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Pictorialism in the fictional miniatures of Albert Paris Gütersloh Laue, Ingrid Elizabeth 1987

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PICTORIALISM IN THE FICTIONAL MINIATURES OF ALBERT PARIS GUTERSLOH By INGRID ELIZABETH LAUE B.A. ( H o n s . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f G e r m a n i c S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA Ma r c h 1987 (c) I n g r i d E l i z a b e t h L a u e , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) Abstract The purpose of thi s study has been to investigate and analyze the " f i c t i o n a l miniatures," i . e . , the short prose works, of Albert Paris Gtltersloh. The assumption was that a marked i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between these and Gtltersloh's painted miniatures. Given the fact that Gtltersloh was both writer and painter, and since many of the questions which l o g i c a l l y a r i s e out of this duality either have not been addressed at a l l i n the scholarly l i t e r a t u r e on Gtltersloh, or dealt with only s u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t was f e l t that the approach used in the present study had to focus, to some extent, on the a r t i s t ' s dual talent. The study attempts to i l l u s t r a t e Gtltersloh's a r t i s t i c nature i n conjunction with an investigation of one area of a r t i s t i c expression, namely the short f i c t i o n a l works. The method was one of proceeding from the general to the p a r t i c u l a r , i . e . , by f i r s t examining the complex pheno-menon of the "painting writer," or "writing painter," as well as the widely discussed notion of "reciprocal i l l u m i n a t i o n " of the a r t s . This, together with the detailed analysis of scholarly works on Gtltersloh as well as his own t h e o r e t i c a l writings on art was seen as part of the necessary "anatomy" of the study. Although the narrational quality of the painted miniatures has been alluded to by several other c r i t i c s , the inherent s i m i l a r i t y between Gtttersloh's painted and " l i t e r a r y miniatures" ( i . e . , his short prose works) is being analyzed for the f i r s t time i n t h i s study. I t aims at proving the claim that the former's overriding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e i r d i s t i n c t l y narrational qu a l i t y . As such the paintings are permeated with a writer's imagination, a feature which makes the i r narrative component as important as the p i c t o r i a l . Each of these small-scale paintings depicts some c r u c i a l point i n a "story," thereby forcing the viewer to imagine a "before" as well as an " a f t e r " of each s p e c i f i c scene — i n other words, to see these paintings i n epic terms. By i s o l a t i n g such elements as delineation, framing, staging, s e t t i n g , and colour (both descriptive and metaphorical) among others, i t could be shown that the f i c t i o n a l miniatures give evidence of Gdtersloh's persistent i n c l i n a t i o n to think, and write, i n "pictures," hence to work from a largely p i c t o r i a l conception: the s t o r y - l i n e frequently i s developed as a series of s t a t i c "pictures" which are given as much compositional weight as the chronologically progressing p l o t . It could also be demonstrated that the general phenomenon of Fantastic i v Realism i s a pronounced feature not only of the painted but also of the l i t e r a r y miniatures. The conclusion the study reaches i s that Gtltersloh's a r t i s t i c expression, whether as writer or painter, i s of a much more u n i f i e d nature than has previously been argued; that both forms of a r t i s t i c expression are of a comple-mentary nature, and that t h i s phenomenon i s exemplified most succinctly i n his f i c t i o n a l miniatures. Thesis Supervisor V Magistris patribusque dedicatum: Alf r e d Amos Eberhard Hans Jtirgen L e s l i e v i Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i I n t r o d u c t i o n I. A l b e r t P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h : B i o g r a p h i c a l Note . . 1 I I . Scope and O b j e c t i v e of the Present Study . . . 4 Chapter One I. The Question of the " R e c i p r o c a l I l l u m i n a t i o n " of the A r t s . 30 I I . The P a i n t i n g W r i t e r , and the W r i t i n g P a i n t e r . 36 I I I . G t l t e r s l o h S c h o l a r s h i p : The A r t i s t ' s Dual T a l e n t . 40 Chapter Two The P a i n t e r Gtltersloh I. "Die Bekenntnisse e i n e s modernen Malers" . . . 59 I I . The Vienna School of F a n t a s t i c Realism . . . . 68 I I I . G t l t e r s l o h ' s P a i n t e d M i n i a t u r e s 72 v i i Page Chapter Three The Writer Gtttersloh: The F i c t i o n a l Miniatures I. The Question of Genre 90 I I . Publishing History; E d i t o r i a l Changes . . . . 99 I I I . The Exterior Landscape 1 . Delineation 103 2. Figures, Themes, and Point of View . . . . 109 3. Setting 136 4. Colour 141 5. Framing 154 6. Stage Effects 1 63 IV. The I n t e r i o r Landscape 1. Figures, Themes, and Point of View . . . . 169 2. Fantastic Realism 179 Conclusion 188 Appendix A GUtersloh Scholarship: Major Studies 201 Appendix B 1. "Apres" 212 2. "Das Wartezimmer des Irrenarztes" 213 3. "Im Irrgarten der Liebe" 214 Page Notes 215 L i s t of Abbreviations 236 Select Bibliography 238 1 Introduction I. Albert Paris Glitersloh: Biographical Note Albert Paris Gtltersloh (the pseudonym of Albert Conrad Kiehtreiber) was born i n Vienna on the 5th of February, 1887. P r o l i f i c as both writer and painter throughout his l i f e , he achieved early l i t e r a r y recognition with the novel Die tanzende Tflrin (1910), now considered to be one of the e a r l i e s t works of l i t e r a r y Expressionism. Other novels, poetry, short f i c t i o n , essays and a r t i c l e s followed, as well as his collaboration, with Franz B l e i , on the journal Die  Rettung (1918 to 1919). In 1 923 Gtltersloh was awarded the Fontane Prize. U n t i l then he had also worked as a stage designer, producer and actor i n Vienna, Munich, and B e r l i n . As of 1923, painting was more prominent i n the a r t i s t ' s l i f e ; l i v i n g i n France from 1923 to 1928, he devoted himself almost e n t i r e l y to painting. During t h i s period, Gtltersloh received the Grand Prix for a tapestry design. In 1929 he became a professor at the Vienna School of Applied Arts (Kunstgewerbeschule), and held t h i s p osition u n t i l the annexation of Austria when he was c l a s s i f i e d as one of the 2 country's "degenerate" a r t i s t s , which meant that he was forbidden to write or paint. As a r e s u l t , GUtersloh was forced to work as a labourer and minor clerk during the war years. He was given a professorship at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in 1945, and there became instrumental i n the founding of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, among whose f i r s t exponents were Erich Brauer, Ernst Fuchs, Rudolf Hausner, and Wolfgang Hutter. Gtitersloh served as the di r e c t o r of the Academy from 1953 u n t i l 1955. Although Gtitersloh produced many p o r t r a i t s , landscapes, s t i l l l i f e s and other types of painting during his l i f e , he i s given p a r t i c u l a r recognition now as a painter of hundreds of miniatures (watercolours) which were created from approximately 1925 on. In terms of numbers, they far exceed anything else that he has painted. As a writer, GUtersloh became a figure of major intere s t once again with the publication of his novel Sonne  und Mond (1962) on which he had begun work as early as 1935. The majority of the short f i c t i o n a l prose works, written between the early 1920's and the 1960's, was published i n a variety of (now defunct) small l i t e r a r y journals, as well as newspapers; a number of them were colle c t e d i n Die Fabeln vom Eros (1947, and 1963), and Lasst uns den Menschen machen (1962). Individually or 3 c o l l e c t i v e l y , the s t o r i e s do not assume the importance of his novels, yet they nevertheless constitute a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to Austrian l i t e r a t u r e . Gtltersloh died in Baden, near Vienna, on the 16th of May, 1973. 4 I I . Scope and Objective of the Present Study The major concern of t h i s study i s to demonstrate the p i c t o r i a l nature of Gtltersloh's short f i c t i o n . The a r t i s t ' s painted miniatures serve as a "model" for the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the writer Gtltersloh's p i c t o r i a l perception. It should be c l e a r l y understood that t h i s i s not a comparative study of the two art forms; one i s merely u t i l i z e d to elucidate the other. Since very l i t t l e secondary material exists which deals with these paintings, and since i t has long been established that they do not belong to any recognized school, the nature of the painted miniatures had to be discussed before making use of them i n my analysis. A l i t e r a r y study which refers, for example, to Picasso, Gauguin, Kokoschka or another "established" painter needs no s p e c i f i c introduction of or elaboration on the nature of the a r t i s t ' s work, since invariably t h i s w i l l have been done already i n another d i s c i p l i n e and become generally accepted. Gtltersloh's r e l a t i v e obscurity makes i t necessary to explain that.the c r i t i c cannot sta r t from a premise of foregone conclusions since these do not e x i s t ; hence i t can be argued that t h i s type of c r i t i c a l investigation i s f a r more complex as well as challenging than a study which u t i l i z e s already established and " c o d i f i e d " f a c t s . 5 A "theory" of Gtttersloh's painted miniatures does not e x i s t at the present time; i t would be presumptuous of a c r i t i c who i s not an art expert to try and establish one. Furthermore, since t h i s i s not a study which, s t r i c t l y speaking, compares l i t e r a t u r e and painting, an approach on the basis of theory as f a r as the paintings are concerned--even i f such a theory existed--would be peripheral only for my topic and would, at best, y i e l d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e . This i s the f i r s t time that an approach of t h i s sort has been attempted i n a large-scale study; so f a r , the r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t body of c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on Gfitersloh does not include any a r t i c l e s or major studies whose target i s the considerable body of short f i c t i o n , nor i s p i c t o r i a l i s m the focus of exi s t i n g studies of Gtltersloh's novels. The chance discovery of Gtitersloh's novel Die tanzende  Tc-rin marked the beginning of my fascination with a writer who, u n t i l then, had been e n t i r e l y unknown to me; the decision to make t h i s author the subject of a doctoral thesis was reached within a few months. The topic of the present investigation evolved gradually, however, while I f a m i l i a r i z e d myself with primary as well as secondary texts. This proved to be a time-consuming endeavour due to the absence of a c o l l e c t e d works as well as a complete 6 bibliography, the fact that many texts were out of p r i n t , and the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining most of the materials from other l i b r a r i e s . Eventually, a l l primary as well as nearly a l l secondary texts (including newspaper and similar a r t i c l e s ) were examined. My s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n Gtltersloh's stories arose when I happened to see two of his painted "miniatures" i n the Vienna Stadtbibliothek. These small-scale watercolours--painted, i t seemed, with an extremely pointed brush, since every object i s depicted in the most detailed manner— immediately made me aware of t h e i r very pronounced l i t e r a r y or t h e a t r i c a l character, inasmuch as each one presents the viewer with a scene one might encounter i n a novel or short story, or with a tableau ostensibly created for the stage. This f i r s t impression was confirmed by subsequent viewings of other miniatures which have appeared in a couple of (limited) editions. The creative impetus behind each miniature seems to be of a narrative nature, the painter adopting the role of s t o r y t e l l e r . The v i s u a l medium obviously dictates the s t a t i c q uality of the "story"; yet each picture somehow transcends the s t a t i c , since the viewer has clues with which to discover a "before" and " a f t e r , " and what i s v i s i b l e i s obviously one scene of the narrative or play the painter 7 seems to have envisaged. Figures (usually depicted as couples, or i n constellations of three and four) are either i n motion, or i n positions denoting some dramatic confrontation which has taken place, or i s about to happen. Costuming, and often exterior and i n t e r i o r settings, are not e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as to time and place; the o v e r a l l impression the viewer i s l e f t with i s that of a kaleidoscope of scenes which are just one step removed from perceptual r e a l i t y , i n the sense that they are s l i g h t l y f a n t a s t i c . One i s constantly aware of the writer looking over the painter's shoulder, so to speak. As i l l u s t r a t i v e examples, three of the miniatures w i l l be looked at i n terms of t h e i r narrative quality (see Chapter Two: Gtltersloh's Painted Miniatures). It might be mentioned here that the miniatures are not readily accessible, neither the o r i g i n a l s nor t h e i r reproduction i n t h e i r actual s i z e . Heribert Hutter's Beispiele (see Chapter Two) has been the main source for closer study. The question then presented i t s e l f : does the painter "intrude" upon the writer i n the same manner? After reading Die tanzende T^rin as well as Sonne und Mond, i t became cl e a r l y evident that he does: the novels abound with scenes that are predominantly p i c t o r i a l , i . e . , depicted with the c a r e f u l attention to d e t a i l , perspective, colour and o v e r a l l composition a painter would give to his work. The closest 8 collaboration between painter and writer seemed to occur i n the s t o r i e s , however, where the small format i t s e l f would seem to suggest a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l i t e r a r y and the painted miniatures. The s i m i l a r i t y between some of the painted works and the l i t e r a t u r e has been pointed out before; indeed, i t can hardly be overlooked in a discussion of the a r t i s t ' s oeuvre. Yet t h i s conclusion has never been taken a step further by other c r i t i c s , i . e . , by going beyond a b r i e f commentary to a detailed study. My interpretation of Gtltersloh's l i t e r a r y "miniatures" - - i . e . , the short prose works--is based on the postulate of t h e i r inherent close r e l a t i o n s h i p to the a r t i s t ' s painted miniatures, and of the pronounced degree of interpenetration of his v i s u a l and l i t e r a r y oeuvre. It was seen as necessary to depict the epic quality of the one before attempting the d e f i n i t i o n of the p i c t o r i a l nature of the other. F i r s t , however, i t seemed ess e n t i a l to discuss the rather complex phenomenon i n general terms, and to present and discuss the main argument of painter versus writer as i t has been handled in Gtttersloh's case before dealing with the short f i c t i o n a l works. The l a t t e r part of th i s study constitutes an o r i g i n a l contribution to Gfitersloh scholarship, the former some necessary scholarly spadework 9 whose claim to o r i g i n a l i t y l i e s i n the fact that the complex argument has never been presented or discussed i n d e t a i l before. It should be kept i n mind that discussing the writer Gtitersloh i n terms of genre or period i s rendered as d i f f i c u l t for the c r i t i c as i s the discussion of the painter, and for the same reasons touched upon e a r l i e r : despite the fact that he wrote over a period of many decades, a l l of which have now been "labeled" to f a c i l i t a t e the discussion of s p e c i f i c writers i n any one period (e.g. Expressionism), Gfltersloh's oeuvre i s too diverse to f i t comfortably into any one h i s t o r i c a l period or l i t e r a r y category. The a r t i s t defies " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " ; t h i s may very well be the main reason that only half a dozen studies e x i s t at the present time. As far as t h i s study i s concerned: i t i s , perhaps, natural that a f t e r years of l i t e r a r y study where writers tend to be discussed as belonging to some s p e c i f i c school of or trend i n l i t e r a t u r e , my own i n i t i a l e f f o r t s i n elucidating Gfitersloh's work should have been guided by an impulse to "pigeon-hole." Like other l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s before me, I had to abandon t h i s notion before too long. As far as the painted miniatures are concerned, the two or three studies i n f i n e arts which make b r i e f mention of 1 0 Gtltersloh's paintings (see Bibliography) stress the fact that a "theory" which could be applied to the miniatures does not e x i s t — u n l e s s one takes these c r i t i c s ' verdict that the miniatures defy c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a t h e o r e t i c a l declaration i n i t s e l f . As recently as 1985 Heribert Hutter, professor and art h i s t o r i a n , and arguably the scholar who i s most intimately acquainted with Gtltersloh's work, once more 2 confirmed the findings of other c r i t i c s . Given the rather complex nature of the investigation, a number of questions which presented themselves had to be answered before I could proceed with the analysis of the sto r i e s ; for example: what i s the nature of the dual a r t i s t i c talent, and i s Gtltersloh generally recognized as such? Since one of his most p r o l i f i c periods of c r e a t i v i t y coincided with the Expressionist movement which was noted for i t s extremely close r e l a t i o n between the arts, one a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y i n d i f f e r e n t areas would not appear to be an unusual phenomenon i n i t s e l f . Jost Hermand, among other c r i t i c s , i s convinced of the influence of one a r t form on another, and maintains that s p e c i f i c a l l y between 1870 and 3 1920 painting had a dominating influence on l i t e r a t u r e . -However, s t r i c t l y speaking, Gtltersloh cannot be counted among the more representative a r t i s t s of that movement, or any other movement, but rather presents a unique case of an a r t i s t whose s t y l e , i n both media, changed considerably 11 a f t e r an early Expressionist phase. As f a r as a s p e c i f i c a l l y Austrian form of l i t e r a r y Expressionism i s concerned, the most d i s t i n c t difference between works of that movement i n Germany and in Austria i s the almost complete absence of a r a d i c a l , p o l i t i c a l activism i n 4 the l a t t e r . Inasmuch as GfJtersloh can be c a l l e d an Expressionist writer at a l l during any period of his l i f e , his one major work of that time, Die tanzende Ttfrin, demonstrates t h i s absence as well. Are Austrian a r t i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to "categorize"? K r i s t i a n S o t r i f f e r , although pointing out that more than "anywhere els e " the a r t i s t i n Austria i s steeped i n t r a d i t i o n , claims: Im Grunde genommen sind die {Jsterreichischen Kflnstler a l l e mehr oder weniger Einzelg&nger, gemeinsame Ziele verfolgen s i e selten, Gruppenbildungen sind daher auch nicjat anders als InteressenverbSnde zu verstehen. Gtttersloh himself makes a very strong statement against the too r i g i d categorization of authors on the basis of period and n a t i o n a l i t y : Die (iblichen L i t e r a t u r h i s t o r i k e r sind der Ansicht, und mtissen auch wohl der Ansicht sein - denn wie die meisten Lehrpersonen werden sie j a mehr fUr die QuantitMt als ftir die QualitMt ihres Wissens berufen - dass das mtiglichst lttckenlose HerzMhlen und Addieren der schreibenden Personen und ihrer Hervor-bringungen die v o i l e Summe des Geistes 1 2 ergMbe, der zu einer gewissen Zeit und in einem gewissen Volke t S t i g gewesen i s t . Eine solche Art der Darstellung hat die Ric h t i g -k e i t der S t a t i s t i k oder eines Adressbuches. Sie n e g l i g i e r t nur zwei wesentliche UmstMnde: erstens, dass Geist nie i n der Mehrzahl a u f t r i t t , und wenn er a u f t r i t t , die Mehrzahl a n n u l l i e r t . . . . Zweitens, dass die Begegnung mit dem Geist . . . dem gilttlichen Z u f a l l anheim gegeben werden s o i l . . . . While one can readi l y acknowledge the fact that Gtltersloh writes within a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and a d i s t i n c t l y Austrian c u l t u r a l environment, the scope of t h i s study does not trace influences on, or the t r a d i t i o n a l features of, Gtltersloh's works; as has been pointed out e a r l i e r , there w i l l be l i t t l e or no attempt made to " c l a s s i f y " the author as a writer in the Expressionist, N a t u r a l i s t , Realist or any other t r a d i t i o n . Regarding the stories i n p a r t i c u l a r , a discussion of t h i s sort would not add s i g n i f i c a n t l y to a greater understanding of the works i n question. With the possible exception of a couple of early short s t o r i e s which might be seen as having predominantly Expressionist c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , an analysis of the short prose works along these l i n e s would lead away from the main point of t h i s study. As the painted miniatures d i f f e r i n essence from Gtltersloh's other paintings, so do the short narratives d i f f e r from the novels: they cannot be seen as mere "reductions" or miniaturized versions of the large-scale 1 3 works. The word "miniature," when r e f e r r i n g to modern painting, i s of course i n d i c a t i v e primarily of a work of small scale, and does not necessarily refer to i t s actual subject matter or s t y l e of execution except where the small format dictates c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s . In l i t e r a t u r e , the word can be used--as Kurt Kusenberg has done--to define the short story genre whose r e l a t i v e conciseness, brevity and narrow scope separates i t from the format of the novel. In the case of Gtltersloh, the most obvious common denominator with regard to his novels and the stories would seem to be a persistent adherence to a form of "bildhaften Denkens," a natural i n c l i n a t i o n to think and write i n "pictures." Gfitersloh, i n other words, works from a p i c t o r i a l conception, thus aiming at bridging the gap between the v i s u a l and verbal art forms. The question arises as to the reasons why scholars so far have not addressed themselves to Gfitersloh's short prose works. The answer might conceivably l i e i n another fact which separates Giltersloh's work from the mainstream of l i t e r a t u r e : rather than representing a cohesive, recognizable compositional unity i n terms of the a r t i s t ' s personal approach, the s t o r i e s ' s t r u c t u r a l d i v e r s i t y must be recognized as a very basic c r i t e r i o n . A neat d i v i s i o n into anecdote, fable, novella or a number of other short f i c t i o n categories i s impossible; each story, at f i r s t glance, 1 4 appears to contain c e r t a i n features pertaining to one or the other category, but i n f a c t has as many features which separate i t from a p a r t i c u l a r type of short f i c t i o n . I t i s not surprising, then, that editors of short f i c t i o n anthologies which focus on one or the other category have chosen not to include Gtltersloh's works since they are, generally speaking, not representational. Therefore the expectation of achieving results from a closer investigation of the sto r i e s on the basis of established genres i s u n r e a l i s t i c . P i c t o r i a l i s m i s the one p r i n c i p a l compositional feature which unites a l l s t o r i e s and which should provide tangible r e s u l t s . Another question which had to be answered: i s there general agreement, among the few c r i t i c s who have addressed the topic of a r t i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s , as to the complementary nature of Gtltersloh's written and painted work? The painter Wolfgang Hutter makes a strong claim for the conceptual rela t i o n s h i p between the two art forms: Die eigenartigen bildhaften S&tze i n seiner Schreibweise sind meiner Meinung nach genauso aufgebaut wie die Aquarelle. Ich sehe hier keinen Unterschied, und nur wenn man si c h an diesen Gedankengang anschliesst, wird man i n diese Zgeisamkeit des Gtltersloh eindringen kttnnen. As w i l l be pointed out, t h i s view has not been generally accepted; the various arguments for and against t h i s claim 1 5 were a l s o , i n some measure , i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a r o u s i n g my i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c , and made i t n e c e s s a r y to d i s c u s s t h i a s p e c t . In G i l t e r s l o h ' s s t o r i e s , most o f the d i s t r a c t i n g y e t i n t r i g u i n g " b a l l a s t " — e s s a y i s t i c d i g r e s s i o n s , obscure p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s , o f t e n amounting to the c u l t i v a t i o n o f n e a r - i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y - - w i t h which the w r i t e r ' s major n o v e l s are encumbered has been d r o p p e d . The s i z e o f the l i t e r a r y "canvas" would appear t o have a c t e d as a n a t u r a l check on the a u t h o r ' s p e r s i s t e n t i n c l i n a t i o n t o d i g r e s s ; q u i t e o b v i o u s l y the l e n g t h of works b e l o n g i n g to d i f f e r e n t genres would account f o r a v e r y b a s i c d i s s i m i l a r i t y . A c e r t a i n compactness i s o f course a b a s i c de terminant o f the s h o r t f i c t i o n g e n r e : what makes G f i t e r s l o h ' s s t o r i e s u n i q u e , however, i s t h e i r v e r y e x p l i c i t p i c t o r i a l i s m , the i n t e r r u p t i o n o f the s t o r y - l i n e by a s e r i e o f s t a t i c " p i c t u r e s " r a t h e r than the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n a r r a t i v e where events a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f a i r l y r a p i d c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , w i t h o u t too much d e l a y . T h i s unique use of v i s u a l e l ement s , which r e s u l t s i n a p e c u l i a r l y s t a t i q u a l i t y o f the s t o r i e s , accounts f o r the complementary n a t u r e o f the w r i t t e n and p a i n t e d m i n i a t u r e s . The term " p i c t o r i a l i s m " i s used throughout t h i s s tudy to denote the d e s c r i p t i o n o f v i s u a l images i n the a u t h o r ' s 1 6 handling of p l o t , characterization, and language through the use of primarily graphic ( p i c t o r i a l ) elements such as framing devices, delineation, colour, etc. Dictionary d e f i n i t i o n s of " p i c t o r i a l i s m " are varied; Viola Hopkins' d e f i n i t i o n was selected because i t seems to be the most pertinent and comes closest to what the German word " B i l d -h a f t i g k e i t " implies, i . e . , ". . . the practice of describing people, places, scenes or parts of scenes as i f [one] were describing a painting or a subject for a painting." Jean Hagstrum i s another c r i t i c whose general d e f i n i t i o n of the p i c t o r i a l i n l i t e r a t u r e would seem to be applicable to a r t i s t s such as Gtltersloh: It approaches the condition of good painting because selected d e t a i l s are presented i n a united form that i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y cogent, emotionally e f f e c t i v e , and at the^game time e s s e n t i a l l y imagistic and v i s u a l . It should be noted that recent scholarship i n t h i s area, despite i t s contemporary " t h e o r e t i c a l " terminology, s t i l l makes good use of these older seminal texts. In the introduction to her study published in 1985 and e n t i t l e d The Visual Arts, P i c t o r i a l i s m , and the Novel: James,  Lawrence, and Woolf (see Bibliography), Marianna Torgovnick refers to both Hopkins' and Hagstrum's d e f i n i t i o n s of p i c t o r i a l i s m as relevant to her analyses. 1 7 There w i l l be no attempt made to "compare" a s p e c i f i c short f i c t i o n a l work with a s p e c i f i c painted miniature, since they are never completely i d e n t i c a l as far as t h e i r thematic content i s concerned. Rather, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the painted miniatures w i l l be used as reference points for the e l u c i d a t i o n or "illumination" of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. This writer does not claim to be an art "expert" i n the academic sense; painting theory w i l l not be discussed, since i t does not e x i s t , nor does i t seem necessary for a discussion of the l i t e r a r y quality of the miniatures. This attitude appears to be shared by other c r i t i c s concerned with l i t e r a t u r e and the v i s u a l arts; Marianna Torgovnick states: As a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , l e t me frankly say what w i l l become apparent i n the pages that follow: I make no claim to usurp the r6le of art h i s t o r i a n and expect that art historians s p e c i a l i z i n g i n these areas could say more about the movements i n and of themselves than I possibly could. My study, however, i s primarily intended to illuminate l i t e r a t u r e , though I hope that some of what I say w i l l be in t e r e s t i n g and provocative to those with ^ ^  primary interests i n the v i s u a l arts (13). A general background i n and a keen appreciation for the arts would seem to be s u f f i c i e n t for a c r i t i c a l look at the miniatures, augmented by knowledge gained through research on both Gtttersloh himself and the writings of the few art experts who have commented on the miniatures. 1 8 Regard ing the method of my l i t e r a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I have at tempted t o l e t i t a r i s e f rom the v e r y n a t u r e of the works i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t would seem t o be dangerous t o t r y and "super impose" a s p e c i f i c model o r p a t t e r n s i m p l y because i t i s one t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y i n vogue , or one f o r which the c r i t i c has a p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and w i th which he i s f a m i l i a r ; s t u d i e s of t h a t n a t u r e have the p o t e n t i a l o f d o i n g harm t o the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f the a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . Nor does the secondary l i t e r a t u r e on a random s e l e c t i o n of w r i t e r s a t t e s t t o the f a c t t h a t a l l c r i t i c s have a u t o m a t i c a l l y jumped on the bandwagon, so t o speak , o f the l a t e s t t r e n d or fad i n l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r to be taken s e r i o u s l y . F r e q u e n t l y these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e h a r d l y i n the s p i r i t of the a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n s but merely s a t i s f y the c r i t i c a l p r e d i l e c t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The s o -c a l l e d " s c i e n t i f i c " methods ( e . g . s e m i o t i c s , s t r u c t u r a l i s m , e t c . ) a re not n e c e s s a r i l y espoused by a l l c r i t i c s as e i t h e r v i a b l e o r as the o n l y approaches t o l i t e r a t u r e g e n e r a l l y , nor would any r e a s o n a b l e p r a c t i t i o n e r o f any one of t h e s e methods i n s i s t t h a t i t f i t every work of l i t e r a t u r e . My own s t a n d i s one o f s u s p i c i o n o f a n y t h i n g t h a t approaches s y s t e m a t i z i n g the study of l i t e r a t u r e a l o n g " s c i e n t i f i c " p r i n c i p l e s , and t r e a t i n g l i t e r a r y works as s c i e n t i f i c " m a t e r i a l . " A l l too f r e q u e n t l y , c r i t i c s are more concerned 1 9 with categorizing than with exploring the uniqueness of a work of a r t . After a close study of secondary material i n the general area of a r t and l i t e r a t u r e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p (see Bibliography), I did not come across any major study, or a r t i c l e , which dealt with an analysis of a writer's short f i c t i o n i n the l i g h t of his own paintings. Can one assume that l i t e r a r y genre i s immaterial when pointing to the r e l a -tionship with painting, and that i t i s equally i n s i g n i f i c a n t whether or not one i l l u s t r a t e s the nature of a l i t e r a r y work on the basis of the writer's own paintings or those of another painter? My answer i s that i t i_s s i g n i f i c a n t , and that it/:i's unproductive and often impossible to apply the methods used i n the study of one genre to the study of another. Most writers who deal i n "parallelisms" between l i t e r a t u r e and painting choose t h e i r examples with care. They tend to quote paragraphs from a novel, or a poem, and point to the textual p e c u l i a r i t i e s as being s i m i l a r to aspects of a painting by D a l i , Magritte, Renoir or a host of others. But i s t h i s the only "legitimate" method to be used in i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y studies? If a f f i n i t i e s between one writer and another painter are pointed out and i l l u s t r a t e d , does i t not stand to reason that these a f f i n i t i e s would be even more pronounced i n an a r t i s t who was both a painter and a writer? There are of course a 2 0 number of studies of t h i s type of a r t i s t , e.g. Kokoschka (see Bibliography); yet the c r i t e r i a for analyzing a novel or a play are decidedly d i f f e r e n t from those applied to the short f i c t i o n genre, even i f the " s c a f f o l d i n g " behind i t consists of the a r t i s t ' s own paintings. Hence no viable model was found among the many texts studied, least of a l l among those which deal with either poetry, drama, or the novel. In addition, these studies invariably focus on an "established" writer as well as painter, i n the sense that each i s associated with a s p e c i f i c , recognized school and/or period; under these circumstances i t might be r e l a t i v e l y easy to i s o l a t e e x i s t i n g c r i t e r i a applicable to that school or period, and then determine where the a r t i s t conforms or deviates. A c r i t i c of Gtltersloh i s not i n a p o s i t i o n to proceed i n the same manner: as mentioned e a r l i e r , there i s no school or other established framework to which the a r t i s t could be related, and no agreed-upon evaluation from which a c r i t i c could proceed. If t h i s absence of established c r i t e r i a i s seen as intimidating by a c r i t i c , chances are that he w i l l abandon the idea of investigating such an a r t i s t . Where established investigational c r i t e r i a do not e x i s t , the c r i t i c has every r i g h t to create his own, as long as the r e s u l t s are as "viable" as those achieved by any other method of analysis. What separates a l i t e r a r y from a 21 s c i e n t i f i c "experiment" i s , quite obviously, the fact that the r e s u l t s of the l a t t e r can be proven; as far as the former i s concerned the re s u l t s , beyond certain v e r i f i a b l e factors, are i n t r i n s i c a l l y subjective inasmuch as they cannot o f f e r ultimate "truths," much less please other c r i t i c s with a completely d i f f e r e n t approach to l i t e r a t u r e and d i f f e r e n t personal expectations of the nature of a l i t e r a r y i nvestigation. The method of l i t e r a r y analysis i n the present study i s in the s p i r i t of Walzel's " r e c i p r o c a l illumination" of the 1 2 arts, but only.in the broadest sense of the term, i . e . , the i l l u s t r a t i o n of one form of a r t i s t i c expression for the purpose of c r i t i c a l analysis of another. As Walzel has stated: Schfipfungen eines einzelnen Kilnstlers haben ihre gemeinsamen Ztlge. . . . Dies Gemeinsame zu erkennen und auszus^rechen scheint mir . . . eine lflsbare Aufgabe. Among a l l other possible points of departure, the p i c t o r i a l approach to Gtltersloh's f i c t i o n a l miniatures, i . e . , extending the t r a d i t i o n a l analysis of f i c t i o n to include the representational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i s u a l arts, seemed to assure the most comprehensive r e s u l t s . Since l i t e r a r y scholarship did not concern i t s e l f with the treatment of an a r t i s t ' s dual talent to any extent i n 2 2 the decades following the Expressionist period, a discussion of t h i s phenomenon was another requirement as f a r as t h i s study i s concerned. More recent bibliographies of l i t e r a t u r e and art show that scholarship i s once again giving some attention to the complementary nature of the two forms of a r t i s t i c expression. However, as noted e a r l i e r , these studies usually focus on the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the works of one writer and another painter; very few deal solely with one a r t i s t . In connection with the investigation of Gtltersloh's dual talent on the basis of the short f i c t i o n a l works, I f e l t i t necessary to include a c r i t i c a l examination of the a r t i s t ' s own major statement as to the nature of the a r t i s t , i . e . , Die Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers; this work has not been dealt with before i n the l i t e r a t u r e beyond a few b r i e f comments here and there. C r i t i c a l assessments by other authors have also been explored, i n p a r t i c u l a r Heimito von Doderer's complex study e n t i t l e d Der F a l l Gfltersloh. Furthermore, the attempt has been made to give an overview of the l i t e r a t u r e on Gtitersloh, at least of the major studies (see Appendix A). At the present time t h i s i s s t i l l possible i n view of the r e l a t i v e l y few exi s t i n g investigations. Hence Chapters One and Two (as well as Appendix A) are conceived of as expository sections, inasmuch as they address the broad area of my topic -23 generally, and the existing scholarship on Gtltersloh s p e c i f i c a l l y . I t was f e l t that without t h i s background the s p e c i f i c investigation of the s t o r i e s could not be placed into the proper scholarly context. To do the stories f u l l j u s t i c e , i . e . , i n the sense of exploring and i l l u s t r a t i n g major facets of composition, some of t h e i r more l i t e r a r y aspects had to be investigated as well; theme, point of view, and characterization are discussed i n t h i s context. Because of the t h e a t r i c a l nature of many of the narrative pictures (which i s a feature of the painted miniatures as we l l ) , stage e f f e c t s are also discussed. Moreover, since the stories have not received thorough c r i t i c a l attention, the question of genre as well as the publishing history of the st o r i e s w i l l be dealt with. Materials which appeared at f i r s t glance to consist of individual short s t o r i e s but proved to be fragments or excerpts of unpublished or published novels w i l l not be part of t h i s study, since the author did not write them as separate and complete works. As i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to obtain much of the primary material as well as the major secondary works (most of which are out of p r i n t and c i r c u l a t i o n ) , lengthy selected quotations from primary and secondary sources--rather than b r i e f synopses--are intended to provide a clearer picture 24 of the area under discussion, as well as to i l l u s t r a t e the ambiguities of some of the texts as f u l l y as possible. The writer of t h i s study was convinced from the outset that i t s complexity warranted extensive documentation and that only by providing t h i s would one be able to f i l l i n the background against which an analysis of Gtltersloh's s t o r i e s could be set. My own approach to Gtltersloh's s t o r i e s i s based on my i n i t i a l awareness of the s i m i l a r i t i e s between reading a text and "reading" a painting. As M. Torgovnick states: . . . both i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t i v i t i e s involve seeing wholes, seeing parts, and reseeing wholes, even though the sequence of these acts and the amount of time elapsed between them d i f f e r s i n reading paintings and reading l i t e r a r y texts (34) As t h i s c r i t i c points out, various s c i e n t i f i c studies have shown that v i s u a l perception of a painting i s not r e a l l y h o l i s t i c , nor i s the reader's perception of words sequential: In viewing a painting, the eye fixes at a number of points, the points varying with the observer and his s k i l l as a reader of paintings. S i m i l a r l y , a page i s read with patterns of eye f i x a t i o n s that vary widely, not at a l l i n accord with the t r a d i t i o n a l idea . . . that we read simply from l e f t to r i g h t , word by word, l i n e a f t e r l i n e (32). 25 Torgovnick's study i s not only concerned with p i c t o r i a l i s m but the v i s u a l arts as well; she makes the point--as does Hagstrum many years e a r l i e r - - t h a t p i c t o r i a l i s m , i . e . , images or p i c t o r i a l descriptions, need not resemble a school of a r t , or some p a r t i c u l a r painting (27). Although looking at the v i s u a l arts i n r e l a t i o n to l i t e r a t u r e should be recognized as a legitimate occupation of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , Torgovnick f e e l s that i f the reader's v i s u a l imagination i s referred to an e x i s t i n g painting, i t merely performs an act of memory "rather than a creative act 1 5 of collaboration with the author." In a sense Giltersloh's stories provide the p o s s i b i l i t y of what might be c a l l e d a "creative encounter" between reader and text, since the writer does not refer to e x i s t i n g paintings by other a r t i s t s , nor s p e c i f i c a l l y to his own. Despite the fact that no l i t e r a r y work--or separate unit of a work--can be t o t a l l y p i c t o r i a l because l i t e r a t u r e obviously i s a verbal medium, Gdtersloh's handling of his material shows a great p r e d i l e c t i o n for "painting a picture" by using the writer's tools, i . e . , language. Viewing Gdtersloh's painted miniatures can be summarized as a two-pronged endeavour: the primary recognition of a l l surface d e t a i l s - - i . e . , of that which i s a c t u a l l y portrayed--will lead subsequently to speculation about the a r t i s t ' s intention, the deeper "meaning" of the 26 painting. Thus the a r t i s t creates the exterior and the viewer the i n t e r i o r "landscape." To a large extent, the exterior and the i n t e r i o r landscapes are linked by one s p e c i f i c element, i . e . , the a r t i s t ' s use of Fantastic Realism. The r e a l i s t i c depiction of f a n t a s t i c images not only entices the viewer to speculate about the painting's si g n i f i c a n c e , but also serves as a guide i n the process of int e r p r e t a t i o n . That the viewer's interpretation must of necessity be pure conjecture--since there i s neither a t h e o r e t i c a l "model" for these paintings, nor do we have the a r t i s t ' s "blueprint" which would explain the pictures' deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e - - i s of l i t t l e or no consequence. On the contrary: i t brings about the most desirable creative collaboration between painter and viewer--in other words i t achieves a primary a r t i s t i c goal: that of communication. Five progressive stages of looking at the exterior landscape of the painted miniatures have been established. F i r s t , there i s an i n i t i a l impression of the t o t a l i t y of the picture, i t s delineation: an instant v i s u a l recognition of i t s harmony or imbalance. The s t o r i e s can be "looked at" i n the same manner, hence delineation i s one of the p i c t o r i a l devices which has been i s o l a t e d for s p e c i f i c analysis. Next the eye i s drawn to the foreground, to the figures and objects which constitute the picture's focal point. In the context of the s t o r i e s , the figures depicted w i l l be given 2 7 c r i t i c a l attention; theme and point of view are two further c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which t i e i n d i r e c t l y with the former. The eye then moves to the painting's background; setting can be discussed as another p i c t o r i a l device evident i n the s t o r i e s . Colour as such i s not a pronounced compositional feature i n Gtltersloh's painted or f i c t i o n a l miniatures. However, i n the l a t t e r the discussion of colour w i l l also include i t s l i n g u i s t i c and symbolic equivalencies. F i n a l l y , there i s an awareness of compositional d e t a i l and the i n t r i c a c i e s of the a r t i s t i c execution. Regarding the s t o r i e s , framing and stage e f f e c t s have been singled out for closer scrutiny. In the analysis of the i n t e r i o r landscape, a number of devices prevalent i n the discussion of the exterior landscape w i l l be examined regarding t h e i r p o t e n t i a l for o f f e r i n g the "key" to a more complete comprehension of the s t o r i e s , e.g. theme, point of view as well as humour and irony. The l a s t segment of the study revolves around Fantastic Realism. I t w i l l attempt to elucidate the writer's e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r landscape by means of a r e a l i s t i c depiction of " f a n t a s t i c " images. The present study i s divided into three chapters. In Chapter One, three fundamental questions r e l a t i v e to my investigation w i l l be dealt with: 28 1. Since many c r i t i c s , from the time of Lessing to the present, have i n s i s t e d on the "separateness" rather than unity of a l l a r t forms, i s an illumination of one art form on the basis of another r e a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e ? 