u r g y see H. J. Moser, Die e v a n g e l i s c h e Kirchenmusik i n Deutschland ( B e r l i n and Darmstadt: V e r l a g C a r l Merseburger, 1954), p. 325 (Moser gives as the three most important representative sources of the Lutheran l i t u r g y i n Germany the works of Johannes Spangenberg [1545], Lucas Lossius [1553] and Johannes Keuchenthal [1573]); F. Blume, "The Period of the Reforma-t i o n , " i n P r o t e s t a n t Church Mus i c : a H i s t o r y , r e v i s e d by Ludwig Finscher, translated by F. E l l s w o r t h Peterson (London: V i c t o r Gollancz, Ltd., 1975), pp. 51-62; E. Schmidt, Der G o t t e s d i e n s t am K u r f u ' r s t l i c h e n  Hof zu Dresden: ein Beitrag zur l i t u r g i s c h e n T r a d i t i o n s g e s c h i c h t e von  Johann Walter bis zu Heinrich Schutz. Verbffentlichungen der Evangeli-schen G e s e l l s c h a f t f i i r L i t u r g i e f o r s c h u n g , ed. by 0. Sbhngen and G. Kunze, Heft 12 ( G o t t i n g e n : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1961); 0. Brodde, H e i n r i c h Schiitz: Weg_ und Werk ( B e r l i n : E v a n g e l i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985), p. 65; R. von L i l i e n c r o n , Liturgisch-Musikalische Geschichte der  e v a n g e l i s c h e n G o t t e s d i e n s t e von 1523 b i s 1700 ( S c h l e s w i g : Druck und Verlag von J u l i u s Bergas, 1893; photo-reprint Hildesheim and New York: Georg 01ms V e r l a g , 1970), pp. 121-22, 159; Furstenau, op. c i t . , 1:182. 38 sermon. There i s no doubt that the Mass was i n t e g r a l to the funeral l i t u r g y in the seventeenth-century. In Heinrich Schutz's own prefatory comments to the Musikalische Exequien, he writes of having composed the music " i n the form of a German Missa, a c c o r d i n g to the type of the L a t i n K y r i e , 3 0 C h r i s t e , K y r i e E l e i s o n . G l o r i a i n e x c e l s i s . Et i n t e r r a pax & c." F o l l o w i n g the K y r i e , G l o r i a and the S a l u t a t i o , the p r i e s t would turn towards the a l t a r for the C o l l e c t , a short de tempore prayer — i.e., on the theme of death and resurrection -- a f t e r which the choir would sing 31 a f o u r - p a r t "Amen, amen." The p r i e s t , or the deacon as was the case 32 in L e i p z i g , would then approach the lectern and read the E p i s t l e for the s e r v i c e i n a simple r e c i t a t i o n a l tone. A c c o r d i n g to Luther, t h i s was to be read i n the e i g h t h tone and at the same l e v e l as that used i n the C o l l e c t . 3 3 30 • H. Schutz, Musikalische Exequien, ed. by Georg Schumann, Verof-f ent 1 ichungen der Neuen Ba chge s e 11 s ch a f t , J a h r g a n g 29, H e f t 1. ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1982), n.p. "...in Form e i n e r Teutschen Missa, nach art der Lateinischen Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie Eleyson. G l o r i a i n exceIs i s . E t i n t e r r a pax & c/' But see F. Kalb, Grundr i s s, op.  c i t . , p. 275. Kalb omits the G l o r i a from the funeral l i t u r g y , though he does not specify the period to which he is r e f e r r i n g . Kalb does d e t a i l the Lutheran f u n e r a l l i t u r g y , but h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s probably of a contemporary s e r v i c e , and much of what he says has l i t t l e b e a r i n g on seventeenth-century practices. I t may be a d d i t i o n a l l y noted here that Schutz also points out i n the preface that the music of the Musikalische  Exequien could "an s t a t t einer Teutschen Missa vnd v i e l l e i c h t i n Festo  P u r i f i c a t i o n i s oder Dominica XVI pos t T r i n i t a t i s , auch n i c h t l i b e l gebrauchen," which p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f the assumption that the seventeenth-century funeral service did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Sunday or other de tempore divine services. 31 • L i l i e n c r o n , op. c i t . , p. 122. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 159. 33 L u t h e r , "Deudsche Messe," op. c i t . , p. 87; Luther, "The German 39 F r i e d r i c h Blume, i n P r o t e s tant Church Mu_s_i£, d i s c u s s e s the i n s t a b i l i t y of the Gradual and the Sequence w i t h i n the P r o t e s t a n t l i t u r g y i n g e n e r a l , and mentions that i t s p o s i t i o n i n the l i t u r g y continued to weaken throughout the s i x t e e n t h century, e v e n t u a l l y d i s -appearing from the l i t u r g y altogether i n most places. However, since the Protestant Church did i n fact r e t a i n the Tract, used i n the Requiem Mass of the Catholic Church to replace the A l l e l u i a , i t i s reasonable to assume here th a t something s i m i l a r may have been p r a c t i s e d i n the Lutheran funeral l i t u r g y . Blume goes on to point out that this entire s e c t i o n of the Mass c o u l d be, and o f t e n was, r e p l a c e d by a congrega-315 t i o n a l hymn. The Gospel was the next item of the Mass. Standing at the l e c t e r n and f a c i n g the c o n g r e g a t i o n , the p r i e s t sang the Gospel i n a simple r e c i t a t i o n a l manner — in the f i f t h tone, according to Luther. Under normal circumstances, the Gospel reading served as the basic material for o r a t o r i c a l elaboration i n the Sermon. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Gospel and the Sermon within the context of the funeral ceremony w i l l be discussed in greater d e t a i l presently. The r e a d i n g of the Gospel was f o l l o w e d by the A p o s t o l i s c h e s  Glaubensbekenntnis or Credo sung in L a t i n by the choir or i n German by Mass," op. c i t . , p. 72. Blume, op. c i t . , p. 57. 3 5 I b i d . Luther, "Deudsche Messe," op. c i t . , p. 90; Luther, "German Mass," op. c i t . , p. 74. 40 3 7 the c o n g r e g a t i o n as "Wir glauben a l l an einen Gott." Luther a d d i -t i o n a l l y writes that the German creed could be sung by the congregation 3 8 at the g r a v e s i d e or w h i l e d e p a r t i n g from the grave. F o l l o w i n g the s i n g i n g of the Credo i n the church, the p r i e s t would proceed to the p u l p i t from which the Sermon was d e l i v e r e d . Because the c o f f i n was d i r e c t l y beneath the p u l p i t , the body was thus s i t u a t e d between the 39 p r i e s t and the members of the congregation. This Protestant custom d i f f e r e d fundamentally from the l i t u r g i c a l practice at that time in the C a t h o l i c Church, which p r e s c r i b e d t h a t the body be p l a c e d i n s t e a d d i r e c t l y before the a l t a r . 4 ^ The funeral sermon was almost always given i n German, and was pre-ceded by a short votum. The sermon i n the Sunday divine service custom-37 • L i l i e n c r o n , op. c i t . , pp. 122, 159. 38 Luther, "Die Gesangbuchvorreden," op. c_i_t«, p. 483; Luther, " L i t u r g y and Hymns," op. c i t . , p. 331. 39 . . . . . . . . C. T i t i u s , Loci Theologici H i s t o r i c i , oder Theologisches Exempel-Buch j_ Darinnen aus Alten und Neuen Scribenten j_ sonderlich reinen und  C h r i s t l i c h e n Kirchen-Lehren unter den gewbhnlichen Locis Theologicis zu  finden j_ mehrentheils solche Exempel und H i s t o r i e n / welche i n gewbhn- liche n Predigten zur heilsamen Lehre ]_ Trost j_ Vermahnung und Warnung nlitz 1 i c h angezogen und e i n g e f u h r e t werden kbnnen, nunmehr aber von Autore auffs neue mit mehr als 2000 H i s t o r i e n und niitzlichen Registern  vermehret, L e i p z i g , 1684. C i t e d i n W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und E r a b a u u n g s l i t e r a t u r , " i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que 1le h i s t o r i s c h e r  Wissenschaften, ed. by Rudolf Lenz (Cologne and Vienna: Bbhlau Verlag), p. 67. Caspar T i t i u s ' s L o c i T h e o l o g i c i H i s t o r i c i was o r i g i n a l l y published i n 1633. 4 ^ K a l b , G r u n d r i s s der L i t u r g i k , op. c i t . , p. 271. "Der Sarg w i r d so vor dem A l t a r a u f g e s t e l l t , dass bei der Leiche eines Nicht-Priesters die Fiisse zum A l t a r gerichtet sind, bei einem P r e i s t e r aber umgekehrt zum Volk hin, 'als ob er Dominus vobiscum sagen wo l l t e ' (Muller-Umberg, Zeremonienbiichlein)." ("The c o f f i n i s so p o s i t i o n e d b e f o r e the a l t a r that, with the body of a non-priest, the feet are directed towards the a l t a r , but w i t h a p r i e s t turned about towards the people, 'as i f he wanted to say the Dominus vobiscum'....") 41 a r i l y served as an exegesis of the Gospel verse which had been intoned immediately before the Credo. This d e t a i l , however, must have d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the case of f u n e r a l sermons. Themes f o r f u n e r a l sermons, as one would expect, dealt i n v a r i a b l y with the topic of death and the resurrection. In one sense, i t would be possible to associate the r e a d i n g of the Gospel and the theme of the ceremony: i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , Andreas P a n c r a t i u s , a student of Melanchthon, favoured Luke 13:lff as a s c r i p t u r a l base for his funerary o r a t i o n s i n i n s t a n c e s p e r t a i n i n g to a c c i d e n t a l death. 4^ V a l e r i u s Herberger, known f o r h i s important c o l l e c t i o n of 147 f u n e r a l sermons published i n G e i s t l i c h e Trauerbinden (1612-20), also made occasional use of verses from Luke. But numerous other b i b l i c a l books, from both the Old and New Testament, were as important ( i f not more so) to the funeral as sources of r e l e v a n t sermonic themes. Though many b i b l i c a l books could conceivably produce suitable funerary texts for sermonic elabora-t i o n , by f a r the most f r u i t f u l book i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and the one to which p r i e s t s most often turned for appropriate verses, was the Book of Psalms. Whether the Gospel was replaced by a Pslam or some other s c r i p -t u r a l r e a d i n g , or whether the Gospel and Sermon remained u n r e l a t e d A. P a n c r a t i u s , C h r i s t l i c h e Leichenpredigten. Darinnen die f i i r - nembsten Sprviche Altes und Newes Testaments j_ auff a l l e r e l y Natiirliche  und Unnaturliche Todtsfa'll j_ nach Rhetorischer D i s p o s i t i o n ]_ mit sonder- barem F l e i s s e r k l a r e t werden. Sampt angehenckten s ieben be sondern  Leichenpredigten j_ darinnen sieben Anf ec tunge j_ we lche d i e E l t e r n bey  Absterben i r e r Kinder am meisten zu betriiben pflegen j_ und wie denselben  auss Gottes Wort zu begegnen, T e i 1 3_ ( F r a n k f u r t / M a i n , 1588), pp. 93, 101, 105. Cited in E. Winkler, Die Leichenpredigt im deutschen Luther- tum bis Spener, ed. by E. Wolf, Forschungen zur Geschichte und Lehre des Protestantismus, series 10, v o l . 34 (Munich: Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1967), p. 77. See Winkler, op. c i t . , p. 105. 42 w i t h i n the funeral l i t u r g y i s unknown. Luther w r i t e s that the Sermon was to be f o l l o w e d d i r e c t l y by a paraphrased v e r s i o n of the Lord's Prayer, which could be s a i d e i t h e r from the p u l p i t or from the a l t a r a c c o r d i n g to the wishes of the century funeral l i t u r g y is unknown, for a large portion of the printed L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n examined f o r t h i s study concluded w i t h the simple r u b r i c "Vater unser u." At the end of the Peter Limburger's L e i c h e n - predigt for Wilhelm and Jobst Kressen von Kressenstein in 1640, the text of the closing votum concludes with "... / sprechen wir auss Andacht ein h e i l i g e s V a t t e r vnser / u," that i s , a l i t e r a l r e n d e r i n g of the Lord's Prayer together with the c o n g r e g a t i o n . 4 4 Throughout the seventeenth century i n Dresden, and l i k e l y i n other p l a c e s as w e l l , the Lord's Prayer was said immediately before the Sermon, 4^ and occasionally a f t e r the Sermon as well. 4 f^ In the f u n e r a l l i t u r g y , the p e r s o n a l i a or c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e o f t e n followed the Sermon, as in the case of Duke Wilhelm Ludwig of Wurtemberg Luther, "Deudsche Messe," op. c i t . , pp. 95-96; Luther "The German Mass," op. c i t . , pp. 78-79. 4 4 P . Limburger, Leich-Sermon, Bey der Bestattung Des Edlen/ Ehren- v e s t e n / F u r s i c h t i g e n / Hoch= und Wolweisen Herrn Wilhelm Kressen von  Kressenstein j_ auff Krafftshof/... So woln auch Bey der Bestattung dess  Edlen vnd E. Herrn Jobst Kressens von Kressenstein/ auff Rezelsdorff ...  Gehalten von Petro Limburgern p. t. Pfarrern zu Krafftshof (Nuremberg: Wolffgang Endter, 1640). M i c r o p u b l i s h e d as No. 714.2 on Reel 74A i n Goldsmiths'-Kress Library of Economic L i t e r a t u r e (New Haven: Research P u b l i c a t i o n s , Ltd., 1974). priest.' 43 To what extent this practice was followed i n the seventeenth-45 Schmid t, 46 Ibid ., pp. 113-14. 43 (d. 1 6 7 7 ) 4 7 and Duke F r i d e r i c h . 4 8 I t could be read by someone other than the p r i e s t as part of the Abdankung "either before the door of the house of mourning, a f t e r the the r e t u r n from the grave, or at the s i t e of the b u r i a l . " 4 9 The church ceremony concluded with a C o l l e c t and Benediction. It was also possible to read the C o l l e c t and Benediction a f t e r the i n t e r -ment as was the p r a c t i c e i n S t u t t g a r t f o r the b u r i a l of the Dukes of Wurtemberg. Since they were b u r i e d i n the chapel and because the mourners were to remain seated u n t i l the body was i n t e r r e d , the l a t e r reading of the C o l l e c t and b l e s s i n g may have been decided upon i n order to give the church ceremony a stronger sense of f i n a l i t y , s i g n a l i n g to the c o n g r e g a t i o n to leave the church i n the same order i n which the procession had entered. The following C o l l e c t recommended by Luther was adopted by nearly a l l the church orders as an Easter or funeral C o l l e c t , and was s t i l l i n use i n Saxony at the end of the s i x t e e n t h century according to the "Des Durchlauchtigsten, Hochgebornen Fursten U. Herrn, Herrn Augusten, Herzogen zu Sachsen, Ordnung" of 1580."^ I t reads as follows: [V.] C h r i s t u s von den todten erwecket, s t i r b t h i n f u r t nimer, H a l e l u i a . [R.] Der Tod wird h i n f u r t uber in nicht herrschen, Haleluia. 4 7 R e u t l i n g e n , Stadtbibliothek, Rt. 467. A O Reutlingen, Stadtbibliothek, Rt. 468. 4 9 W e i s s e n b o r n , op. c i t . , p. 1. "...entweder vor der Thiir des Trauer=Hauses / nach der Ruckkunfft vom Grabe / oder an der S t e l l e des Begrabnisses." " ^ S e h l i n g , op. c i t . , p. 275. The two p a i r e d verses and responses, however, are not mentioned i n the Kirchenordnung, and there i s some s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s in the text of the C o l l e c t i t s e l f . 44 [V.] Ich weis das mein erloser lebet, Haleluia. [R.] Der wird mich hernach aus der Erden aufferwecken, Haleluia. Almechtiger Gott, der du durch den Tod deines Sons die Siind und Tod zu nicht gemacht, Und durch sein aufferstehen Unschuld und ewiges Leben w i d e r b r a c h t hast, a u f f das w i r von der Gewalt des T e u f e l s er l b s e t , in deinem Reich leben. Verleihe uns, das wir solches von gantzem Hertzen gleuben, und in solchem Glauben bestendig dich a l l e Z e i t loben und d i r dancken, Durch d e n s e l b i g e n deinen Son, Ihesum Christum, unsern HErrn, Amen. A f t e r the C o l l e c t , Luther used the f o l l o w i n g B e n e d i c t i o n to con-clude the German Mass of 1526: Der Herr segene dich und behutte dich. Der Herr erleuchte sein angesicht ubir d i r und sey d i r gnedig. Der Herr hebe seyn angesicht auff dich und gebe dyr f r i d . ^ 2 This same Benediction, with only s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n , was also printed at the end of Paul M a r t i n A l b e r t i ' s f u n e r a l sermon f o r Sigmund von 5 3 B i r k e n i n 1681. That t h i s B e n e d i c t i o n s u r v i v e d more than 150 years -^Luther, Werke, op. c i t . , 35:553-54; Luther, "The C o l l e c t s , " i n Luther's Works (translated by Paul Z e l l e r Strodach; revised by U l r i c h S. Leupold), op. c i t . , p. 134: V. Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth no more. A l l e l u i a : R. Death hath no more dominion over him A l l e l u i a [Rom. 6:9]. or: V. I know that my Redeemer l i v e t h . A l l e l u i a : R. Who s h a l l at the l a t t e r day wake me from the earth. A l l e l u i a : [Job 19:25]. "Almighty God, who by the death of thy Son hast brought to naught s i n and death and by his resurrection hast brought again innocence and everlasting l i f e so that, delivered from the devil's power, we may l i v e i n thy kingdom: Grant us that we may b e l i e v e t h i s w i t h a l l our h e a r t and, s t e a d f a s t i n t h i s f a i t h , p r a i s e and thank thee always; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 5 2 L u t h e r , "Deudsche Messe," op. c i t . , p. 102; Luther, "German Mass," op. c i t . , p. 84: The Lord bless thee and keep thee. The Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee. The Lord l i f t up h i s countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. 53 • • C i t e d i n M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , ed., Trauerreden des Barock, B e i t r a g e 45 with v i r t u a l l y no change to the text would seem to suggest that i t was also accepted as a standard formula for concluding funeral services, as w e l l as s u p p o r t i n g the e a r l i e r s u g g e s t i o n that f u n e r a l and Sunday services were l i t u r g i c a l l y c l o s e l y related. F i n a l l y a de tempore v e r s i c l e was to be sung, which was frequently the Canticum Simeonis, "Herr nun l a s s e s t du deinen Diener i n F r i e d e n fahren," which was simply a German t r a n s l a t i o n of the Nunc D i m i t t i s from the Roman Requiem, or a v e r s i o n of "Nun l a s s t uns den L e i b begraben." During the s i n g i n g of the l a t t e r hy mn, the body could a c t u a l l y be buried."' 4 Other songs that were recommended by Luther as being suitable to be sung by the c o n g r e g a t i o n on r e t u r n i n g from the cemetery i n c l u d e "Wir gleuben a l l an einen [Gott]," "Nu b i t t e n wir den h e i l i g e n [Geist]," and the L a t i n songs, "lam moesta Quesce," " S i enim credimus," "Corpora Sanctorum," and "In pace sumus."^ zur L i t e r a t u r des XV. b i s XVIII. Jahrhunderts, e d i t e d by Hans-Gert Roloff, v o l . 4 (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1973), p. 333. 5 4 R e u t l i n g e n , Stadtbibliothek, Rt. 467 and Rt. 468. "'"'Luther, "Die Gesangbuchvorreden," op. c i t . , 483; Luther, "Liturgy and Hymns," op. c i t . , p. 331. 46 CHAPTER III PROSOPOPOEIA: MUSICAL-RHETORICAL PERSONIFICATION OF THE DEAD Rhetorical and Musical Background R e c o g n i t i o n of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e o r a t o r i c a l device appears to date back to rhetoric's formative years. We can see t h i s to some degree in Heinrich Lausberg's overview of the trope i n h i s Handbuch  der l i t e r a r i s c h e n Rhetorik, where he discusses o r a t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n under the g e n e r a l heading f i c t i o p_ersonae. Upon examining Laus-berg's b r i e f survey, one i s immediately s t r u c k by the d i v e r s i t y of appellations and the range of corresponding d e f i n i t i o n s ascribed to the basic concept. Referring to twelve c l a s s i c a l texts,'' Lausberg gives no fewer than eight names for the trope: sermocinatio, conformatio, etho-poeia, dialogous, f i c t i o personae, prosopopoeia, eidolopoeia, s i m u l a c r i 2 fa c t i o . Some of these labels are synonymous with one another (sermo- c i n a t i o = ethopoeia, f i c t i o personae = prosopopoeia, s i m u l a c r i f a c t i o = eidolopoeia), while others are i n t e r r e l a t e d but distinguished by denota-H^. Lausberg, Handbuch der l i t e r a r i s c h e n Rhetorik, 2 vols. (Munich: Max Hueber, 1960), 1:411-12. 2 . . . . . . Lausberg h i m s e l f i s c i t i n g h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from two other secondary sources: C. Halm, Rhetores L a t i n i minores... (Leipzig, 1863), and L. Spengel, Rhetores Graeci, 3 vols. (Leipzig: vol. 1 edendum curavit C. Hammer 1894; v o l . 2 1854; v o l . 3 1856). 47 t i v e shadings (prosopopoeia v i s - a - v i s s i m u l a c r i f a c t i o and eidolopoeia, see below). I t might be w e l l to note here th a t Lausberg's l i s t can be supplemented wit h p e r s o n i f i c a t i o and c o n f o r m a t i o mentioned i n the 3 R h e t o r i c a ad Herennium, and one could go f u r t h e r s t i l l , b r i n g i n g i n such coterminous tropes as mimesis, apostrophe and even h y p o t y p o s i s . There i s a p o i n t to be made i n l i s t i n g these terms: a l l of them -- and there are others -- are representational tropes, many of which were not only c u r r e n t i n an a b s t r a c t sense i n r h e t o r i c a l and p h i l o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s i n the Baroque, but were r e g u l a r l y a p p l i e d i n o r a t o r i c a l and musical composition. The s p e c i f i c mimetic trope which i s of most importance i n the present study i s that which, by d e f i n i t i o n , r h e t o r i c a l l y enables the dead to speak. Edward P. J. Co r b e t t c o n c i s e l y d e f i n e s prosopopoeia (=prosopoeia) i n i t s general sense as a r h e t o r i c a l trope or topic where-by one invests "abstractions or inanimate objects with human q u a l i t i e s or a b i l i t i e s . " 4 With t h i s d e f i n i t i o n Corbett upholds what most of the c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y t h e o r i s t s c i t e d as being the d i s t i n c t i o n between prosopopoeia ( f i c t i o p_ersonae) and ethopoe i a ( s e r m o c i n a t i o ) . Though only i m p l i e d i n Corbett's d e f i n i t i o n , the c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s make i t e x p l i c i t l y clear that ethopoeia generally pertained to the l i v i n g , while prosopopoeia, on the other hand, referred s p e c i f i c a l l y to the p e r s o n i f i -c a t i o n of inanimate o b j e c t s -- i n c l u d i n g , of course, the dead. 3 • • R h e t o r i c a ad Herennium, 4.16. C i t e d i n L. Arbusow, Co l o r e s Rhetorici: eine Auswahl rhetorischer Figuren und Gemeinplatze als H i l f s -m i t t e l fur Ubungen an m i t t e l a I t e r l i c h e n Texten, 2nd rev. ed. edited by H. Peter (Gbttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1963), p. 25. 4 E . P. J. C o r b e t t , Class i c a l R h e t o r i c f o r the Modern Student, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), p. 485. 48 Q u i n t i l i a n , commending the considerable r h e t o r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s offered by t h i s trope, writes of prosopopoeia: "Nay, we are even allowed i n t h i s form of speech to b r i n g down the gods from heaven and r a i s e the dead, while c i t i e s also and peoples may find a voice."^ S i m i l a r l y , the author of Aquilae Romani de f i g u r i s sententiarum et elo c u t i o n i s l i b e r has t h i s to say of f i c t i o personae (i.e., prosopopoeia): "when we raise the dead, as i t were, and, placed within sight of the judge, we provide them with speech." F i n a l l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , prosopopoeia i s d i s c u s s e d i n the same sense in the AXE£O< y Jp.Qxr 7T£p£ O^yskTt^V as follows: "Prosopopoeia i s the formation of a visage which either never was a l i v e or was a l i v e once but i s no longer." 7 Other sources broadened the d e f i n i t i o n of prosopopoeia to encompass not only the dead, but also imaginary people. Further b l u r r i n g of the taxonomical borders between prosopopoeia and ethopoeia came about as some t h e o r i s t s i n c l u d e d as pa r t of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n the mimetic por-tr a y a l of l i v i n g , but absent, people. Thus ethopoeia became at least i n some cases a subcategory of prosopopoeia, a matter to which Q u i n t i l i a n a l s o draws the reader's a t t e n t i o n . An attempt to r e - e s t a b l i s h the r h e t o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of animate and i n -Q u i n t i l i a n , I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 9. 2. 31. "Quin deducere deos i n hos genere dicendi et inferos excitare concessum est; urbes etiam popu-lique vocem accipiunt." Halm, op. cijt., pp. 22ff. C i t e d i n Lausberg, op. c^t., p. 411. "cum... defunctos a l i q u o s quasi excitamus ab i n f e r i s et i n conspectu i u d i c i s collocantes oratione hos circumdamus." 7 S p e n g e l , op. c i t . , 3:19, 15. C i t e d i n Lausberg, op. c i t . , p. 411. "rj TTpo6oo7ro7tc?uoc;^ e £<rrc. TipaoowvS&^fxoiQ^oi Trjv 6cpxf}v junr| yevoflivoV ^COWtE(i.e., inanimate ob je ct ) K Y£Vou£VoT/ U - £ V , OT)|C tti $£ cVroc, (i.e., the dead)." 1 ' ' 49 animate objects resulted i n the formulation of yet another term, eidolo- poeia or i t s L a t i n cognate si m u l a c r i f a c t i o , ascribing to the dead the 8 faculty of speech. In the present study, the term prosopopoeia w i l l be used i n i t s most general sense. Of a l l the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l manuals Quintilian's was unques-tionably the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n Germany -- indeed, i n a l l of Europe --throughout the Renaissance and Baroque. U n t i l a complete copy of Quintilian's I n s t i t u t i o was found at the monastary of St G a l l i n 1416, medieval p h i l o l o g i s t s studying Q u i n t i l i a n were forced to r e l y on frag-ments of the work. No doubt promoted by the c u l t i v a t i o n and growth of Humanism i n the Renaissance, more than one hundred e d i t i o n s of Q u i n t i l i a n ' s work were p u b l i s h e d between the time of the exemplar's discovery and the beginning of the seventeenth century. The I n s t i t u t i o e x e r ted c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on, and i s d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d to i n , 9 Johann Matthaus Meyfart's Teutsche Rhetorica oder Redekunst of 1634, which f i g u r e s as the most important book on r h e t o r i c i n the German language to be published i n the f i r s t h a l f of the seventeenth century, and just over a century l a t e r , i n 1738, Johann Matthias Gesner chose an ed i t i o n of Q u i n t i l i a n i n which to pen his e u l o g i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of J . S. Bach's prowess as organist and conductor.^ Indeed, Bach himself has 8 E i d o l o p o e i a i s the term used i n Hermogenous progumnasmata (Spengel, op. c i t . , 2:1f) and Aphthoniou sophiotou progumnasmata (Spengel, i b i d . , 2:19f). C i t e d i n Lausberg, i b i d . , p. 412. 9 J . M. Meyfart, Teut sche R h e t o r i c a oder Redekuns t, 2 v o l s , i n 1 (Coburg: F r i d e r i c h Gruners, 1634), 1:409. ^H. T. David and A. Mendel, eds, The Bach Reader: a L i f e of Johann  Sebastian Bach i n Letters and Documents, rev. ed. (New York, London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1966), pp. 22, 231. One might note that not only was Q u i n t i l i a n s t i l l c u r r e n t w e l l i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h century, but so too was r h e t o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , as seen here i n Gesner's a p o s t r o -50 been c r e d i t e d i n r e c e n t years w i t h being i n t i m a t e l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h Quintilian's I n s t i t u t i o . ^ It might be added that Q u i n t i l i a n was also c i t e d in Johann G o t t f r i e d Walther's Mus i c a l i sches L e x i c o n i n 1732 f o r 12 his d i s c u s s i o n of music i n the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the Baroque manuals in Germany, in th e i r d e f i n i -tions of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , compare more cl o s e l y with the I n s t i t u t i o than with any other c l a s s i c a l source. In the Triumphus Bibliorum Sacrorum (Frankfurt, 1625) by r h e t o r i c i a n , composer, and champion of Calvinism, Heinrich Alsted, i t is suggested that prosopopoeia " i n serious matters, f o r i n s t a n c e i n admonitions and vehement reproaches, i s a remarkable f i g u r e . " Meyfart's c o n c e p t i o n of prosopopoeia i s even more c l o s e l y phizing. ^ S e e U. K i r k e n d a l e , "The Sources of Bach's M u s i c a l O f f e r i n g : The I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a of Q u i n t i l i a n , " The Journal of the American Musico-l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 33, no. 1 (1980): 88-141. 12 • • . . . . J. G. Walther, Mus l k a l i s c h e s Lexikon oder Musikalische B i b l i o -thek, f a c s . repr. ed. by R. Schaal ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r Ver-lag, 1953; o r i g i n a l l y published, L e i p z i g : Wolffgang Deer, 1732), p. 509. Walther r e f e r s the reader to the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 1. 17, f o r Quin-t i l i a n ' s discussion of music. However, there are only ten chapters in the f i r s t book. Quintilian's most extensive treatment of music i n the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a is i n 1. 10. 9-33. 13 H. Alsted. Triumphus Bibliorum Sacrorum Seu Encyclopaedia B i b l i -ca Exh^benjs Tr^umohum p h i l o s o p h i a e , i u r i s p r u d e n t i a e , et medicinae sacrae, itemque sacrosanctae theologiae, quatenus illuarum fundamenta ex S c r i p t u r a V. et N. T. c o l l i g u n t u r ( F r a n k f u r t , 1625), 9. 9. 483. C i t e d i n J. Dyck, T i c h t - K u n s t : Deutsche Baro c k p o e t i k und £h£t.££i££h£ T r a d i -tion, Ars Poetica: Text und Beitrage zur Dichtungslehre und Dichtkunst, e d i t e d by A. Buck, H. Lausberg and W. Mause, v o l . 1 (Bad Homburg vor der Hbhe, B e r l i n , Z u r i c h : V e r l a g Dr. Max Gehlen, 1966), p. 94. "...in rebus gravioribus, puta in admonitionibus et objurgationibus vehementioribus, est ornatum pr ae st ab i l e." Compare I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 9. 2. 30. "... et nostros cum a l i i s sermones et aliorum inter se c r e d i b i l i t e r i n t r o -ducium, et suadendo, ob i u r g a n d o p e r s o n a s idoneas damus." ("... we may introduce conversations between ourselves and others, or of others among themselves, and put words of advice, reproach... into the mouths 51 aligned with Quintilian's work. Like Q u i n t i l i a n , Meyfart writes at the outset of h i s chapter on p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n (Chapter 40) that dialogismus constitutes a kind of prosopopoeia, prefacing h i s discussion with the following d e f i n i t i o n of the term: Prosopopoeia i s , i f one wants to render i t c l e a r l y , a Representa-t i o n - F i g u r e , whereby the o r a t o r assumes the charge of another person and speaks as that person; or a l s o p o s s i b l y i n t r o d u c e s inanimate objects and speaks for them. However, i t i s more through Meyfart's examples, drawn as they are from the pseudo-Cicero's Rhetorica ad Herennium and Savonarola, than through h i s l e s s than l u c i d d e f i n i t i o n of the f i g u r e , that we see the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y of h i s id e a of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n to th a t of Q u i n t i l i a n ' s : Sorrow, Rome, and the dead Lu c i u s Brutus are each i n v e s t e d w i t h the power to speak. In the Compendium R h e t o r i c e s of 1682 by C h r i s t o p h Caldenbach, prosopopoeia is defined as follows: "What i s prosopopoeia? To inanimate objects' we a t t r i b u t e p e r s o n a l i t y and d i s c o u r s e , or we introduce the dead, speaking just as the living."'''"' Caldenbach, who at that time was a c t i v e not only as a composer but as a p r o f e s s o r of rhetoric at the Un i v e r s i t y i n Tubingen, i l l u s t r a t e s the trope by using one of Meyfart's examples, taken from the R h e t o r i c a ad Herennium, i n of appropriate persons.") •"^Meyfart, op. c i t . , 1:387. "Prosopopoeia i s t / wenn man es deut-l i c h geben w i l / eine Vorbildungs-Figur / wenn der Redener einer andern Person Ampt auff sich nimmet / vnd in derselbigen Namen das Wort thut: oder auch wol leblose Ding einfiihret vnd ihnen das Wort redet." ^ C . Caldenbach. Com£endium R h e t o r i c e s , p_ro S ^ h o J i i l i i i Ducatu Wirtembergico o l i m adornatum 5 C h r i s t o p h o r o Caldenbachio, In Acad. Tubing. E l o q . H i s t o r . ac. Poes. Prof. Publ , 2nd ed. (Tubingen, 1709; f i r s t p u b l i s h e d in Tubingen, 1682), p. 137. "Quid est Prosopopoeia? Cum rebus inanimatis personam sermonemque tribuismus, aut mortuos tan-quam vivos introducimus loquentes." 52 which the dead Lucius Brutus is given the a b i l i t y to speak. Prosopopoeia, as a persuasive device, lost none of i t s e f f e c t i v e -ness i n the seventeenth century. Indeed, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n t h r i v e d i n what Ferdinand van Ingen c a l l s the Augenkultur of Baroque Germany.*7 In using the term "Augenkultur," van Ingen stresses the importance i n the Baroque of c o n n e c t i n g the here and now w i t h the h e r e a f t e r by means of the l i t e r a r y and v i s u a l arts. By way of example, van Ingen mentions the c e l e s t i a l scenes so frequently depicted i n the c e i l i n g frescoes found i n Baroque a r c h i t e c t u r e . More than j u s t d e c o r a t i o n , the p a i n t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n churches and chapels, were i n part meant to provide the contemplative C h r i s t i a n with v i s u a l s t i m u l i to s t i r the imagination towards sublime thoughts of resurrection, eternal l i f e and freedom from worldly woes. On the l i t e r a r y side, through the a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopo-p o e i a , one achieved a h y p o t y p o t i c e f f e c t by evoking w i t h words comparable prophetic images in the minds of the audience. The clearer, the more v i v i d -- i n the. true sense of the word -- the images conjured up by the o r a t o r , the e a s i e r i t was f o r him to move the a f f e c t i o n s of h i s audience. Through the p o e t i c f o r c e of prosopopoeia as used con-t e x t u a l l y i n the seventeenth-century funeral ceremony, the e f f e c t was not that of the o r a t o r h i m s e l f speaking d i r e c t l y , but r a t h e r o f the orator acting i n the capacity of a medium and, as i t were, transmitting to the congregation messages from beyond the grave, giving the mourners 1 6 I b i d . "•7F. van Ingen, Vanitas und Memento Mori i n der deutschen Barock-l y r i k (Groningen: J. B. Wolters, 1966), p. 299. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 275. 53 a consolatory and transcendent v i s i o n of the a f t e r l i f e . Like the art of r h e t o r i c i n general, prosopopoeia was not intended to be used as an end i n i t s e l f . Rather, i t was a p e r s u a s i v e t o o l , a r h e t o r i c a l means by which the o r a t o r c o u l d more e a s i l y achieve a r h e t o r i c a l end. Since a n t i q u i t y , one of the three p r i n c i p a l goals of r h e t o r i c was to teach (docere, the others being delectare and movere), and the aim of sermonic rh e t o r i c i n the Baroque Church -- including, of course, funeral oratory — was to i n s t r u c t the congregation according to the theological p r i n c i p l e s of the Church. Of primary importance was the c o n s o l a t o r y l e s s o n of death and the r e s u r r e c t i o n , and second was the admonitory lesson exhorting the members of the congregation to ensure t h e i r salvation by leading a C h r i s t i a n l i f e and by preparing for t h e i r 19 • • own death. This is an a t t i t u d e which d i f f e r e d fundamentally from the b e l i e f s of the Catholic Church in that Luther refused to recognize any manner of i n t e r c e s s i o n a l prayer as a means of obtaining God's mercy on the souls of the deceased. Instead, P r o t e s t a n t s had to assure them-selves of their s a l v a t i o n before death. We must remember that prosopo-po e i a , and r h e t o r i c i n g e n e r a l , were undoubtedly used f o r dr a m a t i c e f f e c t , but never f o r dr a m a t i c e f f e c t alone. R h e t o r i c i n the Church served the theological ends of the Church. Prosopopoeia enabled the funeral orator simultaneously to employ, See W. Z e l l e r , " L e i c h e n p r e d i g t und Erbauungs1 i t e r a t u r , " i n Leichenpredigten als Quelle h i s t o r i s c h e r Wissenschaften, ed. by R. Lenz (Cologne and Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1975), pp. 67-81; van Ingen, op.  c i t . , pp. 61-112; R. Mohr, Protestantische Theologie und Frbmmigkeit im Angesicht des Todes wahrend des BarockzeitaIters hauptsa'chlich auf Grund  hessischer Leichenpredigten (Marburg: G. Nolte, 1964), pp. 78-117, 229-308. 54 to varying degrees, the three A r i s t o t e l i a n means of persuasion: ( 1 ) by an appeal to the l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y to reason ( l o g o s ) ; ( 2 ) by an appeal of the p e r s o n a l i t y or c h a r a c t e r of the o r a t o r (ethos); and (3) by an appeal to the emotions of the l i s t e n e r (pathos). In order b e t t e r to appreciate the rhetor's a p p l i c a t i o n of this trope, i t may be worthwhile at this point b r i e f l y to consider prosopopoeia i n terms of these three l i n e s of persuasion. Through the p r o s o p o p o e i a l e v o c a t i o n of the dead, whether or not th i s occurs in the context of the funeral ceremony, the orator assumed the persona of the deceased, thus playing f u l l y on the sympathies of the congregation. Though the orator may i n these instances be v o i c i n g his own b e l i e f s and opinions, the congregation was psychologically led to b e l i e v e that the ideas expressed were those of the departed, in t u r n g i v i n g more credence to the words of the o r a t o r . Since one of the p r i m a r y g o a l s of the o r a t o r was to convince the c o n g r e g a t i o n of the resurrection, prosopopoeia allowed for an i m p l i c i t enthymematic argument which, though untenable in terms of s t r i c t syllogism, was nonetheless a c o n s i d e r e d and e f f e c t i v e one. For i n s t a n c e , i f the v o i c e of the deceased i s heard a t t e s t i n g to salvation, r e s u r r e c t i o n and eternal l i f e , then one can only reason that the statement must be true. This brand of posthumous testimony was common in Baroque funeral l i t e r a t u r e , as seen, for example, in the assuasive verse written i n the seventeenth century by Johann Sand: Weint nicht, jhr meine Lieben, Weint nicht, es i s t nicht Noht, Wolt jhr euch so betruben? Ach! b i n i c h doch nicht todt, So k l a g l i c h niemand thue, Ich lebe jmmerdar, Worauff i c h jetzund ruhe Ist keine Todten-Bahr 2 0 55 Weep not, my beloved, Weep not, there i s no need, Do you wish to grieve so? Alas, I am not r e a l l y dead, So do not act so piteously, I l i v e for ever and ever, On what I now rest, Is not a corpse's b i e r . In 1670 Sigmund von B i r k e n i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n i f y i n g l i n e s in the Leichenpredigten for h i s wife, which again i s a repudiation of death and an a f f i r m a t i o n of the resurrection: Ich l i g e i n der Ruh ich Schlaffe / sonder Sorgen / Ich s c h l a f f e sicher zu / bis an den le t z t e n Morgen...*"''*' I l i e i n rest I sleep without concern, I sleep securely, u n t i l the judgement day. By adopting the i d e n t i t y of the deceased while w r i t i n g and d e l i v e r -ing a funeral sermon, the rhetor-pastor had at his disposal the poten-t i a l to strengthen the e t h i c a l side of the oration, that i s , to enhance h i s own c h a r a c t e r i n the eyes of the con g r e g a t i o n . By speaking as the deceased, even through b r i e f q u o t a t i o n , the c o n g r e g a t i o n would 22 immediately associate the speaker with the deceased. Since the con-g r e g a t i o n would have been made up c h i e f l y of mourners, one n a t u r a l l y would expect t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n to have been a favourable 20 • C i t e d i n van Ingen, op. c i t . , p. 277. 2 1 S. v. B i r k e n , Todes-Gedanken und Todten-Andenken (Nuremberg, 1670), p. 353. C i t e d i n Ingen, op. c i t . , p. 277. 22 L. Cooper. The R h e t o r i c of A r i s t o t l e : an Expanded T r a n s l a t i o n w i t^ h Supplementary Examples f o r Students of Compos i t i o n and Pub l i e Speaking (Englewood C l i f f s : P rentice-Hall, Inc., 1932), pp. 236-37. 56 one. As a r e s u l t of the heightened e t h i c a l s t a t u s of the o r a t o r , the co n g r e g a t i o n would have been more r e c e p t i v e to a t t i t u d e s and dogma expressed by the speaker, a t t i t u d e s which were perhaps not e n t i r e l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the deceased. Even i f the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was t o t a l l y f i c t i t i o u s , i f e v e r y t h i n g s a i d by the o r a t o r were h i s ideas alone but were nevertheless expressed by him as the worldly representative of the deceased, the congregation, u n w i l l i n g to dispute the voice of the person whom they mourned, s t i l l would have been i n c l i n e d to give credence to the orator. Although prosopopoeia argued persuasively by both l o g i c a l and e t h i -c a l means, i t was undoubtedly most p e r s u a s i v e as a p a t h e t i c form of argument. Q u i n t i l i a n remarks i n the I n s t i t u t i o that p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was used to increase the persuasiveness of a speech, for though bare facts themselves were no doubt capable of moving a l i s t e n e r towards assent, the ring of a f a m i l i a r personal note, i n combination with the facts, was 2 3 known to be even more e f f e c t i v e . The speaker not only animated the deceased by putting words into h i s mouth, he was also expected to mimic the patterns of the deceased's voice and gestures, when appropriate. 23 I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 6. 1. 25. "Nudae tantum res movent; at cum ipsos loqui fingium, ex personis quoque t r a h i t u r adfectus." ("The bare f a c t s are no doubt moving i n themselves; but when we pretend that the persons concerned themselves are speaking, the personal note adds to the emotional effect.") See I n s t i t u t i o ora_toria., 1. 