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Sea of images : a study of the relationships amongst students' orientations, beliefs, and science instruction Snively, Gloria Jean 1986

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SEA  OF  IMAGES:  A  STUDY  ORIENTATIONS,  OF  THE  RELATIONSHIPS  BELIEFS,  AND  SCIENCE  AMONGST S T U D E N T S ' INSTRUCTION  By Gloria B . S c , M.A.,  A  THESIS THE  Jean  Portland Simon  Snively  State  Fraser  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  OF  University, University,  1966 1976  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  THE  OF  EDUCATION  in THE  FACULTY  Mathematics  We  accept to  THE  and  this the  Science  thesis  UNIVERSITY  Gloria  EDUCATION  required  , 0@  OF  j  OF u n  e  Jean  as  Education  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1986 Snively,  1986  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  Of  Mathematics and "Science E d u c a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  October  10,  1986  Columbia  written  i i ABSTRACT  Recent at  quite  research young  construct  from  remarkably  in  ages  education bring  their  to  research  focuses  on  attention  has  given  and  the  impact  way  instruction  the in  One  In  this  of  study, to  interpretive  the  in  beliefs  that  Although  nature  to  and  of  which  they  they  beliefs  a g r o w i n g body  are of  beliefs,  little  u n d e r l y i n g these  beliefs  beliefs  1  students  which  such  these  values  that  and  values  respond  to  may  and  have  an  interpret  science.  values  individual  the  ways  way  underlying  instruction  change.  i n which . students  upon  established  own e x p e r i e n c e s ,  resistent  been  to  has  is an  describing through  a  set  of  beliefs  the  construct  of  an  orientation  referred  to  a  understand framework,  and  experience  embodying a  the  coherent  and  its  "orientation". tendency  world  set  of  for  an  through  an  beliefs  and  values. The  purpose  relationships seashore, and  their  their  involved  the  students'  of  six  (scientific,  aesthetic,  health  during  science  and  and  orientations  different  safety),  seashore  analysis,  looking  for  well  as  relationships  to  seashore  explore  in  and  the  were  spiritual,  a d i v e r s i t y of (tidal  The  beliefs  patterns  the  relationships,  by m e t a p h o r and  the  towards  instruction.  orientations  utilitarian, as  was  orientations  specific  students' By  study  about  col-lection  instruction.  specific  the  beliefs  responses,  and  this  experiences  interviews, after  between  of  study  literal  before  and  students' identified  recreational, beliefs  cycle,  about  habitat,  predator-prey, etc.).  In  and  basic  were  The  primary  set  of  In  beach  the  ecology, which  orientation  from  the  a l l  a  quite  of  the  some  b e l i e f s  about  a l l  of  the  basic  knowledge more  knowledge  with  was  increase  to  the  school  the  to  and  of  the  introduce  around  knowledge  use  student's  a  seashore of  instructional  student's A  preferred  second  a b i l i t y  to  several one  interviews  purpose view  orientation which  students  were  held  was  relationships, science  i n  most  the  r e l a t i v e l y  that  describe  predominantly.  beliefs  there  was  a  and  similar which  to  were  reasonably the  nature  relationships.  an and  interviews increase a  in  decrease  ideas.  students  s c i e n t i f i c  to  quite  orientations  seashore  there  showed  orientations  p o s t - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  be  classroom  analysis  was  i n s t r u c t i o n .  their  s p e c i f i c  a  the  students'  students,  accepted  to  a  to  b e l i e f s  students  frequently  to  used  most  accompanied  appeared  used  most  the  i n  focused  attempted  between  seashore  inconsistent  use  For  during  the  i n s t r u c t i o n  p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  ideas;  of  in  conservation,  orientations.  held  about  Results for  of  students  r e l a t i o n s h i p  their  to  enhance  students  science  aid  concepts  prior  students  made  individuals  sensitive  the  were  to  of  teacher  variety  d i f f e r e n t .  strong of  of  few  accepted  focus  to  pollution,  b e l i e f s .  order  was  a  seashore,  Only  and  were  Results while  conducted  i d e n t i f i e d  i n s t r u c t i o n  seashore  with  ecological  relationships.  of  observations  orientations  metaphors  community,  interviews  community  students'  chain,  addition,  instruction the  food  by  This a  that  knowledge of  b e l i e f s  increased  willingness  orientation. stable  show  six  This months  to new  after  iv instruction, students'  implying cognitive  used  orientations  and  that  elaborated, to  view  Implications discussed.  for  that  it  system. which  was  The  they  fact  students  these  provides  evidence  that  seashore for  science  that  possessed  some  the  firmly  from  a  integrated many  prior  students to  were  variety  i n s t r u c t i o n  were  w i l l i n g of  and  the s t i l l  i n s t r u c t i o n ,  orientations they  into  and  more able  orientations. research  are  v  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction B a c k g r o u n d t o the S t u d y The P r o b l e m The M a j o r R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s B r i e f O v e r v i e w o f the S t u d y O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the R e p o r t Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH C h i l d r e n ' s Views and C l a s s r o o m E x p e r i e n c e C h i l d r e n ' s P r i o r B e l i e f s about S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s . C h i l d r e n ' s P r i o r B e l i e f s and S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t i o n . C h i l d r e n ' s P r i o r B e l i e f s , C u l t u r a l Values, and S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t i o n Summary Language, M e t a p h o r , and Meaning The Use o f Metaphor t o G i v e M e a n i n g The Use o f Metaphor t o C r e a t e New M e a n i n g . . . . The Use o f M e t a p h o r t o U n c o v e r M e a n i n g . . . . . . Summary C h a p t e r 3 RESEARCH METHODS AND STRATEGY OF INSTRUCTION . . The Case S t u d y The S i x R e s e a r c h P h a s e s Phase 1 : The P i l o t S t u d i e s and S e l e c t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The F i v e P i l o t S t u d i e s S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Case S e t t i n g Phase 11 The P r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d y The Metaphor I n t e r v i e w s I d e n t i f y i n g the S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s . . . I d e n t i f y i n g the Students' B e l i e f s The L i t e r a l I n t e r v i e w s The T a r g e t S t u d e n t s Phase I I I The C l a s s r o o m I n t e r a c t i o n S t u d y . . . . The S t r a t e g i e s o f I n s t r u c t i o n The Use o f V e r b a l M e t a p h o r s t o C r e a t e New M e a n i n g The Use o f N o n - v e r b a l M e t a p h o r s t o C r e a t e New M e a n i n g Classroom Observations Phase IV Post-instructional Interviews and Community I n q u i r i e s Phase V Long-term P o s t - i n s t r u c t i o n a l I n t e r v i e w s and Community I n q u i r i e s Phase V I A n a l y s i s o f the D a t a  i i v v i i i  ix x 1 3 4 5 6 8 11 11 11 13 20 22 24 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 40 40 45 47 47 56 64 68 74 75 75 76 80 83 83 84 85  vi  Validity L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE STUDENTS' ORIENTATIONS AND B E L I E F S PRIOR TO INSTRUCTION The S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s Towards t h e S e a s h o r e Prior to I n s t r u c t i o n Sets of O r i e n t a t i o n s . . The E x p e r i e n t i a l B a s e s o f t h e Students' Orientations . . . . I n t e r n a l Coherence Summary The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d s E x t e r n a l Coherence Summary The S t u d e n t s ' B e l i e f s P r i o r t o I n s t r u c t i o n . . The S t u d e n t s ' A w a r e n e s s o f S e a s h o r e Phenomena . . . . The S t u d e n t s * B e l i e f s About S e a s h o r e R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Summary . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and B e l i e f s P r i o r t o I n s t r u c t i o n The S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r A w a r e n e s s o f S e a s h o r e Phenomena The S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r B e l i e f s about Seashore R e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t e r n a l C o h e r e n c e s A c r o s s O r i e n t a t i o n s and B e l i e f s . Summary  86 90  Chapter 4  Chapter 5  95 96 103 114 116 117 119 131 13 9 140 140 143 14 5 146 147 150 164 166  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE STUDENTS' ORIENTATIONS AND B E L I E F S , AND EXPERIENCES DURING INSTRUCTION . 168 The S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s and A c t i v i t i e s 169 Taking Into Account the Students' O r i e n t a t i o n s During I n s t r u c t i o n 173 On t h e P r o c e s s o f G e n e r a t i n g M e t a p h o r s 173 I n d i v i d u a l Styles of Metaphorical Thinking 176 I n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e S t u d e n t s ' Own M e t a p h o r s Into I n s t r u c t i o n 184 M e t a p h o r s as R i c h I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e v i c e s 188 A e s t h e t i c M e t a p h o r s t o Teach S c i e n c e Concepts . . 191 S p i r i t u a l Metaphors t o Teach S c i e n c e Concept . . . 193 U t i l i t a r i a n Metaphors t o Teach S c i e n c e Concepts . 196 H e a l t h and S a f e t y A c t i v i t i e s t o T e a c h S c i e n c e Concepts 197 The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and B e l i e f s , and T h e i r B e h a v i o r D u r i n g I n s t r u c t i o n . . 199 The S t u d e n t s ' B e h a v i o r D u r i n g S c i e n c e A c t i v i t i e s . . 199 F i e l d t r i p s to the Seashore 199 The S c i e n c e P r o j e c t s 202 Preferred Animals 204 P o l l u t i o n Study . . . 207 The S t u d e n t s ' B e h a v i o r D u r i n g A e s t h e t i c A c t i v i t i e s . 209 The S t u d e n t s ' B e h a v i o r D u r i n g S p i r i t u a l A c t i v i t i e s . 212 Summary 215  v i i  Chapter  6  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE STUDENTS' ORIENTATIONS AND B E L I E F S AFTER INSTRUCTION 216 The S t u d e n t s ' B e l i e f s A f t e r I n s t r u c t i o n 217 The E l a b o r a t i o n o f E x i s t i n g B e l i e f s 219 The Emergence o f New B e l i e f s 221 Complex R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among B e l i e f s 223 The D e c r e a s e o f A l t e r n a t e B e l i e f s 225 Summary 226 The S t u d e n t s ' Use o f O r i e n t a t i o n s After Instruction 227 The D i v e r s i t y o f O r i e n t a t i o n s 227 Coherences Across O r i e n t a t i o n s 231 Summary 236 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r B e l i e f s A f t e r I n s t r u c t i o n 237 The S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r A w a r e n e s s o f S e a s h o r e Phenomena 237 The S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r B e l i e f s About S p e c i f i c Seashore R e l a t i o n s h i p s 238 Summary . 251 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t a p h o r s and S t u d e n t s ' O r i e n t a t i o n s and B e l i e f s 252 Summary 272 The E l a b o r a t i o n o f a V a r i e t y o f O r i e n t a t i o n s 273 Summary 278 The S t a b i l i t y o f t h e S t u d e n t s ' P o s t - i n s t r u c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s and B e l i e f s 279 The S t u d e n t s ' L o n g - t e r m B e l i e f s 279 The S t u d e n t s ' L o n g - t e r m O r i e n t a t i o n s 281 Summary 293  Chapter  7  IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE INSTRUCTION AND RESEARCH 294 Summary o f t h e S t u d y 294 C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Education 299 The N a t u r e o f O r i e n t a t i o n s 299 O r i e n t a t i o n s and F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 305 The M e t a p h o r I n t e r v i e w as a R e s e a r c h T o o l . . . . 308 M e t a p h o r I n t e r v i e w s and F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . . . . 3 1 3 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Metaphors 316 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t a p h o r s and F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . . 322 D i v e r s i t y o f O r i e n t a t i o n s and S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t i o n 325 BIBLIOGRAPHY ^ 331 APPENDIX A THE METAPHOR INTERVIEWS 337 APPENDIX B THE SCIENCE CONCEPTS 342 APPENDIX C THE INSTRUCTIONAL METAPHORS 345 APPENDIX D THE STUDENTS' AWARENESS OF SEASHORE PHENOMENA AFTER INSTRUCTION 350  v i i i  L I S T OF  Table 1  Luke's Awareness  Table 2  Luke's Category  Table 3  Luke's L i s t  Table 4  The  Table 5  Jimmy's C a t e g o r y  Table 6  Mary's L i s t  Table 7  Dan's C a t e g o r y  Table 8  Jimmy's C a t e g o r y  TABLES  o f S e a s h o r e Phenomena System  .  69  . . .  70  . . . .  73  o f S e a s h o r e Phenomena. . .  141  . . .  152  Prior  to I n s t r u c t i o n  of Predator-prey R e l a t i o n s h i p s  S t u d e n t s ' Awareness System  Prior  to I n s t r u c t i o n  of Predator-prey R e l a t i o n s h i p s System A f t e r  Instruction  System A f t e r  . . . . 1 56 , . . . .  Instruction.  240  . . . . 2 43  ix  L I S T OF  Figure 1  Luke's B a r n a c l e s  Figure 2  Dan's "The S e a s h o r e  Figure 3  Mary's  Figure 4  ILLUSTRATIONS  "The S e a s h o r e  70 i s a Neighborhood"  255  i s a Bracelet"  260  Anna's "The S e a s h o r e  i s a Garden"  266  Figure 5  Luke's  i s a Happy S o n g "  Figure 6  Jimmy's "A F i s h i n g B o a t "  "The S e a s h o r e  . . . . . 276 . 289  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  am  extremely  committee,  Drs.  for  valuable  their  Jim  grateful  Gaskell,  to  the  Gaalen  assistance  and  members  Erickson,  of  my  and  supervisory  Walter  encouragement  Werner  throughout  the  study. Without Cove,  this  teachers Salmon  thank  teachers,  students.  Many for  Cove  the the  more  sharing  University  Discretionary B r i t i s h  support  of  many  would  never  grade  6  home-school thanks the  individuals  have  teacher,  to  the  traditional  Salmon  come  into  the  p r i n c i p a l ,  coordinator,  go  from  and  native  s p i r i t u a l  of  being.  course  I the the  Indian  culture  stories  of  the  people.  Financial a  warm  undertaking  particularly primary  the  of  assistance B r i t i s h  Grant  Columbia,  both  from of  for  the  Columbia the which  study  Graduate  Educational are  was  provided Fellowship  Research  g r a t e f u l l y  through and  Institute  acknowledged.  a of  1 Chapter  STATEMENT  OF  1  THE  PROBLEM  Introduction  A became  few  years  fascinated  various  children  watched,  I  with  responded  to  and  I  as  some  children  seashells.  l i t t l e  brother;  others  boats.  Other  castles  or  road-graders, as  they  up  and  to  be the  beach  wings.  thunderbird  and  thunder  lightning  and  with  themselves  k i l l e r  marvelous  undulating  jumping  out  of  the  busily  the  of  jet  out  eyes.  planes loops  of  Others  or  his  be  sounds I  was  would dives  run with  himself  a  head,  breathed  must  have  imagined  for  they  ran  with  down  and  salmon,  swimming became  to  imagined  and  imagined  or  roadways  mud.  and  and  eagles,  power  children  staring  Others  made  kelp,  dad,  themselves  and  I  ways.  with  intricate  some  eyes  water.  cats,  as  children  mom,  how  boy  movements,  of  dogs,  wonderful  seals,  sand  I the  but  diverse  and  l i t t l e  whales,  the  built  One  his  i n  sand  or  f i r s t ,  ways,  the  seagulls making  from  i n  f o r k - l i f t s  watch  At  beach,  individual  imagined  shaped  graceful  play.  pictures  pictures  sandy  similar  pictures drew  or  a  experiences  Some  to  i n  how  their  children  and  amused  down  outstretched  drew  along  children  with  Some  dump-trucks,  particularly  walking  playing  drew  forts.  collected  themselves  be  interpreted  and  or  to  impressed  sticks  fishing  while watching  seemed  became  watched  ago  tiny  upside worms  or  snails,  2 as  they  the  wiggled  sand  and  looking  of  the  These  is  of  plane, a  a  explore  as  back  i n  and  s l i d  through  activity  that  l e f t  strange  to  over  and  such  the  mood, to  a  children  a  becomes  them  aware  to  seagull,  magnificent  understand  admire.  communication.  around  graceful  whale,  one  human  materials  "becoming" k i l l e r  giggle  a  fundamental  upon  whereby  reference  how  metaphor  relate  seashore?  How  beliefs  events,  gaining  metaphor. to  does  a  become soaring  thunderbird,  their  how  had  experiences  through  science  been  exploring  device  Once  Seashore  means  a  of  ecology.  increasing This  analyze can  study  how be  the used  for  many  to  a  at  of  about  the  relate  animals,  to  objects,  f i n a l l y , or  the  choice  metaphor  "barrier"  can  do  these  "bridge"  to  instruction? the  use  years.  the  knowledge  of  And  In n.d.),  students'  describes  feelings  plants,  as  (Snively, the  childrens'  and  interact?  educators  experiences  the  choice  seashore  either  instructional Upon  values  act  dramas,  their  does  childrens*  conditions  knowledge  children's  How  their  the  metaphors  I  the  conceptualize  about  and  preferred  to  children  through  values  around  This  seashore  and  came  slithered  metaphor. By  their  looks  splashing  process  through  later  drew  else.  and  fascinating  metaphor  children  something jet  they  one  use  squiggled  mud — a  tracks  When  and  understand  metaphor  writing I  used  the  of  metaphors  metaphors  students* their  as  prior  an  curriculum  understanding  use  of  of  as  of to  beach  identify  beliefs  experiences  a  and  during  3 science  instruction,  seashore of  ecology.  Once  Upon  a  and  their  Instruction  Students  ways  i n  These  The  degree  of  1983). describe  phenomena,  topic  they  area.  notion  and  its  can't  an and  have  an  based  version  a  the  blank  been for  world mind,  able  a  upon  the  to  that  with is  in  some  not  new  & Erickson, identify  range  established  prior  i n s t r u c t i o n  Driver  1978;  on  impact  interpret  not  views also  ideas  approach  researchers  some by  of  of  work  in  about  has  been  cognitive be  of  and  specific  such  views  the  complex  construct  orientation  means  experience  the  a  of  tendency  world  a  and  narrow  done  on  through  set  can  of  way  between  orientation. an an  concepts a  individual  set try  domains, of  have  analyzing  describing  affective  interplay  for  by  Researchers  One  an  education  meaning  values.  separated.  the  science  constructed  underlying  fact,  is  and  Easley,  b e l i e f s  L i t t l e  between  affect  to  researchers  distinguish  capture  modified  Study  beliefs  students  have  cognitive  they  a  of  persistent.  the  beliefs  on  classroom  or  &  have  Typically,  students'  the  i n t u i t i v e  but  addressed  based  the  organization,  only  remarkably  that  Driver  such  to  respond  notion  1963; Not  to  ideas  they  mental  (Ausubel,  be  bring  which  science.  was  understanding  Seashore.  Background  experiences.  subsequent  or of to  but  in  attempting  to  cognition In  this  and  study,  to  understand  interpretive  framework,  4  embodying  a  coherent  These aspects  of  normal even  of  beliefs  orientations  our  conceptual  probing  understanding  are  such  as  carefully  broad  at  the  values.  thought and  interview  these  and  system  techniques  conventional  more  set  to  not  easily  pencil  techniques. i n t e l l e c t u a l  nature  be  of  deeply  rooted  accessible  and  paper  One  of  metaphorical  tests  or  ways  of  the  commitments  with  is  to  look  thinking  in  children. The  The about  fact  nature  teachers  prior  need  students'  to  acceptance the  instruction concepts and  as  as  orientations the  concepts  then  to that  the  be  quite  classroom  teachers  If  need  i f  held  a by  student  The  orientations the  her  the  students'  be  own  and  be  exists  accepted  students*  science  a  the  presented s c i e n t i f i c  students suggests  b e l i e f s  f a i r l y  between  those  beliefs  the  orientations  may  that  and  conflicts  beliefs  and  fact and  may  of  their  interprets  conflict a  in  the  and  or  that  understanding  concepts  learning  take  i n  their  feelings  v a r i a b i l i t y  expressed  There  his  and  suggests  and  student  with  d i f f i c u l t .  prior to  a  these  But  then  as  orientations  learning  beliefs  nature  influence  harmony  task.  and  the  concepts.  presented.  instruction, may  may  prior  i n  ideas  Variations  science  being  b e l i e f s ,  about  have  instruction  feelings,  students*  straightforward  by  more  b e l i e f s  new  clearly  specific  b e l i e f s .  and of  to  and  and  orientations  students  know  ideas  orientations  between  that  Problem  and  bring also values  5 seriously  and  In taken  incorporate  this  into  account  interaction science  between  for  a  This What the 1.1  is  the  What  i n s t r u c t i o n .  would  Maior  nature  of  prior  to  is  specific  the  instructional  i n i t i a l  students' result that  time  It  was  increased  would  after  be  process.  orientations hoped  orientations  i n  Research  explored  seashore  the  students'  s i g n i f i c a n t  study  into  concepts  The  1.  the  ecological  persist  the  during  presentations  seashore to  study,  these  were  that  and  school  knowledge  s u f f i c i e n t l y  instruction  had  about stable  ended.  Questions  the  following  research  the  students'  orientations  questions: towards  instruction?  nature  seashore  of  the  students'  relationships  beliefs  prior  about  to  instruction? 1.2  How  are  seashore  the  students'  b e l i e f s  relationships  about  related  to  specific their  orientations ? 2.  What  interactions  orientations  and  occur  between  beliefs  and  the  their  students' experiences  during  instruction? 3.  How 3.1  effective What  is  specific 3.2  To what seashore  were the  the  nature  seashore extent from  are a  strategies of  the  of  variety  students' of  instruction?  students'  relationships the  the  beliefs  after able  about  instruction? to  orientations?  view  the  6  What  3.3  is  the  students* How  3.4  relationship  orientations  stable  are  orientations  the  and  Brief  This the  study  beliefs  and  involved  their  the  students'  and  between  of  by  metaphor and  the  metaphors the  indicated.  question:  (painting,  If  church,  f u l l  to  identify  answers  for  one  or  verbal  six  recreational,  health  beliefs  about  habitat,  predator-prey, The  ones  i n  the  different  (aesthetic,  and  would were  it  students*  seashore  purpose  a  the  following-  The  on  great  asked  and  the  relationships  chain, of  and  the  pin  why?  audiotape. I  was  able  respondents'  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  safety),  a  factory,  responses i n  from  were  the  be,  recorded  and  selected  playground,  orientations  food  metaphors  of  of  metaphor  students  one  It  pre-  the  they  the  s c i e n t i f i c ,  specific  primary  why  and  interviews,  during  were  responses  patterns  l i t e r a l  select  example,  community,  students* looking  For  seashore  which  By  explain  the  cushion),  to  describing  instruction.  During  students to  science  and  with  orientations  beliefs  interviews  and  concerned  during  interviews.  suggested  Study  students'  post-instructional  range  the  the  experiences  asked  the  post-instructional  primarily  orientations  I  and  beliefs?  students*  Overview  probing,  instruction  beliefs?  was  relationships  between  s p i r i t u a l , diversity  (tidal  of  cycle,  e t c . ) . three-week  instructional  unit  was  to  teach  relationships  as:  such  t i d a l  predator-prey,  conservation, of  In  beach  ecology,  orientations.  A  the  a b i l i t y  students'  orientations  through  representative  class  discussions  class  of  Columbia, native  which  w i l l  specific  in  and the  the  age  interviews. selected  be  for  of  this  i n  a  given is  seashore,  Within  to  a  field  use  notes  own  enhance  variety  of  metaphors  During  It  was  and  grade to the  intensive  6  (n=20)  coastal  this of  phase  selected  at  one  expected  that  of  range  a  class  express class, study:  was  their six the  of  main the  i n  the  of  the  target  i n  and  at  the  presence study  of  would  orientations about used  i n  of  students  the  metaphor  students with  a  A  cove  c r i t e r i o n  ideas  student  Cove".  beliefs  a b i l i t y  of  B r i t i s h  located  this  diversity The  of  is  in  wide  town  end  students a  consisted  "Salmon  extraction  relationships.  level  was  from  pseudonym  located  presentation  a  of  to  students'  instructional  study  the  non-native  of  seashore  small  European  cove.  seashore  selection that  the  i n  students  community  of  the  orientations. use  students*  attempted  with  of  pollution, the  instruction  the  the  chain,  a c t i v i t i e s .  largely  native  towards  at  6  end  result  the  grade  community  both  and  teacher  of  use  through  participants  Indian  other  the  food  increase  the  view  different  data  The  a  of  to  seashore  desiccation,  zonation,  purpose to  of  habitat,  consistent  second  concepts  recycle,  order  metaphors  collected  cycle,  community, etc.  instructional  I  ecological  protection,  interdependence,  knowledge  basic  a  were  preferred  8 s c i e n t i f i c  orientation  u t i l i t a r i a n  (Dan),  orientation  the  (Jimmy),  the  student  with  a  preferred  student  with  a  preferred  aesthetic  orientation  (Mary),  the  student  with  a  preferred  s p i r i t u a l  orientation  (Luke),  the  student  with  a  preferred  recreational preferred  orientation  orientation  (Anna),  this  second  chapter,  b e l i e f s  metaphors  that  govern  related be so  about  the  with  no  Report  the  a  of  role  elaborated  to  doing,  show  how may  I they  be  The  created third  analysis  of  and  tasks  the  describes interviews  can  the  the I  i n  questions  i n  metaphor  addressed  how be  from  to  data. involved p i l o t  constructed  that The  tuning also  to  i n  analyze give  uncover  literature, has  analyzed  literature  of  the  on  concepts  discussed.  The  together  with  substantiate  metaphors  used  the  interview,  and  how  metaphors  beliefs  and  meaning  to  meaning,  values. everyday  and  how  new  them.  chapter  five  fine is  outlined  of  phenomena.  the  identify  review  education  l i f e  the are  the  science  everyday  research,  r e a l i t y , meaning  research  play  underpinnings  In  reflect  recent  students'  can  of  chapters  the  outline  how  student  study. In  I  a  (Sharon).  Organization  Seven  and  It  describes outlines  in  each studies  for  the  the  the  six  phase. and  c o l l e c t i o n research In  includes  analysis  of  so the the  and  phases  doing,  it  metaphor students'  9  orientations  and  b e l i e f s .  strategy  which  students'  orientations  it  outlines  and  was  how  addresses  It  developed  I  and  to  beliefs  analyzed  the  describes  issues  the  of  take  account  the  i n s t r u c t i o n .  using  v a l i d i t y  pedagogical  into  during data  the  and  multiple  Last, methods  l i m i t a t i o n s  of  the  study. The  fourth  organization students so  of  i n  doing,  the it  ideas  and  quite  similar  were school the  by  about  and  i n  the  the  chapter  describes  how  variations  to  orientations  and  describes  about  the  the  the  whereas  the  may  were others  interviews I  with  describe  be by  In  students'  relationships  part  the  the  how  influenced their  attempted  of  i n  previous  science to  and  their  experiences  a c t i v i t i e s  that  concepts,  take  orientations  relationships  beliefs,  students'  type  s p e c i f i c  students'  describes  i n  that  seashore.  teacher  the  and  describes  teach  the  in it  It  of  community,  beliefs  the  i n s t r u c t i o n .  concepts,  elders  at  to  seashore  analyzing  and  analyzes  beliefs  some  by  experiences  designed  how  science  factors,  f i f t h  and  Then,  orientations  and  brought  detail  specific  accepted  i n s t r u c t i o n .  Finally,  i n  study  socio-cultural  The during  Cove  describes  o f f i c i a l s  physical  were  Salmon  to  describes  orientations  different.  students'  part  the  b e l i e f s  quite  chapter  into  and  between  the  and  account  b e l i e f s . students'  experiences  during  instruction. The each  sixth  student  chapter made  of  begins various  by  •documenting  orientations  to  the  use  describe  that the  10 seashore  after  instruction.  relationship  between  the  towards  seashore  prior  input,  the and  changes  relationships. s t a b i l i t y  of  the  type  instruction  The  conclusions.  The  and  instruction  work  leaves  that chapter  unanswered  beliefs  relates  about  and the  a  instructional  and  orientations  seashore  analyses  the  beliefs  six  findings  to  the  study  and  occurred. provides  discussed, and  describes  orientations  the  describe's  and  it  preferred  specific  implications are  doing,  instruction,  it  instruction,  seventh  to  their  students'  after  so  students'  Also,  months of  in  In  a  of as  summary the  research  well  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of  as  for  the for  issues future  learning that  this  research.  11 Chapter  2  REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH  This  chapter  the  importance  the  implications  relevance to  is  o f r e c o g n i z i n g the l e a r n e r s ' of t h i s f o r classroom  new  instructional  meaning,  This  first  instruction  which  children's  instruction?  how  to  section are  meaning  in  an  Experiences  issues  p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study.  beliefs  about prior  science beliefs  i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  for  What i s known  concepts  influence setting?  influence  science  prior  to  the l e a r n i n g What i s known  children's  beliefs  concepts?  Children's Prior  Recent  Beliefs  research  children  at  science,  construct  they  and 2) t h e  t o g i v e meaning,  uncover  addresses  the v a l u e s of a c u l t u r e  about s c i e n c e  which  and  k n o w l e d g e and  instruction,  K n o w l e d g e and C l a s s r o o m  How do t h e s e  science concepts  about  prior  setting.  Children's Prior  of  two m a j o r themes: 1)  o f work on how m e t a p h o r s c a n be used  create  about  o r g a n i z e d around  quite  a  in  young  out  of  About S c i e n c e  education age,  their  and  has  emphasized  that  b e f o r e they a r e taught  everyday  use t o e x p l a i n t h e i r w o r l d  Concepts  experiences  views  ( A u s u b e l , 1968; D r i v e r &  12 Easley,  1978;  Magoon,  1977).  and  describe  phenomena, be  Driver  Not o n l y such  but  to  1  mostly  in  attempts  describe  of  science  c o n c e p t s are becoming  observed hotness  Piaget  research.  added t o i t " ( E r i c k s o n ,  of  the  out"  (Luyten,  (Osborne  &  night"  current  is  used  they  support  children their  previous  with  other  Furthermore,  in  quite  the  acquire  term  which  are  physical  was  ( a g e s 8-10)  have been  " t e m p e r a t u r e i s a measure o f the o f the amount o f h e a t  "light  a lightbulb" different  that  with  their  and  (Osborne,  knowledge  "electric  1981).  Kelly, about  the p h y s i c a l  social  and  of  f r o m a c a n d l e goes  1980),  1968;  tree  the presence  A l l of  from those o f s c i e n t i s t s  (Ausubel,  experiences  the l i t t l e  requires  Osborne,  considerable  in  world  C h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about  children  1982), &  notion  people  history,  w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t  1985), " g r a v i t y  (Stead up  are  the  1 9 7 5 ) , "a s e e d grows when the w e i g h t  Cosgrove,  at  ideas  the  c a u s e s t h e s e e d t o c r a c k and l e t s  further  these  views  can  o f the e a r l i e s t s y s t e m a t i c  of  i s a result  is  air"  t h a t such views  change.  1930).  For example,  o f an o b j e c t and  inside  specific  i n h i s work u s e s  One  ( 192 9 »  t o say the f o l l o w i n g :  soil  to  conceptions  out  of  range of  children's  settings.  examine by  a  1981;  identify  c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n s have a l o n g  clinical to  for  Ausubel  carried  area  views  t e n a c i o u s and r e s i s t e n t  Studies  Karplus & Stage,  t h e y have e s t a b l i s h e d  persistent.  "preconception'  1983;  have r e s e a r c h e r s been a b l e t o  intuitive  also  remarkably  amazingly  & Erickson,  1969)  and that  the w o r l d f r o m  environment,  physical  and  milieu.  t h e n a t u r e o f the v i e w s c h i l d r e n have s u p p o r t s the  13 comments  of  children parts  Champagne,  do  not  of  have  of  the  Evidence ideas  about  journals.  and in upon  their  have  that  ways  i n  Students'  Prior  Although  the  concepts  is  area  research,  less  of  beliefs  on  accepted ideas the  current Hewson  conceptions." in  an  Beliefs  is  c h i l d ' s  are  s c i e n t i f i c and  upon  instructional  to  from  assumed As  growing  invented  and  a  that Driver  interest  ideas  impressions  based which  understand  this  widely  accepted  about to  by  as  b e l i e f s as  effect  learn  the  (1978)  Easley  (1981)  setting,  the  perspective  played  Instruction  children's  and a  Science  descriptions  role  is  research  stems  is  of  capacity  Hewson  The  "There  respond  and  known  Driver  based  the  science."  becoming  concepts.  that  while  a  i n t u i t i v e  experience.  sensory  importance  science  i n  are  coherent  have  work  it  possess  of they  view.  extensive  from  indicated, do  point  of  that  ideas  a  students  which  the  provide  empirical  meaning  which  knowledge  now  in  students  i n  that  is  rather  c h i l d ' s  this  interpretation  the  disciplinary  of  generate  (1983)  notion  influence  a l l  epistemology  actively  the  phenomena  Virtually  Erickson  claim  but  which  the  (1979)  Anderson  ideas,  from  the  natural  and  structures  world  for  constructivist learners  isolated  conceptual  understanding  Klopfer,  an  of  s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  refer  different  these  however,  the  to  sets  of  from  that  of  term  not  frameworks" "alternative  alternative is  important alternative  "alternative  use  about  frameworks  clear.  Novak  14  (1977)i  i n  central  idea  single  a  summary i n that  factor  of  theory  Ausubel's  theory,  was s i m p l y  that  influencing learning  i s what  stated  that  t h e "most  the  important  the learner  already  knows." Of  the  implications  work  of  this  that  ideas  are changed  sometimes  quite  different  force Rowell  and  pupils  i n which  reject  irrelevant  flotation, fourth  in  the  some  an  modifying  although  held  by  some  essentially  the  than  of  those  experiences  which  involvement  i n  alternate  i s  included  secondary  beliefs  school-age  scientist,  about  children  r e l a t i v e l y  changes  were  evident.  (1980)  found  five  spite  years  school  been  well-known  of  o f heat  of  to  force  remained rather  background  of  successful  The p e r s i s t e n c e  of  and temperature  i n  by s e v e r a l  (Albert,  result  Osborne  children, a  of  that  prior  views  apparently  science.  studied  that  held  students  of  A study  d i d not  they  i n  year o l d  revealed  ideas  the concepts  has  12-15  1980)  younger  of  of  the  o f much  ideas  the p r i n c i p l e  a l l  those  example,  instruction.  persisted.  university  are  to  on temperature  f i r s t - y e a r  a  beliefs  when  opportunities  unit  some  as  with  pupils  and Berkowitz,  and G i l b e r t  same  study  to  of  understanding  alternate (Stavy  a  For  related  i n spite  allowed  i n  intensive  and Osborne  (1980)  and  factors  children  instruction,  report  (1982)  that  the changes  intended.  persisted  children  of  those  which  the i n s t r u c t i o n  but  completion  from  instructional  suggest  teaching  misconceptions  Dawson  grade  by s c i e n c e  often  the  the f i n d i n g s  i d e n t i f i e d  (1976)  and motion  addressed  perspective  students'  Lebouter  has  1974,  investigators  1978;  Erickson,  1 5  1975,  1979,  1973).  T r i p l e t t , are  not  prior new  Haggerty,  1980;  The d a t a  necessarily  ideas  may  and o l d ideas  above  findings  scale  not  with  show  of  teacher  pupils—even  r e a l i t y  had  as  written is  by  or  this  learner that  has  the  a  to  to  'blank  teacher's  science.  Thus,  teachers  and  If  one  largely accepts  advocated  by  Driver  should  no  surprise  be  by of  curriculum  tasks  imposed,  of  the  or  the  that  the  science  on a  there  are  of  the  topic  of  before  assumptions  and  and  Fensham  i s  One  instruction,  Tasker  ' f i l l e d '  with  the  conclude  tended  to  that view  perspective.  constructivist (1983)  w a s how  the  be  own  viewpoint  that  can  their  simple  u n j u s t i f i e d .  (1980),  have  the  clearly a  apparent  mind'  from  of  s c i e n t i f i c  may be  Fensham  what  pupils'  not  means  spectrum  that  and E r i c k s o n that  are  became  developers  a  Often  by  the  about  experience—and  task  i f  a  a  that  observer.  what  response  knowledge  learning  see  encouraged  learner's  investigative  ideas  assumptions  checks  Tasker,  described  no  i n t u i t i v e  expectations  classroom  response  learner's  assumption,  1984;  suggests  shows  the  the  who  has  the  by  a  teacher  According  regarding such  the  practice  words*  teacher's  from  from  verbal  held.  Hamlyn,  instruction;  teaching  (1981)  between  attained  a r i s i n g  i d e n t i f i e d  of  (1982)  i n the  the  described  perceptions  these  result  White  Tasker  discrepancies  pupils  a  'classroom  problems  considerable  the  that  &  imagined.  work  for  as  may c o - e x i s t .  previously  The  indicate  reorganized  remain  Hewson  1985;  epistemology,  and Magoon  new i n f o r m a t i o n ,  i n and of  as  (1977)»  i t  i t s e l f  i n  16 the  form  pupils the  of  to  new  with  change theory  science  the  examples,  their  to  selection data  itself,  take  against  little  (Driver  rival  theories  1970).  imagination  and  attention  amounting  at  times  In  been  Posner,  given  indicated,  "Identifying  understanding  some' r e a s o n s  of  developing  ideas  a  research  and  that  a  i f  obtained,  then  differences Fensham  ignored  one  or  inadequately often task  the are  &  Easley,  view  p r o c e e d s n o t by making  1978).  Then, a  teaching,  of  the place  to the accommodation  and  process  i n p u p i l ' s t h i n k i n g , or  i t (Driver & Easley, and  Gertzog  1978).  ( 1 9 8 2 ) have  frameworks,  and  persistence, f a l l s  short  of  how  students'  ideas."  current  Much o f t h e  past  d e s i g n has been m o d e l e d on t h e n o t i o n model only  of to  a  science  determine  k n o w l e d g e and t e a c h  that i n t h i s  process  t o p i c can be the  specific  accordingly.  the e x i s t e n c e of  meanings f o r words have u s u a l l y been considered.  students* not  As  can be made i n t h e l i g h t  for their  the s t u d e n t s '  and  it.  a new way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t a  incompatible  needs  suggests  into  but by f i r s t  alternative  developed  viewpoints  indicated, classroom  with  (1980),  students'  new,  curriculum well  the d a t a ,  Hewson,  reasonable  interact with  experiences  to a paradigm s h i f t  Strike,  enable  t h i n k i n g h a s been m i n i m i z e d ,  the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e As  to  " P u p i l s have t o comprehend  modern s c i e n c e  critical  has  sufficient  perhaps l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e  place"  between  (Koertge,  for  not  and i n t e g r a t e p r e v i o u s  i m a g i n a t i v e leap which enables  problem  is  thinking.  t e s t i n g o f one t h e o r y  an  to  counter  clearly  As  Tasker  perceptions identified  (1981)  arising  from  by t h e t e a c h e r  has a who  17 simply The  checks  to  importance  see of  d i s t i n c t i o n  is  overlooked.  may  the  c h i l d ' s  result  c h i l d ' s  in  approach  limitations  i n  between  of  learning  understood so  general  latter  kind  science  classrooms.  unlikely  In  or  loss most  beliefs  theories  relate  or  science  them  of  been  science,  meaningfully  to  that  in  beyond  an  terms  of  problems  of  one  should  i n  f a i l e d have  they  their  have own  i n  the  distinguish and  information,  or  or  to  it  take  been  and  verbal  c o n f l i c t  that  with  is  this  place  taught  i n  upon  the not  in a  understood,  understanding  impact to  that  retention,  momentarily  exposed  as  stages  sensory  conceptual  yet  get  terms  instructional  have  concepts  Hawkins,  suggests  transmitted,  unavoidable.  incongruence  the  must  concepts  true  answer,  with  congruence  has  the  interfere  reception,  He  and  science  transmitted  belief.  is  school  the  into  fact--then  studies  i n  and  as  students of  as  stated.  a b i l i t i e s - - s u c h  argues,  which  way--verbally  and  of  bring  If  we  transforming  learning  retrievable  prior  to  knowledge of  superficial and  as  he  the  to  thinking  coded as  that  be  s c i e n t i f i c  accepted  instructional  Rather,  verbally  the  evident  students  conceived  r e c a l l i n g  prior  of  c l a s s i f i e s  learning  and  can  response,  that  barriers  c h i l d ' s  taxonomy.  information  seems  c r i t i c a l  the  from  barriers"  conceives  simply  Piagetian  suggested  beliefs  viewpoint  students*  has  It  these  the  answer  " c r i t i c a l  that  s c i e n t i f i c  that  prior  learning.  considering  which  of  (1978)  Hawkins between  the  recognizing  careful often  i f  is  students'  formal been  b e l i e f s .  models able  to  Some  18 researchers  have  interpreting attempting often (false are  a  Freyberg  new  relate  to  rote  pupils  their  consequence  ideas  of  inadequacies  The  rational  pupils*  posed  by  their  are  i n  pupils  i n  a l l , as  classrooms so  that  earlier  often  behave  at  addition,  taught  their  are  connections  assessment  things  pupils  knowledge  In  the  ideas.  tests, do  as  and  commitment  in  a c t i v i t y .  alternate  frameworks  sequences  i n  Posner,  the  not  really  they  and  do  usefulness these  accept  i n t e l l i g i b l e  and  rational.  (1982) the  ideas  has use  of  studies is  a  as  a  by  is  documented guided  approach  and  Gertzog build  showing  them  by  helping  s c i e n t i f i c that  they  in  of  teaching  and the  used  model  are  his  on the them  view.  learning  fundamentally  because  of  upon  science  been  One  Hewson,  beliefs,  Learning  and  Strike,  beliefs  has  science.  based  that  existing  v a l i d i t y  class  why  recommend  comprehend  physics  that  of  connection  pupils  with  materials  knowledge  Minstrell  they  means  teaching.  authors  of  the  central  and  any  out,  formal  suggest  how  see  conflict  a  that  existing  materials.  what  pass  teaching  prior  recognize  of  change These  students*  in  instructional  develop  (1982).  