2. If one speaks of a "writing painter," or a "painting writer," i s not the general assumption that one a r t i s t i c expression overshadows the other? 3. Is there such a thing as a genuine "dual talent"? Chapter Two i s devoted to an examination of the painter Gfltersloh, and a discussion of three of the painted miniatures. Chapter Three deals with the writer, and s p e c i f i c a l l y with the analysis of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. Appendix A concludes the investigation with a b r i e f look at exist i n g major l i t e r a r y studies. The Bibliography of primary t i t l e s i s "se l e c t " in the sense that i t includes a l l of Gtltersloh's major works, i . e . , novels, editions of essays, short f i c t i o n , and poetry. I t also includes those separately published essays, a r t i c l e s , short f i c t i o n a l works and miscellaneous writings which could be obtained for examination, and where c o n f l i c t i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s given i n other studies could be v e r i f i e d . Of these materials, only those are included which have some relevance to my topic. 29 A complete b i b l i o g r a p h y does not e x i s t a t t h i s p o i n t i n time, e i t h e r as p a r t of a major study or as a separate p u b l i c a t i o n . 3 0 Chapter One I. The Q u e s t i o n o f the " R e c i p r o c a l I l l u m i n a t i o n " of  the A r t s Whi le the u n i t y of the a r t s was a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d concept d u r i n g s e v e r a l p e r i o d s i n the p a s t , as f o r example 1 the C l a s s i c a l and Romantic e r a s , the p o i n t has been made t h a t " . . . th roughout the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s the p r o c e s s of b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r and s e p a r a t i n g 2 the a r t s . . . has gone o n . " U s i n g the " t o o l s " of a n a l y z i n g one a r t form t o i l l u m i n a t e another has been a l e g i t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n of compara t ive l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p f o r some t i m e ; many i n q u i r i e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the pas t twenty y e a r s - - f o c u s on the argument o f the i n t e r -connectedness o f l i t e r a t u r e and the p i c t o r i a l a r t s . U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n c l a i m s t h a t the r e c i p r o c a l i l l u m i n a t i o n of the a r t s s h o u l d b e l o n g " . . . zum Inst rumentar ium e i n e s jeden 3 L i t e r a t u r f o r s c h e r s . " He goes on to s a y : Wie beschrMnkt i s t doch der r e i n e L i t e r a t u r -w i s s e n s c h a f t i e r , der s i c h durch das An legen S s t h e t i s c h e r Scheuklappen davor bewahrt , von den Schwesterkt lnsten der D ich tung a b g e l e n k t und i n s e i n e r K o n z e n t r a t i o n g e s t 8 r t zu werden! (155) 31 Weisstein i s one among many contemporary scholars who point to the fact that i n the Middle Ages and even e a r l i e r (Late Antiquity), l i t e r a t u r e was not an independent art but an adjunct of the "artes" of the "Trivium der akademischen Unterstufe, d.h. der Grammatik, Dialektik und Rhetorik" (153). Jean Hagstrum shares his views and points to the dictum "Ut pictura poesis e r i t ; similisque poesi s i t p i c t u r a " (The S i s t e r Arts, 174). Plato, A r i s t o t l e and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , Horace considered poetry and painting to be analogous a r t s , as did the a r t i s t s of the Renaissance. Weisstein maintains that there i s a recurring pheno-" menon of "rhythmic" succession of such periods where the unity between the arts i s r e l a t i v e l y unquestioned_and "programmatisch gefordert" (153)--as, for example, i n the Romantic and Expressionist movements. Jost Hermand (Literaturwissenschaft und Kunstwissenschaft) traces the c y c l i c a l nature of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m as being either for or against the theory of the interpenetration of the a r t s , and sees the Expressionist period primarily as one of a r t i s t i c simultaneity with the expected backlash i n the l a t e 1920's: Man wollte endlich wieder zu den 1exakten' Ergebnissen gelangen, um der 'Wissenschaft von der L i t e r a t u r 1 nach den v i e l e n geistes-geschichtlichen Entgleisungen ein neues Renomme zu geben. Aus diesem Grunde setzte man a l l e s daran, wieder zu den Ssthetischen Urkategorien zurtlckzukehren, selbst wenn man dabei gegen das unabweisliche Prinzip der 32 geschichtlichen und geistigen Verflochtenheit a l l e r ktlnstlerischen Ausdrucksformen ver s t i e s s (44). Hermand points to a resurgence of c r i t i c a l study, by l i t e r a r y scholars, of a r t i s t i c m u l t i p l i c i t y i n recent years, ". . . eine neue Ftthlungnahme mit den anderen Geisteswissen-schaften, darunter auch der Kunstgeschichte" (64). Even a cursory look at the t i t l e s appearing i n l i t e r a r y journals since the 1960's would appear to bear him out. Yet, while there can be l i t t l e doubt regarding the existence of a cer t a i n fundamental unity i n the area of a r t i s t i c expression, the theory of a s t r i c t d i v i s i o n between the arts i s s t i l l upheld by many scholars i n the various d i s c i p l i n e s . As Henry I. Schvey states, i t i s only recently that the "scepticism with which the p a r a l l e l s between the arts have been considered"^ has become somewhat diminished. However, some c r i t i c s s t i l l accept Lessing's theory of the s t r i c t and i m p l i c i t d i v i s i o n between l i t e r a t u r e and the representational a r t s , h i s conviction that the p i c t o r i a l i s fundamentally opposed to the dynamic, as some sort of ultimate t r u t h . As E. Allen McCormick points out, these views s t i l l f i n d acceptance here and there, despite the fact of the "somewhat obvious rebuttals to what we now recognize as one-sided views of painting p a r t i c u l a r l y , which has the impossible task of standing for sculpture as well" (197). 33 Thomas Munro argues in the same vein: Later on [after Lessing], the notion that each art had necessary l i m i t s or boundaries became regressive i n i t s turn, when i n t e r -preted to mean that each art should avoid e f f e c t s deemed proper to another. This notion i s far from dead today. . . . The history of the arts i s f u l l of overlapping between them, as well as of divergences. Various types of e f f e c t are constantly being taken over from one medium to another, with appropriate adaptations. The adventurous a r t i s t i s not l i k e l y to be deterred f^om doing so by t h e o r e t i c a l p rohibitions. The d i v i s i o n between art forms would also seem to be at variance with both the theory and practice of such a move-ment as Expressionism, as the most obvious example; many of these a r t i s t s saw l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between objective r e a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l , subjective perception, but placed great emphasis on the visionary character of t h e i r Q creations. Ultimately, one cannot ignore the fact that such figures as Kandinsky, Klee, Kokoschka, Kubin, and Barlach a l l practiced more than one art form competently, with recognizable analogies between each of them. GUtersloh as well must be counted among such a r t i s t s whose "technical and formal concerns were subordinated to the a r t i s t i c d rive," as Schvey maintains of Kokoschka and others (Oskar  Kokoschka, 29). The present enquiry i s based on the acceptance of the "natural a f f i n i t i e s " between l i t e r a t u r e and painting; one 3 4 would agree with Mary Gaither's statement that these a f f i n i t i e s themselves w i l l " . . . suggest the p a r a l l e l s , the influences, the borrowings that become the basis" for t h i s 9 type of in v e s t i g a t i o n . There w i l l be less concern with the enumeration of analogies and p a r a l l e l s between the two art forms, but rather more with the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the same creative impulse and a r t i s t i c execution governing both. S p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s for analyzing a work would, then, grow out of i t s very nature; the main concern would not be the academic "legitimacy" of p a r a l l e l s and analogies but whether or not one can demonstrate some conceptual pattern i n the two art forms, or what Kurt Wais refers to as "Grund-zttge": Einen . . . Weg der Kontrolle schl&gt man ein, wenn man die Leistungen eines doppel-begabten Ktinstlers auf ihren gemeinsamen S t i l prtlft. Man findet die GrundzUge, wenn auch nattirlich nicht die Bedeutung von Goethes dichterischen Wandjungen i n seinen Zeich-nungen bestStigt. Above a l l , one should keep i n mind that the a f f i n i t y between l i t e r a t u r e and the arts i s not an invention of the c r i t i c s , but that i t i s a fact acknowledged by many a r t i s t s as 11 well. If the interpreter or c r i t i c of any art form, of any h i s t o r i c a l period, i s to a r r i v e at the sources of the creative impulse, he must give c r e d i t to i t s expression not only in his own "spec i a l t y " of a given art form, but also 35 i n the related arts of the very same period. What Schvey maintains regarding Kokoschka would be equally applicable to Gtitersloh: A play by Kokoschka i s only a v a r i a t i o n on his paintings, and vice versa. The tone and melody, rhythm and gesture of his words are p a r a l l e l to those of his paintings (Preface). It i s reasonable to assume, then, that any s i m i l a r i t y seen between l i t e r a t u r e and the v i s u a l arts i s p a r t i c u l a r l y j u s t i f i e d i n cases where an a r t i s t i s equally at home in both a r t s , as Gtttersloh undoubtedly was. That the productions of an a r t i s t who works i n a variety of media should therefore display some form of v i s i b l e , recognizable unity i s more than i d l e speculation. 36 I I . The Painting Writer, and the Writing Painter Modern l i t e r a r y scholarship has concerned i t s e l f r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e with the phenomenon of the "painting writer," and the "writing painter." Notable exceptions are 1 2 the authors of Dichter a ls Maler. Rather than recognizing the existence of a genuine dual talent, other published comments concerning twentieth-century a r t i s t s contain more than j u s t a hint of misgiving and a great reluctance to include a contemporary figure among the ranks of Michelangelo, Leonardo da V i n c i , or Blake, whose prominence in a number of areas of a r t i s t i c endeavour i s hardly to be disputed. Wellek and Warren, for example, while conceding that i n Blake " a r t i s t and poet are i d e n t i c a l , " are less convinced that a comparison between his paintings and poetry w i l l demonstrate t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l character: "A grotesque l i t t l e animal i s supposed to i l l u s t r a t e 'Tyger! Tyger! burning bright.'" This comparison would appear to address i t s e l f exclusively to the i l l u s t r a t i v e nature of Blake's painting i n t h i s one instance, and does not address the q u a l i t i e s of either art form when one i s not used to 1 3 i l l u s t r a t e or "illuminate" the other. Btittcher and Mittenzwei concede that the "zeichne-rischen und malerischen ProduktivitMten" of a writer such as Kafka allow a greater understanding of the emotional as well 3 7 as i n t e l l e c t u a l structure of the a r t i s t i c personality, and hence "Rtlckschltisse auf das Eigentliche, das dichterische Werk" (9)--but the argument i s , obviously, i n favour of the l i t e r a r y work as the most important i n the case of Kafka. While they are largely s c e p t i c a l on the topic of dual talent, both c r i t i c s recognize, however, some 11. . . durchaus gleichwertige oder nahezu gleichwertige Ergebnisse im Literarischen wie im . . . Malerischen" (9), as i n the case of S t i f t e r , Kokoschka, and Gtitersloh, among others (9). Dichter als Maler i s one of the few major contemporary contributions to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of research, despite the fact that the authors' opinion regarding S t i f t e r has not been substantiated: to date, S t i f t e r i s not generally given serious consideration for anything other than his written work, nor has Kokoschka's l i t e r a r y oeuvre received the unanimous c r i t i c a l approbation accorded to his painting. In general, the authors see t h e i r study as a . . . Beleg, das Vorweisen von Ergebnissen ktlnstlerischer DoppelbetStigung, also auch um die Erhellung der wechselseitigen Einwirkung des l i t e r a r i s c h e n und bildkUnstlerischen Schaffens beim einzelnen Ktlnstler und im Ablauf der Geschichte. (9) Generally speaking, any form of r e c i p r o c i t y between the arts i n the case of the same a r t i s t must be seen, at best, 3 8 as problematic and d i f f i c u l t to "prove." It seems s e l f -evident, however, that t h i s r e c i p r o c i t y as an aesthetic phenomenon i s found more frequently a f t e r the beginning of t h i s century. There can be no doubt that the Expressionist movement--both i n the v i s u a l and verbal arts--engendered a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of so-called "dual" talents, although a c a r e f u l enumeration of a few dozen a r t i s t s of that period seems to indicate that there were far more "malende Dichter" than "dichtende Maler."^ 4 The very use of these terms suggests a c e r t a i n negative value judgment on a writer's competency as f a r as the v i s u a l , and a painter's as far as the verbal medium i s concerned; i n most cases, these v e r s a t i l e a r t i s t s are viewed with suspicion, and generally considered—even by other a r t i s t s , as for example Rilke--as "unnatural. 1 , 1 5 The more conservative branch of scholarship i n either d i s c i p l i n e i s s t i l l intent upon keeping the arts rigorously apart i f for no other reason than sanctioning time-honoured precepts. For Wolfdietrich Rasch, for example, th i s acknowledged d i s s i m i l a r i t y l i e s i n the very nature of each respective a r t i s t i c formulation, r u l i n g out, therefore, the 1 6 exact demonstration of equal, formal intention. He poses the question: "Entspricht irgendetwas im sprachlichen Kunstwerk der FlSchengliederung, der L i n i e eines Bildes?" ( 8 ) For Rasch t h i s i s merely a r h e t o r i c a l question since he 39 considers a s i m i l a r i t y between brushstrokes and words an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . His assertion i s inconsistent, however, i n the l i g h t of a subsequent statement: Natttrlich dilrfen wir die M i t t e l der Dynamisierung im l i t e r a r i s c h e n Text nicht den v i s u e l l e n Mitteln der bildenden Kunst einfach gleichsetzen. Aber wohl sind die M i t t e l sehr vergleichbar. (18) In essence, then, Rasch and others would seem to argue i n favour of a marked degree of r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t y between art forms, as seen i n various a r t i s t s . As Jan Brockman puts i t : "Nicht die Einheit der Kdnste aufgrund einer absolut f e s t -stehenden Trennung i s t das von der Praxis des Ktlnstlers 1 7 Bewiesene, sondern ihre RelativitMt." It would stand to reason that t h i s r e l a t i v i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y pronounced in an a r t i s t expressing himself i n more than one medium. Studies of the rela t i o n s h i p between two d i f f e r e n t 1 8 a r t i s t s are f a r more frequent. During the l a s t few years a number of comparative examinations have been published which would appear to point the way to si m i l a r studies of one a r t i s t working i n two media. As has been pointed out e a r l i e r : i f i t can be demonstrated that a certain imaginative a f f i n i t y exists between a painter and another 1 9 writer, i t would follow that one i s j u s t i f i e d i n ascribing the same--or g r e a t e r — v a l i d i t y to a study of the two means of a r t i s t i c expression i n any one a r t i s t , such as Gtltersloh. 40 I I I . Gtitersloh Scholarship: The A r t i s t ' s Dual Talent There i s no question that Gtitersloh's creative talents went beyond painting and writing; the term "painter-writer" or "writer-painter" would therefore f a l l somewhat short of the mark when describing the a r t i s t . As A l f r e d Schmeller observes: . . . und wenn man sagt Malerdichter, dann muss man auch sagen Schauspielerphilosoph und Theologieobe^regisseur, Vorleser lebender B i l d e r . . . Yet Gtitersloh's a r t i s t i c legacy i s primarily in the areas of painting and writing. The a r t i s t himself applies no labels, but at least at one point views painting and writing as complete opposites from a seemingly emotional point of view. In his diary entry of November 1 948 he makes a strongly worded plea for understanding the basic dichotomy between the two a r t s : Die Malerei i s t eine Kunst ftir glUckliche Menschen, ob sie nun die Hervorbringer derselben sind oder ihre Geniesser. Es wird Bilder geben, solange es Gltickliche gibt, und solche dUrften immer wieder auftauchen, ent-weder aus einem Meer von Dummheit oder aus einem TfJmpel von I n t e l l i g e n z , die mit ihrer einen L i b e l l e genug hat. Der Ungltickliche hingegen stflrzt sich i n den Abgrund des Worts, welcher Abgrund gerade von jenen Personen aufs Sngstlichste gemieden wird, derentwegen^ er i n den Abgrund sich gesttirzt hat. . . . 41 The a r t i s t ' s rather questionable l i n k i n g of psychological states to a r t i s t i c modes has been accepted without c r i t i c i s m , despite such obvious examples as Van Gogh, Munch, Schiele, and many other painters whose creative impetus hardly stemmed from th e i r "happy" natures; and no doubt one could f i n d quite a number of writers who were not motivated to put pen to paper out of a f e e l i n g of personal anguish. Heribert Hutter uses the same quotation to preface his b r i e f argument that t h i s personal assessment on the part of the a r t i s t defines a c e r t a i n p o l a r i t y " . . . die sic h durch sein 22 ganzes Leben zieht und i n a l i e n Werken a u f t r i t t . " Hutter states, however, that t h i s p o l a r i t y manifests i t s e l f within each f i e l d of a r t i s t i c expression and that there i s , i n fact, a s i g n i f i c a n t concurrence between Gtltersloh's written and painted work, a constant and formal "reciprocal f -i , . it 2 3 l e c t i o n . Hutter points to Gtltersloh's many-sidedness p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n the area of painting, suggesting a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l , for-example, between the watercolours, i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and scenery designs, and c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c devices i n l i t e r a r y works. He states that from a thematic as well as composi-t i o n a l point of view, Gtltersloh's early watercolours f i n d t h e i r counterpart i n his writings of that period (early 1920's). Hutter speculates b r i e f l y on the p a r a l l e l nature of colour and language, and suggests that the exaggerated 42 vanishing l i n e s in the paintings have t h e i r l i t e r a r y counterpart i n the writer's use of subjunctive constructions, dashes rather than periods at the end of a sentence, and the frequent change of tense. Regarding subject matter, he points to what he c a l l s the "Dualit&t" of the sexes as a constantly recurring theme i n both the written and the painted works, and stresses the characters' general lack of depth (5). Hutter implies that Gtltersloh's painted and l i t e r a r y works underwent a number of changes a f t e r 1918: he sees a more pronounced "turning to the object" on the part of the painter, a more compact u t i l i z a t i o n of the canvas, and a less complex delineation of each object depicted. (He does not refer to the miniatures i n t h i s connection.) Hutter equates t h i s change with Gtltersloh's development as a writer whose language has become more controlled and imbued with "factual sobriety," and who now constructs plots with 24 greater density and tautness. However, i n an e a r l i e r publication Hutter appears to be less convinced of the p a r a l l e l nature of Gtltersloh's written and painted works, and sees writer and painter confronting each other as prota-25 gonistSi Although Hutter draws ce r t a i n analogies between the graphic language of the novels on one hand, and the " l i t e r a r y content"--i.e., the notion of a story--of Gtltersloh's painted miniatures on the other (5), he seems 43 to f e e l that a d i r e c t comparison would tend to be largely s u p e r f i c i a l : Besttinde jedoch diese schillernde wechsel-s e i t i g e Durchdringung des S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s durch den Maler und des Malers durch den S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n der Tat . . . dann mtisste GUtersloh i n seiner Malerei stets p h i l o -sophieren, und das nicht nur dem Inhalt nach, und in seinem geschriebenen . . . Werk sich an der OberflSche der ErzShlung halten, mit dem 1Schildern 1--wie das Malen heute noch im Niederdeutschen h e i s s t — ( 6 ) It should be emphasized that Hutter i s putting the main emphasis regarding Gtltersloh's l i t e r a r y achievement on the larger works, i . e . , the novels with t h e i r s p e c i f i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l - r e l i g i o u s underpinnings; here the c o r r e l a t i o n with the painted works would be, quite obviously, minimal or non-existent. Hutter ignores the short texts, and yet i t i s precisely here that a comparison with the painted miniatures i s f r u i t f u l . Hutter states that the painter was fascinated primarily by the "surface of objects" ( 6 ) ; t h i s study w i l l demonstrate that the writer of the short stories exhibits the very same fascination. Generally considered to be the "preeminent authority on 2 6 the man [Gtttersloh] and his work," Heimito von Doderer has published the most exhaustive biography of Gtltersloh so f a r , 2 7 i . e . , Der F a l l Gtltersloh. F i r s t published in 1 930, i t i s a somewhat unusual "biographical" work inasmuch as i t stays 4 4 away from detailed biographical data, anecdotes and the attempt to analyze and define either the private i n d i v i d u a l or the a r t i s t i n psychological terms. The nature of th i s work i s more creative than scholarly, i t s language often abstruse, and many of the assertions made i n one paragraph are contradicted in another. On the whole, however, i t stands as a v a l i d - - i f i d i o s y n c r a t i c — c o n t r i b u t i o n to Gtltersloh scholarship, and as such should not be ignored; by and large, i t has not been given s p e c i f i c attention so f a r . Doderer rejects the notion that the understanding of an a r t i s t i c personality can be reached by looking at what he c a l l s the a r t i s t ' s "personal l i f e . " He advocates that one should rather focus on the "eternal nucleus" of the 2 8 i n d i v i d u a l . Doderer uses his t r e a t i s e as a s c a f f o l d for his own conceptions regarding the creative i n d i v i d u a l , and Gtltersloh merely as ". . . exemplarischen F a l l doppelter Ausdrucksmttglichkeit" ( 3 0 ) . There can be l i t t l e doubt that Gtltersloh played an important role i n Doderer's own creative development, and that there existed a c e r t a i n degree of i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f i n i t y between the two; however, th e i r relationship was not without ambivalence which i s r e f l e c t e d in Doderer's assessment of Gtltersloh. Wendelin Schmidt-Dengler, i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Die AnfSnge des 'Falles Gtltersloh,'" claims: 4 5 . . . auf Grund zahlreicher Divergenzen scheint diese Beziehung im grossen und ganzen fragwdrdig und pragmatisch durch eine negative Feststellung--den Karapf gegen . . . die Uberwindung des Psycholc;gismus im Roman--noch am ehesten bestimmbar. As other c r i t i c s have pointed out, the entire work i t s e l f - -an overlong example of Doderer 1s uniquely abstruse prose--is 3 0 d i f f i c u l t to understand f u l l y . That i t has largely been ignored or at best treated s u p e r f i c i a l l y in scholarly l i t e r a t u r e therefore comes as no surprise. Doderer does not claim to be an expert i n either 31 l i t e r a t u r e or a r t ; but despite the fact that he shies away from c r i t i c i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l works, he nevertheless sets out to define what he sees as the disparate nature of the two art forms. In essence, Doderer seems convinced that Gtitersloh cannot be considered a "schreibender Maler" or "malender Dichter" ( 2 3 ) . He i s of the same opinion regarding Barlach and Kokoschka where he sees one talent predominating, thereby relegating the l i t e r a r y expression of both these a r t i s t s to second place ( 3 3 ) . But even though, in the case of Gtitersloh, both art forms are given equal value and legitimacy i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h i s very duality of talent i s seen by Doderer as negative, even as "catastrophic" ( 2 3 ) . His theory of the a r t i s t ' s "eternal essence" ( 2 1 ) and i t s s t r i c t separation from a r t i s t i c talent and endeavour would seem to be at the root of his 46 assessment: for a r t i s t s such as Gtltersloh, Doderer claims the individual's "eternal essence" to be i n pronounced c o n f l i c t with his a r t i s t i c talents which have t h e i r o r i g i n s 32 in the outer confines of the psyche. One could argue, of course, that Doderer makes far too much of the bat t l e between Gtltersloh's "ureigene Welt" (24) on the one hand, and his t a l e n t s - - " b 8 s e Feinde" (24)--on the other, and that any mature a r t i s t ' s "very own world" would have to be regarded as encompassing his talents as well--that they, i n fa c t , make up this world to a large extent. That a "fragmentation" of Gtltersloh's a r t i s t i c person-a l i t y did not take place, Doderer ascribes to an "act of grace not to be fathomed" (23). In his opinion, the intern a l b a t t l e waged by Gtltersloh i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the diametric opposition between the two art forms: on the one hand, there was Gtltersloh the writer who outgrew contemporary l i t e r a r y modes and conventions a f t e r his f i r s t novel, Die tanzende Tttrin, adopting a grammatically precise yet complex language rather than retaining one of expr e s s i o n i s t i c excesses and, at the same time, turning away from the purely b e l l e t r i s t i c and representational (65). On the other hand, there was Gtltersloh the painter whose brushstrokes became more and more "sensual and de s c r i p t i v e " (27). Doderer goes so far as to ascribe what he c a l l s 47 ce r t a i n physiognomic differences to the "painter" and the "writer": Den Maler a ls Ehemann oder Frauenfeind sich zu denken i s t fast selbstverst&ndlich. Der Dichter l S s s t sich i n solchem Zusammenhange kaum v o r s t e l l e n . Sein Wesen i s t durchaus mttnchisch, e i n s i e d l e r i s c h , unfamiliar (77). Here he would seem to agree largely with Gtltersloh's own ideas on t h i s subject, as c i t e d e a r l i e r , namely the implied fact that a dual talent i s synonymous with a "dual" personality. But since the psychological ramifications of Gtltersloh's personality do not r e a l l y concern t h i s study, any speculation on the "truth" of these observations would seem to be largely i r r e l e v a n t . I t i s debatable whether or not Doderer's own aesthetic individualism and the desire for "absolute" d e f i n i t i o n s and conclusions within h i s - - a l b e i t vague--Weltanschauung led him to make rather extensive generalizations about Gtltersloh, i n pa r t i c u l a r regarding the a r t i s t ' s complete oeuvre. Doderer, writing in 1930, quite obviously was not i n a position to assess Gtltersloh's l i t e r a r y achievement d e f i n i t i v e l y . However, the fac t that he did not reevaluate and revise his views i n the second edition of his t r e a t i s e , t h i r t y years l a t e r , when Gtltersloh's oeuvre had reached near-completion, would seem to indicate that Doderer did, i n fa c t , consider h i s o r i g i n a l conclusions as d e f i n i t i v e . At the same time, 48 statements which would consistently and i n a clear-cut manner defend one point of view are seldom to be found; statements such as ". . . niemals stiessen s i c h die beiden [Begabungen] im Raume und in der Zeit oder entzogen einander die KrMfte" (29) are c e r t a i n l y not i n d i c a t i v e of a state of war e x i s t i n g between Gtitersloh's two creative natures but would rather indicate that they are complementary. In t h i s context i t i s inte r e s t i n g to note that reviews of the second e d i t i o n do not deal with these obvious contradictions but 33 remain descriptive and non-analytical. The end r e s u l t of Doderer 1s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y provocative deliberations—which lack l i n g u i s t i c l u c i d i t y and are over-endowed with abstruse and ambiguous formulations--would seem to be that both talents, having reached maturity through a process of integration with the i n t e l l e c t , now confront each other as ". . . zu Fremdlingen gewordene Zwillinge" (38) , or as "reb e l l i s c h e Knechte" ( 69 ) . The a l l e g o r i c a l confrontation staged by Doderer--complete with "advocatus Diaboli"--between the "master" and his two "servants," i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "Der Prozess," ends on yet another ambiguous note i n the l i g h t of preceding statements, namely with writer addressing painter: . . . nicht frtiher wirst auch Du Dich eines gesicherten, unbekfimmerten und wahrhaft ungestHrten Werktags erfreuen ktinnen, bis 49 nicht der Fluch, der mich fortan belastet, zu Ende gelebt, gelttst und verstihnt i s t (93). This would seem to indicate that Doderer believes at least in the remote p o s s i b i l i t y of harmony between the two "ewig getrennten Personen" (92). Yet ambiguity i s once again the keynote i f one looks at the chapter e n t i t l e d "Der Maler Gtltersloh." In conclusion, Doderer states here: Ursprtlnglich schlugen die beiden Adern, nur i h r e r Natur folgend, nicht aber d e z i d i e r t , ihre eigenen Wege ein . . . Sie bewegten s i c h . . . zu den Grenzen ihrer Begriffe hin. Diese e r r e i c h t , und nachdem sie sich gleichsam selbst eingeholt hatten, jede ihre spezifische Physiognomie als konsekriertes Amt empfangend, t r a t ein Nachlassen der Spannung zwischen ihnen ein. . . . Wir glauben jedoch nicht . . . dass dieses Nach-lassen der Spannung ein Hervortreten v t i l l i g neuer Bahnelemente bedeutet, so etwa dass nun eine c o n t i n u i e r l i c h bis zu einem Maximum fortschreitende AnnMherung ftlr die nMchste Zukunft zu erwarten w&re. . . . Beide [Talente] haben sich gestaltweiser Arbeit zugewandt, und a l l e i n das wirkt schon zwischen ihnen eine Analogie, ja Harmonie. Ihr nattirliches Auf- und Absteigen wird wohl bemerkenswerte Interferenzen nicht mehr entstehen lassen (114). The erstwhile " h o s t i l e brothers," in other words, have reached a stage of harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n . Doderer, here as elsewhere, i s disconcertingly inconsistent, a r r i v i n g at t h i s conclusion not by l o g i c a l argument but by seemingly unmotivated leaps of the imagination; yet he i s a master of 5 0 the pseudo-dialectic argument, however unconvincing his analyses are. Doderer r e f l e c t s only once, and very b r i e f l y , on the short f i c t i o n a l works, mainly wondering how Gtitersloh found the time to engage i n t h i s s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y form while hard at work—as of 1928—on a number of novels. He seems to have grasped, however, one of the basic elements of GfJtersloh's stories when he writes: Es i s t bezeichnend, dass der Dichter diese so re i n erzMhlende, und gar nicht r e f l e k t i e r -ende, technisch (iberaus heikle Gattung e r g r e i f t , um s i e immer aufs neue zu meistern (113). It i s evident that Doderer does not consider t h i s genre to be n e g l i g i b l e when assessing Gtltersloh the writer. As has been pointed out e a r l i e r , dissertations on Gtitersloh are few; none of them investigates the short prose works; they address the s p e c i f i c issue of writer versus painter only periph e r a l l y . In her study focusing on Gtitersloh's novels, Mayrhofer touches on the l a t t e r only in a b r i e f comment on painting as one of Gtitersloh's thematic preoccupations i n his novel Sonne und Mond. Quoting from another source, and i n agreement with i t s premise ("In Gdtersloh sind der Maler vom Dichter und der Dichter vom Maler nicht zu trennen""^ 4), Mayrhofer states: 51 . . . und so i s t es nicht verwunderlich, dass in 'Sonne und Mond1 v i e l fiber Malerei r e f l e k t i e r t wird. Es sind zwischen Seite 230 und 452 etwa 16 Einschttbe, die s i c h fast a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h mit diesem Thema besch&ftigen (218) . Mayrhofer adds that a further four pages of the novel are d i r e c t l y concerned with what she c a l l s Gfitersloh's "central question," namely the differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between painter and author (219), but o f f e r s no c r i t i c a l commentary; her study i s not concerned with the short prose works, nor does she comment on Gtitersloh's paintings per se. In the context of her discussion of Fantastic Realism, Susanne Ltidtke addresses herself b r i e f l y to the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Gtttersloh's written and painted work which she views as "one unity": Fiir unseren Zusammenhang i s t es zun&chst wichtig, das malerische und l i t e r a r i s c h e Werk Gilterslohs als eine Einheit zu betrachten. Hier i s t es unmHglich, jede Kunstgattung separat zu sehen, als s e i sie von jeweils einer i n d i v i d u e l l e n Kdnstlerpersttnlichkeit geschaffen worden. Im Gegenteil s t e l l t sich bei n&herer Betrachtung ein enger Zusammen-hang heraus, der erkennen la"sst, dass hinter a l l den verschi^clenen Werken eben doch nur ein Mann steht. Her deliberations do not go beyond the confines of Sonne  und Mond, but the p a r a l l e l s drawn between Fantastic Realism and more t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s , and the frequent reference to d i s s o l v i n g time structures would seem to apply to the novels 52 g e n e r a l l y — a s well as to the short prose pieces — i f to a s l i g h t l y lesser degree. In his d i s s e r t a t i o n dealing exclusively with Gtltersloh's novels, F e l i x Thurner attempts to e s t a b l i s h the s i m i l a r i t y between painter and writer i n his discussion of Die tanzende Tttrin. His observations are kept to a minimum, and he r e f r a i n s from making s p e c i f i c comments on Gtltersloh the painter, yet reaches the conclusion that the writer practices a predominantly "optic" form of l i t e r a t u r e : Als Augenmensch (Maler, aber auch Regisseur und Btlhnenbildner) sieht er perspektivisch, d.h. i n Bildern mit Vordergrund und Hinter-grund. Das Bedtlrfnis, einen bildhaften Handlungsrahmen zu schaffen, wird wohl damit zusammenhSngen (27). It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Thurner points to the optic, p i c t o r i a l quality of Gtltersloh's writing without addressing himself to the painted oeuvre. And l i k e Mayrhofer and Ltldtke, Thurner makes no reference to the short f i c t i o n where p i c t o r i a l i s m should have provided a f r u i t f u l topic of investigation, however peripherally for him. I t i s therefore clear that the central question addressed in the present study has received l i t t l e or no attention i n the scholarly contributions to Gtltersloh c r i t i c i s m . Other published comments on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of Gtltersloh's two talents are, generally speaking, even 53 shorter, and cover a spectrum of epithets from "genius" to "dabbler." Most of these a r t i c l e s have appeared in newspapers and s i m i l a r publications; since there i s a great lack, of scholarly a r t i c l e s on Gtltersloh, the former have been scanned as well. Gtltersloh earned the term "Di l e t t a n t " from Hugo Ignatus a f t e r the publication of Die tanzende Tflrin; Ignatus uses i t , however, alongside the c o n c i l i a t o r y — i f somewhat contra-3 6 d i c t o r y — a d j e c t i v e "genial." A l a t e r c r i t i c , Claus Pack, regards many-sidedness as a c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c incompetency on the part of Gtltersloh, ". . . der als Schauspieler, Regisseur und Btihnenbildner begann und sich i n seiner 3 7 V i e l s e i t i g k e i t als echter D i l e t t a n t erweist. . . . 1 1 An e a r l i e r c r i t i c , Karl Kraus, with his usual sharp wit delivered himself of a b r i e f , v i t r i o l i c observation after the publication of Die -tanzende Tflrin, leaving Gtltersloh's work without any a r t i s t i c merit whatsoever: Wer i s t denn der Stlsse: Ein Zeichner, der tupft? . . . Ein Konditor? Eine Kuh? Nein, ein Ktlhtreiber, der unter dem delikaten Pseudonym Paris ^gn Gtltersloh einen Roman geschrieben hat. For Kraus, the question of predominance of one or the other a r t form i s largely i r r e l e v a n t as f a r as Gtltersloh/ Kiehtreiber i s concerned; i n f a c t , Kraus considers him to be 54 a master of neither art form, and would seem to regard the entire phenomenon of a dual talent as highly suspect: Vom dem Roman habe ich nur gehtirt, dass darin das Wort 1Transsubstantion' vorkomme. Es dttrfte s i c h um jene neuste Nervenkunst handeln, die Fremdwtirter nur so hintupft. Der Meister s o i l s i c h aber tatsctchlich auch als Zeichner hervortun. Nach Kokoschka bltiht j e t z t dies unbefugte Doppelleben (23). Peter von Tramin stresses what he conceives to be the inherent ambivalence between GUtersloh the painter and the writer: " . . . der Maler steht dem Dichter nie Auge i n Auge gegendber; beide schliessen einander temporMr aus, f r e i l i c h nicht so sehr, dass der eine die Tilgung des anderen 39 bedeutete." Otto Breicha sees Gtttersloh as an a r t i s t "zwischen den FakultSten der Kunst, der noch immer 'hdben' die Feder verloren hat, um 'drttben' den Pinsel zu ergreifen 40 (und umgekehrt)." For Ernst Randak, the appellations "painter" or "writer" are no longer relevant for Gtttersloh, 11. . . der den Maler und den S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n sich (Iberwunden hat, um Philosoph zu werden."^ Hans J . Frflhlich stresses both Gdtersloh's stature as a painter as well as a writer, rather than as a "schreibender Maler oder ein nur 42 malender Schreiber." He comments that ". . . keine Pa r t e i , weder die der Freunde seiner Bilder noch die der Freunde seiner Bdcher, konnte E i n i g k e i t darliber h e r s t e l l e n , 5 5 welcher Kopf der Begabtere s e i " (193). The observations by a l l of these c r i t i c s are, at best, ambiguous. Franz B l e i who i s , perhaps, the writer most intimately acquainted with Gtltersloh's early written work regards any a r t i s t ' s dual talent as somewhat questionable: Ein S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , der malt, ein Maler, der schreibt: so l i b e r a l einfach i n den Talenten, diesen Nachwerterzeugern, l i e g t der F a l l hier gar nicht . . . Das Talent als Dominante eines Lebens gibt Fratze eines Lebens, v e r ^ i r r t und zerstttrt das Leben tlberhaupt. In his opinion, i t i s only the "genius" --not someone with enormous talent but rather with a s p e c i f i c array of largely 45 undefined a r t i s t i c and human q u a l i t i e s --who i s able to come to terms w i t h t h i s " v e r h M n g n i s t r S c h t i g e Wiegengeschenk der guten oder bttsen Fee, man weiss es nic h t " (72). Undoubtedly, Gtltersloh f i t s into t h i s "genius" category as far as B l e i i s concerned, but primarily as a writer rather 46 than a painter. As B l e i states: Sein Maltalent erzeugte Sachwerte, aber es war und i s t ihm keine Personsvermittlung, denn a l s solche erschiene es ihm fre v e l h a f t und i n der^Behauptung anderer Maler nSrrisch. For B l e i , "pictures are pictures" whose meaning i s exhausted a f t e r one has looked at them for a while; ". . . das R&tselvolle und daher das Deutbare i s t immer und a l l e i n das 56 menschliche Wort" (70)--like Doderer, B l e i also deals i n ambiguities and f a l s e l o g i c much more than i n l u c i d observations. Be that as i t may, i t i s doubtful that Gtitersloh would have agreed with either of these statements. B l e i 1 s disdain for painting had been expressed some years e a r l i e r ( 1 925) in a l e t t e r to Gtltersloh c r i t i c i z i n g , i n essence, Gtitersloh's written s t y l i s t i c excesses and exaggerations, and drawing an unfavourable comparison with the painted miniatures: Die Technik Deines Malens, auch auf Quadratzentimetern ein Nebeneinander von immer weiteren Geschichten zu geben, i s t auf die schreibende z e i t l i c h e Abfolge nicht Uber-tragbar. Ich weiss nicht einmal sicher, ob si e im Bilde ein V o r t e i l i s t . . . Wer eine Lupe hat, mag nach Jahren noch Details entdecken, die ihm bislang entgangen sind. For B l e i , the miniatures are "ein Spass, ein Kunstpass" (112), and as such hardly to be taken seriously. Quite unequivocally, the painter Wolfgang Hutter takes a stand not only for the undisputed existence of Gdtersloh's dual talent, but also for the harmonious i n t e r -penetration of the two forms of a r t i s t i c expression: Meine Meinung i s t , dass diese so erstaunliche Doppelbegabung . . . nicht zu einer Schizo-phrenie der einen Begabung zur anderen gefdhrt hat, und man i n zwei Lagern verharren muss, sondern, dass diese Talente ununter-brochen zueinander auszutauschen waren. Ffir mich sind diese so.gleich wie das Muster 57 eines Schachbrettes. Wenn die HMlfte der Muster Aquarelle wSren und die anderen S&tze seines Schreibens, haben sowohl diese a l s jene dieselbe Materie, die gleiche 5Q OberflSche, den gleichen Durchmesser. As i s quite evident, there i s l i t t l e concurrence between the various opinions offered, nor does Gtltersloh himself present a concise as well as consistent frame of reference i n his comments on the subject of writer and--or versus--painter; i n t h i s respect he would seem to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from many of his c r i t i c s . He i s quoted in Dichter als Maler: Uber die gegenseitige Befruchtung, die von der ktlnstlerischen DoppeltMtigkeit ausgeht, i s t v i e l gerStselt worden. Die Akteure selbst kommen zu recht widersprtlchlichen Meinungen. It i s obvious that these various points of view ultimately serve only to reveal the complexity of the question. Like Wolfgang Hutter, the authors of Dichter als Maler would seem to be i n c l i n e d to rank Gtltersloh among the a r t i s t s to be "taken s e r i o u s l y " on both accounts, writing and painting--a stand which th i s writer has assumed since the i n i t i a l research was completed. Bttttcher and Mittenzwei see the two areas of a r t i s t i c expression as connected and "durchaus aufeinander zu beziehen" (265), as i s proposed in t h i s study. To quote these c r i t i c s : 58 Wir wollen uns darauf verstSndigen, im PhSnomen der malenden und zeichnenden S c h r i f t s t e l l e r ein reizvolles--ttbrigens ebenfalls so gut wie nicht untersuchtes Randgebiet der Literaturgeschichte--zu sehen. . . (8). 