8. 3 and 11. 1. 41-42 and van Ingen, op. c i t . , pp. 299-300. See a l s o M e yfart, op. c i t . , 2:23. "In der Prosopopei muss der Redener der Person / welcher er die Rede auffdichtet / auch d i e Stim a u f f d i c h t e n / vnd zuschawen / was sonsten d i e Rede leydet." ("In prosopopoeia, the o r a t o r must a l s o a s c r i b e the v o i c e to the person to whom he ascribes the oration, and consider whatever else the oration can use.") 57 When we read sections employing prosopopoeia in Baroque funeral sermons we must assume that the e f f e c t i v e preacher would have feigned the emo-t i o n expressed i n the t e x t . In the Trauer-Rede w r i t t e n i n 1693 f o r Sigismund Heinrich, F r e i h e r r von Bibran, to whose funeral music we s h a l l be returning shortly, the preacher personifies, at d i f f e r e n t times, the bereaved widow, the b r o t h e r , and the c h i l d r e n of the deceased. Where the members of the f a m i l y are r e p r e s e n t e d , the t e x t i s laden w i t h lamentive pathos. The f o l l o w i n g i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the widow, whose lament is a c o n f l a t i o n of appropriate s c r i p t u r a l passages: Alas! I see now before me the tears of a deeply greaving widow who s a d l y weeps..., she c r i e s to the Lord her God whatever she can: See, LORD, how s o r e l y I am d i s t r e s s e d . My bowels w r i t h e i n anguish: at home there i s as death [ l i t e r a l l y , at home Death has made me a widow]. Lam. 1:20. the Almighty hath dealt very b i t t e r -l y w i t h me. Ruth 1:20. For these t h i n g s I weep; mine eye, mine eye runneth down with water, because the c o m f o r t e r that should r e l i e v e my soul i s far from me. Lam. 1:16.^ Certainly the emotional l e v e l of the voice assumed by the s k i l l e d preacher would be m o d i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y when personifying the reas-s u r i n g v o i c e s of the angels or the c o n s o l a t o r y v o i c e of the deceased. M. Wiedemann. I.N.I! Pass das Liebreiche Andencken Gottes j_ der be s te und l e z te Wuntsch eines Rechtgla'ubigen Chr i s ten s e i ; wo Lt e Be i H o c h = F r e i h e r r l i c h e r Be=Erdigung des_ w e i l a n d Hoch= und Wohlgebohrnen Herrn j_ Herren Sigissmund=Heinrichs j_ Frei=Herrn von Bibran und Modlau;  ... durch eine e i l i g s t = abgefassete ]_ und dahero einfa'ltige TRAUER=REDE  auf gn'adigst = e r t h e i l t e n H o c h - F r e i h e r r l . B e f e h l j_ im Hoch=Freiherr 1.  Trauer=Zimmer zu Ossig j_ den 9. Decembr. des 1693sten H e i l . Jahres J_ i n einem k u r t z e n E n t w u r f f zeigen.... (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehne, ca. 1 6 9 3 ) , p. 15. Berl in, B e r l i n e r Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. "Ach! i c h sehe a n i t z o vor mir Thranen e i n e r t i e f = L e i d e t r a g e n d e n Witwen / welche h e r z l i c h weinet ... / schreiet Sie zu dem HErren ihrem GOtt / was Sie immer kann: Ach HERR! Siehe doch / wie bange i s t mir / i n meinem L e i b e / denn i c h b i n hochs tbet ru'bet: der Todt hat mich im Hause zur Witwen gemacht. Thren. 1/20. der Allmachtige hat mich sehr b e t r u b t . Ruth. l / 2 [ 0 ] . darum weine i c h so / und meine beide Augen fliissen mit Wasser / dass der Trbster / der meine Seele solte erkwikken / f e m e von mir i s t / Thren. 1/16." 5-8 Taken from the same funeral as the above jeremaic, the following rhymed verses personifying Sigismund Heinrich are soothing in rhythm and tenor, an emotional a n t i t h e s i s of the widow's p l a i n t . I die now, i t i s true; nevertheless I s h a l l not perish, Not I; my despair dies, my misery, fear and need, Through death dies my death. Therefore I am happy to die, For whoever dies in Jesus, dies without death. Death often came without warning i n the seventeenth century. The f a t a l i t y r a t e among i n f a n t s was e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y high; outbreaks of plague and other epidemics were frequent, widespread, devastating and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e of age or s t a t i o n . H a r d l y l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g than diseases were the armies that sacked and plundered Germany i n the course of the T h i r t y Y e a r s ' War (1618-48). In that age when even a s l i g h t c h i l l c o u l d soon be f o l l o w e d by obsequies, Death, much more so than today, was never f a r away and seldom out of mind; i t occupied the thoughts of the s o c i e t y to a p o i n t which we can only see as o b s e s s i v e . Because the people were aware, or were made to be aware, that "the f i n a l 2 7 hour comes l i k e a t h i e f , " the Protestant clergy expended a great deal of energy upon teaching t h e i r congregation to prepare for death's unan-M. Wiedemann. I_^ N^ Jj_ Der G e i s t l i c h e Herren = Stand der G o t t s - fu'rchtigen... i n e i n e r Chris11 i c he n Gedenck=Predigt a l s Der Hoch = Wolgebohrne Herr j_ Herr Sigismund H e i n r i c h j_ F r e y h e r r von B i b r a n und Modlau /•.. u.s.w. welcher den 14. Septembr. Anno 1693 zu Reis i c h t i_n seinem JEsu hochse 1 i g e n t s c h l a f f e n war j_ den d a r a u f f f o l g e n d e n 9. Decembr. mi_t einem F r e y h e r r l i c h e n Leichen=Begangniss in Oszig beehret wurde.... (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehne, c a. 1693), p. 33. B e r l i n , B e r l i n e r Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. Ich sterbe zwar izund / doch d a r f f Ich nicht verderben / Nicht Ich / mein Jammer s t i r b t / mein Elend / Angst und Noth / Durch sterben s t i r b t mein Tod. Drum freu Ich Mich zusterben / Denn wer in JEsu s t i r b t / der s t i r b e t ohne Tod. 2 7 Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 71. "...die l e t z t e Stund kommt a l s e i n Dieb." I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that t h i s maxim has b i b l i c a l o r i g i n s (2 P e t e r 3:10). 59 nounced a r r i v a l . The l a r g e number of L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n p u b l i s h e d and bound as a n t h o l o g i e s d u r i n g the seventeenth century o f f e r s g r a p h i c evidence of t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h death. I t was expected that, i n h e a l t h and e s p e c i a l l y i n i l l n e s s , one would f a m l i a r i z e o n e s e l f w i t h funeral sermons such as those found i n Valerius Herberger's G e i s t l i c h e T r a u e r b i n d e n ( L e i p z i g , 1618/1619), and the four volumes by Johann Heermann: Schola m o r t i s : Todes Schule ( L e i p z i g , 1628), C h r i s t i a n a e Euthanasias Statutae (Leipzig, 1630), Parma contra mortis arma (Rostock, 2 8 1650), D o r m i t o r i a (Rostock, 1650). R e f l e c t i n g on the cont e n t s of c o l l e c t i o n s such as these, the reader i n e f f e c t came i n t o a k i n d of communication w i t h the h e r e a f t e r , not d i s s i m i l a r to the associations mentioned e a r l i e r by van Ingen. Based on the experiences of others who had gone b e f o r e , one lea r n e d i n t h i s way how to prepare f o r death, how to d i e a proper C h r i s t i a n death, how s u c c e s s f u l l y to make that most 2 9 peaceful t r a n s i t i o n from this world to the next. By leaving one's worldly a f f a i r s in good order, the deceased post-humously presented the l i v i n g with a strong case for the assumption that his or her s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r s were likewise i n order. In preparation of the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l s i d e s of death, i t was not uncommon f o r a person to dictate his or her own curriculum v i t a e , which could be read at the funeral either following the sermon or at the graveside as part For a b r i e f c r i t i c a l study of Herberger's and Heermann's work, see E. Wi n k l e r , Die L e i c h e n p r e d i g t i^ m deutschen Luthertum b i s Sp_e_ner, Forschungen zur Geschichte und Lehre des Protestantismus, ed. by E. Wolf, v o l . 34 (Munich: Chr. K a i s e r V e r l a g , 1967), pp. 104-27, 135-58. 2 9 Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 66-71. 60 of the Abdankung. I t was a l s o common p r a c t i c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to select the b i b l i c a l scriptures or some other appropriate text to be used as the theme upon which the pastor was to write the funeral sermon. I f the person did not have a favourite b i b l i c a l s c ripture, the anthologies of funeral sermons provided an ample s e l e c t i o n of suitable verses from which to chose. Other documents show that some went further to request i n advance that t h e i r f u n e r a l sermon be based on a p a r t i c u l a r c h o r a l e t e x t , as mentioned i n t h i s n o t i c e from a W i t t e l s b e r g Kirchenbuch i n 1665: E l i s a b e t h , Henchen P r e i s e n , b l e s s e d posthumous widow in Be l t e r s -hausen was buried on 3 February i n her e i g h t y - f i f t h year; and true the f u n e r a l sermon, on her request, was d e l i v e r e d from the C h r i s t i a n chorale: H e r z l i c h tut mich verlangen nach einem s[eligen] Ende, through the entire verse l.p. S t i l l others had the presence of mind to write t h e i r own funeral sermon, which would then be read for them at the ceremony. One instance of this Ibid., p. 67. I t h a r d l y needs mentioning that much of what we know bio g r a p h i c a l l y of musicians from that period i s derived from the c u r r i c u l a v i t a e found i n f u n e r a l sermons. In t h i s r e s p e c t see, P. S p i t t a , "Leichensermone auf Musiker des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts," Monatshefte fiir Musikgeschichte 3 (1871): 24-44; Beyer, "Leichensermone des 17. Jahrhunderts," Monatshefte fiir Musikgeschichte 7 (1875): 171-88. For more information on the role of the Abdankung at Protestant funeral ceremonies, see M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , "Zur T h e o r i e und F u n k t i o n der Barock-abdankung," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e , " pp. 372-89. A l s o see C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher die p r a c t i c a b e l s t e n Kunst =Reguln von der I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n derer nach der h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n Abdanckungen bey o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer = Solennien zu Befbrderung seiner Oratorischen Collegiorum durch deutliche  Exempel e r l e u t e r t (Jena: Heinrich Christoph Crbker, 1707), pp. 11-12. 3 1 C i t e d i n A. Hock, "Begrabnisbrauchtum und L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n i n l a n d l i c h e n B e r e i c h e n Hessens," i n Leichenpredigten als Quelle, p. 296. "Elisabeth, Henchen Preisen s(el.) nachgelassene w i t t i b zu Beltershausen wurde begraben den 3*". Februarij ihress Al t e r s s 85 jahr. Undt wahr die Leich Sermon uf i h r selbst eigenes begehre gehalten aus dem C h r i s t l i c h e n Kirchengesang: H e r t z l i c h thut mich ve r l a n g e n nach einem s. endt. per totum versiculum l.p." 61 i s the funeral sermon on Psalm 116:7, "Sei nun wieder zufrieden, meine Seele; denn der Herr tut d i r Gutes," w r i t t e n by Superintendant Balthasar K l e i n of W e i s s e n f e l s and d e l i v e r e d on 2 February 1580, and was l a t e r 3 2 p u b l i s h e d i n L e i p z i g with a p r e f a c e by N i k o l a u s Selnecker. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r case comes under d i s c u s s i o n i n the Mansfeld p a s t o r Caspar T i t i u s ' s " T h e o 1 o g i s c h e s Exempe 1-Buch" e n t i t l e d L o c i T h e o l o g i c i H i s t o r i c i . Comprised of a l a r g e number of o l d e r and contemporaneous writings, most of the material for the book had already been compiled by T i t i u s by 1633, but, owing to the savaging e f f e c t s of the T h i r t y Years' War, the c o l l e c t i o n was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n i n 1684, a f t e r T i t i u s ' s death. C l e a r l y , T i t i u s too r e c o g n i z e d the power of p a t h e t i c argument as presented i n t h i s d i d a c t i c anthology; i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n the chapter on f u n e r a l sermons ("Von L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n " ) T i t i u s acknowledges the fact "that they [funeral sermons] a f f e c t more 3 3 and s t i r more the heart." I t i s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s w r i t i n g on funeral, oratory that T i t i u s mentions the custom of placing the body of the deceased d i r e c t l y beneath the p u l p i t , that i s , at a p o i n t more or less between the orator and the audience. By giving this kind of v i s u a l prominence to the body, i t assumed a s t a t u s t h a t , although n e i t h e r orator nor audience, was nevertheless an i n e x t r i c a b l e component of the C. T i t i u s , Loci Theologici H i s t o r i c i , oder Theologisches Exempel- Buch [_ Darinnen aus Alten und Neuen Scribenten j_ sonderlich reinen und  C h r i s t l i c h e n Kirchen-Lehren unter den gewbhnlichen Locis Theologicis zu  finden I mehrentheils solche Exempe 1 und H i s t o r i e n /_ welche i n gewbhn- lichen Predigten zur heilsamen Lehre j_ Trost / Vermahnung und Warnung n u t z l i c h angezogen und eing_ef_Uhret. werden kbnnen, nunmehr aber vom Autore auffs neue mit mehr als 2000 H i s t o r i e n und nlitzlichen Registern vermehret ( L e i p z i g , 1684), p. 1291. C i t e d i n Z e l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 67. 3 3 . . C i t e d i n Z e l l e r , op. £i_t., p. 67. "...dass s i e mehr a f f i c i r e n und naher zu Hertzen gehen." 62 r h e t o r i c a l process. Thus, according to T i t i u s , as the funeral oration was given by the p a s t o r , the c o n g r e g a t i o n of mourners d i d not neces-s a r i l y hear the priest comforting and admonishing them, but rather "the deceased h i m s e l f preaching per p r o s o p o p o e i i a n from the c o f f i n , as i t were." In the most unexceptional, prosaic cases the combined audial and v i s u a l s e n s a t i o n s would have been moving; where the p a s t o r ornamented h i s sermon w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l prosopopoeia1 passage, the e f f e c t would have s t i r r e d deep emotions; where the orator read a sermon w r i t t e n by the deceased, p e r s o n a l l y a d d r e s s i n g the mourners i n the congregation, perhaps going so far as to mimic the deceased's speech and 35 . . . . gestures, we can hardly begin to imagine the impact on a seventeenth-century congregation. Musicians likewise suggested an active personal presence at t h e i r f u n e r a l s by p r e a r r a n g i n g c e r t a i n aspects of the ceremony. Johann Hermann Schein on his deathbed asked Heinrich Schutz to compose for him a funeral motet on the text "Das i s t je gewisslich wahr" (Timothy 1:12, SWV 277), and Schutz i n turn requested that h i s student C h r i s t o p h Bernhard compose f o r him a f i v e - p a r t P a l e s t r i n i a n motet on the text " C a n t a b i l e s m i h i erant j u s t i f i c a t i o n e s tuae" (Psalm 119:54), a work which Schutz a c t u a l l y had o p p o r t u n i t y to check and approve w e l l i n I b i d , "...g le ic hs am per p r o s o p o p o i i a n den Verstorbenen s e l b s t aus dem Sarge herfiirpredigen." 35 See footnote 24 above. S. Kbhler, H e i n r i c h Schutz: Anmerkungen zu Leben und Werk (Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag fur Musik, 1985), p. 112. 63 advance of h i s death in 1672. Bernhard's motet plus three other works 38 by Schutz were performed at the funeral. In the case of both Schutz and Schein, the b i b l i c a l t e x t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y served as themes f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f u n e r a l sermons. I t might be added that other com-posers, among them, Seth C a l v i s i u s , Tobias M i c h a e l and Zachaus Faber, had occasion to compose the i r own swan songs. Although these works did not function purely as true prosopopoeia, i t can hardly be denied that the congregation's knowledge of the o r i g i n s of the works would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected the way in which they experienced the music. It i s not mere chance that brought p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n into the music of the f u n e r a l , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt that German composers were f a m i l i a r with the concept of prosopopoeia in i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i -c a l sense. Having obtained a s o l i d l i n g u i s t i c foundation in the Latein-schulen, most of the composers i n seventeenth-century Germany subse-quently had s t u d i e d e i t h e r theology or j u r i s p r u d e n c e at u n i v e r s i t y , d i s c i p l i n e s which required a complete mastery of rh e t o r i c . No matter what r h e t o r i c a l texts and l i t e r a t u r e were studied at the lower and upper levels of education, i t i s inconceivable that they would not have come to understand prosopopoeia as a r h e t o r i c a l device. E s p e c i a l l y as w e l l -37 H. Schutz, Gesammelte Br i e f e und Schr i f ten, ed. by E. H. M u l l e r (Regensburg, 1931), p. 383. C i t e d i n S. Kbhler, H e i n r i c h Schutz: An-merkungen zu Leben und Werk (Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag fiir Musik, 1985), p. 185. Schutz, a f t e r examining the work, wrote to Bernhard i n Hamburg, saying, "Mein Sohn, er hat mir einen Grossen Gefallen erwiesen durch Ubersendung der verlangte'n Motette. Ich weiss keine Note darin zu verbessern." (My son, you have [ l i t e r a l l y , he has] done me a great favour by sending the desired motet. I know of no note i n i t that could be improved upon.) 3 8 C i t e d i n 0. Brodde, H e i n r i c h Schutz: Weg und Werk, ( B e r l i n : E v a n g e l i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985; o r g i n a l l y published Cassel: Baren-r e i t e r Verlag, 1972), pp. 278-79. 64 educated Lutherans, steeped i n the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of the German schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and eventually employed either by the Church or i n an a r i s t o c r a t i c chapel, they c e r t a i n l y would have been well-acquainted with the anthologies of funeral l i t e r a t u r e which were so popular throughout the seventeenth century, and they would have viewed f u n e r a l o r a t o r y w i t h a c r i t i c a l eye f o r i t s r h e t o r i c . I t was a l s o g e n e r a l l y expected of composers as l i t e r a r y men to demonstrate some a b i l i t y to write poetry for various occasions, which of course included 3 9 f u n e r a l s , and they would s u r e l y have read through the o f t e n lengthy s e c t i o n s of e p i c e d i a or f u n e r a l odes u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n p r i n t e d versions of the funeral sermons. The epicedia were frequently written as a consolatory p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n of the deceased, and sometimes bore the simple heading "Prosopo-poeia." Just how conscious were composers of the concept of prosopopeia can be seen i n a single pubished work by Johann Kemp (Kempe, Kempius). 4^ In 1985 the author d i s c o v e r e d three e p i c e d i a i n the Gotha For-s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , F i l l 34(5), two w r i t t e n by C o n s t a n t i n C h r i s t i a n Dedekind (1628-1715) and the t h i r d by Schlitz's best-known p u p i l Christoph Bernhard (1627-88). The poems are found among other epicedia w r i t t e n on the o c c a s i o n of the death of Dedekind's son, Stephan C h r i s t i a n , who die d i n 1672. The poems by Dedekind are nowhere mentioned i n F r i t z Hermann Stege's "Constantin C h r i s t i a n Dedekind: ein D i c h t e r und Musiker des 17. Jahrhunderts," (Ph.D. d i s s . , F r i e d r i c h -Wilhelm-Universitat zu B e r l i n [Humboldt], 1922) which i s s t i l l r e f erred to by John H. Baron i n the New Grove P i c t i o n a r y of Mus i c and Mus i c ians as the aut h o r i t a t i v e l i s t of Pedekind's poetic works. Neither is Stege able to i d e n t i f y any of Dedekind's c h i l d r e n (p. 8). T h i s f i n d i n g , though inappropriate to discuss at length i n t h i s study, contributes to the b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on C. C. Dedekind, b r i n g s to l i g h t two po e t i c works by an important German poet of the seventeenth century, a t t e s t s f u r t h e r to the c l o s e p e r s o n a l and a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p that e x i s t e d between Dedekind and h i s teacher Bernhard, and p r o v i d e s a l i t e r a r y work for consideration by Bernhard's biographers. 4®J. Kemp, 2j_ Moteten, Auff den trawrigen vnd Unverhofften Todes-65 Kemp had been cantor i n Wingzig i n 1619 and became Hofcantor and imperial poet laureate in Gustrow around 1634.4^ As court cantor, Kemp composed two motets on the death of Anna Maria, Duchess of Machlenburg, etc. Although neither of the motets, one for eight voices the other for six, i s w r i t t e n i n a manner which personifies the Duchess, the l a s t page of the publication i s a prosopopoeial poem written by Kemp: Prosopopoeia Qua pie defuncta Princeps Conjugem Illustrisimum & moestisimum a l l o q u i t u r ACH a l l e r l i e b s t e r Schatz / es mag zwar auff der Erden Kein grosser Hertzens Schmertz jemals gefunden werden / Alss wann zwey Lieb / die stets gelebt i n Freundigkeit / Zertrennet werden durch des Todes Grawsambkeit. Drumb kan ich auch bey mir l e i c h t schliessen vnd gedencken / Wie schmertz: vnd b i t t e r l i c h Euch mein Abschied muss krancken / Jedoch weis Ich / dass Ihr mit dem geplagten Mann Hiob / des Hbchsten Raht Euch werd g e f a l i e n lan. Hat der nicht Macht / der Mich an Ewre Seit gegeben/ Mich abzufodern / wann Er w i l / ins Frewden Leben? Ihr wist ja wie meine Seel nach dem lieben GOTT / Bey dem i c h nun auch bin / gedurst in meiner Noth. Betrawrt Mich nicht / dass Ich bin von der bbsen Erden / Sondern Euch / dass Ihr nicht habt s o l l n mein Gleitsmann werden / Meins Leibes Pf'ande l a s t Ewrn Trost vnd Frewde seyn / An welchen Ihr werd sehn vnd splihrn die Tugend mein. Nach trlibem Wetter / vnd nach harten Donnerschlagen / Nach B l i t z vnd Sturm / thut sic h die liebe Sonn bewegen; Nach Frost vnd Kalte kompt der Lentz / nach Creutz vnd Leyd Frewd / nach trawren / lachen / vnd Fr i e d kompt nach dem S t r e i t . Gesegn Euch GOtt mein Schatz / vnd a l l e l i e b e Meinen! Trawt Ihm i n a l l e r Noth / vnd lasset ja das weinen / f a l l Der weiland Durchleuchtigen... Frawen ANNA MARIA Gebohrnen zu Ost F r i e s z l a n d t j_ Herzoginnen zu Machlenburg... Deiner nunmehr in Gott ruhenden H o c h s e l i g e n gnadigen F i i r s t i n n e n vnd Frawen: Die E r s t e mit 8. Die Ander mit 6^ Stimmen componiret^ Von JOHANNE KEMPIO, P.L.C. vnd  F u r s t l . M. Hoff Cantore (Glistrow: Johann Jagern, 1634). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , K. 5. c. 28. ^ E . L. Gerber, "Kemp, Johann I I I , " His to r i s ch-bio graph i s ches Lexikon der T o n k l i n s t l e r (1790-1792), 2 v o l s . , ed. by 0. Wessely (Graz: Akademische Druck- u. V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1977; o r g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , L e i p z i g : J. G. I. B r e i t k o p f , 1790), v o l . 1, c o l . 716. 66 Ich komm nicht mehr zu Euch / zu Mir werdt kommen Ihr / An den Orth da l i e b l i c h Wesen i s t fur vnd fur. In Tempus Mortis S E R E N I S S I M A E P R I N C I P I S Cronostichon Nomina, Annum, Mensem & Diem f e l i c i s s i m a migrationis complectens: QVInta Dies FebrVI nostrates Verbere Coeplt: Anna Maria p_I§ Verglt In astra VIS. Observ. & i n Comm. hoc luctu declar.  an. a f f e c t . grati§ f e c i t J O H A N N E S K E M P I U S P.L.C. & A.C. Prosopopoeia With what pie t y the dead Princess addresses her most i l l u s t r i o u s and most t e a r f u l Husband Alas sweetest treasure, there could be found i t i s true On earth no greater heart ache, Than when two loves, who continually l i v e d i n amity, Become separated by death's cruelty. For that reason, I too can e a s i l y sympathize and consider, How p a i n f u l l y and b i t t e r l y my parting must wound you, However, I know that you, with the tormented man Job, submit yourself to the highest c o u n c i l . Has He not the power that put me by your side, to claim me, when He wishes, for the L i f e of Joy? You know how my s p i r i t t h i r s t e d i n my need For the beloved God, with Whom I too am now. Mourn me not, that I am gone from the wicked world, Rather yourself, that you could not have been my escort, Let the f o r f e i t s of my body be your consolation and joy, In which you can see and perceive my v i r t u e , A f t e r cloudy weather and after harsh peals of thunder, Aft e r l i g h t n i n g and storm, the dear sun s t i r s i t s e l f ; A f t e r f r o s t and cold comes spring, a f t e r a f f l i c t i o n and g r i e f Joy, a f t e r sorrow laughter, and peace comes a f t e r c o n f l i c t . God bless you my treasure and a l l my loved ones! Trust Him i n need, and abandon the weeping, I come no more to you, to me s h a l l you come, To the place where the lovely soul i s forever and ever. In Time of Death 67 of the Most Serene Princess Chronost ichon Comprising the Names, Year, Month and most happy Day of migrat ion F i f t h Day of February Anna Maria PIA turns towards the path to the s tars Johann Kemp, Imper ia l Poet Laureate and Court Cantor, performed the serv ice out of grat i tude and, at a t ime of common g r i e f , w i t h a s o u l that was touched, made the expos i t ion Of the numerous au thors of t r e a t i s e s on the F i g u r e n l e h r e i n the s eventeenth c e n t u r y , the on ly one to address the term p r o s o p o p o e i a i n h i s w r i t i n g s was A t h a n a s i u s K i r c h e r , i n Book V of h i s M u s u r g i a  U n i v e r s a l i s (Rome, 1 6 5 0 ) . 4 4 H i s a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e r m , however , appears to be the r e s u l t of a misunderstanding. In borrowing m a t e r i a l from J o a c h i m T h u r i n g u s ' s Opusculum b i p a r t i t u m ( B e r l i n , 1624) to incorporate i n h i s own book, K i r c h e r uses Thuringus's d e f i n i t i o n of the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i gure pathopoeia, which Thuringus c a l l s parthopoeia [ s i c ] C o n f u s e d perhaps by the i r r e g u l a r o r t h o g r a p h y , m a t t e r s of t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n , c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the a c t u a l D. B a r t e l , Handbuch der m u s i k a l i s c h e n F i g u r e n l e h r e ( L a a b e r : L a a b e r V e r l a g , 1985), p. 30. 4 ^ J . Thuringus, Opusculum b i p a r t i t u m ( B e r l i n , 1624), p. 126. "Quid e s t P a r t h o p o e i a ? E s t , quae d i c t i o n e s a f f e c t u u m , d o l o r i s , g a u d i i , t i m o r i s , r i s u s , luctus , m i s e r i c o r d i a e , e x u l t a t i o n i s , t remor i s , t e r r o r i s , & s i m i l i e s i t a ornat , ut tam Cantores quam auditores moveat." ("What i s p a r t h o p o e i a ? I t e x i s t s when the [ m u s i c a l ] o r a t i o n i s ornamented by f e e l i n g s of p a i n , j o y , f e a r , l a u g h t e r , l a m e n t a t i o n , p i t y , e x u l t a t i o n , dread, t e r r o r and s i m i l a r a f fec t ions of that type, so that it^ moves the s i n g e r s as w e l l as the l i s t e n e r s . " ) C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 235. M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l pathopoeia is general ly understood as the semitonal movement of a melodic l i n e outside the es tabl i shed harmony or scale i n order to express such a f fec t ions as sorrow, f ear , and the l i k e . 68 figures, or possibly a combination of these and other reasons, Kircher mistakenly applies the new label prosopopaeia [ s i c ] . The m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figure which comes closest i n meaning to the r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia i s hypotyposis. Joachim Burmeister i s the f i r s t to use t h i s term in i t s musical-poetical sense, and defines i t i n 1599 in h i s Hypomnematum musicae poeticae as "the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a text, whereby inanimate o b j e c t s appear animate, placed b e f o r e the eyes or d e s c r i b e d . " 4 ^ He d e f i n e s i t a second time i n 1606 i n h i s Musica poetica: Hypotyposis i s that ornament whereby the meaning of the text i s so d e s c r i b e d that these t h i n g s , which are hidden i n the t e x t and do not have a s p i r i t or l i f e [ i . e , i n a n i m a t e ] , appear to be endowed with l i f e . This ornament i s most common among true a r t i s t s . Would that the same were s k i l f u l l y applied by a l l composers! 4 7 In m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c , h y p o t y p o s i s most o f t e n serves as a g e n e r a l heading f o r a v a r i e t y of r e l a t e d f i g u r e s . The r o l e of t h i s group of figures was to suggest musically p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i v e passages in the text as v i v i d l y as possible.. Included among these taxonomical subtypes are fuga (Kircher), anabasis and catabasis (Kircher), and hyperbole and hypobole (Burmeister), to name a few. 4 8 For instance, fuga consists of fast passages of short notes used to represent such actions as f l i g h t or J. B u r m e i s t e r , Hypomnematum musicae p o e t i c a e (Rostock, 1599), n.p. C i t e d i n B a r t e l op. c i t . , p. 197. "...textus i l i a e x p l i c a t i o , qua quaecxy-if)fo* sunt, videantur EJATJ/X 0^ ad oculum statuta, v e l deumbrata." 4 7 J . B u r m e i s t e r , Musica p o e t i c a (Rostock, 1606), p. 62. C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 197-98. "Hypotyposis est i l l u d ornamentum, quo textus s i g n i f i c a t i o i t a deumbratur, ut ea, quae textui subsunt & animam vitamque non habent, v i t a esse p r a e d i t a , v i d e a n t u r . Hoc ornamentum usitatissimum est apud authenticos A r t i f i c e s . Utinam eadem e x t e r i t a t e ab omnibus adhiberetur Componistis." 4 8 F o r a more complete l i s t of figures under the general heading of h y p o t y p o s i s , see G. Buelow, " R h e t o r i c and Music," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), vol. 15, p. 798. 69 f l e e i n g , while the ascending and descending scale passages which co n s t i -tute anabasis and c a t a b a s i s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were used to d e p i c t t e x t s concerned with, say, heavenly ascent and i n f e r n a l descent. (These two figures w i l l be discussed in greater d e t a i l i n the next chapter.) The names were p r i n c i p a l l y d e v i s e d by composers as a means of v e r b a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g what are now commonly referred to simply as madrigalisms. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r h e t o r i c a l and m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l hypo-t y p o s i s i s very c l o s e . The s i m i l a r i t i e s can be r e a d i l y seen by comparing Burmeister's f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n of the figure with the following d e f i n i t i o n of o r a t o r i c a l hypotypos i s from the Rhetor i c a ad Herennium. The pseudo-Cicero defines the term in the following way: The f i g u r e [ h y p o t y p o s i s ] so e x p l a i n s things with words that we apprehend them as though before our eyes. We b r i n g t h i s about by describing what the thing has done, does and w i l l do, the circum-stances and consequences of i t s existence. 9 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between hypotyposis and prosopopoeia i s also quite close, e s p e c i a l l y with respect to Burmeister's second d e f i n i t i o n . But the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the two i s noteworthy. E s s e n t i a l l y , the r h e t o r i c a l purpose of both f i g u r e s i s to suggest the presence of someone or something that i s not present. Whereas hypotypo-s i s permits the orator to achieve t h i s sense of presence through a v i v i d narrative portrayal, prosopopoeia i s the actual p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of that person or thing, which demonstrates i t s own r h e t o r i c a l presence through i t s a b i l i t y to speak. We may thus continue t h i n k i n g of these two figures as being fundamentally related, but we s h a l l presently see that R h e t o r i c a ad Herennium, 4. 68. C i t e d in L. A. Sonnnino, A Hand- book to S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y R h e t o r i c (London: Rout ledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), p. 71. 7 0 m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia c l e a r l y transcends the category of madrigalisms. Cantional-Style Compositions The simplest a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia i n funeral music can be r e a d i l y seen in the newly composed and t r a d i t i o n a l hymns and chorales as r e p r e s e n t e d i n seventeenth-century c a n t i o n a l s . Compositions of this type, by far the most commonly performed at funerals, were sung either homophonically by the choir alone, or monophonically by the congregation with the harmonic support of the choir. Usually written for four (SATB) or f i v e (SSATB) p a r t s , these compositions are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r s y l l a b i c settings of strophic texts i n a simple homophonic sty l e . One of the most enduring and i n f l u e n t i a l s e venteenth-century c o l l e c t i o n s of sacred music written in the cantional s t y l e was Johann Hermann Schein's Cantional oder Gesangbuch Augsburgischer Konfession.^ F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n L e i z p i g i n 1627, Schein's c o l l e c t i o n enjoyed such p o p u l a r i t y i n Lutheran Germany that an expanded v e r s i o n of i t was r e i s s u e d i n 1645 by Schein's s u c c e s s o r at the Thomaskirche, Tobias Michael. The 1627 e d i t i o n of the Cantional contains a proportionately l a r g e number of c o m p o s i t i o n s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r of the t o t a l ) which were composed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r , or were f a v o u r a b l y s u i t e d to, performance at f u n e r a l s . Under the heading "Bey Begrabnissen" (At J. H. Schein, Cantional oder Gesangbuch Augsburgischer Konfession  1627/45, 2 vols., Johann Hermann Schein: Neue Ausgabe samtlicher Werke, ed. by A. A d r i o , Band 2 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1967). For a c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of Schein's Cantiona1, see W. R e c k z i e g e l , Das C a n t i o n a l von Johan Herman Schein: Seinen g e s c h i c h t -lichen Grundlagen, Band 5 i n B e r l i n e r Studien zu Musikwissenschaft, ed. by A. Adrio ( B e r l i n : Verlag Merseburger, 1963). 71 F u n e r a l s ) i n the p r e f a c i n g Kirchenordnung, seventy-one compositions 52 are mentioned: five of them by name, f o r t y - s i x under the subheading "Vom Tod vnd Sterben" ("Of Death and Dying," nos. 216-63), and twenty 53 under the subheading "Psalm." A d d i t i o n a l l y , at least two other works from the C a n t i o n a l served as f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n s , and are i n c l u d e d under the heading "Am Tage Mariae Reingiung" ("At Candlemas"): "Herr, nun l a s s t du deinen Diener" (no. 28) and "Mit F r i e d und Freud i c h fahr dahin" (no. 29). The 1645 e d i t i o n of Schein's Cantiona 1 was supple-mented with an a d d i t i o n a l twenty-two funerary works by Schein himself, as w e l l as f i v e by Tobias M i c h a e l . Because of Schein's f a r - r e a c h i n g musical and poetic influence on Lutheran church music in the seventeenth century, h i s C a n t i o n a l w i l l serve here to demonstrate the manner i n which p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was applied to Baroque funerary compositions i n -^Schein, op^ c i t . , pp. XV-XVI. 5 2 " I n d i c h hab i c h g e h o f f e t Herr" (no. 151), "Wer Gott v e r t r a u t , hat wohl gebaut" (no. 187), "Wenn wir i n hb'chsten Nbten sein" (no. 188), "Wenn d i c h Unglu'ck t u t g r e i f e n an" (nos. 196a-b), "Mag es denn je n i c h t anders s e i n " (no. 190). 5 3 • • • The c a n t i o n a l s e t t i n g s o f the v e r s i f i e d Psalm t e x t s are i d e n t i f i e d by reference to the Psalm i t s e l f rather than by l o c a t i o n i n the Cantional. Those settings i n Schein's Cantional said to be suited to performance at funerals are: "Kehr dich, ach Herr, von deinem Zorn" (no. 139), "Herr, wie v e r g i s s t du mein so lang" (no. 143), "Herr, wer wird wohnn und sicher sein" (no. 145), "Der Herr der i s t mein H i r t " (no. 148), "Ach Herr, nach d i r v e r l a n g e t mich" (no. 149), "Dich f i i r d e i n Wohltat p r e i s e i c h " (no. 150), "In d i c h hab i c h g e h o f f e t , Herr" (no. 151), "Kein Siind, hab ich mir furgesetzt" (no. 153), "Ein mud und mattes H i r s c h e l e i n " (no. 154), "Erbarm d i c h mein, o Herre Gott" (no. 157) and "0 Herre Gott, begnade mich" (no. 158), "Wie l i e b l i c h s i n d d i e Wohnung d e i n " (no. 164), "Herr Gott, mein H e i l a n d fromm" (no. 165), "Herr Gott, du unser Z u f l u c h t b i s t " (no. 166), "0 wie wohl i s t dem immer doch" (no. 171), "Wohl mir, das i s t mir l i e b " (no. 172), "Ich heb mein Augen s e h n l i c h auf" (no. 174), "Wenn Gott der Herr Z i o n e r l b s e n w i r d " (no. 178), "Aus t i e f e r Not s c h r e i i c h zu d i r " (no. 181), "Ich s c h r e i zu meinem l i e b e n Gott" (no. 184), "Ach lob den Herrn, o Seele mein" (no. 185). 72 the cantional s t y l e . Despite the inherent musical r e s t r i c t i o n s of these works, there i s e x t e n s i v e use of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n d i v e r s e ways by Schein. Works i n which the deceased i s p e r s o n i f i e d account f o r the l a r g e s t number of prosopopoeial compositions i n the C a n t i o n a l . While the music c l o s e l y c o n f o r m s to the s o - c a l l e d c a n t i o n a l s t y l e , the t e x t s d i s p l a y c o n s i d e r a b l e p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n . S e v e r a l of the p i e c e s p o r t r a y the deceased a d d r e s s i n g God or Jesus (nos. 29, 216, 223, 289, 3 0 3 ) . 5 4 Though the deceased addresses h i s Saviour i n these works, the texts are designed to d e p i c t the deceased's p a s s i n g as an example of a proper C h r i s t i a n death. The deceased i n these i n s t a n c e s i s made to p e t i t i o n the Lord, thereby a l l o w i n g him or her to give e x p r e s s i o n to church doctrine regarding death, salvation, r e s u r r e c t i o n and eternal l i f e . The con g r e g a t i o n of mourners, made p a r t y to these p e t i t i o n s , i s meant to fin d consolation i n t h e i r sorrow and renewed confirmation i n t h e i r f a i t h i n the Church. Typical of these compositions, the following two verses taken from "Wenn mein S t i i n d l e i n vorhanden i s t " (no. 223) a p t l y demonstrate the di d a c t i c manner i n which the p e r s o n i f i e d deceased addresses the Lord. 4. Weil du vom Tod erstanden b i s t , werd ich im Grab nicht bleiben; mein hbchster Trost dein Auffahrt i s t , Tods Furcht kann s i e vertreiben. Denn wo du b i s t , da komm ich hin, dass ich stets bei d i r leb und bin; drum fahr i c h h i n mit Freuden. Because you are r i s e n from the dead, I w i l l not remain i n the grave; Your ascent i s my greatest comfort It can drive away fear of death. For where your are, there come I, That I might always l i v e and be with You; Therefore I die with happiness. -^"Mit F r i e d und Freud ich fahr dahin" (no. 29), "Herzlich l i e b hab i c h d i c h , o mein Herr" (no. 216), "Wenn mein S t i i n d l e i n vorhanden i s t " (no. 223), "Lass d i r , o mein Herr Jesu C h r i s t " (no. 289), "Machs mit mir, Gott, nach d e i n e r Gut" (no. 303). 73 5. So fahr i c h h i n zu Jesu C h r i s t , Thus I go to Jesus C h r i s t , mein Arm tu ich ausstrecken, I reach out my hands, ich schlafe e i n und ruhe f e i n , I go to sleep and q u i e t l y rest, kein Mensch kann mich aufwecken. No mortal can wake me. Denn Jesu Christus Gottes Sohn For Jesus C h r i s t , Son of God der wird die Himmelstur auftun, W i l l open heaven's gate, uns fuhrn zum ewign Leben. And lead us to eternal l i f e . Elsewhere i n the cantional, the deceased addresses the Lord as i n the pieces just mentioned, but then also turns h i s attention towards the mourning c o n g r e g a t i o n and f a m i l y (nos. 224, 259, 288, 295)"'"' or s p e c i f i c a l l y towards members of the family (no. 222)."'*' In these compo-s i t i o n s , the p e r s o n i f y i n g t e x t c o n s o l e s the c o n g r e g a t i o n b o t h v i c a r i o u s l y through the deceased's supplication to God, and immediately by d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s i n g the mourners. A good example of t h i s type of prosopopoeia i s "Klagt mich n i c h t mehr, i h r l i e b e n Leut" (no. 259), a work o r i g i n a l l y composed for the funeral in 1620 of a c e r t a i n Katharina Pose."'7 Mentioned i n the Cantional as being suitable "For the Funeral 58 of a Spouse," the t e x t of the c o m p o s i t i o n begins with the deceased addressing the congregation in verses 1-3, God i n verse 4, the husband ( a l t e r n a t i v e l y the wife) in verses 5-6, the surviving children in verse 7, and the general assembly of mourners i n verse 8. The text concludes w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n f o r the c o n g r e g a t i o n to j o i n i n the s i n g i n g of the "'"'"Hie l i e g i c h armes Wurmelein und ruh" (no. 224), "Klagt mich n i c h t mehr, i h r l i e b e n Leut" (no. 259), "Ach Herr, e r z e i g e Gnade mir" (no. 288), " C h r i s t e Jesu, Gottes Sohn" (no. 295). 