of  science  designing  conceptual  not  to  new  suggests  as  inappropriate  point  misinterpret  clearly  Knowledge  to  (1981)  frequently  studies  the  forward  to  making  f a i l i n g  memorize  is  theory  knowledge  either  or,  Osborne  information  change  is  of  theory  This  new  position  and  present  in  data.  unknowingly  While  Ausubel's  assimilation)  forced  often  these to  i n  put  is  a  coming  to  seen  as  high  observations  school and  19 common-experience the  specifically  inadequacy o f the students'  instructional their  strategies  observations  clarify  their  rationally the  analogies  which  into  a  ideas,  and W i t t r o c k i s a theory  full  recognition  on  them  t o any l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e  passive  consumer  children  are  retrieve  incoming  the  attention  strategies  fluidity  that  occur. is  of  with  the b r a i n i s not a  According  t o t h e i r model, i f  memory  to  and  generate  is  Rather,  influenced  (1980) concept  in  their  meaning  from  and s t o r e i t  does n o t b e g i n  i t begins  with  a  of  variety  selective aspects  of  processes. that do  such  adequately  changes  in  as  cognitive  r e p r e s e n t the beliefs  Any u s e f u l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f how a l e a r n e r ' s  thought  must i n c l u d e  which  not  terms  students'  organized  thought  by  argues map  use  I n t h e i r v i e w , t h e pathway t o  o f m e a n i n g f r o m any e x p e r i e n c e  experience.  and  places  The e s s e n c e o f  t o o r g a n i z e - i t , t o code i t ,  l o n g - t e r m memory and c o g n i t i v e  structure  that  i s that  long-term  i n l o n g - t e r m memory.  Sutton  the c o n t e n t i o n  i n any s e t t i n g .  model"  from  information,  that  textbook.  t o comprehend what t h e y a r e t a u g h t t h e n t h e y must  construction  with  without  o r model o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h  of information.  processing  again  t o j u s t i f y and  i m p o r t a n c e o f what p u p i l s b r i n g  learning  information  information  once  the  or  (1983) s u p p o r t  i s required  "generative  patterns,  to organize  new more e n c o m p a s s i n g f r a m e w o r k  what  their  students  By u s i n g  he a r g u e s t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o  use o f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t e a c h e r Osborne  t o p o i n t out  conceptions.  require  consistent  existing  develop  existing  designed  some p i c t u r e o f i t s d y n a m i c s as w e l l  20  as  its  s t a t i c s :  be  dangerous  'expected' Sutton when  i f  teachers  c r i t i c i z e s he  the  learners'  knowledge  to  subsumers,  a  on  the  with  to  the  i n  teachers how  to  bring  take  assess with  provide  his  with  learning  classroom, her  them  to  the with  account  the  c l a r i t y  not  and  this  the  and  one  feature  learning  of  organization  of  s t a b i l i t y  learner  can  points  may  one  stable  cited  here  place  be  makes  succeed  just  experience the  give  knowledge of  specific  up  f l e x i b i l i t y . "  starting  active  learning,  learning  even  set  by of  ones.  and  which  could  building  i n  Sutton,  fluent  models  own  l i k e l y  matters  different  task  in  undervalued  To  possible  strategies the  what  The  knowledge  or  teachers  into  of  the  importance  having  many  structure  encouraging  knowledge.  learning range  Although  them  for  accessible.  the  but  than  that  having  mental  preoccupied  " s t a b i l i t y " ,  existing  more  bringing  rather  the  and  fixed  become  (1963)  is  hindrance,  of  Ausubel  asserted  material  learner  idea  structure  new  a  "The  that  structures  beliefs,  bring of  not  the  provide  appreciation that  topics,  instructional  students'  do  some  specific  pupils  involvement  they  them  central  pupils  w i l l  nor  they  do  strategies as  of  well  as  which their  values.  Children's  Prior  and  Researchers study  the  i n  relationships  Beliefs.  Science  Cultural  Values.  Instruction  science  education  have  been  between  students'  beliefs  hesitant  about  to  science  21 concepts,  and  Instead  they  beliefs  of  study  of  the have  Hamlyn  for  showed  a  the  as  exists  as  theories, prior  and  In  differences group  hold  a  considering  generally  addressed  analyzing  children's upon  a  and  w i l l  notion  consideration  set  of  which  it  that  of  of  s c i e n t i f i c  strategies  and  alternate  prior  knowledge  beliefs  have  and  different  which  need  to  be that  also  l i k e l y  that  students  within  interactions  and  between  researchers  have  meaning  focusing  However,  determine  the  conceptions.  constructed  concepts. may  of  l i k e l y  prior  beliefs  The  is  instruction,  cognitive  narrow  and  possible  science  results'  i f  is  and  heat.  likely  it  Hewson  factors  personal  While  range  the  study  cultural  conceptions  exist,  wide  and  South  knowledge  students'  that  i n  incorporating  acquisition  cultural  exist,  the  of  conclude  groups  differences  of  students  this  with  instruction.  views  additional  of  development  instructional  alternative  students'  attention  i n  one  and  external  dealt  researchers  during  i n t r a - c u l t u r a l  In  the  e x p l i c i t l y  knowledge  cultural  of  different  i n t e r - c u l t u r a l  same  result  consequence  then  discussed  change.  the  However,  i d e n t i f i e d  conceptions  a  the  conceptions)  improvement  understanding  school  students'  The a  high  the  which  conceptions.  involved  analyzed  significant  conceptions materials  alternate  i n  backgrounds.  society.  previously  conceptual  (1985)  cultural  stream"  black  their  and  influencing  "main  for  and  interested  interest  materials  (conceptions  social  more  i n  particular  using  principles  been  students  instructional Africa,  students*  an  whether  by  their  important or  not  a  22  given of  student values  setting. the  which  world,  world.  come  values,  and  classroom  the  serves  i t  is  the  as  student  w i l l  respond  What  became  the  What one  interest  i n  to  be  accepted this  awareness  of  f i e l d the  of set  of  to  from  from  science of  complex  ideas,  view  is  presented  b e l i e f s ,  the in  values  interpretive  a  and  categories  existing  cognitive  determines  how  the  inputs.  what  the  to  literature  is  recognize  as  pupils  with is  issues  learning fact  pupils  With  researchers  a  the  prevent  concepts.  inquiry,  of  about  understand  d i f f i c u l t  s u f f i c i e n t  thought  cluster  involvement  teaching  set  instructional  and  reviewing  their  the  to  these  influence  is  use  ideas,  i n s t r u c t i o n a l  science  may  they  information which  the  operate  the  complex  between  apparent  makes  the  match  concept  to  s c i e n t i f i c  i n i t i a l  new  outcomes  factor  learning  an  factors  s i g n i f i c a n t  task. any  the  a  which  cluster  the  given  experienced  with  emotions  a  brings  have  class  potential  and  many  to  this  commitments  that  student  accepted  setting,  emotions  understands  students  they  When  or  the  Because  beliefs,  and  accepts  are  involved  a  that from  growing  developing i n  science  that  students  teaching.  Summary  There bring  to  explain and  the their  describe  is  widespread  classroom world. such  support  views  which  Researchers  i n t u i t i v e  for  views  the  they  have for  a  idea have  constructed  been  able  wide  range  to of  to  identify natural  23 phenomena;  they  d i f f i c u l t to  to  assume  that  i n  suggest  that"this There  Teachers  student  is  a  studies  the  relationships  how  they  studies  of  on  during  between  interact  the  developers  are  appear  view  Recent  w i l l  studies  v a l i d . which  these  students'  focuses  concepts,  beliefs  instruction.  beliefs  views  accepted  science  science  such  view.  studies  how  the  during  students'  of  be  specific  focus  of  that  not  range  about  experiences  may  that  curriculum  embracing  wide  which  and  evidence  assumption  beliefs  learners'  established  presenting  the  learners'  also  change.  result  recent  have  about  some  interact  with  studies  and  instruction  the  and  However,  beliefs  on  values  are  seashore  of and  few--and  ecology  are  non-existent. Although this  review  research  of  the  various  the  literature  traditions,  strategies somewhat  of  there  instruction  different  have  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  gives  time  and  about between  kinds  a  science  strategies  of as  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  of  even to  task.  as  science  which  can  a into  values,  views  of  requires and  the  and  a  those  one  which  social  and  consideration should  for  account which  world.  the  imply  be  background,  need  of  than  prevailed:  cultural  take  terms  prior  i n  different  conclusions  students'  is  in  education  recently  which  There  their  different  These  reported  somewhat  commonality  the  and  programs  from  conception  social  instruction well  much  bridges  learner's  classroom  beliefs,  or  This  of  derive  employed.  attention  knowledge.  the  is  conception  which  cultural,  intervention  One  built ; and  a  developing  the allow  students' for  the  possible  way  24 to  illuminate  look  more  the  ways i n w h i c h  carefully  at  the  this  nature  interaction  occurs  of m e t a p h o r i c a l  i s to  thinking in  children.  Language, Metaphor,  In data  reviewing  collection  metaphorical Within  I  a key  I  discovered  1982, which  1983) could In  theoretical researchers,  Only fundamental affects the  book  the  to g i v i n g  in be  an  the  this and  traditional  of  a  metaphor  beliefs  section  outline  in  I  The  Use  implications  o f Metaphor  recently aspect  have  of in  Metaphors  the  f o r my  own  to G i v e  Meaning  metaphors  been  world  L a k o f f and  and  Johnson's concern,  (19 81,  technique values.  by  the these  study.  viewed  as  process  p e r c e i v e , t h i n k , and  L i v e Bv.  permit  detail  raised  human c o m m u n i c a t i o n  w h i c h we We  and  some  issues  the  understanding.  interview  cultural  explore  our  p i o n e e r i n g work o f B r e n d a Beck  to i d e n t i f y  and  views  of c e n t r a l  account  of  Seashore.  L a k o f f and  i s a matter  methodological  ways  c o n s i s t e n t with  i n understanding  adequate  developing  used  f o r a method  Once Upon a  that I shared  t h a t metaphor  perhaps  I looked  in  most  role  discovered  position  also  that  i f any,  Meaning  w h i c h was  strategies  found  little,  ourselves. (1980)  I  literature  analysis  teaching  weeks,  metaphor  and  the  and  act.  Johnson  a  that In  (1980)  25  claim  that  ordinary and  metaphor  conceptual  pervasive  system  a c t , i s fundamentally  such,  what  we  metaphor.  of.  We  "Since  conceptual  system is  an  system i s l i k e " On Johnson  everyday  we  important  life:  "Our think  (p. 3).  i n nature"  As  i s v e r y much a m a t t e r  of  s y s t e m i s n o t s o m e t h i n g we a r e think  and a c t more or l e s s  J u s t what t h e s e  One way t o f i n d  that  use  is in  source  l i n e s are  o u t i s by l o o k i n g a t based  on  thinking  of evidence  the  and  same  acting,  f o r what t h a t  ( L a k o f f & J o h n s o n , 1980, p.3). basis  claim  that  conceptual  do  communication  the  metaphorical  and  along c e r t a i n l i n e s .  language.  everyday  t e r m s o f w h i c h we b o t h  simply  by no means o b v i o u s .  language  in  metaphorical  our conceptual  aware  automatically  in  experience  But  normally  is  is  in  of  linguistic  our  nature.  metaphor  ordinary  For  "Argument  evidence,  Lakoff  conceptual  system  example,  they  is  i s reflected  war"  show  and is  how t h e i n our  language:  Your c l a i m s a r e " i n d e f e n s i b l e . " He " a t t a c k e d e v e r y weak p o i n t " i n my a r g u m e n t . H i s c r i t i c i s m s were " r i g h t on t a r g e t " . I " d e m o l i s h e d " h i s argument. I've n e v e r "won" an argument w i t h h i m . You d i s a g r e e ? Okay, " s h o o t ! " I f you use t h a t " s t r a t e g y , " h e ' l l "wipe you o u t . " He " s h o t " down a l l my a r g u m e n t s . ( p . 4) We  don't  Lakoff We  means  " t a l k " a b o u t a r g u m e n t s i n t e r m s o f war, c l a i m  and J o h n s o n .  see  attack  just  the his  for  person  We can a c t u a l l y we  positions a  w i n or l o s e  arguments.  a r e a r g u i n g w i t h as an o p p o n e n t . and  metaphorical  defend concept,  o u r own.  We  T h i s i s what i t  "Argument  is  war," to  26 structure what  (at  we  are  least  doing  understanding another"  very  aspect  comprehending necessarily us  to  us  of  from  of  a  an  aspect  with  lose  of  but  sight  not  is  of  a  of  of  we of  thing  and  understand metaphor  is  i n  of  terms  is a  dimensions  a  a  the  of  another of  a  (e.g.,  the  For of  an  allowing  the  battling  be  when  keep  that  are  often  say  that  in  are  we  we  we  mean  extended  can  when  argument,  we  w i l l  In  concept  "So  (e.g.,  battle)  example,  metaphor, can  comprehend  construction  aspects.  it  to  concept.  concept  aspects  by  we is to  at  been  led  war,"  "Time  is  Lakoff  and  and  war, whole"  organization  that it  some  is  ways  to  be  i n  within our  "natural  that  These  terms  money,  hypothesize  money,"  "basic  love.  of  to  Johnson of  defined  like  seem  and  level  time,  "structured  coherent  have  the  argument,  which  of  of  terms  aspects  that  that  experience  domain  i n  us  13).  conceptualized of  allows  metaphorical  cooperative  is  like  of  battle  suggests  d e f i n i t i o n  represents  how  essence  terms  metaphor.  "Argument  journey"  domains such  (p.  i n  other  the  the  like  then  this  that  fact  experience" are  and  kind  that  aspects  structured  others"  metaphors  one  arguing  aspect  on  structured  The  is  one  with  preoccupied  of  other  focusing  p a r t i a l l y  concept  arguing),  concept  do  "The  "systematicity"  on  inconsistent  a  we  argue.  experiencing  "hide"  focus  aspects  we  what  5).  The one  part)  when  and  (p.  i n  and our  of  "Love  the  focus  domains  of  experiences other  basic  journeys.  Each  experience  experience  kinds  and  of  in  and terms  experience."  27 They a r e n a t u r a l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n s e : They a r e p r o d u c t s o f : Our bodies capacities,  ( p e r c e p t u a l and motor a p p a r a t u s , e m o t i o n a l makeup, e t c . )  mental  Our i n t e r a c t i o n s with our p h y s i c a l environment (moving, m a n i p u l a t i n g o b j e c t s , e a t i n g , e t c . ) Our interaction with other people w i t h i n our culture ( i n terms o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s ) . ( p . 117) In  other  product with  words, of  the k i n d o f beings  understand view  of  time,  and  our  categorization.  money) with  (e.g.,  emerges  the  love)  properties."  The  understand  i t ,is  properties  having  culture,  etc.  arising  from  Johnson  cite  categorize relations that  to  the  we  (war,  one a n o t h e r  metaphorically  define  u n d e r s t o o d i n term.s o f " i n t e r a c t i o n a l "love"  least do  partly  with  than  as  people  defined  perception,  being are  terms  prototypes.  f o r human b e i n g s ,  comprehending  defining  our i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  experience  in  way  concepts  concept at  the  Because  rigidly  of  motor defined,  activity, concepts  Lakoff  and  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t we  prototypes  Lakoff  actually  by i n t e r a c t i o n a l  open-ended.  Rosch ( 1 9 7 7 , 1978) as h a v i n g  things to  be  with  119).  "interactional"  the concepts they  Rather our  concern  interact  has l e d them t o an  from  world, will  environments" (p.  Johnson's  experience  s y s t e m we have i s a  we a r e and t h e way we  o u r p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l Lakoff  and  "The k i n d o f c o n c e p t u a l  and by t y p e s o f  and J o h n s o n a r e  convinced  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a means o f  world,  and  p u r p o s e i n a f l e x i b l e way ( p .  as  122).  such  i t must s e r v e  that  28  The  Use  Lakoff of  giving  metaphors new  and  us have  145).  it  an  metaphors"  in  our  and  "The future w i l l FUTURE IS UP a n d worse" is not. "There MORE I S  These "The  are future  progress.  higher  a  values will  the  new  system  opposite  are  would  not  coherent  with  them.  is  coherent  with  is  not  be GOOD  coherent  better" IS U P .  with  of  status.  be  is  a  more  in  is  our  and  the  to"  (p. some  coherent  with  be: IS  UP  and  IS  UP  and  them.  with  i n the future" and THE FUTURE  the  the  goods,  wage  i n f l a t i o n ,  So  seems  that  it  a  base  rise  coherent  dominant  statement i n  If  is coherent w i t h THE "The f u t u r e w i l l be  be higher S T A T U S I S UP  embedded  MORE  we  .  consider  not  MORE  "New  .  system  gives  with  better"  w i l l  that  Johnson that  capable  r e a l i t y .  system  and  are  experience.  coherent  deeply be  that  i s  should HIGH  "There  accumulation  our  will be more i n t h e future" UP a n d T H E F U T U R E I S U P .  "Your status coherent with UP. (p. 122).  Meaning  conceptual  society  whose  better" better"  of  that  that  New  metaphors  create  Lakoff  "More is better" GOOD I S U P . "Less is better" is "Bigger is GOOD I S U P . "Smaller is  to  conceptual  alter  example,  "up-down  to  the  actions  values  Create  turn  power  w i l l  cultural  to  understanding  the  and  As  Johnson  enters  on,  perceptions  Metaphor  new  metaphor  actions  of  many  of  the  future" higher of  our  is IS  culture. concept  refers  of  to  the  careers,  and  values  form  a  29  coherent  system  Lakoff  and  with  the  Johnson  are  coherent  with  a  conflicts  among  these  metaphors  a l l  metaphors. plays us  a  "Active  there  are  of  the  introduction (p.  of  new  and  and  to  another"  In  taking  Johnson  encounter They  we  one  argue  s t y l i s t i c  that  feature,  The  work  are  be  often  among  the  l i v e  to  and  up-down  centrality  i n  ours.  For  down"  i n  most  matters.  But  is  valued  the  as  partly  a  into  those  concepts no  means  different,  the  an  experiences  the  of  old  matter  person's  metaphor  w i l l  of  from  loss  metaphor  of  cultures.  easy  each the  same  than  matter  "arises  and  Because  the  more  Westernization  postulate,  by.  be  do  does  by  "Hence,  view  may  that  not  to  be  gives  give  new  22).  an  the  w i l l  i t  metaphor  they  we  balance  cite  person's  i n s i s t  form  is  is  may  (p.  by.  than  world  it  "money"  to  where  metaphorical But  values  conflicts  p r i o r i t i e s  role  money"  inappropriate.  meaning  meaning  is  metaphors  "time"  the  Johnson  change,"  new  a l l  l i v e  There  hence  passivity  the  "Time  145).  the  grossly  of  give  where  cultural  and  "Passive  and  that  we  them.  important  and  concepts  system.  cultures  throughout  introducing  change  up"  Lakoff  cultures  ones"  are  cultures  a c t i v i t y .  "Much  with  more  is  claiming  values  cultures  There much  not  metaphorical  associated  Not  metaphorical  experiential that  real  personal ground  metaphor but  a  of  Lakoff  is  central and  view  of  metaphor,  perception,  that  supports  not  a  feature Johnson  feeling,  human  has  and  understanding.  peripheral of  Lakoff  and  merely  thought.  implications  for  30 classroom  instruction  metaphor and  is  an  and  important  analyzing  the  is  fundamental  language  is  an  their  students'  of  l i f e  capacities,  science  than I  language  how  and  suggests  the  emerge  from  world,  and  properties"  conceptions.  Since  communication  of  evidence  for  process, analyzing  suggest  possible  The  students' that  experiential conceptions  is,  their  the  bases  of  are  products  bodies,  mental  cultural  environments.  It  suggests  that  need  attend  "whole  the  and  "individual their  such  that  experience  with  one  in  sensory  their  concepts  extend  My  view  rather concern  that than for  at  the  seashore  about  the  seashore  another  and  conceptions  understood as  of  i n  concepts."  own  interaction be  themes  Johnson  systems"  students'  their  to  explored. Lakoff  or  the  of  with  to  and  sources  interact  with  must  identifying  they  comprehend  that  for  that  way  words"  children  suggests  l i k e .  makeup,  previously  involves  It  evidence  human  source  experience,  agree  "individual  the  Johnson  that  educators  further  are  emotional  physical  of  prior  conceptions.  suggests  their  the  and  prior  metaphor  to  important  conceptions  Lakoff  source  students'  metaphor  what  learning.  terms  of  experiences,  with  the  "interactional emotions,  and  culture. The creating  of  Lakoff  instructional  comprehension right  work  about  of  Johnson  metaphors  s p e c i f i c  metaphorical  and  that  science  suggests increase  c r i t e r i a the  concepts.  systematicity,  it  should  If be  for  students' they  are  possible  31 to  elaborate  specific food  concepts  chain,  possible  to  design with  seashore I  giving  new  to  assumed  meaning to  the  to  the  they  the  to  "highlight"  ecology  addition, metaphors  should  be  that  would  be  towards  s p i r i t u a l ,  students' and  do  experience,  be  capable  b e l i e f s  metaphor  not  about  would give  give  new  of the  i n s t r u c t i o n .  that  may  the  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  would  during  (habitat,  it  orientations  metaphors  say  same  student's  I new  meaning  another's. Though  I  fundamentals,  and  useful,  are  issue to  such  to  what  that  one  In  students'  that  ways  beach  s c i e n t i f i c ,  meaning  and  with  i n s t r u c t i o n a l  assumed  seashore,  various  e t c . ) .  (aesthetic,  e t c . ) .  i n  associated  community,  consistent  also  metaphors  there that  conflicts book  researchers  them. below  their  extensive  and  Johnson  only  completely  find  and  Johnson  the  metaphors  found  the  metaphor  helpful  in  this  Johnson  use  p a r t i a l l y  lacking do  by  not  the  and  with  provide  the  examples  values  p r i o r i t i e s  on  are  important  address,  in  interview  regard.  of  obvious  associated  different  and  most  and  cultural  metaphors  values  be  The  between  the  Lakoff to  I to  though  almost  comparisons.  cultural  Lakoff  conflicts  between  is  with  weaknesses.  Lakoff  identify  agree  is  and them.  how  hence The  cross-cultural the given  individuals technique  tools to that  for these use  described  32 The  For metaphor she  as  to  an  to  1978),  a  a  set  people  number  metaphor  within  the  attitudes drawing  at her  identify thought  work  related  Indian, and  metaphor  frameworks  The  stimulus  questions  think  a a)  matching  person's buttons a  cloth  of  image  that  Each  was  explain  a  contrast  of  or  coat,  of  .ancestral b)  sleeve  style  of  the  coat?"  The  interviewees  then a  asked  to  relationship  the  expand could  on be  By  of  his seen  Beck  hoped  of  emigrants these  a of  is  asked  most c)  coat, to  her  between  you  like a  . tie  e)  the  select  the  ethnicity or  "Do  coat, a  with  ancestry.  following:  of  to  metaphorical  European  cut  were  nature  ethnicity.  of  identity  the  d)  described  the  a  3)  three  of  given  friends,  Hungarian  a l l  Canadians  consisted  ethnic a  to  was  and  relationships  groups,  and  coat,  best  how  of  Japanese,  (Beck,  "ethnicity"  4)  frameworks  are For  Beck  person  and  ethnic in  by  between  matters,  topic  images.  social  1)  A  be  interviewees  terms  Each  about  variations  the  the  of  could  culture.  and  use  recently,  which  conducted  them.  five  a  the  More  metaphor  interaction  from  Canada,  of  images  what  to  exploring  technique  these  asked  2)  cultural  of  questions  sample  i n  use  Meaning  values.  frameworks  family,  between  resident  cultural  interview  meant  and  been  interviews  were  i d e n t i t y "  Uncover  has  extend  of  "ancestral of  of  the  and  to  Beck  conceptual  through  i n  75  years  metaphor  explain  example,  Metaphor  indicator  i d e n t i f y  explored  asked  of  several  developed  used is  Use  to  choice the  them. and  to  image  of  33  their  choice  and  the  was  a  larger,  more  a b s t r a c t concept  under  discussion. There metaphor  choices:  family,  like  harmonious "An  a  to  ancestral  community marks  great  "Ethnicity  tie is a  diversity  person,  community  relates  related like is  in  the  a  person  to a coat."  a t i e should like  respondent's  a brand  to  their  "Ethnicity i s  be w i t h a c o a t . " name, i t marks one  o f f from  another.  Similarly,  i t o f f from  others."  By l o o k i n g f o r p a t t e r n s i n t h e  metaphor  responses,  Beck  cultural  differences  in  was  able  family  the s t y l e  to  gain  values  and  of a coat  insights  into  dynamics,  and  community and n a t i o n a l v a l u e s . Beck  (1979)  classroom  situations  and  with  deal  expectations  suggests  as a way o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s  cultural in  how m e t a p h o r s c o u l d be u s e d i n  India  differences. and  Canada  For  could  example, f a m i l y be  explored  classroom  d i s c u s s i o n s as a way o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s  and  with  deal  specific  differences.  metaphors  a teaching device In metaphor  a  interview  relationships.  suggested  to c l a r i f y  second  In  the nature  study, to  Beck  focus  on  Specifically,  ethnicity  and work h i e r a r c h i e s ,  and  relationships  Moore  work  designed  Strodtbeck's  in  metaphor (1961)  particular,  by r e s p o n d e n t s  they  questions  theory  around  understand  some  of  the  c o u l d be u s e d as  Moore  (1981) used a  dimensions were  and t u r n e d  branch  in  o f such d i f f e r e n c e s .  and the  understand  bank  of  human  interested  in  t o bank management offices.  based three  on  Beck and  K l u c k h o l n and possible  value  34 orientations  to  collateral  or  human  horizontal,  person-specific. questions  used  They  that  problems.  asked  They  i n  their  choices answers  findings  on  other  towards  centralized  power,  and  the  In to the  explore  Canada,  they  orientation  how  a  dominated  variety  responses, branch  often The  They  even  Canadian  Local  also  on  activated Beck  play  in,  " l i n e a l "  or  relationships—suggested  (in i n  a  way  on  Given  management  i n  " c o l l a t e r a l "  considerable  role  in  variation  more  incident  outside  the  responses. to  identify  value  " c o l l a t e r a l "  " h i e r a r c h i c a l "  bank  value  in  the  originating  parent-child  insight  bankers'  invoked  to  went  Canada.  of  and  tended  dispersed  press)  of  interviews—designed  t e l l e r  The  Moore's  Germans  nature  policy  relationships, bank  a  some  problems  to  responses.  gained  the  and  Kluckholn's  bankers'  them  power.  image  that  found  changes  manager  bankers  metaphors.  towards  Moore  team  metaphors  o f f i c e  while  bank  day-to-day  asking  the  personalized  or using  these  Beck  i s :  and  by of  French  Moore  depending  family-community or  of  images  the  found  and  pop.ular  that  the  managers  specific  reinforced  sport  and  Beck  orientations.  described.  the  expected  orientations,  of  bank  variety  Beck  hierarchical,  solved  a  towards  study,  of  Overall, into  power,  or  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  situations  questions,  style  popularity  such  clearly  third the  the  using  Japanese  a  and  one  probed  about  respondents'  l i n e a l  interviewed how  then  thinking  discuss  relationships:  explore  relationships, management and  analyze  35  student-seashore  relationships,  relationships,  and  instructional  with  curriculum  and,  analysis  of  separating a  the the  research  students'  of  people less  for how The  the  then,  relationships  seashore  relationships,  which  seashore  instruction.  to  of  allow  would  an  and  I  me  to  students'  their  the  instructional  the  metaphors  beliefs  of  the  needed  beliefs  developing  and  was  of  implications  orientations  the  Here  and  practices.  between  without  relationships  and  allow  the  an  the  the  would  allow  emphasized  to  of  an  metaphor  analysis  between Beck  one  a  instruction  family  was  i n  methodology  components.  conflicts  beliefs  which  the  after  would  towards  students'  problem  research  cognitive  attention  towards  beliefs  one  However,  specific  interviews the  and  hence  them.  paying  understand  and  a  reactions  which  with  orientations  analyze  students'  relationships  strategies  addition,  affective  orientations  metaphor  in  was  teaching  methodology  associated  related.  Here  the  values,  banking,  student-science  setting.  consistent  student-instructional  a  were  set  identify  to  of and  orientations  about input,  specific and  their  36 Summary  Relying Beck  (1979,  on  the work o f L a k o f f and  1980,  conclusions  1982,  about  1983),  metaphors  and  I  Johnson (1980),  suggest  the  the  and  following  students' b e l i e f s  and  values: 1.  Metaphors are a part of everyday ways i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s  2.  The  meaning  physical  The  4.  If  a  partly  determined  act. determined by  and  system g i v e s r i s e  The  same i n s t r u c t i o n a l student's  meaning to  form c o h e r e n t  h i s or h e r  system  a c t i o n s on,  social  by and  instruction  systems. system t h a t a  i t will  the p e r c e p t i o n s and  alter  that  actions that  to. metaphor t h a t g i v e s new  school experience,  another.  b r i n g to  e n t e r s the c o n c e p t u a l  the  one  partly  that students  but  metaphor  bases  conceptual  5.  values  independent, new  student  and  be  the  experience.  b e l i e f s and  a r e not  that affects  p e r c e i v e , t h i n k , and  a metaphor w i l l  experience,  cultural 3.  of  reality  may  or may  meaning t o  not g i v e  new  37 Chapter  RESEARCH  An make  assumption  more  students'  were  with  orientations beliefs  these  do  nature the  and  their  milieu  constructing  give  to  metaphors  can  meaning  the  to  The conducting Then  I  of of  a  complex  In a  i n  nature  seashore,  and  their of  and  do  how  ecological  account  science  the  of  I  types  of  into  the  instruction?  experience  situations,  transactions  how  this  of  and  which  for  at  the  at  the  characterize  seashore.  I  instructional  to  detail  the  with address six  of  are  describe the  begins  study  I  uncovering  the  an  metaphors  chapter,  chapter  in  the  of  beliefs  What  take  at  understanding  describe  the  they  questions  the  understanding  students*  case  of  i f  can  classroom.  tool  experiences used  is  during  directed  described  as  be  beliefs  the  meaning.  their  their  teachers  research  nature  What  understanding  II  metaphors  the  teachers  and  were  Chapter  using  can  variety  learning  situations  regarding  influence  orientations  questions  learning The  that  relationships?  hold  How  at  to  INSTRUCTION  is  students.  they  relationships?  students,  of  seashore  orientations  These  use  OF  research  orientations.  the  about  students'  this  reference  of  orientations  AND S T R A T E G Y  of  effective  understand asked  METHODS  3  a  the  research  for  method  for  meaning also  setting  brief  to  give  how new  l i f e . rationale  research phases  students  describe  seashore  a  tools  for  questions.  and  the  tasks  38 involved of  i n  the  this  each  issues  phase.  of  particular  The  v a l i d i t y  specific study to  case  group  allows  the  the  students'  orientations taking  the  emphasis  behavior, the  went  beyond  I  the  events  in  recorded  emotions,  but  anxiety,  Because the  instruction, strategies  the  they  relate  to  went  pain,  to  classroom  had  to  other  instruction  be to  i t ;  terms  of  students' them.  By  eliminate  merely  shifted  meaning  at  to  the  with the  observed  the  I  meanings observed  explore  of  animals,  seashore,  the  an  the  but the and  meaning  feelings.  teacher  attempted and  f l e x i b i l i t y changes  see  about  experiences. them  events  I  interpret  orientations to  I  a  case  meaning.  interacting and  i n  the  not  a  and  organize  did  inquire  beyond and  I  of  of  of  students  determined  their  classroom  their  the  emotions.  to  use  actions  students  or  it  the  are  The  of  as  seriously,  students  students' there  of  discussion  experiences  organization  the  interactions to  account  the  went  those  fear,  and  phenomena  saw  seen  events  from  assigned  joy,  meanings is  as  the  setting.  and  beliefs  students  of  the  understood  these  on  one  objects,  and  as  a  Study  behavior,  but  beyond  with  meanings;  behavior.  objects,  i n  situation  students'  i n  with  limitations  focuses  objects  is  the  interest  The  of  Case  students  concern  students.  meanings  study  of a  the  and  closes  study.  The  This  chapter  to  take  beliefs in  occurring  into during  adjusting in  the  the  setting  39  i t s e l f  and,  being  more  used  to  importantly,  frame  and  setting.  Additionally,  analytical  procedures  I  made  (Smith,  use  1977;  L.  of  the  I  interpret  the  students*  analysis  of  data  curriculum l i t e r a l and  to  interviews,  describe  with  An  and  In and  this  different The  of  reader of  the  with  new  individual  i n  some  i n  the  of  the  cases  For  In  in  the  much  same  as  order  to the  of  the  experiences,  the  this  school  attack  instance,  study,  class  I  used  observations,  and  community  phenomenon,  case  study  intimate  of  and the the  six  to  make  beliefs  to  presented.  & Walker,  about  community  1977). students  each  the  with  provide  educational  a  seashore.  observations  setting,  the  product  individual  classroom  the  that  the  instruction,  instructional as  is  and  (MacDonald  science  in  opinion  As  situation  on.  accounts  of  the  1979).  cultural  the  involved  individuals  "triangulated"  understanding  the  of  orientations  informed  constructs  questions.  during  of  an  in  is  aspect  or  interviews,  feature  experiences of  the  occurring  changes  total  so  of  provide  qualities an  and  those I  descriptive  the  and  aspects  for  set  interviews  social  process  study,  their  on  individuals  important  consequential  be  responses.  depended  formulate  data-gathering  events  Wilson,  the  metaphor  metaphor  several  comparisons,  1979;  understand  presented,  interviews  to  "cumulative" L . M . ,  physical, as  had  the  in  used.  possible,  respondent's  changes  interpret there  Smith,  had  to  an  and  and  account  offer  the  significance  40 The  The a  long  phases  method  period  of  of  Six  data  time  Research  Phases  collection  and  involved  and  six  analysis  research  evolved  phases.  over These  are:  Phase  I  The  Pilot  Studies  and  Selection  of  the  Setting Phase  II  Pre-instructional Target  Interviews  and  Selection  of  Students  Phase  III  The  Classroom  Interaction  Phase  IV  Post-instructional  Study  Interviews  and  Community  Inquiries Phase  V  Long-term  Post-instructional  Community Phase  Phase  VI  1  Analysis  The  During a  series  five  and  orientations the  The  Pilot  In  the  Studies  (May  beliefs. for  Data  and  the  Selection  1980  pilot  gather  setting  the  of  I  and  Inquiries  small  to  and  selected  Five  Phase  of  interviews  Pilot  Interviews  to  October  studies  general Then, cases  of  to  the  1981),  develop  information from  under  Setting  the  data  I the  on  conducted metaphor students'  collected,  I  study.  Studies  early  stages  of  formulating  the  research  41 questions,  I  explored  relationships ecological Upon  a  began  between  Seashore exploring  had  the  relationships,  seashore I  the  no  specific  For  students'  ideas,  this  specific  seashore  two  of questions.  fast/slow, question  asked  the  and  beliefs  Once  about the  s c a l e s and i n t e r v i e w s .  mind, o t h e r  than  speculate  from  I  in  t h e s p r i n g o f 1980 I  to explore the  data  attempted to e l i c i t the  seagulls,  crabs,  starfish,  e t c . The i n t e r v i e w s  The f i r s t  and  snails, contained  q u e s t i o n asked the students  big/little,  important/not  important,  respondent to e x p l a i n  "WHY?"  The answer  to i n d i c a t e the respondent's reasoning  for rating  i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. interviewing  individual  patterns  there  great  was  example,  physical they're Some  presented  of  b e a u t i f u l / u g l y , b o r i n g / i n t e r e s t i n g , e t c . The s e c o n d  After  For  study,  organisms:  good/bad,  intended  animals  to  knowledge  " b a r n a c l e s , " f o r example, a g a i n s t a s e r i e s o f b i - p o l a r  adjectives;  was  and  in  the  b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e s e a s h o r e ,  seaweeds,  rate  ideas  analyzing  prior  In  differential  first  barnacles, types  n.d.).  objective  obtained.  of  the concepts  students'  methodologies,  to  and  by u s i n g s e m a n t i c  means  students'  (Snively,  different  about  different  an  underwater they  responses  evidence  responses of  students,  thinking i n their  diversity,  some  aspects  of  the  responses.  appeared at  to  for  Although  be g r o u n d e d i n t h e  the  move, b u t a t l o w t i d e  o f the s t u d e n t s '  looked  c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s began t o emerge.  experience  expressed  I  seashore: they  d o n ' t move."  f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n , b u t gave thinking: "I just  "When  don't l i k e  little  them.  I  42  don't  know  social God  why."  or  cultural  made  or  c o l o r s . "  Or,  "I  These  the  don't  students'  i n  preferred  such  viewpoints.  eat  made  viewpoint:  "They're  health  safety  it  and  hurts,"  variation that an  some  "They  within  each  students  experience,  aesthetic,  tended  to  format  s p e c i f i c a l l y  for  broad  and  eat a  the  it  tended  to  stress  u t i l i t a r i a n  others  tended or  broad  to  health  soon  stress and  towards  was  able  by  i d e n t i f y i n g responses  to  the  revise  was  became  the  safety  viewpoints  aesthetic  there  viewpoint, the  s p i r i t u a l  they  of  were  a or  expressed  way  Although  of  them,"  an  responses  fast,  types  expressed  expressed  other  you."  I  generate  the  expressed  "They're  "orientations"  Although interview  S t i l l  scare  These as  Some  to  to  responses them  for  proved  clues  certain  responses  them."  s c i e n t i f i c ,  experience. articulated  Some  catch  gray."  animals  question  provided  some  their  ecological  other  looking  them.  a l l  Just  type  while  or  can  viewpoint:  "Why?"  By  like  ugly.  fight  they  example,  pretty."  or  the  I  the  certain  about  they  i n  " G o d made  pretty.  i d e n t i f i e d  "You  them."  "God  I  For  "You  to  grounded  expressed  they're  ecology.  responses,  viewpoint:  viewpoint:  when  because  about  be  responses  beliefs  fast  f r u i t f u l ,  to  experience:  them,  responses  u t i l i t a r i a n can't  an  "They're  l i k e  "They're  thinking  patterns  of  expressed  latter  most  appeared  Other  viewpoints:  relationships:  be  aspects  responses  food."  responses  everything."  judgements  Some  Some  a  pinch, great evident  aspects  of  s p i r i t u a l ,  or  aspects  an  of  subsequently  seashore. and  improve  those  bi-polar  more  easily  this  f i r s t  adjectives  which  categorized  into  43 orientations,  the  interviews  continued  to  pose  not  be  two  major  problems: 1.  a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of responses with  2.  a given  responses eat  orientation,  "You  can't  eat  identified  and  were m o n o t o n o u s l y  it,"  could  repetitive,  it."  Or  "God  as  i n "You  made i t . "  can "God  made e v e r y t h i n g . " Hence,  the  spiritual, in  the  typology  utilitarian,  study,  technique  the  was  an  look  for  would  the  interviews  and  metaphor  students.  The  with  first  the  existing  interview meant  interviews  in  which  orientations  was next  the  central  series  of  study  data  literature,  was  I  one  of  my  analysis  for  towards the  the Beck  metaphorical extending  i n t e r v i e w , but be  decided  allow  I discovered  J o h n s o n on  not  could  of  base.  then,  orientations  developing the  understanding  extensive  and  more  orientations.  method w h i c h would  metaphor which  would  students' o r i e n t a t i o n s  pilot  students'  problem  This  The  identified  the work o f L a k o f f  systematicity.  a  which  r e q u i r e an  early  that a better interview  developed  interview  In r e v i e w i n g  some  be  this  seashore.  adapting  apparent  d y n a m i c s o f the  another of  was  s a f e t y ) emerged  t h a t a more c o m p l e t e  after  analysis  h e a l t h and  responses  and  seashore  and  to  apparent  Shortly to  have  sources the  it  generate  also  the  towards  but  would  consistently It  of o r i e n t a t i o n s ( s c i e n t i f i c , a e s t h e t i c ,  or  of  developing  used w i t h  elementary  own of  set  of  the  metaphor students'  purpose. i n t e r v i e w s was  designed  to  pilot  44 different  formats  appropriate  for  grade on  interviewed  individual  three  the  different In  that  many  were  far  students  I  the  represented  contrasting  mind,  ranging  from  construction which  a  constructions car,  a  Cove  passenger  is  F i n a l l y ,  I  which  various 4,  native  and  other  and  5, than  construct  a  seashore  as:  to  to  a  the  car,  a  conducted a  elders by  the  one  metaphor backgrounds  l i v i n g  a  a  p i l o t  f i f t h  and  i n  that  interviewing I  would  questions of  community  both in  Beck  students,  the  study.  grounded native B r i t i s h  to  a  and  metaphor  in  the By  a  the  to  a  Salmon  students' talking  to  grades  3,  i n  grade  6  I  able  was  class  physical  non-native  Columbia.  is  car").  study  study, i n  questions  driver  students i n  With  metaphor  of  students  which  single  community.  eventually  This  developed  to  view  interviewing  learned  were  a  is  6  by  double  mechanic  preliminary  beliefs  soon  painting"),  am  I  and  5,  metaphors.  formats  or  and  small  double  using a  b e l i e f s .  Columbia.  I  4  an  gather  questions  domains,  cultural i n  is  to  4,  this  contrasting  provided  orientations  format  and  for  metaphor  find  developed  for  or  to  3,  B r i t i s h  3  true  seashore  ("I  i n  2,  interviews,  domains,  simple  represented  grades  intended  different  ("The  i n  grade  especially  four  and  constructions  for  o r i g i n a l l y  was  i n  orientations  metaphor  metaphor  d i f f i c u l t y  this  and  communities  d i f f i c u l t  had  interviews,  interviews,  students  coastal  the  too  for  students'  piloting of  metaphor  level  information  in  the  to and  students  45  Selection  of  the  The was  that  and  values  setting town  students  towards and  i n  Cove."  Commercial  fishing  Salmon  dwelling  of  the  a  of  at  has  1800  Cove  is  grade  range  the  of  that  students be  given  community  is  of  several-  the  i n  a  the  of  of  best coastal  pseudonym  located  end  site  beliefs  at  largely  source  one  European the  income  cove.  for  both  inhabitants. on  an  It  native  against  of  investigating  6  w i l l  main  habitation.  offered  wide  opposite  situated  the  a  determined  the  Cove  by  selection  community  the  place  island,  was  used  people  winter  gales  and  has  as  who  a  a  long  winter  realized  the  by  the  peculiar  shape  and  the  r e a l i z a t i o n  cove. The  abundant  a r r i v a l fish  establishment  Salmon  schools,  a  hotels, practice strong  and many  of  the  stocks  i n  of  Gradually  a  I  Indian  is  human  protection  and  the  After  which  native  located  Salmon  of  class  Columbia,  is  history  seashore.  a  cove  i n  possess  levels,  of  extraction  groups.  the  A  the  used  should  grade  B r i t i s h  of  Setting  c r i t e r i o n  consisted  "Salmon end  main the  locations  Case  fish Cove  Anthropology,  became  with  bighouse,  the  The  customs  and  and  brought the of  and  Indian  the  cemetery  with  and  some  of  and  dock,  Indian  Office,  the  area  seaplane  ceremonies  of  mission.  