59 Chapter Two The Painter Gtttersloh I. "Die Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers" An investigation which t r i e s to esta b l i s h that the most prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Glitersloh's st o r i e s i s t h e i r e x p l i c i t p i c t orialism--the creation of "pictures" or v i s u a l images—should include an examination of the author i n his role as painter. Where the artist/author has expressed himself at some length on the subject, we must inevitably turn to what he has said, or written. Gtitersloh, ever fascinated with the determinants of c r e a t i v i t y and the creative process, has written extensively on the subject of art, primarily as a kind of "Selbstbespiegelung" which took the form of an " a l l e g o r i c a l 1 biography. ' He has also written as a c r i t i c of art generally and of contemporary a r t i s t s s p e c i f i c a l l y . In an esoteric discourse on the painter and his c r a f t e n t i t l e d Die Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers ( 1 9 2 6 ) , Gdtersloh formulated his personal credo, encompassing the a r t i s t and the man. It i s quite evident now that, i n the following 6 0 decades, most of his more fundamental ideas changed very l i t t l e i f at a l l , and that for a greater understanding of the man and his work th i s document i s indispensable. Like a l l of Gtltersloh's writings, philosophical and f i c t i o n a l , Bekenntnisse--for a l l i t s l i n g u i s t i c fireworks and imaginative i n t e l l e c t u a l leaps--abounds with abstruse and often contradictory passages. Very l i t t l e sense can be made, for example, of such statements as: "Als ich erlebt habe und nie mehr erleben werde, das lebt nun von mir, dem bin ich nun mehr, als es mir war" (153). And to a contemporary reader, sentences such as the following are nothing i f not comical: " . . . wogegen a l l e Lotterbetten nach mir k l a f f t e n und die Einflussreichen mit Lorbeerzweigen nach mir schlugen" (153). The author sees his t r e a t i s e , the opportunity to talk about himself, " . . . a l s eine ausgemacht gute Gelegenheit, mich mit unendlich Wichtigerem zu beschSftigen" (1); and although he states that he i s neither writing a s e l f -p o r t r a i t nor a s c i e n t i f i c or p o l i t i c a l book (1), the work i s also an "excuse" to write about history, r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , and a host of other topics only peripherally connected with the p i c t o r i a l a r t s . Gtltersloh appears to see himself as a Renaissance man, a representative of an e a r l i e r era where a b e l i e f i n the unity of a l l human endeavours was the hallmark 61 of an i n t e l l e c t u a l : "Zum Betreiben der Wissenschaften gehflrt ftlr mich auch das Oben der Ktlnste. So bin ich Humanist i n einem nicht mehr verstMndlichen Sinne" (162). In essence, Bekenntnisse i s a predominantly m o r a l i s t i c piece of writi n g . Gtltersloh deplores the lack of s p i r i t u a l i t y i n the arts of his day--which he sees coupled with a generally a n t i - r e l i g i o u s attitude (109)--and the general decline of moral values. As a deeply r e l i g i o u s i n d i v i d u a l (in the non-orthodox, broadly Catholic sense of the term), he believes that a l l a rt leads to r e l i g i o n , to a r e l i g i o u s Weltanschauung (33). Gtltersloh appears convinced that mankind cannot e x i s t without the symbol of an eternal power. Educated for the priesthood, Gtltersloh relinquished his vocation at the l a s t moment: " . . . Mit den Resten der Unschuld und des Bewusstseins von einer httchsten Aufgabe fltlchtete i c h i n die Ktinste die das im chaotischen Zustand v o r s t e l l e n was die Kirche im geordneten i s t " (156). Gtltersloh r e j e c t s the Promethean aspect of c r e a t i v i t y ; as he sees i t , Prometheus, through the act of stealing the f i r e , raised himself instead of r a i s i n g his fellow men (62). Gtltersloh repeatedly--if not consistently—adopts a stance of self-abasement: Es gehttrt mit zu den schwersten Aufgaben dieser S c h r i f t . . . dem Werke, dem wir unser Leben sowohl geben wie danken, nur eine 62 symbolische, nur eine stellvertretende Bedeutung zu v i n d i z i e r e n . Es bedurfte eines . . . innigen Anblicks des Kreuzes, dieser Selbst- und Ansich-Bedeutung des Werkes Kehle und Augen zuzudrllcken und ftlr wahr zu halten, dass wir Bildende nur Menschen bilden, weil wir keine Gesetze schaffen kt>nnen. . . . Es bedurfte der schwer zu vollziehenden t i e f e n Absage an das Promethische. . . . Es bedurfte der ganzen Nackenbeuge vor Zeus" (20 ) . Once one has managed to plough through the writer's flowery language, i t becomes evident that Gdtersloh was convinced--at the time of w r i t i n g — t h a t a r t has l i t t l e or no i n t r i n s i c value or s o c i a l function, and that he spent his l i f e u n t i l then attempting to balance t h i s conviction with his own existence as a p r a c t i c i n g writer and painter. Gdtersloh sees himself as an outsider, a "Hinter-weltler" (117) who has become an a r t i s t as the r e s u l t of a process of s o c i a l adaptation and conformation (101) . For him the creative act of painting i s as necessary—and as n a t u r a l — a s breathing: Wttsste i c h von dem Hervorbringen von Kunst-werken nicht, dass sie das einzige Tun sind, dem das Gewissen sein placet gegeben hat . . . h i e l t e i c h , dass man i n Bildern redet, nicht f(ir eine von Grund auf ndchterne Sache, die poetisch i s t , nicht anders als ein Schuh praktisch i s t , ich ktinnte so kuriose BeschMftigung nicht einen Augenblick lang treiben (101) . The statement loses i t s impact, however, because of the somewhat i l l o g i c a l juxtaposition of the words "ndchtern" and 63 "kurios" to describe one and the same a c t i v i t y . I t may be t y p i c a l of Gtltersloh that he would consider the "sober" a c t i v i t y of painting to be less important than his writing. Repeatedly he labels the pictures "unassuming" and "unpretentious," the creations of ". . . eines malerisch e i g e n t l i c h recht wenig Interessierten" (11 & 1 6 ) . However, i t i s debatable whether or not Gtltersloh's comments regarding his own works have any p a r t i c u l a r v a l i d i t y or authority; one must assume that m o s t — i f not a l l - - a r t i s t s 2 are too close to t h e i r creation to be completely objective. Painting becomes an island of retreat, an escape from the generally more abstract nature of writing: " V i e l l e i c h t auch, dass mit zunehmender Abstraktheit des Schreibens die ansonst untergehende Welt sich auf die Insel der Palette r e t t e t " ( 1 6 ) . Gtltersloh stresses the importance for an a r t i s t to see the here and now as p e r f e c t l y r e a l and v a l i d , and with the p o t e n t i a l of being rendered i n a r t i s t i c terms; he feels that a r t i s t s should r e a l i z e the significance of tangible, exterior phenomena rather than engage in f a n c i f u l f l i g h t s into the depths of the psyche: the surface world, and the present, should serve as a f o c a l point for a r t i s t i c 3 expression ( 9 ) . In view of the fact that a few decades la t e r Gtltersloh evolved as the "father of f a n t a s t i c realism" 4 i n Vienna, i t would seem obvious that these p a r t i c u l a r 64 notions cannot be taken as the a r t i s t ' s credo throughout his l i f e . He would seem to see l i t t l e or no connection between writing and painting (134); painting appears to be considered a c r a f t which leaves him with enough time to engage i n something more meaningful (25). Indeed Gdtersloh assumes that the re l a t i o n s h i p between painter and writer i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t or non-existent i n the eyes of laymen as well: "Nicht nur dem scharfsinnigen Laien, auch mir selber i s t der Ort unbekannt, wo aus dem Maler der Schreibende, oder dieser aus jenem erklMrt werden kttnne" (135). He proceeds even more strongly: . . . ich selber erkenne schreibend mich nicht wieder und malend l i e g t meines Wesens andere Hemisphere mir i n unzugMnglichem Dunkel. Nie untersttitzen s i e sic h urns Selbe, stets setzt der abwesenden Neigung die herrschende ihren Fuss . . . auf den Nacken (135) . The painter i s seen as i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the writer, t h e i r natures are considered inim i c a l (136). But although the a r t i s t i s conceived of as s p l i t into two h o s t i l e halves, one half i s yet aware of the other which i s p e r i o d i c a l l y dormant: Und doch bin ich mit der Grflsse des geworfenen Schattens immer, wenn g l e i c h im unfruchtbaren Besitze, dessen auch, was ruht. Und i c h habe mit dem ganzen Selbstbewusstsein 65 t e i l an dem, was eben den heilenden Schlaf tut. . . . Mit RegelmMssigkeit durch meine einander feindlichen H&user zu Ziehen, g i l t ftlr mich [als] hiichstes Rechttun (135). Gtltersloh's somewhat contradictory insights notwithstanding, i t must be argued that t h i s "awareness," by i t s very nature, i s p r e c i s e l y the reason for a l i n k between the two modes of expression, given the premise that the awareness comes about in an a r t i s t who i s a reasonably "sane" in d i v i d u a l rather than a " s p l i t personality" in whom perception—and therefore expression — i s also s p l i t , i . e . , one being s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other. Gtltersloh states elsewhere that painting i s merely a change from one mode of expression to another; as he writes i n a l e t t e r some years l a t e r : Heute wie damals i s t mir mein Malen ein kampfloses Sndern des Ausdrucks, abh&ngend von der i n t e l l e k t u e l l e n Ermtldung, welche die Pausen,.zwischen meinen Btlchern so gross macht. But despite his apparently firm conviction of the inherent d i s p a r i t y of his "two halves," i t can be argued that t h i s conviction i s , i n f a c t , a f a l l a c y . I t i s even more l i k e l y that the extreme degree of self-absorption and preoccupation with the nature of h i s own c r e a t i v i t y (as evidenced in Bekenntnisse and elsewhere) gradually evolved into an a r t i f i c i a l construct, i . e . , the persona of Gtltersloh the a r t i s t , as created by himself. As such, Gtltersloh's 66 revelations, generally speaking, provide i n t e r e s t i n g points of departure for the c r i t i c rather than statements formulating absolute truths. One of his central preoccupations i n Bekenntnisse i s that of the a r t i s t not as an aesthetic but rather as an e t h i c a l phenomenon. This view i s contradicted some twenty 7 years l a t e r , when he sees the two phenomena as merging. In Bekenntnisse, Gtitersloh sees the development of one's own personality, a s t r i v i n g for greater s p i r i t u a l i t y , as one of the central "duties" of the a r t i s t since he i s a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the larger scheme of things: "Es i s t Absicht dieser S c h r i f t darzutun, dass die Entwicklung eines Ktinsters . . . keinen unwesentlichen Punkt i n der Geschichte des Menschen-geschlechts unbertlhrt l&sst" (129). At the same time the a r t i s t occupies a rather exclusive p o s i t i o n i n society (112) . Throughout the t r e a t i s e , Gtttersloh pleads for the uniqueness of the g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s able to share his uniqueness only with a few kindred s p i r i t s (54). Belonging to an e l i t e group, on the other hand, should not separate the a r t i s t from the rest of society, nor prevent him from being active i n situations which have nothing to do with ar t : 67 . . . Erst wenn jeder Einzelne [Ktlnstler] i n jedem Augenblicke sich losmachen kann von dem Werke . . . um aufs Forum zu e i l e n , i n die Kirche, i n die Kaserne, an ein Kranken- oder Lotterbett . . . dann erst . . . entsteht ttffentliches Leben, entsteht Nation (28). He i s convinced that " i n diesem Jahrhundert der freudlosen Aufkl&rung" (108) i t i s more than ever the task of the a r t i s t to set an example: ". . . dass er mit seinem k u r z f r i s t i g e n Menschendasein d a r s t e l l e und v o r s t e l l e , wie Adel entsteht. Damit habe ich die Funktion seines Standes bestimmt" (105). -Humility on the one hand ("in einem gewissen Sinne habe i c h , wenn ich Bilder malte oder Prosa schrieb, nur die Kutte des Bettelmtinches angezogen. . .", g 18) and e l i t i s t thinking on the other would seem to be two diametrically opposed attitudes. However, when seen i n the context of the "Imitatio C h r i s t i " and similar writings which comprised Gdtersloh's favourite reading material there i s , 1 0 at l e a s t , some ground for such divergent at t i t u d e s . The work as such i s a complex and i n t r i g u i n g document of the maturing a r t i s t ' s view on a r t , demonstrating the inherent p o l a r i t i e s i n his attitude: that of aesthetic escapism on one hand, and e t h i c a l engagement on the other. 68 I I . The Vienna School of Fantastic Realism As a teacher Gtltersloh was respected, often 11 venerated; most a r t c r i t i c s accord the painter a firm p o s i t i o n as one of the " i n i t i a t o r s " of modern art i n Austria 1 2 after 1945, and i n p a r t i c u l a r as the founder of what i s 1 3 now c a l l e d the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. The 1 4 term was coined i n 1956 by Johann Muschik who points out that the "school"--unique also i n that i t i s without a 1 5 s p e c i f i c program, dogma or manifesto --has l i t t l e i n common with Surrealism per se; nevertheless i t s exponents share c e r t a i n aspects with painters such as D a l i , Delvaux and Magritte, s p e c i f i c a l l y in the extremely detailed and exact 1 6 execution of t h e i r work. Muschik maintains that painters such as Kubin or de Chirico did not serve as models, as "Vorbilder" (11). According to Muschik, works of the Vienna School are " f a n t a s t i c " primarily in t h e i r exaggeration, and " r e a l i s t i c " i n t h e i r painstaking d e t a i l and the attempt to give f u l l expression not only to the Conscious, but also the Unconscious (57). As Comini puts i t : ". . . the two tendencies i n Austrian f a n t a s t i c a r t [are]: the exploration of the mysterious world of elemental forces contained in nature, and the revelation of the inner s e l f " (24). What i s lacking, according to Muschik, i s 11. . . das Absurde, die Vorliebe ftlr das Paranoische, ftlr Trance und Halluzination" (61)--the depiction of the i r r a t i o n a l world, i n other words, 69 a l l of which are key elements of Surrealism. The focus of the Vienna School i s "Wirklichkeitsdarstellung mit phantastischen Mi t t e l n " (60), a b a s i c a l l y r a t i o n a l depiction of the world, " . . . phantastisch aber logisch aufliJsbar" (59). C l e a r l y , then, Surrealism's major concern, i . e . , the complete transcendence of reason, i s not shared by the Vienna School. Instead, Muschik claims, the o r i g i n a l group painted . . . TrSume von einer Zukunft, die besser als das Vergangene werden s o l l t e . . . . Trauer und Idyllensehnsucht, zorniger Aufschrei, ein Quentchen Frtthlichkeit, j a Obermut, bohrendes Grtlbeln und eine fttrmlich apokalyptische Vision (9). Muschik and other c r i t i c s do not see the Vienna School 1 7 as s p e c i f i c a l l y and d i r e c t l y succeeding any other school, either Viennese or European; claims for continuity of previous concepts and styles point to the old masters, such as Breughel or Bosch, rather than to more immediate predecessors. Wilhelm Mrazek maintains that the works of t h i s school also have a p a r t i c u l a r "Austrian-ness" and cannot be seen in i s o l a t i o n of i t s landscapes and i t s people, and the "atmosphere" of Vienna. Comini also points to the " c i t y of dreams" as p a r t i c u l a r l y f e r t i l e ground for delving into the f a n t a s t i c because of the preservation of reminders of 70 the "demonic," i . e . , the invasions, plagues, etc. from which the c i t y suffered throughout the centuries (3). She refers to a long l i s t of Austrian painters of the fantastic as the forerunners of the post-war group, such as Albrecht Altdorfer, Moritz von Schwind, and Hans Makart, among others. In Muschik's view the "unusual" i s never an end in i t s e l f for the painters of the Vienna School: the " f a n t a s t i c " i s merely a means of heightening the experience 1 9 of r e a l i t y (57). This a r t i s t i c re-creation of r e a l i t y i s highly i d i o s y n c r a t i c , since each of these painters works i n a s p e c i f i c and extremely personal manner. The movement as such has, of course, undergone various stages of development during the past forty years, but the high degree of i n d i v i d u a l i t y has remained: a l l of the recognized figures, from Ernst Fuchs to Friedensreich Hundertwasser, are 20 "EinzelgSnger, Aussenseiter" --as i s Gtitersloh. Interestingly enough, although Gtttersloh i s considered the founder of the School, he i s not thought of as a "true" exponent; while his work contains certain elements of the f a n t a s t i c , r e a l i s t i c features predominate. But perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect i n the work of a l l these painters i s the fact that t h i s "symbol-saturated, enigmatic, p r e c i s i o n i s t . . . compilation of private parables of old 71 21 and modern times" has d e f i n i t e l i n k s to l i t e r a t u r e ; i n Muschik's opinion, there are no contradictions whatever 22 between the two a r t i s t i c categories. Regarding Giltersloh s p e c i f i c a l l y , Mrazek also considers the two forms of a r t i s t i c expression as i n d i v i s i b l e , as one 23 unity. I f e e l that t h i s unity i s best demonstrated by analyzing the p i c t o r i a l i s m of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures, i . e . , the short prose works, while keeping an eye on the painted miniatures; t h i s method of procedure seemed to be an obvious and promising point of departure for an assessment of Gtttersloh's work. 72 I I I . Gutersloh's Painted Miniatures Mario Praz discusses the European appearance, as of about 1830, of the "monistic" (or "microscopic") structure in painting; he sees i t as common to most Biedermeier painting, finding ". . . a counterpart i n the minute descriptions adopted by the novelists (Balzac, for example), in which a l l the items forming an i n t e r i o r are inventoried regardless of narrative economy or the reactions of the 24 characters." A l f r e d Schmeller also points to the "Bieder-meier" s t y l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y in connection with Gutersloh's . . . 25 miniatures. It i s of no sign i f i c a n c e to the present investigation that Gtltersloh painted i n d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , or that his painting underwent various stages; of sole i n t e r e s t are the many hundreds of small-scale paintings (gouaches) he started to paint around 1925 and continued with, o f f and on, up to the l a s t year of his l i f e . These miniatures (generally f i v e to s i x inches i n diameter) have v i r t u a l l y none of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e a r l i e r works, or of his o i l 2 6 paintings generally, and appear to have undergone no s p e c i f i c change over nearly f i v e decades. Art c r i t i c s , including Heribert Hutter, speak of the formal composition of these miniatures, ". . . die sich keiner Kunstideologie, keiner Richtung und, genau genommen, auch keiner bestimmten 73 Zeit einordnen (Zeiten, 14). At t h i s point i n time, any c r i t i c looking for an exis t i n g "theory" of these miniatures w i l l search i n vain. Hutter sees them as works of considerable merit: " . . . [die Miniaturen] . . . haben einen unbeschreibbaren, aber unbestrittenen Platz" (9). It i s l i k e l y that, i n the past, other c r i t i c s have shared Hutter 1s opinion regarding t h e i r " i n d e s c r i b a b i l i t y , " since nothing beyond very general observations has been written about them. Artur Roessler considers the miniatures as works of 27 "subtle primitiveness." They are meticulously executed and, according to Hutter, of an "exaggerated colourfulness" 28 (Zeiten, 99). In Hutter's opinion, each i n d i v i d u a l miniature cannot necessarily be claimed as a work of great sign i f i c a n c e ; the sum t o t a l , however, is considered to be s i g n i f i c a n t (14). Hutter shares Gdtersloh's own opinion i n t h i s regard: . . . es verhSlt sic h mit diesen Malereien wie mit meiner, wie mit jedes, Handschrift: sie i s t einmalig, unvorstellbar, und daher unnachahmbar. Das a l l e i n macht sie zwar^ nicht wertvoll, aber zu einer Tatsache. Elsewhere Gdtersloh accords these "humble pictures" very l i t t l e importance, despite his preoccupation with t h i s a r t form for nearly f i v e decades; i n his Bekenntnisse, he c a l l s them 74 . . . meine bescheidenen Malereien . . . die ich nach Art, nur l e i d e r nicht mit dem Ktinnen der alten Mflnche auf kleinen Bl&ttern ausf(ihre--durchaus i n der ironischen Absicht, Wichtiges en bagatelle zu behandeln. . . (6). And again, regardless of occasional statements to the contrary, he appears to point to the c o r r e l a t i o n between his written and h i s painted works when he terms the miniatures "Pinselhandschriften eines S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s " (6). There seems to be no disagreement among the few art c r i t i c s who have mentioned them as to the main features of the miniatures. Mrazek sees them--along with Gtttersloh's writings--as ". . . many-layered, ramified, witty, i r o n i c a l , precious . . . with ingenious subtlety," and with d i s t i n c t elements of "alienation and d i s t o r t i o n " (Ars Phantastica, 12). Gtttersloh i s judged to be no d i f f e r e n t from the other representatives of the Viennese School who are a l l , as painters, ". . . i n erster L i n i e ErzMhler, Epiker, Novellisten, denen das kleinste Detail noch wert i s t , es 3 0 l i e b e v o l l auszumalen." Muschik c a l l s Gfitersloh "einen Spitzweg unserer Tage, der mit einem Tropfen s u r r e a l i s t i s c h e n Ols gesalbt i s t " (Wiener Schule, 16), an a r t i s t who produces, i n his miniatures, a ". . . l e i c h t verfremdetes, erschreckt-starres Traumbiedermeier" (16). This peculiar dichotomy (Spitzweg/ Surrea l i s t ) i s also seen by Heribert Hutter who assesses the 75 m i n i a t u r e s a s somewhat i n c o n g r u o u s i n t e r m s o f c o n t e n t and f o r m ( Z e i t e n , 9), d e p i c t i n g a w o r l d w h i c h i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as t o p l a c e and t i m e , d e s p i t e t h e number o f 31 e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( 1 0 ) . He s e e s them as ". . . b e s c h a u l i c h und s e n t i m e n t a l , a n z t i g l i c h und etwas b o s h a f t " ( 1 0 ) , and m a i n t a i n s t h a t s u b t l e i r o n y and b r o a d humour a r e d i s c e r n i b l e f e a t u r e s as w e l l . B u t r a t h e r more s i g n i f i c a n t i s H u t t e r ' s v i e w — a t l e a s t a s e x p r e s s e d i n Z e i t e n — o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s and G t l t e r s l o h ' s w r i t t e n work; he c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e i s a . . . s c h i l l e r n d e w e c h s e l s e i t i g e D u r c h -d r i n g u n g d e s S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s d u r c h den M a l e r und d e s M a l e r s d u r c h den S c h r i f t s t e l l e r . . . . E b enso kann i n den . . . M i n i a t u r e n . . . d e r l i t e r a r i s c h e G e h a l t aus dem ' S c h a u - B i l d ' e i n e 1 B i l d - E r z M h l u n g ' machen, h i n t e r d e r e n tirtlich-optischer E r s c h e i n u n g e i n z e i t l i c h e r A b l a u f , e i n V o r h e r und N a c h h e r , und e i n e u n s i n n l i c h e G e d a n k e n w e l t s i c h v e r b e r g e n , d e r e n A t t r i b u t e und Symbole aus dem B i l d s p i e g e l l u g e n ( 5 ) . H u t t e r a l s o s p e a k s o f a " G u c k k a s t e n b t l h n e " ( 1 0 ) : t h e s m a l l f o r m a t o f t h e p a i n t i n g s , t h e i r m e t i c u l o u s " f r a m i n g , " 1 1. . . d i e f l a c h e Btlhne m i t den b i l d p a r a l l e l a g i e r e n d e n o d e r f r o n t a l zum P u b l i k u m g e r i c h t e t e n F i g u r i n e n , denen d e r A u f t r i t t a u s d e r K u l i s s e r e c h t s o d e r l i n k s n o c h im S c h r i t t s t e c k t . . ." (10) a r e a l l d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t a g e , w h i c h prompts H u t t e r t o s p e a k o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s 1 "btlhnen-hafte Konzeption" (8). Gtltersloh himself would also seem to view picture and stage as c l o s e l y linked: Man redet von einem Maler. Meint man e i g e n t l i c h einen Schauspieler? Nun: der Raum, der zwischen B i l d und Btihne sich dehnt, i s t mit wenigen Schritten zu durchgehen. . . . Ob dichterische Worte i n Auge dringen, sind ftlr Httrer und Betrachter e^nander nicht widersprechende PhSnomene. There are a number of b i b l i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l 34 themes; but as t h e i r major theme the miniatures depict love i n i t s various manifestations of f u l f i l l m e n t , expectation, renunciation, and reminiscence; there are lovers, a r t i s t s , actors, a l l of whom move—according to Hutter—with the wooden grace of marionettes (13). Another c r i t i c sees these figures as having " . . . die Frische sorgfctltig aufgeschminkter Leichen," sign and symbol of a 3 5 d i s t i n c t "Bruchigkeit und Verwesung einer mtlden Welt." The setting i s frequently a park or garden, a bridge being i t s most often recurring symbol of u n i f i c a t i o n or separation. The same c r i t i c sees a l l objects as 11. . . prMpariert und ausgestopft. . . . Hinter ihnen steht der V e r f a l l , die Trauer urn den unwiderruflichen Hingang des alten Kakanien" (no page). But to present Gtltersloh as an i l l u s t r a t o r of the macabre, not making allowances for the dozens of more light-hearted, witty and i r o n i c scenes, would be u n j u s t i f i a b l e . What nearly a l l the miniatures have i n 77 common, however, i s th e i r d i s t i n c t narrative q u a l i t y . And i f one looks at some of the t i t l e s i t becomes even more evident that t h i s inherent narrative quality closely p a r a l l e l s Gtltersloh's f i c t i o n . One would agree with Mrazek's verdict, " . . . a l s Dichter 'malte' er und als Maler 1redete' er, wissend . . . dass hier das Dichterische und das Malerische i n einer untrennbaren Ganzheit e x i s t i e r e n " (Die Entwicklung der Wiener Schule, no page). Gtttersloh i n 1967 goes one s t e p . f u r t h e r — d e s p i t e e a r l i e r statements to the contrary--by building a bridge, so to speak, connecting the miniatures to the short story genre: Was nun die kleinen Formate anlangt, derer ich mich zum nebensSchlichen Aussprechen von Hauptsachen bediene . . . so entsprechen sie genau den geistigen RMumen, die, schnellsten F a l l e s einen Aphorismus, laggsamsten eine  Kurzgeschichte durcheilen. Another bridge i s b u i l t , so to speak, between a r t i s t and viewer: Giltersloh allows the viewer ample room for attempting an imaginative collaboration with the a r t i s t : Da aber der Inhalt eines Bildes nicht nur nicht das ganze B i l d i s t , vielmehr nur das Gerippe, das der Maler mit Farben bekleidet, so mtissen doch wohl zumindest drei V i e r t e l des Bildes von einem unverstehbaren oder zumindest nicht g l e i c h verstehbaren . . . gewis^ermassen unsichtbaren Element e r f d l l t sein. 78 There are only a few colour reproductions of the miniatures i n Beispiele as well as Zwischen den Zeiten, although the index to Beispiele contains dozens of tiny black-and-white reproductions ranging i n size from 1.5" x 1.5" to 3" x 3". The t i t l e s alone speak for the narrative nature of the works, as for example "Die ErzShlung des Matrosen," "Der unerwartete Besuch," "Die missgltickte Entfuhrung," "Die Meinungsverschiedenheit auf dem Spaziergang," "1st der Vater w i r k l i c h glttcklich," etc. Although there i s mention of drawings which appear to be 38 i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a number of short s t o r i e s , there i s only one which i s depicted (in Beispiele, i n reduced form), i . e . , a drawing e n t i t l e d "Weihwasserweitergabe" ( " i l l . zu 'Die 3 9 Selbstlosen'"). None of the other watercolours have a d i r e c t connection with the stories under discussion; i t i s only t h e i r i m p l i c i t narrative character which puts them i n close proximity to the f i c t i o n a l miniatures and th e i r predominantly p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y . Looking at the f u l l - s i z e reproduction of the miniature e n t i t l e d "Das Wartezimmer des Irrenarztes" (1954), 4^ the i n i t i a l impression i s of the u t t e r l y domineering presence of the three figures i n the foreground, i n p a r t i c u l a r the female figure on the l e f t . Yet the entire composition i s such that the various objects i n the background (such as the clock, or the paintings) achieve v i r t u a l l y equal importance 79 with the central focus, i . e . , the three figures. The viewer's imagination as to the "meaning" of the picture i s obviously engaged to a greater extent than would be the case regarding the f i c t i o n a l miniatures; one i s v i r t u a l l y forced to provide the epic element to the s i t u a t i o n portrayed. Perhaps t h i s i s because anyone approaching a work of art can be "manipulated" more e a s i l y through pictures than through words which can have a variety of connotations. Three figures dominate the foreground, s i t t i n g at a round table facing the viewer. It i s impossible to place the scene depicted within a s p e c i f i c period of time on the basis of costuming, furniture, or anything else v i s i b l e ; the "contemporary" nature of the magazines, for example, would appear to contradict the more dated--yet obscure i n terms of period fashion--garments worn by the figures. The woman on the l e f t i s the most macabre of the three: every curve i s outlined i n the most exaggerated manner, making the dress appear as a second skin. Her breasts are v i r t u a l l y exposed, the opening of the dress i s stitched together below the navel, across a prominent abdomen which again emphasizes the s k i n - l i k e appearance of the garment. S t i f f l y positioned, her arms and hands—the l e f t one holding a pleated handkerchief--appear carved of wood, and rather d i s j o i n t e d from the wide shoulders. The legs are wide apart and seem s o l i d and chunky, especially i n contrast to the inordinately 8 0 long and slim umbrella leaning against them. The woman's features above a neck which i s enc i r c l e d by a black ribbon seem almost too large for the face, eyes and mouth i n pa r t i c u l a r . In her middle years, with a face at once elegant as well as "ravaged" by time, she stares d i r e c t l y at the viewer out of dark, heavy-lidded eyes, her expression one of nearly catatonic i n t e n s i t y , a look which i s reinforced by her o v e r a l l pose. Her pale, s l i g h t l y yellowish colour and bloodless l i p s reinforce the impression of i l l n e s s ; one i s strongly reminded of a picture by Anton Lehmden, another painter of the School of Fantastic Realism, painted a few years l a t e r (1959) and e n t i t l e d "Kopf," whose subject also has a sim i l a r look of being i l l and/or s l i g h t l y 41 demented. Tendrils of blond hair show under the broad hat, adorned by grapes, apples and pears, and what appears to be o s t r i c h plumes. The entire head i s "framed" by the actual ornate frame of a painting hanging on the wall d i r e c t l y behind her; i t depicts a s a i l i n g vessel under a formation of feathery clouds which seemingly blend in with the o s t r i c h plumes. The i r o n i c depiction of women as both sinner and saint, harlot and madonna which Gtitersloh indulges i n frequently (see Chapter Three) might be seen here as well, given the halo- l i k e e f f e c t of the painting. Also facing the viewer with an intense but s l i g h t l y stupid gaze--reinforced by prominent ears, large n o s t r i l s , a 81 low forehead under a bald dome--is a man i n formal a t t i r e , displaying a rose i n his l e f t l a p e l . His hands rest on the table, forming a steeple, i . e . , with f i n g e r t i p s touching. To his r i g h t , her head supported on one hand, her elbow on the table and torso leaning against i t , s i t s a younger woman whose dress underlines the impression of nudity as i n the case of the older woman. The figure i s chunky, legs are wide apart. Closed eyes and open mouth would seem to indicate that she i s sleeping; holding a broad-brimmed straw hat against her s k i r t , she appears as the most "normal" looking of the t r i o . That the figures seem somewhat bizarre, not quite "true to l i f e , " might be seen i n conjunction with the set t i n g . Again, however, the s i m i l a r i t y to the a r t i s t ' s f i c t i o n a l creations i s quite pronounced: neither i n the short s t o r i e s nor i n the novels does Gtltersloh create characters of great r e a l i s t i c impact. There i s a studied a r t i f i c i a l i t y about them; invariably, the reader has the impression that he i s confronted by actors going through t h e i r assigned parts on a stage created as much for the writer's pleasure as for the reader's. Next to the picture on the wall hangs an enclosed clock whose pendulum appears too long and large for i t s face which has numerals but no hands. Next to that i s a hook with a top hat. To i t s r i g h t i s a large painting i n a wide, ornate frame, depicting a mountain landscape with the onion-shaped 8 2 dome of a church. One half of the picture functions as a window, with the seemingly reinforced canvas panel opening into the room. Two figures can be seen looking into the room: the one a white-bearded man dressed in white, with a hat resembling that of Greek or Russian Orthodox p r i e s t s ; the other, also dressed in white, resembles the young Peter Lorre, with his l e f t hand pointing at the figures i n the room who are unaware of the two. The colour component of the miniature i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g : apart from the blue rug and moss-green upholstery of chairs and sofa, the woman's black (or charcoal) garment and the g i r l ' s red dress provide the only larger areas of colour; yet these seemingly stronger splashes of colour are not so e x p l i c i t that they stand out, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , from the rest of the composition. This also works somewhat against the i l l u s o r y creation of depth, or perspective: the scenes depicted i n a l l of the miniatures are v i r t u a l l y one-dimensional; colours applied to the background are as intense or as subdued as those applied to the foreground. And perhaps t h i s i s the reason why Hutter speaks of an "exaggerated colourfulness" (Zeiten, 99). In th i s p a r t i c u l a r painting, even the size of the background objects does not appear to be reduced by v i r t u e of distance; i . e . , the clock and the paintings are as large as i f they were hanging next to the three figures. 8 3 One becomes gradually aware of other d e t a i l s : in front of the g i r l , on the table, i s a basket of f r u i t , and an object vaguely resembling a b o t t l e . Other objects on the table are a conical piece of cake on a small p l a t t e r ; a statue of a nude woman i n an e c s t a t i c dancer's pose; three magazines, the top one showing a nude woman under the t i t l e " P l a i s i r " ; a white ribbon, and--next to the older woman—a pair of long gloves whose elegantly curved fingers almost give them a l i f e of t h e i r own. The white table cl o t h has a border of wolves, running i n a l i n e and i n one d i r e c t i o n ; the s t i t c h i n g around each black silhouette gives a s i n i s t e r impression of b r i s t l i n g f ur. The lamp hanging down from the c e i l i n g i s that of a human figure, dressed, limbs contorted l i k e those of a wooden d o l l , both hands and feet holding a l i g h t bulb. Behind the man i s a pot with exotic flowers; to the r i g h t of the young g i r l , a disembodied arm i s extended from "outside" of the picture, i t s hand clasping the neck of a vase resting on a slender, high table. The vase contains two leafy branches, a black b i r d s i t t i n g on one of them. A parquet f l o o r and carpet are also sketched i n . Thus the entire composition appears "staged," with actors frozen i n th e i r respective positions, awaiting t h e i r next cue. It i s evident that t h i s miniature contains a l l the "ingredients" of at least one short story. The imagination of the viewer, coupled with a given set of symbolic 84 reference points which work on the viewer's consciousness would seem to guarantee the imaginary creation of another half-dozen s t o r i e s . Therefore i t i s tempting to indulge i n speculation about the "meaning" of t h i s miniature; but t h i s would lead too far since the present study i s only concerned with the elucidation of the s t o r i e s ' " i n t e r i o r landscape." There can also be no doubt that t h i s miniature i n p a r t i c u l a r i s a representative example, i n concept and s t y l e , of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism: i t i s inte r e s t i n g to note, for example, that Gtltersloh's female figures with t h e i r exaggerated contours correspond to those generally 42 drawn by Wolfgang Hutter. "im Irrgarten der Liebe" (Beispiele, plate 27, dated 1960) i s another miniature which stimulates the imagination, i n i t i a l l y prodded by the t i t l e . The painting i s one of peculiar shadows, angles and perspectives which makes i t i n t e r e s t i n g from a p i c t o r i a l as well as narrative perspective. In the foreground, t h e i r backs against a "set" of thick hedges which appear sculpted into smoothly l i n e d , impenetrable, garishly green walls--where one would normally expect, given the t i t l e , exuberant, unrestricted growth--stand two pale fig u r e s , apart. The female figure, young, in a t i g h t dress, and a cape about to s l i p o f f her shoulders, again demonstrates Gtitersloh's obvious fascination with 85 anatomical d e t a i l - - i f not accuracy—which i s evident i n a l l the miniatures. Her face i s serious and turned towards the male figure a few steps away. Her pose suggests seductive-ness, marred by the incongruous, unnatural angle of the arm raised above her head. The man's sparse hair and lined face, p a r t i a l l y obscured by a raised and bent arm--also appearing somewhat disjointed--suggests the older man, fascinated yet unwilling to succumb to the "temptation" offered. Behind the woman, on a pedestal set into a niche which seems "carved" into the hedge, stands a naked male figure which could be as " l i f e - l i k e " as the two i n the foreground were i t not for the " b l i n d " eyes of a statue. His body stretched, he i s reaching with his r i g h t arm p a r t i a l l y around the hedge, nearly touching the legs and wisps of white clo t h which i s a l l that i s v i s i b l e , behind the hedge, of a female figure l i t e r a l l y " i n f u l l f l i g h t , " her feet nearly two metres off the ground. Trying to grasp her i s a younger man, running, with arms and hands outstretched. Behind him, on another pedestal set within a niche, i s a barely recognizable statue (or f i g u r e ) , half i n shadows, i n a standing p o s i t i o n . Beyond the hedge i n the background, a s t r i p of blue sky i s v i s i b l e . There i s more of a suggestion of depth here than there i s i n the previously described miniature; again t h i s depth i s not created by a gradation of colour but rather by the 86 d i m e n s i o n s o f the f i g u r e s p o r t r a y e d . An a lmost l u r i d l y i n t e n s e green i s p redominant , f o l l o w e d by shades o f p a l e b l u e . Whereas i n the former p i c t u r e Gt t ters loh d i d not work w i th l i g h t and shadow (even the c e i l i n g lamp does not appear , t o shed any l i g h t , nor i s t h e r e any i n d i c a t i o n o f l i g h t coming from another s o u r c e ) , he m a n i p u l a t e s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s ve ry e f f e c t i v e l y i n " i r r g a r t e n der L i e b e . " D e s p i t e the outdoor s e t t i n g , the i l l u m i n a t i o n of the scene seems t o come from a bank of k l i e g - l i g h t s r a t h e r than from the s u n . Stage e f f e c t s a r e a g a i n v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e , even i n c l u d i n g the p o s i t i o n i n g of the f i g u r e s which seem a r r e s t e d i n mot ion as i f w a i t i n g f o r f u r t h e r s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s . The s c u l p t e d " w a l l s " resemble s tage props r a t h e r than l i v i n g hedges . A l though the e n t i r e scene i s d e p i c t e d r e a l i s t i c a l l y , i t s f a n t a s t i c d imens ion ( p r i m a r i l y de te rmined by the f i g u r e i n f l i g h t ) can h a r d l y remain u n r e c o g n i z e d . A l t h o u g h l a c k i n g the d e t a i l o f the f i r s t m i n i a t u r e , t h i s one a p p e a l s no l e s s t o the v i e w e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n : apar t from s p e c u l a t i n g on t h a t which i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , one wonders about the u n s e e n , s i n c e the eye i s drawn t o the shadowy c o r n e r s o f the n i c h e s , and the gap between the hedges th rough which the f i g u r e i s e s c a p i n g . As w i th the f i r s t m i n i a t u r e , the components which make up t h i s one p o i n t t o i t s c o n c e p t i o n i n l a r g e l y n a r r a t i v e terms., which not o n l y demonst ra tes the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f p a i n t e r and w r i t e r , but 8 7 once again gives evidence of Fantastic Realism whose exponents, by and large, would seem to share Gutersloh's narrational p r e d i l e c t i o n . The miniature e n t i t l e d "Apres" (Beispiele, plate 12) was painted i n 1923, and even at f i r s t glance one r e a l i z e s that i t i s several steps removed from Fantastic Re a l i s t painting: the only thing one might consider as s l i g h t l y " f a n t a s t i c " are the contorted limbs of the male figure. The picture lacks a further a t t r i b u t e of Fantastic Realism: an i n t r i n s i c epic q u a l i t y . The "before" of the scene depicted i s quite obviously a romantic encounter between the two figures, and one has the d i s t i n c t impression that there i s no " a f t e r " worth speculating about beyond the moment Gtltersloh i l l u s t r a t e s - - t h e t i t l e i t s e l f i s rather conclusive and does not prod one to further leaps of the imagination. The figures stand apart, looking away from each other. There i s undoubtedly a touch of humour i n the portrayal of the woman: hair dishevelled, bosom bared and attempting to adjust both s k i r t s and garter, she gazes s o u l f u l l y at some point above her rather than i n the d i r e c t i o n of her companion. He, on the other hand, faces i n her d i r e c t i o n - -staring, however, not at her but at some object "outside" of the picture. That the h i l l - t o p encounter took place i n f u l l view, so to speak, of the town (or c a s t l e , or monastery) 8 8 which can be seen i n the distance adds a further touch of humour, i n terms of the viewer's "epic" response; i t also indicates his eagerness to depart (reaching for h i s hat, having put on his jacket back-to-front i n his haste) while she i s s t i l l i n a state of deshabille. Judging by th e i r apparel, the period can be fixed r e l a t i v e l y firmly which i s seldom the case in other miniatures: the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century. Except for the sky, there i s very l i t t l e background d i r e c t l y behind the two figures: there are no trees, bushes or anything else which would substantiate a natural s e t t i n g . The p l a i n "backdrop" of the sky can be seen quite simply as yet another example of the a r t i s t ' s t h e a t r i c a l handling of his material. The colours are rather more muted than i n the other two pictures. Touches here and there of a yellow-golden hue indicate a source of l i g h t , but once again t h i s seems to originate from an a r t i f i c i a l rather than natural source: the scene appears " l i t " as from a number of stage l i g h t s above and i n front of the picture. Even the d e t a i l s i n this miniature look l i k e so many a r t f u l l y arranged stage props: both hats hanging on the branches of two separate trees; the woman's umbrella, jacket, and bouquet on the ground; the remains of a p i c n i c and what seems to be two discarded 89 napkins. The miniature as a whole appears framed due to the branches of the two trees on either side meeting i n the centre. Even a s u p e r f i c i a l glance at the reproductions i n Beispiele reveals the obvious fact that Gtltersloh was anything but a dabbler at his c r a f t . This volume offers examples of the f u l l range of styles he used i n the course of many decades. Looking at such powerful and superb paintings as "Bildnis der Malerin Broncia R o l l e r " (plate 9), "Bildnis Alexandra Gtltersloh" (plate 18), or " S t i l l e b e n mit Barometer" (plate 25), i t i s rather d i f f i c u l t to "see" the same hand engaged in the creation of the miniatures which, taken i n d i v i d u a l l y , seem almost l i k e comic s t r i p s i f one compares them to any one of the more "serious" paintings. However, a f t e r studying a representative selection of the former, i t becomes quite clear that these small paintings have t h e i r own i n t r i c a c i e s and complexities, and that t h e i r i n t r i n s i c simplicity—compared to the larger-scale paintings--does not detract from t h e i r a r t i s t i c merit in the s l i g h t e s t . The same conclusion can be reached regarding Gutersloh's short f i c t i o n as compared to the novels. i 90 Chapter Three The Writer Gtltersloh: The F i c t i o n a l Miniatures I. The Question of Genre The short f i c t i o n a l prose works used in t h i s study w i l l not be discussed along the l i n e s of established l i t e r a r y genres--or any category within each genre--for two reasons: the attempt to "categorize," c o l l e c t i v e l y , the majority of the s t o r i e s would lead to i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s simply because they do not f i t readily into any one of the established frameworks; one hesitates even more i n view of the obvious divergence between the various scholarly pronouncements made, generally speaking, concerning the short f i c t i o n genres. Furthermore, i t i s f e l t that the attempt at a conventional categorization or labeling would add l i t t l e , i f anything, to the p a r t i c u l a r focus of this i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The question of genre had to be discussed, however, since a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a for Gtitersloh's short f i c t i o n have not been established so f a r . If one were to look for la b e l s , i t would become obvious very quickly that most of Gtitersloh's s t o r i e s , published 91 separately in the course of some t h i r t y years, do not have any p a r t i c u l a r designation i n the various publications except f o r that which i s contained in the t i t l e , e.g. "Die Fabel vom Dilemma," or "Eine Malergeschichte"; two of the s t o r i e s bear the s u b t i t l e "Novelle." Many of them, including the novellas, were republished some years l a t e r 2 as "Fabeln," and subsequently as "ErzMhlungen." The dust jacket of Lasst uns den Menschen machen contains introductory comments by Heimito von Doderer which i l l u s t r a t e as well as add to the confusion, and would seem to fr u s t r a t e any serious investigation i n terms of genre from the outset: Guterslohs kurze Prosa: ein Adler kommt aus weiten Flugen. . . . Jede ErzMhlung ein B e i s p i e l der Einheit von Inhalt und Form. . . . Aber h i e r i s t eine d r i t t e Dimension der Kurzgeschichte gefunden, die den E i n f a l l a u f b l i t z e n lMsst, jedoch sein Vergluhen ironisch vorwegnimmt. Dies i s t die wesent-l i c h ttsterreichische Form der kurzen  ErzMhlung, gedrffngte Romane ge^end in n o v e l l i s t i s c h e r Sprache. . . . Helmut Heissenbtlttel, commenting on Sonne und Mond, also refers to Gutersloh's short f i c t i o n under various designations; ". . . es gab auch . . . zwei SammelbSnde mit Erzahlungen, Parabeln, Legenden. . . . Robert Blauhut uses the term "Novelle" rather loosely in connection with such disparate s t o r i e s as "Pythias B r i e f , " and "Ein Held seiner Zeit," both contained in the c o l l e c t i o n Lasst u n s d e n M e n s c h e n machen; i n f a c t , B l a u h u t u s e s e i t h e r " N o v e l l e " o r " E r z M h l u n g " when c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s t o r i e s g e n e r a l l y i n t h e t h r e e c o l l e c t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n w h i c h n e x t a r i s e s - - h o w e v e r p e r i p h e r a l l y — i s t h a t o f f i n d i n g t h e m o s t " a p p r o p r i a t e " d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e s e t e x t s when m o s t m a j o r a n d m i n o r s t u d i e s i n t h e a r e a o f g e n r e f a i l t o e s t a b l i s h g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i a . W a l t e r H t i l l e r e r , i n a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " D i e k u r z e Form 7 d e r P r o s a , " a r g u e s c o n v i n c i n g l y a g a i n s t a n y r i g i d " s y s t e m " o f c a t e g o r i e s a n d l a b e l s when d e a l i n g w i t h s h o r t p r o s e w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s h o r t s t o r y ( K u r z g e s c h i c h t e ) w h i c h — e v e n n o w — d o e s n o t r e a l l y c o n s t i t u t e a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r m w i t h a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s . K l a u s D o d e r e r , i n D i e K u r z g e s c h i c h t e i n D e u t s c h l a n d , i h r e Form  und i h r e E n t w i c k l u n q , a g r e e s w i t h H t i l l e r e r , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e w o r d " K u r z g e s c h i c h t e " i s u s e d 1 1. . . z u r Benennung g a n z v e r s c h i e d e n e r , zum T e i l e i n a n d e r a u s s c h l i e s s e n d e r L i t e r a t u r -e r s c h e i n u n g e n " ( 3 ) . He g o e s o n t o s a y : . . . m i t d e r g l e i c h e n K t i h n h e i t und P r & z i s i o n s l o s i g k e i t w i e P r e s s e und L i t e r a t u r a r b e i t e t d i e b i s h e r e r s c h i e n e n e w i s s e n -s c h a f t l i c h e L i t e r a t u r m i t dem B e g r i f f K u r z g e s c h i c h t e . Man i s t v e r s u c h t z u b e h a u p t e n , d a s s g e r a d e h i e r d i e g r f l s s t e V e r w i r r u n g h e r r s c h e ( 5 ) . R u t h K i l c h e n m a n n i n h e r d e t a i l e d s t u d y d e s c r i b e s t h e K u r z -g e s c h i c h t e a s ". . . d e n h e u t e w o h l u n a u f g e k l S r t e s t e n 93 'Typus' l i t e r a r i s c h e n Ausdrucks. . . . " Discussing, among others, the studies of Eberhard L&mmert and Wolfgang Kayser 1 0 as v a l i d but not conclusive attempts at defining genre she goes on to say that . . . Definitionen i n Handbdchern, Nachschlagewerken und Lexika, die sich o f t widersprechen, tragen weiter zur Unklarheit und zur Verwirrung des B e g r i f f s Kurzgeschichte bei, da s i e meist entweder nicht endeutig, weil v i e l zu b r e i t und unbestimmt, oder v i e l zu eng und doktrinSr sind (13). Other studies, for example those by Thomas d i Napoli, 12 13 14 James B. H a l l , Hans Bender, and H.M. Waidson a l l point out the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n defining the German short story; not one of the constructed "sets" of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s agrees completely with any other, nor would any of them be completely applicable to the majority of Gutersloh's "short s t o r i e s . " Moreover, the term "short story" as the appro-pri a t e t r a n s l a t i o n of "Kurzgeschichte" i s problematic since i t implies a much broader set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; as Htillerer points out: Dabei i s t . . . zu bedenken, dass die amerikanische Short-Story deswegen, weil es einen Novellenbegriff im Amerikanischen und Englischen nicht gibt, weitergefasst i s t als der deutsche Begriff 'Kurzgeschichte'. Er uberschneidet sich zuweilen mit dem deutschen Novellenbegriff (226). 