5 6 l l H e r z l i c h tut mich verlangen" (no. 222). "*7But see W. Reich, ed., Threnodiae Sacrae: Katalog der gedruckten  Kompositionen des 16. j- 18. Jahrhunderts i n Leichenpredigtsammlungen  i n n e r h a l b der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Dresden: Sachsische Landesbibliothek, 1966), p. 28. Reich gives as the surname "Bose." 58 "Bey Begrabnis eines Ehegatten." 74 German Sanctus. The deceased does not p e t i t i o n the Lord i n a l l the hymns of Schein's C a n t i o n a l . There are numerous i n s t a n c e s where the deceased speaks d i r e c t l y to the c o n g r e g a t i o n (nos. 235, 251, 254, 2 9 7 ) 5 9 and others i n which the deceased addresses the assembly of mourners, with s p e c i a l remarks d i r e c t e d towards the members of the surviving family (nos. 246, 247, 253, 255, 2 5 6 ) . 6 0 "Ihr l i e b e n T r a u e r l e u t " (no. 297), for example, was composed by Schein in 1629 for the funeral of Johannes E l f e l d , and was i n c o r p o r a t e d by M i c h a e l i n t o the 1645 e d i t i o n of the C a n t i o n a l . In the course of the nine verses of t e x t , the deceased informs the mourners that he was v i c t o r i o u s i n h i s s p i r i t u a l b a t t l e and no longer d e s i r o u s of the v a i n and t r a n s i t o r y p l e a s u r e s of a temporal existence. For these reasons, based as they are on h i s own experience, the animate E l f e l d a d j u r e s the c o n g r e g a t i o n to put an end to t h e i r mourning, admonishes them to keep their f a i t h , and concludes his f i n a l address with a blessing and f a r e w e l l : 8. So weint doch nun nicht mehr, So weep now no more, euch bass besinnet Remember well und gerne gonnet And happily grant mir solche Freud und Ehr. Me such joy and honour. Halt Gott nur s t i l l , ihr werd Abide by God, you w i l l likewise dergleichen in kurzer Zeit mit mir erreichen. J o i n me in a short time. 9. E i a , Gott gsegne euch, Now, God bless you, a l l mein Verwandte, A l l my family, a l l mein Bekannte; A l l my friends; ^ 9"0 Welt, i c h muss d i c h l a s s e n " (no. 235), "Ich hab mein Lauf v o l l e n d e t " (no. 251), "In F r i e d und Freud i c h fahr d a h i n " (no. 254), "Ihr lieben Trauerleut" (no. 297. 6 0"So fahr i c h hin mit Freuden" (no. 246), " S e l i g k e i t , Fried, Freud und Ruh" (no. 247), "Die Z e i t nunmehr vorhanden i s t " (no. 253), "Nun s c h i e d i c h ab i n F r b h l i c h k e i t " (no. 255), "Mit Freuden fahr i c h h i n zu Go t t " (no. 256). 75 i c h b l e i b im Himmelreich. I remain i n the heavenly kingdom. 0 Gott, erhalt dein Wort Oh God, keep Your word here on [ a l l h i e ] auf Erden, earth, lass deine Feind zu Schanden Let your enemies go to r u i n . Amen. werden. Amen. It has been mentioned that the a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c a n t i o n a 1 - s t y l e c o m p o s i t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d to a p u r e l y t e x t u a l l e v e l . With s e v e r a l of these c o m p o s i t i o n s , however, Schein strove to impart as much as possible a perceived presence of the deceased. Some p i e c e s , which o r i g i n a l l y had been composed f o r the f u n e r a l of a p a r t i c u l a r person, were thought by Schein to be b e t t e r s u i t e d than o t h e r s f o r performance at l a t e r f u n e r a l s . For i n s t a n c e , "Die Z e i t nunmehr vorhanden i s t " (no. 253) and "Klagt mich n i c h t mehr, i h r l i e b e n Leut" (no. 259) are i d e n t i f i e d as being e s p e c i a l l y appro-priate "bey Begrabnis eines Ehegatten" because the pers o n i f i e d deceased i n each case addresses the s u r v i v i n g spouse and c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y , "Nun s c h i e d i c h ab i n F r b h 1 i c h k e i t " (no. 255) and "Mein Z e i t nunmehr vorhanden i s t " (no. 287) were recommended f o r performances "at the funeral of a m i n i s t e r " ^ and the diminutive forms of words i n "Hie l i e g ich armes Wurmelein" (no. 224) made that work most appropriate "at the f\ 9 f u n e r a l of s m a l l c h i l d r e n . " In "Mit Freuden fahr i c h h i n zu Gott" (no. 256), which was best s u i t e d f o r performance at the f u n e r a l of a school teacher, the text closes with the deceased blessing and admonish-ing h i s colleagues and students: 10. Mein l i e b s t e Herrn Kollegen a l l , My dearest colleagues a l l , seid eurem Gott nur treu, Be true to your God, er wirds vergelten gwiss einmal He w i l l c e r t a i n l y reward you mit Segen mancherlei. One day with many blessings. ^"bey Bestattung eines Seelsorgers." 69 "bey dem Begrabnis der kleinen Kinderlein." 76 Und, o du zarte Jugend, And, Oh you tender youth Accustom yourself from childhood on To v i r t u e and fear of God, Do not follow the wicked multitude. gwbhn dich von Kindheit auf zu Gottesfurcht und Tugend, fo l g nicht dem bbsen Hauf. 11. C h r i s t meinem Herrn ich nun To C h r i s t , my Lord, I now commend befehl die ganze Schul zusamm und a l l darin mit Leib und Seel, bll i h t , wachst i n Gottes Nam. 0 a l l e r l i e b s t e Kinder, nehmt eure Zeit i n Acht, Gott macht eur Arbeit l i n d e r . Hiermit zu Guter Nacht. The en t i r e school together And a l l therein with body and soul, Blossom, and grow i n God's name Oh dearest chi l d r e n , Be attentive of your time, God makes your work easier. With these words, good night. Schein did not l i m i t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia e x c l u s i v e l y to the dead, for i t i s apparent in a number of the hymns that i t i s i n fact the congregation that i s personified. Most of the texts i n these compo-s i t i o n s are p e n i t e n t i a l i n c h a r a c t e r , as i n "Herr Jesu C h r i s t , i c h schrey zu d i r " (no. 228), "Ach Gott und Herr" (no. 240), or " M i t t e n w i r i n Leben s i n d " (no. 239), which i s a c t u a l l y a K y r i e trope. Others, i n c l u d i n g "Auf mein l i e b e n G o t t " (no. 226) and "Herr Jesu C h r i s t , i c h weiss gar wohl" (no. 227), are consolatory expressions of f a i t h . One of the most frequently performed funerary pieces i n the seventeenth century was "Nun l a s s t uns den Leib begraben" (no. 241), which served doubly as a means of consoling the mourners and of s i g n a l l i n g both the removal of the body and the conclusion to the ceremony i t s e l f . The r h e t o r i c of p e r s o n i f y i n g the c o n g r e g a t i o n , i f d i f f e r e n t i n approach to animating the dead, was nonetheless an e f f e c t i v e persuasive device. With these compositions, the poet/composer was able to employ the choir to personify the congregation. By ab s t r a c t l y representing a l i v i n g congregation i n this way, he was able to present to the congrega-t i o n an eloquent C h r i s t i a n model worthy of emulation. On the other hand, these compositions could sometimes be sung by the r e a l congrega-77 t i o n , thereby p e r s o n i f y i n g themselves, so to speak. The mourners i n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s were imbued w i t h the s p i r i t of an i d e a l i z e d c o n g r e g a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e l y g i v i n g v o i c e to personal sentiments which they i n f a c t f e l t or should have f e l t . Needless to say, melded wi t h these c o n g r e g a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s of penitence and c o n s o l a t i o n was no s m a l l amount of church d o c t r i n e ; indeed, church d o c t r i n e was the very essence of these texts. Through the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the congregation i n the c a n t i o n a l hymns, the mourners were persuaded to console themselves from w i t h i n and one another from without, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r f a i t h i n the Church. Dialogue Compositions i n d i a l o g u e c o n s t i t u t e a second major category of funeral music in which composers employed m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopo-poeia. In l i t e r a r y r h e t o r i c , dialogue has always been i n t e g r a l to the discussion of l i t e r a r y prosopopoeia. Quintilian's treatment of r h e t o r i -c a l d i a l o g u e i s found together w i t h the r e s t of h i s d i s c u s s i o n of prosopopoeia, and i s considered by him to be the Greek equivalent to the ft 3 L a t i n P_£in.£ 1° the c o u r s e of h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , Q u i n t i l i a n d e s c r i b e s d i a l o g u e as f o l l o w s : "...or without s a c r i f i c i n g c r e d i b i l i t y we may introduce conversations between o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s , or of others among themselves, and put words of advice, reproach, c o m p l a i n t , p r a i s e or p i t y i n t o the mouths of a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n s . " 6 4 As examples of t h i s type of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , 6 3 I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , 9. 2. 31. 6 4 I b _ i d . , 9. 2. 30. "...et n o s t r o s cum a l i i s sermones et a l i o r u m i n t e r se c r e d i b i l i t e r introducimus, et suadendo, obiurgando, querendo, laudando, miserando personas idoneas damus." 78 Q u i n t i l i a n r e f e r s the reader to the Socratic dialogues of Plato. 6"* In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note tha t , although Q u i n t i l i a n does not i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c works by Plato, two of Plato's Socratic dialogues, namely the Gorgias and the Phaedrus, are i n f a c t among the e a r l i e s t extant r h e t o r i c a l t r a c t s . Because of the great the f l e x i b i l i t y of r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e , the approaches to i t are v i r t u a l l y l i m i t l e s s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y , owing to many s i m i l a r i t i e s and shared elements between the various approaches, the d i v i d i n g l i n e s between types of d i a l o g u e can e a s i l y become b 1 ur r e d . 6 7 At one end of the d i a l o g i c spectrum i s a c t u a l d i a l o g u e i n which the o r a t o r r h e t o r i c a l l y evokes m u l t i p l e r e a l or f i c t i t i o u s speakers. In order to s u s t a i n a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the p e r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s necessary f o r the speaker always to be m i n d f u l both of the c h a r a c t e r being p e r s o n i f i e d and of the r h e t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n into which the dialogue is introduced. Lausberg remarks that the v i v i d n e s s of the c h a r a c t e r s can be enhanced through the speaker's i m i t a t i o n of the stronger a f f e c t i o n s through such o r a t o r i c a l devices as f\ r\ pathopoeia. As a c o r o l l a r y to Lausberg's statement, i t would na t u r a l l y follow that greater d i s t i n c t i o n between personified characters 6 5 I b i d . , 5. 7. 28. 6 6 S e e P l a t o , G o r g i a s , trans, by W. C. Helmbold ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishing, 1952) and Phaedrus, trans, by W. C. Helmbold and W. G. Rabinowitz ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l Educa-t i o n a l Publishing, 1956). 6 7 S e e Lausberg, op. c i t . , 1:409. The d e n o t a t i v e and semantic problems of t h i s type are also l a r g e l y responsible for the many current terms used to i d e n t i f y the trope of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . 6 8 I b i d . , 1:408. 79 would r e s u l t from the orator's use of o p p o s i t i v e or a n t i t h e t i c a l a f f e c t i o n s . The other extreme form of dialogue i s inner or meditative r e f l e c t i o n , whereby one engages i n a d i a l e c t i c a l process of m e n t a l l y posing and answering questions. 6 9 Q u i n t i l i a n ' s view of o r a t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e was adopted by German rh e t o r i c i a n s i n the seventeenth century. This is c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the t i t l e to Meyfart's chapter on prosopopoeia i n the Teutsche  Rhetorica: "What the noble prosopopoeia i s . Likewise, what dialogue i s to the orators." 7^ To Meyfart's mind, dialogue i s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to prosopopoeia that he makes no attempt whatsoever i n t h i s chapter to d i s c u s s i t independently. Judging from Meyfart's treatment of these devices, i t would seem that, to him, dialogue was thought merely to be a multiple a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia. Dialogue was used throughout the Baroque as a d i d a c t i c device which conveniently allowed the writ e r to present l u c i d l y both s i d e s o f any argument. The study of the ars c o l l o q u e n d i was a l r e a d y e v i d e n t e a r l y i n the P r o s t e s t a n t e d u c a t i o n systems through the d i a l o g i c C o l l o q u i a of Erasmus (1518) and the Paedologia of Petrus Moseallanus (1518), both works which were widely read throughout P r o t e s t a n t Germany i n the seventeenth century. The Progymnasmata l a t i n i t a t i s s i v e d i a l o g i (1588-94) by Jacobus Pontanus were s t i l l in use in Germany w e l l into the eighteenth century, as were 6 8 I b i d . , 1:408. 69 . . . . H. Lausberg, Elemente der l i t e r a r i s c h e n Rhetorik: eine Einfiihrung fiir Studierende der klassischen, romanischen, englischen und deutschen  P h i l o l o g i e , 2nd ed. (Munich: Max Hueber Verlag, 1963), p. 144. ^^Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 38 7. "Was die Edle Prosopopoeia sey. Item was Dialogismus bey den Redenern sey." 80 the c l a s s i c a l d i a l o g u e s of C i c e r o and Terence. The e d u c a t i o n a l r e l e v a n c e of r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e was s t i l l acknowledged i n mid-eighteenth-century r h e t o r i c manuals such as Carl Gotthelf Miiller's Die  Weisheit des Redners (Jena, 1748). The a p p l i c a t i o n of d i a l o g u e i n f u n e r a r y sermonic o r a t o r y of the P r o t e s t a n t Church dates back to none other than i t s founder -- M a r t i n Luther. Luther recognized dialogue as a powerful r h e t o r i c a l device, and though only two funeral sermons by Luther have come down to us -- both of them were w r i t t e n on the death of Johann I of Saxony i n 1532 --, we are able nonetheless to see a good example of sermonic dialogue in the following excerpt': But when some keep coming wit h the law and a r g u i n g : Now my dear, who knows whether God w i l l c o n s i d e r you to be good? Thi s i s the d i s m a l d e v i l himself.... T h e r e f o r e , i t was a very good t h i n g t h a t happened with our prince, that he was not drawn into t h i s disputa-tion, otherwise the d e v i l would doubtless have ass a i l e d him: L i s t e n to me; how have you l i v e d , how have you reigned? ...so that f i n a l l y you...say: D e v i l , rage as much as you p l e a s e , I do not boast of my good works and v i r t u e s b e f o r e our Lord God at a l l . . . . Therefore, d e v i l , begone with both my righteousness and my sin. I f I have committed some sin, go eat the dung. 7 3 Interrogatio, or the r h e t o r i c a l question, was also popularly used W. Barner, B a r o c k r h e t o r i k : Untersuchungen zu i h r e n g e s c h i c h t -lichen Grundlagen (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1970), p. 290. 72 U. Stbtzer, Deutsche Redekunst im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert (Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1962), pp. 224-25. 7 3 M. Luther, Works, 51:240-41. "Das man aber v i e l mit dem Gesetz komen w i l und d i s p u t i r e n L i e b e r , wer weis, ob d i c h Gott auch f u r from h a l t e n w i l ? Das i s t der l e i d i g e t e u f f e l . . . Darumb i s t unserm F u r s t e n r e c h t wol geschehen, das er n i c h t jnn d i e d i s p u t a t i o n komen i s t , Der t e u f f e l s o l t j n sonst wol a n g r i f f e n haben: Hbrest du, wie hast du g e l e b e t , wie hast du r e g i r e t ? . . . das man doch endlich... sagen mus: T e u f f e l , sey so z o r n i g du immer w i l t , Ich riihme meine gute werck und tugent gar nicht fur unserm Herr Gott... Darumb T e u f f e l , fare hin, beide mit meiner gerechtigkeit und sunde, Habe ich etwas gesundigt, so f r i s du den mist da von." (M. Luther, Werke, 36:250 f f . ) 81 i n funeral sermons to introduce dialogue on a more abstract l e v e l . As mentioned above the r h e t o r i c a l question is simply an abstraction of the d i a l o g i c process whereby the speaker p r o v i d e s both p a r t s o f the quest ion-and-answer sequence, or puts f o r t h a q u e s t i o n which i t s e l f implies an obvious answer. As an aspect of dialogue, i n t e r r o g a t i o has the p o t e n t i a l for v i r t u a l l y endless v a r i a t i o n , as shown below in three d i f f e r e n t examples taken from seventeenth-century funeral orations: What can men do to one when the Lord i s w i t h him? asks the magna-nimous King David. I t i s yet good to t r u s t i n the Lord and not to r e l y on men. I t i s yet good to t r u s t i n the Lord and not to r e l y on princes. Now what should I s t i l l add, l a d i e s and gentlemen? Nothing but what we a l l knew a l r e a d y ; I should only guess your thoughts and express your heart. But alas! Where did i t go? and where did the ornament stay? Are art and science also annihilated by death? No, although the beloved maiden and her d e l i c a t e body succumb, The b e a u t i f u l resonance of her v i r t u e nevertheless remains in the w o r l d . 7 6 C. Schultz, Trauer= und Ehren=Rede j_ Bey dem... Leichbegangniiss j_ des Herrn H e i n r i c h von Reiche1 ( B r e s l a u , 1646), i n Trauerreden des  Barock, ed. by M. F i i r s t e n w a l d (Wiesbaden: Franz S t e i n e r V e r l a g , 1973), p. 54. "Was kbnnen einem die Menschen thuen / <wenn> der HERR mit ihm? fraget der Grossmlithige Kbnig David. Es i s t dennoch gut auff den HERREN vertrauen / und sich nicht verlassen auff Menschen/ Es i s t dennoch gut auff den HERREN vertrauen / und sich nicht verlassen auff Fiirsten." 7 ^ J . Lange, Abdanckungs=Rede ]_ bey Beerdigung des... Herrn Joh.  Caspar Schadens ( B e r l i n , 1698), i n Trauerreden, p. 357. "Was s o i l i c h nun noch h i n z u thun / hochgeschatzte Anwesende? N i c h t s / a l s was w i r a l l e schon zuvor wissen; i c h s o i l nur eure Gedancken errathen und euren Sinn aussprechen." 7 6G. Neumark, P o e t i s c h e L e i c h r e d e von der S t e r b l i c h k e i t . . . der F r e u l e i n Wilhelminen=Eleonoren Herzoginn zu Sachsen (Jena, 1653), i n Trauerreden, p. 98. 8 2 Dialogue and music had already enjoyed a long association with one another p r i o r to the seventeenth century. 7 7 As early as the tenth and e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s , d i a l o g u e was used i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of sacred t r o p e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the m u s i c a l d i a l o g u e , as w e l l as the number of p o s s i b i l i t e s for employing i t , increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y during the s i x t e e n t h century. T h i s i n c r e a s e was due to the development of p o l y c h o r a l music f o r c h o r i spezzat i , as f i r s t heard i n Venice and Florence i n the works of Adrian W i l l a e r t and his followers. The d i a l o g u e r e c e i v e d renewed impetus i n the e a r l y years of the Baroque w i t h the development of basso continuo and the monodic s t y l e . With the a i d of con t i n u o accompaniment, i t became p o s s i b l e i n performances to d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y and e a s i l y between n a r r a t i v e and di a l o g i c sections of polyphonic works: s o l o i s t s could sing the sections of dialogue with the f u l l harmonic support of the basso continuo, while the f u l l c h o i r c o u ld be employed to p r o v i d e the n a r r a t i v e s e c t i o n s of the t e x t . The seventeenth-century musical dialogue i n German church music was an e s s e n t i a l forerunner of the eighteenth-century cantata as exemplified Abr ach! wo i s t es hin? und wo i s t die Ziehr geblieben? Wird die Kunst und Wissenschaft durch den Tod auch aufgerieben? Nein / obschon das lie b e F r e u l e i n und i h r zarter Leib h i n f a l l t / Bleibet doch der schbne Nachhall i h r e r Tugend i n der Welt. 7 7D. Nutter and J. Whenham, "Dialogue," i n The New Grove Dictionary of Mus i c and Mus i c ians (1980), 5? 417. See Lausberg, Elemente der l i t e r a r i s c h e n R h e t o r i k , p. 120. Lausberg mentions the d i a l o g i c j e u  p a r t i and the tenzone, in addition to the Lehrgesprach and eclogue, in t h e i r s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y sense. &3 by the works of J. S. Bach. M u s i c a l d i a l o g u e i s d e f i n e d by M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s i n the Syntagma musicum I I I i n 1619 as "a c o n v e r s a t i o n , as when one answers the q u e s t i o n put by another, or s i m i l a r l y when one 79 alternates with another i n chorus," and adds further to t h i s d e f i n i -t i o n that the Echo could also be included as an aspect of dialogue. The term i s s t i l l c u r r e n t i n the f i r s t t h i r d of the e i g h t e e n t h century as seen i n J. G. Walther's Musikalisches Lexikon i n 1732: Dialogue...is a c o m p o s i t i o n of at l e a s t two v o i c e s , or as many i n s t r u m e n t s , which are heard a l t e r n a t e l y , and when they come together at the end, make a t r i o with the basso continuo; there are also compositions for 2, 3 and 4 choirs, which alternate conversa-t i o n a l l y . O r g a n i s t s a l s o i m i t a t e those same exchanges on organs when they have more than one keyboard. ^ Most of the early influence on the Baroque development of the dialogue in Germany was exerted d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y by Ita l y . In addition to the music of G a b r i e l i and h i s s c h o o l , an e a r l y seventeenth-century i n f l u e n c e on the development of the di a l o g u e i n Germany was Ludovico For an extensive discussion of sacred dialogues i n German music of the seventeenth century, see H.-O. Hudemann, "Die p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e Dialogkompos i t i o n im 17. Jahrhundert" (Ph.D. d i s s . , K i e l U n i v e r s i t y , 1941). 7 9M. Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, 3 vols. (Wolfenbuttel, 1614/15-19; f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t ed. by W. G u r l i t t ; C a s s e l , B a s e l , London, New York: B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1958), 3:16. "...ein Gesprach / a l s wenn e i n e r dem andern v f f beschehene Frage antwortet / vnd e i n s vmbs ander gleich per Choros vmbgewechselt wird." (Translation i n A. Kirwan-Mott, The Small-Scale Sacred Concertato i n the Early Seventeenth Century, 2 vols. [Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1981], 1:323.) 80 J. G. Walther, M u s i k a l i s c h e s L e x i k o n oder Musikalische B i b l i o - thek. ( L e i p z i g : Wolffgang Deer, 1732; f a c s . r e pr. ed. by R. Schaal, C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1953), p. 204. "Dialogo... i s t eine Composition wenigstens von zwo Stimmen, oder so v i e l Instrumenten, so wechse ls=weise s i c h horen l a s s e n , und wenn s i e am Ende zusammen kommen, mit dem G^ Bj_ e i n T r i o machen; es giebt aber auch Compositiones auf 2. 3. und 4 Chore, so Gesprachs=weise A l t e r n i r e n . Die O r g a n i s t e n i m i t i r e n dergleichen Umwechselungen auch auf den Orgeln, wenn sie mehr als ein Clav i e r haben." 84 Viadana's w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d Cento c o n c e r t i e c c l e s i a s t i c i of 1602. Musical dialogue was r e a d i l y accepted by German composers of the late s i x t e e n t h century f o r m u s i c a l and t e x t u a l reasons. M u s i c a l l y , i t suggested a style that was well-suited to the tastes of Baroque Germany; sec t i o n a l forms and contrastive features of madrigal and motet composi-t i o n , which n a t u r a l l y l e n t themselves to s e t t i n g t e x t u a l d i a l o g u e s , would have appealed to German composers. Textually, the dialogue, when employed i n a sacred context as was o f t e n the case, was an extremely e f f e c t i v e d i a l e c t i c a l method of presenting Church dogma and stressing d o c t r i n a l p o i n t s . Dialogue was used i n s i n g l e c ompositions by composers such as Johann Hermann Schein i n the sacred c o l l e c t i o n Ope 11a Nova ( L e i p z i g , 1626) and by Samuel Scheidt i n "Kommt her, i h r besegneten" from the Newe ££AiLLLi£j!§. ^£H£^.£i£H ( H a l l e , 1634) i n which the c o n v e r s a t i o n i s h e l d between the personified Christ (bass), the E l e c t (soprano and bass) and the Damned (tenor and bass). Other dialogues on sacred subjects between a l l e g o r i c a l characters include Johann Erasmus Kindermann's Des Erlosers  Jesu C h r i s t i und siindigen Menschen heylsames Gesprach (Nuremberg, 1643), Book I of Viadana's Cento concerti e c c l e s i a s t i c i was published by Nikol a u s S t e i n i n Frankfurt-am-Main as e a r l y as 1609. The complete e d i t i o n was l a t e r p u b l i s h e d by S t e i n ( F r a n k f u r t , 1620). Some of Viadana's comments from the Cento concerti were translated by Michael P r a e t o r i u s and i n c l u d e d i n Syntagma musicum III (Wolfenbiittel, 1618). The concertato s t y l e of Viadana was also quickly taken up by composers in Germany, f i r s t by Gregor Aichinger i n his Cantiones e c c l e s i a s t i c a e t r i u m e_t quatuor vocum...cum Basso Generali. e_t Continuo i n usum Organistarum ( D i l l i n g e n , 1607) and by Adam Gumpeltzhaimer in Book II of his Sacri concentus (Augsburg, 1614). See H. F. Redlich, "Early Baroque Church Music," i n The Age of Humanism 1540-1630, The New Oxford History of Music, v o l . 4, ed. by G. Abraham (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), pp. 536-37, 544-49. 8 5 August in Pfleger's Dialog zwischen Adam, Eva und der Schlange (Hamburg, 1661), and Kaspar Fbrster's Congregantes P h i l i s t e i : d i a l o g i Davidis cum  Phi 1 i s t e o (Danzig?, 1667). Such was the p o p u l a r i t y of the sacred d i a l o g u e s i n seven teenth-c entury Germany that c o l l e c t i o n s of d i a l o g i c compositions began to appear around the middle of the century, beginning with Andreas Hammerschmidt's D i a l o g i , oder Gesprache zwischen Gott und  e i n e r g l a u b i g e n Seelen (Dresden, 1645), f o l l o w e d by Johann Rudolf Ahle's G e i s t l i c h e Dialoge (Erfurt, 1648), Hammerschmidt's M u s i k a l i s c h e  Gespra'ch u'ber d i e E v a n g e l i e n (Dresden, 1655/56), Wolfgang Caspar Briegel's Evangelische Gesprache (Gotha, 1660) and Christoph Bernhard's G e i s t l i c h e Harmonien (Dresden, 1665). Among the noteworthy composers who also contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to d i a l o g i c works of this period are Johann Rosenmliller, Sebastian Kniipfer, Johann P h i l i p p Krieger and Thomas S e l l e . 8 2 There are two p r i n c i p a l types of dialogue employed i n seventeenth-century funeral music: one i s s t r i c t l y textual, the other both textual and m u s i c a l . Compositions b e l o n g i n g to the f i r s t type are s t r o p h i c works for chorus i n which two or more persons, invariably including the deceased, are t e x t u a l l y personified. A t y p i c a l example of the applicar t i o n of t h i s k i n d of c h o r a l d i a l o g u e can be found i n a work by Severus Gastorius (1646-82) of Jena w r i t t e n f or the funeral in 1679 of a c e r t a i n Herr Wilken von Berglasen. (See Appendix, p. 198) We know f o r For a more extensive discussion of the sacred music dialogue in seventeenth-century Germany, see E. Noack, " D i a l o g , " Die Musik i n  Geschichte und Gegenwart (1954), 3, c o l s . 393T99. See a l s o , Kirwan-Mott, op. c i t . , 1:323-46. 83 S. G a s t o r i u s , K l a g - und Trauer-Gesprach bey Leich-Begangnuss dess... Herrn Wilken von Berglasen... den 18. A u g u s t i des 1679sten 86 c e r t a i n t h a t the work i s w r i t t e n as a d i a l o g u e between the mother and her dead son not because of the music, but because verses 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 are l a b e l l e d "Mutter" and each of the r e m a i n i n g v e r s e s bears the heading "Sohn." The music, p r i n t e d i n score format, i s w r i t t e n i n a simple, four-part (SATB) homphonic s t y l e with basso continue and i s used unchanged for each of the eight verses. The text, on the other hand, i s a c l e a r example o f the approach to f u n e r a r y d i a l o g u e s of the Lutheran church in which the deceased and the mourners are represented. Because the text to Gastorius's' composition i s t y p i c a l of this p a r t i c u l a r kind of dialogue, in both form and content, i t w i l l be of use to give i t here in f u l l and to comment b r i e f l y on i t . Mutter 0 Trauer=Fall! Der mich fast gantz entseelet / Ach! was empfind ich doch vor b i t t e r n Schmertz! Muss denn also mein Leben seyn gequalet / Und angsten sich mein Jammer=volles Hertz; Mein Trost und Stab / mein gantz Verlangen / Ist durch den Tod dahin gegangen. Sohn Was hbr i c h doch fur Weh= und Jammer=Klagen / Dass mich der Tod entr i s s e n von der Welt / Was wo It i hr Euch umb mich so h e f f t i g plagen / Bedenckt / dass es dem hb'chsten so g e f a l l t / Ich bin i n Himmel auf-genommen / Mother Oh death that a l l but k i l l s me, Alas! Yet what I f e e l of b i t t e r pain! Must my l i f e then be thus tormented, And my wretched heart be a f r a i d ; My comfort and s t a f f , my complete desire, Has, through death, departed th i s l i f e . Son What kind of lamentation and wailing do I hear, That death tears me from the world, Why torment yourselves so passionately for me, Remember that i t pleases the Most High, I have been taken up into heaven, Jahres•.. i n einer A r i e gesetzet (Jena: Johann Werther, 1679). Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Slg. Her 0 238/5. 87 Zu a l i e n Ausserwehlten Frommen. to a l l the elected pious. Mutter Ach wie so unverhofft wird nun entzogen Mir meine Lust und gantze Zuversicht! Es wallet mir mein Hertz wie Meeres=Wogen / S o l i dieser H i n t r i t t mich betruben nicht? Mein Hertz / ach Schmertz! i s t weg gerissen Hat diese Welt verlassen miissen. Mother Alas how unexpectedly now are my joy and a l l confidence stripped from me! It rocks my heart l i k e ocean waves, Should not this departure grieve me? My heart, o g r i e f ! has been torn away, has had to leave t h i s world. Sohn Die Welt leg ich durch diesen T r i t t Zuru'kke / Und a l l e s diss / was Sterbliche betrubt / Wer es bedenckt / missgbnnt mir nicht mein Gliikke / Wenn er mich noch fur andern hat g e l i e b t ; Der Tausch i s t gut / und noch wohl getroffen / Die Seele findet den Himmel offen. Son With t h i s step, I lay aside the world, and a l l this that grieves mortals, Who bears i t in mind does not envy me my luck, I f he s t i l l loved me for another; The exchange i s good and opportune, The soul finds heaven open. Mutter Mein Geist thut nichts / als s t e t i g sehnlich klagen / Ich steh gantz einsam und verlassen h i e r / » Was s o i l ich thun / als seuffzen / k l a g l i c h sagen: Gefalien i s t die Krone / meine Z i e r ; Ach rinnet / f l i e s s e t meine Zehren! Weil niemand meinen Schmertz kan wehren. Mother My s p i r i t does nothing but constantly longingly lament, I stand here completely alone and abandoned, What should I do but sigh [and] piteously say: F a l l e n i s the crown, my d e l i g h t ; Alas, run, flow my tears! Because no one can subdue my pain. Sohn Gehabt Euch wohl / und s t i l l e t eure Thranen / Ich bin ja wo man ewig sicher b l e i b t / Es i s t umsonst a l l / euer sehnliches Sehnen / Befriedget euch / und dieses Son Farewell, and stay your tears, I am where one stays safe forever, It i s a l l in vain, your ardent longing, Be content, and believe t h i s 88 feste glaubt: Die / so i n Christo s e e l i g sterben / Die kbnnen nimmermehr verderben. Mutter o So ruht denn wohl ihr eingesenkten Beine / Biss der Erlbser euch aus schwartzer Grufft / Am jiinsten Tag zur himmlischen Gemeine / In seine Himmels=Burg zu sich b e r u f f t : Wo Jesus selbst die Himmels=Sonne / Bestrahlt die Frommen stets mit Wonne. Die Seele leb' in ungekrankten Freuden / Sie i s t von a l l e r Angst und Schmertzen loss / Sie fiihlet nicht / was wir noch mu'ssen leiden / Sie ruhet sanfft bey Gott in Abrams=Schoss: Wir wollen einst nach diesen Leben / Ihr ewig da Gesellschaft gebe n. f i r m l y : Those who die blessedly in Christ Can never perish. Mother So then, sleep well you sunken bones, U n t i l the Redeemer on Judgement Day C a l l s you from the black crypt to the heavenly community, To him in his heavenly c i t a d e l Where Jesus himself, the heavenly sun, Constantly shines with b l i s s upon the pious. The soul l i v e s in undiminished It is free of a l l fear and sorrow, It does not f e e l what we must s t i l l s u f f e r , It rests i n peace with God i n the lap of Abraham: One day a f t e r this l i f e , we w i l l Be i t s company there for eternity. At the beginning of the composition, the grieving mother laments the l o s s of her son. Through the t e x t a s c r i b e d to the p e r s o n i f i e d son i n v e r s e s 2, 4 and 6, the mother i s consoled through her son's assurances that h i s death was God's w i l l and that h i s s o u l was i n heaven. Unable as a C h r i s t i a n to refute t h e o l o g i c a l or d o c t r i n a l argu-ments of this type, the personified mother of the dialogue accordingly abandons her sorrow and accepts consolation in the knowledge that her son has achieved salvation and eternal l i f e . In the performance of this work at the f u n e r a l , the r e a l mourners would be expected to a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h the p e r s o n i f i e d mother of the d i a l o g u e and would 89 correspondingly be affected by the solace offered by these arguments. The number of pe r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i a l o g u e s of t h i s type i s not r e s t r i c t e d , as can be seen i n Adam Krieger's T r a u e r - Gespra'chs-Ode which was performed a f t e r the sermon at the funeral of a Frau D i e t z s c h i n . ^ 4 Here, the f i r s t two verses are written as the "Klage des W i t t i b e r s " (lament of the widower) in which the p e r s o n i f i e d husband of the deceased c a l l s upon his parents for comfort. The text of verses 3 and 4 i s a t t r i b u t e d to the " E l t e r n " (parents) as they, i n t h e i r i n e f f e c t u a l wordly capacity, attempt to console t h e i r son. The voice of the personified wife, i d e n t i f i e d i n the composition as "Die Selig=Ver-storbene" (the b l e s s e d deceased), appears i n the f i f t h v e r s e and addresses her g r i e f - s t r i c k e n husband. Subsequently i d e n t i f i e d i n the text simply as the "Wittiber" (the suggestion of lamentation having been notably removed), the widower bids his wife "gute Nacht", acknowledging that despair i n the presence of death i s purposeless and that death i s but a necessary step towards the attainment of eternal l i f e . • Composers were able to h i g h l i g h t the greater d i s t i n c t i o n between p e r s o n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s of d i a l o g i c f u n e r a l music by employing e i t h e r r e a l or i m p l i e d p o l y c h o r a l e f f e c t s . Although the persons d e p i c t e d i n the music were s t i l l r e p r e s e n t e d c h o r a l l y by s e v e r a l v o i c e s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of opposing bodies of sound was a more e f f e c t i v e means of suggesting multiple characters than the chorus alone in c a n t i o n a l - l i k e works, where persons were only t e x t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d . As an example of 8 4 A . K r i e g e r , Trauer-Gesprachs-Ode welche Bey der... Frau D i e t z -s c h i n Beerdigung j_ Nach gehal tener Le ichen=Pred i g t l_ \vi der Got te s =  Acker= Kirche j_ zum Salvator genant f_ abgesungen worden von Joh. Mich. •^E^iH^ ^ a n t ^ Cob. ( C o b u r g : Johann Conrad Mbnch, F u r s t l i c h e Buchdruckerei, 1667). B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Ee 700-695. 90 t h i s type of c o m p o s i t i o n , one can c i t e "Ach Go t t wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r i i b t " composed by the Eisenach cantor Theodor Schuchardt (1601-77) i n 1656 f o r the f u n e r a l of Johann H e i n r i c h Weisse, who died at twenty-two Q r weeks of age. (See Appendix, pp. 199-200) In t h i s work for two four-v o i c e c h o i r s , the chorus primus i d e n t i f i e d as the "Quereus" represents the f a t h e r , and the chorus secundus c a l l e d the "Respondens" p e r s o n i f i e s the i n f a n t son. Schuchardt a p p r o p r i a t e l y assigns the text of the father to the f i r s t c h o i r comprised of lower voices (ATTB), and the text of the responding son i s given to a c h o i r of higher v o i c e s (SSAB). Throughout t h i s work, the two c h o i r s perform i n a l t e r n a t i o n . The b e r e f t " f a t h e r " l a ments h i s l o s s , w h i l e the "son" c o m f o r t s h i s f a t h e r w i t h c h u r c h d o c t r i n e and furthermore c h a s t i s e s him f o r the value v a i n l y placed on w o r l d l y t h i n g s . F o l l o w i n g the s i x t h v e r s e i s an a d d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l s e c t i o n l a b e l l e d " C o n e l u s i o " w h i ch i s d e r i v e d m u s i c a l l y from the m a t e r i a l of the chorus secundus. In the Conclusio the two c h o i r s a l t e r -nate at much s h o r t e r i n t e r v a l s , w i t h t h e cadence o f each t e x t u a l and m u s i c a l c l a u s e of the chorus secundus b e i n g q u i e t l y echoed by chorus primus. We can see, at t h i s p o i n t , the f a t h e r g r a d u a l l y moving towards r h e t o r i c a l a s s e n t w i t h the son. I n s t e a d of t e x t u a l l y and m u s i c a l l y c o n t e s t i n g the point w i t h h i s h i s p e r s o n i f i e d son, the fa t h e r b e g i n s to echo h i s words and music. A s s e n t i s u l t i m a t e l y a c h i e v e d i n t h i s work as the p e r s o n i f i e d f a t h e r and son are united t e x t u a l l y ("wenn 8 5 T. Schuchardt, C h r i s t l i c h e s Gesprach eines betru'bten Vaters mit seinem a b g e l e i b t e n S b h n l e i n . A u f f den... H i n t r i t t . . . J o h a n n - H e n r i c i , des... H e r r n M. J o h a n n i s Weissen... S b h n l e i n s Welches... anno 1656...  e h t s c h l a f f e n . M i t 8. Stimmen zu 2 u n t e r s c h i e d e n e n Choren g e s e t z t (Gotha: Johann M i c h a e l S c h a l l , 1656). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o -thek, 2 i n Ee 700-3882. 91 w i r zusamen kommen") and m u s i c a l l y when, f o r the f i r s t time i n the composition, the two choirs j o i n forces and there i s a change from duple to a joyous t r i p l e metre. S i m i l a r i n approach to Schuchardt's composition, the Quedlinburger Michael Wagner's polychoral "Ach! Ach! wie wird mein Herz" goes further s t i l l i n i t s attempt a c c u r a t e l y to p e r s o n i f y the l a t e Frau Hedwig nee Busche, who died 11 September 1671 and was buried 29 December. (See Appendix, pp. 201-03) Wagner's composition i s written for a fiv e - p a r t choir (SATTB) which, according to the composer's i n s t r u c t i o n s , could be e f f e c t i v e l y performed by two or even three choirs. As i t exists in the score, Wagner has the piece arranged for two choirs. The chorus primus is made up of alt o , f i r s t and second tenor, and bass voices, the cantus part b e a r i n g Wagner's i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Tacet h. V. usq; ad Vers. 6." The chorus primus, presumably r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i s c o n s o l a t e husband, performs the f i r s t two v e r s e s of the tex t i n which the death of the woman i s mourned. The c o m f o r t i n g text of v e r s e s 3 and 4, sung by the chorus secundus, i s intended to represent the deceased woman o f f e r i n g solace to her husband. Although the music is performed chorally, Wagner M. Wagner, A r i a i n Dialogo i.e. Traur= und Trost=Gesprach j_ Auff  s e l i g e s Abs t e r b e n Der Hoch=Ede lgebornen j_ und mij: Chr i s t=Ade l i c h e n  Tugenden begabten Frauen j_ Frauen Hedwig [_ Gebornen dem Busche ]_ aus dem  Hause Ippenburg j_ u^ Des hoch=Edelgebornen Gestrengen und Vesten Herrn j_ Hn. C h r i s t i a n Wilhelm Hahnen j_ ^ \u_ Wei land Hertz= Ehegeliebtesten j_ Nachdem D i e s e l b e am 11. Septembr. Anno 1671. nach M i t t a g e urn 2^  Uhr  s e l i g i n dem HERRN entschlaffen ]_ und darauff den 29. Novembris selbigen  Jahres mit Hoch=Adelicher j_ ansehnlichster und volckreicher Begleitung in die Kirche Seeburg beygesetzt wurde ji_ Angestellt und auffgesetzet von M. GEORGIO SICELIO, Pastore i n Bessenstet / Und auff Begehren i n einem  fu'nf f stimmigen Contrap. S^_ e y l f e r t i g s t v e r s e t z e t / und nach Be l i e b e n  a u f f 2j_ oder 3j_ Chore a n z u s t e l l e n e i n g e r i c h t e t von MICHAELE WAGNERO, Musico und Cantore Ord. in Quedlinburg ( L e i p z i g : J. Bauer, 1672). B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, 2 i n Ee 658 4°. 92 comes closer to lending feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to his- p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the dead woman by adding the Cantus voice to the choir and further-more draws the performers' attention to the importance of this part by l a b e l l i n g i t as the "vox p r i n c i p a l i s . " Verses 5 through 7 are once a g a i n sung by the chorus primus w i t h the t a c i t soprano p a r t . The l a m e n t a t i o n , t h i s time r e p r e s e n t i n g the e n t i r e f a m i l y of mourners, c o n t i n u e s i n these v e r s e s . We see i n these v e r s e s where the m u l t i p l e c h o i r s c o u ld p o s s i b l y have been employed: Wagner s i m u l t a n e o u s l y uses three d i f f e r e n t t e x t s the b e t t e r to r e p r e s e n t the mourning husband, childr e n , and brothers and s i s t e r s as they address the deceased: Der grimme Tod hat sich gerochen unser Mutter Und meiner l i e b s t e Hertz gebrochen. unser Schwester As the mourners are e v e n t u a l l y persuaded by the deceased to r e p l a c e t h e i r sadness with joy, the music and text undergo a change from duple to t r i p l e metre. The composition concludes with the two choirs j o i n i n g forces as the various personified figures sing f i r s t to one another i n v e r s e 11, and f i n a l l y i n a c o l l e c t i v e s u p p l i c a t i o n to Jesus at the end of verse. 