Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of teaching-learning strategies on achievement in grade nine science Jordan, Elizabeth Anne 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A2 J67.pdf [ 11.05MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097364.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097364-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097364-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097364-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097364-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097364-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097364-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097364-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097364.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF TEACHING-LEARNING GRADE NINE STRATEGIES ON ACHIEVEMENT IN SCIENCE by ELIZABETH ANNE JORDAN B.A. B i o l o g y - M a s s a c h u s e t t s S t a t e C o l l e g e , Salem M.Ed. - U n i v e r s i t y of Maine, Orono A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1986 © ELIZABETH ANNE JORDAN, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: JULY, 1986 ABSTRACT U s i n g I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g as a t h e o r e t i c a l base t h i s study sought t o determine whether or not s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be taught and l e a r n e d . These s t r a t e g i e s d e a l t w i t h memory s k i l l s w h ich have been shown t o occur n a t u r a l l y i n mature l e a r n e r s . However, i t has been shown t h a t even some u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s l a c k t h e s e b a s i c s k i l l s and r e s o r t t o i n e f f e c t i v e memory t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n f a i l u r e t o r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n and an i n a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e problem s o l v i n g t a s k s . Four t a s k s were d e s i g n e d : Summarizing a Read i n g , S e l f - T e s t i n g V o c a b u l a r y , W r i t i n g Q u e s t i o n s and Answers and Diagramming. Seven v o l u n t e e r Grade 9 S c i e n c e t e a c h e r s , w i t h 311 s t u d e n t s , were a s s i g n e d t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l and a comparison group. Both groups were asked t o f o l l o w an o u t l i n e based on the P r o v i n c i a l C u r r i c u l u m f o r Grade 9 S c i e n c e . One group was a s s i g n e d p r e d e t e r m i n e d t a s k s from t h e t e x t w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group u t i l i z e d t he t a s k s above. In the a n a l y s i s , the R e c a l l p a r t and the Problem S o l v i n g p a r t of t h e P o s t t e s t c o n s t i t u t e d measures on t h e v a r i a b l e s of the Dependent V a r i a b l e Set w h i l e the P r e t e s t , S c o r e s i n Grade 8 S c i e n c e and the A r l i n T e s t of Formal Reasoning c o n s t i t u t e d the measures on the v a r i a b l e s f o r the Independent V a r i a b l e S e t . An i n i t i a l C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s d e t e r m i n e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s . An A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e was performed u s i n g P r e v i o u s Achievement and the P r e t e s t . A Post-Hoc S c h e f f e i i Test a n a l y z e d c o n t r a s t s between groups r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . The r e s u l t s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a=0.05, f o r the comparison group on r e c a l l ; w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on Problem S o l v i n g . No i n t e r a c t i o n s -were found between the v a r i a b l e s and the g r o u p i n g . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e the r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , mean s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s were v e r y s m a l l . The o b s e r v a t i o n was made t h a t w h i l e r e s u l t s might be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h e y may be e d u c a t i o n a l l y q u e s t i o n a b l e . Arguments were p r e s e n t e d which suggested t h a t the u n i t t a u g h t was i n c o r r e c t l y assumed by t e a c h e r s , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o be new m a t e r i a l . I t was f u r t h e r s u g g ested t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n had become "common knowledge". A l t h o u g h the t e a c h e r s found the m a t e r i a l s u s e f u l , the p r i o r knowledge p r e v e n t e d c l e a r answers t o the q u e s t i o n s a s k e d . T a b l e of C o n t e n t s ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1 . 1 THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 1.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 3 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 6 1.3.1 E d u c a t i o n a l Context 6 1.3.2 E x p e r i e n t i a l C o n t e x t ...7 1.3.3 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n t e x t 8 1 . 4 THE HYPOTHESES 1 1 1.4.1 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s ....11 1.4.2 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 12 1.4.3 Re s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 13 1.4.4 Re s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 14 1 . 5 METHODOLOGY 15 1.5.1 The P o p u l a t i o n 15 1.5.2 The Sample 15 1.5.3 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ...16 1.5.4 The Treatment 17 1.5.5 Re s e a r c h Design 18 1.5.6 Method of A n a l y s i s 19 1.6 THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 21 1.6.1 I n t e r n a l V a l i d i t y 21 1.6.2 E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y 21 2. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 22 i v 2.1 A PERSPECTIVE 22 2.2 RESEARCH ON TEACHING 24 2.3 THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL 32 2.4 PROBLEM SOLVING 36 2.5 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT 40 2.6 METACOGNITION AND METAMEMORY 44 2.7 RELATED RESEARCH 47 2.8 SUMMARY 56 3. METHOD OF THE STUDY 57 3.1 THE POPULATION 57 3.2 INSTRUMENTATION 59 3.2.1 V a r i a b l e s To Be Measured ..59 3.2.2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the I n s t r u m e n t s 60 3.3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 73 3.4 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 76 3.5 VALIDITY 77 3.5.1 I n t e r n a l V a l i d i t y 77 3.5.2 E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y 78 4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ..79 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 79 4.2 COMPLEXITY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VARIABLES 83 4.3 TESTS OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES 92 4.4 A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BASED ON OBSERVATIONS AND INTERVIEWS 104 4.4.1 Background 104 4.4.2 D i s c u s s i o n R e l e v e n t t o S p e c i f i c Hypotheses 109 4.5 DISCUSSION 117 v 4.6 SUMMARY 1 23 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 125 5.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 125 5.2 CONCLUSIONS 125 5.2.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the stu d y on r e c a l l 125 5.2.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t u d y 133 5.2.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d y ....135 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 137 5.4 UTILITY OF THE STUDY 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY 142 APPENDIX A. INFORMATION FOR THE TEACHERS 150 APPENDIX B. PRETEST AND POSTTEST 195 APPENDIX C. ELEMENTARY CURRICULA 210 APPENDIX D. ITEM ANALYSIS 212 v i LIST OF TABLES 4.1 Data D e s c r i p t i o n 67 4.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between V a r i a b l e s 69 4.3 C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s : T e s t f o r M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y of V a r i a b l e s 69 4.4 B a r t l e t t ' s T e s t f o r S i g n i f i c a n c e of E i g e n v a l u e s . . 72 4.5 C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s : Summary S t a t i s t i c s 74 4.6 A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r R e c a l l . . . . 81 4.7 Means f o r R e c a l l 83 4.8a R e c a l l Means by Developmental L e v e l - U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d 84 4.8b S c h e f f e T e s t of C o n t r a s t s Between A d j u s t e d Means . 84 4.9 A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r Problem S o l v i n g . 86 v i i LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 Bloom's Model of Sc h o o l L e a r n i n g 22 3.1 P r e t e s t and U n i t T e s t Q u e s t i o n s by C h a p t e r , T o p i c and Number 53 4.1 S c a t t e r p l o t Showing L i n e a r i t y of R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the F i r s t C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 71 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s p r o j e c t i s d e d i c a t e d t o my husband, John, and my son, T r i s t a n . T h e i r l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g make many t h i n g s p o s s i b l e , i n c l u d i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Of t h e many peopl e who s u p p o r t e d me i n d o i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h I w i s h t o thank the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s : Dr. W a l t e r B. B o l d t , Dr. P a t r i c i a A r l i n , Dr. Robert C a r l i s l e , Dr. Raymond P e t e r s o n as w e l l as the s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the support of Mrs. Sonja Edwards of D e l t a , B.C. whose l o v i n g c a r e of my son gave me the p i e c e of mind n e c e s s a r y t o devote my a t t e n t i o n t o r e s e a r c h . A l s o , I am g r a t e f u l t o the E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia which p r o v i d e d the f u n d i n g f o r t h i s p r o j e c t . i x Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The g e n e r a l problem of the p r e s e n t study was t o dete r m i n e whether or not t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t a u g h t f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t ways, enhance achievement i n s c i e n c e a t the grade 9 l e v e l . The q u e s t i o n s which a r i s e from t h i s g e n e r a l problem d e a l not o n l y w i t h achievement but a l s o p e r t a i n t o the a s s o c i a t i o n between the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and o t h e r f a c t o r s such as problem s o l v i n g , p r e v i o u s achievement i n s c i e n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of a s s i g n e d s t u d e n t t a s k s e m p h a s i z i n g e n c o d i n g , l a b e l l i n g , and s e l f - t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The s t r a t e g i e s were t a u g h t t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e form of s c i e n c e e x e r c i s e s or ass i g n m e n t s u s i n g summarizing, diagramming, and two s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . (See Appendix A.) The s t r a t e g i e s form f o u r s e p a r a t e t y p e s of e x e r c i s e s which were taught as an e x p e r i m e n t a l u n i t , d e s c r i b e d as t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t when p r e s e n t e d w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n t h e s e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s would a i d i n the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of new m a t e r i a l i n s c i e n c e . T h i s would be a c c o m p l i s h e d by p r o v i d i n g the st u d e n t w i t h "a s e t of d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e what sequences of a c t i o n s t o p e r f o r m " (Chi,1978,p.74) i n o r d e r t o 1 2 r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s u l t i n e f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s i n g , i . e . l a b e l l i n g and e n c o d i n g , of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a p p r o p r i a t e r e t r i e v a l a t a l a t e r t i m e . The Energy U n i t ( p h y s i c s s e c t i o n ) was s e l e c t e d because the m a t e r i a l was not c o v e r e d i n the grade 8 c u r r i c u l u m and because i t was found o n l y i n a few s e c t i o n s w i t h i n two of the t h r e e e l e m e n t a r y s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used i n B r i t i s h Columbia; namely, STEM and E x p l o r i n g S c i e n c e (Elementary S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guide: Grades 1-7, 1981). W h i l e energy i s c o v e r e d i t i s i n a v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l manner when compared t o the depth of the grade 9 u n i t . (See Appendix C f o r d e t a i l s of the energy t o p i c s i n both of t h e s e c u r r i c u l a . ) The B.C. S c i e n c e Assessment Summary Report (1982) i n d i c a t e s t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s a r e " g e n e r a l l y not spending the recommended time [on t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e ] " (p.36) and 42% of the e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s " f e e l l e s s than a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d [ t o t e a c h s c i e n c e ] " ( p . 3 7 ) . W i t h i n the j u n i o r secondary a r e a , most s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s a r e more p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h the b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s r a t h e r than the p h y s i c a l or e a r t h / s p a c e s c i e n c e ( I b i d , 1982). T h e r e f o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o be exposed t o f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on energy was l e s s than f o r m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n o t h e r u n i t s . 3 1.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g - As an o v e r l y s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n , S t e r n b e r g (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t " I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g p s y c h o l o g y seeks t o s t u d y the mind, i n g e n e r a l , and i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n terms of the mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t u n d e r l i e o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r " ( p . 1 ) . Memory - Campione, Brown and F e r r a r a (1982) d i v i d e memory i n t o s h o r t - t e r m or w o r k i n g memory and l o n g term memory. "Working memory i s c o n c e i v e d as a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y system from which unattended i n f o r m a t i o n i s r a p i d l y l o s t . Space i n wo r k i n g memory i s used by both the i n f o r m a t i o n r e s i d i n g t h e r e and the o p e r a t i o n s used t o i d e n t i f y , m a i n t a i n , and o p e r a t e upon t h o s e i t e m s . In c o n t r a s t , l o n g term memory i s a r e l a t i v e l y permanent, l a r g e c a p a c i t y system c o n t a i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r g a n i z e d knowledge of the s u r r o u n d i n g w o r l d " (p.399). T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s - " L e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , o t h e r w i s e known as c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s or c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , r e p r e s e n t complex mental o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a s s i s t l e a r n e r s t o p e r c e i v e , s t o r e , r e t a i n and r e c a l l d i f f e r e n t forms of knowledge or performance" ( J o n a s s e n , 1985,p.26). The T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s an i n t e r a c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between an i n s t r u c t o r and a s t u d e n t . I t i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s of i n t e r d e p e n d e n t components which i m p l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the i n s t r u c t o r as w e l l as the st u d e n t ( B u t l e r , 1985). 4 R e c a l l - T h i s i s a g e n e r a l term meaning the p r o c e d u r e of r e s p o n d i n g t o r e c o g n i t i o n - t y p e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the c o u r s e and r e t r e i v e d from l o n g term memory. U s i n g Bloom's Taxonomy (1956) t h e s e r e c o g n i t i o n r esponses r e q u i r e f a c t u a l r e t r i e v a l of knowledge, comprehension of f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l i c a t i o n . Problem S o l v i n g - "Problem s o l v i n g i n v o l v e s s y n t h e s i s -t r a n s l a t i n g and c o m b ining known r u l e s i n new ways t o c r e a t e new h i g h e r o r d e r c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e s s e s and then f o l l o w i n g the few r u l e s i n n o n - f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s ..." ( B u t l e r , 1985,p.55). Schema - "A schema i s a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t which d e s c r i b e s t h e format of an o r g a n i z e d body of knowledge i n memory." They c o n s i s t of a " m o d i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s g e n e r i c c o n c e p t s s t o r e d i n memory" (Chi and G l a s e r , 1985, p.241). The Subproblems The f i r s t subproblem. The f i r s t subproblem was t o d e t e r m i n e i f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e s e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s enhanced the r e c a l l of s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a u n i t of i n s t r u c t i o n on Energy by grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . Coding and l a b e l l i n g a r e i m p o r t a n t i n b u i l d i n g schema or s t r u c t u r e d networks of i n f o r m a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s and l o g i c a l r u l e s f o r t h e i r use. T h i s network i s the framework on which i n t e r r e l a t e d elements i n a t o p i c a r e a d e v e l o p i n t o one 5 c o n c e p t u a l u n i t (Norman et a l . , 1976; Cohen,1977). In a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w on academic work Doyle (1983) n o t e d : C o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s argue t h a t a p e r s o n ' s knowledge of the w o r l d i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n a l networks or schemata ... A schema i s a r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of o b j e c t s , e p i s o d e s , a c t i o n s , or s i t u a t i o n s which c o n t a i n s s l o t s or v a r i a b l e s i n t o which s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s can be f i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l view of knowledge emphasizes the m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n i n l o n g - t e r m memory, p.166-167 The second subproblem. The second subproblem was t o d e t e r m i n e i f the t e a c h i n g of t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , as noted above, enhanced s t u d e n t s ' problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . Brown and DeLoache (1978) found t h a t when n o v i c e and e x p e r t problem s o l v e r s (chess p l a y e r s ) were compared the more e x p e r t p l a y e r s drew from a more i n t e r - r e l a t e d network of i n f o r m a t i o n . Based on i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g p r i n c i p l e s , i t was s u r m i s e d t h a t t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s would e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o s o l v e problems w i t h g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y s i n c e i t would a l l o w them t o draw i n f o r m a t i o n from a broader range of i n t e r r e l a t e d elements found w i t h i n the framework of a c o n c e p t u a l u n i t . The t h i r d subproblem. The t h i r d subproblem was t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n and f a c t o r s such as t h e i r p r e v i o u s academic performance i n s c i e n c e and l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l development, f o r those t r a i n e d i n the use of the s t r a t e g i e s . Because of the memory enhancement n a t u r e of t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be an 6 i n t e r a c t i o n or r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e f a c t o r s and r e c a l l . (Enhancement of problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s as d e s c r i b e d i n the second subproblem would be an a n t i c i p a t e d e x t e n t i o n of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . ) 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 1.3.1 EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT In 1978 the P u b l i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n P a n e l of the B r i t i s h Columbia S c i e n c e Assessment judged performance on 70% of the items a t the grade 12 l e v e l t o be l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y , compared t o performance on o n l y 30% of the items judged u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a t the grade 8 l e v e l (p.125). S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d i n the 1982 assessment where i t was found t h a t : The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e from the Grade 12 Assessment i s v e r y d i s c o u r a g i n g . No a r e a s of p u p i l achievement were e x p l o r e d i n which i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t the p u p i l s were a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r than " s a t i s f a c t o r y " , and those a r e a s of s a t i s f a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n the Grade 8 Assessments i n both 1978 and 1982 do not seem t o have been m a i n t a i n e d throughout the secondary s c h o o l y e a r s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia S c i e n c e Assessment,1982,p.242) Thus, an apparent d e c l i n e i n achievement of s c i e n c e appears t o o c c u r a f t e r grade 8. A hoped f o r improvement i n academic performance and an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t and e n t h u s i a s m i n s c i e n c e a t more advanced l e v e l s between 1978 and 1982 d i d not o c c u r . In the 1982 B.C.Science Assessment summary of a t t i t u d e s toward a c a r e e r i n s c i e n c e i t was found t h a t : D e s p i t e t h e i r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s c i e n c e i n s c h o o l and t h e i r e x p r e s s e d l i k i n g of s c i e n t i s t s , 7 p u p i l s i n Grades 8, 10, and 12 d e f i n i t e l y do not have a h i g h i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r i n s c i e n c e . In f a c t , mean s c o r e s were the lo w e s t o b t a i n e d on the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . . . The low r e s u l t s a r e u n f o r t u n a t e i n view of the p r o b a b l e i n c r e a s e d need f o r s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t a l e n t e d p e r s o n e l i n our f u t u r e work f o r c e , p.245 The 1983 B r i t i s h Columbia J u n i o r Secondary S c i e n c e Program has as two of i t s f o u r c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s t o "... i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t s ' s c i e n t i f i c knowledge" and " t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p c r e a t i v e , c r i t i c a l and f o r m a l ( i . e . a b s t r a c t ) t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s " ( p . 6 ) . S i n c e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d e a l s w i t h problems of p r a c t i c e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t i n which they e x i s t t h i s s t u d y d e a l t w i t h the problem of d e s i g n i n g and j u s t i f y i n g t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n s e v e r a l c o n t e x t s . R e s e a r c h i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d c a l l s f o r both e x p e r i e n c e ( t r a i n e d i n t u i t i o n ) and i d e a s from a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. The s e c t i o n s which f o l l o w draw on both s o u r c e s . 1.3.2 EXPERIENTIAL CONTEXT From an e x p e r i e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the w r i t e r , w i t h e l e v e n y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e a t both the j u n i o r and s e n i o r l e v e l , t he t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g problem f o r the s t u d e n t i s t w o f o l d : f i r s t , the f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o the s t u d e n t must be i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t o a coh e r e n t framework; and second, the i n f o r m a t i o n must be m e n t a l l y a c c e s s i b l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . As i n most o t h e r s u b j e c t s , i t i s the w r i t e r ' s 8 o p i n i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s assume t h a t the l e a r n e r has d e v e l o p e d the c a p a b i l i t i e s t o i n t e r n a l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n n a t u r a l l y i n some way as he matures. However, i t i s suggested t h a t t h e s e c a p a b i l i t i e s are l a c k i n g i n the grade 9 s t u d e n t and t h a t t o o o f t e n a s t u d e n t i s u n c e r t a i n about what approach t o take i n i t i a l l y i n l e a r n i n g the m a t e r i a l . T h i s problem i s e v i d e n t e s p e c i a l l y i n the j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l where s c i e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t format from o t h e r s u b j e c t s ; i . e . , w i t h i n the framework of l e c t u r e , d e m o n s t r a t i o n , and l a b o r a t o r y m e t h o d o l o g i e s . I t has been found, t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t by p r o v i d i n g a s t u d e n t w i t h s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s on HOW t o s t u d y the f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e not o n l y i n academic performance but a l s o i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and, a l o n g w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , enhanced s k i l l i n problem s o l v i n g . 1.3.3 THEORETICAL CONTEXT The r e s e a r c h w i t h i n the f i e l d s of c o g n i t i v e development and memory development has i n d i c a t e d t h a t one of the major f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e a r n i n g of new knowledge and i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of p r e v i o u s knowledge may be the l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a v a i l a b l e and used by the l e a r n e r . L e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s appear t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n g e t s l e a r n e d , how t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o p r e v i o u s knowledge, and whether or not i t can be r e t r i e v e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n s (Brown and DeLoache,1978). 9 The importance of t h i s f a c t o r i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n Bloom's Model of S c h o o l L e a r n i n g where c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and s u b j e c t c o n t e n t a r e the " p r e r e q u i s i t e l e a r n i n g h e l d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r the l e a r n i n g t a s k ( s ) on which i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d " (Bloom, 1976, p.11). F u r t h e r , Doyle (1983) s t a t e s t h a t R e s e a r c h on performance d i f f e r e n c e s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t n o v i c e s , young c h i l d r e n , and low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s o f t e n f a i l t o d e v e l o p the s t r a t e g i e s and h i g h e r o r d e r e x e c u t i v e r o u t i n e s t h a t e n a b l e them t o u n d e r s t a n d t a s k s or c o n s t r u c t g o a l s t r u c t u r e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o m p l i s h t a s k s w i t h o u t s t r o n g g u i d a n c e . (p.175) Gagne (1980) and Janzen (1981) have i n d i c a t e d the need f o r s t r a t e g i e s t o be t a u g h t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r t y p e s of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n . I t would seem t h a t any one or a l l of t h e s e c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s can be r e a d i l y l e a r n e d and t h a t a l e a r n e r can a c q u i r e any one s i m p l y by " b e i n g t o l d " . . . . I see no r e ason t o t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s an advantage f o r l e a r n e r s t o " d i s c o v e r " t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , r a t h e r than b e i n g t a u g h t them d i r e c t l y . There appears t o be no e v i d e n c e of such advantage, p.90 - 9 1 (Gagne,1980) R e s n i c k and F o r d (1981) i n a d i s c u s s i o n of d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g s t a t e : Where the aim of t e a c h i n g i s r e t e n t i o n and t r a n s f e r , i t may be as e f f e c t i v e - and i s u s u a l l y more e f f i c i e n t - t o demonstrate the p r i n c i p l e d i r e c t l y r a t h e r than r e q u i r i n g s t u d e n t s t o d i s c o v e r i t . (p.146) Wildman (1981) d e t a i l s the c o n n e c t i o n between c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g and the d e s i g n of i n s t u c t i o n . He c a l l s f o r more r e s e a r c h i n p r a c t i c a l s e t t i n g w i t h the use of c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s t o d e v e l o p m a t e r i a l s f o r c l a s s r o o m use. 10 The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h i s s t u d y were chosen t o emphasize the o b j e c t i v e s of the l e s s o n t h r o u g h the use of t e c h n i q u e s , s i n g l y or i n c o m b i n a t i o n s , which p r o v i d e the s t u d e n t w i t h a chance t o m a n i p u l a t e elements of a c o n c e p t . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s which seemed t o have the most p r o m i s e , from an e x p e r i e n t i a l view and from t h o s e suggested by B i g g s (1980) a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. S e l e c t i o n of t a s k s which w i l l r e q u i r e answers t h a t h i g h l i g h t the s t r u c t u r a l framework or schema of a c o n c e p t . e.g. T e a c h i n g s p e c i f i c s ummarizing, diagramming and q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s which emphasize key words or p h r a s e s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s u p e r o r d i n a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s . 2. Methods of s e l f - t e s t i n g t o i n d i c a t e a r e a s of knowledge m i s s i n g or m i s u n d e r s t o o d . e.g. Use of s e l f - t e s t i n g v o c a b u l a r y s h e e t s . 11 1.4 THE HYPOTHESES The r e s e a r c h and s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses which were t e s t e d i n t h i s study a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.4.1 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t the use of i n t e g r a t e d t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r would enhance the r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n as d e t e r m i n e d by the o v e r a l l academic achievement of s t u d e n t s on a U n i t Test on r e c a l l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . (See Appendix B) The b a s i s f o r t h i s c o n j e c t u r e was t h a t the t e a c h i n g r o u t i n e p r o v i d e s the c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between the s u b j e c t m a t t e r p r e s e n t e d i n c l a s s and the t e s t performance by the s t u d e n t s . In a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d by R e s n i c k (1976) c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a r o u t i n e and then " i n v e n t e d a more e f f i c i e n t performance f o r t h e m s e l v e s " (p.72-73). R o u t i n e s c o u l d be thought of as a sequence chosen by a person t h a t p u t s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o memory. The sequence may or may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the type of i n f o r m a t i o n t o be s t o r e d . W i t h new or n o v e l i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t sequences a r e t r i e d u n t i l the p e r s o n f i n d s one t h a t works. T e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s from which more e f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l r o u t i n e s would d e v e l o p ; t h e r e f o r e , the i n i t i a l performance by the s t u d e n t s h o u l d improve s i n c e the p r i m a r y l i n k i s g i v e n and e x p l a i n e d t o him r a t h e r than the s t u d e n t r e l y i n g on h i m s e l f t o f i n d a r o u t i n e f o r i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n . 12 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , i n means on r e c a l l of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l f o r an Energy u n i t between th o s e u s i n g the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group) and the comparison group. 1.4.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s would not o n l y g a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the r e c a l l of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n b u t , i n a d d i t i o n , i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problems. Complex m a t e r i a l must be l e a r n e d i n more than r o t e memory f a s h i o n i f i t i s t o be u s e f u l t o the i n d i v i d u a l . In d i s c u s s i n g a schematic s t r u c t u r e based on the work done i n s e m a n t i c s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t h e o r y of l e a r n i n g Norman, Ge n t n e r , and Stevens (1976) suggest the i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t the m a t e r i a l i s o r g a n i z e d around schemata. There does not seem t o be a homogeneous network s t r u c t u r e . Rather t h e r e seem t o be w e l l s t r u c t u r e d means f o r o r g a n i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n , and f o r f u n c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s . Moreover, the schemata p r o v i d e means f o r a p p l y i n g the s t r u c t u r e s t o new and t o u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s . " (p.195) The way i n which the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were e x p e c t e d t o a i d i n problem s o l v i n g was t h r o u g h the development of an i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t u a l framework b u i l t up of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . Measurement of problem s o l v i n g , i n an essay f o r m a t , was done u s i n g a c o d i n g system d e v e l o p e d by B i g g s and C o l l i s 13 (1982), the SOLO Taxonomy ( D e t a i l e d i n Chapter 3 ) . By matching elements of the answer and elements of the c o n c e p t , c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s emerge showing how complete the c o n c e p t u a l framework i s by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t or i n v a l i d i d e a s . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , i n means on the q u a l i t y of problem s o l v i n g as measured by the SOLO Taxonomy between t h o s e u s i n g the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( the e x p e r i m e n t a l group) and the comparison group. 1.4.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s employing t h e s e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . As s t u d e n t s mature they become more aware of t h e i r own r e p e r t o i r e of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s . There i s a l s o an i n c r e a s e i n the m o n i t o r i n g systems n e c e s s a r y t o det e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s t r a t e g y t h e y choose f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (Brown and DeLoache, 1978). S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , i n means on r e c a l l due t o an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the comparison group. 1 4 1.4.