94 Other genre d e f i n i t i o n s pose similar problems: Klaus Doderer demonstrates that for many scholars the terms "Novelle," "Anekdote," and "Skizze" are more or less synonymous with "Kurzgeschichte"; Kilchenmann adds the more discursive genre of "ErzMhlung" to t h i s l i s t : Ist es schon schwierig und kaum mtfglich, Novelle und Kurzgeschichte voneinander klar abzugrenzen, dann i s t es noch v i e l schwerer, eine Trennung zwischen Kurzgeschichte und ErzShlung vorzunehmen (18). Kilchenmann points to the fact that none of these l i t e r a r y categories has been described comprehensively, i n p a r t i c u l a r the novella: . . . bis zum heutigen Tag i s t man sic h l e d i g l i c h darin e i n i g , dass es bis j e t z t keine allgemein gtiltigen formSsthetischen K r i t e r i e n f(ir die 'Gattung' der Novelle gibt (9). Graham Good, i n a comparative review of the r e l a t i o n -ship between novel and novella, points to the f a l l a c y — b a s e d on the assumption that "prose f i c t i o n i s a continuous, homogeneous f a b r i c which can be cut and t a i l o r e d to any 1 5 length" --of defining the novella primarily in terms of length, since "there i s no magic number of words which constitutes the minimum for a novel or the maximum for a short story, and there are always borderline cases" (197). Good arrives at a summary indicating a "cluster of features 95 and p o s s i b i l i t i e s central to the novella" (209)--which only serves to i l l u s t r a t e the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ascribing one set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to a l l examples of t h i s genre, even within a circumscribed h i s t o r i c a l period. As far as the novella genre i s concerned, Gtltersloh kept more or less within the framework used by Goethe (or K l e i s t ) , i . e . , the depiction of one extraordinary incident, with a t i g h t l y constructed s t o r y - l i n e , a marked economy—for Gtltersloh—of words, and almost complete lack of digression, equally unusual for t h i s writer. One would seem to face the same dilemma regarding the twentieth-century version of the fable. Hermann Lindner refers at length to the d i f f i c u l t i e s "bei der Gattungs-1 6 d e f i n i t i o n " ; Reinhard Dithmar claims, "Von der Intention aus l ^ s s t sich die Fabel nMher bestimmen, nicht im Sinne der 1 7 tradierten Gattungslehre. . . . " The fable has been described, among other things, as a "didaktisches Gleichnis" (Httllerer, 237), ". . . das i n eine ErzShlung eingeftlgte 1 8 Drama i n knappster Form" (Dithmar, 103) or, more generally, as " L i t e r a t u r , die Alltagswelt unmittelbar 1 9 beeinflussen w i l l . " Nor can the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n cate-gorizing be considered a recent phenomenon; according to Klaus Doderer: 96 Wer sich aufmacht, die idealtyische Form der Fabel zu finden, um dann an ihr die Wirk-l i c h k e i t zu messen, dem geht es h o f f e n t l i c h so wie Lessing, der . . . die Diskrepanz zwischen seiner theoretischen de f i n i t o r i s c h e n Zielsetzung und seiner eigenen Praxis2^1s Fabelschreiber merkte und eingestand. The s t o r i e s to which Gtltersloh chose to apply the term do not have a uniform set of compositional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d i d a c t i c element i s either barely d i s c e r n i b l e or missing completely, with the possible exception of "Die Fabel von 21 der Malerei which i s also the only one of an a l l e g o r i c a l 22 nature. "Die Fabel von der Pythia" as well as "Die Fabel vom Dilemma" are set i n the h i s t o r i c a l and legendary past, revolving around Alexander the Great and Faustus respec-t i v e l y ; the painter i n "Die Fabel von der Malerei" i s merely representative of a l l painters. A l l three stories vary in narrative s t y l e and length, 23 from the r e l a t i v e l y short (seven pages, "Malerei") to the very long (forty-three pages, "Pythia"); whereas one i s extremely discursive and i n the form of a l e t t e r ("Pythia"), the other two have a narrator. The locale changes ("Der 2 4 General") , or remains s t a t i c ("Malerei"). In terms of language, two of the three fables are t o l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y straight-forward fashion, while i n the other ("Pythia") the element of irony i s evident occasionally, brought about by having figures from Greek mythology speak i n contemporary 97 vernacular (e.g. "Mein Philo--das i s t der Schreibonkel." (Die Fabeln, 67). Klaus Doderer also sees the "Anekdote" as a somewhat ambivalent category, with a number of "Obergangsformen" (50) which have not been given a designation at a l l . Waidson demonstrates that the "borderline between sketch and story" i s equally precarious (123), r e f e r r i n g to some of Thomas Mann's early so-called "Novellen" i n t h i s context. The same ambiguous quality might be ascribed to the " F e u i l l e t o n -geschichte," where p l o t can either be n e g l i g i b l e , or dominating (see Httllerer, 238). In that sense, some of Gtltersloh's stories which have been collected as "ErzShlungen" (Lasst uns den Menschen machen) could indeed be considered as "Feuilletongeschichten," as for example "Der Henker," or "Ein Held seiner Z e i t . " Gtitersloh occasionally appears to adopt the s t y l e of other authors. This would seem to be the case with "Adonis," for example, where the s i m i l a r i t y with K l e i s t ' s short f i c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . For Heimito von Doderer, Gtltersloh, "dieser liebend-feindselige Sohn des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts" ( F a l l Gtltersloh, 113), i s at least occasionally quite at home i n previous centuries; comparisons with Stendhal, Laurence Sterne, or Johann Peter 98 Hebel have been made by some c r i t i c s i n connection w i t h the , 2 5 n o v e l s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s one can o n l y agree with Klaus Doderer, Kilchenmann and others who reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t one cannot speak of the short s t o r y , but onl y of s h o r t s t o r i e s . Kilchenmann w r i t e s : [Es muss a k z e p t i e r t werden], dass es keine K u r z g e s c h i c h t e , sondern nur Kurzgeschichten g i b t , d i e s i c h a l l e r d i n g s nach i h r e r i n n e r e n Form und e i g e n g e s e t z l i c h e r i "Struktur bestimmen l a s s e n , ohne aber e i n e r Gattung zuzugehtfren oder s i c h unter einen G a t t u n g s b e g r i f f e i n r e i h e n zu l a s s e n (16). The r e f o r e , because of the amorphous nature o f the genres d e s c r i b e d , and the r e l a t i v e ambivalence of Gu t e r s l o h ' s s h o r t f i c t i o n a l p i e c e s - - a n ambivalence which becomes a c u t e l y apparent when one attempts t o a l i g n them with the e n t i r e " s e t " o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n any one of the many prototypes o f f e r e d - - i t would seem t o be prudent t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n and de s i g n a t e them simply as "Geschichten," or s t o r i e s . Taken c o l l e c t i v e l y or i n d i v i d u a l l y , they are a r t i s t i c a l l y unique and defy c a t e g o r i z a t i o n j u s t as much as do Gutersloh's p a i n t e d m i n i a t u r e s . His p o s i t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s not unique, however: the same c l a i m has been made, f o r example, r e g a r d i n g Kokoschka's s h o r t f i c t i o n a l works, i . e . , t h a t they are i m p o s s i b l e t o " c l a s s i f y . 99 I I . Publishing History; E d i t o r i a l Changes Stories which were o r i g i n a l l y published in journals and newspapers have frequently not only been republished under d i f f e r e n t and multiple designations, but i n some cases 27 t i t l e s have been changed as well. For example, what was published o r i g i n a l l y under the t i t l e "Ungeduldiger Scharf-2 8 r i c h t e r " appeared l a t e r as "Der Henker." This second t i t l e i s , perhaps, less unwieldy and more to the point than the o r i g i n a l one: the story i s now much shorter, and the rather lengthy " e d i t o r i a l comments" on the death penalty have been deleted. In t h i s second version, a l e t t e r written by the executioner makes up the entire short sketch. There are quite a number of textual changes; the sentence leading up to the l e t t e r , for example--"Auf dass ein Strahl von dieser Liebe Sie auch trctfe, s e i das blutige Sttlck Ihres Briefes z i t i e r t " - - ( " S c h a r f r i c h t e r , " 62) has been enlarged by some components taken from the opening part of the f i r s t version: Auf dass ein Strahl . . . auch jene trSfe, die, i n pragmatisches Denken v e r s t r i c k t , irdische Ordnung durch irdisches U r t e i l zu schtitzen glauben, sei die blutige ErzMhlung eines Organes dieser Ordnung, i n dem gebrochenen deutsch-tisterreichischen Deutsch, rot auf weiss, z i t i e r t . . . ("Henker," 181). Apart from sentences which have been changed or l e f t out completely in the second publication, there are 115 changes 1 00 in the s p e l l i n g of the d i a l e c t portion, from "Gott" and "hat" ("Scharfrichter," 62) to "God" and "hot" ("Henker," 181), e t c . - - r e s u l t i n g , no doubt, i n greater authenticity as far as the nuances of d i a l e c t are concerned. "Die Fabel von der Pythia," f i r s t published in 1945, 29 received a second publication i n 1947, and a t h i r d in 30 1963. In 1962 i t also appeared i n the c o l l e c t i o n Lasst  uns den Menschen machen, but under a changed t i t l e , i . e . , "Pythias B r i e f " (115-142). The text i n a l l four publica-tions i s i d e n t i c a l . "Das GestSndnis," f i r s t published in 1947 (Die Fabeln vom Eros, 125-134), was republished twice (Lasst uns den Menschen machen, 165-170, and Fabeln vom  Eros, 34-39); apart from the s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d i v i s i o n s between paragraphs i n each version the text remains unchanged, as i s the case with the two published versions 32 of "Der Brief aus Amerika," and "Der sentimentale junge Mann."3 3 "Das vergebliche Mahl" which f i r s t appeared in 1934 3 4 and was published again some t h i r t y years l a t e r (Menschen, 251-256), and Gewaltig staunt der Mensch, 103-108) shows i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes only: again, the occasional word i s l e f t out e n t i r e l y i n the second and t h i r d p r i n t i n g ; some-times the punctuation d i f f e r s . "GesprSch im Wasser" was 35 published twice i n the same year. The second version has 1 01 only n e g l i g i b l e changes, e.g. "wenige Sekunden spelter" (Menschen, 150) i s now "zwei Sekunden sp&ter" (119). 3 6 "Die Menschenfreunde," published three times, again has undergone only minor changes each time, i n s p e l l i n g and syntax. 37 The t i t l e "Ein I d i o t " was subsequently changed to "Ein Bruder Aegidio" (Menschen, 241-249), with an 3 8 explanation of the name; in view of the protagonist's depiction, the change i s for the better. Textual alte r a t i o n s are minor, and mainly concern s p e l l i n g , syntax, and the occasional change of one word for a te x t u a l l y more appropriate one, e.g. from " . . . und einmal muss doch das Vergessene tot sein . . . " (Das Silberboot, 227) to " . . . und einmal muss doch das Vergangene tot sein . . . " (Menschen, 249). Since the o r i g i n a l story has remained intact--except for a couple of minor word substitutions--there seems to be l i t t l e reason for having changed the 3 9 o r i g i n a l t i t l e of "Ein ungewtihnlicher Gedanke" to "Gott 40 spart nicht mit Zeichen and a year l a t e r to "Die innere Stimme auf dem Dorfe,"^ unless i t was for reasons of copyright. Appeal to a s p e c i f i c readership might have been the other--or only—reason for these changes. The three versions are otherwise a l i k e ; a l l three t i t l e s are appropriate for the rather "homespun" concerns of t h i s v i l l a g e t a l e . 1 02 "Lasst uns Menschen machen"^ received the most substantial a l t e r a t i o n i n the process of republication. The s l i g h t l y changed t i t l e "Lasst uns den Menschen machen" seems to go with the expanded, far more r e f l e c t i v e and complex version of the story. There are numerous and r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n d i c t i o n and syntax, but since the second version has been expanded to double the size of the o r i g i n a l , i t must stand, to a large extent, as an e n t i r e l y new narrative. 1 03 I I I . The Exterior Landscape 1. Delineation None of the s t o r i e s gives r i s e to the assumption that Gtltersloh set out, consciously, to emulate any theory of painting, nor do his t h e o r e t i c a l writings point i n that d i r e c t i o n . However, i t can be demonstrated that the painter's perspective was usually present while the author worked at his c r a f t , and that one can i s o l a t e , i n each story, various devices of a predominantly p i c t o r i a l nature which are inseparable from the composition as a whole. There i s no single story in which one would be able to i s o l a t e a l l p i c t o r i a l devices i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s study; as the s t o r i e s d i f f e r i n other areas (e.g. regarding theme, point of view, or s e t t i n g ) , so do they d i f f e r i n t h e i r emphasis--as well as presence or absence--of various p i c t o r i a l elements. Yet each of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures contains examples, of at least two of these elements, to varying degrees. The viewer's i n i t i a l impression of a picture's " t o t a l i t y " i s bound to be d i f f e r e n t from a reader's impression of a story; a transference from a p i c t o r i a l to a verbal medium cannot be exact. One might be able to make a case for a s i m i l a r receptive process with regard to painting and concrete poetry, where the eye i s f i r s t of a l l drawn to 1 04 the shape of the poem. The f i r s t impression one gains of a painting does not include an awareness of every d e t a i l but rather of prominent shapes and colours. Regarding the s t o r i e s , however, the i n i t i a l "impression" the reader gains i s based on a f i r s t reading of the text i n i t s entirety which should res u l t i n the perception of the form, or basic formal as well as thematic structure, of the composition, rather than the recognition (at t h i s point) of i t s numerous d e t a i l s . As Kandinsky has pointed out: In der Kunst geht nie die Theorie voraus, und zieht die Praxis nie nach s i c h , sondern umgekehrt. Hier i s t a l l e s und ganz besonders im Anfang GefUhlssache. Nur durch Geftihl, besonders im Anfang des Weges, i s t ^ as ktinstlerisch Richtige zu erreichen. Gtltersloh seems to be an example here: i n spite of the fact that, throughout his creative l i f e , he wrote extensively on art, i t would be unreasonable to suggest that his own—or anyone else's--theories preceded either his painted or f i c t i o n a l works which would then have to be seen i n the l i g h t of one or the other theory. Rather, i t i s what Kandinsky has c a l l e d the a r t i s t ' s "innere Notwendigkeit" which serves as a stimulus, and which gives the work of art shape and d i r e c t i o n . 1 0 5 Gtltersloh's understanding of himself as a painter has been the overriding determinant fo r much of his narrative technique; i t can be argued that his v i s u a l perception influenced the compositional idea underlying the basic outline of a story. Gtltersloh proceeds i n the manner of a painter by delineating the "form" of the narrative, then " f i l l i n g i n " s p e c i f i c shapes and colours. Beginning an analysis with t h i s delineation or outline of the s t o r i e s , one can perceive the a r t i s t i c intention behind them, i . e . , the creation of a narrative painting, of a verbal picture. This, at any rate, i s the e f f e c t the majority of the s t o r i e s would have on the c r i t i c a l reader, despite the speculation that the i n i t i a l creative impulse for the writer Gtltersloh might well have arisen out of a s p e c i f i c idea rather than a v i s u a l stimulus. But given the a r t i s t ' s dual tal e n t , i t i s not at a l l surprising that the execution of t h i s idea became d i s t i n c t l y p i c t o r i a l . However, although the majority of the narratives can be seen as verbal approximations of the pictures, the p i c t o r i a l mode i s never imposed upon a l i t e r a r y work without regard for what i s being expressed: invariably, the decorative element constitutes a functional, i n t e g r a l part of the whole, not i n c o n f l i c t with but complementing and enhancing the narrative idea. The reader i s almost always "put into the p i c t u r e , " as i t were, at the very opening of the story: Gtltersloh 1 06 introduces a character, theme or object around which the plot revolves within the f i r s t few sentences, and generally f i n i s h e s by returning to that o r i g i n a l f o c a l point, thereby giving the outline of the story quite i n c i s i v e compositional l i n e s . "Cave Veritatem" 4 4 s t a r t s i n medias res: "Sie hatten miteinander g e s t r i t t e n . Zum soundsovielten Mai. Der Mann und die Frau." The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n at the end i s not between the o r i g i n a l couple but by another one profoundly affected by the s i t u a t i o n between the f i r s t . They could almost stand as a l t e r egos, e s p e c i a l l y since a l l four remain nameless. The basic theme (marital harmony/disharmony) which i s stated at the story's opening and constitutes i t s denouement, as well as the protagonists' "entries" and "e x i t s " results i n a pe r f e c t l y constructed symmetry, acting as a frame for the narrative composition. 4 5 "Das GestSndnis" has the same design: the theme of marital discord and the nameless protagonist open and close the story. In "Der sentimentale junge Mann" the lovers are 46 again nameless; the thematic content, i . e . , a problematic love r e l a t i o n s h i p , i s established in the opening paragraph: "Er sagte zur Geliebten: 'Ich w i l l dich immer haben. Du s o l l s t mich immer wollen. Wir mttssen zueinander kommen.' Er meinte die Trennung von ihrem jetzigen Mann." The story might have had a number of possible endings: Gtltersloh, 1 07 aware of compositional balance, chooses the " t i d y " ending--the separation of the lovers. The main characters i n "Die H e i m k e h r e r , h a v i n g spent many years i n the wide-open spaces of America, return to the i r small native v i l l a g e , i n a "l&cherlich kleinem Zug." At the very end, not having found the welcome they had been looking f o r , they depart for t h e i r new.homeland, the l a s t scene depicting them "auf hoher See." This " r i n g " -composition Gtltersloh also uses for "Die innere Stimme auf dem Dorfe," where the protagonist as well as a potential c o n f l i c t are introduced in the opening sentence: "Seit Wochen quSlte Herrn Evarist Thorn, Ortskr&mer und Organist, ein ungewtthnlicher Gedanke." The r e a l i z a t i o n that his occupation as organist was not of his own choosing but came about by chance--namely through the death of his father and an accident which no longer allowed his predecessor to function as the v i l l a g e o r g a n i s t — r e s u l t s i n Evarist Thorn's "unusual" thought: would he have attended church regularly for over t h i r t y years i f his occupation had not made i t mandatory? The dilemma i s resolved through the minister's "staging" of what appears to be divine intervention, the irony being that the continuation of Thorn's position i s s t i l l not his own choice. 1 0 8 The immediacy--rather than narrative retardation by such means as digression, for example, of leading into the story more gradually--of Gutersloh's approach also applies to "Die Selbstlosen": "Gestern, am fruhen Morgen, hatte man 4 8 die braune Regine, Magd des Postmeisters, verhaftet." Within the f i r s t seven sentences the theme of the story, i . e . , the betrayal of Regine as the murderess of her own c h i l d , i s c l e a r l y stated; i n the l a s t seven sentences, Gtltersloh presents the resolution: the murder of the betrayer. Further examples of precise delineation are "Ein 4 9 I d i o t , " or "Osterreichisches Erlebnis," as well as "Der General." In the l a s t story, the ominous opening sentences c l e a r l y foreshadow death and the funeral with which the story ends: "Der Zeiger der Uhr rtlckte auf zwfllf. A l l e n war, als sei diese htichste Stunde des Tages das Haupt eines Delinquenten, welches i n wenigen Minuten f a l l e n s o l i . " Gutersloh's p r e d i l e c t i o n for the kind of meticulous delineation which he demonstrates i n the painted miniatures has i t s most representative verbal counterpart i n such 5 0 s t o r i e s as "Der tanzende B a l l , " where the object or f o c a l point, i . e . , the b a l l , i s introduced not only within the opening paragraph but i s the l a s t word of the story as well. Here and elsewhere, the very t i d i n e s s of the s t o r i e s ' delineation bears v i v i d testimony to Gutersloh's p i c t o r i a l imagination. 1 09 2. Figures, Themes, and Point of View The reader now proceeds to the second stage of l i t e r a r y perception: a recognition or appreciation of what i s i n the "foreground" of the f i c t i o n a l miniature, i . e . , a figure--or c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f i g u r e s — o r an object. In his depiction of figures Gtltersloh uses the p i c t o r i a l mode almost exclusively, to the point where they are v i r t u a l l y one-dimensional; the writer i s seldom i n c l i n e d to delve below the surface of pure description. Yet the dictates of l i t e r a t u r e make a ce r t a i n degree of psychological p o r t r a i t u r e mandatory: hence the "psychological p r o f i l e " of the s t o r i e s ' protagonists i s presented to the reader through Gtltersloh's use of Fantastic Realism, as w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The figures i n many of the stories seem to be alienated from t h e i r environment or the setting in which the writer has placed them. In her study of Sonne und Mond, Ltldtke comes to the conclusion that i t s characters lack any real connection with t h e i r surroundings: " . . . [sie] Mussern sich selten zu ihrer Umwelt, gehen nicht darin auf" ( 1 2 3 ) . This would seem to apply to some of the stories as well; but since the l i m i t i n g scope of the short f i c t i o n genre necessitates a much tigh t e r interpenetration of settings and characters, these two narrative components i n most of the 1 1 0 s t o r i e s are r e l a t i v e l y well balanced. Yet i n several cases characters seem placed in t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l settings almost at random, without exhibiting a tangible connection with t h e i r environment. This, however, does not mean that they are l i f e l e s s puppets. In a review of the c o l l e c t i o n Die Fabeln vom Eros, Laurenz Wieden states: Die Menschen dieser Dichtungen werden nicht durch reale Schilderungen p l a s t i s c h , sondern durch die rtintgenhafte Einsicht des Autors. . . . Seine Figuren scheinen aus Glas sein und wirken dennoch absolut lebendig. The author's "x-ray v i s i o n " i s expressed through the creation of f a n t a s t i c images i n connection with a s p e c i f i c character (see section on Fantastic Realism, Chapter Two), thereby giving i t greater psychological p l a u s i b i l i t y . Yet th i s " v i t a l i t y " Wieden ascribes to the figures usually remains that of purely f i c t i o n a l characters which are presented in a " t h e a t r i c a l " manner. What Alfred Schmeller ( l i k e Heribert Hutter) considers t y p i c a l for the painted miniatures can be said to apply to the f i c t i o n a l miniatures as well, namely that the figures seem to "turn" to the viewer as to an audience watching a play; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to 5 2 v i s u a l i z e them i n a completely r e a l i s t i c s e tting. Bulwer, Stone and Webster i n "Lasst uns den Menschen machen" do not "belong" i n A f r i c a ; as white hunters--or, i n Webster's case, as c o l o n i a l administrator--they appear as 111 temporary usurpers who r e l a t e to t h e i r surroundings only in terms of t h e i r circumscribed professional function or duty which could be exercised on another continent as well. The story, however, constitutes anything but a t r e a t i s e on s o c i a l inequality; rather, both the natives (". . . sie waren schon getauft und daher nicht mehr so schwarzen Verstandes wie die Ungetauften . . . " Menschen, 19) and the three Englishmen emerge as stereotypes, Gtitersloh's personal 5 3 disdain for the l a t t e r being very much i n evidence. There i s very l i t t l e evidence of e x p l i c i t p i c t o r i a l i s m i n t h i s story; i t s philosophical premise resulted in a c e r t a i n discursiveness on the part of the writer, with very l i t t l e " l i n g e r i n g " over one or the other image. The two protagonists i n "Die Heimkehrer" are no longer in touch with t h e i r environment, v i s i t i n g Europe for the f i r s t time a f t e r many years i n the United States. There i s no sentimental recognition or appreciation of t h e i r native v i l l a g e . Both have become aliens i n a now a l i e n environment, a predicament which extends to the language as well: "ihre englische Unterlippe e n t s t e l l t e die deutschen Laute" (Fabeln, 26). The fact that Christian and Lorenz have turned into i d i o s y n c r a t i c old bachelors adds to the 54 general "tone" of a l i e n a t i o n . The story opens with a d i s t i n c t l y p i c t o r i a l scene: the two men are standing on the platform of the st a t i o n , deciphering the name of the small 1 1 2 v i l l a g e while the t r a i n disappears slowly around the corner and into the distance. The physical appearance of Christian and Lorenz i s of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e to the story, yet Gutersloh "paints" them very meticulously in the second sentence: both are wearing loosely cut suits with wide shoulders, c o l o u r f u l s h i r t s and straw hats; both have sparse blond hair, and blue eyes. Gutersloh devotes a b r i e f passage to the actual walk from the station to t h e i r respective destinations before he once again presents an e x p l i c i t picture: i n his mother's house, Chr i s t i a n i s confronted by his former betrothed who i s unkempt, pregnant, and abusive. In the back of the dark room, portrayed less v i v i d l y than the woman ("graue Geschtipfe," 28), Ch r i s t i a n observes the woman's children: Im Hintergrunde spielten ungesttirt d r e i schmutzige Kinder von etwa sechs bis zwttlf Jahren, widereinander maulend, ein gegen-standsloses Spiel auf dem leeren Fussboden, und aus einer Wiege greinte mit den zackigen Bewegungen jungsten Alters e in v i e r t e s (28). Lorenz' encounter with his former mistress i s somewhat less p i c t o r i a l ; t h e i r loving reunion, the introduction of his c h i l d whom he sees for the f i r s t time seems to have been less of a challenge for the painter than i t was for the writer. There i s no self-contained "picture" describing the scene, but rather a straight forward account of what 1 1 3 transpires. As w i l l be pointed out l a t e r : the next two "scenes" are also extremely graphic, and the story ends with a v i v i d picture. Most of Gfitersloh's characters, however, are completely integrated with t h e i r environment. V i k t o r i a , i n the story of the same t i t l e , i s a product of the r e s t r i c t i v e society in which she l i v e s , her l i f e being determined by the mores of her s o c i a l c l a s s . Despite t h e i r confining and s t i f l i n g nature V i k t o r i a has managed, by the end of the story, to adapt herself to and become an i n t e g r a l part of her environment. The figures i n "Das vergebliche Mahl," or "Ein Id i o t " undergo a s i m i l a r process of integration. Yet the characters' frequently f l a t , one-dimensional portrayal further suggests a close alignment with the painted miniatures: i t i s up to the reader/viewer's imagination to provide a second dimension, the d e t a i l s that are lacking to make the figure into a f u l l y rounded character. In many of the s t o r i e s (e.g. "Das i s t Liebe,""or "Der Erbe," and 55 "Osterreichisches Tagebuchblatt") they appear as objects within t h e i r landscape or i n t e r i o r s e t t i n g , rather than as c a r e f u l l y drawn characters. Very few of them are "fleshed out"; they remain rather sketchy; f u l l y one t h i r d are nameless types rather than ind i v i d u a l s , which adds to the "surface" quality of t h e i r depiction. This impression i s heightened by the fact that, generally speaking, there i s 1 1 4 l i t t l e attempt made to delineate psychological states. This compositional p e c u l i a r i t y , i . e . , the prevalence of archetypes over f u l l y developed in d i v i d u a l s , Rieser has also touched upon b r i e f l y in connection with the novels: "Seelische Vorg&nge werden von aussen, Figuren als Objekte, nach ihrer 56 Erscheinung und Wirkung, betrachtet" (261). Lacking the basic i d e n t i t y of a s p e c i f i c name, the figures are often depicted merely in terms of t h e i r occupation or st a t i o n i n 57 l i f e (e.g. peasant, a r i s t o c r a t , a r t i s t , e t c . ) . With few exceptions the protagonists are male; women are usually cast i n secondary, supportive roles, defined i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship to men, i . e . , as s i s t e r ("Der Erbe"), daughter ("Der General," or "Der Henker"), mother ("Der Erbe") and, more frequently, wife or mistress (e.g. "Cave Veritatem," or "Der sentimentale junge Mann"). Both Ltldtke and Thurner make a strong claim for Otto Weininger 1 s influence on Gtltersloh as 5 8 far as his portrayal of women i n the novels i s concerned; female figures i n the s t o r i e s are drawn i n the same manner as those i n the novels, hence t h e i r claim can stand as accurate. Whereas nearly a l l primary male figures are endowed with a cert a i n measure of "native" i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h i s 59 appears to be seen as undesirable i n women; where t h i s attribute does seem necessary--as i n the character of Euandria, or V i k t o r i a - - i t i s t r i v i a l i z e d by the i r o n i c 1 1 5 attitude the narrator/author invariably adopts. His i s a generally one-sided view of women as i n s t i n c t u a l , sensual beings, " . . . von ihrer Triebhaf t i g k e i t bedingt" (Ltldtke, 133), and largely incapable of the kind of l o g i c a l reasoning Gutersloh ascribes to men: Wie W c l r ' s also, wenn wir ftlr des Weibes Kopf des Weibes Schoss setzten? Wenn wir zu begreifen versuchten, dass die Weiber nicht, wie wir Manner, von oben nach unten denken, sondern von unten nach oben? Auf ihre Art so logisch wie auf die unsere wir? ( E r d t e i l , 234) . The portrayal of wives and mistresses, generally speaking, i s far less complex than that of daughters and s i s t e r s . In "Der Brief aus Amerika," O t t i l i e i s depicted as ruled by her i n s t i n c t s rather than i n t e l l e c t when dealing with the a r r i v a l of her brother's l e t t e r : Wie der sMufer seine Flasche, versorgte s ie ihre Angelegenheit mit dem Amerikaner. Und ihre Ztlge schwangen sich aus dem Leeren zu einer wahren Artistengruppe von Intelligenz zusammen. Um i n der zweiten Sekunde abzu-sttlrzen und auf dem Grunde der Manege einen blBdsinnigen Brei von ratloser Sorge, von hennenhafter Brutbenommenheit zu bilden (Silberboot, 61). A sim i l a r passage describes Giannina's " i n t e r i o r landscape" i n "Der Erbe": Die Flammen der kleinen Holle, die nur einige Meter unter dem gemeinen Strassenpflaster des Bewusstseins l i e g t , schlugen i h r wieder bis 1 1 6 zum Ohr. Diesmal aber e r g r i f f e n die Flammen auch den Verstand: und i n diesem Dach-geschosse die wenigen und Srmlichen Habselig-keiten einer weiblichen Ratio, die auch hoch oben mehr trMumen als wachen, daher mit den im dunklen Keller der Person vergrabenen SchStzen oder Scheusslichkeiten verwandter sind a ls mit den bis zu vernunftigen Wahnvor-stellungen abstrahierten, immer noch mehr praktischen a ls w i r k l i c h kostbaren, oder kostbar wirklichen, Mtibeln a l l e r Zwischen-stocke (Fabeln, 123). Giannina functions only i n r e l a t i o n to her brother, mother, and uncle; O t t i l i e , completely dominated by her father, i s without self-determination at the age of t h i r t y - f i v e , locked into her parental prison without reprieve. Berthe in "Der General" i s a si m i l a r figure whose death constitutes the only escape from her father's m i l i t a r y s t r i c t n e s s . Mothers are also viewed through the eyes of a mysogynist--or so i t seems: they are always depicted as secondary, largely unsympathetic figures. Yet the range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s extraordinary: from ridiculous ("Der Erbe"), to sen i l e ("Der Brief aus Amerika"), to murderous ("Adonis" and "Die Selbstlosen"). In "Die Selbstlosen," the unwed mother who k i l l s her infant i s described only as "die braune Regine, Magd des Postmeisters" (Continuum, 105); the lack of de s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l , the fact that Regine displays no remorse for her crime, and the gruesome--if somewhat obvious--burial s i t e (a dung heap) make the murder appear 1 1 7 p a r t i c u l a r l y horrendous. This i s a story i n almost Natu r a l i s t s t y l e , but without the sympathy displayed as, for example, by Gerhard Hauptmann for his character Rose Bernd. It i s only i n "Das. vergebliche Mahl" that Gtltersloh's attitude seems to be less negative: despite the fa c t that she commits suicide together with her young children, the mother i s portrayed as an admirable and strong i n d i v i d u a l : Des Mannes Auge hing mit unendlicher Bewunderung an dieser Frau. Sie erschien ihm so gross und stark, ein unfehlbarer Engel, dem man sich ruhig anvertrauen konnte (Gewaltig, 108). A phrase from a paragraph under the heading "Mutter," published i n Der innere E r d t e i l , i l l u s t r a t e s the writer's deeply ambivalent f e e l i n g s , the d i f f i c u l t y of recon c i l i n g h i s h o s t i l i t y and the notion of women as b a s i c a l l y i n f e r i o r to men, with the obvious fact of women as l i f e - g i v e r s : Den rStselhaften Tatbestand . . . dass ich niemanden schmerzlicher misse a l s s i e , die ich verunehrt, verlassen und nicht vermisst habe: kann die grttsste Intelligenz ihn erklMren? Kann sie erklSren, warum der Einsicht zu Trotz in die Nicntigkeit a l l e r weiblichen Wesen dieses eine weibliche Wesegg ausgenommen wird von dieser Einsicht? (161) 118 Ultimately, however, most of the characters--female as well as male--are depicted as one-dimensional figures within an exterior or i n t e r i o r setting, figures who are "seen" to react to a given s i t u a t i o n rather than give an "account" of the reasons behind t h e i r reaction. The onus i s on the reader to construct, from these v i s u a l clues, the psychological make-up of each character. The figure of O t t i l i e ("Der Brief aus Amerika"), for example, who can be considered as one of the more f u l l y developed characters in the s t o r i e s , comes to l i f e primarily through t h i s method of "presenting" by v i s u a l means: Als s ie hinkniete - ohne aber zu vergessen, den alten Bademantel, der da k l a f f t e , uber der Brust zusammenzuziehen - und, s t a t t die Lage des Briefs zu Sndern, den Kopf verdrehte, urn die Anschrift zu lesen, bemerkte sie die amerikanische Marke. Sie sank auf die Fersen zuruck, als s e i zumindest die halbe Seele i h r entfahren. . . (Silberboot, 5 9 ) . Invariably, the creation—whether s u p e r f i c i a l or complex—of a s p e c i f i c type or personality comes about less through such narrative means as i n t e r n a l monologue, dialogue, or succint pointers given by the author as to psychological states; i t i s primarily the "external" representation, the o b j e c t i f i -cation of each figure which e f f e c t s a p a r t i c u l a r response and assessment of each character on the part of the reader. 