12: 11. Ach waret waret ihr bey mir waren / ach |waren wir a l l e zugleiche / In JEsus versiissetem himlischen Reiche. 12. H i l f f JEsu dass a l l e wir sie zugleiche / Bald komen zum ewigen himlische Reiche. In 1651 Simon Brancovius, cantor i n Raniss, composed a polychoral composition for nine voices and basso continuo on the death of Frau Agna 93 Elisabeth von Breitenbauch. (See Appendix, pp. 204-14) The composer p o i n t s out on the t i t l e page of the work that the work was w r i t t e n "... for two choirs, as i f the Most Noble deeply distressed Herr von Breiten-bauch in the f i r s t choir, i n the second however the Most Noble Frau von 8 8 B r e i t e n b a u c h , on p a r t i n g , as i t were, thus spoke...." R e p r e s e n t i n g the widower, the f i r s t choir i s written for Alto, Tenor and Bass voices with accompanying basso continuo. The second portraying the dead Lady i s made up of Soprano I and I I , A l t o , Tenor, Bass and basso c o n t i n u e Appropriate to a r e a l i s t i c i f abstract musical depiction of the widowed husband and the deceased wife, the two choirs emphasize, respectively, the lower and higher voice types. Brancovius did compose a soprano part for the chorus secundus and comments on i t at the beginning of the part book as follow: The f i r s t choir, when i t alternates with the second choir, always proceeds without the Discant. At the end, however, the following Discant is added to i t , and not without s p e c i a l E f f e c t ; for such a S. Brancovius, M u s i c a l i s c h e C h r i s t l i c h e Einbildung eines recht beweglichen Clag= und Trost=Gesprachs Vff das f r l i e z e i t i g e doch se l i g e  Absterben Der Weyland Hoch Edelgebohrnen Ehren und V i e 1 Tugendreichen Frawen / Agnae E l i s a b e t h e n von Breitenbauch j_ Gebohrnen von Vippach j_ Des auch Hoch Edelgebornen [_ Gestrengen und Mannvesten Herrn ]_ Melchiorn  von Breitenbauchs u f f Raniss und Brandenstein j_ etc. Churf 1. Durchl. zu  Sachsen Wohlvorgesatzten Ober = Steur Einnehmers der Land= und Tranck= S t e u r i^n den A f f e c u r i r t e n A e m p t e r n 1 H e r t z g e l i e b t e n gewesenen Haussfrawen gerichtet / Vnd Bey dero Adelichen Leiche=Procession, so den  21. J u l i i Anno 1651. a n g e s t e l l e t wurde j_ u f f zwey Chor j_ a l s wenn im e r s t e n Chor der Hoch Ade 1. hochbetrubte Herr von Breitenbauch j_ lm andern aber di^e H^ A d l . Fraw von B r e i t e n b a u c h zum Abschiede g l e i c h s a m also redeten j_ zusingen/ Hochgedachten Adelichen Wohlseligen Matron zu s c h u l d i g e n l e t z t e n Ehren=Gedachtniiss Mi_t 9j_ Stimmen c o m p o n i r e t i und  numehro u f f Begehren neben beygefligten Basso Continuo zum Druck aussge- antwortet j_ Von Simone Brancovio Gub. Lusato, Cantorn zu Raniss. (Jena: Caspar Freyschmied, 1651). London, B r i t i s h Library, Hirsch III 666. 88 "... u f f zwey Chor / a l s wenn im e r s t e n Chor der Hoch Adel. hochbetrubte Herr von Breitenbauch / Iiri andern aber die H. Adl. Fraw von Breitenbauch zum Abschiede gleichsam also redeten...." 94 Di scant can a l s o r e p r e s e n t , as i t were, i n a d d i t i o n to the Most Noble Lord of Breitenbauch, other a t t e n d i n g Most Noble mourn-ers .... The composer goes f u r t h e r to say th a t , i n order to keep the sopranos of the chorus primus from becoming bored because of the long p e r i o d of s i l e n c e , he i n c l u d e d the f u l l t e x t of the work f o r them that they might at l e a s t f o l l o w along. As each of the p e r s o n i f y i n g c h o i r s e n t e r s , the t e x t bears such headings as "The Most Noble Lord of Breitenbauch speaks here...," 9^ which i s f o l l o w e d by "The Most Noble, now b l e s s e d l y disembodied Lady of Breitenbauch thus responds, so to 91 speak, to her... d i s t r e s s e d widower i n the f o l l o w i n g way...." In the second entrance of the chorus secundus, the personified woman "renounces 9 2 t h i s t r a n s i t o r y world," and concludes w i t h a " V a l e d i c t i o n to the 9 3 g a t h e r i n g of Most Noble f r i e n d s . " The work concludes w i t h the two choirs addressing a p e t i t i o n to God. The next work to be discussed i s the second of two works written i n 1672 by Nuremberg organist Heinrich Schwemmer for the funeral of Amalia, Herrin von Stubenberg. 9 4 (See Appendix, pp. 215-22) The deceased woman 89 Ibid. "Der erste Chor / wenn er mit den andern Chor abwechselt / gehet immer ohne D i s c a n t , zum Beschluss aber kbmmet nachfolgender Discant dazu / und nicht ohne sondern E f f e c t , den solcher Discant neben dem HochAdel. Herrn von Breitenbauch auch andere HochAdel. angehbrige Betrubte gleichsamb repraesentiren kan...." 90 Ibid. "Der Hoch Adel. Herr von Breutenbauch redet hier...." 91 I b i d . "Die Hoch a d e l i c h e numehr s e e l , a b g e l e i b t e Fr. von Breut tenbauchin / r e s p o n d i r e t gleichsamb Ihrem... b e t r i i b t e n Herren Witber / nachfolgender massen also...." 9 2 "...vernichtet d i e s e v e r g a n g l i c h e Welt,..." 9 3 . . . V a l e d i c t i o n an d i e sambtliche Hoch Adel. Freundschafft." 94 H. Schwemmer, Zwey Klag= und Abschieds=Lieder j_ liber den Leich= 95 i s p e r s o n i f i e d in* this composition in a manner which approaches a more ac c u r a t e and v i v i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased than seen i n the previously mentioned works. The work begins with a fiv e - p a r t "sonata" f o r four v i o l e da b r a c c i a and basso continuo, which i n f a c t f u n c t i o n s throughout the work as a unifying instrumental r i t o r n e l l o . The members of the congregation are represented in this work by the a l t o , tenor and bass voices, lamenting the loss of their beloved Amalia. Following the t h r e e - p a r t c h o i r ' s f i r s t four l i n e s of te x t and a b r i e f i n s t r u m e n t a l interlude, the soprano enters i n a clear p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the deceased woman, singing comfortingly to the accompaniment o f the i n s t r u m e n t a l ensemble. Whether Schwemmer intended t h i s prosopopoeial text to be sung by one or s e v e r a l sopranos cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d from the music, but there can be no doubt that the composer intended to invest the text with musical q u a l i t i e s which would most c l o s e l y correspond to the voice of a l i v i n g Amalia. Whereas Schwemmer's a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia f i t t i n g l y d e p i c t e d the v o i c e s of the c o n g r e g a t i o n of mourners and the deceased, Kaspar F b r k e l r a t h , o r g a n i s t at St Marien i n F l e n s b u r g , set music to an a l l e g o r i c a l d i a l o g u e i n a work composed i n 1671 f o r the funeral of S i b y l l a Ursula, Duchess of Brunswick, LUneburg, etc. 9"' (See Text und T i t u l j_ Der Hoch=Wolgebornen Frauen j_ Frauen Amaliae j_ Herrin von S^ubenberg j_ Geborner H e r r i n von L i e c h t e n s t e i n j_ und Murau u. a u f g e s e z e t von Tobia Francken: i.n d_ie Noten aber v e r s e z e t j_ und bey; Hochansehnlicher Beerdigung musiciret von Heinrich Schwemmer /_ Direct. Mus. (Nuremberg: C. Gerhard, 1665). Nuremberg, Stadtbibliothek, W i l l II 1121.4°. K. F b r k e l r a t h , Chr i^ s__t I i c h e s S t e r b - L i e d . . . der... S i b y l lae Ursulae... v e r f a s s e t von Heningo Petersen... und Anno 1672 den 6_^  Febr. gesungen und musiciret (Hamburg: Georg Rebenlein, 1672). Wolfenbiittel, 96 Appendix, pp. 223-26) The d i a l o g u e takes p l a c e between Jesus, "Die siegende S e e l e " (the v i c t o r i o u s s o u l ) -- i.e., the l a t e S i b y l l a U r s u l a -- and a t h i r d group i d e n t i f i e d as "Der Engel Chor" (the c h o i r of an g e l s ) . More so than i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c o m p o s i t i o n , the a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia i n Fbr k e l r a t h ' s composition represents as c l o s e l y as possible the actual voice-types of a l l the characters being p e r s o n i f i e d . The part of Jesus, as was customary, i s sung by a bass, the voice of the woman's soul i s assigned to a soprano, and the angelic c h o i r i s given to a f o u r - p a r t chorus (SATB). In the course of the composition, Jesus o f f e r s entry into heaven to the deceased woman. Upon her acceptance of the o f f e r , the metre of the music changes from duple to t r i p l e , and the angelic choir enters welcoming the v i c t o r i o u s s p i r i t i n t o heaven. The o v e r a l l d e s i g n of t h i s f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n by F b r k e l r a t h d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from that of the other d i a l o g i c works mentioned thus f a r . F i r s t , the c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the music are wh o l l y a l l e g o r i c a l , that i s , a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the mourners i s n o t i c e a b l y absent. Secondly, as a consequence to t h i s , the tenor of the t e x t had n e c e s s a r i l y to assume a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y d i r e c t i o n . F b r k e l -rath's composition i s in fact a musical representation or magnification of the t e x t upon which the subsequent f u n e r a l sermon was based (Revelations 3:5). What the congregation heard was a most persuasive, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Gn. 4° 1592 (2). 9 6 • • In the d e s c r i p t i o n of the f u n e r a l ceremony at the beg i n n i n g of the p u b l i s h e d L e i c h e n p r e d i g t of 1672, the u n i d e n t i f i e d author w r i t e s that F b r k e l r a t h ' s music was performed, f o l l o w e d by the s i n g i n g of the Duchess's beloved "Herr Jesu C h r i s t wahr Mensch und Gott," and the 97 almost dramatic r e a l i z a t i o n of a narrative b i b l i c a l text an exemplary case of a composer e x p l o i t i n g the Augenkultur of the period. The t e x t s of the d i a l o g i c c o m p o s i t i o n s are c l e a r l y d i d a c t i c i n nature, comparable i n t h e i r intent to t h e ^ p r i n c i p l e s voiced i n Baroque funeral sermons. Christoph Weissenborn states near the beginning of h i s P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner of 1707 that the purpose of the Abdankung, a type of funerary oratory, was to praise the deceased (Lob, laudatio), to lament the death of the deceased (Klage, l a m e n t a t i o ) , to console the mourners ; ( T r o s t , c o n s o l a t i o ) , and to thank the c o n g r e g a t i o n f o r a t t e n d i n g the s e r v i c e (Danksagung, g r a t i a r u m a c t i o ) . 9 7 Honouring the 98 deceased and lamenting h i s or her death are i n e f f e c t the same act, and thanking the congregation for t h e i r attendance i s a matter more of f o r m a l i t y than of n e c e s s i t y . Thus, we are able to see that the two b a s i c elements of d i a l o g i c f u n e r a l music and sermonic o r a t o r y are e s s e n t i a l l y the same: lamentation and consolation. Through prosopopeial d i a l o g u e s the mourners, i n one sense, are given a d i r e c t l i n e of communication w i t h the h e r e a f t e r i n that they, the l i v i n g , are p e r s o n a l l y addressed by the dead. At the be g i n n i n g of the d i a l o g i c c o m p o s i t i o n s , the p e r s o n i f i e d m o u r n e r s g i v e v o i c e i n m u s i c sermon. Ibid., p. 4. 97 . . . C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher die prac t i c a b e ls t e n Kunst=Reguln von der Invention, D i s p o s i t i o n und Elocution derer nach der heutigen Mode eingerichteten Abdanckungen bey  o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer=Solennien zur Befbrderung feiner Oratorischen Collegiorum durch deutliche Exempel e r l e u t e r t ( J e n a : Heinrich Christoph Crbker, 1707), p. 6. 98 See a l s o M. F i i r s t e n w a l d , "Theorie und F u n k t i o n der Barockab-dankung," in Leichenpredigten a l s Q u e l l e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n , ed. by Rudolf Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bbhlau Verlag, 1975), p. 379. 98 to emotions which would r e f l e c t the em o t i o n a l s t a t e of the r e a l mourners. In the course of the c o m p o s i t i o n , l i k e a f u n e r a l sermon reduced to i t s essence, the soul persuades the s u r v i v o r s to abandon t h e i r sorrow and to r e p l a c e i t w i t h j o y i n the knowledge that the deceased, a c c o r d i n g to h i s or her pe r s o n a l testimony, was s a f e l y and happily i n heaven. It was hoped by the composers of the text and music that the i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e mourners i n t h i s way and a more persuasive method can scarcely be imagined — would allow themselves to feel v i c a r i o u s l y consoled. Solo Arias A t h i r d type of funeral music i n which prosopopoeia was employed i s the solo a r i a . Compositions of this type were most frequently written for solo voice with basso continuo accompaniment, less frequently for solo voice with an accompanying instrumental ensemble. There are several possible approaches to prosopopoeial settings of thi s type. The f i r s t i s characterized by the representation of one of the mourners. One example in which one of the mourners i s personfied i s the second of two works f o r Cantus and continuo w r i t t e n by H e i n r i c h Schwemmer for the funeral of Johann Sigmund Ha l l e r von H a l l e r s t e i n in 1670.^ (See Appendix, p. 227) In t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , "Nun i s t a l l e s iiberstanden," which was performed d i r e c t l y a f t e r the funeral sermon, the text was sung as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of H a l l e r ' s son. The c o n s o l a t o r y tone of the text is much the same as that of other works that have been 99 H. Schwemmer, Letzter Zuruff j_ welcher nach gehaltener Predigt abgesungen und au f g e s e z z t worden durch Obennanten [ i . e . H e i n r i c h Schwemmer] (Nuremberg: M. Endter, 1670). Zwickau, Ratsschulbibliothek, M. 105, l j ; Nuremberg, Stadtbibliothek, W i l l VII, 1308.4° . 99 examined: the son b i d s the deceased f a r e w e l l thereby p r o v i d i n g the c o n g r e g a t i o n w i t h words of c o n s o l a t i o n . Because we are given no i n d i c a t i o n as to the age of the son, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know e x a c t l y what degree of realism Schwemmer has hoped to achieve in this s e t t i n g : i f H a l l e r ' s son p o r t r a y e d i n the work was s t i l l a young c h i l d at the time of Johann Sigmund's death, Schwemmer's choice of a soprano v o i c e would have c o n t r i b u t e d to the accuracy of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; i f not, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the prosopopoeia would have been l i m i t e d to the elements of number and text. A s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n in another work by Schwem-mer i s an a r i a from 1661 for the funeral of Maria Magdalena Winckler.*^ (See Appendix, p. 228) W r i t t e n f o r soprano, v i o l c o n s o r t and basso continuo, the composition begins with a b r i e f instrumental introduction f o l l o w e d by the e n t r y o f the soprano. The e l e v e n v e r s e s of t e x t , b e g i n n i n g "Hie l i e g i c h uberha'ufft mit Schmertzen," c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y display the gradual a f f e c t i v e change in the mourner from lamentation to consolation. As in the case of Schwemmer's "Nun i s t a l l e s libers tand en," i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine whether or not he was a t t e m p t i n g to i n f u s e i n t o the work a g r e a t e r sense of r e a l i s m by s e l e c t i n g a h i g h voice. Since the personifying voice part i s not ascribed to any person i n p a r t i c u l a r , a c t i n g r a t h e r as a kind of a b s t r a c t i o n of a s i n g l e or even of a group of mourners, the r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t of the prosopopoeia *^H. Schwemmer, T e x t - L i e d liber den se 1 i g s t e n H i n t r i t t und bey C h r i s t l i c h e r Bestattung der Edlen und Tugendreichsten Frauen Marien=Mag- dalenen j_ gebohrnen PELLERINNEN / Des Edlen und Vesten Junckherrn Bene- d i c t Winckler... Eh=Schatzes... (Leipzig: C. Michael, 1661). Nuremberg, Stadtbibliothek, W i l l II 1208.4°. 100 i s not diminished. Although the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of mourners i n the s o l o a r i a was a common and persuasive a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia, the representation of the deceased was more frequently employed. As i n solo a r i a s where a mourner was depicted, there are two possible means of personifying the deceased. The f i r s t i s characterized by compositions i n which the deceased i s p e r s o n i f i e d t e x t u a l l y by a solo s i n g e r , but where the q u a l i t y of voice does not correspond to that of the deceased -- f o r example, a soprano or a l t o v o i c e i n c o r p o r a t e d to p e r s o n i f y an adult male. One example of t h i s kind of prosopopoeia i s found in a work by G o t t f r i e d Ernst Brechthold, the school rector i n Neustadt.*^ (See Appendix, p. 229) The a r i a was w r i t t e n for the funeral of Brechthold's father in 1668. We know from the t i t l e of the work that i t was in fact w r i t t e n as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Brechthold's f a t h e r as he "takes h i s leave of t h i s w o r l d from h i s r e m a i n i n g wife and c h i l d r e n , and thus addresses them from the grave." Appended to the end of the nine verses of text i s a short note in which the composer informs the reader that he portrayed h i s father in t h i s work as a way of o f f e r i n g consola-ti o n both to himself and to the grieving family. Although t h i s composi-tio n for solo voice and (unfigured) basso continuo i s a clear example of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia, the composer, for some reason, chose to G. E. Brechthold, Trauer=Musica, Der Selig=verstorbene H. Johann  Brechthold von seinem hinter=lassenen Eheweib und Kindern den Abschied aus d i e s e r Wel_£ Bi m. m.e_t / und ^ i f . g l e i c h s a m aus dem Grabe aj. so_ anredet (Coburg: Johann Conrad Mbnch, 1668). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, RIII 10(32). i n o I b i d , "...von seinem h i n t e r = l a s senen Eheweib und Kindern den Abschied aus dieser Welt nimmet / und sie gleichsam aus dem Grabe also anredet." 101 w r i t e the v o c a l l i n e f o r a soprano v o i c e . Why would B r e c h t h o l d d e l i b e r a t e l y portray his father with a soprano voice? Perhaps there was no a v a i l a b l e adult male at the time to sing the a r i a , or perhaps finding a v o i c e to correspond to that of the deceased was not an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the composer. A t h i r d and p l a u s i b l e performance a l t e r n a t i v e i s that the v o c a l l i n e , though w r i t t e n f o r soprano v o i c e , c o u l d have been sung c o m f o r t a b l y an octave lower by a tenor v o i c e . While t h i s l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e may not have been the case at a l l , i t would c e r t a i n l y make musical and r h e t o r i c a l sense, and such a proposi-t i o n can be f u r t h e r supported by h i s t o r i c a l evidence, as we s h a l l now see. In the same year that Brechthold published h i s composition, 1668, another composer, i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r i n t o nly by the i n i t i a l s I. F., wrote a solo a r i a for the funeral of Dr Johann Valentin Majer of C r a i l s -. 1 0 3 heim. (See Appendix, p. 229) As was Brechthold's composition, "Ich habe das Thranenthal der Welt" i s ostensibly written for soprano voice and basso continuo. I t i s noted i n the p i e c e by I. F., however, that the v o c a l l i n e c o u l d be performed by "Cantus s i v e Tenor solus." One would expect a tenor v o i c e to have sung the prosopopoeia 1 t e x t i f the mus i c i a n s i n t h i s performance sought to p o r t r a y r e a l i s t i c a l l y the deceased physician as an animate s p i r i t . Assuming that the composition by I. F. i s not anomalous f o r that time -- indeed, i t i s t y p i c a l of 103 I. F., Music Dess s e e l i g v e r s t o r b e n e n Herrn. D. Majers l e t z t e V a l e d i c t i o n £3o nach g e h a l t e n e r L e i c h = P r e d i g t in der S t a t t k i r c h e n zu  C r a i l s h e i m durch einen D i s c a n t i s t e n von der Orge1 abgesungen worden (Ansbach: Johann Hornung, 1668). Erlangen, U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Thl. XIX, 94 a Qu. (X 307). 102 v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l s u b s t i t u t i o n as practised i n the Baroque i t would be re a s o n a b l e to assume that t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e performance p o s s i b i l i t y was l i k e w i s e a v a i l a b l e to the performers of Brechthold's work and to other works of th i s type i n the seventeenth century. German composers of funeral music generally appeared to be mindful of the sex of the deceased when s e t t i n g s o l o v o c a l music to prosopo-poeial texts. The late Anthonius Schott, for instance, i s personified in an anonymously written funeral composition from 1684 e n t i t l e d "Nimm mein Jesu meine Wonne."^4 (See Appendix, p. 230) The composition was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n for tenor voice, a consort of three v i o l s (the s t r i n g parts are lost) and basso continue In the course of the eight verses, the personified Schott f i r s t p e t i t i o n s Jesus and then bids the temporal world a f i n a l farewell. A second example of the funerary solo a r i a i n which the voice of the deceased i s accurately represented can be found i n H e i n r i c h A l b e r t ' s Siebender Thei1 der A r i e n , an anthology of occasional music published i n 1648.*^^ One of the arias i n th i s c o l l e c -t i o n , "Gedenkt wie mich der Tod" (no. 81), wri t t e n for soprano and basso continuo, i s i d e n t i f i e d as the "Letzer rede Einer vormals st o l t z e n und Anon., Gewbhnlicher Wahl=Spruch oder Himmels=Verlangen j_ Dess...  Herrn Anthonius Schott ]_ Ihrer Churfurstl. Durch. zu Sachsen wiircklichen  Geheimden Raths /... nunmehro seeligen Andenckens j_ Bey dessen hochan- s e h n l i c h e n und v o l c k r e i c h e n Beerdigung... In e i n e r Trauer=Ode j_ von Einem M i t b e t r i i b t e n e n t w o r f f e n und d a s e l b s t abgesungen j_ am Tage der  Beysetzung J_ den 2. Decembris, 1684 (Regensburg: Paul Dalnsteiners seel. Witt., ca. 1685). Regensburg, B i s c h b f l i c h e Z e n t r a l b i b l i o t h e k (Proske-r Musikbibliothek), An. 84. ^"*H. A l b e r t , Siebender Thei1 der A r i e n , e t 1 i c h e r t h e i I s g e i s t - l i c h e r : sonderlich zum Trost i n a l l e r h a n d Creutz und W i d e r w e r t i g k e i t , wie auch zur Erweckung s e e l i g e n Sterbens Lust; t e i l s w e l t l i c h e r ; zu  geziemenden Ehren-Freuden und Keuscher Liebe dienender Lieder, zu singen  gesetzet. (Kbnigsberg: 1648). London, B r i t i s h Library, G. 62. b. 103 und g l e i c h j e t z t sterbenden Jungfrawen."^^ (See Appendix, p. 230) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A l b e r t i n many of these c o m p o s i t i o n s , the a r i a i s w r i t t e n more i n a s p i r i t of admonition than of c o n s o l a t i o n , as can be seen i n the opening l i n e s : Gedenkt wie mich der Tod -So scheusslich hat gemacht Ich tanze nur vor an ihr werdet folgen mussen. Consider how hideous death has made me I only lead o f f the dance you w i l l have to follow. Interestingly, on the word "tanze," there is a change in the score from duple to t r i p l e metre i n a rare musical reference i n Baroque funer-a l music to the Totentanz.^ 7 Hans Joachim Moser, i n h i s biography of H e i n r i c h Schutz, w r i t e s that Albert's prosopopoeial compositions of the more graphic type "were 108 often i n rather bad taste" -- possibly i n reference to such arias as Alber t ' s s e t t i n g of Robert Roberthin's "Wie l i e g i c h hie!", no. 32 i n the Siebender T h e i l der Arien. This composition, presumably of funerary o r i g i n , i s described as the "Rede einer verstorbenen Jungfrau auss dem ^ 6 I b i d . "...last address of a once proud and now dead maiden." ^ 7 S e e R. Hammerstein. Tanz und Musik des Todes: die m i t t e l a l t e r -l i c h e n Totentanze und i h r Nachleben (Bern und Munich: Francke V e r l a g , 1980). Although Hammerstein has rather l i t t l e to say about the Toten- tanz i n the seventeenth century, he does mention that r e f e r e n c e s i n f u n e r a l sermons to the dance were common (p. 14), and t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, the Totentanz was most often depicted musically through t r i p l e metre (p. 49). 108 See H. J. Moser, Heinrich Schutz: His L i f e and Work, trans, from 2nd ed. by C. F. P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : Concordia P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959), p. 487. 104 1 0 9 -Grabe," i n which the p e r s o n i f i e d corpse becomes a decaying but animate haven f o r worms. In these i n s t a n c e s at l e a s t , van Ingen demonstrates g r e a t e r sympathy than Moser f o r the w o r l d view of Protestant Germans in the seventeenth century: for the Baroque poet, the t h e o l o g i c a l ends, i n t h i s case e f f e c t i v e admonition, j u s t i f i e d the poetic means: But that is exactly what the poets wanted to achieve! In order to work at any cost, no method was too crass, no place too v i l e . The Baroque helped i t s e l f to a l l things, animate as well as inanimate, to e x p l a i n them e m b l e m a t i c a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , man must s u f f e r at every stage of his l i f e . For the Memento mori, he becomes a l l the more u s e f u l as a dying or dead man: h i s f i n a l hours, h i s f i n a l r e s t i n g place and h i s decaying, putrefied body provide t h i s genre w i t h the most e f f e c t i v e means of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . . . . He p a i d no attention to taboos; also, he was probably unaware of any. In the same way that graphic extremes pervaded much of the prosopo-poeial funerary l i t e r a t u r e i n the seventeenth century, composers, too, used every a r t i s t i c means at t h e i r d i s p o s a l to p o r t r a y as v i v i d l y as possible the animate presence of the deceased. Physical P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the Dead The l a s t type of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia to be considered here i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e x t u a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the deceased, by representation of the deceased by a solo voice, and by an added physical dimension through the s p a t i a l displacement of the personifying voices. ^^"Address of a dead maiden from the grave." ^ ^ V a n Ingen, op. c i t . , p. 299. "Aber das w o l l t e n d i e D i c h t e r gerade e r r e i c h e n ! Um zu wirken um jeden P r e i s , war k e i n M i t t e l zu kr ass, k e i n Ort zu g a r s t i g . Das Barocke bediente s i c h a l l e r Dinge, lebendiger wie lebloser, sie s i n n b i l d l i c h auszudeuten. Dazu muss auch der Mensch, auf a l i e n Stufen seines Lebens, herhalten. Fiir das Memento mori wird er e r s t recht als Sterbender oder als Toter brauchbar: Seine letzten Stunden, seine l e t z t e Ruhestatte und sein z e r f a l l e n e r , v e r f a u l -ter Kbrper fuhren dieser Gattung die e f f e k t r e i c h s t e n Steigerungsmittel zu.... Um Tabus kummerte er sich nicht; er kannte sie wohl auch nicht." 105 The two works to be examined here are H e i n r i c h Schi i tz 's M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien (SWV 279-81) of 1635 and three funerary compositions w r i t t e n i n 1693 by Michae l Wiedemann. The Mus ika l i sche Exequien of H e i n r i c h Schutz represents one of the most s t r i k i n g instances of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia. The circular stances surrounding the occasion for the Musika l i sche Exequien are often r e c o u n t e d , and the work i t s e l f has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e mus i co log i ca l scrut iny.*** Count H e i n r i c h II von Reuss (named Posthumus because he was born t h r e e months a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h ) , S o v e r e i g n over P l a u e n , G r e t z , C r a n i c h f e l d , G e r a , S c h l e i z , L o b e n s t e i n , e t c . , was b o r n 6 J u l y 1572. He was an educated man ( h a v i n g s t u d i e d r h e t o r i c i n S t r a s b o u r g ) and a b l e r u l e r , w e l l t r a v e l l e d , d i p l o m a t i c a l l y See R. G e r b e r , "Die ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n ' von H e i n r i c h S c h u t z , " M u s i k und K i r c h e 7 (1934): 296-310; H. J . Moser , H e i n r i c h Schutz : H i s L i f e and Work, t r a n s , from 2nd rev . ed. by C. F . P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , C a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1936), pp. 155-59, 485-88; F . S c h b n e i c h , "Zum Aufbau des G l o r i a - T e i l s in Schutzens Musika l i schen Exequien," Musik  und K i r c h e 20 (1950): 182-90; G. A. T r u m p f f , "Die ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e -quien' von H e i n r i c h Schutz," Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Musik 123 (1962): 120-23; G. M i t t r i n g , " T o t e n d i e n s t und Chr i s tu s p r e d i g t : zum Text der M u s i k a l i s c h e n E x e q u i e n von H e i n r i c h S c h u t z , " i n M u s i k a l s Lobgesang:  F e s t s c h r i f t fu'r W i l h e l n r Ehmann, ed. G. M i t t r i n g and G. Rbdding (Darmstadt : Tonkunst V e r l a g K a r l M e r s e b u r g e r , 1964), pp. 43-63; H. Reich, "Handels Trauer-Hymne und die Mus ika l i sche Exequien von Schutz," M u s i k und K i r c h e 36 (1966): 74-78; 0. Brodde , H e i n r i c h S c h u t z : Weg und Werk, ( B e r l i n : Evangelische V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1985; o r i g i n a l l y published K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1972), pp. 144-54; G. G r a u l i c h , ed . , H e i n r i c h Schutz: Mus ika l i sche Exequien. Op. 7., S tu t tgar ter Schu'tz-Aus-gabe, v o l . 8 (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hanssler Ver lag , 1973), pp. v i i - x l i i ; R. H e n n i n g , "Zur T e x t f r a g e der ' M u s i k a l i s c h e E x e q u i e n ' von H e i n r i c h Schutz," S a g i t t a r i u s 4 (1973): 44-57; M. G r e g o r - D e l l i n , H e i n r i c h Schutz: s e i n Leben , s e i n Werk, s e ine Z e i t ( M u n i c h , Z u r i c h : R. P i p e r GmbH & Co . , 1984), pp. 215-19; S. Kbhler , H e i n r i c h Schutz: Anmerkungen zu Leben und  Werk ( L e i p z i g : Deutscher Verlag fiir Musik, 1985), pp. 143-46. 106 s k i l l e d , and s o c i a l l y a d r o i t . A generous patron of the church, education and the a r t s , he himself was a p r o f i c i e n t instrumentalist and s i n g e r capable of s i n g i n g "the bass i n many f i n e motets and an-thems...." Heinrich Posthumus's love of music was such that even his servant's were h i r e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s and only secondarily for t h e i r domestic s k i l l s . * * 4 Though an a r i s t o c r a t , he did not hesitate to cross several class b a r r i e r s to partake i n music-making with lowly Musikanten,**^ and would act at times as Capellmeister, to 1 1 6 use h i s own term, during church s e r v i c e s at the court chapel. As regards the l a t t e r , C h r i s t o p h R i c h t e r mentions i n the obsequies f o r Heinrich Posthumus that " i t was a p a r t i c u l a r source of joy to His Grace when e v e r y t h i n g went smoothly and i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n i n the church 1 1 2 H. R. Jung, "Ein unbekanntes Gutachten von Heinrich Schutz iiber di e Neuordnung der Hof-, S c h u l - und Stadtmusik i n Gera," B e i t r a g e zur Musikwissenschaft 4 (1962): 19. 1 1 3 G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. v i i i , xxv ( t r a n s , of G r a u l i c h ' s p r e f a c e by Derek McCulloch). "...vielen k u n s t l i c h e n anmuthigen Motetten und Concerten den Bass...." * * 4 I b i d . **^Schiitz praises t h i s aspect of Heinrich Posthumus's character in the elegy which p r e f a c e s the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien of 1636. According to the "Kursachsische Landeskleiderordnung" of 1612, the a r i s t o c r a c y belonged to the f i r s t c l a s s , whereas c o u r t Musikanten were designated as members of the f i f t h c l a s s . See D. Krickeberg, Das protestantische Kantorat im 17. Jahrhundert: Studien zum Amt des deutschen Kantors, B e r l i n e r Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, ed. by A. A d r i o , v o l . 6 ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g Merseburger, 1965), pp. 79-80; and Kbhler, op. c i t . , p. 45. **6C. Richter, Gott vber a l l e s . Das i s t : Frommer Christen l i e b s t e r  Schatz... Bey des Wey land Hoch wo lgebornen Herrn j_ Herrn H e i n r i c h dess  Jiingern... L e i c h Predigt... g e z e i g t (Gera, [ 1636]). C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. i x , xxv ( t r a n s . ) . 107 and at services."'''''7 Because Schutz was born i n K b s t r i t z in the area of Gera, he was by b i r t h a s u b j e c t of the Reuss f a m i l y . He enjoyed a l o n g - s t a n d i n g per-s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h H e i n r i c h Posthumus, which spanned some twenty years up to the Count's death i n 1635. During that p e r i o d , Schutz had cause to meet with H e i n r i c h Posthumus on numerous o c c a s i o n s , t h e i r f i r s t documented encounter t a k i n g p l a c e as e a r l y as 1617, when Schutz was entrusted with the reorganization of the musical 118 a f f a i r s i n the court, school and town of Gera. As did a l l conscientious P r o t e s t a n t s i n s even teen th-c en t u r y Ger-many, Heinrich Posthumus spent time in private contemplation and s p i r i -t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r death. Nor d i d he n e g l e c t the m a t e r i a l prepara-119 tions: he chose the texts for the three funeral and b u r i a l sermons, s e l e c t e d a s s o r t e d c h o r a l e s to be sung d u r i n g the s e r v i c e s , and had an active hand in the recording of h i s curriculum vitae which was read at 12 0 the f u n e r a l . P a r t of t h e s e p r e p a r a t i o n s a l s o i n c l u d e d the 7 I b i d . , "Eine Wunder-hertz 1 iche Frewd war es Ihr Gn. wann es a l l e s i n der Kirchen vnd beym Gottesdienst / f e i n o r d e n t l i c h vnd z i e r -l i c h / vnd also zugieng." 118 The actual t i e s between the Schutz and Reuss f a m i l i e s date back at least another two years, at which time Schu'tz's brother, Georg, was i n s t a l l e d as t u t o r to H e i n r i c h Posthumus's sons. See H. R. Jung, " E i n neuaufgefundenes Gutachten von H e i n r i c h Schutz aus dem Jahre 1617," A r c h i v f i i r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t 18 (1961): 241-47; and Jung, " E i n unbe-kanntes Gutachten," op. c i t . For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Schiitz's p e r s o n a l and f a m i l i a l t i e s to Gera, see E. P. Kretschmar, "Schutz i n Gera," i n F e s t s c h r i f t zur Ehrung von H e i n r i c h Schutz, ed. by G. K r a f t (Weimar: Buchdruckerei Uschmann, 1954), pp. 57-60. 119 Moser, op. c i t . , p. 156. 12 0 G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. v i i i . (Mention of the "L e b e n s l a u f " i s omitted by McCulloch from the English translation.) 108 c l a n d e s t i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a copper c o f f i n , which he then had p a i n t e d and engraved -- the four s i d e s and top of the l i d , and the two sides of the case -- with a s e l e c t i o n of b i b l i c a l and chorale verses of his choice. Although the c o f f i n had been prepared a year in advance of h i s death, i t s e x i s t e n c e was kept s e c r e t by H e i n r i c h Posthumus u n t i l 122 j u s t a few days be fo re he died. The i n s c r i b e d v e r s e s were i n turn used v a r i o u s l y i n the sermons and a l s o served as the t e x t s to which Schutz set the music. The t e x t s were employed i n such a manner as to give a sense of co h e s i o n to a l l aspects of the ceremony: f o r i n s t a n c e , the t e x t from Psalm 73:25-26, "HErr / wenn i c h nur d i c h habe / so f r a g i c h n i c h t s nach Himmel vnd Erden," which was engraved on the upper r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of the c o f f i n , served as the b i b l i c a l t e x t f o r the sermon at the b u r i a l service on 4 February 1636, was quoted by Schutz i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the Musika 1 i s c h e Exequien (Concert i i i Form e i n e r teutschen Begra'bnis-Missa) performed before the sermon, and was the text f o r the e i g h t - v o i c e motet (SWV 280) which was performed immediately following the sermon. C o n f l i c t i n g reports e x i s t as to who commissioned the music of the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien and when i t was a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n . Appended to Ric h t e r ' s sermon i s a l i s t i n g of the s c r i p t u r a l v erses and hymn t e x t s which had been chosen for the decoration of Heinrich Posthumus's c o f f i n , and the t i t l e of the appendix says i n part: these, also at the behest of of Their Most Noble Graces, Her Lady-121 But see Gregor-Dellin, op. c i t . , p. 216. Gregor-Dellm suggests that the c o f f i n was made of pewter, c o n t r a r y to C h r i s t o p h R i c h t e r ' s statement in the Leichenpredigt. 12 2 C. R i c h t e r , C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. i x . 109 s h i p the Countess Widow and her two sons, were set to music and sung by the c h o i r to the organ before the Sermon at the solemn b u r i a l service.... On the other hand, on the t i t l e page of the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of the Musikalische Exequien Schutz writes that the work was "...sung for His l a t e Grace, at repeated request d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e to a d i s c r e e t l y 10/ r e g i s t r a t e d organ." In this case i t i s most tempting to take Schutz at h i s word. F i r s t of a l l , Schutz a l r e a d y had been taken i n t o the co n f i d e n c e of H e i n r i c h Posthumus as e a r l y as 1617, when he was gi v e n charge of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v a r i o u s m u s i c a l a f f a i r s i n Gera. Secondly, i t was no s e c r e t that H e i n r i c h Posthumus was d r i v e n by p r o t e s t a n t p r a c t i c e s and by h i s own p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n f o r organization, to assure that a l l arrangments relevant to his v a l e d i c t i o n were i n order. T h i r d l y , there appears to be no reason f o r Schutz's changing the facts, for he had l i t t l e to gain. As Hofkapellmeister i n Dresden, he already possessed the most enviable musical appointment in the most prestigious German court. It is possible Heinrich Posthumus's wife t r i e d to commission Schutz to write music for the funeral, unaware that i t had i n f a c t a l r e a d y been prepared; her husband, a f t e r a l l , had s u c c e s s f u l l y kept her i n the dark w i t h r e g a r d to the arrangements f o r and construction of the c o f f i n . It i s conceivable too that Richter, i n 123 R i c h t e r , op. c i t . C i t e d i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. i x , x x v i ( t r a n s ) , " d i e auch V f f Gna'dige Anordnung Derer HochWolgebornen / Ihr Gn. h i n t e r l a s s e n e n G r a f f l i c h e n Fraw Wittben / vnd Herren Sbhne i n d i e Music versetzet / vnd bey dero... angestalter Herrlichen Leichbeysetzung vor der P r e d i g t i n d i e Orgel / nach Ihr Wolsel. Gn. hi e b e v o r n mehrmals wiederholter anleitung f i g u r a l i t e r abgesungen werden sollen." 10/ See f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. l i . Trans, i n Graulich, i b i d . , p. x x v i i . "...ihrer wolsehligen Gnaden / bey dero leb-z e i t e n w i e d e r h o l t e n begehren nach / i n eine s t i l l e v e r d a c k t e Orgel angestellet vnd abgesungen worden." 