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS I t was g e n e r a l l y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s employing t h e s e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and p r e v i o u s academic achievement i n s c i e n c e . T h i s achievement was measured by the l a s t s c i e n c e grade f o r a semester c o u r s e , poor (grade l e s s than C ) , average (grade C) or good (grade h i g h e r than C ) . S t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m w e l l on teacher-made t e s t s may have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d how t o i n t e r n a l i z e and m a n i p u l a t e s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . These s t u d e n t s may or may not make use of the s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s made a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . O f t e n a c a d e m i c a l l y good s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p more e f f i c i e n t r o u t i n e s ( R e s n i c k , 1 9 7 6 ; Groen and R e s n i c k , 1977) w h i l e w i t h a c a d e m i c a l l y poor s t u d e n t s the s t r a t e g i e s may p r o v i d e them w i t h a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . R e s n i c k (1976) p o i n t s out t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y - o f t e n e x p r e s s e d as i n t e l l i g e n c e or a p t i t u d e - may i n f a c t be d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of s u p p o r t i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r e i n making the s i m p l i f y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g i n v e n t i o n s t h a t produce s k i l l e d p e rformance. Some i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l seek and f i n d o r d e r i n the most d i s o r d e r e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s ; most w i l l do w e l l i f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( i . e . , the t e a c h i n g r o u t i n e ) a r e good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s ; s t i l l o t h e r s may need e x p l i c i t h e l p i n f i n d i n g e f f i c i e n t s t r a t e g i e s f o r p erformance, (p.78) S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , i n means on r e c a l l due t o p r e v i o u s academic achievement f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the comparison group. 15 1.5 METHODOLOGY 1.5.1 THE POPULATION The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d of grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h i s P r o v i n c e s t u d e n t s have completed a grade 8 s c i e n c e c o u r s e c o n s i s t i n g of u n i t s i n C h e m i s t r y , B i o l o g y , E a r t h S c i e n c e , and L i g h t . The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l the grade 9 s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n a suburb of Vancouver, B.C. These s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range and d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l backgrounds and soc i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , as v e r i f i e d by a c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n of s u r r o u n d i n g communities from the 1981 Census of Canada. 1.5.2 THE SAMPLE The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e sample c a l l e d f o r v o l u n t e e r grade 9 s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . C l a s s e s were a s s i g n e d i n such a way as t o d i v i d e them i n t o 6 e x p e r i m e n t a l and 8 comparison g r o u p s . Teachers i n the same s c h o o l were a s s i g n e d t o the same group t o e l i m i n a t e any p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n between groups. A t o t a l of 7 t e a c h e r s i n 6 s c h o o l s was used. A l s o , one comparison t e a c h e r withdrew from the st u d y a f t e r a s s i g n m e n t s had been made ( t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4 ) . A l t h o u g h the assignment was by i n t a c t c l a s s e s the u n i t of a n a l y s i s was the i n d i v i d u a l 16 s t u d e n t . 1.5.3 INSTRUMENTATION The i n s t r u m e n t s used c o n s i s t e d o f : 1. U n i t T e s t . T h i s t e s t was c o m p i l e d f o r the Energy U n i t i n the grade 9 t e x t by the a u t h o r f o r use as both the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . I t c o n s i s t e d of 44 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e r e c a l l q u e s t i o n s , and 3 problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g essay answers which were added t o the p o s t t e s t . Post-Hoc d e l e t i o n s were made which produced a t e s t w i t h 33 i t e m s . Content v a l i d i t y was d e t e r m i n e d by the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . F u r t h e r d e t a i l i s s u p p l i e d i n Chapter 3. (See Appendix B.) 2. T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g E x e r c i s e s . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were implemented t h r o u g h the use of t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t i o n s and classroom/homework a s s i g n m e n t s . Four t e a c h i n g e x e r c i s e s were used: Summarizing a Reading, V o c a b u l a r y Sheet, W r i t i n g Q u e s t i o n s and Answers, and Diagramming. (See Appendix A.) 3. A r l i n T e s t of Formal R e a s o n i n g . T h i s t e s t was used t o de t e r m i n e the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l of s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . Norms a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r grades 6-12 based on 5,000 s t u d e n t s . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a r e p r o v i d e d i n Chapter 3, a l o n g w i t h a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the t e s t . I t a l s o has the advantage of b e i n g group a d m i n i s t e r e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and 17 t a k e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour of time t o do by most s t u d e n t s . 4. SOLO Taxonomy: S t r u c t u r e of Observed L e a r n i n g Outcomes. T h i s taxonomy was chosen as a means of p r o v i d i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g method f o r an essay answer. I t i s a way of q u a n t i f y i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e a t t r i b u t e ; i . e . "how w e l l " the q u e s t i o n s were answered. The measure was dev e l o p e d by B i g g s and C o l l i s (1982). Each l e v e l i n the taxonomy i d e n t i f i e s an i n c r e a s i n g g r a s p of the m a t e r i a l . I t i d e n t i f i e s r e s p o n s e s which proceed from s i m p l e t o complex m a n i p u l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a s p e c i f i c t o p i c a r e a and "... p r o v i d e s a measure of the q u a l i t y of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n terms of p r o g r e s s i v e s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y " ( B i g g s and C o l l i s , 1982,p.164). (See Appendix A.) 1.5.4 THE TREATMENT The e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d the t r e a t m e n t which c o n s i s t e d of f o u r t e a c h i n g e x e r c i s e s , the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , i n the form of t a s k s which d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h the t o p i c s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n the c l a s s . The t a s k format and f u n c t i o n of the format was e x p l a i n e d by the t e a c h e r u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d d i r e c t i o n s . Over time the t a s k s became f a m i l i a r t o the s t u d e n t s and o n l y r e m i n d e r s were g i v e n by the t e a c h e r . The comparison group r e c e i v e d t a s k s s i m i l a r t o those the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e they now g i v e a c c o r d i n g t o the Teacher 18 Survey ( p a r t of the B.C. S c i e n c e Assessment, 1982) where, "... the g r e a t e s t use [was] of l a b / e x p e r i m e n t w r i t e - u p s and c o m p l e t i n g work u n f i n i s h e d i n c l a s s w i t h some l e s s e r emphasis on a s s i g n i n g problems a t the end of a s e c t i o n or c h a p t e r . " ( p . 2 3 4 ) Lab/experiment w r i t e - u p s were the same f o r both groups. Both groups f o l l o w e d a c o u r s e o u t l i n e which they a s s i s t e d i n p r o d u c i n g f o r the Energy U n i t . T h i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r any s e q u e n c i n g i n f l u e n c e s and ensured t h a t the c o n t e n t was as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o what would n o r m a l l y be c o v e r e d . The s t u d y took a p p r o x i m a t e l y 24 c l a s s p e r i o d s . D u r i n g t h a t time d a i l y l o g s h e e t s were kept by both groups of t e a c h e r s as w e l l as a l o g kept by the r e s e a r c h e r . These p r o v i d e d a r e f e r e n c e check a g a i n s t the c o u r s e o u t l i n e and kept account of any e x t r a n e o u s i n f l u e n c i n g v a r i a b l e s . The study began a t the s t a r t of a new s c h o o l y e a r t o c o n t r o l f o r the Hawthorne E f f e c t . S i n c e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h r e e comparison t e a c h e r s were i n v o l v e d and the i n i t i a l u n i t of a n a l y s i s i s the s t u d e n t , an attempt t o c o n t r o l f o r any t e a c h e r e f f e c t was done t h r o u g h the number of t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d and was s u p p o r t e d by a s t a t i s t i c a l comparison a t the end of the s t u d y . 1.5.5 RESEARCH DESIGN The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n t h i s s tudy was the n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n (Cook and Camp b e l l , 19 1979). I t c o n s i s t e d of an e x p e r i m e n t a l group t o which s i x of the f o u r t e e n c l a s s e s i n the sample were a s s i g n e d and a comparison group t o which the r e m a i n i n g e i g h t c l a s s e s i n the sample were a s s i g n e d . The comparison group was a no t r e a t m e n t group who were asked t o f o l l o w a s p e c i f i c o u t l i n e and a s s i g n e d p r e d e t e r m i n e d work from the t e x t . Both groups were g i v e n the U n i t Test (both as a p r e t e s t and a p o s t t e s t ) and the A r l i n T e s t of Formal Reas o n i n g . Both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and comparison groups f o l l o w e d a d e t a i l e d c o u r s e o u t l i n e . Teachers a s s i g n e d a p p r o p r i a t e p r e d e t e r m i n e d t a s k s t o the s t u d e n t s . However, the e x p e r i m e n t a l group a s s i g n m e n t s i n c l u d e d d i r e c t e d use of the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i l e the comparison group a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o complete the t a s k s i n a manner of the s t u d e n t s ' own c h o o s i n g . R e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy were d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s of the d a t a on the U n i t T e s t , which was used t o measure the dependent v a r i a b l e s of the s t u d y , r e c a l l and problem s o l v i n g . 1.5.6 METHOD OF ANALYSIS An i n i t i a l C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y , dependent v a r i a b l e s and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . T h i s p r o v i d e d an o v e r v i e w i n which t o i n t e r p r e t the 20 f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . Through the use of a M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n Model an A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out u s i n g s c o r e s on the P r e t e s t and P r e v i o u s Achievement i n grade 8 s c i e n c e as the two c o v a r i a t e s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d of s c o r e s r e s u l t i n g from the U n i t Test on R e c a l l and on Problem S o l v i n g . A S c h e f f e Test was performed on a Post-Hoc b a s i s t o f u r t h e r a n a l y z e the s t u d e n t s ' performance by Developmental L e v e l . 21 1.6 THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1.6.1 INTERNAL VALIDITY Cook and Campbell (1979) i d e n t i f y f o u r b a s i c t h r e a t s t o the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of t h i s s t u d y which a r e not c o n t r o l l e d f o r by the n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n i t s e l f They a r e : 1. S e l e c t i o n - M a t u r a t i o n . 2. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . 3. D i f f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c a l R e g r e s s i o n . 4. I n t e r a c t i o n of S e l e c t i o n and L o c a l H i s t o r y . 1.6.2 EXTERNAL VALIDITY The t h r e a t t o the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study was due t o the non-random s e l e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t s . The a n a l y a i s found i n Chapter 4 s u b s t a n t i a t e s the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the s t u d e n t s w i t h i n the sample. However, e x t r a p o l a t i o n from the sample group t o t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would have t o be done w i t h d i s c r e t i o n . Chapter 2 CONTEXT OF THE STUDY T h i s Chapter c o n t a i n s o n l y t h a t l i t e r a t u r e which d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n s t o t h i s s t u d y . The w r i t e r has chosen s p e c i f i c models f o r the reasons g i v e n i n the t e x t . The o m i s s i o n of any o t h e r t h e o r y does not i m p l y t h a t i t has not been c o n s i d e r e d or t h a t i t i s not v a l i d . 2.1 A PERSPECTIVE The w r i t e r deems i t i m p o r t a n t t o p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h a f a i r l y broad p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i n which t o view t h i s s t udy b e f o r e p r o v i d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . N a i s b i t t ' s (1984) s c e n a r i o of t r e n d s i n N o r t h America p o i n t t o a p o p u l a t i o n which w i l l r e q u i r e the a b i l i t y t o adapt and r e t r a i n a c c o r d i n g t o the changes w i t h i n what i s b e i n g c a l l e d an " I n f o r m a t i o n S o c i e t y " . T h i s " I n f o r m a t i o n S o c i e t y " f e e d s on a c y c l i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . As of 1984, the q u a n t i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n or d a t a i n the w o r l d has been e s t i m a t e d a t a p p r o a c h i n g the d o u b l i n g p o i n t e v e r y 20 months ( I b i d , p.16) w i t h p r o j e c t i o n s t h a t the t u r n over time w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e c r e a s e . What t h i s a p p a r e n t l y i m p l i e s t o e d u c a t o r s , and i s b l u n t l y s t a t e d by N a i s b i t t , i s t h a t u n l e s s our s t u d e n t s a r e taught (1.) how t o keep up w i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w and (2.) how t o adapt t o the changes of a l e s s i n d u s t r i a l and more i n f o r m a t i o n o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y they w i l l not be a b l e t o compete i n the j o b market. I would suggest t h a t i f one of the g o a l s of 22 23 e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o f u n c t i o n i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n t h a t s o c i e t y then the i s s u e of how t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s must be answered. I would f u r t h e r suggest t h a t one a r e a i n which a t e a c h e r c o u l d p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i s i n the ar e a of l e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n . E d u c a t o r s have been a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h the s u b j e c t of l e a r n i n g s i n c e the e a r l y 1900's where the d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g was t i e d t o the concept of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Attempts were made thro u g h o u t the 1940's and 1950's t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s t o l e a r n t h r o u g h a B e h a v i o r i s t approach where e v e n t s were m a n i p u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s . L a t e r the N e o - B e h a v i o r i s t s r e c o g n i z e d the importance of the complex mental systems n e c e s s a r y f o r b e h a v i o r a l changes (see Campione, Brown and F e r r a r a , 1983, f o r a d e t a i l e d l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w ) . The c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e s d e v e l o p e d out of a b e l i e f i n the p r o c e s s of c o n s t r u c t i n g systems t h a t model r e a l i t y . However, i n an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d c o g n i t i o n a g r e a t d e a l of emphasis was p l a c e d on memory. Brown (1982) p o i n t s out t h a t w i t h the advent of the l i t e r a t u r e on memory the term l e a r n i n g has u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i m i n i s h e d i n im p o r t a n c e . She a d v o c a t e s a r e t u r n of the term " l e a r n i n g " and an i n c r e a s e i n awareness of l e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n . A l s o , memory s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t o i n d i c a t e l e a r n i n g i n a broader sense than r o t e memory. The r e q u i r e m e n t s of the B.C. S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m , d e t a i l e d i n Chapter 1, p o i n t t o an area where the a p p l i c a t i o n of a 24 t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y may be of some a s s i s t a n c e t o the s t u d e n t s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a d d r e s s e s th e problem of p r a c t i c e i n e d u c a t i o n of d e s i g n i n g and implementing a t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , t h r o u g h b r i n g i n g t o the problem of p r a c t i c e the i d e a s from I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s used i n t h i s s t u d y have drawn on s e v e r a l l a r g e a r e a s of r e s e a r c h . They a r e the r e s u l t of u t i l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s about t e a c h i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g , problem s o l v i n g , and human development, as w e l l as m e t a c o g n i t i o n and metamemory. These i d e a s a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d below and a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r use i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d . Summary: W i t h th e i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o view e d u c a t i o n as the system f o r i t s d i s s e m i n a t i o n . R a t h e r , e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s i n ways t o l e a r n and t o i n t e r p r e t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t o make i t u s e f u l . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s s tudy i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a d d r e s s the i s s u e of t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s ways t o l e a r n . 2.2 RESEARCH ON TEACHING The v a r i e t y of models of l e a r n i n g span the o v e r l y complex work done w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e study of t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s (Ryans,1963; M i t z e l ' s model adapted by Dunkin and 25 B i d d l e , 1 9 7 4 ) t o a broader and l e s s complex models d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e frameworks f o r q u e s t i o n i n g of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , such as J e n k i n s ' ( 1 9 7 9 ) t e t r a h e d r a l model. Bloom's Model of S c h o o l L e a r n i n g was chosen as a b a s i s from which t o view t h i s s tudy s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems of p r a c t i c e i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n the t y p i c a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . Bloom's Model of S c h o o l L e a r n i n g (1976) was an e x p a n s i o n and and r e f i n e m e n t of the work from P r o c e s s - P r o d u c t r e s e a r c h ; i . e . , c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r and change i n p u p i l a t t a i n m e n t (Dunkin and B i d d l e , 1974). T h i s model p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l framework f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the complex a s s o c i a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The model i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e segments: Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , I n s t r u c t i o n and L e a r n i n g Outcomes. ( F i g u r e 2.1 ) FIGURE 2.1: Bloom's Model of School Learning (Bloom, 1976) S T U D E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S INSTRUCTION L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S Cognitive Entry Behaviors Level and Type of Achievement * prerequisite subject content * prerequisite cognitive skills for the particular task Affec t ive Entry Characteristics * individual interests * attitudes * motivations Learning Task(s) Rate of Learning Affec t ive Outcomes Quality of Instruction * cues or directions provided to the learner * participation of the learner (overt or covert) * reinforcement in relation to the learning * feedback and corrective system 27 Under Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : C o g n i t i v e E n t r y B e h a v i o r s , p r e r e q u i s i t e c o g n i t i v e • s k i l l s and s u b j e c t c o n t e n t , a r e the " p r e r e q u i s i t e l e a r n i n g h e l d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r the l e a r n i n g t a s k ( s ) on which i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d " (Bloom,1976,p.11). The A f f e c t i v e E n t r y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i s t of m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e r e s t . Under I n s t r u c t i o n : The L e a r n i n g U n i t i s a c t u a l l y a l e a r n i n g t a s k of v a r y i n g l e n g t h and s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t c o v e r a g e . I t "may i n c l u d e r e l a t i v e l y complex c o g n i t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s such as a n a l y s i s or a p p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as l e s s complex o b j e c t i v e s such as knowledge or comprehension " (Bloom,1976,p.22). Bloom's c o n c e r n was w i t h the r e l a t i o n s between l e a r n i n g t a s k s and i n what ways subsequent l e a r n i n g t a s k s a f f e c t one a n o t h e r i n r e l a t i o n t o l e a r n i n g outcomes. He i d e n t i f i e d the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n as b e i n g the most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e , a s s e s s i n g i t as a c c o u n t i n g f o r 25%-40% of the achievement v a r i a n c e . Bloom uses " l e v e l of s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a crude index of the presence of good cues and r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l " (Bloom,1976,p.126). From t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n has come a v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g Academic L e a r n i n g Time. The B e g i n n i n g Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Study ( F i s h e r , et a l . , 1980) found t h a t when t e a c h e r s gave i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o n t e x t of the l e s s o n , e x p l a i n e d what the s t u d e n t s were t o do, p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h s u c c e s s a c t i v i t i e s , and h e l d s t u d e n t s a c c o u n t a b l e , t h e r e was g r e a t e r s t u d e n t engaged time i n the 28 a c t i v i t y and g r e a t e r academic s u c c e s s . T h i s and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , r e s u l t i n g from a v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s , can be grouped as D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n . Many of the components are c l a s s r o o m management s t r a t e g i e s where "the model [ D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n ] improves the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r the l e a r n i n g t a s k " (Good,1979,p.58). D e f i n e d by Bloom (1976) "cues i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n as t o what i s t o be l e a r n e d as w e l l as t h e d i r e c t i o n s as t o what the l e a r n e r i s t o do i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s " ( p . 1 1 5 ) . They can be v e r b a l or v i s u a l and may v a r y i n s t r e n g t h . He n otes f u r t h e r t h a t , " I n g e n e r a l , we f i n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who have d e v e l o p e d e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g and s tudy p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be l e s s a f f e c t e d by v a r i a t i o n s i n the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n than s t u d e n t s who have d e v e l o p e d l e s s e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g procedures"(Bloom,1976,p.134). In work done w i t h t e a c h e r s ' cues and e f f e c t s on s t u d e n t achievement S t a y b r o o k , Corno, and Winne (1978) found t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d not a lways p e r c e i v e c u e s , such a s : i n d i c a t i n g i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s ( s t r u c t u r i n g ) , p r o m p t i n g and p r a i s e of c o r r e c t answers ( r e a c t i n g ) , as l e a r n i n g a i d s . The o n l y cue t o show s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , i n the s t u d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of what was happening c o n s i s t e d of q u e s t i o n i n g , ( s o l i c i t i n g ) t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s i s f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e x periment on s t r u c t u r i n g , s o l i c i t i n g , r e a c t i n g and so on i n t h e Program on Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s r e p o r t e d by Brophy (1979) where he s t a t e s t h a t "... no s i n g l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e i s l i k e l y 29 to c o n t r o l enough of the v a r i a n c e i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s when v a r i e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y " ( p . 7 4 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Winne and Marx (1982) process-outcome r e s e a r c h p o s t u l a t e s t h a t " t e a c h e r s i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s by c a u s i n g them t o t h i n k and behave i n p a r t i c u l a r ways d u r i n g t e a c h i n g . These m e d i a t i n g e v e n t s , i n t u r n , may l e a d t o changes i n outcome v a r i a b l e s " ( p . 4 9 3 ) . They s t u d i e d t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n t e n t s and matched them w i t h s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s , u s i n g s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l . The study c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a mismatch between t e a c h e r i n t e n t s and st u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s . A l s o , w i t h e x t e r n a l m a t e r i a l s s t u d e n t s were more co n c e r n e d w i t h the t a s k than the o r i e n t i n g component the t e a c h e r wanted. However, When s t u d e n t s were not o v e r l y t a x e d by the amount of the m a t e r i a l or the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t h a t the t e a c h e r i n t e n d e d of them, they were more l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t i m u l u s as the t e a c h e r i n t e n d e d and t o b e l i e v e they c o u l d c a r r y out the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s they p e r c e i v e d . ... s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e and c a r r y out the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s cued w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t i m u l i sometimes depended on how w e l l they had mastered c o n t e n t t h a t was t o be p r o c e s s e d , (p.. 514) T h e r e f o r e , the amount of m a t e r i a l i s a p o s s i b l e component i n a s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e a t e a c h e r s ' cue. In a n o t h e r segment of Bloom's Model, Doyle (1983) l o o k e d a t L e a r n i n g T a s k ( s ) i n terms of Academic Work. He i d e n t i f i e d f o u r b a s i c t y p e s of l e a r n i n g t a s k s embedded i n the c o n t e n t of a c l a s s : memory t a s k s ; p r o c e d u r a l or r o u t i n e t a s k s ( i . e . , a p p l y a p p r o p r i a t e a l g o r i t h m s ) ; comprehension or u n d e r s t a n d i n g t a s k s ; and, o p i n i o n t a s k s . A L e a r n i n g Task may 30 c o n s i s t of one or a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e . The r e s u l t of the t a s k f o r a s t u d e n t i s t h a t he a c q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n or f a c t s and t h a t he p r a c t i c e s o p e r a t i o n s used t o produce the i n f o r m a t i o n demanded by the t a s k . F u r t h e r , Doyle (1979) emphasizes the importance of s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c ues. ... the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s of a st u d e n t a r e not s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n of the range of a v a i l a b l e s t i m u l i or even of the s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , r a t h e r , they a r e shaped by the s t r u c t u r e of t a s k s i n a g i v e n c l a s s r o o m . ...From an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , what s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n a c l a s s r o o m i s a f u n c t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n s t h a t they p e r f o r m i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t a s k s . ( p . 1 9 8 ) Thus, the s e t t i n g w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m may i n f l u e n c e the q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d . For example; i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , each t e a c h e r had a v e r y d i s t i c t p e r s o n a l i t y which was obs e r v e d when the t e a c h e r worked w i t h the s t u d e n t s . In Chapter 4 a d i s c u s s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d which shows t h a t the comparison group were composed of s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d by the t e a c h e r s t o be " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g v i s i t s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m s s u p p o r t s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g made not o n l y by the t e a c h e r s but a l s o by the a c t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . However, when the t e a c h e r s were combined as comparison or e x p e r i m e n t a l t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s may imply t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found might be the r e s u l t of the type of s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . P e t e r s o n and Swing (1982) r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y which emphasized the problems of f o c u s i n g on b e h a v i o r r a t h e r than thought p r o c e s s e s . They p o i n t out t h a t l e a r n i n g i s an a c t i v e 31 mental p r o c e s s . I t i s the o p e r a t i o n chosen by the s t u d e n t which d e t e r m i n e s the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d . An ... i m p l i c a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy i s t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d d e l i b e r a t e l y t e a c h c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h improved academic performance [such as r e h e a r s i n g , c h e c k i n g ] . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n f o l l o w s from the f i n d i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r use of s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s a l s o tended t o do b e t t e r on academic t a s k s , (p.490) From t h i s sample of the r e c e n t P r o c e s s - P r o d u c t l i t e r a t u r e and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Bloom's Model, i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a s p e c t of academic t a s k s , p r o c e s s e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g a memory s e a r c h . Summary: One a s p e c t of l e a r n i n g f o r the s t u d e n t s i s found i n d e c i d i n g e x a c t l y what the t e a c h e r wants done w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n e i t h e r i n the c l a s s or i n the t e x t . W h i l e th e t e a c h e r may g i v e " a s s i g n m e n t s " , which the s t u d e n t d u t i f u l l y c o m p l e t e s , the i n t e n t of the d i r e c t i v e may have been f o r the s t u d e n t t o l e a r n and u n d e r s t a n d the m a t e r i a l i n such a way t h a t i t can be used l a t e r i n the c o u r s e . I f the Student has not d e v e l o p e d the a b i l i t y t o i n t e r n a l i z e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n he w i l l be a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e l a t e r when t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed. 32 2.3 THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL The Information-Processing Model represented by Newell and Simon (1972) was chosen for t h i s study because i t allows for a d e s c r i p t i o n of the co g n i t i v e process. While the computer model does have l i m i t a t i o n s (Schank,1980;Flores and Winogard, 1978; Shaw and Bransford,1977 and Neisser,1976) e s p e c i a l l y with regard to accommodation or the modification of knowledge according to novel events (Brown, 1982), i t does provide a tangible means for attempting to understand how learning can take place. Further, i t allows an attempt at understanding how what has been learned can be u t i l i z e d . Newell, Shaw and Simon (1958) in o u t l i n i n g problem solving in terms of Information-Processing emphasize that there i s no analogy between the computer and the human bra i n . Rather i t i s an analogy to the behavior of an organism the same as "a d i f f e r e n t i a l equation" describes "the behavior of the e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t " (p.153). This system a b s t r a c t l y represents the process of knowledge s e l e c t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n . The following model shows an i n t e r f a c e between the i n d i v i d u a l and the environment of a receptor of st i m u l i and an e f f e c t o r of responses to that s t i m u l i . •RECEPTORS ENVIRONMENT INTERPRETER MEMORY EFFECTORS 33 These two a s p e c t s of the system a r e the v i s i b l e , b a s i c s o u r c e s of a l l incoming and o u t g o i n g a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s on th e s e two systems t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l m o deling of the i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s i n g has o c c u r e d . At the base of the r e c e p t o r and e f f e c t o r systems l i e s the i n t e r p r e t e r , a l s o known g e n e r a l l y as s h o r t - t e r m memory ( a b b r e v i a t e d as STM). T h i s p r o v i d e s the el e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g or s o r t i n g system. Here " d e c i s i o n s " a r e made on incoming i n f o r m a t i o n as t o whether i t has importance or an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the b a s i c knowledge base of the i n d i v i d u a l . Unimportant items a r e s e l e c t i v e l y f o r g o t t e n or i g n o r e d , l i k e the t i c k i n g of a c l o c k i n the background, w h i l e o t h e r items can be p r o c e s s e d f o r s t o r a g e w i t h p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n or as s e p a r a t e u n i t s of new i n f o r m a t i o n . N e w e l l and Simon (1972) l i s t the f u n c t i o n s of the p r o c e s s o r a s : d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of incoming i t e m s , t e s t s and c o m p a r i s o n s , symbol c r e a t i o n , w r i t i n g symbol s t r u c t u r e , r e a d i n g . a n d w r i t i n g e x t e r n a l l y , d e s i g n a t i n g symbol s t r u c t u r e s , and s t o r i n g symbol s t r u c t u r e s . I n summary, the STM system chooses items of i m p o r t , s o r t s and c l a s s i f i e s , r educes the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o c o n c e n t r a t e d u n i t s f o r s t o r a g e , then l a b e l s i t f o r r e t r i e v a l . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d e n c o d i n g and l a b e l l i n g . The f i n a l s t e p i n the p r o c e s s i s the s t o r a g e of t h e encoded i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o l o n g term memory ( a b b r e v i a t e d as LTM). T h i s a r e a can be c o n s i d e r e d as a component which s t o r e s and r e t a i n s symbol s t r u c t u r e s or encoded i n f o r m a t i o n 34 u n t i l they a r e r e t r i e v e d by STM f o r immediate use. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of STM i s i t s c a p a c i t y . Due t o the c o n t i n u o u s i n f l u x of s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n which must be h a n d l e d the maximum number of p i e c e s m a n i p u l a t e d i s e s t i m a t e d a t 7, p l u s or minus 2, s e p a r a t e u n i t s or chunks of i n f o r m a t i o n ( C h i , 1978;Loftus and L o f t u s , l 9 7 6 and M i l l e r , 1 9 5 6 ) . Recoding of the i n f o r m a t i o n a l l o w s more m a t e r i a l t o be s t o r e d t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h i n t h i s memory s e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x p e r t i n t h a t f i e l d (Chase and Simon, 1973). S i n c e t h i s c a p a c i t y i s f i n i t e , i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y made as t o the f a t e of u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . Some p i e c e s a r e f o r g o t t e n , such as a one time phone number, or i f the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o the i n d i v i d u a l then the u n i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o LTM, such as our own phone number. Because of the c o d i n g system, the l a b e l r e f e r r i n g t o "our own phone number" produces r e t r i e v a l of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r u n i t of i n f o r m a t i o n from LTM. The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g s t o r e d and r e t r i e v e d p r e s e n t s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h c e r t a i n problems. Temporary i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y can o c c u r when t h e r e i s an i n t e r f e r e n c e such as those caused by p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g or e x t e r n a l e v e n t s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n a l u n i t ( L o f t u s and L o f t u s , 1976). The u t i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model l i e s i n the b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of a v e r y complex b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . The use of the model a l l o w s us the 35 a b i l i t y t o s e p a r a t e l e a r n i n g and thought p r o c e s s e s i n t o a r t i f i c a l u n i t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g a n a l y s e s a r e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from b e h a v i o r i s t ones... by t h e i r e x p l i c i t a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s i n g . They d i f f e r from the c o g n i t i v i s t G e s t a l t and P i a g e t i a n p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e the a c t u a l f l o w of performance - t o t r a n s l a t e ' r e s t r u c t u r i n g ' or ' l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s ' i n t o t e m p o r a l l y o r g a n i z e d sequences of a c t i o n s . (Resnick,1976,p.64) I t i s because of t h i s e f f i c a c y t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model forms the b a s i s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y . In e d u c a t i o n a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o implement t h e o r y based m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . Thus, the m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s s t udy have used I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g the m a t e r i a l s t o be used i n the s c h o o l s . Summary: I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g was chosen because i t p r o v i d e s a t a n g i b l e model w i t h s p e c i f i c t e r m i n o l o g y which a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e the i n t e r n a l , " b l a c k box" p r o c e s s commonly c a l l e d t h i n k i n g . 36 2.4 PROBLEM SOLVING In o r d e r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o be more u s e f u l , complex m a t e r i a l must be l e a r n e d i n more than a r o t e memory f a s h i o n . P r o c e d u r e s must be l e a r n e d w e l l enough t o be f u n c t i o n a l when needed as w e l l as when the format v a r i e s from the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which the p r o c e d u r e was l e a r n e d . (Norman, Gentner, and S t e v e n s , 1976). Problems range from t h o s e r e q u i r i n g o n l y the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the problem statement t o those r e q u i r i n g a draw on the l a r g e s t o r e s of i n f o r m a t i o n i n LTM (Simon, 1978). Brown and DeLoache (1978) have suggested a p a t t e r n f o r the development of problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s d e r i v e d from s t u d i e s done w i t h n o v i c e and e x p e r t chess p l a y e r s such as Chase and Simon (1973) and Simon and B a r e n f e l d (1969): f i r s t , t h e r e i s the n o v i c e problem s o l v e r w i t h l i t t l e or no i n t e l l i g e n t s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n ; e . g . the c o n f u s i o n over movement of p i e c e s . Second, as f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the r u l e s and s u b p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e s t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n d e l i b e r a t e s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n ; e . g . , the chess p l a y e r who s t a r t s t o a n t i c i p a t e moves. T h i r d , the e x p e r t problem s o l v e r r e s u l t s o n l y when the s u b p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r c o o r d i n a t i o n a r e o v e r l e a r n e d t o the p o i n t where the r e a c t i o n i s a t the p o i n t of a u t o m a t i o n . Gagne (1980) has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e a p p a r e n t l y human c a p a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n problem s o l v i n g : I n t e l l e c t u a l S k i l l , V e r b a l Knowledge and C o g n i t i v e S t r a t e g i e s . 37 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l S k i l l : T h i s e n a b l e s an i n d i v i d u a l t o p e r f o r m mental o p e r a t i o n s which a r e d i r e c t l y r e f e r e n c e d t o h i s e n vironment. The LTM c a p a b i l i t i e s a l l o w the p o s s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g out p r o c e d u r e s w i t h symbols. These i n c l u d e i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t s and a p p l y i n g r u l e s . S o l u t i o n s t o the problem must come a f t e r the c o n c e p t s and r u l e s a r e l e a r n e d , a l t h o u g h they are u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o t a s k s s i m i l a r t o those found i n the r u l e l e a r n i n g . In o r d e r t o a s s i s t i n s o l v i n g problems s e v e r a l items have been i d e n t i f i e d as a s s i s t i n g i n a c h i e v i n g a g i v e n g o a l . F i r s t , Chase and Simon (1973) show how p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e grouped or chunked t o g e t h e r . Then, because of a s s o c i a t i o n s made by the n a t u r e of the m a t e r i a l , an a s s o c i a t i o n i s made w i t h groups of o t h e r m a t e r i a l ( W i l k i n s , 1980). These a s s o c i a t i o n s of groups of i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a " s o l u t i o n space" or schemata. "Schema t h e o r y assumes t h a t t h e r e a r e memory s t r u c t u r e s (schemata) i n memory f o r r e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e e x p e r i e n c e d , and t h a t a major f u n c t i o n of schemata i s t o c o n s t r u c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of new s i t u a t i o n s " ( C h i and G l a s e r , T 9 8 5 , p . 2 4 l ) . T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s used when t r y i n g t o c a t e g o r i z e problems i n t o f a m i l i a r a r e a s or p r o c e s s e s . Chi and G l a s e r (1985) f u r t h e r s t a t e t h a t s t u d i e s on the s o l u t i o n of problems "where a g r e a t d e a l of domain knowledge i s i n v o l v e d i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h a t a v e r y r e l e v a n t p a r t of s u c c e s s i n problem s o l v i n g i s the a b i l i t y t o a c c e s s a l a r g e body of w e l l s t r u c t u r e d domain knowledge" (p.245-246). 38 2. V e r b a l Knowledge: Two forms of knowledge a r e i d e n t i f i e d : the s i m p l e s t a r e the names of o b j e c t s ( d e c l a r a t i v e knowledge) w h i l e the more complex form i s composed of o r g a n i z e d b o d i e s of knowledge. The i n c r e a s i n g s t o r e of m e a n i n g f u l knowledge i s of c r i t i c a l importance t o i n t e l l e c t u a l development. W i t h i n the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model, g e n e r a l knowledge i s s t r e s s e d as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n s u c c e s s f u l problem s o l v i n g . 3. C o g n i t i v e S t r a t e g i e s : T h i s i s the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s w i t h the environment. These are c a p a b i l i t i e s which "... may c o n t r o l such p r o c e s s e s as a t t e n t i o n , p e r c e i v i n g , e n c o d i n g , and r e t r i e v a l of l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as ways of t h i n k i n g " ( p . 8 8 ) . These s t r a t e g i e s a r e r e l e v a n t and s p e c i f i c t o c e r t a i n t a s k s ; t h e r e f o r e , e x p e r i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y f o r a s i t u a t i o n . As a c h i l d matures h i s mental a b i l i t i e s expand t o a l l o w g r e a t e r use of p r o c e s s e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g a memory s e a r c h . " B e t t e r i n f o r m e d about r e t r i e v a l p r o c e s s e s i n g e n e r a l , the o l d e r c h i l d can become more f l e x i b l e i n g e n e r a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s o l u t i o n of a g i v e n problem" (Brown and DeLoache, 1978, p . 2 5 . ) . "In sum, they [good l e a r n e r s ] supplement incoming i n f o r m a t i o n i n a number of c l e v e r ways t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , and t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what they a r e l e a r n i n g . I n s t r u c t i o n s may be i n c o m p l e t e , but they have the s k i l l s t o complete i t f o r f o r t h e m s e l v e s " (Campione, Brown 39 and B r y a n t , 1985, p.122). T h i s may l e a d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s found i n i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e a r n i n g . A l s o , i n the comparison of a c h i l d and a d u l t t h i n k e r , Brown (1979) p o i n t s out t h a t "what does hamper the i n e x p e r i e n c e d i s t h e p a u c i t y of s t r a t e g i c p r o c e s s e s a v a i l a b l e t o the system and the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of an i m p o v e r i s h e d knowledge base" (p.227-228). Summary: W h i l e a t t e m p t s w i t h c hess p l a y e r s g e n e r a l l y o u t l i n e d one a s p e c t of problem s o l v i n g , i t i s a p p arent t h a t the c o m p l e x i t y of the p r o c e s s a l s o i n c l u d e s a b a s i c knowledge s t r u c t u r e and a s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g y f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n . I f the s t r u c t u r a l network of knowledge or the s t r a t e g y i s d e f i c i e n t i n any way t h e r e w i l l be d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o l v i n g a g i v e n problem; t h a t i s , the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l behave l i k e a n o v i c e problem s o l v e r . 40 2.5 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT W i t h i n the g e n e r a l framework of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e , C h i (1978) s t a t e s t h a t r o u g h l y 99% of d e v e l o p m e n t a l d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t memory improves w i t h age . She s t a t e s t h a t t h r e e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e memory development: s t r a t e g i e s , knowledge, and c a p a c i t y . "... a s t r a t e g y i s a se t of d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e s what sequences of a c t i o n s t o pe r f o r m " ; e . g . , r e h e a r s a l , r e c o d i n g , and g r o u p i n g ( p . 7 4 ) . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the t h r e e c a p a b i l i t i e s , s t a t e d b e f o r e , which Gagne (1980) i d e n t i f i e d as e s s e n t i a l t o problem s o l v i n g ; i . e . , i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l [ from LTM], v e r b a l knowledge, and c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The work done i n t a s k a n a l y s i s , w h i l e r e f l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s from S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e t o G e s t a l t , a l l r e q u i r e a s u c c e s s i v e b u i l d up of complex l e v e l s on a f i r m knowledge base ( R e s n i c k , 1 9 7 6 ) . S i n c e the n e c e s s i t y of an i n i t i a l knowledge base i s r e c o g n i z e d , two f a c t o r s remain: s t r a t e g i e s and c a p a c i t y [memory]. These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r s i n c e i t i s f e l t t h a t they a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . W h i l e l o o k i n g a t l e a r n i n g from a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e the view t a k e n here i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t s u g g e s t e d by B i g g s and K i r b y (1980) where u s i n g the st a g e concept as a l e v e l a l l o w s the s t r u c t u r e t o be "determined by broad endogeneous l i m i t s ( e . g . i n w o r k i n g memory) and by exogeous f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , c u l t u r e . T h i s a l l o w s f o r 41 a c t i v e l y c h a n g i n g t h e c o u r s e of development r a t h e r than b e i n g c o n s t r a i n e d by the c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s " (p.202). In g e n e r a l , w o r k i n g memory i n an a d u l t i s e s t i m a t e d a t around 7 u n i t s as mentioned b e f o r e . W i t h c h i l d r e n the number i s s m a l l e r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 u n i t s , a l t h o u g h s t u d i e s w i t h u n f a m i l i a r s t i m u l i suggest a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m s i m i l a r l y i n memory t a s k s ( C h i , 1 9 7 8 ) . Case (1978) f e e l s t h a t the c a p a c i t y of w o r k i n g memory does not change a f t e r about age 2, but t h a t the measured i n c r e a s e i s due t o the de c r e a s e of c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d t o execute v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s (however, t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r the e x a c t age of s t a b i l i t y ) . As d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s i n c r e a s e c o m p l e x i t y t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e d demand f o r STM c a p a c i t y ( B i g g s , 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i (1978) s u g g e s t s t h a t a d u l t s have a d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e which a l l o w s the en c o d i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n such as t e m p o r a l , s p a t i a l , and n u m e r i c a l o r d e r i n g ( p . 7 4 ) . S i e g l e r (1978) found t h a t ... two c h i l d r e n w i t h s i m i l a r knowledge may be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a b l e t o a c q u i r e new knowledge. I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t deemphasized t h i s d i s t i c t i o n , s t r o n g l y i m p l y i n g t h a t the same stage c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t governed e x i s t i n g knowledge d e t e r m i n e d a b i l i t y t o l e a r n . Subsequent r e s e a r c h , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t the two domains a r e p r a g m a t i c a l l y as w e l l as l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t . In c o n t r a s t t o the f i n d i n g t h a t even 16 and 17 y e a r - o l d s o f t e n do not know how t o s o l v e f o r m a l problems s p o n t a n e o u s l y , much younger c h i l d r e n have been found a b l e t o l e a r n t o s o l v e them. (p.116) Case (1977) s u p p o r t s the N e o - P i a g e t i a n model of st a g e t r a n s i t i o n i n c o g n i t i v e development as f o l l o w s : ... stage t r a n s i t i o n i n any g i v e n domain c o n s i s t s of a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the e x e c u t i v e s t r a t e g y which the c h i l d h a b i t u a l l y a p p l i e s t o t h a t domain, i n o r d e r t o 42 t a k e account of some newly p e r c e i v e d f e a t u r e of r e l e v a n c e . (p.1) W i t h i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e a st u d e n t e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s u n t i l he g e t s i t r i g h t . What he uses as a s t r a t e g y i s dependent on the maximum l o a d i n working memory. T h e r e f o r e , Case (1978) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t t h i s i s an o r g a n i s m i c f a c t o r i n development. ... i f the c h i l d i s a c t i v e l y t a ught cue d i s c o v e r y and s t r a t e g y r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , then the demands on h i s wo r k i n g memory s h o u l d be reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y , e i t h e r by a u t o m i z a t i o n of c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n s or by ch u n k i n g items t h a t would n o r m a l l y be a t t e n d e d t o s e p a r a t e l y , (p.44) . . . i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o propose t h a t (1) the sequence of b e h a v i o r s t h a t emerges d u r i n g the c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s p e r i o d may be a s c r i b e d t o the e v o l u t i o n of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t e x e c u t i v e s t r a t e g i e s ; (2) p r o g r e s s through any g i v e n sequence of e x e c u t i v e s t r a t e g i e s can be i n f l u e n c e d be p r a c t i c e , feedback, cue h i g h l i g h t i n g , and s t r a t e g y m o d e l i n g ; and (3) the s i z e of a c h i l d s w o r k i ng memory l i m i t s the c o m p l e x i t y of the s t r a t e g y he can a c q u i r e and u t i l i z e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when h i s o n l y e x p e r i e n c e i s p r a c t i c e or p r a c t i c e w i t h feedback, (p.44) To summarize, the d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s w i t h i n a l e v e l r e s t s upon the a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y group or chunk i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s t o r a g e i n LTM. T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by Campione, Brown and B r y a n t , 1985. The s t r a t e g i e s n e c e s s a r y t o encode t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n appear t o o c c u r n a t u r a l l y but on an i n d i v i d u a l time frame. B i g g s and K i r b y (1980) s t a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e thought t o be i n the q u a l i t y of p r o c e s s i n g r a t h e r than i n the c a p a c i t y of p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l framework i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Vy g o t s k y where " c o g n i t i v e development r e s u l t s from l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n which c h i l d r e n a r e taught t o use v a r i o u s 43 c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t h r o ugh s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s " ( C a m p e r e l l , 1 9 8 1 , p . 5 ) . C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a r e seen as s o c i a l phenomena which must o c c u r t w i c e : f i r s t a t a s o c i a l e x t e r n a l l e v e l between i n d i v i d u a l s [ s i m i l a r t o Case's feedback above] and second on a p e r s o n a l i n t e r n a l l e v e l w hich V y g o t s k y terms " i n n e r speech". "The concept of i n n e r speech f u n c t i o n m i r r o r s the American c o n s t r u c t of m e t a c o g n i t i o n . In both c o n s t r u c t s , i n n e r - s p e e c h and m e t a c o g n i t i o n , s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y s k i l l s a re d e f i n e d as r o u t i n e s p e o p l e use t o p l a n , m o n i t o r , and d i r e c t t h e i r own c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r based on i n s i g h t s they have about how t h e i r own minds w o r k " ( C a m p e r e l l , 1 9 8 1 , p . 5 ) . Summary: There i s a l i m i t e d amount of mental a b i l i t y w hich can be u t i l i z e d a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e . As an i n d i v i d u a l matures he l e a r n s how t o reduce l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o u n i t s which can be e a s i l y s t o r e d and r e c a l l e d . By w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e s e u n i t s r a t h e r than w i t h s e p a r a t e p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e s the c a p a c i t y of h i s m ental a b i l i t y a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e . 44 2.6 METACOGNITION AND METAMEMORY Two broad a r e a s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g a r e found i n r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e . S i n c e b o t h a r e a s d e a l w i t h c o n c e p t s of l e a r n i n g i n the sense of a h i g h e r , more dev e l o p e d l e v e l the term meta i s used as a p r e f i x . The two a r e a s a r e M e t a c o g n i t i o n and Metamemory. " M e t a c o g n i t i o n i n v o l v e s the m o n i t o r i n g and r e g u l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . As a subset of m e t a c o g n i t i o n , metamemory i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the m o n i t o r i n g and r e g u l a t i o n of memory p r o c e s s e s and s t r a t e g i e s used by the i n d i v i d u a l . . . " (Lawson,1980,p.145). Because m e t a c o g n i t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the deployment of the l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s which d e t e r m i n e th e p r o c e s s used, the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d be d e f i n e d w i t h i n the m e t a c o g n i t i v e l i t e r a t u r e . However, the f u n c t i o n of the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s t o enhance l e a r n i n g which r e q u i r e s a f u n c t i o n a l memory system. Cavanaugh and P e r l m u t t e r (1982) d i s c u s s the l o g i c of metamemory as f o l l o w s : P i a g e t ' s c o n c e p t s of a s s i m i l a t i o n and accomodation " i m p l y an a c t i v e memorizer". Even though P i a g e t " d i d not argue e x p l i c i t l y t h a t knowledge about memory [metamemory by d e f i n i t i o n ] i s c r u c i a l f o r memory development... he f o c u s e d on development of the l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of memory c o n t e n t " ( p . 1 3 ) . The e x e c u t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e f e r r e d t o i n metamemory l i t e r a t u r e d e a l w i t h the mechanisms which o r c h e s t r a t e c o g n i t i o n ; i . e . , 45 s e l e c t i n g the best s t r a t e g y , m o n i t o r i n g e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of ongoing memory p r o c e s s i n g , u p d a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , r e s p o n d i n g t o t a s k s , and so on. One d i f f e r e n c e between the immature and the mature memorizer i s the use of spontaneous memory s t r a t e g i e s . Cavanaugh and P e r l m u t t e r (1982) s t a t e t h a t i t i s the p r o c e s s e s which s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from metamemory. They i d e n t i f y t h i s as the p o i n t of c o n f u s i o n over the d e f i n i t i o n which i n t u r n has r e s u l t e d i n r e s e a r c h problems. Baker and Brown (1980) add f u r t h e r t o the semantic d i f f i c u l t i e s , u s i n g the term " M e t a c o g n i t i o n " t o r e l a t e t o two s e p a r a t e phenomena: 1. knowledge about c o g n i t i o n : "... a p e r s o n ' s knowledge about h i s own c o g n i t i v e r e s o u r c e s and t h e c o m p a t a b i l i t y between h i m s e l f as a l e a r n e r and the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n " ( p . 2 ) . 2. r e g u l a t i o n of c o g n i t i o n : "... c o n s i s t s of the s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms used by an a c t i v e l e a r n e r d u r i n g an ongoing attempt t o s o l v e problems. These i n d i c e s of m e t a c o g n i t i o n i n c l u d e c h e c k i n g the outcome of any attempt t o s o l v e the problem, p l a n n i n g one's next move, m o n i t o r i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any a t t e m p t e d a c t i o n , t e s t i n g , r e v i s i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g one's s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g " ( p . 3 ) . Thus, even though much of the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n can be c l a s s i f i e d as Metamemory t h e r e i s an o v e r l a p i n t o M e t a c o g n i t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a . In p e r u s i n g 46 the r e s e a r c h i t i s suggested t h a t the s t r a t e g i e s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d can be a d e q u a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h the use of the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model, t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g the semantic problems encountered when u s i n g the more r e c e n t t e r m i n o l o g y of Metamemory and M e t a c o g n i t i o n . Summary: The l i t e r a t u r e on M e t a c o g n i t i o n and Metamemory has semantic problems s i n c e they appear t o be d e s c r i b i n g a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s ; t h a t i s , the knowledge one has over the p e r s o n a l s t r a t e g i e s a v a i l a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n memory. In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e any c o n f u s i o n a l l d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s tudy on s t r a t e g i e s has been c o n f i n e d t o the t e r m i n o l o g y found i n the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model. 47 2.7 RELATED RESEARCH Much of the r e s e a r c h i n s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o the study of Language and i s f r e q u e n t l y aimed a t the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d or e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . I t i s o n l y w i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h has expanded i n t o the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m w i t h the work such as Concept Mapping and Vee Mapping. T h e r e f o r e ; t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h : A. the l i t e r a t u r e from language s t u d i e s as they r e l a t e t o the t e a c h i n g of l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and B. w i l l examine s t r a t e g i e s r e s e a r c h e d i n the c l a s s r o o m w i t h emphasis on s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a . A. Brown, Campione, and Day (1980) i d e n t i f y t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s of t r a i n i n g found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on r o t e r e c a l l , w hich i s the most commonly s t u d i e d s t r a t e g y i n v o l v i n g r e h e a r s a l , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and e l a b o r a t i o n . 1. B l i n d T r a i n i n g . S t u d e n t s a r e induced t o use the s t r a t e g i e s but are g i v e n no e x p l i c i t d e t a i l s of the a c t i v i t y . "... they f a i l , however t o r e s u l t i n maintenance or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the s t r a t e g y - i . e . , the c h i l d n e i t h e r uses the a c t i v i t y s u b s e q u e n t l y of h i s own v o l i t i o n , nor t r a n s f e r s the a c t i v i t y t o s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n " ( p . 5 ) . 2. Informed T r a i n i n g . S t u d e n t s a r e i n d u c e d t o use the s t r a t e g i e s and a r e g i v e n some i n f o r m a t i o n on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a c t i v i t y . "These t r a i n i n g packages r e s u l t i n b oth improved performance on the t r a i n i n g t a s k 48 and maintenance of the a c t i v i t y by the c h i l d when f a c e d w i t h subsequent s i m i l a r problems. There i s some e v i d e n c e of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , but so f a r the e v i d e n c e has been v e r y weak, and the t r a n s f e r v e r y n e a r - i . e . , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t a s k i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the t r a i n i n g t a s k " ( p . 7 ) . 3. S e l f - C o n t r o l T r a i n i n g . "... the c h i l d i s not o n l y i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of a s t r a t e g y but i s a l s o e x p l i c i t l y i n s t r u c t e d i n how t o employ, m o n i t o r , check and e v a l u a t e t h a t s t r a t e g y . The number of s t u d i e s t h a t have employed t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n a r e few, but p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e t h a t the s t r a t e g y - p l u s - c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g packages a r e the most s u c c e s s f u l a t i n d u c i n g not o n l y enhanced performance but a l s o t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g t o a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g s " ( p 7 . ) . In a s t u d y of summarizing r e a d i n g s done by Brown, Campione, and Day (1980) i n which s e l f - c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g was t a u g h t they found t h a t by i n c l u d i n g the s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g s t r a t e g y t hey were a b l e t o i n duce the r udiments of mature s t u d y i n g b e h a v i o r . These s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g s t r a t e g i e s can c o n s i s t of s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , summarizing and s t u d y i n g from a summary, u n d e r l i n i n g , e s t i m a t i n g r e a d i n e s s t o be t e s t e d , and so on (Baker and Brown,1980). These s t r a t e g i e s h e l p e d t o form the b a s i s f o r the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s found i n t h i s s t u d y . Brown and B a r c l a y (1976) i n a s t u d y done w i t h e ducable m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s suggest an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between 49 c o g n i t i v e m a t u r i t y and s u s c e p t a b i l i t y t o t r a i n i n g , w i t h o l d e r s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y s p o n t a n e o u s l y m o n i t o r i n g e f f e c t i v e use of a s t r a t e g y . S i n c e the p r e s e n t study u t i l i z e d a c o m b i n a t i o n of the above s t r a t e g i e s and a sample of c h i l d r e n a normal range of a b i l i t y , i t would seem t h a t t e a c h i n g s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s would r e q u i r e o n l y an i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r the s t u d e n t s t o p e r c e i v e a v a l u e i n them. In a s t u d y on the use of r e t r i e v a l a i d s t o enhance r e c a l l Baker and Brown(l980) c o n c l u d e d : Thus, th e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e r e t r i e v a l cues i s a l a t e - d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l because i t r e q u i r e s a f i n e degree of s e n s i t i v i t y t o the demands of s t u d y i n g . The s u c c e s s f u l u s e r of the f l e x i b l e r e t r i e v a l p l a n ... must have (a) i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the c u r r e n t s t a t e of knowledge, i . e . , what he knows of the t e x t and what he does not y e t know; (b)knowledge o f . t h e f i n e g r a d a t i o n of i mportance of v a r i o u s elements of t e x t s , i . e . , what i s i m p o r t a n t t o know and what can be d i s r e g a r d e d ; and (c) the s t r a t e g i c knowledge t o s e l e c t f o r r e t r i e v a l cues i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he m i s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , (p.38) I f t h i s a b i l i t y i s a " l a t e - d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l " then a n a t u r a l e x t e n t i o n of t h e statement i s : how l a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g ? In a study on t e a c h i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d program ( E y l o n , l 9 7 9 ) u s i n g 36 f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s , the two w i t h the l o w e s t a b i l i t y remembered v e r y l i t t l e and w i t h no c o h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . They a d m i t t e d no framework even though the m a t e r i a l was h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d . E y l o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t " l o w e r - a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s l a c k e d some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s ( s u ch as e x p l o i t i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o them, or r e o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e m s e l v e s ) " ( p . 1 0 3 ) . F u r t h e r , 50 she s u g g e s t s t h a t a d e s i r a b l e g o a l may be t o t e a c h these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s ( p.104). T h e r e f o r e , even a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h a t l e a s t average a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s the same l a c k of s t r a t e g i e s f o r e f f e c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g can be found. T h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by Dansereau (1985) based on h i s l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y i n v e n t o r y of 1975. D i e k h o f f , Brown and Dansereau (1982) found t h a t when s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g was done w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t h e r e was a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n pr o s e l e a r n i n g . I f we c o u l d c o n s i d e r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s t o be r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l a c a d e m i c a l l y and t h e s e s t r a t e g y d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e found a t t h i s l e v e l , a r e a s o n a b l e e x t e n t i o n would be t o ask how many s t u d e n t s a t the j u n i o r h i g h s h o o l l e v e l a l s o have t h i s problem. Other fo r m a t s were found i n t e a c h i n g the use of s t r a t e g i e s , however the s e c o n s i s t of a more f o r m a l i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d scheme. An e a r l y s t u d y t e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d by Robinson (1946) c a l l e d SQ3R was used i n a v a r i e t y of e a r l y r e s e a r c h . The acronym d e n o t e s : Survey, Q u e s t i o n , R e c i t i t a t i o n , R e f l e c t i o n , and Review. A r e v i t a l i z a t i o n was at t e m p t e d a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l w i t h the use of f i l e c a r d s and a u d i o t a p e s , i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l ( P a u l s o n , 1980). However, t h i s t e c h n i q u e assumes t h a t the s t u d e n t has v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s f o r enco d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , summarizing, and r e c a l l . The RSM2P of Huhn (1981) was de v e l o p e d l a t e r . T h i s r e q u i r e s the t e a c h e r t o p e r s o n a l l y model and a i d i n the 51 s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g of t h e s t r a t e g y . The t e a c h e r must f i r s t engage i n r e t r o s p e c t i o n of the s p e c i f i c t a s k , then p e r f o r m the t a s k , next he must note what i s done and thought a l o n g w i t h any i n f l u e n c e s which a f f e c t d e c i s i o n s . Then the sequence must be taught t o the s t u d e n t . 