whole  native  Band  about  church  shipyard,  up.  their  area  center  cannery,  sprang  traditional  presence  the  salteries,  hospital, stores  Europeans  people  maintain Museum  the  of  finest  46 totem p o l e s  on  the  Salmon district,  coast.  Cove  School  with  a  primary  school  high  school  (n=130).  offer  Indian  intermediate-junior cultural and  teachers  I n d i a n a r t and An  elementary  i s l o c a t e d on  the  reserve.  (1)  non-Indian  students,  raised  of  participate.  the It  Indian  community the  responses  and  grade  6 teacher  Indian  dance c l a s s e s ,  a r e g u l a r part of  s e l e c t e d on  (2)  presence of students  the  both  school  and  expected  the  the that  native  the  students  three  Indian  seashore, native  the  (n=75)  the b a s i s o f  of  non-Indian  a l s o , would p r o v i d e  x  imbedded  and  Four n a t i v e  an  and  and  born  and  (3)  the  I n d i a n band  presence living  of  to  both  i n a coastal  uncover a wide range of o r i e n t a t i o n s towards  and,  hand,  and  presence  was  would  seashore  prairie  was  i n a community s u r r o u n d e d by  willingness  native  the  (n=80)  school  n a t i v e I n d i a n band s c h o o l  Cove S c h o o l  criteria:  provincial  l a n g u a g e and  f i s h - n e t mending are  curriculum.  Salmon  i s p a r t o f the  social  in and  was  sensory-based cultural  new  p r o v i n c e s , and  a r i c h mix experiences  experiences  on  of on  metaphor the  the o t h e r .  t o Salmon Cove, h a v i n g moved f r o m  was  i n h i s second year  of  teaching.  one The the  47 Phase I I  During interview Salmon  Phase-  data  Cove.  students  o f the p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  concerning  prior  What i s t h e n a t u r e  o f the s t u d e n t s '  relationships  prior  orientations  prior  problems:  orientations about  followed ideas  systematicity"  necessarily  to  very one hide  a playground"  • i  to i n s t r u c t i o n ?  i n t e r v i e w s , I had t o s o l v e  the i n t e r v i e w s had t o be d e s i g n e d  beliefs  incorporated  comprehend  specific  the s t u d e n t s '  t o use metaphor  towards  specific  a p p r o p r i a t e t o the l a n g u a g e  the  about  Interviews  attempting  I  beliefs  towards  to i n s t r u c t i o n ?  between  and b e l i e f s  interviews  the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  students'  ;  the grade 6 c l a s s i n  to i n s t r u c t i o n ?  seashore  students'  is  in  I collected  the  three  that  19 to May 4, 1982),  o f the s t u d e n t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n s  In  be  Study  What i s t h e n a t u r e  Metaphor  the  (April  purpose  data  seashore  The  11  a l l the  The  was t o c o l l e c t  -  on  The P r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  Beck's from  the s e a s h o r e ,  seashore  development basic  2) e x p l o r e the  relationships, o f young  interview  the  interview  systematicity  which  aspect  concept  of  a  aspects  metaphor,  allowed  and 3)  children.  techniques,  L a k o f f and J o h n s o n about  construct  other  t o 1) e x p l o r e  "metaphorical  questions. the  Recall  students  i n terms o f a n o t h e r  o f the c o n c e p t .  but  to will  I n the " S e a s h o r e  the s t u d e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d  to focus  48 on  some  aspects  seashore),  and  concept  (the  aspects  of  would  a  concept  encouraged aesthetic,  the  e.g.,  aesthetic  and  or I  image  orientation,  orientation,  a  "church"  "playground"  to  highlight  cushion"  to  highlight  example,  the  respondent  If  the  which  to  one  or  designed a  range  on  of  was  a  to  "town"  asked  a  were  one  would  aspects  of  the  of  which  towards to a  the  highlight s c i e n t i f i c  orientation,  orientation, safety  etc.  questions  highlight  more  i t  the  selected  and  a  a  "pin  orientation.  following  or  of  s p i r i t u a l ,  s p i r i t u a l  and the  or  aspects  orientations  recreational  ones  other  interview  "painting"  health  was  seashore  focus  highlight  a  a  to  recreational  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  "hide"  the  (the  not  seashore).  "highlight"  seashore: an  of  For  question: the  following,  be:  factory  church  painting  playground  town  pin  cushion  WHY? At  every  she  had  point  the  selected  QUESTION  "WHY?"  interesting  type  of  to  the  reasoning  interesting  for  metaphors  the  a  from  this  noted,  over  since  I  it  others.  "WHY?" indicated  some  the  the  was  the  actual  students  query  or THE  generated  Although for  he  the  did key  respondent's  metaphor.  asked a  "WHY?"  procedure  and  the  particular  amongst  explain  information.  patterns,  interviews  to  metaphor as  was  success  choosing  During best  useful  chosen  technique's  asked  particular  and  metaphor  some  was  WAS E S S E N T I A L .  most  yield  a  student  the  range  students suggested.  to  select Since  it  the is  49 difficult  to  provided  were  some  the  of  keep  written  was  the  printed  inside  argued  that  language  metaphors  would  the  metaphors were  was  not  difficult was  community  for  taken  objects:  curtain,  door, to  spaceship,  robot,  frequently  it  choosing the  in  By Salmon  as  for  to  a  the  sophisticated,  have  great  In  from  the  present  students of  to  bicycle,  also,  it  I in  using of  imagery  Most  of  the  household  or  cushion,  a  be  however,  the  grasp.  added  in  children  and  pin  event  could  study,  familiar  When  or  difficulty  common n o u n s ,  range  pictorial  object  especially  In  card.  often  few  metaphor  talking and  acknowledged  to by  in  sea  crab,"  use  in  an  that  jewel,  "atypical"  style:  Beck  e.g.,  metaphors  and as  This  everyday  a  barnacle,"  kind  (1978),  interview  "deep-set"  simple  lore  "crusty  "ship-off."  Following  project  imaginative  Cove,  a  E n g l i s h word.  imbedded  avoided.  metaphors  an  be  "clam-up,"  respondents  forms  for  cards.  the  variations  should  fishy," was  animals  options  submarine.  become  expression  But  white  beside  painting,  for  conversation--"cranky "smells  a  the  animal,  elementary from  probe  Also,  formed  e.g.,  once,  the  interviewed,  house.  metaphors  developed  backgrounds.  all  at  seashore  word for  are  when  cultural  imagery  was  parentheses  metaphors  different  involving  Indian  children  i n mind  three-by-five-inch  line-print native  Since  images  on  interviews  black-and-white possible,  several  the  was  concepts  of  trite  interest  in  in  stimulating  onto  exterior  way. various exploring  students the  and  community  native and  elders noting  in its  50  special  features,  grounded l i v i n g in  i n i n  a  part  than  the  metaphors  appropriate The  were  questions imaginary  viewed  and  metaphor  depended  i n  "blackberry  health  on  asked  cultural and  was  since Salmon as  Cove.  bush"  and  questions.  For If  you  would  "pin  contained  metaphorical  to  you  "supper" a  s p i r i t u a l cushion" and  so  four  a  be  bird, a:  raven seagull eagle  WHY?  students community "pot-luck  or  "feast."  u t i l i t a r i a n  was  metaphors  questions  u t i l i t a r i a n  better  cannery  explore  example:  coastal  better  thinking.  student  were  or  The  metaphors,  formats  be  fish  of  metaphors  be  appropriate  safety  each  to  to a  backgrounds  the  "dinner" seen  metaphor  non-native  seen  metaphors  l i f e  construct  example,  were  "factory,"  everyday  "legend"  that  the  to  and  For  "cannery"  and  able  Indian  "potlatch"  than  of  native  Columbia.  metaphor  metaphor  was  physical  small  and  metaphors The  the  B r i t i s h  dinner"  I  an  integral  "totem  pole"  metaphors, were  viewed  and as  on. types  The  of  f i r s t  twelve  questions set  of  different  51 Or If  you  would  were you  a  boat,  be  a:  sail  boat  ferry  boat  f i s h i n g  boat  WHY?  This  interview  material.  The  interview  the  discussing single  "became"  a  the choose  separate  or  a  set  a  the  or  the  an  to  asked  them.  images  I I  four  asked had  each  l i s t e d  sets  of  six  one  would  or  more  of  the  i t  be:  song  totem  blackberry  hotel  the  questions  where  students  cannery pole  enjoy  i n  they  to  explore  respondent for  them  metaphors,  example:  were  ones  this  of  the  seashore  i n to  because  because  questions  of  appeared  useful  boat.  contained As  They  and  questions  possibly  at a  meant  seashore one  or  imaginative  metaphor  and  play  set  metaphors.  which  the  choices,  of  These  most  elaborate.  f i s h ,  "seashore"  cards.  If  the  construction,  between  twenty-four  to  metaphor  second  term  of  found  c h i l d r e n ' s  bird,  The  to  easiest  metaphor the  some  students  their  resembled  what  generated  g i f t  WHY?  bush  following,  on or  52 The for  response choosing  a  The explore  was  intended  particular  third  f i f t e e n  conditions.  If  image  type  of  different  For  to  indicate for  the  student's  reasoning  seashore.  question seashore  the  asked  each  animals,  respondent  objects,  events  to and  example: a  clam  which  one  were or  one  ones  vacuum  or  more  would  of  i t  cleaner  the  following,  be:  legend  potlatch  necklace  dance  WHY?  The  response  towards  was  intended  selected  animals,  to  indicate  objects,  the  events  student's and  reasoning  conditions  at  the  seashore. The explore  nine  questions were is  fourth  to  story.  a  to  The  pre-selected  -  listener  is  to  images  best  suited  am  t e l l e r is  was  seashore: to  the  is  to  to  a  For  seashore, a  story  each  respondent  contained  thinking.  two The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s : a  asked  the  dyad  contrasting  character  asked  metaphoric  were  I story  Each  respondents  to  -  on  represent or  questions  dyads.  depended  story,  relationship  of  metaphoric  that  chosen  set  story,  to  or  decide  to  types  story  symbolize  of  his  t e l l e r is  the or  to  -  her  a character  story  WHY?  is  to  a  a  three  example: as  of  metaphors  listener  which  to  story  own  53  In  addition,  If  the  to  a  respondent "WHY?"  c a l l  interview  of  be  to  might  think  their  generate that  than  advantage  was  had  thinking  not  give  not  be  a  had  up  the  was  of  dyad  the which  with,  like  a  A for  and  i n  because  students  Appendix  the  story,  questions  the  story  would  the  possibly  of  (See  d i r e c t i o n a l i t y .  seashore  metaphor  a l l  p i l o t  their  own  into  with  their  decided  to  ask  their  own  or  the  this  of  gave  the  the some  complete  Most  most  i n  for  the  One  would  d i f f i c u l t y Most  the  be  more  But  this  most  students  students  explanations after  which  back  Cove  could  be  Because  s t r e s s f u l ,  study  to  seashore  only  frequently  tried  the  metaphors  interviews. to  could  completing  gave  judged  Salmon  the  seashore.  researcher.  students  was  were  students  Even  during  the  students  I  generate in  the  interviews.  interviewing  students'  the  partial  metaphors  students  the  themselves.  gave  used  metaphors  post-instructional  by  for  the  orientations.  been own  by by  for  coaching,  interviews,  metaphors  generated  metaphor,  and  study  generated  metaphors  already  direction.  think  choices.  those  generating  the  to  indicate  and  the  counterbalanced  When  the  teller  found  imagery  categorized  interviews  to  questions.) during  revealing  to  Nonetheless,  metaphor  asked  asked  element  story  d i f f i c u l t  for  Also,  that  the  metaphor.  explanation  which  students  to  were  relationship  story,  Some  double  students  students'  teller  set  the  students,  thinking responses  I  without were  leading  relatively  them  in  complete,  to  extend  a  given  and  could  54 be  coded  i n  r e l a t i o n  the  following  interview  R.  to  basic  with  orientations,  as  for  example,  Luke:  If the seashore were one or more o f the following, which one or ones w o u l d i t be: factory, battleground, town, painting, g i f t , totem pole? Why? A g i f t . O . K . Why w o u l d y o u s a y i t w o u l d b e a gift? Because i f t h e r e ' s no b e a c h e s , y o u w o u l d h a v e no p l a c e to build f i r e s for cooking f i s h . T h e r e w o u l d be no p l a c e for the children to play. O.K.  L. R. L.  R.  But  some  students  p a r t i a l l y  completed.  it  sometimes  was  respondent's following R.  l e f t  Where  they  impossible  more  basic  interview  the  with  questions  did  not  to  code  unanswered,  elaborate  orientation,  the  r e l a t i o n  to  the  for  example,  in  the  Jimmy:  R. J.  Can No.  you t e l l me a n y t h i n g That's a l l .  necessary,  response:  " T e l l  why  might  a  crab  I me be  Sometimes urge  the  f u l l e r  more,"  it  students  to  understanding  aspects  of  interview O.K.  an  with  urged  like  about  the or  a  how  it  walks?  students  "Can  you  one or robot,  to  think  give  of  any  a  sharper  other  reason  robot?"  was  useful  elaborate of  only  i n  J . R. J. R. J.  Where  or  metaphor,  If a c r a b w e r e one o r more o f t h e following, which ones would i t be: garbage collector, mobile house, pair of p l i e r s , feast? Why? It's a ro b o t . Why would i t be a robot? They walk l i k e a robot. Anything else? No.  R.  in  the  orientation.  a  to  ask  response  physical For  extending  questions  so  could  or  that  I  social  example,  in  the  or  gain  one  of  the  following  best  describes  a  cultural following  Dan:  Which  to  your  own  55  D.  R. D.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the seashore: to a s t o r y , story t e l l e r to a I guess I'd be the story t e l l e at the beach or s o m e t h i n g r e l a  listener to a s t o r y , animal story? Why? r . Like, i f I did something ted with i t , I'd t e l l my  brother a n d my mom w h a t h a p p e n e d . Have you done t h a t before? Yes.  R. D.  Can you t e l l me w h a t k i n d o f t h i n g m i g h t happen? Like that eagle t a k i n g the cage and t i p p i n g i t o v e r when we w e r e t r y i n g to c a t c h some s e a g u l l s w i t h a cage and some bait. I t o l d my mom a n d d a d a l l a b o u t that.  R.  What  were  D.  Just  to  This  more  look  family's  the  nature  at  and  i n f e r , And  choose  how  or  she  comparing second, metaphors between  and for the  of  his  the  and  the  and  for?  the  response  that  his  sets,  orientation  I  best  was  by  asked  to  noting  on  that  by  f i r s t ,  their  could  the  each  described  (their  orientations  instruction.  a b i l i t y  hoped  d i s t i n c t i o n  instruction  into  own.  which  and  about  insights  his  responses  a  preferred of  on  and  It  responses),  imagery  s c i e n t i f i c  interview  preferred  effect after  a  seashore.  seashore,  orientations  of  richer  curiosity  selected  choice  the  use  a  important  investigate  metaphor  students' and  seagulls  provides  incessant  students'  third  the  contains  Dan's  after  viewed  the  instruction, preferred  on  f i n a l l y ,  to  he  role,  question,  student  catch  response  dynamics data  to  them.  support  providing  observe,  trying  elaborated  the  by  you  own  be  made  prior  to  students*  56  Identifying  The  By during  Students'  looking  the  pilot  orientations  or  stressed  products  and  the  the  the  and  seashore,  things.  others  events  i n  Salmon  I  its  nature  may  looking  to  recreational  aspects  to  i n  the  students'  for  the  aspects  stressed  of the  Some  the  seashore,  the  stressed  and  the  events and  i n  safety  patterns  i n  the  able  the  Some  seashore,  the  aesthetic students  its  aspects stressed  interdependence  identify students  the  Some  seashore,  sports,  aspects  help  of  animals  responses an  of  humans.  how  students'  to  d i f f e r e n t  answers.  aspects,  humans.  was  five  nature  to  I  responses  s p i r i t u a l  harmful  seashore. of  identify  harmony.  health  be  Study,  orientation  able  students  the  students'  and  animals  stressed  Cove  of  the  was  students  beauty  Some  i n  u t i l i t a r i a n  Some  how  After the  the  aspects  seashore,  S t i l l  patterns  studies,  uses.  s c i e n t i f i c  l i v i n g  for  dimensions  students  of  Orientations  i n  additional  stressed  the  adventure,  and  enj oyment. The those  orientations  i d e n t i f i e d  responses phrases but  six  to  students  be  gave  most to  my  l i s t e d  useful questions  beside  each  orientation  i l l u s t r a t e  some  of  orientation:  the  i n  are  broader  the  chart  i n  thinking  about  not  the  complete  ideas  next  page  were  about  the  seashore.  The  descriptions,  associated  with  the  57 U t i l i t a r i a n  Humans a r e the b e n e f a c t o r s , directors, producers, developers, controllers. They h a r n e s s nature for t h e i r own practical and n e c e s s a r y use.  Aesthetic  Humans a r e the a d m i r e r s , reflectors, imitators, lovers, protectors. Humans are aware of the beauty or u g l i n e s s i n in nature. Pertaining to, an a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of nature: art, music, poetry, drama, dance, etc.  S c i e n t i f i c  Humans a r e the observers, i d e n t i f i e r s , quantifiers, predictors, theoreticians, experimenter, controllers. Humans and nature are interconnected and d e p e n d e n t on  one  another  for  survival.  Spiritual  Humans a r e aware of the sacred, or moral, or s p i r i t u a l , or s u p e r n a t u r a l a s p e c t s of nature. Humans a r e part of nature, but nature runs i t s e l f . H u m a n s may h e l p a n d protect nature, and the plants, animals, objects and events i n n a t u r e may e v e n h e l p humans. O f , or p e r t a i n i n g to, an o r g a n i z e d religion, or an a b i l i t y to "indwell" or "become" part of another l i v i n g , or nonl i v i n g thing.  Recreational  Humans a r e aware o f n a t u r e as a s o u r c e of refreshment for t h e i r own b o d y and m i n d ; for exercise, relaxation, entertainment, exploration, enjoyment.  Health  Humans a r e the f e a r f u l , endangered, injured, or l o s t . H u m a n s may h a v e l i t t l e o r no c o n trol over nature, a n d n a t u r e may e v e n control humans i n a d e t r i m e n t a l sense.  within  and  Safety  The  following  i l l u s t r a t e s  each  of  orientations:  U t i l i t a r i a n The s e a s h o r e is It's got crabs, canning.  the  six  a factory. fish for  a  typical  student  response  S c i e n t i f i c The s e a s h o r e i s a town. All the a n i m a l s that l i v e at the seashore. They a l l grow up t h e r e . The r o c k s being for the a n i m a l s to hide under.  58  Aesthetic The s e a s h o r e is a painting. It just looks l i k e a painti n g an a r t i s t would paint.  S p i r i t u a l The s e a s h o r e is a legend. T h e r e ' s a legend about this man who b e c a m e w i l d a n d he c o u l d do t h i n g s t h a t the animals could do. . .  Recreational  H e a l t h and Safety The s e a s h o r e is a pin cushion. T h e r e ' s the barnacles and the sea u r c h i n s that c o u l d poke you i f you were to f a l l on them.  The s e a s h o r e is a playground. Y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o w o r k . Do what you want. C o u l d be a lot of f u n ; looking for animals, crabs, finding shells. It's peaceful. A be For  seen  certain to  persist  example,  "The  in  across  particular  their  seashore  i n  metaphor  frequently  resulted  seashore  is  cushion"  safety  aesthetic aesthetic metaphor different metaphor,  a  aesthetic  is  resulted  and  an  consistency  pin  response.  image  "The  i n  of  For  is  a  of  seashore  regardless  i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  frequently  is  a  factory"  response.  e l i c i t e d  tended  could  metaphor.  metaphor  students  different  students  choices  usually  example,  g i f t " :  of  u t i l i t a r i a n  the  seashore  stressed  seashore  "The  metaphor  for the  reasons  painting"  a  However,  selected.  students  a  response.  orientation, aspects  the  with to of  a  a  "The health  preferred  stress the  notice  orientations  the  type  how for  of  three the  59 S c i e n t i f i c The s e a s h o r e  is  a  g i f t . Because of t h e many things that l i v e there.  Some particular example, range  is  g i f t .  enjoy  the it  We  metaphor a  looks  orientations  The  a  way  than  complex  response for  Recreational The s e a s h o r e i s a g i f t . Because c h i l d ren can p l a y on i t , swim i n the water, and throw rocks.  a  pretty.  more  with  single  can  water.  students,  in  of  Aesthetic The s e a s h o r e  the  others,  concept  notice  g i f t  how  responded  of  the  one  to  a  seashore.  student  For  stressed  a  metaphor:  It was given to us to use. A n d we u s e i t ! We're supposed to use it properly. It's l i k e a special g i f t that was g i v e n t o us t o u s e . The way f i s h e r m e n use it for f i s h . P e o p l e use it to l e a r n about the animals. And f o r fun too. Notice the as  the  obvious  fishermen well:  use  "And  i n t e l l e c t u a l animals."  Perhaps  subtle  s p i r i t u a l  obvious:  "It  properly.  Hence, thought  characteristics  of  how  students*  was  too."  like a  "People is  a  to  the of  notice  use  to  orientations  that  response  to  .  the  .  The  for  may  not  depends  stimulates  and  the  be  there  are  immediately  supposed  upon  or  conservation:  overall,  was  aspects  about  And  that  way  s c i e n t i f i c  learn  We're  g i f t  i t .  recreational  concerh  use.  to  given the  use  it  us  to  to  complexity  upon  other  students.  categorization  attempted  it  a  aspects  metaphor  the  Also,  properly."  us  use  are  special  student's  "We  There  even  it  moral  given  detailed I  fun  use or  It's  One  f i s h . "  there  to  aspects:  for  aspects:  supposed  of  it  for  "We're  use."  u t i l i t a r i a n  to  comprehend  towards  the  is  included  and  to  adequately  seashore:  give  some  represent  idea the  60  If  the  seashore  which  one,  or  were  one  ones,  or  would  more  i t  of  following,  be:  painting  factory  playground  community  pin  ohurch  cushion  the  "WHY?"  The  focus  has  very  of  different  growing  up  growing  up  and  a  thinking  i n i n  child  a an  kinds large  growing  kinds  experiential  recreation  is  a  vacant  or  an  lot  Disneyland. "playgrounds," c h i l d ' s many  different The  metaphor  context  of  terms:  The  asserted, the some  metaphor  an  to  playground,  and  a  that  there  concept  of  many  different  to  B r i t i s h beach  has  whose  kind  of  child  the  South  different  only  space to  who  so  for  a  large  frequents  many  different  playground and  a  very  child  ways  child  Columbia,  in  access  are  a  enters  gives  the  rise  to  responses.  interview  has The  "seashore," term  basis  of  the  comparison.  may  have  meanings.  sandy  who  the  familiar  in  child  a  "seashore,"  Vancouver,  child  and  new  as  " p l a y g r o u n d " has  the  experience. term  white  the  bases  a  not  i n  such  community  a  street,  rather,  metaphors,  center  bases  is  experience  experiential  word  adventure  It  of  on  the  city  above  coastal  up  Similarly,  the  urban  isolated  Pacific. of  i n  or The  a  student of  "painting,"  original force;  is  which used  Words  to  the  compare  two  something  have  the  asked  in  is  metaphorically  meanings of  ambiguity  a  range  while  metaphor  of  others  being to  form  meanings; may  depends  on  have the  61 respondent's meanings.  uncertainty The  meaning,  student's  either  respondent response  to  depends and  he  or  the  on  or  be  between  the  two  viewed  as  the  that  the  unconsciously, The  complexity  multiple  wavers  should  metaphor.  the  upon  she  response  consciously  gives  stimulates  as  of  student's thought  characteristics  of  the the  emerging metaphor student's  thought. The be  students'  based  on  responses  of  The the make  interpretation  different two  kinds  different  of  of  term  "playground"  experiences,  students,  seashore is a beach. You f i n d masks from wood,  the  Jimmy  playground. crabs, make make s t i c k s  and  as  shown  may  i n  the  Dan:  A l l the k i d s stuff, teeter to h o l d f i s h .  play on totter,  Jimmy The seashore l o t ; catching kite.  is a playground. animals, looking  I  p l a y at the beach a at them. I f l y my  Dan Some  of  the  obvious. teeter  For  example,  totter"  aspects sticks  of to  aspects of  experiential  is  the  of  metaphor bases  from  i s  of  the  Stronger  is  an  seashore  is  of  kids  find  obvious While  responses  implicit  statement  corroborating  grounded  evidence  on  of  of  the  about in  view,  the  stuff,  .  is .  .  bases  of  "making  s p i r i t u a l  other  make  u t i l i t a r i a n  some  cultural from  beach  experiential  obvious, my  response  recreational  make of  the  In  comes  the the  crabs,  is  obvious.  is  play  statement  some  not  that  metaphor  statement  "You an  Jimmy's  the  obvious  seashore.  experential wood"  an  f i s h "  the  Jimmy's  " A l l  seashore.  hold  bases  the masks  aspects  experience. examples  of  62  attaching  s p i r i t u a l  i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  during  following  from  data  significance my  the  f i e l d  Salmon  to  study  Cove  the  research,  native  Indian  seashore.  For  I  the  collected  teachers:  Jimmy is a f u l l - s t a t u s native Indian l i v i n g with his very t r a d i t i o n a l native Indian grandparents. The grandfather dances a lot i n the bighouse. J i m m y was a good dancer i n the primary grades.  From to  "making  s p i r i t u a l  the masks  be  additional  find  and  appear  is  is  experiential information  crabs", them"  very  i n  "making  a  references  "looking  at  when  In  at  them", asked  to  to  some  the to  my  attending  metaphor  responses  represented  students'  when  social  from  makes  Dan's  and  picture  By  For  crab  crabs",  of  a  important  high  the  "finding  traps",  "eating Dan  makes  animals",  " l e t t i n g at  from  to  "catching  crab  "you  additional  contrast,  and  to  statements  example,  references  entire  "catching  two  when  sharp  them",  to  However,  clearer  his  of  reference  the  bases.  responses  terms  reference  f i r s t ,  numerous  about  in  Jimmy's  At  money".  metaphor  categorize  view,  "finding  a  the  consideration.  "checking  of  about  and  student's  consideration.  "learning draw  that  become  Jimmy  lot  bighouse  the  reference  statement  the  experiential  into  a  Jimmy's  adequately  them."  fi3h",  numerous  Also,  way  different  taken  "catching  and  that  l i k e l y  i n  into  differences is  most  important  their  interviews  and  taken  is  infer  concerning  another  looking  similar  metaphor  is  it  can  suggests  experience.  crabs"  is  categorized  why  of  animals  datum  background  i l l u s t r a t e  I  dancing  information  There  domains  data  wood"  of  This  only  cultural  from  aspects  potlatches. can  above  them  tide  go".  and  at  63  low  tide,  Jimmy  (Dungeness  crab),  while  In  Jimmy's  reference  my  view  statement Dan's most  was  about  reference l i k e l y  a  experience.  the Dan  to  a  student's  it  to  similar  and  l i t e r a l  to  u t i l i t a r i a n  to  "catching  is own  the  i n  the  of  animals the  and  an  purple  an  is  a  many  shore most  looking  entire  I  at  set  of  crab.  I  a  while  them"  found  when  crab  l i k e l y  aspects  times  reference  student's  edible  experience,  s c i e n t i f i c  because of  draw  crabs"  aspects  understanding  to  common  "finding  about  important,  references  responses.  student  drew  the  statement  This  only  of  i s an  clues related  metaphor  64  Identifying  the  In beliefs  attempting about  instruction, seashore this  grade  had  to  l e v e l ,  s p e c i f i c  concepts  students' the  d e f i n i t i o n s Within  questions  of of  and  the  "A  crab  is  recycle, energy,  "The "The  community, metaphor  to  is  seashore  and  so  a  I  school  highlight  the  the  to  concepts  and  these  teach  contrast  concepts  (See  Appendix  to B  formats,  used  designed  about  s p e c i f i c  the  concept  concept  I  metaphor of  of  "The  habitat,  "A  predator-prey,  collector"  to  highlight  the  concept  of  factory"  to  highlight  the  concept  of  to  highlight  the  concept  of  a is  on.  I  was  science  beliefs  example,  the  concepts).  interview  students'  for  relationships.  students.  science  of  explore  compare  simplified  set  appropriate to  accepted to  after  basic  instruction  standard  highlight  be  seashore  of  of  to  students'  and  the  questions  used  set  to  garbage sun  as  For  hotel" robber"  a  I  the  is a  focus  the  before  judged  those  metaphor  seashore  is  about  basic  relationships.  analyze  define  design  b e l i e f s .  explore  a  were  elementary  seashore  seagull  2)  ecology  the  to  which  ecology,  ideas  level  clearly  primary  beach  and  relationships  b e l i e f s  beach  to  identify  1)  and  the  of  related  for  to  seashore  I  Since  suit  Beliefs  relationships  students'  the  Students'  a  (See  town"  Appendix  A for  the  complete  set  of  questions.) The  students'  the  types  of  the  students*  b e l i e f s  responses represented.  responses,  I  was  were  categorized  After  looking  able  to  for  identify  according  to  patterns  i n  a  of  number  65 specific  b e l i e f s  which  students  held  below  i l l u s t r a t e  about  seashore  the  responses  relationships. The students  b e l i e f s  gave  to  my  l i s t e d  metaphor  questions:  Recycle  Death The s e a s h o r e is a graveyard. Some w h a l e s go up o n t h e beach when t h e i r time i s up. They go up on t h e beach and d i e .  A crab i s a garbage collector. It p i c k s up a n y t h i n g that's dead to eat, because i t ' s a scavenger.  Habitat  EnersY  A cobblestone is a hotel. Under the r o c k s there's a l l sorts of l i t t l e things: crabs sand f l e a s , eels.  The sun i s a f a c t o r y . It seems like a factory because i t ' s producing things, like helping plants grow.  Predator-prev  Community  A s t a r f i s h i s a can opener. It can open clams, mussels, and many o t h e r s h e l l f i s h .  The s e a s h o r e i s a town. It's like the l i t t l e animals are a l l together i n a community. Like under a rock i t ' s just like there are different animals: shore crabs, limpets, hermit crabs, eels, snails, a l l l i v i n g together.  When the  attempting  students'  b e l i e f s ,  according  to  the  mentioned  previously.  to  comprehend  I  categorized  c r i t e r i a  that  While  some  of  statements  about  specific  easy  categorize,  other  responses  are  more  d i f f i c u l t One  observe, nature, plants  to  zones and  are  animals  the  described students'  concepts are  metaphor  represent responses  the  concepts  responses  and  are  implicit  are  reasonably  statements  and  interesting  to  categorize.  belief,  involved  adequately  their  best  e x p l i c i t to  and  which  the not on  was  concept simple a  particularly  of  zonation.  patterns.  v e r t i c a l  rock  Like The face  everything arrangement exposed  to  i n of the  66 surf-swept as  ocean  d i s t i n c t ,  and  or  observe  because  crevices  and  about the of  below  many  the  concept  following p i l o t  color  Though so  of  bands;  with  a  zones of  and  patterns  appear  protected  rocky,  slope  the  zones  spread  they  are  d i f f i c u l t  but  gentle  do  the  zonation on  occur,  animals  a  l i v e  i n  the  cracks  to and  sediments. how  I  categorized  zonation,  metaphor  study  together  shore  understand  the  the  muddy  overlap.  To  close  horizontal  cobblestone, out  are  it  responses  is  the  helpful  which  were  students' to  beliefs  briefly  obtained  observe  during  one  interviews:  The seashore is a totem pole. When y o u go down t o Wilson's Beach, t h e r e ' s a cave, then l a n d , then grass on top. There's black, brown, then green grass. The beach just looks l i k e a totem pole. The seashore i s a patchwork q u i l t . A l l the rocks are different; they're different shapes, and some are smooth and some are not. Then t h e r e ' s seaweeds that are different colors. The b e a c h l o o k s l i k e a beautiful q u i l t from a distance.  Although concept  of  zonation,  patterns  i n  obtained  from  from  were  i n in  within  conducted,  located Beach  other  students  beaches  is  patterns  student she  nature.  students  other  this  was  had  not  at  aware  least  Interestingly, students  any  of  Salmon  l i v i n g  the  Cove  prior  to from  Wilson's  Beach  the  the  the  only  can  be  exposed type  of  easily  open beach  coast. where  recognized.  p i l o t  of  color  responses  were  Beach,  studies  instruction).  distance  near  " s c i e n t i f i c "  awareness  Wilson's  four  walking  has  an  the  similar  near  other  of  schools only In  color  v e r t i c a l other  it  a l l  not from the  interviews rocky  words,  patterns  Therefore,  (or  Of  where  but  c l i f f  Wilson's  or  zonation  is  unlikely  67 that  students  Salmon  Cove  previous  would  near have  the  comparatively  had  a  concept  protected of  beaches  "zonation"  of  without  instruction. By  contrast,  developed the  l i v i n g  i n  some  following  the  concept  students  after  post-instructional  of  zonation  instruction,  was  as  clearly  evidenced  by  response:  The seashore is a totem pole. It's a totem pole because of the tide zones. A totem p o l e has different animal designs going up and down the pole; like a bear, t h e n an e a g l e , and a man. That's like low tide, middle tide, high t i d e and s p r a y zone. But  even  after  instruction,  some  responses  were  d i f f i c u l t  to  categorize: The seashore i s a blackberry bush. A b l a c k b e r r y bush can have lots of berries. The a n i m a l s c a n be the berries and the leaves of the b l a c k b e r r y bush can be the kelp. The blackberries are in a b u n c h , and a school of f i s h are i n a bunch too. Starfish, urchins, a l l the different animals are in bunches at the seashore.  The also  same  kinds  occur  zonation through  i n  is  different preferences,  ways,  found  "blackberry or  the  then,  and  coherence  the  more  which  Zonation,  of  less  concept  enters  the  and  so  many  i n  the  bush"  metaphor.  e x p l i c i t , is  pole" The  and  the  l i f e  interpreted  are  very  conceptual gives  different  "totem  system  rise  metaphor  to  of  concept  of  experiences d i f f e r e n t .  students  different  responses.  metaphor  i n  many  metaphor  68  The  L i t e r a l  Interviews  To the  see  concepts  case the  as  a  l i t e r a l  the  l i t e r a l  i d e n t i f i e d  focus, and  To. of  how  and  the  i n  the  b r i e f l y  the  metaphor  compare  metaphor  begin,  interviews  served  to  interviews,  and  contrast  triangulate I  use  data  Luke's  from  both  two  sets  interviews.  l i t e r a l  interviews  consisted  of  questions:  1.  2.  Set  (A):  The  Students'  Animals,  Objects,  Set  The  (B):  Awareness  Events  Students'  and  of  Seashore  Plants,  Conditions.  Beliefs  About  Specific  Seashore  Relationships.  as  For  the  f i r s t  of  the  students)  a l l  animals,  objects,  wrote  the  names  (1st,  2nd,  3rd,  sort  the  cards  constructing of  the  looked the  for "WHY"  preferred reasons  Luke  l i s t e d  to  l i s t  a l l  the  that  came  to  clams,  etc.) i n  I  onto  some I  crabs,  recorded  his  my  notebook.  patterns  i n  the  of  animals,  constructing s p i r i t u a l ,  plants,  in  animals,  was  from  a  spoke,  asked  Luke  the  order  and  particular  patterns to  to for  interviews,  recorded  I  l i s t e d  reasons  and  and  events;  well  plants,  order  his  the  phenomena,  objects,  the  then  explained  order  (as  Luke  the  explanations  of  groups  As  Following  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  i l l u s t r a t i o n , the  l i s t The  he  I  Luke  seashore  and  cards.  As  asked  mind.  rocks)  white  way.  explanations.  for  For  (e.g.,  interview,  into  types  ( s c i e n t i f i c ,  etc.,  groups,  groups  l i t e r a l  I i n  identify preferred  orientation  e t c . ) . pre-instructional  etc.,  presented  in  interviews,  Table  1:  69 Table 1 L u k e ' s Awareness o f S e a s h o r e 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  rocks eels  10. 11 . 12 . 13. 14. 15. 16 . 17. 18.  crabs seaweed kelp fish k i l l e r  whale  logs water  (a) l i m p e t (b) d i f f e r e n t  to  average  awareness  objects  and  that  "Chinese he  is  old bikes machine parts l i t t l e shells starfish Chinese hats (a) barnacles Chinese slipper chitons  (b)  19. 21 . 22 . 23 . 24. 25. 26 .  seagulls pigeons clams salmon halibut herring cod  eagles  s p e c i e s of limpet  Compared  as  Phenomena  the  aware  students,  Luke  o f the e x i s t e n c e o f s e a s h o r e  events. hats,"  other  The f a c t  that  "Chinese of  some  his list  slippers," of  the  expressed  plants,  included  less  animals,  such  and " c h i t o n s " conspicuous  an  items  suggests seashore  animals. When  asked  constructed  the  explanations  indicated:  to  groups  sort  the  identified  cards in  into  Table  2,  groups,  Luke  and gave the  70  Table  2  Luke's 1.  Category  Prior  to  Instruction  rocks eels crabs seaweeds kelp  3.  Chinese hats barnacles Chinese slippers olams  4.  -  chitons  -  I  stick the  and  to when  draw  crabs  pictures  seawater),  relationships. interviews, answered  my  crawl  Luke  and  -  out  -  same  thing  sort  of  second of  with and  over  six  walks  set  of  sometimes you on the beach not alive  sometimes seagulls, pigeons sometimes at the ea sometimes fly after  interviews,  I  asked  and  low  answer  my  questions:  at  pictures  in of  at  tide  questions  i l l u s t r a t i o n , the  them  too  seawater)  drew  see  seagulls f l y gles the pigeons the crows  animals  For  have  eagles eat crows and  seashore  to  common  the l o g s water  eagles seagulls crows pigeons  -  this  covered  rocks  rocks  k i l l e r whales fish cod halibut herring salmon starfish a l l swim some e a t the - a l l fish the starfish  For  to  5.  sometimes pools of  parts of o l d machines l i t t l e shells old bikes -  a l l stick to rocks seaweed sticks to rocks kelp ties i t s e l f to rocks clams a t t a c h to rocks with sticky stuff turn  logs water -  -  eels 2.  System  the  barnacles  the high  (or  students tide  when  about  out  (or of  seashore  pre-instructional (Figure  1),  and  71 Figure  1  Barnacles (or  when  at  High  Tide  Barnacles  covered  with  seawater)  R. L. R. L.  What d o e s a barnacle A l i t t l e mountain.  R.  What d o e s the barnacle i n and c o v e r s it? Brings in food. How d o e s it do that?  L. R. L. R. L. R. L. R. L . R. L. R. L.  look  Can y o u t e l l me a n y t h i n g L i t t l e crowns. It looks the orange thing.  It has a Have you Yes. Any i d e a No. But you Yes. Does i t No.  what  it  think eat  takes  i t ' s  when  the  R. L .  What do t h o s e It closes up.  R.  Does  L. R. L.  No. Can  you  show  You  can  see  when  out  else l i k e  me it  do  at  i n  high  takes  tide  stuff  from  the  Tide  seawater)  goes  out?  looks like? barnacle i s  when  the  tide  come s  are  they  like?  tide  goes  out?  i n .  water?  eating? tide that  it  eats  move  once  i t  with  your  hand  move,  of  about what it a crown. The  with,  things t h a t move do when It closes up i t s mouth.  barnacle  Low  l i k e ?  l i t t l e mouth t h a t seen it moving?  Those l i t t l e things I don't know.  a  (or  at  but  you  gets  to  how  need  a  that a  what the  rock? barnacle  magnifying  eats? glass  72  (moves  hand  and  L. R.  Seagulls, crows. W o u l d t h e y be v e r y  L. R.  No. Would  anything  L. R.  Eels. Would  they  L. R. L. R.  No. Why? They c a n ' t break the shell So t h e shell does what?  L.  Protects  has  rapid  on  contrast  in  rapid  would  any  animals  try  to  eat  it?  successful?  try  to  eat  i t  at  high  tide?  successful?  l i t e r a l  and  and  its  open.  interviews, feeding  In  by  addition,  he  predators  ("a  that  barnacles  feed  up  tight  demonstrates  opening  from  close  Luke  at  low  is  and  closing  aware  of  barnacle at  a  tide  ("It  his  how  has  high  tide  that  he f i s t  barnacles shell  ("It  that  brings  closes  up.  It  mouth.")  see  confirmed  out,  barnacles  i t " ) ,  up  f i s t  barnacle?  very  themselves  To  focus  be  the  food"),  a  goes  movements.  protects  closes  eat  closing  i t .  observed  protect  in  opening  R. L. R.  From  in  by  movements). Does a n y t h i n g I d o n ' t know. When t h e tide  how  data the  data  i d e n t i f i e d  identified  concepts  Luke's  i n  the  from  the  metaphor  predator-prey  responses  i n  and  both  l i t e r a l  interviews  interviews,  recycle, the  and  metaphor  I  briefly  compare and  and  l i t e r a l  interviews. From  the  predator-prey A  A  It's  clam  pulls  interviews,  Luke  identified  three  relationships:  barnacle  ocean.  metaphor  the  is  is  a  fisherman.  r e a l l y , a  food  really  vacuum i n  real  The seashore is attacked the k i l l e r  It  eats  small.  cleaner.  It  that  You  stuff  can't  opens  its  in  see shell  the  i t . and  fast.  a battleground. If the sharks whales, the d o l p h i n s w i l l come and  73 save  the  Although aware  Luke  of  never  a  both  on  i d e n t i f i e d  incorrect  a  the  focusing  correctly  source  term  of  between  "plankton"  food the  for  k i l l e r  f i l t e r  he  is  clearly  feeders,  and  whale  and  dolphins  metaphor  interviews  and  the  l i t e r a l  the  common  six  eleven  predator-prey  seashore  predator-prey  animals,  relationships,  Luke  and  no  relationships:  3  Luke's  List  barnacles clams < eels < crows < seagulls  recycle  of  Predator-prey  <  tiny  <  the  the  remains  A seagull apart.  f i s h ,  stuff  metaphor  A seagull throw guts  the  and  and  is a on the is  l i t e r a l  eagle  wastes  guts." "recycle"  animals  that  eat  the  By  comparing in  this  remains  way,  It  a  he  and I  was  clams starfish starfish starfish  <  i d e n t i f i e d  animals  crab Luke  contrasting to  people's  you  garbage  "eats  parts  of  fish,  dead  never  mentions  terms  like  at  wastes  able  that  animals:  rips  shows  and  <  It e a t s f i s h g u t s when cleans up t h e beach.  Although  or  crab  he  other  robber.  interviews,  fish  of  janitor. beach. It  a  <  starfish eagle < seagulls crows <  interviews,  "scavenger"  students  Relationships  same s t u f f bullheads sea u r c h i n s sea u r c h i n s  From  In  as  the  exists.  From interviews  mentions  relationship  actually  Table  whale.  plankton  describes that  k i l l e r  of  least other data  identify  an  awareness  of  animals. for  their  a l l  of  knowledge  the of  74  certain  pre-determined  among  concepts:  desiccation,  the  of  from  the  metaphor  additional  interviews: energy  for  the  The  students  the  for  to  data  data  from types  chain,  the  for  i d e n t i f i e d or  absence  the  metaphor  of  seashores,  zonation,  community,  It the  concepts  of  c r i t e r i a  included  of  and  boys  students,  there  as  well  attendance For who  main  was  the  was  more  was  judged  students  to  to  i d e n t i f i e d  towards  there  should  be  newcomers,  than  six  or  i n  should  there be  selected  used  the  be  check  from  the  students  native and  selection a  of  cross  Additional equal and  raised  should  would  students  represent  be  target  it  seven  the  should  born  six  that  seashore.  both  students and  I  anticipated  students  following;  should as  It  c r i t e r i o n  that  orientations  g i r l s ,  collected,  monitor  The  students  data  study.  closely  time.  section  class  of  interview  in-depth  class  target  Cove  a l l  that  presence  only  exhaustive  cycle  Students  impossible  the  of  the  conservation.  too  t i d a l  interviews.  