UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Supervision and worker well-being in the Ministry of Social Services and Housing Conway, Oliver P. 1989

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SUPERVISION AND WORKER WELL-BEING IN THE MINISTRY OF SOCIAL SERVICES AND HOUSING By O l i v e r P . Conway B . A . C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , Ot tawa O n t a r i o , 1973 D ip loma i n A p p l i e d S o c i a l S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of South W a l e s , Swansea, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK 1 n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n ; to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oc tobe r 1989 Q O l i v e r P . Conway, 1989 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Soc. : A j k  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e /)c4 i ^ f<1 i i ABSTRACT Most o f the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e upon the s u b j e c t o f s u p e r v i s i o n d e s c r i b e s or presumes a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the manner i n wh ich s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i c e d and casework ou tcomes . Because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a c c u r a t e l y measu r ing casework outcomes , t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n . T h i s d e s c r i p t i v e s tudy was i n t e n d e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the h y p o t h e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e , and "worke r w e l l - b e i n g " . The r a t i o n a l e i n f o r m i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , based l a r g e l y on the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the " b u r n o u t " phenomenon, was t h a t s o c i a l worke r s who have low p r o f e s s i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g are l i k e l y a l s o to s u f f e r d i m i n i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Thus , t h rough an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p , t h i s s t udy aimed to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p e r v i s i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . An o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , wh ich underwent a p r e t e s t , was m a i l e d to 198 s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g . A 67% re sponse r a t e was o b t a i n e d . Data was g a t h e r e d r e g a r d i n g the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , i t s f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , the s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , and the w e l l - b e i n g of the w o r k e r . W h i l e the f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f the manner i n wh ich s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d , no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was demons t r a t ed between s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e and worker w e l l - b e i n g , as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d h e r e . The d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms of the l i t e r a t u r e i i i u n d e r l y i n g the r e s e a r c h , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e a re a d d r e s s e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page page i A b s t r a c t page i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s page i v L i s t of T a b l e s page v i i i Acknowledgements page x i Chap te r One - I n t r o d u c t i o n .page 1 The P rob l em Area page 1 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n page 4 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study page 4 Na tu re o f the Study page 5 Chap te r Two - L i t e r a t u r e Review page 8 The Impor tance of the S u b j e c t Area page 8 S u p e r v i s i o n i n a H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t page 10 C u r r e n t I s s u e s page 23 C o n c e p t u a l Bases f o r the P r e s e n t I n q u i r y page 33 The Independent V a r i a b l e s page 36 C o n t e x t of S u p e r v i s i o n page 37 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n . . . . . p a g e 40 R e l a t i o n s h i p page 40 The Dependent V a r i a b l e page 44 P r o f e s s i o n a l S e l f - E s t e e m page 46 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n page 48 Job R e l a t e d S t r e s s page 49 C a s e l o a d M a n a g e a b i l i t y page 51 Job R e l a t e d F r u s t r a t i o n page 52 Summary page Chap te r Three - Me thodo logy page Summary o f the R e s e a r c h D e s i g n page L e v e l o f D e s i g n page Na tu re o f the S a m p l e . . . . . . . . p a g e I n s t r u m e n t Development and T e s t i n g page The Survey page I n s t r u m e n t D e s i g n page R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Measure page R e l i a b i l i t y page V a l i d i t y page V a l i d i t y o f the Dependent V a r i a b l e page V a l i d i t y of the Independent V a r i a b l e s page S t r a t e g y of the Data A n a l y s i s page Chap te r Four - F i n d i n g s page The P o p u l a t i o n page Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Sample P o p u l a t i o n page Age , Sex and E d u c a t i o n , page E x p e r i e n c e page Time i n P r e s e n t P o s i t i o n page Job S t a t u s page C a s e l o a d S i z e page L e n g t h o f Time w i t h P r e s e n t S u p e r v i s o r page A P r o f i l e o f S u p e r v i s i o n In the M . S . S . H page v i The C o n t e x t o f S u p e r v i s i o n page 82 Schedu led One to One page 82 U n s c h e d u l e d , As Needed page 84 Group S u p e r v i s i o n page 88 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n page 91 D i s c u s s i o n o f the C o n t e x t and F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n V a r i a b l e s page 97 R e l a t i o n s h i p i n S u p e r v i s i o n page 103 Q u a l i t y o f the S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s h i p . page 104 R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s i n S u p e r v i s i o n page 106 D i s c u s s i o n of the R e l a t i o n s h i p V a r i a b l e page 113 The Dependent V a r i a b l e -Worker W e l l - B e i n g page 116 D i s c u s s i o n o f the Responses to I tems D e s c r i b i n g Worker W e l l - B e i n g page 119 B i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f the Data page 121 Ove rv i ew page 121 Worker W e i l - B e i n g page 123 C o r r e l a t i o n Between Groups of F a c t o r s and Worker W e l l - B e i n g page 128 Demographic G r o u p i n g s page 128 C o n t e x t page 129 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n page 131 R e l a t i o n s h i p S c a l e s . . ' page 135 R e s u l t s of C o r r e l a t i o n s Between S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s o f F a c t o r s and Worker W e l l - B e i n g , page 144 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n d i v i d u a l I tems and the Dependent V a r i a b l e page 147 v i i A D i s c u s s i o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n d i v i d u a l I t ems , S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s and the Dependent V a r i a b l e page 147 E x a m i n a t i o n of the C o r r e l a t i o n s Between A l l I tems and S c a l e s page 149 D i s c u s s i o n of the C o - v a r i a n c e Between A l l I tems and S c a l e s page 150 D i s c u s s i o n o f C o - v a r i a n c e Between S c a l e d G r o u p i n g of Items and I n d i v i d u a l I tems page 153 Summary o f Data A n a l y s i s page 156 Chap te r F i v e - D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s Ove rv i ew page 158 H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g page 159 The D e s c r i p t i v e P r o f i l e page 161 Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s page 162 Summary of the B i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s page 174 D i s c u s s i o n o f the Dependent V a r i a b l e page 180 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study page 181 B i b l i o g r a p h y page 191 Append ix A -The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n s t r u m e n t page 197 Append ix B - I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s , F a c t o r _^r--Names and Cod ing page - 2 0 8 ' Append ix C - H i g h l i g h t s o f the *vr^- . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r A l l I tems page 215'^ v i i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 - page 79 D e m o g r a p h i c s : F r equency D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r Demographic I t e m s . T a b l e 2 - page 85 C o n t e x t : F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g S c h e d u l e d One-To-One S u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 3 - page 87 C o n t e x t : F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g As Needed S u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 4 - ; page 90 C o n t e x t : F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g Group S u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 5 - page 93 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : Rank O r d e r i n g o f T o p i c s D i s c u s s e d i n S u p e r v i s i o n S e s s i o n s by S e t t i n g . T a b l e 6 - page 95 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : Rank O r d e r i n g o f I tems I n d i c a t i n g F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n i n the S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s h i p . T a b l e 7 - page 100 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : S c o r e s f o r I n d i c a t o r s of R o l e of S u p e r v i s o r , and P u r p o s e of S u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 8 - . page 106 R e l a t i o n s h i p : S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g the S u p e r v i s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p . T a b l e 9 - page 109 R e l a t i o n s h i p : S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g Fo r I tems D e s c r i b i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s i n S u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 10 - . . . . page 119 Worker W e l l - B e i n g : S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g the Dependent V a r i a b l e : "Worker W e l l - B e i n g " . I X T a b l e .11 - . page 124-C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g Worker W e i l - B e i n g . T a b l e 12 - . . page 12? C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n d i v i d u a l Items D e s c r i b i n g Worker W e l l - B e i n g and the S c a l e d Grouping VJorker W e l l - B e i n g (Wellbe I) T a b l e 13 - page 130 : C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g the S c a l e d Grouping " P r o f e s s i o n a l M a t u r i t y " , ( P r o f m a t ) . " ' • T a b l e 14 - page 133 ; C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g the Scaler] Grouping " S u p p o r t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n " , ( S u p p f u n c . ) . T a b l e 15 - .page 1.3^  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g - the S c a l e d Grouping " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n " ( A d m i n f u n c . ) . T a b l e 16 - . . .page 139 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Items D e s c r i b i n g the S c a l e d Grouping " Q u a l i t y of S u p e r v i s i o n " ( S u p q u a l . ) . -T a b l e 17 - .page 1^ 0 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Items C o m p r i s i n g the S c a l e d Grouping R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s and the S c a l e d Grouping ( S u p s k i l . ) . T a b l e 1 8 - . . . . . . . . p a g e 142 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g the Subsca le " S a t i s f a c t i o n wi th S u p e r v i s i o n " . ( S u p s a t . ) . T a b l e 19 - page 1^ 3 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g the Subsca le " P r o v i d e s Feedback" ( F e e d b a c k ) . T a b l e 20 - . . . page • 1^5 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g the Subsca le "Encourages R e c i p r o c i t y " ( R e c i p r o c . ) . T a b l e 21 - page l 2 f 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between A l l Sca led Groupings and the Dependent V a r i a b l e "Worker W e l l - B e i n g " (Wel lbe I ) . X T a b l e 22 - page 148 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w een I n d i v i d u a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m s and D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e "Worker W e l 1 -Be i n g (We'll be I ) . th< T a b l e 23 page 151 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w een S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s D e v e l o p e d and Between These- and I n d i v i d u a l I t e n s . i n t h e S t u d y x i Acknowledgements The s t u d e n t would l i k e to e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t and f o r e b e a r a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the paper : D r . K a t h r y n M c C a n n e l l , D r . K l o h Ann Amacher , P r o f e s s o r Ross M c C l e l l a n d , D r . Geof f A n d e r s o n , N i n i U r y , the E l e m e n t s , and l a s t and c e r t a i n l y most , my f a m i l y . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The P rob lem Area The s u b j e c t a r e a o f t h i s paper and of the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e i n i s the r o l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s an a r e a w h i c h has engaged the i n t e r e s t of t h i s s t u d e n t , because i t has been my b e l i e f , based on p e r s o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t good s u p e r v i s i o n may be the key i n many i n s t a n c e s to the e f f e c t i v e , e t h i c a l p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l c a s e w o r k . The s e t t i n g f o r the p r e s e n t e n q u i r y i n t o the p r a c t i c e and impac t of s u p e r v i s i o n i s the M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Hous ing ( M . S . S . H . ) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c h o i c e o f t h i s s e t t i n g has been i n f o r m e d by s e v e r a l c o n v i c t i o n s : t h a t i t i s t h i s t ype o f s e t t i n g wh ich most f r e q u e n t l y and t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the s t a t e of s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i . e . the l a r g e , p u b l i c l y a d m i n i s t e r e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e and w e l f a r e agency ; i t i s here t h a t the w i l l o f s o c i e t y w i t h r e s p e c t to c e r t a i n norms of b e h a v i o r and s t a n d a r d s of p u b l i c w e l f a r e i s most f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t ; i t i s here t h a t the w i l l i n g and u n w i l l i n g o b j e c t s o f t h a t w i l l and c o n s c i e n c e come most f r e q u e n t l y i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h i t s a g e n t s . S o c i a l w o r k e r s a t the " l i n e " l e v e l are cha rged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e to t h e i r c l i e n t s , 2 w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a d m i n i s t e r i n g a broad a r r a y of s o c i a l p rograms , and e n f o r c i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n . C h i e f among t h e i r t o o l s f o r d o i n g t h i s i s the use of s e l f i n a d i s c i p l i n e d , s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l manner. To a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i n most v a r i e t i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l work , s o c i a l work , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the M . S . S . H . s e t t i n g r e q u i r e s the worker to r e c o n c i l e a p r o f e s s i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , code of e t h i c s and s t a n d a r d of p r a c t i c e w i t h a s h i f t i n g and u n s t a b l e body of mandate, p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n . As w e l l , j ob d e f i n i t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e a re s i m i l a r l y prone to r a p i d change ,and many of the e x t r a - p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s upon w h i c h the s o c i a l worker may draw are s u s c e p t i b l e t o sudden r e - a l l o c a t i o n , r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n , or d i s a p p e a r a n c e . G i v e n these r e a l i t i e s , one c o n s t a n t w h i c h must e x i s t f o r most l i n e l e v e l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the c u r r e n t M . S . S . H . c l i m a t e i s j ob r e l a t e d s t r e s s . The m i n i s t r y ' s mandate f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c h i l d w e l f a r e p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n i n v o l v e s i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n day to day s i t u a t i o n s of t remendous p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r i n g d e c i s i o n s f o r wh ich they and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s may be h e l d m o r a l l y and l e g a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e by the c o u r t s , the m e d i a , and t h e i r e m p l o y e r . In a d d i t i o n t o the p re sence of t h i s we igh t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , such d e c i s i o n s must o f f t i m e s be made q u i c k l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s cha rged w i t h c o n f l i c t and e m o t i o n , and sometimes i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g p e r o g a t i v e s . In c o n t r a s t a g a i n to many o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , the rewards f o r 3 s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t e r m s o f s t a t u s , power, o r money a r e n o t h i g h . T h e r e f o r e , i n c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h e l i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r has o f n e c e s s i t y t o be a b l e t o d e r i v e a measure o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t f r o m h i s o r h e r work. I t i s t h e b e l i e f o f t h i s s t u d e n t t h a t e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n can enha n c e t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t a s w e l l as a m e l i o r a t e some o f t h e n e g a t i v e p e r s o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f t h e work t h e y a r e c a l l e d upon t o do, and by so d o i n g i m p r o v e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y t o t h e c o n s u m e r . T h u s , t h i s s t u d y has c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h e x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i c e d , and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . T h e r e e x i s t i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on s u p e r v i s i o n v a r i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s and a s s e r t i o n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i s e and e f f e c t i v e c a s e w o r k p r a c t i c e w h i c h , s t a t e d g e n e r a l l y , m a i n t a i n t h a t e f f e c t i v e c a s e w o r k i s i n p a r t a f u n c t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . The t e s t i n g o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f r a u g h t w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s c e r n i n g , d e f i n i n g and o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r i n g c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s . T h e r e i s ho w e v e r , c o n s i d e r a b l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , b a s e d l a r g e l y on s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between w o r k e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e r a t e o f j o b t u r n o v e r ( H e n r y , Sims & S p r a y 1971 i n K a d u s h i n , 1985; I O l m s t e a d & C h r i s t e n s e n , 1973 i n S h u l m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e r e i s a l s o a l i n e o f r e s e a r c h e x a m i n i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l " b u r n o u t " 4 phenomenon among human s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t l e v e l s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b m a n a g e a b i l i t y , j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s , and j o b t u r n o v e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f -e s t e e m a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h and a r e p r e d i c t o r s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l b u r n o u t ( M a s l a c h , 1976; Donovan, 1 9 8 7 ) . B u r n o u t means, by g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n , t h a t t h e w o r k e r i s f u n c t i o n i n g a t a s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n The b u r n o u t l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b s t r e s s and j o b m a n a g e a b i l i t y , and l e v e l s o f w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t w o u l d seem w o r t h w h i l e t h e n t o a t t e m p t a d e s c r i p t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e e x i s t e n c e and s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e , c o n s i d e r e d as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s and c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y , computed t o g e t h e r as t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ."worker w e l l - b e i n g " . Thus t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n upon w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d may be s t a t e d a s : "Do c e r t a i n f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a n c e w i t h l e v e l s o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g ? " The h y p o t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h i s q u e s t i o n a r i s e s s t a t e s t h a t a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . The n u l l 5 h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d o f c o u r s e s t a t e t h a t no s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y The t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e o f t h i s l i n e o f r e s e a r c h l i e s i n i t s a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h an e m p i r i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e b r i d g e between s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , w h e r e i n t h e v a r i a b l e " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " may be s e e n as c o v a r i a n t w i t h e a c h . I n more i m m e d i a t e l y p r a c t i c a l t e r m s an i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i m p a c t s upon w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g w o u l d be o f o b v i o u s v a l u e i n s t r u c t u r i n g p r o g r a m s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and s u p e r v i s o r t r a i n i n g t o m a x i m i z e t h o s e f a c t o r s shown t o have t h e most s a l u t a r y e f f e c t on w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g , and h o p e f u l l y t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g w o r k e r b u r n o u t and j o b t u r n o v e r . N a t u r e o f t h e S t u d y By means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y d i s t r i b u t e d t o a random s a m p l e o f " l i n e " s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g , t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e and d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e t ween f a c t o r s w h i c h d e s c r i b e a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , i n t e r m s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o c r e a t e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e i n t h e M.S.S.H. 6 I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p r a c t i c e of s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e l e c t a l i s t o f f a c t o r s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g w h i c h m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y be s u p p o s e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e . T h i s was done t h r o u g h p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h by t h i s s t u d e n t , i n c l u d i n g a r e v i e w of t h e e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , key i n f o r m a n t i n t e r v i e w s and t h e i n s t r u m e n t p r e t e s t i n g t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t used i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d . T h i s l i s t i n g o f f a c t o r s was t h e n c a t e g o r i c a l l y g r o u p e d i n t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s t u d y . T hese a r e : s u p e r v i s i o n c o n t e x t , r e f e r r i n g t o f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s o f how s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , s u c h as i t s f r e q u e n c y , d u r a t i o n and s e t t i n g ; t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p u r p o s e w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n may be s e e n t o a d d r e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e t h e t e a c h i n g o f s o c i a l work s k i l l s ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n , r e f e r r i n g t o a g r o u p i n g o f f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s p u r p o r t e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n and f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e a n a l y s i s i s a g r o u p o f f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n d e n t s . C h a p t e r 2 d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l t h e e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h i n f o r m t h i s r e s e a r c h , and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e 7 p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e was used t o g e n e r a t e f a c t o r s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t o g r o u p t h e s e f a c t o r s as v a r i a b l e s . As w e l l r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e p r e c e d e n t s upon w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s b a s e d . C h a p t e r 3 w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f , e v o l u t i o n o f and r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e i t e m s used i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I t w i l l a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d i n s a m p l e s e l e c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e t u r n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e s t r a t e g y u s ed f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e raw d a t a . C h a p t e r 4 w i l l p r o v i d e a s y n o p s i s o f t h e a n a l y z e d d a t a i n f o r m e d by f o u r p u r p o s e s : t o c r e a t e a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. i n t e r m s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s c o n t e x t , f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s ; t o e x a m i n e t h e e x i s t e n c e and s t r e n g t h o f a s s o c i a t i o n s p r e d i c t e d o r d e s c r i b e d by t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d : t o e x a m i n e t h e s t r e n g t h o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g ; t o e x a m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween t h e s e f a c t o r s , c l u s t e r e d as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , and w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g . C h a p t e r 5 w i l l i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s u r v e y and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . 8 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S u b j e c t A r e a The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t a r e a t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work i s c o n t a i n e d i n c e r t a i n h y p o t h e s e s o r a s s u m p t i o n s o f r e l a t i o n p r e s e n t , s i n g l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n , i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . One s u c h a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y and u s e f u l a d j u n c t t o c a s e w o r k p r a c t i c e , i n s o f a r as a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between how s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i c e d and c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s . A s e c o n d i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between w o r k e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e work. A t h i r d i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t ween s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h work and p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F i n a l l y , t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t " g o o d " s u p e r v i s i o n makes t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o s i t i v e . What i s r e q u i r e d however i s t o d e v e l o p a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e g a r d i n g w h i c h a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s assumed p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n . I n p r a g m a t i c t e r m s , i t m i g h t be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e way i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i c e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g has a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s , s t a f f m o r a l e , and s t a f f t u r n o v e r . By o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e t e r m s u p e r v i s i o n we may b e t t e r e x p l o r e 9 t h e n a t u r e of t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p , by m a k i n g i t a c c e s s i b l e t o r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , and h o p e f u l l y d i s c o v e r i n g ways t o g a i n a measure of c o n t r o l o v e r t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p r e s e n t s t u d y has l i m i t e d i t s e l f t o e x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween s u p e r v i s i o n , o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o s a l i e n t f a c t o r s , and an o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . I t i s t h i s s t u d e n t ' s b e l i e f t h a t i t may be p o s s i b l e t o t e s t i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t low l e v e l s o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g w i l l c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l b u r n o u t , j o b t u r n o v e r and poor c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s . I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t h e s t u d e n t has a t t e m p t e d f i r s t t o b r i e f l y p l a c e s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h i n an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , v i s - a - v i s t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k, i n o r d e r t o i l l u m i n a t e some of t h e c u r r e n t i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e t o p i c . Some o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n s m e n t i o n e d above a r e d i s c u s s e d . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l d i s c u s s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e l i t e r a t u r e was u s e d to' s e l e c t and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s used i n t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . I t i s hoped t h a t by o r g a n i z i n g t h e r e v i e w i n t h i s manner t h e r e a d e r w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g what i t i s t h i s s t u d y i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g and why, and t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d . S u p e r v i s i o n i n an H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 10 F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f p l a c i n g s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h i n an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s e v e r a l t e x t s were f o u n d t o be e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e . T h e s e i n c l u d e C a r l t o n Munson's S o c i a l Work  S u p e r v i s i o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) and An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C l i n i c a l S o c i a l  Work S u p e r v i s i o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) , F l o r e n c e K a s l o w and A s s o c i a t e s S u p e r v i s i o n . C o n s u l t a t i o n and S t a f f T r a i n i n g ( 1 9 7 7 ) , A l f r e d K a d u s h i n ' s S u p e r v i s i o n i n S o c i a l Work ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 5 ) , and D o r o t h y P e t t e s ' S u p e r v i s i o n : A T a s k C e n t e r e d A p p r o a c h ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n has come t o mean a g r e a t many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , and c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s as t o i t s a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n , c o n t e n t , and t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e . Fo e x a m p l e , P e t t e s (1979., p.3) d e f i n e s s u p e r v i s i o n as "a p r o c e s s by w h i c h one s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r e n a b l e s a n o t h e r s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r , who i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o him t o p r a c t i s e t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y " . I n L i t t n e r ( K a d u s h i n , 1976) d e s c r i b e s s u p e r v i s i o n as a m e n t a l h y g i e n e p r o c e s s , w h i l e Absoms ( K a s l o w , 1977) d e f i n e s s u p e r v i s i o n as " m e t a t h e r a p y " o r " t h e r a p y o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r a c t i o n " . T h e s e , and t h e many o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t e n d l e s s t o d e s c r i b e what s u p e r v i s i o n i s , t h a n t o d e s c r i b e what t h e a u t h o r s c o n s i d e r t h a t i t s h o u l d b e. C e n t r a l t o e a c h d e f i n i t i o n i s a c o n v i c t i o n as t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n o r f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . From t h i 11 f u n c t i o n o r f u n c t i o n s p r o c e e d t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r s i n t e r r a s o f t h e c o n t e n t of s u p e r v i s o r y c o n f e r e n c e s and t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y t a k e p l a c e . The l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d t o a c e r t a i n m y s t i q u e b e i n g a t t a c h e d t o t h e t e r m . As e a r l y as 1936, R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 3 6 ) n o t e d t h a t t h e word s u p e r v i s i o n had become a t e c h n i c a l t e r m i n s o c i a l work w i t h a u s a g e n o t d e f i n e d i n any d i c t i o n a r y . More r e c e n t l y E n g l e ( R o b i n s o n , 1980) s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e s t i l l e x i s t s no c o m p r e h e n s i v e , s i n g l e , s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y o r t h e o r e t i c a l b ase f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , b u t s e v e r a l e x i s t . " T h ese o b s e r v a t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n has n o t been a s t a t i c p r a c t i c e : t h a t t h e m e a n ing o f t h e t e r m and i t s p r a c t i s e have p a r a l l e l e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f an e m e r g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n s o c i a l w o r k . The e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n has m i r r o r e d t h e s t a t e o f t h e f i e l d , s e r v i n g as an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e d o m i n a n t i n f l u e n c e s and c o n d i t i o n s e x t a n t . Most e s p e c i a l l y t h i s p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a p p a r e n t b e tween t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l c a s e w o r k and t h e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as S t o u t o b s e r v e s ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Two r e l a t e d themes a r e w o r t h y o f r e m a r k i n s u r v e y i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s i o n . The f i r s t i s t h e e m e rgence and s u b s e q u e n t o s c i l l a t i o n o f d o m i n a n c e between t h r e e m a j o r f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n : s u p p o r t , e d u c a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( K a d u s h i n 1 9 7 6 ) . The s e c o n d i s t h e theme o f a u t h o r i t y i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e s e themes 12 c o n t i n u e t o be c e n t r a l t o c u r r e n t d e b a t e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind a l s o , as D o r o t h y P e t t e s o b s e r v e s , t h a t " s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 5 ) . I t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n was i n t e n d e d a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t o be a f o r m o f i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h e " f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r " . The 1965 E n c y c l o p e d i a  o f S o c i a l Work ( c i t e d i n K a s l o w , 1977) s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y s u p e r v i s i o n was a way o f u s i n g p a i d s t a f f t o t r a i n v o l u n t e e r v i s i t o r s . G e o f f r e y B r a c k e t t ( 1 9 0 3 ) r e f e r s t o s u p e r v i s i o n as b e i n g p a r t o f t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o f new s o c i a l w o r k e r s . I t was c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t few i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s e x i s t e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and t h a t f o r t h e most p a r t t h e f i e l d was p o p u l a t e d by t h e u n t r a i n e d b u t w e l l m e a n i n g , whose " h e l p i n g was assumed t o d e r i v e f r o m a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e v i s i t o r s ' e x e m p l a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ... t h e v e r y e x a m p l e o f t h e w i s e and i n d u s t r i o u s v i s i t o r was t h e means o f u p l i f t i n g t h e i g n o r a n t and i n d o l e n t t o s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g p o v e r t y " ( K a s l o w , 1 9 7 7 ) . K u t z i c k ( i n K a s l o w , 1977) h o w e v e r , c o n v i n c i n g l y a r g u e s t h a t g i v e n t h e s t a t e of t h e f i e l d i n i t s i n f a n c y t h i s a s c r i p t i o n o f a m a i n l y e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r o b a b l y f a l l a c i o u s . E x e m p l a r y c h a r a c t e r i s n o t t o be t a u g h t , b u t t o be e m u l a t e d and s u p e r v i s o r s w e r e , i n h i s o p i n i o n , a t f i r s t m i d d l e m a n a g e r s , t r a n s m i t t i n g c a s e 13 i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m v i s i t o r s t o t h e c h a r i t y b o a r d s and r e t u r n i n g t h e b o a r d s ' c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s t o t h e v i s i t o r s . L a t e r , as t h e c h a r i t y b o a r d s became more c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s o f p o l i c y , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s d e v o l v e d t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , who r e m a i n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f u n c t i o n , i n t e r p r e t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o l i c y and k e e p i n g p a i d and u n p a i d s t a f f a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e B o a r d . At t h e same t i m e , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' r o l e was c o n s i d e r e d t o i n c l u d e s u p p o r t i n g t h e u n p a i d v i s i t o r ; " i n s p i r i n g t h o s e who become d i s c o u r a g e d t o keep on u n t i l t h i n g s l o o k b r i g h t e r a g a i n " ( B o s t o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h a r i t i e s , 1887, i n K a d u s h i n , 1976) and p r o v i d i n g " a n o t h e r s ' s t e a d y hand t o g u i d e ... ( t h e v i s i t o r ) t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t s h o c k s o f f i n d i n g c o n d i t i o n s so s t r a n g e t o h e r e x p e r i e n c e t h a t she c a n n o t j u d g e them r i g h t l y " ( S m i t h , 1892 i n K a d u s h i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . The emergence of t h e C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t i e s and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s p e c i a l i z e d a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e e a r l y 1900's c o i n c i d e d w i t h a new p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n s o c i a l w o r k, w h i c h p r e d i c t a b l y e s p o u s e d a m e d i c a l model i n i t s t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e . S u p e r v i s i o n , a s d e s c r i b e d by Mary Richmond i n 1917 was a p r o c e s s o f c a s e summary, p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i a g n o s i s ( i n Munson, 1979) w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r a c t i n g as t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i a g n o s t i c i a n . More s u c c i n c t l y , Lee i n 1923. ( K a d u s h i n , 1985) p r e s c r i b e d t h e e x e c u t i v e t r e a t m e n t a p p r o a c h t o s u p e r v i s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i m p l y d i r e c t e d t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n f o r t h e s u p e r v i s e e . K u t z i c k ( K a s l o w , 1977) a r g u e s t h a t i t was n o t 14 u n t i l a r o u n d 1920 t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n became a s c e n d a n t . I n d e e d , t h e 1929 R e p o r t o f t h e M i l f o r d C o n f e r e n c e (Munson, 1979) a r g u e d f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s s a y i n g , "we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a s t a f f s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d o f as h a v i n g two f u n c t i o n s : f i r s t , t o keep t h e work o f t h e ag e n c y up t o t h e s t a n d a r d s i t has s e t f o r i t s e l f , and s e c o n d , t o pr o m o t e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t a f f " . The i m p l i c i t o m i s s i o n o f t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e , i n t h i s s t u d e n t ' s o p i n i o n , o f a p r o f e s s i o n s t r u g g l i n g t o a t t a i n i d e n t i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y . As B a b c o c k and Shaw ( E p s t e i n , 1973) s t a t e , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t s o c i a l work s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as work, n o t a s an a n x i o u s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and s u p p o r t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e o n l y be a s m a l l p a r t - o f s u p e r v i s i o n . M ost s o u r c e s n o t e t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c model upon s o c i a l work i n g e n e r a l , and c a s e w o r k and s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1930 t o 1950 (Absoms, 1952; H u t c h i n s o n , 1935; T o w l e , 1954; Z e t z e l , 1 9 5 3 ) . S u p e r c e d i n g t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i c a l model o f d i a g n o s t i c c o n s u l t a t i o n and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n p r e s c r i b e d by t h e M i l f o r d C o n f e r e n c e , s u p e r v i s i o n came t o be s e e n as a m e t a - t h e r a p y o f c a s e work (Absoms 1952) and a l s o as a way of t r a i n i n g t h e c a s e w o r k e r t o r e c o g n i z e and d e a l w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e l f i n t h e c a s e work e n c o u n t e r . T h e o r e t i c i a n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t h e use o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y c o n f e r e n c e 15 as a s o r t o f t h e r a p e u t i c e n c o u n t e r (Absoms, 1952; M e l c h i o d e i n K a s l o w , 1977; Z e t z e l , 1 9 5 3 ) , o p e r a t i n g f r o m t h e same p r i n c i p l e s and i n p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s t o t h e h e l p i n g p r o c e s s i n c a s e w o r k. T h i s c o n c e p t o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s , d i s c u s s e d by Dorn ( 1 9 8 5 ) , E r i c k s o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) , R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 3 6 ) , and S t o u t ( 1 9 8 7 ) , i s g i v e n two m e a n i n g s . The f i r s t , d e s c r i b e d by S t o r m and H e a t h ( 1 9 8 5 ) u n d e r t h e t e r m i s o m o r p h i s m , r e f e r s e s s e n t i a l l y t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n p r a c t i c e and p r i n c i p l e b e tween c a s e work and s u p e r v i s i o n , and i n v o l v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s u c h c o n c e p t s as r e s i s t a n c e , t r a n s f e r e n c e , c o u n t e r -t r a n s f e r e n c e , and c a t h a r s i s a r e as o p e r a t i v e i n s u p e r v i s i o n as i n c a s e work. As Dorn ( 1 9 8 5 ) p u t s i t , t h e c l i e n t s e e k s h e l p w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r w i t h h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e . The s e c o n d m e a n i n g has t o do w i t h t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n on c a s e work and v i c e v e r s a : t h a t f o r e x a m p l e e v e n t s o r c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r i n g i n s u p e r v i s i o n may be m i r r o r e d i n t h e c a s e work (Doehrman, 1972; A r l o w 1963; b o t h c i t e d i n S h u l m a n , 1 9 8 1 ) . R e c o g n i t i o n o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s was i m p o r t a n t , t h i s s t u d e n t f e e l s , b e c a u s e i t i n f u s e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r y c o n f e r e n c e w i t h a s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y t e a c h i n g c a s e work p r i n c i p l e s , o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c a s e work done, s u p e r v i s o r s were p r a c t i c i n g and m o d e l i n g c a s e work s k i l l s and d e m o n s t r a t i n g by e x a m p l e t h e e t h i c s w h i c h i n f o r m e d c a s e work p r a c t i c e . The e m p h a s i s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y c o n f e r e n c e had s h i f t e d f r o m t h e work t o be done t o t h e s u p e r v i s e e , h e l p i n g him o r h e r t h r o u g h t h e r a p e u t i c means t o d e a l w i t h and 16 r e s o l v e p e r s o n a l and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h m i g h t i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s o r h e r work ( K a s l o w 1 9 7 7 ) . I m p o r t a n t t o o was t h e s h i f t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n away f r o m a p e d a g o g i c a l l e a r n i n g m o d e l , i n w h i c h s o c i a l work was s e e n a s a body o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l t o be a c q u i r e d t o w a r d s a n o t i o n t h a t s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e l f a s a h e l p i n g t o o l , and hence s u p e r v i s i o n must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h o f t h e s u p e r v i s e e . The r o l e s o f s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e were more t r u l y t h o s e o f m a s t e r and a p p r e n t i c e , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t r a i n i n g ( G i t t e r m a n and M i l l e r i n K a s l o w , 1977) . W h i l e t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n f l u e n c e upon t h e f i e l d was p e r v a s i v e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e v o l v i n g p r o f e s s i o n was b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The g r o w t h o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l p o l i c y l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e p r e - w a r y e a r s ( i . e . t h e New D e a l ) had c r e a t e d a demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c a d e m i c programmes t o t r a i n them. The use o f p r a c t i c u m s as p a r t o f an a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m c r e a t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 3 6 ) , a c a r r y - o v e r e f f e c t upon s u p e r v i s i o n . S t u d e n t s came t o see t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n as e d u c a t i o n , and when t h e s e s t u d e n t s became s u p e r v i s o r s t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o e m p h a s i s t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n . A s e c o n d e f f e c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s was a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h q u a l i f i e d b u t i n e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f w o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d by t h e 17 e x p e r i e n c e d but u n q u a l i f i e d s t a f f o r v i c e v e r s a . I n s h o r t , a u t h o r i t y r o l e s became open t o c h a l l e n g e and by t h e l a t e 1940's c r i t i c i s m began t o a p p e a r r e g a r d i n g t h e e n d l e s s n a t u r e o f s u p e r v i s i o n ( K a s l o w 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s l e d t o a r e -e mergence of t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n . I f a t some d e f i n a b l e p o i n t t h e t r a i n e e became t h e t r a i n e d , t h e n t h i s f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n c o u l d , i t was r e a s o n e d , be s u p e r c e d e d by c o n s u l t a t i o n , a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e power and a u t h o r i t y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b e t w een p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n s i d e r a b l y d i m i n i s h e d , o r a t l e a s t l e s s c l e a r c u t . The c h a n g i n g f a c e o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y i n t h e 1950's was i n f l u e n c i n g s o c i a l c a s e work and i t s s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h t h e more c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h e s o f R o g e r s , A d l e r and M a s l o w . Case work began t o i n v o l v e s u c h c o n c e p t s as a c c u r a t e empathy, c l i e n t v a l i d a t i o n , u n c o n d i t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e , and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r came t o be s e e n i n t e r m s o f t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f g r o w t h and c h a n g e . An e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s f o u n d i n M a t t i n s o n ' s book The R e f l e c t i v e P r o c e s s i n Case  Work S u p e r v i s i o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) . As w e l l , b u r g e o n i n g t h e o r y i n t h e a r e a of l e a r n i n g was i n f l u e n t i a l upon t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , i n two d i r e c t i o n s . B e h a v i o u r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e l e a r n i n g f u n c t i o n s t r e s s e d t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r a s an a g e n t of b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e ( K a d u s h i n 1 9 7 6 ) , w h i l e t h e a n d r o g o l o g i c a l o r a d u l t l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h o f K n o w l e s ( C l a n c y , 1985) e m p h a s i z e d a move away f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l p e d o g o l o g i c a l t e a c h i n g t o w a r d s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a d u l t 18 l e a r n e r as an e q u a l p a r t n e r i n h i s o r h e r t r a i n i n g . The l a t t e r a p p r o a c h was p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d t o b l e n d w i t h t h e e x t a n t s u p p o r t i v e p s y c h o d y n a m i c t e n e t s o f c a s e work. Works by A u s t i n ( 1 9 5 2 ) , E r i c k s o n ( 1 9 5 9 , i n Holman and F r e e d , 1 9 8 7 ) , and Z e t z e l ( 1 9 5 3 , i n Munson, 1 9 7 9 ) , c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p s y c h o d y n a m i c f a c t o r s on t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n s u p e r v i s i o n . The 1960's and 1970's were a t i m e o f u p h e a v a l f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s w h i c h u n d e r l y t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work and h e n c e , i t s s u p e r v i s i o n . The d o m i n a n c e o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y b a s e d casev/ork and s u p e r v i s i o n was c h a l l e n g e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r f o s t e r i n g d e p e n d e n c y and i n f a n t i l i z i n g t h e c l i e n t and t h e s u p e r v i s e e ( M e l c h i o d e i n K a s l o w , 1977; S t i l e s 1 9 6 3 ) . I n a s o c i a l c l i m a t e w h e r e , f o r l a r g e l y d e m o g r a p h i c r e a s o n s , a u t h o r i t y was b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d and r e j e c t e d , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n t a u t h o r i t y b a s e d power d i f f e r e n t i a l betv/een s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e became i n c r e a s i n g l y open t o c h a l l e n g e . Where t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r was l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h a n g i n g or r e f o r m i n g c l i e n t s and more w i t h a f f o r d i n g c l i e n t s t h e i r r i g h t s t o s o c i a l j u s t i c e , t h e body of k n o w l e d g e and t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h o f s u p e r v i s o r s became l e s s a t t r a c t i v e o r a p p l i c a b l e . C h a n g i n g t h e c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r became l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n c h a n g i n g t h e s y s t e m , and s y s t e m i c a p p r o a c h e s t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f f e r e d a t t r a c t i v e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s w i t h l e s s p e r j o r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a n t h o s e p r o v i d e d by p s y c h o d y n a m i c m o d e l s . As R ichman ( K a s l o w , 1977) o b s e r v e s , t h e n o t i o n was t h a t i t i s 19 t h e b u s i n e s s o f human s e r v i c e s t o i n t e r v e n e i n o n g o i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m s and d i s r u p t them, t o e n h a n c e f u n c t i o n i n g . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e a l s o , t h e use o f g r o u p t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y i n g a f a c i l i t a t i v e g r o u p l e a d e r , as a t h e r a p e u t i c o r p e r s o n a l grov/th d e v i c e was m i r r o r e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n s u l t a t i v e g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n ( A b e l s , 1977; E p s t e i n , 1973; G e t z e l & S a l m o n , 1985; Watson 1 9 7 3 ) . Group s u p e r v i s i o n wa,s s e e n t o be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r i t s t e n d e n c y t o d e - e m p h a s i z e h i e r a r c h y and a u t h o r i t y , t o p romote a d i a l e c t i c a l c l a s h o f i d e a s , p r o m o t e m u t u a l p e e r s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s , e n c o u r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and s e l f - e s t e e m and f a c i l i t a t e a n d r o g o l o g i c a l l e a r n i n g . I n t e r m s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h e s u p e r v i s i o n g r o u p was s e e n as a p o w e r f u l t o o l : as A b e l s ( 1 9 7 7 ) n o t e s an u n d e r l y i n g t e n e t o f g r o u p work i s t h a t i t i s t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s t h a t most c h a n g e s o c c u r . At t h e same t i m e , w h i l e s o c i a l work i n t h e l a t e 1960's and 1970's became a g r o w t h i n d u s t r y o f f e r i n g q u a s i -p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s t o t h e l i b e r a l l y e d u c a t e d , t h e p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f was i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n and w i t h d e f i n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s . P r o f e s s i o n a l b o d i e s came t o r e g a r d t h e B a c h e l o r of S o c i a l Work d e g r e e as a minimum e n t r y l e v e l q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r ( K a d u s h i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . I n 1973, The A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s c h o s e t o 20 d e l i n e a t e a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and s u p e r v i s o r a u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d t o t h e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s e e s : t h o s e w i t h o u t s o c i a l work d e g r e e s s h o u l d work u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e BSW s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d work u n d e r o r use s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e MSW s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d use s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e MSW w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n may use s u p e r v i s i o n when a p p r o p r i a t e ( i n K a s l o w , 1 9 7 7 ) . I n p a r t a l s o , t h i s may be s e e n as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d f r o m w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e p r o f e s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r m i n a b l e n a t u r e o f s u p e r v i s i o n . K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) c i t e s t h e q u e s t i o n i n g by t h e U.S. C e n s u s B u r e a u o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n i n i t s l i s t i n g s , b a s e d upon t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i f s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e q u i r e d s u p e r v i s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r c a r e e r t h e y p r e s u m a b l y n e v e r a r r i v e d a t a p l a c e where t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e and a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e i r own a c t s . New a p p r o a c h e s t o s u p e r v i s i o n i n f o r m e d by s y s t e m s t h e o r y e m p h a s i z e d i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n t h r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m m a i n t e n a n c e and m o d i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r y f e e d - b a c k ( F a r m e r , 1985; F r e e m a n , 1985; and S t o u t , 1 9 8 7 ) . A l s o i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s y s t e m i c p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r as a b r i d g e or i n t e r f a c e between i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c i e s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s ( P e t t e s 1 9 7 9 ) . I n t e r m s o f t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , s y s t e m i c a p p r o a c h e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a m i l y t h e r a p y , have c o n t r i b u t e d 21 c o n s i d e r a b l e i n n o v a t i o n t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f s t a f f and s t u d e n t t r a i n i n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l and most f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d model f o r s u p e r v i s i o n has been t h e o n e - t o - o n e s u p e r v i s o r y c o n f e r e n c e ( T a t e , 1986; T o w l e , 1954; W e s t h e i m e r , 1977) and t h i s model r e m a i n s t h e d o m i n a n t one ( K a d u s h i n 1 9 8 5 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e n o t i o n t y p i f i e d by K a d u s h i n ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t "good s u p e r v i s i o n i s good s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e once r e moved" ( K a d u s h i n 1985, p.192) w h i c h i n f o r m s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n model and t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e s u p e r v i s o r -f a c i l i t a t e d g r o u p , f a m i l y t h e r a p y t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s have r e j e c t e d p o s t f a c t o m e t a - c a s e w o r k f o r a "hands on" a p p r o a c h . Here t h e s u p e r v i s o r , and t h e c o l l e g i a l p e e r g r o u p may n o t o n l y d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e t h e work i n p r o c e s s but may i n t e r v e n e , make s u g g e s t i o n s , o r o c c a s i o n a l l y d i r e c t t h e work i n p r o g r e s s (Goodman, 1 9 8 5 ) . The use and a n a l y s i s o f v i d e o and a u d i o t a p e r e c o r d i n g s f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t h e much d i s c u s s e d b u t l i t t l e u s ed p r o c e s s r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , s u p e r v i s i o n i n many s y s t e m i c a p p r o a c h e s t o b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e , a t e i t h e r m i c r o o r macro l e v e l s , i s s e e n t o have an a l m o s t p u r e l y e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f s u p p o r t o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e . S u p e r v i s i o n i s s e e n , s i m i l a r l y t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y t r a i n i n g , as a p e r i o d o f i n t e r n s h i p , a way i n w h i c h t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l and k n o w l e d g e f o r d o i n g t h e work i s p a s s e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e d t o t h e l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ( W a t s o n , 1973; R o s e n b u r g , C a s s e n s & I d l e m a n , 1 9 8 6 ) , and t h i s f o r m o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y p a r t o f a t i m e - l i m i t e d p r o c e s s o f a c c r e d i t a t i o n l e a d i n g t o 22 autonomous p r a c t i c e . W i t h i n t h i s autonomy, t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e component f o u n d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e e d u c a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n becomes a p r o c e s s s e p a r a t e and a p a r t f r o m s u p e r v i s i o n and d e v o i d o f t h e r e f e r e n t a u t h o r i t y themes i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e . C o n s u l t a t i o n as a p r o c e s s s e p a r a t e f r o m s u p e r v i s i o n has been d i s c u s s e d by Buckman ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Munson ( 1 9 8 3 ) , and K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Much of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1970 t o t h e p r e s e n t d i s p l a y s a c o n c e r n w i t h p r e s c r i b i n g l i m i t s t o what s u p e r v i s i o n i s o r what i t s h o u l d be; t o e s t a b l i s h a c c e p t a b l e c l o s e d d e f i n i t i o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o d i s p e l t h e m y s t i q u e , c o n f u s i o n and c r i t i c i s m w h i c h has grown up a r o u n d a c o n c e p t w h i c h c a n mean so many t h i n g s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e r o l e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o r t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e o b s e r v e r . To a g r e a t d e g r e e t h e o r e t i c i a n s have a t t e m p t e d t o do t h i s by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n t o one o r two f u n c t i o n s . W h i l e i t may be s a i d g e n e r a l l y t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s o f c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n has s h i f t e d f r o m t h e w o r k e r t o t h e work ( P e t t e s , 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n s t r u c t u r e and p r a c t i c e r e m a i n a m a t t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e . T h e , p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s has c e r t a i n l y d i c t a t e d a more p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s and a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f f i s c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r t h e work done ( K a d u s h i n , 1 9 8 5 ) . 23 C u r r e n t I s s u e s S i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e f i e l d i n t h e d e c a d e f r o m 1978 t o t h e p r e s e n t have i n c l u d e d r e s t r a i n t p r o g r a m s t o l i m i t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p e n d i n g , r e l a t e d c u t s i n s t a f f i n g l e v e l s , i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c and m e dia s c r u t i n y o f t h e work s o c i a l w o r k e r s do, a l i m i t i n g o f mandates f o r p u b l i c w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l work r o l e s as w e l l as an e r o s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r t e r r i t o r y by s p e c i a l i s t s f r o m o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . Added t o t h i s has been a r e c e s s i o n economy i n w h i c h s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s were p a r t o f a " b u y e r s ' m a r k e t " d e m anding i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r e n t r y l e v e l p o s i t i o n s . One outcome o f t h i s c l i m a t e has been a demand f o r d e l i n e a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l work r o l e s and p r a c t i c e s . M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 8 6 ) a l l u d e s t o t h i s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e c e n t s h i f t f r o m q u a l i t a t i v e t o q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f s o c i a l w o r k e r o u t p u t . T h e o r i s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d upon t o c o n c i s e l y d e f i n e and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r t e r m s , and t o j u s t i f y t h e i r p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e w i t h s o l i d e m p i r i c a l d a t a . S c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work a r e c a l l e d upon t o p r o d u c e g r a d u a t e s w i t h a d e f i n e d l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e (Bogo 1 9 8 3 ) , and r e s t r a i n t i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n has d i c t a t e d a s i m i l a r e m p h a s i s on r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y as a f o r m o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r and as a means t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e . T h i s t r e n d r e p r e s e n t s a marked change i n d i r e c t i o n f o r a p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h has o f t e n s e e n i t s e l f and i t s methods as much l i k e a r t 24 as s c i e n c e ( H u t c h i n s o n , 1 935, i n K a d u s h i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . S o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e c a l l e d upon t o d e f i n e t h e i r p r a c t i c e i n t e r m s o f what w i l l be done, by whom, t o whom, and i n what c o n t e x t ( R u s s e l , 1 9 8 5 ) , and t o s u b j e c t t h e i r methods t o v a r i o u s f o r m s o f q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e s c r u t i n y . I n s h o r t t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g demand t h a t t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h one p e r s o n , a s o c i a l w o r k e r o r s u p e r v i s o r , i s s u p p o s e d t o h e l p a n o t h e r p e r s o n , a c l i e n t , c l i e n t g r o u p o r s u p e r v i s e e , be d e f i n e d i n o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s and j u s t i f i e d by m e a s u r a b l e o u t c o m e s . I n d e e d , t h r o u g h o u t t h e b r i e f h i s t o r y o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n s o c i a l work a u t h o r s have n o t e d t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h g e n e r a t e d d a t a t o e x p l o r e and d e s c r i b e t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e phenomenon and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s a l i e n c e o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o m e a s u r a b l e o u t c o m e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n ( B r i a r , 1966, 1971, i n R o b i n s o n , 1980; M i l f o r d C o n f e r e n c e , 1929; Munson, 1979; S t i l e s 1 9 6 3 ) . D e s p i t e t h e r e c e n t c l i m a t e o f p r a g m a t i s m and t h e r e s u l t a n t e m p h a s i s i n s u p e r v i s i o n upon a g e n c y and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n autonomy; s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r t h a n p e r s o n a l g r o w t h ; t h e work r a t h e r t h a n t h e w o r k e r ; c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n s u p e r v i s i o n do see a r e - e m e r g e n c e o f t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e one. T h i s may be bas e d upon an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e f f e c t s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s upon human s e r v i c e w o r k e r s and o f t h e u n i q u e needs o f a d u l t , l e a r n e r s . 25 As R e b e c c a Donovan s t a t e s , " P s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t i s e m e r g i n g as a s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l h a z a r d " ( 1 9 8 7 , p . 2 6 0 ) ; t h i s t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t e m o t i o n a l d i s t r e s s i s r e c o g n i z e d by many s t a t e s as a work r e l a t e d i l l n e s s ( D o n o v a n , 1 9 8 7 ) . C a p l a n ( C a p l a n , 1987) s t a t e s t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e work p l a c e , seems t o b u f f e r t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f j o b s t r e s s , and goes on t o d e f i n e s o c i a l s u p p o r t as t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b a s i c s o c i a l needs f o r a f f e c t i o n , e s t e e m , b e l o n g i n g , s e c u r i t y and i d e n t i t y , a r e g r a t i f i e d by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . Donovan a l s o s a y s " e v i d e n c e c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t work r e l a t e d s t r e s s i s most e f f e c t i v e l y m o d i f i e d by s u p p o r t f r o m c o - w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s " ( D o n o v a n , 1987, p . 2 6 4 ) . Donovan ( 1 9 8 7 ) c i t e s t h e s u r v e y r e s e a r c h o f R u d o l p h Moos who i n c l u d e s a measure o f t h e s o c i a l s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d by s u p e r v i s o r s i n h i s Work E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e . W e s t h e i m e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e l a c k o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ca n l e a d t o a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g o v e r w h e l m e d and h e l p l e s s on t h e p a r t o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s and l e s s e n t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Dorn ( 1 9 8 5 ) s i m i l a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t when s u p e r v i s e e s p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e t h e i r p r o b l e m s a r e beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l t h e y s e t t l e i n t o s t a t i c b e h a v i o u r ; t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s j o b i s t o g e t them m o v i n g a g a i n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o u n t e r i n g work r e l a t e d s t r e s s has been e v i d e n c e d by s t u d i e s i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e on t h e " b u r n o u t " phenomenon, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o human s e r v i c e w o r k e r s . B u r n o u t i s s e e n as a f o r m o f and 26 r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e work p l a c e ( W a l s h , 1 9 8 7 ) , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p h y s i c a l d e p l e t i o n and c h r o n i c f a t i g u e , a f e e l i n g o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and h o p e l e s s n e s s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s work, l i f e and o t h e r p e o p l e ( M a s l a c h , 1 9 7 7 ) . I t i s a l s o , a s W a l s h ( 1 9 8 7 ) i n d i c a t e s , p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t a g i o u s . Among t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l b u r n o u t a r e l i s t e d l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n work g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t o o many p r o j e c t s , f e e l i n g u n a p p r e c i a t e d , s e e i n g no r e s u l t s f r o m one's e f f o r t s and e q u a t i n g p e r s o n a l g o o d n e s s w i t h one's d e g r e e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s u c c e s s ( W a l s h , 1 9 8 7 ) . I t i s e a s y t o see how t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s m i g h t a r i s e f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a t y p i c a l p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c y . M i c h a e l D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) s a y s t h a t c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n work i s r e c o g n i z e d as p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l , and d e s c r i b e s b u r n o u t as a s m o u l d e r i n g p r o b l e m i n p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s . K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) s i m i l a r l y d e s c r i b e s b u r n out as a m a j o r p r o b l e m i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n and as one w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n and s u p e r v i s o r t r a i n i n g must a d d r e s s . K a d u s h i n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e i n c l u d e s s u p p o r t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g m o t i v a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e . Some o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f b u r n o u t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e e m o t i o n a l d e t a c h m e n t f r o m t h e work and t h e c l i e n t e l e , h i g h r a t e s o f s t r e s s - r e l a t e d i l l n e s s , a b s e n t e e i s m , d e c r e a s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a g e n c y e f f e c t i v e n e s s and h i g h r a t e s o f j o b t u r n o v e r . I n s o f a r as e a c h and a l l o f t h e s e may r e p r e s e n t a m a j o r d r a i n on an a g e n c y ' s c a p a c i t y t o 27 h e l p c l i e n t s and a m a j o r e x p e n s e i n r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g o f new w o r k e r s ; i n s o f a r as s u p e r v i s o r y s u p p o r t has been i n d i c a t e d as a key p r e v e n t i v e and p a l l i a t i v e measure f o r c o u n t e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s and c o n s e q u e n t b u r n o u t , t h e s u p p o r t f u n c t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n has g a i n e d p r a g m a t i c l e g i t i m a c y i n t h e p r e s e n t s o c i a l s e r v i c e c l i m a t e . I n d e e d t h e r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a p a n a c e a a g a i n s t t h e s t r e s s e s p e c u l i a r t o s o c i a l c a s e w o r k i s h a r d l y n o v e l , e c h o i n g L i t t n e r ' s ( K a d u s h i n , 1976) d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a p r o c e s s o f " m e n t a l h y g i e n e " . R e c e n t work on a d u l t l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , a l s o i m p l i c i t l y s u p p o r t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s . M a l c o l m K n o w l e s ( 1 9 7 2 ) and C a t h e r i n e C l a n c y ( 1 9 8 5 ) e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a r n e r s e l f - e s t e e m i n t h e a d u l t l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . They s t r e s s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o r s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e i n c l u d e s r e i n f o r c i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e l e a r n e r . S t o l t e n b e r g , P i e r c e & M c N e i l ( 1 9 8 7 ) i n c l u d e s u p p o r t / a v a i l a b i l i t y as one o f t h e i r f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f s u p e r v i s e e needs i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Bloom ( K a d u s h i n , 1985) and Hoiman and F r e e d ( 1 9 8 7 ) , i n d e s c r i b i n g s t a g e s o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g , p o i n t o u t t h a t an a n x i o u s s t a t e i s t o be e x p e c t e d and s h o u l d be d e a l t w i t h by s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . H a l g o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) s i m i l a r l y n o t e s t h e need f o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e t r a i n e e , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t a m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between s u p e r v i s i o n and 28 t e a c h i n g i s t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n , b e c a u s e o f i t s r o l e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t y b u i l d i n g , i s a more i n t e n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h more a t s t a k e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s e e . H a l g o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) , M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 8 6 ) , Shulman ( 1 9 8 2 ) and Cohen ( 1 9 8 7 ) a l l i n d i c a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e power d i f f e r e n t i a l t o t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e need t o d e a l w i t h t h e themes o f a u t h o r i t y and t r a n s f e r e n c e . One way o f d o i n g t h i s t h e y s u g g e s t , i s by p r o v i d i n g an e m o t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e a t m o s p h e r e f o r t h e l e a r n e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g empathy, a n o n - j u d g m e n t a l a t t i t u d e and a c c e p t a n c e . A g a i n t h e r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t T o w l e i n 1954 and E r i c k s o n i n 1959 ( R o b i n s o n , 1980) were g i v i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same message w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e need f o r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t o f t h e l e a r n e r i n s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s i o n some t h i r t y y e a r s e a r l i e r . The h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e r o l e and f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n has i d e n t i f i e d and d e m o n s t r a t e d f o u r d i s t i n c t , t h o u g h n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . T h e s e a r e t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n ; r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a means o f t r a i n i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r s and e n h a n c i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n : r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a means o f e n s u r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , p r e s e r v i n g and e n h a n c i n g t h e s e r v i c e s y s t e m and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f t h e s y s t e m and i t s members; t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n : r e f e r r i n g 29 t o t h e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a means o f a s s i s t i n g t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r t o cope w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s , s t r e s s o r s and d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s o r h e r j o b ; and t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n : r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a c a s e work p r o b l e m s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e between p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Much o f t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e on t h e t o p i c o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s or t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( K a d u s h i n , 1985; Munson, 1979) r e j e c t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c o n s u l t a t i o n as an a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s u p e r v i s i o n a r g u i n g t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t r i n s i c and n e c e s s a r y power d i f f e r e n t i a l b etween s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e , c o n s u l t a t i o n s h o u l d be a s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r M i l l e r ( i n G e t z e l & S a l m o n , 1 9 8 5 ) , K u t z i c k ( K a s l o w , 1 9 7 7 ) , and Munson ( 1 9 8 3 ) i s o l a t e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e one i n s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s t y p i f i e d by M i l l e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n a s " e s s e n t i a l l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ; a p r o c e s s f o r g e t t i n g t h e work done and m a i n t a i n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l " . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l b i a s t e n d a l s o t o c a u t i o n t h a t an e m p h a s i s on s u p p o r t c a n l e a d t o d e p e n d e n c y , be p a t r o n i z i n g and r e d u c e s u p e r v i s e e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s Munson ( 1 9 7 9 ) s a y s t h e r e i s a need t o s u p e r v i s e t h e p o s i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e p e r s o n . K a d u s h i n (1 9 8 5 p . v i i ) p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y b r o a d and e c l e c t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e s a y i n g " t h e s u p e r v i s o r 30 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y c o o r d i n a t e s , e d u c a t e s , s u p p o r t s and s u s t a i n s m o t i v a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e " , but e l s e w h e r e i d e n t i f i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of s u p e r v i s i o n . Kas low (1977) has d e s c r i b e d the f u n c t i o n s of s u p e r v i s i o n v a r i o u s l y as q u a s i - t h e r a p e u t i c ( i e . s u p p o r t i v e , ) a p r o c e s s of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n , and as the means by wh ich s o c i a l work knowledge and s k i l l s a re t r a n s m i t t e d . O t h e r s ( E p s t e i n , 1973; G e t z e l and Sa lmon , 1985) argue f o r the s e p a r a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r v i s o r s f o r e a c h , i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of these f u n c t i o n s . Westhei iner ( 1977 ) , M a t t i n s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Absoms ( K a s l o w , 1977) and Levy ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a re among those who advoca te f o r the s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n as the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f u n c t i o n of s u p e r v i s i o n , e i t h e r as a p r e v e n t a t i v e a n t i d o t e to the n e g a t i v e consequences of the c o n d i t i o n s under wh ich s o c i a l w o r k e r s work , as a m o d e l l i n g of the v a l u e s , p h i l o s o p h y , and a p p r o p r i a t e e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s n e c e s s a r y to good ca sework , o r as " m e t a - c a s e w o r k " . I n s h o r t the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d more by c o n t r o v e r s y than by c o n s e n s u s . On s e v e r a l p o i n t s however a measure of agreement does e x i s t . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s the need f o r i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r those who would s u p e r v i s e . A u s t i n (Cohen , 1987) i n p a r t i c u l a r has d e c r i e d the common d e f a u l t manner i n wh ich p r a c t i t i o n e r s become s u p e r v i s o r s as a c a r e e r s t ep upon a l a d d e r w i t h few o t h e r r u n g s . P a t t i ( K a d u s h i n , 1985 ) , Egan 31 and B e n d n i c k ( R o b i n s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , and P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a l l s t r e s s t h e need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and r e j e c t t h e u s u a l t r i a l and e r r o r method o f l e a r n i n g t o s u p e r v i s e . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d a g r e e m e n t t h a t , a p p r o p r i a t e l y o r n o t , s u p e r v i s i o n has been and i s , as K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) p u t s i t , t h e s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l . w o r k e r s ; hence t h e manner i n w h i c h i t i s p r a c t i c e d n e e d s t o be i n f o r m e d by r e s e a r c h - b a s e d k n o w l e d g e . T h i s theme has r e s o n a t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e M i l f o r d C o n f e r e n c e i n 1929, t h r o u g h t h e work o f R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 3 5 ) , T o w l e ( 1 9 6 2 ) , and B r i a r ( 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 7 1 ) , t o t h e p r e s e n t . As Munson s t a t e s " t h e p a u c i t y o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s not u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n and most i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 4 0 ) . F i n a l l y t h e r e i s a d e g r e e o f c o n s e n s u s t h a t one p r i n c i p l e a r e a o f t e n s i o n i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p a r i s e s f r o m t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s b a r e l y t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n as m e d i a t o r between t h e n eeds o f t h e a g e n c y and t h e n eeds of s o c i a l w o r k e r s . E p s t e i n ( 1 9 7 3 ) d e s c r i b e s t h i s t e n s i o n when she d e f i n e s s u p e r v i s i o n as a p r o c e s s o f e x e r c i s i n g l e a d e r s h i p t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e n eeds o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r and t h e a g e n c y . T h i s , she s a y s , c r e a t e s a d i s s o n a n c e w h i c h s u p e r v i s o r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o p e d w i t h by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e o f s u p e r v i s e e s . I t seems t o t h i s s t u d e n t t h a t many t h e o r e t i c i a n s and s u p e r v i s o r s cope w i t h t h i s t e n s i o n by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , 32 s t r e s s i n g a c c o u n t a b i l i t y e v a l u a t i o n , and t h e work r a t h e r t h a n t h e w o r k e r . T h i s i s f r e q u e n t l y j u s t i f i e d by t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t s u c h an a p p r o a c h a v o i d s p a t r o n i z i n g o r i n f a n t a l i z i n g t h e w o r k e r , and t h u s e n h a n c e s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . I f s o c i a l work i s t o a t t a i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n i t must show i t s e l f t o be s e l f r e g u l a t i n g , s e l f e d u c a t i n g and o p e r a t i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s own code o f e t h i c a l b e h a v i o u r . I n p r a c t i c e t h i s means, i n t h i s s t u d e n t ' s o p i n i o n , t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o embrace a l l f o u r f u n c t i o n s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t o r e g u l a t e , e v a l u a t e , enhance and e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e and e t h i c a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y ; e d u c a t i v e l y t o be a key p a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g o f new members of t h e p r o f e s s i o n ; c o n s u l t a t i v e l y t o s h a r e k n o w l e d g e , i d e a s and i n n o v a t i o n w i t h c o l l e a g u e s f o r t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f p r a c t i c e ; s u p p o r t i v e l y t o p r o m o t e by p r a c t i c e t h e h u m a n i s t p h i l o s o p h y of t h e p r o f e s s i o n . A b e l s ( 1977, p.22) p r o m o t e s a s u p e r v i s i o n model ba s e d on s y n e r g y , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s as " t h e n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e m e l d i n g o f two o r more c o n f l i c t i n g i d e a s i n t o an outcome w h i c h i s an a d v a n c e o v e r any o f t h e o r i g i n a l i d e a s " . The v a l u e f o r t h e o r e t i c i a n s i n a t t e m p t i n g s u c h a s y n e r g i s t i c m e l d i n g o f t h e f o u r f u n c t i o n s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d t h e o r y o f s u p e r v i s i o n w o u l d l i e i n l a r g e measure i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h i s i n f a c t i s what e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s o r s must do e v e r y day. 33 C o n c e p t u a l B a s e s f o r t h e P r e s e n t E n q u i r y At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h r e e a s s u m p t i o n s were m e n t i o n e d as b e i n g p r e s e n t , s i n g l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d , as j u s t i f y i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h l i n e . The f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y and u s e f u l a d j u n c t t o p r a c t i c e , i n s o f a r as a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between how s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d and c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s . R e s e a r c h by Shulman ( 1 9 7 9 , 1981) s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e s k i l l s o f e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n a r e i n l a r g e measure t h e same as t h o s e n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e c a s e w o r k . I n t h i s r e s e a r c h he has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e s k i l l s i n c a s e w o r k c o r r e l a t e w i t h , a t l e a s t , c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f w o r k e r h e l p f u l n e s s , and i n s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r h e l p f u l n e s s . T h ese s k i l l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r . R e s e a r c h by F a l c o n e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) i n v o l v i n g a g r o u p o f new s o c i a l w o r k e r s who r e c e i v e d a s p e c i a l e n r i c h e d p r o g r a m o f s u p e r v i s i o n and t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b s e q u e n t s u p e r v i s o r s r a t e d them h i g h e r t h a n s i m i l a r l y e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n k n o w l e d g e , sound w o r k i n g h a b i t s and t h e a b i l i t y t o p r i o r i t i z e work l o a d s . I t w o u l d seem l i k e l y t h a t s u c h w o r k e r s w o u l d have a h i g h e r o v e r a l l d e g r e e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Rapp ( R o b i n s o n , 1980) f o u n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e and d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t and d i r e c t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n c a n be shown t o i m p a c t on c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s . Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 ) s p e a k i n g o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s c i t e s work by Doehrman i n 1972 and A r l o w i n 1960, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p r o c e s s i n s u p e r v i s i o n i s 34 d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n t i a l upon p r o c e s s i n c a s e w o r k . A l s o s u p e r v i s i o n methods may be t i e d t o c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s t h r o u g h t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o l e v e l s o f b u r n o u t , s i n c e b u r n o u t by d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s d i m i n i s h e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A r m s t r o n g ( 1 9 7 9 ) and M a s l a c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) , c i t e r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s u p e r v i s o r s c a n p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p w i t h s t r u c t u r e and s u p p o r t i s r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s o f b u r n o u t . A l a r g e s c a l e s t u d y o f human s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s by t h e B e r k e l e y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s i n 1977 ( F o r m a n , 1980) c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i g h q u a l i t y s u p e r v i s i o n can m i t i g a t e i n h e r e n t l y s t r e s s f u l work c o n d i t i o n s and pro m o t e some c o n d i t i o n s known t o r e d u c e b u r n o u t . T h i s same s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t h o s e p r o j e c t s s u r v e y e d i n w h i c h w o r k e r s r e p o r t e d i n a d e q u a t e s u p e r v i s i o n had t h e h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e o f b u r n o u t . They f o u n d a l s o t h a t t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f b u r n o u t i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u r v e y e d was among c h i l d a b u s e and n e g l e c t w o r k e r s , and n o t e d t h a t n e a r l y f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e u n d e r t h e age o f t h i r t y ' s c o r e d as h i g h l y b u r n e d o u t . P i n e s and M a s l a c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and M a s l a c h and J a c k s o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) r e p o r t f i n d i n g s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n c l u d i n g s u p e r v i s i o n may a c t t o r e d u c e b u r n out l e v e l s . K a d u s h i n s u m m a r i z e s t h e e v i d e n c e l i n k i n g s u p e r v i s i o n methods w i t h c a s e w o r k e f f e c t i v e n e s s by s a y i n g " s u p e r v i s i o n i f p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t i s a t o o l w h i c h l e n d s i t s e l f t o e n a b l i n g b e t t e r w o r k e r p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e c l i e n t g r o u p s c o n c e r n e d " ( 1 9 8 5 , p . v i ) . 35 The l a t t e r two a s s u m p t i o n s , t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b etween s u p e r v i s i o n and s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and betv/een j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e s u p p o r t e d by s u r v e y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s by H e n r y , Sims and S p r a y , i n Shulman 1981, and O l m s t e a d and C h r i s t i a n s o n i n 1973 ( i n K a d u s h i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . These a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h employment and b e t t e r i n d i v i d u a l and a g e n c y p e r f o r m a n c e , w h i l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n i s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h j o b t u r n o v e r . I n d e e d O l m s t e a d and C h r i s t i a n s o n i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h i r t y one s o c i a l w e l f a r e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a g e n c i e s r e p o r t " t h e d a t a a r e c o n c l u s i v e . H i g h a g e n c y s c o r e s on t h e s u p e r v i s i o n v a r i a b l e were a c c o m p a n i e d by g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , b e t t e r i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e , l e s s a b s e n t e e i s m , b e t t e r a g e n c y p e r f o r m a n c e and h i g h e r a g e n c y c o m p e t e n c e , " ( 1 9 7 3 , p . 3 0 4 ) . K e r n i s h and K u s h i n ' s ( K a d u s h i n , 1976) f i n d i n g t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h j o b t u r n o v e r a l s o i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e and w o r k e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a 1980 s t u d y by C h e r n i s s ( F a l c o n e r , 1983) shows t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r v i s e e r e l a t i o n s h i p may i m p a c t upon w o r k e r m o r a l e , m o t i v a t i o n and commitment. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and b u r n o u t w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t l o s s o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s w e l l documented i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on b u r n o u t i n t h e human s e r v i c e s . M a s l a c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) s a y s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f 36 b u r n o u t i s a l o s s o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom one i s w o r k i n g , i n w h i c h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l no l o n g e r has any p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o f s ympathy o r r e s p e c t . F r e u d e n b e r g e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , a p i o n e e r i n t h e s t u d y o f b u r n o u t and t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f t h e t e r m , o b s e r v e d t h a t i t i s t h e d e d i c a t e d and c o m m i t t e d who a r e t h e most p r o n e t o b u r n o u t . The I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n w h i c h t o g r o u p f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . - B e s i d e s p r o v i d i n g an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on c u r r e n t i s s u e s and a r e a s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n s u p e r v i s i o n , and p r o v i d i n g e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h u n d e r l i e t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , t h e l i t e r a t u r e was s u r v e y e d t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t t o t h e e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n and t o i d e n t i f y c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h t h e s e f a c t o r s m i g h t be g r o u p e d . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e c a t e g o r i e s u s e d h e r e were b o r r o w e d l a r g e l y , f r o m S h u l m a n , L u c k y j and R o b i n s o n ' s 1981 s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n a s i m i l a r s e t t i n g . T h a t p a p e r e x a m i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f c o n t e n t , c o n t e x t , and s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e i v e d h e l p f u l n e s s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n . F o r c u r r e n t p u r p o s e s t h e c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e , w h i c h r e f e r r e d t o t h e 37 t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n was m o d i f i e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s . I n s t e a d , t h e v a r i a b l e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n was c r e a t e d t o i n c l u d e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e d u c a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e and s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e s . The Shulman v a r i a b l e " s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n " was b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e f a c t o r s i n d i c a t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Thus t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y were t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e f u n c t i o n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . C o n t e x t o f S u p e r v i s i o n S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were i n d i c a t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t v a r i a b l e . T h e s e w e r e : s e t t i n g o f s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e i r d u r a t i o n , t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y , t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n and a t whose i n s t i g a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e s were u s u a l l y i n i t i a t e d . P r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w r e s e a r c h by t h i s s t u d e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e M.S.S.H e n v i r o n m e n t t h e r e were f o u r common s e t t i n g s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n : t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , s c h e d u l e d one t o o n e ' c o n f e r e n c e ; t h e u n s c h e d u l e d as needed c o n f e r e n c e ; t h e team m e e t i n g ; and g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s o t h e r t h a n team m e e t i n g s . 38 P r e l i m i n a r y work s u g g e s t e d t h a t most s o c i a l w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n i n a t l e a s t one of t h e s e s e t t i n g s . Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t t h e r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d one t o one c o n f e r e n c e i s t h e most commonly r e c o g n i z e d and t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s i o n ( K a d u s h i n , 1985; K a s l o w , 1977; P e t t e s , 1 9 7 9 ) , a l t h o u g h o p i n i o n v a r i e s on w h e t h e r t h i s i s t h e most d e s i r a b l e o r e f f i c a c i o u s s e t t i n g . Many p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e s u p p o r t i v e and e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s t e n d t o s t r e s s t h e need f o r r e g u l a r , s c h e d u l e d one t o one c o n f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r new w o r k e r s as e i t h e r a q u a s i - t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s (Absoms; M e l c h i o d e b o t h c i t e d i n K a s l o w , 1977) o r as a t u t o r i a l aimed a t t h e e n a b l i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g o f s k i l l and k n o w l e d g e a c q u i s i t i o n . E m p h a s i s i s o f t e n p l a c e d on n e g o t i a t i n g a c o n t r a c t between s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y s e t s o u t c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s s u c h as d u r a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y , l o c a t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n o f s e s s i o n s , as w e l l as t h e r i g h t s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e e v a l u a t i v e , d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and r e v i e w p r o c e d u r e s and t h e t a s k s and g o a l s o f t h e p r o c e s s ( L e v y , 1973; P e t t e s , 1979; T o w l e , 1954; W e s t h e i m e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . Some t h e o r i s t s a r g u e f o r g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n as a more a d v a n t a g e o u s s e t t i n g , i n as much as t h i s s e t t i n g r e d u c e s t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i n h e r e n t power d i f f e r e n t i a l , t r a n s f e r e n c e p o t e n t i a l and r e s i s t a n c e between s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e ( T o r e n i n E p s t e i n 1 9 7 3 ) . Group s u p e r v i s i o n may a l s o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p e e r s u p p o r t n e t w o r k and t h e c r e a t i v e 39 b r a i n s t o r m i n g p o t e n t i a l s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a c c o r d i n g t o V/atson ( 1 9 7 3 ) and i s an a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f i c a c i o u s s e t t i n g f o r l e a r n i n g and p e r s o n a l g r o w t h ( D a l e y , 1 9 7 9 ) . E p s t e i n ( 1 9 7 3 ) and Watson ( 1 9 7 3 ) among o t h e r s have a r g u e d f o r t h e use o f i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p a p p r o a c h e s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a g e o f m a t u r i t y and e x p e r i e n c e o f s u p e r v i s e e s and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f u n c t i o n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o p e r f o r m . The f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , t h e r e g u l a r i t y , d u r a t i o n and d e g r e e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f m e e t i n g s were a l s o m e n t i o n e d by most a u t h o r s as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t o f s u p e r v i s i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f s c h e d u l i n g and r e g u l a r i t y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e m p h a s i z e d by Watson ( 1 9 7 3 ) when he c a u t i o n s t h a t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e , s u p e r v i s i o n can come t o be s e e n "as n e e d e d " c o n s u l t a t i o n when i n f a c t t h i s ad hoc a p p r o a c h c a n f o s t e r d e p e n d e n c y and i n f a n t a l i z e t h e w o r k e r . W h i l e f r e q u e n c y i s s e e n by most as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e m a t u r i t y o f t h e w o r k e r , P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) r e m i n d s us t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n i s a r i g h t t o w h i c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s a t a l l l e v e l s a r e e n t i t l e d . P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e w o r k e r , as w e l l as t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o e x e r c i s e t h i s r i g h t . Thus i t e m s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t as i n d i c a t o r s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : r e g u l a r i t y , s e t t i n g , f r e q u e n c y , d u r a t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n . These, f a c t o r s were c o n c e p t u a l l y g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r as t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e c o n t e x t . 4 0 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n The s e c o n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " i n c l u d e s t h e f o u r p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n as i t s f a c t o r s . T hese a r e t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e , e d u c a t i v e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The i n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f e a c h o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i n r e p o r t s o f t h e c o n t e n t of s u p e r v i s i o n , o r of i t s p e r c e i v e d p u r p o s e . R e l a t i o n s h i p , The t h i r d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " r e l a t i o n s h i p " c o n s i s t e d o f two c a t e g o r i e s o f f a c t o r s : f i r s t , t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p and s e c o n d , s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s e m p l o y e d by o r p o s s e s s e d by s u p e r v i s o r s . F a c t o r s i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , t r u s t of t h e s u p e r v i s o r , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n was s e e n as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w o r k . T o r e n , ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; E p s t e i n , ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; E r i c k s o n , ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; and D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) a r e among t h o s e who have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n i s a s p e c i a l one, and b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work and t h e power d i f f e r e n t i a l and h i e r a r c h y i n h e r e n t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i t t e n d s t o be p o t e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c and i n t e n s e . C a r t e r ' s 1971 r e s e a r c h i n t o s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o u r i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c l u d e d a measure of t h e 41 w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as p a r t o f a f i v e f a c t o r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . S i m i l a r l y R o b i n s o n ' s ( 1 9 8 0 ) r e s e a r c h i n t h e same s e t t i n g i n c l u d e d a measure o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n as one o f two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n a s t u d y o f s u p e r v i s o r s ' s k i l l s . P r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s t e n d e d t o c o n f i r m t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r u s t t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p as s u g g e s t e d by a u t h o r s d i s c u s s i n g t h e s u p p o r t i v e and e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n s u p e r v i s i o n (Conway, 1 9 8 7 ) . Munson ( 1 9 7 9 ; 1983) and P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a d v o c a t e s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l b i a s , a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r u s t t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and say t h a t t h i s i s b e s t o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a c l e a r m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g by b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n and o f t h e e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s t o be u s e d . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e v a r i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l s p u r p o r t e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o f o s t e r i n g t h e s t r e n g t h and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . As C a r t e r r e m a r k s i n h e r s t u d y , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e use o f p e r s o n a l s e l f i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s ( C a r t e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . E s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l s were Shulman's t e x t s T e a c h i n g t h e H e l p i n g  S k i l l s ( 1 9 8 3 ) and S k i l l s o f S u p e r v i s i o n and S t a f f Management ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Shulman i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n s o f a r as t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t e n d e d t o be a h e l p i n g one, t h e s k i l l s 42 w h i c h c o r r e l a t e w i t h s u p e r v i s o r h e l p f u l n e s s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h i c h c o r r e l a t e w i t h c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r h e l p f u l n e s s . He s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s p o s t u l a t i o n o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s i n a s u r v e y s t u d y ( S h u l m a n , L u c k y j , R o b i n s o n , 1981) i n t h e same s e t t i n g as t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . I n t h i s s t u d y Shulman s o r t s t h e s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n , o r e f f e c t i v e c a s e w o r k , i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s . P r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s i n c l u d e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a b i l i t y t o a s s i s t t h e s u p e r v i s e e t o p a r t i a l i z e c o n c e r n s , o r t o d e a l w i t h t h e r o l e o r h i s o r h e r own f e e l i n g s i n a c a s e w o r k s i t u a t i o n . .Communication s k i l l s i n c l u d e s u c h f a c t o r s as p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k , and c r e a t i n g an a t m o s p h e r e f o r t h e f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s i n t h i s model i n c l u d e p r o v i d i n g empathy, a c c e p t a n c e and s u p p o r t f o r t h e w o r k e r . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s t r u m e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x 1) was d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e e x a m p l e s o f s k i l l s f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , and i n some i t e m s i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r w o r d i n g was b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e Shulman s t u d y . D o r o t h y P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a l s o e s p o u s e s a t r i p a r t i t e a p p r o a c h t o t h e s k i l l s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r . To T o w l e ' s d i v i s i o n o f s k i l l s i n t o e n a b l i n g and t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , she adds s k i l l s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T hese l a t t e r i n c l u d e f r e e i n g w o r k e r s t o do t h e i r work, b e i n g w e l l o r g a n i z e d i n one's own work, and c o m m u n i c a t i n g w o r k e r c o n c e r n s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T e a c h i n g s k i l l s i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g , and f a c i l i t a t i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s 43 and k n o w l e d g e . The e n a b l i n g s k i l l s , a c c o r d i n g t o P e t t e s , a r e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , and i n c l u d e p r o v i d i n g a c l i m a t e w h e r e i n a s u p e r v i s e e may p e r f o r m t o t h e b e s t o f h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y . A s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by B a r b a r a C a r t e r ( C a r t e r , 1971) i n c l u d e d i t e m s b a s e d on P e t t e s ' c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s and a g a i n , s i m i l a r w o r d i n g was used f o r s e v e r a l i t e m s i n t h e c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t . K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 6 ; 1985) has a l s o w r i t t e n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s . He c o n s i d e r s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t s k i l l s i n p r o v i d i n g a c c e p t a n c e t o t h e s u p e r v i s e e , b e i n g w i l l i n g t o g r a n t t h e s u p e r v i s e e a measure o f autonomy, h a v i n g a d e g r e e o f c o m p e t e n c e i n r e s p e c t o f a g e n c y p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e , and c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e v i e w s and c o n c e r n s o f s u p e r v i s e e s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S h u l m a n ' s 1981 s t u d y b o r r o w s s e v e r a l o f i t s f a c t o r s and t h e w o r d i n g o f some i t e m s f r o m K a d u s h i n ' s 1973 and 1974 s u r v e y r e s e a r c h . The c u r r e n t s u r v e y i s s i m i l a r l y i n d e b t e d . The f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by S h u l m a n , P e t t e s and K a d u s h i n a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s were augmented and m o d i f i e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s k i l l s i d e n t i f i e d by r e s p o n d e n t s i n p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w r e s e a r c h by t h i s s t u d e n t (Conway, 1 9 8 7 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d were i n c o r p o r a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o a c t as a r o l e model ( C a r t e r , 1971) t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s (Conway, 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o s t a f f m o r a l e 44 (Conway, 1 9 8 7 ) , and t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n a i d i n g t h e s u p e r v i s e e t o manage s t r e s s ( D a l e y , 1979; W a l s h , 1987; K a d u s h i n , 1 9 8 5 ) . I t may be r e a d i l y s e e n t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s a g r e a t many f a c t o r s as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h w h i c h f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r t h r e e , t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The D e pendent V a r i a b l e I n c o n t r a s t t o much o f t h e s u r v e y r e s e a r c h upon w h i c h t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y has drawn, t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " u s e d h e r e i s l e s s o b v i o u s l y t i e d t o t h e f a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e S h u l m a n , R o b i n s o n and L u c k y j , ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; R o b i n s o n , ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; C a r t e r , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 3 ; 1974) s t u d i e s were a l l c o n c e r n e d i n p u r p o s e w i t h d e s c r i b i n g and d i s c o v e r i n g what c o n s t i t u t e d e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o u r s i n r e l a t i o n t o d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s s u c h as s u p e r v i s o r h e l p f u l n e s s o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e e n q u i r i e s v i s - a - v i s e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y r e s t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f , as Shulman p u t s i t , " t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p a r a l l e l b e t w een t h e s u p e r v i s o r - w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e w o r k e r - c l i e n t i n t e r a c t i o n , a common c o r e o f d y n a m i c s and s k i l l s " ( S h u l m a n , 45 1981; p . 