1. R a t i o n a l e : e x p l a i n what the s t u d e n t i s b e i n g t a u g h t and why. 2. S t e p s : the t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s the s t e p s i n w r i t i n g and goes over them o r a l l y . 3. Model: the t e a c h e r models the use of the s t e p s o r a l l y . 4. P r a c t i c e : the s t u d e n t s goes over the s t e p s o r a l l y w i t h the a i d of the t e a c h e r . 5. P r a c t i c e : t h e s t u d e n t i s g i v e n a number of s i m i l a r t a s k s t o p e r f o r m i n d e p e n d e n t l y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e would be l a b e l l e d c o n v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g by D i r k e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Where l e a r n e r s l e a r n by r u l e s w i t h o u t t h e i r own i n p u t ; t h e r e f o r e , w h a t they a r e r e a l l y l e a r n i n g i s how t o s u b s t i t u t e ( p . 1 ) . V a r i o u s o t h e r a t t e m p t s have been made t o embed s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l (Bean, 1983; J o n e s , 1980 and Brown, Campiorie and Day, 1980). None of t h e s e s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . However, Bean (1983) found two s t u d e n t s who t r a n s f e r r e d the s t r a t e g i e s t a u g h t w i t h i n t h e i r h i s t o r y t e x t t o t h e i r b i o l o g y c l a s s . Summary: W i t h i n language r e s e a r c h a b a s i s can be found i n e f f e c t i v e l y t r a i n i n g a s t r a t e g y t o an i n d i v i d u a l . W h i l e s e v e r a l h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d models were d e v e l o p e d the r e s e a r c h 52 showing the most promise appears t o be i n s t r a t e g y - p l u s - c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g . T h i s work has been used as a b a s i s f o r the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s found i n t h i s s t u d y . 53 B. W i t h i n the ar e a of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n v e r y l i t t l e has been done w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s u n t i l r e c e n t l y . Novak and Godwin (1984) have d e v e l o p e d and r e s e a r c h e d two new t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s c a l l e d Concept Mapping and Knowledge Vee Mapping. These a r e b o t h based on A u s u b e l ' s A s s i m i l a t i o n Theory of L e a r n i n g (Novak, 1985). B r i e f l y , t he t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t a l e a r n e r b u i l d s on what he a l r e a d y knows. By a p r o c e s s of subsumption new knowledge i s added t o the knowledge base. But f o r new knowledge t o be u t i l i z e d i t must be m e a n i n g f u l t o the l e a r n e r r a t h e r than knowledge l e a r n e d by r o t e memory. Novak's Concept Mapping f i n d s i t s b a s i s i n the e p i s t e m o l o g i e s of Kuhn and Toulmin where " c o n c e p t s , not methods of i n q u i r y , a r e a t the c o r e of r a t i o n a l human th o u g h t , i n c l u d i n g the r a t i o n a l b a s i s of s c i e n c e and mathematics". Concepts a r e "... r e g u l a r i t i e s i n f a c t s d e s i g n a t e d by some c u l t u r a l l y agreed upon s i g n or symbol..." u s u a l l y j o i n e d t o g e t h e r by p r o p o s i t i o n s , such as " c l o u d s g i v e r a i n " (Novak,1977,p.455). W i t h Concept Mapping a st u d e n t draws a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e c o n n e c t i n g c oncept words t o g e t h e r . T h i s t e c h n i q u e can be ta u g h t even t o v e r y young s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The t e a c h e r must c o r r e c t the concept maps i n d i v i d u a l l y s i n c e v a r i a t i o n s do oc c u r as t h s t u d e n t b u i l d s upon h i s p r e v i o u s knowledge (Novak and Gowin, 1984). Gowin's Vee Mapping r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l p a r t s of a problem be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c o m i t a n t l y and i n t e r a c t i v e l y . A s t u d e n t b u i l d s the Vee Map by i d e n t i f y i n g a l l p a r t s of the c o n c e p t u a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l background knowledge which a f f e c t s the p r e s e n t q u e s t i o n b e i n g asked . In t h i s way the f i n a l answer t o the q u e s t i o n or problem has a v e r y d e f i n i t e p l a c e w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l knowledge s t r u c t u r e the s t u d e n t has b u i l t up (Gowin, 1981). Novak, Gowin, and Johansen (1983) r e p o r t the use of Concept Mapping and Vee Mapping w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . W i t h grades 7 and 8, c o n c e p t s had t o be e x p l a i n e d f i r s t and t h e n , w i t h p r a c t i c e , the s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s e d from concept mapping t o the use of Vee maps f o r t h e i r l a b work. A f t e r s i x months t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s between those u s i n g the t e c h n i q u e s and a c o n t r o l group, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was " r e l a t i v e l y low mean performance of both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s " (p.638). W h i l e r e c a l l a l s o improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d between t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s and c o u r s e g r a d e s . The a u t h o r s e s t i m a t e d t h a t w i t h two or more y e a r s of w o r k i n g w i t h Vee Maps 90% of the s t u d e n t s would become h i g h l y competent w i t h i t s use (p.635). However, i n a study w i t h b l a c k h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s comparing o u t l i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s w i t h Concept and Vee Mapping Lehman, C a r t e r and K a h l e (1985) found no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between groups. ( T h i s study i s mentioned f u r t h e r i n Chapter 5 w i t h r e g a r d t o the r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . ) Summary: The c u r r e n t work i n t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of diagramming c o n c e p t s . W h i l e t h i s work shows promise i t i a p p a r e n t l y a f a i r l y time consuming p r o c e s s f o r a t e a c h e r t e a c h and t o grade (due t o i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of c o n c e p t ) . 56 2.8 SUMMARY When s t u d e n t s encounter a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s u n f a m i l i a r knowledge such as t h a t found o f t e n i n s c i e n c e , they must have ready t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o c e s s i t . U s i n g the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model the l i m i t e d STM c a p a c i t y n e c e s s i t a t e s u s e f u l , e c o n o m i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t o s t o r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o LTM and t o a l l o w f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e t r i e v a l . These u s e f u l , e c o n o m i c a l ( i n terms of STM space) s t r a t e g i e s r e s u l t from c o n c i s e methods, w i t h p e r s o n a l l y proven u t i l i t y , w h ich a r e p r a c t i c e d by the st u d e n t t o the p o i n t of a u t o m a t i o n . As an i n d i v i d u a l matures t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s u s u a l l y d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y over t i m e . However, as found i n a v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s i n the a r e a of language and e d u c a t i n g the m e n t a l l y handicapped s t u d e n t , t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s can a l s o be t a u g h t . W ith t h e i n c r e a s e i n the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n becoming a v a i l a b l e i t becomes even more i m p o r t a n t t o a s s i s t a s t u d e n t i n ways t o e f f i c i e n t l y p r o c e s s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . S i n c e o n l y a few a t t e m p t s have been made t o t e a c h ways of l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n i n s c i e n c e t h i s i s i d e n t i f i e d as an a r e a f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . Chapter 3 METHOD OF THE STUDY 3.1 THE POPULATION The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y was grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . T h i s community compared f a v o r a b l y t o t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o income, r e l i g i o n , o r i g i n of the p o p u l a t i o n and t y p e s of d w e l l i n g s (1981, Census of Canada).Thus i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s community p r o v i d e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the p o p u l a t i o n of the g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . These s t u d e n t s had completed one year of grade 8 s c i e n c e which i n c l u d e d u n i t s i n C h e m i s t r y , B i o l o g y , E a r t h S c i e n c e , and L i g h t . I n t a c t heterogeneous c l a s s e s were used; i . e . , s t u d e n t s were not s e p a r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . The s t u d e n t s from t h i s d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t e d a b r oad range of c u l t u r a l backgrounds and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s . The Sample The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n was t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n the sample i n s t r u c t heterogenous grade 9 s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o a b i l i t y , and v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . U s i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a , a sample of 7 t e a c h e r s w i t h a t o t a l of 14 c l a s s c o n s i s t i n g of 388 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 57 58 the s t u d y . The t e a c h e r s and c l a s s e s were o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s : two t e a c h e r s had one c l a s s each, t h r e e t e a c h e r s had two c l a s s e s each and two t e a c h e r s had t h r e e c l a s s e s each. Assignment t o comparison or e x p e r i m e n t a l group was done as f o l l o w s : the two s e t s of two t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a s c h o o l were p l a c e d (by drawing l o t s ) i n the comparison group and i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, the r e s t were a s s i g n e d by drawing names from a box u n t i l each t e a c h e r had an assignment. S t u d e n t s who were r e p e a t i n g grade 9 s c i e n c e (24 s t u d e n t s ) and those f o r whom d a t a were i n c o m p l e t e (53 s t u d e n t s ) were d e l e t e d a t the end of t h e study r e s u l t i n g i n a sample p o p u l a t i o n of 311 s t u d e n t s . S i n c e the i n c o m p l e t e d a t a c o n s i s t e d of i n f o r m a t i o n from s t u d e n t s t e s t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s as w e l l as from permanent r e c o r d c a r d s , d a t a were c o n s i d e r e d t o be m i s s i n g on a random b a s i s . 59 3.2 INSTRUMENTATION 3.2.1 VARIABLES TO BE MEASURED The Dependent and Independent v a r i a b l e s of t h i s study a r e i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : DEPENDENT VARIABLES 1. R e c a l l of f a c t s as measured by the U n i t T e s t ( P a r t I ) . 2. Problem s o l v i n g as measured by the U n i t T e s t ( P a r t I I ) . INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 1. Treatment: A t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y based on the p r i n c i p l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . Comparison: A r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y , not d i r e c t l y based on the p r i n c i p l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . 2. Developmental l e v e l , as measured by the A r l i n T est of  Formal R e a s o n i n g . 3. P r e v i o u s academic achievement, as measured by the year end s c o r e o b t a i n e d i n grade 8 s c i e n c e . 4. P r i o r knowledge of the m a t e r i a l t o be tau g h t as measured by t h e U n i t T e s t . 60 3.2.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTRUMENTS 1. U n i t T e s t : The U n i t Test was used as a measure on the dependent v a r i a b l e , R e c a l l of f a c t s and Problem S o l v i n g , and as a measure of p r i o r knowledge of the U n i t , an independent v a r i a b l e . S i n c e the o u t l i n e f o r the u n i t was based on m a t e r i a l the t e a c h e r s i n the st u d y n o r m a l l y c o v e r e d , some s e c t i o n s were o m i t t e d w h i l e o t h e r s were emphasized. T h i s p r e c l u d e d the use of any s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t and n e c e s s i t a t e d p r o d u c i n g a t e s t which v a l i d l y r e f l e c t e d the c o n t e n t t a u g h t t o the s t u d e n t s . T h i s t e s t was c o m p i l e d by the r e s e a r c h e r based on i n f o r m a t i o n found i n the Energy U n i t i n the grade 9 t e x t , D e v e l o p i n g S c i e n c e Concepts i n the L a b o r a t o r y (Murphy and Schmidt, 1979). I t c o n s i s t e d of two t y p e s of q u e s t i o n s : I . R e c a l l ; e . g . m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , and I I . Problem S o l v i n g ; e.g. essay q u e s t i o n s where c o n t e n t i n f o r m a t i o n must be m a n i p u l a t e d . The c o n t e n t was judged by the t e a c h e r s as v a l i d l y r e f l e c t i n g the c o u r s e t a u g h t . The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the problem s o l v i n g s e c t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by l o o k i n g a t the code the t e a c h e r s gave t o the answers u s i n g the SOLO Taxonomy. Hi g h e r codes s c o r e d would g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of thought and e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t had been l o g i c a l l y brought i n t o a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s . T h i s h i g h e r l e v e l of thought would t h e r e b y s u p p o r t the d e f i n i t i o n of problem s o l v i n g used i n t h i s s tudy (see Chapter 1 ) . 61 Two p i l o t s t u d i e s were done on the q u e s t i o n s f o r r e c a l l . These were done t o i d e n t i f y q u e s t i o n s which would not o n l y a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the c o n t e n t taught but would be deemed s t a t i s t i c a l l y adequate ( d e t a i l s a r e g i v e n l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n ) . A l s o , the t e s t would have t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n one c l a s s p e r i o d and r e a s o n a b l y resemble a teacher-made t e s t i n o r d e r t o a pproximate the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g , which was one a s p e c t of t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t p i l o t study on the t e s t q u e s t i o n s was run i n a community i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia u s i n g 124 grade 9 s t u d e n t s . T h i s i d e n t i f i e d a s e t of q u e s t i o n s f o r the second p i l o t s t u d y . D u r i n g the s p r i n g p r i o r t o the r e s e a r c h s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s v o l u n t e e r e d t o g i v e t e s t s on the Energy U n i t t o the grade 9 s t u d e n t s they were t e a c h i n g a t the t i m e . Some of t h e s e t e a c h e r s l a t e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s means t h a t the second p i l o t s t u d y was done on a sample of the s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n which would t a k e p a r t i n the r e s e a r c h . The two v e r s i o n s of the t e s t c o n s i s t e d of a t o t a l of 69 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . The UBC LERTAP Programme was used t o conduct a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s program was chosen s i n c e i t p r o v i d e d not o n l y s p e c i f i c i t e m a n a l y s i s but a l s o a Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y u s i n g a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e ( i t e m s were g i v e n e q u a l w e i g h t s ) and i s a l g e b r a i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o a K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n 20 62 a n a l y s i s . From t h i s bank of 69 q u e s t i o n s 44 were a c c e p t e d f o r use i n the F a l l and made up the U n i t T e s t . See Appendix D f o r d e t a i l s on the Te s t Q u e s t i o n s . Items were a n a l y z e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s : I . Items w i t h a "p" v a l u e g r e a t e r than 0.75 were c o n s i d e r e d "too easy" and f o r 0.25 were c o n s i d e r e d "too h a r d " . T h i s l e f t t he m i d d l e 50% f o r c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . I I . Item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by c h e c k i n g the adequacy of d i s t r a c t o r s . A l l d i s t r a c t o r s s h o u l d have n e g a t i v e b i s e r i a l or p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the t o t a l t e s t ( t h e r e were no s u b t e s t s ) . T h i s means t h a t those who chose the d i s t r a c t o r a l s o d i d not do as w e l l as the s t u d e n t who chose the c o r r e c t answer. The c o r r e c t response was p o s i t i v e and h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h i s means t h a t the s t u d e n t s who chose t h i s answer d i d w e l l on the t e s t . I I I . I f any it e m d i d not meet the c r i t e r i o n of c a t e g o r y 2 but were s t i l l used i n the a n a l y s i s , t hey were r e t a i n e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e a s o n s . For example, w h i l e the d i s t r a c t o r might be n e g a t i v e the c o r r e l a t i o n might not be v e r y h i g h . The P r e t e s t c o n s i s t e d of the 44 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s s c h o o l y e a r . I t was a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n f o u r days of the b e g i n n i n g of the s c h o o l y e a r . The Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y = 0 . 4 3 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement of 2.94. The P o s t t e s t was the same 63 t e s t g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s a t the end of the Energy U n i t , s i x t o t e n weeks a f t e r t a k i n g the P r e t e s t . At t h i s p o i n t an i t e m a n a l y s i s was performed a g a i n u s i n g the UBC LERTAP Programme. A post-hoc a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d 11 items t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e and were d e l e t e d , u s i n g the above c r i t e r i a . The same items were s u b s e q u e n t l y removed from the P r e t e s t on a post-hoc b a s i s . T h i s removal of q u e s t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a U n i t Test of 33 items (Table 3.1). T a b l e 3.1 d e t a i l s the P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t q u e s t i o n s by number and p r o v i d e s the t o p i c c o v e r e d as w e l l as the c h a p t e r i n the t e x t where i t appe a r s . The P r e t e s t Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y = 0 . 3 5 , s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement=2.57. The a n a l y s i s (Appendix D) shows t h a t the s t u d e n t s were f a i r l y homogeneous (mean s q u a r e - i n d i v i d u a l s = 0 . 3 2 ) i n the s o u r c e s of v a r i a t i o n f o r the t e s t w h i l e the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the items themselves (mean square-items=5.92). T h i s means t h a t most of t h e v a r i a t i o n came from the range of items or t o p i c s c o v e r e d . The P o s t t e s t Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y = 0 . 7 5 , s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement=2.61. The a n a l y s i s (Appendix D) shows t h a t t h e r e was more v a r i a t i o n due t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s (mean s q u a r e - i n d i v u d a l s = 0 . 8 6 ) but here a g a i n the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e range of items or t o p i c s c o v e r e d (mean square-items=5.70). W h i l e the s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y l e a r n e d something ( t h e r e was more of a spre a d of s c o r e s ) they s t i l l were h a v i n g 64 d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the v a r i e t y of t o p i c s c o v e r e d . The Essay p o r t i o n of the P o s t t e s t c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g essay answers (from P i e p e r and Beauchamp, 1936). The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were b e i n g used t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y on the problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s as w e l l as the r e c a l l p o r t i o n . Two t e a c h e r s l i k e d the q u e s t i o n s so much t h a t they a s s i g n e d them f o r homework t o see what the s t u d e n t s c o u l d do g i v e n more time than p r o v i d e d i n the t e s t p e r i o d . T h e r e f o r e , the c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y of the q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g r e a s o n a b l e . Also., f o r t h i s reason the number of s t u d e n t s on the problem s o l v i n g p o r t i o n i n the a n a l y s i s was d i f f e r e n t from the r e c a l l s e c t i o n . Teachers were asked t o code the answers f o r c o m p l e x i t y u s i n g the SOLO Taxonomy ( d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) . Half-way t h r o u g h the study the t e a c h e r s were asked t o code some essay q u e s t i o n s t o g i v e them p r a c t i c e w i t h u s i n g t h e Taxonomy. These es s a y q u e s t i o n s were not used i n the a n a l y s i s . A l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n was performed comparing the c o d i n g from a random sample of each t e a c h e r ' s c o d i n g w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s c o d i n g of the same answer. U s i n g Snedecor and Cochran (1980), T a b l e A I I ( i ) , t he s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t were w i t h i n the a=0.02 f o r a l l but one t e a c h e r who d i d not f u l f i l l t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . A l l of the e s s a y s from t h i s t e a c h e r were recoded by the r e s e a r c h e r . Another 65 i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was c a r r i e d out w i t h the r e s u l t s b e i n g w i t h i n the 2% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . T A B L E 3.1: Pretest and Unit Test Questions by Chapter, Topic <3c Number Pretest Questions It's Chapter * Topics (Posttest Questions) 1 Energy - definition Energy forms Potential and Kinetic Energy transformations 31(7) 13(4) 9(37) 15(8) 34(26) 17(44) 37(34) 2 Force - definition Measuring force Gravity - Mass Friction 8(21) 41(15) 19(28) 14(5) 12(23) 24(40) 28(36) 43(30) 3 Work - definition Calculating work 11(18) 10(2) 20(12) 4 Simple machines Pulleys Levers Common simple machines 1(9) 21(6) 30(41) 38(17) 4(11) 5 Acceleration - deceleration Balanced forces Inertia Newton's First Law 2(14) 39(31) 25(38) 33(16) 5(27) 29(24) 6 Law of Energy Conservation Converters - efficiency Power 18(10) 44(22) 27(42) 40(20) 23(33) 26(43) 7 Energy transformation Energy of particles 22(29) 42(25) 35(1) 8(32) 8 Conduction Convection Infra-red radiation Insulation 8(19) 36(38) 18(35) 7(13) 32(3) Underlined numbers indicate items which were deleted, * Developing Science Concepts i n the Laboratory (Murphy and Schmidt,1979) 67 2. T r e a t m e n t : T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s : The s t r a t e g i e s were f o r m u l a t e d i n t o f o u r s p e c i f i c t y p e s of assignments f o r the t e a c h e r t o f o l l o w . They were: I . Summary of a r e a d i n g ( a f t e r the work of Brown, Campione, and Day, 1980 d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2) I I . V o c a b u l a r y L i s t w i t h a S e l f - T e s t i n g f e a t u r e . I I I . W r i t t e n Q u e s t i o n s and Answers ( a f t e r the work i n language by Andre and Anderson, 1978 d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2 ) . IV. Diagramming and S i m p l i f y i n g Concepts. T h i s was an e x t e n s i o n of the o t h e r t h r e e a s s i g n m e n t s . A l l a s s i g n m e n t s were o u t l i n e d on an e x e r c i s e sheet w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t i o n s , p urpose, and the p h y s i c a l l a y o u t of e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s . . An i n t r o d u c t i o n was g i v e n by the t e a c h e r , a l o n g w i t h a b r i e f e x e r c i s e t o demonstrate how the work was t o be done. On the f i r s t e x e r c i s e the d i r e c t i o n s and an example were p r o v i d e d f o r the s t u d e n t s . The t i m e s f o r the t r e a t m e n t was det e r m i n e d by the o u t l i n e and the r o t a t i o n of c l a s s p e r i o d s . They were used a l o n e and i n c o m b i n a t i o n s depending upon the s p e c i f i c t y pe of c o n t e n t o b j e c t i v e s . The g e n e r a l e x e r c i s e format f o r each assignment or c o m b i n a t i o n of assignments as they r e l a t e t o the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model i s as f o l l o w s : a. E n c o d i n g 1) Assignment I . W r i t e a s h o r t summary of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1-3 se n t e n c e s f o r each paragraph 68 a s s i g n e d t o be read u s i n g the summarizing d i r e c t i o n s . 2) Assignment I I . Draw a s i m p l e diagram showing the s t r u c t u r e of the i t e m , f o r example, a l e v e r . L a b e l each p a r t . 3) Assignment I I I . W r i t e a q u e s t i o n based on a s e c t i o n which has been r e a d and then answer i t . L a b e l l i n g 1) Assignment I . and IV. Choose one or two words i n each of the above s e n t e n c e s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be the i d e n t i f y i n g word f o r the i d e a s e x p r e s s e d . 2) Assignment I . and IV. W i t h a diagram choose the key or i m p o r t a n t p a r t s which need t o be remembered. Enco d i n g and L a b e l l i n g Assignment I I . U s i n g a t h r e e columned sheet -w r i t e the key words i n the f i r s t column and a d e f i n i t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n i n the t h i r d column. The d e f i n i t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n must be s h o r t enough t o f i t i n the space p r o v i d e d . R e t r i e v a l or S e l f - T e s t i n g 1) Assignment I I . L a t e r f o l d the t h i r d column t o the back a n d . w r i t e the d e f i n i t i o n s i n the m i d d l e column. Leave b l a n k any terms not known. U s i n g 69 a n o t h e r sheet s e t up the same f o r m a t , w r i t e out the words and d e f i n i t i o n s or d e s c r i p t i o n s m i s s e d . 2) Assignment IV. Try t o answer a g a i n the q u e s t i o n s d e v e l o p e d from the s e c t i o n s r e a d i n the c h a p t e r b e i n g s t u d i e d . 3. Developmental L e v e l : A r l i n T e s t of Formal R e a s o n i n g ; T h i s t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . I t c o n s i s t s of 32 o b j e c t i v e items g i v i n g an o v e r a l l t o t a l t e s t s c o r e on 8 s u b t e s t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n of volume, p r o b a b i l i t y , c o r r e l a t i o n s , c o m b i n a t i o n s , p r o p o r t i o n s , forms of c o n s e r v a t i o n beyond d i r e c t v e r i f i c a t i o n s , c o o r d i n a t i o n of two or more systems of r e f e r e n c e and m e c h a n i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m . The o v e r a l l r e a d a b i l i t y i s a t the grade 6 l e v e l . Norm r e f e r e n c e d d a t a e x i s t s f o r grades 6-12. A r l i n (1982) p o i n t s out t h a t : the m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g an o b j e c t i v e measure of I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l schemata t h a t can v a l i d l y and r e l i a b l y p a r a l l e l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance i n the c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g . . . The Test of Formal Reasoning f u r n i s h e s a g r o s s assessment of l e v e l s , and i t s s u b t e s t s a f f o r d d i a g n o s t i c t o o l s and measures f o r c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t s . I t s v a l u e i s i n the p r o v i s i o n of r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n about c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s so t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l a r g e groups of s t u d e n t s can be u t i l i z e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s , p.107 T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each group of s t u d e n t s w i t h i n the time of a s i n g l e c l a s s p e r i o d . S i n c e t h i s t e s t was g i v e n w i t h i n the f i r s t f i v e days of the 70 new s c h o o l year the t o t a l t e s t s t a t i s t i c s a r e based on 398 s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s r e f l e c t c a t e g o r i c a l l e v e l s ; i . e . , P i a g e t i a n s t a g e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , t h u s the t e s t s t a t i s t i c s s h o u l d be viewed w i t h t h i s i n mind. The mean=14.l7 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 4.48 on the 32 i t e m t e s t . Range=4-31 q u e s t i o n s and the Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y = 0 . 6 9 w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r of 2.44. 4. Problem S o l v i n g ; SOLO Taxonomy; T h i s taxonomy was dev e l o p e d by B i g g s and C o l l i s (1982) t o p r o v i d e a scheme f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s i n terms of t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y . In d e s c r i b i n g the Taxonomy, B i g g s and C o l l i s (1982) o u t l i n e i t as f o l l o w s : The o v e r a l l term f o r the s t r u c t u r e of the obs e r v e d l e a r n i n g outcome i s SOLO:and the l e v e l s of p r e s t r u c t u r a l , u n i s t r u c t u r a l , m u l t i s t r u c t u r a l , r e l a t i o n a l , and extended a b s t r a c t a r e i s o m o r p h i c t o , but l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from, the s t a g e s of p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l , e a r l y c o n c r e t e , m i d d l e c o n c r e t e , c o n c r e t e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , Four main d i m e n s i o n s a r e used t o c a t e g o r i z e r e s p o n s e s : w o r k i n g memory c a p a c i t y , o p e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t a s k c o n t e n t w i t h cue or q u e s t i o n and res p o n s e , c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n a response and r e l a t i v e n e c e s s i t y f o r c l o s u r e i n making t h a t r e s p o n s e , and g e n e r a l o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e , which r e s u l t s from the i n t e r a c t i o n between the p r e v i o u s d i m e n s i o n s , p.31 R e l i a b i l i t y on t h i s t e s t was t h r o u g h an i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y check of the t e a c h e r s from randomly chosen samples as d e s c r i b e d i n the U n i t T e s t above. 5. Course O u t l i n e : An o u t l i n e was d e v e l o p e d by the t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r f o r both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and the 71 comparison group. The b a s i c m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d was kept as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r normal c l a s s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r e d i n the e x e r c i s e s a s s i g n e d f o r work i n c l a s s or as homework. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group was g i v e n work based on the f o u r a ssignments or c o m b i n a t i o n s of them. The comparison group was a s s i g n e d work based on q u e s t i o n s from the t e x t b o o k . The work a s s i g n e d t o each group had been p r e p a r e d so as t o equate the time and c o n t e n t coverage as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . T eacher's D a i l y Log: T h i s l o g p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the t e a c h e r t o note any d e v i a t i o n s from the c o u r s e o u t l i n e , such as changes i n a l a b due t o equipment problems. I t a l s o p r o v i d e d a d a i l y r e c o r d f o r comparison between the cou r s e o u t l i n e d and the c o u r s e implemented, a l t h o u g h the t e a c h e r s adhered t o the o u t l i n e v e r y w e l l . R e s e a r c h e r ' s Log: T h i s l o g p r o v i d e d f o r an added check on adherence t o the c o u r s e o u t l i n e . I t a l s o a l l o w e d f o r a r e c o r d of p o s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n s and any e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s which may have a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s of the s t u d y . E x e r c i s e T a l l y Sheets These s h e e t s were f o r r e c o r d i n g the completeness of the e x e r c i s e s or a s s i g n e d t a s k s . I t used a d e c i m a l system f o r ease i n a v e r a g i n g . These s h e e t s were not f o r g r a d i n g of the a s s i g n m e n t s , but r a t h e r p r o v i d e d a f u r t h e r means f o r c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n . Independent V a r i a b l e : P r e v i o u s academic achievement was 72 o b t a i n e d from s c h o o l r e c o r d s . U s u a l l y t h e s e a r e r e c o r d e d as l e t t e r grades w i t h o u t a v e r a g e s . Each t e a c h e r was g i v e n a b o o k l e t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o the group t o which he had been a s s i g n e d . Examples of the completed b o o k l e t s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix A. A l l t e s t s which were a d m i n i s t e r e d can be found i n Appendix B. D e t a i l s of the e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m can be found i n Appendix C. Appendix D c o n t a i n s t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s f o r the P r e t e s t and the P o s t t e s t . 