1 1 9 The only female character i n "Die Menschenfreunde," introduced as "eine cfltliche N&hterin," i s given l i f e - -i f not substance--in the t h i r d paragraph of the story: Nun war wider einmal Weihnachten gekommen, und . . . das Fr&ulein [sass] am gewohnten Platze i n seiner Dachstube. Aber s t a t t des Linnenstticks hatte es einen Kuchenteller auf dem Schosse. WeitgeiJffneten tr&umenden Auges ass es von der selbstgespendeten Gabe, die seine feiernden Finger altmodisch z i e r l i c h , aber auch schon ein wenig greisenhaft ungelenk, zerbrtfckelten (Wort i n der Zeit, 7 ) . It could be argued that t h i s i s a l l the information the reader's imagination requires i n order to construct the l i f e of the seamstress i n broader d e t a i l , since the writer found i t unnecessary to elaborate further. As has been mentioned e a r l i e r , the r e l a t i v e l y narrow scope of any short narrative must be kept i n mind as well, since i t determines the extent to which any writer can a f f o r d to devote space to character development and embellishment. In Gtltersloh's case, however, the i n i t i a l "presentation" as well as embellishments are usually and primarily p i c t o r i a l , even where the length of a s p e c i f i c story (e.g. "Der Erbe") might have permitted greater elaboration through more "conventional" means. But whether the writer would consider t h i s to be largely superfluous because of the secondary nature of the character (e.g. the seamstress), or might not be i n c l i n e d to elaborate even when the importance of a 1 20 character would seem to warrant such treatment: the "picture" which emerges i s always intensely and sharply focused. It i s here that Gtltersloh's much-cited dictum "Die Tiefe i s t aussen" (Sonne und Mond, 365) is p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable. It might appear to be a foregone conclusion that a r t i s t figures i n the s t o r i e s are treated i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y vigorous p i c t o r i a l manner. This, however, i s not the case; there are only two stories in which the main figure i s a painter, and while one depiction i s s l i g h t l y more graphic than the other, neither of them i s more pronounced than the portrayal of non-artist figures. The protagonist i n "Eine Malergeschichte" remains nameless; he i s almost overshadowed by the narrator which i s largely due to his use of the " p l u r a l i s majestatis" convention, and the discursive manner in which the text i s handled. As i t i s , the term "plot" i s barely applicable: the narrator introduces a young painter who thinks of himself as a genius; already the second paragraph leaves no doubt that he i s suffering from a delusion: Unser Freund besass nicht das mindeste Talent, jedoch . . . den festesten Glauben, er h&tte sogar Genie. Wir l i e s s e n ihn bei diesem Glauben, weil der Unwert seiner Hervorbringungen zu o f f e n s i c h t l i c h war, um ein ernsthaftes Dafdr oder Dawieder zu rechtfertigen, und weil die GriJsse des 1 21 Opfers, das er seinem Wahne brachte, uns die t i e f s t e und wehmutigste Achtung abnfltigte. After many years the narrator--who i s either a painter himself or an a r t h i s t o r i a n , since he mentions a commission for an a r t i c l e on Breughel—returns to the c i t y (presumably Vienna), and meets the painter quite by chance: he now makes his l i v i n g as an attendant i n the National Gallery. Invited to his humble studio to view his l a t e s t creations, the narrator r e a l i z e s that his fri e n d i s s t i l l without a trace of talent; he decides to r e f r a i n from c r i t i c i s m or other comment before taking his leave: Wir blieben also stumm. Er ubrigens b l i e b auch erzern s t a r r . Nein, nicht erzern, sondern wie ausgestopft stehend i n dem andern Museum, dem naturhistorischen, neben weiber-raubenden G o r i l l a und t i e f unten lMmmer-spShenden Andenadler, das Glanzlicht auf dem Auge, nur weniger glSsern und daher unheimlicher. Wir schlugen unseren Kragen hoch und g r i f f e n nach dem Stock. Der Freund b l i e b weiter stumm und lebendig ohne jedes Zeichen von Leben. The author's silence i s a f i n a l act of charity, but also stems from his only s l i g h t l y disguised f e e l i n g of reverence for his friend's delusion: "Wir gingen rasch aus dem Raume und sogar auf den Zehenspitzen die vi e l e n Treppen hinab." Gutersloh's s t y l e here i s far more discursive than i n most of the other f i c t i o n a l miniatures, his views are expressed i n the rather c r y p t i c fashion and excessively 1 22 convoluted syntax which i s symptomatic of the writer i n his novels and e s s a y i s t i c works; for example: Wir, die wir nur fiir ein hartes Gesetz erachtet hatten, dem man besser g l e i c h sich unterwirft, um nicht spMter, 'und zu v i e l grausameren Bedingungen, von ihm unterworfen zu werden, n&mlich, den Spuren der Wahrheit zu folgen mit dem wahrhaft insektischen Instinkte der mehr uns lenkenden als von uns gelenkten Feder, ftir ein Gesetz also, das durch Verzichte und nicht durch Erwerbe e r f U l l t wird, und dem gegenwMrtigen Geschlechte wegen der Ungenauigkeiten des vorangegangenen auferlegt worden i s t , wir haben nicht fUr mfc>glich gehalten, dass diese Wahrheit, der wir doch nur als Resignierende nachgegangen sind, wie die Gebrochenen dem Kreuze, und nicht auf FreiersfUssen, eines pliJtzlichen Tages dem innersten Gekrt>se unseres Fatums entschleudert werden wtirde, unter denselben lautlosen Donnern und nur uns sichtbaren B l i t z e n wie das VisionSrinnen-a n t l i t z des uns zubestimmten Weibes mit dem noch von Gott her glitzernden Ausdruck weggezeugten Lebens. These and similar verbal excesses leave l i t t l e room for p i c t o r i a l i s m , and also i n h i b i t the natural flow of the narrative. In addition, they might very well account for the reluctance of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s to either take Gtltersloh seriously as a writer of f i c t i o n , or--_if one takes him seriously--to spend the time and e f f o r t required to dig through what i s undoubtedly some of the most densely written German prose of t h i s century. "Die Fabel von der Malerei," i n comparison, has far fewer digressions and exhibits far greater emphasis on 1 23 p i c t o r i a l i s m . The plot i s r e l a t i v e l y simple: a young painter, i n his study, awaits the a r r i v a l of his mistress who i s unaccountably l a t e . The doorbell rings; opening the door, he finds--instead of the expected Melitta--an old woman, "gelb vor Hunger," and i n tears. He admits the stranger, and proceeds to paint her. After more than two hours the painting i s completed; when the a r t i s t asks for her name, the woman r e p l i e s that she i s the muse of painting ("die Malerei"). This i s the most a l l e g o r i c a l of a l l the s t o r i e s , although Gutersloh does not always point' d i r e c t l y to allegory--or symbolism--as he does i n the case of the old woman. Me l i t t a stands for l i f e i t s e l f , ". . . gross, schlank, schfin, ernst, eine wahre Zypresse des Lebens." At the same time her existence i n the l i f e of the painter lacks substance, as does his own l i f e : "Die Geliebte. Ein Wesen, das e i g e n t l i c h gar nicht da i s t , oder gegen a l l e Wahrscheinlichkeit dieser h S s s l i c h e n Welt da i s t . " His jealousy of an imagined r i v a l underlines the problematic nature of l i f e , a l i f e he attempts to escape by losing himself i n his a r t , however unsuccessfully: "Der Stachel der Eifersucht nahte seinem Herzen. Er v e r l i e s s die kunstvolle Wirklichkeit des St i l l e b e n s , welche p l t i t z l i c h keinen Sinn mehr hatte." Distraught by his strong emotion, his reaction to hearing the b e l l i s quite extreme: 1 24 Er stilrzte zur Ttir, wie ein Scheit schief durch den Raum f l i e g t . Draussen stand ein alte s Weib. Das war z u v i e l . Er sank sanft an den Tilrpf osten. Bleich vor enttSuschter Liebe, die Hand auf dem Herzen. Die Augen f i e l e n ihm zu. When he opens his eyes, he perceives the old woman, ". . . a n die Wand gedrilckt von seiner, des Malers, unbeherrschten, m&chtigen Empfindung." Instantly, his perceptions are exclusively those of a painter, re g i s t e r i n g the looks and appearance of the woman down to the smallest detail--even the tears running down her cheeks--with almost c l i n i c a l detachment: . . . der Jiingling betrachtete mit grausam kaltem Staunen (das aber die Kehrseite einer feurigen Bewunderung fiir den Schttpfer a l l e r Dinge i s t ) den seltsamen Weg, den TrMnen tibers Gesicht einer Greisin nehmen. Ganz und gar nicht so wie ilber das gla t t e A n t l i t z eines zu Hoffnungen noch berechtigten Menschen rannen sie herab, senkrecht und schnell, gesunder Regen eines a l l z u heissen Tages. Nein, kreuz und quer, langsam und ziJgernd, j a innehaltend hie und da, und fiber legend am Schnittpunkte zweier Furchen, durch welche der verrunzelten Schluchten s i e r o l l e n s o l l t e n , stiegen, j a stiegen sie wie Schwerbeladene v o r s i c h t i g zu T a l . Painting the woman becomes a reaffirmation of f a i t h , a f a i t h i n the supremacy of art over l i f e ; using his brush i s to the a r t i s t a r i t u a l i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s celebration: . . . j e t z t vielmehr hatte er schon die erst fiir morgen gerichtete Palette e r g r i f f e n , die sauberen Pinsel und, i n einer so vollkommenen S t i l l e as sie 1 25 herrscht, wenn der Priester das Evangelium aufschlMgt und die Gemeinde sich erhebt, die Leinwand aufgerichtet. . . . As the painting takes shape, a "new world" i s created: Eine andere, aber nicht weniger schttne Welt, denn jene, darin er und Meli t t a , einander liebend, lebten, erbaute sich aus und tiber dem Komposthaufen eines alten Weibes. After the painting's completion, the ascendancy of art over l i f e seems to be firmly established: Und so z e r f i e l unter den P i n s e l - und Hammer-schlSgen des malenden Genius diese wirkliche Welt, in der eine Melitta zu spSt kommt. Z e r f i e l mit dieser Welt auch M e l i t t a , die fur unsterblich und unv e r l e t z l i c h gehaltene GBttin der qualvollen Lust und der l u s t v o l l e n Qual. Und z e r f i e l auch das al t e Weib, diese erloschene Sonne, die z u f & l l i g einen feurigen Weg gekreuzt hat und zu neuen Sternen auseinandergeflogen i s t . The f i n a l paragraph of the story contains not only the solution to the "mystery" of the old woman, but presents th i s solution i n a very p i c t o r i a l form: "Ich," sagte das armselige Mutterchen und legte einen gichtigen Finger an die Lippen. "Ich - ich bin die Malerei1" Und sprang wie eine magere Ziege z i e r l i c h i n hBckerigen Sprungen die Steine der Treppe hinab. Inasmuch as the co n s t e l l a t i o n of figures indicates the theme of any given story as well as the author's point of  view, the l a t t e r two aspects are combined here with the 1 26 former. I t i s recognized that theme and point of view are primarily l i t e r a r y components of a f i c t i o n a l work, although not exclusively; since Gtltersloh frequently handles them in a p i c t o r i a l manner, and since the aim of t h i s chapter i s a well-rounded investigation of the s t o r i e s , these components have been singled out for that purpose. This i s by no means an attempt to enter the continuing discussion of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m regarding a writer's point (or points) of view, but rather a demonstration of the variety of guises i n which Gtltersloh speaks to the reader. In essence, the following points of view can be i s o l a t e d : that of the omniscient author, author-cum-narrator, f i r s t person singular narrator, and that of the t h i r d person narrator who simply t e l l s a story; i n a number of the s t o r i e s the narrative perspective changes from one to the other. The t h i r d person narrator speaks most frequently, i . e . , i n s l i g h t l y more than half of the s t o r i e s . In most cases the narrative here flows smoothly, without the writer's d i r e c t intervention (asides, addressing the reader, etc.) in the action. In contrast, there i s the omniscient author who constantly i n t e r j e c t s , r e f l e c t s , and philosophizes, often using the " p l u r a l i s majestatis" convention. Such textual penetration, not linked to the action, i s Gtltersloh's preferred stance, although i t i s the broader scope of the novels (Sonne und Mond i n p a r t i c u l a r ) 1 2 7 which allowed him to perfect t h i s technique. The omniscient author's view i s substantially that of a man of the theatre who i s keenly aware of the t h e a t r i c a l i t y of a l l forms of human inte r a c t i o n (see section on Stage E f f e c t s ) . In a number of the stories the narrative perspective s h i f t s ; "Die Fabel von der Pythia" i s , perhaps, the most cogent example i n that i t begins with a female narrator, constantly interrupted by a (male) scribe whose reasoned and frequently i r o n i c commentary puts Pythia's t a l e into an altogether d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r juxta-position of two voices, the writer provides an almost impeccable example of verbal counterpoint--except for the fact that Euandria's language i s r e a l l y that of the writer. The convoluted syntax expressing complex thought patterns i s d i f f i c u l t to reconcile with the speech of a poorly educated Greek maiden. Three of the stories are t o l d in the f i r s t person singular; "Eine Malergeschichte" i s the only narrative which presents a narrator who also functions as one of the story's characters. Yet despite these perceptual modifications within one story as well as within the s t o r i e s c o l l e c t i v e l y , the p i c t o r i a l approach i s evident--if not to the same degree i n a l l of the proposed categories: as digressions and interruptions within the s t o r y - l i n e increase, so does the 1 28 v i s u a l element decrease. At least occasionally, the painter's perceptual acuity, the propensity for creating v i v i d images, i s displaced by the writer's fascination with abstract, non-descriptive aspects of language which re s u l t s in lengthy philosophic "asides." In these instances, word and picture are no longer cl o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t could be argued that thematic considerations are often n e g l i g i b l e as far as a painter i s concerned, that for him the emphasis on l i n e and colour i s predominant, espe c i a l l y in abstract painting. However, Gtltersloh's miniatures, purely representational paintings, do r e l y on theme to a considerable extent, as has been pointed out previously. What i s largely a l i t e r a r y device for the writer has been used here as a " s c a f f o l d , " so to speak, by the painter. There i s considerable thematic c o r r e l a t i o n between the painted and the l i t e r a r y miniatures, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the various manifestations of love. The s t o r i e s turn on f i v e major themes, revolving around love, death, war, family c o n f l i c t , and the configuration of a r t / a r t i s t . However, the dimensions of each theme are anything but circumscribed; rather, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of nuances i n each one--often within the same story--as well 6 2 as the overlapping of two or more themes i s considerable. 1 2 9 Gutersloh's exploration of the e r o t i c presents love i n i t s various guises: expectation ("Das i s t Liebe," "Die Heimkehrer"), loss ("Cave Veritatem," "Der sentimentale junge Mann"), reminiscence ("GesprSch im Wasser") a n d — l e s s f r e q u e n t l y - - f u l f i l l m e n t ("Viktoria"). F u l f i l l m e n t , however, never results i n the proverbial happy ending but rather i n a state of continuous anxiety, fear of losing the loved one ("Die EnttMuschung des Gatten"), agony over the acceptance of a r i v a l ("Das Gesta"ndnis") , or the pain and f r u s t r a t i o n of having to deal with a disapproving family ("Der Erbe"). Gutersloh appears fascinated by the i n f i n i t e and complex variations the topic of love o f f e r s , since i t i s the focus of more than half of the s t o r i e s . Several give the impression of the writer's own strongly emotional involve-ment (e.g. "Die EnttSuschung des Gatten"), a longing for some measure of i n t e l l e c t u a l and sensual equilibrium achievable through mutual love. This p a r t i c u l a r story would appear to have very pronounced biographic overtones: the couple's residence, professions and marital circumstances correspond to the facts of Gutersloh's l i f e at approximately the time the story was written. Yet by and large he adopts a rather cy n i c a l tone, as i s often the case when the theme of marriage--one of Gtltersloh's major a r t i s t i c preoccupations--is dealt with. In Die Rede tlber B l e i , for example, he comments on the inherent problematic nature of 1 3 0 marriage because of prevalent "jtldische Segenshoffnungen" 6 3 and "heidnische Opfervorstellungen" of the partners. Elsewhere he has commented on the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of meaningful and l a s t i n g love relationships, a perfect s p i r i t u a l and physical bond between two i n d i v i d u a l s : Ein gltickliches Liebes- oder Ehepaar biete t immer einen deplorablen Anblick: zwei nattirliche Feinde sitzen i n der Gartenlaube des Friedens und beirrtlhen s i c h unter schtinen Trctnen und seligem Augenaufschlag, ih r e r Natur nicht zu folgen und einander kein G i f t in die Maibowle zu schtitten; j a wahrhaftig, man kann, wag^die Liebe tut, nur negativ beschreiben. These negative--or at best ambiguous--feelings are c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the s t o r i e s ; at the same time, love i s generally viewed as e x i s t e n t i a l necessity, and as a potential solution to the predicament of l i f e . A l l of these stories are b u i l t around a f o c a l centre of the author's strong e t h i c a l convictions which may not be stated e x p l i c i t l y , but are nevertheless obvious. Many of them r e f l e c t a d e f i n i t e s o c i a l ("Ungeduldiger Scharfrichter") or h i s t o r i c a l ("Ein Held seiner Zeit") r e a l i t y , while others have more of a philosophical premise ("Lasst uns den Menschen machen"). It i s pr e c i s e l y i n these s t o r i e s that Gtltersloh achieves a harmonious balance between professional o b j e c t i v i t y and personal engagement. 1 31 Among others, Thurner has observed that the demise of the Habsburg monarchy constitutes one of Gtltersloh's central preoccupations (Thurner, 53); although one i s d i s i n c l i n e d to put too much weight on t h i s statement i n terms of h i s t o t a l oeuvre, i t i s the theme of several of the s t o r i e s (e.g. 65 "Ein osterreichisches Tagebuchblatt," or " V i k t o r i a " ) . Thurner's contradictory claim, on the other hand, that the writer had l i t t l e i nterest i n history, and that his general outlook was decidedly " a h i s t o r i s c h " (160-161), seems a generalization which i s unsupported.*^ Gutersloh's h i s t o r i c a l and/or p o l i t i c a l interests as voiced i n his f i c t i o n a l writings may not be extensive, or global, but do focus--at least o c c a s i o n a l l y — o n the European scene, and on 6 7 Austria i n p a r t i c u l a r . This i s rather more obvious in the novels (especially i n Sonne und Mond), but i s demonstrated in a number of the s t o r i e s as well, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n those where war i s p a r t of the t o p i c (e.g. "Ein O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e s 6 8 Tagebuchblatt," and " O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e s E r l e b n i s " ) . The l a t t e r , set i n 1866 during the war between Prussia and Austria, depicts the peaceful "confrontation" between an Austrian peasant and his son, and two Prussian s o l d i e r s . The rather humourous dialogue which makes up the greater part of the story revolves around the exigencies of war, love of one's country, and what i s conceived of by the writer as the disparate natures of Germans (in t h i s case Prussians) and 1 32 Austrians, who are seen as having .very l i t t l e i n common. Gtltersloh has commented on t h i s elsewhere, as for example i n a b r i e f a r t i c l e written before the annexation of Austria, where he speaks of Austrians as ". . . die wir--wie der Asket das Nagelhemd--die Zwangsjacke zu GemeingefUhl nur als U n t e r l e i b e r l tragen. . ." (Wiener Zeitung, 27. January 1934). While none of his l i t e r a r y works can be considered as statements r e f l e c t i n g f i e r c e patriotism, his a f f i n i t i e s nevertheless are quite obvious. At the same time, Gtltersloh's rather ambiguous feelings about the concept of "Heimat" are expressed with some vehemence i n Der innere  E r d t e i l , where he speaks of "Heimat" as . . . Erdenloch, daraus wir schltlpften! Erster E r b l i c k o r t des Himmelsl Erster E r b l i c k o r t des lieben NMchsten! Wo wir auch enden werden, wenn nicht mit dem dort gezeugten Leibe, so doch mit dem dort empfangenen Geiste! Ftlllhorn, i n dessen engster Enge man s c h l i e s s l i c h e r s t i c k t l Loch, durch das man i n die Unterwelt sinkt! Schwarz ausgeschlagenes Loch! (93) Family c o n f l i c t - - a p a r t from conjugal confrontations--usually revolving around the c o n s t e l l a t i o n father/son 69 ("Unterhaltung tiber einen Vater"), or father/daughter ("Der Brief aus Amerika," or "Der General") i s another frequently recurring theme, as i s that of legend ("Die Fabel vom Dilemma") or mythology i n modern garb, as in "Pan und die Dame," and " V i k t o r i a . " 1 33 Art, and the role of the a r t i s t i n society, are also part of the panorama of themes, either i n a modern ("Eine Malergeschichte") or a l l e g o r i c a l ("Die Fabel von der Malerei") framework. Elsewhere Gutersloh has written extensively about the special nature, the "mythical" character of the a r t i s t whom he c a l l s " . . . diesen ewigen 70 Nachfahren eines nie existent gewesenen Z e i t a l t e r s " who finds himself transported into another world through his art--as does the a r t i s t i n "Die Fabel von der Malerei": Anfangs n a t u r l i c h gait a l l e s nur metaphorisch. Dann aber . . . ltiste s i c h der Vergleich von seinem Gegenstande. Und so z e r f i e l unter den P i n s e l - und HammerschlSgen des malenden Genius diese wirkliche Welt. . . (Menschen, 278). Other thematic pursuits concentrate more on the world of ideas, and have as t h e i r point of departure some p h i l o -sophical premise--as for example the contention that an idea 71 can be stronger than r e a l i t y ("Quirinus"), or a b i b l i c a l point of reference, e.g. the Cain and Abel motif ("GesprSch im Wasser"). One of the stories might be seen as a parable ("Der tanzende B a l l " ) , set i n a r u r a l environment. Without r e f e r r i n g to the s t o r i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y , Heribert Hutter speaks of Gutersloh as " . . . der ins bauernschlaue Gewand der Naivit&t gehullte Humanist, der Parabeln erzHhlt, urn auch von denen verstanden zu werden, die seine eigentliche Sprache nicht sprechen" (Zeiten, 14). A parable usually 1 34 implies a moral, or a s p e c i f i c moral attitude on the part of the writer; but although he has been labeled "einer der 72 bemerkenswertesten ttsterreichischen Moralisten," and "eben 73 der grosse Moralist," Gtltersloh never appears to be moralizing. Nor can he be considered a t e l l e r of emotional t a l e s , thereby appealing to the reader's sentimentality. 74 The s t o r i e s are anything but "precious," but on the contrary r e l a t i v e l y unsentimental; their actions are constructed on a firm foundation of e t h i c a l precepts, with every evidence of a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l conscience. Thurner's claim that Gutersloh i s ". . . ohne festen Standpunkt Ssthetischer, s o z i a l e r , und moralischer Art" (32) would seem to be s u b s t a n t i a l l y without j u s t i f i c a t i o n . It i s quite conceivable that Gutersloh, i n his private l i f e , paid more than l i p - s e r v i c e to h i s b e l i e f s ; at least he seems to have f e l t j u s t i f i e d in commenting about another w r i t e r — q u i t e evidently Gerhard Hauptmann--in the most sarcastic manner: Ich wenigstens kenne Urheber von Armenleuten-geschichten, sogar den Hauptmann einer ganzen Heilsarmee von geruhrten Naturalisten, die bass erstaunt wHren, wollte man ihre V i l l e n am Mittelmeerstrand in Waisenh^user fur Hanneles umdenken (Wiener Zeitung, 8. December 1933). In the s t o r i e s , the writer's p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s s o c i a l issues (e.g., the death penalty i n "Der Henker," or poverty i n "Das vergebliche Mahl") constitutes part of the focus and 1 35 the many-layered conception of the narratives. But despite t h e i r often abstract or seemingly abstruse nature—which i s usually a question of s t y l e rather than thematic 75 p r e d i l e c t i o n — t h e s t o r i e s are devoid of pure esoterica either i n the choice of theme or i t s treatment; Gtltersloh's creative impulse did not lead to aesthetic escapism, purely and simply, either i n the short or longer f i c t i o n a l works. A discerning look at the s t o r i e s i n t h e i r entirety—whatever t h e i r topic, t r i v i a l or weighty—reveals an author who 76 seemingly hovers above the "abysses of l i f e , " who invariably views good fortune as well as calamity with humour, wit, and an occasional touch of subtle irony. Elsewhere the use of irony i s one of the more prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of his work, p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in Sonne und Mond, despite the fact that i n his non-fiction writings Gtltersloh often expresses an ambivalent attitude regarding 7 7 the uses of irony. In the s t o r i e s , the writer makes use of t h i s device less frequently (see section e n t i t l e d "The Interior Landscape"). 1 36 3. Setting Unlike the painted miniatures whose subject matter very often i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as to time and place, most of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures are portrayals of situations within an Austrian s e t t i n g . Even those locales which are less c l e a r l y depicted (e.g. i n "Der Brief aus Amerika," or "Der sentimentale junge Mann") could conceivably be Austrian; foreign or exotic settings, such as It a l y ("Das i s t Liebe," and "Der Erbe"), France ("Das-GestSndnis," and "Der General"), A f r i c a ("Lasst uns den Menschen machen"), and ancient Greece ("Die Fabel von der Pythia") are chosen only rarel y . In many of the sto r i e s the setting i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , providing a background only for the action, rather than a commentary, enhancement, or contrast; repeatedly, a s p e c i f i c urban background could remind one of Vienna or another European c i t y as .well. Occasionally the setting i s either obscure, or not i n evidence at a l l (e.g. "Die Fabel von der Malerei," or "Liebe - G e s p r M c h im 7 8 Tartarus"); quite obviously Gtltersloh f e l t that the action--or the topic--could exist without his providing a narrated backdrop. The s t o r i e s are almost equally divided into those with urban and r u r a l locales; there i s no p a r t i c u l a r preference 1 37 d i s c e r n i b l e . However, the p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n of the writer's material i s far more pronounced in the i n t e r i o r rather than exterior settings. The former are usually depicted i n i n t r i c a t e d e t a i l , and with almost photographic c l a r i t y . In some instances,, e.g. i n "Die Fabel von der Malerei" or "Gott spart nicht mit Zeichen," the action takes place on a v i r t u a l l y bare "stage"; usually, however, the decor of an i n t e r i o r setting i s of great importance to the writer. Ludtke mentions "Leblosigkeit und Unperstinlichkeit" (123) i n connection with the author's portrayal of landscape in Sonne und Mond; with few exceptions (e.g. "Oster-reichisches Erlebnis") these are prominent features of most of the s t o r i e s as well. Usually only the barest outline i s provided, as for example i n "Die Selbstlosen": Weil vor des Regensamers Behausung die schttnste Wiese des Hochwaldes sich b r e i t e t e , welche dann allmMhlich, ohne weiter einen Baum zu tragen, der die he r r l i c h e Weitsicht v e r s t e l l t hMtte, zu Tai s t i e g , so wollten hier die fttrstliche Familie und ihre SonntagsgMste den Kaffee nehmen. . . (Continuum, 107). The s t y l e i s rather a r t i f i c i a l , yet because of t h i s the image of the meadow assumes f a n t a s t i c - r e a l i s t i c proportions by becoming v i r t u a l l y transformed into a l i v i n g organism which "spreads" i t s e l f , " c a r r i e s " no trees, and "descends" to the v a l l e y . In t h i s case—and there are s i m i l a r ones— 1 38 Ltldtke's terms " l i f e l e s s " and "impersonal" have l i t t l e relevance to Gtltersloh's descriptions of nature. The setting i n "Das vergebliche Mahl" i s s i m i l a r l y lacking i n d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s ; what l i t t l e there i s again borders on Fantastic Realism, i f less so than i n "Die Selbstlosen": Die Kinder waren Holz stehlen gegangen i n den Wald. Unter ihren Jahren k l e i n und dank ihrer Armut fast nicht zu unterscheiden von dem erstorbenen Kleide der schneelosen Wintererde, hatten sie die l e i c h t e r e Aufgabe. Wenn der Fttrster kam, verbarg sie eine Wurzel. . . (Der innere E r d t e i l , 103). Here Gtltersloh makes e f f e c t i v e use of the s t a t i c and dark setting as a v e i l e d commentary on the action, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the second sentence which foreshadows the death of the children. The same foreboding atmosphere pervades the story "Adonis": Der Himmel war noch blau, trug aber schon den kahlen Vollmond dieser Jahreszeit, der die v i e l e n WasserlSufe des weithin gedehnten Landes frierenden Glanzes tlber die noch warme, nebelhauchende Erde hob. Aus den H&usern dort unten s c h a l l t e kein GerSusch, aus den Schornsteinen streckte sich kein Rauch, 7cjie Hunde selbst . . . kl&fften heute nicht. A c e r t a i n " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n " of the sky (wearing the moon l i k e a hat) points to Fantastic Realism once again; the complete absence of sound and movement gives the passage a 1 39 s t a t i c , p i c t o r i a l quality which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . An element of foreboding i s prevalent here as well, as i n "Das vergebliche Mahl," since the paragraph immediately precedes the murder of the young count. Even the exotic locale of Central A f r i c a does not act as a stimulus on the writer who never becomes a "landscape a r t i s t " : i n "Lasst uns den Menschen machen," no attempt i s made to delineate the s e t t i n g , or to provide more than a bare minimum of information to support the action of the story. Beyond the fact that the bizarre s t o r y - l i n e - -revolving around the "Heraushebung der bisher semianthropus barnensis genannten Affenart aus dem T i e r r e i c h e " (Menschen, 15)--demanded a cer t a i n geographic setting, Gtltersloh i s unconcerned with i t s s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n . In t h i s story, the i r o n i c e x p l i c a t i o n of h i s pseudo-philosophic premise ( i . e . , the anthropogenesis of a species of ape) has become the e s s e n t i a l focus, making the setting a s t r i c t l y peripheral component. In.this and other s t o r i e s , composition i n terms of a series of e s s e n t i a l l y self-contained "pictures" i s s t i l l predominant, and for each of these a s p e c i f i c setting i s usually worked out quite meticulously. However, to provide a minutely d e t a i l e d setting for each story as a whole i s of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e concern and significance to Gutersloh; 1 40 whether painting or writing, i t i s the smaller canvas which invariably receives the greatest attention. "Der Erbe" i s a case i n point, where a f t e r the introduction the f i r s t set of "pictures" i s that of three door openings i n which three figures are v i s i b l e . Gtltersloh describes each one of these "lebende B i l d e r " (Menschen, 61) in graphic d e t a i l . After some progression of the "plot"--of which there i s very l i t t l e - - G ( i t e r s l o h lingers over another picture, that of an actual painting and the room in which i t hangs. Here, as elsewhere, he continues i n t h i s manner, giving the d i s t i n c t impression that every so often the writer, intent on t e l l i n g his story, i s "pushed aside" by the painter who i s eager to simply portray, or show. That both "showing" and " t e l l i n g " are accomplished by words i s almost immaterial; i t i s the i n t e n s i t y of and a r t i s t i c i n s i ght behind the word-pictures and the extent and degree to which they appear i n the stories which c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h the painter's "collabora-t i o n " with the writer. 1 41 4. Colour While the use of colour i n the painted miniatures i s not an overwhelming f e a t u r e — i . e . , colours are r e l a t i v e l y subdued--it i s nevertheless a s i g n i f i c a n t component i n the o v e r a l l assessment of these paintings; the same can be said for the l i t e r a r y miniatures. Although colour, s t r i c t l y speaking, i s as much a compositional device as i s l i n e , or perspective, i t i s r e a l l y in a category by i t s e l f as f a r as the reader i s concerned s i n c e — u n l i k e the others — i t appeals to the senses to a far greater extent. As for the author, he i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the use of colour as a d i r e c t descriptive t o o l , but i s free to use language as a "colouring" device as well. Here, i t would seem, painting and l i t e r a t u r e are brought most c l o s e l y together. Jost Kirchgraber, i n a detailed examination of v i s u a l arts elements i n the works of Meyer, Rilke, and Hofmannsthal states the following: Was dem Dichter nun i n erster L i n i e aus der Malerei fur seine Sprache wichtig werden kann, i s t die Farbe. . . . Wer anstelle einer umstSndlichen Bestimmung einfagh eine Farbe nennt, spricht direkter. While i t would be absurd to suggest that Gtltersloh, for a narrative, would "simply" choose colour as the most f a c i l e means of depicting an object, i t i s quite obvious that 1 42 colour i s of importance to the writer. Heribert Hutter, for example, points to the analogy between the painted miniatures done i n 1967 and 1968--as i l l u s t r a t i o n s to the novel Die Fabel von der Freundschaft where colour has become more important than was previously the case--and the 81 l i t e r a r y works. There are approximately 260 colour 82 references, i n a l l , i n the stories discussed, or an average of eight i n each one. Needless to say that the l a s t s t a t i s t i c i s v i r t u a l l y i r r e l e v a n t ; but what i s of inte r e s t i s the fact that colours appear i n considerable density in some, and not at a l l i n other stories--which raises the basic question of how s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i f i c colour references actually are. Generally speaking, colour description i n a narrative can serve three basic purposes, the most standard being that of depicting a p a r t i c u l a r object more succinctly, as well as adding texture and animation. A s p a t i a l dimension, a sense of perspective, can be created as well, since colours have cer t a i n dynamic properties: while greens and blues "recede," reds and oranges "advance." Colour, then, i s used for the purpose of expression, of "demonstrating" the object or the setting with greater c l a r i t y , and as such i s part of the range of p i c t o r i a l devices used by Gtltersloh: i n the majority of the s t o r i e s , colour has a primarily expressive function. Primary colours dominate, i . e . , red, yellow, blue, 1 43 83 black and white, with black appearing most frequently (sixty-two times), followed--with diminishing frequency--by white, red, blue and yellow. Secondary colours are used less often, with the exception of green (fourteen times--an in d i c a t i o n , at the same time, of the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of nature i n the s t o r i e s ) , followed by brown, grey, and purple. Gtltersloh seems to prefer "true" colours: there are less than t h i r t y colour designations which are more elaborate, each one of them usually appearing only once, e.g. as "scharlachrot," " s i e g e l l a c k r o t , " "dtinngelb," "weissblattgrun," and "staubgrau." While the f i r s t and the l a s t are quite ordinary, the rest are coined by Gutersloh-, but do not assume any greater significance within the stories than the former. Descriptions of exterior settings are r e l a t i v e l y rare; the absence of precise contours i s prevalent. "Osterreichisches Erlebnis" with only six s p e c i f i c colour references represents the only example i n which a sense of distance and perspective i s created: Gutersloh describes the view from the farmer's house as one of h i l l s , a church tower, woods, " . . . [abgeschlossen] von einem blauen S t r i c h sehr ferner Berge" (Menschen, 7 ) . As has been pointed out before, i n t e r i o r settings are fa r more v i s u a l i n conception and execution. Usually, 1 44 colour i s used to depict an object quite r e a l i s t i c a l l y (e.g. in "Lasst uns den Menschen machen), such as "der schwarze Telegraphist" (Menschen, 13), "eine goldene Uhr" (18), or (in "Die Menschenfreunde") "roter Wein" (Wort i n der Zei t, 139), and "das Weiss des Linnens" (138). It i s i n the i s o l a t e d "pictures," however, where colour abounds: in the l a s t s t o r y - - i n which black predominates--every item in the room has a s p e c i f i c colour designation: "grauer Schlapphut," "silberner Kirchenleuchter," "ein gelber Schlafrock" (136), etc. In "Die Fabel von der Malerei" the use of colour i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g , recreating a sense of personal immediacy and involvement Gutersloh would have experienced as a painter: the painter "seeing" through the eyes of the protagonist--a painter as well--transforming the old woman into the a l l e g o r i c a l figure of "die Malerei": . . . nicht erst j e t z t also kam ihm zu Bewusstsein, dass hinter dem schwarzen, schSbigen Gewand des alten Weibes h e r r l i c h e Gruns standen, metallische Gruns aus der seichten Tiefe eines Tumpels. Dass auf dem lMcherlichen Pelzchen . . . Gold s t a r r t e in noch unbekannter Form. Dass die Haut von Melittas Ersatz dem F l e i s c h des konservierten Thunfisches g l i c h . . . und das a l t e Rot der f a l t i g e n , wollenen Strumpfe der breiten Blutschabracke auf dem Rucken jenes schwarzen S t i e r s . . . (Wiener Zeitung, 4). Several colours are i n t e n s i f i e d to produce a more v i v i d image, i . e . , m e t a l l i c green, and blood-red; the incongruous image of a face the colour of canned tuna might be seen as 1 45 an example of Fantastic Realism, as well as of the writer's desire to provide the most detailed description possible. The only colour references i n "Eine Malergeschichte" occur i n a " s t i l l l i f e " which i s placed precisely i n the middle of the story, thereby creating a strong sense of s t r u c t u r a l harmony: . . . ein von der Pressung im Fass gut durchgedrtlckter Btickling, . . . ein graues Ktlchentuch mit den rosa Hauchen einst roter S t r e i f e n , die Totenmaske Beethovens, staubig um die t i e f g e f a l l e n e n Lider und in den Ltichern der derben Nase, und die Studenten-kappe des Malergewordenen, olivgrdn, beschlungen mit den Farben Blau-Weiss-Gold, saubergebtirstet (Jahresring, 174). "Der Erbe," with t h i r t y - n i n e s p e c i f i c references, i s the most " c o l o u r f u l " of the s t o r i e s ; i t i s also the one with the greatest polychromatic range. Yet black predominates: figures are "gross, hager, schwarz" (Fabeln, 89). So i s clothing: the gondoliere brings Andrea's "schwarzseidenen Mantel," and at the same time "einen weisseidenen Schal" (89); the figure i n the painting wears on his wrist "ein schwarzes Sammetband, an dem eine ebenfalls schwarze Maske baumelte" (94). If the action were meant to take place i n the 1800's or e a r l i e r , t h i s persistent colour choice would seem appropriate as a r e a l i s t i c portrayal of period costuming. Since i t i s obvious, however, that the 1920's i s a more l i k e l y period, the choice s t r i k e s one as somewhat 1 46 incongruous. At the same time one becomes aware that i t i s one of the elements which contributes s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the effectiveness of the story as a whole, where the juxta-position of old and modern, of palaces i n which time seems to have stopped, of a goblet containing the "love potion" Andrea and Maurisette partake of, as opposed to the express t r a i n , motorboats and fashionable hatboxes, seems a deliberate compositional choice. The second consideration i s that of symbolism ascribed to colour, where i t i s used for the depiction of character, psychological moods, or c e r t a i n actions. Here the writer/ painter's concepts might contrast sharply with the reader/ viewer's learned and accepted frame of reference. Although ce r t a i n associations evoked by c e r t a i n colours would be v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l for individuals with the same c u l t u r a l reference points, the a r t i s t may very well have devised and adopted a "scheme" based e n t i r e l y on his own s e n s i b i l i t i e s . Northrop Frye points to colours as being "of d i f f e r e n t thematic i n t e n s i t i e s " (Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m , 85), mentioning Macbeth i n connection with red, the colour of blood; one may safely assume that the same association would automatically occur to Frye' s readers. Gtltersloh seems to have thought very l i t t l e of the symbolic properties of colour. He writes about Egon Schiele: 1 47 Da bekommen Farben p l t t t z l i c h eine Bedeutung: rot i s t Funktion, blau das Absterben einer rotierenden Bewegung, gelb konjunktivisch, negativ, s c h l i e s s l i c h der Merkpunkt fur Irrsinniges. So hat er sich Farbensteno-gramme wahllos zurechtgelegt und schleudert sie nun Uber die FlSche. . . . "Symbolismus" htire i c h sagen. In diesem Worte wurde schon zuviel t r a n s p i r i e r t . Man hSnge es f o r t aus der muffigen AtmosphMre des sogenannten Sprachschatzes und hinein i n die reinste Luft. As far as the short prose works are concerned there i s , indeed, very l i t t l e evidence that Gutersloh's point of view changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y during the following decades; there i s ce r t a i n l y no evidence of a personal "Sprachstenogramm" using colours. But there are two instances which r e f e r - - d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y - - t o the V i r g i n Mary, whose colours are t r a d i t i o n a l l y blue and red: i n "Die Selbstlosen," Myra, a r i s t o c r a t i c and v i r g i n a l , and Regine, "die braune Magd" and " f a l l e n woman" of the v i l l a g e are, l i t e r a l l y , at opposite ends of the colour, as well as s o c i a l , spectrum, Myra being described as ". . . die Unnahbare und Barmherzige, die s i e bereits mit der Wundergrotte, dem Heiligenschein und der blauen Sch&rpe der jungfrclulichen Himmelsmutter umgeben 8 5 hatten. . ." (Continuum, 110). The woman i n "Der sentimentale junge Mann" i s only i n d i r e c t l y linked to the Vir g i n Mary: i t i s as much i n the "sacred" colours blue and 1 48 red as i n the supplicant attitude of her lover (whom she i s about to leave) where the l i n k to the V i r g i n i s implied: Auf ihrem dunkelblauen Kleide l i e s s das Handtuch weisse FMden zurtlck. Er holte eine Btlrste und re i n i g t e demtltig das Kl e i d . . . . Sie zog ih r PuderschSchtelchen, wandte i h r Gesicht im Flaum der weissen Quaste hin und her, und fuhr mit einem roten S t i f t l e i c h t tlber die Lippen. . . (Die Fabel, 114). A Freudian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which might include the red l i p s t i c k as a p h a l l i c symbol would not be i l l o g i c a l , e ither, given Gtltersloh's frequent juxtaposition of the sacred and the profane i n the depiction of women. And i n the l i g h t of the a r t i s t ' s more d i r e c t expression of Freudian symbolism, such an interpretation would appear to be anything but f a r -fetched: for example, i n Sonne und Mond Benita, "die vornehme Dame," reaches for the "Miniaturphallus des Li p p e n s t i f t s " (156). What Kandinsky c a l l s "die psychische Wirkung" of colour (Uber das Geistige in der Kunst, 61) might d i f f e r considerably from one case to'the next: i f , for example, the colour red (usually associated with "extremes," i . e . , exuberant v i t a l i t y , or death) were used in a s i t u a t i o n where blue (denoting coolness, purity, and t r a n q u i l i t y ) would have been more "appropriate," the emotional reaction on the part of the viewer/reader would be quite d i f f e r e n t than i t would be i f red had been used in the " t r a d i t i o n a l " manner. 