3 3 ) . I n s i m p l e t e r m s t h i s means t h a t t h e same t h i n g s t h a t w i l l make a s o c i a l w o r k e r r a t e t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p as h e l p f u l o r s a t i s f a c t o r y w i l l p e r t a i n t o t h e w o r k e r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The k e y a s s u m p t i o n s i n t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t e n q u i r y a r e t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s , e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n l e a d s t o g r e a t e r w e l l - b e i n g f o r t h e w o r k e r , and t h a t t h i s i n i t s e l f i s c o n d u c i v e t o b e t t e r s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g was c r e a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s e n q u i r y , and c o n s i s t s o f f i v e f a c t o r s , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e and i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h , m i g h t be s u p p o s e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o a s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m e f f e c t i v e l y . T h ese a r e : t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e w o r k e r ; t h e d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t by t h e w o r k e r ; t h e l e v e l o f j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s p e r c e i v e d by t h e w o r k e r ; t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e w o r k e r ' s c a s e l o a d i s p e r c e i v e d as m a n a g e a b l e ; t h e d e g r e e o f j o b r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n f e l t by t h e w o r k e r . I n s e l e c t i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s t h e r e s e a r c h e r was c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h o o s i n g t h o s e w h i c h w o u l d a p p e a r , o,n t h e f a c e o f i t , t o have a l i k e l i h o o d o f b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h t h e way i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d and w i t h e f f e c t i v e work, s i n c e , as m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h i s r e s e a r c h i s i n t e n d e d t o be p a r t o f a body o f work r e l a t i n g e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l w ork. 46 C a p l a n s t a t e s t h a t ... " t h e d e s i g n o f j o b s and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t have a t r e m e n d o u s i m p a c t on t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f w o r k e r s " ( i n Donovan, 1987 p . 2 6 1 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , and b e c a u s e of t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s a m a j o r r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g b o t h t h e j o b d e s i g n and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t . The S t a n f o r d Work E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e , c r e a t e d by R u d o l p h Moos ( D o n o v a n , 1 9 8 7 ) , i n c l u d e s m e a s u r e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f e s t e e m , and w o r k l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y . The f i v e f a c t o r s u s e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e o r c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r ; r a t h e r i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w i l l t e n d t o v a r y t o g e t h e r . F o r i n s t a n c e , an u n m a n a g e a b l e c a s e l o a d seems l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s , and t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . E a c h f a c t o r w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . P r o f e s s i o n a l S e l f - E s t e e m The f i r s t f a c t o r , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f e s t e e m was n o t e d by E r i c k s o n i n 1959 (Holman & F r e e d , 1985) as i m p o r t a n t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h . Many e x p o n e n t s o f t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n a l s o e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n u r t u r i n g , s u p p o r t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s u p e r v i s e e ' s p o s i t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t ( C l a n c y , 1985; Holman and F r e e d , 1985; W a t s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) . K a d u s h i n s i m i l a r l y n o t e s among t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " s u s t a i n i n g w o r k e r 47 m o r a l e . . . ( a n d ) g i v i n g s u p e r v i s e e s a s e n s e o f w o r t h as a p r o f e s s i o n a l . . . and a s e n s e of s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e " ( 1 9 8 5 p . 2 1 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o b u r n o u t a l s o s u g g e s t s l o w s e l f e s t e e m as an i n d i c a t o r o r symptom of o r c o n s e q u e n c e of b u r n o u t . The M a s l a c h B u r n o u t I n v e n t o r y ( M a s l a c h & J a c k s o n , 1981) i n c l u d e s a measure o f f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and M a s l a c h d i s c u s s e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t as p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f b u r n i n g o u t ( W a l s h , 1 9 8 7 ) . W a l s h ( 1 9 8 7 ) a l s o m e n t i o n s s e e i n g no r e s u l t s f r o m one's e f f o r t s and a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g u n a p p r e c i a t e d as c o n t r i b u t o r s t o b u r n o u t . C a p l a n ( i n Donovan, 1987) d i s c u s s e s s o c i a l s u p p o r t as t h e most e f f e c t i v e m o d i f i e r o f work r e l a t e d s t r e s s . He d e f i n e s s o c i a l s u p p o r t as t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e w o r k e r ' s n e e d s f o r e s t e e m , a f f e c t i o n , b e l o n g i n g , s e c u r i t y and i d e n t i t y a r e g r a t i f i e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n . The i t e m used h e r e as- an i n d i c a t o r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f e s t e e m a s k s f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t " I f e e l good a b o u t my own s k i l l s as a s o c i a l w o r k e r . " K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 3 5 ) s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s w e l l -b e i n g o f a r e c o g n i t i o n by s e l f , c o n f i r m e d by o t h e r s , t h a t t h e work i s w e l l done. T h u s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r , on t h e f a c e of i t , t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t f e e l i n g good a b o u t t h e i r s o c i a l work s k i l l s , w i l l have a h i g h d e g r e e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f e s t e e m , and t h a t t h i s w i l l be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g . 48 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n The s e c o n d f a c t o r , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a key f a c t o r i n w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g . S u r v e y r e s e a r c h by O l m s t e a d and C h r i s t e n s o n i n 1973, K e r n i s h and K u s h i n i n 1969, and H e n r y , Sims and S p r a y i n 1971 a l l r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s between s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o r c o n v e r s e l y between d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b o r , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e K e r n i s h and K u s h i n s t u d y w i t h j o b t u r n o v e r ( K a d u s h i n , 1 9 8 5 ) . C a r t e r s t a t e s t h a t " w i t h i n t h e d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i t i s t h e s u p e r v i s o r who h o l d s t h e key t o s t a f f s a t i s f a c t i o n " ( C a r t e r 1971; p . 6 ) . Munson's 1979 r e s e a r c h c o n c l u d e s t h a t s t r u c t u r e and a u t h o r i t y i n s u p e r v i s i o n have an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Though l e s s s p e c i f i c t h e B e r k e l e y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s ' 1977 l a r g e s c a l e s u r v e y s t u d y a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t good s u p e r v i s i o n i s c r u c i a l t o w o r k e r s ' p e r f o r m a n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n ( F a l c o n e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n r e l a t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b w i t h b u r n o u t ( a n d hence c u r t a i l e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) Donovan ( 1 9 8 7 ) i n c l u d e s j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s , w h i l e K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) r e f e r s t o j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as a m a j o r component i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f b u r n o u t . The i t e m i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o i n d i c a t e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f i v e p o i n t s e l f - r a t i n g o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . 49 J o b - R e l a t e d S t r e s s The t h i r d f a c t o r i n c l u d e d i n t h e v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g i s j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s . B u r n o u t i s c o n c e i v e d o f as b e i n g a c o n s e q u e n c e o f and r e a c t i o n t o e x c e s s i v e u n m i t i g a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s , i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . W a l s h ( 1 9 8 7 ) c a l l s b u r n o u t a f o r m o f , and r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) t y p i f i e s b u r n o u t as t h e i n a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e c o n t i n u e d s t r e s s , and d e f i n e s i t as a r e a c t i o n t o j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s , w h i c h v a r i e s i n n a t u r e w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s . S t r e s s i s an i n e s c a p a b l e f a c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e f o r l i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and i s n o t i n i t s e l f a n e g a t i v e phenomenon. R a t h e r i t i s t h e i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f s t r e s s w h i c h may p r o v o k e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n . D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) c i t e s C o s t e l l o and Z a l k i n d ' s t h r e e s t a g e s o f s t r e s s r e a c t i o n : i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e , as s t r e s s i n c r e a s e s , w o r k e r r e s p o n s e i s i n c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g p o s i t i v e c o p i n g mechanisms s u c h as a r o u s a l o f d e f e n s e s y s t e m s and t r y i n g h a r d e r ; i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e t h e w o r k e r e n t e r s a r e s i s t a n c e s t a t e i n w h i c h e n e r g y i s c o n s t a n t l y d i v e r t e d t o manage s t r e s s . M a s l a c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) d e s c r i b e s w o r k e r s i n t h i s s t a g e as d e m o n s t r a t i n g " d e t a c h e d c o n c e r n " . I f t h e s t r e s s c o n t i n u e s u n a b a t e d t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f r e a c t i o n i s e n t e r e d i n t o , i n w h i c h t h e d e p l e t i o n o f e n e r g y e x p e n d e d i n m a n a g i n g s t r e s s r e s u l t s i n e x h a u s t i o n , and t h e w o r k e r must e i t h e r g e t o u t o r b r e a k down. 50 As Forman ( 1 9 8 0 ) p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e a r e two i n t e r a c t i v e e l e m e n t s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s . T hese a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e j o b . I t i s o f t e n t h e f i t between t h e s e w h i c h e x a c e r b a t e s o r m i t i g a t e s t h e - i m p a c t o f s t r e s s upon t h e w o r k e r a c c o r d i n g t o V i g i l a n t e ( i n Donovan 1 9 8 7 ) . The r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as a d m i n i s t r a t o r , i n m a x i m i z i n g t h i s f i t i s a l l u d e d t o by L e v y ( 1 9 7 3 ) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e e t h i c s o f s u p e r v i s i o n when he s a y s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i t between w o r k e r and j o b , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e n e c e s s a r y t o o l s t o do t h e j o b , and a t t e n d i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e s u p e r v i s e e ' s a s p i r a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s must h e l p w o r k e r s d e f i n e and i d e n t i f y s t r e s s o r s , and m e n t i o n s among t h e s e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o n c i l i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e demands and a m b i g u o u s r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s ( i n K a d u s h i n 1 9 7 6 ) , i n i t s s t a n d a r d s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , s t a t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' j o b i n c l u d e s t h e management o f work r e l a t e d s t r e s s , and a s s i s t a n c e t o s t a f f c o p i n g w i t h t h i s s t r e s s . The p r a g m a t i c i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o m i t i g a t e s t r e s s t h r o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n has been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n r e s e a r c h by Van V l e e t , and by C o o p e r and M u r c h i l l ( c i t e d i n Forman 1 9 8 0 ) , B e r k e l e y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 7 7 ) and M a s l a c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) a l l o f w h i c h have r e l a t e d h i g h l e v e l s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s w i t h c e r t a i n i l l n e s s e s and s u c h n e g a t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s as a l c o h o l 51 a n d / o r d r u g a b u s e and a b s e n t e e i s m ; t h i s t o t h e ex t e n t t h a t Donovan c a l l s p s y c h o - s o c i a l s t r e s s "a s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l h a z a r d " ( D o n o v a n , 1987; p.260) and s a y s t h a t " e v i d e n c e c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t work r e l a t e d s t r e s s i s most e f f e c t i v e l y m i t i g a t e d by s u p p o r t f r o m c o - w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s " ( p . 2 6 4 ) . The i t e m i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l a t i n g t o t h e f a c t o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r e s s a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f j o b r e l a t e d s t r e s s t h e y e n c o u n t e r . C a s e l o a d M a n a g e a b i l i t y The f o u r t h f a c t o r i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y , i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o j o b s t r e s s . S i n c e t h e s a m p l e g r o u p were e x p e c t e d t o be p r a c t i s i n g " l i n e " s o c i a l w o r k e r s i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d a l l c a r r y c a s e l o a d s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s and d e g r e e s o f d i f f i c u l t y . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o what has been s a i d p r e v i o u s l y r e g a r d i n g t h e f i t b e t w een w o r k e r and w o r k l o a d i t seemed t h a t t h e r e m i g h t n o t be a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n b etween t h e s i z e o f c a s e l o a d and t h e d e g r e e of s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . The c o n d i t i o n s o f w ork, t h e l a c k o f s u p e r v i s o r s u p p o r t , o r t h e d e g r e e o f d i f f i c u l t y i n p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s c o u l d r e n d e r a s m a l l c a s e l o a d l e s s m a n a g e a b l e t h a n a l a r g e one. S h u l m a n ' s 1981 s t u d y c i t e s p r e l i m i n a r y key i n f o r m a n t i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s c o u l d f i n d t h e j o b s t r e s s f u l and m a n a g e a b l e a t t h e same t i m e , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s p o r t i o n o f h i s s u r v e y f o u n d t h a t , on 52 a v e r a g e s u p e r v i s o r s f o u n d t h e j o b more s t r e s s f u l t h a n u n m a n a g e a b l e . H a v i n g made a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t ween t h e s e , Shulman goes on t o say t h a t " t h e i s s u e s o f j o b s t r e s s and j o b m a n a g e a b i l i t y a r e c r u c i a l when e x a m i n i n g s u p e r v i s i o n " ( S h u l m a n , L u c k y j , R o b i n s o n , 1981; p . 2 5 ) , but a l s o o b s e r v e s , t h a t " s t r e s s and m a n a g e a b i l i t y by t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d n o t be c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n a f f e c t i n g s u p e r v i s i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r most s u p e r v i s o r s " ( p . 2 7 ) . W h i l e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i t a p p e a r e d e f f i c a c i o u s t o c o n s i d e r c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y as a s e p a r a t e f a c t o r i n w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d e x i s t between t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f j o b s t r e s s . The i t e m u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o n o t e how much o f t h e t i m e t h e y f o u n d t h e i r c a s e l o a d s m a n a g e a b l e , on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . J o b - R e l a t e d F r u s t r a t i o n F i n a l l y , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r d e g r e e o f j o b r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n . A g a i n , t h e f a c t o r " j o b r e l a t e d " f r u s t r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l a t e d t o , b u t not c l e a r l y t h e o p p o s i t e o f j o b r e l a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a r e s p o n d e n t m i g h t d e s c r i b e t h e i r l e v e l o f j o b r e l a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n as h i g h , and a l s o r e p o r t t h a t t h e y o f t e n f e e l f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n . I n any c a s e i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a h i g h d e g r e e o f f r u s t r a t i o n w o u l d be a f a c t o r i n l o w w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s 53 ( D a l e y , 1979; Donovan, 1987; K a d u s h i n , 1985) c o n s i d e r f r u s t r a t i o n s e p a r a t e l y as a c o n t r i b u t o r t o b u r n o u t , and K a d u s h i n c i t e s a s t u d y by Wasserman i n w h i c h he c o n c l u d e s t h a t "two p r i n c i p a l f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d by t w e l v e new p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s d u r i n g t h i s two y e a r p e r i o d were f r u s t r a t i o n and f a t i g u e " (Wasserman i n K a d u s h i n , 1985; p . 9 0 ) . D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) s p e a k s o f d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n w o r k e r s and he r e l a t e s f r u s t r a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s need f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , r e w a r d and a d v a n c e m e n t e.g. a more d e f i n e d and a c c e s s i b l e c a r e e r l a d d e r f o r d i r e c t s e r v i c e w o r k e r s . D a l e y c i t e s e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t w i t h o u t a good p r o m o t i o n s t r u c t u r e w o r k e r s t e n d t o l e a v e t h e i r j o b s i n l e s s t h a n two y e a r s . R e l a t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , and w i t h e f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e Dorn ( 1 9 8 5 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w o r k e r p e r c e i v i n g t h a t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e h i s o r h e r p r o b l e m s a r e beyond h i s o r h e r c o n t r o l , he o r she s e t t l e s i n t o s t a t i c b e h a v i o u r . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e i s t o g e t t h e w o r k e r m o v i n g a g a i n by c h a n g i n g ' t h a t p e r c e p t i o n . L i k e s t r e s s , f r u s t r a t i o n may a l s o be s e e n as t h e r e s u l t o f a p o o r f i t b etween t h e demands o f t h e j o b and t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e w o r k e r , o r between t h e a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e w o r k e r and t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e work s i t u a t i o n . A g a i n , a d d r e s s i n g t h e r o o t s o f t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n may c e r t a i n l y be s e e n t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mandate and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e 54 s u p e r v i s o r . The i t e m i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as an i n d i c a t o r o f j o b - r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t " I o f t e n f e e l f r u s t r a t e d o r unhappy i n my c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n . " Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has a t t e m p t e d t o p l a c e s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c u r r e n t i s s u e s o f d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e and p u r p o s e . As w e l l , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has been r e v i e w e d t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s (and t h e i r component f a c t o r s ) , and t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h t h e c u r r e n t e n q u i r y i s b a s e d . C h a p t e r t h r e e w i l l e x a m i n e t h e methods used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e phenomenon o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g , and t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a f o r e v i d e n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . 55 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Summary o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n The s t u d y r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d w i t h a random s a m p l e o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e and H o u s i n g o f B.C. (M.S.S.H.) a t p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l s S o c i a l Worker 1 o r S o c i a l W orker 2 ( i . e . i n v o l v e d i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s ) . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e and i t s p u r p o s e s a r e t h r e e f o l d : i ) t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.FI. s e t t i n g i n t e r m s o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e ; t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s ; t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i i ) t o e x a m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s b etween f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e s e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , i i i ) t o e s t a b l i s h , by a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , w h e t h e r c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e d i c t e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e do e x i s t . These p u r p o s e s were a d d r e s s e d u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d by t h e s t u d e n t . 56 L e v e l o f D e s i g n The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s c r i p t i v e i n t h a t , w h i l e t h e raw d a t a i s m a n i p u l a t e d , e x a m i n e d and a n a l y z e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s , c a u s a l i t y , o r d i r e c t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s n o t i m p l i e d . H owever, where t h e d a t a s u p p o r t c e r t a i n p r e d i c t i o n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s have been n o t e d , and a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . V a r i a b l e s were n o t m a n i p u l a t e d b u t r a t h e r o b s e r v e d and q u a n t i f i e d . The s t u d y r e l i e s on s e l f r e p o r t by r e s p o n d e n t s and d e a l s w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t e x t , f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n , and j o b r e l a t e d w e l l - b e i n g . Thus t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d do n o t r e p r e s e n t a d i r e c t q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f phenomena. I t must be remembered t o o , t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e n o t h a r d , d i s c r e t e o r c l o s e d e n d e d . R a t h e r , t h e s e v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r g r o u p i n g f a c t o r s p u r p o r t e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n , o r t o t h e w e l l b e i n g o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s . T h u s , i n e x a m i n i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t we a r e r e g a r d i n g n o t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f v e r i f i a b l e phenomena, but t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g . a r d i n g c e r t a i n f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n o r t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . 57 N a t u r e o f t h e Sample The s a m p l e u s e d c o n s i s t e d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0% (n = 198) o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f M.S.S.H. s o c i a l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d a t l e v e l s S o c i a l Worker 1 and S o c i a l W o r k er 2 ( i . e . i n v o l v e d i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s ) . I n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r w o r k , t h i s s a m p l e g r o u p may be presumed t o be f a i r l y homogeneous, m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e m i n i s t r y ' s mandate t o p r o v i d e c h i l d w e l f a r e and p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . I n t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s , t h e s a m p l e was c l e a r l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s , i n c l u d i n g a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a g e s , l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n and l e n g t h o f employment by t h e m i n i s t r y . The e f f e c t s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . The s a m p l e was g e n e r a t e d i n random f a s h i o n by t h e M i n i s t r y ' s c o m p u t e r f r o m i t s p e r s o n n e l f i l e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y was v o l u n t a r y and t h o s e who d i d n o t w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e , s i m p l y d i d n o t c o m p l e t e or r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Thus p a r t i c i p a n t s were v o l u n t a r y and s e l f s e l e c t i n g , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e r e s u l t , a s Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 ) p o i n t s o u t , t h a t t h e s a m p l e may be more " m e l l o w " t h a n one i n v o l v i n g m a n d a t o r y s e l e c t i o n f r o m a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s were l o c a t e d i n o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n b o t h r u r a l and u r b a n s e t t i n g s . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e were w o r k e r s w i t h p e r m a n e n t f u l l - t i m e , a u x i l i a r y f u l l - t i m e , p e r m a n e n t p a r t - t i m e , and a u x i l i a r y p a r t - t i m e 58 s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s . A g a i n , t h e e f f e c t o f j o b s t a t u s was i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . I n s t r u m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t and T e s t i n g W h i l e a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i d n o t r e v e a l an i n s t r u m e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s b etween f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g , s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t s were of use i n p r o v i d i n g i t e m s w h i c h were i n c l u d e d , o r m o d i f i e d f o r use i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . T h e s e were i n s t r u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d by S h u l m a n , R o b i n s o n , L u c k y j , ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; R o b i n s o n , ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; C a r t e r , ( 1 9 7 0 ) ; Amacher, C a m p b e l l , Conway, e t a l ( 1 9 8 7 ) ; and K a d u s h i n , ( 1 9 7 3 ) . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , t h e l i t e r a t u r e was s u r v e y e d t o p r o v i d e a l i s t o f f a c t o r s , w h i c h m i g h t be s u p p o s e d t o be o f r e l e v a n c e t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n and t o p r o v i d e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h t h e s e f a c t o r s m i g h t be g r o u p e d , as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e n , t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f p r e t e s t i n g , f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d v/hich a p p e a r e d t o have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e o r s a l i e n c e i n t h e s e t t i n g s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n 1986, a p i l o t v e r s i o n of t h i s s t u d y was e x e c u t e d (Conway, 1986) i n two d i s t r i c t M.H.R. ( p r e c u r s o r t o M.S.S.H.) o f f i c e s . The i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s p i l o t was d e v e l o p e d by t h i s s t u d e n t , and was p r e t e s t e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h r e e c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e M i n i s t r y ; a s u p e r v i s o r and two 59 c a s e v / o r k e r s . W i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e key i n f o r m a n t s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t e n s u b j e c t s . Comments were i n v i t e d f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h e s e comments were u s e f u l as i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l e v a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s . The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y was a l s o u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . F u r t h e r b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h i n 1986-7 e x p a n d e d and r e f i n e d t h e l i s t o f f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t be i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . F o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by t h i s s t u d e n t , (Conway 1987) i n o r d e r t o b u i l d a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e i n t h e M.S.S.H., and t o e x p l o r e t h e r a n g e o f o p i n i o n on t h e s u b j e c t among t h e e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s i n o r d e r t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e l e v a n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . As w i t h t h e 1986 i n s t r u m e n t p r e - t e s t , i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e 1987 r e s e a r c h were b o t h s u p e r v i s o r s and s u p e r v i s e e s . D r a w i n g upon t h e i n s i g h t s g a i n e d , t h e 1986 s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t was e x t e n s i v e l y m o d i f i e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e f a c t o r s u s e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e v/orker w e l l - b e i n g were e x p a n d e d f r o m t h r e e t o f i v e t o i n c l u d e j o b -r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m ; c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t t i n g s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n ( i . e . s c h e d u l e d one t o one, ad hoc one t o one, g r o u p ) and s e v e r a l f a c t o r s 60 p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y and s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n were a d d e d . The r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n r e v i e w e d by a s m a l l p u r p o s i v e s a m p l e o f s u p e r v i s o r s and s u p e r v i s e e s i n t h e M.S.S.H. and t h e i r f e e d b a c k was u s e d t o m o d i f y t h e w o r d i n g of s e v e r a l i t e m s and t o d e l e t e i t e m s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o be c o n f u s i n g o r l e s s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . A p p e n d i x B p r o v i d e s a l i s t o f t h e f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g w h i c h were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t and the' i t e m w o r d i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h , w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n code u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t e a c h i t e m . The S u r v e y The M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g was a p p r o a c h e d and p e r m i s s i o n was r e c e i v e d t o c o n d u c t t h e s u r v e y w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d a t l e v e l s S.W.I and S.W.2 ( i . e . l i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ) . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m i n i s t r y ' s p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s and r e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t s two c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d random s a m p l e s o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n were d r a w n , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n p e r c e n t of t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . The number i n t h e f i r s t s a m p l e was 106 and i n t h e s e c o n d , 94. I n l a t e F e b r u a r y 1988, q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d t o t h e f i r s t s a m p l e and 6 weeks l a t e r t o t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . I n c l u d e d w i t h e a c h was a c o v e r l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y , a s s u r i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , and o f f e r i n g an a b s t r a c t o f t h e r e s u l t s t o 61 i n t e r e s t e d r e s p o n d e n t s . To e n s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , a s e l f -a d d r e s s e d , s e a l a b l e e n v e l o p e f o r r e t u r n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n c l u d e d , and no i n f o r m a t i o n was a s k e d f o r on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h c o u l d d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f y r e s p o n d e n t s o r t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . F u r t h e r , t h e a g r e e m e n t between t h e m i n i s t r y and t h i s s t u d e n t s t i p u l a t e d t h a t , w h i l e a n a l y z e d d a t a w o u l d be s h a r e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t , no i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s o r raw d a t a w o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t r y and t h a t , upon c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , a l l i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w o u l d be d e s t r o y e d by s h r e d d i n g . F o r e a c h m a i l i n g , a f o l l o w up l e t t e r was s e n t a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e w eeks, e n c o u r a g i n g r e s p o n s e t o t h e s u r v e y . R e t u r n s came d i r e c t l y t o t h i s s t u d e n t ' s a d d r e s s by r e g u l a r m a i l . One h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - t h r e e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e c e i v e d , f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 6 7%. R e s p o n s e s were c o d e d o n t o FORTRAN s h e e t s and e n t e r e d i n t o t h e UBC c o m p u t e r as a d a t a f i l e , t h e n a n a l y z e d , u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s S.P.S.S:X s t a t i s t i c a l p r o g r a m . I n s t r u m e n t D e s i g n The i n s t r u m e n t i s a s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f 68 f o r c e d r e s p o n s e i t e m s . The i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n d e n t s , p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s 62 p l a c e , p e r c e p t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d by r e s p o n d e n t s , p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p and r e s p o n d e n t r a t i n g s o f i t e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o b - r e l a t e d w e l l - b e i n g ( t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) . F o r e a s e o f c o d i n g , r e s p o n s e s f o r most i t e m s a r e o r d i n a l l y s c a l e d i n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o r on f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s i n t h e o t h e r s e c t i o n s . As w e l l , a t t h e end o f e a c h s e c t i o n , comments a r e i n v i t e d . Comments were a n a l y z e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e c o n t e n t , v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . o f t h e p r e c e d i n g i t e m s and t o "add l i f e t o t h e d a t a " ( S h u l m a n , L u c k i j , and R o b i n s o n , 1981) when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . The d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s was i n f o r m e d by t h r e e p u r p o s e s , t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d . F i r s t , t h e s u r v e y a t t e m p t s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g i n t e r m s o f t h e f i v e a r e a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . S e c o n d l y , t h e d a t a was us e d t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s c r i b e d o r p r e d i c t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were s u p p o r t e d by t h e d a t a . F i n a l l y , i t e m s were d e s i g n e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an a n a l y s i s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h made up e a c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e j o b - r e l a t e d w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . 63 S e c t i o n A o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e g a t h e r e d d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t r e s p o n d e n t s a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s : a g e , s e x , e d u c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l work, e x p e r i e n c e as a M.S.S.H. s o c i a l w o r k e r , l e n g t h o f s u p e r v i s i o n by c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r and c a s e l o a d s i z e . S e c t i o n B m a i n l y g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e . T h i s s e c t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , a d d r e s s i n g t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n may t a k e p l a c e : t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e ; t h e "as n e e d e d " , o n e - t o - o n e m e e t i n g b e tween s u p e r v i s e e and s u p e r v i s o r ; and t h e g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n m e e t i n g between two o r more s o c i a l w o r k e r s and a s u p e r v i s o r . I n e a c h o f t h e s e p a r t s , i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s e n q u i r e d i n t o t h e f r e q u e n c y , d u ' r a t i o n , d e g r e e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n , i n i t i a t i o n , p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s and u s u a l c o n t e n t o f s e s s i o n s . The l a t t e r i t e m , c o n t e n t , was i n t e n d e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f e a c h mode o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as w e l l as t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e . Q u e s t i o n s i n s e c t i o n C were m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f s t a t e m e n t s o f o p i n i o n w i t h w h i c h r e s p o n d e n t s were i n v i t e d t o i n d i c a t e a d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t , on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e . T h e s e were i n t e n d e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as p e r c e i v e d s u b j e c t i v e l y by r e s p o n d e n t s . 64 I n t e r m s o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s were d e s i g n e d t o p r o b e t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and a s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f t h e c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r . T h e s e s k i l l s , drawn f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e and f r o m p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w w o r k, r e p r e s e n t t h o s e s u p p o s e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n and i n c l u d e : a c c u r a t e empathy, p r o v i s i o n o f m e a n i n g f u l f e e d b a c k , f a c i l i t a t i n g p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g , r e c i p r o c i t y , a i d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f d i f f i c u l t o r t a b o o a r e a s , c l a r i f y i n g r o l e s and a p p r o p r i a t e use o f a u t h o r i t y . Some i t e m s i n t h i s s e c t i o n a l s o g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i t e m s were i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n was p e r c e i v e d t o be s u p p o r t i v e , e d u c a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . F i n a l l y , S e c t i o n D c o n t a i n e d f i v e i t e m s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h make up t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , j o b -r e l a t e d w e l l - b e i n g . T hese i t e m s e n q u i r e d i n t o : r e s p o n d e n t r a t i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b , j o b - r e l a t e d s t r e s s , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y and d e g r e e o f u n h a p p i n e s s a n d / o r f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e j o b . G e n e r a l l y , f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s were r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y one i t e m on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, 65 f o r c e r t a i n f a c t o r s , two o r t h r e e i t e m s were i n c l u d e d , where i t was c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l t o c h e c k c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , o r i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y ( f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r a s k i l l f a c t o r s u c h as s u p e r v i s o r e m p a t h y ) . I n a d d i t i o n , w o r d i n g f o r s e v e r a l i t e m s was t a k e n d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y f r o m p r e v i o u s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e s e f a c t o r s i n s u p e r v i s i o n , c o n d u c t e d i n s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s , so t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s on t h e s e i t e m s w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h m i g h t be p o s s i b l e . The i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f i s i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x A. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f t h e M e a s u r e  R e l i a b i l i t y As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h i s s t u d y was a t a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l and t h e use o f t h e t e r m s i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t t o r e f e r t o t h e v a r i a b l e s i s n o m i n a l , s i n c e no m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was a t t e m p t e d . A l s o , t h e c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t s o f e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e s t u d y t a k e s p l a c e were n o t c o n t r o l l e d f o r . I n p a r t i c u l a r i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e t i m i n g of t h e s t u d y c o i n c i d e d w i t h a l a r g e s c a l e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g , w h i c h a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y had an e f f e c t upon some o f t h e f a c t o r s e x a m i n e d . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f "v/orker w e l l b e i n g " as t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a r b i t r a r y , s i n c e c a u s a l i t y i s n o t i m p l i e d i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t ween f a c t o r s o r g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s . 66 I n d e e d , t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f e f f e c t b etween d e p e n d e n t and i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s must c e r t a i n l y be open t o q u e s t i o n s i n c e t h e c a s e may be as s t r o n g l y made t h a t a w o r k e r ' s w e l l b e i n g may i n f l u e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o n t e x t o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as t h e c o n v e r s e . T h e r e f o r e i n f e r e n c e s drawn f r o m t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s must be d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r t h a n e x p l a n a t o r y . P o l a n s k y r e m i n d s us t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a measure " i s a n e c e s s a r y , i f n o t s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e q u a t e v a l i d i t y " ( P o l a n s k y 1960 P. 9 9 ) . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a measure i s c o n c e r n e d a c c o r d i n g t o Kagan ( P o l a n s k y , 1960) n o t w i t h what i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d , b u t w i t h how w e l l i t i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d ; t o what d e g r e e v a r i a n c e between f i n d i n g s on s u b s e q u e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e same o r e q u i v a l e n t measure may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n measurement r a t h e r t h a n c h a n g e s i n t h e phenomenon u n d e r s c r u t i n y (Rutman, 1 9 7 7 ) . As Rutman ( 1 9 7 7 , p. 31) p u t s i t "Can t h e measure be depended upon t o s e c u r e c o n s i s t e n t and s t a b l e r e s u l t s " . F o r a new i n s t r u m e n t , c h e c k s must be made on s t a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y . Among t h e methods o f d o i n g t h i s p r e s c r i b e d by P o l a n s k y ( 1 9 6 0 ) t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c u r r e n t p u r p o s e s was a d e l a y e d r e - t e s t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I d e a l l y , s u c h a t e s t - r e t e s t i s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i d e n t i c a l r e s p o n d e n t s , a l t h o u g h t h i s does e x p o s e t h e measure t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e t e s t r e a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e b e c a u s e o f a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g betv/een t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e m i n i s t r y 67 upon t h e r e q u i s i t e s i z e o f t h e sa m p l e t h e e n t i r e 20% s a m p l e was drawn i n two b a t c h e s o f 10% e a c h , u s i n g t h e same random c o m p u t e r g e n e r a t i o n method. Thus i t was presumed t h a t t h e s e two g r o u p s were i d e n t i c a l , and t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h , a l b e i t w i t h a f o u r week gap between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t o g r o u p one and g r o u p two. B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e two g r o u p s as a s i n g l e s a m p l e , a T - t e s t was ru n c o m p a r i n g t h e mean s c o r e s o f e a c h g r o u p f o r e a c h i t e m i n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t on e a c h o f t h e s e n i n e i t e m s t h e two s a m p l e g r o u p s were n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l , i n t e r m s o f mean s c o r e , and t h a t , f o r e a c h , t h e two t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g by c h a n c e e x c e e d e d t h e .10 c o n v e n t i o n i n e v e r y c a s e . H a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e two b a t c h e s c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r as one sample d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y , T t e s t s c o r e s on t h e o t h e r i t e m s were i n c l u d e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e s c o r e o f e a c h g r o u p f o r t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s f o r 64 o u t of 68 i t e m s e x c e e d e d t h e .10 c o n v e n t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , a t l e a s t i n t e r r a s o f s c o r e s g e n e r a t e d i n a t e s t - r e t e s t s i t u a t i o n ( a l b e i t u s i n g a s p l i t s a m p l e ) , t h e measure has a h i g h d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y . T h a t t h e measure i s n o t v e r y r e a c t i v e t o e x t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n s c o r e s b e tween t h e two b a t c h e s , d e s p i t e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o n g o i n g m i n i s t r y 68 r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l b etween t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o e a c h b a t c h . The r e s u l t s o f t h e T - t e s t were t a k e n as a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e two s a m p l e g r o u p s m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d as one, and t h a t t h e measure p o s s e s s e d t h e r e q u i s i t e s o f s t a b i l i t y o v e r t i m e and c o n s i s t e n c y i n r e s p o n s e . A t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t o f t h e p r e c i s i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e , c o n c e r n s t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e w o r d i n g o f i t e m s . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h i s was c o n s i d e r e d by s o l i c i t i n g t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f i n f o r m a n t s w i t h i n t h e m i n i s t r y , as p a r t o f t h e p r e - t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e . I n f o r m a n t s were a s k e d t o comment on t h e c l a r i t y o r a m b i g u i t y i n t h e w o r d i n g o f i t e m s , and where n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . V a l i d i t y The v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t b e c a u s e i t s o l i c i t s r e s p o n d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e f a c t o r s i t w i s h e s t o m e a s u r e , and s e c o n d b e c a u s e t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e i n many c a s e s a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s r a t h e r t h a n c o n c r e t e phenomena. T h e r e may be, f o r e x a m p l e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between two d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n d e n t s ' c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n , and n e i t h e r o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ' s c o r e s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y b e a r r e l a t i o n t o any e x t e r n a l measure o f t h a t w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, as P o l a n s k y s t a t e s , v a l i d i t y o f a m e a s ure e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e r n s " t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e a i m s 69 o r p u r p o s e s o f m a k i n g t h e measure a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d . " ( P o l a n s k y 1960, P. 101) I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , i t was n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n t o measure phenomena, b u t r a t h e r t o o b t a i n r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t s h a v i n g t o do w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r w e l l b e i n g . I t m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be a r g u e d , p r a g m a t i c a l l y , t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y w o u l d be i m p o r t a n t m a i n l y i n t e r m s of t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " w o r k i n g w e l l - b e i n g . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e q u e s t i o n c a n be s t a t e d , do t h e s c o r e s on t h i s c o n s t r u c t r e l a t e t o some r e c o g n i z e d measure o f a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t ? W h i l e i t was n o t p r a c t i c a l , w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s e n q u i r y t o a d m i n i s t e r a c o n c u r r e n t t e s t o f , f o r i n s t a n c e b u r n o u t l e v e l s among r e s p o n d e n t s , i t may be p o s s i b l e , u s i n g t h e m i n i s t r y ' s p e r s o n n e l d a t a b a s e , t o e s t a b l i s h a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g and an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n s u c h as r a t e o f j o b t u r n o v e r . I n l i k e f a s h i o n t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e c o u l d be e x a m i n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , had q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s been c o d e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t , e m p l o y e e r e c o r d s c o u l d be used t o e x a m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s between low s c o r e s on v/orker w e l l - b e i n g and h i g h r a t e s o f j o b t u r n o v e r , a r e l a t i o n s h i p v/hich t h e b u r n o u t l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i n C h a p t e r Two p r e d i c t s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y make t h i s i m p o s s i b l e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . 70 V a l i d i t y o f t h e De p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e • As d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c t i o n of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w ( C h a p t e r 2) d e v o t e d t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h make up t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , s t r e s s l e v e l , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y and j o b f r u s t r a t i o n , a r e f i r m l y b a s e d i n t h e o r y and so may be s a i d t o p o s s e s s a d e g r e e o f c o n t e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o u r o f t h e s e f a c t o r s t e n d e d t o v a r y t o g e t h e r ( i . e . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s between e a c h f a c t o r and e a c h o f t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s were r ^ .40, _p_ <-.01) p r o v i d e d some s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e f a c t o r s v i s - a - v i s t h e c o n s t r u c t w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . The f i f t h f a c t o r , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , was f o u n d n o t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f o u r o t h e r f a c t o r s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . V a l i d i t y o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s I n r e s p e c t t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , and t h e i t e m s u sed as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e f a c t o r s i n e a c h , t h e measure i s p e r h a p s i n o r d i n a t e l y d e p e n d e n t on f a c e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m s . As S e l l t i z , W r i g h t s m a n and Cook ( 1 9 7 6 ) s a y , " S i n c e we u s u a l l y do n o t know an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e p o s i t i o n on t h e v a r i a b l e we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o m e a s u r e , t h e r e i s no d i r e c t way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e " ( p . 1 5 5 ) . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e h e r e , s i n c e we a r e m e a s u r i n g r e s p o n d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s . F a c e v a l i d i t y o f a 71 measure i s t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "does an i t e m o r i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r t o measure what i t p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e ? " I n t h e p r e - t e s t i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s i n f o r m a n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t h e r e were a r e a s o f c o n f u s i o n i n t h e w o r d i n g , m e a n i n g , o r i n t e n t o f e a c h i t e m , and where p r o b l e m s were i n d i c a t e d n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made. I n f o r m a n t s a l s o made s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f i t e m s t o t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g , and were a b l e t o make s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s where i t was f e l t t h a t a s a l i e n t f a c t o r m i g h t have been o m i t t e d . A l s o , t h e comments s e c t i o n s o f e a c h r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s u r v e y e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f c o n f u s i o n o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n v o l v i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f e a c h s e c t i o n . I n t h i s way c o n t e n t and f a c e v a l i d i t y w e r e , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , s u p p o r t e d . As w e l l , t h e a n a l y z e d r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d w i t h k ey i n f o r m a n t s , as a way o f c h e c k i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . I t was f o u n d t h a t f o r t h e i t e m s i n v o l v i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y , s e t t i n g , d u r a t i o n and d e g r e e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , r e s u l t s t a l l y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e a l w o r l d . T hese r e s u l t s a l s o were v e r y c l o s e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h (Conway 1986, 1 9 8 7 ) . I n r e s p e c t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f i t e m s u s e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f f a c t o r s i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o c h e c k t h e d a t a f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , s h o u l d be l i k e l y t o o c c u r . F o r i n s t a n c e , b a s e d on S h u l m a n ' s ( 1 9 8 1 , 1982) work, i t may 72 r e a s o n a b l y be s u p p o s e d t h a t t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who r a t e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r h i g h l y on t h e s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n may a l s o r a t e t h e q u a l i t y of t h e s u p e r v i s i o n t h e y r e c e i v e h i g h l y . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n c l u d e d t h e c o m p u t i n g o f s c a l e s t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h c o n s t r u c t s p r e s e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d ( i n C h a p t e r 2) and t h e s e were e x a m i n e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s where i t m i g h t be s u p p o s e d t h a t , b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e o r common s e n s e , a s s o c i a t i o n s s h o u l d e x i s t . A l s o , where two i t e m s were used t o d e s c r i b e a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t , s u c h as e m p a t h e t i c s k i l l , i t was s u p p o s e d t h a t r e s u l t s on t h e s e i t e m s s h o u l d c o v a r y e x t r e m e l y c l o s e l y . F i n a l l y , v/here d i f f e r e n t i t e m s d e s c r i b e d s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s , i t was a l s o s u p p o s e d t h a t r e s u l t s s h o u l d c o v a r y c l o s e l y . R e s u l t s o f t h o s e c o m p a r i s o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r and a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . Among t h e t h r e a t s t o e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y m e n t i o n e d by Rutman ( 1 9 7 7 ) a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s e x t a n t a t t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an e v e n t i n t h e s t u d y e n v i r o n m e n t i m p a c t i n g upon and c o n t a m i n a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s , and t h e p o s s i b l e r e a c t i v i t y o f t h e s a m p l e t o b e i n g t e s t e d . I t a p p e a r s t o t h i s s t u d e n t t h a t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s b e t w een t h e two b a t c h e s i n t h e s a m p l e , d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t between a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e o f t h e m e a s u r e ' s lo w r e a c t i v i t y t o e x t e r n a l , e x t r a n e o u s e v e n t s . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e t e s t - r e a c t i v i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some r e s p o n d e n t s used t h e 73 o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a i r t h e i r n e g a t i v i t y a b o u t t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s , s u p e r v i s i o n and t h e i r j o b i n g e n e r a l , i t i s t h e o p i n i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h e r , b a s e d on a r e t u r n by r e t u r n r e a d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e comments s e c t i o n s o f e a c h , and some s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s u r v e y , t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s a f f o r d e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a h i g h d e g r e e o f f a i r m inded c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S t r a t e g y of t h e D a t a A n a l y s i s The d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h e s u r v e y were a n a l y z e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t h r e e d i s t i n c t p u r p o s e s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r : ( i ) t o o b t a i n a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e s i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g , b a s e d on r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s u p e r v i s i o n c o n t e x t , f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ; ( i i ) t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between c e r t a i n a s p e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , and v/orker w e l l - b e i n g , t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ; ( i i i ) t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d s u p p o r t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e d i c t e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g t h e s a m p l e i n t e r m s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a g a t h e r e d , t h e r e p o r t w h i c h f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r F o u r a d d r e s s e s t h e s e t h r e e p u r p o s e s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u r v e y f i n d i n g s t o t h e end o f b u i l d i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e . 74 I n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s u l t s f o r e a c h i t e m a r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h t h e y d e s c r i b e . I n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , f i r s t t h e manner i n w h i c h g r o u p i n g s o f i t e m s were computed as s c a l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , and t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d , i n s t a t i s t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l t e r m s . These s c a l e s a r e t h e n e x a m i n e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e s c o r e s f o r a l l s c a l e d i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s a r e compared w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . F i n a l l y , h i g h l i g h t s o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x p r o d u c e d by c o m p a r i n g a l l i t e m s w i t h e a c h o t h e r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x C. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n was t o e x p l o r e t h e d a t a f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t be o f i n t e r e s t v i s - a - v i s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e upon w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h l i n e i s b a s e d . The l a t t e r two m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e d a t a i n v o l v e d t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a l a r g e number o f c o r r e l a t i o n s . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o a p p l y f a i r l y s t r i n g e n t d e c i s i o n r u l e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h r e s u l t s were w o r t h y o f n o t e . Cohen & Cohen ( 1 9 7 5 ) recommend t h a t , v/here a l a r g e number o f c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o m p u t e d , o n l y t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y v a l u e _p_ ^ .01 s h o u l d be r e p o r t e d . F u r t h e r t h e y recommend t h a t o n l y t h o s e w i t h a medium ( r ^ .30) o r l a r g e ( r ^ .40) e f f e c t s i z e s h o u l d be n o t e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h o s e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a l a r g e e f f e c t s i z e have been n o t e d . I n 75 t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r c o n s t r u c t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t was d e r i v e d , d e v e l o p e d , t e s t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e u s e d have been d e s c r i b e d . The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , t h e s t r a t e g y a p p l i e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a was d i s c u s s e d . I n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . 76 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS I n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , t h e s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e raw d a t a was d i s c u s s e d , i n t e r m s o f t h e t h r e e p u r p o s e s t o be a d d r e s s e d . These a r e : t o d e v e l o p a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H.; t o exami n e t h e d a t a f o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h ; t o e x a m i n e t h e d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e upon w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s commences v / i t h t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a p i c t u r e o f how s u p e r v i s i o n i s c o n d u c t e d , and how s u p e r v i s e e s f e e l a b o u t t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i s t h e n p r e s e n t e d t o exam i n e s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g i s r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d . F i n a l l y , o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s a r e n o t e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s v / i l l be d i s c u s s e d , i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e t h r e e p u r p o s e s . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m were e x a m i n e d and t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s w i l l h i g h l i g h t t h e s e f i n d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e g r o u p i n g s o f i t e m s w h i c h w i l l be 77 c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e b i v a r i a t e s e c t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t , as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . Where r e l e v a n t , some d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s has been u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o c o m p a r e , q u a l i f y , o r p l a c e i n c o n t e x t p a r t i c u l a r f i n d i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , f o r e a c h of t h e v a r i a b l e g r o u p i n g s , t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f r e s p o n s e have been r a n k o r d e r e d , t o p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f r e s p o n s e between c o m p a r a b l e i t e m s . The P o p u l a t i o n The s u r v e y u n d e r t o o k t o o b t a i n a random, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e of s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o r k i n g a t t h e " l i n e " l e v e l i . e . i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s . T h u s , t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e d c o n s i s t e d o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o r k i n g a t j o b l e v e l s " S o c i a l V/orker I " and " S o c i a l Worker 2". The s a m p l e was r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d by t h e m i n i s t r y ' s p e r s o n n e l d e p a r t m e n t c o m p u t e r i n two b a t c h e s , t h e f i r s t d r a w i n g 102 names, t h e s e c o n d 96. Of 198 s u r v e y s s e n t , 12 were r e t u r n e d , h a v i n g f a i l e d t o r e a c h t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t b e c a u s e o f r e l o c a t i o n , r e t i r e m e n t , j o b t u r n o v e r o r m i s d i r e c t i o n , l e a v i n g a s a m p l e s i z e o f 186. The number o f c o m p l e t e d r e t u r n s r e c e i v e d was 123 f o r a r e t u r n r a t e o f 6 6 . 7 % . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o m p l e t e d r e t u r n s 4 r e t u r n s were r e c e i v e d w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e , i n two c a s e s b e c a u s e t h e y were no l o n g e r i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s o r d i d n o t p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s t o be r e c e i v i n g s u p e r v i s i o n . T a b l e 1 d e p i c t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s f o r t h o s e i t e m s i n t h e 78 q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e v a r i o u s d e m o g r a p h i c a s p e c t s o f t h e s a m p l e ( i . e . a g e , s e x , e x p e r i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n , l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , c a s e l o a d s i z e ) . D e m o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample P o p u l a t i o n Age, Sex and E d u c a t i o n : The t a b l e ( S e e T a b l e 1) d e s c r i b e s a p o p u l a t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s who a r e most f r e q u e n t l y ( 6 8 . 6 % ) f e m a l e and t e n d t o be b e t ween 26 and 45 y e a r s o f age ( 7 8 % ) . 4 3 % were s p e c i f i c a l l y e d u c a t e d i n s o c i a l work ( 2 6 . 2 % B.S.W. 17.2% M.S.W.) w h i l e a f u r t h e r 42% p o s s e s s e d a B.A. d e g r e e . Comments e l i c i t e d on t h e e d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g a b a c h e l o r d e g r e e t h e most f r e q u e n t m a j o r was p s y c h o l o g y , f o l l o w e d by E n g l i s h . W h i l e 1 1 % i n d i c a t e d o t h e r as t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , comments i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and i n c l u d e d b a c h e l o r ' s and m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s i n s c i e n c e , t h e o l o g y , o r e d u c a t i o n . a b l e 1 r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r D e m o g r a p h i c I t e m s AGE VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 20-25 1 8 6.5 6 . 5 6.5 2G-30 2 22 17.9 17.9 24.4 31-35 3 23 18.7 18.7 43 . 1 36-40 4 28 22.8 22.8 65.9 41-45 5 22 17.9 17.9 83.7 46-50 6 10 8. 1 8 . 1 91.9 51 o r more 7 10 8. 1 8. 1 100.0 TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 SEX VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT ma 1 e 1 38 30.9 31.4 31.4 f e m a l e 2 83 67.5 68.6 100.0 2 1 .6 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 EDUC e d u c a t i o n VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT h i g h s c h o o l 1 2 1.6 1 .6 1 .6 comm. c o l l e g e 2 1 .8 .8 2.5 B.A. 3 52 42.3 42.6 45. 1 o t h e r degree 4 14 11.4 11.5 56.6 B.S.W. 5 32 26.0 26.2 82.8 M.S.W. 6 21 17. 1 17.2 100.0 1 .8 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 SXEXP s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e e x c l u d i n g MSSH VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT l e s s than 1 y r 1 35 28.5 28 .5 28.5 1-2 y r s 2 24 19.5 19.5 48.0 2-3 y r s 3 1 1 8.9 8.9 56.9 3-4 y r s 4 1 1 8.9 8.9 65 .9 4-5 y r s 5 7 5.7 5.7 71.5 more than 5 y r s 6 35 28.5 28.5 100.0 TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 e 1 continued MSSHEXP t i m e 1n m i n i s t r y employ VALUE LABEL VALUE less than 1 yr 1 1- 2 yrs 2 2- 3yrs 3 3- 4 yrs 4 4- 5 yrs 5 more than 5 yrs 6 TOTAL PRESPO time in present p o s i t i o n VALUE LABEL VALUE les s than Smths 1 6-12 mths 2 12-18 mths 3 18-24mths 4 24-30mths 5 more than 30 mths 6 TOTAL PRESSOP time with present supervi VALUE LABEL VALUE le s s than 6 mths 1 6-12 mths 2 12-18 mths 3 18-24 mths 4 more than 24 mths 5 TOTAL UOBSTAT Job status VALUE LABEL VALUE perm, f u l l time 1 aux f u l l time 2 perm partlme 3 aux. partime 4 other 5 TOTAL CASELOAD VALUE LABEL VALUE 0 0-10 c a s e s 1 11-20 cases 2 21-30 cases 3 31-40 cases 4 41-50 cases 5 more than 50 ^ € TOTAL VALID CUM FREQUENCY PERCENT. PERCENT PERCEN1 17 13.8 13.8 13. 8 19 15.4 15.4 29.3 14 11.4 11.4 40.7 14 11 .4 11.4 52.0 20 16.3 16.3 68.3 39 31.7 31.7 100.0 123 100.0 100.0 VALID CUM FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCEN1 21 17.1 17.2 17.2 12 S.8 9.8 27.0 23 18.7 18.9 45.9 10 8.1 8.2 54. 1 9 7.3 7.4 61.5 47 38.2 38.5 100.0 1 .8 MISSING 123 100.0 100.0 sor VALID CUM FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 34 27.6 27.6 27.6 22 17.9 17.9 45.5 17 13.8 13.8 59.3 18 14.6 14.6 74.0 32 26.0 26.0 100.0 123 10O.0 100.0 VALID CUM FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 92 74.8 74.8 74.8 17 13.8 13.8 88.6 7 5.7 5.7 94.3 5 4. 1 4. 1 98.4 2 1.6 1.6 100.0 123 100.0 100.0 VALID CUM FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 1 .8 .9 .9 6 4.9 5.4 6.3 13 10.6 11.7 18.0 31 25.2 27 .9 45.9 30 24 .4 27.0 73.0 15 12.2 13.5 86 . 5 15 12.2 13.5 100.0 12 9.8 MISSING 123 100.0 100.0 80 E x p e r i e n c e I n t e r r a s o f e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r y t h e r e s p o n s e s were p o l a r i z e d w i t h i d e n t i c a l c l u s t e r s ( 2 8 . 5 % ) c l a i m i n g none t o one y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n a s o c i a l work r e l a t e d j o b and f i v e y e a r s o r more e x p e r i e n c e . L e n g t h o f s o c i a l work s e r v i c e w i t h i n M.S.S.H. was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e c l u s t e r i n t h e f i v e y e a r s o r more r e s p o n s e ( 3 1 . 7 % ) . N e a r l y 6 2 % had t h r e e o r more y e a r s , and 38% had t h r e e o r f e w e r y e a r s s e r v i c e . T h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t a b l e i n r e s p e c t o f t h e h i g h j o b t u r n o v e r a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d e a r l i e r w i t h h i g h j o b s t r e s s , p o o r s u p e r v i s i o n and b u r n o u t . The l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i t e m seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , i n r e s p e c t o f j o b t u r n o v e r . Time i n P r e s e n t P o s i t i o n - (Same o f f i c e o r same  c a s e l o a d ) A g a i n t h e l a r g e s t c l u s t e r ( 3 8 . 5 % ) r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e y had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f o r two and one h a l f y e a r s o r more. However, by c o l l a p s i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s 0 t o 6 m o n t h s , 6 t o 12 months and 12 t o 18 m o n t h s , we f i n d t h a t o v e r 4 5 % had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f o r 18 months o r l e s s . J o b S t a t u s - N e a r l y 7 5% o f r e s p o n d e n t s were o f permanent f u l l t i m e s t a t u s , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 14% were f u l l t i m e a u x i l i a r i e s . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g 1 1 % , 6% r e p o r t e d 81 p e r m a n e n t p a r t t i m e s t a t u s , 4% r e p o r t e d a u x i l i a r y p a r t t i m e s t a t u s and 1.6% d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as " o t h e r " . C a s e l o a d S i z e - R e s p o n d e n t s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y smooth d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s 11 t o 20 c a s e s ( 1 8 % ) 21 t o 30 c a s e s ( 2 7 . 9 % ) and 31 t o 40 c a s e s ( 2 7 . 0 % ) . O n l y 5.4% r e p o r t e d h a v i n g f e w e r t h a n 10 c a s e s w h i l e 1 3 . 5 % r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a c a s e l o a d o f 41 t o 50 c a s e s and 13.5% r e p o r t e d h a v i n g more t h a n 50 c a s e s . I t must be remembered o f c o u r s e t h a t t h e s i z e o f a c a s e l o a d may b e a r l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o i t s d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y , d i f f i c u l t y o r m a n a g e a b i l i t y . L e n g t h o f Time w i t h P r e s e n t S u p e r v i s o r - R e s p o n d e n t s t e n d e d t o c l u s t e r a t e i t h e r end o f t h e r e s p o n s e c o n t i n u u m , w i t h 2 7 . 6 % r e p o r t i n g l e s s t h a n 6 months w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s u p e r v i s i o n , and 26% r e p o r t i n g more t h a n 2 y e a r s . The l a t t e r c l u s t e r , t a k e n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f i n d i n g t h a t 3 3 . 5 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n 2 1/2 y e a r s o r more m i g h t be t a k e n t o s u g g e s t some d e g r e e o f s t a b i l i t y i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r v i s e e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A P r o f i l e o f S u p e r v i s i o n i n M.S.S.H. D a t a g a t h e r e d was u s e d t o a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e t y p i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n s c e n a r i o a l i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r may e n c o u n t e r i n t h e M.S.S.H., i n t e r m s o f h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t t a k e s p l a c e , i t s f u n c t i o n a l 82 o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p : t h e t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The C o n t e x t o f S u p e r v i s i o n .. I n p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g (Conway 1986, 1987) t h r e e s e p a r a t e s e t t i n g s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . T hese were ( i ) t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n so o f t e n d e s c r i b e d o r p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , ( i i ) t h e a d - h o c , as needed m e e t i n g b e t w e e n s u p e r v i s e e and s u p e r v i s o r , and ( i i i ) g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n . The l a t t e r s e t t i n g was deemed f o r c u r r e n t p u r p o s e s t o i n c l u d e team m e e t i n g s s i n c e t h e s e met t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a o f b e i n g m e e t i n g s b e t w e e n s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e , s i n g l y o r i n g r o u p , t o d i s c u s s some a s p e c t o f t h e work. I t e m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o b e d t h e f r e q u e n c y , d u r a t i o n , d e g r e e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n , i n i t i a t i o n and p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n e a c h o f t h e s e s e t t i n g s . I n t h e c a s e o f g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a s k e d w h e t h e r t h i s t o o k p l a c e i n a d d i t i o n t o team m e e t i n g s , s i n c e t h e s e a r e , f o r most M.S.S.H. s o c i a l w o r k e r s , a m a n d a t o r y e x e r c i s e . T a b l e s 2, 3 and 4 b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r i t e m s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e a c h c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g ( i . e . f r e q u e n c y , d u r a t i o n , i n t e r r u p t i o n e t c . ) S c h e d u l e d One t o One S u p e r v i s i o n F r e q u e n c y : 4 6 . 7 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t . e d t h a t t h e y had no s u p e r v i s i o n a t a l l i n t h i s s e t t i n g . The n e x t l a r g e s t 33 c l u s t e r 2 2 . 5 % r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e y r e c e i v e d one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n i t was o t h e r t h a n ( i . e . l e s s t h a n ) m o n t h l y . O n l y 7.5% r e p o r t e d w e e k l y m e e t i n g s , a n o t h e r 7.5% r e p o r t e d t w i c e m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s and 15.8% r e p o r t e d m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s ; i n a d d i t i o n t h e t h r e e m i s s i n g v a l u e s h e r e m i g h t . r e a s o n a b l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as " n o t a t a l l " r e s p o n s e s , s i n c e t h e y do n o t r e a p p e a r i n s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i s s e t t i n g . I n t e r r u p t i o n : Of t h o s e who r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g some s u p e r v i s i o n i n a s c h e d u l e d one t o one s e t t i n g n e a r l y 5 8% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s e s e s s i o n s were i n t e r r u p t e d r a r e l y o r n o t a t a l l , w h i l e 3 8 . 7 % s a i d t h e y were i n t e r r u p t e d f r e q u e n t l y , and 8.1% s a i d a l w a y s . Of 64 p o s s i b l e r e s p o n d e n t s ( b a s e d on t h e p r e v i o u s i t e m ) t h e r e were 61 r e p l i e s , and t h r e e m i s s i n g v a l u e s . D u r a t i o n : Of t h e 64 r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s s e t t i n g , t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p ( 3 2 . 8 % ) had s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g 16 t o 30 m i n u t e s , w h i l e t h e n e x t l a r g e s t c l u s t e r ( 2 8 . 1 % ) had s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g 0 t o 15 m i n u t e s , t h u s a c c o u n t i n g f o r n e a r l y 6 1 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s . 2 0 . 3 % s a i d s e s s i o n s l a s t e d 30 t o 45 m i n u t e s , w h i l e 17% s a i d 45 t o 60 m i n u t e s , l e a v i n g l e s s t h a n 2% who had s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g u s u a l l y , i n e x c e s s o f one h o u r . T h a t t h e r e were 64 r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h i s i t e m t a l l i e s e x a c t l y w i t h t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d some one t o one s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n , and i s t a k e n a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 84 I n i t i a t i o n : The i n i t i a t i o n o f one t o one s c h e d u l e d s e s s i o n s was s p l i t f a i r l y e v e n l y b e t ween s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s ( 3 0 . 5 % and 2 8 . 8 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 2 3.7% r e p o r t e d s e s s i o n s b e i n g i n i t i a t e d a b o u t e q u a l l y and 16.9% r e p o r t e d t h a t s e s s i o n s were a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e . P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s o f S c h e d u l e d One t o One  S u p e r v i s i o n : The l a r g e s t c l u s t e r o f r e s p o n d e n t s , 4 2 . 1 % r a t e d t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t u s e f u l , w h i l e 24.6% r a t e d i t v e r y u s e f u l . 6.2% were n e u t r a l w h i l e 2 3 . 1 % r e p o r t e d i t t o be o f l i m i t e d use and 3.1% r a t e d i t as o f l i t t l e u s e . ( S e e T a b l e 2 ) . U n s c h e d u l e d , As Needed S e s s i o n s F r e q u e n c y : The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s ( 8 6 . 2 % ) r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n ad hoc as needed s u p e r v i s i o n a t l e a s t two o r t h r e e t i m e s p e r month, w i t h o n l y one r e s p o n d e n t i n d i c a t i n g n o t d o i n g s o . The l a r g e s t c l u s t e r , ( 4 3 . 1 % ) had s e s s i o n s s e v e r a l t i m e s p e r week and t h e n e x t l a r g e s t , ( 2 2 % ) had s e s s i o n s w e e k l y . The " N " f o r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d was 122. 8 5 T a b l e 2 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g One t o One  S c h e d u l e d S u p e r v i s i o n 0NE20NE f r e q u e n c y of s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREOUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT week 1y 1 9 7.3 7.5 7.5 t w i c e monthly 2 9 7 . 3 7.5 15.0 monthly 3 19 15.4 15.8 30.8 l e s s than monthly 4 27 22.0 22.5 53.3 not a t a l l 5 56 45.5 46.7 100.0 3 2.4 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 DURATION VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREOUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0 5 4 . 1 7.2 7.2 0-15 min. 1 1 .8 1 .4 8.7 16-30 min. 2 11 8.9 15.9 24.6 31-45 min. 3 13 10.6 18.8 43.5 46-60 min. 4 21 17. 1 30.4 73.9 more t h a n 60 min. 5 18 14.6 26. 1 100.0 54 43.9 MISSING TOTAL 123 10O.0 100.0 INTERUPT f r e q u e n c y of i n t e r r u p t i o n VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREOUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0 3 2.4 4.6 4.6 ne v e r 1 3 2.4 4.6 9.2 r a r e l y 2 30 24.4 46.2 55.4 f r e q u e n t l y 3 24 19.5 36.9 92.3 a l w a y s 4 5 4 . 1 7.7 100.0 • 58 47.2 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 ARRANGE who a r r a n g e s s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREOUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0 5 4 . 1 7.8 7.8 r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e 1 10 8. 1 15.6 23.4 my r e q u e s t 2 18 14.6 28. 1 51.6 s u p e r v i s o r s r e q u e s t 3 17 13.8 26.6 78 . 1 about e q u a l l y 4 14 11.4 21.9 100.0 59 48 .0 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 USEFUL u s e f u l n e s s of s e s s i o n s VALUE LABEL VALUE O v e r y u s e f u l 1 u s e f u l 2 n e u t r a l 3 11ml t e d use 4 1 1 t t 1 e use 5 VALID CUM FREOUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 3 2 . 4 4.5 4 . 5 16 13 .0 24 . 2 28 .8 26 21 . 1 39.4 68 . 2 4 3 . 3 6. 1 74 . 2 15 12. . 2 22 . 7 97 . 0 2 1 . 6 3.0 100. .0 57 46. 3 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 86 I n t e r r u p t i o n : The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s ( 5 2 . 1 % ) s a i d ad hoc s e s s i o n s were i n t e r r u p t e d f r e q u e n t l y , w h i l e a n o t h e r 8.4% s a i d a l w a y s . 3 6 . 1 % r e p o r t e d r a r e i n t e r r u p t i o n s and 3.4% r e p o r t e d t h a t s e s s i o n s w e r e n e v e r i n t e r r u p t e d . T hese f i n d i n g s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t , b e i n g u n s c h e d u l e d , i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o p r e v e n t i n t e r r u p t i o n . However t h e y do p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t when s u p e r v i s i o n i s c o n d u c t e d on an ad h o c , on demand b a s i s , i t i s a f f o r d e d l e s s p r i o r i t y by i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s ( P e t t e s 1979; W e s t h e i m e r 1 9 7 7 ) . U n s c h e d u l e d D u r a t i o n : A l a r g e m a j o r i t y , 6 7 . 8 % , r e p o r t t h a t ad hoc s e s s i o n s l a s t t e n o r f e w e r m i n u t e s . The n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p , 1 8.6% r e p o r t s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g 11 t o 20 m i n u t e s . ' T h u s , f o r 86.4% o f r e s p o n d e n t s , s e s s i o n s t y p i c a l l y l a s t 20 m i n u t e s . o r l e s s . I n i t i a t i o n : The m a j o r i t y o f s e s s i o n s were r e p o r t e d a s b e i n g a t t h e s u p e r v i s e e ' s r e q u e s t (76%)., w h i l e 2 3 . 1 % were i n i t i a t e d a b o u t e q u a l l y by s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e . O n l y one r e s p o n d e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t . t h e s u p e r v i s o r u s u a l l y i n i t i a t e s . P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s o f U n s c h e d u l e d S u p e r v i s i o n : 3 7 . 6 % r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g t h i s f o r m o f s u p e r v i s i o n u s e f u l , and 3 4 . 2 % i n d i c a t e d v e r y u s e f u l . 1 3.7% f o u n d i t s use l i m i t e d w h i l e 3.4% f o u n d i t of l i t t l e u s e , and 8.7% were n e u t r a l i n r e s p o n s e . ( S e e T a b l e 3 ) . i T a b l e 3 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s F o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g As Heeded  S u p e r v i s i o n UOFTEN f r e q u e n c y of as needed s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE ' FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT more than weekly 1 53 43 . 1 43. 1 43 . 1 weekl y 2 27 22.0 22 .0 65 .0 2-3 times p e r month 3 26 21.1 21.1 86.2 monthly 4 9 7.3 7.3 93.5 l e s s than monthly 5 7 5.7 5.7 99.2 not a t a l 1 6 1 .8 .8 100.0 TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 UDURAT d u r a t i o n of as needed s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0-10 m1n. 1 2 1 . 6 1 .7 1 . 7 11-20 mm. 2 3 2. .4 2.5 4. . 2 21-30 m1n. 3 1 1 8 .9 9.3 13. .6 31-45 min 4 22 17. .9 18.6 32, . 2 46-60 min 5 80 65 .0 67.8 100 .0 5 4 , . 1 MISSING TOTAL 123 100, .0 100.0 UINTERUP i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT never 1 4 3 .3 3.4 3. .4 r a r e l y 2 43 35, .0 36. 1 39, . 5 f r e q u e n t l y 3 62 50, .4 52. 1 91 , .6 a1 ways 4 10 8 . 1 8.4 100. .0 4 3, .3 MISSING TOTAL 123 100. ,0 100.0 UARRANGE by whom a r r a n g e d VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT by worker 1 92 74.8 76.0 76 .0 by s u p e r v i s o r 2 1 .8 .8 76.9 about equal 1 y 3 28 22.8 23 . 1 100.0 2 1 .6 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 UUSEFUL u s e f u l n e s s of as needed s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0 2 1 .6 1 .7 1 . 7 v e r y u s e f u l 1 40 32 .5 34 . 2 35 .9 u s e f u l 2 44 35 .8 37.6 73 . 5 n e u t r a l 3 1 1 8. .9 9.4 82 .9 1imi t e d use 4 16 13, .0 13.7 96 .6 l i t t l e use 5 4 3 . 3 3.4 100, .0 6 4 , 9 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 88 Group S u p e r v i s i o n F r e q u e n c y : The m a j o r i t y • ( 6 1 . 2 % ) o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d g r o u p s e s s i o n s o c c u r r i n g a t l e a s t w e e k l y , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 2 3 . 1 % r e p o r t e d g r o u p m e e t i n g s m o n t h l y o r 2 o r 3 t i m e s p e r month. 8.3% r e p o r t e d n o t h a v i n g g r o u p m e e t i n g s , a n d , g i v e n t h a t s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s w o r k e d i n p o s i t i o n s o f i s o l a t i o n , t h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t w e e k l y team m e e t i n g s a r e m i n i s t r y p o l i c y f o r most d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . Group I n t e r r u p t i o n ; The m a j o r i t y ( 6 5 . 8 % ) o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r o u p m e e t i n g s a r e r a r e l y i n t e r r u p t e d , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 9.9% i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y a r e n e v e r i n t e r r u p t e d . 19% s a i d t h e r e were f r e q u e n t i n t e r r u p t i o n s and 5.7% s a i d t h a t t h e m e e t i n g s were a l w a y s i n t e r r u p t e d . D u r a t i o n ; I n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e ad hoc s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s , 8 3 . 1 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d g r o u p m e e t i n g s l a s t i n g more t h a n one h o u r , w i t h 4 6 . 7 % o f t h e s e r e p o r t i n g t h a t s e s s i o n s l a s t e d more t h a n . 2 h o u r s . . O t h e r Group S u p e r v i s i o n : B e s i d e s team m e e t i n g s , 23.7% r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s , i n v o l v i n g a s u p e r v i s o r and two o r more s o c i a l w o r k e r s . 89 P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s of Group S u p e r v i s i o n : The l a r g e s t c l u s t e r o f r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n u s e f u l ( 5 0 % ) w h i l e a f u r t h e r 2 5 . 5 % s a i d i t was v e r y u s e f u l , ( t o t a l 7 5 . 5 % ) . 14.7% f o u n d i t o f l i m i t e d use w h i l e 2.9% f o u n d i t o f l i t t l e use and 6.9% s a i d t h e y were n e u t r a l . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d however t h a t , o f 113 s u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n , 10 f a i l e d t o r a t e i t s u s e f u l n e s s , i n d i c a t i n g p e r h a p s some d i f f i c u l t y f o r r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h t h i s i t e m . ( S e e T a b l e 4 ) . T a b l e 4 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n  S u p e r v i s i o n f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g Group GOTTEN f r e q u e n c y of gr o u p s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT more t h a n w e e k l y 1 10 8. 1 8.3 8.3 week 1y 2 64 52.0 52.9 61.2 2-3 p e r month 3 19 15.4 15.7 76.9 m o n t h l y 4 9 7.3 7.4 84.3 l e s s t h a n m o n t h l y 5 9 7.3 7.4 91.7 not a t a l 1 6 10 8. 1 8.3 100.0 2 1.6 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 GDURATE d u r a t i o n o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 0 1 .8 .9 .9 0-30 min. 1 57 46 .3 52.8 53 .7 31-60 min. 2 17 13 .8 15.7 69 .4 61-90 m1ns. 3 22 17. .9 20.4 89. .8 91-120 mlns. 4 3 2. .4 2.8 92. .6 more than 120 mlns. 5 8 6. .5 7.4 100. .0 • 15 12. .2 MISSING TOTAL 123 100. .0 100.0 GINTERUP frequency of group Interruption VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENl 0 1 .8 .9 .9 never 1 11 8.9 9.8 10.7 r a r e l y 2 73 59.3 65.2 75.9 frequently 3 20 16.3 17.9 93.8 always 4 6 4.9 5.4 99. 1 5 1 .8 .9 100.0 11 8.9 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 OTHERGRO gr o u p sup. e x c l u d i n g team m e e t i n g s ? VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT yes 1 27 22.0 23.7 23.7 no 2 87 70.7 76.3 100.0 9 7.3 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 GUSEFUL u s e f u l n e s s o f gr o u p s e s s i o n s VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT v e r y u s e f u l 1 26 21 . 1 25.5 25 . 5 u s e f u l 2 51 41 . 5 50.0 75 .5 n e u t r a l 3 7 5 .7 6.9 82 .4 11ml t e d use 4 15 12 . 2 14.7 97 . 1 l i t t l e use 5 3 2 .4 2.9 100 .0 21 17 . 1 MISSING TOTAL 123 100.0 100.0 91 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n of S u p e r v i s i o n As d i s c u s s e d i n Chap te r two, f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t to the p r a c t i c e of s u p e r v i s i o n . These a re the c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n and the s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n . I tems were i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e aimed a t e l i c i t i n g s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f u n c t i o n or purpose of s u p e r v i s i o n . I t was supposed t h a t t hese might v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the s e t t i n g i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , and i ndeed the r e s u l t s bear t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n o u t . Fo r each of the c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g s ( i . e . s c h e d u l e d one to one , u n s c h e d u l e d as needed and group s u p e r v i s i o n ) an i t e m was i n c l u d e d a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s to i n d i c a t e the most f r e q u e n t t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g i t e m s w h i c h s e r v e d as i n d i c a t o r s f o r each of the f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . W h i l e the f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n d e s i g n a t i o n of each t o p i c may be a r g u a b l e , and each o r i e n t a t i o n i s not e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p i c , i t i s not the i n t e n t here to o b t a i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e or comparab le measure of o r i e n t a t i o n . R a t h e r , i t was i n t e n d e d to e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s wh ich may e x i s t between the s e t t i n g s i n terms of the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d and , t h e r e b y , l e a r n someth ing of the purposes each s e t t i n g a d d r e s s e s . T a b l e 5 d i s p l a y s the r e s u l t s f o r each of the c o n t e x t s . Each f r equency s c o r e i s f o l l o w e d by a c a l c u l a t i o n 92 o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e i t r e p r e s e n t s o f t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p a r i s o n among i t e m s . ( S e e T a b l e 5 ) . I n s e c t i o n C o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s e v e r a l i t e m s were us e d t o e x p l o r e t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , a s p e r c e i v e d by r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g o f s u p e r v i s i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o .express a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t on a 5 - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e , w i t h a number o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t f a c t o r s c u l l e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d v / i t h one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . . The i n t e n t o f t h i s l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o o b t a i n a c o m p a r a t i v e s e n s e o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s c o r e s f o r t h e s e i t e m s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 6, as v a l i d p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h i t e m , a l o n g w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n f o r w h i c h t h e y s e r v e as i n d i c a t o r s . T h e s e i t e m a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r a n k o r d e r , a c c o r d i n g t o a computed " l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t " i n d e x . The l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t was c a l c u l a t e d by s c o r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : s t r o n g l y a g r e e = 5, a g r e e = 4 , n e u t r a l = 3, d i s a g r e e = 2, s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e = 1 . By t h e n m u l t i p l y i n g t h e v a l i d p e r c e n t a g e ( i ^ e . t h u s c o r r e c t i n g f o r m i s s i n g v a l u e s ) , f o r e a c h r e s p o n s c a t e g o r y by t h i s s c o r e , t h e n summing t h e r e s u l t s , a " l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t " s c o r e was o b t a i n e d w h i c h c o r r e c t e d f o r s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h i t e m . 93 T a b l e 5 Rank O r d e r i n g o f T o p i c s D i s c u s s e d i n S u p e r v i s i o n S e s s i o n s by  S e t t i n g S c h e d u l e d One t o One T o p i c F u n c t i o n a l D e s i g n a t i o n F r e -q u e n c y (N64) S c o r e a s v a l i d % S p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s C o n s u l t a t i v e 46' 72 R e v i e w o f my c a s e l o a d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 36 56 E v a l u a t i o n o f my j o b p e r f o r m a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 23 36 P o l i c y and P r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 22 34 S t a t u t o r y Case R e v i e w A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 18 28 O n g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t E d u c a t i v e .15 23 P e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s a f f e c t i n g my work S u p p o r t i v e i 5 I s s u e s i n S o c i a l work E d u c a t i v e 10 16 L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h may be h e l p f u l E d u c a t i v e 7 11 O t h e r As Needed One t o One T o p i c F r e -q u e n c y (N122) S c o r e a s V a l i d % S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s C o n s u l t a t i v e 110 89 P o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 72 59 C a s e l o a d r e v i e w A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 39 32 P e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s a f f e c t i n g my work S u p p o r t i v e 28. 23 T a b l e 5 C o n t i n u e d 94 As Needed One t o One T o p i c F r e -q u e n c y ( N122) S c o r e a s V a l i d % S t a t u t o r y c a s e r e v i e w A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 24 20 I s s u e s i n s o c i a l work E d u c a t i v e 23 19 My p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t E d u c a t i v e 19 16 E v a l u a t i o n o f j o b p e r f o r m a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 18 15 O t h e r 18 15 L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h may be h e l p f u l . E d u c a t i v e 17 14 G r o u p S u p e r v i s i o n T o p i c F u n c t i o n a l D e s i g n a t i o n F r e -q u e n c y ( N 1 1 3 ) S c o r e a s V a l i d S p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s C o n s u l t a t i v e 105 85 P o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 100 81 S t a t u t o r y C a se R e v i e w A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 72 64 I s s u e s i n S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i v e 64 57 L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h may be h e l p f u l E d u c a t i v e 36 29 P e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s w h i c h may a f f e c t my work S u p p o r t i v e 25 22 O t h e r 23 20 O n g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t E d u c a t i v e 13 12 E v a l u a t i o n o f j o b p e r f o r m a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 3 3 95 T a b l e 6: R a n k O r d e r i n g o f I t e m s I n d i c a t i n g F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n i n  t h e S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s h i p I t e m L e v e l o f S c o r e a s Number A g r e e m e n t V a l i d % o f ( r a n g e 100 R e s p o n s e s t o 500) (N=123) 1) My s u p e r v i s o r i s an 1 i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e o r i n f o r m a t i o n when I have a d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n t o make. ( C o n s u l t a t i v e ) 456 SA 29.5 A 38.5 N 13.1 , 122 D 13.9 SD 4.9 2) My s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s and o p i n i o n s . ( C o n s u l t a t i v e ) 433 SA 15.4 A 44.7 N 21.1 123 D 13.8 SD 4.9 3) My s u p e r v i s o r t r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o do a good j o b . ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) 437 SA 8.9 A 55.3 N 20.3 123 D 18.7 SD 10.6 4) My s u p e r v i s o r w i l l e x p r e s s my c o n c e r n s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) 417 SA 9.1 A 44.6 N 29.8 121 D 14.9 SD 1.7 T a b l e 6 C o n t i n u e d 96 I t e m L e v e l o f S c o r e a s Number Agreement V a l i d % o f ( r a n g e 100 R e s p o n s e s t o 500) (N=123) 5) My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s and e n c o u r a g e s me t o keep on l e a r n i n g . ( E d u c a t i v e ) 417 SA 11.5 A 3 y . o N 29.5 122 D 18.9 SD 0.8 6) My s u p e r v i s o r t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . ( E d u c a t i v e ) 397 SA 8.9 A 27.6 N 30.1 123 D 23.6 SD 10.6 ' 7) My s u p e r v i s o r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g me h a n d l e t h e s t r e s s o f t h e work I do.' ( S u p p o r t i v e ) 364 SA 9.9 A 32.2 N. 21.5 121 D 21.5 SD 14.9 8) My s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t when t h i n g s a r e g o i n g b a d l y . ' ( S u p p o r t i v e ) 361 SA 12.3 A 18:0 N 36.1 122 D 20.5 SD 13.1 9) My s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s my p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s . ( S u p p o r t i v e ) 350 SA 3.3 A 17.9 N 35.0 123 D 31.7 SD 12.2 97 F i n a l l y two i t e m s were i n c l u d e d i n S e c t i o n C w h i c h a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e t h e r o l e o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r and t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n . The r e s u l t s a r e a g a i n p r e s e n t e d as v a l i d p e r c e n t a g e s of t h e t o t a l s c o r e s i n T a b l e 7. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C o n t e x t and F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n  V a r i a b l e s C o n t e x t W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 2 a b o v e , i t i s most s t r i k i n g t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f " t r a d i t i o n a l " one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n i s q u i t e l o w . I n d e e d , n e a r l y h a l f o f r e s p o n d e n t s ( 4 6 . 7 % ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do n o t r e c e i v e s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Of t h o s e who do, 28% i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e s e s s i o n s l a s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o r l e s s , w h i l e o v e r 60% i n d i c a t e t h a t s e s s i o n s l a s t t h i r t y m i n u t e s o r l e s s . T h i s p r e s e n t s a c o n t r a s t t o t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u p e r v i s i o n model p r e s c r i b e d and d e s c r i b e d by a u t h o r s s u c h as W e s t h e i m e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , T o w l e ( 1 9 5 4 ) , and M a t t i n s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h i s model i s t h e l e a s t u s e d o f t h e t h r e e s e t t i n g s e x a m i n e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e as w e l l t h a t w h i l e n e a r l y 68% d e s c r i b e d t h i s s e t t i n g as u s e f u l o r v e r y u s e f u l , t h i s u s e f u l n e s s r a t i n g i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t f o r t h e as n e eded s e t t i n g ( 7 3 % ) o r t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g ( 7 5 % ) . When one c o n s i d e r s however t h e r e l a t i v e l y low i n c i d e n c e o f t h i s 98 f o r m o f s u p e r v i s i o n , i t s g e n e r a l l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n ( o n l y 19% r e p o r t e d s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g 45 m i n u t e s o r m o r e ) , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n ( n e a r l y h a l f r e p o r t b e i n g i n t e r r u p t e d f r e q u e n t l y o r a l w a y s ) , t h i s l o w e r r e p o r t e d u s e f u l n e s s becomes u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . A l s o , i n t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " model d e s c r i b e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t s e s s i o n s s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e a c c o r d i n g t o a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e . I n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y 17% r e p o r t e d t h i s t o be t h e c a s e . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 1% r e p o r t e d n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n "as n e e d e d " s u p e r v i s i o n , w h i l e o n l y 8% r e p o r t e d n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f as n eeded s u p e r v i s i o n , 86% r e p o r t e d m e e t i n g a t l e a s t s e v e r a l t i m e s p e r month w i t h 65% r e p o r t i n g m e e t i n g w e e k l y o r s e v e r a l t i m e s w e e k l y . T y p i c a l l y t h e s e s e s s i o n s a p p e a r t o be s h o r t c o n f e r e n c e s o f l e s s t h a n t e n m i n u t e s ' d u r a t i o n and a r e p r o n e t o i n t e r r u p t i o n ( n e a r l y 60% s a i d s e s s i o n s were i n t e r r u p t e d f r e q u e n t l y o r a l w a y s ) . Group s e s s i o n s t e n d t o be w e e k l y , and a r e u s u a l l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f team m e e t i n g s o f two h o u r s o r more, w i t h i n t e r r u p t i o n s r a r e l y o r n o t a t a l l . 99 T a b l e 7: S c o r e s f o r I n d i c a t o r s o f R o l e o f S u p e r v i s o r a n d P u r p o s e o f S u p e r v i s i o n P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g b e s t des c r i b e s y o u r s u p e r v i s o r s r o l e i n s u p e r v i s i o n : F u n c t i o n a l V a l i d % N D e s i g n a t i o n Manager A d m i n i s t r a t o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 38.8 Case c o n s u l t a n t C o n s u l t a t i v e 28.7 C o l l e a g u e c o l l a b o r a t o r C o n s u l t a t i v e . 18.1 C o u n s e l l o r S u p p o r t i v e 9.0 123 C a s e l o a d o v e r s e e r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 6.0 O t h e r 5.2 T e a c h e r E d u c a t i v e 2.6 Whi c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e p u r p o s e o f y o u r c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r ? - - - • F u n c t i o n a l V a l i d % N D e s i g n a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n on d i f f i c u l t — c a s e s C o n s u l t a t i v e 37.9 E x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n n e e ded t o do t h e j o b A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 16.4 M a n d a t o r y c a s e r e v i e w A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 13.8 S h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 9.51 123 P l a n n i n g on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s C o n s u l t a t i v e 8.6 G i v i n g me d i r e c t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 7.8 F o s t e r i n g my d e v e l o p m e n t as a s o c i a l w o r k e r E d u c a t i v e 3.4 E v a l u a t i o n o f my j o b p e r f o r m a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 2.6 100 The p i c t u r e w h i c h emerges f r o m t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t y p i c a l r e s p o n d e n t s p e n d s t h e most s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e i n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g , and f i n d s t h i s s e t t i n g , c o m p a r a t i v e l y , t h e most u s e f u l . Whether t h i s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e e f f i c a c y and n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g n a t u r e o f t h e s e t t i n g , as s u g g e s t e d by T o r e n ( E p s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ) , and Watson ( 1 9 7 3 ) , o r t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y h i g h p r i o r i t y s e t upon t h i s a p p r o a c h by s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a r g u a b l e ( i . e . w e e k l y team m e e t i n g s a r e mandated by p o l i c y , and t e n d t o be p r o t e c t e d f r o m i n t e r r u p t i o n ) . F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t a s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p may c o n t a i n a l l f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n d e e d , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s s u p e r v i s o r y t o p i c s , r o l e s , o r p u r p o s e s as i n d i c a t o r s o f one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s must p e r f o r c e be f a i r l y a r b i t r a r y , g i v e n t h e s t a t e o f c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r two. F o r e x a m p l e , t o a s s i s t a s u p e r v i s e e t o d e a l w i t h s t r e s s may, f r o m d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , f a l l w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r s u p p o r t i v e m a n d a t e s of t h e s u p e r v i s o r . I t s h o u l d be remembered as w e l l t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s e e p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and p u r p o s e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , and r e s u l t s h e r e a r e p o s s i b l y as i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e demands and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c o n s u m e r s o f s u p e r v i s i o n as t h e y a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e emphases o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . 101 I t w o u l d be u n w i s e t o a t t e m p t t o draw q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n f o r m s t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s . The d a t a may however be u s e d t o add d i m e n s i o n t o a d e s c r i p t i v e p i c t u r e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. i n r e s p e c t o f i t s f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , w i t h r e l e r e n c e t o T a b l e 5, t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of s u p e r v i s i o n may v a r y s l i g h t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e t t i n g i n w h i c h i t t a k e s p l a c e . W h i l e f o r a l l t h e s e s e t t i n g s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c i s " s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s " , i n d i c a t i n g a c o n s u l t a t i v e e m p h a s i s , t h e f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e o t h e r t o p i c s may i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p u r p o s e w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n s e r v e s i n e a c h s e t t i n g . - As T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s , d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n s e t t i n g p l a c e s c o m p a r a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s t r e s s upon t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , c a s e l o a d r e v i e w , ( b o t h u s e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ) and o n g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( a n i n d i c a t o r o f t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n ) , t h a n t h e o t h e r two s e t t i n g s . I n t h e one t o one s e t t i n g t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be c o m p a r a t i v e l y l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b t h a n i n u n s c h e d u l e d o r g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n . F r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s a f f e c t i n g t h e work, i n d i c a t i v e of t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s s i m i l a r b e t ween a l l t i i r e e s e t t i n g s , and i s c o n s i s t e n t l y q u i t e l o w . The c o n t e n t o f t h e u n s c h e d u l e d , as needed one t o one s e t t i n g w o u l d a p p e a r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g r e a t e s t e m p h a s i s 102 upon d i s c u s s i o n o f s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s , h a v i n g a f a r g r e a t e r gap ( 3 0 % ) b e t ween t h i s f i r s t r a t e d t o p i c and t h e s e c o n d r a t e d t o p i c , t h a n do t h e o t h e r two s e t t i n g s . W h i l e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b i s t h e s e c o n d most f r e q u e n t t o p i c i n t h i s s e t t i n g , i t i s , by c o m p a r i s o n e m p h a s i z e d f a r l e s s t h a n i n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g and r a t h e r more t h a n i n t h e s c h e d u l e d one t o one s e t t i n g . I n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b i s f a r more p r e v a l e n t ( a t 81%) t h a n i n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two s e t t i n g s . T h e r e i s a l s o a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f s t a t u t o r y c a s e r e v i e w , and i s s u e s i n s o c i a l work, b o t h i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . C o m p a r i n g t h e f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e f o u r most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s i n e a c h s e t t i n g , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t , f o r g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e s e c l u s t e r more c l o s e l y , w i t h i n a 28 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s p r e a d . F o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s , t h e f r e q u e n c y i s a l s o s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s p e r h a p s a n a r r o w e r f u n c t i o n a l f o c u s i n e a c h o f t h e o t h e r s e t t i n g s , w h i l e t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g may s e r v e as a b r o a d e r f o c u s f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e e a r l i e r r e p o r t e d d a t a r e g a r d i n g f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n f o r e a c h s e t t i n g , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t , f o r t h e a v e r a g e s u p e r v i s e e , by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e i s s p e n t i n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g . 