110 w r i t i n g the sermon and the appendix to i t , wrongly, but q u i t e understandably, assumed that the members of H e i n r i c h Posthumus's immediate family were the only ones i n a p o s i t i o n to make the necessary arrangements f o r the music, u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the c o n s c i e n t i o u s and methodical Count. When i t was that Schutz composed the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien i s unkown, though i t was probably i n the summer or f a l l of 1635. In 1633 Schutz had been named Royal Danish K a p e l l m e i s t e r at the Court of King C h r i s t i a n IV, and was r e s i d e n t there from e a r l y December 1633 u n t i l 4 May 1635, when he r e t u r n e d to Germany because of the death of h i s mother, Euphrosyne. I t seems most l i k e l y , then, that the music was composed i n the period following the death of Schutz's mother and pre-ceding the death of Heinrich Posthumus on 3 December 1635. There has been a considerable amount of discussion about the degree to which H e i n r i c h Posthumus s u p e r v i s e d the c o m p o s i t i o n o f Schutz's musical obsequies or, indeed, i f he was a c t i v e l y involved at a l l . One remark su g g e s t i n g that there was o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e i s made by Schutz h i m s e l f i n the ordinance to the performance of the work. Here, i n reference to the c o n f l a t i o n of chorale texts and modes, he writes: Since I have had to b r i n g together i n one body verses of German hymns i n a v a r i e t y of modes, I hope d i s c e r n i n g m u s i c i a n s w i l l f o r g i v e me, where I have had on o c c a s i o n to t r a n s g r e s s the Ninth Mode in order to follow these hymn tunes. H. Schutz, "Absonderlich Verzeichnus deren i n diesem Wercklein b e f i n d l i c h e n M u s i c a l i s c h e n Sache...," f a c s i m i l e i n G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , pp. l x i i , x x i v (trans.) " w e i l d i e G e s e t z l e i n der Teutschen K i r c h e n Gesange von allerhand Tonis, ich in ein Corpus zusammen bringen s o l l e n / h o f f e i c h v e r s t a n d i g e Mus i c i mir v e r z e i h e n werden / wo i c h aus den Schrancken Noni Toni b i s s w e i l e n a u s s s c h w e i f f e n vnd solchen K i r c h e n Melodeyen nachgehen miissen." I l l Presumably Schutz would not have f e l t the need to write an apologia for h i s music had he had f r e e r e i g n of the c o m p o s i t i o n : he i n s t e a d would have wr i t t e n the work d i f f e r e n t l y , for surely these modal transgressions offended h i s ear as much as those of the " v e r s t a n d i g e M u s i c i " he ad-d r e s s e s . Furthermore, i f we c o n s i d e r the layout of the t e x t s as i n -scribed on Heinrich Posthumus's c o f f i n , and the order in which Schutz, i n t u r n , i n c o r p o r a t e d each of these t e x t s i n t o the c o m p o s i t i o n of the Musikalische Exequien, we see that the ordering of the texts in Schutz's Mill8-3- b r e v i s are c o r r e s p o n d e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d on the c o f f i n . I t i s clear, then, that Schutz either collaborated with Heinrich Posthumus on the t e x t of the M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien, or at l e a s t the Count p r o v i d e d Schutz with a s p e c i f i c ordering of the text for him to set to music. Upon his death, Heinrich Posthumus's body was embalmed, a practice, as was mentioned e a r l i e r , common among those who were born i n t o the upper c l a s s e s and could a f f o r d i t . His body was then l a i d i n s t a t e i n the chapel of Schloss Osterstein, where i t remained u n t i l February 1636. The f i r s t of the three sermons was held by Pastor Bartholomaus Schwarz on 2 February 1636, at which time the numerous i n s c r i p t i o n s on the c o f f i n were referred to. Subsequently, the c o f f i n and body were trans-f e r r e d to the P f a r r k i r c h e St Johannis, where the f a m i l y c r y p t was l o -cated, and the f i n a l b u r i a l ceremony was executed on 4 February, i n -t e r e s t i n g l y and c e r t a i n l y i n t e n t i o n a l l y , the b u r i a l day of Simeon. It was i n the course of t h i s l a t t e r ceremony that Schutz p e r s o n a l l y d i -rected the performance of the Musikalische Exequien. We must bear i n mind how h e a v i l y the death of H e i n r i c h Posthumus weighed upon the mourners among the f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . From the de-112 s c r i p t i o n s we have of Reuss, he appears to have been a g r e g a r i o u s and s o c i a b l e person loved by h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and s u b j e c t s , and h i s sudden absence -- in every sense but the corporeal -- was sure to have been deeply f e l t as a p e r s o n a l l o s s by those at the Gera Court. These d o u b t l e s s i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s were given l i t t l e chance to abate, f o r the immediate f a m i l y and c o u r t i e r s c o u ld h a r d l y put out of mind the f a c t that throughout the Christmas season the Count's body was i n s t a t e i n the court chapel. During the lengthy period of o f f i c i a l mourning, which lasted at least the two months between Heinrich Posthumus's death and eventual b u r i a l , the family constantly would have been reminded of t h e i r l o s s , and they no doubt would have r e m i n i s c e d i n the meantime about happier days. Since v i g i l s such as those practised i n the Roman t r a d i -tion had been denounced by Luther, i t is d i f f i c u l t to know what kind of behaviour was expected of the family with regard to the deceased. Did they s t i l l spend time i n prayer and devotion i n the chapel? Did they or were they expected p e r i o d i c a l l y to pay t h e i r respects to the deceased? Were de tempore services ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t r i g u i n g considering the time of year) s t i l l held i n the chapel during this period? F o l l o w i n g the ceremony i n the chape l at Schloss O s t e r s t e i n on 2 February, the body was transported, probably i n a lengthy funeral pro-cession s i m i l a r to those depicted in contemporaneous engravings, to the St Johannis church f o r the b u r i a l ceremony. Throughout t h i s f i n a l ceremony, the body of H e i n r i c h Posthumus presumably l a y beneath the p u l p i t . Whether or not the c o f f i n was open d u r i n g the ceremony i s unknown, though published seventeenth-century Leichenpredigten i n gen-e r a l frequently included i l l u s t r a t i o n s depicting closed as well as open 113 c o f f i n s , and sermons also made occasional reference to the body, which suggests that i t was exposed to the congregation. (Naturally an open-casket funeral would prove to be emotionally more moving owing to the a d d i t i o n a l v i s u a l impact.) The ceremony began with the f i r s t section of Schutz's M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. F o l l o w i n g the sermon based on Psalm 73:25 ("HErr / wenn ich nur dich habe"), the choir performed the second s e c t i o n of Schutz's work, the s e t t i n g of the same text as a motet f o r two four-part choirs. Rather than drawing the ceremony to a close with a C o l l e c t and B e n e d i c t i o n a f t e r the performance of the motet, which would have been the customary procedure, the choir immediately commenced with the t h i r d portion of the work. The s e t t i n g of the movement and Schutz's d i r e c t i o n s f o r i t s per-formance are amply described i n the "Special Index of the Musical Items c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s l i g h t work together w i t h the Ordinances f o r the gracious reader." The relevant ordinance i s the t h i r d and bears the heading "III. Ordinantz des Gesanges Simeonis: HErr nun lassestu deinen Diener i n F r i e d e fahren," and i t w i l l prove u s e f u l to quote i t here i n f u l l . 1. It i s to be noted that this concerted motet i s for two choirs, each c h o i r s i n g i n g i t s own t e x t . Chorus Primus i s i n f i v e p a r t s and r e c i t e s the words of Simeon: Herr, nun l a s s e s t du deinen Diener. Chorus Secundus i s in three p a r t s , f o r two t r e b l e s and a baritone or high bass, singing the following text and others: S e l i g s eind d i e Toten, d i e i n dem Herrn sterben. With the i n v e n t ion of th i s second choir the Author has attempted to intimate and convey something of the joy of the blessed disembodied Soul i n Heaven i n the company of Heavenly S p i r i t s and holy Angels. 2. Primus Chorus i s to be p l a c e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the organ, but the Secundus Chorus i s to be set up at a d i s t a n c e , a c c o r d i n g to the way th a t G r a u l i c h , op. c i t . , p. xxxix. " A b s o n d e r l i c h V e r z e i c h n u s deren i n diesem W e r c k l e i n b e f i n d l i c h e n M u s i c a 1 i s c h e n Sachen / nebenst den Ordinantzen an den Gunstigen Leser." ( F a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t i n G r a u l i c h , op. ci_t., p. x i i i . ) 114 seems most practicable. 3. By making another one or two copies of this Second Choir, and by setting i t up at d i f f e r e n t places around the church, according to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that present themselves, the Author hopes t h a t the e f f e c t of the work might be g r e a t l y enhanced. Introduced by the tenor's intonation of the Canticum Simeonis (Luke 2:29-32), "Herr nun l a s s e s t du deinen Diener," the f i v e - p a r t Chorus  Primus (Mezzo-Soprano, Alto, Tenor I-II, Bass) continues f o r t i t e r with a homophonic statement of " i n F r i e d e fahren." T h i s c h o i r , a c c o r d i n g to Schutz's d i r e c t i v e s , was to be p o s i t i o n e d c l o s e to the organ, an a r -rangement which i n i t s e l f was in no way extraordinary. A f t e r the f i r s t four breves and a drop in the dynamic l e v e l from f o r t i t e r to submisse, the v o i c e s of the Secundus Chorus (Soprano I - I I , B a r i t o n e ) e n t e r i n i m i t a t i v e succession, from highest to lowest voice, with a completely d i f f e r e n t text taken from Revelations 14:13, " S e l i g sind die Toten, die i n dem Herren sterben," l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l text from the apocryphal Wisdom of Solomon (3:1). We can see from the ordinance that Schutz composed this work with con s c i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s r h e t o r i c . The task he set before him-I b i d . "1. I s t zu wissen das d i e s e s Concert zwey Chor vnd i e g l i c h e r Chor seine absonderliche Wort habe. Chorus primus i s t Quinque  Vocum vnd r e c i t i r e t die Wort Simeonis: HErr nun lassestu deinen Diener. Chorus Secundus i s t Trium Vocum, hat zwene Discant vnd einen Baritonum oder hohen Bass, singet folgende vnd andere Wort mehr: S e l i g seynd die Todten d i e i n dem HErrn sterben. M i t welcher i n v e n t i o n oder Choro  Secundo der Autor die Freude der abgeleibten Sehligen Seelen im Himmel / i n G e s e 1 1 s c h a f f t der Himmlischen G e i s t e r vnd h e i l i g e n Engel i n etwas einfiihren vnd andeuten wollen. 2. Primus Chorus werde allernechst bey die Orgel / Secundus Chorus aber i n die feme geordnet / vnd wie es etwa einem iedem f u r das rahtsambste bediincken w i r d . 3. Wer auch d i e s e n Chorum Secundum noch ein: oder zweymahl abschreiben lassen / vnd nach g e l e g e n h e i t der K i r c h e n an v n t e r s c h i e d e n e n Orten s o l c h e Partheyen a n s t e l l e n wolte / wiirde des Autor i s Hoffnung nach / den e f f e c t des Wercks nicht wenig vermehren." (Ibid, p. xl.) 115 s e l f , with the inventio, was his wish to represent in music the joy of the disembodied s p i r i t i n the company of angels. Schutz was unques-t i o n a b l y employing a m u s i c a l prosopopoeia at t h i s p o i n t , i m p l y i n g as much i n the ordinance. F i r s t of a l l the textual differences contribute to the perception of disembodiment. The Primus Chorus's text from the Canticum Simeonis had long been employed c h o r a l i t e r to accompany b u r i a l s at Lutheran funerals and, i n t h i s case, i s c l e a r l y a representation of the mourners. The text, p e t i t i o n a r y i n nature and remindful of promised resurrection, i s addressed to God. The text of the three-voice Secundus  Chorus, on the other hand, i s a c o n s o l a t o r y response i n tha t i t i s an a f f i r m a t i o n of a covenant of death and resurrection that e x i s t s between God and Man. Int e r e s t i n g l y , though, i t seems to lack the almost ques-t i o n i n g e m o t i o n a l charge of the Canticum Simeonis; r a t h e r i t i s much more a distanced, somewhat apathetic statement of fact, made in what was an extremely pathetic s i t u a t i o n . Secondly, Schutz thoughtfully selected the p a r t i c u l a r voices to be used i n the Secundus Chorus. The v o i c e s of the angels, a p p r o p r i a t e l y b e a r i n g the l a b e l s Seraphim I and Seraphim I I , are assigned to two sopranos. I t was common at that time to have boy sopranos r e p r e s e n t s e r a p h i c f i g u r e s ; Hans Joachim Moser w r i t e s t h a t people would t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s to hear Christmas matins at Reuss's Court, and that i n 1623 Heinrich Posthumus personally directed a performance for which the c h o i r boys were dressed as angels wearing green wreaths and h o l d i n g The f i v e steps i n w r i t i n g a c c o r d i n g to c l a s s i c a l r u l e s of rhet o r i c are inventio, d i s t r i b u t i o , e l o c u t i o , memoria, pronuntiatio. 116 b u r n i n g t o r c h e s . Schutz s t a t e s i n the ordinance that the t h i r d voice, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , was written for "einen Baritonum oder hohen Bass." Convenient though i t was that a bass part would p r o v i d e the necessary harmonic f o u n d a t i o n f o r the c o n c e r t a t o c h o i r , Schutz was undoubtedly thinking of Heinrich Posthumus's reputation as a capable musician, and s p e c i f i c a l l y as a singer who could handle "the bass in many fine motets and anthems." Schutz c l e a r l y makes every e f f o r t i n t h i s work to e s t a b l i s h the fact that t h i s low voice i s i n fact a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the Heinrich Posthumus, and one i s tempted to conclude from the evidence that the Count was a b a r i t o n e . T h i s s u p p o s i t i o n would seem to be supported by the statement in Reuss's "Lebenslauf" where he i s credited with being able to sing the bass part in many -- but not a l l , one should note -- motets and anthems: i n Baroque funerary p e r s o n a l i a , i t was a much g r e a t e r , and w i d e l y acknowledged, tendency to exaggerate the deceased's q u a l i t i e s than to d i m i n i s h them, as would otherwise be the case here.''3^ Thirdly, the s p a t i a l displacement of the concertato Secundus Chorus f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n Schutz's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Heinrich Posthumus. Since the time of his studies in Venice with Giovannni G a b r i e l i , Schutz Moser, op. c i t . , p. 156. 1 3 0 S e e R. Lenz, "Gedruckte L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n (15 50-17 50)," i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n a l s Que 1le, op. c i t . , pp. 43-44. Because of -the growing tendency i n L e i c h e n p r e d i g t towards e x c e s s i v e l y h y p e r b o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the a t t r i b u t e s and achievements of the deceased, Leichenpredigten came increasingly to be referred to in the seventeenth century as Lugenpredigten. 117 was w e l l - a c q u a i n t e d with the a c o u s t i c and dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c h o r i s p e z z a t i , a dev i c e which he uses to good e f f e c t i n the Musi- kalische Exequien. In his p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the Count, Schutz achieves the e f f e c t of the disembodied soul by placing the Secundus Chorus o f f in the d i s t a n c e , most l i k e l y i n the g a l l e r y . Since the music i s w r i t t e n s e c t i o n a l l y to allow for the al t e r n a t i n g concertato e f f e c t between the two choirs, Schutz saw ad d i t i o n a l prosopopoeial p o s s i b i l i t i e s . He takes advantage of the ample pauses between e n t r i e s i n the Secundus Chorus, suggesting that the t r i o be duplicated or even t r i p l i c a t e d . The addi-t i o n a l choirs were then to be placed in other parts of the church, again probably i n the g a l l e r y . Most l i k e l y the s i n g e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the seraphim and Heinrich Posthumus were not v i s i b l e to the congregation, an 131 e f f e c t i v e ploy Schutz had been aware of as early as 1623. I f Schutz himself rep l i c a t e d the voices of the Secundus Chorus, as he prescribes i n the ordinance, the c o n g r e g a t i o n would have heard not only the per-s o n i f i e d voice of Heinrich Posthumus c o m f o r t i n g l y s i n g i n g from above, they would have heard the v o i c e s , i n c o r p o r e a l and migrant, emanating from d i f f e r e n t but indeterminate parts of the church. Schutz composed the last section of the Musikalische Exequien with f u l l intentions of making a powerful emotional impact on the assembly of mourners. Th i s i s made q u i t e c l e a r when he w r i t e s at the end of the H. Schutz, "Preface to H i s t o r i a der Auferstehung Jesu C h r i s t i , " in Readings i n the History of Music i n Performance, trans, and ed. by C. MacClintock (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979), p. 142. Af-ter a de t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of how a performance of the H i s t o r i a was to be executed, Schutz concludes the preface with the following statement: " I t should be kept i n mind that t h i s H i s t o r y w i l l be performed w i t h b e t t e r grace or e f f e c t i f only the E v a n g e l i s t i s seen, the other per-sonages and others remaining hidden." 118 r e l e v a n t ordinance tha t , through the a p p l i c a t i o n of prosopopoeia, he hoped the " e f f e c t des Werkes" might be greatly increased. The emotional power of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n must have had a s t r o n g e f f e c t upon the congregation of mourners. During the preceding two months, the body of Heinrich Posthumus lay l i f e l e s s , f i r s t i n state i n the court chapel and l a t e r i n the Johanniskirche. During the two-month period, from the day of the Count's p a s s i n g u n t i l the time of h i s interment, the idea of death must have been u b i q u i t o u s i n the Gera Court, m a n i f e s t e d by the presence of Heinrich Posthumus's remains. Although there was the theo-l o g i c a l guarantee that a C h r i s t i a n death was always f o l l o w e d by r e s u r r e c t i o n and e t e r n a l l i f e , p resent i n the church where those concepts were proclaimed lay the body of Heinrich Posthumus, concrete evidence that death was the r e a l i t y , resurrection a promise. Moments before the interment which ended a prolonged, s t r e s s f u l and exhausting emotional period, i t must have come as nothing less than a shock to the unprepared and unsuspecting congregation to hear Heinrich's incorporeal voice u t t e r i n g v a l e d i c t o r y words of assurance to h i s family and friends. Through the prosopopoeia, Schutz offered the mourners tangible evidence of the resurrection, as concrete and i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e as Reuss's corpse was of death. The actual act of interment was accompanied by the con-g r e g a t i o n s i n g i n g the o l d b u r i a l hymn "Mit F r i e d und Freud i c h fahr dahin," f o l l o w e d by the c l o s i n g C o l l e c t and the hymn "HSrt auf mit Weinen und Klagen," a l l of which appears to be l i t t l e more than a denouement. But the congregation could rest assured that only an empty v e s s e l was being i n t e r r e d , f o r they had j u s t heard the l i v i n g s p i r i t singing from above i n the heavenly company of angels. 119 As an example of prosopopoeia effected by s p a t i a l deployment of the p e r f o r m i n g f o r c e s , a more s t r i k i n g example than Schutz's Musikalische  Exequien can be found in two of three works by Michael Wiedemann written in 1693 for the funeral of Sigismund Heinrich, Freiherr von Bibran und Modlau. 132 Rather l i t t l e i s known about the composer. Wiedemann was born of peasant stock i n G e i l s d o r f or G e i b s d o r f i n O b e r l a u s i t z on 13 A p r i l 133 • • 1659. A f t e r what must have been a u n i v e r s i t y education i n theology, Wiedemann worked as pastor i n Ossig near L i e g n i t z and subsequently in S c h w e i d n i t z . B e t t e r known f o r h i s l i t e r a r y than h i s m u s i c a l output, Wiedemann was the author of Fido, der unbesorgte Musikant (s.l., n.d.), and l a t e r published another l i t e r a r y work e n t i t l e d Historisch-poetischer Gefangenschaften, bestehend i n Erzehlung von 12 auserlesenen Geschichten (Leipzig, 1690). Owing to the J e s u i t s ' perceived calumny i n this l a t t e r work, Wiedemann was consequently removed from h i s pastoral post. He was s t i l l there i n December 1693, however, f o r he i s i d e n t i f i e d , i n the C h r i s t l i c h e Gedenck-Predigt f o r H e i n r i c h Sigismund, as the pastor i n Ossig. In 1702 Wiedemann was appointed Superintendent by the Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode, where he also served as senior (Oberprediger) and court preacher. He died in Stolberg 1 September 1719. Sigismund Heinrich, Frei h e r r von Bibran und Modlau, according to the c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e p u b l i s h e d w i t h the L e i c h e n p r e d i g t , was born i n 132 The biographical information on Michael Wiedemann i s taken from Gerber, op. c i t . , c o l . 804, and R. E i t n e r Biographisch-bibliographisches Que 1len Lexikon, 11 v o l s , i n 6 (Graz, A u s t r i a : Akademische V e r l a g s Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1959), 10:255. 13 3 Gerber i d e n t i f i e s Wiedemann's b i r t h p l a c e as G e i l s d o r f , and Eitner, on the other hand, gives Geibsdorf as the name of the town. 120 L i e g n i t z on 26 February 1640, and was b a p t i z e d f i v e days l a t e r on 3 March. Although we do not know very much about his e a r l i e s t years, i t i s known that he spent f i v e y e a r s , most l i k e l y i n the mid 1660s, t r a v e l l i n g throughout Europe. From L i e g n i t z , he t r a v e l l e d f i r s t to L e i p z i g and Dresden, subsequently to the Rhineland and the Netherlands. He also spent time in France and northern I t a l y , eventually crossing the Alps into Germany and f i n a l l y returning home. This i t i n e r a n t time was used as grooming period intended to prepare him, through immersion i n foreign customs and languages, for his accession to the baronetcy. He married on 14 November 1 6 6 9 , and in the next twenty-three years fathered twelve sons and six daughters. After a short i l l n e s s Sigismund Heinrich d i e d on 14 September 1693 at the age of f i f t y - t h r e e , s u r v i v e d by two sons, four daughters and h i s wife. His funeral was held on 9 December 1 6 9 3 . 1 3 5 Funeral procedures for Sigismund Heinrich were probably not s i g n i -f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those for Heinrich Posthumus von Reuss. Since there were approximately two-months between the Baron's passing and his b u r i a l , i t should be safe to assume that the body, according to custom, was embalmed at death. Considering h i s s t a t i o n in l i f e , t h i s period was l i k e l y a time o f o f f i c i a l mourning d u r i n g which the body of the Baron 1 Q / The b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Sigismund Heinrich i s derived from the Lebenslauf which was published with the other sections of the Leichenpredigt from 1693. The Leichenpredigt, which consists of more than one hundred pages of sermon, an eight-page Abdankung, a nine-page curriculum vitae, a six-page prosopopoeial poem, various t i t l e pages, an engraving of the c o f f i n and seventy pages of music, i s i n B e r l i n , Berliner Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. p. 1. 1 3 5 I . N. J! Dass das L i e b r e i c h e Andencken GOttes /... TRAUER=REDE, 121 l a y i n s t a t e . As i n the case of H e i n r i c h Posthumus, where there was a sh o r t s e r v i c e i n the co u r t c h a p e l b e f o r e the body was moved to the church, the obsequies f o r Sigismund Heinrich began with a t h i r t y - t h r e e -page "Trauer-Rede," a fun e r a r y o r a t i o n , h e l d i n the "Trauer-Zimmer," presumably at the cou r t . F o l l o w i n g t h i s f i r s t o r a t i o n , the body was c a r r i e d i n procession to the Evangelische Kirche i n Ossig for the funer-al service proper. Before the f u n e r a l sermon, which was based on Psalm 118:17 (Ich werde n i c h t s t e r b e n / sondern leben / und des HErrn Werck verklindigen u.), the f i r s t "Begra'bnis-Concert" composed by M i c h a e l Wiedemann was performed. Because this p a r t i c u l a r composition exhibits no prosopo-p o e i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t i s not necessary here to d i s c u s s i t i n de-t a i l . F o l l o w i n g the f u n e r a l sermon, the second "Begra'bnis Concert" was 137 performed. The composition i s a polychoral piece written for three M. Wiedemann, Begra'bnis=Concert von zehen Stimmen unter denen A l t , Tenor und Bass e t l i c h e B i b l i s c h e Texte v o r s i n g e n f_ welches Zwey Disc a n t e mit einem Trost= und Bet = Choral aus g e i s t l i c h e n K i r c h e n - Gesa'ngen beantworten. Dabey 2 V i o l i n e n und 3 Violen massig darzwischen  spielen bey dem Freyherrlichen Leichen=Begangniss Welches Dem Hochwohl- gebohrnen Herrn ]_ HERRN Sigismund H e i n r i c h F r e y h e r r n von B i b r a n und  Modlau... Den 9. Decembris des 1693sten Jahres i n Ossig gehalten wurde ]_ Vor der P r e d i g t zu M u s i c i r e n gesezt von Michae1 Wiedemann (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 137 M. Wiedemann, Begra'bnis Concert auff 3. Chbren unter welchen 1.  Der Lehr=Chor allerhand B i b l i s c h e Texte i n A l t [ , ] Tenor und Bass nebst  2. F l b t e n v o r s i n g e t J_ Der Glaubens Chor mit e i n e r A r i e aus dem Leichen=Text i.n disca'nten nebst 3. V i o l d i Gamb. einstimmet 3. Die  Seelen Stimme den Choral^ H e r t z l i c h thut mich verlangen i n einem Discant nebst e i n e r Laute (hinterm Sarge verborgen) nachsinget bey dem Frey-h e r r l i c h e n L e i c h b e g a n g n i s s welches Dem hochwohlgebohrnen Herrn Herrn Sigismund H e i n r i c h j_ F r e y h e r r n yon Biebran und Modlau... den 9. Decem-b r i s des 1693 Jahres i n Oszig gehalten wurde Nach der Predigt zu musici-^ ren gesetzt von Michael Wiedemann (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 122 separate performing groups. The f i r s t i s la b e l l e d "Der Lehr Chor" and i s w r i t t e n f o r a l t o , tenor and bass v o i c e s , and f o r two o b b l i g a t o r e -co r d e r s . The t e x t s f o r four of the f i v e v erses sung by t h i s c h o i r are d i r e c t s c r i p t u r a l q u o t a t i o n s from the Old and New Testaments. The second choir is i d e n t i f i e d as "Der Glaubens Chor," presumably represent-ing the congregation, and i s comprised of two sopranos and three v i o l e da gamba. The text f o r the second c h o i r i s d e r i v e d from the f u n e r a l sermon, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the t e x t of Psalm 118:17: "Ich werde n i c h t s t e r b e n / sondern leben." The t h i r d group i s c a l l e d the "Seelen Stimme," which consists of a solo soprano and an accompanying l u t e n i s t . The te x t and music sung by the p e r s o n i f i e d v o i c e of the s o u l i n aug-mented note values i s the chorale "Herzlich thut mich verlangen." The organ p r o v i d e s the basso continuo accompaniment f o r the f i r s t two groups, and an a d d i t i o n a l f i g u r e d bass p a r t i s p r o v i d e d f o r the t h i r d ensemble, with i n d i c a t i o n s i n both continuo p a r t s to suggest to the performers where they were and were not to play. The three groups perform i n a l t e r n a t i o n with one another, beginning f i r s t w i t h the "Lehr Chor," f o l l o w e d by the entrance of the "Glaubens Chor" and f i n a l l y the "Seelen Stimme." The al t e r n a t i n g choirs sing the ve r s e s i n fragments r a t h e r than i n complete statements of the t e x t s . The texts of the corresponding verses are thematically s i m i l a r , and the a p p o s i t i o n of the s c r i p t u r a l , sermonic and c h o r a l e t e x t u a l fragments allows for a three-fold magnification of t h e i r content. At the end of the p i e c e , the "Lehr Chor" and the "Glaubens Chor" share the same text for the la s t verse, the last two lines of which (Das[s] i c h mag f r b l i c h s ingen das Consummatum e s t ) being echoed by the "Seelen Stimme." The 123 a l t e r n a t i o n of material also allows for greater musical v a r i e t y because of the more frequent c o n t r a s t s between the music of the c o n c e r t i n g ensembles: the main musical contrasts are provided by the varied vocal and i n s t r u m e n t a l makeup of each of the three c h o i r s , and a d d i t i o n a l concertato elements are prominently heard between the vocal and i n s t r u -mental bodies within each of the i n d i v i d u a l choirs. That Wiedemann meant to use p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i s e v i d e n t from the t i t l e page of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work. The "Lehr Chor," w i t h i t s t e x t based as i t i s e n t i r e l y on s c r i p t u r e s , r e p r e s e n t s an a b s t r a c t , meta-p h y s i c a l e n t i t y which p r o c l a i m s the Word of God. The sense of the scriptures i s r e f l e c t e d in the text sung by the "Glaubens Chor," which i s w r i t t e n i n such a way as to r e p r e s e n t the members of the congrega-t i o n . The p r o s o p o p o e i a l c o n g r e g a t i o n c o l l e c t i v e l y represented in the music no longer laments the death of the Baron, f i n d i n g instead consola-t i o n i n i t s p r o f e s s e d acknowledgement of s a l v a t i o n , r e s u r r e c t i o n and e t e r n a l l i f e . I t i s worth n o t i n g that some of the t e x t through which the representational congregation of the "Glaubens Chor" expresses i t s s t a t e of c o n s o l a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y d e r i v e d from c o n s o l a t o r y statements previously made in the sermon by the p e r s o n i f i e d Baron. Perhaps i t was Wiedemann's wish tha t , i f the "Glaubens Chor" could be d e p i c t e d as having been consoled by the words a t t r i b u t e d to the Sigismund Heinrich i n the sermon, the r e a l congregation of mourners would s i m i l a r l y allow themselves to f e e l consoled. Wiedemann, unlike Schutz, did not compose the prosopopoeial part of the "Seelen Stimme" in order for i t to correspond to the voice-type of the deceased; rather he decided to express the voice of the s p i r i t with a soprano v o i c e . One can only s p e c u l a t e as to the composer's c r i t e r i a 124 f o r c h o s i n g not to d e p i c t more a c c u r a t e l y the v o i c e q u a l i t y of the Baron. F i r s t , there i s nothing i n the Baron's c u r r i c u l u m v i t a e or i n any o t h e r p a r t s of the lengthy L e i c h e n p r e d i g t to suggest the k i n d of a f f i n i t i v e association between music and the deceased that existed i n the case of H e i n r i c h Posthumus von Reuss. (This suggestion may be supported i n part by the f a c t that i t was the court p a s t o r and not a court Capellmeister or cantor that composed the seventy pages of music, i n a d d i t i o n to most of the f u n e r a l oratory.) I f t h i s i s the case, Wiedemann may not have f e l t the same compulsion as d i d Schutz to personify the deceased to such a degree. As mentioned e a r l i e r , i t was common practice i n the Baroque to depict seraphic voices with the voices of boy sopranos, and i t may be p o s s i b l e that Wiedemann was t r y i n g to project to the congregation less the l i v i n g flesh-and-blood image of the Baron than the image of the seraphic or apotheosized s p i r i t . Were t h i s the case, we would be d e a l i n g then with a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than a n i m a t i o n . I t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e that Wiedemann was governed by s t r i c t l y musical considerations, r e a l i z i n g that in this p a r t i c u l a r per-formance context, of the p o s s i b l e v o i c e types, a soprano v o i c e would stand out as being most c l e a r l y heard as s o l o i s t . Without knowing more pr e c i s e l y what were the musical conditions at the Baron's Court at the time of h i s death, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say to what degree, i f any, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of musical forces affected the composition and performance of the f u n e r a l music. F i n a l l y , one must a l s o c o n s i d e r the m u s i c a l -r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l of the composer and his inventiveness and d i s c r e t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g whatever musical means were r h e t o r i c a l l y most suited to the s i t u a t i o n . What i s most noteworthy about Wiedemann's app l i c a t i o n of musical-125, r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia i s the physical element of placement of the three performing ensembles. Because Wiedemann does not specify a p a r t i -cular l o c a t i o n in the church for either the "Lehr Chor" or the "Glaubens Chor," i t i s most reasonable to assume that they were both p o s i t i o n e d near the organ, as was generally practised at that time. What is most s t r i k i n g about t h i s piece are Wiedemann's d i r e c t i v e s for the posi t i o n i n g of the soprano v o i c e of the "Seelen Stimme" and the accompanying l u t e n i s t : Wiedemann states on the t i t l e page that this t h i r d ensemble 1 3 8 was to perform while "hidden behind the c o f f i n . " Before commenting on the placement of the "Seelen Stimme" and the l u t e n i s t , however, l e t us b r i e f l y mention the l a s t of Wiedemann's three funeral works. The t h i r d and f i n a l composition written by Wiedemann for Sigismund Heinrich's funeral was the German t r a n s l a t i o n of the Consummatum est, 1 3 9 "Es i s t vollbracht." Throughout this work of three verses, the solo soprano, h a r m o n i c a l l y supported by a l u t e , presumably continues to represent the voice of the Baron's soul and sings the opening section of the text. The choir, with the organ r e a l i z i n g the continuo accompani-ment, subsequently echoes t h i s statement i n a homophonic, f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g (SSATB). T h i s type of a l t e r n a t i o n c ontinues phrase by phrase through each of the three v e r s e s , c o n c l u d i n g f i n a l l y w i t h the s o l o soprano's f i n a l u t t e r a n c e of "es i s t v o l l b r a c h t . " As i n the pr e c e d i n g Ibid. "hinterm Sarge verborgen." 1 3 9 . 3M. Wiedemann, Kurtzes Beschluss=Liedgen auff das CONSUMMATUM EST. von 8 Stimmen auff zwey Choren (1.) Ein Discant nebst der Laute (in  der G r u f f t v e r d e c k e t ) i n t o n i r e t welches (2.) Der gantze Chor hernach  wiederholet (Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94). 126 "Begra'bnis-Concert," i t is the physical displacement of the personifying v o i c e of the soul t h a t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c o n c l u d i n g composi-t i o n . Whereas the soprano and the l u t e n i s t had p r e v i o u s l y performed concealed behind the Baron's c o f f i n i n the second c o m p o s i t i o n , Wiede-mann's i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t i t l e page of the l a s t p i e c e r e q u i r e t h a t , t h i s time, the soprano and the l u t e n i s t be "hidden i n the c r y p t . " l 4 n There i s no written description of the Baron's funeral ceremony, though i t is evident that the encoffined body was conveyed to the family crypt sometime between the performances of the second and f i n a l pieces. Wiedemann's graphic musical depiction of the Sigismund Heinrich's animate soul would undoubtedly have made a strong emotional impression on the congregation, just as Schutz's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Heinrich Post-humus did on h i s audience. Although physical displacement of the per-s o n i f y i n g v o i c e s i s the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both Schutz's and Wiedemann's use of prosopopoeia, one might well compare the r h e t o r i -c a l r e s u l t s and levels of success of the respective applications of the trope. Schutz's funeral'music for Heinrich Posthumus has already been discussed in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l , d emonstrating both the p r o f u n d i t y and f a c i l i t y w i t h which Schutz d e p i c t e d the l i v i n g s p i r i t of the Count. There can be l i t t e doubt that Wiedemann's assignment of the personifying v o i c e to a p o s i t i o n behind the c o f f i n and l a t e r i n the c r y p t must have had a powerful dramatic e f f e c t on the congregation, but the composer i n this instance seems to have f a i l e d to use this m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t to achieve a su i t a b l e theological end. In the case of the Musikalische  Exequien, the c o n g r e g a t i o n heard the p r o s o p o p o e i a l v o i c e of H e i n r i c h 1 4 Q I b i d . "...in der G r u f f t verdecket." 127 Posthumus s i n g i n g from the heavens, whereas the p e r s o n i f i e d v o i c e of Sigismund H e i n r i c h was heard always i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the body, f i r s t , where the c o f f i n was p l a c e d f o r the ceremony and f i n a l l y a f t e r the body had been c a r r i e d to the crypt. Wiedemann was no doubt success-f u l i n suggesting to the congregation the concept of l i f e a f t e r death, but seems to have been f a r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n d e p i c t i n g the s p i r i t ' s l e a v i n g of the body, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the t e x t i t s e l f of the f i n a l composition c l e a r l y states that "the s p i r i t i s now with God, the body i n this crypt,"* 4* a statement c l e a r l y inconsistent with what Wiedemann was expressing through the musical prosopopoeia. Although both Schutz and Wiedemann produced extremely v i v i d images of the deceased through t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia, there can be no I / O question that Schutz was the superior musicus poeticus. 4 "Die S e e l ' i s t nun bey GOtt / der L e i b i n d i e s e r Gruf f t . . . . " I / O The manner i t s e l f i n which Wiedemann s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p p l i e d s c r i p t u r a l and chorale texts in the f i r s t composition, s c r i p t u r a l and other n o n - s c r i p t u r a l t e x t s i n the second c o m p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as the p r o s o p o p o e i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased i n the second and t h i r d c o m p o s i t i o n s , suggests that the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Schutz's and Wiedemann's music are more than mere coincidence. 128 CHAPTER IV AFFECTIVE ELEMENTS OF COMPOSITION: FIGURENLEHRE AND METRE The Figurenlehre, the doctrine of figures, has been one of the main focuses of modern s t u d i e s of m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c i n the Baroque. H i s -t o r i c a l l y , the re l a t i o n s h i p between musical and o r a t o r i c a l figures was f i r s t c o d i f i e d i n the t h e o r e t i c a l works of Joachim Burmeister i n 1599, 1601 and 1606.^ A prac t i c e c u l t i v a t e d p r i m a r i l y in Germany, the a p p l i -c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n m u s i c a l compositions was an important consideration both for composers and th e o r i s t s throughout the seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. The number and currency of d i s c u s s i o n s of m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h century, caused i n part by changes i n musical styles and concepts of musical structure i n combination with the ge n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p h i l o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the sch o o l s . By the time of Johann Adolf Scheibe's and Johann Nikolaus Forkel's writings i n 2 the second h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h century, the F i g u r e n l e h r e as a '''The f i r s t of Burmeister's t r e a t i s e s to deal w i t h m u s i c a l -r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i s Hypomnematum musicae p o e t i c a e (Rostock, 1599). The i n i t i a l l i s t of twenty-two figures was supplemented and developed two years l a t e r i n h i s Mus i c a a u t o s c h e d i a s t i k e (Rostock, 1601) and Musica poetica (Rostock, 1606). Scheibe's writings on musical rhetoric appeared over a number of years i n C r i t i s c h e r Musicus (Leipzig, 1737-90). Forkel's discussions of m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c are found i n h i s A l l g e m e i n e Ge_£C_hi1£h_te der Mujsik 1 2 9 p r a c t i c a l compositional and a n a l y t i c a l system was e f f e c t i v e l y at an end. B e g i n n i n g w i t h A r n o l d Schering's study of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l 3 f i g u r e s from 1908, a v a r i e d assortment of books, d i s s e r t a t i o n s and a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the s u b j e c t have appeared i n the t w e n t i e t h century. Some of these are c h i e f l y reference works, 4 while others are p r i m a r i l y comparative or catalogic i n nature."* A number of the studies have t r e a t e d m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c i n a f a i r l y g e n e r a l sense, 6 and a r e l a -t i v e l y large portion have focused on the works of s p e c i f i c t h e o r i s t s and composers. 7 S t i l l o ther s t u d i e s have concentrated mainly on s p e c i f i c (Gbttingen, 1788). A. Schering, "Die Lehre von den musikalischen Figuren," Kirchenmu- s i k a l i s c h e s Jahrbuch 21 (1908): 106-14. 4 S e e A. Schmitz, " F i g u r e , m u s i k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e , " Die Musik i n  G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart (1955), 4, c o l s 176-83; G. J. Buelow. "Music, Rhetoric, and the Concept of the A f f e c t i o n s ; a Selective Bibliography," Notes 30 (1973): 250-59; G. J. Buelow, " R h e t o r i c and Music," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 15, pp. 793-803. ^See, for example, D. Bar t e l , Handbuch der musikalischen Figuren- lehre (Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1985). 6See Schering, op. c i t . ; W. G u r l i t t , "Musik und Rhetork," Helicon 5 (1944): 67-86; H.-H. Unger, Die Beziehungen zwischen Musik und Rhetorik im 16.-18. Jahrhundert (Wurzburg: K. T r i l t s c h , 1941). 7Some of the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l studies that deal with t h e o r e t i c a l sources i n c l u d e : A. Schmitz, "Die F i g u r e n l e h r e i n den t h e o r e t i s c h e n Werken J. G. Walthers," Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft 19 (1952): 79-100; M. Ruhnke, Joachim B u r m e i s t e r : e i n B e i t r a g zur M u s i k l e h r e urn 1600, L a n d e s i n s t i t u t f u r Musikforschung, v o l . 