73 3.3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The d e s i g n f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t of a n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p (Cook and C a m p b e l l , 1979). Two groups were formed: an e x p e r i m e n t a l and a comparison group. A p r e t e s t was g i v e n t o both groups. The p r e t e s t and the p o s t t e s t , c a l l e d a U n i t T e s t , were based on the Energy U n i t . S i n c e a span of s i x t o t e n weeks was i n v o l v e d the i s s u e of p r a c t i c e was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a f a c t o r . W i t h i n the time span of t e a c h i n g the u n i t two s m a l l e r t e s t s were g i v e n t o b o t h g r o u p s . These t e s t s were not used i n the a n a l y s i s but r a t h e r , a l l o w e d the t e a c h e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n a grade f o r each s t u d e n t f o r t h a t segment of the c o u r s e . S i n c e one of the s m a l l e r t e s t s i n c l u d e d two essay q u e s t i o n s i t p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y check on the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r use on the U n i t T e s t . T eachers were asked t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g and t o adhere t o a c o u r s e o u t l i n e based on the B r i t i s h Columbia Grade 9 Energy U n i t i n D e v e l o p i n g S c i e n c e Concepts i n the  L a b o r a t o r y (Murphy and Schmid, 1979). A l l m a t e r i a l used i n the study were s u p p l i e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . I n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g was h e l d f o r b o t h groups i n June, at which time each t e a c h e r was g i v e n a b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g a l l i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r c o m p l e t i n g h i s p o r t i o n of the s t u d y . T h i s a l l o w e d a l l t e a c h e r s a chance t o l o o k over the m a t e r i a l a t t h e i r l e i s u r e d u r i n g the summer. They were c o n t a c t e d a g a i n i n August b e f o r e s c h o o l s t a r t e d and the 74 r e s e a r c h e r r e v i e w e d the study a g a i n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group c o v e r e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1. the r a t i o n a l e f o r the s t r a t e g i e s . 2. the d i r e c t i o n s f o r the e x e r c i s e s a l o n g w i t h examples. 3. the r a t i o n a l e and d i r e c t i o n s f o r the c o u r s e o u t l i n e which i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s matched t o a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n . 4. the r a t i o n a l e and d i r e c t i o n s f o r the d a i l y l o g . 5. the f u n c t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' l o g . 6. a d i s c u s s i o n of the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n l e v e l s f o r the e ssay q u e s t i o n s which w i l l o c cur on the U n i t T e s t . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c omparison group c o v e r e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1. the r a t i o n a l e and d i r e c t i o n s f o r the c o u r s e o u t l i n e which i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c homework q u e s t i o n s from the t e x t b o o k matched t o p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n s . 2. the r a t i o n a l e and d i r e c t i o n s f o r the d a i l y l o g . 3. the f u n c t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r s ' l o g . 4. the f u n c t i o n of the comparison group i n t h i s r e s e a r c h (t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d were not d i s c u s s e d ) . The s t u d e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r a concept or o b j e c t i v e as a s i n g l e sheet or s e t of s h e e t s . The e x e r c i s e s h e e t s were e x p l a i n e d by the t e a c h e r u s i n g s u g g e s t e d d i r e c t i o n s . The t e a c h e r s i n t r o d u c e d the s t r a t e g i e s and e x p l a i n e d t o the 75 s t u d e n t s the r a t i o n a l e , i n t e n d e d outcomes of the e x e r c i s e s , and the c o r r e c t use of the s t r a t e g i e s and e x e r c i s e s . O f t e n t h i s i n v o l v e d d o i n g examples on the board w i t h the c l a s s . These e x p l a n a t i o n s p r o v i d e d the s t u d e n t w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of the e x e r c i s e i n terms of the concept and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s h e e t s . At the b e g i n n i n g of the next c l a s s or a t the next opportune time the t e a c h e r went over the assignment w i t h the c l a s s . A l l e x e r c i s e s h e e t s were kept i n the s t u d e n t s ' notebooks. S t u d e n t s c o r r e c t e d t h e i r own work but the t e a c h e r kept a r e c o r d of completeness of the t a s k and o f f e r e d i n d i v i d u a l d i r e c t i o n s where needed. The comparison group was a s s i g n e d q u e s t i o n s found a t the end of a r e a d i n g or c h a p t e r t o c o n t r o l f o r any e f f e c t s due t o p r a c t i c e or r e h e a r s a l . The t e a c h e r went over t h e t a s k s w i t h the c l a s s . A g a i n , s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t e d t h e i r own work but the t e a c h e r kept a r e c o r d of completeness of the t a s k and o f f e r e d i n d i v i d u a l d i r e c t i o n where needed. 76 3.4 METHOD OF ANALYSIS The U n i t T e s t was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . A f t e r the Post-Hoc a d j u s t m e n t s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , P a r t I c o n t a i n e d 33 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e P a r t I I c o n t a i n e d 3 essay or problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s (Appendix B ) . Summary r e s u l t s on the f i n a l Unit- Test were a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o t o t a l number of r e c a l l q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t and the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i c a l l e v e l s g i v e n i n the essay or problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s . A post-hoc a n a l y s i s of the U n i t T e s t , u s i n g the UBC LERTAP Program, ensured the check of P a r t I . An i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was done on a random s e l e c t i o n of the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n P a r t I I f o r each t e a c h e r , as d e t a i l e d e a r l i e r . P r o c e d u r e For A n a l y s i s An i n i t i a l C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s was performed t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s i n q u e s t i o n . A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n model was used w i t h r e d u c t i o n s o c c u r i n g i n the model where s t a t i s t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was performed u s i n g P r e t e s t and p r e v i o u s achievement i n grade 8 s c i e n c e as the two c o v a r i a t e s . A S c h e f f e Test on the Post-Hoc a n a l y s i s of d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l was performed on the c o n t r a s t s between groups on r e c a l l . 77 3.5 VALIDITY 3.5.1 INTERNAL VALIDITY Cook and Campbell (1979) suggest t h a t t h i s d e s i g n c o n t r o l s f o r a l l but f o u r t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . The c o n t r o l f o r the s e t h r e a t s were as f o l l o w s : 1. S e l e c t i o n - M a t u r a t i o n . S i n c e i n t a c t c l a s s e s were used s t a r t i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g of a s c h o o l year i t was assumed t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s would mature e q u a l l y i n b o t h groups. 2. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . I n i t i a l i n s p e c t i o n of the p r e t e s t f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n d e t e r m i n e d the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the groups. The p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t were the same t e s t i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . 3. D i f f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c a l R e g r e s s i o n . S i n c e the s t u d e n t s were chosen from heterogeneous c l a s s e s t h e r e was no d e l i b e r a t e s e l e c t i o n of extreme subgroups. 4. I n t e r a c t i o n of S e l e c t i o n and H i s t o r y ( L o c a l H i s t o r y ) . T h i s i n v o l v e s e v e n t s o t h e r than the t r e a t m e n t which may a f f e c t the e x p e r i m e n t a l and/or comparison groups. Teachers were made aware of t h i s problem and asked t o note t h i s i n the l o g . A r e s e a r c h e r s ' l o g as w e l l as a t e a c h e r s ' was kept t o ensure p r e c i s e r e c o r d i n g of e v e n t s e x t r a n e o u s t o the s t u d y . 78 3.5.2 EXTERNAL VALIDITY The community chosen f o r t h i s s tudy was a suburb of the c i t y of Vancouver. The p o p u l a t i o n a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d a wide spectrum of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . However, due t o the non-random s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of r e s u l t s t o the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of a l l Grade 9 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would have t o be made w i t h d i s c r e t i o n . Chapter 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s s tudy was t o determine whether or not t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t a u g h t f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t ways, enhance the achievement i n s c i e n c e a t the grade 9 l e v e l . The dependent v a r i a b l e s used were r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n and problem s o l v i n g . The independent v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d of any p r e v i o u s knowledge about the s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t matter t o be t a u g h t , s t u d e n t s ' d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p r e v i o u s achievement i n grade 8 s c i e n c e , and group membership; i . e . , membership i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group or comparison group. The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i v e p a r t s and p r o v i d e d i f f e r e n t but complementary p e r s p e c t i v e s of the s t u d y . 1. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s . 2. C o m p l e x i t y of the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the V a r i a b l e s . 3. T e s t s of S p e c i f i c Hypotheses. 4. Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s Based on O b s e r v a t i o n and I n t e r v i e w s . 5. D i s c u s s i o n . 6. Summary. 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS T a b l e 4.1 g i v e s a summary of the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r each v a r i a b l e i n the a n a l y s i s by group, e x p e r i m e n t a l or com p a r i s o n . The t e s t s used t o measure the v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s tudy a r e l i s t e d f o r both the e x p e r i m e n t a l 79 80 and comparison group w i t h t h e i r r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c s . The A r l i n T e st of Formal Reasoning has been coded by l e v e l a s : 1-Concrete, 2-High C o n c r e t e , 3 - T r a n s i t i o n a l , 4-Low Formal and 5-High F o r m a l . T h i s c o d i n g i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n T a b l e 4.1 i n the Frequency Table a l o n g w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e c o d i n g f o r P r e v i o u s Achievement. The Frequency T a b l e i n d i c a t e s the n u m e r i c a l code, c a t e g o r i e s , number and p e r c e n t a g e f o r Developmental L e v e l (ATFR), P r e v i o u s Achievement i n Grade 8 s c i e n c e and Gender. A break down by Gender i s a l s o i n c l u d e d f o r b o th groups. Two items s h o u l d be emphasized; f i r s t , how s i m i l a r the two groups a r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the range and v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s measured, and second, t h e skewness and k u r t o s i s a r e n e g a t i v e , i n d i c a t i n g extended lower t a i l and a s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d n o r m a l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . T a b l e 4.2 i n d i c a t e s the low t o moderate l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s measured. Of p a r t i c u l a r note a r e the c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s of 0.30. A c c o r d i n g t o Snedecor and Cochrane (1980,p.182) the e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e s h a red f o r an r=0.30 i s o n l y 0.09 or 9%, t h e r e b y making a n y t h i n g lower than t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p . TABLE 4.1: Data Description Arl in Test Post-Test Essay Pre-Test Reasoning Prev. A c h . Exp. Comp. Exp. Comp. Exp. Comp. Exp. Comp. Exp. C o m p . Maximum 30 33 4. .30 3. .17 20 21 5 5 6 6 Minimum 4 7 0 0 4 4 1 1 1 1 Range 26 26 4, .30 3. .17 16 17 4 4 5 5 Interquartile Range 3. .5 4, .0 0, .58 0. .42 1, .5 2. .5 0. 5 0. 5 1. .5 1. 0 Variance 28. .08 28, .12 1, .16 0. .70 8. .20 10. .56 0. 91 0. 88 1. .81 1. 92 Standard Deviation 5. .30 5. .30 1. .08 0. .84 2. .86 3. .25 0. 95 0. 94 1. ,34 1. 34 Mean 17. .35 18. .84 1, .73 1. .26 10. .51 10. .83 2. 70 2. 67 3. ,60 3. 48 Standard Error 0. .44 0. .41 0. .09 0. .06 0. .24 0. .25 0. 08 0. 07 0. ,11 0. 11 Median 17. .00 19. .00 1. .67 1. .33 10. .0 11. .0 2. 0 2. 0 4. ,0 3. 0 Standard Error 0. .58 0. .58 0. .05 0. .10 0. .29 0. .58 0. 29 0. 29 0. .29 0. 29 Mode 17. .00 17. .00 0 0 10. .00 12. .00 2 2 2 2 Skewness -0. .03 -0. .07 0. .02 -0 . .05 0. .41 0. .33 0. 53 0. 37 0. ,19 0. 24 Kurtosis -0. .44 -0. .44 -0. .49 -0. .79 0. .17 0. .11 -0 .72 -0 1.72 -] L .02 -0 .91 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Arl in Test of Formal Reasoning Previous Achievement Sex  Experimental Comp. Experimental Comp. Experimental Comp. Code N % N % Code N % N % N 9 6 N 9 6 1 C O C N 6 4.1 10 6.0 1 Pass 3 2.1 7 4.2 Male 62 42.8 86 51.8 2 H1CN 72 49.7 75 45.2 2 C - 35 24.1 43 25.9 Female 83 57.2 80 48.2 3 T R A N 31 21.4 43 25.9 3 C 34 23.4 36 21.7 4 L O F M 32 22.1 35 21.1 4 C+ 32 22.1 40 24.1 5 HIFM 4 2.8 3 1.8 5 B 27 18.6 23 13.9 6 A 14 9.7 17 10.2 82 T A B L E 4.2: Correlations Between Variables 1 2 3 4 Recal l 1 1 .00 Problem Solving 2 0 .22 1.00 Pretest 3 0 .35 0.21 1 .00 Development Level 4 0 .45 0.14 0 .35 1.00 Previous Achievement 5 0 .48 0.22 0 .19 0.26 T A B L E 4.3: Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables Squared Multiple Correlations of Each Variable in Set One with Variables in Set One Variable R-Squared Recal l 0.05 Problem Solving 0.05 Squared Multiple Correlations of Each Variable in Set Two with Variables in Set Two Variable R-Squared Prior Knowledge 0.14 Developmental Level 0.16 Grade 8 Scores 0.08 Group Membership 0.01 83 4.2 COMPLEXITY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VARIABLES S i n c e human knowledge and l e a r n i n g i s such a complex phenomenon i t i s r a t i o n a l l y not f e a s i b l e t o p e r c e i v e of each f a c t o r as an independent v a r i a b l e , unique and w i t h o u t i n f l u e n c e on a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e d e s p i t e the low t o moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s seen i n T a b l e 4.2. L e v i n e (1977) p o i n t s out t h a t U s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s , the u s u a l approach would be t o r e g r e s s each dependent v a r i a b l e or index of each subconcept on the s e t of independent v a r i a b l e s one a t a time and i n some a r b i t r a r y f a s h i o n combine the s e v e r a l r e s u l t s . There would be no o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b l i t y t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n s of dependent v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o c o m b i n a t i o n s of independent v a r i a b l e s . I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t c a p a b i l i t y of a n a l y z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e t s of variables-many-to-many p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n as opposed t o one-to-many p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n - t h a t makes c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e . . . p.11 I t i s w i t h t h i s r a t i o n a l e i n mind t h a t C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out as an i n i t i a l s t u d y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s . The a n a l y s i s was performed i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the number and n a t u r e of the d i m e n s i o n s a l o n g which t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s , r e c a l l ( P o s t t e s t ) and problem s o l v i n g ( E s s a y ) , were r e l a t e d t o the independent v a r i a b l e s ; p r i o r knowledge ( P r e t e s t ) , d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l ( A r l i n T e s t of Formal Reasoning [ATFR]) and p r e v i o u s achievement i n grade 8 s c i e n c e ( P r e v . A c h . ) . 84 FIGURE 4.1; Scatterplot Showing Linearity of Relationship Between the First Canonical Variates 2 . 4 1 . S . ao o.o - . 80 1 2 11 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 11 2 1 1 2 2 11 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 I I 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 11 3 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 .90 .90 2 . 7 0.0 1 .a CNVRF1 T A B L E 4.4: Bartlett's Test for Significance of Eigenvalues Canonical C h i -Eigenvalue Correlation Square df p 0.40 R C l = 0.63 183.19 8 < 0.01 0.09 R c = 0.30 28.82 3 < 0.01 86 Assumptions : An e x a m i n a t i o n of the n o r m a l i t y assumption on which a c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s i s based i n d i c a t e d t h a t the skewness and k u r t o s i s of the v a r i a b l e s were not e x c e s s i v e . The s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e v a l u e s were w i t h i n +3.00 s t a n d a r d u n i t s i n d i c a t i n g no o u t l i e r s . T a b l e 4.3 shows an absence of m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y . No m i s s i n g c a s e s were i n c l u d e d . The p l o t p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a ssumption of l i n e a r i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i s t e n a b l e . Thus, the assumptions on which the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s was based were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met. R e s u l t s : T a b l e 4.4 p r e s e n t s the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d a l o n g w i t h the r e s u l t s of the C h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was 0.63 w h i l e the second c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was 0.30. Only two c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were p o s s i b l e s i n c e the s m a l l e s t s e t of v a r i a b l e s c o n t a i n e d o n l y two v a r i a b l e s . The C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t X 2(8)=183.19, p < .0001, and x 2(3)=28.82, p < 0.001. T h e r e f o r e , the two c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 4.5 p r o v i d e s t h e Summary S t a t i s t i c s of the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . Columns I and I I d e s c r i b e the two p a i r s of c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s Y ( 1 ) , X ( 1 ) and Y ( 2 ) , X ( 2 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Columns IA and I I A show the s t r u c t u r e 87 T A B L E 4.5: Canonical Analysis: Summary Statistics I First Canonical Variate ( Y ( D ) A B Structure Standardized Coefficients Coefficients II Second Canonical Variate (Y(2)) B A Structure Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Dependent Variable Set Reca l l Problem Solving 0.99 0.30 0.98 0.09 -0.09 0.95 -0 .31 1.02 Percent of Variance Redundancy Index 54% 21% 46% Tota l =100% 04% Tota l = 25% Independent Variable Set (X<D) (X(2)) Prior Knowledge 0.56 0.28 0.05 0.08 Developmental Level 0.71 0.46 0.03 -0.05 Grade 8 Scores 0.78 0.62 0.26 0.22 Group Membership -0.18 -0.20 0.97 0.97 Percent of Variance 37% 25% Tota l = 62% Redundancy Index 15% 02% Tota l = 17% Canonical Correlation, R c 0.63 0.30 Eigenvalue, X . 0.40 0.09 8 8 c o e f f i c i e n t s or c o r r e l a t i o n s between the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s and the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s . The s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n Columns IB and I I B i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e importance of each o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . E x a m i n a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s and s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s g i v e n i n Columns IA and IB r e v e a l t h a t the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e s i s p r i m a r i l y a r e c a l l d i m e n s i o n ( s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t = 0 . 9 9 ) , and t h a t the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n which almost e n t i r e l y e x c l u d e s group membership ( s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t = - 0 . 1 8 ) . These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t performance on the r e c a l l t a s k by the two groups had v e r y l i t t l e t o do w i t h whether or not the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Columns I I A and I I B r e v e a l t h a t the second s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e s i s a problem s o l v i n g d i m e n s i o n ( s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t =0.95), and t h a t the second d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s i s p r i m a r i l y a group membership dimens i o n ( s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t = 0 . 9 7 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the problem s o l v i n g d i m e n s i o n and group membership dimens i o n i s m a r g i n a l ( c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n ^ . 3 0 ) which s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e o n l y was a weak l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance on the problem s o l v i n g t a s k and membership i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l or comparison group. O v e r a l l , t h e n , the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s 89 p o i n t s t o a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dependent v a r i a b l e s and the independent v a r i a b l e s , and t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s complex i n t h a t t h e r e are two d i m e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e o n l y i s a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between problem s o l v i n g and group membership w h i l e r e c a l l i s p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of the c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s and not group membership. The P e r c e n t of V a r i a n c e r e v e a l s the average amount of v a r i a n c e of a c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e t h a t can be a c c o u n t e d f o r by the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s composing the v a r i a t e . I t p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of how w e l l the new v a r i a t e , Y(1) f o r example, r e p r e s e n t s each dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h i n t h e s e t . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e o r i g i n a l Y - v a r i a b l e s account f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 54% of the v a r i a n c e i n the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e , Y ( 1 ) , and about 46% of the v a r i a n c e i n the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e , Y ( 2 ) . Thus, about h a l f of the v a r i a n c e i n t h e s e two Y-composites i s unaccounted f o r by the v a r i a b l e s , R e c a l l and Problem S o l v i n g . Only 37% and 25% of the v a r i a n c e i n the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , X(1) and X ( 2 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by the o r i g i n a l independent v a r i a b l e s , P r i o r Knowledge, Developmental L e v e l , Grade 8 S c o r e s and Group Membership. The P e r c e n t of V a r i a n c e s r e s u l t s suggest t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a n c e i n the Y and X c o m p o s i t e which i s unaccounted f o r , presumably due t o o t h e r f a c t o r s . The Redundancy Index shows the amount of v a r i a n c e i n the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e of one s e t which i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by the 90 v a r i a b l e s of the o t h e r s e t . T h i s means t h a t f o r the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e , 21% of the v a r i a n c e i n the Y(1) i s ac c o u n t e d f o r by the v a r i a b l e s i n the Independent v a r i a b l e s e t . W h i l e f o r the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e o n l y 4% i s ac c o u n t e d f o r by the second s e t of Independent v a r i a b l e s , a v e r y low p e r c e n t a g e p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h i s study was t o be used f o r p r e d i c t i o n p u r p o s e s . The a n a l y s i s of the S t a n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t i n g the r e l a t i v e o r d e r of importance of the v a r i a b l e u n d e r l y i n g the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n , R e c a l l ( 0 . 9 8 ) , f o r the f i r s t s e t was: Grade 8 s c o r e s ( 0 . 6 2 ) , Developmental L e v e l ( 0 . 4 6 ) , P r i o r Knowledge (0.28) and Group Membership (-0.20). For the second s e t - Problem S o l v i n g (1.02) the v a r i a b l e w i t h the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e was group membership ( 0 . 9 7 ) , w i t h the o t h e r c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d i n g o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y weak c o n n e c t i o n t o Problem S o l v i n g ; Grade 8 s c o r e s ( 0 . 2 2 ) , P r i o r Knowledge (0.08) and Developmental L e v e l (-0.05). S u p p o r t e d by b o t h the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s and the p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s of s t a n d a r d i z e d w e i g h t s c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s appear t o p r o v i d e t h e u n d e r l y i n g s u p p o r t f o r R e c a l l i n the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n w h i l e i n the second dimemsion group membership, t r e a t m e n t , i s the p r i m a r y s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e . In summary, the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s s u g g ested t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s was modest (0.63) and t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l , One di m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the f i r s t s e t of v a r i a b l e s h a v i n g t o do w i t h R e c a l l and the r e l a t e d n e s s of the c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s w h i l e the o t h e r 91 d i m e n s i o n was d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement on the Essay q u e s t i o n s and group membership ( e x p e r i m e n t a l or c o m p a r i s o n ) . 92 4.3 TESTS OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES This section w i l l deal only with the S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l ysis. Part 4.4 w i l l provide the q u a l i t a t i v e background necessary for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s in Part 4.5. This w i l l allow a l l a v a i l a b l e information to be u t i l i z e d in examining and i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . The F u l l M u l t i p l e Regression model used for the ana l y s i s was: Yijk = 80 + 8 1 Xijkl + 82 Xijk2 + 8 3 Xijk3 + 8 4 X i j f e 4 + 85 Xijk5 + 86 Xijkl Xijk3 + 8 7 Xijk2 Xijk5 + 88 Xijk3 Xijkb + 89 Xijk2 Xijk5 + zijk Y . .. zjk - Recall (post test) Xl - P r i o r Knowledge (pretest) X2 Previous Achievement X 3 = Factor A - Treatment x 4 , x 5 = Factor B - Developmental Level X6 = Pretest - Group Interaction (Covariate i n t e r a c t i o n ) X7 = Previous Achievement - Group Interaction Xg, Xg = Factor AB Interaction i = 1, 2, ... "311 Subjects 0 = 1, 2 Levels of Factor A k = 1 , 2 , 3 Levels of Factor B 93 T a b l e 4 . 6 d e t a i l s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e w h i c h was p e r f o r m e d , u s i n g p r i o r knowledge of t h e u n i t ( P r e t e s t ) and p r e v i o u s a c hievement i n s c i e n c e (Grade 8 s c o r e s ) as t h e two c o v a r i a t e s . An a n a l y s i s of e q u a l i t y of s l o p e s and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f a c t o r s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s of homogeneity of s l o p e s and no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between F a c t o r s A and B. Thus, t h i s a n a l y s i s a l l o w e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n of t h e model as f o l l o w s : Yijk = e0 + S l + B2. Xijk2 + *3 Xijk3 + S 4 \ M5 zjk5 tjk = Recall (Post test) X^ = P r i o r Knowledge (Pretest) X 2 = Previous Achievement X^ = Factor A - Treatment X^, X^ = Factor B - Developmental Level i = 1 , 2 , . . . 311 Subjects j 1, 2 Levels of Factor A k = 1 , 2, 3 Levels of Factor B TABLE 4.6: Analysis of Covariance Results for Recall Prop, of Source Variance SS df MS F P Full Model -Interaction - Both Covariates 0.003 7.19 2 3.60 0.75 > 0.05 Interaction - AXB Group X Development Level 0.003 7.19 2 3.60 0.51 > 0.05 Reduced Model Pretest + Achievement (R 2 y. l2) 0.30 2656.34 2 1328.17 48.22 < 0.05 Adjusted Factor A Group 0.02 177.09 1 177.09 5.08 < 0.05 Factor B Development Level 0.08 708.36 2 354.18 20.30 < 0.05 Residual (1-R 2y.l2345) 0.60 5312.69 305 17.14 T O T A L 1.00 8854.48 310 95 Shown i n Ta b l e 4.6, f u r t h e r t e s t s of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e s u l t e d i n s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , t h e r e b y i n d i c a t i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between means on r e c a l l w i t h r e s p e c t t o group and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . In T a b l e 4.7 u n a d j u s t e d and a d j u s t e d means a r e shown f o r the F a c t o r A e f f e c t , Group. S i n c e T a b l e 4.6 i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on r e c a l l and t a k i n g i n t o account the e f f e c t of s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s from the c o v a r i a t e s , T a b l e 4.7 i d e n t i f i e s the comparison group p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r than the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. Of note i n the t a b l e i s the v e r y s l i g h t change made by the e x p e r i m e n t a l group a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t s as w e l l as no change i n the mean f o r the comparison group. T h i s s u p p o r t s Pedhazur's (1984,p.505) comment t h a t any c o v a r i a t e whose c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e i s l e s s than 0.30 does not i n c r e a s e t h e p r e c i s i o n of the a n a l y s i s . In T a b l e 4.8 u n a d j u s t e d and a d j u s t e d means a r e shown f o r t he F a c t o r B e f f e c t , Developmental L e v e l . A S c h e f f e T e s t of C o n t r a s t s Between A d j u s t e d Means i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h a h i g h e r Developmental L e v e l performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r when compared w i t h s t u d e n t s a t lower l e v e l s . F u r t h e r , as mentioned b e f o r e t h e r e was no group by d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e r e b y u p h o l d i n g the use of the ANCOVA model, thus the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance was due t o T A B L E 4.7: Means for Recal l Standard Unadjusted Adjusted Error Experimental: 17.35 17.36 0.44 Comparison 18.84 18.84 0.41 T A B L E 4.8: Recal l Means by Developmental Level Unadjusted and Adjusted I II III Concrete Transitional Formal Y 15.94 19.40 21.52 Y A D J 16.83 19.36 20.66 Scheffe Test of Contrasts Between Adjusted Means Comparisons lH MSc 95% C.I. Y . I A D J - Y . I IADJ -2.53 0.27 ( -3 .19, - 1 . 8 7 ) * Y . I A D J - Y.IIIADJ -4.30 0.27 (-4 .96, - 3 . 6 4 ) * Y . I IADJ - Y.IIIADJ -1.30 0.34 (-2.14, - 0 . 4 6 ) * p<0.05 98 t h e m a t u r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e d by t h e v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s . F o r P r o b l e m S o l v i n g , t h e F u l l model used was: Y. = 8 A + Sn X..,, + 3o X.. 7 0 + 8~ X . . , T + S, X . , + 85 X i j k 5 + B6 X i j f c l X i j f c 3 + S7 Xi,7fc2 X i j f c 5 + B8 X i j k 3 Xtjfc4 + S9 X i j f c 3 Xijk5 + zijk Y^JJ, = Problem Solving (Essay) X-^  = P r i o r Knowledge (Pretest) X£ = Previous Achievement X-j = Factor A - Treatment X^, X^ = Factor B - Developmental Level Xg = Pretest - Group Interaction (Covariate Interaction) Xy = Previous Achievement - Group Interaction (Covariate Interaction) Xg, Xg = Factor AB Interaction i = 1 , 2 , . . . 250 Subjects j 1, 2 Levels of Factor A k = 1, 2, 3 Levels of Factor B TABLE 4.9; Analysis of Covariance Results for Problem Solving Prop, of Source Variance SS df MS F P Full Model Interaction - Both Covariates 0.00 1.88 2 0.94 0.79 > 0.05 Interaction - A X B Group X Development Level 0.00 0.28 2 0.14 0.16 > 0.05 Reduced Model Pretest + Achievement (R 2 y. l2 ) 0.12 16.40 2 8.20 9.65 < 0.05 Adjusted Factor A Group 0.10 15.03 1 15.03 33.67 < 0.05 Factor B Development Level 0.03 4.10 2 2.05 3.33 < 0.05 Residual (1-R 2y.l2345) 0.76 103.88 244 0.43 T O T A L 1.00 136.68 249 I D 100 T a b l e 4 . 9 shows t h e A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r Pr o b l e m S o l v i n g w i t h p r i o r knowledge of t h e u n i t ( P r e t e s t ) and p r e v i o u s a c hievement i n s c i e n c e (Grade 8 s c o r e s ) used as c o v a r i a t e s . An a n a l y s i s of e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e s and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e two f a c t o r s s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s of homogeneity of s l o p e s and no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between F a c t o r s A and B. Thus, t h i s a n a l y s i s a l l o w e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n of t h e model as f o l l o w s : Yijk - 8 0 + 8 1 hjkl + 8 2 hjkZ + 8 3 * W + 8 4 *ij * + 8 5 *idk5+*ijk xjk Problem Solving (Essay) X l P r i o r Knowledge (Pretest) x 2 Previous Achievement x 3 Factor A .- Treatment x 4 . x 5 - Factor B - Developmental Level i = 1, 2, ... 250 Subjects J 1, 2 Levels of Factor A k 1, 2, 3 Levels of Factor B 101 T a b l e 4.9 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s , Group and Developmental L e v e l , a f t e r a d j u s t i n g f o r bo t h c o v a r i a t e s . The p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n Problem S o l v i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r by each f a c t o r a f t e r a djustment f o r bo t h c o v a r i a t e s was 10% and 3% r e s p e c t i v e l y . The C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s , T a b l e 4.5, c o n f i r m e d the r e s u l t s t h a t Problem S o l v i n g was more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Group Memebership (Treatment) than t o Developmental L e v e l . R e f e r r i n g back t o Ta b l e 4.2 i t can be seen t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between problem s o l v i n g and the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i s l e s s than 0.30 ( P r e t e s t = 0 . 2 1 , Developmental Level=0.14, P r e v i o u s A c h i e v e m e n t s . 2 2 ) t h e r e f o r e any s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the p r e c i s i o n of the ANCOVA (Pedhazur,1984,p.505). For t h i s reason u n a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s were compared. The unadusted mean s c o r e s on Problem S o l v i n g f o r the two groups was as f o l l o w s : Group U n a d j u s t e d Mean S t a n d a r d E r r o r E x p e r i m e n t a l 1.73 0.09 Comparison 1.26 0.06 T h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e i n means of 0.47 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the a=0.05 l e v e l w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v i n g a h i g h e r mean s c o r e on problem s o l v i n g than the comparison group. 