1 49 Theories about the d i f f e r e n t "properties" of colour have not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y since Goethe's formulations; the findings of Kandinsky and many of his contemporaries, as well as the studies of more modern theorists are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l — w h i c h does not mean, of course, that they are generally accepted by a l l a r t i s t s : the depiction of a blue horse, some decades ago, was a rather shocking departure from t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , but would not r a i s e an eyebrow today. Gtltersloh would seem to be among the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , at least i n t h i s respect. It follows that the o r i g i n a l a r t i s t i c technique of creating a mood through colour might e l i c i t a completely opposite response as far as the viewer/ reader i s concerned; at the same time i t must be recognized that stimulus as well as response are generally highly subjective, i f no less v a l i d for that reason. There are few instances where colour has been used to create mood i n parts of a story, or the story as a whole. In "Die Menschenfreunde," the emphasis on black at the very beginning might be seen as foreshadowing death, since the discovery of the body follows soon a f t e r . The phrase "Aber das Schloss b l i e b schwarz" (Wort i n der Zeit, 135) i s repeated twice within the next few sentences, i n t e n s i f y i n g the foreboding atmosphere. In several other s t o r i e s , (e.g. "Ein I d i o t " ) , the almost exclusive use of black sets the o v e r a l l gloomy tone, quite appropriate to the plot which 1 50 always revolves around death. Here, again, Gtltersloh's use of colour i s quite t r a d i t i o n a l . Gtltersloh's inimitable language has received a good 8 6 deal of c r i t i c a l attention, primarily his almost constant resort to metaphorical expression, his emphasis on imagery. Metaphors i n general have long been seen as colouring devices; here the writer uses language i n the same manner and for the same reason the painter uses colour. Hubert Fink speaks of Gtltersloh's "Vorliebe ftlr die grandiose 8 7 Metapher," and Werner Welzig points to the "reiche, wuchernde Bildersprache" i n connection with Sonne und 88 Mond. The same claims can be made for the short prose 8 9 works. Yet Gtltersloh himself appears dubious as to the ef f i c a c y of language as he reveals i n Die Rede tlber B l e i : Der geistreiche S c h r i f t s t e l l e r hadert mit der Erdgebundenheit der Sprache; und insoferne im verliehenen Wortschatze jegliches Erleben vorgezeichnet und abgegrenzt bereits e r l i e g t , hadert er mit dem Schicksale selbst, das ihn zu einem S c h r i f t s t e l l e r gemacht hat (102). I t i s quite evident, however, that the l i m i t a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n language did not prove to be a ba r r i e r to i t s p r o f i c i e n t 90 and imaginative usage by the writer. In the f i c t i o n a l miniatures as a whole, the combination of colour and metaphorical language creates a synthesis of great p i c t o r i a l 1 51 d e n s i t y , even though i n the m a j o r i t y of the s t o r i e s c o l o u r imagery p l a y s a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e t o m e t a p h o r i c a l d e p i c t i o n . A d j e c t i v a l " c o l o u r i n g " i s added f r e q u e n t l y to s p e c i f i c c o l o u r r e f e r e n c e s , as i n " E i n Held s e i n e r Z e i t " (Menschen, 40), where a p i c t u r e i s hung " i n armdickem, vergoldetem Gipsrahmen," and one of the c h a i r s i s d e s c r i b e d as " e i n schwarz p o l i e r t e r , g o t i s c h a u s g e s S g t e r K l a v i e r s c h e m e l . " G e n e r a l l y speaking, however, a d j e c t i v e s serve a p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n , i . e . , they d e s c r i b e the o b j e c t i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l ; where c o l o u r r e f e r e n c e s are completely absent ("Cave V e r i t a t e m , " or "Liebe - GesprMch im T a r t a r u s , " and " E i n ttsterreichisches T a g e b u c h b l a t t " ) , a d j e c t i v a l embellishment i s a l s o reduced to a bare minimum. A l l t h r e e s t o r i e s are extremely s h o r t , a f a c t which i n i t s e l f imposes c e r t a i n n a r r a t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n s . Here i t i s the w r i t e r ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with a s p e c i f i c theme, however, which a c t s as 91 a d e t e r r e n t from expansive and p i c t u r e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n , and reduces the p l o t t o a v e h i c l e f o r the author's thematic a b s o r p t i o n . I t i s through the use of metaphors t h a t G u t e r s l o h g i v e s f u l l r e i n t o h i s p i c t o r i a l i m a g i n a t i o n - - a p r a c t i c e which i s not unique t o t h i s w r i t e r . Reinhard Urbach, i n a review of the novel Die F a b e l von der F r e u n d s c h a f t , r e f e r s t o the 1 52 "transformation" of colour into language which i s t y p i c a l of Gtltersloh: Das Auge des Malers verwandelt die sichtbare Welt i n neue Farben und Formen; die Feder des S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s v o l l z i e h t diese neue Sehweise in Metaphern, Vergleichen, i n der komplizierten Grammatik des bildlogischen Denkens, das n^cht Assoziation i s t , sondern Konstruktion. Through one single metaphor, the c h i l d ' s fear of the Prussian s o l d i e r in "Osterreichisches Erlebnis" i s graphic-a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d ; ". . . mit einem Male aber sah i c h seine Hand, die i n dem dunkelbraunen Leder wie eine angeschlagene Pis t o l e drSute. . ." (Menschen, 8). The husband's stunned acceptance of his wife's i n f i d e l i t y and the "merry-go-round" aspect of his marital s i t u a t i o n i n "Das GestMndnis" are implied i n the following sentence: "Der sass wie im Holz-pferdesattel eines rasenden Karussels unbeweglich auf seinem Stuhle. . ." (Fabeln, 37). Here i t i s l e f t to the reader's imagination to "see" a l l the colours.of the spectrum fla s h i n g past. The rage of the drowning man ("GesprMch im Wasser") who i s unwilling to be rescued i s also synthesized i n one sentence, ". . . mit den Ftlssen schlug er den Schaum seiner Wut. . ." (Die gute neue Zeit, 120): for the imaginative reader colours emerge as well, i . e . , the blue and white of water and spray. 1 53 Metaphorical embellishments range from the somewhat contrived and t r i t e ". . . einen goldenen Schluck Abendsonne im Becher des Tages" ("GesprMch im Wasser," 119) to the more imaginative: " . . . hier und da sah er verkohlte Gerippe von DMchern, denen noch weisse WBlkchen entpafften" ("Die Fabel vom Dilemma," in Die Fabeln, 58). In the former — despite the t r i t e n e s s of the actual metaphor as s u c h — Gtltersloh's fascination with colour i s s t i l l evident, as i t i s i n the l a t t e r , i . e . , i n the juxtaposition of black and white. It can be concluded that c olour—used either i n terms of language (metaphors, etc.) or d i r e c t l y as a descriptive device — i s of some importance to the writer. Looking at other examples i n the s t o r i e s one reaches a further conclusion, namely that the more elaborate the metaphor, the more succinctly Gtltersloh's a f f i n i t i e s with the " f a n t a s t i c r e a l i s t s " become evident. The "Streben nach Ak r i b i e " mentioned by Johann Muschik as one of the most prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a n t a s t i c - r e a l i s t i c p a i n ting—and of 93 Gtltersloh's miniatures i n p a r t i c u l a r - - i s evident i n the f i c t i o n a l miniatures as well; as w i l l be demonstrated, Fantastic Realism provides a strong unifying l i n k between Gtltersloh's v i s u a l and l i t e r a r y works. 1 54 5. Framing As a framing device i n l i t e r a t u r e , the technique of i s o l a t i n g one part from the whole has been described as follows: Any scene or part of a scene may be consi-dered framed i f through v i s u a l imagery or description i t i s circumscribed and set apart from the rest of the narrative. Framing may serve various purposes: i t may integrate description with action or with characteriza-t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the scene i s presented through the consciousness of a character with a painter's eye; i t may convey with great p r e c i s i o n the p a r t i c u l a r tone of the setting or appearance of a character. Most important of a l l , i t may symbolize relationships and underline themes. Despite the fact that these c r i t e r i a do apply to Gtltersloh's f i c t i o n generally--they are e s p e c i a l l y evident i n Der Lugner  unter Btlrgern, and Sonne und Mond--and to the f i c t i o n a l miniatures s p e c i f i c a l l y , one might have some s l i g h t reservation regarding the "purposes" set out here, since more often than not i t seems, for Gtltersloh, to be a question mainly of describing, or "looking at," the object or the setting of a given story. The sheer enjoyment of "painting a p i c t u r e , " for his own and the reader's benefit and pleasure, would seem to be among his primary a r t i s t i c impulses. As he says elsewhere: "Unsere Methode i s t e i g e n t l i c h sehr einfach: wir malen ein B i l d , treten zurtlck, und erklSren es uns und den Leuten. . . . " Under the 1 55 heading of "Methode, unsere," Gtltersloh does not explain what kind of "picture" i s meant. Since the text i n question i s to be understood as a compendium to Sonne und Mond, i t 95 i s not u n l i k e l y that i t refers to a l i t e r a r y picture. Michael Scharang has also commented on the factor of "Anschauung" as being important for Gtltersloh: "Als Dichter geht es ihm nicht um den Begriff der Sache, sondern um deren 96 Anschauung." Since Scharang writes s p e c i f i c a l l y about Sonne und Mond where other a r t i s t i c concerns were, perhaps, more important than i n the short f i c t i o n , t h i s sort of blanket statement seems unacceptable; however, consistency aside, Scharang does modify his statement a l i t t l e l a t e r on by including thought--in addition to a p i c t o r i a l conception and purpose--among the narrative c r i t e r i a : A l l e s Sprachlich-Technische [ i s t ] immer auch ein Moment des Gedankens. So schreibt er nicht etwa eines Susseren Prinzips wegen SMtze von o f t gewaltiger L^nge. Ein Satz von ihm i s t vielmehr genau so lang wie der Gedanke lang sein muss, w i l l er seinen Gegenstand nach a l i e n Seiten umfassen; der Gedanke wiederum i s t nicht ausgebreiteter, darf seiner Dezidiertheit wegen nicht ausgebreiteter sein, a l s der Satz es zu ertragen vermag (129). Walter Httllerer comes close to emphasizing the framing aspect of Gtltersloh's f i c t i o n by mentioning two elements as p a r t i c u l a r l y "einprMgsam und 'prickelnd, 1" namely " . . . das Herausschneiden von einzelnen, scharf konturierten Bildern, 1 56 d i e im T e x t a u f b l i t z e n und d i e i n o f t g r e l l e n F a r b e n , i n 97 s t a r k e n E i n z e l s t r i c h e n h ingeworfen s i n d . " What Gtinther B l o c k e r p o i n t s out as one o f the c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of Sonne und Mond i s e q u a l l y p e r t i n e n t f o r the s t o r i e s , namely t h a t G t l t e r s l o h works p r i m a r i l y as a " m i n i a t u r i s t " : . . . den niemand und n i c h t s h i n d e r n werde, s e i n B l M t t c h e n b i s i n s L e t z t e g le ichmctss ig a u s z u p i n s e l n . . . . M i n i a t u r r e i h t s i c h an M i n i a t u r , j ede von der Hand des malenden D i c h t e r s , des d i c h t e n d e n M a l e r s b i s i n d i e l e t z t e F a c e t t e 'auf Hochglanz g e s c h l i f f e n ' . What i s p r e s e n t e d to the r e a d e r i s a s e r i e s o f v e r y s h a r p l y 99 focused "Momentaufnahmen" by means o f f r a m i n g , which thus becomes one o f the most e f f e c t i v e l y used p i c t o r i a l d e v i c e s . In many o f the s t o r i e s , the d e s c r i p t i o n o f an e x t e r i o r s e t t i n g not o n l y put s the r e a d e r " i n t o the p i c t u r e " by p r o v i d i n g a d i s t i n c t p e r s p e c t i v e , a s p e c i f i c a n g l e o f o b s e r -v a t i o n , but s e t s the mood as w e l l , as i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: Es war e i n Sommerabend im K r i e g s j a h r e a c h t z e h n h u n d e r t s e c h s u n d s e c h z i g . V a t e r und i c h sas sen auf der Bank v o r unserem Haus, das a b s e i t s vom Dorfe auf e i n e r k l e i n e n Anhflhe s t a n d . . . . Wir sahen . . . immer i n d i e s e l b e W e i t e , welche von s a n f t e n Htigeln, K i r c h t u r m s p i t z e n , A c k e r - und W a l d s t r e i f e n . . . a n g e f t l l l t war und von einem b lauen S t r i c h sehr f e r n e r Berge a b g e s c h l o s s e n wurde ( " O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e s E r l e b n i s , " i n Menschen, 7) . 1 57 Words such as "angefullt" and "abgeschlossen" emphasize the impression that the picture the a r t i s t has "painted" i s framed. Here and elsewhere, the s t a t i c quality of the exterior setting where nothing i s ever i n the s l i g h t e s t motion i s a prevalent feature. As such i t has a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a painting where the i l l u s i o n of depth i s created by making use of perspective, vanishing point, etc. It i s clear that the painter's eye takes precedence over the writer's i n such descriptions as "Die Luft war oben dick und blau, unten t i e f v i o l e t t . Wie eine Zitronenscheibe in noch ungeschutteltem Drink schwamm zwischen den zwei Farben der Mond" ("Lasst uns den Menschen machen," in Menschen, 30). The p i c t o r i a l v i s i o n , however, i s far more pronounced in Gtltersloh's composition of i n t e r i o r settings, t h e i r elaborate d e t a i l indicating some reluctance on the writer's part to " l e t go" of the picture, and i t stresses his intent to f i l l i n the l a s t minute d e t a i l : 1 ^ Der Fuhrung dieses auffallenden Lebens dienten neben den mit der Mauer verbundenen EinrichtungsgegenstSnden wie Bett und Toilettegelegenheit ein gruner Fauteuil auf dreieinhalb Fussen, ein unter den erwShnten Tisch geschobener b i l l i g e r Wandteppich, Hund in Landschaft darstellend, ein Oldruck, Hirschbrunft, i n armdickem vergoldeten Gipsrahmen hoch an der Wand, dort oben, wo die nSchste Fuge zwischen grossen, aber dunnen Steinplatten das Eintreiben eines Nagels erlaubt hat, zwei mit den SitzflSchen aneinandergestellte bticherbeladene Stuhle eines Speisezimmers besserer Burger, ein 1 58 schwarz p o l i e r t e r , gotisch ausgesSgter Klavierschemel . . . und ein grosser weitgereister Koffer, der den Schrank macht. Wahllos wie aus einem Korb geschttttet, doch in der Richtung des Schwunges, lagen Zeitungen, Broschtlren, Handschriften. Wo eben sie Platz gefunden haben, auch auf dem blassroten Ziegelboden neben zertretenen Zigarettenresten, Bleistiftsp&nen und abgetrockneten^gackformen von schmutzigen SchuhabsMtzen. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r story as well as others, t h i s type of painstaking embellishment adds l i t t l e to either plot or characterization; here and elsewhere i t creates the impression that the a r t i s t ' s need to " l i n g e r " i s extremely strong and that, moreover, he holds the view that narrative flow i s either a tiresome or r e l a t i v e l y unimportant consideration. (The culmination of t h i s compositional feature i s found i n Sonne und Mond.) There i s no doubt, however, that t h i s technique creates the s p e c i f i c "flavour" either of the entire story, or-part of the story. The same applies to "Die Menschenfreunde," where three characters enter a room in the c a s t l e and then stand s t i l l to "view" i t at length: Es war der wohnlichste Raum, den sie i n dem Schlosse bisher gesehen hatten. Den Sims des m&chtigen Kamins schmuckten zwei blankgeputzte silberne Kirchenleuchter und ein alabastener Tempel, i n dem eine goldene Uhr t i c k t e . Auf der Feuerstelle erhob sich . . . der Wabenturm der Scheite. Uber die Lehne eines hohen Polsterstuhls hing i n strengen, vom Eisen gepressten Falten ein 1 59 gelber Schlafrock. Pantoffel aus rotem Leder standen unter ihm Habacht. Das NachtkMstchen trug auf blinkender Tasse eine zu dre i V i e r t e l n g e f t l l l t e Wasserflasche nebst Glas, auch ein geflffnetes Buch, von einem Lesezeichen gequert (Menschen, 188). Gtltersloh's almost compulsive need for providing meticulous d e t a i l i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the description of the f l a s k which i s neither empty nor f u l l - - o r even half f u l l - - b u t three quarters f u l l . Beyond that, Gtltersloh continually forces the reader to "see" with him, i . e . , with or through the eyes of a painter: Die blauseidene Bettdecke, halb umgeschlagen, l i e s s ein reines Linnen sehen, noch scharf gekreuzt von den Kanten des quadratischen Liegens im Kasten (Menschen, 188). "Das i s t Liebe" contains a c a r e f u l l y composed s t i l l l i f e : In einem feuchtkalten, von einer schmutzigen Birne hoch an der Decke schwach erleuchteten Geviert, i n dem Scherben grosser terrakotta-farbener Krtlge lagen, ein halbes Fahrrad, drei im Zusammenbruch e r s t a r r t e Sttlhle, und, auf einem Wandbrette, wenigstens d r e i s s i g ausgeweitete, klaffende und eingeschnurte Bauernschuhe standen . . . wusch^gr sich (lber einem blauen Waschbecken. . . . Within t h i s picture, Gtltersloh i s o l a t e s (or miniaturizes) one single feature for greater e f f e c t : that of the chairs, l i t e r a l l y "frozen" during one moment of their gradual collapse. Often the a r t i s t not only provides highly v i s u a l 1 60 images, but evokes the sense of smell and touch as well, thereby i n t e n s i f y i n g the t o t a l sensoary impact on the reader: Hier und dort standen auf weissen Strumpfen . . . Diener. . . . Hitzige Geruche von sehr sussen und gewtlrzten BMckereien, von offen verbranntem S p i r i t u s , aufgefrischter P o l i t u r , orientalischen Zigaretten und echtem K&lnischwasser legten sich an die Wangen, wie die dicken Teppiche urn den Fuss und die gehMuften kostbaren Mtibelstucke i n Braun und Gold ans Auge ("Das i s t Liebe," i n Fabeln, 83). Sometimes one single s t r i k i n g image, as i n the l a s t sentence of "Die EnttMuschung des Gatten" captures the mood of the story to perfection; i t also gives the reader a very condensed characterization of the story's primary character, the protective husband: Als ob ein tttdlicher P f e i l im Anschwirren wSre, s t e l l t e er sich mit ausgebreiteten Armen vor die BaJ^onttlre, dahinter sein Vtigelchen sass. Another tableau, i n the story "Adonis," gives the e f f e c t of a Greek tragedy by showing the actors aft e r a g r i s l y deed has been perpetrated--the murder of the young count--surrounded by the (a l b e i t mute) chorus: Die eine der Frauen wischte sich das Maul, al s ob sie Blut getrunken hMtte, die andere zerpfltlckte zart eine Blume, und wieder andere waren zu Gruppen geronnen und sahen einander gross an (965). 161 "Pan und die Dame" i s constructed very much l i k e a one-act play, or short motion picture, i n which sound i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. The entire "audience" consists of the lady i n the cafe who watches a father and his son at the next table: Der filtere e n t f a l t e t e eine Mappe, las und beschrieb . . . Gesch&ftspapiere, und der Jtlngere, um den ftlteren nicht zu sttiren, widmete sich seinen BeschSftigungen. Die erste war eine Art von Morgengymnastik. Er st i e s s die Arme nach rechts und lin k s und stemmte die Beinchen so hoch, dass die Dame die Sohlen seiner neuen Pelzstiefelchen sajj Dann hob er an, ein Lied zu singen. . . . Since there i s only one setting or one "scene" i n the story, the p i c t o r i a l q uality i s p a r t i c u l a r l y strong; as such, the story appears "framed" i n i t s e n t i r e t y . Actual paintings are described—and framed — i n the greatest d e t a i l and at great length, such as t h i s one by Tintoretto i n "Der Erbe": Der regierende Herr . . . trug die spanische Tracht seiner Z e i t : enganliegende Beinkleider, die Schenkel eines BHren und herkulische muskulBse Waden modellierten, ein kurzes, weisses Htischen, das vorne gespannt war, ober den Htiften ein miedereng einschneidendes, die Schultern flberaus brgjLt ausladendes Warns mit BallonMrmeln. . . . Gtltersloh goes on to "paint" v i r t u a l l y every other a r t i c l e of clothing, the subject's features, as well as the setting 1 62 i n the background. The p o r t r a i t as such has no a c t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as f a r as the p l o t i s concerned, but d e s c r i b i n g i t i n such d e t a i l promotes the r e t a r d a t i o n o f the s t o r y - l i n e by means of framing (or " f r e e z i n g , " as i n f i l m s ) a s p e c i f i c 107 s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r , or o b j e c t . T h i s technique not only c r e a t e s the p a r t i c u l a r mood of a s t o r y but i n t e n s i f i e s i t ; no doubt i t i s one of the more important aspects o f l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m as used by G u t e r s l o h . 1 63 6. Stage E f f e c t s The point has been made by several c r i t i c s that the notion of the "theatrum mundi" i s one of the many recurring motifs i n Gtltersloh's writings. As Heribert Hutter comments: Aus Orchestergraben und Schntlrboden, zwischen den Kulissen und i n der Versenkung waltet ein stets gegenwSrtiger und stets unsichtbarer Regisseur, dem das grosse W e l t t h e a t e r ^ g l l Pathos . . . stSndig gegenw&rtig i s t . Speaking generally as well as focusing on the novels, Hutter f e e l s that Gtltersloh turns d i r e c t l y to either the reader or the viewer ( i n terms of his paintings), employing what he c a l l s . . . das augenblinzelnde Sprechen " b e i s e i t " , das von einem schalkhaften Kommentieren und "Uber-der-Situation-stehen" und kumpanen EinverstMndnis unvermittelt i n ein dogmatisches Verktlnden von Erkenntnissen tlbergehen kann. . . ." (156) There i s no doubt that Gtltersloh often adopts the position of a stage d i r e c t o r . As has been pointed out e a r l i e r i n the present study, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r focus determines the v i s u a l as well as the verbal a r t i s t i c medium. Even the omniscient author speaks p i c t o r i a l l y , and constantly demonstrates his preoccupation with the presentation of "pictures" as, for 1 64 example, i n "Der sentimentale junge Mann" (see section on Colour). Regarding the "theatrum mundi" motif, Susanne Ludtke claims that i t can be traced i n a l l his f i c t i o n a l works (123). But since Ludtke was primarily concerned with Sonne  und Mond, the statement should not be taken l i t e r a l l y . Even i f one were to examine Gutersloh's f i c t i o n a l world as a stage within a stage, results would be marginal since i t would apply only to a f r a c t i o n of the s t o r i e s . Yet although the "theatrum mundi" perspective can be discounted i n ov e r a l l terms, Gutersloh does occasionally present a story in part--or i n i t s entirety--as one would on an actual stage. This, perhaps, i s not surprising i n the l i g h t of the young Gutersloh's one-time occupation as theatre set designer and d i r e c t o r . The claims made for the frequency of t h i s occurrence, however, have been exaggerated and, i t would seem, made on the basis of only a few examples. Although Heribert Hutter quite c o r r e c t l y speaks of the "btihnenhafte Konzeption" (Zeiten, 8) of the s t o r i e s , a "Guckkastenbtlhne," with " b i l d - p a r a l l e l agierenden oder f r o n t a l zum Publikum gerichteten Figurinen, denen der A u f t r i t t aus der Kulisse rechts oder l i n k s noch im S c h r i t t steckt" (10), he i s making a very general observation; i n actual f a c t , Gtltersloh uses th i s technique far less frequently than c r i t i c s such as Hutter have implied. 1 6 5 The figures i n many of the stories do have something of the l i f e l e s s n e s s of marionettes, mainly because the action i s frequently suspended in favour of some digressive element. This leaves the figures, l i t e r a l l y , in "suspended animation"; but the entire story usually bears l i t t l e resemblance to a stage work. "Pan und die Dame" i s an exception i n that i t i s a p e r f e c t l y "staged" theatre sketch. What makes i t even more e f f e c t i v e , strangely enough, i s the almost t o t a l absence of any description of sound, or dialogue: the only human utterance i s that of the c h i l d singing, halfway through the "scene." If t h i s were produced on a contemporary stage, even the lady's (unspoken) speculations could be "externalized"--by means of the characters' appearance, gestures, costuming, e t c . — t o preserve the sketch exactly as Gtltersloh wrote i t . The lady, "eine junge Dame von etwa ftinfundvierzig Jahren" (231), s i t s i n a cafe, "das weiss gekachelt i s t wie ein Badezimmer" (231). Enter father and three-year-old son whose a c t i v i t i e s at the next table the lady watches with consuming i n t e r e s t : the father i s busy with his papers, the son with his "Morgengymnastik" (232). Then the c h i l d does the unexpected: In diesem Augenblick k l e t t e r t e der junge Mann, so ruhig oder so v o r s i c h t i g wie ein Dachdecker, der einen Ziegel zu holen herabsteigt, von der Samtbank der Loge zum weissen Marmorfussboden, kntipfte sein Httschen 1 66 auf, und begann, um nicht nichts zu tun, und doch den Mlteren nicht zu stttren, a l s ohne Not, seine Notdurft zu verrichten (233). The lady accepts the spectacle of the unacceptable with great equanimity. In looks the two had seemed to her--from the moment they arrived--to have some connection with nature and an almost mythological time (already pointed to i n the t i t l e ) : Schweden: dachte die Dame. Doch nicht nur, weil die beiden das bei uns schon ausge-storbene Germanische noch i n der Unvermischt-heit des ersten SchBpfungstages verstrahlten, sondern weil t r o t z des gewaltigen Unter-schieds der Jahre, sie Kameraden waren (232). To her, the boy's unconventional act seems natural under these circumstances: Denn: wann kommen schon Schweden i n unsere Stadt und bringen die noch unverfMlschte Natur mit? Einen Stein, auf dem man schreiben kann, und eine Wiese, die man, wie beschrieben, bewMssern darf? (233) After a moment, the father becomes aware of what has transpired: Ruhig, so a l s Schwede, wie a l s Vater eines glHnzend gerechtfertigten Sohnes, beglich er seine Rechnung, verneigte sich vor der Dame . . . und v e r l i e s s , gefolgt von dem frtthlich stapfenden kleinen Manne . . . das Kaffeehaus (233) . 1 67 The lady exits next, 11. . . um nicht sehen zu mtissen, wie eine prosaische Reinmachefrau eine poetische Wiese fortwischt" (233). In "Der General," one b r i e f segment of the story i s also conceived l i k e a scene i n a play: the General's family s i t s around the table during the noon meal; the daughter, Berthe, i s unaccountably absent for the f i r s t time--a fact which i s commented upon by the General: "Berthe hat gar keine Entschuldigung" (Menschen, 107). The doorbell rings, the family members remain immobilized in t h e i r seats; the maid rushes i n , then the dead body of Berthe i s carried i n on a stretcher. The General's "Nun hat sie ihre Entschuldigung," followed by the young o f f i c e r ' s outraged reply: "Sie sind hier nicht auf dem Exerzierfelde, mein General! Ihre l e i b l i c h e Tochter i s t kein r e k r u t i e r t e r Soldat, mein General!" (108) ends t h i s melodramatic scene before the s t o r y - l i n e progresses i n a less t h e a t r i c a l manner. "Der Erbe" contains a segment with a s p e c i f i c reference to the stage: Drei Tdrflffnungen - eine i n der Mitte, je eine an den beiden Seiten-, deren Vorh&nge zuruckgeschlagen waren, zeigten i n jedem Gemache je einen Menschen wie auf einer einsamen Btihne (Fabeln, 90). 1 68 The three individuals (Andrea's mother, s i s t e r , and uncle), each framed by an open door, are described i n f a n t a s t i c and yet graphic d e t a i l , as for example the figure of the uncle: Am Ttirpfosten des Raumes li n k s lehnte, wie an der Wand des Glassturzes eine dtlnne Schnitte Eidamer KMse, ein Mlterer Herr krSnklich scharfen P r o f i l s . Er trug einen ihm nicht passenden Anzug i n der Modefarbe des vergangenen Jahres, v i o l e t t , und bestaubte, ausgetretene Schuhe. Die gekrtlmmte Haltung und die blic k l o s e n Augen berechtigten zu der Annahme, dass er.das Fortschreiten eines Magenleidens beobachtete, dem die (iberstdrzte Abreise von Padua nicht gutgetan hat (91). Andrea finds himself confronted by these "drei lebenden Bildern . . . me i s t e r l i c h g e s t e l l t , daher ohne Wort verst&ndlich" (91). There i s , i n f a c t , no dialogue between any of them despite the length of the story. Gtltersloh uses the term "Triptychon" here (91), accentuating not only the p i c t o r i a l e f f e c t of the whole, but at the same time the link s and a f f i n i t i e s between the three i n terms of family relationship and, i n the context of the story, a common int e r e s t . This example alone would seem to give evidence of the fact that by "painting" a l i t e r a r y picture, the writer Gtltersloh i s inseparable from the painter--and in close collaboration with the stage designer. 1 69 IV. The I n t e r i o r Landscape 1. Figures, Themes, and Point of View Gutersloh seldom "explains" his characters and t h e i r actions by such conventional means as int e r n a l monologue, dialogue, or the narrator's detailed commentary. More often than not, figures are given l i f e and substance through the presentation of "pictures" of a s l i g h t l y f a n t a s t i c nature, a technique of externalizing inner processes, thereby imbuing the figure with a c e r t a i n r e q u i s i t e (for the reader) psychological depth which would otherwise be lacking. One notable exception i s "Ein Held seiner Z e i t , " where the protagonist i s given more of an "independent" voice than the writer usually accords his characters. This, no doubt, i s due to a large extent to the s p e c i f i c topic, i . e . , the f i c t i o n a l i z e d account of the incarceration of Dr. F r i e d r i c h Adler (son of the labour leader Viktor Adler) who shot the Austrian minister Count Sttlrghk i n 1916. One must assume that due to the t o p i c a l i t y of t h i s theme, Gtltersloh does not resort to f a n t a s t i c images. There i s , however, occasional evidence of p i c t o r i a l i s m , despite the otherwise conventional r e l a t i n g of events as well as the state of mind of the protagonist as i n the following example, a f t e r "Heinrich Abel" has r e a l i z e d that an "elementary" confrontation with his father i s unavoidable: 1 70 Wenn er i n dem fensterlosen Vorzimmer der altmodischen Wohnung, wo fast eines halben Jahrhunderts Kuchen- und Garderobeduft dick und grau beieinanderstanden, seinen vernach-lMssigten Mantel anzog und mit einem neuen Blicke die verstaubten Spielsachen s t r e i f t e , die, s e i t er erinnern konnte, auf jenem Kasten standen, so ftihlte er sich wahrer, gutiger und t i e f e r a l s fruher, da er noch nicht so bltide gewesen i s t denn j e t z t . Ach, ihn schmerzte wehtun zu mussen, aber anders spttrte er nicht sein Herz (Menschen, 45). The implied theme of p a t r i c i d e , i . e . , "convincing" his father of the unacceptability of his p o l i t i c a l allegiance by k i l l i n g the minister, has certain B i b l i c a l overtones, as does the use of the name "Abel" for "Adler." And again, the painter's desire to " i l l u s t r a t e " the writer's tale results in descriptions of a predominantly p i c t o r i a l as well as s l i g h t l y f a n t a s t i c nature: Zum tausendsten Male sah er ihn sttlrzen, oh, nicht das v i e l g leichgultigere, wirkliche Opfer, nein, den Vater, sah er den Vater vom wunderbar rettenden Sonne aus dem Himmel der Verblendung gerissen und in die Tiefe der verlassenen Erkenntnis gestdrzt, httrte er den Chor der inneren Stimmen lobsingen im feurigen Ofen so fluchwurdiger Tat; merkte er an ungeheurem Rauschen i n seinem Ohre, dass rechts und link s die Wassermauern des roten Meeres wtttend und bebend standen, den Heerwurm der I s r a e l i t e r zwischendurch zu lassen. Und wie er den Kopf schtlttelte, im Glauben, Moses zu sein oder ein Olympischer . . . wMhrend seine Lippen nur lautlo s das schwarze Nichts des Mundloches a r t i k u l i e r t e n , e r b l i c k t e er am Nachbartischchen den so o f t und so t r e f f l i c h Erschossenen (Menschen, 47). 1 71 Abel i s convinced, on one hand, of the p o l i t i c a l j u s t i f i -cation for h i s act; on the other, he i s quite aware of i t s immorality and of the fact that he has committed a deadly s i n . His dilemma i s compounded by the juxtaposition of the two father figures, his k i l l i n g of one ("das v i e l g l e i c h gl e i c h g d l t i g e r e , wirkliche Opfer") as an almost symbolic act aimed at the other. Gtltersloh i s a master of what could be termed "verbal counterpoint": the entire "picture" i s composed of opposites which are nevertheless complementary in nature within the context of the entire metaphorical construction, such as the image of the father who has been "torn from the heaven of b l i n d conviction," only to f a l l into the "depths of past cognition," or the " f i e r y oven" combined with "the Red Sea's walls of water." Abel's inner turmoil i s also expressed i n diametrically opposite terms, i . e . , the concept of himself as "the Saviour," Moses, or one of the Olympian gods, versus the recognition of his deed as "damnable." The bringing together of such strong, almost v i o l e n t b i b l i c a l (or pagan) images with that of the rather mundane, quasi-Biedermeier diminutive "Tischchen" adds a strong element of Fantastic Realism. The p a r t i c u l a r picture, i n i t s t o t a l i t y , i s not only one of the most perfect examples of p i c t o r i a l i s m i n Gtltersloh's s t o r i e s , but at the same time forces the reader to "view" the paragraph as one would a picture, discovering 1 72 one engaging d e t a i l a f t e r another i n the very act of reading: because of i t s i n t r i c a t e metaphorical nature, the reader automatically becomes a "viewer" i n the sense that his eyes w i l l wander, back and f o r t h , across the "canvas" of the passage i n order to comprehend and enjoy i t f u l l y . The author i s less of a commentator on than an i l l u s t r a t o r of the i n t e r i o r landscape. In "Die Heimkehrer," for example, where Lorenz and Christian's r e a l i z a t i o n that marriage would be the only solution to the disappointment suffered during a v i s i t to t h e i r native v i l l a g e i s c l e a r l y expressed i n the sentence "'Wir mtissen schnell heiraten,' sagten s i e , " i t i s prefaced--or " i l l u s t r a t e d " — b y the elaboration of verbal images: Eine v i e l feinere Kraft, zerbrc?selnd wie Pulver zwischen schmMchtigen Apotheker-fingern, und dennoch furchtbar i n ein Kanonenrohr gestopft, schwebte ihnen mit unaussprechlichem Namen durch den ungelernten Kopf. Eine Explosion h e l l s t e r , blondester Vernunft tiber einer mystischen Alpenland-schaft stand vor ihren zusammengekniffenen Augen (Menschen, 163). Again Gtltersloh uses one of his favourite narrational techniques, i . e . , the juxtaposition of opposites i n strongly v i s u a l terms; here the powerful notion which i s compared to "crumbling powder between the delicate fingers of an apothecary" as well as something which has been pushed, with great power, into the "barrel of a cannon." Fantastic 1 73 Realism i s evident here as well, i n the incongruous image of "highest, blondest reason above a mystical alpine landscape." This paragraph i n p a r t i c u l a r als'o i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y a l i t e r a r y translator encounters i n the attempt to render the "flavour" and exact nuances of Gutersloh's language. It comes as no surprise that only one attempt has been made so f a r , i . e . , Der Lugner unter Burgern. The theme of love--in various guises--is present i n roughly half of the stories discussed; as such, i t i s the a r t i s t ' s strongest thematic p r e d i l e c t i o n evident i n both types of miniature. The description of the nature of love i s probably one of the more d i f f i c u l t to accomplish on the basis of "pictures," whereas t h i s i s considerably easier where the actual demonstration of emotion i s concerned. Although Gutersloh has theorized elsewhere and at length on the nature of love (see Paradiese der Liebe), he largely r e f r a i n s from doing so i n the stories with the possible exception of "Der sentimentale junge Mann." Where he does externalize and thereby illuminate the emotions f e l t by a major figure, his language i s usually metaphorical, i . e . , p i c t o r i a l . Yet, generally speaking, there i s l i t t l e demonstration of physical intimacy between lovers, or physical closeness between characters. Individuals may be drawn to each other, or might be assumed to share some form of intimacy, yet Gutersloh seems singularly reluctant to 1 7 4 give expression to the physical manifestations of love beyond an occasional rather bare statement. The following i s t y p i c a l of his handling the love theme: in the story " V i k t o r i a , " the heroine whose s o c i a l status can only be described as "gentlewoman i n reduced circumstances," i s attempting to make a l i v i n g as a clairvoyante; she meets her future husband i n the person of a c l i e n t to whom she i s immediately attracted: . . . a l s s i e die Hand des Menschen, der i h r fiber die Massen g e f i e l , i n der ihren h i e l t . Dem M^dchen h&tte der Atem stocken s o l l e n bei solch symbolischen E i n t r i t t eines Mannsbildes in i h r weiches Innen. Der Prophetin jedoch kam keine Scham zu H i l f e , unvermeidliche Erkenntnis wenigstens bis zur Brautnacht aufzuschieben. In diesem F a l l e aber - dem verwickeltsten a l l e r verwickelten KnSuel mit denen die Katzen der Parzen je g e s p i e l t haben - sah s i e nicht, was i h r drohte, sah s i e nur, was i h r nicht gehBrte. Es besass nMmlich dieser Anton, der ihrem Schosse schon so sehr g e f i e l , auch a l l Vernunftsgrdnde, ihr zu gef a l i e n . Schoss und Vernunft deckten einander wie Sonne und Mond anlMsslich ihrer Verfinsterung: es war das seltenste astronomische Ereignis i n dem widerspruchser-f U l l t e n Universum eines weiblichen Leibes (Fabeln, 20). Their eventual physical closeness i s expressed in one almost laconic sentence: "Auch h i e l t er schon diese V i k t o r i a i n Armen. . ." (25). Love i n "Der sentimentale junge Mann" i s demonstrated i n a rather abstract, yet highly p i c t o r i a l fashion which 1 75 per f e c t l y expresses the transitory and f r a g i l e nature of love, and the convolutions of intense emotion: Mit langen steigenden und niederschwebenden Schleifen vermengten sich die seelischesten Substanzen ihres Ktirpers. Laue, ztigernde Wellen durchdrangen einander und wurden dicht und formten endlich einen einzigen B a l l , der l e i c h t zum Fenster schwamm, dessen Glas er unhorbar antSnzelte. Der erste Windstoss morgen wird ihn aus dem rucksichtslos getiffneten Zimmer i n das Freie treiben (Die  Fabeln, 117). As i n the story discussed previously, there i s no depiction of physical intimacy despite the lengthy description of the lovers' emotional closeness as well as physical proximity. Feelings of anger, hatred, and the desire for revenge invariably are also externalized through p i c t o r i a l means, thereby lending the s i t u a t i o n described a greater degree of si g n i f i c a n c e as well as making a stronger impact on the reader than could be achieved otherwise. In "Die Selbstlosen," Gutersloh depicts the three woodsmen's hatred of Zenkerer, an i t i n e r a n t worker and occasional ministrant at Sunday services, as follows: Als er ihnen, wie dies schttne und a l t e S i t t e i s t , die paar Tropfen Weihwasser mit den e i l i g eingetauchten Fingern reichte, nMssten s i e an diesen die ihren, und befeuchteten andSchtig S t i r n , Mund und Brust. Hat doch auch der Herr mit Judas aus einer Schussel gegessen. Als sie vor dem Verlassen des 1 76 Gotteshauses noch einmal s i c h beugten, hob sich a l i e n der Hirschf clnger ein wenig aus der ruckw^rtigen Hosentasche (106). Zenkerer's death i s equally graphic; his murderer's complete equanimity i s expressed in e n t i r e l y v i s u a l terms: Als der Zenkerer im Bache lag, verlegen l&chelnd ein Bad erduldend . . . kniete sic h der Regensamer gutartig hin und legte dem Zenkerer, der wie eine Frauensperson, der man aufhelfen w i l l , a l s o g l e i c h seine schwMchliche Hand ausstreckte, seine starke und b r e i t e aufs Gesicht. wMhrend des Angebers Mund sich den Tod soff, die verzweifelten Beine einen vergSnglichen Wirbel schlugen i n den ewigen dieses schSumenden Alpenbachs, bat der Regensamer -als lSge er uber einem halb ausgeweideten Rehbock - um Feuer fur seine P f e i f e , die er in einem gleichgtlltigen Fischmaule den ebenso wenig geruhrten Freunden h i n h i e l t (111). None of Gutersloh's f i c t i o n a l miniatures are i n t r i n s i c a l l y "humorous," i . e . , they are not created to merely entertain, to evoke laughter as an immediate response on the part of the reader. Gtltersloh does not indulge i n "Situationskomik"; his humour i s almost exclusively verbal, and usually remarkably subtle. And because of the density of his writing, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t - - i f not impossible--for the c r i t i c to i s o l a t e a s p e c i f i c sentence in a given story in order to i l l u s t r a t e humour, short of quoting paragraph a f t e r paragraph, i n fact the en t i r e story as an "example," such as "Pythias B r i e f . " S p e c i f i c a l l y in t h i s area, and given the short f i c t i o n a l format, the c r i t i c 1 7 7 of necessity becomes one with the discerning reader, delighting i n Gtltersloh's unique l i n g u i s t i c acrobatics whose i l l u s t r a t i o n or d i s s e c t i o n can only be accomplished i n the very act of reading, as has been stated e a r l i e r . Gtltersloh's humour invariably takes the form of irony; as a c l a s s i c a l scholar, he attempts to delight as well as to educate. In a number of the s t o r i e s , the author's point of view, or stance, i s an i r o n i c one; he seemingly stands "above" any given s i t u a t i o n i n the pose of an astute but non-judgmental observer. His brand of irony is subtle and l i e s less i n the juxtaposition of characters or i n a s p e c i f i c circumstance than i n the way these are described. In the foregoing story, the t i t l e i t s e l f i s i r o n i c (unusual for Gtltersloh's s t o r i e s ) , yet t h i s becomes clear only gradually: the author only hints at the p o s s i b i l i t y of any one of the three woodsmen having been the father of the infant murdered by i t s mother, a murder which has been denounced by Zenkerer. The act of putting Zenkerer--ostracized by the v i l l a g e r s - - " o u t of his misery" i s therefore hardly s e l f l e s s but exclusively s e l f i s h , and i s prompted by t h e i r fear of being implicated. The author's i r o n i c commentary seldom ends with the depiction of major figures; i n fact, minor figures are created with as much irony as well as p i c t o r i a l d e t a i l as 1 78 the former despite the fact that these "pictures" have l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n c e as far as plo t development i s concerned, as i n the following example ("Gespra'ch im Wasser"), where the unsuccessful l i f e saver of a drowning man i s handed his coat upon reaching the shore: Da legte ihm, unter dem L^cheln der Menge, ein MMdchen, welches fiber sein B&uchlein hinwegsehen konnte, einen Mantel um. Es war nicht mehr jung. Es war am Einschrumpfen. Seine Schlankheit ging eben zur Dtirre hin, das h e i s s t , sie balancierte gerade auf dem Punkte, von wo aus sie noch zurtickschwellen ktinnte, wenn es bald Regen gSbe. In schon t i e f e n Augenhtihlen sassen die scharfen, (iberklugen Augen eines allzulang jung-f r S u l i c h gebliebenen Wesens (Menschen, 152). As i l l u s t r a t e d i n the l a s t sentence, there i s evidence of a c e r t a i n amount of compassion as i s , indeed, the case i n most of the s t o r i e s ; Gdtersloh seldom adopts a sarcastic tone, and generally views his characters i n a rather benign fashion. There are no comic figures as such i n any of the s t o r i e s , nor inherently comic situations; i t i s the author's handling, i n an i r o n i c manner, of the ordinary which results in the reader's perception that humour comprises a small but s i g n i f i c a n t component of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. 