Target  during  and  inferred  food  relationships  observing  coastlines,  pollution,  consuming  From  be  sun,  v a l i d i t y  metaphor  of  the  confirmed  i d e n t i f i e d  types  the  I  as  habitat,  after  interviews  interviews,  e.g.,  interdependence, time  l i t e r a l  well  recycle,  Then,  concepts  from  too  as  predator-prey, protection.  i d e n t i f i e d from  concepts,  numbers  non-native i n  Salmon  maintain  high  throughout. each had  the  orientation, highest  I  i d e n t i f i e d  proportion  of  the  responses  student  i n  categorized  the by  75 that  orientation.  students:  (Dan)  orientation, a  had  student  no  A  major  began  and  the  (Luke)  I  i d e n t i f i e d  of  s c i e n t i f i c  orientation,  and  five  a  (Mary)  preferred the  responses,  student  (Sharon)  a  the ended  Interaction  study, June  4,  the  Study  classroom The  1982.  interaction  data  collected  question:  interactions  towards  Classroom  of  following  preferred  of  orientation.  The  6  a  addition,  combination  part  May  the  What  In  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  u t i l i t a r i a n  orientation,  preferred  III  the with  preferred  greatest  Phase  addressed  a  orientation.  with  to  student  aesthetic  the  study,  led  the  (Jimmy)  preferred  s p i r i t u a l who  This  occur  seashore  and  between their  the  students*  experiences  orientations  during  instruction? This  section  used  to  describes  increase  the  method  of  The  Strategies  The students'  energy,  of  knowledge  food  of  knowledge  classroom  instruction of  beach  which  was  ecology,  and  increase  the  observations.  Instruction  primary  habitat,  strategy  students'  c o l l e c t i n g  relationships: cycle,  the  the  purpose of  types  the of  basic  instruction ecological  coastlines,  desiccation, chain,  of  types  predator-prey,  zonation,  was  to  concepts of  of  seashore  seashores,  protection,  interdependence,  t i d a l  recycle, community,  76  pollution,  and  involved  conservation.  using  instruction  the  to A  students'  a b i l i t y  second  orientations. I  the  a c t i v i t i e s  new  ones  were  order had  designed  to  how  metaphors  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  s p i r i t u a l ,  the  use  how  students  community how  the  other  non-verbal  The  of  Relying  heavily  arguing  that  are their To  see  beliefs how  on  of  it  from  science  enhance  the  range  of  a the  students'  Seashore.  others  Many  were  designed  the  the  of  dropped  and  to  the  suit  used  to  of an  new  Lakoff  do is  the  meaning  a  and  took  this a  I  to  and  into  elaborate  New  to  what  on  to  show  concept I  of show  concepts.  Meaning. (1980),  setting,  the  to  account  Last,  Johnson  to  metaphor  involved  ecological  Create  this  aesthetic,  ecological  concepts.  they  In  5.  community"  instructional  seashore, for  that  teach  Metaphors  Chapter  s c i e n t i f i c ,  To  seashore  concepts  instruction  of  s c i e n t i f i c  work  possible  i n  metaphors  understand  i n  specific  of  range  "The  were  used  about  a  related  giving  is  a  the  orientations.  Verbal  when  capable  but  strategy  better  metaphors  Use  to  account  Upon  and  etc.,  metaphor  might  and  into  during  specific was  seashore  outlined  from  preferred  of  instruction  s p e c i f i c a l l y  are the  constructing  students'  of  same,  a c t i v i t i e s teach  show  the  knowledge  Once  the  instruction  orientations  take  revise  of  orientations.  science  I  to  strategy  preferred  the  developed--some  preferred  section,  to  major  of  view  remained  were  The  their  purpose to  In  orientations,  students'  students*  increase  concepts.  A  students'  I  am  metaphors past,  to  they  say  and  do.  create  new  meaning,  77  I  discuss  the  instructional  metaphor  "The  seashore  is  a  metaphor  is  community." For  many  adults  "The  particularly  pleasing,  experiences,  generation,  community  metaphor  coherent  is  structure, and  "The  from for  language past  w i l l  our  makes  sense  some  is i n  a  be  community"  appropriate,  given  our  The  that  the  reason  experiences  of  of  provides  them—"it  things  and  community"  different  for  and  be  a  and  l i t e r a l  "communities"  implications  I  to  metaphors of  and  culture.  makes  experiences,  something  views  and  a  hiding  the  seashore coherent  others"  (Lakoff  1980). seashore  our  include  it  is  perceptive,  highlighting  Johnson,  everyday  that  seashore  this  metaphor  ways. our  These  b e l i e f s  community.  Some  statements  give  rise  to  of  as  on  expressions  about  at  what  these  well. least  it  our  arise means  expressions Our  the  personal following  metaphor:  The  se a s h o r e  is  families,  The  se a s h o r e  is  houses.  The  se a s h o r e  is  zones.  The  seashore  is  graveyards.  The  seashore  is  factories.  The  seashore  is  balance  The  se a s h o r e  is  cycles.  The  seashore  is  l i v i n g  The  seashore  is  a  more  reflects  specific  about  birth,  and  and  growth.  harmony  together.  system.  what  I  believe  Lakoff  and  Johnson  78  mean  by  metaphorical  community"  supressing of  notion  the  of of  seashore  ecological  fact, viewed  suppressed,  the  ecology, It  requires  that  recreational  is  cultural  the  several  forms  the  a  of  students  something of  smaller concepts.  to they  Salmon  the  certain  example,  as  leisure  of  is  of  merely  very  the  may  seashore  interests a  the  as  community"  seashore be  notion of  though  the  the  "The  "too  are  costly"  is  of  these  community  that  competition,  may  suppress  highlights that  the other  l i e s  behind  a  community"  metaphor  a  seashore  community  more  readily,  namely  large  allowed  could  it  aspects,  communality.  understood  that  a  together  seashore  This  aspects  metaphor  l i v i n g and  other  diversity,  conceptualize  Habitat  of  seashore,  of  entail  specific  balance  Cove.  metaphors  through of  seashore  not  community  instruction,  ecological)  masking  seashore's  recreation  while  out-of-balance." does  And  sense of  of  (or  aspects  aspects  ecological  etc.  notion  community  several  an  for  the  "The  entails  aspects  During  own  is  features  foreground  the  viewed,  serving  "too  it  the  recreational  In  specific  aspects--namely  of  seashore  s c i e n t i f i c  into  are  not  metaphor  interdependence,  terms  or  but  concepts.  as  some  destructive"  allowed  "The  certain  requires  recreational  since  Second,  the  system.  the  the  brought  that  an  our  is  the  frequently  like  example,  This  are  "too  highlights  community.  In  metaphor,  For  seashore  a c t i v i t i e s .  or  metaphor  others. the  aspects  in  metaphor.  F i r s t ,  side  systematicity  be  metaphor the  also  students  explored  in  their  included to  through  study the  79  metaphors  "A  h o t e l . "  tidal  Recycle  seagull  is  through  the  a  metaphor  experiences  the  made  the  experiences, students'  concept  For  many  action  a  new  system, and  may  actions  that  of  seashore  from  metaphors  from  images.  For  image a  a  l i v i n g  i n  other  students  orientation. fisherman"  In was  i s ,  the  concept  that  range I  coastal  other viewed  metaphor  with  conceptual gives  ecology  to  masked  their  other a  new  were  for  seashore  meaning  "The  the  enters  to  at and  a  the  their  would  appeal  to  loosely  perceptions  the  It  to  view  u t i l i t a r i a n barnacles,  would a "A  the  constructing or  from  metaphor a  students'  " u t i l i t a r i a n "  seashore  as  guide  conceptual  discussing  community.  the  a  a  Therefore,  the  s p i r i t u a l , when  words,  and  involved  that  the  as  students*  a b i l i t y  thought  view  act  increasing  aesthetic,  fishing  can  i s  to.  orientations of  seashore  metaphor.  system  rise  attempt  fisherman  small  seashore  seashore  of  "A  explored  metaphors  new  culture  accordance  example,  of  i t  various a  aspects  a  on.  they  such  gave  be  so  the  is  metaphor  important  gave by  the  and  while  entailed  our  system  beach  cobblestone  seashore.  because  the  A  could  highlighted  metaphors  of  additional  knowledge  the  the  alter  factory",  metaphors  metaphorical  i t  An  the  in  a  n  Energy  important  adults  for  i s  and  through  coherent  things  of  and  i f  them  most  community"; future  sun  the  then  town"  explored  metaphors  those  students  a  c o l l e c t o r . "  experiences, If  be  "The  the and  meaning.  is  could  garbage  Because  seashore  pool  students also  help  u t i l i t a r i a n barnacle  " u t i l i t a r i a n "  is  a  metaphor  80 designed  to  thought  that  symphony and  teach  the  when  orchestra  encourage  concept  discussing would  other  orientation.  s p i r i t u a l ,  and  concepts.  Discussion  of  instruction  complete  set  appeal  to  that  view  devised  the how  way the  occurred  of  instructional  of  Non-verbal  the  image  "aesthetic" the  to  seashore  teach  these  metaphors  responded  is  a  an  aesthetic,  specific  in  of  from  metaphors  included  I  students,  s c i e n t i f i c ,  students  is  relationships.  cycle,  certain  metaphors  of and  tidal  to  I  u t i l i t a r i a n  instruction,  predator-prey the  students  aesthetic  during  of  science  were  used  the  type  5.  The  to  Chapter  included  i n  Appendix  C.  The  Dse  Understanding  and  accepting  language  metaphor)  f i t t i n g  their of  at  pulsing  wave,  play  the  fits  students is  possible  new  meaning  a  for to  organism-tidal of  understanding  given  magnificent  the  the  a  graceful become  i n  a  .  their  children  seagull,  aware  of  a how  Because  metaphorical  containing  as  students to  the  situations.  situations  well  the  terms,  metaphors  to  it give  seashore. to  cycle  increase  the  the  relationship,  dramatizations of  r e c a l l  becoming  play  (as  involves  thunderbird—we  and  Meaning.  metaphor  we  of  New  metaphor  the  When  understanding  stories  Create  situation of  situations.  conceptualize  Therefore,  series  a  to  non-verbal  seashore--their  their  can  in  a  understanding  understanding playing  Metaphors  at  concept  the of  students' the  teacher  seashore. desiccation,  knowledge  of  and  I  To  develop the  planned  the a an  students  81 dramatized at  high  the  situation  tide.  formed  a  To  c i r c l e ,  the  "blood  red  the  sea."  To  high  tide,  sweeping with  prying  inside.  To they  feathery tight  and  shore  under  moist  the  they  created land  and  feathery or  sea  and  eating  the  seashore  and  organisms  or  the  six  anemones  shrimp, soft  shellhouse  at  low  under  rocks  or  long  shellplates  inside, for  or  parts  organisms  hard  or  up  seagulls  edible  into  at  legs  b a r n a c l e s — p u l l i n g their  crabs—scurrying  items  dark  to  crevices  seaweeds. teacher  parts  seeing  the  among  the  gives  sum,  seashore  is  Even  to  address  the  seashore  I  of  i t  and  the a  tidal  cycle  terms  in  In It  and  is  the  students a  hiding of  general,  to  narrative  others.  The  relationships the  coherence  story-line they  see  in  significance.  i n s t r u c t i o n  the  metaphor  a  as  teacher  new  requires  different  the  cycle,  or  parts.  metaphor  with  ignoring  tidal  meaning  community"  worked the  structure.  during  in  and  story  certain  a  long  and  crabs  of  closing  moist  among  coherent  In  and  coherent  that  gray  with  tide  bright  tiny  mussels  situation  seashore  plankton,  paralyzing and  upon  of  looking  connections  story  microscopic  low  could,  down  rocks  the  a  a  barnacles  clams  a  beating  at  burning  they  the  involved  imposed the  open  probing  highlighting  or  for  inside  Thus,  play  situation  creating  or  construct  the  "became"  sun  as  dramatize  stony  eat,  t a l l  sun  "became"  and  as  hot  the  the  legs  the  organisms  of  dramatize  picking  or  rays  tentacles  starfish  tide,  "become"  water  stinging  seashore  stretched  they  the  of  way  model  the and  introduced for  students to  his to  "The  class. look  consider  at new  82 p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  The  instructional metaphors) beliefs  metaphors  that about  changing  from  are  and a  it  i n  of  must  of  Because  strategy  was  between  the  teacher  teacher  and  I  specific based  lessons.  on  their  We  patterns  behavior  to  take had  i n  discuss  the  during  that  into  Each the  instruction.  from  of  cooperative  lesson  planning  purpose  the  the  teacher  strategy to  of  enter  specific  was  and to  into science  teacher's  present myself use the  view  of the  was  students'  on  relationship school  day  and  my  since  thinking  the plan  strategies and  of  this  myself  ranged  detailed  prior  part.  For  relationship  culturally  own  students*  result  to  necessary, and  the  orientations  and  the  handed.  the  a  this  study,  teaching  teacher  presentations  investigation  socially  concepts.  cases,  heavy  after  of  As  the  this  close  preferred  between  the  a  metaphorical  relationship  of  students'  to  account  events  students*  i n  day  the  structuring  of  non-verbal  certain  rather  be  procedure one  set  the  students  was  to  myself.  developed  in  the  instruction  there  to  and  defining  concepts,  acknowledged  and  met  whole  orientations.  be  orientations,  a  metaphors  further  encouraging  strategy  preferred  of  science  metaphorical the  language  capable  variety  Last,  introduced  (both  specific  them  seashore  teacher  the  between  the  teaching  sensitive  metaphors  in  order  to  teach  83  Classroom  Observations  I large data  collected  groups when  the  providing both to  teacher  metaphors  as  introduce  a  I working target the  understood her  a  was an  they and  target  "blood  attempt  metaphor.  Also,  to I  a  student  on  their  made  whole, trips  nature  the  of  the  personal  teacher  instructional such  the  teacher  students'  might  metaphor.  as  verbatim  students  the  data  own.  their  who  which  the  or  a  c h i l d , "  were  the  copies  rotated  they  From  a  barnacle later  the  was  target  attention the  to  time  ensure  interpreting called  "snake,"  own  the  asked,  to  student a  were  among  time  questioned  student's of  students  questioned  when  I  I  questions  student  example,  when  talk—paying  obtained. were  understand,  a  f i e l d  example,  of  group  students.  students  like  new  the  to  metaphors, as  during  or  names  verbatim  sucker,"  "behaving  of  talking large  class  and  details  the  or  For  and  the  using  generated,  in  the  by  results  manner  with  For  individual  recording  task,  the  of  collected  students  a  and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l  exploration,  groups  experience.  anemone  in  small  I  students.  record  actions  metaphors  individual  crab  the  a l l  introducing  a  observing  classroom  included  talk,  students  particular  or  of  by  collected i n  the  focus  concept  and  the  observed  observations  speaking,  interacting i n  to  by  applying  discussion  a  teacher-pupil  to  I  responses  encourage  These  or  data  students.  was  instruction  seashore.  teacher's might  individual  information,  during the  and  classroom  or  his sea  said  the  meaning  a  I  a  student for  students'  the daily  84 assignments—science seashore animals,  project  creative  Phase IV  1982,  metaphor the the  the  the  Inquiries  unit,  and t h e l i t e r a l  post-instructional following  of  Interviews  f r o m J u n e 7 t o J u n e .25,  s t u d e n t s were r e - i n t e r v i e w e d ,  interviews  paragraphs of  w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , legends, e t c .  Community  completion  a l l of  descriptive  Post-instructional and  Upon  reports,  interviews  interviews.  u s i n g both the The p u r p o s e o f  was t o c o l l e c t d a t a  questions:  What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n s the  seashore a f t e r  seashore r e l a t i o n s h i p s  after  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p orientations second  interview  data  from  community  regarding  of  between t h e s t u d e n t s '  Phase  selected the  b e l i e f s about s p e c i f i c  instruction?  and b e l i e f s a f t e r  aspect  1V  instruction? involved  individuals  target  students'  the  school p r i n c i p a l , the grade 6 teacher,  the  four  coordinator. collect  native The  language teachers, purpose  of  this  data concerning the f o l l o w i n g  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p orientations  towards  instruction?  What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  A  concerning  in  the  personal  s c h o o l and backgrounds:  the primary  elders, part  the c o l l e c t i o n o f  teachers,  and t h e home s c h o o l of  t h e s t u d y was t o  question:  between t h e s t u d e n t s '  and t h e i r s o c i a l and/or c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s ?  85  Phase  V  Long-term and  Seven November  months  of  Only  a  of  short  were  form  not  collect  data  How  the  stable  specific I the  of  are  and  personal  metaphor  the  target  interviews, interviews  were The  the  unit,  long-term  interviewed l i t e r a l  long-term  in  using  interviews  interviews  was  to  questions: that  have  taken  place  i n  the  i n  the  students'  beliefs  about  community  concerning  backgrounds other  interview  data  the  supported words,  from  individuals  extent the  to  which  analysis  the  students'  the  Data  of  the the  orientations  seashore.  a l l  pre-instructional interviews  the  additional  Phase  For  conduct  students  of  teaching  relationships?  i n t e r v i e w s — i n the  to  the  orientations?  changes  collected  students'  towards  changes  of  interviews.  purpose  seashore  school  target  following  are use  completion  metaphor  Interviews  Inquiries  returned  six  The  on  students'  in  the  stable  How  I  the  used.  Community  after  1982,  interviews.  Post-instructional  were  VI  of  were  the  compared,  of  students,  interviews  students, the  Analysis  and  looking responses  post-instructional compared,  looking  responses the  for on  interviews, for  the  post-instructional  evidence the  on  of  change.  For  pre-instructional and  the  evidence  of  long-term change  or  86  s t a b i l i t y  over  time.  post-instructional collected sum,  I  on  comparing  responses  each  individual  attempted  individual  When  to  make  and  beginning  final  target  available  responses  responses,  student fully  were  with  a l l  data  considered.  documented  In  accounts  of  cases.  Validly  This addressing  study the  triangulation  question by  v a l i d i t y  during  students  using  questions  which  asked the  them  them  to  probed  l i t e r a l  how  discuss  relationships.  students.  methods  These  interviews  I  the checked  The  same  instruction  to  identify  participant understand interviewed  to  confirmed  interviews.  instructional  prior  two  strategies. observation  individual individuals  in  that  and  analyze  I  collected  the  questions,  which  the  by  to  of  the  in  the  metaphor used  after  of means  instruction  metaphorical and  served  effect  data  asked  seashore  the were  and  interviewed  gathered  i n  the asked  knowledge  interviews  school  on  I  data  classroom of  check  specific  gathered of  patterns  of  interviews  sets  during  process  interviews  conceptual  data  the  interviews,  of  see  to  interviewed  choices.  l i t e r a l  knowledge  I  specific  pre-instructional  analyze  Thus,  particular  approaches  consistent  analysis.  answered  open-ended their  a  metaphor  they  their  First,  provided  and  forced-choice  using  and  complementary  v a l i d i t y .  collection  discuss  identify  six of  multiple data  to  students  took  thinking.  community  to  the of to I  further  87 confirm the  patterns  data  better  of  metaphorical  recorded.  able  to  By  and  and  previous  their  addition,  the  after  of  students'  above  i n  experiential  the  experience,  and  meanings  the  the  interpretations  one  research.  the  meaning  situations  and  theory such,  orientation  was  not  the  which  to  As  during  students'  was  to  of  checks  a  six  s t a b i l i t y A l l  providing  In  given  the  time.  to  the for  variety  the  p i l o t  studies  their  of  gave  they in  I  not  the  reality  I  to  study.  research  be On  i n i t i a l  was  i d e n t i f i e d  to  the I  the have  the  the  p i l o t my  own  theory  or  uncover  the  other used of  to hand,  tested  i n the I  previous  information  construct  observing. five  into  descriptions  focus  of  their  assigning  work.  constantly I  by  provide  appeared  this  to  attempted  and  to  during  careful  words,  between  responses  generated  development  I  balance  over-structured  haphazard.  against  f i t  was  provide the  a  participants  frameworks  previous  gathering.  hypotheses  I  other  involved  disregard  research  over  strike  were  hand  In  terms  not  to  prematurely  interpretive  did  was  instruction,  contrast  for  I  experiences.  responses  the  which  students*  various  and  way,  the  interviews  b e l i e f s  base  temptation  constructs  of  data  attempted  the  On  previous  and  of  during  cultural  compare  students'  I  understanding  studies.  to  this  from  settings.  Second,  conceptual  experiences  metaphor  speculate  i n  their  of  rich  data  to  interpretation  and  set  and  valid  orientations a  the  social  instruction  provide  coherence  a  b e l i e f s ,  same  months the  triangulating  ensure  orientations  thinking  of  an  my  emerging  For  example,  orientations  towards  88  the  seashore  and  health  Salmon  ( s c i e n t i f i c , and  Cove  additional  data  took  of  and I  the  had  to  gave  of  the  understand  For  students marine to  I  interpret  information. patterns known  on to  or  of  that  I  my  patterns  the  in  orientation  the  analysis  students  the  as  an  i d e n t i f i e d  interpretation i n  experiences, where  by  the  of  the  of  the  complexity  By  the  For  example,  of  spot"  for  of  of  more  exterior Fourth,  I  in  tried  see  and  having  local  and  I  ideas  an to  not  and  to  imaginative view  the  order  to to  (Wilson, with  what  the  experience  was  simply  have  in  comprehend  better for  observed  beliefs  interview  to  probe  in  data  organisms  I  the  attempted  previous  having  beaches,  In  understand  beaches,  that  the  f e e l i n g s "  seashore  would  metaphor  forms  and  information  student'  the  to  I  participants  situations  consequently the  meanings,  without  types  meanings  gathered.  thoughts  able  the  interpreted  was  observing  knowledge  "on  I  the  actions,  better  different  it  with  experiencing. and  understood  unexpressed  their  was  of  a b i l i t y onto  their  and  subtleties  ideas  to  probe  interviews,  the  ensure  of  studies  for  s p i r i t u a l ,  orientations  consideration  empathize  were  of  adjusting  uniqueness  example,  microscopes,  looking  recreational  set  to  into  to  hidden  subtleties  1977).  open  the  a  the  situation  "systematically the  when  aesthetic,  setting.  Third,  terms  to  be  accepted  Then,  i d e n t i f i e d  this  classroom  students  I  dimension I  data.  safety).  data,  e a r l i e r .  u t i l i l t a r i a n ,  would  the  i n able more  zonation not  p i l o t  have study  recognized about  project  zonation  the  the or  students'  way. data  from  differing  89 perspectives.  Besides  the  I  subjects,  also  "outsider"  (Wilson,  to  Cove,  Salmon  Vancouver such  and  as a  very  an  " i n s i d e r "  marine  1977).  being  i n  teaching  "outsider"  " i n s i d e r "  monitor  v a l i d i t y  my  own  during F i f t h ,  perspective that basic  learning  that  that  of  during  addition,  there  metaphors  have  aesthetic  metaphors,  understanding the  results  was  i s ,  a  of of  s p e c i f i c the  study  an  hand,  I  I  local  view" roles"  additional  were was  previous  because  of  as  community  with  of  the  such  students  other  insider  for  study  there  was can  consistency and  a  make  more  arrive  into  was  a  marine between  helped  me  check  on  example, science an  to  and  the  phase  the  of  the the  To  of  in  and  application students' study.  In that  application the the  of the  use  assumption  increase  increase  between  knowledge  the  concepts.  the  application  account  and  between  effective  at  between  potential  the  consistency  orientations,  showed  center  the  and  point  this  consistency  for  of  of  "outsider"  coastal  experience  instructional  educational  an  of  analysis.  taking  the  was  educator  provided  they  by  an  "between  and  I  On t h e  i n  search  students'  perspective  orientations  a  i f  the  and  teachers  situations  understanding of  was  That  many  students,  and  c o l l e c t i o n  underlies  perspective. assumption  and  perspective  isolated  was  "tensions  there that  I  perspective  metropolitan  because  that  the  the  hand,  background.  reactions  data  one  small  knowledge  These  taking  from  large  elementary  environments.  to  the  a  sense  with  and  a  also  ethnic  the  educator  from  and  actions On  into  Cove,  different  experience  viewed  coming  Salmon  of  systematically  of  students'  extent  that  comprehension  of  90  the of  science an  concepts  orientation  instructional  sense  writing  of  orientations school  elders  i n  i n  v a l i d i t y  of  its  apparent  usefulness  b e l i e f s . and  and  suggestions  and to  the  reports,  were  of  the  each  the  construct i n  an  language  the  these  there  the  instructional  cultural  a  different  i n  to  also  were  their  I to  the  some  the  these of  on to  the  Salmon  teachers  minor  perceptions for  of  accuracy  i n s i d e r s "  influences  set  read  returned the  In  asked  comment  to  "knowledgeable with  data  of  teachers  them  the  gathered.  exercise,  findings  While  which  was  errors  I  to  it  with  v a l i d a t i o n  data.  consistent  and  accounts  asked  the  extent  where  possible  I  presented  a l l  a  for  community.  and  personalities  As  cultural  looking  the  situation  students,  given  the  the  individual  reported  School  the  from  provided  carefully  interpretation Cove  by  I  and  details  comes  report  principal  reports the  others  the  experiences  heightened  v a l i d i t y  to  up  interest  setting.  Sixth, make  is  of  each  and  comments f e l t  that  of  the  of  the  students. All v a l i d i t y  in  of  the  this  above  data  In  this  serious interview  support  for  the  claim  of  study.  Limitations  There  provide  are  inherent study,  potential  problem. a l l  the  Study  l i m i t a t i o n s  particular  techniques  of  observer  share  i n  a l l  bias  Participant a  high  empirical is  l i k e l y  studies. the  observation  potential  for  moist and  observer  91 bias  (Borg  that  the  and primary  understanding conceptual  an  of  impact  had  of  the  upon  vested  Additionally, teachers  I  interviewing, potential  and  observer  observational second  under  study.  specific  study,  even  intensive  the  case  while  by  analysis  of  an  attempting  to  of  the  the  values to  and  study. training  observation,  was  aware  made  to  that  some  endeavor,  experience  was  due  the the  to  time  were  of  the  carefully  made  constraints  relationships seashore,  on  the  i n  the  and  their  number  students, I  in-depth gain  example,  s t i l l  An  to  analysis  a I  had  surface attempted  between  the  could  limit of  the about  during  exhaustive  a  take  the few  case years  scope  to  gain  to  between  of  questions  understanding  students'  attempting  relationships  beliefs  experiences  task.  of  between  their  enormous  relationships while  of  were  claims  and  respond  classroom  Efforts  Therefore,  selecting  the  b e l i e f s ,  understanding  an  For  provide  particular  I  better  students'  b e l i e f s they  a  data.  limited  questions.  of to  results  of  understood  generate  and  professional  relationships,  a  be  dynamics  supervision.  towards  research.  s t i l l  related  and  for  to  this  the  study  represents  was  which In  analytical  To  seashore  i n  i n  should  students'  science.  l i m i t a t i o n  orientations  instruction  of  major  The  students'  ways  it  seashore,  the  bias.  basis  case  how  c l i n i c a l  the  the  the  techniques  cross-check of  and  extensive  the  for  sources  interest  had  i n  study  of  i n  such,  this  the  instruction no  As  towards  documentation  interpret I  focus  structures  empirical have  1979).  Gall,  a  of  detailed  orientations  gain the  a  surface students'  92 orientations an  and  "outsider"  many  of  coming  the  isolated  their i n  opportunity  to  f a c i l i t a t e s  c o l l e c t i o n  with share  these  into  steps  to  a l l  native  such  established  sensitive a  Nonetheless,  role the  that  study  adequately  I  did  not  levels  and  when  I  aware  of  in  way  I  and  time  role  that  up  to  of  I  and  took  I  took  data.  the  setting  and  information.  that  accurately  those  situations,  the  extent  or  hesitant  write  entered  the  a  were  collection  to  different  information.  such  the  was  small  especially  interpreting  data  of  a  the  monitor  students,  i n  very  have  perspective  was  the  a  I  " i n s i d e r s " ;  lives  of  kinds  limited  collect  entire  and  f a c i l i t a t e d  was  observing  cultivate  when to  backgrounds.  were  occurrences  consideration be  many  Indian  When  and  their  and  instances  noted  to  "outsider",  of  thinking.  painstakingly  to  were  traditional their  an  cultural  lived  systematically  there  a  have  As  and  talking  community,  background.  Clearly,  and  students  coastal  ethnic  social  I  was  able  interpret  the  findings. The  third  individuals research many in  i n  l i m i t a t i o n  the  findings  Salmon are  anthropological Salmon  knowledge  Cove  publication their  of  an the  families  Additionally,  I  with  was  whom  I  and  any  form  not  the to  be  the  Cove  sociological  thesis.  had  to  study,  Salmon  ethical  and  due  Cove  put.  resent  placed  was  and has  the  been  studies.  uses the  Many  to  outsiders.  responsibility  on  me  to  consider  potential careful  familiar.  not In  uses to this  the  which of  individuals  by  had  of  subject  research  I  of  v u l n e r a b i l i t y  That  regarding  the  students  and  the of  alienate regard,  the  data.  individuals the  school  93 principal  and  interview  the  efforts  to  most  of  students'  The  the  students  i t  the have  rewarding seems  study  likely  i n  the  one  some  post-instructional  metaphor  orientation  they  attempting to  the  to  metaphor  answers.  In  less  to  open  this  i l l u s t r a t i o n , other how  students to  By  sharp  attempted the  on  draw  to  community  a  like  passenger  a  car.  also  a  pin  asked  i f  I  their  to  a  car,  own or  to  be  have  with  a  and  and  were  the  more  that  of  no  what  or  "wrong"  appeared  a  students  querying  barnacle where  who  had  to  give  the  factory,  Or  yet,  to  give  driver  to  a  the  car,  eat?  completed  a  to  e.g.,  students  was  relationship  "right or  the  a  a  "right  seashore or  be For  interviews;  conversations  better  to  interviews.  does  attempting  In  responding  students  l i t e r a l  the  s c i e n t i f i c  i n  "right"  l i t e r a l  to  context.  that  or  setting,  responded  another  the  correct  seashore  a  made  uncles  higher  overheard  from  Imagine  cushion.  as  extent  interviews  the  overheard  i f  the  may  the  barnacle,  the  not  school  Indian  stressed  than  information  asked  when  to  I  of  the  I I  instructional  were  completed  interviews.  answer" a  occasions  gain  when or  two  had  an  metaphor  bias  facts,  aunts  to  in  I  there  of  picture  contrast,  metaphor  answers"  a  have bias  the  that  class.  Given  kind  who  were  interviews  questions  addition,  a l l  students  such  in  native  orientation  might  decrease  these  was  limited  others.  that  than  the  was  viewed  than  and  advised  of  informants  principal  students  teachers  Because  selected  teachers,  native  may  language  parents.  school  language  Last,  more  cultural  cultivate  community. cultural  the  was  mechanic  94  In  a  support  further  each  of  attempt  the  that  a c t i v i t i e s "  by  " u t i l i t a r i a n  a c t i v i t i e s "  seafood  attending Indian  a  and  so  took  potlatch  and  the  students  to  the  most  be  cooking part  may  well  appropriate  i n  a the  I  took i n  the have given  study  I  the  took  the  dish  work i n  walks, was  the  part and  i n  a c t i v i t i e s " of  the  attending  the  by  native  "recreational  to  mudfights, the  s c i e n t i f i c  school-based  to  "aesthetic  picnics,  l i m i t e d a  attempted  instructional  " s p i r i t u a l  perceived a  i n  part  beach  I  the  seafood  supporting  participating  that  during  seascapes,  teachers,  Nonetheless,  bias,  participated  by  I  by  on.  I  painting  cultural  a c t i v i t i e s "  is,  dinner,  reduce  orientations  a c t i v i t i e s ;  the  to  setting.  extent  viewpoint  95 Chapter THE  RELATIONSHIP AND  This student's begin  BELIEFS  chapter  by  Second,  are  to  related  from  some  accepted  of  science  beliefs  are  seashore  and  relationships. coherence  for  orientations  seashore  between physical,  their social  seashore  the  of  And  students'  beliefs show  the the  that  orientations cultural  and  and  doing,  the  show  that  is  between their  environment  i n  I  as  an their  specific  and which  and show with  there  towards  external  beliefs,  each  students'  specific  an  and  interviews  consistent  there  and  metaphor  describe  so  of  about  seashore  I  orientations  students  relationships;  are  I  the  relationships,  In  fourth,  to  physical  metaphor  some  I  orientations  the  Third,  beliefs  also  and  i n .  students*  their  towards  students*  interviews.  between  a l l  the  with  each  instruction.  how  that  of  orientations  l i t e r a l  and  to  pre-instructional  about  different.  I  prior  pre-instructional  ideas,  quite  relationship  about  the  organization  the  l i v e  beliefs  the  the  interactions they  pre-instructional  that  from  ORIENTATIONS  INSTRUCTION  students'  describe  their  specific  determined  a  I  environment  student's  TO  beliefs  the  determined  interviews.  cultural  PRIOR  and  describing as  THE STUDENTS'  describes  orientations  seashore,  the  BETWEEN  4  is the  seashore internal set  of  beliefs coherence  the they  type live.  of  96  The  Students'  Orientations Prior  The  metaphor  different  s p i r i t u a l ,  safety.  While  orientations  when  orientation  of  that  appear any  had  a  to  be  more  the  health  some  than  others,  is  a  i n  orientations data  suggest  Chapter  (Dan).  a  no  had  a  preferred  preferred  recreational  On  3«  Others  (Jimmy), a  with  mix  possible.  identified  preferred  used  greater  of the  and  several  students  showed  orientation  student  and  seashore, some  the  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  exhibited  (Mary), a  i d e n t i f y  students  orientation  (Luke),  to  combinations  were  s c i e n t i f i c  me  s c i e n t i f i c ,  and  some  students  Seashore  students:  orientations  orientation  and  the  probable  u t i l i t a r i a n  orientation (Anna),  of  target  aesthetic  the  Although  preferred  preferred  of  predominantly,  combination Six  the  describing  orientations.  would  of  enabled  recreational,  a l l  the  Instruction  interviews  orientations  aesthetic,  one  to  Towards  s p i r i t u a l orientation  preferred  orientation  (Sharon). To metaphor sake  begin, responses  of  explore of  brevity,  orientations of  I  only.  orientations  for  of  individual I  At  some  later  selected  orientations  target  describe a  the  point  the I  students. students'  describe  the  and  the  For  the  preferred entire  set  students.  Dan Dan's  pre-instructional  interviews  pointed  towards  a  97 preferred  s c i e n t i f i c  proportion  of  ecology. growth,  responses  For and  example,  Dan For  .  seashore . . The  correctly  is  r e f l e c t i n g he  evidenced  an  by  the  great  of  beach  understanding  demonstrated  an  awareness  a factory. Many t h i n g s a r e crabs, fish, barnacles.  is a animals  i d e n t i f i e d  of  b i r t h ,  graveyard. The that get eaten.  numerous  salmon  predator-prey  b o r n on Seaweeds  come  and  relationships.  example: A barnacle is collects plankton A starfish mussels, and A and  Dan  as  death:  The seashore the seashore: grow. The die  orientation,  seagull other  is a can many o t h e r is  a  things,  observed  a fisherman. from the water.  that  robber. l i t t l e  certain  It  opener. s h e l l f i s h . It  It  steals  crows  and  animals  comes  can  out  open  food:  clams,  baby  peregrine  recycle  and  birds  babies.  dead  and  dying  animals : A seagull is a janitor. the bits of food. A crab is scavenger.  Dan in  i d e n t i f i e d t i d a l  pools,  a It  at  least  in  mud:  A t i d a l pool bullheads, and l i v e there. is  a  cleans  up  the  beach,  garbage collector. Because e a t s up a l l t h e left-overs.  A cobblestone crabs, eels, other animals.  Mud  It  three  different  i t ' s  habitats--under  a l l  a  rocks,  is a hotel. It acts like a house for bullheads and s n a i l s , as w e l l as many  i s a town. Because of eels, barnacles and  pillow.  The  ducks  and  a l l the crabs, seaweeds that  geese  that  wade  i n  98  Dan sun  the  mud  and  was  one  of  as  a  the  source  The sun grow.  look  of  few  a  students  factory.  Several  of  care  preservation  and  food.  to  express  an  awareness  of  metaphor  The seashore blackberries  is  of  It  makes  responses  l i v i n g  l i v i n g  stressed  a  things  concern  for  bushes and put them i n b u c k e t s . pick up a n i m a l s and put them i n just look at them. Then, after a again.  On t h e seashore, I buckets. Usually I while I let them go  Compared  to  awareness  expressed  an  consistent  with  of  the  other  seashore  understanding of accepted  the  things: bush. When I pick on and under the  I  a pick  a l l  blackberry them from  greatest  the  energy:  is  his  for  students,  Dan  relationships the  science  expressed i n  addition,  was  generally  p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  metaphor  seashore  and,  the  which  ideas.  Jimmv The  results  interviews to  the  pointed  Jimmy's  towards  a  preferred  u t i l i t a r i a n  orientation  seashore. Jimmy's  associated I am drive  with  a  u t i l i t a r i a n commercial  the driver seine boat  I would be net up the dogfish. I traps too.  When  of  asked  which  orientation  was  high river go up  animal,  wholly  fishing:  and the seashore a n d go fishing.  a  almost  is  the  car.  I  tide. I w o u l d g o c h e c k my fish for steelhead or sockeye or once a w e e k a n d c h e c k my c r a b  object  or  event  Jimmy  would  most  like  I  99  I  to  be,  Jimmy  said:  A crab. them. And  he  You  could  a potlatch. When make c l a m soup.  The seashore animals. You  can  is  s e l l  them  fishing  aesthetic  I would curtains netters.  a l l  Boil  them  and  eat  to  crabbing,  they  factory. people  to  so  into  It's  for  notice  a  got  potlatch  lots  of  meat.  how  strong  have  Jimmy's  that  u t i l i t a r i a n  he  a f f i n i t y  consistently  with turned  ones:  a bead to a n e c k l a c e . You put beads on a You put the nets and the s k i f f on the tie them to the seine. You tow t h e skiff of the seine.  be on  these  a  was  images  I w o u l d be necklace. ropes and on the back  In  is  interesting  commercial even  them.  said:  A clam is feast, they  It  eat  a cloth to a c u r t a i n . . . You c o u l d put the windows of the seiners and the g i l l  metaphor  clamming,  responses  eating,  and  attention to  is  paid  s e l l i n g  to  fish  fishing,  and  making  money.  Mary The interviews to  the  awareness  results pointed  seashore. of  the  of  pre-instructional  towards  a  Several  metaphor  beauty  The seashore pai nt.  Mary's  in  looks  A cobblestone is a shapes and different  preferred  aesthetic  responses  metaphor orientation  expressed  nature: like  a  painting  an  a r t i s t  would  totem pole. It has different colors. The way i t looks is  an  100 pretty. I would be the curtain. The s e a s h o r e would lace. It decorates. The beach decorates Cove up. Several and  of  Mary's  metaphor  responses  made  be the Salmon  connections  to  music  dance: The tide sways. It  is music. looks like  I would coordinated  physical  sways. dances.  be a k i l l e r whale. movement and a l l t h e i r  A seagull is a l l that noise Interestingly,  It it  a dance. l i k e music  connections  beauty,  The you  l i k e  the  . . I colors.  way i t dance  were  social  I  made  it  like  moves. too.  It  between  relationships,  way  the  makes  Mary's  and  own  seashore  relationships: I would w o u l d be I my  be big  would l i v i n g  a sunny day. and bright.  be a n room,  I w o u l d be too b i g and  eagle. I be r e a l l y  a polished b e a u t i f u l .  Everybody  would  could f l y good, smooth and l o o k  beach  pebble.  It's  like  me.  I  soar around nice. shiny,  not  Luke The  results  interviews towards  the  s p i r i t u a l Salmon  pointed  to  seashore,  b e l i e f s  of  of  Luke's a  with the  pre-instructional  preferred numerous  s p i r i t u a l  references  t r a d i t i o n a l  native  metaphor  orientation  r e f l e c t i n g Indian  people  Cove:  I w o u l d be a l i s t e n e r to a s t o r y . I would l i s t e n to what happened a long, l o n g t i m e ago a b o u t the K i l l e r Whale, the Thunderbird, the Raven. My u n c l e would be t h e story t e l l e r . The this  seashore man who  is a legend. became wild  There's a legend about a n d he w e n t down t o the  the of  10 1 beach every day and he ate mussels, clams and abalone. One day one o f h i s b r o t h e r s w e n t down to the beach. He saw h i s b r o t h e r a n d w e n t t o t e l l his parents. They couldn't catch him. B u t he was wild and he lived in a t r e e stump. He w a s w i l d a n d he c o u l d do t h i n g s t h a t the animals could do. I w o u l d be a and catch thunderbirds played tricks  When  asked  would  most  what like  raven. If I were Gwa'wina I could soar k i l l e r whales. Only ravens and can catch the k i l l e r whale. Raven on i t s cousins and brothers.  animal,  to  be,  Luke  The Thunderbird. and l i g h t n i n g from ruler of the sky.  Luke's  responses  people:  stories  things  that  "ruler  of  cousins  the  and  The its  awareness  of  separated  from  Wild  animals  a l l  nature,  but  results'  of  Man  as are  in  the  do,"  "Raven"  These  animals  at  the  traditional  could  and  brothers."  event  seashore  T h u n d e r b i r d can make eyes. The T h u n d e r b i r d  the  "The  sky,"  or  he  replied:  reflect  about  the  object,  Wood"  "could  tricks  stories  creatures.  connected  who  of  "Thunderbird"  "played  spiritual  fellow  stories  and  who  thunder is the  with  on  portray  Humans  are  his do the its an not  it.  Anna The interviews orientation  pointed to  the  Anna's  towards  pre-instructional a  preferred  metaphor  recreational  seashore:  The seashore is a playground. To me i t ' s like playing. It»3 like a big playground with l i t t l e pools and sand. We c a n play i n sand, in big pools and on the nice smooth logs. . . I would be a s u n n y d a y . People l i k e the sun. It's nice. You c o u l d go s w i m m i n g , sailing, and surfing. You can g e t a sun tan.  102  I would be a u n i f o r m and the seashore w o u l d be a hockey team. A p e r s o n who p l a y s h o c k e y games h a s a uniform and feels real close together. Like the hockey team, I feel real close to the sea. Seems l i k e ever s i n c e I was o l d e n o u g h t o go t o t h e beach I've been there off and on: having fun, making sandcastles, playing on the beach, digging clams, playing f r i s b y . We play tag down a t the shallow end. I would be the flower. The s e a s h o r e w o u l d be the blackberry bush. . . L i k e as the f l o w e r s t u r n into f r u i t , I turn into the older generation, and I'm s t i l l going to the seashore when I d i e . Like the berries that are eaten, I pass away. Like, I'm thinking how I love the beach. It's my favorite place to play.  