102 Summary By Hypotheses A. The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was: There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , i n means on r e c a l l of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l i n a u n i t of i n s t r u c t i o n on Energy. T a b l e 4.6 summarizing the A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups a t the a=0.05 l e v e l on r e c a l l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h the comparison group o b t a i n i n g a h i g h e r mean s c o r e . B. The second h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d was: There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means, a t the a=0.05 l e v e l , between the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and t h e comparison group i n the q u a l i t y of problem s o l v i n g as measured by the SOLO Taxonomy. T a b l e 4.9 summarizes the A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e which i n d e n t i f i e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups on problem s o l v i n g w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l group o b t a i n i n g a h i g h e r mean s c o r e . C. The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d was: There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means on r e c a l l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n due t o an i n t e r a c t i o n between d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l and group a t the a=0.05 l e v e l . T a b l e 4.6 shows t h a t the a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the a=0.05 l e v e l on r e c a l l by group due t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . 103 D. The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d was: There would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means on s c o r e s on the U n i t T e s t f o r r e c a l l due t o an i n t e r a c t i o n between p r e v i o u s academic achievement and group a t the a=0.05 l e v e l . T a b l e 4.6 shows t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the a=0.05 l e v e l on r e c a l l by groups due t o p r e v i o u s academic achievement i n s c i e n c e . 1 04 4.4 A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BASED ON  OBSERVATIONS AND INTERVIEWS T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s : a Background of the stu d y and a D i s c u s s i o n R e l e v a n t t o the S p e c i f i c Hypotheses. 4.4.1 BACKGROUND Wh i l e t h i s s tudy was t a k i n g p l a c e the t e a c h e r s and the r e s e a r c h e r kept a d a i l y l o g of e v e n t s . These r e c o r d s were i n t e n d e d t o be used t o a s s i s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t hey were not meant t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c study or c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . T h e r e f o r e , a c t u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s and c o n f i d e n c e s a r e b e i n g r e s p e c t e d , w i t h p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g u t i l i z e d o n l y as they r e f l e c t on the s t u d y . S i n c e t h i s was a f i e l d s t u d y the amount of c o n t r o l had t o be weighed a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y of the normal f u n c t i o n i n g of a c l a s s r o o m . The s t u d e n t s were unaware of the study b e i n g conducted and t e a c h e r s were encouraged t o proceed i n as normal a manner as the c o n s t r a i n t s of the st u d y a l l o w e d . The r e s e a r c h began i n September a t the s t a r t of the new s c h o o l year so t h a t the s t u d e n t s would not p e r c e i v e a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t b e i n g done. S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s d i d ask the t e a c h e r s why the assignments were d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e i n grade 8 but they a c c e p t e d the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t the t e a c h e r wanted t o do t h i n g s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y t h i s t i m e . In one i n s t a n c e i t took a r e p e a t i n g s t u d e n t w i t h the same t e a c h e r 2 1/2 months 105 t o ask why t h i n g s were d i f f e r e n t from the p r e v i o u s y e a r . T h e r e f o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t the r e s u l t s from the s t u d e n t s a r e v a l i d i n d i c a t i o n s of the amount of m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d . C l a s s meetings were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 minutes i n l e n g t h w i t h a range of s c h e d u l e s from d a i l y s c i e n c e c l a s s e s (a 5X5 s c h e d u l e ) t o f i v e c l a s s meetings e v e r y n i n e days (a 5X9 s c h e d u l e ) . The t e a c h e r s ' l o g s i n d i c a t e d some s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s due t o i l l n e s s and some c l a s s i n t e r r u p t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u s i n e s s ( i . e . , c l a s s p i c t u r e s ) but a l l of t h i s i s a normal p a r t of the s c h o o l y e a r . N e i t h e r of the s e f a c t o r s appears t o have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the st u d y and a r e c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the average c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e . A l t h o u g h the groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r on the v a r i a b l e s measured i t was the o p i n i o n of two t e a c h e r s t h a t the s t u d e n t s i n one p a r t of town were " b e t t e r " than s t u d e n t s e l s e w h e r e . They i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s came from homes where the p a r e n t s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s r a t h e r than b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s . S t u d e n t s from t h i s a r e a were r e p r e s e n t e d i n bot h groups, a l t h o u g h t h e r e were more of t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n the comparison group. W h i l e the t e a c h e r s were asked t o use d i s c r e t i o n and not op e n l y d i s c u s s the study (an attempt t o c o n t r o l f o r c o n t a m i n a t i o n between groups) most of the t e a c h e r s mentioned t h a t they had a good i d e a of who was t a k i n g p a r t . Towards the end of the st u d y s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s c o n f i d e d t h i s knowledge and a s s u r e d me t h a t they had not d i s c u s s e d d e t a i l s w i t h anyone. The t e a c h e r s appeared s i m i l a r i n t h e i r d e s i r e 106 t o have t h e i r s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m w e l l . The seven t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d r e p r e s e n t e d a v e r y wide range of e x p e r i e n c e , t a l e n t s and e x p e r t i s e i n s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . In the e x p e r i m e n t a l group: one t e a c h e r had been t r y i n g t o implement something s i m i l a r t o what was b e i n g s t u d i e d i n the r e s e a r c h and f o r t h a t reason asked t o be put i n t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l group ( h i s b i a s was n o t e d ) . Another t e a c h e r d i d not appear t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the r a t i o n a l e of the stu d y and t h e r e f o r e had some problems w i t h implementing the m a t e r i a l s , d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s t o a s s i s t him. The t h i r d t e a c h e r appeared t o be h a r r i e d a t t i m e s due t o o t h e r commitments i n the s c h o o l . W i t h t h e s e l a s t two t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s w i t h "A" and "B" averages were s e p a r a t e d and a s s i g n e d t o o t h e r c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s d u r i n g the summer. T h i s was beyond our c o n t r o l and the d i s p a r i t y was n o t e d . These s t u d e n t s were i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a of " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e s e two t e a c h e r s , t h e b e s t s t u d e n t s w i t h i n the " b e t t e r " group were not p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. The f o u r t h t e a c h e r l i k e d t he m a t e r i a l s and a l s o i n c l u d e d h i s group of r e p e a t i n g s t u d e n t s i n the study on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s . These s t u d e n t s were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s but a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r . W i t h i n the comparison group: two of the t e a c h e r s had some problems a t times due t o o t h e r commitments i n the s c h o o l but d i d f o l l o w the o u t l i n e . The t h i r d t e a c h e r r e a c t e d 107 t o t he v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s which were o c c u r i n g i n the P r o v i n c e a t t h i s t i m e . A f o u r t h t e a c h e r i n the comparison group withdrew from the study s i n c e he f e l t t o o much c o n s t r a i n t by f o l l o w i n g the u n i t o u t l i n e . He a l s o had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g the o u t l i n e d u r i n g the S p r i n g ; a l t h o u g h , he had been sent a l l of the m a t e r i a l and been encouraged t o respond. A l l t e a c h e r s i n the stu d y c o o p e r a t e d f u l l y , o f f e r i n g comments and s u g g e s t i o n s as the r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e d . The o n l y u n i v e r s a l comment was some s l i g h t f r u s t r a t i o n a t kee p i n g t o a f a i r l y r i g i d o u t l i n e ; a l t h o u g h they a l l u n d e r s t o o d the n e c e s s i t y f o r i t . The p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e v e n t s o c c u r i n g i n the P r o v i n c e and community became e v i d e n t through comments r e f e r r i n g t o con c e r n f o r j o b s e c u r i t y , t e a c h e r l a y o f f s , l a r g e r c l a s s s i z e s , and budget r e s t r a i n t s . The i n f l u e n c e of t h i s c o u l d cause a Hawthorne E f f e c t ; i . e . , by making the t e a c h e r f e e l t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' performance r e f l e c t e d on him as a t e a c h e r he would put e x t r a e f f o r t i n t o t e a c h i n g t h e u n i t . However, i f t h e r e was any i n c r e a s e i n e f f o r t i t was not apparent i n any of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Any i n f l u e n c e of the s e e v e n t s on the s t u d e n t s would be p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . W h i l e t h e r e were some d i f f e r e n c e s on t e s t performance between t e a c h e r s they were not enough t o be e v i d e n t when the s t u d e n t s were p l a c e d i n l a r g e r groups. T h i s c o u l d imply a v e r y m i n i m a l t e a c h e r e f f e c t . T h i s p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g 108 p o i n t and one which s h o u l d be noted e s p e c i a l l y when the d i v e r s i t y of t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and backgrounds are t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s were a c c e p t a b l e t o the t e a c h e r s who used them. The two t e a c h e r s who f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d the r a t i o n a l e appeared the most s a t i s f i e d w i t h them. A l l f o u r t e a c h e r s were s t i l l u s i n g the m a t e r i a l even though the study had ended. They r e p o r t e d t h a t the m a t e r i a l was easy t o use and t h a t w i t h a minimum amount of c l a s s time spent on t r a i n i n g the s t u d e n t s had no t r o u b l e w i t h i t . There were u n s o l i c i t e d comments from the s t u d e n t s about the use of the m a t e r i a l s i n o t h e r c l a s s e s . One t e a c h e r noted t h a t a t the end of the u n i t h i s grade 9 c l a s s had more s t u d e n t s who were i n a p a s s i n g range than any o t h e r c l a s s he was p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g , or compared w i t h the c l a s s e s from t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . He f e l t t h a t the m a t e r i a l s a s s i s t e d t h o s e b o r d e r l i n e s t u d e n t s who o t h e r w i s e would have f a i l e d the t e s t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , one b o r d e r l i n e s t u d e n t made tremendous p r o g r e s s , r e s u l t i n g i n the h i g h e s t grade i n the c l a s s on the P o s t t e s t . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e i n achievement by a "poor" s t u d e n t i s not s u p p o r t e d by the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . T h i s may suggest an i n f l u e n c e on i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s which does not show up i n d i f f e r e n c e s between group means. However, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e d t o say t h a t he would use the m a t e r i a l s no m a t t e r what the study showed and any n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s he would c o n s i d e r t o be due t o sample s i z e . A g a i n i t s h o u l d be 109 noted t h a t the d a t a i s based on a r e a s o n a b l e sample s i z e f o r the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g a s k e d . Perhaps what t h e s e comments suggest i s t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s a r e f i n d i n g some u t i l i t y t o the m a t e r i a l which i s not apparent i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . 4.4.2 DISCUSSION RELEVENT TO SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES A. ( R e f e r e n c e t o H y p o t h e s i s 1) The s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t of the comparison group i n the r e c a l l s e c t i o n of the U n i t T e s t i n d i c a t e s a need t o s c r u t i n i z e the r e s u l t s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o a number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g , " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s i n the comparison group, i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h l e a r n i n g a new t e c h n i q u e by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, or the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s f a i l i n g t o p e r f o r m i n the manner t h e o r i z e d . An a n a l y s i s of t h e groups found t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was composed of f a i r l y heterogeneous s t u d e n t s w h i l e the comparison group had r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous s t u d e n t s w i t h which t o b e g i n t h e s t u d y . T h i s may have a l s o i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . To f u l l y d e a l w i t h any of the s e s p e c u l a t i o n s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be n e c e s s a r y . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e acknowledging t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between the h y p o t h e s i z e d f u n c t i o n i n g of the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s and the a c t u a l q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s , t o c o n t i n u e the a n a l y s i s of the study w i l l be d i s c u s s e d o n l y w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . D e s p i t e the f a c t 110 t h a t the a n a l y s i s p r o v e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s showed t h a t when group membership was combined w i t h the o t h e r c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s i t proved t o be the weakest i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n r e c a l l . For a t e a c h e r , any changes t h a t c o u l d improve a s t u d e n t ' s performance by s h i f t i n g h i s l e t t e r grade when compared t o a c o n t r o l group c o u l d be seen as e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . W h i l e the r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r a t e a c h e r , i t would become a m a t t e r of r a t i o n a l l y j u d g i n g whether or not a d i f f e r e n c e of 1.5 ( u n a d j u s t e d ) p o i n t s on a 33 q u e s t i o n t e s t i s e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The phrase e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s used here t o mean a r e a s o n a b l e and r e a l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e which a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r would c o n s i d e r t o be enough t o w a r r a n t a change i n h i s t e a c h i n g methodology. K i r k (1978) p o i n t s o u t : C r i t i c s of h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s have o b s e r v e d t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n mean i s r a r e l y e q u a l t o the e x a c t v a l u e s p e c i f i e d by t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s and hence by o b t a i n i n g a l a r g e enough sample v i r t u a l l y any H 0 can be r e j e c t e d . For t h i s reason i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i g u i s h between s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , which l e a d s t o t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t n * Mo» and the p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , which means t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e n - Mo i s l a r g e enough t o be u s e f u l i n t he r e a l w o r l d , p.232 As a t e a c h e r , I would suggest t h a t t h e r e i s not enough of a d i f f e r e n c e i n the two means t o w a r r a n t any k i n d of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n e i t h e r way on the m e r i t s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l . I t i s b e t t e r t o make s t a t e m e n t s based on c o n s e r v a t i v e grounds e s p e c i a l l y when d e a l i n g w i t h the nuances of human l e a r n i n g . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s su g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on R e c a l l i s 111 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t he r e s u l t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as e d u c a t i o n a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . One t e a c h e r who worked w i t h the " b e t t e r " group of s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e , and some d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , a t the r e s u l t s of the P o s t t e s t . He thought they s h o u l d have done b e t t e r . T h i s would be a n a t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n g i v e n the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s had of the s t u d e n t s i n t h i s p a r t of the community. And y e t , t h e r e b a s i c a l l y was not t h a t much d i f f e r e n c e between h i s group and any o t h e r c l a s s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . A t e a c h e r i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, w i t h s t u d e n t s who appeared q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p r e v i o u s group mentioned was p l e a s e d w i t h the way h i s s t u d e n t s worked and the way they performed on the t e s t . He t o o had e x p e c t a t i o n s which, d i f f e r e d from the r e s u l t s . B. (R e f e r e n c e t o H y p o t h e s i s 2) The c o d i n g on the problem s o l v i n g , E s s a y , s e c t i o n was performed u s i n g the SOLO Taxonomy. A r e v i e w of the p e r t i n e n t code i s as f o l l o w s : C a t e g o r y 1 - a v o i d s the q u e s t i o n s , r e f u s e s t o answer or s i m p l y g u e s s e s , - r e p e a t s or r e s t a t e s the q u e s t i o n . -makes an i r r e l e v a n t , p e r s o n a l l y based a s s o c i a t i o n . C a t e g o r y 1.5 - i n a d e q u a t e l y uses p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n but o n l y p a r t i a l l y g r a s p s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t . C a t e g o r y 2 1 12 - s e l e c t s 1 r e l e v e n t a s p e c t from the e v i d e n c e and c o r r e c t l y answers w i t h t h a t . C a t e g o r y 2A - s e l e c t s 2 r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t or u n r e l a t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , draws no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n from them. C a t e g o r y 3 - s e l e c t s 2 or more r e l e v a n t p o i n t s from the e v i d e n c e but i g n o r e s any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and makes no i n t e g r a t i o n or c o n n e c t i o n . - f a c t s a r e w r i t t e n as i s o l a t e d p o i n t s w i t h no r e l a t i o n s h i p g i v e n , no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n i s re a c h e d . C a t e g o r y 3A - r e c o g n i z e s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s but i s unable t o r e s o l v e them, or makes o n l y a p a r t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the f a c t s . C a t e g o r y 4 -uses a l l or most of the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e g r a t e s i t w i t h a r e l a t i n g c o n c e p t , r e c o n c i l i n g any c o n f l i c t but r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n the g i v e n c o n t e x t . - t h e c o n c l u s i o n drawn may be i n v a l i d o u t s i d e of the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t of the q u e s t i o n . C a t e g o r y 4A - r e c o g n i z e s the r e l a t i v i t y of the e x p l a n a t i o n , but i n a d e q u a t e l y makes use of a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o v e r r i d e c o n t e x t . Attempts t o use an a b s t r a c t i d e a but uses i t i n c o r r e c t l y . C a t e g o r y 5 1 1 3 -uses a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t show the example i s j u s t one of many p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s or e x p l a n a t i o n s . -uses d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g from the i n f o r m a t i o n . -no f i r m d e c i s i v e answer, shows t h a t the outcome may be d i f f e r e n t w i t h o t h e r d a t a or i n another c o n t e x t . The use of t h i s code a l l o w s an i n c o r r e c t answer t o be g i v e n a n u m e r i c a l grade of <2. T h e r e f o r e , any grade of <2 i n d i c a t e s a wrong or i n c o m p l e t e answer. The u n a d j u s t e d average answer i n Problem S o l v i n g was 1.73 f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group and 1.25 f o r the Comparison Group. In both groups the average answer was b a s i c a l l y l e s s than 1 r e l e v a n t response drawn from what they had been t a u g h t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t out t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s a v e r y s m a l l i n f l u e n c e on problem s o l v i n g came from c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s , most of i t came from group membership. T h i s means t h a t v e r y l i t t l e of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n c l a s s was t r a n s f e r r e d t o an s w e r i n g the ess a y q u e s t i o n s , even though t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have been cued by i t b e i n g a s c i e n c e t e s t . Most responses c o n s i s t e d of 1 or 2 sent e n c e s and were o f t e n accompanied by d r a w i n g s . F r e q u e n t l y the answers c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as "common knowledge", such as the response t o why your back s t a y s c o l d when f a c i n g a f i r e , which was "The heat goes up the chimney". W i t h an o v e r a l l u n a d j u s t e d mean of 1.46 i t i m p l i e s t h a t v e r y l i t t l e thought went i n t o the answers e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the answers c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d by the m a n i p u l a t i o n of s t r a i g h t 1 1 4 r e c a l l of f a c t s . (The problem s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s were based on i n f o r m a t i o n found i n the Energy U n i t . ) Some t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d problems w i t h s t u d e n t s who were w r i t i n g answers t o the essay q u e s t i o n s . They s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d not u n d e r s t a n d the d i r e c t i o n s , which r e q u e s t e d a n s w e r i n g i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e , and the t i t l e "Essay Q u e s t i o n s " on the t e s t had them ask how c o u l d they answer w i t h o u t g o i n g t o the l i b r a r y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o keep the q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t and c o n c i s e i t caused some s t u d e n t s t o p e r f o r m o t h e r c o g n i t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n or r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g b e f o r e they attempted t o d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g asked. However, t h e r e were no r e p o r t s from the t e a c h e r s about any s t u d e n t h a v i n g problems u n d e r s t a n d i n g the q u e s t i o n s , o n l y the d i r e c t i o n s . A l s o , by d e f i n i t i o n , a problem and problem s o l v i n g o c c u r s when no immediate, apparent answer i s a v a i l a b l e . I n f o r m a t i o n must be m a n i p u l a t e d . And y e t , i t becomes q u e s t i o n a b l e whether or not the essay p o r t i o n of the t e s t was a c t u a l l y measuring problem s o l v i n g . ( T h i s was not a t h r e a t t o v a l i d i t y due t o the d e s i g n of the ex p e r i m e n t . ) L o g i c a l l y , what was p r o b a b l y b e i n g measured was the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s k i l l s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s suggested t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group performed b e t t e r due t o the w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e they o b t a i n e d from u s i n g the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r than from any i n c r e a s e i n problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . 115 T h i s example of the apparent l a c k of thought i s o f t e n one of the " f r u s t r a t i o n s " which a grade 9 t e a c h e r must contend w i t h from h i s s t u d e n t s . At one p o i n t i n the s t u d y a t e a c h e r noted t h a t the m a t e r i a l s and i d e a were good but t h a t the age group was p r o b a b l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , an o l d e r group was s u g g e s t e d . S i n c e i t was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter- 1 t h a t t h i s age i s where the problems i n s c i e n c e f i r s t b e g i n t o appear, i f t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s f o l l o w e d , i t may be more advantageous t o t e a c h t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s t o a younger group. Another t e a c h e r who was a l s o t e a c h i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o h i s grade 8's noted t h a t they had no problems l e a r n i n g how t o use the m a t e r i a l s . C. (In r e f e r e n c e t o the h y p o t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of group membership and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l on r e c a l l . ) The A r l i n T e s t of Formal Reasoning was e x p l a i n e d t o the t e a c h e r s but was o n l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o the r a t i o n a l e f o r the t e s t and g i v i n g i t t o the c l a s s . Only one t e a c h e r r e q u e s t e d the r e s u l t s , but never commented on them. The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s on achievement a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l of the s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t those s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s p e r f o r m b e t t e r than t h o s e s t u d e n t s a t a lower l e v e l . D. (In r e f e r e n c e t o the h y p o t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h group membership and p r e v i o u s achievement i n grade 8 on r e c a l l . ) 116 The s c o r e s on grade 8 s c i e n c e e l i c i t e d a number of comments from the t e a c h e r s . When the grades were o b t a i n e d from r e c o r d c a r d s one t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e a t how c l o s e they were t o the grades g i v e n on the c u r r e n t r e p o r t c a r d . He f e l t t h a t a t e a c h e r s ' grade was p r o b a b l y t h e be s t i n d i c a t i o n of a s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y and performance. T h i s was the consensus among a l l of the t e a c h e r s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of some i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s the t e a c h e r s saw the grade comparisons as b e i n g the same. T h i s was s u p p o r t e d by the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s as w e l l as by the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s which was performed t o a d d r e s s t h i s s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s . 1 17 4.5 DISCUSSION The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n a t t e m p t s t o combine both the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s of the study which have been p r e s e n t e d . A p p r o a c h i n g the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s from a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i t has been shown i n Chapter 2 t h a t they a r e i n p a r t based on work done i n Reading (Brown, Campione, and Day, 1980; Andre and Anderson, 1978) where they worked q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y , and they a r e s i m i l a r t o the t e c h i q u e s advocated by Novak (1984). Novak and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have based t h e i r t h e o r i e s on A u s u b e l ' s H i e r a r c h i c a l approach t o l e a r n i n g . S i n c e the r e s u l t i n g i n t e n t of Novak's m a t e r i a l i s s i m i l a r t o the one i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i t i s suggested t h a t the t h e o r y on which the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l s a r e based i s s u p p o r t e d by two d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g ; i . e . , A u s u b e l ' s H i e r a r c h i c a l Model and I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model. The s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e a l s o s u p p o r t e d i n the study by Lehman, C a r t e r and K a h l e , 1985. In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the v a l i d i t y of t h i s s u g g e s t i o n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be needed on the t h e o r e t i c a l grounds of I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g , l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r r a l of m e t a c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . S i n c e the t e a c h e r s acknowledged t h a t t h e i r u s u a l a s s i g n m e n t s c e n t e r e d around the t y p e s of work t h a t the comparison group was d o i n g ; i . e . , a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t t h e comparison group was not d o i n g a n y t h i n g out of the o r d i n a r y . The e x p e r i m e n t a l groups needed 118 some t r a i n i n g i n c h o o s i n g the key i d e a s or c o n c e p t s i n a r e a d i n g . One t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t f o r some s t u d e n t s he had t o p o i n t out t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of a word does not always come a f t e r the word, sometimes i t i s embedded i n the sentence b e f o r e the h i g h l i g h t e d word. Another t e a c h e r was p l e a s e d w i t h the r u l e s f o r summarizing and even worked w i t h one c l a s s t o summarize a r e a d i n g on the board because they were h a v i n g so much d i f f i c u l t y . The h a r d e s t assignment f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was w r i t i n g q u e s t i o n s and answers. T y p i c a l l y , they wrote s i n g l e word response t y p e q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t appears t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a c t u a l l y b e i n g a s s i g n e d something d i f f e r e n t from the comparison group. T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t u n d e r s c o r e s the f a c t t h a t the two groups were d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Time i s a key component i n any study of t h i s t y p e , namely, l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n (Koran and Koran, 1984). I f time was a f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e time and m a t e r i a l e q u a l l e d o n e - q u a r t e r of the c o u r s e which the t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o c o v e r . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s spanned s i x t o t e n weeks. From a r e a l i s t i c s t a n d p o i n t i t would be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i f any d i f f e r e n c e s were t o be seen they s h o u l d have shown up, or a t l e a s t s t a r t e d t o become a p p a r e n t , w i t h i n 25% of the t o t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e . An i n t e r e s t i n g and key f e a t u r e i n r e v i e w i n g the a n a l y s i s was found i n the raw s c o r e s on the P r e t e s t . The average u n a d j u s t e d s c o r e (the t o t a l number c o r r e c t ) a f t e r a post-hoc item adjustment was 10.68, w i t h a range of 4 t o 21. 