1 79 2 . Fantastic Realism Inasmuch as the " i n t e r i o r landscape" of Gutersloh's s t o r i e s l i e s embodied i n the characters he has created, t h e i r psychological make-up i s usually i l l u s t r a t e d by means of Fantastic Realism, a manner of portraiture which i s also evident i n his paintings. To assume, however, that the founder of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism would-paint almost exclusively in t h i s manner would be far from correct (see Chapter Two); yet certain elements of Fantastic Realism can be seen i n Gutersloh's painted miniatures, and there i s strong evidence that t h i s i s also one of the components i n many of the s t o r i e s . The occurrence of Fantastic Realism i n the a r t i s t ' s written work would seem to point e s p e c i a l l y strongly to the p i c t o r i a l nature of the l a t t e r . Like colour, t h i s s t y l i s t i c device connects the written to the painted work quite s p e c i f i c a l l y . The premise that a r t i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e cannot be considered as a simple r e f l e c t i o n of r e a l i t y i s hardly new. "Realism," i n painting as well as i n l i t e r a t u r e , has always been a highly individual experience for any a r t i s t , , his personal v i s i o n r e s u l t i n g i n the creation of a simulacrum of what he perceives of as r e a l i t y . Regarding Gutersloh i t can be argued that his writing i s primarily " r e a l i s t i c , " i n the sense that he creates situations and characterizations 1 80 which r e f l e c t a world the reader can by and large i d e n t i f y with. This i s not to say that Gtltersloh's intention has been to create a f a i t h f u l duplication of v i s u a l r e a l i t y . But once again--as i n the case of defining genres--one hesitates to apply a s p e c i f i c l a b e l to the a r t i s t ' s work, p a r t i c u l a r l y so since the term "realism" i s anything but a categorical and i r r e f u t a b l e concept. Most contemporary scholars seem to consider the word "realism" to be one of the vaguest terms of art and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , a word which i s more of a c l i c h e than a meaningful, usable 1 09 concept. Damian Grant i n his study of realism speaks of a pronounced "mistrust [of the term's] behaviour" by l i t e r a r y scholars i n p a r t i c u l a r , who f e e l on safer ground by l i n k i n g i t to other concepts. It i s debatable, of course, whether or not terms l i k e "psychological realism," for example, can be seen as " d e f i n i t i v e " terms i n t h e i r own 110 ri g h t , or whether they, i n turn, need additional reference points such as country of o r i g i n , or school of thought. The question whether "Fantastic Realism" as i t pertains to the Vienna School i s a r e l a t i v e l y clear-cut concept has already been discussed and answered af f i r m a t i v e l y (see Chapter Two). Gtltersloh's painted miniatures, as was pointed out e a r l i e r , contain c e r t a i n elements of the f a n t a s t i c , brought about mainly through exaggeration, the 1 81 painstaking d e t a i l of execution constituting t h e i r r e a l i s t i c aspect. As for his f i c t i o n a l miniatures, the subtle a l t e r a t i o n s which have taken place i n the process of the reproduction of r e a l i t y constitute t h e i r aesthetic 1 11 appeal. This appeal i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the occasional f a n t a s t i c image, or "picture," even though the s t o r i e s are e s s e n t i a l l y r e a l i s t i c . A general conclusion reached by Thomson and Fischer i n t h e i r study Phantastik i n L i t e r a t u r  und Kunst could be said to apply to Gtltersloh as well, namely that i t i s not primarily the plo t of a given text, but rather " . . . die darin enthaltenen mttglichen B i l d e r " which make the text " f a n t a s t i c " (77). The authors go on to say: Es s e i behauptet, dass es die miJglichen Bilde r sind, die den Eindruck des Phantastischen bestimmen, also die R&ume, Farben, Dinge, Landschaften, und die Art, wie etwas erscheint oder sein Erscheinen sich anktlndigt. . . . Dabei entsteht eine 1 i n n e r l i t e r a r i s c h e Ikonographie'. . . (78). They see t h i s iconography of the "pictures" contained in f a n t a s t i c l i t e r a t u r e as being almost i d e n t i c a l with an iconography of f a n t a s t i c painting: "'. . . a l l e Leitmotive sind gemeinsam" (78). Peter Pabisch and Alan Best do refer to Gutersloh, and see his language as a material which "creates i t s own a r t , just as colours 'build' a painting. . . . Thus he creates with language a phantastic 1 82 112 r e a l i t y rather than a mere copy of r e a l i t y . . . . " These c r i t i c s address themselves to Gtltersloh's writings generally, yet t h e i r findings would seem to relate d i r e c t l y to the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. To l a b e l Gtltersloh's work as " f a n t a s t i c " within the usual meaning of the term would be completely o f f the mark; neither the depiction of characters nor of situations would warrant such a term. Here and there the a r t i s t merely enhances or illuminates what i s r e a l i s t i c by applying a s l i g h t l y f a n t a s t i c (or f a n c i f u l ) "patina" to his work. Whether or not there i s a di r e c t or i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between Fantastic Realism and Surrealism i s not an issue either i n t h i s context; any argument based on the assumption that the former i s an off-shoot of the l a t t e r , or that i t i s in a category by i t s e l f i s i r r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. What i s relevant i s the fact that Fantastic Realism, which has been defined as the depiction of the r e a l i s t i c by f a n t a s t i c means (see Chapter Two), yet i s devoid of absurd or i l l o g i c a l elements, i s one of the compositional devices Gtltersloh uses i n a very personal manner. Nor i s "Magic Realism" a concept which can be used in connection with Gtltersloh, either i n his painting or his writing. As i t i s commonly understood in l i t e r a t u r e , i . e . , as the representation of everyday objects and r e a l persons 1 83 i n a magical atmosphere--or as the depiction of extra-ordinary events as p e r f e c t l y o r d i n a r y - - i t does not apply to t h i s a r t i s t . As i s usual with concepts of a less than "concrete" nature, d e f i n i t i o n s of Magic Realism vary; Heinz Rieder's, for example, would even appear to come r e l a t i v e l y 113 close to the d e f i n i t i o n of Fantastic Realism. However, thi s i s not an issue of any significance as far as the present study i s concerned. In the s t o r i e s , the occasional transformation of r e a l i t y i s usually within the context of a given s i t u a t i o n or characterization; as such, i t seldom seems to lack a l o g i c a l (or psychological) foundation. In t h i s respect Gtltersloh's writing i s c l o s e l y aligned with the precepts of the Vienna School; as Wieland Schmied (Zweihundert Jahre) explains: Dieses Streben nach Sinngebung unterscheidet die Malerei der 'Wiener Schule 1 vom klassischen Surrealismus. Sie i n t h r o n i s i e r t Freud fiber den divergierenden KrSften des Surrealismus. Der reine psychische Automa-tismus, die w i l l k t i r l i c h e n und unkontrollier-ten Sprdnge einer entfesselten Assoziations-mechanik sind nie ihre Sache gewesen (236). In other words, these fa n t a s t i c images are constructed with a s p e c i f i c psychological reasoning behind them. O t t i l i e , i n "Der Brief aus Amerika," has just received a l e t t e r from her brother who has been missing and presumed 1 84 dead for many years. The paralyzing i n e r t i a which overcomes her at t h i s point, the r e a l i z a t i o n that she has s a c r i f i c e d herself to serve her parents and has now l o s t a l l hope of "escaping" (unlike her brother) and finding f u l f i l l m e n t as a woman--all t h i s i s b r i l l i a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n one phrase: Wie ein angeschwemmter und wunderbarer Weise aufrecht abgesetzter Torso sass O t t i l i e am tiden Strande jenes Ozeans, der sie von dem Briefschreiber trennte ( 5 9 ) . Despite the f a n t a s t i c element, i t i s a psychologically r e a l i s t i c depiction as well, which would seem to bear out Wieland Schmied 1s assertion, i . e . , the a f f i n i t i e s of the Viennese School for Freud's theories: the delving into the unconscious on the part of the a r t i s t , the attempt to portray the " i n v i s i b l e . " Where the painter achieves this with f a n t a s t i c - - y e t realistic--images (see, for example the works of Rudolf Hausner or Erich Brauer), the writer frequently makes use of metaphors. O t t i l i e , by her complete self-abnegation, has been deprived of her "purpose" as a woman, and i s merely a "torso," moreover, a torso who has been " d r i f t i n g " aimlessly, and yet manages, miraculously, to e x i s t . The protagonist i n " V i k t o r i a " i s disgusted with her father's choice of a "suitable" husband for her. When presented with a written proposal, V i k t o r i a has her f i r s t 1 85 visionary experience by "submerging" into her subconscious. Viktoria's insights are e n t i r e l y p i c t o r i a l ; she envisages the scene from the perspective of a deepsea diver: Sie entriss dem ungeduldigen Vater das s t e i f e Papier . . . und stdrzte s i c h , am sicheren S e i l ihrer Abneigung hHngend, kopfuber i n die a l l e s klatschende S c h r i f t . Was sie durch ihre Taucheraugen sah, war das tibliche lichtscheue TiefseegewSchs und Getier eines Meer- und Mannsbodens. Es wimmelte da natur-l i c h von exotisch gefSrbten Mcfdchen, und es ringel t e n sich die feuchten Saugarme gewohn-heitsmSssiger Laster gemSchlich urns gleiche Fallobst der Nachtseite. Abenteuerlich geformte Alkoholflaschen trieben durch den Dschungel eines Mlteren Junggesellenlebens, und wie Federn aus aufgeschnittenen Betten schneite es Spielkarten. . . (Fabeln, 1 1 ) . V i k t o r i a i s cer t a i n of her feelings of revulsion for t h i s man; one can surmise that t h i s strong emotional reaction, coupled with b i t s of information about him and men ge n e r a l l y — t h e kind of information which might have been withheld from young women of her class—mi g h t account for her singular " v i s i o n , " namely that of the hated man's hidden passions for wine, women and cards, a l l of which are repre-hensible to her. In t h i s paragraph, the vividness of the metaphors used make s p e c i f i c colour references v i r t u a l l y unnecessary. The passage i s c l e a r l y delineated i n that Gutersloh opens and closes i t with the mention of " s t i f f paper" symbolizing the formality of Viktoria's s o c i a l class on the one hand, and i t s vices on the other. As a whole, 1 86 the passage stands as a framed--as well as c a r e f u l l y staged—picture within the story. In these f a n t a s t i c interpolations p i c t o r i a l i s m , i . e . the creation of v i s u a l images, i s esp e c i a l l y prominent. Rather than describing the exotic looks and general appearance of Lorenz, the "Onkel aus Amerika" ("Die Heimkehrer") i n a straight forward r e a l i s t i c manner, Gtltersloh uses a f a n t a s t i c image to far greater e f f e c t by focusing on the c h i l d ' s notion of the exotic nature of his American uncle: [Das Kind] f l o g ihm zu und bestieg das Gebirge des Mannes, in dessen Schluchten es von Indianern wimmelte, um dessen Felsenecken GrislybMren getrottet kamen und auf dessen blondweissen Gipfel die Adler der Anden sassen. . . (Fabeln, 30). Here and there, Gtltersloh's purely v i s u a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s take over; there i s no attempt at a l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n with (or elaboration of) the object or the scene described. The object i n "GesprMch im Wasser," a sternwheeler on the Danube, achieves f a n t a s t i c proportions through one single, incongruous image: Und urns GebetlSuten herum den weissen Dampfer, der mit SchaufelrMdern . . . wie eine Schtlssel v o l l Vergissmeinnicht heran-g l e i t e t . . . (Die gute neue Zeit, 117). 1 87 Fantastic images occur as well i n the depiction of nature, as i n "Die Fabel von der Pythia": " . . . zahnlos rauschte das S c h i l f " (Agathon, 166). Or i n "Lasst uns den Menschen machen," ju s t before the f i r s t murder i s committed: Die Sonne schnitt den Horizont, den man, unbestimmbar wie nah, wie fern, bluten sah durch die wenigen Lflcher im LaubgemSuer. . . (Menschen, 29). Alessandra Comini points to the two major tendencies i n Austrian f a n t a s t i c art, namely the "exploration of the mysterious world of the elemental forces contained in 114 nature, and revelation of the inner s e l f . " As has been demonstrated, both these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c l e a r l y recognizable i n Gdtersloh's work. By the use of Fantastic Realism the a r t i s t has brought about an extraordinary blending of the exterior and the i n t e r i o r landscape within the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. 1 88 Conclusion This investigation has attempted to est a b l i s h and document the complementary nature of Gutersloh's painted and written miniatures by arguing that the a r t i s t ' s primarily v i s u a l orientation determines the a r t i s t i c nature of the l a t t e r to a considerable extent. Undoubtedly the stories do not f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e the s p e c i f i c nature of Gutersloh's f i c t i o n a l works; elements contained i n the major novels--such as the extensive e s s a y i s t i c components of a philosophical, r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e — a r e absent, nor would one necessarily expect to f i n d them i n the shorter f i c t i o n a l genre. However, because of t h e i r number and the f a c t that they were written over a period of some decades, the f i c t i o n a l miniatures constitute an i n t e g r a l part of the writer's oeuvre, and as such can hardly be ignored. Since exi s t i n g dissertations and a r t i c l e s deal primarily with the longer prose works and, generally speaking, do not discuss these i n connection with painting beyond peripheral references, the central issues raised in t h i s study have not received any detailed c r i t i c a l consideration so f a r . L i t t l e attention has been focused, 1 89 u n t i l now, on Gtltersloh's short f i c t i o n a l works; they have not been discussed under any aspect, least of a l l that of t h e i r inherent p i c t o r i a l i s m . In spite of the wealth, as well as recognized l i t e r a r y merit, of his written oeuvre the r e . i s , at the present time, a deplorable lack of major studies. It i s hoped that the present investigation w i l l not only help to f i l l an e x i s t i n g gap, but also serve to stimulate further research. It i s also the f i r s t time that Gtltersloh's n o n - f i c t i o n a l writings, e.g. Die Bekenntnisse  eines modernen Malers, as well as Heimito von Doderer's Der F a l l Gutersloh have been given more than peripheral attention i n a longer study. The f i r s t was considered necessary since i t stands as the major statement on art by the painter/writer; the second, because i t i s generally considered to be the most s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to the secondary l i t e r a t u r e , although none of the c r i t i c s who point t h i s out have discussed the work to any extent. I t may very well be that due to Doderer's abstruseness and the contra-dictory nature of his t r e a t i s e , scholars have shied away from giving more than a cursory glance at the material. The same could also be assumed for Gtltersloh's Bekenntnisse. The narrative nature of Gtltersloh's painted miniatures has been i l l u s t r a t e d on the basis of three representative examples. The attempt was made to show that these miniatures are permeated with the writer's imagination, 190 and that the narrative component i s an important aspect i n the o v e r a l l assessment and appreciation of the miniatures. Yet a "conclusive" verdict on the interconnectedness of the two art forms i s hardly possible; as Wendy Steiner comments: . . . there can be no f i n a l consensus about whether and how the two arts resemble each other, but only a growth i n our awareness of the process of comparing them. . . . Although Gutersloh wrote within a s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , i . e . , the Austrian, and was obviously aware of major l i t e r a r y trends during his productive years, i t i s evident that his work i s unique i n the sense that i t i s not representative, by and large, of any l i t e r a r y period, nor do there seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k s to any other a r t i s t (painter or writer) of the same period. As far as the stories are concerned, i t would be impossible to place t h e i r year of o r i g i n i n any s p e c i f i c decade could they not be dated on the basis of publication d e t a i l s . What i s clear i s that the painter Gutersloh's pronounced v i s u a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s must also stand as the most distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his f i c t i o n a l works. It was pointed out that i n previous centuries, the existence of a dual talent was r a r e l y disputed, but that i t i s generally viewed with suspicion in twentieth century a r t i s t s . Yet there are a r t i s t s whose existence a l l a y s t h i s suspicion, such as Kokoschka, Barlach, and many others. Heimito von Doderer, writing about 1 91 Gutersloh, saw the dual creative process as "problematic" in essence; there i s no evidence, however, that i t was a tangible handicap for the a r t i s t . On the contrary: seeing p i c t o r i a l l y , and being fascinated with the surface of objects has resulted, i n his case, i n an aesthetic a r t i c u l a t i o n which i s d i s t i n c t l y unique. The question of genre was given some attention due to the absence of a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a for Gutersloh's s t o r i e s , as well as the lack of one cohesive, generally applicable theory of short f i c t i o n . The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of f i t t i n g a l l of Gutersloh's stories into one (or several) of the multiple t r a d i t i o n a l choices available seemed to demonstrate the need for more f l e x i b l e concepts and methods of dealing with short f i c t i o n . Focusing on p i c t o r i a l i s m as the predominant l i n k between a l l of the s t o r i e s appeared to be a l o g i c a l point of departure for attempting a meaningful analysis, once the existence of t h i s feature had been recognized. The act of viewing a picture was perceived as happening in progressive stages, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n cases where the small s i z e of the canvas would make the immediate visu a l recognition of every d e t a i l d i f f i c u l t ; Gutersloh's painted miniatures are a case i n point. A more comprehensive assessment of the "landscape"--a term used metaphorically for whatever i s portrayed on the c a n v a s — a f t e r an i n i t i a l , 1 92 o v e r a l l impression would only be achieved, therefore, by l e t t i n g the eye proceed from the foreground to the background before focusing on a number of other s a l i e n t features such as colour. It was found that t h i s method of looking at Gtltersloh's painted miniatures could also be applied to the f i c t i o n a l miniatures, a l b e i t i n a s l i g h t l y modified fashion to allow for the fact that one i s a v i s u a l , the other a verbal medium. Each d e t a i l i n the f i c t i o n a l miniatures i s "drawn" as meticulously as are the d e t a i l s i n the small paintings. Since many of the author's statements are made i n d i r e c t l y , i . e . , by depicting, for example, the emotions of a character through one fan t a s t i c image rather than through dialogue, monologue or other more conventional means of l i t e r a r y characterization, the "exterior landscape" had to be expanded to encompass t h i s other dimension which I have termed the " i n t e r i o r landscape;" t h i s i n c l u s i o n allowed for a broader and more detailed analysis of the s t o r i e s . An i n i t i a l reading of the st o r i e s revealed t h e i r very c a r e f u l delineation, i . e . , the a r t i s t ' s providing the parameters of each narrative painting by introducing a p r i n c i p a l character, theme, or object almost immediately and returning to t h i s f o c a l point at the end of the story. I t i s one of a number of p i c t o r i a l devices Gtltersloh uses most 1 9 3 e f f e c t i v e l y : delineating, or o u t l i n i n g , the very "form" of the narrative picture before " f i l l i n g i n " with s p e c i f i c shapes, colours, and even a certain ( l i n g u i s t i c ) texture. Invariably, the reader i s "put into the p i c t u r e " immediately instead of being led into the story more gradually; there are few examples of narrational retardation (digression, asides, etc.) which i s the most distinguishing character-i s t i c of the novels. Generally speaking, the more digressions there a r e — u n l e s s they constitute purely descriptive passages—the fewer p i c t o r i a l elements are in evidence. The next stage of l i t e r a r y perception encompassed figures and objects i n the "foreground" of each verbal picture, i . e . , elements which constitute the focal point of the narrative. Figures, generally, have the same "wooden" or s t a t i c quality in both types of miniature; invariably, they are one-dimensional figures rather than fully-developed characters. They are "presented" as i n a painting, rather than given depth through such narrative means as internal monologue, dialogue, etc. Frequently, figures appear as "outsiders," alienated from t h e i r environment as, for example, i n "Die Heimkehrer," or "Lasst uns den Menschen machen." However, they are given the same p i c t o r i a l attention by the author as those who are completely integrated with t h e i r environment; V i k t o r i a i n the story of 1 94 the same name i s a t y p i c a l example. Nor does Gtltersloh describe a r t i s t figures consistently more v i s u a l l y than others; where he adopts an almost excessively discursive s t y l e , as i n "Eine Malergeschichte" which revolves around painting, p i c t o r i a l i s m i s barely evident. Most of the protagonists are male; women are generally cast i n supportive and secondary rSles and largely defined by their r e l a t i o n s h i p to men, i . e . , most often as wife or mistress, s i s t e r , daughter or mother, few of whom are portrayed as possessing the same "native" i n t e l l i g e n c e as men. In a l l cases, however, the "presentation" of figures i s primarily p i c t o r i a l ; gender, occupation, status within the family hierarchy, or i n t e l l i g e n c e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which neither act as a p a r t i c u l a r "stimulus" nor as a deterrent as far as the writer's p i c t o r i a l imagination i s concerned. Since the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of figures--or a story's s p e c i f i c focus--points d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to a story's theme as well as the author's point of view, i t seemed plausible not to discuss them separately. It was established that a c e r t a i n thematic c o r r e l a t i o n exists between the painted and the f i c t i o n a l miniatures: love i n i t s various manifestations, death, family c o n f l i c t , art and the problematic nature of the a r t i s t are themes to which 1 9 5 Gtltersloh returns again and again. Despite the fact that Gtltersloh has a d e f i n i t e p r e d i l e c t i o n for the themes of love and marriage, the p i c t o r i a l handling of one theme i s as v i v i d as that of another, as long as the author does not interrupt the flow of the narrative with lengthy asides which appear to r e s u l t i n a temporary "absence" of the painter Gtltersloh, and a decrease of v i s u a l elements. The writer's point of view changes from that of omniscient author, to author-cum-narrator, or f i r s t person singular and t h i r d person singular narrator, the l a t t e r voice being used most frequently. But despite these modifications within the s t o r i e s c o l l e c t i v e l y (or within one story, such as "Die Fabel von der Pythia"), the p i c t o r i a l  approach predominates, and i s diminished only by occasional digressions and interruptions of the s t o r y - l i n e , generally in conjunction with the voice of the omniscient author. A closer look at the setting of the s t o r i e s — u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as Austrian—revealed that they are r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t as they are, by and large, i n the paintings; i n both types of miniature they usually serve merely as a backdrop for the action. Exterior settings impart a c e r t a i n l i f e l e s s n e s s , or stage-like atmosphere; i n neither medium can Gtltersloh be labeled a "landscape a r t i s t . " P i c t o r i a l descriptiveness i s rather more evident i n i n t e r i o r settings 1 96 where the attention to minute d e t a i l implies the creative s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the painter. Colour i s as important i n the s t o r i e s as i t i s i n the pictures—which means that i t i s not an overwhelming feature, but s i g n i f i c a n t nevertheless. Colour i s used pre-dominantly for i t s expressive function, i . e . , to express, to "demonstrate" the nature of an object or a s e t t i n g . This i s most pronounced i n isolat e d , framed "pictures," usually involving an i n t e r i o r s e t t i n g . Except for "Osterreich-isches E r l e b n i s , " Gutersloh does not use colour to impart a sense of perspective and distance (nor does he use colour for t h i s purpose i n the painted miniatures, by and large); generally speaking, colour has a purely ornamental purpose. The writer i s disinterested i n the symbolism of colour, as i s the painter; there are only two instances of a b r i e f symbolic reference to the V i r g i n Mary, i . e . , in "Die Selbstlosen" and "Der sentimentale junge Mann." Metaphorical "colouring," however, i s very pronounced i n the majority of the s t o r i e s ; and the more elaborate the metaphor, the more evident i s Gutersloh's a f f i n i t y with Fantastic Realism. One of the more i n t r i c a t e p i c t o r i a l devices found i s that of framing, where part of a story i s set off from the rest of the work, as by a "frame." These pictures within 1 97 pictures are p a r t i c u l a r l y v i v i d and sharply contoured; i n these instances, the narrative flow i s often interrupted i n favour of a detailed description of the object, or s i t u a t i o n , for greater e f f e c t . The r e s u l t i s an i n t e n s i f i -cation of the s t a t i c or p i c t o r i a l quality of these s e l f -contained verbal pictures. Highly v i s u a l stage e f f e c t s could also be is o l a t e d i n a number of the s t o r i e s as well as i n the painted miniatures; and given the fact that for a period of time the young Gtltersloh worked as a stage designer and d i r e c t o r t h i s i s , perhaps, not s u r p r i s i n g . "Pan und die Dame" i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t example of a story which could be transformed almost in s t a n t l y into a perfectly "staged" theatre sketch. The creation of psychological depth, the depiction of the " i n t e r i o r landscape," i s brought about through the graphic presentation of s l i g h t l y f a n t a s t i c "pictures." The ext e r n a l i z a t i o n of inner processes by t h i s means i s not only unique, but very e f f e c t i v e i n creating the o v e r a l l mood of a given story. Here the author i s rather more of an i l l u s t r a t o r than commentator. Themes are often i l l u s t r a t e d by the f l e e t i n g reference to mythological or b i b l i c a l motifs, or names, as i n "Ein Held seiner Zeit" where the name "Abel" has a s p e c i f i c connotation i n terms of the murder committed. Love i s also externalized through graphic imagery, as i s intense d i s l i k e , which i s succinctly 1 98 i l l u s t r a t e d i n such s t o r i e s as " V i k t o r i a " and "Der sentimentale junge Mann." The i n t e r i o r landscape i s occasionally enhanced by Gtltersloh's i r o n i c tone which generally i s expressed p i c t o r i a l l y ; i n these instances, major as well as minor figures are depicted equally i r o n i c a l l y . Yet the writer i s never s a r c a s t i c , but adopts a rather benign attitude toward his f i c t i o n a l creations. However, the greatest enhancement or il l u m i n a t i o n of inner states the writer achieves through the use of Fantastic Realism. Despite Gutersloh's prominence as one of the founders of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, art experts consider his paintings to be predominantly " r e a l i s t i c . " According to Heribert Hutter, Wieland Schmied and others, the " f a n t a s t i c " element i n the painted miniatures i s achieved largely through Gutersloh's exaggeration of the subject matter and i t s extremely d e t a i l e d execution. The same can be said for the f i c t i o n a l miniatures: many of them contain one fa n t a s t i c image, or "picture," whereas the story as a whole w i l l r e f l e c t a world the reader can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y with. This occasional and s l i g h t transformation of r e a l i t y i s usually within the context of a given characterization or s i t u a t i o n ; i t rarely lacks a l o g i c a l or psychological foundation, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s used to 1 9 9 reveal the inner s e l f of a character. Here the writer has indeed imbued the figures i n a p a r t i c u l a r story with a ce r t a i n depth of characterization. In these images, the counterparts of Fantastic Realism in painting, Gutersloh makes use of the f u l l range of p i c t o r i a l devices described in t h i s study, i . e . , delineation, framing, dramatization, and colour. Aspects such as point of view, theme and characterization usually are also present, depending on the length of the "pictures." One comes to the conclusion that a fusion between the exterior and the i n t e r i o r landscape has been accomplished through the use of Fantastic Realism, and that these pictures form the most poignant and a r t i s t i c a l l y eloquent statement within each of the f i c t i o n a l miniatures. In the opinion of t h i s writer, an investigation of the stories would lack substance and v a l i d i t y i f one f a i l e d to recognize and interpret t h e i r p i c t o r i a l nature. As far as the a r t i s t himself i s concerned, an i n v e s t i -gation of t h i s sort which "merely" uses--and reasons with--the tools of l i t e r a r y or p i c t o r i a l analysis would s t i l l seem to be limi t e d , at least as far as Gutersloh i s concerned; as he comments: "Mit dem Verstande a l l e i n . . . kann man was Kunst i s t , weder selbst verstehen, noch einem zweiten b e g r e i f l i c h machen" (Kunst, 5 ) . In the s p i r i t of Gutersloh, 2 0 0 the writer of t h i s study f e e l s that the reasoned, "objective" approach needs the addition of such "subjective" measures as aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t y and an i n t u i t i v e sense of value; only then w i l l an analysis l i k e the present one provide tangible and s a t i s f y i n g r e s u l t s . To conclude with Emil Staiger: Ich komme so . . . wieder auf den persttn-lichen Ursprung jeder Interpretation zurttck. Ob i c h mich nun bewusst auf das, was mich am meisten lockt, beschrSnke oder VollstSndig-k e i t erstrebe, e i n s e i t i g b l e i b t meine Darstellung immer. . . . Ich habe mein Geftlhl geprtlft und habe den Nachweis erbracht, dass es stimmt. 201 Appendix A Gtltersloh Scholarship: Major Studies The absence of an edi t i o n of c o l l e c t e d works and the fact that much of Gtltersloh's oeuvre i s out of p r i n t presents some d i f f i c u l t y , and i s possibly one of the reasons for the r e l a t i v e scholarly disregard of Gtltersloh. Most of the short prose works were o r i g i n a l l y published in a variety of (since defunct) newspapers and journals; only a portion of them has been republished, without reference, however, to the dates of i n i t i a l p ublication. Under the circumstances i t i s hardly surprising that so f a r only the more accessible major novels have received c r i t i c a l attention. Nor i s there, to date, a comprehensive bibliography; ex i s t i n g ones proved incomplete on closer examination, with a high frequency of incorrect data. Existing research amounts to a few studies only; the major focus appears to have been on Gtltersloh's most recently published novel Sonne und Mond (1962) and to a lesser extent on the e a r l i e r novels. The shorter prose works, poetry, and essays have not been given comprehensive attention beyond a footnote or other b r i e f reference. In the major studies the short f i c t i o n a l works 2 0 2 have only been mentioned i n passing, or not at a l l ; Gutersloh as painter and founder of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism i s referred to only b r i e f l y in two of the l i t e r a r y studies, i . e . , those of Trommler and Ludtke. The following i s a b r i e f summary of the f i v e major studies which were accessible. Frank Trommler's study, o r i g i n a l l y a d i s s e r t a t i o n and e n t i t l e d Roman und Wirklichkeit: Eine Ortsbesetimmung am 1 B e i s p i e l von Musil, Broch, Roth, Doderer und Gtltersloh deals with Gutersloh's novels, primarily Sonne und Mond. One of i t s major concerns i s the importance of r e l i g i o n i n Gutersloh's work, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n reference to Thomas Aquinas. Addressing himself to the issue of realism, Trommler i n s i s t s that prevalent theories of realism do not pertain to any of the works discussed; that, rather, these authors were engaged i n the depiction of an i n d i v i d u a l "dream r e a l i t y " (53). Regarding Gutersloh, Trommler maintains that Gutersloh's Dichtung i s t weder eine neue Welt noch Reproduktion einer a l t e n . Sie i s t Verwirklichung als Sprache, ihre RealitMt i s t der Prozess 'dialektischer Untersuchung' (155). 203 S i m i l a r i t i e s between the f i v e Austrian writers are succinctly drawn. There i s no s p e c i f i c reference to Gtltersloh's short prose works. In Hannes Rieser's comparative study, Doderer und 2 Gtltersloh: Metaphor ik und ' t o t a l e r Roman ' , the l a t t e r author i s represented only by Sonne und Mond, Doderer primarily by Die DMmonen (1956). This i s an analysis with p a r t i c u l a r stress on language. More scope i s given to Doderer than to Gtltersloh. Rieser points to the l a t t e r ' s "uniqueness" as well as s i m i l a r i t y with other writers (Thackeray, Swift, Sterne, et al.) but, ultimately, finds i t d i f f i c u l t to "categorize" Gtltersloh (25). Rieser considers Gtltersloh the writer as being i d e n t i c a l with Gtltersloh the painter, but does not elaborate as far as the l a t t e r i s concerned. What might be analyzed as an obvious and fundamental pa r a l l e l i s m between his l i t e r a r y and p i c t o r i a l works, Rieser discusses only i n the context of Sonne und Mond, adopting a somewhat negative stand: for him, Gtltersloh's characters are neither "believable" nor " r e a l i s t i c " (30). Realism ("Wirklich-keitsnMhe") i n the sense of " r e a l i s t i c a l l y " conceived and depicted r e a l i t y i s of no inte r e s t to Gtltersloh, Rieser maintains, but without elaborating. 204 F e l i x Thurner's work, Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Studien 3 zu seinem Romanwerk, represents a thematic overview of the major novels with i n d i v i d u a l interpretations of the works, i n chronological order. 4 Thurner deals with d i f f e r e n t and/ or i d e n t i c a l themes for each novel, among others: love, sexuality, good versus e v i l , man versus woman, r e l i g i o n , monarchy versus republic, the a r t i s t , etc. He also dwells at some length on narrative s t y l e and perspective. Thurner's methodology i s not c l e a r l y defined, and the entire d i s s e r t a t i o n could be said to suffer from a lack of structure. Thurner also points to the c r i t i c ' s obvious handicap: the absence of an ed i t i o n of his coll e c t e d works. This i s s t i l l the case i n 1987. There are a number of points which would c a l l for some argument. F i r s t l y , Thurner i n s i s t s on what he terms "Gtlterslohs Ehrfurcht vor dem Wirklichen auch im Unbedeu-tendsten und der daraus resultierenden Verpflichtung zur mttglichst authentischen Wiedergabe" (39). This i s a highly arguable assumption. Gtltersloh's "Streben nach Naturtreue" which Thurner ascribes to him cannot be said to be an overriding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his works, from Die  tanzende Torin (1911) to Sonne und Mond (1962). That Gtltersloh, quite i n t e n t i o n a l l y , did not set out from a premise of r e a l i s t i c depiction i s also corroborated by his 205 non-fiction writings (essays) of whose existence Thurner seems to be only marginally aware. Secondly, Gutersloh's novels are said to be extensively "symbolhaf t"; Thurner points out that Gtltersloh's symbolism i s not applicable to a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l occurrence, but rather to the "Welt fundamentaler, geistiger Frage-stellungen" (53) . Thurner claims to find almost "hidden" a l l e g o r i c a l meanings i n a l l of the novels, e.g. the demise of the Habsburg monarchy. However, i f one had a s p e c i f i c hypothesis, namely that a l l Austrian writers of the post-monarchy era were obsessively concerned with i t s demise, one could probably prove i t . Unlike i n Joseph Roth's work, for example, the monarchy and i t s d i s s o l u t i o n i s not a p i v o t a l point i n Gtltersloh's a r t i s t i c concerns. In a l a t e r chapter, Thurner suddenly argues for Gutersloh's a h i s t o r i c a l position (161) without accounting for his change of opinion. Thirdly, Gutersloh's depictions of f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y , according to Thurner, are "Szenerien von traumhafter Ober-rea l i t M t " (55)--a statement t o t a l l y i n opposition to his argument, elsewhere, regarding the author's "Naturtreue." He goes on to say, ". . . mit einem Seitenblick auf Gtlterslohs Malerei ktinnte man die Darstellungsart mit 'magischem Realismus' oder 'phantastischem Realismus' 206 umschreiben" (55), but does not elaborate other than to describe t h i s form of r e a l i t y depiction as grotesque. There are further examples of Thurner's contradictory assessments from one chapter to the next, as for example: Gtlterslohs geradezu fanatische Orientierung an der Wirklichkeit . . . hat mit der Dar-stellung einer verfremdeten Welt intentions-mSssig nicht v i e l gemeinsam. Mttglich i s t immerhin, dass sich Intention und Wirkung nicht decken (55). Later, Thurner postulates that Gtltersloh's use of the term "naturalism," as i t pertains to i t s generally accepted meaning, i s one of h i s own "PrSgung," and one which has l i t t l e i n common with the generally accepted meaning of naturalism. Thurner also maintains that although Gtltersloh depicts characters i n very d e t a i l e d form, his i n t e r e s t i s largely centered on the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of h i s figures (75); Thurner claims they lack depth, and therefore b e l i e v a b i l i t y as " r e a l i s t i c " characters. One would tend to agree with these l a t t e r assessments; however, consistency i s not one of Thurner's strong points: regarding Eine sagenhafte Figur (1946), Thurner claims that " . . . die einzelnen Charaktere sind psychologisch genau augearbeitet" (94). Thurner's bibliography, described elsewhere as ". . . ausftlhrlich . . . fdr eine weitere BeschSftigung 2 0 7 mit Gutersloh wichtig," proved to be neither comprehensive 5 nor correct throughout. Susanne Ludtke's d i s s e r t a t i o n e n t i t l e d Humor und  Mythos: Eine Studie zu Albert Paris Guterslohs Roman 'Sonne  und Mond' constitutes a detailed analysis of Gutersloh's major novel, with only cursory reference to some of his other works. The author does not extend her discussion to the philosophical, ethnological or other aspects of humour and myth; far broader scope i s given to the occurrence of cer t a i n s t y l i s t i c devices (e.g. digression), the r e l a t i o n -ship between reader and f i c t i t i o u s narrator, the play with time ("ErzHhlzeit" and "erz^hlte Z e i t , " p. 1 1 ) , and the use of metaphor. For her actual analysis of humour, Ludtke draws to a large extent on Jean Paul's theories as l a i d down in his Vorschule der Aesthetik; Karl Kerenyi's and Ernst Cassirer's analyses constitute the basis for her discussions of myth. She regards antiquity as well as C h r i s t i a n i t y as equally important for Gutersloh's use of mythological themes; i n her opinion, they constitute the i n t e l l e c t u a l components of Gutersloh's oeuvre which he embellishes through the use of l i n g u i s t i c components such as metaphors, etc. In juxtaposition, the metaphorical use of C h r i s t i a n i t y as well as Greek and Roman mythology is seen to e f f e c t a d e f i n i t e modification--even suspension--of h i s t o r i c a l time as well as the chronological order within plots and 2 0 8 subplots. Ludtke sees Gutersloh as primarily interested in the archetypal and the u n i v e r s a l i t y of mythologems, without great concern with s p e c i f i c , hermetic mythological systems. A b r i e f comment can sum up the author's assessment of Gutersloh's short prose works: " A l l e vorher oder nachher [Sonne und Mond] erschienenen Romane, Erz&hlungen, Essays oder Gedichte hatten nur eine begrenzte i n h a l t l i c h e oder gehaltliche Breite" (4). Inasmuch as Sonne und Mond has been widely discussed as the prime example of the "t o t a l e r Roman"--by d e f i n i t i o n "unbegrenzt"--Ludtke i s correct; however, a comparison of d i f f e r e n t genres i s hardly f a i r nor p a r t i c u l a r l y l o g i c a l , and the implied dismissal of a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of Gtltersloh's l i t e r a r y output as "g e h a l t l i c h begrenzt" i s somewhat u n j u s t i f i e d . There i s a b r i e f chapter on Fantastic Realism. Ludtke defines realism as the representation of empirical facts, the f a n t a s t i c as a break within the natural order and the l o g i c a l progression of events; she does not elaborate, however. In her concluding chapter, Ludtke attempts a short comparison with Broch, Kafka, Musil and Doderer, establishing various points of s i m i l a r i t y but many more of fundamental divergence based largely on her view of Gutersloh as a "homo r e l i g i o s u s " (151) which has also been 209 pointed out by Thurner, Trommler, and Rieser. Ltldtke considers Gtltersloh's written and painted works as one unity without, however, addressing herself to the l a t t e r i n her analysis. R. Mayrhofer 1s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Distanz und Integration: 7 Essayistische Strukturen i n den Romanen Gtiterslohs, deals with only three of Gtltersloh's novels: Der Lfiqner unter  BUrgern (1922), Eine sagenhafte Figur (1946), and Sonne und  Mond. Mayrhofer maintains that one cannot d i f f e r e n t i a t e between Gtltersloh the painter and Gtltersloh the writer; there i s no attempt made, however, to i l l u s t r a t e or substan-t i a t e t h i s assumption. The author focuses on the importance of r e l i g i o n as the basis for understanding the rel a t i o n s h i p between the " r e a l " and the " s p i r i t u a l " world; but inasmuch as t h i s i s a foregone conclusion, Mayrhofer devotes far too much time to t h i s topic, without providing a p a r t i c u l a r l y independent or thought-provoking analysis. Mayrhofer views Gtltersloh's works as a sc a f f o l d ". . . a n dem das Eigentliche--die Gedanken--aufgehSngt werden ktinnen" (Introduction, 1); she d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between "Lebenswirklichkeit, Romanwirklichkeit und Essay," the sum t o t a l of which would produce what Mayrhofer c a l l s "Gtlterslohs eigensinnige W i r k l i c h k e i t " ( 3 7 ) . 21 0 Her arguments are not c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n v i n c i n g , however; f r e q u e n t l y , they are not presented i n a c l e a r and c o n c i s e manner, as f o r example: Wenn e r s t dann W i r k l i c h k e i t dynamisch e r f t l l l t und damit zur ganzen W i r k l i c h k e i t w i r d , so ktinnen wir--zuncfchst h y p o t h e t i s c h - - d i e gedeutete Welt a l s notwendige Voraussetzung ftlr d i e D a r s t e l l u n g der ganzen W i r k l i c h k e i t , der T o t a l i t & t im Roman oder zumindest ftlr das A n z i e l e n der T o t a l i t & t der D a r s t e l l u n g b e t r a c h t e n ( 4 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n : i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t as f a r as the s h o r t f i c t i o n genre i s concerned, e x i s t i n g major s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d no more than p e r i p h e r a l commentary. Given the f a c t of Gtltersloh's e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a r y oeuvre, f i c t i o n a l and non-f i c t i o n a l , the l i m i t e d range of t o p i c s chosen as w e l l as the almost e x c l u s i v e focus on Sonne und Mond by s c h o l a r s i s r e g r e t t a b l e . 21 1 Appendix B The following three reproductions were made from photographs appearing in Heribert Hutter 1s Beispiele (see Bibliography), with Professor Hutter's permission. p. 212 "Apres" (1923), Plate 12. Origin a l s i z e : 150 mm x 1 35 mm. p. 213 "Das Wartezimmer des Irrenarztes" (1954), Plate Ori g i n a l s i z e : 132 mm x 170 mm. p. 214 "Im Irrgarten der Liebe" (1960), Plate 27. Origin a l s i z e : 152 mm x 1 75 mm. 212 21 3 21 4 215 Notes Introduction 1 The term " l i t e r a r i s c h e Miniatur" (for "Kurz-geschichte") has been used previously. See Kurt Kusenberg, "Ober die Kurzgeschichte," Merkur, 19 (1965), p. 832. 2 In a l e t t e r to me dated March 22, 1985, Dr. Hutter writes: "Eine allgemeingtiltige D e f i n i t i o n ftlr Gtltersloh' sche 'Miniaturen' gibt es noch nicht." 3 See Jost Hermand, Literaturwissenschaft und Kunst-wissenschaft: Methodische Wechselbeziehungen s e i t 1900 (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1965), p. 68. 4 See also Theodor Sapper, A l l e Glocken der Erde: Expressionistische Dichtung aus dem Donauraum (Wien: Europa, 1974), p. 22. K r i s t i a n S o t r i f f e r , P r o f i l e VIII: "Osterreichische Kunst heute." 8.IX.1968 - 13.X.1968 (StSdtische Kunstgalerie Bochum), n.p. Albert Paris Gtltersloh, "Einleitende Worte zur Dichterlesung H.C. Artmann (23.4.1953)," Ertiffnungen, 7/20 (1967), pp. 17-18. Thurner speaks of Gtltersloh's " . . . unerschtttter-lichem Festhalten am bildhaften Denken." See F e l i x Thurner, Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Studien zu seinem Romanwerk (Bern: Lang, 1970), p. 149. Wolfgang Hutter, "Von seinen Tr&umen ausgesperrt," Kurier (Feb. 5, 1977), p. 31. See Viola Hopkins, "Visual Art Devices and P a r a l l e l s i n the f i c t i o n of Henry James." PMLA, 76 (Dec. 1961), p. 561, 21 6 1 0 Jean Hagstrum, The Sister Arts: The Tradition of  Li t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l i s m and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 161. 11 Marianna Torgovnick, The Visual Arts, P i c t o r i a l i s m , and the Novel: James, Lawrence, and Woolf (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985). 1 2 See Oskar Walzel, Wechselseitige Erhellung der  Kunste: Ein Beitrag zur Wurdigung kunstgeschichtlicher  Begriffe ( B e r l i n : Reuther & Reichard, 1917). 1 3 See Oskar Walzel, "Gehalt und Gestalt im Kunstwerk  des Dichters." Handbuch der Literaturwissenschaft (1929; rpt. Darmstadt: Gentner, 1957), p. 6. 1 4 I am indebted to Marianna Torgovnick whose study provided valuable insights into the complex problems of t h i s type of investigation. Although her (personal) method of l i t e r a r y investigation could not be applied to.my study, i t nevertheless brought me closer to formulating my own method. 