5 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : Baren-r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1955); F. Feldmann, "Mattheson und R h e t o r i k , " B e r i c h t  iiber den i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r musikwissenschaftier Kongress, Hamburg 1956, ed. by W. Gerstenberg et a l . ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1957): 99-103; F. Feldmann, "Musiktheoretiker in eigenen Kompositionen; Untersuchungen am Werk des T i n c t o r i s , Adam von F u l d a und Nucius," Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 1 (1957): 39-65; F. Feldmann, "Das 'Opusculum b i p a r t i t u m ' des Joachim Thuringus (1625), besonders i n seinen Beziehungen zu Joh. Nucius (1613)," Archiv flir Musikwissenschaft 5 (1958): 123-42; B. V. R i v e r a , German Music Theory i n the E a r l y 17th 130 composit ions, composi t ional precedures and even s p e c i f i c f igures . There have yet to be any m u s i c o l o g i c a l studies of the a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f igures i n a s p e c i f i c genus of occas ional music. Such an undertaking would of course be a formidable task, for i n order for the re su l t s of an examination of a s ing le type to be of much value , the s c h o l a r would need a v a l i d means by which the d a t a c o u l d be c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s e d . C o m p a r i s o n w i t h the musica l r h e t o r i c of another genus would be the most l i k e l y method of e v a l u a t i o n , but t h i s would require a comprehensive understanding of at least one other genus. With Century: The Trea t i s e s of Johannes L i p p i u s , Studies i n Musicology, ed. by G. J . Bue low, no. 17, (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI Research P r e s s , 1980). Studies that focus on the works of s p e c i f i c composers inc lude G. Toussaint , "Die Anwendung der musika l i s c h - r h e t o r i s chen F i g u r e n i n den Werken von H e i n r i c h Schutz" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Mainz U n i v e r s i t y , 1949); H. Rauhe, "Dichtung und Mus ik i n w e l t l i c h e n V o k a l w e r k J . H. S c h e i n s : S t i l i s t i s c h e und kompos i t i o n s t e c h n i s c h e Untersuchungen zum Wort-Ton-Verhal tn i s im L ich te der r h e t o r i s c h ausgerichteten Sprach- und M u s i k t h e o r i e des 17. J a h r h u n d e r t s " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Hamburg U n i v e r s i t y , 1959 [ I960]) ; J . Mii 1 l e r - B l at t a u , Die Kompos i t i o n s l e h r e  Schl i tzens i n der Fas sung s e i n e s S c h u l e r s C h r i s t o p h B e r n h a r d , 2nd ed. (C a s s e l , B a s e l , P a r i s , London , New Y o r k : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1963); A. S c h m i t z Die B i l d l i c h k e i t in der wortgebundenen Mus ik J . S. Bachjs, 4 th ed. (Laaber: Laaber V e r l a g , 1983). 8 Works which focus p r i m a r i l y on the m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c of s i n g l e compositions inc lude C. V. P a l i s c a , "Ut o r a t o r i a musicae: the R h e t o r i c a l B a s i s of M u s i c a l M a n n e r i s m , " i n The Meaning of M a n n e r i s m , ed. by F . W. R o b i n s o n and S. G. N i c h o l s (Hanover, N. H . : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f New England, 1972), pp. 37-65; U. Kirkendale , "The Sources of Bach's Mus ica l  O f f e r i n g : The I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a of Q u i n t i l i a n , " The J o u r n a l o f the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l Society 33, no. 1 (1980): 88-141. The r h e t o r i c o f fugue as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e i s d e a l t w i t h i n G. G. B u t l e r , "Fugue and R h e t o r i c , " J o u r n a l o f M u s i c Theory 21 (1977): 49-109. Studies which deal mainly with s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l d e t a i l s i n c l u d e C. D a h l h a u s , "Die F i g u r a e s u p e r f i c i a l e s i n den T r a k t a t e n C h r i s t o p h Bernhards," i n Ber icht liber den i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r mus ikwissenschaf t l i cher K o n g r e s s , Bamberg 1_9_53, ed. by W. Brennecke et a l . ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1954). pp. 135-38; G. M a s s e n k e i l , "Die W i e d e r -ho lungs f iguren in den Orator ien G. C a r i s s i m i s , " Arch iv fiir Musikwissen- schaft 13 (1956): 42-60. 131 regard to the present study, for example, the true s i g n i f i c a n c e of the role of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures in seventeenth-century German funeral music could best be seen i n the l i g h t of another, preferably contrasting yet contemporary, body of ad hoc l i t e r a t u r e -- such as wedding, inaugural or coronation music -- and even then only i f the r h e t o r i c s of the two genres should prove to be at variance with one another. A possible a l t e r n a t i v e method of evaluation might be the compari-son of figures used in funerary compositions and the music's o r a t o r i c a l counterparts, that i s , the funeral sermon and the Abdankung. But this would again involve d e t a i l e d r h e t o r i c a l analyses of a large number of o r a t i o n s i n o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n whether or not there was indeed a demonstrable tendency towards f a v o u r i n g c e r t a i n f i g u r e s over others. The Baroque r h e t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e s themselves o f f e r l i t t l e assistance in t h i s respect. Christoph Weissenborn, i n h i s discussion of e l o c u t i o in Q his P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner, simply advises the novice parentator to study and imitate the works of the best German o r a t o r s , ^ and to refer to the various r h e t o r i c manuals of the day.^ In spite of these inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s possible to view in C. Weissenborn, P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner welcher die p r a c t i c a b e l ^ sten Kunst=Reguln von der I n v e n t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n und E l o c u t i o n derer nach der h e u t i g e n Mode e i n g e r i c h t e t e n Abdanckungen bey_ o f f e n t l i c h e n Trauer = S o l e n n i e n zu Befbrderung seiner Oratorischen Collegiorum durch deut l i c h e Exempe 1 er l e u t e r t . (Jena: Heinrich Christoph Crbker, 1707), pp. 177-84. Weissenborn begins this t h i r d section on e l o c u t i o (p. 177) by d e f i n i n g i t as the "mit g e s c h i c k t e n Worten und Redens=Arten aus-geschmiickten Ausarbeitung derer disponirten Thematum." ("...elaboration of the ordered s u b j e c t s , decorated with s k i l f u l words and manners of speech.") 1 0 I b i d . , p. 183. U I b i d . , p. 184. 132 a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y the r o l e of a s m a l l number of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s used i n f u n e r a r y compositions. Because the t e x t s of most funeral music depict a s p i r i t u a l t r a n s i t i o n from this world to the next, the a u t h o r s ' c h o i c e of words would have to demonstrate the o p p o s i t e natures of the two realms. The f i g u r e s that come under the g e n e r a l heading of hypotyposis seem to be most e f f e c t i v e i n this regard. Catabasis and Anabasis The hypotypotic representation of temporal and heavenly worlds i s best achieved through the r h e t o r i c a l figures catabasis and anabasis in that they are d e s c r i p t i v e and a n t i t h e t i c a l to each other. Catabasis i s defined by Athanasius Kircher i n h i s Musurgia u n i v e r s a l i s (Rome, 1650) as follows: C a t a b a s i s or descent i s a m u s i c a l p e r i o d , whereby we express the opposite a f f e c t of the preceding [i.e., anabasis], as of servitude, i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , depression, and moreover of most i n f e r n a l things, as i n M a s s a i n u s ' s 'I am however v e r y i n s i gn i f i c an t ' and Massentius's 'the l i v i n g have descended into h e l l . ' 2 M a u r i t i u s Johann Vogt, i n h i s Cone lave t h e s a u r i magnae a r t i s mus i c a e (Prague, 1719), sheds a l i t t l e more l i g h t on the m u s i c a l nature of the figure: "Catabasis or descent exists when one descends with the voice, 13 as with the text Tie descends into he l l ' . " The figure i s also treated i n much .the same manner i n the w r i t i n g s of Thomas B a l t h a s a r Janowka, A. K i r c h e r , Musurgia u n i v e r s a l i s (Rome 1650), 50. 8, p. 145. "Catabasis sive descensus periodus harmonica est, qua oppositos p r i o r i affectus pronunciamus s e r v i t u t i s , h u m i l i t a t i s , depressionis a f f e c t i b u s , atque i n f i m i s rebus exprimendes, ut i l l u d Massaini: Ego autem humiliatus sum nimis, & i l l u d Massentii: descenderunt i n infernum viventes." Cited i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 115. M. J. Vogt, Cone lave t h e s a u r i magnae a r t i s mus i c a e (Prague, 1719), p. 150. " C a t a b a s i s descensus cum vox d e s c e n d i t , ut cum t e x t u d e s c e n d i t ad i n f e r n o s . " C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 115. 133 Johann Walther and Meinrad Spiess.* 4 M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anabasis or ascensio, as Kircher indicates, i s the opposite of catabasis. He describes anabasis as "a musical period through which we express something exalted, something l o f t y , or noble and eminent things, as i n moral matters (Christ ascending into heaven, etc.)."*"' The term i s again defined in i t s more musical sense in Vogt's Cone lave t h e s a u r i : "Anabasis i s an ascent, whereby we ascend i n v o i c e and t e x t , as i n 'he ascends i n t o heaven'."* 6 As w i t h c a t a b a s i s , 17 anabasis i s dealt with i n the writings of Janowka, Walther and Spiess. When c o n s i d e r i n g the treatment of t e x t s which may suggest the a p p l i c a t i o n of anabasis or c a t a b a s i s , i t should be kept i n mind that composers did not s l a v i s h l y apply these figures to every text that was s u g g e s t i v e of ascent or descent. I t was p o s s i b l e , f o r example, to achieve s i m i l a r musical sensations by i n s t i t u t i n g appropriate contrasts in dynamics, metre, rhythm, or tempo. These elements could be treated either independently or i n conjunction with one or more of the others, possibly including, of course, anabasis and catabasis. Depending on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of p h r a s i n g and melodic shape, or of * 4 F o r the d e f i n i t i o n s of c a t a b a s i s given by Janowka, Walther and S p i e s s , see B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 115-16. *^A. K i r c h e r , op. c i t . , 50. 8. p. 145. "...periodus harmonica, quam [ s i c ] e x a l t a t i o n e m , ascensionem v e l res a l t a s & eminentes exprimimus, ut i l l u d Moralis (Ascendens Christus i n altum etc.)." Cited i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 84. 1 f\ M. J. Vogt, op. c_i_t., p. 150. "Anabasis ascensus e s t , ut cum voce & t e x t u ascendimus: ut ascend i t i n caelum." C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op.  c i t . , 85. * 7See B a r t e l , op. c i t . , pp. 115-16. 134 keeping the melody wit h i n the ambitus of the mode and the range of the singers, often overruled a s t r i c t adherence to a continuing ascending or descending melodic l i n e otherwise implied by the text. In the opening measures of Johann Pezel's four-part canon, for example, written on the 1 8 death of Stephan C h r i s t i a n Dedekind i n 1672, 1 0 the c a t a b a t i c melodic l i n e should i d e a l l y have continued i t s descent for the duration of the e n t i r e phrase "Es s c h a l l t d i e gantze Welt von l a u t e r E i t e l k e i t , " the lowest note corresponding to the f i n a l s y l l a b l e of text. (See Example 1.) However, i n order to keep w i t h i n the ranges of the v o i c e s as w e l l as to shape the m e l o d i c l i n e , P e z e l a l l o w s a c o n c l u d i n g ascent of a minor t h i r d on " E i t e l k e i t . " Example 1. J. Pezel: "Es s c h a l l t die gantze Welt von lauter E i t e l -k e i t , " measures 1-7. J. Pezel, Des Menschen-Lebens E i t e l k e i t / Als Der Wohl-Erenveste / Vor-Achtbare und Wohlgelahrte Hr Stephan C h r i s t i a n DEDEKIND j_ S. S. Theologize Cultor, & Philosophiae Baccal. Auff dieser l b b l . U n i v e r s i t a t  zu L e i p z i g j_ den 18. Junij des 1672sten Jahres j_ mit einem ansehnliche  Leich=Begangnus j_ C h r i s t l i c h beerdiget wurde [_ Dem Seligen J_ a l s einem  werthe Mitgliede j_ zu steten Ehren j_ entwarffs In einer Trauer=Ode j_ das Collegium Musicum.... [at the end of the composition] In honorem atqve  sempiternam memoriam beate DEFUNCTI compositus, proecedentiq, huic Odae  accommodatus h JOHANNE PEZEL10, Direct. Colleg. (s . l . [Leipzig?], 1672). Gotha, F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k F i l l 34 (5). See Chapter 3, footnote 39 above. 135 The degree of p e r s u a s i v e n e s s o f a n a b a s i s and c a t a b a s i s was a l s o governed by the form of composit ion i n which the f igures were used. As one would expect, the a p p l i c a t i o n of such f igures was most r e s t r i c t e d i n c o m p o s i t i o n s w r i t t e n i n a c a n t i o n a l s t y l e i . e . , s t r o p h i c . Because the mus ic i t s e l f d i d not change from v e r s e to v e r s e , the composer c u s t o m a r i l y focused h i s a t t e n t i o n on s e t t i n g the t e x t o f the f i r s t v e r s e . Thus the c a t a b a s i s used as s i m p l e w o r d - p a i n t i n g i n Johann Hermann Sche in ' s music w r i t t e n i n 1625 f o r the f u n e r a l o f Anna M a r i a C o r v i n u s was c o n c e i v e d f o r the open ing t e x t , "Herr d e i n Ohre zu m i r neige."*^ (See Example 2.) Any f u r t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the melody and text in subsequent verses would most l i k e l y have been t o t a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l . However, m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l so lec i sms, pure and s imple , d i d o c c u r i n the use o f these two q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d f i g u r e s . An exce l l ent example of th i s can be seen in the anonymously composed a r i a "Fleug mein Seelgen auf zu Gott" from 1664, a prosopopoeial composit ion i n which the solo soprano voice portrays the deceased Maria E l i s a b e t h Thomas. (See Example 3.) The key e v o c a t i v e words of the t ex t - r Fleug ("fly"), auf zu Gott ("up to God") - - uncond i t i ona l ly require some J . H. S c h e i n , Cupressus l u c t u s a c e r b i o r i s . . . pro c a p u l o . . . Annae M a r i a e , p u e l l u l a e s u p r a a e t a t u l a m . . . Dn. M. Andreae C o r v i n i . . . f i l i o -lae.. . 4. A p r i l i s , anno M.DC.XXV. mortuae... emblematis music i s vermicu-1 a t a . . . . ( L e i p z i g : s. n. [F. L a n c k i s c h ] , 1625). Z w i c k a u , R a t s s c h u l b i b -l i o t h e k , M. 6. 6. 32. 20 Exceptions would be those works i n which the tenor of the textual r h e t o r i c r e m a i n s more or l e s s the same i n each v e r s e . An example of th i s i s F r i e d r i c h Funcke's "Ach H e r t z e l e i d ! " (See f u l l reference foot-note 25 below.) 21 • • • Anon. , Die r u f f e n d e Stimm des h i m m l i s c h e n Br 'aut igams . . . zu . . . l i ! l £ e . £ ia£ f i££} ! . tBHiL d e r . . . F r a u e n M a r i a E l i s a b e t h a d e s . . . H e r r n Iohann Thomasen... Ehefrauen, a l s d i e s e l b e . . . d i e s e s . . . 1 6 6 4 . I a h r s . . . v e r s c h i e d e n (Regensburg: C. F i s c h e r , 1664). B e r l i n , Deutsche S taa t sb ib l i tohek , 4 i n Ee 651. 136 sort of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anabasis, either as an ascending melodic l i n e or l e a s t some i n t e r v a l l i c i n t i m a t i o n of upwards motion. Contrary to common practice and good taste, the composer ineptly sets the text to a s t e a d i l y descending l i n e . Example 2. J. H. Schein: "Herr d e i n Ohre zu mir neigen," measures 1-4. \Wx~ Ae«r> 5^ *fr J*^ T '^1* ^ C A * <L*-\not"t w i c k e\r»w\T>\ / H e r r d « t ^ O U r e z u rot'r n a i .^a- ex Wore rmcU l i n m a l / ~&e«r* icW W "axm w n d Example 3. Anon.: "Fleug mein Seelgen auf zu Gott," measures 1-2. M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l catabasis i n funeral music i s most often asso-ciated with two general types of text. One concerns personal s u f f e r i n g and sorrow; the other d e a l s w i t h matters of death and our t r a n s i t o r y earthly existence. In the f i r s t instance, catabasis i s used to enhance the t e x t u a l p o r t r a y a l of the mourners' laments on the l o s s of the deceased. One example of t h i s can be seen i n the Cantus of Severus Gastorius's "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich fast gantz entseelet" (SATB), where the t h i r d and f o u r t h phrases of the f i r s t verse, "Mein T r o s t und Stab, mein gantz Verlangen, I s t durch den Tod dahin gegangen," are set to a 137 w i n d i n g bu t c l e a r l y d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e . (See Example 4.) An even c l e a r e r example can be seen i n M a r t i n S e i d e l ' s t r e a t m e n t o f the Cantus for the phrase "Ja a l l e s Lebens lus t verdorben" i n h i s f o u r - p a r t "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach L e i d und Schmertzen!" (SATB), where the c a t a b a t i c l i n e , w h i c h c o v e r s a f u l l o c t a v e , b e g i n s p r e c i p i t o u s l y w i t h downward leap o f a pe r fec t four th before c o n t i n u i n g i t s descent. (See Example 5, measures 9-10.) Example 4. S. G a s t o r i u s : "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der m i c h f a s t g a n t z e n t s e e l e t , " measures 1-2. f 1) - — |—_ Q - 1 I 1 * 1 1 . , •J- p i i + ' " ° S. G a s t o r i u s , K l a g - und T r a u e r - G e s p r a c h bey L e i c h - B e g a n g n u s s d e s s . . . H e r r n W i l k e n von B e r g l a s e n . . . den 18. A u g u s t i des 1679s ten  Jahres. . . i n e i n e r A r i e gese tze t (Jena: Johann Werther , 1679). Munich , Bayer i sche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , S l g . Her 0 238/5. 2 3 M . S e i d e l , K1 ag_- und T r o s t - L i e d ^ n we 1 c h e n . . .De s H e r r n DanDechan t s . . . a 1 s . . . W i t t b e r s e i n e r E h e l i e b s t e n t b d l i c h e n H i n t r i t t h e r t z - und s c h m e r t z l i c h bek l ag t ; dargegen aber auss Gottes Wort s i c h k r a f f t i g - l i c h wiederumb t rb 's te t und a u f f r i c h t e t In e i n e r ger ingfug igen Poes ie und M e l o d i a v e r f a s s e t ( s . l . , s .n . , s .d . ) . M u n i c h , B a y e r i s h e S t a a t s b i b l i o -t h e k , S l g . H e r . 0 2 3 8 / 1 2 . 1 3 8 Example 5. M. S e i d e l : "Ach T r a u r i g k e i t ! Ach Le i d und Schmertzen," continued. iii i r a f p r f r r r r J JJ ^ r J J — j J —I1 ,.1 ,J s r-^ T 1* !U ,—. roe;«ex EW \;eV%\e« T«n' -0-4 =4 S p e c i f i c words e x p r e s s i v e of an anguished e m o t i o n a l s t a t e are t y p i c a l l y s e t to some s o r t o f c a t a b a s i s . Schmertz ("pain"), f o r instance, appears r a t h e r frequently i n these laments and i s commonly set to a d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e , as can be r e a d i l y seen i n the second phrase of Severus Gastorius's "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich f a s t gantz ent-o / seelet." (See Example 6.) For the most part, the lamentive text "was empfind i c h doch vor b i t t e r n Schmertz!", w i t h only s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n , i s se t to a s t e a d i l y d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e i n the Cantus from e " t o e", the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of which i s p a r a l l e l e d t o l e s s e r degrees i n the 25 • A l t u s and Bassus. Of c o u r s e , t h e s e d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c passages are r h e t o r i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e to any t e x t s e x p r e s s i n g g r i e f , such as the Gast o r i u s , op. c i t . 25 • S i m i l a r m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t of "pain" can be found i n works by o t h e r composers, among them F r i e d r i c h Funcke, H e i n r i c h Schwemmer and M a r t i n S e i d e l . See "Works C i t e d " f o r F. Funcke, Klag=und  T r o s t = Z e i l e n . . . (Luneburg, 1665); H. Schwemmer, T e x t - L i e d l i b e r den  s e l i g s t e n H i n t r i t t . . . ( L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661); S e i d e l , op. c i t . 139 f i r s t and f i n a l phrases of the opening verse of F r i e d r i c h Funcke's music for the funeral of Leonhard von Dassel i n 1665. (See Example 7.) Example 6. S. G a s t o r i u s : "0 T r a u e r - F a l l ! Der mich f a s t gantz entseelet," measures 1-2. Example 7. F. Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 9-12. rf-4 1 *<•—•—=-= • 1 : j — • — — n ft f r r ^ I I I 1 , f ' ' r = ,r »> »•>• ^ A<V. C- ftcW. ttw \ix -- W A . <}> »•> a , | ~ - Wd-j > J »,). EEEpE •fed. i T3 1 r f .WA. 1 | f _ | . . = = = j AcV f Ac>N tt^T.* _\.aCe». • "VswllrV*- <^u««.\Cs U.nS ? Pj,^ ^ ftcV \ W W__Yf<A. F. Funcke, Klag=und T r o s t = Z e i l e n / iiber den s c h m e r t z l i c h e n  H i n t r i t Des Weiland j_ Wohl=Edlen j_ Vesten / Gross=Achtbaren und Wohlfiir-nehmen Herrn j_ Herrn Leonhard von Das s e l j_ Vornehmen und u h r - a l t e n  Beschlechter a l l h i r ]_ Welcher durch einen unverhoften und fruh-zeitigen / jdoch h b c h t s = [ s e l i ? ] g e n H i n r i s s des Todes den 12. J a n u a r i i i n disem i t z t l a u f f enden 1665 Jahre d i s e Kummer=volie Welt gesegnet [_ und der  Seelen nach / si c h Himmel-an geschwungen / Aus tifst-schuldigem j_ auch  h e r t z l i c h e m M i t l e i d e n [_ Wi^ e auch A l l e n j_ liber disem unverhof ten  Todes=Fall schmertzlich Betriibeten ]_ zu Trost / und dinst-freundlichem  Gefallen... j_ geschriben und abgesungen von FRIDERICO FUNCCIO, Cantore  Schole S e n a t o r i a e (Luneburg: s.n., 1665). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358 13/15. 140 The second a p p l i c a t i o n of catabasis shows that the figure was i n no way r e s t r i c t e d to depictions of the mourning congregation. Of greater r h e t o r i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l importance in these compositions, judging by the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of cases, was the use of t h i s f i g u r e as a means of p o r t r a y i n g l i f e and death on e a r t h . In h i s r e f e r e n c e to t r a n s i t o r y l i f e , with varying degrees of descending melodic motion i n a l l v o i c e s of the f i v e - p a r t "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?" (SSATB), Johann Rosenmuller writes that i t i s "Nur Elend, Jammer, Angst 97 und Noth." (See Example 8.) Earth, in t h i s context a l i t e r a r y symbol of t r a n s i t o r y l i f e , i s also a word which composers saw as being suitable for settings with catabatic melodies. The opening interrogative in this composition i s also set to a p r i m a r i l y descending melodic l i n e , depicts ing at once the baseness of this e a r t h / l i f e while musically implying an answer to the r h e t o r i c a l question i t s e l f . Contributing to the e f f e c t of this figure i s Rosenmuller's decision not to employ the r i s i n g melodic i n f l e c t i o n usual to m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s of t e x t u a l q u e s t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y Johann Pezel applies catabasis to the beginning of his four-part canon 98 "Es s c h a l l t die gantze Welt von lauter E i t e l k e i t , " while Johann Georg L e i b n i t z , w r i t i n g somewhat more f r e e l y though no l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y , p r o t r a c t s h i s c a t a b a s i s over two phrases of t e x t , "Weg mit D i r , du 99 falsche Welt! Du falsches Heergetummel." (See Example 9.) 27 J. Rosenmuller, Letzter Abschied j_ Des Ehrenvesten j_ Vorachtbarn /_ Wolgelahrten und Wohlweisen Herrn Bartholoma'i Hayns j_ Welcher nach Got tes u n e r f o r s c h l i c h e m Ra_th und W i l l e n den 7_^  Ma_i i^ m Jah r 1650. i.n C h r i s t o seinem ErK>s_er d i e s e Wel_t gesegnet. Und den 9j_ Hernach mit ansehnliche Begleitung i n seine Ruhestatt getragen warden j_ Zu Bezeigung seines C h r i s t l i c h e n M i t l e i d e n s e y l f e r t i g a u f f g e s e t z t von Johann Rosenmiiller ( L e i p z i g : F r i e d r i c h Lanckisch's Erben, 1650). Gotha, For-schungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358, 2 of Musicalia. 2 8 ' Peze 1, op. c i t . 141 Example 8. J. Rosenmuller: "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", measures 1-3. i f : p r J d< J J i " : , , t , ^— Example 9. J. G. L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit D i r , du f a l s c h e Welt!", measures 1-3. A W s • "fervor -t v 1* y rt gr~ VldH'. CaWW^ Wso^a -c\\ VMAt-, VnrAif -% • —• •—• -0 * • * # J VtL«rv —- Vy-,^U< -w n • • ^ « l if— — p \0 — \M«M\ > , -PoWe Vies _ .-VCY^W>«.V "XC-U K ^ K W i t W M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l catabasis was most often applied to passages of text in which death or dying i s mentioned. The figure i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate here i n that the descending line can be r e a d i l y understood as being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l weakness and i n f i r m i t y ; dying, death and interment; h e l l and damnation. A f i n e example of t h i s i s to be found, once again, i n Rosenmu'ller's "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden?" (See Example 10.) Immediately following a b r i e f m elodic ascent on the words ''So bald w i r nur geboren werden," 29 • J. G. L e i b n i t z , E c k e l , Ob der e i t l e n Welt empfangen / und nach JESU s e h n l i c h = getragenes Verlangen Des... H. Iohann-Georg L e i b n i t z . . . Weiland / P f a r r e r zu Rasch und V i c a r i i i n A l t d o r f f i Anfangs von ihm s e l b s t eigenhandig a u f g e s e t z e t : j e t z o aber, nach seinem den 3. M a r t i i d i e s e s Jahrs j_ geschehenem se 1 igem A b l e i b e n ]_ Zum Druck b e f o r d e r t (Nuremberg: Wolfgang Eberhard Felsecker, 1671). Zwickau, RatsschuTBTb^ l i o t h e k , M. 53, 6. 142 the melodic l i n e reverses d i r e c t i o n and descends to the text "da geht es an biss i n den Todt." In this instance, the change of melodic d i r e c t i o n emphasizes both the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death and the proximity l i f e and death. Other compositions which i n t h i s way mention the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of c o r p o r e a l death i n c l u d e works by Jakob Scheiffelhut and Heinrich 31 Schwemmer. C a t a b a s i s i s a p p l i e d by Schwemmer to suggest corporeal death and b u r i a l w i t h the te x t "Es grabet allgemach der Todt" i n h i s c o n s o r t song "Hie l i e g i c h i i b e r h a u f f t mit Schmertzen." (See Example 11.) Example 10. J. Rosenmuller: "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", measures 4-6. ^ , r r r / J J 7 m „ Sa VaU-Wir r\ur ^atooTCn wt/f .den / da M an \>;^ ^ ,jei\ o r y 1 1 I i t i i =\r 1 „ „ \ \^  V ^ ^ ' i J J J J i J y J i .den/ da. eji»v K ^ ,„ d c n J. S cheiffelhut, Die urn die Sterbens-Lehr bittende und zum Leben  und Tod Gott ergebene Seele mit ihrem freudigen Welt-Valet. Der weiland  J a c o b i n a Thurmin...zu l e t z t - s c h u l d i g e n Ehren...in Noten gebracht, das  erste von Jacob Scheiffelhut, das andere von Daniel Merk (Augsburg: J. J. Schbnigk, 1693). Kempten/Allgau, Kirchenbibliothek der Evangelisch-L u t h e r i s c h e n P f arramt St. Mang, V. 3. 16. c. 31 • • H. Schemmer, T e x t - L i e d u'ber den ££j^g_££ en H i n t r l t t und bey C h r i s t l i c h e r Bestattung der E d l e n und T u g e n d r e i c h s t e n Frauen Marien= Magdalenen /_ gebohrnen PELLERINNEN / Des_ Edlen und Vesten Junckherrn Benedict Winckler... Eh=S cha t z e s... ( L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661). Nuremberg,.Stadtbibliothek, W i l l II 1208.4°. 143 Example 11. H. Schwemmer: "Hie l i e g i c h u'berhaufft mit Schmer-tzen," measures 13-15. | f c = ^ =3=f j p J J J J J ]" .1 J J J J P J i j , . L . 1 i 1 , ••' 1 • •• • | •••• \ J 1 • 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 J - ' * * ) J * 1 L H i r 1 I j J J J J ' j J r r P p i. 1 r* J J J J i •> J  r i i i f l r f J J • p 1 rJ e — t — U - f 1 r4 f t=J r i * . In contrast with catabasis, m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anabasis was used in Baroque f u n e r a l music mainly to p o r t r a y t e x t u a l aspects of joy and c o n s o l a t i o n , s a l v a t i o n and transcendence, God and Heaven, C h r i s t and resurrection. The gradual quickening and v i t a l i z i n g e f f e c t of musical-r h e t o r i c a l anabasis can be e a s i l y seen in F r i e d r i c h Funcke's s e t t i n g of the text "schbnes Kl ingen hb'ren wir, 0 Wonn und Freud." 3 2 (See Example 12.) Contributing a d d i t i o n a l l y to the joyous a f f e c t i n Funcke's work i s the presence of t r i p l e metre, the t h i c k e n i n g v o c a l t e x t u r e and increasing dynamic l e v e l . Anabasis on a smaller scale i s used s i m i l a r l y i n Johann Hermann Schein's "Das i s t meine Freude," where he employs shor t a n a b a t i c f i g u r a t i o n s on the word "Freude" and, l a t e r on i n the reference to God, "und meine Zuversicht." 3 3 (See Example 13.) Funcke, op. c i t . 33 J. H. Schein, Symbolum oder T a g l i c h e r Trost=Spruch / Psalm 73.  v e r s . 28. M i t welchem ]_ a u f f s e i n e n l a n g w i e r i g e n C r e u t z - und Stech-b e t t l e i n ]_ sic h getrbstet / ^ Herr Vincentius Schmuck...Mit 5^ Stimmen sampt dem General-Bass... ( L e i p z i g : Georg R i t z s c h , 1628). G b t t i n g e n , N i e d e r s a c h s i s c h e S t a a t s - und U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 4° Cone. fun. 252/27. 144 Example 12. F. Funcke: "Ach! H e r t z e l e i d , " measures 18-21. H 1 5 j -Jy—j * f = f " J] Wore* t O iK.a.- i J. . J , , ', P, — J- H ita • • P • • r , ... . : Wt>re.ry 1 ^ \*Jo*viO u.v\d -^<"«LW<^ - • a A, .it.! .1 n J & J i i 1 l Tt 1 J ' *t>l. J tto ^ — ^ — e S o d Wofws1 und. freed* ia,.—ft- 1  ff, o •—,d w i f.. iiJ •••• I \ . •• 1>—P ftd i^iJi ••••r ••Jto — Vorc^  WW1 / Y 4^ 1 -4^ -5—" p—*s p —p p . ^ ^ m 4 M • ^ j Example 13. J . H. Schein: "Das i s t meine Freude," measures 1-4. -tm 1 •Pre**- _ _ , dt Fre*^. . . . . . . *< L i n i, i m - — — 1 l i f t ! 1 fr«*~ d* n n r u n =4 x J n i i J T J J J o = T — P T 1 Free*. _ . „_ dt-Tre**„ _ d*. j _ j d * y— A ^ j H u _ a o _ foj. u bo ta " - m — - o £ r * ^ de 1 ' A p o — ° - • ° l - e  Textual references to God are often set to anabatic melodies. The f i g u r e s may appear as b r i e f ascending motives f o r the word i t s e l f , or the anabasis may u n f o l d over a longer p e r i o d of time as i n M e l c h i o r Franck's f o u r - p a r t (SATB) f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n of 1614, " I s t Got f i i r tt 3 A-uns." (See Example 14.) In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case the m e l o d i c ascent M. Franck, Trostreicher Text, auss dem achten Ca p i t e l der E p i s t e l  P a u l i an d i e Rbmer. so bey C h r i s t l i c h e r L e i c h b e s t a t t u n g der... Frauen Hellenen...Hackens gepredigt...mit v i e r Stimmen...componirt (Coburg: Justus Hauck, 1614). London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , C. 193. 2. 145 develops over a p e r i o d of three t e x t u a l r e p e t i t i o n s of " I s t Gott f u r uns," each of the two rep e t i t i o n s ending a t h i r d higher than the preced-ing statement. It might be noted a d d i t i o n a l l y that the threefold state-ments of the text may have been used i n t e n t i o n a l l y by Franck as a symbolic reference to the Holy T r i n i t y . In a s i m i l a r vein to the Franck c o m p o s i t i o n i s the r e f e r e n c e to Jesus i n Rosenmiiller's "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?" (See Example 15.) The anabasis begins i n duple metre with the text "Ich b i n zur sanfften Ruhe kommen," followed by a downwards r o u n d i n g - o f f o f the phrase together w i t h a s l i g h t extension of the harmonies at the cadence to convey the idea of "gentle r e s t . " T h i s moment of repose i s i n t e r r u p t e d by the resumption of the melody's upwards ascent, this time accelerated or compressed by disjunct rather than conjunct motion and also by a change to t r i p l e metre. The t r i p l e metre, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , f i r s t becomes perceptible to the l i s t e n e r on the words "Herr Jesu." C o i n c i d e n t with the change of metre on the word "Jesu" is the highest pi t c h ( f " ) of the composition. Example 14. M. Franck: "Ist Gott fur uns," measures 1-6. 146 Example 15. J. Rosenmii 1 l e r : "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?", measures 6-8. .0 i • V \) . . t i .. o P •j^itj <Vo?* «Ua» ev^  _ n o w * ^ f lux SanWV^ ft-V>- V ; o ^ _ " »* * *' ' • * ~» J — , Jfto vwm tm I -"i—W—V V • w—i -mevi Were e5e*^ / di< ewic^  _ P © P _ . — Because of our larg e l y l i n e a r perception of music -- a perception that may conceivably have been more pronounced in the polyphonic age of the seventeenth century -- anabasis by i t s very nature suggests di r e c -t i o n and motion. For t h i s reason anabasis was f r e q u e n t l y employed i n funeral music to represent migrant states of the transcendent s p i r i t as i t passed from t h i s world to the next. In t h i s r e s p e c t , two types of texts were available to the composer. The f i r s t portrays the s p i r i t as i t d e p a r t s t h i s l i f e . A v e r y c l e a r example o f t h i s i s Simon Brancovius's music written i n 1651 for the funeral of Agna Elisabeth von Breitenbauch. J (See Example 16.) The phrase "obs euch bringt Schmertz S. Brancovius, M u s i c a l i s c h e C h r i s t l i c h e Einbildung eines recht beweglichen Clag= und Trost=Gesprachs Vff das f r l i e z e i t i g e doch s e l i g e  Absterben Der Weyland Hoch Edelgebohrnen Ehren und V i e l Tugendreichen  Frawen J_ Agnae E l i s a b e t h e n von Breitenbauch j_ Gebohrnen von Vippach / Pes auch Hoch Edelgebornen j_ Gestrengen und Mannvesten Herrn j_ Melchiorn von Breitenbauchs u f f Raniss und Brandenstein / etc. Churf1. Durchl. zu  Sachsen Wohlvorgesatzten Ober = Steur Einnehmers der Land= und Tranck= S t e u r i n den A f f e c u r i r t e n A e m p t e r n ^ H e r t z g e l i e b t e n gewesenen Haussfrawen gerichtet j_ Vnd Bey dero Adelichen Leiche=Procession, so den  21. J u l i i Anno 1651. a n g e s t e l l e t wurde ]_ u f f zwey Chor [_ a l s wenn im 147 und Leiden, dass i c h so b a l d musst sch e i d e n " s t e a d i l y r i s e s from a' to g" i n semiminimae in Cantus I, rounding o f f the ornamented cadence on d". Two p o i n t s should be made here. F i r s t , the a p p l i c a t i o n of an a s c e n d i n g melody to the words "Schmertz und L e i d e n " i n t h i s i n s t a n c e should not be thought of as m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l solecisms; the anabasis i s meant to depict the departing s p i r i t and not the emotional state of the mourners. In fact, the ascending line would almost seem to demon-s t r a t e the f u t i l i t y and v a n i t y of mourning i n l i g h t of the deceased's in e v i t a b l e and irrevocable rapturous departure. Secondly, the ensuing brevis rests in the two cantus parts, a notable textural change from the surrounding musical material, strongly imply to the l i s t e n e r that the s p i r i t ' s passage from this world to the next was complete. S i m i l a r to Brancovius's treatment i s Samuel Scheldt's concerted s e t t i n g (SSB) of the text "Drumb e i l t er [God] mit ihm auss dem bbsen Leben." (See Example 17.) Again the s p i r i t of the deceased i n the company of God i s represented as i t leaves t h i s world. At this point in the composition S c h e i d t quickens the rhythmic pace the b e t t e r to express the sense of " e i l t . " e r s t e n Chor der Hoch Ade 1. hochbetrubte Herr von Breitenbauch j_ Im andern aber d i e H. A d l . Fraw von Breitenbauch zum Abschiede g l e i c h s a m also redeten ]_ zusingen/ Hochgedachten Adelichen Wohlseligen Matron zu  s c h u l d i g e n l e t z t e n Ehren=Geda'chtnliss M i t 9. Stimmen componiret^ und  numehro u f f Begehren neben beygefiigten Basso Continuo zum Druck aussge- antwortet [_ Von Simone Brancovio Gub. Lusato, Cantorn zu Raniss. (Jena: Caspar Freyschmied, 1651). London, B r i t i s h Library, Hirsch III 666. ^ ft S. S c h e i d t , Grab L i e d t Auss dem Buch der W e i s s h e i t am 4_^  C a p i t .  v. 1_ vnd 14. Zu C h r i s t l i c h e n Abdencken Das Ehrwiirdigen j_ Achtbarn vnd  Wolgelahrten Herrn THOMASE ANDREAE, Seelsorgers zu Glaucha vor Halle / i n t z i g h e r t z l i e b e n Sb'hnleins Michaelis Reinholden j_ Welches dieser Welt  a b g e f o r d e r t vnd folgenden 18. M a r t i j d a s e l b s t C h r i s t l i c h b e s t a t t e t worden j_ Seines A l t e r s 24. Wochen Componiret vnd a u f f g e s e t z e t mi_t 3. Stimmen von Samuele S c h e i d t H a l l e n s e ( H a l l e : M e l c h i o r O e l s c h l e g e l , 1635). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358. 148 Example 16. S. Brancovius: "Ach Gott i c h muss i n Trawr i g k e i t," measures 29-32. i T J L t A ^ i J J i . r r f ^ r r r r r r r ° , = = hf J •< . 7 l . . 1 1 I 1 I - r - t i \ f p _ 1 p p p ° frc J i j J j L L L [ R R ^ ScW- _ _ ^ j 1 ' " 1 J > J i j J J 1 | J J ' J ^ J J ^ ScVic^  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _^eh t^ V* 0- V> «A Kl i C M . /Lbftbp ^ r i J i 1 J • j ' ^ - f *— -p -—p— j • j • ^ — • n " p' f f ' " f * f P ' — '*'V'j'Jtr 1 \ l - P ' • -Leaden dafj CcV\ W<* T*<^M scVieX _ — _<***i V. eA^ wAae-V «A».CU Y\ttWV i>eYir J > J J F r r i J f J ' ' , i , i . . S<W . _ • hp ^ ^ f _ 1 r u P - P — ^ H ^ ' J ' J J 1 M ' * ' .1 T ' •« - • 1 r M l l — Example 17. S. S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob e r ^ g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-23. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n on the idea of departure are texts i n which the emphasis i s upon the transcendent soul s t r i v i n g or moving towards, or even a r r i v i n g i n , Heaven. An example of anabasis being applied to thi s kind of s p i r i t u a l t r a n s i t i o n can be found i n Leibnitz's "Weg mit Dir, du falsche Welt!" (SATB). 3 7 (See Example 18.) Framed by renunciations of this l i f e set to catabatic l i n e s , the heavenward ascent of the s p i r i t i s 37 L e i b n i t z , op. c i t . 149 d e p i c t e d by L e i b n i t z w i t h "Ich nunmehr nach D i r s t r e b , Du schbn gezie.rter Himmel!" set to a s t e a d i l y r i s i n g melody in the Cantus. Example 18. J. G. L e i b n i t z : "Weg mit D i r , du f a l s c h e Welt!", measures 3-4. Because heaven and earth are held to be a n t i t h e t i c a l concepts, the communication of which was e s s e n t i a l to f u n e r a l o r a t o r y and fun e r a r y music, composers used anabasis and catabasis i n close proximity i n order to demonstrate t h i s a n t i t h e s i s to greatest e f f e c t . One example of th i s treatment can be seen in Samuel Scheidt's "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu 3 8 z e i t l i c h s t i r b t . " (See Example 19.) Immediately f o l l o w i n g the numerous r e p e t i t i o n s of anabasis for the text "Darumb e i l t er mit ihm," Scheidt employs several contrastive catabatic figures to the text "auss dem bosen Leben." Scheidt sharpens the musical d i s t i n c t i o n by replacing the f l e e t i n g , predominantly consonant f i g u r a t i o n with slower, frequently dissonant movement ( s t r i k i n g melodic and harmonic t r i t o n e s , augmented harmonies, suspensions). S c h e i d t , op. c i t . 150 Example 19. S. S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " measures 21-31. L e . . L e L e - b e i / »ufi <*e*v> ^ ° S s * Vic, / \ ^ c L e _ _ _ _ / a«(b dew U _ ie*,/ 4**fj Vi$cn Il H i L e i »r r r ^ _ u e 1 J 1 b e n . r"—e o L c _ _ fee*, ' J J J «,) 44 ^ 1 J Hyperbole and Hypobole The m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures hyperbole and hypobole are c l o s e l y on r e l a t e d to anabasis and catabasis. Burmeister, i n his Musica poetica, d e f i n e s hyperbole as f o l l o w s : "Hyperbole i s the c r o s s i n g of a melody above i t s highest boundary." 4^ Its counterpart hypobole i s subsequently defined by him as "the crossing of a melody below the lowest boundary of i t s ambitus." 4* Judging from Burmeister's musical example of hyperbole, w r i t t e n i n the bass c l e f f w i t h a range of C to c, and from h i s d e f i n i -t i o n of hypobole, i t i s possible for the reader to arr i v e at two denota-Meyfart defines hyperbole in h i s Teutsche Rhetorica as follows: "Hyperbole i s a s t y l e when one makes th i n g s e n t i r e l y too l a r g e or e n t i r e l y too s m a l l . " ("Hyperbole i s t e i n e A r t / wenn man d i e Dinge entweder gar zu gross / oder gar zu k l e i n machet.") M e y f a r t , op. c i t . , 1:178. Hypobole ( a p p a r e n t l y a neologism by B u r m e i s t e r ) i s d e f i n e d by Meyfart under the name l i t o t e s as "a s t y l e where the o r a t o r . . . i m p l i e s more than he says." ("...eine A r t / wenn der Redener...mehr andeutet / a l s er saget.") Ibid., 1:144. ^ B u r m e i s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 64. C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 195. "Hyperbole est Melodiae supra supremum ejus terminum superlatio. 