119 T h i s was on a 33 q u e s t i o n t e s t . A p p a r e n t l y the s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y knew an average of 1/3 of the m a t e r i a l b e f o r e they began the c l a s s , w i t h some s t u d e n t s knowing 2/3 of the m a t e r i a l . T h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e s u l t s of the s t u d y . S i n c e the t o p i c of Energy i s not p a r t of the grade 8 c u r r i c u l u m and o f t e n s c i e n c e as a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a i s not taught i n t h e elementary s c h o o l s ( S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada Study 52, 1984) i t would be a n a t u r a l assumption on the p a r t of t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d i d not have much of a b a s i s i n Energy. (Here Energy i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n i t s s c i e n t i f i c meaning and not i n r e l a t i o n t o a s t u d e n t ' s p r e c o n c e p t i o n of Energy.) The grade 9 s c i e n c e program has been r e c e n t l y reworked, w i t h new t e x t s b e i n g i s s u e d i n 1979. However, i n g o i n g back t o the m a t e r i a l used b e f o r e t h i s renewal i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t many of the t o p i c s and ex p e r i m e n t s were r e t a i n e d from the 1968 v e r s i o n . Perhaps the movement i n t h e 1970's t o promote g e n e r a l p u b l i c awareness of energy has i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o a p o i n t where t h e i r g e n e r a l knowledge i s g r e a t e r than s t u d e n t s who e n t e r e d grade 9 i n the 1960's. I f the s t u d e n t s a r e e n t e r i n g w i t h a background i n Energy then i t may e x p l a i n why so many of the answers t o the essay q u e s t i o n s were "common knowledge" r a t h e r than u t i l i z i n g f a c t u a l or "new" i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from r e c a l l . From the r e s u l t s of the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s o n l y 40% of the v a r i a n c e i n the U n i t T e s t was accounted f o r . A n a t u r a l 1 20 q u e s t i o n t o f o l l o w t h i s would be what o t h e r f a c t o r s might be i n f l u e n c i n g the r e s u l t s . S i n c e the P r e t e s t asked v e r y s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the s t u d e n t s have a broader and more v a r i e d background i n Energy than was a n t i c i p a t e d . I f s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y do have t h i s knowledge base i t c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t by making the P r e t e s t broader more of the v a r i a n c e c o u l d have been measured and acc o u n t e d f o r . E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r i t was mentioned t h a t a c l a s s of s t u d e n t s r e p e a t i n g grade 9 s c i e n c e w i t h one of the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s was i n c l u d e d i n the st u d y on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s . These 17 s t u d e n t s had a P r e t e s t average of 11.79 c o r r e c t answers and a P o s t t e s t average of 12.76 c o r r e c t . The P r e t e s t s c o r e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as o t h e r s t u d e n t s j u s t b e g i n n i n g the c o u r s e (10.68 compared t o 11.79). W h i l e i t must be noted t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y poor i n o t h e r c l a s s e s as w e l l , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the P r e t e s t - P o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 q u e s t i o n c o r r e c t l y answered. W i t h the two groups i n the study the d i f f e r e n c e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y answered. What t h e s e two items may p o i n t out i s : i f a •student a l r e a d y knows or i s f a m i l i a r w i t h a t o p i c , how much more w i l l he l e a r n by g o i n g over i t a g a i n ? I f t h i s i s a r e a s o n a b l e q u e s t i o n t o ask then i t may be assumed t h a t even w i t h g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l development s t u d e n t s on an average c o u l d not g l e a n any more than they a l r e a d y have from the m a t e r i a l , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e c u r r i c u l u m 121 d e v e l o p e r s choose the t o p i c s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s age group. T h i s s m a l l i n c r e a s e of 8 q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y answered may o n l y be a r e f l e c t i o n of r e l e a r n i n g and a d d i n g on more i n f o r m a t i o n t o a knowledge base. I f t e a c h e r s e x p e c t e d t h i s m a t e r i a l t o be new then i t i s o b v i o u s why a t e a c h e r of " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s would be s u r p r i s e d and d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the r e s u l t s of the P o s t t e s t (mentioned e a r l i e r ) . W h i l e the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s t o ATI s t u d i e s i t i s i n c l u d e d here t o emphasize the i n f l u e n c e which p r e v i o u s knowledge has on any study c o ncerned w i t h l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . As f a r as the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l i s c o n c e r n e d , i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of p r i o r knowledge i n s t u d i e s of l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n , Koran and Koran (1984) do an e x c e l l e n t j o b of summarizing T o b i a s (1976). In an attempt t o i n t e g r a t e a number of A t t r i b u t e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g p r i o r knowledge as an a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e ( T o b i a s , 1 9 7 6 ) , i t was noted t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were l e s s l i k e l y t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s when m a t e r i a l was used w i t h which s t u d e n t s were f a m i l i a r . C o n v e r s e l y , w i t h n o v e l c o n t e n t , i t was g e n e r a l l y found t h a t e l i c i t i n g s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s , p r o v i d i n g feedback c o n c e r n i n g them, and t i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l made s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t achievement. These f i n d i n g s l e d t o the statement of a g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t i n g an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i o r knowledge and amount of i n s t r u c t i o n a l support r e q u i r e d t o a t t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , p.798 T h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e from p r e v i o u s knowledge would h e l p t o e x p l a i n the s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e seen between groups on r e c a l l and on problem s o l v i n g . Any a t t e m p t s w i t h a l e a r n i n g 122 t e c h n i q u e would n e c e s s i t a t e new or n o v e l m a t e r i a l , one of the assumptions made i n d e v e l o p i n g the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . 123 4.6 SUMMARY By u s i n g a c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s i t was found t h a t t h e r e were r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent v a r i a b l e s ( P r e v i o u s Knowledge, Developmental L e v e l , P r e v i o u s Achievement and Group membership) and the dependent v a r i a b l e s ( R e c a l l and Problem S o l v i n g ) . However, the independent v a r i a b l e s o n l y a c c o u n t e d f o r 40% of the v a r i a n c e found i n the U n i t T e s t . Group membership was the p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e on the Problem S o l v i n g s e c t i o n , the c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g R e c a l l . W h i l e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g r e c a l l i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i t was suggested t h a t by r a t i o n a l l y o b s e r v i n g t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups the r e s u l t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e d u c a t i o n a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . W h i l e t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e found on problem s o l v i n g between groups the mean s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d v e r y l i t t l e thought i n v o l v e d i n a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s . I t was a l s o s u g g ested t h a t w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l group appeared t o a c h i e v e h i g h e r s c o r e s the problem s o l v i n g h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e d u c a t i o n a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . On the v a r i a b l e s of de v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l and p r e v i o u s achievement i n s c i e n c e on R e c a l l each f a c t o r made a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o performance r e g a r d l e s s of group membership. In the f i n a l s e c t i o n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s and t e a c h e r s ' l o g s were used t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the s t u d y . An argument was p r e s e n t e d t h a t the assumption of no p r i o r 124 knowledge as s p e c i f i c as t h a t found i n the grade 9 c u r r i c u c l u m proved t o be i n v a l i d . P r e v i o u s work on l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r i o r knowledge of the s u b j e c t m a t t e r can be an i n t e r f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e . I t i s b e i n g s u g g e sted t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n found i n t h i s u n i t (Energy) has become "common knowledge" as the r e s u l t of g e n e r a l p u b l i c c oncern about Energy. F u r t h e r , t h i s g e n e r a l "common knowledge", w h i l e i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h i s s t u d y , has a g r e a t e r message f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n the P r o v i n c e . I t i s apparent from the t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o the t e s t r e s u l t s t h a t the assumption of no p r i o r knowledge i s h e l d by them as w e l l as the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s who have r e c e n t l y r e v i s e d the grade 9 s c i e n c e t e x t . Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o det e r m i n e whether or not t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t a u g h t f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , enhanced achievement i n s c i e n c e a t the grade 9 l e v e l . Based on an I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model, i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s would, o v e r a l l , enhance r e c a l l and problem s o l v i n g b u t , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t e r a c t w i t h Developmental L e v e l and P r e v i o u s Achievement i n s c i e n c e . 5.2 CONCLUSIONS 5.2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY ON RECALL The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n Chapter 4 suggest m a r g i n a l l y s u p e r i o r performance on r e c a l l by the comparison group as opposed t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s would enhance r e c a l l by p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h an e f f i c i e n t t h e o r y - b a s e d pro c e d u r e f o r p r o c e s s i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n . As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 2 one of the apparent problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h new or n o v e l i n f o r m a t i o n i s how t o m a n i p u l a t e i t i n such a way t h a t i t can be s t o r e d i n a framework which a l l o w s f o r r e t r i e v a l i n a l o g i c a l , c o h e r e n t manner. That l o g i c a l framework of i n f o r m a t i o n or schemata must be b u i l t up i n 1 25 1 26 l o n g term memory. Then i t must be l a b e l l e d i n a way t h a t w i l l a l l o w a s i t u a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t hose l a b e l s . T h i s w i l l p e r m i t a c c e s s t o p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were based on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key l a b e l s and t e c h n i q u e s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o reduce the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s . They were a l s o d e s i g n e d t o p l a c e the onus of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c t i o n and l a b e l l i n g on the s t u d e n t . W h i l e a schemata w i t h i n memory may be an i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; i . e . , between two p e o p l e they may be s i m i l a r they a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y the same, t h e r e must be some u n i f o r m i t y i n l a b e l s i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e the r e c a l l of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n o t h e r w i s e t h e r e c o u l d be no common knowledge base f o r d i s c u s s i o n s . T h i s i s why key words, h i g h l i g h t e d i n the t e x t , were emphasized and y e t a t the same time s t u d e n t s were encouraged t o use t h e i r own words t o reduce l a r g e c o n c e p t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h o s e words. The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were based on the t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e t h a t by r e d u c i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s i d e a s can be l e a r n e d and a s s o c i a t i o n s made t h r o u g h the r e p e t i t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o p e r m i t a concept t o be s t a t e d i n the s m a l l e s t u n i t p o s s i b l e . By u s i n g the h i g h l i g h t e d words i n the t e x t as the key l a b e l s f o r a concept a n o t h e r p r a c t i c e e f f e c t would be e x p e c t e d s i n c e f u r t h e r work done w i t h t h a t t e x t would r e q u i r e a c c e s s i n g p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d c o n c e p t s . T h i s background would l e a d t o the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s would enhance r e c a l l i n the 1 27 e x p e r i m e n t a l group. However, the e v i d e n c e from t h i s study p o i n t s t o the c o n t r a r y : s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and comparison groups, w i t h t h e comparison group o b t a i n i n g a h i g h e r mean r e c a l l s c o r e . T h i s r e s u l t was not a n t i c i p a t e d from t h e o r y and l e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f a c t o r s which might account f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s . W h i l e I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g t h e o r y may be an o v e r l y s i m p l i f i e d view of the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s model p r o v i d e s a v a l i d b a s i s f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s c r i b e the complex phenomenon of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e o r y s h o u l d account f o r the unexpected r e s u l t s , o t h e r f a c t o r s b e i n g e q u a l . K l a h r and W a l l a c e (1976) have i n a v e r y d e t a i l e d way shown how I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n d e s c r i b i n g o b s e r v e d p a t t e r n s of c o g n i t i v e development. One a s p e c t of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s a d i v i s i o n of the Long Term Memory i n t o t h r e e t i e r s ( w i t h m u l t i p l e l e v e l s ) , each d e a l i n g w i t h : T i e r I . S p e c i f i c E x p e r i e n c e , T i e r I I . Problem S o l v i n g S t r a t e g i e s , and T i e r I I I . P r o d u c t i o n Systems f o r S e l f - M o d i f i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the prime g o a l s of the system are t o p r o v i d e e f f i c i e n c y t h r ough a s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s which d e t e c t s c o n s i s t e n c i e s ( s e r i a l p a t t e r n s ) i n the environment and e l i m i n a t e s redundancy. W i t h i n the above model i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e c a l l . 128 When i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l a s e a r c h f o r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s un d e r t a k e n b e g i n n i n g w i t h i n the f i r s t t i e r , S p e c i f i c E x p e r i e n c e . A move t o the second t i e r , P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g S t r a t e g i e s , i s made when "... the p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of the system has not g i v e n r i s e t o c o n s i s t e n t sequences" ( K l a h r and W a l l a c e , 1976,p.186). T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e r e i s no p r i o r knowledge sequence on the t o p i c a move w i l l then be made t o the second t i e r , P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g S t r a t e g i e s , which w i l l be s e a r c h e d f o r a means t o d e a l w i t h t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n . These s t r a t e g i e s would then p r o v i d e a p r o c e s s i n g sequence t o attempt t o p l a c e the new i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o memory. That p r o c e s s i n g sequence may be as s i m p l e as a mnemonic d e v i c e or as complex as t o p r o v i d e some k i n d of p r e - e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n i n g d e v i c e . Once a s t r a t e g y i s "chosen" the new knowledge sequence can be added t o the f i r s t t i e r . I f , however, t h e r e i s a knowledge sequence a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n t he f i r s t t i e r then the e f f i c i e n c y of the system p r e c l u d e s any need t o s e a r c h beyond t h i s p o i n t . As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 2, the s e a r c h f o r a p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e which w i l l work f o r new i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n on a t r i a l and e r r o r b a s i s ; t h e r e f o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t by p r o v i d i n g the s t u d e n t s w i t h a p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e i n s t e a d of r e q u i r i n g a s e a r c h f o r one t h e r e would be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l new i n f o r m a t i o n . In Chapter 4 arguments were p r e s e n t e d t o support the n o t i o n t h a t w h i l e the Energy U n i t i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d by both t e a c h e r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s as new m a t e r i a l i t 129 a p p a r e n t l y i s not n o v e l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the s t u d e n t s . S i n c e t h i s was p r o b a b l y the case i t may be argued t h a t a p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e had a l r e a d y been found by the i n d i v i d u a l and the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were e i t h e r redundant or i g n o r e d by the s t u d e n t s . In Chapter 1 i t was emphasized t h a t the s t r a t e g i e s would form a b a s i s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t as a s t u d e n t matured he may f i n d a more p e r s o n a l and e f f i c i e n t means f o r h i m s e l f . In t h i s case i t i s suggested t h a t the b a s i c p r o c e s s i n g p r o v i d e d by the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s was not needed s i n c e the s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y had a l r e a d y formed a knowledge base. W h i l e the r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy can be e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the framework of the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model i t a l s o becomes n e c e s s a r y t o peruse the f i n d i n g s from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the c l a s s r o o m i n o r d e r t o attempt t o account f o r the r e s u l t s . W i t h i n the n a t u r a l environment of the c l a s s r o o m the v a r i e t y of human judgement, m o t i v a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s must be ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h the v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s which the s t u d e n t s a r e exposed t o d u r i n g a normal s c h o o l day th e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e s were n e i t h e r as i n t e n s i v e nor of s u f f i c i e n t d u r a t i o n t o e l i c i t the a n t i c i p a t e d changes. For some s t u d e n t s the r o t a t i n g s c h e d u l e sometimes a l l o w e d up t o f i v e days between c l a s s e s . T h i s c o u p l e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t the s t u d e n t s were i n f l u e n c e d by anywhere from 4 t o 6 o t h e r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s i n a day may b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e n s i t y of the t r e a t m e n t 130 a p p l i e d . W h i l e two of the t e c h n i q u e s , Summarizing (Brown, Campione and Day, 1980) and W r i t t e n Q u e s t i o n s and Answers (Andre and Anderson, 1978), produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h e s e s t u d i e s were conducted under f a i r l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s , not i n the c l a s s r o o m . A l s o , the i n t e n t of t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s i s s i m i l a r t o Concept and Vee Mapping (Novak and Gowin, 1985) which w h i l e showing p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n some s t u d i e s (see Chapter 4) when compared t o o u t l i n i n g showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h s c h o o l groups on achievement i n s c i e n c e (Lehman, C a r t e r and K a h l e , 1985). Novak and Gowin (1985) f e e l t h a t i t would t a k e a two y e a r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s t o c o r r e c t l y use the mapping t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s time f a c t o r was p r e s e n t e d as one p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e s u l t s i n the study by Lehman, C a r t e r and K a h l e ( 1985) . T h i s might suggest t h a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e a time f a c t o r may have p o s s i b l y been i n v o l v e d t h e r e b y making the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o o s u b t l e f o r b o t h the time frame and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s were chosen because of t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y and the ease w i t h which they c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . Sometimes t h e . c o m p l e x i t y and n o v e l t y of a t e c h n i q u e masks the i n t e n t of the e x e r c i s e ; t h e r e b y , p r o d u c i n g ambiguous r e s u l t s . 131 I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t any improvements were masked by group membership. T h i s s h o u l d be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e two of the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e were o b s e r v a b l e improvements i n s p e c i f i c s t u d e n t s . For example, the l e a s t a b l e s t u d e n t who ended up w i t h the h i g h e s t P o s t t e s t grade i n the c l a s s or the s t u d e n t s who p r o v i d e d u n s o l i c i t e d comments about u s i n g the s t r a t e g i e s i n o t h e r c l a s s e s . A l s o , a s t u d e n t who might be more a t t e n t i v e on a one-to-one b a s i s has more o p p o r t u n i t y t o be l e s s a t t e n t i v e and t h e r e b y l o s e some of the i n t e n s i t y of the t r e a t m e n t when he becomes p a r t of a group. The potency of a t r e a t m e n t , of any k i n d , i s a r e f l e c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and background. I t becomes s p e c u l a t i v e whether or not t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s were of a low i n t e n s i t y , or c o m p l i c a t e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s . W i t h t h e background i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the type of i n d i v i d u a l s composing the c l a s s e s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter 4 i t i s b e i n g suggested t h a t the m a r g i n a l l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l was a f u n c t i o n of the s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; i . e . , the s t u d e n t s i n the comparison group were more c o n s c i e n t i o u s and d i l i g e n t i n t h e i r academic work and appeared t o be " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s than the o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n the s t u d y . S i n c e t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on the P r e t e s t r e s u l t s i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who a r e c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r workers would p e r f o r m b e t t e r on the P o s t t e s t s i m p l y because of t h e i r work h a b i t s , a l l o t h e r q u a l i t i e s b e i n g e q u a l . 1 32 A l s o , t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r s w i t h i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group or w i t h i n the comparison group. In g e n r a l , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o imagine no p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some v a r i a b i l i t y would occur and become e v i d e n t i n the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s and y e t none was found. Other f a c t o r s such as r o t a t i n g s c h e d u l e s , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e s , s e l e c t i v i t y of g r oups, and so on would l e a d one t o expect d i f f e r e n c e s . Y e t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y the v a r i a b i l i t y of r e sponses of 311 s t u d e n t s was not g r e a t enough t o p o i n t out a problem w i t h any of the t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . A g a i n , t h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s i d e r i n g the d i v e r s i t y e x p e c t e d from 311 i n d i v i d u a l s from a wide v a r i e t y of backgrounds. Whi l e the r e s u l t s of the s t u d y can be e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t s of the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Theory an attempt has been made t o a n a l y z e the f a c t o r s o u t s i d e of the model which i n f l u e n c e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . Even though any of the above f a c t o r s a l o n e or i n c o m b i n a t i o n may have r e s u l t e d i n the f i n d i n g s on r e c a l l i t i s f e l t t h a t the most l o g i c a l answer and one which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model i s the h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t of p r e v i o u s knowledge. 133 5.2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROBLEM-SOLVING STUDY The e v i d e n c e r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 4 i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l group o b t a i n i n g a h i g h e r mean s c o r e . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s would enhance problem s o l v i n g by p r o v i d i n g a schemata f o r new i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e answers t o problem q u e s t i o n s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the schemata of new i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e a knowledge base which c o u l d be used t o e x p l a i n s i t u a t i o n s or answer q u e s t i o n s . By u s i n g t h i s new knowledge i t would mean t h a t not o n l y was the i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d oh a r e c a l l b a s i s but t h a t i t c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . W h i l e the e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d on t h e problem s o l v i n g s e c t i o n of the P o s t t e s t the o v e r a l l s c o r e was l e s s than one complete answer c o r r e c t . As mentioned i n Chapter 4 the SOLO Taxonomy p r o v i d e s c o d i n g which w i l l i d e n t i f y i n c o m p l e t e or i n c o r r e c t answers. T h i s c o d i n g has produced s c o r e s w i t h means of l e s s than one c o r r e c t answer f o r both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and comparison groups. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group i t i s suggested t h a t no e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a c t u a l l y apparent between groups. S i n c e the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o the problem s o l v i n g t i e r and u s i n g the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model of K l a h r and W a l l a c e (1976) i t was apparent t h a t any p r e v i o u s knowledge would be 1 34 an i n t e r f e r e n c e and h i n d e r t h a t e f f o r t . As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 4, the s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y appeared t o have a common knowledge base on the t o p i c which a l s o o v e r r i d e s the new i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n c l a s s . T h i s a g a i n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model which shows t h a t a b u i l d up of i n f o r m a t i o n on a p r e v i o u s knowledge base w i l l i n t e r r u p t and s t o p the p r o c e s s i n g w i t h i n a t i e r t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g a need t o move t o the problem s o l v i n g t i e r . S i n c e the t e s t was l i m i t e d i n time and the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p o r t i o n of the t e s t l i m i t e d t o d e s c r i p t i o n i n the form of an essay i t i s suggested t h a t what was a c t u a l l y r e p o r t e d was the f i r s t p a r t of the knowledge base which would answer the q u e s t i o n r a t h e r than moving t o the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t i e r . The answers g i v e n were o f t e n something o t h e r than the m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n c l a s s t h e r e b y s u g g e s t i n g a knowledge base o b t a i n e d o u t s i d e of the c l a s s r o o m . As deBono (1982) p o i n t s o u t , s t u d e n t s w i l l respond t o q u e s t i o n s w i t h the l o w e s t l e v e l answer which they f e e l i s c o r r e c t r a t h e r than r i s k i n g a more t h o u g h t f u l answer which may be i n c o r r e c t . In o r d e r f o r the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o become e f f e c t i v e i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r which t h e r e was no adequate knowledge base t h e r e b y r e q u i r i n g a move t o the second t i e r , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A l s o , because of the r e s u l t s a c o n c e r n as t o the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the problem s o l v i n g p o r t i o n of the t e s t might be r a i s e d . W i t h such an o v e r a l l poor performance from b o t h g r o u p s , d e s p i t e the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s , what 1 35 might have been t e s t e d was the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s k i l l s . S i n c e the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e i t i s suggested t h a t the f i n d i n g s were more the r e s u l t of p r a c t i c e o b t a i n e d i n w r i t i n g r a t h e r than an i n c r e a s e i n problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . 5.2.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE INTERACTION STUDY The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n Chapter 4 suggest no i n t e r a c t i o n between group membership and e i t h e r Developmental L e v e l or P r e v i o u s Achievement i n S c i e n c e . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s would i n t e r a c t w i t h D evelopmental L e v e l and P r e v i o u s Achievement i n such a way t h a t those s t u d e n t s who were a t a lower Developmental L e v e l or were poor academic s t u d e n t s would r e c e i v e the most b e n e f i t . As s t u d e n t s mature they not o n l y i n c r e a s e the number of p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them but they a l s o become more aware of them i n terms of m atching a s t r a t e g y t o a s i t u a t i o n . A l s o , a s t u d e n t who does not p r o c e s s new i n f o r m a t i o n c o r r e c t l y tends t o f o r g e t or not remember e f f i c i e n t l y enough t o p e r f o r m w e l l on t e s t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e i t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n , Developmental L e v e l or P r e v i o u s Achievement w i t h r e c a l l and problem s o l v i n g . S t u d e n t s who were a t a h i g h e r Developmental L e v e l or a c a d e m i c a l l y b e t t e r s t u d e n t s performed b e t t e r on the P o s t t e s t . Those s t u d e n t s a t a h i g h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l 136 p r o b a b l y were a l r e a d y aware of s t r a t e g i e s t o use w i t h s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and perhaps found the s t r a t e g i e s redundant or not u s e f u l t o them, i n which case they performed the assignments w h i l e a l s o u t i l i z i n g t h e i r own t e c h n i q u e s . S t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y o f t e n t e n d t o do so no matter which t e a c h i n g methodology they a r e exposed t o . W h i l e i t has been shown i n a v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s t h a t s p e c i f i c m e t h o d o l o g i e s enhance achievement of s t u d e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e r e a r e a number of s t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m w e l l d e s p i t e the t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e used. As mentioned b e f o r e , t h e i n f l u e n c e of any p r e v i o u s knowledge about a s u b j e c t can i n t e r f e r e w i t h the study i n such a way as t o p r e v e n t c l e a r c u t answers. When the s e r e s u l t s a r e viewed w i t h i n t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy w i t h r e s p e c t t o main e f f e c t s i t i s apparent t h a t the t e s t s f o r any i n t e r a c t i o n s are i n c o n c l u s i v e . 1 37 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e r e s u l t s which answer the q u e s t i o n s asked and those r e s u l t s which r a i s e f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s and c o n c e r n s . I t would not be w a r r a n t e d t o attempt any d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s about changes i n achievement ( i n c r e a s e s or d e c r e a s e s ) w i t h the use of th e s e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . However, t h i s s t u d y has p o i n t e d out some of the f a c t o r s which must be take n i n t o account i n any f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . 1. I t i s recommended t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s be used i n ano t h e r s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m study where p r e v i o u s work has been done on p r i o r knowledge t o c o n t r o l f o r t h i s i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r . Perhaps a t the grade 8 l e v e l where s t u d e n t s a r e b e g i n n i n g a more f o r m a l study of s c i e n c e . But even here p r i o r knowledge must be c o n s i d e r e d s i n c e a s s u m p t i o n s s h o u l d not be made based on a c u r r i c u l u m r e v i e w a l o n e . 2. These m a t e r i a l s might a l s o be used a g a i n i n a study where comparisons c o u l d be made on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s r a t h e r than w i t h i n a group. The achievement of a group masks i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y . T h i s was seen i n one e x p e r i m e n t a l group where a s t u d e n t w i t h a low grade ended up w i t h the h i g h e s t p o s t - t e s t s c o r e f o r the group. 3. A l s o , i t might be advantageous t o conduct t h i s study w i t h g r e a t e r c o n t r o l s than those i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . However, an i n c r e a s e i n the amount of c o n t r o l s may i n t e r f e r e 138 w i t h the v a l i d i t y of t h e r e s u l t s i f the i n t e n d e d p o p u l a t i o n i s a average c l a s s r o o m of s t u d e n t s . 4. As a f i n a l s u g g e s t i o n the i n f l u e n c e of r i s k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t e s t when a t t e m p t i n g t o measure problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y c o u l d be reduced by c o n d u c t i n g a type of " c r e a t i v e e s s a y " on a p a r t i c u l a r problem w i t h i n a c l a s s p e r i o d r a t h e r than i n a f o r m a l , graded t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . Of f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e s e grade 9 s t u d e n t s were a p p a r e n t l y a l r e a d y aware of t h i s knowledge. S e v e r a l c o n c e r n s on a h i g h e r l e v e l emerge from t h i s , e s p e c i a l l y i f the P r o v i n c e i s moving toward mandatory P r o v i n c i a l Exams: I f they a l r e a d y know the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the Energy U n i t 1. How much of the r e s t of the c u r r i c u l u m do they know? 2. Should as much c l a s s r o o m time be spent on t h i s U n i t ? 3. What r a m i f i c a t i o n s would t h e s e q u e s t i o n s have on the c u r r i c u l u m i n g e n e r a l and on s u p p l e m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s ? 4. What do t h e s e r e s u l t s mean t o a t e a c h e r w i t h r e g a r d t o government exams and t h e i r subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ? A l l of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s go beyond the scope of t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . However, i t i s recommended t h a t t h e s e c o n c e r n s be a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h f u r t h e r s t u d y . 