In  a l l  these  swimming, the  metaphor  s a i l i n g ,  suntanning,  notice  the  attention  paid  to  surfing,  and  having  picnics  at  seashore. Further  the  seashore  preferred f i r s t  from  metaphor  comparison,  u t i l i t a r i a n  and crab"  gave  a  as  "legend"  gave his  be  he  response. and  as  his  gave second  as  his  would chose  s p i r i t u a l metaphor  and  view their  as  he the  a  animal  he  response. and  second  response, like  gave  metaphor  his  to  "battleground"  his  recreational  and was  f i r s t  most  from  and  s c i e n t i f i c  recreational  Luke a  a  to  " p l a y g r o u n d " as  whale"  "playground" and  comes  metaphor  gave  "farm"  response,  animal  he  propensity  s c i e n t i f i c  " k i l l e r  and  chose  a  chose  second  and  u t i l i t a r i a n  the  u t i l i t a r i a n metaphor  Dan  to  Jimmy  students'  choices.  was  like  the  orientations  response,  most  of  preferred  and  "town"  s c i e n t i f i c would  evidence  metaphor  response,  a  responses,  as  gave  metaphor  and  be  By  "edible  and his  gave  a  f i r s t  and  s c i e n t i f i c  response,  gave  a  response,  s p i r i t u a l  103 and  "Thunderbird"  gave  a  s p i r i t u a l  metaphor  and  "family" and an  as  the  gave  " s t a r f i s h "  an  second as-  the  Mary  he  metaphor  and  like  to  as  gave  an  most  f i r s t ,  second,  recreational  to  f i r s t  response, be  and  and  response,  aesthetic like  be  her  recreational  would  Anna's  most  "playground"  and  animal-she  involved  would  chose  aesthetic  response.  metaphors  animal  response.  her  aesthetic  as  and  gave  third-choice  and  aesthetic  responses.stop.*.Ii1  Sets  In i t  is  studying  important  several  the  to  patterns  to  exemplified  Dan's,  how  a l l  students'  of  to  each  and  the  orientations,  students  seashore.  tended  i n  Luke's,  the  the  there  represented i n  of  describe  orientations,  orientations  Orientations  understand  orientations  several  of  Where be  sets  there  two  metaphor.  Sharon's  r e l i e d  of  on  were  or  more  These  are  orientations.  Dan In  addition  seashore, made  Dan  no  Indian,  or  spent  responses  at  preferred  I would be the beach a  or  s c i e n t i f i c  s p i r i t u a l to any  represent  Numerous the  a  references  Christian,  orientation.  a  exhibited  direct  metaphor  time  to  references  orientation  orientation.  to  the  Although  Dan  r e l i g i o n - - t r a d i t i o n a l other an  organized  r e l i g i o n - - D a n ' s  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c were  made  native  to  the  s p i r i t u a l amount  seashore: a  u n i f o r m to a hockey team because I'm lot of the time. A uniform i s always  on on  of  104 the I to  team  players.  could a tree  or  .  be a l e a f to a t r e e . because I'm there a l l  Interestingly, "indwell"  .  numerous  become  responses  part  of  . . the  and I time.  expressed  could  a  be  unique  bark  tendency  to  nature:  I could be a l l of them: the f l o w e r , the f r u i t , the thorn to a blackberry bush. I ' m a l w a y s down a t the seashore and I seem to be p a r t o f i t . . . I always t h i n k about the seashore, e v e n when I ' m n o t there. I would stitches.  be  wouldn't seashore. me.  Several  be I'm  references  I couldn't base of the  Other  responses  to  the  own  the c u r t a i n and the s e a s h o r e T h e s e a s h o r e w o u l d h o l d me a l l able just  were  made  stressed  a  the  a  the  tree,  i n a b i l i t y  least  I'm  of  i n  not  nature:  really  humans  to  the  control  or  sense Dan's  rooted  his  complex  or  world.  And  driver f i x the  to a c a r or a m e c h a n i c to a seashore. I couldn't drive  be t h e d e c k h a n d a n d t h e s e a s h o r e w o u l d be the boat. I wouldn't be t h e c a p t a i n or t h e owner I couldn't r e a l l y run the seashore o r be the the sea. . . There i s n ' t a captain. The is everybody's.  presence. i n  everything without the me. It's l i k e my a r m s to  being  to  the I  seashore:  I would fishing because boss of seashore  is  do of  to  be the r o o t seashore.  I wouldn't be a car. I couldn't the seashore.  There  to part  w o u l d be together.  of  unity  with  relationship view  important, f i n a l l y ,  of  nature to  himself but  i n  as  just a l l  that  transcends  the  seashore  part  of  another  these  can  be  physical seen  nature,  not  species  sharing  metaphor  the  responses,  as  most this i t  is  105 important  to  notice  the  integration  i n t e l l e c t u a l  r e f l e c t i o n :  "I'm  and  think  the  "I  always A  about  recreational  sort  of  of like  seashore,  orientation  emotion, part  even  towards  feelings,  of  when the  the  I'm  and  seashore"  not  seashore  there. was  also  evident:  The seashore l o t : catching kite. The l i v e  is a playground. animals, looking  seashore is there . . .  I  a g i f t because of i t ' s nice to p l a y  I would be a l l o f t h e m : a d o o r , house. They're always there. lot too. I'm p l a y i n g and I might  Once  again,  notice  aspects:  "playing  at  and  them",  Dan seashore. of  the  at  the  s c i e n t i f i c ,  the  seashore,"  "enjoying also  used  Several  beauty  in  play at the beach a at them. I f l y my  t h e many t h i n g s by a n d enjoy.  a window, a roof to I'm at the seashore g o o u t i n my boat.  s p i r i t u a l , "catching  and  were  Dan's  animals,"  an  aesthetic  metaphor  orientation  responses  expressed  towards  an  notice I  appreciation  And sea  its  between  aesthetics,  one,  the  seashore,  .The  seashore  and  l i f e :  the  would  moves.  the  nature:  I'd mostly be d e c o r a t e s a l l my  Also,  "looking  i t . "  associations  personal  a a  recreational  A starfish is a flower. It sort of looks l i k e its shape and c o l o r . . . Some o f t h e m a r e pretty. There  that  s c i e n t i f i c  be .  the lace l i f e and  a  . speed  k i l l e r easy for  .  to a c u r t a i n . . makes i t nice.  and  aesthetic  whale. .  .  The  slow.  catching  fish  way  aspects: it  looks.  How  it  can  move  and  catching  How  it  fast!  seals  and  l i o n s .  Only  three  of  Dan's  metaphor  responses  suggested  a  106  u t i l i t a r i a n  orientation:  I could only be t h e d e c k h a n d t o a f i s h i n g boat. . . deckhand i s n ' t there a l l the time, but h e ' s t h e r e on fishing boat when i t ' s fishing time. I could be a could catch cod A  clam  is  And suggested  a  fishing boat. and h a l i b u t .  potlatch.  f i n a l l y ,  a  concern  only  for  Seaweed is a slide and f a l l  You  can  banana down.  A crab that can  is a pinch  Clearly, that  he  to  were  his  were  i t .  metaphor  It's  p l i e r s  of  because  responses  s l i p p e r y .  of  s c i e n t i f i c  the  You  seashore,  including  pinchers  a  indicate preferred  although  s p i r i t u a l , and  and the the  responses  experiences  the  u t i l i t a r i a n  almost  I  It covers the rocks the barnacles because of down and get cut on  towards  The  f i s h .  safety:  curricular  evident,  aesthetic.  orientations  of  catch  Dan's  peeling.  proportion  orientation  orientations and  the  brought  s c i e n t i f i c  pair you.  of  and  Seaweed is a curtain. barnacles. You d o n ' t see seaweed, and you f a l l barnacles.  could  eat  three  health  I  A a  health  several  recreational, and  safety  lacking.  Luke Recall  that  preferred  s p i r i t u a l  responses  r e f l e c t i n g  of and  Salmon safety  Cove.  In  Luke's  metaphor  orientation the  s p i r i t u a l  addition,  orientation,  to  with  Luke  several  interviews the  pointed  seashore,  beliefs  of  the  demonstrated responses  with  a  to  a  numerous  native  people  strong  health  expressing  a  fear  107 of  certain  seashore  A  crab  A  sea  that There  is  a  animals:  pair  of  urchin  is  p l i e r s , a  i t  pin  pinches  cushion,  people.  it  has  was  a  reference  to  getting  cut  on  broken  The seashore is a blackberry bush. . real blackberries, their stems s c r a t c h the broken glass on the beach that cuts  Metaphor or  lost I  responses in  the  would  is  be  a  some  is  aspects In of  f i s h e r m e n get back home.  the or  probably the  by  Luke responses  getting  lost  an  an  expressing  reliance  lost,  the  that the  food  or  aesthetic an  is  on  are  to  at  too  pick like  the  seashore  of  health  w i l l  i n  orientation,  The seashore is a painting. If it would look like a painting. And i f calm, i t w o u l d be a n i c e painting.  with  beauty was the  them  the  come  to  them  response  cultural  from  safety  animals  show  about  them  the  and  show  above  frequently  rescuing  of  get lost i n f i n d my w a y  w i l l  the  statement grounded  spooky.  supernatural  seagulls  animals  awareness  a  seagulls  bases  "the  implicit  stories,  days  solution  a  s c i e n t i f i c ,  providing had  foggy  experiential  seashore  traditional humans  . when y o u . . . i t ' s y o u . "  l i t t l e animals but I always  a  of  of  to  glass:  . . . lost,  with  u t i l i t a r i a n  home"  forest get  .  consistent  people:  be  I  .  how  care  While  a  day.  note  is  the way  referred  to  problem  If the  also  sunny  interesting  for  needles  woods:  Seaweed is the forest. back.  It  long  sting.  may back  s p i r i t u a l experience. to  the  aid  danger. several  in  metaphor  nature:  a blue sky, i t water was real  108  The  seashore  The tide drums.  is  is  a  g i f t ,  way  show Like fish  an  awareness  that  plants  that  protect  and  of  reflect  certain  animals  them  also  from  are  it  pretty.  I would be l a c e to a c u r t a i n . I w o u l d be l a c e to off my b e a u t y , like the seaweed at the seashore. the k i l l e r whale, the s t a r f i s h , and the tiger show o f f t h e i r beauty.  responses  noise  looks  like  with  the  it  sounds  Luke's  music,  the  a  makes  s c i e n t i f i c  ecological  found  i n  relationships  different  types  An  awareness  including  of  A barnacle ocean. It's An  is It  awareness  an umbrella protects them  predator-prey  microscopic  of  (e.g., habitats  weather):  A t i d a l pool is a l i t t l e town, a l l kinds animals l i v e in i t : bullheads, hermit crabs, The r o c k s are like their homes. A cobblestone crabs and e e l s .  orientation,  . . from  of l i t t l e eels. . .  . for the the rain.  relationships  was  l i t t l e  indicated,  plankton:  is a fisherman, it eats that stuff in the r e a l l y , really small. You c a n ' t see i t .  that  certain  animals  recycle  dead  animals  was  also  indicated: A seagull is throw the guts There  was  an  a on  janitor, the beach.  understanding  of  it eats f i s h guts It cleans up the  the  sun  as  an  when you beach.  important  source  of  energy: I  would  and  Luke  was  seashore:  be  flowers  aware  a  sunny  day,  I  would  make  the  grass,  trees  grow.  of  pollution  and  wanted  the  preservation  of  the  109 I would be a blackberry bush tried to pick starfish and sea  There  was  thorn to a blackberry bush . . . The has pretty f l o w e r s on i t . If someone the flowers, I would hurt them. The anemones w o u l d be t h e flowers.  at  least  some  suggestion  of  a  u t i l i t a r i a n  orientation: I would i t . It's  be K u t a l a . nice juicy  A  is  crab  a  I like salmon. red meat.  feast.  A  certain  I  like  kind  of  to  barbeque  crab.  Good  eating. Sea  water  vegetables  Again,  notice  is i n  the  soup  .  .  .  Fish  and  u t i l i t a r i a n  There is a legend about this he went down to the beach mussels, clams, and abalone.  I w o u l d be thebeach.  Luke some  a fishing are. a  high  also  tide.  boat  .  .  demonstrated  eat  are  like  man who b e c a m e w i l d every day and he  and  I  a  aspects:  t e l l  would  the  put  captain  food  recreational  and ate  where  higher  on  orientation  to  degree: The seashore hide-and-go-seek, w a t e r or at cans. I in  Some  you  soup.  s p i r i t u a l  I would be a l l the fish  that  of  w o u l d be the sand  Luke's  is make  a playground. sandcastles, throw  a p o l i s h e d beach pebble. a n d make s a n d castles.  responses  show  the  .  .  I  s p i r i t u a l  I rocks  l i k e  and  on  play the  to  play  recreational  aspects: Sand i s a sand the seashore. k i l l e r whale'.  castle. I make  I like to make s a n d c a s t l e s sand c a s t l e s and p l a y 'save  at the  110 I would be maxinus (the k i l l e r whale) a n d be off: swim upside down on my back, jump out w a t e r a n d do t r i c k s . Because of the fun of i t .  The several There  results  themes. are  The  also  orientations,  of  Luke's  preferred  aesthetic,  and  pre-instructional  some  orientation  s c i e n t i f i c ,  mention  of  a show of the  interviews  is  clearly  and  health  u t i l i t a r i a n  and  show  s p i r i t u a l . and  safety  recreational  orientations.  Shar-og Although preferred a  orientation,  s c i e n t i f i c  several  Sharon's  large  orientation  metaphor  questioning,  a  pre-instructional  towards  responses  problem  proportion the  expressed  solving,  and  interviews of  showed  responses  seashore.  an  learning  stressed  To  interest  i n  from  no  begin,  observing, books.  For  example: I would be a listener to a s t o r y . the story and l e a r n t h i n g s . I would and shows and r e a d books about i t . the sounds i n the sea. I would l i s t learn things about i t . Sharon  was  example, types  of  aware  she  of  knew  a  wide  that  habitats--under  range plants  rocks,  i n  of  I would l i s t e n to l i s t e n to stories I would l i s t e n to e n to the sea and  seashore  and  relationships.  animals  t i d a l  pools,  l i v e and  A cobblestone is a hotel. Underneath there's a l l sorts of l i t t l e things; crabs, eels. A t i d a l pool s h e l l s are a l l  i s a town. there, like  The seashore i s a town. Octopuses l i v e i n caves. Sharon  correctly  i d e n t i f i e d  Fish, eels, crabs, a l i t t l e town.  in i n  the sand  different caves:  rocks fleas,  seaweeds,  They've got l i t t l e v i l l a g e s . E v e r y t h i n g l i v e s on i t s own.  predator-prey  relationships:  For  111  A clam is a vacuum c l e a n e r . The way i t moves on the ocean floor and scoops things up i n its mouth. I think i t eats plankton. A seagull from other nests. A sea their unless Sharon's animals  is a birds.  anemone is a person. tentacles they wouldn't they really struggled.  metaphor recycle  responses  the  remains  A seagull is a keep our beaches She  knew  robber. I've seen Sometimes t h e y go  that  and  janitor. clean so  seashore  If be  showed  of  They eat they look  steal other  she  knew  other  i n out  that  certain  animals;  garbage. better.  must  things b i r d ' s  f i s h get caught able to get  that  wastes  animals  them into  protect  They  help  themselves  from  predators: A barnacle to break. get i n . A crab is like p l i e r s A  large  concern the  is a rock. T h e y ' r e h a r d and t h e y ' r e Seagulls want to eat them, but they  a pair of p l i e r s . for protection.  proportion with  of  Sharon's  pollution,  interdependence  of  Their  and  a l l  at  l i v i n g  pinchers  are  metaphor  responses  least  i m p l i c i t  an  things.  For  hard can't  sharp  expressed awareness  a of  example:  I would be s t i t c h e s to a c u r t a i n . The s e a s h o r e would be the curtain. If the stitches weren't t h e r e to hold the curtain together, the c u r t a i n would f a l l apart. If you weren't there to keep the beach c l e a n , the beach would f a l l a p a r t a n d t h e r e w o u l d be n o t h i n g . Compared Dan),  with  Sharon  the  other  expressed  students the  seashore  relationships;  commitment  to  An  the  greatest she  preservation  aesthetic  (with  also of  possible  awareness  of  demonstrated  l i v i n g  orientation  the  to  a  exception wide an  range  of of  emotional  things. the  seashore  was  also  112 evident,  with  appreciation  several  of  the  of  beauty  Sharon's  in  t i d a l  shells  pool and  decorates  is  i t  is  and  Sharon's  an  There's plants and bright the bright colored animals but l i k e flowers. They're  garden.  shells  A l l  the  decorate  shells,  i t .  The  l i v i n g seaweed  too.  A starfish is precious like a It  a  empty  expressing  nature:  The seashore is a garden. colored animals. Some of don't look like animals, really n i c e and pretty. A  responses  a jewel. jewel. The  interesting  to  concern  notice  about  It's brightly beauty. the  connection  colored  between  and  aesthetics  pollution:  I would be a deckhand to a fishing boat. . . The deckhand cleans up a f t e r , he t a k e s care of the boat. . The b e a c h d o e s n ' t l o o k n i c e when i t ' s a l l dirty, and neither does the boat. Sharon's orientation seafoods, the  responses  to  the  making  also  seashore,  things  with  from  the  suggested numerous sea,  and  a  u t i l i t a r i a n  references  to  eating  s e l l i n g  things  from  sea: The seashore is a g i f t . It's g i v e n to us to u s e ; fish for food, whalebones for making spears like the Eskimos. We c a n s e l l t h e t h i n g s we u s e . It's useful. The tide would have  is to  a go  g i f t . If underwater  the tide didn't to get seaweed.  go  out,  we  I w o u l d be t h e tree. T h e s e a s h o r e w o u l d be. t h e root. The roots bring food to the tree. The r o o t s are important to the tree. I could take things from the sea. Like the s e a b r i n g s f o o d t o me o r o t h e r people. Once  again,  notice  interdependence, recreational  Sharon's  and  the  awareness s c i e n t i f i c ,  of  the  concept  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  orientations:  I w o u l d be a b e a d t o a n e c k l a c e . strand of beads, and you lost missing, it wouldn't look right.  If t h e r e was a w h o l e one, i f one w o u l d be If t h e r e was a w h o l e  of and  113 pile of seas, and y o u t o o k one away and y o u destroyed i t , like l i t t e r i n g , you w o u l d n ' t be a b l e to use i t . You couldn't use i t for food, for s e l l i n g things, or just to be t h e r e t o h a v e f u n o n i t . I t w o u l d be like you r u i n e d the necklace.  Several  metaphor  responses  stressed  a  recreational  orientation: The  seashore  beach  Once  and  I  would  go  i n  the  again  is  a  playground.  make  sandcastles.  be  sailboat.  a  I  the  s c i e n t i f i c  A seagull is a janitor. keep our beaches c l e a n so to p l a y too.  safety  three  metaphor  go  go i n  down the  fast.  to  the  sun.  It's  and  recreational  They they  eat garbage. look better.  responses  fun  to  orientations: They It's  expressed  a  help safe  health  and  orientation:  Mud is a mousetrap. If would have a hard time get stuck. Mud  is  a  mattress.  A seagull clean. . .  Only s p i r i t u a l The fish  is a It's  one  If  you  janitor. safe to  metaphor  l i t t l e things get i n i t , g e t t i n g out of i t . You  f e l l ,  i t  . . They play.  response  wouldn't  help  seemed  keep  to  they could  hurt. our  .  .  beaches  express  an  implicit  orientation: seashore for food  The point  could  can fun  water.  notice  Only  Kids  Having  to  stressing proportion u t i l i t a r i a n  is a g i f t . . . .  results several a  of  responses  and  Sharon's  orientations;  s c i e n t i f i c of  It's  given  recreational  us  to  use  pre-instructional a  large  orientation stressing  to  an  and  proportion an  almost  aesthetic  orientations;  a  .  .  .  interviews of  responses  equally  orientation, health  and  large also safety  114 orientation seemed  to  was  be  The  far,  I  students  Additionally, orientation at  the  evidence,  Bases  have  there which  orientation,  of  to  are  For a  aspects  an  aesthetic  orientations  painting;  associated  with  orientation  tended  cosmetics,  while  associated  with  a  Indian  s p i r i t u a l  of  the  associated while  to  be  Luke's  an with  with  Dan  music,  associated Jimmy's  commercial  seafoods  and  within  of  the  with  the  Cove a b i l i t y  crabbing,  u t i l i t a r i a n  nourishing  the  jewelry  i n  be  relation  category  as to  of  beliefs well  as  indwell  making  orientations  body,  and  to  orientation and  be  aesthetic  traditional  u t i l i t a r i a n  to  tended  broad  and with  tended  carving  Salmon  e.g.,  associated  music,  the  various  Dan's  Mary's  with  dance,  the  stressed,  orientations  fishing,  Sharon's  of  be  drama;  stressed  people  aesthetic  jewelry. to  each  broad  orientation  associated  S i m i l a r l y ,  animal.  and  and  aesthetic  Indian  while  tended  within  experience  were  drama,  six  of  terms  which  the  experiences.  range  the  in  aesthetic  Luke  the  within  dance,  culture.  Anna's  associated  music,  painting,  native  or  Anna's  that  variations  "hide"  dance,  orientation,  Christianity, plant  orientation  Orientations  instructional  experience  Sharon's  the  s p i r i t u a l  orientations  diversity  music,  and  the  example,  great of  and  painting,  to  a  Students'  important  drawing,  drawing  and  their  " h i g h l i g h t "  was  the  described  brought  seashore.  aesthetic  in  absent.  Experiential  So target  barely  s e l l i n g  a  was  money, were things,  1 15 and  making  almost on  wholly  the  ocean;  wholly  the  Jimmy's  associated  open  almost at  money.  Dan's  sailing,  with  animals  a  suntanning,  and  data  fear was  the  metaphor  the  orientations  and  differences.  strongly  seashore. of  an  Girls  experience  beauty,  social  and  Some  personal  feelings  orientation with  a  fishing,  with out  a i n  crabbing,  recreational  seen  go  While  again,  the  Anna's  swimming,  duck  between  the  their  own  that  g i r l s  more  than  boys  g i r l s  with  a  Also,  seafoods  to  making  to  stress  looking  for  animals  tended  looking  to  for  physical  boys  commercial Girls  swimming,  stress  the  stressed  body;  stress  and  to  u t i l i t a r i a n  the  money.  the  aspects  relationship  nourishing  tended  boys, to  social  own  tended  some  with  the  a  students'  their  orientation  exist,  the  orientation  stressed  and  differences  of  compared  hunting,  and  suggested  and  orientation  exploring,  to  conditions  surfing,  bases  aesthetic  connections  stress  suntanning,  Although clearly  to  was  exploring  interviews  When  boys  emotions.  orientation  s k i f f s ,  than  suggest  and  u t i l i t a r i a n  picnicking,  made  data  tended  recreational  more  an  relationships  seashore.  them  fishing  ghosts.  with  with  experiential  favored  far  and  and  associated  was  orientation  animals  spooks  associated  between  g i r l s  of  commercial  safety  l e t t i n g  relationship  the  and  of  orientation  picnicking.  i n  sex  safety  hazards  hazardous  and  was  and  health  with  orientation  Some  the  orientation  catching  recreational  Luke's  and  recreational  seashore,  with  associated  seashore,  health  with  a  s a i l i n g ,  seashells; swimming,  boys going  animals.  between  boys  and  g i r l s  students  more  than  others  could  be  stressed  116  both  masculine  Sharon's  the  aesthetic  body  very  and  s e l l i n g  variations  basic  kinds of  an  is  various for  experiences,  data  example,  example, unity  suggest  of  dance,  boys they  several  his  of  by  each  orientations  orientation  g i r l s  tend  stress  as  What  to  have  different  and  s p i r i t u a l  an  a b i l i t y  to  them"—was  out  i n  aesthetic  information,  drawing  animals,  was  Although  most  with  consistent of  Dan's  orientation, was  his  with metaphor his  coherent  which  his  which  his  his For  with  and  stressed  his  the  looking His  recording  and  seashore  orientation.  did  in  a  at  orientation.  not  commercial  interest  to  recreational  s c i e n t i f i c  i n  Dan,  stressed  mixed  animals  seascapes  responses  interest with  point  the  seashore.  was  s c i e n t i f i c  painting  of  exploration  "catching  orientation, and  to  the  among  case  particular  boats,"  consistent  tended  indwell,  independent  seashore:—"going  the  orientation,  which  stressed  coherence In  towards  orientation,  hunting  and  student.  His  duck  painting,  appreciation.  internal  orientation.  u t i l i t a r i a n  Luke's  Coherence  certain  his  particular nature  particular  seafoods  money.  and  then  s c i e n t i f i c  at  example,  both  making  aesthetic  but  a  shown  s c i e n t i f i c  with  and  For  experience.  orientations  preferred  stressed  that  Internal  The  experiences.  music,  feelings  suggest  of  of  things  stressed  strong  these  kinds  orientation  orientation  as  aspects  feminine  u t i l i t a r i a n  nourishing  well  and  stress  fishing  science.  a  and Even  117 the  near  absence  consistent life the very  at  with the  shape few  of  a  health  scientific  seashore  of  a  the  since  bay  and  safety  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  orientation  is  experiencing  of  Salmon Cove beaches a r e  and  by  offshore  seashore organisms are  islands  c a p a b l e of  protected  and  inlets,  inflicting  by and  injury  to  humans.  Summary  On  the  basis  conclusions  may  orientations  prior  1.  The  be  several  T h e r e was that  used  of  differences  of  several  the  of  to  by  the  following  the  students'  orientations  be  orientations  is  possible.  the  music,  dance,  suggest between  suggest  aspects  category  students drama,  of  and  of  an  more  that  any  experience For  an  aesthetic  stressed  drawing,  jewelry,  a relationship boys  to  a particular orientation.  broad  individual  depending  appear  of  within  orientation  Although  data  with  one  questions.  the  associated  students.  orientations,  interview  various  to i d e n t i f y  the  use  others,  orientation,  also  used  than  were  painting,  others,  nature  tended  d i v e r s i t y i n the  example,  data  others  combinations  combination 2.  the  orientations  context  probable  and  e f f e c t i v e l y e n a b l e d me  students  predominantly,  some  about  interviews  some  the  examples  instruction:  different  While  upon  these  drawn  to  metaphor  of  and  so  on.  The  between o r i e n t a t i o n s  girls.  For  example,  and  girls  11 8 far the 3.  For  more  than  boys  stressed  an  aesthetic  orientation  to  seashore. a l l  coherence student.  of  the  among  students, the  various  there  was  a  general  orientations  shown  internal by  each  11 9 The  Relationship  Between  Social  To  gain  orientations explored  the  and  environments.  the have  i n  be  Cultural  idea  of  grounded  their  Data  Salmon  provided of  of  it  means  their  between  each  Luke,  and  a  brief  account  the  other  students'  and  the  Their  and  student's  (For  preferred  I  of  and  continue  comparison,  social  I  cultural  teachers  continuity,  the  set  and  with  Sharon. of  students'  experiences,  social,  interviews  brevity  for  previous  physical,  For  Dan,  Orientations  Backgrounds  what i n  included  Cove.  biographies  backgrounds  Students'  relationships  orientations  elders  and  some  to  the  and  I  cultural  orientations.)  Dan As  discussed,  orientation important,  to Dan  I l i v e window, It's a going th Additional Cove  primary  the  Dan  had  seashore.  a  When  preferred asked  i f  the  s c i e n t i f i c seashore  is  r e p l i e d :  right by there it big part ere.  data  were  i t . As soon as I i s . So many a n i m a l s o f my l i f e . I never  gathered  i n  an  l o o k out the and things. get tired of  interview  with  the  Salmon  teachers:  Dan goes duck h u n t i n g with h i s dad, then i d e n t i f i e s ducks i n books. His dad has a l i b r a r y on h i s fishing boat. They i d e n t i f y whatever animals they don't know.  Further  information  was  gathered  i n  an  interview  with  p r i n c i p a l : Dan's  interest  in  science  was  developed  primarily  at  the  120 home, particularly from h i s dad. Dan was d e f i n i t e l y taught to be observant. William, his dad, constantly stops along the beach to say "look at this and that." Dan had t h i n g s p o i n t e d out to him as a l i t t l e boy. Such  sensory-imbedded  account,  at  subtle  least  aspects  i n  encouraged  Dan  More teachers  to  seashore data  provide  s c i e n t i f i c  has  observe  and  seashore  awareness  nourished and  to  and  animals  i n  interviews  into his  the  relationships.  carefully  collected  orientation  Dan's  been  plants  insights  at  for  seashore  orientation  about  part,  of  s c i e n t i f i c  knowledge  experience  the  and  the  Also,  by  a  from  Dan's  and  the  between  Dan's  background:  by reading factual science to fix things, i d e n t i f y i n g and w h a l e s . He l e a r n e d to read books rather than through more instruction. He s p e n t a lot of enter doing l i t t l e experiments. widely since.  And  f i n a l l y ,  data  with  Dan:  were  gathered  gain  primary  Dan learned to read books; machines, how animals, dinosaurs, by reading science traditional reading time i n the science c H e ' s been r e a d i n g more additional  who  books.  with  school  more  father  identify  relationship  family  of  would  i n  an  interview  We have a b i g machine shop, bigger than our house. There's about a thousand dollars worth of big machinery, big saws and big planes for building the fishing boat, the house and the roof. We have an Apple Computer at home. There's about thirty games. Asteroid and Spaceman are my favorites. My d a d p l a n s to put the fishing business on i t . Dan's encouraged home  by  observe,  s c i e n t i f i c  both a ask  at  father  orientation  school who  questions,  by  the  primary  encouraged invent  seems  and  to  teachers  s c i e n t i f i c solve  have and  been i n  the  attitudes:  to  everyday  problems  121  through  inquiry. Also,  superior  to  s c i e n t i f i c  comparatively students  i n  h e l p f u l . to  When  complete  Salmon  Cove  organized  I  returned long-term  over  more  detailed  talk  about  a  the  Dan's  the  description. project,  Cove  interviews, project  I  I  Since asked  to  heard had the  Dan i f  Dan seemed  and eager  i n  that  between  seashore,  additional  Salmon  summer.  father,  the  orientation  few to  disparity  towards  s c i e n t i f i c  enhancement  by  the  orientation  class,  the  salmon  the  low the  unique  from  understand  of  may  the  of  f a l l  stories taken  would  o f f  i t s  the  other  details  especially  show  and  the  project he  Dan's  be 1982  about place had  give  a i n  been me  delighted  a to  independence  government:  It was my d a d a n d f i f t y guys. I t h a d n o t h i n g t o do with the government. Everybody's going broke. The fishing i s n ' t good. Some people are losing their boats. The creeks are ruined f o r spawning because of the logging. One creek used t o be good f o r spawning, the best one, i t ' s covered with logs. The flooding caused sand and gravel t o w a s h away t h e salmon eggs. My d a d g o t e v e r y o n e to v o l u n t e e r their time and money. One b o a t was a n c h o r e d i n t h e b a y . Every boat that came i n g a v e two f i s h per catch. We paid for a helicopter to f l y eggs from a fish hatchery to the spawning grounds. It would take hours by boat and the f i s h would a l l d i e , but i t took just a f e w m i n u t e s by h e l i c o p t e r . I was the only k i d that helped. We c l e a n e d u p t h e creeks ourselves. Took a l l the l o g s and j u n k o u t . I helped catch the f i s h and m i l k the eggs. Me a n d my mom and Rika. We p u t i n 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 eggs. We estimate about 3 per cent w i l l come b a c k , but i n four years there w i l l be l o t s more f i s h . Next year we plan to put i n a salmon hatchery right at the river. Raise the eggs t i l l they get eyes. We d i d i t ourselves rather than through the government because i t was c h e a p e r . T h i s way i t cost each family about $500 p l u s t h e i r time. I f we h a d done i t through the government i t would have cost a  122  whole  This  lot  more,  involvement  project  (as  Dan's  underlying  framework of  surprising experiences s c i e n t i f i c  the  and  Considering conserve  firsthand  a  he  orientation  towards  "going  out  i n  them,"  and  "having  my  of  Dan's  particular  the  school  p r i n c i p a l :  of  concepts  was  the  experiences  at  range to  the  cycle,  techniques using  salmon  and  help  Salmon  solve  Cove, were a  the  clearly  s c i e n t i f i c  industry,  seashore,  it  brought  to  his  of  beliefs  consistent  and  his  is  not  curricular with  a  seashore. had  a  strong  seashore:  the  seashore  is  animals  and  boat", f u n . "  of  to  have  Dan the  seashore  l i f e  designed  the  for  pollution,  experiences  manage  salmon  knowledge  problems  Dan's  and  Additionally, orientation  previous evidence  management  would  wide  in  enhancement  additional  the  project  u t i l i t a r i a n  that  involvement  salmon  interdependence,  conservation  to  i n i t i a t e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y  Although  s c i e n t i f i c .  taxes.  superior  predator-prey,  immediate  in  provides  Dan's  conservation.  wealth  l o c a l l y  as  relationships--and  the  a  projects),  understanding  habitat,  $1500  in  well  enhancement  about  "catching Some  idea  recreational  of  the  recreational a  looking  possible  orientation  is  place  for at  grounding  provided  Dan's grandfather is a non-status native Indian from Salmon Cove who married a French g i r l from Wallace Island. William (Dan's father), is a very successful fisherman. He f i s h e s about f o u r months of the year. D u r i n g the w i n t e r months W i l l i a m works in his shop at home. There's a lot of time for arts and crafts, music and r e a d i n g . They have a lot of free time. An e n v i a b l e l i f e s t y l e .  by  1 23  The an  metaphor  aesthetic  decorates the  my  orientation l i f e  school  possible  interviews  and  makes  principal  grounding  of  to  have the  i t  Dan's  shown  seashore:  n i c e . "  provide  also  The  some  aesthetic  that  "The  Dan  had  seashore  following  data  from  of  the  understanding  orientation:  The mother is a very talented artist who d o e s mostly water colors. She excells as a homemaker—needle craft, jewelry work, an e x c e l l e n t cook. Her water colors and jewelry are sold i n the art store. William is a craftsman, makes b e a u t i f u l m a n d o l i n s and g u i t a r s , as w e l l as s i l v e r w o r k . Additional  data  were  gained  i n  an  interview  with  Dan:  Every F r i d a y n i g h t t e n o r f i f t e e n p e o p l e come over. Mom plays autoharp and dad p l a y s the m a n d o l i n . I play saxophone, also guitar, mandolin, and ukulele. We s i n g a l o t too. My mom paints pictures: mostly water color, then a c r y l i c s . I draw more t h a n a n y t h i n g I ' v e ever done: boats, lots of animals, cars o v e r and o v e r again. Now I'm drawing scenery—a few b o a t s together or a c l o s e - u p o f one j u s t ahead of the other. Considering were  that  encouraged  Dan  had  i n  the  surprising  that  orientations  towards  Recall a  s p i r i t u a l  responses or  he  that  a f f i l i a t i o n s . organized  To  home  free  by  many  of  both  Dan's  towards  any  the  other  the  it  and  Indian  for  is  the  f i r s t  fish  of  the  season  though  caught,  no  s p i r i t u a l i t y , religious  the  interviewed  is  not  expressed  absence the  of  school  p r i n c i p a l : When  arts  aesthetic  even  organized  reason I  that  responses  seashore,  native  possible b e l i e f s ,  and  parents,  metaphor  t r a d i t i o n a l  find  time,  recreational  seashore.  or  religious  of  the  a  C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  lot  exhibited  orientation  suggested  a  William  124 always has a ceremony. They drop anchor a n d go into a bay. It's not r e a l l y a s p i r i t u a l t h i n g - not like a traditional Indian ceremony. They d o n ' t practise traditional Indian beliefs. It's simply an appreciation. They have a p i c n i c and r e l a x . A l l the other fisherman think i t ' s strange, they're competitive and always i n a hurry to get out there, and t h e r e ' s W i l l i a m h a v i n g a picnic. Although  the  Indian  family  customs,  "appreciation of  the  to  emotional a l l  of  sort  of  the  of  like there  traditional  and  there  no  are the  seashore. highly  expressed  the  are  no  s p i r i t u a l  with  seashore  is  "eat  mentions appear example,  and  the a  roof  beliefs  unity  to  to  a  when that  in  "I  orientation  effort  protect  is  and  Dan's  .  not  is  say  be  love  a an  that  f a i l i n g for  grounded  secure  I'm  reflect  To  would  .  be  there."  there  nature.  the  would  clearly  Dan's  s c i e n t i f i c  and  house.  I'm  structures  complexity  practice  notice  r e l i g i o n ,  with  their  Dance"  seashore:  organized  to  traditional  "Salmon  even  s p i r i t u a l  compare  important  for  native  the in  the  a  human  nature. that  place  the  only  asked  three  of  Dan's  orientation  where  Dan  At  f i r s t ,  more  contradict when  or of  and  clams." of  to  sense  u t i l i t a r i a n a  is  traditional to  the  the  seashore,  Indian  underlying  Dan's  a  window,  of  depth  Recall  i t  part  a  to  people:  respect  a  practise  salmon"  Also,  and  door,  s p i r i t u a l  connection  and  Salmon."  to  interesting  Indian  native  attachment  not  is f i r s t  Cove  them--a  see  the  feelings  Although  to  . it  Salmon  "Prayer  appears  can  towards  " f i s h the  what  love he  most  for  the cod"  aspects of  of  commercial  wanted  to  be  responses  seashore: and  surprisingly  u t i l i t a r i a n Dan's  metaphor  the  "halibut" infrequent  the  seashore  f i s h i n g . when  he  For grows  125 up,  Dan  r e p l i e d :  I would most like to father is a fisherman. fisherman on the coast.  To  gain  apparent school  further  insights  contradiction,  be My  a fisherman b e c a u s e my grandfather was the best  into  I  the  sought  possible  reason  additional  for  data  this  from  the  p r i n c i p a l :  Dan's parents aren't into competitive fishing. William has good f i s h i n g s k i l l s and good management s k i l l s . Catching a lot of f i s h and m a k i n g a l o t of money i s n ' t as c r i t i c a l . He c o n s u m e s and conserves. His b o a t i s much more relaxed. These of  data fish  and  immediately successful attempt the he  suggest  that  of  obvious  in  couldn't  a  be  I a  asked  a  Dan's Dan  fisherman  of  f i n a n c i a l home  and  comprehend  seashore,  problems  meeting  fisherman" to  the  "good lack  what  when  where  he  of  his  catching  large  obligations the  father  numbers are  is  a  "very  manager."  In  u t i l i t a r i a n  responses  second  grows  choice  a  not  would  later  be  to i f  up:  I would be a p a r k n a t u r a l i s t or a marine biologist, but only i f I d i d n ' t have t o move away from Salmon Cove. I wouldn't move to V a n c o u v e r , or D . B . C . to study there. I want to l o o k and s t u d y , go l i v e in the wilderness. I want my boat to fish in the summer and work in the winter on f i l m s , and draw pictures, a n d do w i l d l i f e books. I want t o go there and feed th.e animals, a n d s t u d y a n d do Landsdowne books, b u t do i t about sea animals. Those people from Vancouver shouldn't log around the rivers. A l l those people fight over who's going to log what. They want to l o g the B e a r V a l l e y . Ruin the creeks for spawning so the salmon eggs wash away. Ruin everything. Everybody's concerned. I can't do anything right now, but when I g e t older I w i l l . Once  again,  orientations:  notice  the  Dan  would  u t i l i t a r i a n , be  a  aesthetic,  fisherman  in  the  and summer  s c i e n t i f i c and  draw  126 pictures the  and  write  s c i e n t i f i c  conservation f i s h i n g  and and  u t i l i t a r i a n management  above  u t i l i t a r i a n proportion simply  i n  the  winter.  orientations: practices  his  metaphor  when  seashore.  As to  anything  Notice  Dan  to  And  wants  help  expressed  a  seashore:  You  "get  on  cut and  interest commercial  the.  seashore  to  solve  a  There going then. days,  I  and  "be  too, use the  potentially  of  the  a  older  because  I  a  Dan's  way:  the his "I  responses  towards the  crab."  health  the  seaweed," Dan's  low  given  his  such  as  occupation low  He  w i l l . "  surprising,  dangerous  school  by  of  to  express  metaphor  orientation  the  u t i l i t a r i a n  u t i l i t a r i a n  get  seems  suggest.  l i k e l y  Dan's  f a l l  understand  interviewed  I  to  of  relative  relationship  more  pinched  orientation  To  when  safety  "slide or  a  aware the  of  w i l l  three  and  rocks,"  fishing.  orientation,  only  could  safety  but  seemed  present  i n  more  than  use  Dan  now,  health  i n  his  adult  was  seashore  much  an  f i n a l l y ,  Dan  responses  describing  right  that  the  demonstrate  orientation  do  suggest of  of  relationship  data  aspects  didn't  health  books  c r i s i s . The  can't  w i l d l i f e  and  safety  p r i n c i p a l :  aren't that many fishing days. If you're to make y o u r money y o u h a v e t o make i t right The f i s h e r i e s department declares open fishing and you have to get out, storm or no storm.  The whole fishing world i s n ' t cooperative anymore. It's too competitive. Too r o u g h . W i l l i a m ' s boat is much more r e l a x e d . When t h e r e ' s a s t o r m , they go o n shore, read and identify things. William doesn't struggle. Considering father's  Dan's  relaxed  familarity attitudes  with towards  seashore  animals,  commercial  and  fishing,  his it  127 follows  that  orientation  Dan  towards  would the  have  a  low  health  and  safety-  seashore.  Luke Recall a by  that  preferred  s p i r i t u a l  numerous  traditional  native to  interviews  with  into  i n i t i a l  Indian  to  the  people  C h r i s t i a n i t y . the  Luke's  metaphor  orientation  references  references  insight  Luke's  • native  particular  to  the  school  information  was  suggested  seashore,  expressed  s p i r i t u a l of  The  Salmon  following  Indian  data  cultural  s p i r i t u a l  gathered  beliefs  Cove,  in  and  of  the  with  some  collected  teachers  in  provide  orientation:  Luke takes Indian dancing, Indian Indian art in school. He i s v e r y int Indian culture. A good listener. elders regularly and listens to stories. He dances a lot i n the bi w i l l be a w i s e man s o m e day.  Further  responses  an  language, and erested i n the He v i s i t s the our s p i r i t u a l g-house. Luke  interview  with  the  p r i n c i p a l :  Luke is a f u l l - s t a t u s native Indian. He was o r i g i n a l l y from Salmon Cove, but has moved back and forth a lot between Vancouver, Bear C r e e k and Salmon Cove. He moved to Salmon Cove f o r g r a d e s 5 and 6 to l i v e with his granny. Luke's great uncle B i l l y is a very w e l l known I n d i a n a r t i s t . His granny is a very traditional native Indian, but also attends the Pentecostal Church here i n Salmon Cove. The granny has a very strong influence on L u k e . Luke doesn't go out and fish in the seiners. He h a s a lot of f r e e time and s t a y s at home a l o t and w a t c h e s T . V . And  f i n a l l y ,  long-term Luke's  when  interviews,  granny  had  I  returned I  given  heard over  to  Salmon  stories the  Cove about  summer.  