1 1 4 * I b i d . "...Melodiae i n f r a ejus infimum Ambitus terminum sub-j e c t i o . " 151 t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these figures. In the f i r s t instance, i t would seem that any note of a melody that ascends above the top l i n e of the s t a f f would be c o n s i d e r e d an example of musi c a l - r h e t o r i c a l hyperbole. Conversely, based on that d e f i n i t i o n , one would natur a l l y expect that a me l o d i c e x t e n s i o n below the lowest l i n e of a s t a f f would c o n s t i t u t e m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l hypobole. I f t h i s i n f a c t had been Burmeister's intention, hyperbole and hypobole would be so pervasive i n Baroque music as to be r h e t o r i c a l l y i n e f f e c t u a l . I t would seem most reasonable to assume, that Burmeister's hyperbole, based on h i s d e f i n i t i o n of hypo-bole, pertained more to an actual melodic transgression of the ambitus of a mode r a t h e r than the l i n e s of a s t a f f . While hyperbole and hypo-bole would seem to be most e f f e c t i v e i f understood p r i m a r i l y as modal transgressions, i t is s t i l l possible to see that these two figures would q u i c k l y lose r e l e v a n c e i n the course of the Baroque as composers increasingly turned away from the church modes, and as extended melodic ranges became part of a standard musical vocabulary. Although transgressions both of s t a f f l i n e and modal ambitus are common occurrences i n t h i s body of music l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e n e v e r t h e l e s s to see exaggerated e x t e n s i o n s of t h i s k i n d used to good e f f e c t i n f u n e r a r y music. Two s t r i k i n g examples of hyperbole can be found i n Brancovius's "Ach Gott i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t . " 4 2 In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , an anabatic melody i n the Cantus I of the chorus  secundus reaches i t s apogee with the text "meiner Frewd und Wonne hoch." This short section of music i s r h e t o r i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e , f i r s t , because of the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the anabasis and, secondly, because of the Brancovius, op. c i t . — Co 152 hypotypotic s e t t i n g of the word "hoch." Brancovius extends the range o f the Cantus pas t the g " (an oc tave above the f i n a l i s ) , to a " and then b ^ " . Thus the melody i s h y p e r b o l i c on both counts a c c o r d i n g to B u r m e i s t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n s . However, the t r u e h y p e r b o l i c e f f e c t i s a t t a i n e d through the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h range of the v o i c e ; a " i s v e r y s p a r i n g l y used i n the c h o r a l mus ic of t h i s p e r i o d , and the b ^ " i s r a r e enough to be c l a s s e d as an anomaly i n t h i s r e p e r t o r y . (See Example 20.) Brancovius again employs th i s unusually high or hyperbo l i c range l a t e r in the composit ion i n se t t ing the text "und mit den Engeln s i n g e n f e i n , " a p p r o p r i a t e l y to d e p i c t the ange l s i n heaven , and to suggest t h e i r "fine singing" wi th the rapid passagi i n c l u d i n g the novel b b " . (See Example 21.) Example 20. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach Got t i c h muss i n Trawr i g k e i t ," measures 53-55. One might argue tha t the b D " c o u l d have been accommodated by 153 Example 21. S. B r a n c o v i u s : "Ach Got t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 95-97. An example of hypobo le can be seen i n a Jakob Sche i f f e l h u t ' s "Ach H e r r ! Lehre uns b e d e n c k e n . " 4 4 (See Example 22.) The text "dass w i r sterben miissen" i s apt ly set to a ca tabat ic melodic l ine in the bassus, wh ich i s then r e p e a t e d t w i c e i n sequence , each r e p e t i t i o n b e g i n n i n g a fourth lower than the preceding statement. Thus, i n the course of f ive b r e v e s , the bass melody s t e a d i l y descends from a to E , a p e r f e c t eleventh. While the congregation no doubt would have not i ced the s i g n i -performing the the work at a lower p i t c h . That not ion can be countered to some degree by n o t i n g the presence i n the same c o m p o s i t i o n o f the occas ional D i n the Bassus, which in i t s e l f i s already uncommonly low. 4 4 S c h e i f f e l h u t , op. c i t . 1-54 f i c a n c e of the descending bass l i n e as a p o r t r a y a l of "to d i e , " the composer further emphasizes the idea t e x t u r a l l y , i s o l a t i n g the bass l i n e from the upper three parts by an i n t e r v a l of a twelfth. Example 22. J. S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 6-12. Exclamatio The last r h e t o r i c a l figure to be mentioned here i s exclamatio. In his Teutsche Rhetorica, Meyfart discusses exclamatio i n Chapter 36, "On the figures which have to do with speaking sharply and, to begin with, what Exc lamat i o i s . " 4 - * M e y f a r t informs the reader that the f i g u r e of exclamation i s the most common i n this type of speech,^ and defines i t as the figure whereby "the orator reveals the nature of h i s f e e l i n g , and employs such with a considerably and n i c e l y audible tone i n joyous and sorrowful matters." 4 7 He states i n addition that " t h i s figure is e a s i l y Meyfart, op. c i t . , 1:347. "Von den Figuren / welche in scharffen Spru'chen bestehen / vnd e r s t l i c h / was Exc l a m a t i o sey." The chapter i t s e l f (pp. 347-60) -is made up mostly of q u o t a t i o n s e x e m p l i f y i n g the fig u r e . 4 6 I b i d . 4 7 I b i d . , 1:348. "...der Redner seines Gemu'ths Beschaffenheit ent-155 r e c o g n i z e d on the words 0, A c h , S i h e , w o l t e G o t t , L e i d e r , Ey Wehe and the l i k e . " 4 8 E x c l a m a t i o was o f t e n employed i n f u n e r a l o r a t o r y to expres s f e e l i n g s o f s o r r o w . As such i t i s u s u a l l y found i n the f i r s t p a r t of the o r a t i o n where the deceased i s mourned. A c l e a r example of the funerary a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f igure can be seen in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Abdankung f o r the f u n e r a l of Johann E r h a r d M i c h a e l , w r i t t e n by Chris toph Weissenborn and appended as a model o r a t i o n to h i s P o l i t i s c h e r  Leich=Redner: A l a s ! I the u n f o r t u n a t e s p e a k e r , I do not know whether I s h o u l d remain s i l e n t or speak; for I stand by the open c o f f i n of the late H e r r Johann E r h a r d M i c h a e l , m e r i t o r i o u s p a s t o r . . . a t S i e g l i t z and Schleusckau.. . . But a las! I the unfortunate speaker, how s h a l l I c o m f o r t o t h e r s , s i n c e t h i s l o s s i t s e l f so p a i n f u l l y s t i r s my h e a r t ? 4 9 M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l exclamatio , because of i t s dramatic q u a l i t y , was a v e r y p o p u l a r and e f f e c t i v e f i g u r e i n Baroque m u s i c . In s p i t e of i t s popular i ty in composit ions, however, the f igure was cur ious ly ignored in the mus i ca1 -rhe tor i ca l t rea t i s e s of the seventeenth century. Moreover, the few composers and t h e o r i s t s who d id discuss the f igure seemed unable to reach an agreement as to what p r e c i s e l y c o n s t i t u t e s m u s i c a l -decket / vnd mit einem z iml i chen vnd z i e r l i c h e n lautbarn Thon solches thut / i n f r b l i c h e n vnd trawrigen Sachen." 4 8 I b i d . "Diese Figur wird l e i c h t l i c h erkennet an den Wbrten / 0 / Ach / Sihe / wolte Gott / Leyder / Ey Wehe vnd dergleichen." 49 " • C. W e i s s e n b o r n , Die GOtt = g e f a ' l l i g e Bu'cher=Lust e i n e s frommen P r i e s t e r s Zum Ruhm=wiirdigen Andencken Des Weyland Wohl=Ehrwu'rdigen j_ Gross=Achtbaren und Wohlgelahrten HERRN Johann E r h a r d M i c h a e l i s . . . , i n P o l i t i s c h e r Leich=Redner, op. c i t . , pp. 5-6. "Ach! i c h unglucksee l iger Redner / i ch weiss n i c h t / ob ich schweigen oder reden so l l e? Denn i ch s tehe bey dem aufgemachten Sarge des W e y l a n d . . . H e r r n Johann E r h a r d M i c h a e l i s / Wohl = v e r d i e n t e n See l = S o r g e r s . . . z u S i e g l i t z und S c h l e u s -ckau... . Aber ach! i c h ung luck seel iger Redner / was w i l l i ch andern vor einen Trost zusprechen / da mir d ieser V e r l u s t selber so s chmertz l i ch zu H e r t z e n gehet." 156 r h e t o r i c a l exclamatio. Michael Praetorius, for instance, i n Part Three of his Syntagma musicum (Wolfenbiittel, 1619) describes the exclamatio as follows: Exclamatio, which must occur with the r a i s i n g of the voice, i s the correct means to move the a f f e c t i o n s ; and descent, in dotted minims and semiminims, can be brought i n and used. And the f o l l o w i n g note, which proceeds somewhat q u i c k l y , e s p e c i a l l y moves the a f f e c t i o n s and i s a l s o b e t t e r regarded, more than the semibreve which occurs more often in r a i s i n g and lowering the voice without exclamation. In the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century, the figure was defined i n s e v e r a l w r i t i n g s on music. One hundred years a f t e r P r a e t o r i u s ' s Syntagma musicum, Mauritius Vogt vaguely defines the figure under i t s Greek name E c p h o n i s i s as "an e x c l a m a t i o n as i n '0 what p a i n ' and so f o r t h . " " ^ E x c l a m a t i o or e c p h o n i s i s i s d e f i n e d i n Johann G o t t f r i e d Walther's Musicalisches Lexicon (Leipzig, 1732) as "a r h e t o r i c a l figure when one e x c l a i m s something movingly, which i n music can occur q u i t e well through the upwards leap of a minor sixth." In Der vollkommene M. Praetorius, Syntagma musicum III (Wolfenbiittel, 1619), Docu-menta musicologica (Erste Reihe: Druckschriften-Faksimiles), No. 15, ed. by W i l i b a l d G u r l i t t ( C a s s e l , B a s e l , London, New York: B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1958), p. 231. " E x c l a m a t i o i s t das r e c h t e M i t t e l d i e a f f e c t u s zu moviren, so mit erhebung der Stimm geschehen muss: Und kann in a l i e n M i n i m i s und Semiminimis mit dem Punct / descendendo angebracht und gebraucht werden. Und moviret sonderlich die folgende Nota, so etwas gewschwinde f o r t g e h e t / mehr a f f e c t u s , a l s d i e S e m i b r e v i s , welche i n erhebung und verringerung der Stimm ohn Exclamation mehr stadt findet / auch besser gratiam hat." "^Vogt, op. c i t . , p. 151. C i t e d i n B a r t e l , op. c i t . , p. 168. "Inclamatio, ut o, proh dolor etc." J. G. Walther, M u s i c a l i s c h e s L e x i c o n ( L e i p z i g , 1732), p. 233. "Exclamatio fi^ptov^tc, i s t eine Rhetorische Figur, wenn man etwas beweg-l i c h a u s r u f f e t ; welches i n der Music gar f i i g l i c h durch d i e aufwerts springende Sextam minorem geschehen kan." 15-7 Cape l lme i s ter (Hamburg, 1739), Johann Mattheson d iv ides exclamatio into 53 . . . three separate categor ies . The second of these, which inc ludes mus i -c a l s e t t i n g s of p e t i t i o n s , i n v o c a t i o n s and l a m e n t a t i o n s , i s most p e r t i n e n t to t h i s s tudy . F o r e x c l a m a t o r y e x p r e s s i o n s of t h i s type M a t t h e s o n recommends that "now l a r g e (but not common), now s m a l l and e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t e r v a l s must be i n t r o d u c e d a c c o r d i n g to c i r c u m -.,54 stances. The array of musica l expressions of t ex tua l exclamations in funeral music shows that the precepts of P r a e t o r i u s , Walther and Mattheson were anything but immutable. Indeed, not a s ing le m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l exc la -m a t i o seen i n the c o u r s e of t h i s s tudy conforms f u l l y to any o f the foregoing d e f i n i t i o n s . For example, i t was poss ib le for the composer s i m p l y to i g n o r e the m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the t e x t u a l exclamatio. This is evident i n Theodor Schuchardt's s trophic s e t t i n g of "Ach Got t wie i s t mein H e r t z b e t r i i b t . " 5 5 (See Example 23.) The composer does n o t h i n g of a mus ic a l - r h e t o r i c a l n a t u r e t h a t would d i s t i n g u i s h the e x c l a m a t o r y "Ach" from o t h e r , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t words appearing on the f i r s t beat of subsequent measures. C O J . Mattheson, Der vollkommene Cape l lmei s ter (Hamburg, 1739, Docu-menta m u s i c o l o g i c a , ed . by M a r g a r e t e Reimann ( E r s t e R e i h e : D r u c k -s c h r i f t e n - F a k s i m i l e s ) , No. 5 ( C a s s e l and B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r V e r l a g , 1954), p. 193. 5 4 I b i d . "...miissen, nach Befinden der Umstande, bald grosse, doch n icht gemeine, bald k l e ine und ausserordent l iche I n t e r v a l l e angebracht werden." 5 5 T . Schuchardt, C h r i s t l i c h e s Gespra'ch eines betriibten Vaters mit  seinem a b g e l e i b t e n S b h n l e i n . Auf d e n . . . H i n t r i 1 1 . . . J o h a n n - H e n r i c i , des  H e r r n M. J o h a n n i s Weissen . . .Sb 'hnle ins Welches . . . anno 1656...entschlaf- fen. Mit 8. Stimmen zu 2 unterschiedenen Choren gesetzt (Gotha: Johann Michael S c h a l l , 1656). B e r l i n , Deutsche S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , 2 in Ee 700-3882. 158 Example 23. T. Schuchardt: "Ach Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betrubt," measures 1-3. ftUu J J J J J J. J ' f f ftcV Q„u w v««;-> WtrVi. V M A » S W / r 1 T r r F = P CIV* W « V \,3V aV^e f r r J J J r r r J^EgE Two works , one each by Simon B r a n c o v i u s and H e i n r i c h Schwemmer, show more e f f e c t i v e treatments of exclamatory texts . The opening invo-c a t i o n i n B r a n c o v i u s ' s "Ach Got t i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t " i s e f f e c t e d through the syncopated entry and ascending semifusae in p a r a l l e l th i rds of the A l t u s and Tenor . (See Example 24.) W h i l e the same m u s i c a l f i g u r a t i o n is in fact used on rather i n s i g n i f i c a n t words l a t e r on, the opening invocat ion on the f i r s t beat and the prolongat ion of the harmony on the word "Gott" does s e r v e , though s u b t l y , to enhance the t e x t u a l exclamation. The second, more pronounced example to be mentioned here i s H e i n r i c h Schwemmer's "Siehe der Gerechte kommet u m b . " ^ (See Example 25.) Fo l lowing an instrumental in t roduc t ion played wi th three v i o l e da b r a c c i o and basso c o n t i n u o , the t h r e e s i n g i n g v o i c e s (SSB), accompanied by the s t r i n g ensemble , e n t e r w i t h a b r o a d l y s t a t e d invocat ion "Siehe, siehe." The homophonic invocat ion is repeated twice •^Brancovius, op. c i t . 57 H. Schwemmer, L e i c h = T e x t : S i ehe ! der Gerechte kommet umb: In Noten g e s e t z t [_ M^t 2_j_ Cant . 1. Bas. 3. V i o l da b r a z z . (Nuremberg: W. E n d t e r d. J . , 1659). Z w i c k a u , R a t s s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k , M. 105. Ic . The p r i n t of th i s composit ion was removed from the Leichenpredigt i n which i t was o r i g i n a l l y bound. 159 to changing harmonies, with semiminim rests introduced between each of the statements. A f t e r the t h i r d statement, the Cantus I and II f a l l s i l e n t w h i l e the Bassus proceeds w i t h the text "Siehe der Gerechte kommen umb." Schwemmer achieves the exclamatory e f f e c t i n h i s music p a r t l y through the contrast between the purely instrumental ensemble and the p r e c i p i t o u s , f u l l - v o i c e d entry by the v o c a l i s t s . This f o r c e f u l opening then gives way to the new text, a thinner texture, and contrast-ing melodic figurations sung by the solo Bassus. Example 24. S. Brancovius: "Ach Gott i c h muss i n T r a w r i g k e i t , " measures 1-3. Example 25. H. Schwemmer: "Siehe der Gerechte kommet umb," measures 7-15. 160 Sustained harmonies of the type seen in Schwemmer's work were generally considered to be an e f f e c t i v e expression of textual exclamations. The technique can be seen i n more dramatic contexts i n two other f u n e r a r y works, one by F r i e d r i c h Funcke, the other by Jakob S c h e i f f e l h u t . In Funcke's treatment of exclamatio i n the f i r s t three breves of h i s "Ach H e r t z e l e i d , " the composer g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e 161 e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t s . He achieves t h i s e f f e c t through a s u c c e s s i v e lowering of the dynamic l e v e l i n each of the f i r s t three exclamations of "Ach!", from an unmarked but i m p l i e d mezzo f o r t e to a w r i t t e n piano followed by a pianissimo. Corresponding to the drop i n dynamics from piano to pianissimo i s a melodic descent in five of the s i x voices, most s t r i k i n g i n the descent of a perfect f i f t h i n the Cantus I and II and of a minor seventh i n the Tenor II p a r t . Each of the f i r s t two c h o r d a l exclamations i s followed by a minima rest. Rather than conforming to the precedent of the f i r s t two exclamations, the pause a f t e r the t h i r d exclamation is shortened to a semiminima rest followed d i r e c t l y on the a n a c r u s i s by the f u l l e x c l a m a t i o n of "Ach H e r t z e l e i d . " The e f f e c t of the unexpected, syncopated entry i s m a g n i f i e d by the abrupt dynamic change from pianissimo to forte. Funcke also uses an abbreviated ver-sion of t h i s technique to conclude the f i r s t section. (See Example 26.) The t h r e e f o l d i n v o c a t i o n on the words "Ach Herr!" i s b o l d l y s t a t e d at the beginning of Scheiffelhut's "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken." 5 9 (See Example 27.) Like Schwemmer and Funcke, Scheiffelhut treats the four voices (SATB) homophonically i n minims and semibreves, separating each e x c l a m a t i o n w i t h a minim r e s t . The opening i n v o c a t i o n stands i n considerable contrast with subsequent musical material. Adding to the gr a v i t y of the introductory exclamations, Scheiffelhut scores the voices in the Altus, Tenor and Bassus so that they descend together against the more steadfast Cantus. 58 Funcke, op. c i t . 59 Scheiffelhut, op. c i t . 162 Example 26. F. Funcke: "Ach Hertzeleid," measures 1-3 Example 27. J. S h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken," measures 1-5. By examining each of the various musical treatments of the textual exclamatio i n these funeral compositions, and comparing them with each other and w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n s provided by P r a e t o r i u s , Walther and Mattheson, i t i s easy to see that approaches to m u s i c a 1 - r h e t o r i c a l exclamatio were l i m i t e d only by the imagination of the composer. The large number of possible approaches to the figure may help to understand the reasons for Vogt's noncommital d e f i n i t i o n of exclamatio (ecphonisis) and why the seventeenth-century t h e o r i s t s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of P r a e t o r i u s ) avoided d e a l i n g w i t h the term a l t o g e t h e r . In any event, exclamatio can c l e a r l y be seen as a r h e t o r i c a l figure whose a f f e c t i v e 163 properties were valued highly by parentators, poets and composers a l i k e . Duple and T r i p l e Metre The vast majority of funeral compositions examined i n the course of thi s study are written in duple metre throughout, indicated i n the score or p a r t s as e i t h e r C or (£. In c o m p i l i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s study, not a s i n g l e f u n e r a r y work was seen i n which t r i p l e metre was pervasive. This i s not to suggest for a moment that such music was not written i n the seventeenth century, for a much more extensive examination of the repertoire would be required before that kind of assertion could be made. However, t r i p l e metre i s i n t r o -duced o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t o funerary works i n duple metre. Because the practice deviates from the norm, because a composer's reasons for doing so may have been motivated in part by musi c a l - r h e t o r i c a l considerations, i t would seem wor t h w h i l e at t h i s p o i n t to focus c r i t i c a l l y on the subject of t r i p l e metre. T r i p l e metre i n the Baroque was f r e q u e n t l y used as a type of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l h y p o t y p o s i s . In moderate tempi, f o r example, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t r i p l e metre could be used to suggest a g e n t l e undu-la t i n g or rocking motion. This i s notably the case i n Schutz's chorale motet for New Year, "Gib unsern Fursten ein geruhig und s t i l l e s Leben" (SWV 373) from the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik (Dresden, 1648). 6 0 The metre changes from duple to t r i p l e f o r the text "geruhig und s t i l l e s Leben" fid An i n t e r e s t i n g study of Schutz's a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre i n the compositions of the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik was undertaken by Johannes M i t t r i n g : see J. M i t t r i n g , "Der Dreiertakt -- Ausdruck der Freude? Zu H e i n r i c h Schu'tzens ' G e i s t l i c h e r Chormusik' von 1648," Musik und Kirche 34 (1964): 271-84. 164 thereby evoking the " q u i e t and t r a n q u i l l i f e . " Years l a t e r , i n h i s H ij^_t o r ^ a von der freuden- und £££d^nrei.chen Geburt...Jesu C h r i s t i (Christmas Oratorio, SWV 435) of 1664, Schutz uses t r i p l e metre again to an o s t i n a t o bass p a t t e r n , which the composer d e c l a r e s i s intended to r e p r e s e n t the r o c k i n g motion of the C h r i s t c h i l d ' s c r a d l e . ^ Though l a r g e l y dependent on tempo and i n t e r n a l rhythms, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a c o m p o s i t i o n employing t r i p l e metre to achieve a c e r t a i n r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t may use i t on the one hand to evoke feelings of peace and t r a n q u i l i t y and those of exhuberance or excitement on the other. Both applications -- the gentle ebb and flow, and the evocations of the Sprungtanz -- are r e l e v a n t to the c o m p o s i t i o n of seventeenth-century funeral music. Another consideration for a r h e t o r i c a l study of this sacred reper-t o i r e i s number as symbol. The number three as a symbol of the Holy T r i n i t y appears to have l o s t none of i t s f o r c e i n seventeenth-century German thought. In music, t r i p l e metre or tem£us E££J-.££t.HE had been associated symbolically with the Holy T r i n i t y as early as the thirteenth century by Franco of Cologne. The n u m e r o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n c e to three was of course i n no way c o n f i n e d to treatment of metre; i n f a c t , statements made i n w r i t i n g s on music i n the seventeenth and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s seem to r e f e r most f r e q u e n t l y to t r i n i t a r i a n See H. J. Moser, H e i n r i c h Schutz: His L_ife and Work, trans, from the 2nd ed. by C. F. P f a t t e i c h e r ( S a i n t L o u i s : Concordia P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959), p. 65 3; and S. Kbhler, H e i n r i c h Schutz: Anmerkungen zu  Leben und Werk (Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag fiir Musik, 1985), pp. 177-78. f\ ? R. H. Hoppin, M e d i e v a l Mus i c (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1978), p. 334. 165 symbols as they pertain to matters of t e r t i a n harmony -- t r i a s musica or ft 3 f i g u r a t r i n i t a t i s . (Perhaps t h i s was p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the g r e a t e r amount of a t t e n t i o n being focused at that time on constant developments of t e r t i a n harmony r a t h e r than on l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s of metre.) At any rate, the evidence available to us amply shows that the concept of t r i p l e metre as a t r i n i t a r i a n symbol, i f not foremost i n the minds of the t h e o r i s t s , was nonetheless important to composers of c e r t a i n types of funeral music. Before looking at the use of t r i p l e metre at t h i s l e v e l , though, other, more d i r e c t uses of i t ought to be considered. An anomalous a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre as a type of m u s i c a l -r h e t o r i c a l h y p o t y p o s i s has a l r e a d y been mentioned i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter i n regard to Heinrich Albert's continuo a r i a , "Gedenkt wie mich der Tod."^ 4 In that p a r t i c u l a r case, the change from duple to t r i p l e metre was r h e t o r i c a l l y r e q u i r e d by the te x t " i c h tanze nur voran, i h r werdet folgen miissen." If the change of metre was intended by Albert to p o r t r a y a n y t h i n g more concrete than the verb "tanzen" i n i t s most abstract sense, i t i s most l i k e l y i n reference to the Totentanz.^ In what i s perhaps i t s most simple app l i c a t i o n , t r i p l e metre can be R. Damman, Der M u s i k b e g r i f f i.m deut schen Barock (Cologne: Arno Volk V e r l a g , 1967), pp. 439-56. ^ 4H. A l b e r t , Siebender Thei1 der A r i e n , e t l i c h e r t h e i 1 s g e i s t -l i c h e r : sonderlich zum Trost i n a l l e r h a n d Creutz und W i d e r w e r t i g k e i t , wie auch zur Erweckung see1igen Sterbens Lust; t e i l s w e l t l i c h e r : zu geziemenden Ehren-Freuden und Keuscher Liebe dienender Lieder, zu singen  gesetzet. (Kbnigsberg: 1648). London, B r i t i s h Library, G. 62. b. For a d e t a i l e d examination of the Totentanz see R. Hammerstein, Tanz und Mus i k des; Todes: d i e m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Totenta'nze und i h r Nachleben (Bern und Munich: Francke Verlag, 1980). 166 employed i n f u n e r a l music as a d i r e c t means of conveying the b a s i c a f f e c t o f joy. T h i s can be c l e a r l y seen i n Johann Hermann Schein's "Das i s t meine Freude," 6 6 a five-part motet (SSATB) with basso continuo. (See Example 28.) Schein composed the work i n 1628 f o r the f u n e r a l of V i n c e n t i u s Schmuck, the Superintendent i n L e i p z i g and p r o f e s s o r of theology at the University. In the motet, duple and t r i p l e metre a l t e r -nate at regular i n t e r v a l s i n accordance with the text: the opening "Das i s t meine" i s written i n three ((j)3/2), and the following "Freude" i n two ((f). Although t r i p l e metre alone i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i g h t e r a f f e c t i o n s , the joyous f e e l i n g i n t h i s example i s enhanced by the i n v i g o r a t i n g changes of metre on one l e v e l and, on another, the consequent e f f e c t upon the i n t e r n a l elements of rhythm. The exuberant q u a l i t y that Schein sets out to communicate through the a l t e r n a t i n g metres i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d f u r t h e r s t i l l , f i r s t , by adding the ascending passagi or anabasis on the word "Freude" and, secondly, by i n s t i t u t i n g the quasi-sequential ascent for each of the following two textual repe-t i t i o n s . Example 28. J . H. Schein: "Das i s t meine Freude." measures 1-4. 66 Schein, Symbolum oder Taglicher Trost=Spruch, op. c i t . 167 A s l i g h t l y more complex treatment of t r i p l e metre can be found i n Theodor Schuchardt's s e t t i n g of "Gott wie i s t mein Hertz b e t r u b t " f o r double chorus, a work which was e a r l i e r d i s c u s s e d as an example of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia.^ 7 The d i a l o g i c text of the composition i s s t r o p h i c , with v e r s e s 1, 3 and 5 r e p r e s e n t i n g the b e r e f t f a t h e r i n the chorus primus or "Quereus," w h i l e v e r s e s 2, 4 and 6 p o r t r a y the deceased c h i l d i n the chorus secundus or "Respondens." T y p i c a l of c o m p o s i t i o n s w r i t t e n i n d i a l o g u e , the b e r e f t f a t h e r g r i e v e s over the u n t i m e l y los s of h i s beloved son, w h i l e the p e r s o n i f i e d c h i l d , i n the al t e r n a t i n g verses, gently chastises him for placing such vane worth on the t r a n s i t o r y rather than the eternal. The s i x t h verse of the composi-t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a new s e c t i o n l a b e l l e d "Cone lus i o . " The m u s i c a l content of the Conelus i o i s l i t t l e more than an e x t e n s i o n of the preceding chorus secundus. Here, however, the chorus secundus sings s i x sh o r t phrases of t e x t , w h i l e the chorus primus, s i n g i n g i n subdued tones, q u i e t l y echoes the ending of each phrase. T e x t u a l l y at t h i s point, the c h i l d advises his father to keep the resurrection and eternal l i f e foremost i n h i s mind; the f a t h er, at l a s t showing c l e a r signs of abandoning his feelings of despair, appears to accept the counsel of his son. F o l l o w i n g the l a s t of the s i x phrases, "0 Wie w i r d da e i n Freude seyn," and i t s corresponding echo i s a b r i e f coda sung by both choirs in 6 8 t r i p l e metre, set to the tex t "Wenn w i r zusammen kommen." (See Example 29.) Schuchardt, op. c i t . "0 such a happiness there w i l l be there, when we come together." 168 Example 29. T. Schuchardt: "Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betrubt." Example 29. T. Schuchardt: "Gott wie i s t mein Hertz b e t r i i b t continued. l\i«e CVyiWt a\tamaV«Mi tar««rvL;tu.5J \attvJe.*vt e^<^^J\^ *r c«ncWv« • 170 In i t s most f i g u r a t i v e sense, the ultimate change to t r i p l e metre can c l e a r l y be seen as a hypotypotic or m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l depiction of the "joy" proposed by the text, s i m i l a r to the e f f e c t employed by Schein i n "Das i s t meine Freude." The p a r t i c u l a r happiness imparted i n the text refers to the j o y f u l reunion of a father and h i s son a f t e r a period of separation. Thus the joy expressed at t h i s point ref e r s to a strong human emotion in the most worldly sense. Although such an ap p l i c a t i o n -- t h a t i s , l a y i n g s t r e s s upon what i s o t h e r w i s e construed i n f u n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e as worldly vanity -- seems in many ways to stand in contra-d i c t i o n to the intended message of the c o m p o s i t i o n , i t may have been i n t e n t i o n a l i n order to provide the mourners with a concrete a f f e c t i v e means by which they could conceptualize heavenly rapture. The change to t r i p l e metre would serve e f f e c t i v e l y to focus the l i s t e n e r s ' attention on the f a c t that the r e u n i o n was to be i n heaven. The joy that i s expressed i s not intended p r i m a r i l y to be understood as a mundane happi-ness of the here and now but r a t h e r as a joy that i s yet to be, an anticipated joy, the joy of C h r i s t i a n s a l v a t i o n and eternal l i f e . ^ In f a c t , i t i s not uncommon i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e to f i n d heaven and the imminent joy of the h e r e a f t e r to be i n many ways synonymous wit h one another; f o r the son even says that there, i n the company of the Holy T r i n i t y , "leb i c h j e t z t i n Freuden." 7 0 We begin to see now that t r i p l e metre i s not s i m p l y a type of 6 9 S e e J. M i t t r i n g , "Der D r e i e r t a k t -- Ausdruck der Freude? Zu H e i n r i c h Schiitzens ' G e i s t l i c h e r Chormusik' von 1648," Musik und Kirche 34 (1964): 271-84. This i s one of the p r i n c i p a l conclusions arrived at by M i t t r i n g in his convincingly argued study of Schutz's a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre in the G e i s t l i c h e Chormusik. 7 0 " . . . I now l i v e i n joy." 171 m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l hypotyposis used by composers to depict joy through i t s e x c l u s i v e a s s o c i a t i o n to s k i p p i n g or dancing. Rather, a c l o s e r understanding of i t s r h e t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e requires that t r i p l e metre be thought of more in metaphoric terms, that i s , as a m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l trope rather than a hypotypotic figure. Of course the si g n i f i c a n c e of the number three as a symbol for the Holy T r i n i t y can also be seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t mus i c a l - r h e t o r i c a 1 consideration for composers of funeral music. Continuing with Schuchardt, we can appreciate even more the meta-p h o r i c nature of t r i p l e metre through h i s choi c e of s e t t i n g f o r h i s compo s i t i o n . The d i v i s i o n between the son and f a t h e r -- i.e., heaven and earth -- is emphasized at the outset of the piece by the use of the two representative choirs to d i s t i n g u i s h between the anguished state of the f a t h e r and the t r a n q u i l s t a t e of the son. As long as the f a t h e r i n s i s t s on s e l f i s h l y lamenting h i s loss instead of fin d i n g comfort i n h i s son's g a i n , the a b s o l u t e s e p a r a t i o n between the f a t h e r / c h o r u s  primus/ephemeral and the son/chorus secundus/eternal i s maintained. In the Conelus i o , as the f a t h e r f i n a l l y moves towards r h e t o r i c a l assent with the son whose speech n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t s Lutheran church doctrine, the c h o i r s begin f o r the f i r s t time to share t e x t s , and c a d e n t i a l overlaps between the choirs are heard, which may be perceived as a kind of symbolic a s s i m i l a t i o n of e a r t h l y and heavenly spheres. The f u l l t u t t i occurs only with the concluding change to t r i p l e metre, allowing the attendant mourners (including the father) to see to the future when the two s p i r i t s would at last be reunited in heaven. Thus t r i p l e metre 172 can be seen here as d e p i c t i n g both w o r l d l y joy i n a f i g u r a l sense and heaven i n a metaphoric sense. The r h e t o r i c a l reasons f o r the changes of metre i n the next two funeral compositions to be discussed are best understood i n a metaphoric or symbolic sense. The f i r s t i s Johann Rosenmuller's "Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden."''* (See Example 30.) In t h i s strophic compo-s i t i o n f o r f i v e v o i c e s (SSATB), Rosenmu'ller makes a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the mundane and the heavenly, both through the textual content and through the m u s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s of metre. The text of the f i r s t v e r s e begins w i t h the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n posed by the deceased, followed by the expected answer: Was hat der Mensch auff dieser Erden? Nur Elend, Jammer, Angst und Noth. What does man have on this earth? Only misery, despair, fear and sorrow. And t h i s , we are a d d i t i o n a l l y t o l d , i s a l l there i s i n l i f e , from the moment of b i r t h u n t i l death. The c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s of the v e r s e , however, leave no doubt i n the l i s t e n e r s ' mind that the deceased has successfully made the t r a n s i t i o n from t h i s world to the next with the text: Herr Jesu, d i r sey ewig Pre i s s , Durch dich leb ich im Paradeis Lord Jesus, praise be e t e r n a l l y unto You Through You I l i v e i n Paradise. The poet's choice of words make cl e a r the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s l i f e (Erden, Elend, Jammer, Angst, Noth, Todt) and the a f t e r l i f e (Herr Jesu, ewig, leb, Paradeis). In Rosenmuller's composition, the existen-^*Rosenmuller, Letzter Abschied, op. c i t . 173 Example 30. J. Rosenmiiller, "Was hat der Mensch a u f f d i e s e r Erden?" l i L P r , V . , 1 1 • . 1 1 I I I J . j -i \ V j , J , t 1 1 I I 1 , \ \ , 1 Vt 1 I — y 1 " * *—* d z) 1 r W — J J - J — J J W J 4 , i — J — F F H 1 i 1 » i J p J I f ' ' ' J - • d • , = ¥ = W d wir nor < £ - W « A V u ^ r ^ v A_ . . 1 Todtt / <J*w o.\Uv> bi*i i*A n u A , a»J-^ j j r J T r r T n P J J J J J - i ^ J r -I , , j i \ \ \ j —4 j 1 1—:.-r-r—rr- t—^V-— • — " * « ' | j J, > > j , j J ' ft r J J J ' ' d =^ <)-. f t — _ i \ i i 1 J ^ J i 1 J y V . L . . I U \ J H'' 1 T " r e) J j J d J * \ \ b v 4 * *=^=-H0">«>«n /left ttvi 2 .^ 5»nWW ftu\\«. . t!<w y — J ^ ^ ^ ^ • 174 t i a l p o l a r i t y is expressed with comparable vividness through the change of metre from the opening C to the concluding 3/1. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the change of metre is by no means a d i r e c t l y f i g u r a l depic-t i o n of "happiness." Cert a i n l y a joyous a f f e c t i s implied here, but the e x p l i c i t use of t r i p l e metre i s e n t i r e l y metaphoric or symbolic of Chr i s t and heaven. A s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre can be seen i n the previously mentioned work by Samuel Scheidt, "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h 7 2 s t i r b t . (See Example 31.) Written for the funeral of the infant son of Thomas Andreas Reinhold, himself a clergyman i n Glaucha, the composi-t i o n i s based on the Wisdom of Solomon (4:7,14). As i n the p r e c e d i n g composition by Rosenmuller, the change to t r i p l e metre, appearing t h i s time i n the middle of the c o m p o s i t i o n , i s symbolic of God and heaven, whereas the s u r r o u n d i n g t e x t and music i n duple metre s i g n i f y the mundane. The f i n a l return to duple metre i s indicated as § instead of the opening C, c e r t a i n l y to depict simultaneously the wicked world and 73 the haste with which the deceased was removed from i t . C Der Gerechte, ob er . g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , i s t er doch i n der Ruhe. 3 Denn seine Seele g e f e l l e t Gott, § Darumb e i l t er mit ihm auss dem bbsen Leben. But the good man, even i f he dies an untimely death, W i l l be at rest. His soul was pleasing to the Lord, Who removed him early from a wicked world. S c h e i d t , op. c i t . 73 The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s v e r s e i s taken from The New Eng1ish B i b l e , Standard E d i t i o n (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972). A l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the l a s t l i n e of German text would read: Therefore He hastens with him from the wicked world. 175 Example 31. S. S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t . " — w c\Wc.V, a he. / s . . . h—i. : 1 a . W t / . Aft, C _. *Se.e.\e — ie. —W* „—=\ . Z J ' P f o •> . L o l . ' ;= qt — Ce\ \<LV Q M / o,t \«A QoU - i f f f o i i i i r m i i i , . , K K »< n - — qt—U e\ —\«A ^ o U c ^ e ^ \ -0 * ' • . ' * n —* _ ~ * 0—• V Id. fj j P i ' ' f r <$MI <\« — M : —'• ^ i \ .-, ; 176 Example 31. S. S c h e i d t : "Der Gerechte ob er g l e i c h zu z e i t l i c h s t i r b t , " continued. te~v / iy U — te^i / u -© ^ £ o . . . r— J " " j 1 1 J i a * u v 1 -4-The p r a c t i c e i n f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n of s i g n i f y i n g the separation between heaven and earth through contrasting metres was s t i l l current at the end of the seventeenth century. In the " f r e u d i g e s W e l t - V a l e t " of the late Jacobina Thurmin i n 1693, 7 4 Jakob Scheif f e l h u t employs the same mus i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of metaphor as did Rosenmuller and Scheidt i n the p r e c e d i n g works. 7^ (See Example 32.) S c h e i f f e l h u t uses the contrast between duple and t r i p l e metre to accentuate the two d i f f e r e n t worlds portrayed in the text. The piece opens with the choir's prayer-f u l e n t r e a t y to the Lord, w i t h the i n v o c a t i o n "Ach Herr!" w r i t t e n i n duple metre as a t h r e e f o l d r h e t o r i c a l e x c l a m a t i o . The text at t h i s 7 4"...joyous f a r e w e l l to the world..." 7 ^ J . Scheiffelhut, Die um die Sterbens-Lehr bittende und zum Leben  und Tod Gott ergebene Seele mit ihrem freudigen Welt-Valet. Der weiland  J a c o b i n a Thurmin...zu l e t z t - s c h u l d i g e n Ehren...in No ten gebracht, das erste von Jacob Scheiffelhut, das andere von Daniel Merk (Augsburg: J. J. Schbnigk, 1693). Kempten/Allgau, Kirchenbibliothek der Evangelisch-L u t h e r i s c h e n P farramt St. Mang, V. 3. 16. c. 17:7 Example 32. J. Scheiffelhut: "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken." •+« . 1 'i W . •*» - 1 «—o ;i S - » D dcntW C . ^ / be . Aa. vw. 'i Le-We. ^e-c • j' <o 1 r " 1 , 1 o 1 y f— r ~ "jr r-Y—| n T J^ •**"<• da(b un* -devitkan da&wif -ft* , »J V^ex- ton / - ' n * i i i m mVf r. 1 . -i ^ , j J J VI' f "i * P f m T f 7" 1—1 : Y~V—' r— YnU^an / dd(b wi< •3W- . . . - Wir* AafcwW Tew bassus o i d - J , . J P t r* a J J .1 ' d f f J dad UV.^ r* ^ r € Y .Vievi Ott ^ , * ^ *a S V A ^ d^ aft wir VVu<^  re * d ui« - de« / da^ w ; r VVw^ da(S wi< )^ j i a • ' \ «r r " 6 • "~ '' . J . r> V f f* J J * o — Mk t^>&nr\ u,i>SC< 44 . . s-L „ _ _ . d CAN - — S I J HO' . p p 1 1 p 1 J * UW. _<Jfr>>/ VW^ W«^r— wt*" c*«W VcW^ w < w - <*«^'® Tya-*- u r - w NctU'n r^ WW*- ;V,w< StWiw y-1 1*-= a • * 3 0 — d — la.W* wir devA*rAe*t/ So -6H—4 O**' C &• . £ 6^ S.W'- - V I G ^ M rt. - ft- 1 — - \ J So Ic-Ucvx voir den .^ V\ex<c« / 178 \ W V lKVJ.C Example 32. J. S c h e i f f e l h u t : "Ach Herr! Lehre uns bedencken," continued. J U ss 1 *l\ef. . W*-. w^ W r « * — * o «ji o M — 2 1 i V . * ° - SWH-- _ t«« U3\<" "* ^*ttrf - - - - - - WvC d*v*>. H-*-«-«-. a 2 SVcv . fet* wir -fe 2 i j / w i < S W V>«* v-J.r . U 2 dew* UevT->*> / {^ T^I>V^ / •'_ / w;<-,-TTT, l i o ' " m . dewv Uexfe^ / d i r w w / •'. / U i r \ \ \ • • f P' f f rl P " ^ J " ' ' tj ' ' f ~ . U P ft'- . II i l II ° ' 1* fv • P ° ° P ° ' ° 1 P P V>e~ Wi<" J l * — 1 / o d « ^ r _o;<-W*. _oir 4* \ t LVjc^ / Ui<" Ve.\_a« ' 'j / ori^r w i r ' Oiv- \« V)ft« / ij . . „ P a n ii - — a a _^=r . a . . . _ _ . W wiV Vie../ Jj,v V t bei-,/ii, / « d t r w ' r S^e-r fee* / odo< voir" S;»\CL daft Wecr^ / c J a „ HAM / <_, \O.V \ t <iVacV_e*\ ' iscjw \_oi<r _ f l * _ . , 1 -e e jts a 1 O A - i - , r fn. . p a n 0 o • . .. r i " m c ° r •• J P T P ' f * %\t*-\_a.. i odt/< \-o»r ^\^C .Ve^ So SCr«J Wir c>«|_, \ \ « - » r e » \ / d a - T V ^ / «'i W i V ' ^ « - ' - -A . . . d J ,1 ' ' .1 f" f " . , J ° P • • • • "i-WWr. / 0 » W •»(>< \ W . taev^ So ^»™* w i r <kfo W r « " . d-lvt— / .''j . _ te«-v / w i r \ « . \JB*> / w*V \ « t o o / wir -U* It- . ..V>an j) O G O- e oder coiY "SVerV>en / W*/u>\V \c \ j be-w -1 1 \ -KZT-V—1» ^ \'c- h te^ /U>.> \ e - - ©d*<" i^f*" ~"^.er-_ _ \ i eT \ / f l ^ T 1 J 1 ' \ 1 1 ' — n p it) i l rl q 0' u ' ' ' rl /> r) .1 . . r. o A A ,. 9 V V \ ' ' O Jk ; ^6 ^mtf wir e^(S Uer _ _ - o -ran / ;^ - 7 T ~ ^ M ) \ J | l ' .1 J J J . . 