103 I t w o u l d a p p e a r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 6, t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s g e n e r a l l y t o e m p h a s i z e t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e e m p h a s i s on t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n . W h i l e t h i s c o n c u r s c l o s e l y w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e t h r e e c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , ( s e e T a b l e 5 ) , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e j o b and t h e demands o f t h e s u p e r v i s e e may be as i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n as i s t h e f u n c t i o n a l e m p h a s i s w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r b r i n g s t o s e s s i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p i n S u p e r v i s i o n The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " R e l a t i o n s h i p " i s c o n c e i v e d o f h e r e as b e i n g c o m p r i s e d o f two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f f a c t o r s . The f i r s t s e t d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p as p e r c e i v e d by r e s p o n d e n t s , and t h e s e c o n d s e t d e s c r i b e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s p e r c e i v e d t o be p o s s e s s e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r . F o r b o t h s e t s o f f a c t o r s , i t e m s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e C s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as i n d i c a t o r s o f e a c h . T h e s e i t e m s a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o r a t e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r on a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e a s s e s s i n g t h e e x t e n t o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t made i n e a c h i t e m . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r i t e m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e was e x t r e m e l y h i g h f o r .those i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e 104 s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . w i t h m i s s i n g v a l u e s n o t e x c e e d i n g f o u r o u t o f one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - t h r e e p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s . Q u a l i t y o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s h i p P r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by t h i s s t u d e n t (Conway 1987) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a l i e n t t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e s e w e r e : t h e d e g r e e o f e a s e o r " f i t " i n t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e d e g r e e o f t r u s t p r e s e n t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p v/as p e r c e i v e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e work. I t e m s were i n c l u d e d as i n d i c a t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , and t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h i t e m a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 8. I n T a b l e 8, t h e i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r a n k o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t . I n l i k e f a s h i o n t o T a b l e 6, t h e o r d e r i n g i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e " l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t " s c o r e s , computed as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ( s e e T a b l e 105 T a b l e 8 S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g f o r Items D e s c r i b i n g t h e S u p e r v i s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p Item S c o r e as V a l i d % L e v e l o f Agreement I f e e l t h a t I have a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r I c o n s i d e r s u p e r v i s i o n t o be e s s e n t i a l t o t h e work I do S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 33.6 4 4.3 13.9 4.9 3.3 31.7 29.3 17.9 15.7 5 . 7 400 367 I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 21. 40, 19.5 10.6 S. 1 18.7 30.9 11.7 24.4 14.6 356 286 106 R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s ' i n S u p e r v i s i o n The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two, s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s were i m p o r t a n t t o e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . To s u m m a r i z e , Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 , 1982, 1983) d i v i d e d t h e s e i n t o p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s , and p o s i t s t h a t t h e s e s k i l l s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s o c i a l c a s e w o r k . P e t t e s ( 1 9 7 6 ) s p e a k s o f s k i l l s i n t e a c h i n g , e n a b l i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 6 , 1985) e m p h a s i z e s s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l s i n p r o v i d i n g t o t h e s u p e r v i s e e a m e asure o f autonomy, and a c c e p t a n c e , i n h a v i n g a d e g r e e o f knov/ledge and c o m p e t e n c e r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e , and c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e o p i n i o n s and c o n c e r n s o f s u p e r v i s e e s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n as a r o l e m o d e l , m e n t i o n e d by C a r t e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and w i l l i n g n e s s t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s , i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d e n t ' s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h (Conway, 1 9 8 7 ) , were c o n s i d e r e d as s k i l l s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . S h u l m a n ' s work on t h e s k i l l s o f t h e h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( 1 9 7 9 , 1982) f u r t h e r d i v i d e s h i s t h r e e s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s k i l l " p a r t i a l i z i n g c o n c e r n s " i s c o n s i d e r e d a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l , w h i l e l i s t e n i n g i s a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l . The Shulman e t a l s u r v e y ( 1 9 8 1 ) and t h e R o b i n s o n s u r v e y 107 ( R o b i n s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , w h i c h were u s e d as p a r t i a l m o d e l s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , p r o d u c e d i n d i c a t o r s f o r e a c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l f a c t o r , and many o f t h e s e were r e p r o d u c e d o r m o d i f i e d f o r use h e r e . S i m i l a r l y , s e v e r a l i t e m s were b o r r o w e d f r o m C a r t e r ' s 1970 r e s e a r c h w h i l e o r i g i n a l i t e m s were c o n s t r u c t e d where no a p p l i c a b l e one was a v a i l a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t a s k i l l a r e a s u g g e s t e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e o r t h e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . T a b l e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i t e m s u s e d , t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n , t h e s k i l l w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t , and t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d . A l s o , i n t h e same manner as t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r ' T a b l e s 6 and 8, t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h i t e m d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s were r a n k o r d e r e d by " l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t " s c o r e s ( s e e T a b l e 9 ) . 108 T a b l e 9 S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g f o r I tems D e s c r i b i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p  S k i l l s o f S u p e r v i s o r s I tem S c o r e as V a l i d % L e v e l o f Agreement My s u p e r v i s o r i s w i l l i n g t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s we make i n s u p e r v i s i o n : S k i l l Name S h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y D e r i v a t i o n Conway, 1987 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 55 11 5 3 .8 .7 .5 .1 .3 390 My s u p e r v i s o r has a d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e : k n o w l e d g e o f m i n i s t r y S k i l l Name P r o v i d i n g D a t a D e r i v a t i o n R o b i n s o n 1980, S i m i l a r i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e 26.2 A g r e e 50.8 N e u t r a l 13.9 D i s a g r e e 6.6 S t r o n g l y A g r e e 2.5 339 My s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s S k i l l Name C o m m u n i c a t i o n D e r i v a t i o n Shulman 1 9 81, C a r t e r 1970, M o d i f i e d i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 22 47 14 8. 7 368 I n s u p e r v i s i o n , s u p e r v i s o r : I f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y w i t h my S k i l l Name P r o m o t i n g Autonomy D e r i v a t i o n Conway, 1987 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 17 52 13 13 3 367 My s u p e r v i s o r i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d so t h a t h i s / h e r own work f l o w s s m o o t h l y : S k i l l Name O r g a n i z a t i o n D e r i v a t i o n C a r t e r 1970, I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 13, 50. 23, 8, k 359 T a b l e 9 C o n t i n u e d 109 I t e m S c o r e a s V a l i d % L e v e l o f Ag r e e m e n t When I t e l l my s u p e r v i s o r how I f e e l , h e / s h e u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s : S k i l l Name Empathy D e r i v a t i o n S h u l m a n , 1981 I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e 46.7 18.0 15.6 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 4.1 354 I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s my p e r f o r m a n c e : S k i l l Name E v a l u a t i o n D e r i v a t i o n P e t t e s , 1979 Munson, 1983 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e 13.0 A g r e e 44.7 N e u t r a l 23.6 D i s a g r e e 14.6 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 4.1 I n s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e r e i s t h e k i n d o f a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s my m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s as w e l l as my s u c c e s s e s : S k i l l Name D e v e l o p i n g a s u p p o r t i v e a t m o s p h e r e D e r i v a t i o n S hulman 1 9 8 1 , I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 19 43 10, 13 13 343 My s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f ray work: S k i l l Name P r o v i d i n g F e e d b a c k D e r i v a t i o n Conway, 1987 O r i g i n a l i t e m My s u p e r v i s o r s o m e t h i n g : S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 13. 37. 22 , 15. 10, c a n s e n s e when I am u p s e t o r a n x i o u s a b o u t 339 S k i l l Name: Empathy D e r i v a t i o n S hulman 1 9 8 1 , M o d i f i e d i t e m 1982 S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 10. 48 16 16 P 331 T a b l e 9 C o n t i n u e d 110 I t e m S c o r e a s L e v e l o f V a l i d % A g r e e m e n t My s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I ' v e done a good j o b : S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 15.4 F e e d b a c k A g r e e 56.9 D e r i v a t i o n N e u t r a l 19.5 338 Conway 1937 D i s a g r e e 13.0 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 10.6 I s e e my s u p e r v i s o r as a good s o c i a l work r o l e m o d e l : S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 19.5 M o d e l i n g A g r e e 31.7 D e r i v a t i o n . N e u t r a l 23.6 333 Conway, 1987 D i s a g r e e 13.8 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 11.4 My s u p e r v i s o r has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f what i s h a p p e n i n g i n my c a s e l o a d : S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 11.8 F a m i l i a r i z i n g w i t h A g r e e 47.1 C a s e l o a d N e u t r a l 10.1 . 327 D e r i v a t i o n D i s a g r e e 18.5 Conway, 1987 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 12.6 My s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s h i s / h e r a u t h o r i t y w e l l : S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 14.6 D e a l s w i t h theme A g r e e 48.0 of a u t h o r i t y N e u t r a l 15.4 326 D e r i v a t i o n D i s a g r e e 13.8 K a d u s h i n 1985, S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 8.1 Sh u l m a n , 1 9 81, Munson 1978, C a r t e r 1970, M o d i f i e d i t e m My s u p e r v i s o r i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e when I need h i m / h e r : S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 13.0 A v a i l a b i l i t y A g r e e 41.5 D e r i v a t i o n N e u t r a l 12.2 325 Shulman 1 9 81, D i s a g r e e 23.6 I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 9.8 T a b l e 9 C o n t i n u e d 111 I t e m S c o r e a s V a l i d % L e v e l o f Agreement My s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e : S k i l l Name Team l e a d i n g D e r i v a t i o n Conway, 1987 O r i g i n a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e 14.6 35.8 20.3 18.7 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 10.6 125 My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o i d e n t i f y my c o n c e r n s i n a s i t u a t i o n , and e x a m i n e them one a t a t i m e : S k i l l Name P a r t i a l i z i n g c o n c e r n s D e r i v a t i o n Shulman 1 9 8 1 , I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 13 36 19 21 9 321 My s u p e r v i s o r has e x p l a i n e d t o me how we m i g h t work t o g e t h e r i n s u p e r v i s i o n and what k i n d o f h e l p h e / s h e c a n g i v e me: S k i l l Name: C l a r i f y i n g R o l e (R e 1 a-t i o n s h i p ) D e r i v a t i o n : S hulman 1 9 8 1 , I d e n t i c a l i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 13, 31, 21 25 9. 313 My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n : S k i l l Name I n d i v i d u a l R e g u l a r i t y D e r i v a t i o n Shulman 1981, S i m i l a r i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e 5.0 A g r e e 26.4 N e u t r a l 20.7 D i s a g r e e 21.1 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 17.4 310 My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o d i s c u s s s u b j e c t s w h i c h I am n o t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h : S k i l l Name S u p p o r t i n g v/orker i n t a b o o a r e a s D e r i v a t i o n S h u l m a n , 1981 S i m i l a r i t e m S t r o n g l y A g r e e N e u t r a l D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e 6, 20, 46. 22, 4, T a b l e 9 C o n t i n u e d 112 I t e m S c o r e a s L e v e l o f V a l i d % A g r e e m e n t My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s i n t h e work I do: S k i l l Name S t r o n g l y A g r e e 6.6 R e c o g n i z e s F e e l i n g s A g r e e 26.4 D e r i v a t i o n N e u t r a l 22.3 277 M a t t i n s o n , 1965 D i s a g r e e 26.4 W e s t h e i m e r , 1977 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 18.2 O r i g i n a l i t e m 113 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p V a r i a b l e As i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 8, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t between t h e two s t a t e m e n t s " I have a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my s u p e r v i s o r " , and " I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e " . I t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s , a t l e a s t , a r e m e a s u r i n g two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n c t p a r a m e t e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y t h e r e i s a w i d e d i s c r e p a n c y i n a g r e e m e n t between t h e h i g h e s t r a n k e d o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s i t e m s , "My s u p e r v i s o r i s w i l l i n g t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e c i s i o n s we make i n s u p e r v i s i o n " and t h e l o w e s t , "My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . " The r a n g e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s a l o n g t h e l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t i n d e x s u p p o r t s t h e c o n s t r u c t and c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t y and s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , s i n c e i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g c e r t a i n s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s a r e l i k e l y - t o be c a l l e d upon more f r e q u e n t l y , be more d e v e l o p e d , and be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e work. A l s o i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t d e s p i t e a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , a good d e a l o f t r u s t i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r and a h i g h measure o f i m p o r t a n c e b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s , a s u p e r v i s e e may e x p r e s s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n . As t h e model w h i c h i n f o r m s t h i s r e s e a r c h p o s t u l a t e s , t h e r e a r e 114 many f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p and many s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e s e . F o r e x a m p l e , i t m i g h t be t h e c a s e t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e l e v e l o f o t h e r s k i l l s e m p l o y e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h e i n a b i l i t y t o , a r r a n g e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n may r e s u l t i n t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s e e w i t h t h e p r o c e s s . S h u l m a n ' s 1981 e x a m i n a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n between p e r c e i v e d h e l p f u l n e s s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a p t l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e g r e a t e r s a l i e n c e o f v a r i o u s f a c t o r s . The b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d l a t e r i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a w i l l e x p l o r e t h i s theme f u r t h e r . I t i s n o t a b l e t o o , t h a t many o f t h e s k i l l s upon w h i c h r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s most h i g h l y a r e a r e a s w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , f o r e x a m p l e , s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p o s s e s s i n g k n o w l e d g e o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e , k n o w i n g t h e w o r k e r ' s c a s e l o a d , b e i n g p e r s o n a l l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e . f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . A l s o h i g h l y r a t e d was t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a b i l i t y t o g r a n t autonomy, a s k i l l w h i c h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , c o n d u c i v e t o t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n . L e s s h i g h l y r a t e d were s e v e r a l s k i l l s w h i c h may be s a i d t o be u s e f u l i n a s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s u c h as empathy, s u p p o r t i n g w o r k e r s i n t a b o o a r e a s , and r e c o g n i z i n g f e e l i n g s . A g a i n t h e s e r a n k i n g s c o n c u r w i t h t h e d a t a 115 p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 5, 6 and 7, w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be most h i g h l y e m p h a s i z e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n w h i l e t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n i s l e a s t e m p h a s i z e d . I t may be t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s v / i t h i n t h e m i n i s t r y i n r e c e n t y e a r s upon a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n p r a c t i c e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t t h e p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e s manual used v / i t h i n t h e m i n i s t r y has o f l a t e p r e s c r i b e d more c l e a r l y t h e r a n g e o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g autonomy and a u t h o r i t y f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s , and t h e p r o c e d u r e s and c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must be f u l f i l l e d i n m a k i n g c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s . O v e r a l l t h e s e c h a n g e s may be s a i d t o be d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e , d e f i n e and c l a r i f y t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n c a s e w o r k s c e n a r i o s , and a r e p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t o f t h e n a r r o w i n g o f t h e m i n i s t r y ' s f o c u s f r o m g e n e r i c s o c i a l work t o c h i l d w e l f a r e and p r o t e c t i o n . L o o k i n g t o g e t h e r a t t h e t h i r t y - f o u r q u e s t i o n s w h i c h e x p l o r e d t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s g e n e r a l l y r a t e d t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p f a v o r a b l y ; A p r o j e c t e d n o r m a l c u r v e f o r r e s p o n s e s w o u l d p l a c e t h e mean f o r a l l r e s p o n s e s a t 3.0, s i n c e e a c h q u e s t i o n i s s c o r e d one t h r o u g h f i v e . I n f a c t t h e mean f o r a l l s c o r e s i n S e c t i o n C i s 2.63. F o r o n l y f i v e i t e m s d i d t h e mean s c o r e e x c e e d 3.0 ( i . e . t h e r e v/as more d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t i n 116 e a c h ) . T h e s e w e r e : "My s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s " ( 3 . 3 2 ) , "My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough t i m e f o r r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n " ( 3 . 2 9 ) , "my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s i n t h e work I do" ( 3 . 2 3 ) , "ray s u p e r v i s o r i s a s o u r c e of e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t when t h i n g s a r e g o i n g b a d l y " ( 3 . 0 4 ) , and "My s u p e r v i s o r t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t " ( 3 . 0 1 ) . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t , o f t h e s e f i v e , t h r e e r e f e r t o s k i l l s w i t h a s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n a l e m p h a s i s . I t i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e e a r l i e r e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s c h e d u l e d one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n c o n t e x t i s t h e l e a s t u s e d , and l o w e s t r a t e d i n t e r m s o f u s e f u l n e s s , i t i s a l s o t h e c a s e t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s g e n e r a l l y do n o t s e t a s i d e enough t i m e f o r t h i s f o r m o f s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s r e c a l l s S h u l m a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n f r o m h i s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s , t h a t n o t h a v i n g enough t i m e t o s u p e r v i s e was a m a j o r s o u r c e o f f r u s t r a t i o n ( S h u l m a n , 1 9 8 1 ) . The D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e - Worker W e l l - b e i n g As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " was c o n c e i v e d o f as b e i n g d e s c r i b e d by f i v e f a c t o r s : t h e w o r k e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s o r h e r own s k i l l s , t h e d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e work was f o u n d m a n a g e a b l e , and t h e amount o f j o b - r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d . One i t e m e a c h d e s c r i b e d t h e s e f i v e 117 f a c t o r s , and r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s on a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. B e c a u s e t h e i t e m s i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( S e c t i o n D) do n o t a l l have i d e n t i c a l r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r a n k o r d e r them i n t h e same f a s h i o n as t h o s e i n s e c t i o n C, u s i n g t h e computed l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t . However, e a c h i t e m s o l i c i t s a f i v e - p o i n t r e s p o n s e , w i t h r e s p o n s e s r a n g i n g f r o m p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e . I n o r d e r t o r a n k o r d e r t h e s e t h e mean s c o r e s were c o n s i d e r e d , a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n on a c o n t i n u u m f r o m p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e , i n T a b l e 10. (N.B. I n o r d e r t o r e n d e r t h e i t e m s c o m p a r a b l e t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i t e m s S t r e s s l e v e l and d e g r e e o f F r u s t r a t i o n were r e v e r s e c o d e d . ) 118 T a b l e 10 S c o r e s and Rank O r d e r i n g f o r E a c h I t e m D e s c r i b i n g t h e  D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e : "Worker W e l l - b e i n g " I t e m # S c o r e a s V a l i d % Mean S c o r e N I f e e l good a b o u t my s k i l l s as a s o c i a l w o r k e r F a c t o r S t r o n g l y A g r e e 34.1 1.72 123 P r o f e s s i o n a l A g r e e 61.0 S e l f - E s t e e m N e u t r a l 3.3 D i s a g r e e 1.6 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 0.0 U s u a l l y I f i n d my c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b l e : F a c t o r A l l t h e t i m e 7.5 2.43 120 Work Most o f t h e t i m e 60.8 M a n a g e a b i l i t y S o m etimes 13.0 L i t t l e of t h e t i m e 14.2 N e v e r 2.5 How w o u l d you d e s c r i b e y o u r l e v e l o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ? F a c t o r Ve r y H i g h 5.7 2.75 123 J o b S a t i s - H i g h 34.1 f a c t i o n . N e u t r a l 43.9 Low 11.4 V e r y Low • 4.9 I o f t e n f e e l f r us t r a t e d o r unhappy i n my c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n F a c t o r S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . 2.5 o no 122 J o b - r e l a t e d D i s a g r e e 36.9 F r u s t r a t i o n N e u t r a l 21.3 A g r e e 28.7 S t r o n g l y A g r e e 10.7 How w o u l d you des c r i b e t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s you e n c o u n t e r i n t h e work you do? : F a c t o r V e r y Low 2.5 3.62 121 J o b - r e l a t e d L o w 2.5 s t r e s s N e u t r a l 38.8 • H i g h 42.1 V e r y h i g h 14.0 119 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s p o n s e s t o I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g "Worker W e l l - B e i n g " I n h i n d s i g h t , i t . i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t i t e m s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were n o t d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e i d e n t i c a l r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d f o r t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s o v e r s i g h t makes c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n i t e m s , t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f i t e m s and t h e c o m p u t i n g o f s c a l e s u s i n g a l l o r some o f t h e s e i t e m s p r o b l e m a t i c . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d i n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . T h i s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i t e m s i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y ( 9 5 % ) f e l t p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e i r s o c i a l work s k i l l s , a m e a sure o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m . A m a j o r i t y ( 5 6 % ) d e s c r i b e d t h e i r j o b s t r e s s l e v e l as h i g h o r v e r y h i g h , w h i l e o n l y 5% d e s c r i b e d s t r e s s as l o w o r v e r y l o w . The m a j o r i t y ( 6 8 % ) f o u n d t h e i r c a s e l o a d s m a n a g e a b l e most o r a l l o f t h e t i m e . N e a r l y e q u a l p o r t i o n s o f r e s p o n d e n t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r l e v e l o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as h i g h o r v e r y h i g h ( 4 1 % ) o r n e u t r a l ( 4 3 % ) w h i l e o n l y 16% f e l t s a t i s f a c t i o n was low o r v e r y l o w . I n c o m p a r i s o n , 39% i n d i c a t e d a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e y f e l t f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n , w h i l e 39% i n d i c a t e d d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h 2 1 % n e u t r a l . ( A l l p e r c e n t a g e s were r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t w h o l e n u m b e r ) . 120 L o o k i n g however a t t h e means f o r e a c h i t e m , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e mean s c o r e f o r t h e s e l f - e s t e e m i t e m ( 1 . 7 2 ) d i f f e r s q u i t e r a d i c a l l y f r o m a p r o j e c t e d n o r m a l mean o f 3.0. I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t r e s p o n s e s a r e h i g h l y skewed (no r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d s t r o n g d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s k i l l s s t a t e m e n t ) . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s f o r t h e o t h e r f o u r i t e m s . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r i t e m s , mean s c o r e s f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e d e g r e e o f f r u s t r a t i o n ( 3 . 6 2 ) and t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s ( 3 . 0 8 ) b o t h a r e above t h e p r o j e c t e d n o r m a l c u r v e mean o f 3.0. ( e . g . r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r l e v e l s o f s t r e s s and f u r s t r a t i o n a r e g r e a t e r t h a n " n e u t r a l " ) . Of i n t e r e s t a l s o i s t h e g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e r e g a r d i n g c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y . Taken t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s c o r e s f r o m t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t most (737b) w o r k e r s have c a s e l o a d s o f f o r t y o r f e w e r c a s e s , t h o s e f i n d i n g s a r e a t odds w i t h a commonly h e l d p e r c e p t i o n o f M.S.S . H , as w o r k e r s b e i n g b u r d e n e d w i t h v e r y l a r g e , u n m a n a g e a b l e c a s e l o a d s . The a p p a r e n t l y f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (mean = 2.75) i s i n t e r e s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e s u r v e y was t a k e n a t a t i m e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u p h e a v a l i n t h e M.S.S.H. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s however .does i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s marked n e u t r a l ( 4 4 % ) . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i t e m s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e d e p e n d e n t 121 v a r i a b l e f o l l o w s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . Summary Of t h e U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s I n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y have been p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As w e l l r e s u l t s f o r t h o s e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s a m p l e i n t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t e d . The i n t e n t h e r e has been t o b u i l d a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e and t o w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . I n t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s , b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s as i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , and between, o t h e r g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l be e x a m i n e d , as a means t o i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o b t a i n e d . B I V ARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA O v e r v i e w I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a was d i s c u s s e d . The main p u r p o s e f o r t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e v/as d e s c r i b e d a s a t e s t i n g o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t ween t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d , and " w o r k e r 122 w e l l - b e i n g " - t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . To t h i s end, t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a has been o r g a n i z e d i n s e v e r a l p a r t s . F i r s t , t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s d e s c r i b e d and j u s t i f i e d i n t e r r a s o f t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i t s component f a c t o r s . Then, i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g a s p e c t s o f e a c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and j u s t i f i e d . The r e s u l t i n g e l e v e n s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s a r e t h e n compared w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v s r i s b l e and t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t e d . Then a l l s c a l e d i t e m s and g r o u p i n g s o f i t e m s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e compared w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , and t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t e d . S i n c e t h i s c o m p a r i s o n i n v o l v e d t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s i x t y - f i v e i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , t h e d e c i s i o n r u l e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r were a p p l i e d ( i . e . _p_ ^ .01, r ^ . 4 ) . A s e c o n d p u r p o s e o f t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a was t o e x a m i n e t h e r e s u l t s f o r e v i d e n c e o f s u p p o r t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e d i c t e d o r d e s c r i b e d i n t h e . t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e upon w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d . To t h i s end, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x p r o d u c e d by c o m p a r i n g a l l i t e m s w i t h e a c h o t h e r i s e x a m i n e d and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d i n A p p e n d i x C. H e r e , even t h o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n r u l e s e m p l o y e d i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e v a l u e s where p_ ^ .01 and r ^ .40, i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e l a r g e n u m b e r . o f c o r r e l a t i o n s p r o d u c e d means t h a t s e v e r a l may i n d e e d have been g e n e r a t e d by c h a n c e . Worker W e l l - B e i n g : The Dependent V a r i a b l e 123 Where i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s a r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a c o n s t r u c t o r v a r i a b l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o j u s t i f y t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t and i t s c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s , and i n t e r m s o f t h e c o - r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t ween t h e s e f a c t o r s . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e v a r i a b l e w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , and o f i t s c omponents i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3. When e x a m i n i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o j u d g e w h e t h e r t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w een i t e m s t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e i t e m s may be d e s c r i b i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e same phenomenon o r c o n s t r u c t . At t h e same t i m e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o j u d g e w h e t h e r o r n o t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n i t e m s a r e so h i g h as t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i t e m s o v e r l a p e n t i r e l y , and do n o t d e s c r i b e d i s t i n c t a s p e c t s o f t h e phenomenon, o r t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a r i a n c e between i t e m s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e f i v e i t e m s o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a r e d i s p l a y e d i n m a t r i x f o r m i n T a b l e 11. 1 2 4 T a b l e 11 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e m s p e s c r i b i n a Worker Wo-t 1-Baing " SKILL JOBSAT STRESLEV CASLOAD FRUSTRAT SKILL 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P = . 1747 123) .027 ( P = . 1830 121 ) .022 ( P = . 1094 120) .117 ( P = .0718 122) .216 JOBSAT ( P = . 1747 123) .027 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P = . 3236 121 ) .000 ( P = .4035 120) .000 ( P = .6964 122) .000 STRESLEV ( P = . 1830 121 ) .022 ( P = .3236 121 ) .000 1 ( P = .0000 121 ) ( P = .3954 118) . .000 ( P = .4009 121) j .000 CASLOAD ( P = , 1094 120) .117 ( P = .4035 120) .000 ( P = .3954 1 18) .000 1 . ( P = 0000 120) ( P = .3899 119) .000 C o d i n g Key S k i l l - P r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m J o b s a t - J o b r e l a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n S t r e s l e v - J o b - r e l a t e d s t r e s s C a s l o a d - C a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y F r u s t r a t - J o b - r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n 125 E x a m i n i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , t h e r e a d e r i s r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e i t e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d l e v e l o f s t r e s s , and of j o b f r u s t r a t i o n ha.ve been r e s c a l e d so t h a t a l l i t e m s have t h e same " d i r e c t i o n o f r e s p o n s e " , e.g. one i s most p o s i t i v e and f i v e i s most n e g a t i v e f o r a l l i t e m s . L o o k i n g a t T a b l e 11, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e i t e m w h i c h a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i r s k i l l s a s a s o c i a l w o r k e r has no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e i t e m s r e g a r d i n g c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y o r j o b f r u s t r a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween t h i s i t e m and t h o s e d e s c r i b i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e v e l o f s t r e s s , w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t a r e q u i t e low ( b e l o w .20) and i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . L o o k i n g a t t h e r e s p o n s e p r o f i l e f o r t h e s k i l l s i t e m on i t s own, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s f a r l e s s v a r i a n c e i n r e s p o n s e t h a n i n t h e o t h e r i t e m s . 9 5 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y a g r e e d , o r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e y f e l t good a b o u t t h e i r s k i l l s as a s o c i a l w o r k e r , w h i l e o n l y 3.3% d i s a g r e e d and none s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d . T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e more m e l l o w d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e f o r t h e o t h e r f o u r i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g . The l a c k o f v a r i a n c e and low c o r r e l a t i o n make t h i s i t e m q u e s t i o n a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s c a l e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . I n c o n t r a s t t h e o t h e r f o u r i t e m s d i s p l a y h i g h e r i n t e r -i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s ( b e t w e e n .32 and .70) w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e 126 f o r a l l a t .00. As e x p e c t e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b f r u s t r a t i o n i s h i g h e s t , b u t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a n c e between t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e t o j u s t i f y c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e y do d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . P r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s Two and T h r e e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e c o n s t r u c t . The r e s u l t s h e r e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i t e m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e t o d e t e c t v a r i a n c e and may be p o o r l y d e s i g n e d , e i t h e r i n t e r m s o f c o n s t r u c t o r f a c e v a l i d i t y . H e nce, i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s c a l e " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " i t has been e x c l u d e d , l e a v i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y , s t r e s s l e v e l , and j o b f r u s t r a t i o n as t h e component f a c t o r s i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T a b l e 12 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between e a c h of t h e f o u r r e m a i n i n g i t e m s ( j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b f r u s t r a t i o n , s t r e s s l e v e l , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y ) and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g v/orker w e l l - b e i n g ( W e l l b e I ) . 127 T a b l e 12 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s i n the D e p e n d e n t  V a r i a b l e and t h e De p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e , Worker W e l l - B e i n g  C W e l l b e I ) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S WELLBE1 JOBSAT .8022 ( 118) P= .000 STRESLEV .6635 ( 118) P= .000 CASLOAD .7187 ( 118) P= .000 FRUSTRAT .841 1 ( 118) P= .OOO C o d i n g Key S k i l l - P r o f e s s i o n a l self-esteem J o b s a t - J o b r e l a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n S t r e s l e v - J o b - r e l a t e d stress C a s l o a d - C a s e l o a d manageability F r u s t r a t - J o b - r e l a t e d f r u s t r a t i o n i 128 C o r r e l a t i o n B etween G r o u p s o f F a c t o r s and Worker W e l l - B e i n g F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s were g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t e x t , f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , o r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u p e r v i s i o n - t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , t h e s e g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s were e x a m i n e d f o r f a c e and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y as w e l l as f o r i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g e l e v e n s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d : P r o f e s s i o n a l M a t u r i t y ; T o t a l S u p e r v i s i o n Time; S u p p o r t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n ; C o n s u l t a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n ; A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n ; E d u c a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n ; Q u a l i t y o f S u p e r v i s i o n ; R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s ; S u p e r v i s i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n ; P r o v i d i n g F e e d b a c k ; E n c o u r a g i n g R e c i p r o c i t y . E a c h w i l l be d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . D e m o g r a p h i c G r o u p i n g s i ) P r o f e s s i o n a l M a t u r i t y ( P r o f m a t ) . T h i s c o n s t r u c t c o m b i n e d t h e d e m o g r a p h i c i t e m s age, e d u c a t i o n , p r e v i o u s s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e w i t h M.S.S.H. On t h e f a c e o f i t , t h e s e f o u r i t e m s t a k e n s i n g l y may be s e e n as c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e c o n s t r u c t p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y , and t a k e n t o g e t h e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l e gauge of t h e c o n s t r u c t , i n s o f a r as t h o s e s c o r i n g h i g h e s t on t h e s c a l e w i l l be t h o s e o l d e r , b e t t e r e d u c a t e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d . 129 A l t h o u g h age and e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n , a l l o t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e s e f o u r i t e m s r a n g e d f r o m .16 t o .56 (p ^ . 0 5 ) . T a b l e 13 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w een t h e s e f o u r i t e m s , and b e t ween e a c h i t e m and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y " . C o n t e x t : T o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e ( T o t s u p ) . T h i s c o n t e x t u a l g r o u p i n g o f f a c t o r s c o m b i n e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s u p e r v i s i o n f o r a l l t h r e e s e t t i n g s ( i . e . s c h e d u l e d , ad h o c , g r o u p s ) , and t h e d u r a t i o n of s e s s i o n s f o r a l l t h r e e s e t t i n g s t o g i v e an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e t o t a l amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d . I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s c a n o n l y be a r o u g h i n d i c a t o r , s i n c e t h e d u r a t i o n s c a l e s d i f f e r f o r e a c h s e t t i n g , and f r e q u e n c y i t e m s do n o t p r o d u c e e x a c t f i g u r e s f o r t h e number o f s e s s i o n s a t t e n d e d . The s c a l e i s however a r e a s o n a b l y d i s c r i m i n a t i v e one, i n t h e s e n s e t h a t h i g h e r s c o r e s w i l l i n d i c a t e r e s p o n d e n t s who s pend more t i m e i n s u p e r v i s i o n t h a n lo w s c o r e s . S i n c e i t was n o t t h e c a s e t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s t y p i c a l l y were i n v o l v e d i n a l l t h r e e s e t t i n g s , n o r was t h e r e presumed t o n e c e s s a r i l y be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f a c t o r s m a k i n g up t h e s c a l e " t o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e " , i n t e r -i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t . 130 T a b l e 13 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g t h e S c a l e d G r o u p i n g  " P r o f e s s i o n a l M a t u r i t y " , ( P r o f m a t . ) - P E A R S O N C 0 R R E L A T I 0 AGE EDUC SXEXP' MSSHEXP PROFMAT AGE 1 ( P = . oooo 123) ( P = .0914 122) . 158 ( P = . 335 1 123) .000 ( P = .561 1 123) .000 ( P = . 7556 122) .000 EDUC ( P = .0914 122) . 158 1 ( P = .0000 122) ( P = . 1864 122 ) .020 ( P = .1675 122) .033 ( P = .4601 122) .OOO SXEXP ( P» . 3351 123) .000 ( P-. 1864 122) .020 1 . ( P = .0000 123 ) ( P-. 1702 123) .030 ( P» .6807 122) .OOO MSSHEXP ( P» .5611 123) .OOO ( P» . 1675 122) .033 ( P = , 1702 123) .030 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P = .7258 122) .000 PROFMAT ( P = 7556 122) .000 ( P = .4601 122) .OOO ( P = 6807 122 ) .000 ( P = .7258 122) .000 1 . ( P = OOOO 122) C O E F F I C I E N T Coding, k e y Age-Age E d u c - E d u c a t i o n l e v e l S x e x p - S o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e e x c l u d i n g M.F.S.H. M s s h e x p - S o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n M.S.S.H. P r o f m a t - S c a l e d g r o u p i n g " P r o f e s s i o n a l M a t u r i t y " 131 F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : F o r e a c h o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n ( i . e . E d u c a t i v e , . S u p p o r t i v e , C o n s u l t a t i v e , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) , i t e m s f r o m t h e i n s t r u m e n t were c o m b i n e d t o c r e a t e s c a l e s . B e c a u s e e a c h o r i e n t a t i o n was n o t r e p r e s e n t e d by an e q u a l number o f i t e m s , t h e s c a l e s computed a r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e t o e a c h o t h e r . They do h o w e v e r , t h e s t u d e n t f e e l s , p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h e a c h f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d by r e s p o n d e n t s t o ' be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n . The s c a l e s were computed by c o m b i n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : S u p p o r t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n : ( S u p p f u n c . ) : Where r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n t e n t o f s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d " p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s w h i c h m i g h t be a f f e c t i n g t h e w o r k " , o r t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r was d e s c r i b e d as " c o u n s e l l o r " , o r t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n was d e s c r i b e d as " h e l p i n g one d e a l w i t h t h e s t r e s s o f t h e work", a s c o r e o f t h r e e was a s s i g n e d f o r e a c h i t e m . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e v e r s e d s c o r e s ( i . e . 5 = s t r o n g l y a g r e e ) f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s were i n c l u d e d : "my s u p e r v i s o r i s a s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l ' s u p p o r t " , "my s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s " , my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o d i s c u s s u n c o m f o r t a b l e s u b j e c t s " , "when I t e l l ray s u p e r v i s o r how I f e e l h e / s h e u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s " , "my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me cope w i t h t h e s t r e s s o f t h e work", and "my s u p e r v i s o r c a n t e l l when I am u p s e t o r a n x i o u s " . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s a p p e a r e d t o g i v e t h e b e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f a s u p p o r t i v e e m p h a s i s i n s u p e r v i s i o n , and w h i l e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t e n t , p u r p o s e and r o l e i t e m s ( t h e s e were n o t o r d i n a l l y s c a l e d ) , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e l a t t e r s i x i t e m s were between r = .45 and r = .64, _ ^ .001. I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s , and c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween e a c h i t e m and t h e c o m p o s i t e s c a l e ( S u p p f u n c . ) a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 14. C o n s u l t a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n : ( C o n f u n c . ) : I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t h i s , s c a l e c o m b i n e d c o n t e n t i t e m s i n d i c a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f " s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s " , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e as " c a s e c o n s u l t a n t " , and t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n as " c o n s u l t a t i o n " w i t h t h e s c a l e d i t e m s "my s u p e r v i s o r has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e " and "my s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e i n d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s " . T hese i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d , i n c o m b i n a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d t o be p r e s e n t i n s u p e r v i s i o n . The i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e l a t t e r two i t e m s was r = .48, _p_ = .00, w h i l e t h e two i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g ( C o n f u n c . ) a t r = .56, and r - .76 (_p_ = .00 f o r b o t h ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . 133 T a b l e 14 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e n s Des c r i b i n s t h e S c a l e d G r o u a i n ^ " S u p p o r t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n it S u o o f u n c •) - p E A R S O N c 0 R R E L A T I 0 N C 0 E F F I C I EMOSUPP PERSPROB TUFSTUF" UNDERSTA SORTFEEL STRESSCO SENSES EMOSUPP 1 . ( P = ,0000 122) ( P = . 6444 122 ) .ooo ( P = .6183 121 ) .000 ( P = .6521 121 ) .000 ( P» .5479 120) .000 ( P = . 5775 120) .000 ( P = .5225 122) .000 PERSPROB ( P = 6444 . 122) .000 1 ( P=. .0000 123) ( P = .5921 122) .000 ( P = .6423 122) .000 ( P = .5900 121 ) .000 ( P = . 5736 121 ) .000 ( P = .5514 123) .000 TUFSTUF ( P = 6183 121 ) .000 ( P = .5921 122 ) .000 1 ( P = .0000 122) ( P = .5953 122) .000 ( P = .6843 121 ) .000 ( P = .5408 121 ) .000 ( P = .5332 122) .000 UNDERSTA ( P = 6521 121) .000 ( P = .6423 122 ) .000 ( P = .5953 122) .000 1 ( P = .OOOO 122) ( P = .6437 121 ) .000 ( P = .6395 121 ) .000 ( P = .6249 122) .000 SORTFEEL ( P» 5479 120) .000 ( P = . 5900 12 1) .OOO ( P = .6843 121 ) .000 ( P = .6437 121 ) .000 1 . ( P« 0000 121 ) ( P = .6304 121 ) .000 ( P«= . 5878 121 ) .000 STRESSCO ( P« 5775 120) .000 ( P = . 5736 12 1) .000 ( P = .5408 121 ) .000 ( P = .6395 121 ) .000 ( P = 6304 121 ) .OOO 1 ( P = .0000 121 ) ( P = ,4481 121 ) . OOO SENSES ( P = 5225 122) .000 ( P = 5514 123) .000 ( P = 5332 122) .OOO ( P = .6249 122) .000 ( P = 5878 121 ) .000 ( P = .4481 121 ) .000 1 . ( P = 0000 123) SUPPFUNC ( P» 7621 110) .000 ( P« 788 1 1 10) .000 ( P = 7777 110) .000 ( P = 8254 1 10) .000 ( •P = 8043 1 10) .000 ( P = .7558 1 10) .OOO ( P = 7252 1 10) .000 C o d i n g k e y Emosupp-Is^a s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t when t h i n g s go b a d l y P e r s p r o b - E n c o u r a g e s d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s T u f s t u f - H e l p s t o d i s c u s s " d i f f i c u l t " s u b j e c t s U ndersta-When I t e l l how I f e e l my s u p e r v i s o r u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s S o r t f e e l - H e l p s me s o r t o u t t h r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s i n t h e work S t r e s s c o - I s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g me cope w i t h j o b s t r e s s S e n s e s - C a n u s u a l l y t e l l i f I am u p s e t o r a n x i o u s S u p p f u n c - S c a l e d g r o u p i n g " S u p p o r t i v e F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n " 134 E d u c a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : ( E d u f u n c . ) : I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d c o n t e n t i t e m s i n d i c a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f " o n g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t " , • d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e as " t e a c h e r " , and t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n as " f o s t e r i n g my d e v e l o p m e n t as a s o c i a l w o r k e r " , w i t h t h e s c a l e d i t e m s "my s u p e r v i s o r t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t " and "my s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o keep on l e a r n i n g " . T h e s e i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d , i n c o m b i n a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n was p e r c e i v e d by r e s p o n d e n t s . The i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e two s c a l e d i t e m s was r = .63, _p_ = .00. These two i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " E d u c f u n c . " as f o l l o w s , r = .69 and r = .74 (JJ = .00 f o r b o t h ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . c A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n : ( A d m i n f u n c . ) T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d c o n t e n t i t e m s r e g a r d i n g " r e v i e w o f my c a s e l o a d " and " e v a l u a t i o n o f my j o b p e r f o r m a n c e " , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r r o l e as " m a n a g e r / a d m i n i s t r a t o r " and d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n as " m a n d a t o r y c a s e r e v i e w , " o r " e v a l u a t i o n o f my p e r f o r m a n c e " w i t h t h e s c a l e d i t e m s " I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s ray p e r f o r m a n c e " , "my s u p e r v i s o r w i l l e x p r e s s my c o n c e r n s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , "my s u p e r v i s o r i s w i l l i n g t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s " , "my s u p e r v i s o r t r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o do a good j o b " . A l l t h e s e i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e m p h a s i s and i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r s c a l e d i t e m s r a n g e d f r o m r = .38 t o r = .63, (_p = .00. f o r a l l ) and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d as a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i n T a b l e 15. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n e a c h i t e m and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " A d m i n f u n c " r a n g e d f r o m r = .48 t o r = .67 (_p_ = .00 f o r a l l ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p S c a l e s As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , , t h e i t e m s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o f two s o r t s : t h o s e d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p g e n e r a l l y , and t h o s e d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s e m p l o y e d by s u p e r v i s o r s . I t e m s f o r e a c h were c o m b i n e d i n t o t h e s c a l e s : " q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n " and " r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s " . I n a d d i t i o n , t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , c o m b i n i n g i t e m s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o r e l a t e t o t h e s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s " p r o m o t e s r e c i p r o c i t y " and " p r o v i d e s f e e d b a c k " d e s c r i b e d by Shulman ( 1 9 7 6 , 1981) as b e i n g key s k i l l s i n s u p e r v i s i o n , and t o " o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s " . T h e s e t h r e e s u b s c a l e s a r e d i s t i n c t i n s o f a r as t h e y do n o t s h a r e i t e m s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . 1 3 . 6 T a b l e 15 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e a s D e s c r i b i n g t h e See l e d , G r o u p i n g  " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r i e n t a t i o n " , (Adaoinf unc . ) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S RATES XCONCERN SHARERE S RESCOURC AOMIFUNC RATES XCONCERN SHARERES RESCOURC AOMIFUNC 1 .0000 .3762 .4055 .3779 .4871 ( 123) ( 121 ) ( 122) ( 123) ( 109) P" P* .000 P» .000 P» .OOO P« .000 .3762 1 .0000 .5929 .6295 .4877 ( 121) ( 121) ( 120) ( 121 ) ( 109) p- .000 P- • P« .OOO P- .000 P- .000 .4055 .5929 1 . o o o o .5395 .5721 ( 122) ( 120) ( 122) ( 122) ( 109) p» .000 P- .OOO P- P- .OOO P» -OOO .3779 .€295 .5395 1 .OOOO .5013 ( 123) ( 121) ( 122) ( 123) ( 109) P- .000 P- .000 P- .OOO P" P- .000 .4871 .4877 .5721 .5013 1. .0000 ( 109) ( 109) ( 109) ( 109) ( 109) P» .000 P- .OOO P- .OOO P« .OOO P« C o d i n g K e y R a t e s - l h a v e a c l e a r i d e a o f h o w m y s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s m y p e r f o r m a n c e X c o n c e m - M y s u p e r v i s o r w i l l e x p r e s s m y c o n c e r n s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n S h a r e r e s - W i l l s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a s e d e c i s i o n s R e s c o u r c - T r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I h a v e t h e r e s c o u r c e s t o d o a g o o d j o b 4 137 Q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n : ( S u p q u a l . ) : T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d t h e s c a l e d i t e m s " I have a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h ray s u p e r v i s o r " , " I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I r e c e i v e " , " I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r " , and " I c o n s i d e r t h e . s u p e r v i s i o n I r e c e i v e t o be e s s e n t i a l t o d o i n g a good j o b " . On t h e f a c e o f i t , t h e s e i t e m s a p p e a r t o be i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e s e i t e m s r a n g e d f r o m r = .55 t o r = .73 (_ = .00 f o r a l l ) and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 16. C o r r e l a t i o n s betv/een i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " S u p q u a l " r a n g e d f r o m r = .80 t o .89, _p_ = .00 f o r a l l . R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s . ( S u p s k i l I ) : T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d t h e s c a l e d i t e m s "my s u p e r v i s o r has e x p l a i n e d how we m i g h t work t o g e t h e r ..." "my s u p e r v i s o r c a n s e n s e when I am u p s e t o r a n x i o u s . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s " , "my s u p e r v i s o r i s a v a i l a b l e . w h e n n e e d e d " , "ray s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I ' v e done a good j o b " , "my s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s h i s / h e r a u t h o r i t y w e l l " , "my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me i d e n t i f y c o n c e r n s . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r s c h e d u l e s enough t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n " , "my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s , "my s u p e r v i s o r has a d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e " , "my s u p e r v i s o r o r g a n i z e s own w o r k . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f my c a s e l o a d " , "my s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s my m i s t a k e s . . . " , "ray s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s 13 good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l " , " I f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y . . . " , " I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s my p e r f o r m a n c e " , "my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me d i s c u s s d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t s " , "my s u p e r v i s o r w i l l s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e " , and "my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e m o d e l " . A l l o f t h e s e i t e m s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e v i e w e d l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s . I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e r a n g e d f r o m r = .22 t o r = .75, ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g ( S u p s k i l ) r a n g e d f r o m r = .57 t o .85, jp_ = -.00 f o r a l l , and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 17. T a b l e 16 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g t h e S c a l e d G r o i r : " Q u a l i t y o f S u p e r v i s i o n I I (SupQu .) - P E A R S 0 N c 0 R R E L A T I I RELATION SATIS TRUST . ESSENTAL SUPQUAI RELATION 1 .OOOO .6401 .7032 . 5296 _ .8245 ( 122) ( 122) ( 122) ( 122 ) ( 122) P» P" .000 P » .000 P« .000 p. .000 SATIS .6401 1 .0000 .7273 .6016 _ .8912 ( 122) ( 123) ( 123) ( 123) ( 122) P = .000 P = P - .000 P = .000 P = .000 TRUST . 7032 .7273 1.0000 .5519 _ .8769 ( 122) ( 123) ( 123) ( 123) ( 122) P = .000 P = .000 P = P = .000 P = .000 ESSENTAL . 5296 .6016 .5519 1 .OOOO _ ,8024 ( 122) ( 123) ( 123) ( 123) ( 122) P = .000 P = .000 P = .000 P = P = .000 SUPQUAL - .8245 - .8912 -.8769 _ .8024 1 . OOOO ( 122) ( 122) ( 122) ( 122) ( 122) P = .000 P = .000 P = .000 P = .000 P=» P i n ; C O E F F I C I E N T S (COEFFICIENT / (CASES) / 1-TAILED SIG) C o d i n g Key R e l a t i o n - I have good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my s u p e r v i s o r S a t i s - I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e T r u s t - I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r E s s e n t a l - S u p e r v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e work I do ' 140 T a b l e 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n I l e f & 5 C o s p r i s i n ^ t h e S c a l e d G r o u p i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p S k i l l s , a n f t h e S c a l e d G r o u p i n g , ( S u p s k i l . ) SUPSKIL EXPLAINS ( P-7277 112) .000 SENSES ( P » 6685 112) .OOO LISTENS ( P -8417 112) .000 AVAILAB ( P -.6723 112) .000 GOODJOB ( P » .7495 112) .000 AUTHORIT ( P -.8059 112) .000 IDENTIFY ( P » .7876 112) .000 SCHEDULE ( P P .6698 112) .000 SORTFEEL ( P « .8089 112) .OOO KNOWLEDG ( P -.5681 112) .OOO ORGANIZS ( P -.5653 112) .OOO SUPSKIL KNOWCASE .7545 ( 112) P * .OOO _ „ ' C o o i n g K e y ATMOSPHE .8570 ( 1 1 2 ) Exp lams-has explained superv i s ion ro les p» .000 „ Senses-oan sense when I am anxious CONCRIT .8167 ( 1 1 2 ) Lis tens-Has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s P* .000 A v a i l a b - l s a v a i l a b l e when needed "NDERSTA .8163 ( 1 1 2 ) Good job-provides p o s i t i v e feedback p« .000 Author i t -handles own a u t h o r i t y we l l DISAGREE .6272 ( 1 1 2 ) Ident i fy -he lps p r i o r i t i z e concerns p- .ooo Schedule-schedules enough superv i s ion RATES .6435 ( 1 1 2 ) Sor t f ee l -he lps sor t the r o l e of f e e l ings P= .OOOj Knowledg-knowledge"of po l i cy ,procedure TUFSTUF .7001 ( 1 1 2 ) Organizs-organizes own time w e l l p- .ooo Knowcase-knowledge of my caseload SHARERES .7060 ( 1 1 2 ) Atmosphe-can d iscuss m i s t a k e s , f a i l u r e s p- .000 C o n c n t - p r o v i d e s good cons truc t ive c r i t . MORALE .8060 ( 1 1 2 ) Understa-understands my f e e l i n g s p» .000 Oisagree-I f e e l free to disagree MODELS .8516 ( 1 1 2 ) pates-feedback on work performance p« .ooo S h a r e r e s - w i l l share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Morale -S . i s important to o f f i c e morale Models - i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model 1 4 1 S u p e r v i s i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n : ( S u p s a t . ) : T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d i t e m s w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y e l i c i t e d a r e s p o n s e r e g a r d i n g t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s . T h e s e were " I f e e l s a t i s f i e d w i t h my c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n " , " I have a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h ray s u p e r v i s o r " , "my s u p e r v i s o r i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e . . . " , "my s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e . . . " I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m r = . 4 2 t o r = . 6 4 , (_p_ = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 8 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w een i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g ( S u p s a t ) r a n g e d f r o m r = . 7 5 t o r = . 8 9 ( J J = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) . P r o v i d i n g F e e d b a c k : ( F e e d b a c k ) : T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d t h e s c a l e d i t e m s "my s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I ' v e done a good j o b " , "my s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m " , " I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s my p e r f o r m a n c e . " T h e s e i t e m s were d e r i v e d f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by Shulman e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 ) and were u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t f e e l s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s f e e d b a c k , a key s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l , a c c o r d i n g t o S h u l m a n . I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e s e i t e m s ranged, f r o m r = . 4 8 t o r = . 5 9 , (jp_ = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) a n d ' a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 9 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween i n d i v i d u s l i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " f e e d b a c k " r a n g e d f r o m r = . 7 9 t o r = . 8 9 ( £ _ = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) . 142 T a b l e 13 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g t h e S c a l e d G r o u p i n g  " S a t i s f a c t i o n v / i t h S u p e r v i s i o n " , ( S u p s a t . ) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S RELATION SATIS AVAILAB SCHEDULE SUPSAT RELATION 1 ( P-.OOOO 122) ( P-.6401 122) .000 ( P-.4946 122) .000 ( P-.4241 120) .000 ( p. .7540 120) .000 SAJIS ( P = .6401 122) .000 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P = .6832 123) .000 ( P = .5987 121 ) .000 ( P = .8988 120) .000 AVAILAB ( P = .4946 122) .OOO ( P = .6832 123) .000 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P = . 5694 121 ) .000 ( P = .8379 120) .000 SCHEDULE ( P = .4241 120) .000 ( P = .5987 121 ) .000 ( P = .5694 121 ) .000 1 ( P = .0000 121) ( P = 7880 120) .000 C o d i n g K e y R e l a t i o n - w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u p e r v i s o r S a t i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n A v a i l a b - s u p e r v i s o r i s a v a i l a b l e when needed a. S c h e d u l e - s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough t i m e f o r s c h e d u l e d s u p . 143 T a b l e 19 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I t e m s D e s c r i b i n g t h e S u b s c a l e  " P r o v i d i n g F e e d b a c k " , ( F e e d b a c k ) - P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S - -GOOOJOB CONCRIT RATES FEEDBACK GOODJOB 1 .0000 .6566 . 4800 - .8539 ( 123) ( 122) ( 123) ( 122) P« P- .000 P = .000 P- .000 CONCRIT .6566 1 .0000 . 5895 - .8910 ( 122) ( 122) ( 122) ( • 122) P* .OOO P = P = .000 P = .000 RATES .4800 .5895 1 .0000 - .7945 ( 123) ( 122) ( 123) ( 122) P = .OOO P = .000 P = P = .OOO C o d i n g K e y G o o d j o b - s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I ' v e done a good j o b C o n c r i t - p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m R a t e s - I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my p e r f o r m a n c e i s r a t e d 1 4 4 E n c o u r a g i n g R e c i p r o c i t y : ( R e c i p r o c ) : T h i s s c a l e c o m b i n e d t h e s c a l e d i t e m s "my s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l " , "my s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s . . . " , " I f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y " , " I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r " , and "my s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e of ideas..and o p i n i o n s " . A l l t h e s e i t e m s were f e l t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s k i l l c a t e g o r y d e s c r i b e d by Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 ) as e n c o u r a g i n g r e c i p r o c i t y . I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m r = . 4 6 t o r = . 7 8 ( _ = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) , and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 2 0 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " R e c i p r o c " , r a n g e d f r o m r = . 8 3 t o r - . 9 1 ( J J = . 0 0 f o r a l l ) . R e s u l t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w een S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s o f F a c t o r s  and Worker W e l l - B e i n g Of t h e 1 1 s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s c r e a t e d , o n l y two d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , and t h e s e m i n i m a l l y . T h e r e were t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s c a l e ( r = . 1 8 , _p_ = . 0 2 9 ) and t h e s u p e r v i s i o n s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e ( r = . 1 6 , _p_ = . 0 4 5 ) . T a b l e 2 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n e a c h s c a l e and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . 145 T a b l e 20 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r I terns Des c r i b i n g t h e S c a l e d Group E n c o u r a s R e c i p r o c i t y " , ( R e c i p r o c ) - - P E A R S O N c 0 R R E L A T I 0 N C 0 E F AUTHORIT ATMOSPHE DISAGREE , TRUST XCHANGE RECIPROC AUTHORIT 1 ( P = .OOOO 123) ( P = .6233 121 ) .000 .4655 ( 123) P= .OOO ( P = . 7752 123) .OOO ( P = .6352 123) .000 ( P = . 825G 12 1) .OOO ATMOSPHE ( P = .6233 121 ) .OOO 1 ( P = .0000 121 ) .5861 ( 121) P= .000 ( P = .7861 121 ) .OOO ( P = .7191 121) .000 ( P = .8856 121 ) .000 DISAGREE ( P» .4655 123) .000 ( P = .5861 121 ) .000 1.0000 ( 123) P" . ( P-.5677 123) .000 ( P-.6360 123) .000 ( P-.7489 121 ) .000 TRUST ( P» . 7752 123) .OOO ( P = ,7861 121 ) .000 .5677 ( 123) P» .OOO 1 ( P = .0000 123) ( P« 7337 123) .000 ( P = .9126 121 ) .000 XCHANGE ( P = 6352 123) .OOO ( P = 7191 121 ) .000 .6360 ( 123) P= .000 ( P = .7337 123) .000 1 . ( P = OOOO 123) ( P = .8692 12 1) .000 Coding Key Authorit- supervisor handles own authority well Atmosphe-creates atmosphere to discuss mistakes as well as success Disagree-I f e e l free to disagree with my supervisor Trust-I f e e l able to trust my supervisor Xchang-supervisor promotes exchange of ideas, opinions U 6 T a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n A l l S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s o f I t e m s and t h e Depe n d e n t V a r i a b l e " W orker W e l l - B e i n g " ( W e l l b e I ) TOTALSUP PROFMAT FEEDBACK SUPSAT RECIPROC SUPQUAL SUPSKILr SUPPFUNC CONFUNC EDUCFUNC ADMIFUNC WELLBE \ -.1676 ( 59) P= .102 -.0113 ( 117) P= .452 .0599 ( 117) P= .261 . 1586 ( 115) P= .045 .0889 ( 116) P= .171 .0761 ( 117) P= .207 . 1 169 ( 109) P= .113 -. 1386 ( 106) P= .078 -.0623 ( 106) P= .263. -.1834 ( 107) P= .029 -.0513 ( 105) P= .301 C o d i n g Key T o t a l s u p - " T o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e " P r o f m a t - " P r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y " F e e d b a c k - ' T r o v i d e s f e e d b a c k " S u p s a t - " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n " R e c i p r o c - " R e c i p r o c i t y i n s u p e r v i s i o n " S u p q u a l - " Q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n " S u p s k i l - " S k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r " S u p p f u n c - " S u p p o r t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " C o n f u n c - " C o n s u l t a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " E d u c f u n c - " E d u c a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " A d m i f u n c - " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " (COEFFICIENT / (CASES) 147 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w een I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s and t h e D e p e n d e n t  V a r i a b l e The i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e d i t e m s w h i c h made up t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were e x a m i n e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g ( W e l l b e I ) . The r e s u l t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 2 2. None o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r o d u c e d a p p r o a c h e d t h e d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a e m p l o y e d h e r e ( i . e . r ^ .40, _p_ ^ . 0 1 ) . D i s c u s s i o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n b e t ween I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s , S c a l e d  G r o u p i n g s and t h e D e pendent V a r i a b l e The r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f f e r l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d . I n d e e d , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e m i n i m a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e r e s u l t s t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e a r e however c e r t a i n s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d , i n t e r m s o f t h i s s t u d y ' s d e s i g n and f r a m e . o f r e f e r e n c e . T h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . T a b l e 22 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n I n d i v i d u g l I t e m s end t h a Pep: V a r i a b l e ( W e l l b e I ) 1 4 8 o c X) > o z X) c o z m O z o > 1/1 m r~ o > D C o CD (/I T> U m in (/) O T> » l/i TJ o X t/1 tn I m x l / l X X TJ in O c o > • i b co en to «j cn o 01 w o o to en co to to cn to -» T) ~ • • - b - — CO Oft Ul — T> • O O 01 — — -J V O J> CD CD 10 Ul *—' Ul oft ' ^ • - o • J — - J — CD to to — 8 - - CO - J - J 01 09 w _ 09 CD ro 09 w — CD 00 CO to w -J • - o to — w (0 -J * Oft w Oft • I • -»b (O — Ul 0ft 01 CD Ul w CD • i c m • - O r to — - (-Ul CD O CD Ul w to m Z tn m Vt • - O u — * u os o CO w — m Z X »—• z tn m r > o z • §> -J * to ~ IO - - o W -J Ul CO w U o tn > x> — i § m X) on c in c r-o c > m X) C P O -n -< m Z o IO CO «J CO 09 (O 09 w 09 TJ — • I • — IO 8 0 * to CO on w _ O O w -j -~i co Oft w to o o z o 30 O tn •v I m X) m tn TJ ~* • - O — — CD oo on co -J, w 10 z o c o > tn c c tn m •ti C r • • - b CO — CO CO u to co w cn o x> a > N l tn c o c X) > • - O CO — CO CO * to - J w CO z o c r m O o c Z XI c c o •tl -4 m Z O — oft A cn O tow© O - io CD CD A CO w «4 in O X) in in o o c tn m 7~ c m C \Z C0 01 * JI » t o to w (0 vOB tn o X > X) vi o z o o x> X) * - 8 i . - 8 to CD CO to to CD CD to — w to I • - o co — to in to <JwM TJ —> • I • - b U -» CO •J -J o CO w to •o —-« I • - b IO — -J i i O -* to 09 09 -J Ul wlO . - O • - M IO -» CD O — O to en to — -4 to to w CD to w 01 I • - o io — cn CO 03 CO w Q • i • - b to -v — en co • • IO O - O — en co to wto • en to IO w o to m O Z o o o > in X > XI rti X o in C •a •o > o < •—4 o m X) in •0 X) O CD m l> XI z z o x o o z o X o X > z XI c vt XI > O -J IO 09 to CD ' to • I • - O io — en Ul 09 K> • wi t • - o CO -t to -4 09 O — w -J • - b M — - J 8 -j oo w en • i a • i « i • - - • - O - t o • - O O — io to — 10 O — O to — -J 09~*co O09io — ~J to — cn ui U w O O f t w — H w l D Q w ^ l * - 8 09 03 10 to w 00 • - o io — ui co - J — CD —- CO • - b — — CO 09 CD M 09 — M •0 — • - - o CO 09 to O w « c m r-r-to O m Z c H X o o o o o c o CD > < > > CO X o o in on Z > XI m in cV O c XI o • - o to — w O co to -j w o O - * en 03 o Ul w u -o TJ TJ TJ ^ u 1 n 1 n • R • l o _» o - to to to O CO to _ cn o O - to O 09 to - J co to to a to to 03 - J O CD O Ul u CO •—- 01 to Ul to -* to ~ Ul 09 149 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o r r e l a t i o n s Between A l l I t e m s and S c a l e s The f i n a l b i v a r i a t e o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o r r e l a t i o n s m a t r i x i n w h i c h a l l i t e m s and a l l c omputed s c a l e s were r e p r e s e n t e d . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h e g r e a t number o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d n e c e s s i t a t e s c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . W h i l e t h e d e c i s i o n r u l e a p p l i e d t o n o t i n g t h e r e s u l t s i s f a i r l y -s t r i n g e n t ( r ^ .40, _p_ ^ . 0 1 ) , i t r e m a i n s p o s s i b l e t h a t s e v e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s may i n d e e d have been g e n e r a t e d by c h a n c e . The i n t e n t i o n h e r e was t o e x a m i n e t h e r e s u l t s f o r e v i d e n c e o f s u p p o r t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c t o r s w h i c h were p r e d i c t e d o r p r e s c r i b e d , o r d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . B e c a u s e t h e s e r e s u l t s c a n n o t p r a c t i c a l l y be d e p i c t e d i n t a b l e f o r m , A p p e n d i x C h i g h l i g h t s t h e f i n d i n g s , on an i t e m by i t e m b a s i s , o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n i t e m s . The c o r r e l a t i o n ' m a t r i x was a l s o e x a m i n e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e computed s c a l e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r and between t h e s e s c a l e s and i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . The f i n d i n g s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d i n . T a b l e 23. 150 D i s c u s s i o n o f I t e m by I t e m " B i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s W h i l e c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n t e r - i t e m e x a m i n a t i o n f o r c o r r e l a t i o n , c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s and p a t t e r n s o f f i n d i n g s a r e w o r t h y o f n o t e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s may be r e g a r d e d as u s e f u l i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e c o n t e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f i t e m s u s e d . A l s o , p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n may be r e g a r d e d as u s e f u l i n s o f a r as t h e y i l l u m i n a t e t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e phenomenon u n d e r s c r u t i n y - s u p e r v i s i o n . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h has i n f o r m e d t h i s r e s e a r c h . They w i l l a l s o be u s e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g . T a b l e 23 h i g h l i g h t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween t h e computed s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s o f i t e m s , and between t h e s e and i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . 151 T a b l e 23 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s D e v e l o p e d i n t h e S t u d y  and I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s . ( M o t e o n l y c o r r e l a t i o n s where r ^  .40 and p s .01 a r e r e p o r t e d ) S c a l e d G r o u p i n g T o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e w i t h ; ' None. S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .41, _p_ = . 0 0 ) ; f r e q u e n c y o f as needed ( r = .40, jp_ =.00); u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .63, _p_ =.00). R e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .59, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .60, _p_ =); u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .41, _p_ = .000) P r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y w i t h : f r e q u e n c y o f as needed s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = - . 4 2 , _p_ =.001). R e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .60, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; f r e q u e n c y o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .40, _p_ =.001); u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .66, _p_ =.00) u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .40, jp =.000) . F e e d b a c k i n s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .51, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .51, jp_ = . 0 0 0 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .44, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; a l s o w i t h s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s : s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n ( r = .64, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n ( r = .47, _p = ) ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ( r = .55, _p_ = .000) S u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .61, _p_ ~) u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .59, _p_ = .000) w i t h s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s : e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( r = .64, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( r = .57, _p_ = .000) C o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n w i t h : f r e q u e n c y o f as needed ( r = .48, jp_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .50, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; f r e q u e n c y o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .42, _p_ ~ - 0 0 0 ) ; a l s o w i t h s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s : s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n ( r = .54, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ; e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( r = .47, _p_ = . 0 0 0 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .43, _p_ =.001). a l s o w i t h s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s : s u p p o r t i v e T a b l e 23 C o n t i n u e d 152 f u n c t i o n ( r = .57, _p_ - . 0 0 0 ) ; e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( r = .55, jp -.000) ( N o t e - where o v e r l a p e x i s t s b e t ween two s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s , no c o r r e l a t i o n was c o m p u t e d . C o r r e l . a t i o n s b e t ween r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a l e s and i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d . ) 153 D i s c u s s i o n o f C o - v a r i a n c e Between S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s o f I t e m s ,  I n d i v i d u a l I t e m s and O t h e r S c a l e d G r o u p i n g s As T a b l e 23 i l l u s t r a t e s , e a c h s c a l e d g r o u p i n g was f i r s t c o mpared w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s , and t h e n w i t h o t h e r s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s o f i t e m s . " T o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e " d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e . a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h any i n d i v i d u a l i t e m , on g r o u p i n g o f i t e m s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n l i g h t o f s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s s h o u l d r e c e i v e a g r e a t e r amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n , w i t h a g r e a t e r s u p p o r t i v e and e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l f o c u s ( W a t s o n , 1973; W e s t h e i m e r , 1977, K a d u s h i n , 1 9 8 5 ) . A l s o , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n " T o t a l S u p e r v i s i o n T i m e " d i d n o t show a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p i n g " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n " , o r w i t h t h e i t e m "My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e " , may be c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t . I t w o u l d seem t h a t i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t i e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e do n o t a f f e c t t h e s e . Those who do r e c e i v e more s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e t e n d e d t o r a t e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s h i g h e r on t h e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s " s c a l e and c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s c a l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t ween t o t a l s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e and any i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g a g e , e x p e r i e n c e , o r e d u c a t i o n . The s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n " d e m o n s t r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i t e m s r e g a r d i n g p e r c e i v e d 154 u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e s c h e d u l e d one t o one, and as needed s e t t i n g s , and w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a s needed s e s s i o n s . The a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h u s e f u l n e s s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g b u t c o n t r i b u t e s , t h e s t u d e n t f e e l s , - t o t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m s and t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g . The g r o u p i n g " R e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r s " shows r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n a l l t h r e e s e t t i n g s . T h i s f i n d i n g a p p e a r s t o s u p p o r t Shulman e t a l ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) f i n d i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d h e l p f u l n e s s . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p i n g w i t h t h e " f r e q u e n c y o f as needed s e s s i o n s " may t e n d t o s u g g e s t t h a t . s u p e r v i s e e s w i l l a p p r o a c h more f r e q u e n t l y s u p e r v i s o r s whom t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be more s k i l l e d . The s c a l e d g r o u p i n g " p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y " d e m o n s t r a t e s an e x p e c t e d n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f as needed s e s s i o n s . S i n c e t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s t e n d s t o be more c o n s u l t a t i v e , ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u n i v a r i a t e f i n d i n g s c i t e d e a r l i e r ) one m i g h t e x p e c t t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d a n d / o r m a t u r e w o r k e r t o use t h e s e l e s s . The two r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s s u b s c a l e s " r e c i p r o c i t y a n d " f e e d b a c k " d e m o n s t r a t e d s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i t e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e one t o one and as needed s e t t i n g s . C o r r e l a t i o n s were m a r k e d l y h i g h e r f o r r e c i p r o c i t y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s c a t e g o r y o f s k i l l may be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p e r c e i v e d . A l l f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s c a l e s were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , i t was f o u n d t o c o - v a r y most c l o s e l y w i t h t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n . The s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n s c a l e d e m o n s t r a t e d p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e one t o one and as n e eded s e t t i n g s ( r ^ . 5 9 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e , s i m i l a r t o s u g g e s t i o n s by K a d u s h i n , ( 1 9 7 6 ) , W e s t h e i m e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , H a t t i n s o n , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , and Shulman ( 1 9 8 3 ) , i s t h a t where w o r k e r s f e e l s u p p o r t e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e y f i n d t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n u s e f u l , o r i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f S h u l m a n ' s 1981 r e s e a r c h , h e l p f u l . The c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s c a l e was f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y , as e x p e c t e d , w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e as n e eded and g r o u p s e t t i n g s and w i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s . I t w o u l d seem t h a t w h i l e a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n f r e q u e n t s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n s u l t a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , d u r a t i o n o f s e s s i o n s i s n o t an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r . Of t h e t h r e e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n c o - v a r i e s most c l o s e l y w i t h t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n was f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed 156 s e s s i o n s . Of t h e t h r e e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n , w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f Munson's ( 1 9 7 9 ) a s s e r t i o n t h a t s u p p o r t where a p p r o p r i a t e , i s r i g h t l y p a r t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n . Summary o f D a t a A n a l y s i s I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e d a t a were a n a l y s e d i n o r d e r t o ( i ) , b u i l d a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g ( t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s ) , ( i i ) t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t v/orker w e l l - b e i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p e c t s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d ( t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s ) , and ( i i i ) e x a m i n e t h e d a t a f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n f o r m e d t h e s t u d y ( e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x ) . I n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a , s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s were c r e a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t i n s t r u m e n t s c e n t r a l t o e a c h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . As w e l l , s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s were c r e a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t o be b o t h i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and t o w o r k e r we 1 1 -b e i n g ( i . e . p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y , f e e d b a c k ) . W h i l e t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s does p r o v i d e u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s , and p r o v i d e s some p r o v o c a t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o how t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s i n t e r a c t , t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e m a i n s , a t l e a s t , u n p r o v e n . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , d i s c u s s i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e u n d e r t a k e n . 157 o f t h e h i g h l i g h t s , f i n d i n g s w i l l be 158 CHAPTER FIVI CONCLUSIONS 0 v e r v i e w T h i s r e s e a r c h was i n t e n d e d t o e x a m i n e t h e phenomenon, s u p e r v i s i o n , i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e M.S.S.H. e n v i r o n m e n t . The f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n was a g r o u p o f f a c t o r s , c u l l e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r Two), w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h e e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n . T hese f a c t o r s were g r o u p e d , c a t e g o r i c a l l y , i n t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t , v a r i a b l e s C o n t e x t o f S u p e r v i s i o n , F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n o f S u p e r v i s i o n , and S u p e r v i s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p . I n a d d i t i o n , d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s were e x a m i n e d i n c l u d i n g age, s e x , e d u c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , l e n g t h o f t i m e w i t h c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n , and c a s e l o a d . F i n a l l y , a g r o u p o f f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g w o r k e r s e l f - e s t e e m , s a t i s f a c t i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n , c a s e l o a d . m a n a g e a b i l i t y and s t r e s s were i n c l u d e d , and g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r as t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e "Worker W e l l - B e i n g " . The p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e was t h r e e f o l d : ( i ) t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t ween a s p e c t s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d , and t h e v/orker w e l l - b e i n g , ( i i ) t o d e v e l o p a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e c u r r e n t M.S.S.H. e n v i r o n m e n t , and ( i i i ) t o e x a m i n e t h e r e s u l t s o f 159 t h e s u r v e y w i t h r e f e r e n c e ' t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n f o r m e d i t s d e s i g n . I n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y a r e e x a m i n e d i n r e s p e c t o f t h e s e p u r p o s e s . H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c o - r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e tween c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d and v / o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g r e m a i n s u n p r o v e n . W h i l e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a does s u g g e s t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , i . e . , t h a t no s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y i n r e s p e c t o f i t s d e s i g n s u g g e s t c a u t i o n i n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s p o s i t i o n . M ost i m p o r t a n t l y , among t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , "Worker W e l l - B e i n g " . As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t h i s c o n s t r u c t a m a l g a m a t e d f i v e f a c t o r s : p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , j o b f r u s t r a t i o n , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y and p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s l e v e l . I n t h e r e s u l t s ( s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) , i t was f o u n d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , as measured by t h e q u e s t i o n . " ! f e e l good a b o u t my s k i l l s a s a s o c i a l w o r k e r " , d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y o r j o b f r u s t r a t i o n , and o n l y m i n i m a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e h i g h l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e t o t h i s i t e m was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e 160 d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e o t h e r f o u r i t e m s . F i n a l l y , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m i t e m d e m o n s t r a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g -worker w e l l - b e i n g and was t h e r e f o r e e x c l u d e d . I n t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t v/orker w e l l - b e i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m had been c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , as an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e c o n s t r u c t and i t s e x c l u s i o n must c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . F u r t h e r , t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r may have r e n d e r e d t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o d e t e c t i n g c hange i n any o f t h e s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r i n i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s . I n d e e d , t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h any i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r , i n t h e 56 c o r r e l a t i o n s e x a m i n e d , g i v e r i s e t o s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t , as a measure o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g , i t may be s e r i o u s l y f l a w e d . I t may be t h a t a more a c c u r a t e measurement o f t h e c o n c e p t p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m must be d e v i s e d , and a t h o r o u g h p r e - t e s t i n g o f t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d c o n s t r u c t " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e , u n d e r t a k e n , i n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e t h e h y p o t h e s i s . An a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d be t o r e p l a c e t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e v/orker w e l l - b e i n g w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t v/orker b u r n - o u t and e x a m i n e t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w een b u r n - o u t and a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e . T h i s w o u l d p r e s e n t t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a c c e s s t o e s t a b l i s h e d , v a l i d a t e d " b u r n - o u t " m e a s u r e s e.g. t h e M a s l a c h B u r n o u t I n v e n t o r y ( 1 9 7 8 ) , o r Moos' Work E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e ( F a l c o n e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . A d i s a d v a n t a g e t o s u c h an a p p r o a c h w o u l d l i e i n t h e b r o a d e r s c o p e o f t h e c o n c e p t " B u r n - o u t " . The w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g c o n s t r u c t was d e v i s e d , f r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on s u p e r v i s i o n , t o i n c l u d e f a c t o r s s u p p o s e d t o be d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n . The B u r n - o u t phenomenon i s s u p p o s e d , i n i t s l i t e r a t u r e , t o b e . t h e r e s u l t o f a b r o a d e r c o n f l u en ce o f f a c t o r s . Hence, an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o measure b u r n - o u t m i g h t p r o v e l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o c hange i n f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e . The D e s c r i p t i v e P r o f i l e The s e c o n d p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o d e v e l o p a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e , f r o m t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d , o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n phenomenon, as i t e x i s t s i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g . T h i s p r o f i l e was d e v e l o p e d i n r e s p e c t of t h e v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s t u d y - t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w een s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e . As w e l l , t h e d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n s o l i c i t e d , and t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " were c o n s i d e r e d , as p a r t o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e . W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s f r o m e a c h i t e m on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e a " s k e l e t o n " p i c t u r e o f t h e phenomenon u n d e r s c r u t i n y , t h e b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween i n d i v i d u a l 162 i t e m s , and t h e manner i n w h i c h i t e m s g r o u p t o g e t h e r i n p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n may p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g f l e s h i n g o u t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomenon o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Thus t h i s p r o f i l e p r o c e e d s f i r s t , w i t h a s u m m a r i z i n g and h i g h l i g h t i n g o f t h e r e s u l t s , p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , o f t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . Then, t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i s r e - e x a m i n e d f o r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e manner i n v / h i c h t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e phenomenon i n t e r r e l a t e . T h r o u g h o u t , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e where n o t a b l e c o n g r u i t i e s o r c o n t r a s t s a p p e a r between t h e s e f i n d i n g s and, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l b a s e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s D e m o g r a p h i c : The d a t a c o l l e c t e d r e v e a l s a p o p u l a t i o n , o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s who a r e l a r g e l y f e m a l e ( 6 8 . 6 % ) , b e t w e e n 26 and 45 y e a r s o f age ( 7 8 % ) and who have been i n t h e employ o f t h e M.S.S.H. f o r t h r e e o r more y e a r s ( 6 2 % ) . Most ( 7 5 % ) were f u l l t i m e , p e r m a n e n t e m p l o y e e s , and t h e m a j o r i t y ( 7 3 1 ) had c a s e l o a d s n u m b e r i n g 40 o r f e w e r c a s e s . 4 3 % had r e c e i v e d s p e c i f i c s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n t o t h e B.S.W. ( 2 6 % ) o r M.S.W. ( 1 7 % ) l e v e l , w h i l e o n l y 2.5% p o s s e s s e d no u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e . C o m p a r i n g t h o s e f i n d i n g s -with S h u l m a n ' s 1981 f i n d i n g s i n t h e same s e t t i n g , i t i s n o t e a b l e t h a t t h e f e m a l e / m a l e r a t i o i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l ( 6 7 . 1 % were f e m a l e i n t h e 1981 s t u d y ) . I n Shu l m a n ' s s t u d y , o n l y 2 7 . 2 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s p o s e s s e d a s o c i a l work d e g r e e ( 1 7 . 7 % B.S.W., 3.5% M.S.W.). The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s ( 6 2 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had s e r v e d as s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e m i n i s t r y f o r t h r e e o r more y e a r s , and many ( 3 8 . 5 % ) had h e l d t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f o r two and a h a l f o r more y e a r s , a l t h o u g h i t was n o t e d t h a t n e a r l y h a l f ( 4 5 % ) had h e l d t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f o r 18 months o r l e s s . T h ese f i n d i n g s t a k e n t o g e t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t w h i l e l a t e r a l o r v e r t i c a l movement o c c u r s f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y w i t h i n t h e m i n i s t r y , j o b t u r n o v e r - an i n d i c a t o r o f " b u r n o u t " - i s l e s s f r e q u e n t . O n l y 15% had been e m p l o y e d by t h e m i n i s t r y f o r two y e a r s o r l e s s , s u g g e s t i n g , a t l e a s t , t h a t few p o s i t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e t o be f i l l e d by new w o r k e r s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e p i c t u r e w h i c h emerges i s o f a w e l l - e d u c a t e d , p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e , and e x p e r i e n c e d c o r p s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , c a r r y i n g most o f t e n between t w e n t y and f o r t y c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s . More t h a n h a l f ( 5 4 % ) had t h e same s u p e r v i s o r f o r more t h a n one y e a r , i n d i c a t i n g some d e g r e e o f s t a b i l i t y i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , and s u g g e s t i n g f a i r l y l o w j o b movement a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r l e v e l . C o m p a r i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h R o b i n s o n ' s ( 1 9 8 0 ) r e s e a r c h i n t h e same s e t t i n g , she f o u n d t h a t 3 3 % o f h e r s u b j e c t s had wo r k e d i n t h e same o f f i c e f o r t h r e e o r more y e a r s , and 62% had had t h e same s u p e r v i s o r f o r one y e a r o r more. W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y t h a t , w h i l e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n l e v e l o f M.S.S.H. w o r k e r s has i m p r o v e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o Shulman's 1981 r e s e a r c h , s t i l l f u l l y 5 6% o f t h o s e p o l l e d had no p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n . W h i l e no i n f e r e n c e may be drawn 164 r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e M.S.S.H. manda t e , i t may w e l l be t h e c a s e t h a t t h o s e v / o r k e r s w i t h o u t a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n , may n o t have been e x p o s e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l model o f s u p e r v i s i o n . I n d e e d , r e m e m b e r i n g t h a t a s o c i a l work d e g r e e i s n o t , and has n o t been a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r employmnet, o r a d v a n c e m e n t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r l e v e l i n t h e M.S.S.H., i t may be t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a c l e a r i d e a o f t h e p u r p o s e and p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g . L o o k i n g t o g e t h e r a t s c o r e s r e l a t i n g t o s e x , e d u c a t i o n and l e n g t h ' o f s e r v i c e , one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'which m i g h t be made i s t h a t t u r n o v e r may be r e d u c e d by the f a c t t h a t , f o r t h o s e w i t h o u t , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r women i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , o t h e r p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e M.S.S.H. pay l e v e l a r e s c a r c e . The C o n t e x t o f S u p e r v i s i o n : Most n o t a b l e was t h e f i n d i n g t h a t " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e l e n g t h y , s c h e d u l e d one t o one c o n f e r e n c e b e t ween s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e , most f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d and p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n l i t e r a t u r e , i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e r u l e i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g . O n l y one h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o r e c e i v e s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t . Of t h o s e , t h r e e q u a r t e r s r e p o r t e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f these - m e e t i n g s as m o n t h l y o r l e s s . Most ( 6 0 % ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s l a s t e d 30 o r f e w e r m i n u t e s , and o n l y 10 165 r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e s e s s i o n s were a c c o r d i n g t o a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e . By c o n t r a s t , 99% o f t h o s e s u r v e y e d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n ad hoc "as n e e d e d " s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s . T h i s f o r m o f s u p e r v i s i o n t e n d e d , f o r 68% o f r e s p o n d e n t s , t o l a s t 10 m i n u t e s o r l e s s , and t e n d e d t o be i n i t i a t e d by t h e s u p e r v i s e e . Group s u p e r v i s i o n was p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by 9 2 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s , and f o r 77% o f t h e s e , s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t o c c u r r e d a t l e a s t two o r t h r e e t i m e s p e r month. F o r t h e m a j o r i t y ( 7 0 % ) t h i s was i n t h e f o r m o f team m e e t i n g s o n l y . Group s e s s i o n s f o r most r e s p o n d e n t s ( 7 8 % ) l a s t e d one h o u r o r more. O n l y 22% r e p o r t e d g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n i n a n o t h e r s e t t i n g t h a n t h e team m e e t i n g . T h u s , t h e p i c t u r e emerges t h a t , team m e e t i n g s a s i d e , t h e most f r e q u e n t f o r m a t f o r s u p e r v i s i o n i s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f b r i e f , f r e q u e n t , "as n e e d e d " s e s s i o n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare t h e s e f i n d i n g s v / i t h e a r l i e r , c o m p a r a b l e r e s e a r c h , i n s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s . N e i t h e r K a d u s h i n • ( 1 9 7 3 ) n o r Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 ) made a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b etween t h e "as n e e d e d " and " t r a d i t i o n a l one t o one" s e t t i n g s . Hence, w h i l e K a d u s h i n f o u n d t h a t , f o r 86% o f h i s r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e was t h e most f r e q u e n t s u p e r v i s i o n s e t t i n g , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r h i s r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s c h e d u l e d , t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g , o r , as i s t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e y m o s t l y r e c e i v e d "as n e e d e d " s u p e r v i s i o n . I n t h e Shulman s t u d y v / i t h a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n a " l i t t l e o f t h e t i m e " t o " s o m e t i m e s " on a f i v e p o i n t r e s p o n s e s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m none o f t h e t i m e t o most o r a l l o f t h e t i m e . He a l s o f o u n d t h a t g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n a v e r a g e d t w i c e a month f o r h i s r e s p o n d e n t s . L o o k i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e s e t h r e e s e t t i n g s i s i n t e r r u p t e d , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e g r o u p s e s s i o n ( u s u a l l y t h e team m e e t i n g ) i s most immune t o i n t e r r u p t i o n , v / i t h 72% r e p o r t i n g s e s s i o n s i n t e r r u p t e d r a r e l y o r n o t a t a l l . By c o n t r a s t , j u s t o v e r h a l f o f t h o s e who r e c e i v e d s c h e d u l e d one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n r e p o r t e d r a r e o r no i n t e r r u p t i o n s and a b o u t 4 0 % o f t h o s e r e p o r t i n g "as n e e d e d " s u p e r v i s i o n r e p o r t e d r a r e o r no i n t e r r u p t i o n . L o o k i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a t t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f e a c h o f t h e s e s e t t i n g s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , i t a p p e a r s , a f t e r c o r r e c t i n g f o r m i s s i n g v a l u e s , t h a t o f t h o s e who r e c e i v e one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n , 6 5 % r a t e i t as u s e f u l o r v e r y u s e f u l , c o mpared t o 77% who r a t e as needed s u p e r v i s i o n s i m i l a r l y and 76% who r a t e t h e i r g r o u p s e s s i o n s u s e f u l o r v e r y u s e f u l . I t may be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e x t r e f l e c t t o some e x t e n t t h e d e g r e e o f p r i o r i t y o r a v a i l a b i l i t y a c c o r d e d e a c h . I n d e e d , i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l i t e m "My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n " was among t h e 167 l o w e s t r a t e d s k i l l s i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l s o , g i v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r p r e v a l e n c e and f r e q u e n c y o f t h e one t o one, s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e , i t may be t h e c a s e t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t i s a b l e t o f u l l y u t i l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f t h i s f o r m . o f s u p e r v i s i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n , f o r t h e most p a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t , o p t i m a l l y , t h e s e s e s s i o n s s h o u l d have a w o r k i n g a g e n d a , have a p r o g r e s s i v e c o n t i n u i t y , and r e q u i r e a d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r o m b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a c c o m p l i s h c e r t a i n t a s k s ( M a t t i n s o n , 1965; . P e t t e s , 1979; Sh u l m a n , 1982; W e s t h e i m e r , 1 9 7 7 ; ) . As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , • g i v e n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s have n o t been e x p o s e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n model t h r o u g h a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g , t h i s m odel may n o t be o f a f a m i l i a r one, and i t s p o t e n t i a l s may n o t be r e c o g n i z e d o r e x p l o i t e d v / i t h i n t h e m i n i s t r y . I t .may be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e M.S.S.H., and t h e f r e q u e n t c r i s i s c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n a c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e l o a d , make i t d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n a model o f s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s l e n g t h y , r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d , one t o one c o n f e r e n c e s . I n d e e d , t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b r i e f , f r e q u e n t , as needed c a s e c o n s u l t a t i o n i s by f a r t h e more p r e v a l e n t v e h i c l e f o r one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g may a l s o r e f l e c t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work w h i c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s do i n t h e M.S.S.H. work e n v i r o n m e n t . F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n : The f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e s a d d r e s s e d by -s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e s . I t was m e a s u r e d h e r e by i t e m s a s k i n g a b o u t t h e most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , as w e l l as a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h e n q u i r e d i n g e n e r a l t e r m s i n t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r s , as p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( s e e T a b l e s 5 and 6 i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) . The d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r a l l s e t t i n g s , and g e n e r a l l y , s u p e r v i s i o n a p p e a r s most o f t e n t o be o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s c o n s u l t a t i o n . The most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c i n a l l t h e s e s e t t i n g s , was s p e c i f i c . p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s . D e s c r i b i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e h i g h e s t r a t e d i t e m (most a g r e e d w i t h ) was "My s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e o r i n f o r m a t i o n when I have a d i f f i c u l t ' d e c i s i o n t o make", and t h e most . f r e q e u n t r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r s was " c a s e c o n s u l t a n t " . I t i s w o r t h y o f n o t e t h a t t h e s e c o n d most, f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s f o r a l l t h r e e s u p e r v i s i o n s e t t i n g s , and t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t r a t e d i n d i c a t o r o f s u p e r v i s o r o r i e n t a t i o n were a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n o r i e n t a t i o n ( i . e . t o p i c s i n c l u d e d " R e v i e w o f my c a s e l o a d " , " P o l i c y and p r o c e d u r a l ' r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b " and s u p e r v i s o r o r i e n t a t i o n was "My s u p e r v i s o r t r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o do a good j o b " ) . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n s u p e r v i s i o n t h e o r y i n C h a p t e r Two, i t w o u l d seem t h a t , o f t h e f o u r f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e and 169 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s c e n d e n t i n t h e M.S.S.H. e n v i r o n m e n t . I t was c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t i t e m s i n d i c a t i n g s u p p o r t i v e o r e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e s e f i n d i n g s . I n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s a l r e a d y s u m m a r i z e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n u s u a l l y t a k e s p l a c e , t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g . The s h o r t a d - h o c c o n f e r e n c e , and t h e team m e e t i n g a r e c e r t a i n l y more s t r u c t u r a l l y s u i t e d t o t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . ' Too, t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a c i t e d has i l l u s t r a t e d a f a i r l y w e l l e d u c a t e d , and e x p e r i e n c e d p o p u l a t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s . F o r s u c h a p o p u l a t i o n , an e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i o n may n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e . G i v e n t h e s t r e s s f u l n a t u r e o f t h e work i n w h i c h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n e n g a g e s , and i n l i g h t o f t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y ( 5 6 % ) o f t h i s s a m p l e d e s c r i b e t h e i r j o b as s t r e s s f u l o r v e r y s t r e s s f u l , a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , "From what s o u r c e s do t h e s e w o r k e r s r e c e i v e t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t t o a m e l i o r a t e s t r e s s , and m a i n t a i n w e l l - b e i n g ? " The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n i s f a r l e s s s t r e s s e d t h a n t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e , o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , b o t h f o r c o n t e n t of s e s s i o n s , and f o r s u p e r v i s o r o r i e n t a t i o n . A l s o , t h e b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s f a i l e d t o r e v e a l a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f s t r e s s and a s u p p o r t i v e b i a s i n s u p e r v i s i o n . Thus i t m i g h t be q u e r i e d f o r f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , "Do s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r w o r k ? " a n d , i f s o , "From what s o u r c e s do s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e c e i v e t h i s s u p p o r t ? " P r e v i o u s work by O l m s t e a d 170 and C h r i s t e n s e n ( K a d u s h i n , 1976) s u g g e s t t h a t f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s may p r o v i d e a measure o f t h i s s u p p o r t , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u p p o r t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t , i n t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. e n v i r o n m e n t t e n d s t o w a r d s an amalgam o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n , w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e one, c l o s e s t p e r h a p s t o t h e model e s p o u s e d by K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I t i s n e c e s s a r y h o w e v e r , t o e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s i n r e s p e c t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n . I t i s c e r t a i n l y ' t h e c a s e t h a t a c c e s s t o c o n s u l t a t i o n may be s e e n t o be an i m p o r t a n t e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . A l s o , r e s p o n d e n t s may c h o o s e t o p e r c e i v e as c o n s u l t a t i o n s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d as s u p p o r t , s i n c e t h i s m i g h t r e d u c e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a power d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w een s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e ( K a d u s h i n , 1 9 8 6 ) . F i n a l l y , i t i s t r u e t h a t f o r many o f t h e i t e m s w h i c h were u s e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , a r g u m e n t s m i g h t be r e a s o n a b l y made f o r a s c r i b i n g a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n t o e a c h . F o r e x a m p l e , c a s e l o a d r e v i e w , a t o p i c u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , m i g h t be a l s o a r g u e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n . Components o f a l l f o u r f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e c e r t a i n l y p r e s e n t i n s u p e r v i s i o n i n most i n s t a n c e s a n d , i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e a t t e m p t has been made m e r e l y t o r e a s o n a b l y d e t e c t f u n c t i o n a l b i a s , r a t h e r t h a n t o e x a c t l y m easure t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h e a c h f u n c t i o n i s p r e s e n t o r a b s e n t f r o m s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s . I t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be 171 u n s a f e t o draw any q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m t h i s d a t a . The S u p e r v i s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p : A s e r i e s o f i t e m s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o b e d r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n i n two a r e a s : ( i ) t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p and ( i i ) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . The most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g f o r t h e f o r m e r s e t o f f a c t o r s was t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e h i g h l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r , d e g r e e o f ' t r u s t - , and t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d upon s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h e f a i r l y l o w l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e i t e m a s k i n g a b o u t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( s e e T a b l e 8, C h a p t e r F o u r . ) I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t w o r k e r s ' l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n v / i t h s u p e r v i s i o n i s i n t e r m e d i a t e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s ( t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h f o l l o w s , e x p l o r e s t h i s f u r t h e r ) . T a b l e 9, i n C h a p t e r F o u r p r o v i d e s a r a n k o r d e r i n g , by l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t of t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r s . E x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s i t e m s , i t was f o u n d t h a t , a g a i n , t h e r e was a q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e - l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e h i g h e s t r a t e d s k i l l , " W i l l i n g n e s s t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t = 390) and t h e l o w e s t , " R e c o g n i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f e e l i n g s " ( l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t = 2 7 9 ) . I t was a l s o n o t a b l e , 172 i n l i g h t o f f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , s k i l l s w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c o n d u c i v e t o a s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n t e n d e d t o be among t h e l o w e r r a t e d s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s e.g. s u p p o r t i n g w o r k e r i n t a b o o a r e a s , r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f e e l i n g s . S i m i l a r l y , among t h e h i g h e s t r a t e d s k i l l s were t h o s e c o n d u c i v e t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s e.g. s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p r o v i d i n g d a t a , l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , and p r o m o t i n g autonomy. N o t a b l e a l s o was t h e r e l a t i v e l y l ow r a t i n g a c c o r d e d t h e s t a t e m e n t "My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n " ( l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t = 310) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , w h i l e " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u p e r v i s i o n i s n o t t h e most common s e t t i n g f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , t h i s may be a s o u r c e o f some d i s c o n t e n t among s u p e r v i s e e s . W o r k e r W e l l - B e i n g : F i v e i t e m s were used t o d e s c r i b e t h e c o n s t r u c t " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " . These w e r e : p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m , c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b f r u s t r a t i o n , and j o b s t r e s s . B e c a u s e t h e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s were n o t - i d e n t i c a l , t h o u g h a l l e l i c i t e d a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e o f r e s p o n s e , mean r e s p o n s e s c o r e s were u s e d t o compare r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e i t e m s ( s e e T a b l e 10, C h a p t e r F o u r ) . A g a i n , c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d b e t w e e n t h e h i g h e s t r a t e d s t a t e m e n t and t h e l o w e s t . The mean s c o r e f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t " I f e e l good a b o u t my s k i l l s a s a s o c i a l w o r k e r " was 1.72 on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e , s t r o n g l y a g r e e t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . The most n e g a t i v e mean s c o r e a p p e a r e d f o r t h e i t e m "... d e s c r i b e t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s . y o u .173 e n c o u n t e r i n t h e work" (mean = 3.62, v e r y h i g h = 5, v e r y l o w = 1 ) . I t was f o u n d however t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m i t e m c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m as an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e c o n s t r u c t , and i t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o e x c l u d e i t f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n as p a r t o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " . The m a r k e d l y h i g h s c o r e s f o r t h e s e l f - e s t e e m i t e m " I f e e l good a b o u t my s k i l l s " as a s o c i a l w o r k e r , when c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h e f a i r l y l ow l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g among t h i s s a m p l e , may s u g g e s t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t what s k i l l s r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e f e r r i n g t o h e r e . I t m i g h t be, f o r i n s t a n c e t h a t t h e s e s k i l l s w o u l d be somewhat d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by t h e o r e t i c i a n s s u c h as Shulman ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I t was a l s o n o t a b l e t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (mean = 2.75) and j o b f r u s t r a t i o n (mean = 3.08) showed a d i s c r e p a n c y o f .33 i n mean s c o r e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s e may be c o n s i d e r e d d i s t i n c t a s p e c t s o f w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . F u r t h e r , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f an i n d e p e n d e n t c r i t e r i a m e a s u r e , t h e f a i r l y h i g h mean s c o r e s f o r t h e s e two i t e m s and t h e i t e m i n d i c a t i n g j o b s t r e s s c o u l d be a s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e M.S.S.H.. I n d e e d t h e computed ' a g g r e g a t e mean f o r t h e f o u r r e m a i n i n g i t e m s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " i s 2.97. T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l e v e l o f " w o r k e r w e l l -174 b e i n g " t e n d s t o be n e u t r a l r a t h e r t h a n p o s i t i v e f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . A g a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h m i g h t be drawn a b o u t t h e r e s u l t s , f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s , and f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " must r e m a i n t e n t a t i v e , i n s o f a r as t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s r e n d e r c o m p a r i s o n between i t e m s p r o b l e m a t i c . Summary o f t h e B i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x c r e a t e d by c o m p a r i n g a l l f a c t o r s and s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C and T a b l e 23) was i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e two p u r p o s e s . F i r s t t h i s d a t a has been u s e d t o add d i m e n s i o n t o t h e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H. p r o v i d e d by t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . S e c o n d , t h e b i v a r i a t e d a t a i s compared w i t h a s s u m p t i o n s and p r e s u m p t i o n s p r e s e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n f o r m e d t h i s r e s e a r c h . C a u t i o n , h o w e v e r , must be e x e r c i s e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s d a t a , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i g h number of c o r r e l a t i o n s c o m p u t e d , and d e s p i t e t h e r e l a t i v e l y s t r i n g e n t d e c i s i o n r u l e s w h i c h were a p p l i e d ( i . e . o n l y c o r r e l a t i o n s where r ^ .40 and _p_ ^ .01 were n o t e d ) . I t must be s a i d t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c e r t a i n f a c t o r s i s most s t r i k i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s upon w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h i s b a s e d , and i t s g r o u n d i n g i n e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ( i . e . e a c h 175 f a c t o r c h o s e n - w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and t h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h e w o r k e r ) , many more i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s were e x p e c t e d . None o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s was shown t o have c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h any f a c t o r s o r g r o u p i n g s o f f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . Whereas i t m i g h t be p o s t u l a t e d , b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e , . t h a t f o r i n s t a n c e i n c r e a s e d a g e , e d u c a t i o n , o r e x p e r i e n c e m i g h t c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h an i n c r e a s e d e m p p h a s i s upon t h e , c o n s u l t a t i v e f a c t o r in„ s u p e r v i s i o n , o r n e g a t i v e l y w i t h e m p h a s i s upon t h e e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , o r w i t h t h e d u r a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n s e s s i o n s ( K a d u s h i n , 1985; P e t t e s , 1979; W a t s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , no s u c h c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d . F u r t h e r , t h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g t h e s i z e o f c a s e l o a d , d e m o n s t r a t e d no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e . i t e m r e g a r d i n g c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y . W h i l e t h i s may i n d i c a t e a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m s , i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t s i z e o f c a s e l o a d i s n o t , by i t s e l f t h e p r i m e d e t e r m i n a n t o f c a s e l o a d m a n a g e a b i l i t y . The p a t t e r n o f f i n d i n g s d e m o n s t r a t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w een t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n f o r a l l t h r e e s u p e r v i s i o n s e t t i n g s s u g g e s t s t h a t f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n may be more a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on u n i n t e r r u p t e d s u p e r v i s i o n e i t h e r by t h e o f f i c e , o r by t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h a n i t i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n t a k e s p l a c e . The f a i r l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w een t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s c h e d u l e d one t o one 176 s e s s i o n s , and t h a t o f a d-hoc s e s s i o n s , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n v / i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t s i m i l a r f a c t o r s may be i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e p e r c e i v e d e f f i c a c y o f t h e s e two s e t t i n g s . T h i s n o t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d f u r t h e r by t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n t y p e and number of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p f a c t o r s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h u s e f u l n e s s f o r b o t h s c h e d u l e d one t o one, and a d-hoc s e t t i n g s ( i . e . n e a r l y a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p f a c t o r s were r e l a t e d w i t h u s e f u l n e s s f o r b o t h s e t t i n g s ) . By c o n t r a s t , u s e f u l n e s s i n t h e g r o u p s e t t i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o n l y t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s . T h i s p a t t e r n o f f i n d i n g s r e c a l l s S h u l m a n ' s 1983 p o s t u l a t i o n o f a c e n t r a l c o r e o f s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l t o a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , and h i s 1981 r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " h e l p f u l n e s s " and v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s . As e x p e c t e d , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a d - h o c s u p e r v i s i o n showed m i l d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , w i t h t h e i t e m s "My s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e " , and " s u p e r v i s i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e work I do". Of i n t e r e s t a l s o i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t , o f t h e t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s i t e m s w h i c h d i d c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y v / i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n , two a r e "My s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s and o p i n i o n s " , and "My s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ..." T h e s e a r e b o t h s k i l l s d e s c r i b e d by Brown ( 1 9 7 9 ) 177 d i s c u s s i n g g r o u p work i n g e n e r a l , and Watson ( 1 9 7 3 ) d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s of g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y rev; c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t t o s c h e d u l e d one t o one and a d -hoc s e s s i o n s , g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n d e pends f a r l e s s f o r i t s u s e f u l n e s s on t h e s e s o r t s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s . P e r h a p s t h e s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n a r e o f a d i f f e r e n t s o r t , n o t t o u c h e d upon i n t h i s s u r v e y . I t may a l s o be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n i s f a r l e s s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s i n p u t , as s u g g e s t e d by D a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) , T o r e n ( E p s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ) , and Watson ( 1 9 7 3 ) , r e l y i n g more on p e e r s u p p o r t , and t h e c r e a t i v e b r a i n s t o r m i n g o f s u p e r v i s e e s f o r i t s e f f i c a c y . The o b s e r v e d h i g h i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween a l l of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s , and b e t ween t h e s e f a c t o r s and t h e u s e f u l n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " and a s n e eded s e t t i n g s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s S h u l m a n ' s ( 1 9 8 3 ) p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t e f f e c t i v e h e l p e r s i n g e n e r a l , and s u p e r v i s o r s i n , p a r t i c u l a r , p o s s e s s a s e t o f i n t e r l o c k i n g s k i l l s , i n v a r i o u s a r e a s . The p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p t e n d t o s u g g e s t a l s o t h a t h i g h l y r e g a r d e d s u p e r v i s o r s have s t r e n g t h i n a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s r a t h e r t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g s i n g l e c a t e g o r y o f s k i l l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e m p a t h i c s k i l l r e p r e s e n t e d by 178 "my s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t " , c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h , "... p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e " ; and "... i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e m o d e l " . The p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n f o r e a c h i t e m do p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e of how e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s o r s c o m b i n e s k i l l s i n s e v e r a l a r e a s , s u c h as c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s k i l l o f e n c o u r a g i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t a b o o s u b j e c t s , c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y v / i t h "... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s ( e m p a t h y ) " , " h e l p s me p r i o r i t i z e ray c o n c e r n s ( p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g ) " , " p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) " . The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t e a c h o f t h e s k i l l i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d v / i t h a l l o t h e r s s u p p o r t s a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e f a c t o r s c h o s e n do e a c h - r e p r e s e n t a p a r t o f t h e s e t " s u p e r v i s o r s k i l l s " . T h e r e a r e a l s o c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f s k i l l f o r w h i c h c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r s e t s o f s k i l l s a t work t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t e s f o r t h e i t e m " I f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y v / i t h my s u p e r v i s o r " were "My s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a. f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s and o p i n i o n s " , " p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m " , and " p r o v i d e s an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s " . A p p e n d i x C, p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s i n w h i c h t h e p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n f o r e a c h f a c t o r t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e f a c e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i t e m . 179 I t was f o u n d , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o A p p e n d i x C, t h a t a l l t h e i t e m s w h i c h d e s c r i b e d t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p d e m o n s t r a t e d f a i r l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r ( r ^ . 4 0 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was e x a m i n e d t o see w h i c h i t e m s a p p e a r e d most f r e q u e n t l y among t h e h i g h e s t f o u r c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e o t h e r i t e m s . T hese were'"my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e m o d e l " , (12 t i m e s ) " I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r " ( 1 0 t i m e s ) , " I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I r e c e i v e " ( e i g h t t i m e s ) , "my s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e " ( s e v e n t i m e s ) , "my s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s h i s a u t h o r i t y w e l l " ( s i x t i m e s ) , "... has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s " ( s i x t i m e s ) , " p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m " ( s i x t i m e s ) , "... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s " ( s i x t i m e s ) , " p r o v i d e s an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s my m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s " ( s i x t i m e s ) . W h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o draw a d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n f r o m t h e f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e i t e m s as h i g h . c o r r e l a t e s o f o t h e r i t e m s , i t may be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e s e i t e m s i n d i c a t e a r e a s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l l y g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o how s u p e r v i s e e s p e r c e i v e t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n . A t e s t a b l e i n f e r e n c e w h i c h c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be drawn f r o m t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t where a s u p e r v i s o r i s r a t e d h i g h l y on t h e s e s k i l l s , s/he w i l l t e n d t o be h i g h l y r a t e d on a l l o t h e r s k i l l s . A l s o - i t m i g h t be i n f e r r e d t h a t s u c h a s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be h i g h l y r a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t , f o r t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f ad-hoc and s c h e d u l e d one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n , s i x o f t h e s e n i n e i t e m s a p p e a r among t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r e a c h s e t t i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e as w e l l , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e s ' 5 and 6 i n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h a t t h e s e n i n e i t e m s a r e d i s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h i c h r e s p o n d e n t s s c o r e d t h e h i g h e s t i n l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d t e n d t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h t e n d most f r e q u e n t l y t o be s c o r e d h i g h l y t o g e t h e r , and a r e most f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one and as needed s u p e r v i s i o n , a r e n o t t h e same as t h o s e w h i c h , o v e r a l l , s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h i s s t u d y were r a t e d most h i g h l y on. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e De p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e A most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t , w h i l e t h e f o u r i t e m s w h i c h f i n a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " d e m o n s t r a t e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r , ( s e e T a b l e 10, C h a p t e r F o u r ) , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d no c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n t o any o t h e r s i n g l e i t e m , o r s c a l e d g r o u p o f i t e m s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no a s s o c i a t i o n b e t ween any o f t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g s u p e r v i s i o n , and any o f t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . T h a t t h e f o u r i t e m s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e do v a r y t o g e t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a measure o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i n t h e c o n c e p t " v / o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " . A l s o , t h e measure a p p e a r s t o have a d e g r e e o f f a c e v a l i d i t y , 181 i n t e r m s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e upon w h i c h i t i s b a s e d . F u r t h e r t e s t s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r e d i c t i v e and c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y o f t h e v a r i a b l e , b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g as p r o v e n t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ; i e , t h a t a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , a s t h e s e f i n d i n g s have i m p l i e d , t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n s u g g e s t s i t s e l f "To what f a c t o r s i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t i s w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g r e l a t e d ? " A s e c o n d q u e s t i o n m i g h t be " Which a r e a s o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e a r e i m p a c t e d upon by s u p e r v i s i o n ? " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y was a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s ana H o u s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , and a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e o f e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e was d r a w n . T h i s p r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d s u p e r v i s i o n i n t e r m s o f c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s , f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ' s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x t a n t b e t ween t h e s e f a c t o r s added f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e , and was compared t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n f o r m e d t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w o r k e r we 1 1 - - b e i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d . 1 o o The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e n q u i r y t e n d t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t " v / o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any o f t h e f a c t o r s used t o d e s c r i b e s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e . The p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s however r e l a t e d t o many o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s c h e d u l e d one t o one, and as needed s e t t i n g s . T h i s r e c a l l s S h ulman's 1981 r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h he and o t h e r s e x p l o r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween s i m i l a r s k i l l and c o n t e x t f a c t o r s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , s u p e r v i s o r h e l p f u l n e s s . I n c o m p a r i n g t h i s s t u d y and S h u l m a n ' s 1981 r e s e a r c h , t h e r e i s a marked s i m i l a r i t y b e tween t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l f a c t o r s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h e l p f u l n e s s i n t h a t s t u d y , and t h o s e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e s c h e d u l e d and as needed s u p e r v i s i o n s e t t i n g s . T h u s , t h i s s t u d y does t e n d t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t t o how u s e f u l , o r h e l p f u l s u p e r v i s e e s f i n d s e s s i o n s t o be. I t has n o t been p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , i n t h i s s t u d y , t o d e m o n s t r a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween s u p e r v i s i o n and an e x t e r n a l outcome m e a s u r e , i n t h i s c a s e " w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g " . I n C h a p t e r One, t h e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y o f t h i s s t u d y was d e s c r i b e d as an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p . W h i l e i t has been p o s s i b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e and i t s p e r c e i v e d h e l p f u l n e s s ( S h u l m a n , 1931) o r i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , u s e f u l n e s s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e u t i l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t e r m s o f a d e s i r a b l e e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s u c h 183 as i m p r o v e d c a s e w o r k o u t c o m e s , o r lower, b u r n o u t r a t e among human s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l . T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u p e r v i s i o n and w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g as an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p . I f , as t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( i n C h a p t e r Two) s u g g e s t e d , s u p e r v i s i o n c o u l d be shown t o have an i m p a c t upon t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h make up t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , " w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g " , t h e n t h e n e x t s t e p w o u l d be t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g and t h e " b u r n o u t " phenomenon, w h i c h i s , by d e f i n i t i o n , a s t a t e o f l o w e r e d w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The u t i l i t y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y -l a y i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e n e r a t i n g - p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s u p e r v i s o r t r a i n i n g , and t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n r e s o u r c e s w h i c h m i g h t be presumed t o e n c o u r a g e a p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e , s u c h as i m p r o v e d w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . W h i l e i t has n o t been p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p h e r e , t h e f i n d i n g s d i d d e m o n s t r a t e f a i r l y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . I t m i g h t be f r u i t f u l , i n ' f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , t o i n v e s t i g a t e f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and some p r a c t i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , s u c h as r e d u c e d j o b t u r n o v e r . I t i s c l e a r l y n o t enough t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o how u s e f u l o r h e l p f u l s o c i a l w o r k e r s f i n d t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n . I n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e and r e s o u r c e s t o s u p e r v i s i o n , i t i s 184 i m p o r t a n t t o d e m o n s t r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n between s u p e r v i s i o n and a d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e . T h i s .study has f a i l e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e s u c h a c o n n e c t i o n . F o r t h i s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . F i r s t , , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s may be a c c e p t e d , t h a t t h e a s p e c t s o f s u p e r v i s i o n e x a m i n e d h e r e do n o t d e m o n s t r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and f l a w s i n t h e d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d y may have s u p p o r t e d an e r r o n e o u s f i n d i n g . A t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e n a t u r e and c o n d i t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , as i t i s p r a c t i s e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g , make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n t o p r o d u c e an i m p a c t on w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g . The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two, w h i c h p o s i t e d an a s s o c i a t i o n between " g o o d " s u p e r v i s i o n and i m p r o v e d w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s u p p o s e d a model o f s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h may n o t a p p l y i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g . The a u t h o r s who ( c h i e f l y ) c h a m p i o n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , P e t t e s , K a d u s h i n , S h u l m a n , W e s t h e i m e r , M a t t i n s o n and K a s l o w , t e n d t o s p e c i f y c e r t a i n p a r a m e t e r s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t do n o t , as a r u l e , o b t a i n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . A l l s u g g e s t t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l a p p r o a c h e s s h o u l d be u s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a g e , e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l o f t h e s u p e r v i s e e . The c o r r e l a t i v e d a t a a n a l y s i s does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e h e r e . F u r t h e r , a l l t h e s e a u t h o r s e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d one t o one c o n f e r e n c e , w i t h a s p e c i f i c c o n t r a c t , a l l o c a t i o n o f t a s k and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a p r o g r e s s i v e c o n t i n u i t y , an a g e n d a ' a n d a m u t u a l i t y o f p u r p o s e . The f i n d i n g s h e r e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e 185 " t r a d i t i o n a l " one t o one c o n f e r e n c e i s t h e e x c e p t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e r u l e . K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) and Shulman ( 1 9 8 3 ) a l s o s p e c i f y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n b e i n g s e e n by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e s u p e r v i s e e ' s o n g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t e m s i n t h i s s t u d y w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n were c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r r a t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e r e f l e c t i n g c o n c e r n w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n . W e s t h e i m e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) and M a t t i n s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o r i z e d an a s s o c i a t i o n b e t ween p r o v i d i n g e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e w o r k e r and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g of t h e w o r k e r . Shulman ( 1 9 8 3 ) , Doehrman ( i n Shulman 1981) and B e r l ( i n R o b i n s o n , 1980) s p e a k o f t h e " p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s " by w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e i n f l u e n c e s c a s e w o r k p r a c t i c e , t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e g a r d , empathy and c a r i n g . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d h e r e s u g g e s t t h a t , as a f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i o n , e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t o f t h e w o r k e r i s t h e l e a s t e m p h a s i z e d o f t h e f o u r o r i e n t a t i o n s . I t may be t h e c a s e t h a t , i n t h e g e n e r a l a b s e n c e o f t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u p e r v i s i o n m i l i e u , e d u c a t i o n a l and s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n t e n d t o be de-e m p h a s i z e d , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y e m p h a s i z e d . The f i n d i n g s h e r e w o u l d be c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n . The i n d i c a t i o n s a r e c e r t a i n l y s t r o n g t h a t i n t h e M.S.S.H. s e t t i n g , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e i s f a l l i n g i n t o d i s u s e , by c o m p a r i s o n t o S h u l m a n ' s 1981 s t u d y , d e s p i t e s t r o n g 186 i n d i c a t i o n s h e r e , and i n S h u l m a n ' s s t u d y t h a t w o r k e r s , f i n d t h i s s e t t i n g u s e f u l and a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e amount o f t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o i t . . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s h i f t a r e p r o b a b l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s e v e r a l i n f l u e n c e s . As t h e h i s t o r i c a l p o r t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d i s c u s s e d , t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n have become e m p h a s i z e d l a t t e r l y , f o r t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s i n r e d u c i n g p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s i n h e r e n t i n t h e power d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w een s u p e r v i s o r and s u p e r v i s e e . As w e l l , t h e a v e r a g e s o c i a l w o r k e r h e r e t e n d s t o p o s s e s s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ' t h a n f o r m e r l y . T h i s t r e n d c a n be s e e n i n c o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l v / i t h t h o s e o f Shulman ( 1 9 8 1 ) , R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and B e i t m a n (1976 i n S h u l m a n , 1 9 8 1 ) . Munson ( 1 9 8 3 ) and K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e emergence of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n has l e d t o t h e demand by i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o r autonomy and i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n o r s u p p o r t i n s u p e r v i s i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e demands o f t h e M.S.S.H. w o r k p l a c e , and t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e work t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s do, may i n c r e a s i n g l y e m p h a s i z e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , r a p i d h i e r a r c h i c a l t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and c l e a r d e l i n e a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The work i t s e l f i n v o l v e s t h e w o r k e r l e s s i n t r a d i t i o n a l c a s e w o r k and more i n t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n f o r c e m e n t o f p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n t h a n f o r m e r l y . I t may be t h a t t h e p r o f i l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n 187 w h i c h has emerged i n t h i s s t u d y r e f l e c t s a change i n a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s a model w h i c h a d d r e s s e s t h e s e e x i g e n c i e s . I t may a l s o be t h e c a s e t h a t t h i s model o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s u n l i k e l y t o make an i m p a c t upon t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e w o r k e r . I f t h i s i s s o , t h e n p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n must l i e . i n t h e c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t i n h e r e n t i n t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s , demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t t a c h e d t o t h i s r o l e by t h e o r e t i c i a n s , and by t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a r e m y r i a d and f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g . A b r i e f r e a d i n g of t h e p r i n c i p l e t h e o r e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d n e a r l y f o r t y d i s t i n c t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r r o l e . I t may be f u n c t i o n a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g u a r d i a n of t h e a g e n c y b e l i e f s y s t e m , p r o m o t e r o f w o r k e r autonomy, c o - o r d i n a t o r o f team e f f o r t , c r i s i s a b s o r b e r , a r b i t e r o f s t a f f m o r a l e , p r o m o t e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e a l s , p r o t e c t o r o f t h e r i g h t s and w e l f a r e o f w o r k e r , c l i e n t and a g e n c y , and p r o m o t e r o f s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t . Y e t t h e s e r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l s a m p l e o f t h e r o l e s w h i c h a " g o o d " s u p e r v i s o r i s e x p e c t e d t o f i l l w e l l . I t w o u l d seem t h a t , i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t o some d e g r e e t h e c o n f l i c t s ' i n demands upon t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , a d i v i s i o n o f r o l e s c o u l d be h e l p f u l . Munson ( 1 9 8 3 ) a d v o c a t e s d i v i d i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n t o d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n s . W h i l e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f where t h e l i n e s h o u l d be drawn i n t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n s , t h e c o n c e p t 188 o f d i v i d i n g t h e c u r r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n has been e n d o r s e d b y many t h e o r e t i c i a n s ( K a d u s h i n , 1985, Munson, 1983, P e t t e s , 1977, E p s t e i n , 1977, Cohen, 1 9 8 7 ) . Cohen ( 1 9 8 7 ) and K a s l o w ( 1 9 7 7 ) c i t e e x a m p l e s i n I s r a e l and S w i t z e r l a n d r e s p e c t i v e l y , where t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r o l e as we u n d e r s t a n d i t , i s d i v i d e d i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t r o l e s . I t m i g h t be u s e f u l i n l i g h t o f t h e c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s , t o a d m i n i s t e r a s i m i l a r i n s t r u m e n t t o w o r k e r s s u p e r v i s e d i n t h i s manner t o t e s t f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n w e l l - b e i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n p r a c t i c e . T h e r e has been d i s c u s s i o n , d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e M.S.S.H., o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a " s e n i o r s o c i a l w o r k e r " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t o r e c o g n i z e e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . G i v e n t h e l a c k o f i m p a c t d e m o n s t r a t e d h e r e by s u p e r v i s i o n on t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and t h e v a r i e t y and n a t u r e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s and demand p l a c e d upon s u p e r v i s o r s p r e s e n t l y , some c o n s i d e r a t i o n m i g h t be g i v e n t o p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and a c l e a r mandate t o s e n i o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l , s u p p o r t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s i o n ; l e a v i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e c u r r e n t " d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r " p o s i t i o n . Such an a r r a n g e m e n t w o u l d have t h e d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e s o f r e d u c i n g o r r e m o v i n g much o f t h e r o l e c o n f l i c t d e s c r i b e d by t h e a u t h o r s c i t e d e a r l i e r . T h i s w o u l d a l s o c r e a t e a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g and 189 p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h o f t h e w o r k e r c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y be t h e m a j o r p r i o r i t y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y may be s a i d t o have d e m o n s t r a t e d u t i l i t y a t t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l , i n s o f a r as i t has a f f o r d e d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e manner i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r a c t i s e d , and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e phenomenon. I t has n o t been p o s s i b l e h e r e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e s e a s p e c t s and a p r a c t i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e , i n t h i s c a s e , " w o r k e r w e l l -b e i n g " . The p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y was p r e m i s e d on a s s u m p t i o n s o f p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n b etween s u p e r v i s i o n and i m p r o v e d w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Worker w e l l - b e i n g was s e e n as a p r o b a b l e h i g h c o r r e l a t e o f w o r k e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a d i r e c t measure o f t h a t c o n s t r u c t . The l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t r e f e r r i n g t o " b u r n o u t " , had s u g g e s t e d t h a t ' w o r k e r s who f a r e d p o o r l y on t h e I n d i c a t o r s of w o r k e r w e l l - b e i n g were l i k e l y t o be l e s s e f f e c t i v e . . I n a p o l i t i c i a l c l i m a t e w h i c h i n c r e a s i n g l y r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s be j u s t i f i e d by i m p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i t i s p r o b a b l y n o t enough t o show t h a t i n c r e a s e d o r i m p r o v e d s u p e r v i s i o n w i l l i m p a c t p o s i t i v e l y upon w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f i t s u s e f u l n e s s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d h e r e , and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may p r o v e u s e f u l f.or f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o t h e i m p a c t o f s u p e r v i s i o n upon t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s o c i a l w ork. The i n s t r u m e n t c r e a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y has t h e a d v a n t a g e s of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , good t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l b a s e s , and i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l i t e m s w h i c h p e r m i t d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The s c a l e d g r o u p i n g s c r e a t e d by c o m b i n i n g i t e m s showed good i n t e r - i t e r a c o r r e l a t i o n s , and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , and t h u s may be u s e f u l a l s o i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . P a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y may be i m p o r t a n t as b a s e l i n e m e a s u r e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g . The c u r r e n t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a m a j o r r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s m i n i s t r y , and was p a r t o f a p a c k a g e o f m e a s u r e s i n t e n d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e l o n g i t u d i n a l l y , t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n upon w o r k e r s . As s u c h , i t i s i n t e n d e d , by t h e m i n i s t r y , t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e s e m e a s u r e s a g a i n i n t h e f u t u r e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n . Araacher, K.A. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . S o c i a l i z a t i o n i n s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , S m i t h C o l l e g e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. Amacher, K.A., C a m p b e l l , J . , Conway, 0., G o r d o n , A., H a p t s o n , C , H a p t s o n , N., MacKay, K., S c h e i d e r , L. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Consumer F e e d b a c k on F i e l d I n s t r u c t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A u s t i n , L u c i l l e . ( 1 9 5 2 ) . B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , V o l . 33, pp. 711 - 719. B a r t h , R., & C a m b r i l l , E. . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . L e a r n i n g t o i n t e r v i e w . The C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 2, No 1, pp. 3 - 10. B e r k l e y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 7 7 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f c h i l d a b u s e and n e g l e c t d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s . V o l I X , P r o j e c t management and w o r k e r b u r n o u t , N a t i o n a l  T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , V o l . PB 278, 446. B e r l , F r e d ( 1 9 6 0 ) . An a t t e m p t t o c o n s t r u c t a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , V o l . 41 #7, pp. 334 - 345. B e r l , F r e d ( 1 9 6 2 ) . An A t t e m p t t o C o n s t r u c t a C o n c e p t u a l Framework f o r S u p e r v i s i o n , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k i n t h e F i f t i e s . New Y o r k : F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n P u b l i c a t i o n . B l a l o c k , H., & B l a l o c k , A. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . M e t h o d o l o g y i n S o c i a l  R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Co. B l o c k , C.Y. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S u r v e y R e s e a r c h i n t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . San F r a n c i s c o : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n . Bogo, M a r i o n , ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F i e l d i n s t r u c t i o n : n e g o t i a t i n g c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s . The C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 1, No. 3, pp. 3 - 13. B r a c k e t t , J e f f r e y ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n & E d u c a t i o n i n  C h a r i t y . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Co. Brown, A l l e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) . G r o u p w o r k . L o n d o n : Heinemann B o o k s . Buckman, M i l e s ( 1 9 7 8 ) . C o n s u l t a t i o n i n s o c i a l v/ork: a c o m p a r i s o n of s t y l e s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. C a r t e r , N o v i a ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A Q - S o r t measure of e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r . U n p u b l i s h e d M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. 192 s o c i a l work. The C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No. 1 pp. 75 - 86. " Cohen, B e n Z i o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The s u p e r v i s i o n i s t h e message - a m c L u h a r i a n e x p l o r a t i o n o f a medium. C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No. 4, pp. 7 3 - 80. Cohen, B e n Z i o n ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The e t h i c s o f s o c i a l work: s u p e r v i s i o n r e v i s i t e d . S o c i a l Work, V o l . 32, No. 3, pp. 194 - 198. Cohen, J . , and Cohen, P. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A p p l i e d M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n / C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s f o r t h e B e h a v i o u r a l  S c i e n c e s . New J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e E i l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s . Conway, O l i v e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f S u p e r v i s i o n Needs Among U n d e r g r a d u a t e S t u d e n t s i n S o c i a l Work. U n p u b l i s h e d S t u d e n t P a p e r . Conway, O l i v e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) . An E x p l o r a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f S u p e r v i s i o n P r a c t i c e and S o c i a l W o r k er A t t i t u d e s i n t h e M.S.S.H. W o r k p l a c e . U n p u b l i s h e d S t u d e n t P a p e r . C r o u c h , R o b e r t ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S o c i a l work d e f i n e d . S o c i a l Work, V o l . 24, No. 1, pp. 46 - 49. D a l e y , M i c h a e l ( 1 9 7 9 ) . B u r n o u t : s m o l d e r i n g p r o b l e m i n p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s . . S o c i a l • Work, V o l . 24, No. 5, pp. 375 - 3 7 9 ) . D a l e y , M i c h a e l ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P r e v e n t i n g w o r k e r b u r n o u t . C h i l d  W e l f a r e , V o l . 58, No. 7 pp. 443 - 450. Donavan, R e b e c c a ( 1 9 8 7 ) . S t r e s s i n t h e w o r k p l a c e . S o c i a l  C a s e w o r k , V o l 68, No. 5, pp. 259 - 266. D o r n , F. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . U s i n g t h e s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e m o d el i n c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n . The C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No. 2, pp. 77 - 83. D o u g l a s , Tom ( 1 9 7 6 ) . G r o u p w o r k P r a c t i c e . L o n d o n : T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . E i s i k o v i t z , A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h , V o l . 8, No. 4 pp. 3 7 - 58. E p s t e i n , L a u r a ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I s autonomous p r a c t i c e p o s s i b l e ? S o c i a l Work, V o l . 18, No. 2, pp. 5 - 13. F a l c o n e r , Nancy ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A t t a c k on B u r n o u t . T o r o n t o : C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . 193 F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a ( 1 9 3 5 ) . ' S u p e r v i s i o n  i n S o c i a l C a s e Work. F a r b e r , B u r n y ( E d . ) ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S t r e s s and B u r n o u t i n t h e Human  S e r v i c e s . New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . F a r m e r , S. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t i n s u p e r v i s i o n c o n f e r e n c e s . C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 3, No. 4, pp. 5 - 22. Forman, B e r t ( 1 9 8 0 ) . O c c u p a t i o n a l b u r n o u t . U n p u b l i s h e d H.S.W. T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F r e e m a n , E . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f f e e d b a c k . C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 3, No. 1, pp. 5 - 26. F r e u d e n b e r g e r , H e r b e r t ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S t a f f b u r n o u t . J o u r n a l o f  S o c i a l I s s u e s , V o l . 30, No. 1, pp. 159 - 165. G e t z e l & Salman ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Group s u p e r v i s i o n . C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 3, No. 1, pp. 2 7 - 4 4 . G r i n n e l l , R i c h a r d ( J r . ) ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h and , E v a l u a t i o n . I t a s c a : F.E. P e a c o c k . H a l g i n , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The p r a g m a t i c b l e n d i n g o f c l i n i c a l m o d e l s i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No1. 4, pp. 23 - 76. Hplman, S., & F r e e d , pp. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . L e a r n i n g s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . C l i n i c a l S o c i a l W o r k e r , V o l . 5, No. 1, pp.3 - 22. Hyman, H e r b e r t ( 1 9 5 5 ) . S u r v e y D e s i g n and A n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s . K a d u s h i n ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S u p e r v i s o r - S u p e r v i s e e : A S u r v e y . S o c i a l  Work, V o l . 19, pp. 288 - 298. K a d u s h i n , A l f r e d ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 5 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n i n S o c i a l Work. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . K a d u s h i n , A l f r e d ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C o n s u l t a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . K a s l o w , F l o r e n c e ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n , C o n s u l t a t i o n and  S t a f f T r a i n i n g i n t h e H e l p i n g P r o f e s s i o n s . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s e y B a s s . K i s h , L e s l i e ( 1 9 6 5 ) . ' S u r v e y S a m p l i n g . New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y & S o n s . 19a K n o w l e s , M a l c o l m ( 1 9 7 2 ) . 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S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . R a t h h o l z , T., & Werk, A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S t u d e n t s u p e r v i s i o n . The  C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 2, No. 1, pp. 19 - 23. R o b i n s o n , E l i z a b e t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e o f c h i l d w e l f a r e s u p e r v i s o r s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a j o r p a p e r , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R o b i n s o n , V i r g i n i a ( 1 9 3 6 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n i n S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . N o r t h C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s . R o s e n b e r g , C a s s e n s , & I d l e m a n ' ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I n t e r n s h i p s u p e r v i s i o n s e m i n a r f o r M.A. i n t e r n s . The C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No. 4, pp . R u s s e l l , Mary ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L e c t u r e n o t e s . S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S c h e r z , F r a n c e s ( 1 9 5 8 ) . A C o n c e p t o f S u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l  C a s e w o r k , V o l . 39, No. 8, pp. 435 - 443. S e l l t i z , J a h a r d a , D e u t s c h , & Cook ( 1 9 7 6 ) . R e s e a r c h Method:  i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . S h u l m a n , L., R o b i n s o n , E., & L u c k y j , A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) A S t u d y o f  t h e C o n t e n t , C o n t e x t & S k i l l s o f ' S u p e r v i s i o n . V a n c o u v e r , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S h u l m a n , L a w r e n c e ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S k i l l s o f H e l p i n g I n d i v i d u a l s and  G r o u p s . I t a s c a : P e a c o c k P r e s s . S h u l m a n , L a w r e n c e ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S k i l l s o f S u p e r v i s i o n and S t a f f  Management. I t a s c a : P e a c o c k P u b l i s h e r s . S h u l m a n , L a w r e n c e ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T e a c h i n g t h e H e l p i n g S k i l l : I t a s c a : P e a c o c k P u b l i s h e r s . S t i l e s , E v e l y n ( 1 9 6 3 ) . C a s e w o r k V o l . 44, S u p e r v i s i o n i n No. 1, pp. 19 -P e r s p e c t i v e . 25. S o c i a l 1 9 6 S t o l t e n b e r g , P i e r r e , & M c N e i l ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E f f e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n c o u n s e l o r t r a i n e e n e e d s . C l i n i c a l S o c i a l W o r k e r . V o l . 5, N o l 1, pp. 23 - 32. S t o r m , F., fi H e a t h , A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M o d e l s o f s u p e r v i s i o n : U s i n g t h e r a p e u t i c t h e o r y as a g u i d e . The C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s o r , V o l . 3, No. 1, pp. 87 - 96. S t o u t , C h r i s t o p h e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The r o l e o f e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . C l i n i c a l S o c i a l  W o r k er ^ V o l . 5, No / 1, pp.89 - " 9 8 . T a t e , M i l d r e d ( 1 9 8 6 ) . An i n t e r v i e w w i t h M i l d r e d T a t e . The  C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r , V o l 3, No. 4, pp. 93 - 98. T o w i e , C h a r l o t t e ( 1 9 5 4 ) . The L e a r n e r i n E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e  P r o f e s s i o n s . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . T o w l e , C h a r l o t t e ( 1 9 6 3 ) . The p l a c e o f h e l p i n s u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , V o l . 37, No. 4, p p . 4 0 3 - 415. W a l s h , J o s e p h ( 1 9 8 7 ) . B u r n o u t and v a l u e s i n t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n s . S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , V o l 68, No. 5, pp. 279 - 283. W a t s o n , K e n n e t h ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D i f f e r e n t i a l s u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l  Work, V o l . 18, No. 6, pp. 80 - 89. W e s t h e i m e r , U s e ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The P r a c t i c e o f S u p e r v i s i o n i n  S o c i a l Work. L o n d o n : Ward L o c k . W i l s o n , L u a n n a J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F i e l d I n s t r u c t i o n : T e c h n i q u e s  f o r S u p e r v i s o r s . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s . Z e t s e l , E l i z a b e t h ( 1 9 5 3 ) . The Dynamic B a s i s o f S u p e r v i s i o n . S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , V o l . 34, A p r i l ' 1953, pp. 143 - 149. APPENDIX A The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n s t r u m e n t 200 QUESTIONNAIRE S e c t i o n A This aectlon i s Intended to gather information about your background i n s o c i a l vork i n o r d e r to see how t h i s may r e l a t e to your experiences of s u p e r v i s i o n . Please f i l l i n the blanks or check ( ) as appropriate. 1. Vhat i s your age? ( ) 20 - 25 ( ) 26 - 30 ' ( ) 31 - 35 ( ) 36 - fjO ( ) li1 - US - ( ) U - 50 : ( ) over 50 2. What i s your sex? ( ) Male ( ) Female 3. Vhat i s your educational background? ( ) high school diploma ( ) community college, t e c h n i c a l or diploma programme ( ) B.A. - please s p e c i f y major f i e l d of study, e.g. E n g l i s h , Psychology ( ) B.S.V. ( ) M.S.W. ( ) Other - please s p e c i f y •__ U. Please estimate the length of your experience I n a s o c i a l work r e l a t e d job before j o i n i n g M.S.S.H. ( ) l e s s than 1 year ( ) 3 - h years ( ) 1 - 2 years ( ) I4 - 5 years ( ) 2 - 3 years ( ) more than 5 years 5. Approximately how long have you worked f o r M.S.S.H. as a s o c i a l worker? (Please include M.H.R. and Resource Board experience i n t h i s t o t a l , i f ap p l i c a b l e ) -. { ) l e s s than 1 year ( ( ) 1 year - 2 years ( ( ) 2 - 3 years ( 6. Approximately how long have you been o f f i c e , or same caseload) ( ) l e s s than 6 months ( ( ) 6 months - 12 months ( ( ) 1 2 - 1 0 months ( 7. For how long have you been supervised by your present supervisor?. ( ) 6 months or l e s s ( ) 10 months - 2 years ( ) 6 months - 12 months ( ) more than 2 years ( ) 1 year - 10 months 8. Please i n d i c a t e your present job status: ( ) a u x i l i a r y f u l l time ( ) a u x i l i a r y p art time ( ) permanent part time ( ) permanent f u l l time ( ) Other - please s p e c i f y ) } - h years ) Li — 8 years ) more than 5 years i n your present p o s i t i o n ? ( i . e . same ) 18 months - 2li months ) 2lj - 30 months ) longer than 2_ years 201 - 2 -9. Please estimate hov many cases make up your current caseload: ( ) 0 - 1 0 cases ( ) 31 - I4O cases ( ) 1 1 - 2 0 cases ( ) I4I - $0 cases ( ) 2 1 - 3 0 cases ( ) more than $0 S e c t i o n B For the purposes of t h i s questionnaire ve have i d e n t i f i e d three s p e c i f i c types of s u p e r v i s i o n . Thcoe'are: regular one-to-one sessions with your s u p e r v i s o r , unscheduled "as needed" B e s s i o n s , and group sessions where a group of s o c i a l workers meets with the supervisor. These may include team meetings. This s e c t i o n i s intended to gather information about the types, frequency and content o f the s u p e r v i s i o n you receive. Part 1 The f o l l o w i n g questions r e f e r to reg u l a r , scheduled one-to-one appointments w i t h your s u p e r v i s o r . Please choose the response which most accurately r e f l e c t s your current experience. (a) (b) ( c ) (d) (e ) I have scheduled one-to-one appointments with my supervisor! ) not at a l l ( i f not at a l l , please proceed to Part 2 of t h i s s e c t i o n ) u s u a l l y weekly approximately twice per month approximately monthly other (please Bpeeify) . ) These sessions are i n t e r r u p t e d : ) never f r e q u e n t l y These sessions usually l a s t : 0 - 15 minutes 1 6 - 3 0 minutes 31 - US minutes ( ) ( ) r a r e l y always ( ) I46 — 60 minutes ( ) more than 60 minutes n these sessions we usually d i s c u s s : (please check a l l responses which apply) ) e v a l u a t i o n of my job performance ) review of my caseload ) my ongoing professional development ) p o l i c y 4 procedural requirements of the job ) l i t e r a t u r e which may be u s e f u l to my work ) s p e c i f i c problems which need s o l v i n g i n s p e c i f i c cases ) personal f e e l i n g s which may be a f f e c t i n g my work ( i . e . a n x i e t y , s t r e s s ) ) s t a t u t a r y case review ( i . e . c h i l d i n care t r a c k i n g ) ) iss u e s i n s o c i a l work ) other (please specify) _^ These sessions are usually arranged: ) by r e g u l a r schedule ) a t my request ) at my supervisor's request ) about e q u a l l y - 3 -( f ) In general, how useful do you f i n d t h i s form of s u p e r v i s i o n : ( ) very useful ( ) u s e f u l ( ) neutral ( ) of l i m i t e d use ( ) of l i t t l e use Comments regarding r e g u l a r one-to-one supervision: P a r t 2 The f o l l o w i n g questions r e f e r to unscheduled, "as needed" meetings between you and your supervisor. Please choose the response which most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s your current experience. (a) On average, how often do you meet with your s u p e r v i s o r f o r "as needed" sessions: ) not at a l l ( i f not at a l l , please proceed to P a r t 3) These sessions are i n t e r r u p t e d : ) never ) frequently These sessions u s u a l l y l a s t : several t i n e s per week weekly l e s s frequently than monthly ( ) 2 or 3 times per month ( ) monthly ( ) r a r e l y ( ) always 1 1 - 2 0 minutes 31 - Li$ minutes longer than 60 minutes ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 0 - 1 0 minutes ) 2 1 - 3 0 minutes ) I46 - 60 minutes 1 these sessions we discuss: (please check a l l those responses which apply) ) evaluation of my Job performance ) review of my caseload ) my ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l development ) p o l i c y & procedural requirements on the job ) l i t e r a t u r e which may be u s e f u l to my work ) s p e c i f i c problems which need s o l v i n g i n s p e c i f i c cases ) personal f e e l i n g s which may be a f f e c t i n g my work ( i . e . a n x i e t y , s t r e s s ) ) statutary case review ( i . e . c h i l d i n care t r a c k i n g ) ) issues i n s o c i a l work ) other (please s p e c i f y ) •  203 - Ii -(e) Those "oo needed" sessions are usually aoked f o r : ( ) by rae ( ) by my supervisor ( ) about e q u a l l y ( f ) In general, how u s e f u l do you f i n d t h i s form of s u p e r v i s i o n : ( ) very u s e f u l ( ) u s e f u l ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) of l i m i t e d use ( ) of l i t t l e use Comments regarding "as needed" supervision: r a r t 3 The f o l l o w i n g questions r e f e r to group supervision sessions, i n which two or more s o c i a l workers meets with a supervisor to discuss t h e i r work. This may i n c l u d e team meetings. (a) On average, how often do you meet with your s u p e r v i s o r f o r group s u p e r v i s i o n sessions: ) not at a l l ( i f not at a l l , please proceed to the next s e c t i o n ) ) more than once per week ) weekly ) 2 or 3 times per month ) monthly ) l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than monthly Group sessions are i n t e r r u p t e d : ) never ( ) r a r e l y ) f r e q u e n t l y ( ) always Croup sessions u s u a l l y l a s t : ) 0 - 30 minutes ( ) 3 1 - 6 0 minutes ) 1 hour - 1 1/2 hours ( ) 1 1 / 2 - 2 hours ) more than 2 hours In these sessions we discu s s : (please check a l l responses which apply) ) s p e c i f i c problems which need s o l v i n g i n s p e c i f i c cases ) p o l i c y & procedural requirements on the job ) my ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l development ) personal f e e l i n g s which may be a f f e c t i n g my work ( i . e . a n x i e t y , s t r e s s ) ) s t a t u t a r y case review ( i . e . c h i l d i n care t r a c k i n g ) ) l i t e r a t u r e which may be usef u l to my work ) my ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l development ) iss u e s i n s o c i a l work ) e v a l u a t i o n of my job performance ) other (please s p e c i f y ) __________ (e) Besides team meetings, do you meet with your s u p e r v i s o r f o r group s u p e r v i s i o n sessions? ( ) yes ( ) no ( f ) i n G e n e r a l , how n r e f u l do y w f i n d t h i s form o f e u p e r v i c i i o n : ( ) very u s e f u l ( ) u s e f u l ( ) neu t r a l ( ) of l i t t l e use ( ) of l i m i t e d use Comments regarding group s u p e r v i s i o n ^ S e c t i o n C This s e c t i o n i s intended to s o l i c i t your perceptions and opinions about the su p e r v i s i o n you p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e , and about some of the q u a l i t i e s of your present s u p e r v i s o r . We s t r e s s again that responses are c o n f i d e n t i a l , and no in f o r m a t i o n i s requested which w i l l i d e n t i f y you or your supervisor. .PleaBe check the response on each item which most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s your pperception or opinion. f e e l that I have a good vorking r e l a t i o n s h i p with my c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r : _ ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ; My supervisor has explained to me how we might work together i n s u p e r v i s i o n and what k i n d of help he/she can give me: My supervisor can sense when I am upset or anxious about something: ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ) disagree ( ) str o n g l y disagree ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree ) s t r o n g l y agree ) disagree ( ) a g r e e ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree ( ) neutral •ly s u p e r v isor has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s : ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) neutral ) disagree ( ) str o n g l y disagree am s a t i s f i e d with the supervision I c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e : ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ) disagree ( ) st r o n g l y disagree My su p e r v i s o r i s usually a v a i l a b l e when I need him/her: ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ) disagree ( ) st r o n g l y disagree My s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I've done a good job: ( ) n e u t r a l ) s t r o n g l y agree ) disagree ( ) a g r e e ( ) st r o n g l y disagree 8. My s u p e r v i s o r handles his/her a u t h o r i t y w e l l : ) s t r o n g l y agree ) disagree ( ) a g r e e ( ) s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ( ) neutral ( ) neutral ( ) neutal - 6 -205 S e c t i o n C - continued 9. My supervisor helps me to i d e n t i f y my concerns i n a s i t u a t i o n and examine thera one at a timet ( ) strongly agres ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 10. My supervisor sets aside enough' r e g u l a r l y scheduled time f o r s u p e r v i s i o n : ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 11. My supervisor helps me to sort out the r o l e of my ovm f e e l i n g s i n the work I do: ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 12. My supervisor i s concerned with h e l p i n g me handle the s t r e s s of the work I do: ( ) st r o n g l y agree ( ) agree ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) d l sagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 13. My supervisor has a d e t a i l e d and accurate knowledge of m i n i s t r y p o l i c y and procedure: ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree l l j . My supervisor i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l organized so that h i s / h e r own work flows smoothly1 ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( .) n s u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 15. My supervisor has a good working knowledge of what i s happening i n my caseload: ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ' " (' ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 16. My supervisor takes an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l development: ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) d i 6agree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 17. In supervision, there i s the k i n d of atmosphere where I f e e l f r e e to d i s c u s s my mistakes and f a i l u r e s as w e l l as my successes: ( ) st r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 18. My supervisor provides good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of my work: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e . ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 19. When I t e l l my supervisor how I f e e l , he/she u s u a l l y understands: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( .) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 20. In supervision, I f e e l free to disagree openly w i t h my s u p e r v i s o r : ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree - 7 -2 0 6 Section C - continued 21. I have a c l e a r idea of how my supervisor rates my performance! ( ) st r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e . ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) stro n g l y disagree 22. I f e e l able to tru3t my supervisor: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e . ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) st r o n g l y disagree 23. My supervisor helps me to discuss subjects which I am not comfortable w i t h : < ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) agr«« ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) st r o n g l y disagree 2I4. My supervisor promotes a free exchange of opinions and ideas i n s u p e r v i s i o n : ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree • ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 2$. My supervisor w i l l express my concerns to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : ( ) s t r o n g l y agree . ( ) agree ( ) neutral ( ) disagree ( ) stro n g l y disagree 26. My supervisor helps and encourages me to keep on l e a r n i n g : ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) agree ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 27. My supervisor encourages me to discuss my personal problems and f e e l i n g s : ( ) st r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) st r o n g l y disagree 28. My supervisor i s an important source of advice or in f o r m a t i o n when I have a d i f f i c u l t s o c i a l work d e c i s i o n to make: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a S r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree _ ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 29. My supervisor i s an important source of emotional support when things are going badly: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ' ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 30. My supervisor i s w i l l i n g to share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the casework d e c i s i o n s we make i n s u p e r v i s i o n : ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) d i 8agree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 31. My sup e r v i s o r plays a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e morale: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 32. My sup e r v i s o r t r i e s to ensure that I have the resources a v a i l a b l e to do a good job: ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g j e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y dioagree - % - 20? 33- I c o n s i d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n I r e c e i v e to be e o a e n t i a l t o d o i n g a good j o b : ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 3l|t I see my supervisor as a good s o c i a l work r o l e model: ( ) strongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree }$. Fleaee i n d i c a t e which of the f o l l o w i n g beat describes your s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e i n sup e r v i s i o n : •- (Choose one only pleass) ( ) case consultant ( ) c o l l e a g u e / c o l l a b o r a t o r ( ) manager/administrator ( ) caseload overseer ( ) teacher ( ) c o u n s e l l o r ( ) other (please s p e c i f y ) 36. Please i n d i c a t e which of the f o l l o w i n g best describes the purpose of your current s u p e r v i s i o n : (Choose one only please) ( ) f o s t e r i n g my development as a s o c i a l worker ( ) c o n s u l t a t i o n on d i f f i c u l t cases ( ) mandatory case review ( ) evaluation of my job performance ( ) exchange of information needed to do the job ( ) planning on i n d i v i d u a l cases ( ) g i v i n g me d i r e c t i o n ( ) sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r decisions with my supervisor ( ) he l p i n g me to deal with the str e s s of the work Comments from t h i s s e c t i o n : Section D Thi s s e c t i o n i s intended to explore your opinions about the work you do. Please check ( ) the response which most accurately r e f l e c t s your o p i n i o n : 1. I f e e l good about my own s k i l l s as a s o c i a l worker: ( ) Btrongly agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree 2. How would you describe your personal l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n : ( ) very high ( ) high ( ) moderate ( ) low ( ) very low 3. How would you describe the personal l e v e l of s t r e s s you encounter as a r e s u l t of the work you do: ( ) very high ( ) high ( ) moderate ( ) low ( ) very low i i . U s u a l l y , I f i n d my current caseload manageable: ( ) a l l the time ( ) most of the time ( ) sometimes ( ) l i t t l e of the time ( ) never 5. I of t e n f e e l f r u s t r a t e d and/or unhappy i n my current p o s i t i o n : ( ) s t r o n g l y agree ( ) a g r e e ( ) n e u t r a l ( ) disagree ( ) s t r o n g l y disagree Comments from t h i s section •208 APPENDIX B I n d i v i d u a l Items, F a c t o r Names and C o d i n g APPENDIX B I n d i v i d u a l I t ems , C o d i n g , and F a c t o r Names I tem C o d i n g F a c t o r Name What i s y o u r age age Age What i s y o u r sex sex Sex E d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d educ E d u c a t i o n L e n g t h o f s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e j o i n i n g MSSH sxexp How l o n g have you worked f o r MSSH as a s o c i a l worker msshexp How l o n g i n p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n p r e s p o How l o n g w i t h p r e s e n t s u p e r v i s o r p r e s s u p P r e s e n t j o b s t a t u s j o b s t a t S o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e M i n i s t r y e x p e r i e n c e Job s t a b i l i t y S u p e r v i s o r s t a b i l i t y Job s t a t u s Number o f c a s e s i n c u r r e n t c a s e l o a d c a s e l o a d C a s e l o a d s i z e F r e q u e n c y o f one to one s e s s i o n s one 2 one How o f t e n a r e s e s s i o n s i n t e r r u p t e d i n t e r r u p t T r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n f r e q u e n c y Degree o f i n t e r r u p t i o n L e n g t h o f s e s s i o n s d u r a t i o n D u r a t i o n 210 APPENDIX B Individual Items, Coding, and Factor Names I tem Coding Factor Name Topics discussed in sessions topic 1-10 Content Sessions are usually arranged by: arrange Init iation How useful is this form of supervision useful Usefulness Frequency of as needed sessions uoften Frequency of ad-hoc supervision How often are sessions interrupted uinterrup Degree of interruption These sessions usually last: udurat Duration Topics discussed in as needed session utop 1-10 Content As needed sessions are arranged by: uarrange Init iat ion How useful is this form of supervision uuseful Usefulness How often do you have group sessions goften Frequency of group sessions How often are sessions interrupted ginterrup Degree of interruption Length of sessions gdurat Duration Topics discussed in group gtop 1-10 Content APPENDIX B Individual Items, Coding, and Factor Names Item Coding Factor Name Group sessions besides team meetings othergro How useful do you find group supervision guseful I feel I have a good working relationship with my supervisor relation Group super-vision exclusive of team meetings Usefulness of group Working relationship My supervisor has explained how we might work together explains My supervisor can sense when I am upset or anxious senses Clarifying roles Empathy My supervisor has good l istening s k i l l s l istens Listening s k i l l s I am satisfied with current supervision satis My sup. is usually available when needed availab Satisfaction with supervision Avai labi l i ty My sup. lets me know when I've done a good job goodjob My sup. handles authority well authorit My sup. helps me identify concerns and examine one at a time identify Feedback Dealing with authority theme Pr ior i t i z ing APPENDIX B I n d i v i d u a l Items, Coding, arid Factor Names Item Coding Factor Name My sup. sets aside enough r e g u l a r l y scheduled time schedules Scheduling t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n My sup. helps me s o r t out the r o l e of my f e e l i n g s . . . s o r t f e e l Encourages f e e l i n g s My sup. i s concerned w i t h h e l p i n g me handle s t r e s s s t r e s s c o My sup. has a d e t a i l e d knowledge of p o l i c y & procedure knowledg Provides emotional support Provides data My sup. i s organized so own work flows ' smoothly organiz My sup. has a working knowledge of my caseload knowcase Modelling F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h caseload My sup. takes an i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n t e r e s t My sup. creates the k i n d of atmosphere to di s c u s s mistakes atmosph Encourages p r o f e s s i o n a l development Permits d i s c u s s i o n of mistakes My sup. provides good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m c o n c r i t P r o v i d i n g feedback When I t e l l my sup. how I f e e l , he/she u s u a l l y understands understa Empathy APPENDIX B Individual Items, Coding, and Factor Names Item  Coding Factor Name I feel free to disagree openly disagree I have a clear idea of how my sup. rates my performance rates Encourages reciprocity Provides feedback I feel I can trust my supervisor t r u s t Trust My sup. helps me to discuss uncomfortable subjects tufstuf Permits taboo subj ects My sup. promotes a free exchange of opinions. . . exchange My sup. w i l l express my concerns to the administration xconcern Promotes free discussion Acts as an interface My sup. helps & encourages me to keep on learning . . . learning Encourages learning My sup. encourages discussion of personal problems and fee l ings . . . persprob My sup. is an important source of advice or information.. . advice Permits private feelings Consultant role My sup. is an important source of emotional support emosupp Provides emotional support My sup. is wi l l ing to share responsibil ity for casework decisions shareres Shares responsibi l i ty APPENDIX B Individual Items, Coding, and Factor Names Item Coding Factor Name My sup. plays a positive role i n office morale morale Team building My sup. tries to ensure I have the resources to do a good job resource Ensures resources I consider supervision essential , essental Importance placed on supervisor I see my sup. as a good role model models Role modelling Describe supervisors role role Role orientation Describe purpose of supervisor purpose Purposive orientation of sessions I feel good about my s k i l l s s k i l l Professional self-esteem Describe your level of job satisfaction jobsat Job satisfaction Describe your personal level of stress stress Job stress Describe manageability of your caseload casload Caseload manageability Describe level of job frustration frustrat Job frustration APPENDIX, C H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r A l l Items A p p e n d i x C H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n s ( r ^  .40, p ^ .01) D e m o g r a p h i c I t e m s Age w i t h : l e n g t h o f M.S.S.H. e x p e r i e n c e ( r = 56 p = 000) ; P r e v i o u s s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e : None M.S.S.H. e x p e r i e n c e w i t h : age ( a s a b o v e ) ; l e n g t h o f t i m e i n p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n ( r = .59 p =) L e n g t h o f t i m e i n p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n w i t h : l e n g t h o f M.S.S.H. e x p e r i e n c e ( r = .58 p = 000) L e n g t h o f t i m e w i t h p r e s e n t s u p e r v i s o r w i t h : l e n g t h o f t i m e i n p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n ( r = .61 p = 000) x S i z e o f c a s e l o a d w i t h : None C o n t e x t u a l I t e m s F r e q u e n c y o f s c h e d u l e d one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : None F r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f u n s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .68, p =.000); f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .49, p = . 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s a v a i l a b l e when needed ( r = - . 4 0 , p = 001) D u r a t i o n o f one t o one s e s s i o n s w i t h : None U s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f u n s c h e d u l e d ' s e s s i o n s ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = - . 4 5 , p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r has e x p l a i n e d how we m i g h t work t o g e t h e r ( r = .40, p = . 0 0 1 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r c a n s e n s e when I am u p s e t e t c . ( r = .50, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = .57, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .48, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; ray s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = .54, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; I am a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r ( r = .54, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e ( r = .50, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s ( r = .45, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t ( r = .56, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r w i l l s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s ( r = .42, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s an A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l s ( r = .51, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g me cope w i t h s t r e s s ( r = .51, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = .44, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s e t c ( r = .61, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = .57, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r u n d e r s t a n d s my f e e l i n g s ( r = .66, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r t r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o do a good j o b ( r = .44, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e work ( r = .40, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good r o l e model ( r = .57, p = . 0 0 0 ) . F r e q u e n c y o f u n s c h e d u l e d , as needed s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : my s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e ( r = .47, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e work ( r = .40, p = . 0 0 0 ) . F r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n a t as needed s e s s i o n s w i t h : i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s c h e d u l e d s e s s i o n s ( r = .69, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; i n t e r r u p t i o n o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .42, p = . 0 0 0 ) . D u r a t i o n o f as needed s e s s i o n s w i t h : None. U s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f s c h e d u l e d s e s s i o n s ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .47, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; and w i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n and s k i l l s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ( r = .31 t o .63, p = .000 f o r a l l ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h I am s a t i s f i e d v / i t h c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n ( . 6 3 ) ; I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r ( . 6 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f my c a s e l o a d ( . 6 3 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( . 6 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s e t c ... ( . 5 9 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (.59) F r e q u e n c y o f g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : None. F r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s w i t h : i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s c h e d u l e d one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .49, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = -.44, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; i n t e r r u p t i o n o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .42, p = . 0 0 0 ) . U s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as n e eded s e s s i o n s ( r = .47, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me i d e n t i f y c o n c e r n s ( r = .42, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e ( r = .42, p = A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d 2 l 8 f . 0 0 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r c r e a t e s an a tmosphere to d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ( r = . 4 2 , p = . 0 0 0 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p I t e m s Work ing r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u p e r v i s o r w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s of as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = . 4 1 , p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s  d e s c r i b i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .32 t o . 7 2 , p . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h . . . my s u p e r v i s o r has e x p l a i n e d how we might work t o g e t h e r . . . ( r = .68 , p = . 0 0 ) ; . . . has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = . 7 0 ) ; . . . h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 6 6 ) ; . . . t r u s t . . . ( r = . 7 0 ) ; . . . promotes a f r e e exchange . . . ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e mora le ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = . 6 8 ) ; c r e a t e s an a tmosphere to d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s . . . ( r = . 6 6 ) ; . . . en su re s r e s o u r c e s to do a good job ( r = . 6 7 ) . My s u p e r v i s o r has e x p l a i n e d how we might work t o g e t h e r . . . w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s of one to one ( r = . 4 0 , p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s of as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = . 4 0 , p = . 0 0 0 ) ; w i t h a l l i t ems d e s c r i b i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .34 to . 6 8 , p ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 5 9 ) ; . . . p r o v i d e s the r e s o u r c e s to do a good job ( r = . 5 9 ) ; . . . s o u r c e of a d v i c e ( r = . 5 9 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .59) My s u p e r v i s o r can sense when I am upse t or a n x i o u s w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one to one s e s s i o n s ( r = . 5 0 , p = . 0 0 0 ) ; w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .21 to . 6 2 , p ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h . . . u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l ( r = . 6 2 ) ; . . . h e l p s me s o r t out the r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s ( . 5 9 ) ; has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = . 5 8 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n . . . ( r = . 59 ) . . . h e l p s me p r i o r i t i z e my c o n c e r n s ( r = .56) My s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s of one to one s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = . 5 7 , p = . 0 0 0 ) ; w i t h  a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .44 to . 7 4 , p ^ . 0 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h . . . good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = . 7 0 ) ; s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = . 6 9 ) ; . . . h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 7 0 ) ; . . . h e l p s me s o r t out the r o l e of my f e e l i n g s ( r = . 6 9 ) ; . . . c r e a t e s an a tmosphere . . . ( r = . 7 2 ) ; . . . promotes a f r e e exchange . . . ( r = . 7 4 ) ; . . . p l a y s a A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = . 7 2 ) ; . . . i s a good s o c i a l work model ( r = .71) I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .48, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .63, p = .000) w i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r =. 46 t o .77, p ' . 0 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h ... s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 7 7 ) ; ... p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = . 7 3 ) ; . . . t r u s t ... ( r = .73, p =); . . . u n d e r s t a n d s my f e e l i n g s ( r = . 7 1 ) ; . . . h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l ... ( r = .72) My s u p e r v i s o r l e t s me know when I ' v e done a good j o b w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .48, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .43, p =); w i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .29 t o .67, p = < . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 6 1 ) ; ... t r u s t ... ( r = . 6 6 ) ; ... i n t e r e s t e d i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = . 6 7 ) ; ... has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = .61) My s u p e r v i s o r i s a v a i l a b l e when I need h i m / h e r w i t h : f r e q u e n c y o f one t o one s e s s i o n i n t e r r u p t i o n ( r = - . 4 0 , p =001); u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .36 t o .68, p . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = . 6 8 ) ; ... i n t e r e s t e d i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = .66) My s u p e r v i s o r h a n d l e s h i s / h e r a u t h o r i t y w e l l , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .55, p = .000) v / i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s o f s u p e r v i s o r ( r = .47 t o .79, p < . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 7 9 ) ; ... t r u s t ... ( r = . 7 8 ) ; . . . p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = . 7 5 ) . My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me i d e n t i f y my c o n c e r n s i n a s i t u a t i o n and. e x a m i n e s them one a t a t i m e ( p a r t i a l i s e ) w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .46, p =.00); u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .41, p =); w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = .37 t o .67, p . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ... ( r = A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d 220 . 6 7 ) ; . . . h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e of my f e e l i n g s ( r = . 6 5 ) ; u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l ( r = .63) My s u p e r v i s o r s e t s a s i d e enough r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s ' o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .49, p = .000) w i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .32 t o .62, p ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : my s u p e r v i s o r has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f my c a s e l o a d ( r = . 6 2 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ... ( r = . 6 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me cope w i t h t h e s t r e s s ... ( r = . 5 9 ) ; ... t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = .59) My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s i n t h e work w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .55, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .47 p = .000) w i t h a l l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .40 t o .70, p = <-. 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = . 7 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l r o l e model ( r =. 6 9 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o d i s c u s s d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s ( r = . 6 8 ) ; ... p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = .68) My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me cope w i t h t h e s t r e s s o f t h e work I do w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .56 p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .54, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .31 t o .65, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 6 5 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ... ( r = . 6 5 ) ; ... t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = . 6 4 ) ; ...has a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f my c a s e l o a d ( r = .64) My s u p e r v i s o r has a d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e k n o w l e d g e o f m i n i s t r y p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e x v i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .50, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .22 t o • 62, p < . 0 0 ) . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : . . . o r g a n i z e s own t i m e ( r = . 6 2 ) ; . . . t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = . 5 1 ) ; . . . i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = .50) My s u p e r v i s o r i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d so t h a t h i s / h e r own work f l o w s s m o o t h l y w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .52, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .22 t o .62, p = ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r ( r = . 5 4 ) ; ...has a A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f m i n i s t r y p o l i c y . . . i s a v a i l a b l e when needed ( r = .58) . ( r = .62) My s u p e r v i s o r has h a p p e n i n g i n my needed s e s s i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p .69, p < . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t a good s o c i a l work r o l e p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e cope v / i t h t h e s t r e s s .. v / i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ( r a good w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f what i s c a s e l o a d , v / i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as ( r = .56, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s ( r = .33 t o c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... i s model ( r = . 6 9 ) ; . . . p l a y s a m o r a l e ( r = . 6 4 ) ; . . . h e l p s me ( r = . 6 4 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d = .69) My s u p e r v i s o r t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .44, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .56, p =) and w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .46 t o .68, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t ... ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . i s a good s o c i a l v/ork r o l e model ( r = . 6 7 ) ; ... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s ( r = .66) I n s u p e r v i s i o n t h e r e i s t h e k i n d o f a t m o s p h e r e where f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s as w e l l my s u c c e s s e s , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .59, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s ( r = .41, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .42 t o .78, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t ... . 7 8 ) ; . . . p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r . 7 5 ) ; ... has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = .72) My s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f my work, w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .57, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .46, p = .000) w i t h a l l I t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .34 t o .75, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e ... ( r = . 7 5 ) ; ... h a n d l e s a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 7 0 ) ; ... i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = .72) When I t e l l my s u p e r v i s o r how I f e e l h e / s h e u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s , v / i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .66, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .54, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .47 t o .80, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r ( r = . 8 0 ) ; my s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d 2 2 2 work r o l e model ( r = . 7 2 ) ; ... e n c o u r a g e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f o p i n i o n s ( r = .72) I n s u p e r v i s i o n I f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y w i t h my s u p e r v i s o r , w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .22 t o .64, p < . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h . . . p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f o p i n i o n s ( r = . 6 4 ) ; . . . p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ... ( r = . 6 1 ) ; ... an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s and f a i l u r e s ... ( r = .58) I have a c l e a r i d e a o f how my s u p e r v i s o r r a t e s my p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .54, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .31 t o .59, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h ... t h e r e i s an a t m o s p h e r e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ... ( r = . 5 9 ) ; ... p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = . 5 8 ) ; . . . t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( r = .54) I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .54, p = .000) u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .60, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .46 t o .80, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : my s u p e r v i s o r has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = . 8 0 ) ; . . . u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l ( r = . 8 0 ) ; ...an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ... ( r = .79) My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s me t o d i s c u s s s u b j e c t s w h i c h I am n o t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h ( t a b o o s u b j e c t s ) w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .46, p =.001) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .27 t o .68, p . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s v/ere w i t h ... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my own f e e l i n g s ... ( r = . 6 8 ) ; . . . h e l p s me p r i o r i t i z e ( r = . 6 6 ) ; . . . e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s my p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s ( r = . 5 9 ) ; . . . p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = .61) My s u p e r v i s o r p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s and o p i n i o n s i n s u p e r v i s i o n , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .50, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r =' .45, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .37 t o .74, p ^ . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h ... has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r = . 7 4 ) ; I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t my s u p e r v i s o r ( r = . 7 3 ) ; ... u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l ( r = . 7 2 ) ; ... an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ... ( r = .72) My s u p e r v i s o r v%ri 11 e x p r e s s my c o n c e r n s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; . .with a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .34 t o .63, p = ^ . 0 0 ) . A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o t r u s t ... ( r = . 6 2 ) ; f o r d e c i s i o n s ( r = .59) w i t h : ... t r i e s t o e n s u r e ... ( r = . 6 3 ) ; I f e e l a b l e .. w i l l s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y My s u p e r v i s o r h e l p s and e n c o u r a g e s me t o keep on l e a r n i n g ; w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .33 t o .66, p = . 0 0 ) . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s ... ( r = . 6 6 ) ; ... i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a.dvice ... ( r = . 6 6 ) ; ... p r o v i d e s good c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ( r = . 5 9 ) . My s u p e r v i s o r e n c o u r a g e s me t o d i s c u s s rny p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and f e e l i n g s w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .45, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .45, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .25 t o .65, p < . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... h e l p s me s o r t o u t t h e r o l e o f my f e e l i n g s ( r = . 6 4 ) ; . . . i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t ( r = . 6 5 ) ; . . . p r o m o t e s a f r e e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s ... ( r = .61) My s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e o r i n f o r m a t i o n when I have a d i f f i c u l t s o c i a l work d e c i s i o n t o .make, w i t h : f r e q u e n c y o f as needed ( r = .48, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .54, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s ' d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .39 t o .65, p . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h c u r r e n t s u p e r v i s o r ( r = . 6 5 ) ; . . . e n c o u r a g e s me t o keep on l e a r n i n g ( r = . 6 5 ) ; . . . h a n d l e s own a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = .63) My s u p e r v i s o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t when t h i n g s a r e 'go i n g b a d l y , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one ( r = .56, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .45, p =.001); w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .29 t o .72, p ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : I f e e l a b l e t o t r u s t ... ( r = . 6 9 ) ; . . . p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = . 6 6 ) ; ... i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = .72) My s u p e r v i s o r i s \ v i l l i n g t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c a s e w o r k d e c i s i o n s we make i n s u p e r v i s i o n , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .42, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed ( r = .53,p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .40 t o .62, p < . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e ( r = . 6 2 ) ; I f e e l A p p e n d i x C C o n t i n u e d a b l e t o t r u s t ... ( r = . 6 0 ) ; ...an a t m o s p h e r e where I f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s m i s t a k e s ... ( r = .60) My s u p e r v i s o r p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .51, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .53, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .35 t o .75, p ' . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s v/ere w i t h . . . h a n d l e s own a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 7 5 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n ... ( r = . 7 3 ) ; ...has good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ( r • = . 7 2 ) ; . . . i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = .72) My s u p e r v i s o r t r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o do a good j o b , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .44, p = ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .42, p =) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .38 t o .73, p ^ . 0 0 ) . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 7 3 ) ; . . . h a n d l e s own a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 7 2 ) ; . . . p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n o f f i c e m o r a l e ( r = . 6 9 ) . c o n s i d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n I r e c e i v e t o be e s s e n t i a l t o d o i n g a good j o b , w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .40, p =.001); f r e q u e n c y o f one t o one s e s s i o n s ( r = .40, p = . 0 0 0 ) ; u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .51, p = .000) w i t h a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .30 t o .70, p . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model ( r = . 7 0 ) ; . . . h e l p s me p r i o r i t i z e c o n c e r n s ( r = . 6 2 ) ; ... i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a d v i c e ( r = .64) My s u p e r v i s o r i s a good s o c i a l work r o l e model w i t h : u s e f u l n e s s o f as needed s e s s i o n s ( r = .60, p =) w i t h  a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .44 t o .79, p . 0 0 ) . h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h : ... h a n d l e s own a u t h o r i t y w e l l ( r = . 7 9 ) ; I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ( r = . 7 7 ) ; . . . u n d e r s t a n d s how I f e e l ( r = . 7 4 ) ; . . . e n s u r e s t h a t I have t h e r e s o u r c e s ... ( r = .74) 

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