I  to a  complete potlatch  asked  Luke  the that  i f  he  128 would  t e l l  me  about  the  potlatch:  I d a n c e d two d a n c e s a l l by m y s e l f . I t was the f i r s t time. I danced the Hamatsa, a dance about the return of the chief's son. It's the story of the "Wild Man i n t h e W o o d s . " He w a s l o s t i n the woods. The people tried to c a t c h h i m , b u t he j u m p e d over them. T h e y made a c a g e f o r him. We had a big pot-luck dinner. I t was r e a l l y good: baked salmon, barbecued salmon, clam chowder, homemade buns. Mmmmmmmmmmmmmm! My G r a n n y g a v e away pillows, laundry baskets, blankets, homemade clothes, homemade shawls, homemade cushions, homemade d o l l s . I saved up my money and had a potlatch at the same time. I gave out toys: necklaces, squirt guns, d o l l s , magnifying glasses, quarters, nickles, dimes, and key chains. Luke's and  involvement  the  at  fact  home  that  by  his  Luke  would  oral  traditions  the  at to  i n  and  his  part,  s p i r i t u a l  his  uncle  and with  the  beliefs  the  This  watching  preferred  at  are  school,  encouraged  helps  explain  why  seashore  through  the  t e l l i n g  supernatural  Luke's  program  B i l l y ,  experience  people.  for  whose  science  whose  doctrines data  as  s p i r i t u a l  Church  following  then  of  and  cultural  and  and  r e - t e l l i n g  enacting  beings  of  would  s p i r i t u a l  of his  account,  orientation  seashore.  Pentecostal  Luke  granny  stories,  Luke's  and  native  traditional  encounters  least the  the  understand  s p i r i t u a l  ancestors'  in  I  was  project.  were  are  orientation  is  r e v i v a l - l i k e  q u a l i t i e s  fundamentalist  collected  driving When  we  also  i n  i n  an  to  his  granny's  passed  the  ferry  him  informal  grounded are  i n  emotional  character.  The  conversation  with  house  dock,  to  Luke  get  c o m e s t o S a l m o n C o v e he w o n ' t dock because h e ' l l float down  his  laughed,  said: When Jesus Christ to use the ferry  the  have on a  129 great white cloud. H e ' l l wear a b i g crown w i t h of jewels on h i s h e a d , and t h e r e w i l l be a n g e l s around with s i l v e r wings.  Because from  the  the  b e l i e f s  of  s p i r i t u a l  blending  of  many  the  of  the  two  the  Pentecostal  beliefs might  stories  of  of  the  appear  the  two  r e l i g i o n s ,  one  finds  involved  i n  ceremonies,  the  the  ceremonies  miracles  of  integration  Luke's  of  the of  To  that  Indian  gathered  and  Luke's ideas  some  the  the  with  I  there  and  the  involved parables  responses and  are  metaphors  dances,  the  the  examines  the  i n and  embody  an  animals.  possible  orientation,  interviews  the  church,  humans  of  at  one  metaphors  metaphor  about  idea  aesthetic i n  masks,  fundamentalist  s p i r i t u a l  provide  the  people,  Bible.  particular  was  a  Look  divorced  people,  i f  characteristics.  of  Indian But  common  legends  native  seem  strange.  certain  the  Church  lots a l l  grounding  include  of  information  Luke:  When I grow up I would most l i k e to be a carver: carve totem p o l e s and t a l k i n g s t i c k s . If the chief wants to talk he h a s to h o l d the talking stick. I would carve a stick with eagles, bears, and frogs. I would also be a p a i n t e r and p a i n t I n d i a n designs, or be a silversmith and make Indian designs on bracelets, necklaces, and rings.  The in well  fact the  that  home  known  aesthetic  by  Luke's  Indian  orientation  "that  is  granny,  to  also,  towards  art  a r t i s t ,  orientation Recall  barnacles  Indian  that  cut,"  and  that  suggests  the  the  clearly  Luke's why  Luke  at  great  school uncle  and is  demonstrated  a an  seashore. Luke  had  seashore. sea  encouraged  urchins  a He with  health was  and  concerned  "long  sharp  safety with needles  130 that  s t i n g , "  "broken  that  are  spooky."  hurt  at  boys  and  too the  and  is  his  strong  who  that  What  helps  with  "getting  aspects  story  the  and  the  people's the Luke  that  a  it  concern  is  for  Luke's aspects. be  a  are."  Or,  higher  on  who  mussels, stories  the  abundance  dance  of  be  beach." and  s p i r i t s food  and  when  plants  and  animals,  the  and  the  ocean  two  or  e v i l .  the  concern  safety  and  Hamatsa--the  he  at  the  down .  to  .  s u r v i v a l , for  a  when have  that  he  was  expressed  had  s p i r i t u a l  responses: where  "I  would  a l l  the  fish  I  would  put  food  legend  about  this  and  the  beach  Listening  to  experiencing a  animal,  Considering  also  .  certain  seashore.  captain .  i n  forms—one  would  metaphor  is  and  Hamatsa  that  tide.  preparing  unexpected.  repeated  of  have  the  .  seems  s p i r i t s  "There  abalone"  seashore  dangerous  Luke's  went  But  potentially  safety  high  seashore.  six  stories  orientation  Or, he  and  a  grade  s p i r i t u a l  good  t e l l  many  getting  Such  surprising  and  would  clams,  of  to  some  wild  of  be  for  days  the  health  dance  forest,  can  "foggy  from  Luke's  Woods."  with  and  road  both  the  s p i r i t s  health  boat  "I  became  the  u t i l i t a r i a n  Recall  fishing  not  is  of the  orientation  by  the  These  learning  interviewed, such  in  human—and  was  i n  with  seashore  part  and  concern  typical  the  suggests  concern  l i v e  houses.  other  with  i n  This  Man  Indian  ghosts  across  expressed  "Wild  Luke's  f a i r l y  safety  this  l o s t . "  beach,"  unfamiliar  lives  and  explain  s p i r i t u a l  reflect  are  the  f i r s t ,  familiar  health  on  seems  Luke  generally  of  At  seashore  g i r l s  considering  glass  potlatch,  and  he  man ate  traditional the  seasonal  enacting  "The  131 Wild  Man  part,  i n  to  the  a  Woods"—all  u t i l i t a r i a n  traditions  of  preparing,  and  orientation.  his  this  would  orientation  people.  eating  An  of  Luke's  seafoods  interview  with  Luke,  grounded  i n  also  the  least  a  in  s p i r i t u a l  i n  develop  revealed  at  the  participation  would Luke  lead  gathering, u t i l i t a r i a n  following:  Sometimes, I go to Bear I s l a n d w i t h my u n c l e to dig clams. Sometimes my mom ( L u k e c a l l s h i s granny "Mom") makes clam chowder. Sometimes we m a k e f i s h chowder too. My mom p u t s i n seaweed, u s u a l l y the black kind. Do you eat h e r r i n g eggs? My mom k n o w s a l a d y w h o eats sea urchins. So, it  although was  an  important  Luke's  u t i l i t a r i a n  integral  part  dimension  to  of  the  orientation  his  overall  traditional  was  not  preferred,  orientations, way  of  l i f e  and  in  an  Salmon  Cove.stop.*.Ii1  External  As  previously  internal the  student's and  across  and  various  cultural To  physical  Dan,  Jimmy,  and  data  student's  certain  and  suggest  various  external  orientations  understand  "seashore"  a  a  the  a  orientations  coherence her  certain  his  or  are  grounded  to  between  physical,  a  social  backgrounds.  with  land  described,  coherence  seashore,  Coherence  how  orientations  experience, and  Anna.  sea,  broadly  as  the  focused  p a r t i a l l y  as  Jimmy  offshore on  compare  Recall  s p e c i f i c a l l y the  I  the  the  and  that  water  contrast  Dan  and  seashore  in  the  the  connections the  interpreted  i n t e r - t i d a l  interpreted  in  region  word  open  Salmon  cases the  between  "seashore"  ocean, Cove  and  while  of  word the more Anna  p a r t i a l l y  132 on  the  seashore  in  student  interpreted  marine  environment  connections  each  In between physical  is  home  a  at  orientation  type  very  few  harmful  any  orientation  of  orientation comparatively  health  the  that  each  type  of  metaphorical  and  because  they  student towards at  from  growing the  safe.  edible  with  and  His  with and in  i n  and would  plants  type and  is  Salmon  Salmon  of  with  animals  harbor  trunks  Cove;  islands force  Cove  with  with  a  know  low  seashore animals.  His  coherent are  beaches  are  and of  inlets waves.  s c i e n t i f i c  wealth  Dan's  of  there  a  that  and  chain  also  Cove  f u l l  and  aesthetic  distance.  Salmon  the  coherent  continuous the  that Dan's  picturesque  offshore  and  animals.  gnarled a  Similarly, a  a  of  Dan's  seashore  particular  with  type  such,  finding  orientation  have  i n  of  coherence the  As  externally  animals.  seashore,  consistent few  is  exists  seashore,  the  relatively  up  a  plants  sea,  currents  and  type  fun.  safety  that  external  with  mountains and  an  Cove.  beaches  plants  shelter  is  fact  different  Salmon  coherent  the  seashore  safe  experiences are  a  exploring,  having  boats,  meeting  was  seashore  for  externally  low  i n  coherent  white-capped  provide  as  orientations  orientation  just  fishing  of  of  and  the  beaches  was  them,  comparatively  The  through  there  exists  good  with  hand  that  is  comparatively  Indeed,  set  that  branches  spectacular  "seashore"  Dan,  diversity  is  with  twisted  to  of  recreational  seashore  f i l l e d  case  particular  to  looking  word  Islands.  reverberated  orientation  particular a  the  environment  s c i e n t i f i c  Solomon  chose.  the  his  the  of  Salmon  f i r s t Cove  u t i l i t a r i a n  that  supports  Salmon  Cove  133 beaches  are  preferred  edible  Dungeness  the  coherence  Jimmy  along  and  the  of  halibut, Dungeness  and  coastline  very  few  oysters,  a  external  other  with  fishing.  the  lack  aesthetic  haystacks,  orientations  aesthetic  rocky beaches.  are  i n  islands,  that  had terms  a  of  given  these  coherent  the  chum  with  a  is great  salmon,  a  preferred hazards  rugged  of  rocky  comparatively with  that  may  more Salmon  have  of  goes had  a  consistently Cove  beaches.  surprising jagged  aesthetic  the  low  type  frequently  Jimmy  of  the  inconsistencies, with  offshore  wide-ranging  the  along  seems  coastline  and  Despite  he  Since  orientation  coherent  orientation  of  externally  generally.  suggests  and  equally  Jimmy's  l i f e s t y l e  Cove,  the  the  almost  storms  the  supports  as  coherent  externally  "seashore"  qualities  and Cove  an  is  violent  It  as  salmon,  well  and  coastline.  that  Jimmy's  orientation  word  of  as  of  Salmon  u t i l i t a r i a n  (sockeye  type  i n  "seashore"  extreme,  is  the  recreational  Salmon  often  certain  orientations,  exists  word  orientation in  of  coastline  etc.  orientation  interpreted  a  shrimp,  the  and  greater  with  etc.)  commercial  coastline  support  scallops,  Columbia  his  flounder,  fishing  recreational  ocean,  fish  At  that  the  was  set  B r i t i s h  interpreted  safety  coastline.  of  and  clams,  there  particular  entire  open  crab,  commercial  the  rock,  as  Jimmy,  commercial  cod,  Jimmy's  hard  such  environment  coherent  diversity  health  of  his  the  frequently  externally  with  case  physical  waters  on  organisms  between  of  indeed,  set  crab.  In  type  cobblestone  type  of  given rocks,  qualities Jimmy's physical  134  In  the  coherence type  case  between  of  her  physical  Islands.  swimming,  and  tanning, weather.  stressed  music,  songs  and  is  orientation  is  supports  a  great  tropical  fish,  Anna  may  less  weight  "seashore"  a of  edible  she  more  meaning  are  grounded  i n  Salmon So  it  clams,  the  Her  of  of that  considerably  which  are  the  word  cobblestone  students' within  that  suggest  Cove  connections  cultural  variety  interpreted  the  which  u t i l i t a r i a n  a  data  orientation  that  hot  environment  organisms:  beaches,  and  orientation,  marine  The  which parties  beaches  with  the  Solomon  beach  consistently  seems  systematic  sandy  etc.  and  native  picnicking,  of  external  orientation,  coherent  type  recreational  cold.  orientations  their  perceived  environment. Last,  the  students,  the  types  parent's  with  her  Islanders.  had  generally  Salmon  Solomon  crab,  a  i n  long  is  certain  orientations  aesthetic  drama  diversity  and  physical  with  shrimp  had as  the  coherent  have  surfing,  and  a  of  exists  particular  dance, of  set  that  coherent  Her  was  recreational  s a i l i n g ,  dances  there  particular  preferred  stressed  tropical  Anna,  environment  Anna's  sun  of  there  was  between  of  was  profession  or  To  see  grounded  i n  cultural  environments,  orientations  of  Dan,  Anna,  of  strong  relationship  a  job,  and  the  compare and  Jimmy.  economic,  students* within and  for  a l l  orientations,  environments  connections I  sets  coherence  cultural  how  systematic  external  particular  and  There  a f f i l i a t i o n s .  certain  their  social  Cove.  a  that  exist  between and  contrast  the  and i n the  religious  orientations their  of  social  are and  s c i e n t i f i c  135 B r i e f l y , externally an  coherent  early  plants the  Dan's  age  and  animals  solve  the  problem  other  extreme,  relatives  who  gatherings  at  externally  commercial  fishing  beach  hand,  learning  i n  the  require  salmon  arts,  is  and to  in  a  father  whose  a  s c i e n t i f i c that  help  At  the  the  home,  with  other  large  of  on  externally  and  and  at  identify  home  s c i e n t i f i c  suggest  Dan  stocks.  absence  substantial  to of  quick  near  The  family  orientation  a  s c i e n t i f i c interest  i n  understanding  while  coherence,  in  lot  Cove  the  study  to  point  To  native a  to  i n the  out  of  part  school.  danced  in  Jimmy  externally  absence  may  at  Salmon  abstence  seems  traditional  Jimmy  returned  with  data  rare,  Jimmy  problem a  grades  were  is  background.  is  not  These  orientations  orientation  results  does  contrast,  aesthetic family  and  the  role-model  low  an  to  management  parties  Jimmy's with  home,  and  creative  beach  i n  orientation  s c i e n t i f i c  the  taught  is  complete  on  the  other  t y p i c a l . By  dad  the  coherence  is  a  seashore.  ecology.  external  of  who  carefully,  books  dwindling  s c i e n t i f i c  consistent  in  of  conservation  encourage  role-model  of  low  support  the  seashore  rapidly  orientation  role-model  l i b r a r y  use  lack  who  a  to  of  the  parents  is  and  s c i e n t i f i c  father the  from  Anna's  with  a  observe  boat,  with  with  to  fishing  coherent  preferred  this,  Indian i n  the  the  and  big  spring  community, this  s p i r i t u a l  associated  see  s p i r i t u a l  inconsistent  a  be  of  the  with  r e c a l l that  house. of  and  1984  aesthetic a  possible Jimmy's  the  primary  fact,  to  teachers  discrepancy  his  that  i n In  with  and  when  present and  between  I  the  elders Jimmy's  136 orientations this  and  apparent  "seashore" data  as  provide  his  incoherence the  offshore  insights  safety  orientations,  Jimmy's  near To  at  in  interviewed  how  of  the  a  the  part,  is  that  waters  do  not  and  their  Cove  open  interpreted coast.  and  an  mental  and  aesthetic  and  clue the  to  word  Although  adequate  orientations  primary  possible  u t i l i t a r i a n  provide  s p i r i t u a l  One  Jimmy  Jimmy's  students*  by  Salmon  background.  into  they  absence  see  least  family  such  health  and  account  for  orientation.  may  be  emotional  determined,  capacities,  I  teachers:  Jimmy had a d i f f i c u l t time learning. He went to learning assistance. He couldn't read at a l l until grade 4 . . . Can he read now? . . We tried everything. . . He d r e w l o t s of b o a t s and b a t t l e s a l l the time. . . He c a n r e a d , but i s s t i l l below grade expectations. An  interview  with  Jimmy's  grade  teacher  6  revealed  the  following: Jimmy is and math. s k i l l s are More  than  any  interviews the  of  the  d i f f i c u l t ,  interviews.  learning  problem  aesthetic to  d e f i n i t e l y w e l l below grade l e v e l in He tries hard when he's here, very weak. other he  I  to  helps  the  He  s p i r i t u a l  aesthetic  found  the  metaphor  threatening. clearly  more  upset  During about  simply  near  interviews  being  have  with  explanation  orientations  one  not  (and  session  of  is  myself in  interviewed  a  the  possible  the  rich the fact  as  an  particular, during  avoid  s p i r i t u a l  had  for  metaphor to  Jimmy's  absence  may  the  attempted  that  questions  likely  found  occasionally  the  metaphor  A  Jimmy  speculate  explain  orientations. and  even  would  orientations.  respond  students,  reading but his  a b i l i t y mix  absence that  of of  Jimmy  outsider) Jimmy  his  and  was  physical  137 education  class,  resulting  metaphor  I  would  out I  and  as  would  be  a  starfish.  can't a  by  his  unhappy  mood  and  by  the  responses:  be you  evidenced  get  boulder.  They're  big  and  they're  way  them. Nobody  can  move  you.  I would be a bullhead. When t h e tide is just coming up you just h i g h - b a l l it out and swim out to the ocean, and s t a y u n d e r w a t e r and go u n d e r n e a t h a rock. I  would  up  and  Jimmy's  a  hermit  you  reluctance  being  tested  additional home  be  throw  to  and  insights  school  down  crab.  Nobody  on  rocks.  It's  interviewed  may  be with  into  the  remedial Jimmy's  hardly  reading  suspicions,  can  pick  you  safer. be  associated  class. I  To  with gain  interviewed  the  coordinator:  Jimmy was raised i n the traditional Indian ways. Jimmy respects and r e l a t e s to h i s dad (grandfather). He watches his grandfather work: fishing, setting nets, setting out crab pots, d r i v i n g the boat. The males are dominant i n the household. Jimmy i s the man of the house. He l e a r n s by d o i n g , o b s e r v i n g , a n d by doing it himself. They d o n ' t t a l k much about how to do something. He's easily embarrassed i f he c a n ' t do something right the f i r s t time. Indian boys t r a d i t i o n a l l y watched their fathers. They practised out of s i g h t . Then, when t h e i r s k i l l s were perfected, they performed in front of t h e i r elders. Jimmy has his own motor boat. At home, Jimmy n e v e r has to do a n y t h i n g he d o e s n ' t want to do. In school in front front of writing s k i It  would  grounded where highly  we e x p o s e c h i l d r e n t o testing and practising of adults. To be exposed, especially in a woman, is a dishonor. Verbal s k i l l s and l l s are not n e c e s s a r y on a f i s h i n g boat.  appear  that  in  native  his  teaching  for  the  reluctance  Indian  traditions  speculative,  explanation  Jimmy's  the near  are  family  absence  be  interviewed  environment—an  different  above  to  data of  from  our  provide s p i r i t u a l  may  be  environment  own. an and  Although additional aesthetic  138 orientations.  Jimmy  may  have  had  both  aesthetic  o r i e n t a t i o n of c o n s i d e r a b l y  preferred  not  outsiders. or  confusing,  possibly  and  the  threatening, and  more w e i g h t , but  aspects  found the  the  various  safety  properties  simply with  aspects  of  were  his used  aesthetic orientation.  are  required  to g i v e  of  Jimmy's  orientations  i t  seems  that  each  student's  an  account of and  the  beliefs  orientations  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s grounded w i t h i n t h e i r  social,  and  (1980),  I  products  of  makeup),  their  (seeing,  hearing,  conditions others  he  an  difficult,  orientations or  and  of h i s t h i n k i n g  metaphor q u e s t i o n s  expense of a s p i r i t u a l data  spiritual  seashore.  So system  certain  health  above  interactional a b o u t the  Jimmy or  at the  of  share  When  utilitarian  All  to  a  cultural am  arguing  their  at  in  that  bodies  interactions touching,  the  culture  religious,  etc.  the  conceptual  s y s t e m the  Lakoff  students'  (perceptual, within  their  (in  terms In  and  animals, their of  other  and  Johnson are  emotional  environment objects,  and  i n t e r a c t i o n s with social,  words,  s t u d e n t s have i s a p r o d u c t o f  physical, social  and  physical  a  physical,  orientations  mental,  manipulating  institutions).  their  Following  s e a s h o r e , e t c . ) , and  their  interact with  experiences.  previous  form  cultural  economic, the  kind  the way  of  they  environments.  139 Summary  On following students'  the  basis  of  conclusions  these about  orientations  examples, the  and  I  am  suggesting  relationships  their  between  social  and  the the  cultural  backgrounds: 1.  For  a l l  between  of the  experiences 2.  The  data  the  students,  students' i n  the  suggest  interpretation orientations  to  of the  there  orientations  physical, a  was  s o c i a l ,  relationship the  word  seashore.  an  external and  and  coherence  their  cultural  between "seashore'  the 1  previous world. students'  and  their  1 40  The  One  way  students'  seashore  was  Another  seashore  the  later  from point  awareness  document  (habitat,  community, of  the  a  nature  of  tide,  their  the  the  prior  to  existence  sun,  beliefs  of  tidal  about  of  pools, specific  t i d a l  cycle,  general  summary  e t c . ) .  prior  provide  the  predator-prey,  brevity,  metaphor  between  I  begin  to  and  with  a  instruction. the  more  individual  l i t e r a l  These  data  are  interviews.  detailed  analysis  students'  beliefs  At  of and  a  the their  orientations.  The  Students'  In  Set  to  l i s t  connected  with  six  s t a r f i s h ,  to  Instruction  relationships  (crabs, was  to  understand  their  the  I  to  seashore  beliefs  both  Prior  document  sake  students'  preferred  the  way  the  relationship  asked  to  zonation,  For  taken  about  relationships  chain,  Beliefs  attempting  phenomena  e t c . ) .  of  of  beliefs  instruction,  food  Students'  target  2-A a l l  the  Awareness  of the  the  students.)  Seashore  l i t e r a l  plants,  seashore.  of  Phenomena  interviews, animals,  (Table  4  each  objects,  compares  the  student and  was  events  responses  of  141 Table 4 The S t u d e n t s '  Awareness  23 .  24. 25. 26 . 27. 28. 29. 30. 31 • 32. 33 . 34. 35. 36.  Phenomena  Luke  Dan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1 0. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 . 17. 18. 19. 20. 21 . 22 .  o f Seashore  bullheads crabs seaweed barnacles sea u r c h i n s big rocks p o l l s of eels clay seaweed bugs water kelp logs seagulls crows r o c k cod clams otters k i l l e r whale mice rats ducks geese pintails mallards salmon red s n a p p e r l i n g cod skiff e e l eggs f i s h eggs scallops abalone s e a cucumbers snails small rocks  1 . rocks 2. e e l s 3. c r a b s 4. seaweed 5. k e l p 6. f i s h 7. k i l l e r w h a l e 8. l o g s 9. w a t e r 10. o l d b i k e s 11 . machine p a r t s 12 . l i t t l e s h e l l s 13. s t a r f i s h 14. C h i n e s e h a t s ( a ) 15. b a r n a c l e s 16 . C h i n e s e s l i p p e r ( b ) 17. c h i t o n s (P) 18. e a g l e s 19. s e a g u l l s 20. crows 21 . p i g e o n s 22 . c l a m s 23. s a l m o n 24. h a l i b u t 25. h e r r i n g (P) 26 . cod  Sharon 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 13 • 14. 15. 16. 17 . 18. 19. 20. 21 . 22 . 23 •  24. 25.  26 . 27.  sand fish seaweed logs stones starfish crabs eels c l ams sea u r c h i n s water piankton chiton octopus seagulls crows whales sharks seals otters oysters abalone lobster flies blood sucker (c) sand f l e a s s e a anemones  Table  4  Continued  Jimmv 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 . 17. 18. 19. 20. 21 . 22 . 23 • 24. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (P)  crabs eels bullheads shellfish perch ratfish w h i s k e r cod flounder b l a c k bass red snapper r o c k cod trout l i n g cod k i l l e r whale sockeye salmon pink salmon hump s a l m o n dolphins seals seagulls crows eagles rocks barnacles (P)  Marv  Anna  1. 1 . crabs 2. • 2. seaweed 3. 3- r o c k s 4. 4. k e l p 5. 5. e e l s 6. 6. sand w a t e r 7. 7. 8. 8. l o g s s t a r f i s h 9. 9. 10. 10 . b a r n a c l e s 11 . f l o w e r a n i m a l s (d) 11 . 12. 12 . m u s s e l s . s e a s h o r e s m e l l s (P) 13 14 . bugs 15 . s h e l l s (P) 16 . g l a s s  seaweed crabs eels starfish jellyfish barnacles fish salmon herring tuna mackerel s q u i s h y (P) t h i n g s (e)  Chinese hat ( l i m p e t ) Chinese s l i p p e r ( d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s of l i m p e t ) blood sucker (crab molts) f l o w e r a n i m a l s ( s e a anemones) s q u i s h y t h i n g s ( s e a anemones) r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r o b e ; e.g., Can you t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e the s e a s h o r e ? I n the w a t e r ? I n the a i r ? On the b e a c h ?  143 All and  of  obvious  the  students  seashore  organisms  under-rock  habitats  bullheads,  crabs,  organisms  octopus,  are  snapper, Luke,  that  halibut,  Jimmy,  otters,  whales,  eagles,  p i n t a i l s ,  more  subtle  mice,  rats,  fleas, on  etc.  the  that  Anna  and  aware  and  eggs,  tuna,  mackerel,  Sharon  of  awareness and  Luke  phenomena,  while  even  some  of  at  Jimmy,  Mary  (seals,  of  the  seashore:  molts, do  the less  more  Dan,  some  These  of  red  (seagulls,  the  that  were  the  e t c . ) .  plankton  lobster.  of  (flounder,  l i s t e d  organisms  number  birds  conditions  and  l i s t i n g  mammals  marine  Sharon  l i s t e d  by  a  salmon,  plankton,  l i s t e d  exceptional  seashore  waters  wide-ranging  eels,  abalone,  began  offshore  and  and  zone  anemones,  l i s t e d  Dan  Sharon  Coast: an  not  number  eggs,  tide  Jimmy  wide-ranging  mallards).  phenomena,  very  and  fish  of  The  sharks)  pools  Sharon  lower  pink  common  barnacles,  and  sea  more  tidal  rapidly  l i s t e d  eel  existence  seashore  Sharon  Luke,  etc.  salmon,  objects,  had  seashore  i n  animals,  Pacific  Dan  l i v e  the  the  zone:  the  cucumbers,  sockeye  and  tide  i n  but  l i s t i n g  inhabit  urchins,  animals,  fish  by  Dan,  sea  sea  seashore  commercial  upper  common  chitons,  scallops,  common  the  that  seaweeds.  that  s u b - t i d a l l y :  of  began  sand  not  occur  data  show  existence aware and  common  of  Anna  and  of the  were  obvious  phenomena.  Students'  Beliefs  In  general,  of  beliefs  About  there about  Specific  was  the  a  great  Seashore  diversity  seashore--its  Relationships  in  various  terms  of  the  organisms  and  144 the  relationships  Dan, of  Sharon,  and  seashore  beliefs  among Luke  a  very  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  seashores, sun,  Dan of  and  range  Dan  interdependence e x p l i c i t  was and  b e l i e f s  desiccation,  the  tidal  expressed  the  types  energy  metaphor of  metaphor  following  habitat,  recycle,  from  of the  responses  the  concepts  responses  types  zonation,  range  relationships.  aware  no  greatest  about  some  interviews,  Anna  cycle,  concepts:  chain,  and  beliefs  i m p l i c i t l y  about  the  seashore  Although  community,  food  about  protection,  conservation.  suggested  of  organisms,  metaphor  Jimmy,  expressed  predator-prey,  the  beliefs  Mary,  limited  diversity  From  expressed  relationships;  about  concepts:  them.  expressed  of  coastlines,  interdependence,  and  community. By range she  contrast,  of  seashore  expressed  organisms, metaphor of  protection,  food  While  were and  a  d i f f e r e n t . consistent Anna  few  tended  to  which  and  were  the  interviews, diversity  concepts:  t i d a l  cycle, the  of No  types  desiccation,  sun,  to  use  tended  science  beliefs  used  consistent  tended  Sharon  accepted use  about  from  limited  conservation.  consistently  students  Dan  concepts:  a  recycle,  community.  students  most  with  energy  about  metaphor  pollution,  beliefs  or  the  following  seashores,  chain,  zonation,  beliefs  From  habitat,  of  relationships ideas,  the  expressed  types  interdependence,  science  about  predator-prey, responses  seashore  expressed  relationships.  beliefs  coastlines,  quite  Mary  which  to  ideas; were  beliefs with  b e l i e f s use Luke,  quite  about  accepted which  were  beliefs  which  Jimmy,  Mary,  different  from  145  accepted ideas  science  about  concepts  seashore  l i f e :  struggle  for  almost ideas  a l l  Anna  death,  concepts  food  generated  far  example, with  predator-prey, Luke  associated  concepts  death,  For  associated  survival.  about  birth,  ideas.  chain,  very  with  beach  more  wild  repeated  the  r e l a t i v e l y  organisms  over  and  with  t i d a l  the  harsher  very  ecology,  different aspects  the  different  of  constant  ideas  about  and  different  or  creation:  evolution  cycle,  guesses  simple  had  competition,  had  associated  Mary  interdependence,  than  any  other  concept  of  the  the  number  etc.  student,  and  diversity  of  over.  Summary 1.  There  was  beliefs  great  about  relationships 2.  Only  a  diversity  the  in  seashore--its  among  of  various  of  organisms  and  the  them.  few  students  tended  similar  to  accepted  science  beliefs  which  were  terms  quite  to  use  beliefs  ideas.  different.  Most  which  were  students  quite  used  146 The  Relationship  One students'  way  and  Beliefs  of  looking  orientations  the  s p e c i f i c  the  pre-instructional  stressed  of  awareness  Why  of  pollution  and  knowledge  of  death, have  did  with  In students' seashore  seashore  and  the  concept section,  orientations, phenomena, I for  particular  and show  a l l  of  beliefs  of I  their that the  a  awareness  of  expressed  stress  fundamental the  a  greatest  very  limited  Why  did  Jimmy  and  not  the  Mary  especially  a l l  diversity  students  to  of  to  such did  as  Luke  monotonous  organisms?  of  between  certain  about  specific  instruction,  between  limited  associated  a  relationship  awareness beliefs  Why  concepts  large stress  a  concepts  continue  a  concepts  such  survival?  Anna  the  l i s t e d  have  on  students  fish?  almost  chose  to some  raises  the  contrast  Jimmy  prior  they  that  fact  and  examine  their  The  did  did the  chose  and  while  competition, about  between  compare  habitat,  Why  Why  to  students  Mary  relationships,  ideas  is  an  commercial  conservation?  relationship  others  while  predator-prey  relationships.  the  individual  phenomena,  offshore  this  relationship  b e l i e f s ,  over  Orientations  Instruction  the  express  ecology?  of  at  phenomena,  different  beach  repetition  and  Dan  predator-prey, very  Students'  interviews.  seashore  of  concepts  that  the  Before  and  concepts  seashore  proportion the  b e l i e f s  certain  question. range  Between  their  stress.  the  types  of  seashore  there  was  a  orientations  147 The  Students'  Orientations  of  In the  general,  students  awareness the an  exceptional  and  preferred  or  safety  but  a  with  awareness  of  regardless  the  that  considered preferred  animals,  objects,  significance. had  regardless In  was  s p i r i t u a l phenomena  (Sharon)  of  and at  aesthetic  seashore  a  to  s p i r i t u a l ,  or  good  with  awareness plants  and  phenomena  aspects.  (Mary)  plants or  a  had  and  of The  a  poor  animals,  s p i r i t u a l ,  although  least  aware  phenomena  that  she  student  with  the  with  The  (Luke) and that the of  with  detail  of  had  was he  a  considered  seashore  the  mix  of  of  phenomena  given  data  awareness  particularly  greatest  any  good  some  or  aspects,  awareness  in  of  safety  events  see  had  regardless  seashore  aesthetic,  their  (Dan),  seashore  orientation  or  general,  association  a  of  example,  student  s c i e n t i f i c  significance.  student  good  their  order  in  common  seashore  orientation  and  The  of  the  had  edible  or  s c i e n t i f i c ,  she  of  of  aesthetic  existence  health  (Jimmy)  or  a l l  and  For  phenomena,  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  certain  for  orientation  comparison,  s p i r i t u a l ,  their or  or  awareness  preferred  of  u t i l i t a r i a n , suggested  a  phenomena.  seashore  orientation  or  relationship  s c i e n t i f i c  By  of  Awareness  orientations  seashore  aspects.  poor  aesthetic,  of  of  and  a  preferred  aesthetic,  fish  Their  Phenomena  suggest  preferred  u t i l i t a r i a n  animals,  student  types  awareness  commercial  more  a  s c i e n t i f i c ,  health  of  with  data  their  certain  student  their  the  between  of  Seashore  and  aware  of of  s p i r i t u a l  orientations generally,  orientation.  relationships  between  the  148 students'  orientations  phenomena,  I  Jimmy,  compare  Mary,  and  relationship  crabbing,  other  his  plants,  a  certain  wide-ranging  fishing  i n  offshore  picture  of  a  Dungeness (the  Jimmy  was  rocks, drew  of  rather  soups. When  These  data  the  crabs.  i f  the  and  floating to  rocks are  with  was  I  crabbing." and  consistent  with  a  edible limited  who the  rocks  much.  else.  fish  i n  go  included  few  fish,  to  who  The  dries  and  draw  shore  crab  harvested seaweed,  that  since them  he  picks  for  making  with  Jimmy.  Jimmy  r e p l i e d :  "I  When  go,  I  look  eels  i n  the  do  fishing  Jimmy's seashore awareness  plants of  the  for  seiners.  specialized and  to  Jimmy  familiar, I  a the  attached  fact  conversations  when  drew  draw  seaweeds  important,  with  common the  asked  to  and  to  crab  asked  and  more  purple  edible  water.  dad  fishing  spotted  student  drew  is  his  consistent  very  commercial  phenomena.  students  when  common  when  preferred  commercial  only  strong  Compared  phenomena of  large  very  the  events.  more  and  a  frequently  the  the  Cove),  seashore  seashore  Nothing  fishing  is  few  and  number  the  students:  his  even  seashore  was  three  commercial  Additionally,  than  attached the  asked to  very  from  of  seashore  Jimmy,  of  mammals  Jimmy  than  seaweeds  seaweeds  go  one  stressed  objects  waters.  of  of  of  between  awareness  l i s t  Salmon  cases  exist  which  crab  in  to  marine  rather  Dungeness  commercially  case  the  conspicuous  crab,  crab  In seen  Jimmy's  awareness  the  limited  animals,  their  contrast  animals,  students,  seashore  be  orientation, and  seashore  and  Luke.  could  u t i l i t a r i a n  and  don't and I  go  interest  in  animals  is  common  seashore  149 By between  Mary's  making For  comparison,  seashore  is  It's  just  to  the  like  to  like  brought  seashore  have  had  of  and  that .  at  .  and  walk  is  the  and  not  a  a  orientation.  responses  reflect Salmon  to  the  beach  time."  things  with  too  "When  to  much.  I  do  go  make  jewelry,  Mary's  limited  surprising  experiences  a  that  she  poor  awareness  the Cove:  to  fun, i t  general  Recall  includes  range  objects  is  .  be  of  the  beach  turn not  lots  over  surprising  seen  .  rocks,  would  and  to  exist  that  of  many  stories  of  .  events,  .  to  dump  eels he  or  would  phenomena.  between his  Luke's the  of  mammals.  that  seashore  and  range  get  of  phenomena,  traditional  a  wide-ranging  awareness  could  seashore  phenomena  and  "down have  connection of  a  fish,  around,"  least  awareness  of  to  It  starfish,  consistent  Considering  seashore  goes  s p i r i t u a l  people  down  shells  animals,  Luke  .  just  Additionally, general  mammals.  is  instructional  commercial  fishguts or  l i s t  plants  Considering  crabs  and  this  r i n g s . "  her  objects,  Again,  find  i t  few  includes  never  to  or  includes  l i s t  I  seashore,  birds  stressed  phenomena.  Mary's  normal.  for  of  exist  phenomena.  shorebirds,  the  marine  go  the  Luke's seashore  or  that  seashore  assortment  don't  and  at  phenomena  an  to  which  seashore  animals.  look  seen  of  "I  I  be  orientation,  Mary:  seashore,  could  awareness  fish  notice  with  experiences  of  animals,  flower-like  necklaces  have  limited  commercial  interesting  conversations  aesthetic  l i s t  and  no  and  her  Mary's  and  shells,  of  and  plants  events,  relationship  preferred  jewelry,  example,  a  Luke's  preferred s p i r i t u a l  native  Indian  150 The man and  seashore is a legend. There i s a legend about who b e c a m e w i l d a n d he w e n t to the beach every he a t e mussels, clams, and abalone.  this day  I would be a listener to a s t o r y . I would l i s t e n to what happened a long, long, time ago, about the k i l l e r whale, the Thunderbird, the raven. A clam dance, a The the  is a dance  tide is tide long  I would i t . It's  The  legends Cove  common  along  stories food.  a  events  general which  aesthetic clams,  and  the  and  ocean  important  awareness he  of  the  animals  etc.  allowed or  like  rivers a  him  beings:  to  the  abundance that  orientations  or  believe  that  streams.  is  Additionally,  people  animals  animals,  a  after  Indian  and  eagles,  i n  barbeque  seasonal  s p i r i t u a l , whales,  look  to  water  seashore  of  to  research,  aesthetic  certain  shells  native  fresh  local  this  I  the  offering  k i l l e r  tides,  orientation  i n  to and  of  and  as  considered  significance:  supernatural in  the  dances  marine  u t i l i t a r i a n  abalone,  s p i r i t u a l  the  coast  portray  s p i r i t u a l to  the  is  I l i k e salmon. red meat.  ceremonial  involve  What  use  a legend. The w o l v e s u s e d before a n y o n e was born.  be K u t a l a . nice juicy  and  Salmon  dance. You could c a l l e d the Kwi K w i .  of are The of  Luke's  contributed objects,  u t i l i t a r i a n , ravens,  Luke's  and or  salmon,  particular  in  the  existence  Thunderbird  and  the  Wild  of Man  Woods.  The  Students' about  So  far,  I  Orientations Seashore  have  given  and  Their  Beliefs  Relationships  an  account  of  how  the  students'  151  awareness  of  experiences In  seashore with  addition,  relationship and  there set  a l l  a  four  of  the  of  events,  for  and  to  this  students:  to  show  a l l  I  Mary,  between  of  the  set  describe Anna,  i n  and  there  was  Next,  specific  I  plants, show  that  between  their  beliefs  about  importance some  a  orientations  seashore  students,  the  previous  environment.  their  of  of  of  their  that  conditions.  their  thesis,  i n  cultural  existence  Because  Jimmy,  and  students  and  relationship  grounded  social  the  relationships.  relationship  was  attempted  awareness  orientations  seashore  of  physical,  have  objects,  was of  I for  their  animals,  the  phenomena  detail  of  this  the  cases  Luke.  Jimmv In seen  to  which  about  striking Jimmy  major  and  feeding  of  his  commercial  it  asked  is to  events  for  a  strong  preferred  fishing  and  worth  crabbing,  into  l i s t  categories,  and  grouping  This  elaboration. his  of  For  of 5).  and  could  his  specific was  i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  used  plants, his  commercial  be  orientation,  relationship  seashore  Jimmy  habitats (Table  relationship  u t i l i t a r i a n  relationships.  group  behavior  c r i t e r i o n  Jimmy,  between  seashore  that  was  objects  case  exist  stressed  beliefs  the  the  when  animals,  knowledge fish  so  as  of the  1 52  Table  5  Jimmv's  Category  System  Prior  to  ling cod r a t f i s h whisker cod per ch rock cod -  they d o n ' t go d e e p i n the sea close to the seashore just a l i t t l e way out you c a t c h them from a line on the beach or a l i t t l e boat  -  4.  shellcrab (Dungeness) bullheads eels crabs - when the tide goes down t h e y ' r e a l l under the rocks at low tide  5.  barnacles rocks  6.  a l l  -  at  -  can  the  dive into the to get fish  water  of  them  when  goes  the  sea  the  down  k i l l e r whales dolphins  seals  fly  bottom  see  tide  seagulls eagles crows they  Instruction  '.  -  they  swim  together  -  eat fish some p e o p l e c a t c h i n n e t s to eat  seals  f1ounders red snapper dogfish sockeye salmon pink salmon hump s a l m o n black bass -  t h e y a l l go d e e p o u t i n the sea you c a t c h them i n n e t s i n the seiners  Although commercial from  a  habitats  several  fish,  Jimmy  general for  catching  knowledge  commercial seashore on  fish  of  f i s h ,  Jimmy  was  feeding  the had  only  a  types  of  the  only  behavior  the  feeding  following l i t t l e  large  student  viewpoint:  and  describe In  l i s t e d  the  Jimmy the  to  animals.  barnacles,  was  u t i l i t a r i a n  Additionally, his  boys  who  edible fishing student and  proportion grouped or  animals  non-edible,  methods. who  habitats  behavior  and  generalized of  offshore  habitats  l i t e r a l  interview  or  information  no  of  of  focusing about  153 barnacles,  but  barnacles  notice  what  happens  when  Jimmy  is  asked  eat:  R. J. R. J. R. J.  Is Jus Is No. Do No.  R. J.  So, i t ' s on? Yep.  R. J. R.  Does Yes. Does  J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  Just that sticky t h i n g on the bottom. Any i d e a what a b a r n a c l e eats? No. Do y o u t h i n k i t does eat? Yep. Those l i t t l e things that float i n A n y i d e a how i t w o u l d eat? The top o f i t .  R. J.  When Just  R. J. R.  Why w o u l d i t eat just before low tide? T h a t ' s when a l l the food, a l l the b u g s come d o w n . T h a t ' s when a l l the fish eat. Is t h a t what you're thinking? Is t h a t why y o u t h i n k t h e barnacles eat before low tide? Ya.  J.  In  there anything inside it? t that hard white stuff that helps there anything else inside it? you  think  the  just  a  barnacle shell  Jimmy's  it  is  changes,  as  upwellings  helpful  an  focusing  an  incorrect  conclusion  of  the  feeding  linkages and  on  behavior  behavior  know  render  interview  feeding  high  of  between  tide  when of  or  many  planktonic  he  rocks.  that  helps  i t  stick  on  at  the  rock?  the  water.  low  tide?  fish  (pause) just  about  feed  animals  barnacles  when  the  vulnerable.  Jimmy  again  generalized  using  his  commercial  sculpins.  Jimmy's  conservation  to  sculpins,  offshore  tidepool  stick  assumption  that  tidepool  i t  animal?  something  incorrect  to  an  pollution  and  would i t eat, at before low tide.  interpreting  notice  is  the shell actually move a r o u n d Sometimes it does. any p a r t of the shell move?  feeding,  the  and  beliefs his  It  fish is  about  dislike  to  for  wouldn't  be  a  fisheries  o f f i c e r .  Some  people  In  knowledge describe  interesting the  tide  reached  to  concepts fisheries  o f f i c e r s : I  what  shoot  154 guns over their heads to s c a r e them away. Everybody hates them. They're pigs. You s p e n d a l l day catching f i s h and they o r d e r y o u t o dump t h e m overboard.  Clearly, which  Jimmy  were  beliefs his  At  given  knowledge  having  to  succeed  of  the  f i s h :  a  l i f e  i n  a  feeding each  likely  know  how  particular  example, the  right,  direction  the  information relation words,  a  to  be  the  feeding  the  importance  of  the  t i d a l  fish  hence  the  are  the  much  behavior of  cycle  of  the on  commercial  when  you  the  The react w i l l  It  of  seashore  with  a  at  and  turn  equally that  it  the  source  is l i f e of  and  l i k e l y the  his  a  be  be  numbers must  a  net;  wide  turn  boat  i n  the  to  have  harvested  necessary  cycle  of  a  energy,  or  the  animals.  to  by  required.  not  order  particular  important  can  is  different  fisherman  make  a  information  surrounded  must  expense  plants  sea,  seems  In  of  are  generally  is  fisherman,  have  adults  when  fish  and  must  commercial  fisherman  as  many  having  quite  d i s t r i b u t i o n  movements  barnacles, sun  But  fishing.  moving.  successful  fishing.  of  salmon  effort  orientation  is  w i l l  number  and  consistent  relationships  present.  of  how a  be  relationships  ideas,  were  s c i e n t i f i c  geographic  their  school  fish  on  to  to  which  fisherman,  habits,  stream,  are  to  and  science  experience  knowledge  commercial  that  for  of  ecological  history  their  present  of  seashore  orientation. low  wealth  general  as  relationships  Jimmy's  his  about  accepted  u t i l i t a r i a n  f i r s t ,  surprising  beliefs  with  seashore  particular  general  many  consistent  about  own  from  had  In to  i n  other know  starfish, effects  1 55 Marv In between about  her  case  social her  Although  Mary  had  at  she  had  for  very  the  same  place  they  a l l  seem  grow own  on  a  way,  farm."  not In  about  R. M. R. M. R. M. R. M. R.  an  to  along.  "I  getting  seashore  responses  where  grow  my  different  up  l i v e . .  attempt  It's  there.  would into  .  be  to  share  .  .  