1 • 1 - J _ l j . i l j .1 J J J _ _ y p ° CJ 4 ^ r » ' v o — So ^frirf. ui^ r d«(j, "t^ e^ -° »t) " A — " t(Jd r e n / .j - e — H — u u u v e*-** ;i / Sa ^ind V i^Cr- d«A Wer". - -rav, / )* | 1 -j • ' • j ^ j—g -j ^ ) o ^ rl tJJ 179 point suggests the s u p p l i c a t i o n of the congregation in p e t i t i o n i n g the Lord to teach them to be m i n d f u l of t h e i r m o r t a l i t y . Thus i n the opening section of the composition we see duple metre implicated with the t r a n s i t o r y world with i t s mortal acts of prayer and dying. The second, and c o n c l u d i n g , part of the c o m p o s i t i o n i s marked by the change to contrasting t r i p l e metre set to Romans 14:8. The musical emphasis i s placed mainly on the words "Leben wir, so leben wir dem Herren; s t e r b e n w i r , so s t e r b e n wir dem Herren, darumb w i r leben oder w i r sterben...."^ The change of metre, once again, a s s i s t s the l i s t e n e r i n making the conceptual t r a n s i t i o n from e a r t h to heaven or, more pr e c i s e l y in this case, from the physical to the s p i r i t u a l . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the way the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l con-notations of the word "sterben" are treated. Duple metre in the f i r s t portion of the work, as a metric representation of this t r a n s i t o r y world or m o r t a l l i f e , suggests " s t e r b e n " as the p h y s i c a l process of dying. Treatment of "sterben" in the section set to t r i p l e metre, on the other hand, t r a n s p o r t s the meaning of the word i n t o the s p i r i t u a l realm. Here, the metre, through i t s a s s o c i a t i v e or symbolic e v o c a t i o n of a joyous a f f e c t , helps to i l l u s t r a t e that l i v i n g and dying in the Lord are rewarded with eternal l i f e . The sense of a s p i r i t u a l death i s implied through the t e x t u a l p r o x i m i t y of r e f e r e n c e s to e t e r n a l l i f e and a l s o through the use of the buoyant metre and rhythms set to "sterben." Perhaps suspecting that this subtle approach might lack the desired d i d a c t i c e f f e c t on his audience, or wishing simply to add an ornamental touch to the otherwise esoteric treatment, Scheiffelhut singles out key ^ " I f we l i v e , we l i v e f o r the Lord; i f we d i e , we d i e f o r the Lord. Whether therefore we l i v e or die, we belong to the Lord." 180 words f o r s p e c i a l treatment namely, "leben" and "sterben." When a textual phrase concludes with the word "leben," S c h e i f f e l h u t prolongs the note v a l u e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y adding a s l i g h t l y animated m e l i s m a t i c f l o u r i s h . In phrases ending on "sterben," the note of the cadence given to the second s y l l a b l e i s shortened and followed by silence to convey to the audience the sense of n i h i l i t y . At each of these cadences, at least one of the voice parts w i l l have a catabatic or descending motion of a f i f t h or octave on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the word "sterben." And f i n a l l y , the tone q u a l i t y darkens n o t i c e a b l y at these p o i n t s as Scheiffelhut scores the voices i n a lower t e s s i t u r a . These f i r s t examples have shown c l e a r l y enough that t r i p l e metre i s capable of p o r t r a y i n g or i m p l y i n g an unspoken, perhaps unspeakable, heavenly joy, unspoken i n that the texts suggest joy only through i m p l i -cation. It also serves to accentuate musically, through contrast, the t e x t u a l dichotomy i n these works that e x i s t s between m o r t a l i t y and i m m o r t a l i t y . T h i r d l y , t r i p l e metre, as the tempus perfectum, can be seen to symbolize heaven i n the same way that duple metre or tempus imperfectum is symbolic of the material world. The symbolic or metaphoric q u a l i t i e s of duple and t r i p l e metre and t h e i r use to contrast i n seventeenth-century German funeral music are reduced to t h e i r essence in Joachim Jordan's Gespra'ch und Gesang eines  armen angstleidenden Sunders mit C h r i s t o . ^ (See Example 33.) Jordan, ^ F o r an edited version of this piece see W. Reich, ed., Threnodiae  Sacrae: Beerdigungskompositionen aus gedruckten Leichenpredigten des 16.  und 17. Jahrhunderts, Das Erbe Deutscher Musik, Band 79 (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1975), p. 1. A reduced photographic reproduction of the o r i g i n a l may be found i n the appendix of: R. Lenz, ed., L e i c h e n -p r e d i g t e n a l s Que l i e h i s t o r i s c h e r W i s s e n s c h a f t e n (Cologne, Vienna: Bbhlau V e r l a g , 1972), n.p. The r e p r o d u c t i o n i s i n c l u d e d there as a 181 p a s t o r at St C a t h e r i n e i n B r u n s w i c k , composed the m u s i c a l d i a l o g u e between C h r i s t and the s inner for the funeral of Ludolph Garss in 1635. Wri t t en in s ix verses , the text i s set s y l l a b i c a l l y to an unaccompanied t e n o r v o i c e . In terms of the m e l o d i c c h a r a c t e r , the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between the two person i f i ed f igures i s that of metre. Unl ike the m a j o r i t y of d i a l o g u e s , the a l t e r n a t i o n between the p e r s o n i f i e d characters - - the "poor, f e a r - s u f f e r i n g sinner" and C h r i s t — occurs in each of the v e r s e s , i n s t e a d of the u s u a l a l t e r n a t i o n from v e r s e to v e r s e . What i s most s i g n i f i c a n t here i s the f a c t that the wre tched s i n n e r i s p o r t r a y e d through the tempus i m p e r f e c t u m of duple metre whereas the i m m a c u l a t e C h r i s t i s r e p r e s e n t e d through the tempus perfectum. Although we have seen the p o t e n t i a l for incorporat ing t r i p l e metre i n a m e t a p h o r i c c a p a c i t y in the p r e c e d i n g c o m p o s i t i o n s by Rosenmliller, Scheidt and Sche i f f e lhut , i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t Example 33. J . Jordan: "Ach weh und p e i n , das Hertze mein." supplement to Gerhard Schuhmacher's a r t i c l e , "Musikbeigaben i n Le ichen-predigten und se lbstandig v e r b f f e n t l i c h t e Sterbekompositionen," pp. 408-25. F o r h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the work, see Schuhmacher, p. 421. B e r l i n , Deutsche S taat sb ib l io thek , Ee 710-165 (6). 182 to surpass the directness of Jordan's simple and unequivocal a p p l i c a t i o n of metre as metaphor. Now that i t i s b e t t e r understood that the a p p l i c a t i o n of t r i p l e metre in this repertoire i s capable of r h e t o r i c a l "meaning" on a number of l e v e l s , i t is possible for one to appreciate more the persuasive or r h e t o r i c a l force of the music. Having looked at works in which t r i p l e metre i s used f i g u r a t i v e l y i n s e t t i n g such e v o c a t i v e words as Freude, and compositions where the metre s i g n i f i e s the h e r e a f t e r or merely implies an intangible but anticipated joy, other pieces can be c i t e d i n which t r i p l e metre i s evidently employed on both f i g u r a l and metaphoric l e v e l s . Kaspar Fbrkelrath's "Wer uberwindet sich", which was examined i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter, comes under t h i s l a t t e r category. (See Example 34.) In the f i r s t v e r se, the v i c t o r i o u s s p i r i t (die siegende  Seele) concludes the section in duple metre, a n t i c i p a t i n g acceptance "im Freuden=Saal, wo a l l e Quaal, wo a l l e Noth und Leiden versiisset wird mit Freuden." 7 9 The subsequent change to t r i p l e metre f i g u r a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e s the a n t i c i p a t i o n of joy and metaphorically creates a heavenly ambience for the entry of the angelic choir (Der Engel Chor). K. F b r k e l r a t h , C h r i s t l i c h e s Sterb-Lied... der... S i b y l l a e Ursu- lae... v e r f a s s e t von Heningo Petersen... und Anno 1672 den 6_^  Febr. gesungen und musiciret (Hamburg: Georg Rebenlein, 16 72). Wolfenbiittel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Gn. 4° 1592(2). 7 9 . "...in the h a l l of joy, where a l l torment, where a l l need and s u f f e r i n g i s sweetened with joy." 183 Example 34. K. Fbrkelrath: "Wer u'berwindet sich," measures 36-54. 184 In another work by Johann RosenmUller, the popular "Welt ade i c h 80 bin dein miide," the composer portrays musically the separation between heavenly joy and and worldly misery mainly through the change of metre. (See Example 35.) The a f f e c t i v e character of the text, representing the deceased, remains the same from verse to v e r s e : the tone of the f i r s t four l i n e s of each of seven verses are s o o t h i n g and c o n s o l a t o r y ; two contrasting l i n e s follow, focusing e n t i r e l y on the sins and miseries of the world; the c o n c l u d i n g two l i n e s r e f e r to the e t e r n a l peace and happiness found i n heaven. The composition begins in duple metre, which i s not at a l l unusual i n view of the f u n e r a r y r e p e r t o r y , s i n c e duple metre i s the r u l e and t r i p l e metre the e x c e p t i o n . What i s very i n t e r e s t i n g , however, is Rosenmuller's handling of the a f f e c t i v e changes between l i n e s 1 to 4, 5 to 6, and 7 to 8. T y p i c a l o f the p e r i o d i n which i t was written, the composition begins with no s p e c i f i c tempo or dynamic indications. Since the metre i s already decidedly duple, Rosen-muller succeeds in a l t e r i n g c e r t a i n elements of the music in order s t i l l to make the d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r between the changing tenor of text from consolatory to p r o s c r i p t i v e . This he manages by i n d i c a t i n g i n the score precipitous drops in the dynamic l e v e l (pian [ s i c ] ) and tempo (adagio). The composer r e v e r s e s the procedure f o r the c o n c l u d i n g two l i n e s by 80 J. Rosenmuller, Valet= und Trost=Lied / Welches vor dreyen Jahren / Dem Wo l=Ehrwurdigen und hochge l a h r t e n Hn. L Abraham Te H e r n j_ Der K i r c h e n zu N i c o l a i i n L e i p z i g w o l verordneten A r c h d i a c o n o x Bey dem damals a n g e s t e l t e n Leichbega'ngnis s e i n e s am 27. Febr. 1649 s e l . verstorbenen Tbchterlein JOHANNEN MAGDALENEN j_ zu t r o s t auffgesetzet / Nunmehr aber j_ Nachdem Er abermals durch f r u z e i t i g e s absterben seines am 19. Febr. 1652 frtih nach 2. Uhr i n Go11 s e l . v e r s c h i e d e n e n am 22. ejusdem darauff zur Erden=Ruhe begrachten jlingsten Tochterleins Johannen  E l i s a b e t h e n / T_n g l e i c h e s Traueren g e s e t z e t worden j_ a u f f Begehren  wiederholet hat Johann Rosenmuller (Leipzig: T. Ritzsch, 1652). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358 13/3. 185 Example 35. J . Rosenmuller: "Welt ade i c h b i n dein miide." 186 using the markings " f o r t e " and "alegro [ s i c ] . " The l a t t e r change works in conjunction with the simultaneous change to t r i p l e metre to depict heaven, e t e r n i t y , peace, joy and b l e s s e d n e s s . Thus the te x t of the f i r s t verse and these changes can be simply shown as follows: C piano, adagio 3/1, f o r t e , a l l e g r o Welt ade ich bin dein miide Ich w i l l nach dem Himmel zu Da wird seyn der rechte Friede Und die ewig s t o l z t e Ruh Welt bey d i r i s t Krieg und S t r e i t Nicht denn lauter E i t e l k e i t In dem Himmel a l l e z e i t _Friede / Freud und S e l i g k e i t . Farewell world, I am weary of you I long for heaven There w i l l be the righteous peace And eternal, noble rest World, with you i s war and c o n f l i c t Nothing but pure vanity In heaven eter n a l Peace, joy and blessedness. The l a s t c o m p o s i t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d here i s F r i e d r i c h Funcke's Q 1 s i x - p a r t s e t t i n g of "Ach H e r t z e l e i d " of 1665 f o r the f u n e r a l of Leonhard von Dassel i n Luneburg. (See Example 36.) The text comprises eight strophes of eight l i n e s each. The f i r s t four verses are fraught with pathos as the death of von Dassel i s lamented. Between the opening and closing remorseful exclamations (see above) that mark each verse are u n r e m i t t i n g e x p r e s s i o n s of s u f f e r i n g and s e l f - p i t y . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , Funcke sets these four verses i n duple metre. The complete section i s then repeated three more time for verses two through four. The second s e c t i o n of the c o m p o s i t i o n , which serves f o r v e r s e s f i v e through e i g h t , commences w i t h a change to t r i p l e metre as an expression of joy on the text "0 Wonn' und Freud'!" The change of metre 81 Funcke, op. c i t . 187 at t h i s point can be understood simultaneously i n a number of ways based on the text: as a fi g u r a t i v e representation of the text, as a metaphoric r e f e r e n c e to e t e r n a l heavenly joy, and as a symbolic s i g n i f i c a t i o n of heaven i t s e l f . Funcke, l i k e Schein i n "Das i s t meine Freude" and with the same animating e f f e c t , also incorporates a small subsection i n duple metre. Unlike Schein, the melodic movement in the duple metre portion of the second part i s twice as fast as i n the f i r s t section so as not to lose the momentum i n i t i a t e d by the preceding change to t r i p l e metre. Funcke's music shows an unambiguous delineation between the worldly and the heavenly c o n d i t i o n s . A c u r s o r y look at the text i n t h i s instance can show the p a r a l l e l but a n t i t h e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the physical and s p i r i t u a l realms. In the o r i g i n a l publication, the verses are printed i n two columns to allow the seventeenth-century reader to compare and c r o s s - r e f e r the mis e r y of h i s e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e to the anticipated joy of h i s eternal existence. The d i v i s i o n can be r e a d i l y seen below i n verses one and fi v e which are i n t i a l l y set, respectively, to the f i r s t and second parts of the music. 1. Ach Hertzeleid! In diss Leben=lose Leben Heg't nur Hertzens=herben Schmertz / Diser hat uns a l l ' umgeben / Diser naget unser Hertz Weinen / Klagen / Tausend Plagen / Qveelen uns. Ach Hertzeleid! 1. Alas heart-ache In t h i s l i f e l e s s l i f e Is only heart's b i t t e r pain This has surrounded us a l l This gnaws our heart Weeping, lamenting A thousand torments Torture us. Alas heart-ache! 5. 0 Wonn' und Freud'! Dort i s Freuden=volles Leben Und kein Zehren=voller Schmertz / Dort kan man i n Freuden schweben Wonn' ergetzet unser Hertz. Susses Singen Schbnes Klingen / Hbren wir / 0 Wonn' und Freud'! 5. Oh b l i s s and joy! There i s j o y f u l l i f e And no t e a r f u l pain There can one f l o a t i n joy B l i s s delights our heart Sweet singing Beautiful playing Do we hear, Oh b l i s s and joy! 188 Example 36. F. Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d . " ac&'. *3ci> He, 4K -e -*TJ V* » 1 acW. *• acU Uex — 1 » a<-V>. ^cU \W — — y ad, acU \W We --Wei. I » , r-Uf> Le^e*,.. . -rd j 1 * -3cU 3oV. 4:_.<; -ftcW. f- acW V2.e . V-i^d rp J l i . _ r i i y » r t P - r r •Mi- •*• -& — Vi-«_*^0«<£ <S.C.V\v««x4,T i r * — • — t — * — " T r - — " — r ~ - Viex\.«i-. S c .Yvr .cxAz. -Mr r f • 1 p p p — - V a n - b e v v * P \ Q . " e • " \&v \ / n * : — — r. P ' P -J P P *' n —1 H e 1 1 1—: uv\<_&r . W V z . U)«.;««v, / 1 . c ,ew / V . \ l C , ^ J <\en ^ueeWn u»\-s/ Example 36. F. Funcke: "Ach H e r t z e l e i d , " continued. 190 What then can be s a i d about the r h e t o r i c a l aims of Baroque composers who incorporate changes from duple to t r i p l e metre i n German f u n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s ? Persuading the c o n g r e g a t i o n of mourners to embrace u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y the e x i s t e n c e of an a f t e r l i f e was one of the p r i n c i p a l r h e t o r i c a l goals of Lutheran funeral oratory; and eternal l i f e i n heaven, as the con g r e g a t i o n knew, c o u l d be a t t a i n e d only by l i v i n g C h r i s t i a n l i v e s and dying Ch r i s t i a n deaths. (As regards the l a t t e r , i t has already been mentioned i n preceding chapters that the contemplative study of the ars moriendi and the p r a c t i c a l preparations for one's death were matters of great importance i n the Lutheran Church.) C o r p o r e a l l i f e and death, as d i s t i n c t from the e t e r n a l s p i r i t , were thus oddly equated w i t h each other. Through the a c t i v e , l i f e l o n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h dying and death, t h i s p a r i t y c o u ld p r o p e r l y be understood i n one sense as the e l e v a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n of death to the s t a t u s of c o r p o r e a l l i f e . In another sense, p h y s i c a l death c o u l d be understood merely as an i n t e g r a l element of l i f e , that i s , as the f i n a l act of a b i o l o g i c a l process which begins with b i r t h . Yet in another sense, the sedulous preoccupation with the ars moriendi may also be seen, i r o n i c a l -82 ly, as a denial of death's existence. Through t h e i r regular attendance of church services Lutherans were made f u l l y aware that corporeal death was i n e v i t a b l e as punishment for mankind's innate g u i l t f o r Adam's commission of o r i g i n a l s i n . Conse-q u e n t l y , one of the p r i n c i p a l tasks of the Church was to promote and i n s t i l in i t s members the d u a l i s t i c perception of the states of the body 8 2 See F. van Ingen, V a n i t a s und Memento mori i n der deutschen B a r o c k l y r i k (Groningen: J. B. W o l t e r s , 1966), pp. 1-4. In the f i r s t c h apter of Van Ingen's book, the author presents a b r i e f but l u c i d discussion of death as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , from Plato to Heidegger. 191 and the s o u l -- the one t r a n s i t o r y , the other e t e r n a l . The a c t u a l act of dying was to be understood by the congregation only as the cessation of p h y s i c a l l i f e , the c o r o l l a r y of which being the simultaneous transcendence of the soul. Whether the soul was to be taken into heaven or consigned to e t e r n a l h e l l was e n t i r e l y dependent on how one's l i f e had been led. F u n e r a l ceremonies, of course, provided the i d e a l r h e t o r i c a l platform from which these theological doctrines could be most e f f e c t i v e l y professed. In the hands of the pastor, s k i l l e d i n r h e t o r i c , the subject of corporeal t r a n s i t o r i n e s s and s p i r i t u a l perpetuity could be v a r i o u s l y manipulated to lament the p a s s i n g of the deceased and to console the bereft congregation, a l l the while imbuing the mourners with a more acute sense of th e i r own m o r t a l i t y -- i.e., memento mori. In the types of funeral music that have just been examined, charac-t e r i z e d as they are by changes from duple to t r i p l e metre, one can see the same d o c t r i n a l features r h e t o r i c a l l y presented on both textual and musical levels. The same onto l o g i c a l dualism of the ephemeral and the eternal that i s perceived between the body and the soul -- or earth and heaven as the case may be -- i s demonstrated, f i r s t , i n the texts to the f u n e r a l music and, secondly, by the c l e a r m e t r i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between tempus imperfectum and tempus perfectum -- imperfect for tran-s i t o r i n e s s and p e r f e c t f o r transcendence and e t e r n i t y . The nature of t h i s d u a l i s m could be pursued yet f u r t h e r on a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l . L i t e r a l l y supported by the text and enhanced by perceptible contrastive m u s i c a l changes of t e x t u r e , v o i c i n g and e s p e c i a l l y metre, some of the c o m p o s i t i o n s mentioned above -- perhaps most remarkably i n Kaspar Fbrckelrath's "Wer iiberwindet s i c h " — can be heard as a kind of musical esch a t o l o g i c a l allegory. The audience a c t u a l l y "hears" the progression 192 of l i f e and passage of time i n duple metre, f o l l o w e d by the i n s t a n t a -neous moment of s p i r i t u a l transcendence marked by the change to t r i p l e metre. While the o b j e c t i v e treatment of a l t e r n a t i n g metre i n these compositions may lack the grandiloquent romanticism of Richard Strauss's Tod und V e r k l a r u n g , the m u s i c a l message of death and transcendence i s nonetheless c l e a r l y communicated. 193 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The r h e t o r i c of f u n e r a l music seen i n the course of t h i s study i s i t s e l f best appreciated i n the context of the funeral ceremony. This i s c l e a r l y the case i n the discussion i n Chapter Three of prosopopoeia or the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the dead. Although one can c e r t a i n l y appreciate the composers' use of prosopopoeia simply as an approach to composition, i t s true purpose and dramatic e f f e c t are best understood when one bears i n mind the o r i g i n a l context: the shadowed i n t e r i o r of a church draped i n black; the bereft family and friends, clergy, musicians and attend-ants likewise i n black; the opened c o f f i n draped i n black; the deceased i n white, s o f t l y i l l u m i n a t e d by surrounding c a n d l e l i g h t . M u s i c a l -r h e t o r i c a l prosopopoeia was indeed p o w e r f u l : i t c o u l d console the mourners, i t could likewise admonish them, i t v i v i d l y exemplified church d o c t r i n e . I t would not be unreasonable to suggest that composers, having witnessed the effectiveness of prosopopoeia i n funeral sermons, transferred the trope d i r e c t l y from sermonic oratory to musical oratory. The popularity of th i s trope among Baroque composers i s undeniable, and i t may well be seen as the cardinal r h e t o r i c a l device of funeral music. M u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s are to be found i n Baroque f u n e r a l music, j u s t as they are present i n other music of t h i s time. The 194 dominating f i g u r e s i n t h i s r e p e r t o r y seem to be of a h y p o t y p o t i c or a n t i t h e t i c a l nature, used as they are to i l l u s t r a t e i n music the t r a d i -t i o n a l conceptual contrasts of this world and the next. No doubt these figures were employed with comparable persuasiveness by orators i n the d e l i v e r y ( £ £onuntiatio) of the f u n e r a l sermon. The r h e t o r i c a l exclamatio was found to be a pathetic figure that was commonly employed both in funerary oratory and funeral music. It i s impossible to say at t h i s point whether there i s in fact a select group of figures that were f e l t by composers to be more a p p r o p r i a t e than o t h e r s f o r f u n e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n s ; and without comparable s t u d i e s of other types of occasional music, we may never know. The v e r s a t i l i t y of the composers i n t h e i r r h e t o r i c i s at once suggested in the use of t r i p l e metre in funeral music. On the one hand, t r i p l e metre could be employed as an ingenuous r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of joy, associating the j u b i l a n t emotion with the metre and rhythms of a robust proportz or Nachtanz. Elsewhere, contrasted with duple metre, t r i p l e metre was employed m e t a p h o r i c a l l y to d e l i n e a t e s h a r p l y between the physical and s p i r i t u a l world, an a p p l i c a t i o n which most l i k e l y has i t s o r i g i n s i n the medieval s i g n i f i c a t i o n of three as a symbol of p e r f e c -tion, two as imperfection. The main purpose of the present study i s to examine the r h e t o r i c a l content of seventeenth-century P r o t e s t a n t f u n e r a l music i n Germany. Although there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t there may i n f a c t be a f u n e r a r y musical r h e t o r i c , a rhetoric d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the r h e t o r i c s of other occasional music, the question of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s must remain, for the time being, unanswered. I t has been demonstrated, c e r t a i n l y , that the m u s i c a l r h e t o r i c employed i n f u n e r a l music was an extremely 1 9 5 p e r s u a s i v e f o r c e . Indeed, r h e t o r i c in f u n e r a l music was as e f f e c t i v e as, and at times more e f f e c t i v e than, i t s l i t e r a r y model. The funeral music of seventeenth-century Protestant Germany i s , and w i l l continue to be, a subject worthy of musicological i n v e s t i g a t i o n --from commercial considerations of commissions, performance and publish-i n g to p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n of the r h e t o r i c and theology of the music and text; from e c c l e s i a s t i c a l considerations of the l i t u r g i c a l and e x t r a - 1 i t u r g i c a l r o l e of the music to matters of the many i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p e r f o r m i n g p r a c t i c e ; from c r i t i c a l evaluations of the as yet unassessed e p i c e d i a by m u s i c i a n s found i n the L e i c h e n -p r e d i g t e n to i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the accompanying m u s i c a l iconography. Since Arno Werner's inaugural study of the funeral music l i s t e d i n the S t o l b e r g - S t o l b e r g c a t a l o g u e , most subsequent studies, and this one as well, have r e i t e r a t e d Werner's c a l l for further i n v e s t i g a t i o n into t h i s body of music l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s hoped that the present t h e s i s may provide yet another s t a r t i n g point f o r s t u d i e s i n t o t h i s l i t t l e - k n o w n and l i t t l e - u n d e r s t o o d repertory. 1 9 6 APPENDIX PROSOPOPOEIAL FUNERAL COMPOSITIONS CITED IN CHAPTER III Important examples of prosopopoeial funeral compositions discussed i n Chapter Three have been transcribed and included i n the i r e n t i r e t y i n the Appendix. Because discussions of the a p p l i c a t i o n of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n in these works involved the compositions as a whole, i t i s most appro-priate to include them here rather than i n the text, where the length of some of them would have proved disruptive. E d i t i n g i n the tra n s c r i p t i o n s has been kept to a minimum. Modern c l e f s are used, i n c o r r e c t c l e f s i n the o r i g i n a l s have been c o r r e c t e d , modern note v a l u e s r e f l e c t the Baroque n o t a t i o n (i.e., whole note = semibreve, h a l f note = minim, etc.), transposed p a r t s or l i n e s i n the o r i g i n a l s have been corrected, wrongly notated rhythmic values have been adjusted. Questionable matters of pitch, with regard to both notation and f i c t a , have not been addressed. 197 198 Theodor Schuchardt, "Ach Gott wie i s t mein Hertz betriibt." I m—*—» — e IJW W«v V>»\. _ „„„ T^IY na^ A ulec, qe - w,««. mem a«e< UAsVi <;;\,>. ?\£„ * t b * ' ' ' f f f f [» J. f» ttJ = _ _ . ."f . t _ Is i ' • 3^53—4 • —:—* ^ w W Jt 7 . 1 ' ,~ J J 1 j . j " 1 .-) r r |* r (' ., • ' - = ftU* ' Tew* 3-Clr,Wl 2. 199 201 202 2-03 L«»4«.>N / daft icV i» / 0, —, L-206 2 0 8 209 210 211 2 1 2 —1' ~i' 1 "j J ' " ^ Uei _ _ \^ ; .0 \<u< I e - \ i i « . V / * + -e-f'ji t - j J A. V V FJ J i ., ' ... — • = = = k* 4 * -4 f r - : • 1 0'' rtcu . fl> 0 J j J. f[ P 1 J • . . , -» = 1 : • •e-Y )\ \ 4. \ * - • • i t rl J 7 j J . J ' J P 1 > f 0 Q J -J J" ^ ~ V i V C.0W At, 0 • • • • • ^ ' ^ J 1 •—< - — ; — a 0 1 ' TT 0 » 1 » " 0 •. TT * * if*"- } ' :—1 ' * * }t 1 1 1 J. J i 1 j J r J- ~ J — 213 215 217 I. n .k . T - A I , . ..... .... . . Tj— . • —»• * — -A 0 r-«—*—«——•— . £ _ 1 1 1 . J—J J 1 W—J <•> . . . 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Klag=und T r o s t = Z e i l e n j_ liber den s c h m e r t z l i c h e n H i n t r i t Des Wei land j_ Wohl=Edlen j_ Vesten j_ Gross=Achtbaren und Wohlfiirnehmen Herrn j_ Herrn Leonhard von Dassel j_ Vornehmen und  uhr-alten Beschlechter a l l h i r J_ Welcher durch einen unverhoften und f r i i h - z e i t i g e n j_ jdoch hbchts= [ s e l i ? ] gen H i n r i s s des Todes den  12. J a n u a r i i i n disem i t z t l a u f f e n d e n 1665 Jahre dise Kummer=volle Welt gesegnet ]_ und der Seelen nach ]_ sich Himmel-an geschwungen j_ Aus t i f s t - s c h u l d i g e m j_ auch hertzlichem M i t l e i d e n j_ Wie auch A l l e n j_ iiber disem unverhof ten Todes=Fall schmertzlich Betriibeten ]_ zu  Trost j_ und dinst-freundlichem Gefallen... j_ geschriben und abge- sungen von FRIDERICO FUNCCIO, Cantore Schole S e n a t o r i a e . Liine-burg: 1665. Gotha, F o r s c h u n g s b i b l i o t h e k , Theol. f o l . 357-358 13/15. G a s t o r i u s , Severus. K l a g - und Trauer-Gesprach bey Leich-Begangnuss  dess... Herrn Wilken von Berglasen... den 18. Augusti des 1679sten  Jahres... i n e i n e r A r i e g e s e t z e t . Jena: Johann Werther, 16 79. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Slg. Her 0 238/5. I. F. Music Dess s e e l i g verstorbenen Herrn. D. Majers l e t z t e Valedic-t i o n So nach g e h a l t e n e r L e i c h = P r e d i g t i n der S t a t t k i r c h e n zu 243: C r a i l s h e i m durch einen D i s c a r i t i s t e n von der Orge_l_ abgesungen warden. Ansbach: Johann Hornung, 1668. Erlangen, U n i v e r s i t a t s -b i b l i o t h e k , T h l . XIX, 94 a Qu. (X 307). Jordan, Joachim. Antidoton Peccati & Necis. Werther vnd Wolbewerter T r o s t j_ vnd heil s a m e Arztney wieder d i e Slinde vnd Verdamnis Aus dem giidenen Spruch S. P a u l i I. Tim^ 1^ Das i s t j e gewiss 1 i c h war / etc. Bey C h r i s t l i c h e r Sepultur Des Weiland Ehrnvesten j_ Gross- achtbaren vnd Hochgelahrten Herrn Rudolph Barssen j_ des E l t e r n j_ F i i r t s l i c h e n Braunschweig=Luneburgischen von Hauss aus wolbestalten  Raths J_ beyder Landschafften [_ Wolffenbiittelschen vnd Kalenbergi- schen T e h i l s a l t e n Syndici vnd furnemen P r a c t i c i ^ Welcher den 13.  J u n i j Anno 1635. Abends vmb 7^ Vhr /_ im 75. Jahr s e i n e s A l t e r s j_ i n Gott s a n f f t vnd s e l i g e n t s c h l a f f e n ]_ vnd folgenden 2\J_ ir\ S.  Cathar: Kirchen i n Braunschweig e h r l i c h beygesetzet vnd zur Erden  bestattet word. Erzeiget vnd er k l a r e t / Durch JOACHIMUM JORDANUM, LUNAEB. Pastorem zu Cathar. Brunswick: Balthasar Gruter, 1635. Facsimile reprint i n appendix to Leichenpredigten als H i s t o r i s c h e r  Wissenschaften, ed. by Rudolf Lenz (Cologne, Vienna: Bblau Verlag, 1972), n.p.; "Gesprach e d i t e d by Wolfgang Reich i n Threnodiae  Sacrae: Beerdigungskompositionen aus gedruckten L e i c h e n p r e d i g t e n  des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, Das Erbe Deutscher Musik, Band 79 (Wiesbaden: B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1975), p. 1. B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Ee 710-165 (6). Kemp, Johann. 2^ Moteten, Auff den trawrigen vnd Unverhofften Todesfall  Der weiland Durchleuchtigen... Frawen ANNA MARIA Gebohrnen zu Ost  Frieszl a n d t j_ Herzoginnen zu Machlenburg... Deiner nunmehr i n Gott  ruhenden Hochseligen gna'digen Furstinnen vnd Frawen: Die Erste mit 8^ Die Ander mit 6^  Stimmen componiret A Von JOHANNE KEMPIO, P.L.C.  vnd F u r s t l . M. Ho f f Cantore. Glistrow: Johann Jagern, 1634. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , K. 5. c. 28. K r i e g e r , Adam. Trauer-Gespr'achs-Ode welche Bey der... Frau Dietzschin  Beerd igung j_ Nach g e h a l t e n e r Le ichen=Predigt [_ in der Got te s =  Acker= Kirche [_ zum Salvator genant j_ abgesungen worden von Joh. Mich. Bodino Cant. Cob. Coburg: Johann Conrad Mbnch, F u r s t l i c h e Buchdruckerei, 1667. B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Ee 700-695. L e i b n i t z , Johann Georg. Eckel, Ob der e i t l e n Welt empfangen ]_ und nach  JESU sehnlich=getragenes Verlangen Des... H. Iohann-Georg  Leibnitz... Weiland j_ Pfarrer zu Rasch und V i c a r i i i n A l t d o r f f i  Anfangs von ihm selbst eigenhahdig aufgesetzet: jetzo aber, nach  seinem den 3. M a r t i i dieses Jahrs ]_ geschehenem seligem Ableiben J_ Zum Druck befbrdert (Nuremberg: Wolfgang Eberhard Felsecker, 1671). Zwickau, Ratsschulbibliothek, M. 53, 6. Pezel, Johann. Des Menschen-Lebens E i t e l k e i t j_ Als Der Wohl-Erenveste j_ Vor-Achtbare und Wohlgelahrte Hr Stephan C h r i s t i a n DEDEKIND / S. S. T h e o l o g i z e C u l t o r , & P h i l o s o p h i a e B a c c a l . Auff d i e s e r lob 1. U n i v e r s i t a t zu L e i p z i g j_ den 18. J u n i j des 1672sten Jahres j_ mit ,244 einem ansehnliche Leich=Begangnu's j_ C h r i s t l i c h beerdiget wurde j_ Dem Se 1 igen j_ a l s einem werthe(-) M i t g l i e d e j_ zu s te ten Ehren j_ entwarffs In einer Trauer=Ode j_ das Collegium Musicum.... [at the end of the c o m p o s i t i o n ] In honorem atqve sempiternam memoiram beate DEFUNCTI compositus, proecedentiq, huic Odae accommodatus a JOHANNE PEZELIO, D i r e c t . C o l l e g . ( s . l . [ L e i p z i g ? ] , 1672). Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, F i l l 34 (5). Rosenmu'ller, Johann. Le t z t e r Abschied j_ Des Ehrenvesten j_ Vorachtbarn j_ Wolgelahrten und Wohlweisen Herrn Bartholomai Hayns / Welcher  nach Gottes u n e r f o r s c h l i c h e m Rath und Wi 1 len den 7. Mai im Jahr  1650. i n Christo seinem E r l o s e r diese Welt gesegnet. Und den 9.  Hernach mit a n s e h n l i c h e B e g l e i t u n g i n seine Ruhestatt getragen worden j_ Zu Bezeigung seine s C h r i s t l i c h e n M i t l e i d e n s e y l f e r t i g au f..fg_ei5e t^ z t yon Johann R o s e n m u l l e r . L e i p z i g : F r i e d r i c h Lanckisch's Erben, 1650. Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, 2 i n Theol. f o l . 357-358. . Valet= und Trost=Lied ]_ Welches vor dreyen Jahren j_ Dem Wol= Ehrwlirdigen und hochgelahrten Hn. L Abraham T e l l e r n j_ Der Kirchen zu S. N i c o l a i i n L e i p z i g wolverordneten A r c h d i a c o n o x Bey dem damals angeste1 ten Leichbegangnis s e i n e s am 27. Febr. 1649 se 1. v e r s t o r b e n e n T b c h t e r l e i n JOHANNEN MAGDALENEN / zu t r o s t a u f f - gesetzet / Nunmehr aber [_ Nachdem Er abermals durch f r i i z e i t i g e s absterben s e i n e s am 19. Febr. 1652 f r u h nach 2^ Uhr i n Gott s e l . v e r s c h i e d e n e n am 22. ejusdem d a r a u f f zur Erden=Ruhe begrachten jiingsten Tochterleins Johannen Elisabethen j_ In gleiches Traueren g e s e t z e t worden j_ a u f f Begehren w i e d e r h o l e t ha_t Johann Rosen-mu'ller. L e i p z i g : Gedruckt bey Timothes Ritzschen, 1652. Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358 13/3. Scheidt, Samuel. Grab Liedt Auss dem Buch der Weissheit am 4^ Capit. v. 1_ vnd 14. Zu C h r i s t l i c h e n Abdencken Das Ehrwlirdigen /_ Achtbarn vnd Wolgelahrten Herrn THOMASE ANDREAE, S e e l s o r g e r s zu Glaucha vor Hal l e j_ i n t z i g h e r t z l i e b e n Sbhnle ins M i c h a e l i s Reinholden j_ Welches dieser Welt abgefordert vnd folgenden 18. M a r t i j daselbst  C h r i s t l i c h bestattet worden /_ Seines A l t e r s 24. Wochen Componiret vnd a u f f g e s e t z e t mit 3. Stimmen von Samuele Scheidt H a l l e n s e . Halle: Melchior Oelschlegel, 1635. Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, Theol. f o l . 357-358. S c h e i f f e l h u t , Jakob. Die urn d i e Sterbens-Lehr b i t t e n d e und zum Leben und Tod Gott ergebene Seele mit ihrem freudigen Welt-Valet. Der w e i l a n d J a c o b i n a Thurmin...zu l e t z t - s c h u l d i g e n Ehren...in Noten gebracht, das erste von Jacob Scheiffelhut, das andere von Daniel Merk. Augsburg: J. J. Schbnigk, 1693. Kempten/Allgau, K i r c h e n -b i b l i o t h e k der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Pfarramt St. Mang, V. 3. 16. c. Schein, Johann Hermann. Cantional, Oder Gesangbuch Augsburgischer Kon-f e s s i o n 1627/1645. T e i l 1-2. E d i t e d by Adam A d r i o . V o l . 2 i n Johann Hermann Schein: Neue Ausgabe s a m t l i c h e r Werke. Kasse1, 245 Basel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1967. . Cupressus luctus acerbioris...pro capulo...Annae Mariae, pue 1-l u l a e supra aetatulam...Dn. M. Andreae C o r v i n i . . . f i l i o l a e . . . 4 . A p r i 1 i s , anno M.DC.XXV. mortuae...emblematis m u s i c i s v e r m i c u l a -ta.... L e i p z i g : s. n. [F. L a n c k i s c h ] , 1625. Zwickau, Rats-s c h u l b i b l i o t h e k , M. 6. 6. 32. . Symbolum oder T a g l i c h e r T r o s t = Spruch j_ Psalm 73. v e r s . 28. Mit welchem j_ auff seinen langwierigen Creutz- und Stechbettlein j_ s i c h g e t r b s t e t j_ Herr V i n c e n t i u s Schmuck...Mit 5. Stimmen sampt dem General-Bass.... L e i p z i g : Georg Ritzsch, 1628. Gbttin-gen, Niedersachsische Staats- und Universita'tsbibliothek, 4° Cone, fun. 252/27. Schuchardt, Theodor. C h r i s t l i c h e s Gespra'ch eines betrubten Vaters mit  seinem a b g e l e i b t e n Sbhnlein. A u f f den... H i n t r i t t . . . JohannT  H e n r i c i , des... Herrn M. Johannis Weissen... Sbhnle ins Welches...  anno 1656... e n t s c h l a f f e n . M i t 8. Stimmen zu 2 u n t e r s c h i e d e n e n Choren g e s e t z t . Gotha: Johann M i c h a e l S c h a l l , 1656. B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, 2 i n Ee 700-3882. Schutz, Schutz. M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. Op. 7., S t u t t g a r t e r Schiitz-Ausgabe, edited by Glinther Graulich, vol. 8. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hanssler Verlag, 1973. . M u s i k a l i s c h e Exequien. E d i t e d by Georg Schumann. L e i p z i g : VEB Breitkopf & Hartel Verlag, 1982. Schwemmer, Heinrich. Letzter Zuruff j_ welcher nach gehaltener Predigt  abgesungen und a u f g e s e z z t worden durch Obennanten [i.e. Heinrich Schwemmer]. Nuremberg: M. Endter, 1670. Zwickau, R a t s s c h u l -b i b l i o t h e k , M. 105, l j ; Nuremberg, S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k , W i l l VII, 1308.4°. . T e x t - L i e d liber den s e l i g s t e n H i n t r i 1 1 und bey C h r i s t l i c h e r Bestattung der Edlen und Tugendreichsten Frauen Marien=Magdalenen V gebohrnen PELLERINNEN / Des Edlen und Vesten Junckherrn Benedict Winckler... Eh = Schatzes.... L e i p z i g : C. M i c h a e l , 1661. Nurem-berg, Stadtbibliothek, W i l l II 1208.4°. . Zwey Klag= und Abschieds=Lieder / liber den Leich= Text und T i t u l j_ Der Hoch=Wolgebornen Frauen j_ Frauen Amaliae /_ Herrin von  Stubenberg £ Geborner H e r r i n von L i e c h t e n s t e i n ]_ und Murau u. u a f g e s e z e t von T o b i a Francken: i n d_ie Noten aber v e r s e z e t j_ und  bey Hochansehlicher Beerdigung musiciret von Heinrich Schwemmer j_ D i r e c t . Mus. Nuremberg: C. Gerhard, 1665. Nuremberg, S t a d t b i b -liothek, W i l l II 1121.4°. Seidel, Martin. Klag- und Trost-Lied i n welchen...Des Herrn DanDechants...als...Wittber seiner Eheliebsten tbdlichen H i n t r i t t  hertz- und schmertzlich beklagt; dargegen aber auss Gottes Wort 246 s i c h k r a f f t i g l i c h wiederumb trbs t e t und a u f f r i c h t e t In einer  g e r i n g f i i g i g e n Poesie und M e l o d i a v e r f a s s e t ( s . l . , s.n., s.d.). Munich, Bayerishe Staatsbibliothek, Slg. Her. 0 238/12. Wagner, Michael. A r i a i n Dialogo i.e. Traur= und Trost=Gesprach j_ Auff  seliges Absterben Der Hoch=Ede lgebornen j_ und mit Chr i s t=Ade lic h e n  Tugenden begabten Frauen j_ Frauen Hedwig j_ Gebornen dem Busche j_ aus dem Hause Ippenburg j_ u^ Des hoch=Edelgebornen Gestrengen und  Vesten Herrn j_ Hn. C h r i s t i a n W ilhelm Hahnen j_ u^ Wei land Hertz= E h e g e l i e b t e s t e n / Nachdem D i e s e l b e am 11. Septembr. Anno  1671. nach Mittage um 2. Uhr s e l i g i n dem HERRN entschlaffen / und  d a r a u f f den 29. Novembris s e l b i g e n Jahres mit Hoch=Adelicher ]_ ansehnlichster und volckreicher Begleitung i n die Kirche Seeburg  b e y g e s e t z t wurde i_ A n g e s t e l l t und a u f f g e s e t z e t von M. GEORGIO SICELIO, Pastore rn Bes s e n s t e t j_ Und a u f f Begehren i n einem f i i n f f s t i m m i g e n Contrap. S^_ e y I f e r t i g s t v e r s e t z e t j_ und nach  B e l i e b e n a u f f 2. oder 3. Chore a n z u s t e 1 l e n e i n g e r i c h t e t von MICHAELE WAGNERO, Musico und Cantore Ord. i n Quedlinburg. L e i p z i g : J. Bauer, 1672. B e r l i n , Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, 2 i n Ee 658 4°. Wiedemann, Michael. Begrabnis Concert auff 3. Chbren unter welchen 1.  Der Lehr=Chor allerhand B i b l i s c h e Texte i n Al t [ , ] Tenor und Bass nebst 2. F l b t e n v o r s i n g e t ]_ 2^ Der Glaubens Chor mit e i n e r A r i e aus dem Leichen=Text _in 2_^  disca'nten nebst 3. V i o l d i Gamb. e i n - stimmet 3. Die Seelen Stimme den C h o r a l ^ H e r t z l i c h thut mich  verlangen i n einem Discant nebst einer Laute (hinterm Sarge verr  borgen) nachsinget bey dem Freyherrlichen Leichbegangniss welches  Dem hochwohlgebohrnen Herrn Herrn Sigismund Heinrich ]_ Freyherrn  von B i e b r a n und Modlau... den 9. Decembris des 1693 Jahres i n Os z i g g e h a l t e n wurde Nach der P r e d i g t zu music i r e n g e s e t z t von  Michael Wiedemann. Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94. B e r l i n , B e r l i n e r Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. . Begrabnis=Concert von zehen Stimmen unter denen A l t , Tenor und Bass e t l i c h e B i b l i s c h e Texte vorsingen j_ welches Zwey Discante mit  einem Trost= und Bet = Chora1 aus g e i s t l i c h e n Kirchen-Gesangen  beantworten. Dabey 2 V i o l i n e n und 3_ V i o l e j i mass i g d arzwischen s p i e l e n bey dem F r e y h e r r l i c h e n Leichen=Beg'angniss Welches Dem Hochwohlgebohrnen Herrn / HERRN Sigismund Heinrich Freyherrn von  Bibran und Modlau... Den 9. Decembris des 1693sten Jahres i n Ossig  gehalten wurde j_ Vor der Predigt zu Musiciren gesezt von Michael  Wiedemann. Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94. B e r l i n , B e r l i n e r Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. . Kurtzes Beschluss=Liedgen a u f f das CONSUMMATUM EST. von 8 Stimmen auff zwey Choren (1.) E i n Discant nebst der Laute ( i n der  G r u f f t v e r d e c k e t ) i n t o n i r e t welches (2.) Der gantze Chor hernach  wiederholet. Lauban: Johann G o t t f r i e d Dehnen, ca. 1693/94. Ber-l i n , B e r l i n e r Stadtbibliothek, Grauenklostersammlung VII. 247 

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