15 " i n e f f e c t , the evocation of the novel's action i n terms of a picture e x i s t i n g outside the novel sidetracks the process of p i c t o r i a l i s m and c o n s t r i c t s the reader's v i s u a l imagination (81)." Chapter One 1 See Oskar Walzel, Wechselseitige Erhellung der Kunste: Philosophische Vortr&ge (B e r l i n : Kantgesellschaft, 1917) , p. 91 . 2 See Dorothy Reich, ed., G.E. Lessing: Laokoon (Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 43. 3 U l r i c h Weisstein, "Zur wechselseitigen Erhellung der Kunste." Komparatistik: Aufgaben und Methoden, Horst Rudiger, ed. (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1973), p. 153. 4 See b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l entries for Jean Hagstrum, Jeffrey Meyers, Wolfgang M. Faust, among others. 5 Henry I. Schvey, Oskar Kokoschka: The Painter as  Playwright (Detroit: Wayne State University, 1982), p. 28. 21 7 See E. Allen McCormick, "Poema Pictura Lo.quens: Li t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l i s m and the Psychology of Landscape," Comparative Literature Studies, 13, No. 2 (June 1976), p. 196. 7 Thomas Munro, The Arts and Their Interrelations (New York: L i b e r a l . A r t s , 1951). 8 See also Wolfgang M. Faust, Bilder werden Worte: Zum VerhMltnis von bildender Kunst und L i t e r a t u r im 20.  Jahrhundert oder Vom Anfang der Kunst im Ende der Ktinste (Mtinchen: Hanser, 1977), p. 29. 9 See Mary Gaither, "Literature and the Arts." Comparative Li t e r a t u r e : Method and Perspective, Newton P. Stallknecht and Horst Frenz, eds. (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1971), p. 199. 1 0 Kurt Wais, "Vom Gleichlauf der Ktinste." B u l l e t i n  of the International Committee of the H i s t o r i c a l Sciences, 9 (1937), p. 303. 11 See also Mario Praz, Mnemosyne: The P a r a l l e l Between  Literature and the Visual Arts (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970), p. 54. 1 2 See Kurt Btittcher and Johannes Mittenzwei, Dichter a l s Maler (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1980). 13 ' Rene Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1970), p. 128. 1 4 See also Bttttcher and Mittenzwei, p. 26. 1 5 For example, Rilke's attitude regarding Paul Klee's v e r s a t i l i t y i s well documented. In a l e t t e r to Wilhelm Hausenstein (1921) he writes: ". . . denn obgleich die Musik dem zeichnenden S t i f t GesetzmSssigkeiten unterlegt, die hier und drtlben gelten, so vermag ich doch diesem Sich-Verst&ndigen der Kttnste hinter dem Rticken der Natur nie ohne eine Art von Schauder zuzusehen. . . . " See Jan M. Brockmann, "Die sogenannte Doppelbegabung: Zu einer Theorie der 'multiplen' Expression," i n : Rudolf Z e i t l e r , ed. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of  Aesthetics (Uppsala: Acta U n i v e r s i t a t i s Uppsaliensis, 1972), p. 789. 21 8 1 6 See Wolfdietrich Rasch, ed., Bildende Kunst und  Li t e r a t u r : Beitrctge zum Problem ihrer Wechselbeziehungen  im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1970), p. 8. 1 7 See Jan Brockmann, "Die sogenannte Doppelbegabung," p. 791 . 1 8 See, for example, Karl E. Webb, "Rainer Maria Rilke and Paul Cezanne: A S t y l i s t i c Comparison." In: Walter H. Sokel, Albert A. Kipa and Hans Ternes, eds. Probleme der  Komparatistik und Interpretation: F e s t s c h r i f t fiir Andre von  Gronicka zum 65. Geburtstag am 25.5.1977 (Bonn: Bouvier, 1978), pp. 182-192. See also Karl E. Webb, "Else Lasker-Schdler and Franz Marc: A Comparison," Orbis Litterarum 33 (1978), 280-298. 1 9 See also Jost Kirchgraben, Gerhard J. Lischka and others c i t e d i n the bibliography. 2 0 Alfred Schmeller, "fJber Gtltersloh a l s Maler," Protokolle (1968), p. 10. 21 See Heribert Hutter, ed., A.P. Gtltersloh. Beispiele: Schriften zur Kunst. B i l d e r . Werkverzeichnis (Wien: Jugend und Volk, 1977), p. 3. Hutter i s an art expert and Professor (Akademie der bildenden Ktinste, Vienna) who knew Gtltersloh intimately. 22 Beispiele, p. 4. 2 3 "In dieser Doppelbegabung Gtlterslohs, die sich manchmal z e i t l i c h und tirtlich v t i l l i g zu trennen scheint, i s t eine i n h a l t l i c h e und formale Ubereinstimmung und ein stMndiges Reflektieren zu finden" (Beispiele, p. 4). 24 See B e i s p i e l e , p. 5. 25 See Heribert Hutter, ed., Zwischen den Zeiten: Texte und Miniaturen von A.P. GUtersloh (Wien: Rosenbaum, 1 967) , p. 7. 2 6 See, for example, Alan Best, i n the chapter "The Austrian T r a d i t i o n : Continuity and Change." In: Alan Best and Hans Wolfschtltz, Modern Austrian Writing: Literature  and Society a f t e r 1945 (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1980), p. 65. 27 Heimito von Doderer, Der F a l l Gtltersloh: Ein  Schicksal und seine Deutung (Mdnchen: Biederstein, 1961). 21 9 2 8 "Nicht im ' persttnlichen Leben' des Ktlnstlers l i e g t . . . jener dem Gebiet der Kunst gegenttber a l l e r d i n g s transcendente Punkt, den wir ftlr die r i c h t i g e Angel solcher Betrachtungen halten. Er l i e g t vielmehr im ewigen Kern der Person . . . dort, wo sich die ureigene Art des betreffenden Menschen erzeigt, zu s i t t l i c h e n Normen zu gelangen, a l l e s das neu schaffend, was von Anderen bereits vorgefunden wird" (p. 21). 2 9 L i t e r a t u r und K r i t i k , 68 (1972), 478. 30 Compare Humbert Fink: "Das Buch i s t eine Mischung aus widerstrebender Bewunderung, erschrockener Ratlosigkeit und einem Uberdreht barocken Sprachgef tlhl, das manche Abs&tze bis zur Unleserlichkeit v e r k l a u s u l i e r t . " Humbert Fink, "Osterreichisches Zweigestirn: Die  Erzghler Gtltersloh und Doderer," Der Monat, 15, No. 176 (1963), p. 62. 31 32 See Heimito von Doderer, Der F a l l Gtltersloh, p. 95 . . da mt>gen wir denn . . . erkennen, dass d e r l e i spezifische FHhigkeiten nicht i n der innersten Wesenszelle des Menschen beheimatet sind, da sie ja von ihm gewisser-massen a l s ein Fremdes erst angetroffen werden: dass sie also i n einem mehr nach aussen zu gelegenen Wachstumsringe des geistigen Individuums ihren Ort haben" ( F a l l , p. 18). The rather forced concretization of intangible psychological processes which Doderer expresses here and elsewhere does not become clearer i n t r a n s l a t i o n . 33 See, for example, Anni Best, Germanistik, 3, No. 1 (1962), p. 89. ^ 4 See Hansjttrg Graf, "Die Schltlssel zum Schloss: Notizen zu A.P. Gtltersloh Sonne und Mond," A.P. Gutersloh: Autor und Werk (Mtlnchen: Piper, 1 962), p. 27. 3 5 See Susanne Ltldtke, Humor und Mythos: Eine Studie  zur Gtlterslohs Roman ' Sonne und Mond' (Diss. Wien, 1 973). 3 6 Hugo Ignatus, "Paris von Gtltersloh," Die Action, 3, No. 29 (1913), p. 704. 37 Claus Pack, "Parturiunt Montes," Wort und Wahrheit, No. 18 (1963), p. 226. 3 8 Karl Kraus, "Paris von Gtltersloh: Polemik," Die Fackel, No. 391/392 (Jan. 21, 1914), p. 23. 220 3 9 Peter von Tramin, "Unterwegs zum totalen Roman," Forum, 9 (1962), p. 103. 40 Otto Breicha, "Trampolin ins Metaphysische," Wort i n  der Zei t, 11, No. 6 (1965), p. 50. 41 Ernst Randak, "Sonne und Mond," Du, 23, No. 6 (1963), p. 53. 4 2 Hans J . Frtthlich, "Albert Paris Gutersloh: 5. Februar 1887 i n Wien - 16. Mai 1973 in Wien," Jahresring, 74/75 (1974), p. 193. 4 3 Franz B l e i , "Kleine Rede auf Gutersloh (1937)," Agathon: Almanach auf das Jahr 47 des 20. Jahrhunderts (Wien: 1947), pp. 67-68. 44 Term also applied to Gutersloh by Alfred Focke, "Grabrede fur Paris von Gutersloh," L i t e r a t u r und K r i t i k , No. 78 (Sept. 1973), p. 451. 45 "Das Ganze des Genies aber: es i s t t e r r e s t r i s c h nicht bestimmbar, hat keine irdischen Begrenzungen im Gela\if igen." See B l e i , "Kleine Rede auf Gutersloh," p. 68. 4 6 This seems to have been a " r e c i p r o c a l " assessment; see Albert Paris Gtltersloh, "Nachwort zu Franz B l e i . " In: Franz B l e i : Schriften i n Auswahl (Munchen: Biederstein, 1 960 ) , p. 641. 4 7 B l e i , "Kleine Rede auf Gutersloh," p. 70. 48 See Ernst Schtinwiese, ed., Franz B l e i : Zwischen  Orpheus und Don Juan (Wien: Stiasny, 1965), p. 112. 4 9 Gutersloh's only son, and as a painter perhaps more prominent than his father. 50 See Wolfgang Hutter, "Von seinen Tr&umen nicht ausgesperrt," Kurier (Feb. 5, 1977), p. 31. 51 See Kurt Btittcher, Johannes Mittenzwei, Dichter  als Maler, p. 25. 221 Chapter Two 1 "An s t a t t [ s i c ] eines romanhaften Berichtes von meinem Leben, der erst wieder gedeutet werden musste, um als Aussage einen Sinn zu bekommen, um fur ein Werk neben anderen Werken gelten zu kttnnen, verfasse i ch eine Biographie quasi un'allegoria." Albert Paris Gtltersloh, Die Bekenntnisse eines modernen  Malers (Wien: Zahn und Diamant, 1926), p. 129. 2 See also Northrop Frye's comments i n Anatomy of  C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays (New York: Atheneum, 1967), p. 5. Gutersloh i s b a s i c a l l y c r i t i c a l of fellow a r t i s t s " . . . die malen wie Leute von Gestern oder Menschen von Ubermorgen" (8). 4 See K r i s t i a n S o t r i f f e r , "Osterreichische Kunst heute," P r o f i l e VIII, 8.IX.1968 - 13.X.1968 (StSdtische Kunstgalerie Bochum). 5 e P. 9" In Katalog zu A.P. Gutersloh: Grafik. Lyrik. Prosa. Galerie Junge Generation, Wien (15.10. - 9.11.1963), At one point he does actually see himself as his own "work" (Bekenntnisse, p. 102). 7 See A.P. Gutersloh [Rede zur EriJffnung des Art-Club, A p r i l 12, 1947], Eroffnungen, 7/20 (1967), p. 17. Gtltersloh emphasizes elsewhere: " A l l e Ktlnste werden von Anachoreten ftlr Anachoreten getibt und sind schttpferische Umgehungen der irgendwann abgelegten Geltlbde: zu schweigen, einsam zu sein, mit der Welt zu brechen." See: "Kleiner Kursus tlber die Form," i n : Albert Paris Gutersloh, Zur Situation der modernen Kunst: Aufs&tze  und Reden (Wien: Forum, 1963), p. 47. "Die Imitatio C h r i s t i und die Summa Theologiae sind die einzigen Btlcher, die dauernd zu lesen ich mir erlaube . . . obwohl ich unwtlrdig bin, sie zu lesen." Albert Paris Gutersloh, "Welches Buch nehmen Sie i n den Urlaub mit?" Freude an Buchern, 3/8 (1952), p. 186. 1 0 This extends to the general area of education as well; l i b e r a l i z a t i o n i s seen as deadly and the meaning of education as having been d i s t o r t e d beyond redemption: "Die 222 Lust, womit Krethi und P l e t h i lernen, i s t die Euthanasie des Schulsinns" (Bekenntnisse, p. 118). 11 See Johann Muschik, Die Wiener Schule des Phantas- tischen Realismus (Wien: Jugend und Volk, 1974), p. 140. 1 2 See, for example, Ernst Fuchs, "Uber Gtltersloh," L i t e r a t u r und K r i t i k , 68 (October 1972): "Blicke ich heute auf sein Wirken zurtlck, so muss ich sagen, dass mir der * Aufbruch zur modernen Kunst in Osterreich nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg ohne seine Stellung a l s unser Lehrer undenkbar scheint. . . . Er i s t ein Prophet der Ktinstler, durch ihn spricht der Geist der Kunst, der den Menschen j a hervor-gebracht hat, sich aus" (p. 481). 1 3 See Alessandra Comini, The Fantastic Art of Vienna (New York: Ballantine, 1978), p. 25. 1 4 See Comini, The Fantastic Art. . . , p. 25. 1 5 " . . . [die Ktinstler] . . . die nie zusammen ein Manifest herausgegeben haben und die auf kein gemeinsames Programm eingeschworen sind." Wieland Schmied, Zweihundert  Jahre phantastische Malerei, II (Mttnchen: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1980), p. 236. 1 6 See Muschik, Die Wiener Schule, p. 56. 1 7 "Das phantastische Kunstwerk i s t niemals ein ahistorisches oder 'zeitloses' Phctnomen, doch steht es nicht unbedingt i n einem kunstgeschichtlichen Stilzusammenhang." Schmied, Zweihundert Jahre. . . , I I , p. 26. 1 8 See Wilhelm Mrazek, "Malerei zwischen Traum und Wirkl i c h k e i t , " Die Entwicklung der Wiener Schule (Katalog zur Ausstellung 12. Juni - 21. J u l i 1968), n.p. 1 9 So f a r i t seems to have been d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to formulate a theory of the " f a n t a s t i c . " Thomson and Fischer do not see i t as a s p e c i f i c genre: "Formal gesehen ergeben sich so gut wie keine Anhaltspunkte wie zum B e i s p i e l bei einem Gattungsbegriff 'Tragttdie' oder 'Novelle'" (p. 36). What i s often seen i n connection with the grotesque, the manneristic, the absurd, the magical i s in t h e i r opinion primarily the c o n f l i c t between two ir r e c o n c i l a b l e orders, or systems of l o g i c , i . e . , the empirical and the s p i r i t u a l , " . . . wobei die Spannung zu wissen, ob die eine Ordnung fiber die andere dominiert und l e t z t l i c h i n s i c h aufheben kann, das ganze Werk durchzieht" (p. 36). The authors point to the fact that 223 such d i f f e r e n t writers as Stanislas Lem, Tzvetan Todorov, J.R.R. Tolkien, Roger C a i l l o i s , Claude Roy etc. a l l have diverging notions of the " f a n t a s t i c " (p. 53). They maintain that there i s even less of a theory when i t comes to the graphic a r t s : "Eine auf die bildenden Kunste bezogene Theorie des Phantastischen gibt es t r o t z verdienstvoller Anthologien nicht" (p. 76). See W. Thomson and Jens Malte Fischer, eds., Phantastik  in L i t e r a t u r und Kunst (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buch-gesell s c h a f t , 1980). 20 26. 21 22 See Schmied, Zweihundert Jahre. . . ,11, See Comini, The Fantastic Art. . . , p. 25. Muschik (Die Wiener Schule) quotes H.Th. Flemming, art c r i t i c of Die Welt: "Vor allem aber durchbrechen s i e die s e i t Cezanne herrschende Forderung nach einer Peinture pure, die f r e i sein s o i l von allem Literarischen, Symbolischen, Psychologischen. Fur sie gibt es keinen Gegensatz zwischen den kunstlerischen Kategorien" (p. 66). 23 See Mrazek, Die Entwicklung. . . , n.p. 24 See Praz, Mnemosyne, p. 172. 2 5 A l f r e d Schmeller, "H&upter. Aus einem grtisseren Zusammenhang: Uber Gtltersloh a l s Maler," Protokolle ( 1 968), p. 6. 2 6 See also Hutter, Zeiten, p. 11. 2 7 "Als Maler Autodidakt, hat er vermoge seiner genialen G e i s t i g k e i t die technische Einfachheit i n eine entztickende, tlberaus r a f f i n i e r t e P r i m i t i v i t S t umgewandelt. " Artur Roessler, "Paris von Gtltersloh," Die Action, 4 (1914), p. 561. 2 8 Elsewhere the colours are described as ". . . fleischbunt, f a h l , g i f t i g . " Malerei des Phantastischen  Realismus: Die Wiener Schule (Wien: Forum, 1964), p. 43. 2 9 In "Vorrede als Entwurf einer guten Nachrede," Neues  Forum, 14, No. 158 (1967), p. 155. 30 See Mrazek, Die Entwicklung. . . , n.p. 31 Some decades e a r l i e r , Artur Roessler came to the same conclusions: "Er malt . . . nicht etwas Bestimmtes, den 224 oder jenen Mann, dies oder jenes Weib, ein Ding, das ohnedem da i s t , sondern etwas, das noch nicht da war, nicht so da war, wie er es empfindet, sieht, d a r s t e l l t . Seine GemSlde sind der Ausdruck nervttser Empfindungen, empfindlicher Impressionen, entstanden gleichsam wie von selbst, absichtslos und hoffnungslos und dennoch von Verbitterung f r e i . " See "Paris von Gtltersloh," p. 561. 32 Since Gtltersloh spent a number of years as an actor, stage designer and director (under the name of Albert MathMus), th i s use of "stage e f f e c t s " i s , perhaps, to be expected. 33 As quoted in the Preface to Malerei des  Phantastischen Realismus, p. 11. 34 As, for example, i n Beispiele: Der h e i l i g e Franziskus wird mit dem Mantel bekleidet; Aufnahme der he i l i g e n Glara i n den Zweiten Orden; Der h e i l i g e Franziskus b e t t e l t bei seinen frtlheren Freunden; Die Inspiration; Paris r e i c h t Aphrodite den Apfel; etc. 35 Malerei des Phantastischen Realismus: Die Wiener  Schule, n.a., n.p. 3 6 See Albert Paris Gtltersloh, "Vorrede a l s Entwurf einer guten Nachrede," Neues Forum, 14/158, (1967), p. 155 (my emphasis). 37 "Ober K r i t i k und fiber mich s e l b s t , " Neues Forum, 2, No. 4 (1964), p. 261. 3 8 See Index, Beispiele; i l l u s t r a t i o n s to "Der sentimentale junge Mann" (p. 182); "GesprMch im Wasser" (p.182); "Die Selbstlosen" (p. 183); "Die Fabel vom Dilemma" (p. 184); "Die Menschenfreunde" (p. 184); "Ein Idi o t " (p. 184); "Lasst uns den Menschen machen" (p. 187); "Cave Veritatem" (p. 187). 39 See Beispiele, p. 183. 40 See Beispiele, plate 26. 41 Anton Lehmden i s a representative of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. See Johann Muschik, Die Wiener  Schule, p. 32. 42 See examples i n Beispiele. 225 Chapter Three A . P . G t l t e r s l o h , "Die F a b e l vom Dilemma," Die F a b e l n  vom E r o s (Wien: Luckmann, 1947), p p . 45-59. "Eine M a l e r g e s c h i c h t e , " J a h r e s r i n g (1965 /66) , p p . 170-177. 2 A l b e r t P . G t l t e r s l o h , L a s s t uns den Menschen machen. E r z a h l u n g e n (Wien: Luckmann, 1 962) . A . P . G t l t e r s l o h , Die F a b e l n vom E r o s (Wien: Luckmann, 1947) . A l b e r t P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h , F a b e l n vom E r o s ( F r a n k f u r t : I n s e l , 1 963) . 3 My emphas is . 4 My emphas is . Helmut H e i s s e n b t l t t e l , "Zu A l b e r t P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h 'Sonne und M o n d , ' " i n : A l b e r t P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h : A u t o r und Werk (Mfinchen: P i p e r , 1 962) , p . 32. Robert B l a u h u t : " O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e N o v e l l i s t i k des  20. J a h r h u n d e r t s (Wien: B r a u m f i l l e r , 1 966) , pp . 232-235. ^ A l b e r t P . G t l t e r s l o h , L a s s t uns den Menschen machen. W a l t e r H t i l l e r e r , "Die kurze Form der P r o s a , " A k z e n t e , 9 (1962) , 226-245. g K l a u s D o d e r e r , D ie K u r z g e s c h i c h t e i n D e u t s c h l a n d , i h r e Form und i h r e E n t w i c k l u n g (Darmstadt : W i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e B u c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , 1980) . 9 Ruth K i l c h e n m a n n , Die K u r z g e s c h i c h t e : Formen und  E n t w i c k l u n g ( S t u t t g a r t : Kohlhammer, 1978), p . 9. 1 0 "Die K u r z g e s c h i c h t e e n t z i e h t s i c h n i c h t nur j e d e r f e s t e n D e f i n i t i o n , sondern sogar den G r u n d b e g r i f f e n E m i l S t a i g e r s , der m i t ' e p i s c h , ' ' d r a m a t i s c h , ' ' l y r i s c h ' z e i t l o s e S t i l q u a l i t M t e n der e i n z e l n e n Werke . . . b e z e i c h n e t . . . . Auch der B e g r i f f des ' T y p u s , ' wie i h n E b e r h a r d L&mmert a u f z e i g t , oder d i e E i n t e i l u n g nach Geschehen, Raum und F i g u r , d i e Wolfgang Kayser a l s S t r u k t u r e l e m e n t a l l e r E p i k b e z e i c h n e t , ktinnen . . . nur Hinweise geben" (Ki lchenmann, p . 10 ) . 11 Thomas d i N a p o l i , "Problems i n D e f i n i n g the German ' K u r z g e s c h i c h t e , ' " S t u d i e s i n Shor t F i c t i o n , 15 (1978) , p p . 75-79. 226 1 2 James B. H a l l , e d . , The Realm of F i c t i o n : 74 Shor t  S t o r i e s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1977) . 1 3 Hans Bender , "Ortsbest immung der K u r z g e s c h i c h t e , " A k z e n t e , 9 (1962) , 205-225. 1 4 H.M. Wa idson , "The German Shor t S t o r y as a L i t e r a r y F o r m , " Modern Languages , 34 (1958 /59 ) , 121-127. 1 5 Graham Good, "Notes on the N o v e l l a , " Nove l ( S p r i n g 1 977) , p p . 197-211. 1 6 See Hermann L i n d n e r , e d . , F a b e l n der N e u z e i t : E n g l a n d , F r a n k r e i c h , D e u t s c h l a n d . E i n L e s e - und A r b e i t s b u c h (Munchen: F i n k , 1978) . 1 7 R e i n h a r d D i thmar , D ie F a b e l : G e s c h i c h t e , S t r u k t u r , D i d a k t i k (Paderborn : S c h o n i n g h , 1971) , p. 9 . 1 8 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the same author speaks of " d i e B i l d l i c h k e i t der F a b e l " (p . 160) , a c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c which i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r G t l t e r s l o h ' s f a b l e s . 1 9 Erwin L e i b f r i e d and J o s e f M. W e r l e , e d s . , Texte zur  T h e o r i e der F a b e l ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1978) . 20 K l a u s D o d e r e r , F a b e l n , Formen, F i g u r e n , Lehren ( Z u r i c h : A t l a n t i s , 1970) , p . 10. 21 P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h , "Die F a b e l von der M a l e r e i , " Wiener  Z e i t u n g , August 12, 1934, p p . 3 -4 . 22 G t l t e r s l o h , "Die F a b e l von der P y t h i a : E u a n d r i a an A r i s t i p p , " Agathon: Almanach auf das J a h r 46 des zwanz igs ten  J a h r h u n d e r t s (1945) , p p . 138-173. 23 Longer t i t l e s w i l l appear i n a b b r e v i a t e d form i n t e x t and n o t e s . 24 "Der G e n e r a l , " Menschen, p p . 105-113. 25 See a l s o Herber t E i s e n r e i c h , " A l b e r t P a r i s G t l t e r s l o h , " Handbook of A u s t r i a n L i t e r a t u r e , F r e d e r i c k Ungar , e d . (New Y o r k : Ungar , 1973) , p. 106. Gerhard J . L i s c h k a , Oskar Kokoschka . Maler und  D i c h t e r : E i n e l i t e r a r - M s t h e t i s c h e Untersuchung zu s e i n e r  Doppelbegabung ( B e r n : L a n g , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 74. 227 27 We can only assume that these changes were made by the author, or at least with his approval; the same i s true of the cut versions of a number of s t o r i e s . Where dr a s t i c changes have been made, the assumption i s that they were made by the author acting as his own editor. The s t o r i e s appearing i n the c o l l e c t i o n s were probably written between 1926 and 1946; see Peter Tramin, "Ontisch geht vor logisch," Wort i n der Zeit, 9 (1963), pp. 47-51. 2 8 "Der Henker," Menschen, pp. 181-183. 29 "Die Fabel von der Pythia: Euandria an A r i s t i p p , " Die Fabeln vom Eros, pp. 63-106. 30 Heimito von Doderer, ed. , Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Gewaltig staunt der Mensch (Wien: Stiasny, 1963), pp. 60-85. 31 "Die Fabel von der Malerei," Wiener Zeitung, August 12, 1934, pp. 3-4. A.P. Gutersloh, "Die Fabel von der Malerei," Die  Fabeln, pp. 163-169. Albert Paris Gtltersloh, "Die Fabel von der Malerei," Fabeln, pp. 85-88. A.P. Gtltersloh, "Die Fabel von der Malerei," Menschen, pp. 275-279. 32 Paris von Gtltersloh, "Der Brief aus Amerika," Die  Fahre, 1 (1946), pp. 357-363. 3 3 Paris Gtltersloh, "Der sentimentale junge Mann," Der  neue Merkur, 2 (1915/1916), pp. 704-712. 34 [Paris Gtltersloh], i n Wiener Zeitung, February 18, 1934, pp. 2-3. 35 See Menschen, pp. 147-153, as well as A.P. Gutersloh, "GesprMch im Wasser," Die gute neue Zeit: Erz^hlungen aus unserem Jahrhundert, Elisabeth Pable and Hans Weigel, eds. (Salzburg: Residenz, c i r c a 1962), pp. 117-125. 3 6 A.P. Gtltersloh, "Die Menschenf reunde, " Wort i n der  Zeit, 1, No. 3 (1955), pp. 135-146. Also see Menschen, pp. 185-206, and Fabeln, pp. 40-60. 3 7 Paris von Gutersloh, "Ein Idiot: Novelle," Das  Silberboot, 1 (1935), pp. 223-227. 228 Das Silberboot: Almanach auf das Jahr 1946, pp. 137-145. 3 8 "Der Heilige Aegidius (St. G i l l e s ) , E i n s i e d l e r i n Aries, t i l g t e , der Legende nach, k r a f t seiner H e i l i g k e i t eine Freveltat des Ktinigs Karl M a r t e l l . " 3 9 Paris Gtltersloh, "Ein ungewtihnlicher Gedanke," Wiener Zeitung, Weihnachtsbeilage 1934, n.p. 4 ^ "Gott spart nicht mit Zeichen," Die Presse (May 20, 1956), pp. 17-18. 4^ A.P. Gtltersloh, "Die innere Stimme auf dem Dorfe," Wiener Zeitung, February 17, 1957, n.p. 4 2 Albert Paris Gtltersloh, "Lasst uns Menschen machen," Heute, 3/46 (1960), pp. 13-15. 4 ^ Kandinsky, Uber das Geistige in der Kunst (1912; rpt. Bern: Be u t e l i , 1963), p. 84. 44 "Cave Veritatem," Menschen, pp. 143-146. 4 5 "Das GestMndnis," Fabeln, pp. 34-39. 46 The reduction of dramatis personae to nameless types i s of course an Expressionist convention as well. 4 ^ "Die Heimkehrer," Fabeln, pp. 26-33. 4 8 A.P. Gtltersloh, "Die Selbstlosen: Eine ErzShlung," Continuum: Zur Kunst Osterreichs in der Mitte des 20. Jahr-hunderts , ed. I n s t i t u t zur Ftirderung der Ktlnste in Oster-reich (Wien: Rosenbaum, n.d.), pp. 105-111. 4 9 "Osterreichisches Erlebnis," Menschen, pp. 7-11. 50 "Der tanzende B a l l , " Menschen, pp. 257-260. 5 1 Das Silberboot: Z e i t s c h r i f t fur L i t e r a t u r , 3 (1947), p. 385. 5 2 See Alfred Schmeller, "Ober Gtltersloh a ls Maler," Protokolle (1968), p. 5. 53 Gtltersloh voices t h i s peculiar a n t i - B r i t i s h bias on a number of occasions, s a r c a s t i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g to Englishmen as "peculiar": " . . . die stets den Balken im Aug' des N&ch-sten, aber nie den Spleen im eigenen sehn" (Wiener Zeitung, 229 June 2,1934). Unlike the Frenchman--"[Frankreich] . . . dieses grosse Volk, dieser Androkles unter den Vttlkern . . ." (Wiener Zeitung, December 28, 1933)--the Englishman comes i n for some rather negative c r i t i c i s m , e.g. " . . . [der EnglSnder], der es an Konservatismus mit dem Chinesen aufnimmt und was F o r t s c h r i t t l i c h k e i t anlangt, hinter einem Marsmenschen . . . nicht zurtlcksttlnde" (Schttpfung, p. 30). 5 4 Gtltersloh's comments elsewhere seem to f i t here as well, when he speaks of ". . . wildwuchernde Junggesellen, sozusagen Turnv&ter ohne Kinder, die auf irgendwelchen I n d i a n e r t e r r i t o r i e n der Natur i h r museales Dasein treiben oder i n der Tiefe der Grosstadt KleinstSdtchens Rheingold htlten. . ." (Schflpfung, p. 10). 5 5 Paris Gtltersloh, "Ein tisterreichisches Tagebuch-b l a t t , " Prager Presse, 2/68 (March 9, 1922), pp. 4-5. 56 Doderer (see Der F a l l Gtltersloh) and others- have pointed to Gtltersloh's avoidance of the psychoanalytical approach to l i t e r a t u r e ; one c r i t i c sees t h i s as an Austrian phenomenon as such, when he states that " . . . die meisten dieser Slteren Dichter lehnen die Psychoanalyse ab. . . . Dem Osterreicher i s t die Gestalt h e i l i g , s i e i s t erwachsen aus der Anschauung--und 'schauen' sein l i e b s t e s Verbum. . . .' See Hanns von Winter, "Der ttsterreichische Roman," Wort i n der Zeit, 4/4 (1958), p. 35. 57 What Thurner claims for Innozenz oder Sinn und Fluch  der Unschuld i s applicable here as well, i . e . , that the names are " z u f S l l i g und auswechselbar" where they occur at a l l (Thurner, p. 46). 5 8 Gtltersloh has, i n f a c t , referred to Weininger's book on at least one occasion, the implication being that he would have been f a m i l i a r with i t s premises. See "Einleitende Worte zur Dichterlesung H.C. Artmann," Ertiffnungen, 7/20 (1967), p. 17. 59 Gtltersloh states elsewhere: "Es i s t flberhaupt ein Kreuz mit den i n t e l l i g e n t e n Frauen im allgemeinen und den i n t e l l i g e n t e n EnglSnderinnen im besonderen, die von der v o l l e n L i n i e der Weiblichkeit einmal abgewichen sind" (Schtipfung, p. 29). 6 0 Compare also Bekenntnisse (pp. 39-44), as well as "An meine Mutter," Sonores Saitenspiel (Wien: Luckmann, n.d.), p. 80. 230 61 Thurner reached the same conclusion for the novels: "Gtltersloh hat kaum je Vollblutmenschen geschaffen. Die Figuren bleiben seltsam abstrakt. Sie stehen nicht ftlr s i c h a l l e i n . Ihre ReprSsentativfunktion verdrSngt jede i n d i v i d u e l l e Geltung. Das t r i f f t auf das ganze Werk zu. . .' (P. 76). 6 2 Doderer has observed the following regarding the novels: "Gtiterslohs Art der Erz&hlung ktinnte man als ein Zer-sehen des Lebens bezeichnen . . . Weltbild des Fliegen-Auges, vierhundert Facetten. Die Dynamik der ErzShlung kommt zum Stehen gegentiber der Deutlichkeit einer mehr seienden als geschehenden Welt." See Heinrich Vormweg, ed., Heimito von Doderer. Tangenten: Aus dem Tagebuch eines S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s . 1940- 1950 (Mtinchen: Biederstein, 1964), p. 129. 6 3 See Paris Gtltersloh, Die Rede tlber B l e i oder der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r in der Katholizita't (Hellerau: Hegner, 1 922), p. 15. 6 4 E r d t e i l , p. 143. ^ Other c r i t i c s disagree as well with the objection to the overemphasis of the use of "Untergang des alten Oster-r e i c h " as a major theme. See Werner Welzig, Der deutsche  Roman im 20. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart: Kroner, 1970), 2nd ed., p. 221. ^ Numerous published a r t i c l e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r those i n Die Rettung (published together with Franz Blei) speak very strongly for Gtltersloh's p o l i t i c a l concerns. 6 7 See the a r t i c l e s under the t i t l e "Unter der Zeitlupe" which appeared in the Wiener Zeitung between 1933 and 1935. 6 8 Paris Gtltersloh, "Ein Osterreichisches Tagebuch-b l a t t , " Prager Presse, 2/68, March 9, 1922, pp. 4-5. 6 9 Paris Gtltersloh, "Unterhaltung ttber einen Vater," Neue Schweizer Rundschau, 24 (1931), pp. 701-709. 7 0 Albert Paris Gutersloh, Kunst, p. 46. 7 1 A.P. Gtltersloh, "Quirinus," Protokolle (1 969), pp. 223-226. 231 72 Otto B a s i l , Herbert Eisenreich, Ivar Ivask, eds., Das grosse Erbe: Aufsatze zur tisterreichischen L i t e r a t u r (Wien: Stiasny, 1962), p. 45. 73 A l f r e d Focke, "Versuch tlber Albert Paris Gtlterslohs Materiologie," L i t e r a t u r und K r i t i k , 68 (1972), p. 470. 74 See Wilhelm Mrazek, Ars Phantastica, p. 12. 75 In t h i s connection Hugo von Hofmannsthal as well as Goethe seem to be the r e c i p i e n t s of his stringent c r i t i c i s m : " . . . d e r l e i Esoterikerfirlefartz haben wir schon zu unsern Lebzeiten den feinen Stthnen aus gutem Hause, die in Weimar oder Rodaun Tempeldienste versahen, tlberlassen." See "Nachwort," i n Franz B l e i : Schriften zur Auswahl (Mtlnchen: Biedermann, 1960), p. 651. 7 6 "In der Selbstdarstellung 'Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers' spricht Gtltersloh tlber seine auf kleinen BlMttern ausgef tlhrten Malereien und nennt es ihre ironische Absicht, 'Wichtiges en begatelle' zu behandeln. HMndigt er uns damit nicht den Schltlssel zum VerstSndnis seiner Werke aus, die er mit eben dieser Ironie 'Pinselhandschriften eines S c h r i f t s t e l l e r s ' nennt. . . ? Und s o l l t e man nicht meinen, dass dem Schreiber recht, was dem Maler b i l l i g i s t ? Humor und Konzilianz - tlber den Abgrtinden des Lebens -beschwingen Feder wie P i n s e l . " See Norbert Langer, "Albert Paris Gtltersloh," Dichter aus Osterreich, 4 (1 960), p. 54. 77 "Die Ironie kann nur eine vortlbergehende Erscheinung sein, und s o l l t e i h r Kulminieren auch noch tausend . . . Jahre dauern. Es steckt zu v i e l verstMndliche Psychologie hinter i h r , s i e i s t zu l e i c h t und zu schnell auf eine solche zurtlckzufflhren. . . . Einmal, frtiher oder spSter, werden a l l e Versuche der Ironie, eine genauere Welt zu inaugurieren . . . abgestellt werden durch die flachste Handbewegung der vereinigten Psychiater, Psychoanalytiker, Psychologen des Erdenrunds unter dem begeisterten B e i f a l l des Ptibels, der es endlich s a t t bekommen hat, sich bei dem Knopfe fassen zu lassen, der ihm nicht aufgehen w i l l . " ( E r d t e i l , p. 114) 7 8 "Liebe - GesprSch im Tartarus," i n Menschen, pp. 281 -282. 7 9 "Adonis," Die neue Rundschau, p. 964. 8 0 See Jost Kirchgraben, Meyer, Rilke , Hofmannsthal: Dichtunq und bildende Kunst (Bonn: Bouvier, 1971), p. 100. The statement i s taken from a chapter in which Kirchgraben makes a p a r t i c u l a r point of Hofmannsthal's visu a l 232 perception, quoting the writer as saying " i c h bin ein Dichter, weil ich b i l d l i c h erlebe" (99). Kirchgraben also ascribes to Rilke a "bildmMssiges Erfassen von Mensch und Welt" (17). 81 See Heribert Hutter, "Zu A.P. Gtltersloh 'Fabel von der Freundschaft,'" Alte und moderne Kunst, 112 (1970), p. 30. 8 2 Stories appearing under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s i n subsequent publications are not included i n the t o t a l . 8 3 Since black and white can be obtained from the other three, they are l i s t e d here as well, although i t i s r e a l i z e d that some a r t i s t s c a l l them "non-colours." 8 4 Paris Gutersloh, "Versuch einer Vorrede: In Memoriam Egon Schiele, Artur Roessler, ed. (Wien: Lanyi, 1921 ) , p. 28. 8 5 The reference to "Wundergrotte" evokes the description of Bernadette Soubirous' v i s i o n at Lourdes, i n j o u r n a l i s t i c accounts as well as i n Franz Werfel's Das Lied  von Bernadette, where the author speaks of the Virgin's "snowwhite dress," and a rather "wide, blue b e l t . " See Franz Werfel, Das Lied von Bernadette: Roman (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1959), p. 52. 8 6 See the dissertations c i t e d ; nearly a l l a r t i c l e s on Gutersloh contain at least one reference to language: a l l c r i t i c s point to the use of metaphor as one of the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Gutersloh,' s prose. 8 7 Humbert Fink, "Der Nachsommer Osterreichs: Albert Paris Gutersloh wird 70 Jahre," Frankfurter Allgemeine  Zeitung, 29 (Februar 2, 1967), p. 28. 8 8 Werner Welzig, Der deutsche Roman im 20. Jahr-hundert , p. 227. 89 Compare Hugo von Hofmannsthal, under " B i l d l i c h e r Ausdruck": "Man hort nicht selten die Rede: ein Dichtwerk se i mit bildlichem Ausdruck geziert, r e i c h an Bildern. Dies muss eine falsche Anschauung hervorrufen, als seien die Bilder - Metaphern - etwas a l l e n f a l l s Entbehrliches, dem eigentlichen Stoff, aus welchem Gedichtetes besteht, Susser-l i c h Aufgeheftetes. Vielmehr aber i s t der uneigentliche, der b i l d l i c h e Ausdruck Kern und Wesen a l l e r Poesie: jede 233 Dichtung i s t durch und durch ein Gebilde aus uneigentlichen Audrucken." L o r i s : Die Prosa des jungen Hugo von  Hofmannsthal ( B e r l i n : Fischer, 1930), p. 258. 90 Karl Webb, r e f e r r i n g to s t y l i s t i c equivalencies i n the painted and the written works of an a r t i s t , draws the analogy between colours i n painting and adjectives and adverbs i n poetry. See Karl E. Webb, "Else Lasker-Schtller and Franz Marc: A comparison," Orbis Litterarum, 33 (1978), p. 291. 91 To some extent, one might make the same claim for Gutersloh which George Steiner has made for James Joyce, namely the "exuberant counterattack . . . against the diminution of language," p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Sonne und Mond. See George Steiner, Language and Silence (New York: Atheneum, 1958, rpt . 1977), p. 31. 92 See Reinhard Urbach 1s review of "Die Fabel von der Freundschaft," L i t e r a t u r und K r i t i k , 45 (May 1970), p. 310. 93 "Die P e n i b i l i t & t von Guterslohs Malweise hat i n dem Streben nach Akribie eine Entsprechung, welches die Maler der 'Wiener Schule des Phantastischen Realismus' kenn-zeichnet." Johann Muschik, Die Wiener Schule des Phantas-tischen Realismus, p. 16. 94 Viol a Hopkins, "Visual Art Devices and P a r a l l e l s i n the F i c t i o n of Henry James," PMLA, 76 (Dec. 1961), p. 561. 9 5 See Albert Paris Gtltersloh, Per innere E r d t e i l : Aus  den "wttrterbtlchern" (Mtinchen: Piper, 1 966), p. 156. 96 Michael Scharang, "Das grammatische Denken," Protokolle (1967), p. 127. 97 Walter HBllerer, "Albert Paris Gutersloh," Weltstimmen: Weltbtlcher in Umrissen, 22/7 (1 953), p. 326. 98 See Gtlnter Blocker, "Der Triumph des Amateurs: Zu A.P. Guterslohs Romanwerk Sonne und Mond," Neues Forum, 1 0/1 18 (1 963) , p. 491. 9 9 See also Humbert Fink, "Der F a l l Gtltersloh," Hochland, 55 (1962/63), pp. 92-93. 1 0 0 It seems plausible that Gutersloh's "fatigue" induced by too much writing found r e l i e f i n painting a verbal picture as well; as the person closest to him for many decades has observed, "Das Schreiben war ihm das 234 Prim&re; gemalt hat er, wenn er zuviel geschrieben hat, und um die Mtldigkeit zu (iberwinden." Milena Dedovich i n [Beilage zum] Kurier (Vienna), December 9, 1977, p. 16. 1 01 1 02 1 03 1 04 "Ein Held seiner Z e i t , " Menschen, p. 41. "Das i s t Liebe," Fabeln, p. 83. "Die EnttSuschung des Gatten," Fabeln, p. 7.8. Paris Gtltersloh, "Adonis," Die neue Rundschau (1915), pp. 961 -965. 1 05 1 06 1 07 "Pan und die Dame," Menschen, p. 232. "Der Erbe," Fabeln, p. 94. Giving an example from Gtltersloh's f i r s t novel (Die  tanzende Ttirin), Thurner i n his d i s s e r t a t i o n also points b r i e f l y to the "filming technique" used there: "Die fthnlich-k e i t ergibt sich vermutlich daraus, dass Gtltersloh a l s S c h r i f t s t e l l e r eine vorwiegend optische Kunst b e t r e i b t . Als Augenmensch (Maler, aber auch Regisseur und B-Uhnenbildner) sieht er perspektivisch, d.h. i n Bildern mit Vordergrund und Hintergrund. Das Bedtlrfnis, einen bildhaften Handlungs-rahmen zu schaffen, wird wohl damit zusammenhSngen" (p. 27). 108 Heribert Hutter, "Der f e i n d l i c h e Z w i l l i n g , " Neues Forum, 14/158 (1967), p. 156. I 09 See also Joseph C h i a r i , Realism and Imagination (New York: Gordian, 1970), pp. 5-13. II 0 See Damian Grant, Realism (London: Methuen, 1970), p. 3 f f . 111 As, for example, the story c i t e d elsewhere, i . e . , "Der Erbe," which i s a case i n point: juxtaposition of h i s t o r i c a l time (1920's) with the depiction of characters as 19th or 18th century figures i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f a n t a s t i c -r e a l i s t painting, where h i s t o r i c a l or mythological time i s seen as concurrent rather than sequential. 112 Alan D. Best and Hans Wolfschtltz, eds., Modern  Austrian Writing: Literature and Society aft e r 1945 (London: Wolff, 1980), p. 67. 113 See Heinz Rieder, Der magische Realismus: Eine  Analyse von 'Auf dem Floss' von George Saiko (Marburg: Elwert, 1970). 235 Alessandra Comini, The Fantastic Art. . . , p. 24. Conclusion Wendy Steiner, The Colors of Rhetoric. . . , p. 2. 2 Emil Staiger, Die Kunst der Interpretation (Zurich: A t l a n t i s , 1955), p. 32. Appendix A 1 Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1966. 2 Diss. Salzburg, 1968. 3 Bern: Lang, 1970. 4 Die tanzende Tflrin (1911); Innozenz oder Sinn und  Fluch der Unschuld (1 922); Der Lugner unter Burgern (1 922); Eine sagenhafte Figur (1946); Sonne und Mond (1962). See Jens Malte Fischer's review i n Germanistik, 13, No. 1 (1972). 6 Diss. Wien, 1973. 7 Diss. Salzburg, 1975. 236 Abbreviations Used i n Text and Notes Albert Paris Gutersloh - Separate Publications 1. Die Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers 2. Die Fabel von der Freundschaft 3. Innozenz oder Sinn und Fluch der Unschuld 4. Der Lugner unter Burgern 5. Die Rede Uber B l e i , oder der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n der KatholizitMt 6. Sonne und Mond 7. Die tanzende Torin 8. Zur Situation der modernen Kunst - Bekenntnisse - Freundschaft - Innozenz - Lugner - B l e i - Sonne - Ttirin - Kunst Collections 1. Fabeln vom Eros 2. Die Fabeln vom Eros 3. Gewaltig staunt der Mensch 4. Der innere E r d t e i l 5. Lasst uns den Menschen machen 6. Miniaturert zur Schttpfung 7. Zwischen den Zeiten Fabeln Die Fabeln Gewaltig E r d t e i l Menschen Schflpfung Zeiten 2 3 7 I I I . Heimito von Doderer Der F a l l Gtltersloh - F a l l IV. Heribert Hutter A.P. Gtltersloh. Beispiele: - Beispiele Schriften zur Kunst. B i l d e r . Werkverzeichnis 238 Select Bibliography Primary Sources A. Novels Die tanzende Ttirin. 1911 & 1913; rpt . Munchen: Langen Muller, 1973. [Paris Gutersloh]. Die Vision vom Alten und vom Neuen. Hellerau: Hegner, 1921. [Paris Gutersloh]. Innozenz oder Sinn und Fluch der  Unschuld. Hellerau: Hegner, 1922. Der Lugner unter Bflrgern. 1922; rpt . Munchen: Piper, 1964. [A.P. Gtltersloh]. Eine sagenhafte Figur. Wien: Luckmann, 1946. Sonne und Mond: Ein hi s t o r i s c h e r Roman aus der Gegenwart. Munchen: Piper, 1962. Die Fabel von der Freundschaft: Ein sokratischer Roman. Munchen: Piper, 1969. B. Short F i c t i o n a l Works (published separately) Kain und Abel: Eine Legende. 1924; rpt. Munchen: Piper, 1963. [A.P. Gtltersloh]. Die Fabeln vom Eros. Wien: Luckmann, 1947. Fabeln vom Eros. 1947; rpt. Frankfurt: Insel, 1963. 239 [Albert P. Gtltersloh]. Lasst uns den Menschen machen: Erzcfhlungen. Wien: Luckmann, 1 962. C. Short F i c t i o n a l Works (in other publications) [Paris Gtltersloh]. "Adonis: Novelle." Die neue Rundschau (1915), pp. 961 -965. [Paris von Gtltersloh]. "Der Henker." Die Rettung, 2, No. 7 (1919), pp. 62-63. [no author], "Ungeduldiger Scharfrichter." Die Rettung, 7 (1919), pp. 62-63. [Paris Gtltersloh]. "Ein c>sterreichisches Tagebuchblatt. " Prager Presse, 2, No. 68, March 9, 1922, pp. 4-5. "Ein ungewtihnlicher Gedanke." Wiener Zeitung (Weihnachtsbeilage), 1934, pp. 7-8. "Das vergebliche Mahl." Wiener Zeitung, February 18, 1934, p. 2. "Ein Idiot: Novelle." Das Silberboot (1935), pp. 223-227. [Gtltersloh]. "Die Fabel von der Pythia: Euandria an A r i s t i p p . " Agathon (1945), pp. 138-173. [Paris von Gtltersloh]. Das Silberboot, 2, No. 2 (1 946), pp. 49-64. "Der Brief aus Amerika: ErzMhlung." Die  Fahre, 1 (1946), pp. 357-363. [Paris Gtltersloh]. "Ein Idiot: Novelle." Das Silberboot. Almanach auf das Jahr 1946, pp. 137-145. [A.P. Gtltersloh]. "Die Menschenf reunde. " Wort i n der Zeit, 1, No. 3 (1955), pp. 135-146. [Paris Gtltersloh]. "Gott spart -nicht mit Zeichen." Die Presse, March 20, 1956, pp. 17-18. "Die Fabel von der Malerei." Wiener Zeitung, February 12, 1957 (Beilage). 240 [A.P. Gutersloh]. "Die innere Stimme auf dem Dorfe." Wiener Zeitung, February 17, 1957 (Beilage). "Die Selbstlosen: Eine Erz&hlung." Continuum: Zur Kunst Osterreichs i n der Mitte des  20. Jahrhunderts. Wien: Rosenbaum, n.d., pp. 105-111. [Albert Paris Gtltersloh]. "Lasst uns Menschen machen: Eine - nattlrlich erfundene - darwinistische Geschichte." Heute, 3, No. 46 (1960), pp. 13 & 15. [A.P. Gtltersloh]. "GesprMch im Wasser." Die Gute Neue Zeit: Erz&hlungen aus unserem Jahrhundert. Ed. Elisabeth Pable and Hans Weigel. Salzburg: Residenz, 1962, pp. 117-124. "Eine Malergeschichte." Jahresring, 65/66, pp. 170-177. "Quirinus." Protokolle (1969), pp. 223-226. D. Poetry (separate publications) Musik zu einem Lebenslauf: Gedichte. Wien: Bergland, 1957. Treppe ohne Haus oder Seele ohne Leib: SpMte Gedichte. Eisenstadt: Roetzer, 1974. E. Miscellaneous Works (separate publications and  editions) [Paris Gtltersloh], Die Rede tiber B l e i oder Der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n der K a t h o l i z i t a t . Hellerau: Hegner, 1 922. [Paris von Gtltersloh]. Bekenntnisse eines modernen Malers. Wien: Zahn und Diamant, 1926. Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Zum 75. Geburtstag. 1962 ed. Munchen: Piper, 1962. Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Autor und Werk. 1962 ed. Munchen: Piper, 1962. 241 Albert Paris Gutersloh: Gewaltig staunt der Mensch. Ed. Heimito von Doderer. Wien: Stiasny, 1963. Zur Situation der modernen Kunst: Aufs&tze und Reden. Wien: Forum, 1963. Der innere E r d t e i l : Aus den 'Wflrterbflchern'. Munchen: Piper, 1966. Zwischen den Zeiten: Texte und Miniaturen von A.P. Gutersloh. Ed. Heribert Hutter. Wien: Rosenbaum, 1 967. Albert P. Gutersloh: Akademische Reden. Ed. Heribert Hutter. Wien: Akademie der bildenden Kunste, Ausstellungskatalog 1967. Miniaturen zur Schopfung: Eine kleine Zeitgeschichte. Mit Zeichnungen des Dichters. Salzburg: Residenz, 1 970. Paradiese der Liebe. Wien: Kremayr & Scheriau, 1972. A.P. Gtltersloh. B e i s p i e l e : Schriften zur Kunst. B i l d e r . Werkverzeichnis. Ed. Heribert Hutter. Wien: Jugend und Volk, 1977. F. Miscellaneous Contributions (to journals, newspapers, and anthologies) "An meine Mutter." Sonores Sa i t e n s p i e l . Wien: Luckmann, n.d. "Schiele damals (1911)." Protokolle (1968), pp. 205-208. "Uber die PrKgnanz." Die Rettung, 12/14 (1919), p. 120. . Protokolle (1969), pp. 226-227. [Paris Gtltersloh]. "Versuch einer Vorrede." In memoriam Egon Schiele. Ed. Artur Roessler. Wien: Lanyi, 1921, pp. 24-29. [A.P. Gtltersloh]. "Welches Buch nehmen Sie i n den Urlaub mit?" Freude an Buchern, 3 (1952), pp. 185-187. 242 Secondary Sources Best, Anni. Review of "Doderer, Der F a l l Gtltersloh." Germanistik, 3, No. 1 (January 1962). B l e i , Franz. "Paris Gtltersloh." Zeitgentissische B i l d n i s s e . Amsterdam: De Lange, 1940, pp. 229-233. "An Gtltersloh." Agathon (1 945), pp. 301 -308. . "Kleine Rede auf Gtltersloh." Agathon (1 947), pp. 67-73. Blflcker, Gtlnter. "Der Triumph des Amateurs: Zu A.P. Gtlterslohs Romanwerk 'Sonne und Mond.'" Neues Forum, 10, No. 118 (1963), pp. 490-491. Bonf a t t i , Emilio. "Albert Paris Gtltersloh: Sonne und Mond." Li t e r a t u r und K r i t i k (1973), pp. 540-548. Breicha, Otto. "Trampolin ins Metaphorische." Wort i n der  Zeit, 11, No. 6 (1965), p. 50. Dedovich, Milena. [Short comments, u n t i t l e d ] , Kurier, December 9, 1977, p. 16. Doderer, Heimito von. Der F a l l Gtltersloh: Ein Schicksal und seine Deutung. 1930; rpt. Wien: Luckmann, 1960. Der F a l l Gtltersloh: Eine Schicksal und seine  Deutung. Mtlnchen: Biederstein, 1961. "Albert Paris Gtltersloh." Freude an Bttchern, 3, No. 4 (1952), pp. 178-179. . "Gtltersloh." Wort i n der Zeit, 1, No. 3 (1955), pp. 1-6. "Von der Unschuld im Indirekten: Zum 60. Geburtstag Albert Paris Gtlterslohs." In Aufforderung  zum Misstrauen. Salzburg, 1967, pp. 61-72. Eisenreich, Herbert. "Was heis s t heute noch - junge Li t e r a t u r ? Offener B r i e f an A. P. Gtltersloh." Wort  und Wahrheit, 13, No. 1 (1958), pp. 41-44. Fink, Humbert. "Der F a l l Gtltersloh." Hochland, 55 (1962/63), pp. 92-93. 243 "Osterreichisches Zweigestirn: Die ErzShler Gutersloh und Doderer." Der Monat, 15, No. 176 (1963), pp. 61-66 . "Der Nachsommer Osterreichs: Albert Paris Gtltersloh wird 70 Jahre." Frankfurter Allgemeine  Zeitung, February 2, 1967, p. 28. Fischer, Jens Malte. Review of "Felix Thurner. 'Albert Paris Gutersloh: Studien zu seinem Romanwerk.'" Germanistik, 13, No. 1 (1972). Focke, Al f r e d . 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