it  is  grounded  about  the  and  the  for  Mary's  of  for  of  food, the  a l l  share  food.  They  seashore  like  and  on  a  that their  f r e e . "  specific to  is  plants  freely  helpful  food  example,  same  go  good  to  nature  They  "The  They  i n  relationships.  death  grow,  Being  understand  about  contributed  family.  just  that  have  Take  salmon.  fights.  relationships, questions  a  appear  competition  a  beliefs  was  peaceful." They  her  which  ideas  is  They  relationship  would  of  etc.  seashore  a  and  seashore  concept  survival,  "The  Things  a  of  relationships,  responses:  farm.  may  range  least  space,  get  a  be  It  orientation,  of  to  orientation  experience,  metaphor  to  appears  relationships.  of  predator-prey  competition  aesthetic  awareness  requirements,  there  aesthetic  aspects  l i m i t i n g  Mary  seashore  particular  death,  of  preferred  s p e c i f i c  Mary's the  the  beliefs  consider  her  barnacles:  Do y o u h a v e a n y i d e a w h a t F l i e s . I d o n ' t know. No water. Would i t eat at high tide At low tide. O . K . At low t i d e the tide might eat at low tide? Yes. It c o u l d eat at high  a barnacle might eat? idea. It could drink or  at  goes tide  eats. Do y o u h a v e a n y i d e a o f w h a t barnacle? No. When t h e tide i s out and the rock, what must the barnacle  low  tide?  out,  so  too.  might  the  try  you  think  Depends to  eat  on  it what  it  a  barnacles are s i t t i n g protect i t s e l f from?  on  a  1 56  M. R. M.  A g a i n s t humans, animals l i k e Would i t be v e r y e a s y to eat No.  dogs it?  R.  When t h e tide i s i n and i t ' s would anything try to get it No.  covered then?  M.  Obviously, From i t  six  Mary l i t e r a l  became  concepts  l i t t l e  interviews  clear  that  or  of  clearly,  I  or  had  the  Mary  expressed  an  awareness  but In  did the  not  i d e n t i f y  l i t e r a l  animals,  Mary  any  interviews  and  gave  the  i d e n t i f i e d  incorrectly  seashore  animals,  them.  To  see  predator-prey. two  responses  concept  on  six  only  identified  of  desiccation,  predator-prey  focusing  barnacles.  understanding  among of  seawater,  about  cycle,  only of  s p e c i f i c  correctly  relationships,  limited  concept  interviews,  with  common  t i d a l  metaphor  i m p l i c i t  a  on  relationships on  cats.  information  habitat,  the focus  no  focusing  Mary  predator-prey,  protection, more  had  and  the and this  In  the  which  predator-prey, relationships.  common six  twelve  seashore  predator-prey predator-prey  relationships:  Table Marv's  6 L i s t  of  Predator-prev  Correct Predator-orev Relationships eels < fish< birds< people people people  <---—--< <  bullheads seaweed clams crabs clams sea u r c h i n s  Relationships Incorrect Predator-prey Relationships barnacles< b a r n a c l es < dogs < cats <bullheads < crabs < dogs < clams < clams < dogs < cats < whales  <  f l i e s water barnacles barnacles f l i e s water crabs sand water sea urchins sea urchins crabs  157 Surprisingly,  Mary  constructed  common  household  pets  ( f l i e s  and  and  so  that  bugs),  "cats  eat  f l i e s , "  "clams  eat  correct  predator-prey  two  involved  case,  the  seashore  from  "dogs  and  groups  of  would  "whales  relationships.  In  a  pets  Mary's  birth,  and  be  view and  of  social  conservation  seashore:  "The  Considering  may  i t  is  which  aesthetic  not  Her  decorates  experiences were  more  orientation,  with  an  where  aesthetic  surprising  on  I  many  she  six  involved  people  and  f i s h ) .  not  on  consistent  rather  to  than  of  predator-prey  a  aesthetic l i v e .  such  young  concepts  have ideas  g i r l ' s  of  looks  was  as  pollution  view  It  and  of  that  concepts  would  this  construct  unlike  with  the  In  existence  a b i l i t y  beliefs  eat  the  orientation that  water),  Of  construct  stress  pests  "barnacles  the  stress  and  from  crabs."  and  associated  associated  Mary's  instructional  seashore  be  seashore  that  preferred, her  experience.  may  (sand  of her  to  Additionally, family  (birds  manner  relationships. growth,  eat  three  limited  household  crabs,"  awareness  have  substituted  common  eat  animals  low  relationships  material  relationships,  respondent's  Mary  cats),  non-living  sand,"  broad  predator-prey  and  barnacles,"  organisms  Jimmy,  (dogs  predator-prey  the  n i c e . "  the  most  brought about  to the  with  her  particular  with  a  s c i e n t i f i c  orientation.  Anna In  the  case  relationship  between  orientations,  and  of her her  Anna,  there  were  some  data  preferred  recreational  specific  beliefs  to and  about  suggest  a  aesthetic seashore  158 relationships.  It  recreational  and  and  having  aesthetic  drama,  limited  may  More  of  w i l l i n g  to  l i t e r a l  In  make  Anna  which  fact,  wild  interviews,  she  relationships.  urchins eat  predator-prey eat  and  What  and was  This  extraordinary, l i t e r a l  eat  that  of I  was  a  i n  and  music,  part,  numerous  other both  her  dance,  to  a  and  urchins her  some  beliefs with  very  the  she  was  metaphor  and  only  from  to  Mary,  common  s t a r f i s h , " marine  nine Anna  household  "cats  animals  eat  sea  ("whales  s t a r f i s h " . ) .  willingness  to  venture  wild  was  so  associations  additional  seven  i d e n t i f i e d  similar  and  about  accepted  student,  indentified  fashion  imaginary  include  least  incorrectly  unlikely  sea  cultural  seashore,  stressed  any  From  crabs  from  s t r i k i n g use  than  and In  particular  and  inconsistent  relationships  and  "sharks  at  were  urchins,  crabs")  s t a r f i s h "  guesses.  sea  the  correctly  predator-prey  ("dogs  social  expressed  guesses.  relationships  pets  at  Anna's  relationships.  more  predator-prey  constructed  fun  seashore  relationships ideas.  stressed  contributed,  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  science  that  orientation--which  have  understanding  seashore  appear  orientation--which  relationships particular  would  excerpts  from  the  interviews:  Sea  Drchins  R. A.  What d o e s a sea urchin look like? Well, i t ' s l i k e a porcupine, only except it tucks its head underneath i t s e l f . You s a i d i t has a head. Where i s it? I'm sure i t h a s a h e a d some w h e r e . . . It's very shy. I know i t has a h e a d . I've seen i t , but i t tucks its head underneath i t s e l f . What m i g h t e a t a sea urchin?  R. A.  R.  159 A.  I don't come t o  think shoot  nothing. i t .  It's  too  dangerous.  Unless  men  Clams R.  A.  R. A.  R. A. R. A.  You have a p i c t u r e of a clam at high tide and at low tide. Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t about what the clam is doing at high tide and at low t i d e , or are they the same? At high tide the clam comes out of the sand and goes into the water to get its food, and t h e n at low t i d e it stays underneath the sand. How d o e s a clam move? I t h i n k maybe i t just opens and c l o s e s its shell for legs. It squiggles like this (moves p e n c i l back and forth on table). Can a clam p r o t e c t i t s e l f i n any way? Yes. How c a n i t do that? If a c l a m i s open and s o m e t h i n g comes after i t , the clam can j u s t shut its shell tight and i t w i l l g i v e an a n i m a l pain.  Starfish A.  At low for foo for foo think i  R. A. R. A. R. A. R. A.  What d o e s a starfish eat? L i t t l e shrimps. Anything else? I don't know. What m i g h t e a t a starfish? Sharks or whales. How d o e s a starfish move? On i t s five legs. It just goes goes under the sand. It moves  What  was  responded  tide i t s t a y s on a r o c k . Then when i t ' s looking d, i t moves on the bottom of the ocean looking d. Then i t goes back to i t s rock at low t i d e . I t eats at high tide too. I'm not sure.  fascinating to  my  queries  relationships. think  about  didn't may  be  which of  know  She  as  gave  the  answers.  stressed and  the  her  really  knew  Anna's  where  sand. legs. she  a l l  admitted  particular  order  that  responses,  seldom  fact,  arts  the  was  rapid  and In  creative  changing  she  very  questions,  with  Anna,  i f  the  associated  words,  about  t h r o u g h the on i t s five  constantly  about never that  aesthetic  events,  seashore paused  she  willingness  spontaniety, of  It  to  simply  to  guess  orientation substitution  movements,  and  160 scenes to  are  important.  "invent"  imaginative  Anna's  orientation  responses  to  my  may  have  allowed  her  questions.  Luke There s p i r i t u a l  was  a  strong  orientation,  traditional specific  native  beliefs  which  Indian about  responses  expressed  resembled  accepted  underlying  relationship  of  seashore and  science  concepts  stressed  people  ideas  between  Luke's  the  beliefs  Salmon  Cove,  relationship.  b e l i e f s  ideas.  involved  about  To  i n  the  Luke's  of  Luke's  seashore  this,  of  of  and  Many  the  see  some  preferred  look  Luke's  which at  the  metaphor  responses: The seashore is a legend. There i s a legend this man who b e c a m e w i l d a n d he w e n t down t o the e v e r y d a y a n d he a t e mussels, clams, and abalone. I would goes out higher on Beneath  the  be a high too f a r . I the beach. metaphor  concepts  t i d a l  metaphor  of  species,  t i d a l  concepts  of  obvious,  the  metaphor  of  cycle  the  the  and  "High cycle,  the  tide. would  and  is  more  the  attempting above  to  metaphor  metaphor  the  of  .  the  the  response,  .  the  concepts  Although  the  Beneath  the  the  of  underlying comparatively  concepts  of  other  example:  Raven  played  beliefs  that  it  helpful  is  are  diversity  are  underlying for  Woods"  species.  responses  d i f f i c u l t ,  understand  of  habitat.  I would be a raven. c o u s i n s and brothers. In  are  summer, the water I would put food  Man i n  diversity  interpretation  responses  "Wild  Tide"  above  If i t ' s be k i n d .  about beach  tricks  are  on  its  associated to  know  that  with the  16 1 Raven  is  commonly  scoundrel  who  punished.  In  Raven,"  steals the  the One  day  eating  her  clams  as  picked she  her  an  i m p l i c i t  by  not  repeatedly  responses, concepts  I  pollution Although  a and  too a  some  science  ideas,  other  "The  wolves  Although had  looked  Luke  had  different  origin, were  d i f f e r e n t .  and  ideas its  Gwa'wina  whales. whales." different  Only Such  Take,  least about  and  metaphor about  tide a  these  s p i r i t u a l  the  take I  the  would  such  conservation  and  other  concepts  metaphor about  the  expressed  resembled  anyone  to  can  cycle, t i d a l  which  response:  was  born."  he  clearly  cycle,  response: catch  catch  indicate as  accepted  beliefs  metaphor  metaphor  clearly  food Luke  the  soar  stories  common  beliefs  t i d a l  thunderbirds  responses  a  is  responses  the  of  It  stories.  before  nature  hard  that  expressed  of  as  s p i r i t u a l  which  long  concept  Or,  raven),  ravens  Luke's  example,  Raven  cooked,  it  Considering  responses  for  the  effects.  (the  ideas  several  and  just  such  secure  in  between  found  with  that  and  relationships  after at  people  the  s p i r i t u a l  her  "Gwa-gwa-gwa."  about  Luke's  stealing  had  Raven  concern  of  seashore  beat  food.  conservation  and  and  much  connection  "Crow  home  protect  seashore  as  returned  screaming  to  about  quite  away  be  Cove  she  greedy  must  by  seal  a  and  Crow  and  effort  beliefs  were  stick  animals  as  Lady  baby  native  the  infer  the  legends  Salmon on  among  taking  of  of  flew  expressed  preservation  i n  Crow  digging  Raven  other  tricks  part  recognized  portray supply  up  coastal  known  Lady  and  in from  played  when  could.  commonly  food  story  Raven  food.  she  portrayed  its  "If  I  the  k i l l e r  the  k i l l e r  that  Luke  locomotion  had and  162 predator-prey. would  have  chain,  had  food  arises  hierarchical  which  different  l i f e ,  and  metaphor  quite  ideas  human and  connected the  form  major  sure  of  as  works to  only  "ravens  Hence,  concepts  family,  food  notion  l i f e  whales."  he  d i s t i n c t i o n  which  system,  i t .  objects  so  that  human  also  Quite wild  Luke  relationships.  with  animals  effort  nature.  A l l  separated  clearly  Luke the  of on  the  a  most and  also  had  origin  i n  have  can  fishing nature  two  talk,  give  -  to  of  are  but  raven,  boat;  and  the  the  people  advice,  beliefs  about  are high  plants,  "become" animal,  and  fellow  nature,  the  one  Luke's  protect  animals  clearly  forms  stories,  from  "becomes"  the  events  s p i r i t u a l  i m p l i c i t  not  and  animals  human.  the and  other aid  i n  problems. Luke  which had  had  are many  unlike  guesses.  predator-prey  an  are  and  supernatural  he  traditional  Thunderbird,  relationships  make  Luke's  connection  Although  ideas.  am  concepts  from. L u k e ' s ,  In  the  such  I  s c i e n t i f i c  simplest  portray  humans  with  animals,  ideas,  the  k i l l e r  point,  Another  the  about  with  responses  creatures,  solving  the  the  about  pyramid.  different  from  catch  ideas  that  man.  keeping  the  -  food  pursued  evolution.  In  human  had  fact  is  can  I  and  is  very  The  different  system,  thunderbirds  tide,  many  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  secure  i f  web,  from  complex,  And  quite  different  beliefs Mary  For  consistent  and  Anna,  example,  relationships In  many  addition,  and he  he  from  accepted  science  with  accepted  science  was  far  he  i d e n t i f i e d  no  incorrect  was  seashore  aware  of  less  l i k e l y  twelve  to  correct  predator-prey some  of  the  more  163  subtle  aspects  microscopic  of  seashore  plankton  that  most  seashore  under  rocks  at  In  low  sum,  interact  from a l l  The  so  l i f e  at  the  when  a  student  health gap; a l l  hence share  most  of  or  each her  is  also  aspects  same  "feed food.  time"  or  men  student's  particular  or  beliefs set  of  are  that  or  an  experience  just  before  They  a l l  to is  low  get eats  shoot  orientations  a  to  at the  i n  easiest  Mary,  data  to  and  to  tide"  or  "the  sea  It's  urchin.  So, least  the i n  his to  Anna  that  information,  used  .  to  describe  suggest  are  .  hide  different  recreational,  along.  i t . "  related,  the  discrepant or  and  seashore  beliefs  The  and  appeared  c u l t u r a l l y  alternate  new  clams,  grounded  Jimmy,  knew  shorebirds.  are  aesthetic,  of  other  perhaps  he  tide  beliefs  accident.  "nothing come  and  high  specific  fact  with  at  and  about  is  of  no  presented  barnacles  the  The  example,  orientations  beliefs  proportion  safety  the  his  society.  is  dangerous—unless of  of  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  and  Luke's  orientation  seashore  various  seagulls  students'  that  For  barnacles  food  beliefs  many  large  of  gather  the  fact  dominant a  food  avoid  their  because the  to of  s p i r i t u a l  used  the  tide a l l  relationships.  accept  the  animals  with  particular  is  relationships.  f i l l  or the  animals peaceful It's  too  organization part,  seashore.  to  his  164 Internal  In between  general,  the  they  existence  of  and  drawing of who  the  good  who  painting  finer  details Indian  to  stress  tended  awareness  to of  plants who  music,  stress  and  (Anna  and  students,  aspects  of  beliefs  about  student  with  stressed  the  among  an  drama  had  (Anna)  jewelry  a  with  a  swimming,  student  (Luke)  had  the  student  and  the had  students  exploring  greater  stress  awareness  the  (Mary)  Similarly,  stressed  data their  experience seashore a  and  to  greatest  animals,  Sharon,  who  student a  poor  with  a  and  finding  of  seashore  awareness  recreational  suntanning,  a  orientation s a i l i n g ,  and  coherence  for  Mary).  Similarly, most  tended  legends  students  picnicking,  Dan,  and  phenomena.  than  used  painting, and  the  students  (Mary,  the  of  and  animals,  and  who  had  an  events  and  plants  music  several  who  of  awareness  objects,  students  coherence  aspects  plants  dance,  Sharon),  animals  stressed  surfing  seashore  their  that  Sharon)  carving,  orientation  (Dan and  and  Beliefs  internal  seashore  the  seashore  seashore  recreational animals  of  the  these,  of  and  r e c a l l  and  particular  animals,  to  (Dan  an  the  stress,  plants,  Of  and  awareness  tended  to  orientation  stressed  suggest  i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  Anna).  Orientations  orientations,  chose  For  aesthetic  Luke,  data  seashore  conditions.  Across  the  students'  experience  an  Coherences  and  various  they  an  chose  to  s c i e n t i f i c  looking  up  internal  orientations,  relationships  preferred  observing  suggest  stress,  they  and  particular  the  specific  to  stress.  The  orientation  (Dan),  who  stressed  the  answers  chose  the  in  books,  165 greatest  range  ideas.  The  (Jimmy),  the  at  the  r e l a t i o n  to  aspects  of  orientation  seashore protection,  students  a  Luke,  Anna),  pollution student never  strong also  on  the  with  mentioned  aesthetics  eating  the  seafoods  and  an  and  the  aesthetic  (Sharon,  nourishing  crabbing  and  making  money,  never  or  conservation  of  edible  plants  and  animals.  (Luke),  who  stressed  and  the  very  s p i r i t u a l  t r a d i t i o n a l  different  evolution  orientation  or  Native  ideas creation:  about  r e l i g i o n  almost  a l l  birth,  l i f e  with  a  u t i l i t a r i a n  seafoods,  Indian  concepts cycle,  commercial  mentioned  of  strong  seashore  and  eating  a  the  edible  fishing  stressed  student  on  stressed  (Jimmy),  a  the  on  (Jimmy),  also  body,  pollution  the  stressed  orientation  who  extreme,  contrast,  of  who  On  with  other  of  the  the  Sharon,  effects  with  Anna),  death,  Dan,  pollution  students  Luke,  for  (Mary,  By  of  birth,  lacking:  the  and  harsher  orientation  effects  The  effects  and  with  peace  the  Except  seashore.  the  student  but  organisms.  the  the  or  seafoods  etc.  also and  concepts  orientation  the  seashore.  orientation  conservation  of  the  completely  pollution of  conservation  of  u t i l i t a r i a n  aesthetic  crabbing,  stressed  habitat,  almost  stressed  absence  stress  survival,  aesthetics  an  to  orientation  The  who  science  habitat,  organisms.  and  were  predator-prey, with  and and  (Mary),  tended  relationships,  the  fishing  edible  accepted  u t i l i t a r i a n  predator-prey  seashore,  family  with  preferred  commercial  aesthetic  growth,  a  concepts  in  preferred  consistent  with  stressed  s p e c i f i c a l l y  quiet  concepts  student  who  stressed  a  of  pollution  The  student  C h r i s t i a n i t y  Salmon  Cove,  associated  death,  food  had with  chain,  166 tidal  cycle,  etc.  So interact and  i t  with  values  orientations everyday pools, the  another,  about  the  that  sun,  and  how  be  "structured  Perhaps  a  students*  most  Lakoff  domains  experiences  and  (Lakoff  of and  a  think  understand the  within  organization thing  experience," Johnson,  students'  i n  be  defining  experience  examples,  I  at  and  experience". is  that  understood i n  l i f e  experiences  suggest  not  tidal  experience  their  data  and  b e l i e f s  barnacles,  their  must  of  students'  of  the  b e l i e f s  and  b e l i e f s  the  role  about  and  set  such,  central  they  wholes"  and  coherent  As  Johnson,  important  orientations  "entire  how they  "coherent  the  play  orientations a  seashore.  i s ,  To  students' creating  b e l i e f s  r e a l i t y ,  represent  the  one  and  and  that  seashore.  would  of  seems  terms  i n  of  the terms  isolated  1980).  Summary  On following the  basis  of  conclusions  students'  beliefs 1.  the  about For  set  most  types  of  student  with  b e l i e f s The  a  complex  relationships there  orientations about  ideas.  the  orientations  students,  beliefs  have  about  of  seashore  these  and prior  was  held  a  am  suggesting  relationships their to  set  their  set  preferred  s c i e n t i f i c  orientation  consistent  with  with  preferred  student  a  For  of  relationships.  were  s p e c i f i c  between  seashore  which  between  i n s t r u c t i o n :  relationship  and  of  the  the  specific  example, tended  accepted  the to  science  s p i r i t u a l  167  orientation with In  a  tended  s p i r i t u a l  some  stress,  particular they  concepts  to  aesthetic  beliefs  about  and  so  For  of  the  specific  the  students  chose  phenomena,  and  the  tended and The  aspects  to the  relationships student to  with  stress  not of  predator-prey,  with  to  a the  s p e c i f i c a l l y student  tended  harsher  consistent  between  seashore  habitat,  orientation  the  in a  stress seashore  competition,  on. students,  between beliefs  the  example,  organisms.  death,  survival,  relationship  specific  and  were  on.  orientation  edible  relationships:  so  seashore  For  predator-prey  preferred  a  of  stress.  u t i l i t a r i a n  and  which  experience  about  to  coherence  an  awareness  relation  a l l  beliefs  was  of  beliefs  chose  preferred  there  aspects  their  have  orientation,  cases,  particular  to  their  about  there various  seashore  was  a  general  orientations  relationships.  internal and  their  168  5  Chapter THE  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE BELIEFS,  If harmony  a  student have  his  those  if  conflict  and  those  their  her  This  relationships:  into  instructional present  specific  instruction  was  students'  from  a  variety  use  instructional  versions  beliefs,  and  then  values  o f the  and  of a  students  may  concepts  analyzes  orientations  basic  and  the  beliefs,  to i n c r e a s e  ecological  cycle,  concepts  interdependence,  community,  with  concepts.  i n s t r u c t i o n was  these A  of d i f f e r e n t  by  to  using  orientations  to  second  purpose  of  ability  to view  the  orientations  through  the  students'  metaphors  of  desiccation,  preferred orientations  the  the  habitat,  strategy of  consistent  enhance  seashore of  the  science to  beliefs  o f i n s t r u c t i o n was  primary  metaphors  being i n  instruction.  chain,  the  as  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d task.  describes  tidal  The  and  c u r r i c u l u m , then  students'  about  food  account  the  the  acceptable  purpose  seashore  etc.  by  the  knowledge  predator-prey,  a fairly  between  during  primary  orientations  be  AND  INSTRUCTION  science concepts  chapter  students'  take  may  learning  between  conservation,  own  exists  experiences  The  interprets  presented  taught.  relationships and  or  EXPERIENCES DURING  concepts  difficulty  being  THEIR  student  with  learning But  a  AND  STUDENTS' ORIENTATIONS  representative  of  different  orientations. The concepts  that  first were  section the  of  this  focus  of  chapter  d e s c r i b e s the  instruction  (that  science i s , the  169 concepts  required  community),  and  for  the  understanding  the  science  a c t i v i t i e s  section  describes  seashore  used  to  as  teach  a  complex  the  science  concepts. The to  second  take  into  instruction. "enter"  questions how  to  the  used  or  specific  to  ways The  each  instruction. the their  science  The  knowledge were  an of  planned  and  attempted  section  begins  metaphors  to  i t  describes  how  which  could  be  with  describes  own  with  by the  metaphors  section  to  their  generated,  used  The  during  teach the  aesthetic,  or  elaborated  i n  concepts.  and  what  and  the  the  relationships  b e l i e f s ,  and  students  relates  the  behavior  said  and  students'  did  between during during  behavior  to  possessing  a  b e l i e f s .  Science  attempt ecological to  they  designed  describes  describes  attempted  increase  students  events.  images  science  a c t i v i t i e s  how  to  This  Finally,  orientations It  and  metaphors  section  order  the  students'  concepts.  teach  orientations  In  the  i n  teacher  concepts.  asked,  s p i r i t u a l  third  student's  thinking  teacher  orientations  the  metaphors  i n s t r u c t i o n a l  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  how  discrepant  used  science  teacher  they  interpret  teacher  specific  of  the  students'  words,  science  types  questions  the  own  s p e c i f i c  the  of  other  students'  of  describing types  In  the  knowledge  account  how  Concepts  to  have  and  A c t i v i t i e s  more  relationships,  encourage  an  students a  understanding  number of  of  a c t i v i t i e s  s p e c i f i c  science  170 concepts  and  instruction to  of was  the  the  concept  interrelated In  l i f e  other  of  words, was  and  do  not  organisms  and  other  I  a c t i v i t i e s  were  To  help  of  different  of  slides  the  force  creatures, have the  a  great  own  explore each  of  and  a  the  animals  at  scavenging natural  different among  events  and  the were  by  a  c o l l e c t i o n  of  with  observed  of for and  as  empty  crab  a  up  series  exposed  to  inlets,  and  bays  To  and  understand  f i r s t  to  Bear  to  explored Island  discover  to that  c o l l e c t i o n  of  animals. of  seashores  seashore molts, and  items  discussed:  made  most  development, edible  of  for  types of  their  habitats  different plants  are  coast  mudflat  diversity  eggs,  rocks  outer  students  different  and  stages  a  with  type  presented  travelled  v i s i t e d  plants  i n  the  coastlines  islands,  the  supports  number  events  inhabitants.  then  the  the  that  concepts.  teacher  on  seashores,  explored  crabs  that  of  and  cycle  interact  about  impossible  number  but  certain  the  protected  beaches,  different  discovered  are  and  beach,  amazing  teach  understand  waves  of  objects  of  conditions.  realize  i s o l a t i o n ,  seashores  seashore  Students  They  that  types  to  and  of led  system  organism-tidal  specific  seashores,  variety  sandy  type  discover  of  i n  more  designed  cobblestone  a  habitats  be  the  focus which  complex  students  non-living  seashores  different  their  with  of  but  helping  a  events,  on  The  relationship,  as  objects,  function  students  showing  f u l l  community  at  generally.  cycle  concentration  w i l l  types  seashore  animals,  aimed  surroundings. that  a  the  relationship  the  organism-tidal  plants,  animals  at  to  birth,  a  to  organisms. variety  of  shore  birds  eat.  Three  growth,  and  171 death. net  The  and  observed  plankton wide  students  with  collected  the  vast  microscopes.  variety  of  marine  hordes  plankton of  tiny  They o b s e r v e d  marine  plankton  and at  their  observed  the  directed  observations  twice-daily  themselves  from  low  tide,  and  the  water  when  organisms  at  organisms  keep  keep  the  tide  barefoot effects types  of of  sand  affects their  various  habitats: and  at  animals  protect  and  sea  or  and  etc.  the  a  The  cooling  students  seashore  the  school.  into  the  animals  seashore the  and  cards  sat  quietly  tide,  walked  the  the  drying  different pools,  tidal  cycle  move about  and  gather  behavior  of  common  i n the  aquarium  recorded into  clams rocks;  in tidal  b a s i s o f numerous  students  picture  the  seashore and  o f the  how  tide  tidepools;  to " f e e l "  effects  at  living  under  incoming  observed  observed  On  of  ways  Students  partner  sun  at high  situation  observed  sounds o f the  with  hot  b a r n a c l e s , mussels,  bladders,  the  students  sorted  Through  slide  The  discussions,  relationships,  out:  to  how  at  tide.  b a t t e r e d to death  students  of  students  out  and  animals  o f a i r , wind,  among seaweeds, under r o c k s ,  i n mud.  food.  microscopes and  sun  the  seashore  the  stages  the  crabs hide  to h e a r  hot  of  of a  larvae, etc.  s h e l l h o u s e ; shore  blindfolded  when  seashore  the  water-filled  the  fall  understand  drying  swim  line  and  being To  tide,  a moisture-filled  have  and  animal  drew s k e t c h e s  seashore,  watched how  from  from  seaweeds  the  drying effects  comes i n .  low  either  in  the  to  rise  they  keep  sculpins  at  trips  plankton  p l a n t and  development: b a r n a c l e l a r v a e , crab l a r v a e , f i s h During  using a  food  and  with  observations predator-prey  chains  and  food  172  webs, and  c o n s t r u c t e d a f o o d web  Students that  beaches  length  are  o f time  students  that  location  on  students  drew  the  of  as Salmon  Cove.  investigated aware  one  another,  the  vast  in  patterns,  or r e s i d e n t i a l  observed,  living  zones  and  with  the  of shore,  of  complex  the  to  vertical the  and  i n a community  hoped  they  and would  interact  that  and  the such  inferred,  atmosphere,  relationships  animals  seashore  animals  plants  and  d i s c u s s e d the  and  seashore  network  and  was  how  pilings  classroom,  it  of  type  on  questioned,  organisms,  The  and  the  z o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s a t the  students  with  plants  the  to a i r .  dock  depending  Back  zonation  commercial  the  of  on  learned  a c c o r d i n g to  or exposed  grids  differed  beaches and  or a r e a s  by water  piling.  between  of  zones  populations  dock  maps  patterns  into  collections  board.  p a t t e r n s on  square-meter  counted the  relationships  As  divided  off  and  discover  color  they are covered  marked  identified  become  observed  bulletin  with  sun i n  constitute  a  community. Last,  the  broken  glass,  rubber  tires.  discussed local natural  tin  biologist  and  and  explored rusty  these  impact  "balance  conservation  cans,  From  the  marine  students  of  and  machine  parts,  upon s e a s h o r e  visited  management  own  beach  to  see  styrofoam,  and  o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , the  humans  harmony"  their  the of  issues.  classroom the  students  communities.  A  to d i s c u s s the  seashore,  and  relate  173 Taking  Into  Account  the  During  This  section  collaborated  i n  and  metaphor  use  of  specific the  an  science  teacher  Students'  Instruction  describes  attempt  to  in  how  "enter"  order  concepts.  At  incorporated  Orientations  the  a  to  the  the  teacher  students'  increase  later  point  students'  own  I  orientations  their I  and  knowledge  w i l l  describe  metaphors  into  of how  class  discussions. But between  f i r s t ,  the  metaphorical students they  I  w i l l  students'  generated  to  orientations  reasoning:  generated,  attempt  that  the  is,  types  metaphors  and  establish  and the  of  the  questions  to  relationship  nature  types  questions  a  of  they  of  their  metaphors asked,  interpret  the  the  way  discrepant  events.  On  During  the  engaged  in  outset,  most  new-found compete  the  simple  play  the  for  weirdest,  long back  the  hairy  u r c h i n , "  that?"  the that "Is  called a  the  forth  or  plant  the  At  the  their  appeared  most  to  dangerous e e l , "  anemone."  labels an  students  gathering They  sea  or  the time.  "electric  sucking for  of of  buckets.  ugliest,  "blood  a l l  periods and  crab,"  this  Metaphors  seashore  overflowing  questions  "What's  Generating  to  raced  into  "ugly sea  of  trip  students  the  answers:  f i r s t  animals  "paralyzing asked  Process  vigorous  for  animal:  the  and  one  animal?"  the They word "Will  174  it  hurt?"  Even  students spent of  clung  most  high  Then,  over,  feed  in  they  the  following  time  crabs  The  the  drop  crawl  discussion  took  with  seashore  and  gradually became  The  most  students a  into  low  the  more  pattern  to  more  into  serious,  describe  the  the a  under  metaphoric day  a  watching  shifted  animals  f i r s t  sedentary  observing  Occasionally,  metaphors  place  observe,  within  to  sideways,  observing  back  and  behavior.  switched  frequent.  began  down  thinking.  students  were  they  animals  at  metaphoric  spontaneous  to  slow  their  a c t i v i t i e s  giggles  When  to  classroom--sitting  mood.  seemed  to  aquarium—they  generate  observing  low the  the  and  animal.  early  watching  r e f l e c t i v e  would  and  i n  turn  smiles  their  as  inquiries  encouraged  tenaciously  of  energy  when  starfish barnacles a  more  although students  plant  or  an  microscopes,  discourse. students  The began  microscopes:  Mary  O h my  Sharon Anna Mary Sharon  Look at the crab. Look at its face. Yuk! That's pretty. (red sponge) O h my G o d ! Come! Look at the eyes. That looks disgusting, (crab) That eel looks gross! D i d you see its face! Take a l o o k ! This l o o k s worse than that! (observing green sea u r c h i n r e f e r r i n g back to crab) That looks l i k e grass. (sea urchin's spines and tube feet) It's gorgeous! (red blood starfish) I d o n ' t want to eat today. Mine l o o k s f u n n y . It's got two l i t t l e feelers sticking out. Look at its eyes! Gross! (hermit crab) I'm a f r a i d to touch i t . You p i c k i t up. (blood starfish) Oh f u c k ! Look at that eel! O h my G o d ! Will it hurt? (eel) Isn't he c u t e . (small six-rayed starfish) This looks funny. It's like a l i t t l e door to a house. (snail operculum)  Sally Sharon Anna Mary Sally Sharon  Anna Sally Mary Sharon Anna  God!  175  By  Sandra  We g o t a momma s e a babies attached to anemone)  Sharon  T h i s b i g sea u r c h i n looks worse than the l i t t l e one. It's got a l l those funny l i t t l e suckers sticking out. What a r e they doing? Oh g r o s s !  Sandra Sally  Look at the Come! Look crab)  Mary  O h my  comparison,  microscopes,  this  Mary Sharon Anna Sharon  Anna Sharon  Anna  Sharon Mary  Dan Mary Dan Sharon Sharon  Dan Sharon Dan Sharon Anna Mary Back of  low  on  anemone. It's got l i t t l e its sides. (brooding sea  f a c e on t h a t r e d nudibranch! at the l i t t l e things moving.  (hairy  God! the  third  discussion  day  took  the  students  worked  with  place:  There's spiral things, (chain diatoms) Hey! Looks l i k e a shrimp. (copepod) Are t h e y worms? (chain diatoms) Those squiggly things look l i k e a U, a w r i t i n g U, or a W. Some a r e green with darker rings on i t . Oh, there's a big one. (chain diatoms) Looks l i k e a f l e a . (copepod) What's those squiggly things? Neat-Oh! What's that t h i n g t h a t l o o k s l i k e a s p r i n g i n a pen? A perfect view. Some a r e green or orange or yellow. (chain diatoms) Looks l i k e a f l e a too. No. Looks l i k e l i c e , with a l i t t l e r e d bump o n i t . Gee, swims funny. Swims s i d e w a y s . That's cool. Looks l i k e a f l e a . (copepod) Ya. It does. And i t looks l i k e he's got whiskers. H a i r y poky t h i n g s . Looks like needles. (copepod) There goes a l i t t l e f i s h . (fish larva) That looks l i k e neat c u r l s . (chain diatoms) L o o k s l i k e a wood b u g . Wooooooow! (copepod) That's a copepod. Looks l i k e grass. (chain diatoms) Eeeeeeeeeeee! You can see its insides too. Isn't this funny? T h i s o n e .has a g r e a t b i g dot for an eye. It's a copepod. It's funny. It has one r e d e y e . It's eye looks like a ruby. That looks neat. T h e y ' r e both together. Wow m a n ! Neat-oh! They're mating! How gross! Hey, i t ' s gone!  and  metaphor i cal  forth  the  discourse  students (lesser  went, use  of  alternating  periods  metaphoric  images)  176 with  periods  of  high  metaphorical  images),  r e f l e c t i o n .  But  reasoning long  to  questioning,  students others  and  highly  became of  metaphorical students  using  were  generated of  thinking. the were  and By  at  available),  I  From  questions  fewer  own that  of  It  were  a  s i t t i n g  was time  to  to  time  as  the  as  the  more  and  or  as  periods  appear  for  the  of  high  that  the  names  and  six  record I  Thinking  of  styles  three  (only  able  Then,  perhaps  mixed  interpret  animals,  would  patterns  or  rhetorical  to  fewer  Metaphorical  two  patterns,  unfamiliar.  individual  only  and  metaphors  students' for  of  Some  others  reasoning.  or  reasoning.  emerge.  a l l ,  for  comparing,  asked  at  serious  worked  thinking  attempts  diminished,  Styles  allowing  their  to  frequently  occurred.  the  in  observations  answered,  looked  microscopes  observations.  with  others  began  of  metaphorical  observing,  patterns  any  for  than  use  more  metaphorical  metaphorical  animals  i d e n t i f y  using  frequent  their  Individual  observed  i f  with  discourse  characteristics  To  few  experience  questions  own,  students  satiated  the  their  and  easier more  metaphorical  asked  (greater  movements,  students  solving  Some  events  discourse  got  thinking  questions  discrepant  i t  on  problem  some  frequent  more  time  not.  questions,  novelty  Some  individual  were  body  gradually,  of  were  students  fewer  occur.  periods  Gradually,  metaphorical  metaphor of  target  dissecting  questioned  I  metaphorical  students  their  use,  to  use  microscopes  word-for-word a  student  to  177 ensure  that  following  I  understood  data  were  his  condensed  or  her  from  meaning  for  field  study  my  a  metaphor.  The  notes.  Dan When  the  microscopes,  students  I  was  proportionately During  these  f i r s t  because  knowledge  of  became  marine  but  observations, about  clear  that to  discrepant (chain  l i f e .  But  Dan  than  observations, simply  observing  that  metaphors  he  abundantly  metaphors,  surprised  fewer  metaphors  began  had  most Dan a  later,  that  plankton  appeared of  may  the  as  Dan was  the not  he  was  using  phrase  his  questions,  other  have  greater  generate students.  generated  fewer  f a m i l i a r i t y  unit only  metaphors and  to  with •  to  progressed, generating to  describe  make  and it more his  inferences  events:  diatoms)  Looks off a  like tree.  a  log,  a  l i t t l e  tree.  Looks  like  branches  (barnac I can those plankto c i r c l e s  le molt) see a molt of a b a r n a c l e . It's cool. It's got legs on i t . Is that what t h e y use to catch n? A l l those l i t t l e bugs going around in . Looks l i k e l i t t l e baby sand fleas.  (copepod w i t h egg sac) This one's got eyes too. It's orange and c l e a r . Sort of looks • like a t a i l . It's got feelers on t o p . Must be its antennae. It's orange i n the m i d d l e of the body. Looks like a wood b u g — i t s shape and two b i g feelers. How c o m e i t o n l y has one e y e ? What a r e those bags? Maybe f o r c a r r y i n g e g g s . If those are eggs, it would have t o be an a d u l t . Is that a l l the bigger it gets? Do they get big? Some p l a n k t o n m u s t be as big as it w i l l get. Some p l a n k t o n m u s t be j u s t babies, baby barnacles and baby h e r m i t c r a b s . W h e r e do they go w h e n t h e y g e t big?  Recall  from  the  pre-instructional  interviews  focusing  on  178 barnacles,  that  through  several  of  ocean  the  observations sacs  a  Dan its  that  the  larvae  and  shallow  or  plankton"  water  plankton  are  l i v e s ,  from  hordes  of  worms,  permanent, egg  Also,  generated  (operculum  on  that  a  by  is,  is  are  kind  sea  remain  interesting his  More  than  made  observations  questions,  the  prefer  other  egg  adult.  d i s t i n c t i o n This  of  is and  shoreline  urchins,  snails,  Other  animal  a l l  amphipods,  notice  the  its foot? It's like a It's a door. The s n a i l a door. Holy smokers! i n and o u t , like a door  their and types  like  plate uses It's to a  l i t t l e  (barnacle c i r r i ) It looks like l i t t l e feelers. The b a r n a c l e uses feelers to collect plankton. It's like a rake. raking i n plankton. to  with  experiences:  (sea urchin's tube feet) Those black things with f l a t t i s h ends l o o k snorkles. Oh! T h i s i s what makes i t move!  appeared  the  snail)  What's t h a t hard t h i n g on on the t i p of i t s foot. that l i t t l e plate like like a door that goes house.  Dan  In  an  plankton  to  go  bottom  temporary,  others.  they  during  was the  adulthood—copepods,  it  Dan  many  it  every  starfish,  the  plankton."  plankton  almost  and  throughout  others.  metaphors  of  to  copepod  was  "permanent  animal--crabs,  barnacles,  i f  solved  animals  adults.  planktonic  and  animal  stages  as  questioned  and  Some  a  seashore  s e t t l i n g  lives  observed and  most  before  their  i d e n t i f i e d  young  that  stages  body  Dan  knew  out  d i s t i n c t i o n .  are  of  to  "temporary  complex  clams,  l i v e  above,  problem  between  already  planktonic to  attached  The  Dan  simple  students which  inferences,  mechanical  (with  the  permitted predictions,  or  household  exception  him and  to  its It's  of  Sharon),  generate  make  new  images. Dan  metaphors, discoveries  179 about  the  animals  generated  came  consistent  being  out  with  of  his  investigated. his  own  own  Thus,  experiences,  s c i e n t i f i c  the and  metaphors were  Dan  generally  orientation  towards  the  was  relationship  seashore.  Mary In between  the  her  metaphorical shore  crab  case  of  Mary,  there  particular  aesthetic  thinking.  The  were  typical  of  strong  orientation  following  Mary's  a  and  her  observations  of  style a  of  purple  thinking:  That looks l i k e a potato. It's oval shaped. It's got bumps on i t s s h e l l . The c l a w s are really big. It's crab It's  got joints even. had j o i n t s . got a whole bunch of  Isn't  that  different  cool.  I  fewer  to  Dan,  Luke,  metaphors  interesting during A  to  her  and  Some hat.  asked  notice  the  anemone  reminds  seaweed  looks  Oooooooohh! That under a microscope)  It  Sharon,  Mary  fewer type  where i t s mouth are moving are  generated  proportionately  questions.  of  a  metaphor  Also,  generated  it by  is Mary  experiences:  sea  That  or  know  colors.  Hey! Its mouth . . . those l i t t l e legs are is supposed to be. Those things that looking for something to eat (mandibles). It's such a gas! Compared  didn't  red has  under That's  a  and  green  one  eye.  me  of  like  eye  with  lots  feathers,  like  anemone  Its  dress  long  looks  sea  a  neat  looks  looks  like  curls.  like  like  a  of  a  feathers  (chain  red  red  r u f f l e s . a  diatoms  velvet  ruby.  on  hat.  (copepod  microscope) pretty.  That  red  nudibranch  looks  like  a  l i t t l e  red  1 80 pillow. Mary  clearly  "home"  or  provide they  preferred  "family"  a  Mary's  consistent  nonetheless,  own  metaphors  experiences, aesthetic  metaphors.  single  were,  "jewelry"  and  came  to  image  out  such  or  "hair"  metaphors  looking  at  and  did  together.  of  her  f i t  own  the  did  for  generally the  " c l o t h i n g "  Though  coherent  were  orientation  or  social  consistent  and  with  or not  seashore, Thus, cultural her  own  seashore.  Luke Compared  with  proportionately the  widest  far  range  microscopic  a l l more  of  the  other  metaphors  and,  metaphors.  The  were  typical  plankton  students, i n  Luke  generated  addition,  generated  following of  observations  Luke's  metaphorical  thought: (diatoms) It's  a  l i t t l e  (barnacle What a r e Those l i Look l i k Moss on (am p h i p o Hey!  forest,  larvae)  those fuzzy seaweed-like things? t t l e bugs l o o k l i k e mosquitoes. e sand too. Lots of footprints. trees. d)  One  (barnacle  of  those  l i t t l e  bugs  looks  like  a  with  jellybean,  molt)  What's that! A feather fan. Looks l i k e a cocoon to c a t e r p i l l a r . It's a l l woven u p . I wonder what i t is? Hey? S o m e t h i n g down h e r e l o o k s l i k e a butterfly. It has wings spread out. Ooooooooooh. That f e a t h e r - f a n looks like those feet. It looks like that feather-fan of a barnacle. It looks like a barnacle. How d i d i t get here? I w o n d e r how i t got here. Maybe i t ' s seaweed.  a  181  It  is  interesting  "feather-fan," a l l  were  a  here?"  the and  Clearly,  comparisons speculate patterns  and about  of An  microscopic into  and  that  barnacle,"  a  a  a  Luke  asked  Luke  was  he  set  metaphorical of  the  a  He  the  "I  f i n a l l y ,  plankton  (a  type  how  of  it  gracious  the  got  gathering shape  unable  to  from  to form  further  This of  Luke's  time,  insights Luke  permanent  was  animal  plankton): Goodness,  and  seaweed."  gives  patterns.  a  "feather-fan"  wonder  observations  cumacean  made  metaphorical  i t ' s  molt  "butterfly",  process  But  "Maybe  of  thought  the into  event.  with  barnacle  a  l i k e  question  i n  concluded  investigations  looked  them  discrepant  a  combinations.  "feather-fan" even  called  c a t e r p i l l a r , "  legitimate  additional  picture  that  to  casting  meaning,  Luke's  drawing  notice  "cocoon  viable  connection of  a  to  me!  Looks like a plastic bag. A see-through plastic bag, like saran wrap. It'3 got a l i t t l e t a i l - l i k e thing, like a f l u f f y dog. Hey! There's red dots, blue dots, green dots. Oh! Oh! Oh! It has to s t a r t up i t s motor. A l l its legs are going r e a l , real, fast! He m u s t h a v e a motor. T h e r e he g o e s ! E r r r r r r r r r r ! Oooooooops! It crashed. It's got a f l a t tire. There's a big red thing attached to i t s nose. It m u s t be i t s feeding-bag. Pass the k l e e n e x please. Its t a i l looks more l i k e a bent needle. There's the t h r e a d and t h e r e ' s the eye. I w o n d e r why i t ' s like a needle? T h e r e ' s a b i g C i n the m i d d l e of i t . T h a t m u s t be i t s intestine. It's shaped l i k e a C. It must be breathing. This i s a funny animal. It's a plastic animal. It's like a see-through plastic bag. It's a see-through plastic bag w i t h a b l a c k p e a r l for an eye.  1 82  Goodness! This is a Goodness! In  the  I w o n d e r why i t looks plastic? wierd thing. Pass the k l e e n e x please!  above  associations  of  combination: needle," Some  "has  only  .  .  a  a  the  concepts  (e.g.,  bag,  Luke A  Hey! looks  is  "I  for  could his  or  bent  shaped  like  a  C . "  must  have  emotion,  bag"  like i f  is  the  used  understanding  been  to  notice  used the  It an  of  think  metaphor that  are  follows  that  science  Although  of  a  black  shrimp a  horse  like  a  l i t t l e  a  jumping and  it  bear,  ways.  metaphors  small  looks  behaves  like  like  like  a  generated  a  Looks  like  a  mouse.  horse.  It  horse.  a stem w i t h f l u f f y with petals.  forest.  the  see-through  i n s t r u c t i o n : is  "I  instructional  e t c . ) .  specific  types  to  specific  metaphor i n  stops  a  asks  needle?"  perfect  i n  of  protection,  Luke  a  the  generate  animals  been  have  to  a  one  planktonic  the  Perhaps  Nonetheless,  have  used  "He  t i r e . "  i t ' s  some a  a l l :  f l a t  or  like  environment.  could  That  like  at  simple  "looks  water  and  useful  is  Moreover,  gelatinous a  a  why  plastic  in  "  play.  wonder  A white s e a anemone has looks like a white flower Looks  got  plastic?"  of  eye,"  are  texture,  bag,"  f e e l i n g  heard  urchin  like  a  or  purpose  It's  predator-prey,  it  during sea  .  an  no  time  increase  never  It by  a  metaphor  to  plastic  .  "see-through  setting  teacher  for  have  .  camouflaged  own  plastic  generate  looks  hordes  perfectly Luke's  to or  it  i t ,  for  was  questions:  why  about  to  metaphors  shape,  a  pearl  appear  aside,  important wonder  black  most  or  like  E r r r r r r r r r  purpose  humorous  color,  "looks  metaphors  motor.  observations,  moss.  stuff.  It  1 83 A c l i n g f i s h behaves onto rocks and d o e s n ' t Barnacles  are  like  l i t t l e  A bullhead looks and s m a l l t a i l . That  Luke  driftwood  was  alert  mechanical  metaphors  surrounded  by  a  white  he  seashores,  needles  rock.  It  puffy  metaphors,  because  because  l i t t l e  raindrop.  a  natural  forests,  a  he  and  has  sticks  a  opposed  linked  thread,  head  He  his  to  to  animals. with  big  cloud.  as  was  lived  and  It  mountains.  like  metaphors,  mountains, home  like  looks  to  like move.  space  nature was  plastic  bags,  by  alert  granny  to  and and  or  was black  pearls. And appeared  f i n a l l y ,  to  have  Luke  constantly  l i t t l e  generated  purpose  other  looks  like  than  to  metaphors cast  a  that  humorous  aside: A white shocked.  sea  cucumber  The hairy crab behaves getting into trouble. Hey! Luke  This  clearly  experiencing jokes, a  and  enjoyed the  more  Luke's  may  orientations  towards  devices  sum, for  be  metaphors and  In  This  bizarre  background,  were  the  sticking  capturing  world.  riddles  s l i g h t l y  Thus,  barnacle's  like  is  came  of  the  important,  of  It's  out  at  me.  paradox for  his  aspect own  consistent  got  always  inherent  humorous  constructions  peculiar out  that  of  social with  asides,  focusing a  i n  on  situation. and a  cultural range  of  seashore.  students'  relating  tongue  metaphorical or  worm  child.  its  some  generally  the  a  a  their  own  metaphors  present  were  observations  effective to  their  1 84 previous  experiences  students'  metaphors  physical  aspects  closely  to  metaphors  the  orientations  styles  metaphors  they  generally  cultural  were  the  used  consistent  to  with  an  came  In  the  interpret  sensory  or  more The  out  own  of  their  with  their  own  words,  the  included  the  asked,  discrepant  individual  the  experience.  other  they  of  conformed  reasoning—which  questions  their  some of  seashore.  Some to  consistent  metaphorical  they  and  generated  the  of  closely  aspects  generally  generated,  metaphors  more  students  towards  concepts.  experience,  or  the  students'  the  an  social  and  similar  conformed  of  that  experiences  with  as  well  as  events—were  orientations  to  the  seashore.  Incorporating  the  The relating  Students'  students' their  experiences  personal  devices.  metaphors  and  metaphors specific  science To  during f i r s t ,  be  this  as  incorporated between  In  used  to  other increase  their  such,  that  devices  when  previous  were  necessary  the  students'  into  the  classroom  students'  personal  understandings  words, their  the  for  would  students'  own  understanding  of  concepts.  begin,  class  and  to  instruction--stronger  them.  Instruction  effective  hoped  connections  by  could  was  were  science  established  concepts, It  metaphors  were  into  observations  similar  discussions—making  be  metaphors  present  with  communication  Own M e t a p h o r s  I  listened  discussion task  to  proved  for  teach far  metaphors  specific more  that  science  d i f f i c u l t  could  be  concepts. than  I  used At had  185 anticipated. between their  Because  myself  and  metaphors  of  the  d i f f i c u l t  d i f f i c u l t  to  setting.  Moreover,  the  which  "spaceage" crab  is  textural shape  in  or  like  a  bear,  that  potato small to  with a  were  to  new  is  of  the  a  on  i t . "  "A  present  an  i n s t r u c t i o n a l Cove  generated  teaching  i n  the  "A  rocket."  "A  metaphors of  color  red  snail  or  about  crab  like  allowed  their  or  looks a the  previous  devices,  the  an  highly  black  metaphors  communication  is  movement  "A  is  to  c i t y :  were  ruby."  urchin  such  discoveries  and  or  observations  necessary  of  "machine"  sea  Although  many  or  their  a  found  "war"  jet  like  differences  interpret,  Salmon  associations  mouse." their  from  looks  legs  and  led  were eye  at  I to  into  experienced  scallop  age  d i f f i c u l t  students  most  "It's  relate  experiences, seldom  "A  they  like  hear,  and  students,  incorporate  had  Also,  sound:  students  I  robot."  tank."  to  Cove  different  metaphors a  armored  were  cultural  Salmon  therefore  metaphors  the  animals  they being  investigated. After and  after  emerged  the  found  thrust  made  microscopic  teacher  ways  of  a  using  students' clusters  f u n c t i o n a l . of  (When group  six  the  certain  of  For  barnacles,  "rake,"  plankton of  recording  behavior  "snake."  rapidly is  more  metaphors  and  plume  of  r e f l e c t i o n ,  feeding  the  "volcano,"  strain  I  the  generated  barnacles  days  considerable  which  observing  The  several  feathery  under  plumes  from  water.)  metaphors  as  when  students  "feather-fan,"  appendages,  these  metaphors  various  f l e x i b l e the  of  example,  "tongue," submerged  metaphors,  I  seawater,  i n or  and  out.  c i r r i ,  discussed  "entry  points"  and with for  1 86 learning and  by  teach  by  i n v i t i n g  incorporating  specific In  nearing  completion  they  had  up  tight  In  classroom,  water  for  microscopes. uses  the  concepts  on  students'  personal  their  own  into  bare they  "predator-prey,"  when  the  metaphors lesson  in  the  the  to  that  and  students  t i d a l gone  barnacles and  the  " t i d a l  At pools  out  rapidly with  follows,  explore  "locomotion,"  i n  had  aquarium,  discussion  metaphors  tide  the  studies.  feeding  the  observed  class  own  plankton  barnacles  rocks had  discussion,  their  observed  the  discuss metaphors  classroom of  plankton In  to  to  concepts.  following  closed  the  students  these  science  the  the  seashore  the  the  to  are the and sea.  raking  dissecting the  teacher  related  science  cycle":  Teacher Walter David Dan Teacher Dan  What d o e s a b a r n a c l e remind you of? Like a feather. That t h i n g that sticks out, i t ' s like a tongue. It's l i k e a fisherman too. Those l e g s are its net.* What w o u l d be t h e fisherman? The barnacle.  Teacher Walter Teacher Walter Teacher Linda Teacher Walter Teacher Walter Teacher Walter Teacher Walter Teacher Walter Teacher Linda Teacher Linda Teacher Walter  Why i s i t a fisherman? It catches plankton. When i s i t a fisherman? At high tide. Excellent! Excellent! What's i n s i d e the barnacle? A m o i s t u r e - f i l l e d chamber. ** How d o y o u t h i n k a b a r n a c l e sticks to a rock? It's like glue. Why i s i t like glue? Have you f e l t it? Yes. It's like glue. It's hard, r e a l l y hard l i k e a rock. Does i t remind you of a n y t h i n g else? It r e m i n d s me o f a v o l c a n o . Has the v o l c a n o a l r e a d y erupted? Yes. When i t feeds. Is it dangerous l i k e a volcano? No. It's just t h e way i t looks. What d o e s the barnacle do a t low tide? It has to b r i n g i n l o t s of water into i t s shell. Why? It creates a m o i s t u r e - f i l l e d chamber. When d o e s i t eat? At high t i d e when i t ' s covered with water.  Teacher  Why?  1 87  Walter Teacher  Because t h a t ' s when the plankton is i n . So, i f a b a r n a c l e were a v o l c a n o , when w o u l d erupt, at high t i d e or at low tide? At high tide. Excellent!  Walter Teacher  * In a previous discussion "fisherman ' and "fisherman's behavior of barnacles.  at the net"  1  i t  seashore I used the images to describe the feeding  ** " M o i s t u r e - f i l l e d chamber" is a quote from a reference book used during i n s t r u c t i o n . Also, the students "became" barnacles inside their m o i s t u r e - f i l l e d shellhouses. In consider or  analyzing f i r s t  her  own  textures, a  metaphors snake.  student  were For  erupting, concepts tidal  sensory  plankton,  student  experiences:  student  classroom  discussion,  might  through  etc.  might  calcareous  have:  for  c i r r i  Consider  tongue.  Consider  develop  fourth,  through  locomotion,  what (legs),  third,  barnacles—fisherman, fisherman's  what  volcano,  net,  volcano  what  metaphoric  his  smells,  second,  shell,  chamber.  tongue,  predator-prey,  sounds,  Consider  feather,  might  have  shapes,  patterns,  discussed:  snake's  cycle,  a  m o i s t u r e - f i l l e d  c i r r i :  a  preceding  perceptions  colors,  knowledge tides,  what  the  abstract reasoning:  desiccation,  protection,  survival. Clearly, devices seeing as  d e t a i l ,  to or  students  another.  students'  moving  familiar  "tongue",  students  the  for  the  from  objects  the  and  "feather-fan", do  much  relate to  a use  more  metaphors  abstract  events  in  "snake", than  f e e l i n g one  own  just  about  highly  to  the  were  concrete,  new  ways.  and  "volcano",  comment i t .  Such  structured  effective or  Metaphors,  about  allowed  for such the  some  sensory  metaphors  allowed  concept  to  structure  1 88 Metaphors  The effective their  teacher devices  previous  elaborate followed  the  be  to  range  a  building that  the  the  of  community  tidal a  the  crabs used  following in  crabs  Teacher Jimmy Linda Jimmy  Dan  the  the as  class  aquarium the  focus  by  to  leading  through  metaphor  the  related  community, a  crab  and  collective  discussion, and for  the  with their  by the  science  What e l s e does a crab eat? Fish. He e a t s shrimp. One i n t h e aquarium tore that H e ' 11 eat almost anything. He e a t s d e a d t h i n g s too.  "The to own  several  concepts.  of  recycle,  metaphor  of  a  "sanitation  the  seashore.  had Some  a l l  observed  students  projects:  shrimp  the  their  the  at  by  Recall  students  concepts:  students  microscopes.  done  included  metaphor  that  study  of  several  scavengers the  be  to  the  exploring  It  understanding  metaphor:  terms  science  ways.  could  allowed  of  could  metaphors  students  metaphor  study  teacher  metaphors.  This the  to  new  in  large  observations  new  This  the  as  specific  give  smaller  metaphors  the  community  allowed  many  more  create  ways  from  This  Cove.  for  this,  i n  might  community  locomotion,  for  I  personal  relationships.  studied  janitor"  metaphors  Devices  present  doing  specific  this  of  that  class  department" In  did  their  In  metaphors  Salmon  cycle,  "school  in  seashore  metaphors The  students'  and  community." a  of  own  seashore  concept a  the  teacher  larger  is  Instructional  relating  student's  conceptualize  smaller  for  teacher  s c i e n t i f i c seashore  used  elaborated  up  Rich  experiences.  that  could  as  in  half.  had  1 89 Teacher  A crab i s l i k e a sanitation department. It cleans up everything. What w o u l d h a p p e n h e r e i n Salmon Cove i f the s a n i t a t i o n department quit working? It would smell. We w o u l d die. What w o u l d h a p p e n i n the aquarium i f there wasn't a sanitation department? Everything would die. So, everybody i n Salmon Cove would d i e i f i t wasn't for crabs? (everyone laughs) So c r a b s are very important. What o t h e r scavengers are at the seashore? Seagulls. Crows. Sea urchins. Eagles. Very good. We c a n c o m p a r e crabs to j a n i t o r s i n s c h o o l s and the s a n i t a t i o n department i n Salmon Cove.  Sally Mary Teacher Mary Sandra  Teacher Dan Sharon David Teacher  The  crab  which  metaphor  the  they  students  could  present with  not  school  order  served  The to  as  key  Usually  entry  way  that  but  as  personal  highlighting these  new  to  a  Tit  a  metaphors  a  giving  than  student's  things  instructional  and  The  janitor  the  the  other  how an  system.  system  provide  metaphors  of  students  experiences  hiding  form  successful  real  they  their  concrete  in  the  that  sanitation  explanation  give  to  experiences  school  i t  happens  do:  relate  crab  not  really  to  Cove  to  system  properties  Salmon  by  could  real  previous  possible  simpler  some  or  understanding.  to  it  metaphors  a  thought  what  was  the  a  them  their  comparing  point  of  to  of  parts  permitted  with  pointed  metaphor New  of  image  certain It  abstract  description  structure, hoped  process  mental  crabs  and  functions,  represented.  assign  with  metaphor  the  a  d i r e c t l y .  shape  a  system  accurate  same  see  janitors  instructional the  could  observations  department. in  provided  i n  it the  coherent things.  would  have  I the  1 90" power  to  give  specific  seashore The  to  help  from  teacher  used  point  metaphor  ecological  emphasizes  the  to  "The  the  students'  seashore  understand  s c i e n t i f i c  community  meaning  beliefs  about  relationships.  students  a  the  new  is  of  their  view.  commonly  aspects  of  l i v i n g  together  additional  attempt  is  a  community '  experiences  This  was  metaphor  1  at  the  possible  used  by  biologists  the  natural  that  lies  seashore  because to  the  highlight  environment,  behind  the  and  concept  of  community. An knowledge a  range  into  of of  beach  aesthetic,  account  using  a  with  the  the  range  students'  of  would  image  appeal  " u t i l i t a r i a n " In  fisherman"  was  designed In  order  s p i r i t u a l ,  to  other viewed  teach to  and  the  teach  of  u t i l i t a r i a n  could  a  thought fisherman  words,  the  loosely concept science etc.  of  that,  a  a  "A  increase  certain  science  concepts metaphors.  I  discussing would  1 1  coastal  fishing  barnacle  " u t i l i t a r i a n "  predator-prey  this  to  "barnacle a  by  harmony  that  when  in  metaphor as  strong  took  that  in  and  from  that  hoped  ideas  of  l i v i n g  metaphors  was  present  for  students'  images  orientations,  students  u t i l i t a r i a n ,  It  s u f f i c i e n t l y  we  the  constructing  experiencing  example,  the  community.  be  and  barnacles, to  we  preferred  input  For  or  increasing  orientations.  metaphors,  understanding  concepts.  involved  s p i r i t u a l ,  students*  instructional their  ecology  at  is  a  metaphor  relationships.  devised  aesthetic,  191 Aesthetic  Metaphors  The on  students'  The  addition, In  i n  aesthetic  and  place  after  their  sensory  observe  a  looking  for  words,  students  had at  pool,  patterns  intended  the was we  to i n  walk  nature,  aspects  hoped  that  would  a  a  opportunities  barefoot to  sit  along  look,  the  seashore of  t i d a l  elaborating system  discussion  to  musical  the  concept  create  The  attention  increase of  by  seashore,  and  is  to  s c i e n t i f i c  several the  students'  seashore  entailments.  awareness  t i d a l  it ways,  s c i e n t i f i c  the  aesthetic  explore  s p e c i f i c  the  was  the  to  other  metaphors  "The  metaphor of  Concepts.  focused  metaphor:  awareness  i n  Science  discussion  aesthetic  production."  cycle.  Teaoh  following  the  and,  to  below to  smell,  of took  increase  quietly  the  the  tide touch,  and line and  l i s t e n .  Teacher  Teacher Linda David Teacher Jane Luke Teacher Luke David Sharon Teacher  If the seashore were a m u s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n , what be i t s instruments? Birds singing. W h a l e s w o u l d be m a k i n g s o u n d s too. Empty s h e l l s m a k i n g s o u n d s . What w o u l d be t h e drums? The w a t e r . Waves m a k i n g s p l a s h i n g s o u n d s . T h e r o c k s w o u l d be d r u m s . The w a t e r and the cobblestones. What a b o u t v i o l i n s ? The seagulls. Whales, because t h e y make s q u e a k y sounds. What w o u l d be t h e trumpets? Sea lions. K i l l e r whales. Who i s t h e conductor? God. The k i l l e r whale. He's bigger. Mother nature. Who i s m o t h e r nature?  Sharon  The  Teacher Sally  makes up t h e What w o u l d be The s e a . The  Sally David Luke Teacher Mark Sally  tide.  The  sun.  The  ocean.  ocean. the voices? wind and waves.  Everything  that  would  1 92 Linda Luke Teacher Sally Mary David Teacher Mark Luke Sharon Teacher Sally Mary Teacher Mary  Crows. Eagles. What w o u l d be t h e theatre? The s a n d . Dnder the r o c k s . The w a t e r m a k i n g s o u n d s u n d e r the cobblestones. The seashore. Who w o u l d b e t h e audience? The f i s h . The k i l l e r whale. Ds. W o u l d t h e m u s i c be t h e same a l l t h e time? The same. N o . I t w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t when t h e tide changes. When w o u l d t h e m u s i c s o u n d l o w ? When t h e t i d e was low.  Teacher  When w o u l d  Beth Teacher Sharon Teacher  At high t i d e because t h e w a t e r w o u l d be closer. Would the f e e l i n g change? Yes. If i t were a storm i t would f e e l angry. Good. Very, very good.  To  explore  what  perceptions  a  is  sounds,  Consider  what  to  wind,  waves,  i n s t r u c t i o n :  etc.  Consider  what  ugliness,  what  ecological  tide,  ebb  tide,  "The  aesthetic,  s c i e n t i f i c , This  orientations can  a b i l i t y has be  tide,  low  emotion, might  mood,  be  a  eagles,  concepts  experience:  patterns,  seashore  tide,  the  etc.  student  might  seagulls,  sand,  might  cobblestones, be  change,  elaborated:  sun,  elaborated:  etc. high  Consider tide,  low  etc.  seashore range  the  consider  sensory  textures,  whales,  aesthetic  change,  a  metaphors  high  f i r s t  through  about  k i l l e r  concepts  comprises  safety.  have  colors,  f e e l i n g ,  high?  communicated,  knowledge  storms,  sound  might  smells,  prior  bring  music  being  student  shapes,  beauty,  the  is of  a  musical  possible s p i r i t u a l , of  potential  aspects  elaborated  to  allow  educational to  of  recreational,  metaphor for  production"  allow  an even  discussion experience: health  and  movement  between  applications  because  individuals  to  explore  193 their  own  range  of  experiences  previous The  specific  is  musical  the  seashore  to  a  comparing  a  to  abstract  provided The  key  teacher  S p i r i t u a l  and  a  it  to  by  a  by the  classroom  presenting  to  Teach the be to  s p i r i t u a l  students half  were  day  dances clearer  Salmon  s p i r i t u a l the  idea  of  the  beliefs  "The  seashore  of  comparing  "fisherman" more  " o l d "  i n  concrete  systems  of  by  and  or  of  order forms,  meaning. juxtaposing  the  "new,"  the  used  i n  to  the  people  type  metaphors  that  neither  or  discourage  We  f e l t  instruction  a  the  by  making  traditional  science would  teacher  s p i r i t u a l  that of  specific  the  concepts  appeal  to  orientation.  portraying  native the  own  "community,"  beliefs  and  completion  invited  the  Cove  a c t i v i t i e s ,  sessions  of  a  Concepts  encourage  the  Towards  a  atmosphere  acknowledged  between  a  of  process  " s p i r i t u a l "  connections  with  a it  the  Science  seashore.  students  or  students*  the  certain  from  " b i z a r r e . "  should  of  or  giving  towards  during  and  their  terms  This  "volcano"  orientation  people  i n  production"  l i v e l y  attempted  native  orientations,  elaborate  metaphor.  to  describing  myself  of  relationships  entering  the  Metaphors  instruction, nor  to  elements,  In  able  thought  created  "commonplace"  variety  "musical  "barnacle"  a  dissimilar  were  production"  "seashore"  shape  a  experiences.  students  about a  from  of  of  cultural the  of  the  seashore language  s p i r i t u a l  Salmon  instruction  Cove. that  unit,  class  stories, In  for  two  songs  and  order  occurred,  the  to I  get  a  include  several  statements  made  by  the  four  cultural  teachers:  Many of our people's legends, especially about the k i l l e r whale and the w o l f , come f r o m p r e p a r i n g f o r the flood. White man calls Bible stories the gospel truth. Our stories he calls myths. They are not myths. They are s p i r i t u a l stories. This is our r e l i g i o n . v  If you talk Chief Henry you w i l l know  to the animals, they w i l l talk Walker said, "If you t a l k t o one each other."  to you. another,  Everything has a s p i r i t . My grandfather told me, "When I die, I'm g o i n g to come b a c k a s a k i l l e r whale. You w i l l k n o w me b e c a u s e I ' l l be b i g , I ' l l have a big dorsal f i n , and I ' l l g l i d e by h i g h e r i n the w a t e r " . . Chief Henry Walker s a i d , "When I d i e , I want to be an eagle." When he died, a big eagle flew over his service. Burt Small, a great Indian artist from Salmon Cove, came b a c k as a porpoise. Our dances are a g i f t , not us by the transformer. us. We become those ani Salmon Dance is important We m u s t not forget to dance  a sin. They were g i v e n to Our d a n c e s are important to m a l s w h e n we d a n c e . . . The to the Salmon Cove people. the Salmon Dance.  Indian people made u s e of e v e r y t h i n g . If they wasted food, they were punished. E v e r y t h i n g has a right to be here. E v e r y t h i n g has a s p i r i t . Our p e o p l e believe that a l l animals have souls, rights, feelings. We must respect every l i v i n g thing.  To  take  orientations the  I  students  following science  looked a  story  concepts  I'm who place you seal eat. rest. hunte both  into  account for  general portrays  stories  the  students'  which  could  understanding an  community,  acceptance,  of at  interdependence,  be  beach least and  i n  s p i r i t u a l used  to  give  ecology.  The  part,  of  conservation:  going to t e l l you a s t o r y o f two g r e e d y brothers l i v e right here i n Salmon Cove. This story took only a few y e a r s ago, so I ' m n o t g o i n g t o t e l l their names. Everytime the two b r o t h e r s went hunting they k i l l e d more seals than they could They w o u l d t a k e what they wanted, and l e a v e the About three years ago the w i f e o f one o f the rs got pregnant and had t w i n s . The t w i n s were very s i c k and c r i e d a l l the time. Everyone said  the  195 they sounded just like baby s e a l s cryin cried with such loud high pitched s people even say they looked like baby s long sickness both of the b a b i e s d i e d . the two brothers were greedy and they They didn't respect the seals and punished.  During connections  the between  interdependence, classroom Cove  the  connections  his  The  an  that  his  legends  a  further  "Turning  and  the  attempt  to  orientation,  take I  s p i r i t u a l  understanding  was  grounded  i n  are the  is a before  If i t ' s I would  legend. a n y o n e was  book  similar T i d e . "  Salmon made  concepts,  account  was no  winter food.  and  for  the  that  cycle  the  connections  and  indicated  Luke's  Luke  and  i n  science had  habitat  s p i r i t u a l  at and  aspects  I  of  The w o l v e s born.  Salmon  i n have  summer, sometimes be k i n d . I would  of  tone  Cove to  condensed  looked  Legends,  I  after  found  the  story  known  the  following  the put  the  that  and the people The w o l f had  such  l o c a l l y  version  book: It was  the  seashore:  a high tide. out too f a r . on the beach.  a  into  responses  t i d a l  tide long  of  stories,  above  looked  concepts  the  book  in  seashore.  the  at  a  made  concepts  Back  the  the  we  the  from  discussed  of  reading  responses  stories  responses  awareness  teachers  and  two  I w o u l d be water goes food higher  After  cultural  conservation.  several  about  Eventually,  experience  The tide  and  stories  pre-instructional  least  the  the  the  stories  students  s p i r i t u a l  concepts.  an  read  own  In particular  the  teacher  between  their  with  community,  legends.  wrote  session  g because they queals. Some eals. After a That's because wasted food. so they were  were hungry because there c o n t r o l of the tides. He  as  from  196 always kept it at high water mark. The d e e r pretended he was dead and s t o l e the w o l f ' s t a i l . The d e e r held the w o l f ' s t a i l over a f i r e until the w o l f p r o m i s e d to let the t i d e go o u t so t h e people could get mussels. But the p e o p l e were s t i l l hungry. They wanted clams. So the deer stole the w o l f ' s t a i l a g a i n and h e l d i t over a f i r e . This time the wolf let the tide out further, and the people could get clams. From that day on the w o l f l e t the t i d e out twice a day. Every six hours it changed. After that t h e r e was p l e n t y of f o o d i n the v i l l a g e . This  story  expresses  relationship plants  and  notion  of  tide l i v e  appeal  the  animals  clams  the  low  In  an  to  Luke's  teacher  read  discuss  the  zone, to  with  cycle, the  on  middle  and  so  develop  story  connection  sessions  the  shore.  mussels low  a  particular of  The  s c i e n t i f i c  l i v e  tide  specific  i n  the  zones,  high  abalone  on. teaching  strategies  s p i r i t u a l  between habitat,  of  location  a  and  "Turning  Salmon  the  s i m i l a r :  particular  the  t i d a l  quite  i n  attempt  concepts  connection  tide  and  habitats  is  l i v e  understanding  tide  and  zonation  zone, in  between  an  the  and  Cove  orientation, Tide"  the  which  story  to and  zonation.  cultural  I  the the  Then,  teachers,  would  had  the  class  and  s c i e n t i f i c during I  had  our this  reinforced.  U t i l i t a r i a n In  Metaphors  to  describing  acknowledged  that  some  others  not.  To  were  u t i l i t a r i a n invited  into  oysters  and  aspects the  of  Teach the  give the  an  Concepts  u t i l i t a r i a n  a c t i v i t i e s  classroom  developing  Science  the  seashore to  were  highly  students  an  a  discuss  oyster  metaphors,  marine  his  attempts near  should  be  metaphorical,  awareness  local  farm  it  of  the  biologist  was  at  Salmon  culturing Cove.  The  197 students see  v i s i t e d  halibut  traps  the  and  being  salmon  stacked  various  fishermen  f i s h i n g  boat,  needs  docks  to  and  being  up  on  the  regarding  how  much  money  to  catch  know  were  unloaded docks.  the a  to  predator-prey,  food  community,  the  references  were  especially  the  seaweeds, Last,  students made  prepared harvest  the  curried  shark,  curried  shrimp,  connections science  the  elaborate  of  native  but  sea:  baked  oolichans, oyster  were  made  concepts  r o l l s ,  between  food  the  chain,  a  on  a  fisherman we  concepts  used  habitat,  teachers,  harvest  of  and  to  seaweed  urchins.  collected  salmon,  the  baked  u t i l i t a r i a n  annual  limpets,  Throughout,  a c t i v i t i e s  interdependence,  and  halibut,  sauteed salad.  sea,  herring,  sea  celebrate  seaweeds,  several the  halibut,  parents  smoked  and  l i f e  sense,  chitons,  dinner  dried  crab  interviewed  caught, what  to  interdependence.  and  and  fish  seals,  clams,  seafood  and  students  Indian's  students,  boats  cultural  also  scallops,  teacher, an  the  salmon,  abalone,  the  to  the  the  and  the  boats  this  reinforce  v i s i t e d  seine  makes,  In  a c t i v i t i e s  When  of  fisherman f i s h .  onto  from The  type  " u t i l i t a r i a n "  chain,  invited  and  the  community,  and  conservation.  Health  and  Safety  The health and  and  teacher safety  safety  depending becoming  A c t i v i t i e s  at on  and  trapped  I  seashore the  by  Teach  never  orientation  the the  to  per was  situation. the  incoming  Science  Concepts  encouraged se.  Some  or  concern  inevitable, We  even  discussed  tide  or  discouraged  the  getting  for  a  health  desirable, hazards  of  caught  i n  198 offshore  currents,  or  f a l l i n g  on  discussed throughout, or  many  animal  anemones,  or  sea  squirts  (harmless  electric  shock,  paralyzing health  or  darts.  and  safety  students  with  or  thereof  lack  marine  In  other  at  accurate  organisms..  sea  the  and  word  about,  fish) anemones words,  associated  slippery  seashore,  with  about  "blood  deep  the  sea  could  deliver  about some  to  an  of  refer  a  to sea  thought  that  powerful  could  throw  awareness  endeavored the  For  urchins,  urchins  encouraged  But  "poisonous"  sucker"  students  and  We  animals.  Some  sea  water.  seaweeds.  seashore  and  we  information  into  especially  blennies.  e e l - l i k e that  the  know  and  docks  sucking"  used  didn't  blennies  the  misconceptions  "blood  students  they  off  barnacles  discouraged  "paralyzing"  example, any  we  f a l l i n g  of  to  provide  potential  dangers  the  less-well  known  199 The  Relationships Beliefs,  and  Consistency orientations  The  and  The  the  to  the  seashore.  in  rain  gear  the  pools,  collected  upper of  careful  the tidal  walked  to dry  and  to  the  the  students'  Instruction  individual  At  his  He  changed  the  I  own  high  students'  noticed  bucket  observe  the  lower  at  hand.  upper  t i d a l  the  pools  painstaking  over,  bags  and  oxygen  class Dan  to  the  handling  beach  otherwise  several  several  the  Dan  dressed  school,  t i d a l  suggestion,  that  newcomer  in  When  exploring  the  no  plastic  His  back  water  was  appropriately  aquarium  plastic  and  Dan  relaxed.  the  When  rocks  pools.  mid-day,  and  animals.  into  too  and  the  from  blennies  get  beach  sit  s t r i k i n g . the  that  boots,  for  forth  turn  the  focused  and  Towards  Science  obvious  at  collecting  out.  would  between  a c t i v i t i e s .  rubber  animals  was  them  was  sculpins  temperature up."  i t  asked  back  gently  Instruction  instruction.  are  science  immediately  animals  exist  During  arrived  was  pools  to  and  Seashore  He  seashore  t i d a l  •the  would  was  various  Orientations  During  during  here  knee-high  class  Dan  busily  and  seen  Behavior  outset,  to  Students'  Behavior  behavior  the  the  the  be  described  during  From  When  could  Students'  F i e l d t r i p s  Their  their  Briefly behavior  Between  he;  was  the  sun  collected  a l l  floated  times  them  because  would buckets  be of  a l l  in "the  used  animals  200 had  been  that  they  and of  l e f t  let the  in  should  them  By  take  go.  other  the  their  Dan  students,  animals  without  them  Jimmy  knife  looking  for  bullheads,  eels  of  day  exploring  the  deeper and  water.  cut  This  not  about  the  observe  open  Mary  and  Anna  shoes  and  wind  beach  and  refused  beach. and  They  tidepools It  was  for  the  much  of  and  they  obvious f i r s t .the Luke  tenaciously  the  appeared  they  time.  afternoon arrived  were As  together  seeing  with  s i t t i n g  the  most on  on  of  the  appropriately  long  and  sharp was  buckets  sit  quietly  had  i n  upper  part  covered  f i t s  of  dressed  to  of  trips,  of  the  lower g i r l s nervous  the  new-found  and  or  running  had  beach  take  collected.  dressed  majority  and  to  other  f i e l d  knife  finding  three  our  into  inside.  of  exploring  great  most  out  with  with  pools  spent  way  seaweed  day  and  everywhere,  he  the  upper  wading  to  animals  fascinated  the  bucket  or  overflowing  entire  wearing  then  explored  "yucky"  swore,  seashore  practical  stayed  the  buckets  meat"  inappropriately  enter  spent  of  area  the  he  his  stopped  the  They  screamed,  They  for  arrived  to  clung  never  care  breakers.  frequently  laughter.  to  he  a  he  into  out  kind  simply  animals  aquarium, or  "what  Although  of  carefully,  see  behavior,  pools  whipped  tidal  shovel,  crabs;  owners  i t .  explored  t i d a l  the  lower  the  with  shore  to  emptied  at  Jimmy  lower  the  knowing  pants,  and  to  already  even  f i r s t ,  to  animal.  numbers  to  At  suggested  back  arrived  occasionally  cruel  an  collected back  He  animals  was  out  hand.  I  had  rubber  f i s h i n g  the  bake.  he  waist-high in  to  smiled,  comparison,  fisherman's  sun  upper  creatures. organisms they  spent  suntanning. in  rain  gear  and  20 1  knee-high upper  rubber  tide  zones,  zones.  For  bucket  half  and  Don  to  long  bring  and  more  s i t t i n g  part  of  the  •  Later  g i r l s . lower At  pools  outset,  What's  its  that?"  the  immediately  students, wanted  seaweeds.  On  h a l f - f i l l e d  with  under  a  microscope,  cast-off  molts  larvae.  This  my  trips  planktonic by  the  of was  to molts  outgoing  asked and  a  the  to  the  desire  that?  school  Is a  like  After  amazed  to  discovery,  seashore  discovered  the  to  old  learn  for  I  the  washed  were this?  related  Sharon  the  other  that  bones,  she dried  a  they  pieces  were  planktonic never  hordes  ashore  jar  transparent  several  had  to  pool,  of  that of  boys.  brought  pieces  thousands  seasonally  explore  possessions  learn  surprising  f i r s t  "What's  observing  and  the  the  this  Sharon  tiny  the  with  than  seashells,  occasion,  Mark,  spent  other  t i d a l  More  prized  animals,  was  of  and  doing  length.  are  down  observe  his  he  screaming  questions:  to  with  enjoy  spent  asked  thousands  that tide.  calm  relaxed.  looked  I  to  and  and  her  such  mm i n  forth  lower  Joan, to  the  beach.  Anna  and  l i v i n g  2  to  the  curiosity  brought  what  and  boulder  B i l l y ,  i n  the  shorebirds,  some  was  one  watch  and  i t  a  to  appeared  Jimmy,  is  focused  on  he  stayed  down  enticed  to  began  incessantly  i d e n t i f i e d :  1  Dan,  sat  and  and  Luke  wandering  Luke  Mary  she  day,  exploring  back  day,  Why  Sharon  confetti,  with  class  the  Although  spent  Sharon's  name?  When  he  with  She  time  seawater  racing the  of  binoculars  arrived  extraordinary.  was  than  i n  of  animals. his  day  t i d a l  the  with  him  most  occasionally  periods  used  Sharon  For  only  f i l l e d  animals, time  boots.  and  i n  of  the crab a l l tiny  stranded  202 In  sum,  consistent  with  independently cared  the  The  in  the  investigations consistent  their  or  for  made  seashore  animals:  were  to  predictions,  some  the  Anna,  Sharon.  clams.  dig? in  could  clams  eat  wrote  down  of  asked  Do  which  teacher  the  seashore they  they  was  explored  asked,  how  they  continued  to  suntan--all  beach  they their were  generally.  not  and  with  were  crabs,  asked  dissecting  of  Do a  of  have  a  he  to  observe  the  find of  knew  the  draw  a  They and  out  the  brevity,  Jimmy,  of  clams  I  Mary,  i n  "Do  Do  only  by  considerable  decided  sea  investigations  siphon? asked  of  clams,  questions:  answered  obviously  of  species  Jimmy  immediately  to  students:  rhetorical  types  inferences  sake  series  several  foot?"  Jimmy  a  the  microscopes.  the  four  was  clams  After  For  of  project  number  to  observations,  questions.  projects,  pre-selected  urchins,  and  question.  myself,  sea  students  observing  p l a n k t o n ? " — but the  following  projects  have  science  simple*investigations  white?  be  the  their  The  up  their  a  clams  for  l i s t  science  clams  sand?  set  After  he  Are  a  science  Jimmy's  aquarium  way  s t a r f i s h ,  aquarium make  describe  with  f i s h ,  and  to  from  barnacles.  the  asked  and  on  organisms  choices  and i n  answers  the  the  Whether  questions  orientations  choosing  students  animals  sat  at  Projects  In  anemones,  the  animals,  their  behavior  orientations.  groups,  or  with  Science  students'  clams  clams  one  the  hide  question  observation—"Do answer  help  from  series  of  before both  he the  sketches  203 "to  i d e n t i f y  clam  and  the  label  the  Anna  asked How  l i b r a r y  to  research,  with  assured  them  of  week,  the  considerable  help  investigations eyes,"  and  f i s h . " books, l i v i n g  of  dissect  to  When  a  to  the  f i n a l enjoy  crabs  went  banned  to  up  only  after the  I  end  After  some  feelers  the  l i b r a r y  classroom.  their  crabs  are  towards  set  of  observations,  was  l i b r a r y  series  How  I  It  they  the  few  the  use  a  immediately  loudly.  to  their  on  crabs?  books.  crabs i f  appeared  to  simple  and  their  would  eat  some  report  was  copied  from  investigations  with  their  frozen  organisms. worked  investigations making  questions: urchin  with  very "What  have  urchins?  What other  mouth?  If  different conducting  sea  urchins.  are  sea  the  do  sea  animals?  spines several  do  bleed,  for?"  color  is  making  investigations,  are  the  sea  enemies?  it?  types  good  the  sea  of  sea  sea  Does  it  are  urchin have a l l  observations  Sharon  cucumber,  urchins  Does  What  of  many  the  eyes?  more  sea  asked  Does  have  series  observing  different  eat?  they  what  After  simple  relatives  besides  Do  a  Sharon  urchin's  urchins  on  After  drawings,  relatives  they  urchin's  independently  detailed  any  protect  sea  back  see  much  i n  the  see,"  very  are  and  started,  how  to  students  Sharon  and  "see  Although  to?"  returned  getting  to  making  colors  grow  they  "tested  both  After  go  can  together  protested  could  I  book.  answers  students  that  that  worked  crabs  the  they  a  different  can  find  clam  using  crabs.  many  big  both  the  Mary  "How  born?  of  parts  and  investigations they  parts  concluded:  s t a r f i s h ,  and  a the  and "The sand  204  dollar. I  .  gave  the  doesn't They I  .  They  sea  have  a  urchin  some  food  protect  can  any  sense  turned  i t  the  long  teeth  and  its  Dan  detailed  and  Sharon  as  they  on  of  considerably  questions,  and  additional  students'  instruction preferred of  involved  Mary,  When  Jimmy second a  set  seaweed.  .  right,  .  No,  don't  have  use  their  sense  c e l l s .  .  .  the  do I  turn found  the  i t  eyes. .  .  themselves  over  out  five  it  made,  has  help,  independent  they  the  asked,  the  inferences  and  interpretations  Jimmy,  simpler  most  questions  they the  Luke,  they  Mary,  generated  gave and  lower  to  Anna level  inquiries.  following:  assessing and  looking  at I  the  interaction  their the  experiences  types  describe  between  of  the  during  seashore  animals  preferred  animals  Luke. students  with  "clams"  choice. of  of  instruction.  and  the  project chose  way  orientations  during  Jimmy,  science  and  more  conducted  was  Animals  An the  by  contrast,  required  I  They  clearly  organisms  By  .  bottom."  were  generated,  .  .  they  feet.  evidenced  inquiries.  Preferred  the  and  eats .  They  back  pattern.  i t  animals.  pipe-like  is  and  dark.  its  mouth  sketches  predictions  and  on  skinny  investigators,  f i v e - s t a r  other  l i g h t  over  with  their  a l l  Later,  picture herring  were  one as  of his  when  given several  f i r s t  asked  cards,  to  Jimmy's >  salmon  the  chance  common  choice,  food  a  chain >  complete  seashore and  construct  to  seal  animals,  " f i s h "  food  a  as  his  chain  with  included  the  >  k i l l e r  205  whale. of  Jimmy's  salmon  west  and  coast.  is  students  "I  f i r s t ,  them"  Bullhead writing  s k i l l s ,  day-long  trip  was  Salmon  animals,  by in  he  wouldn't conducting  or  science  animal  a  Jimmy  because In  myself  science the  l i t t l e n e c k  donate  a  l i s t e d  wished,  day clams  single  to  clam  for  explore  the  or  Jimmy  Jimmy,  the  down  and  for  other clams,  dinner.  aquarium!  He  Whether  stories,  clearly  on  by  butter  writing  our  scarce  slow  for  poor  or  preferred  animals. " s t a r f i s h "  and  To  efforts  home  the  During  and  for  them." "How  clams.  digging  sea  Jimmy's  to  take  animals,  of  extremely  to  and  t i t l e  Jimmy  happily  investigations  seashore  were  inquiries  entire  the  frequent  encourage  because  get  completed.  are  of  a l l  can't  discovered  from Jimmy  starfish  because  never  spite  to  chose  where  starting  t h i r d ,  I  the  animal  favorite.  l i s t e d  use  on  interview  least  but  clams  valuable  later  them.  Head,"  Island,  project,  they  Big  makes  project  clams  Jimmy  Bear  " u t i l i t a r i a n "  students  legend,  was  science  Mary  see  most  it  animals,  He  legend  and  the  don't  and  because  science a  their  the  the  even  exploring  Have  spent  clams,  with  "I a  i n  seashore  them."  beaches.  and  participate  edible  to  a  "eat  s i g n i f i c a n t ,  Cove  teacher  horse  to  of  second,  write  Came  choice  crabs  because  to  the  l i s t  ending  and  last,  is  gathered  to  salmon  asked  this  asked  interesting  fishery  Jimmy's data  and  catch  When  and  with  were  anemones  the  This  is  salmon  favorite  l i s t e d  chain  the  consistent  their  food  "sea  asked Mary  as  urchins" to  chose  her as  write  a  "How  the  her  f i r s t  choice  second  legend  choice.  about  Starfish  for  Got  any It's  a  When  seashore Name."  206 Mary's  food  chain,  plankton  >  preference of  for  seashore  "Looks  her  touch  explanations  and  types By  of  as  disliked  f i r s t  and  the  above  the  eagle  chose  "crabs"  impossible  spite  second of  and  for  chose  the  a  t i t l e  I  as  way  it  reason"  as  her  least  eels.  choices Both  I  wicked and  her  students  orange,  red,  black,  dark  aesthetics  for  when  Luke  a  and  In  asked  poor Luke  make  a  "eagle"  words,  Luke  animals  were  science