139 5.4 UTILITY OF THE STUDY Wit h r e s p e c t t o t h i s s t u d y and these p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s , and based s o l e l y on the o p i n i o n s of the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d , the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were u s e f u l and easy t o employ. They were c o n v e n i e n t t o implement and a p p a r e n t l y p l a c e d no e x t r a burden on the t e a c h e r s , i n o t h e r words they were " c o s t e f f e c t i v e " . T h i s i s a c r i t i c a l p o i n t f o r any c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . These s t r a t e g i e s may a l s o p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r s w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l a ssignment u s u a l l y g i v e n a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . I n a m e t a - a n a l y s i s done on s t u d i e s i d e n t i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n c e achievement and s c i e n c e a t t i t u d e s , a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , i n t e r e s t was more h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o achievement than e i t h e r a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r ( W i l s o n , 1983). I f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n amount of v a r i e t y f o r the s t u d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i f the c o n t e n t i s known t o him, then t h e r e i s a u t i l i t y f o r the t e a c h e r and st u d e n t beyond achievement. By l o o k i n g a t the problem s o l v i n g s e c t i o n , the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s e a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f on paper by " f o r c i n g " the s t u d e n t t o p r a c t i c e w r i t i n g i n s c i e n c e c l a s s . For many t e a c h e r s t h i s a l o n e may be a b e n e f i t . C o n c i s e and a c c u r a t e r e p o r t i n g and e x p r e s s i o n of i d e a s i s even more c r i t i c a l i n s c i e n c e than i n o t h e r f i e l d s and y e t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e b u i l t - i n p r a c t i c e of t h i s a r t w i t h i n s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . 140 W h i l e a model i s changed and adapted t o the p e r m u t a t i o n s found i n human endeavors t h e r e s h o u l d a l s o be t h a t r e c i p r o c a l development of t e c h n i q u e s based on the model. In a t t e m p t i n g t o do t h i s the p r e s e n t study has enc o u n t e r e d and f o c u s s e d on a few s e l e c t e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s which p r e v e n t e d the type of c l e a r c u t answers one exp e c t e d by f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the parameters of a model. T h i s by no means negates the model but r a t h e r emphasises the need f o r more r e s e a r c h w i t h m a t e r i a l s based on the model. Models must change t o meet r e a l i t y but o n l y w i t h s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between those who t h e o r i z e w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n and, as L i n (1979) p r o p o s e s , t h o s e e d u c a t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s who use a t h e o r y w i t h i n the p r a c t i c a l r e a l m of the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s study was such an a t t e m p t . I f e n h ancing the c a p a b i l i t i e s of a s t u d e n t i s i m p o r t a n t then a t t e m p t s must be made t o a p p l y t h e o r y based s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n n a t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s . A l t h o u g h , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h must a l s o be undertaken w i t h a f o c u s on the chang i n g knowledge base of s t u d e n t s . W h i l e a t t e m p t s were made t o c o n t r o l f o r p r e v i o u s knowledge (the P r e t e s t ) i t became apparent t h a t t h i s e f f o r t was not enough and t h a t p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d knowledge about Energy p r e v e n t e d c l e a r answers t o the q u e s t i o n s posed. However, the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s appear t o have a p l a c e i n grade 9 s c i e n c e and a v a l u e f o r both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . T h i s v a l u e i s found i n t h e i r c l a r i t y and u t i l i t y , as w e l l as i n the emphasis p l a c e d on the st u d e n t t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s 141 own l e a r n i n g . A t e a c h e r must p r e s e n t the i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s t u d e n t t o l e a r n , which was t h e i n t e n t of the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . But no m a t t e r how much i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d by the t e a c h e r , o n l y the s t u d e n t has the c a p a c i t y t o i n t e r n a l i z e the m a t e r i a l . Through f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s and r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s as a base perhaps a s e r i e s of t e c h n i q u e s can be d e v e l o p e d t o guide a s t u d e n t i n t o a p e r s o n a l i z e d system f o r l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n . BIBLIOGRAPHY Andre, M a r l i and Thomas A. Anderson. "The Development and E v a l u a t i o n of a S e l f - Q u e s t i o n i n g Study Technique". T e c h n i c a l Report No. 87, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana-Champaign, June 1978. A r l i n , P a t r i c i a Kennedy. "A M u l t i t r a i t - M u l t i m e t h o d V a l i d i t y Study of a Test of Formal R e a s o n i n g " . E d u c a t i o n a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement >Win 1982,42(4), 1077-1088. A r l i n T e s t of Formal R e a s o n i n g . E a s t A u r o r a , New Y o r k : S l o s s o n E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1984. Baker, L i n d a and Ann L. Brown. M e t a c o g n i t i v e S k i l l s and Re a d i n g . T e c h n i c a l Report No.188, Center f o r the Study of R e a d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Nov.1980. Bean, Thomas W. " D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n i n M e t a c o g n i t i v e S t r a t e g i e s : Cummulative I n s t r u c t i o n i n Summarization and G r a p h i c O r g a n i z e r C o n s t r u c t i o n v s . G r a p h i c O r g a n i z e r A l o n e v s . An O u t l i n i n g S t r a t e g y i n 10th Grade World H i s t o r y " T e c h n i c a l Report No. 6. L e a r n i n g from Text P r o j e c t , R i v e r s i d e , C a l i f o r n i a , Nov. 1983. B i g g s , John B. C o g n i t i o n , Development and I n s t r u c t i o n . John R. K i r b y and John B. B i g g s (Eds.) New York:Academic P r e s s , 1980. B i g g s , John B. and K e v i n F. C o l l i s . E v a l u a t i n g the Q u a l i t y  of L e a r n i n g the SOLO Taxonomy.New York:Academic P r e s s , 1982. B i g g s , John B. and John R. K i r b y . "Emergent Themes and F u r t h e r D i r e c t i o n s " , C o g n i t i o n , Development, and  I n s t r u c t i o n . John R. K i r b y and John B. B i g g s , Eds.New York:Academic P r e s s , 1980. Bloom, Benjamin S. Human C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and S c h o o l  L e a r n i n g . New York:McGraw H i l l Company, 1976. B r i t i s h Columbia J u n i o r Secondary S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guide and Resource Book. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984. B r i t i s h Columbia S c i e n c e Assessment. G e n e r a l Report t o the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , L e a r n i n g Assessment Branch, B r i t i s h C olumbia, Hugh T a y l o r ( E d . ) , Sept. 1982. 1 42 143 B r i t i s h Columbia S c i e n c e Assessment. G e n e r a l Report t o the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , L e a r n i n g Assessment Branch, The S c i e n c e Assessment C o n t r a c t Team, October 1978. Brophy, J e r e E. "Teacher B e h a v i o r and I t s E f f e c t s " , J o u r n a l  of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1979, 7 1 ( 6 ) , 733-750. Brown, Ann L. " L e a r n i n g an Development: t h e Problems of C o m p a t i b i l i t y , A c cess and I n d u c t i o n " , Human Development, 1982,25,89-115. Brown, Ann L. " T h e o r i e s of Memory and the Problems of Development: A c t i v i t y , Growth, and Knowledge", i n L e v e l s  of P r o c e s s i n g i n Human Memory. L a i r d S. Cermak and Fergus I.M. C r a i k ( E d s . ) , H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c . P u b l i s h e r s , 1979. Brown, Ann L. and C r a i g R. B a r c l a y . "The E f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g S p e c i f i c Mnemonics on the Metamnemonic E f f i c i e n c y of R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n " , C h i l d Development, 1976,47,71-80. Brown, Ann L., Joseph C. Campione, and Jeanne D. Day. L e a r n i n g t o L e a r n : On T r a i n i n g S t u d e n t s t o L e a r n From  T e x t s , T e c h n i c a l Report No.189. Paper p r e s e n t e d t o American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , B o s t o n , Mass., A p r i l , 1980. Brown, Ann L. and Judy S. DeLoache. " S k i l l , P l a n s , and S e l f - R e g u l a t i o n " , C h i l d r e n ' s T h i n k i n g : What D e v e l o p s ? . Robert S. S i e g l e r , Ed. H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. B u t l e r , F. C o i t . "The T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s : A U n i f i e d I n t e r a c t i v e Model", E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, Nov. 1985,25,7-17. C a m p e r e l l , Kay. Other t o S e l f - R e g u l a t i o n : V y g o t s k y ' s Theory  of C o g n i t i v e Development and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s For  Improving Comprehension I n s t r u c t i o n f o r U n s u c c e s s f u l  S t u d e n t s . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Second Annual M e e t i n g of the American Reading Forum. S a r a s o t a , F l a . , D e c , 1981 . Campione, Joseph C , Ann L. Brown and Nancy R. B r y a n t . " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n L e a r n i n g and Memory", i n Human A b i l i t i e s An I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Approach, Robert J . S t e r n b e r g ( E d . ) , New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1985. Campione, Joseph C , Ann L. Brown and R o b e r t a A. F e r r a r a . "Mental R e t a r d a t i o n and I n t e l l i g e n c e " , i n Handbook of  Human I n t e l l e g e n c e , Robert J . S t e r n b e r ( E d . ) , New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 1 44 Case, Robbie. The P r o c e s s of Stage T r a n s i t i o n i n C o g n i t i v e  Development. F i n a l R e p o r t : N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d H e a l t h and Human Development, September, 1977. Case, Robbie. " I n t e l l e c t u a l Development from B i r t h t o A d u l t h o o d : A N e o - P i a g e t i a n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , C h i l d r e n ' s  T h i n k i n g : What Develops? Robert S. S i e g l e r , Ed. H i l l s d a l e , New Je r s e y : L a w r e n c e Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. Cavanaugh, John C. and M a r i o n P e r l m u t t e r , "Metamemory:A C r i t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n " , C h i l d Development, 1982, 53(1),11-28. Census of Canada, 1981. S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s B.C. M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, J u l y , 1983. Chase, W i l l i a m G. and H e r b e r t A. Simon. " P e r c e p t i o n i n Chess", C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1973,4,55-81. C h i , M i c h e l e n e T. "Knowledge, S t r u c t u r e s and Memory D e v e l o p m e n t " , C h i l d r e n ' s T h i n k i n g : What D e v e l o p s ? " Robert S. S i e g l e r , Ed. H i l l s d a l e , New Je r s e y : L a w r e n c e Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. C h i , M i c h e l i n e T.H. and Robert G l a s e r . " P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g A b i l i t y " , i n Human A b i l i t i e s A Problem S o l v i n g Approach. Robert J . S t e r n b e r g ( E d . ) , New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1985. Cohen, G i l l i a n . The P s y c h o l o g y of C o g n i t i o n . New York:Academic P r e s s , 1977. Cook, Thomas D. and Donald T. Ca m p b e l l . Q u a s i - E x p e r indentation :Design and A n a l y s i s I s s u e s f o r F i e l d S e t t i n g s . Boston:Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1979. Dansereau, Donald. "The Development of a L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s C u r r i c u l u m " , i n L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s . H a r o l d F. O ' N e i l , J r . ( E d . ) , New York: Academic P r e s s , 1978. D i c k h o f f , George M., Pamela J . Brown and Donald F. Dansereau. "A Pros e L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g y T r a i n i n g Program Based on Network and D e p t h - o f - P r o c e s s i n g Models", J o u r n a l of E x p e r i e m t n a l E d u c a t i o n , 1982,50(4),180-184. D i r k e s , M. Ann. D i v e r g e n t P r o d u c t i o n S t i m u l a t e s L e a r n i n g and  T r a n s f e r . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the 88th Annual C o n v e n t i o n of the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , Sept. 1980. D o y l e , W a l t e r . "Academic Work", Review of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , Summer 1983,53(2), 159-199. 1 45 D o y l e , W a l t e r . "Classroom Tasks and S t u d e n t s ' A b i l i t i e s " , R e s earch on T e a c h i n g : C o n c e p t s , F i n d i n g s , and  I m p l i c a t i o n s . P. P e t e r s o n and H. Walberg ( E d s . ) , B e r k l e y , C a l i f . : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g , Corp., 1979. Dunkin, M i c h a e l and Bruce B i d d l e . The Study of T e a c h i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . 1974. Elementary S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guide: Grade 1-7. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n - C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1981. E x p l o r i n g S c i e n c e or The L a i d l a w E x p l o r i n g S c i e n c e Program. T o r o n t o : Doubleday Canada L t d . , 1977. E y l o n , Bat-Sheva. E f f e c t s of Knowledge O r g a n i z a t i o n on Task  Performance. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n . B e r k e l y , C a l f . : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1979. F i s h e r , C , D. B e r l i n e r , N. F i l b y , R. M a r l i a v e , L. Cahen and M. Dishaw. "Teaching B e h a v i o r s , Academic L e a r n i n g Time and Student Achievement: An Overview", i n Time To L e a r n , C a r o l y n Denham and Ann Lieberman (Eds.) N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n , 1980. Gagne, R o b e r t . " L e a r n a b l e A s p e c t s of Problem S o l v i n g " , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1980,15(2),84-92. Good, Thomas L. "Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l " , J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 1979,30(2),52-64. Gowin, D. Bob. E d u c a t i n g . I t h a c a , N . Y . : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981 . Greeno, James G. "Natures of P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g A b i l i t i e s " i n Handbook of L e a r n i n g and C o g n i t i v e P r o c e s s e s : Human  I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g ( V o l . 5 ) . W.K. E s t e s ( E d . ) , H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. Groen, Guy and Lauren B. R e s n i c k . "Can P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n Invent A d d i t i o n A l g o r i t m s ? " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1977,69(6),645-652. G r o n l u n d , Norman E. S t a t i n g O b j e c t i v e s f o r C l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n . New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1978. Handley, H e r b e r t M. and L i n d a W. Morse. "Two-Year Study R e l a t i n g A d o l e s c e n t s ' S e l f - C o n c e p t and Gender Ro l e P e r c e p t i o n s t o Achievement and A t t i t u d e s Toward S c i e n c e " , J o u r n a l of Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , Sept. 1984,21 ( 6 ) , 599-607. 146 Huhn, R a l p h H. RSM2P;A M e t a c o g n i t i v e Approach f o r T e a c h i n g  C o g n i t i v e S t r a t e g i e s t o F a c i l i t a t e L e a r n i n g . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual M e e t i n g of the American Reading Forum, Longboat Key, F l a . , D e c , 1981. J a n z e n , Henry L. "The Development of I n f o r m a t o n - P r o c e s s i n g and Set P a t t e r n s i n E lementary S c h o o l Children:Some P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n " , S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1981,2(1),28-30. J e n k i n s , James J . "Four P o i n t s t o Remember: A T e t r a h e d r a l Model of Memory E x p e r i m e n t s " , i n L e v e l s of P r o c e s s i n g i n  Human Memory. L a i r d S. cermak and Fergus I.M. C r a i k ( E d s . ) , H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , P u b l i s h e r s , 1979. J o n e s , Beau F l y . Imbedding S t r u c t u r a l I n f o r m a t i o n and S t r a t e g y I n s t r u c t i o n s W i t h i n M a s t e r y L e a r n i n g U n i t s . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual M e e t i n g of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . S t . L o u i s , May, 1980. J o n a s s e n , D a v i d H. " L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s : A New E d u c a t i o n a l Technology", Programmed L e a r n i n g and E d u c a t i o n a l  Technology, 1985, 2 2 ( 1 ) , 26-34. K i r k , Roger E. I n t r o d u c t o r y S t a t i s t i c s . Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1978. K o r a n , Mary Lou and John J . Koran. " A p t i t u d e - T r e a t m e n t I n t e r a c t i o n R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of  R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1984,21(8),793-808. Lawson, M i c h a e l J . "Metamemory: Making D e c i s i o n s About S t r a t e g i e s " , C o g n i t i o n , Development and I n s t r u c t i o n . John R. K i r b y and John B. B i g g s (Eds.) New York:Academic P r e s s , 1980. Lehman, James D., C h a r l o t t e r C a r t e r and Jane B u t l e r K a h l e . "Concept Mapping, Vee Mapping, and Achievement: R e s u l t s of a F i e l d Study w i t h B l a c k H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s " , J o u r n a l of R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 1985, 2 2 ( 7 ) , 663-673. L e v i n e , Mark S. C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s and F a c t o r Comparison. S e r i e s : Q u a n t i t a t i v e A p p l i c a t i o n s i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . London: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977. L o f t u s , G e o f f r e y R. and E l i z a b e t h F. L o f t u s . Human Memory:  The P r o c e s s i n g of I n f o r m a t i o n . H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1976. M i l l e r , George A. "The M a g i c a l Number Seven, P l u s or Minus Two: Some L i m i t s on Our C a p a c i t y f o r P r o c e s s i n g I n f o r m a t i o n : , P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1956,63(2),81-97. 147 Murphy, Maureen T. and Manfred C. Schmidt. D e v e l o p i n g  S c i e n c e Concepts i n the L a b o r a t o r y . Scarborough, O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , L t d . , 1979. N a i s b i t t , John. Megatrends. New York: Warner Books, I n c . , 1 984. N e w e l l , A l l e n and H e r b e r t A. Simon. Human Problem S o l v i n g . Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1972. N e w e l l , A l l e n , J.C. Shaw and H e r b e r t A. Simon. "Elements of a Theory of Human Problem S o l v i n g " , P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Review, 1958,65(3), 151 -166. Novak, Joseph D. " M e t a l e a r n i n g and Metaknowledge S t r a t e g i e s t o H e l p S t u d e n t s L e a r n How t o L e a r n " , i n C o g n i t i v e  S t r u c t u r e and C o n c e p t u a l Change , Leo H.T. West and A. Leon P i n e s ( E d s . ) , O r l a n d o , F l a . : Academic P r e s s , I n c . , 1985. Novak, Joseph D. "An A l t e r n a t i v e t o P i a g e t i a n P s y c h o l o g y f o r S c i e n c e and Mathematics E d u c a t i o n " , S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 61 ( 4 ) , 453-477. Novak, Joseph D. and D. Bob Gowin. L e a r n i n g How t o L e a r n . Cambridge :Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984. Novak, Joseph D., D. Bob Gowin and G e r a r d T. Johansen. "The Use of Concept Mapping and Knowledge Vee Mapping w i t h J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l S c i e n c e S t u d e n t s " , S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1983, 6 7 ( 5 ) , 625-645. Norman, Donald A., Donald R. Gentner, and A l b e r t L. S t e v e n s . "Comments on L e a r n i n g Schemata and Memory R e p r e s e n t a t i o n " , C o g n i t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n . H i l l s d a l e , N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1976. P a u l s o n , P e t e r L. Two Methods f o r Making t h e Steps of t h e SQ3R More C o n c r e t e . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual M e e t i n g of the C o l l e g e Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , B a l t i m o r e , Md., Nov., 1980. Pedhazur, E l a z a r J . M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n i n B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1984. P e t e r s o n , P.L. and Susan R. Swing. "Beyond Time on Task: S t u d e n t s ' R e p o r t s of T h e i r Tought P r o c e s s e s D u r i n g C l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n " The Ele m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1982,83(5),481-491. 1 48 P i e p e r , C h a r l e s John and W i l b u r Lee Beauchamp. Everyday Problems i n S c i e n c e . Toronto:W.J. Gage & Co. L t d . , 1936. R e s n i c k , Lauren B. "Task A n a l y s i s i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e s i g n : Some Cases rom M a t h e m a t i c s " , C o g n i t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n . D a v i d K l a h r , Ed. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1976. R e s n i c k , Lauren B. and Wendy W. F o r d . The P s y c h o l o g y of  Mathematics f o r I n s t r u c t i o n . H i l l s d a l e , N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1981. R o b i n s o n , F.P. E f f e c t i v e Study. New York: H a r p e r , 1947. Schank, R.C. "How Much I n t e l l i g e n c e I s There In A r t i f i c a l I n t e l l i g e n c e ? " , I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1980,4,1-14. S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada. Background Study 52: S c i e n c e  E d u c a t i o n i n Canadian S c h o o l s , by Graham W.F. Orpwood and J e a n - P a s c a l Souque, Quebec: Canadian Government P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , 1984. Shaw, Robert and John B r a n s f o r d . " I n t r o d u c t i o n : P s y c h o l o g i c a l Approaches t o the Problem of Knowledge", i n Shaw and B r a n s f o r d (Eds.) P e r c e i v i n g , A c t i n g , and  Knowing. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence ERlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. S i e g l e r , Robert S."The O r i g i n s of S c i e n t i f i c R e a s o n i n g " , C h i l d r e n ' s T h i n k i n g : What De v e l o p s ? Robert S. S i e g l e r , Ed. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. Simon, H e r b e r t A. " I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Theory of Human Problem S o l v i n g " i n Handbook of. L e a r n i n g and C o g n i t i v e  P r o c e s s e s : Human I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g (Vo. 5 ) . W.K.~ E s t e s ( E d . ) , H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. Simon, H e r b e r t A. and M i c h a e l B a r e n f e l d . " I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g A n a l y s i s of P e r c e p t u a l P r o c e s s e s i n Problem S o l v i n g " , P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1969, 7 6 ( 5 ) , 473-483. Snedecor, George W. and W i l l i a m G. Cochran. S t a t i s t i c a l  Methods. Ames Iowa: The Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. S t a y b r o o k , N i c h o l a s , L. Corno and P. Winne. "Path A n a l y s e s R e l a t i n g Student P e r c e p t i o n s of Teacher B e h a v i o r t o Student Achievement", J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , M a r c h - A p r i l 1978, 2 9 ( 2 ) , 51-56. 149 STEM S c i e n c e : Space, Time, Energy, M a t t e r . Menlo Park, C a l i f . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977. S t e r n b e r g , Robert J . "What i s an I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Approach t o Human A b i l i t i e s ? " , i n Human A b i l i t i e s An  I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Approach, Robert J . S t e r n b e r g ( E d . ) , New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1985. T o b i a s , S. "Achievement-Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n " , Review of  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1976,46,61-74. Wildman, T e r r y M. " C o g n i t i v e Theory and the Design of I n s t r u c t i o n " , E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 1981,21(7),14-20. W i l k i n s , D a v i d . " U s i n g P a t t e r n s and P l a n s i n Chess", A r t i f i c a l I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1980,14,165-203. i g e n c e , 1980,14,165-203. Winn, B i l l . L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s and A d a p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual M e e t i n g of the American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , A p r i l , 1983. Winne, P h i l i p H. and Ro n a l d W. Marx. " S t u d e n t s ' and Teachers' Views of T h i n k i n g P r o c e s s e s f o r Clas s r o o m L e a r n i n g " , The El e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1982, 8 2 ( 5 ) , 493-518. APPENDIX A. INFORMATION FOR THE TEACHERS 1 50 PART I : INFORMATION GIVEN TO ALL TEACHERS 152 INTRODUCTION T h i s r e s e a r c h study d e a l s w i t h a comparison between two e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. Both groups c o n s i s t of f i v e t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s of grade 9 s t u d e n t s . A l l t en t e a c h e r s w i l l be f o l l o w i n g the same t o p i c o u t l i n e on the Energy U n i t which they h e l p e d t o d e v e l o p . The d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t e s t e d i s on one a s p e c t of the t a s k s s t u d e n t s a r e a s s i g n e d . T h i s study has NO c o n t r o l group. T h e r e f o r e , c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d t o account f o r t h i s m i s s i n g f a c t o r . Due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e two e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e each t e a c h e r w i t h a s p e c i f i c amount of i n f o r m a t i o n as a c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e . Each t e a c h e r i s b e i n g asked t o use d i s c r e t i o n i n d i s c u s s i n g the p r o j e c t s i n c e t h i s may compromise the r e s u l t s and subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t u d y . I t i s hoped t h a t each t e a c h e r w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h i s r e q u e s t . A f t e r the a n a l y s i s has been co m p l e t e d , a l l t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the stu d y w i l l be g i v e n t h e r e s u l t s as w e l l as a pac k e t c o n t a i n i n g a complete s e t of a l l m a t e r i a l s used i n the s t u d y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r adherence t o the t o p i c o u t l i n e and r e c o r d i n g the completed t a s k s as w e l l as k e e p i n g the d a i l y l o g . E very e f f o r t has been t a k e n t o t r y t o p r e v e n t " t e a c h e r p r o o f i n g " the o u t l i n e . The i n d i v i d u a l nuances and v a r i e t y w h ich a t e a c h e r b r i n g s t o h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e as im p o r t a n t as the m a t e r i a l , and i n some i n s t a n c e s even more i m p o r t a n t . 153 T h i s i s why r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o a t o p i c o u t l i n e . The c h a p t e r s l i s t e d a r e s i m p l y t o p r o v i d e an easy r e f e r e n c e t o the t o p i c s b e i n g c o v e r e d . Each t e a c h e r must use h i s own judgement when c o n s i d e r i n g the b r e a d t h of a t o p i c p r e s e n t a t i o n . W i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on t e a c h e r s by t h i s study i t i s hoped t h a t the c l a s s e s w i l l be conducted as c l o s e t o normal as p o s s i b l e . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d NOT be aware t h a t a n y t h i n g i s u n u s u a l or d i f f e r e n t . For t h i s s tudy t o have any meaning t o the average c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r the s i t u a t i o n must be as r e a l i s t i c as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d w i t h as many c o n t r o l s as p o s s i b l e w h i l e a t the same time t r y i n g not t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the normal f u n c t i o n i n g of the c l a s s r o o m . 1 54 GENERAL POINTS TO NOTE Make sure the s t u d e n t s know t h a t a s s i g n m e n t s w i l l be marked. Emphasize the importance of kee p i n g a notebook. D i s c u s s the u t i l i t y of s t u d y i n g from c l a s s n o t e s and assignments w h i l e u s i n g the t e x t o n l y f o r c l a r i f y i n g p o i n t s . Make s u r e a l l assignments a r e c o r r e c t e d . Make s u r e you go over the assignments i n the next c l a s s meeting or a t the e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . Mark the assignment f o r completeness on the Assignment Record. 1 55 DAILY LOG DATE CLASS/BLOCK TOPIC OF THE LESSON: HOMEWORK ASSIGNED DID YOU CORRECT A PREVIOUS ASSIGNMENT? IF YES, WHICH ONE? COMMENTS:(Please i n c l u d e any e x t r a n e o u s e v e n t s which may have a f f e c t e d your c l a s s . ) DATE CLASS/BLOCK TOPIC OF THE LESSON: HOMEWORK ASSIGNED DID YOU CORRECT A PREVIOUS ASSIGNMENT? IF YES, WHICH ONE? COMMENTS:(Please i n c l u d e any e x t r a n e o u s e v e n t s which may have a f f e c t e d your c l a s s . ) SCHEDULE SUMMARY N.B. A l l t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s w i l l be s u p p l i e d t o you. PERIOD TOPIC 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 P r e t e s t ( p r o b a b l y l e s s than 1 p e r i o d ) 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 A r l i n T e s t of Formal Reasoning ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 p e r i o d ) 5-6 Chapter 1 7-9 Chapter 2 10-11 Chapter 3 12-14 Chapter 4 15 Test 16-17 Chapter 5 18-20 Chapter 6 21-23 Chapter 7 and 9 24 F i n a l T e s t 157 CATEGORIES FOR THE CODING OF ESSAY ANSWERS The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a a r e used t o c a t e g o r i z e essay answers. These c a t e g o r i e s do NOT r e p r e s e n t a grade, but r a t h e r a r e n u m e r i c a l codes t o i n i d i c a t e the c o m p l e x i t y of the s t u d e n t s ' answers. A f t e r each c a t e g o r y an example has been p r o v i d e d . A h i s t o r y example was chosen r a t h e r than one from s c i e n c e s i n c e i t becomes o b v i o u s when the s t u d e n t b e g i n s t o use d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g ; whereas, i n s c i e n c e , much would depend on e x a c t l y what had been ta u g h t i n c l a s s . ( S p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d a t the end of the s t u d y . ) An a d d i t i o n a l s e t of c a t e g o r i e s has been p r o v i d e d t o accomodate those answers which do not f i t " n i c e l y " i n t o a s p e c i f i c a r e a . T h i s a l l o w s an "in-between" c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . Background f o r the example: Grade 9 s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a l e s s o n on s q u a t t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a as p a r t of a h i s t o r y l e s s o n . They were then a s k e d, "What reasons d i d the s q u a t t e r s have f o r d e f y i n g the government's r e g u l a t i o n s ? Were they j u s t i f i e d ? " CATEGORY 1 1. a v o i d s the q u e s t i o n , r e f u s e s t o answer or s i m p l y g uesses. 2. r e p e a t s or r e s t a t e s the q u e s t i o n . 3. makes an i r r e l e v a n t , p e r s o n a l l y based a s s o c i a t i o n . Example: "None. They d e f i e d the government." 158 "They were j u s t i f i e d , but many of the s q u a t t e r s were q u i t e w e a l t h y anyways." CATEGORY 1A * i n a d e q u a t e l y uses p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n but o n l y p a r t i a l l y g r a s p s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t . CATEGORY 2 1. s e l e c t s 1 r e l e v a n t a s p e c t from the e v i d e n c e and c o r r e c t l y answers w i t h t h a t . Example: "Yes, because they were h e l p i n g t o d e v e l o p the wool i n d u s t r y . " 159 CATEGORY 2A * s e l e c t s 2 r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t or u n r e l a t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , draws no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n from them. CATEGORY 3 1. s e l e c t s 2 or more r e l e v a n t p o i n t s from the e v i d e n c e but i g n o r e s any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and makes no i n t e g r a t i o n or c o n n e c t i o n . 2. f a c t s a r e w r i t t e n as i s o l a t e d p o i n t s w i t h no r e l a t i o n s h i p g i v e n , no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n i s r e a c h e d . For example: "... and ... and then ... and a l s o " . Example: "Yes, the s q u a t t e r s were j u s t i f i e d because t h e r e was b e t t e r p a s t u r e l a n d o u t s i d e the l i m i t s of l o c a t i o n and an o t h e r r e s o n was t h a t the wool i n d u s t r y would grow." CATEGORY 3A * r e c o g n i z e s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s but i s unable t o r e s o l v e them, or makes o n l y a p a r t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the f a c t s . * a t t e m p t s t o draw a c o n c l u s i o n , a l t h o u g h i t may be wrong. CATEGORY 4 1. uses a l l or most of the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e g r a t e s i t w i t h a r e l a t i n g c o n c e p t , r e c o n c i l i n g any c o n f l i c t but r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n the g i v e n c o n t e x t . 2. the c o n c l u s i o n drawn may be i n v l a i d o u t s i d e of the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t of the q u e s t i o n . 160 Example: "No. I don't t h i n k the s q u a t t e r s were j u s t i f i e d because a l t h o u g h the p r i c e of l a n d was too h i g h and they d i d not have enough s e c u r i t y and i t was wrong t o go and j u s t t a k e over the l a n d w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n ; laws a r e made t o be kept by the p u b l i c . " CATEGORY 4A * r e c o g n i z e s the r e l a t i v i t y of the e x p l a n a t i o n , but i n a d e q u a t e l y makes use of a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o v e r r i d e c o n t e x t . A ttempts t o use an a b s t r a c t i d e a but uses i t i n c o r r e c t l y . . CATEGORY 5 1. uses a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s that' show the example i s j u s t one of many p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s or e x p l a n a t i o n s . 2. uses d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g from the i n f o r m a t i o n . 3. no f i r m d e c i s i v e answer, shows t h a t the outcome may be d i f f e r e n t w i t h o t h e r d a t a or i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . 4. a p p e a l s t o h y p o t h e s i s and t o examples not g i v e n i n the o r i g i n a l , uses a n a l o g i e s compatable w i t h the p r i n c i p l e . Example: " I t depends on how wide a term you want j u s t i f i e d t o be. In a r e s t r i c t e d sense you c o u l d say t h a t the s q u a t t e r s were not j u s t i f i e d because the Government saw a need t o d e v e l o p and foc u s i t s r e s o u r c e s i n a known r a t h e r than an unknown a r e a . I f you widen the term, you can say t h a t the s q u a t t e r s f e l t t h e mselves t o be j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e they had e m i g r a t e d l a r g e l y 161 so t h a t they c o u l d own l a n d . When they a r r i v e d they found t h a t the l a n d was too e x p e n s i v e so they ' s q u a t t e d ' on i t and by h a r d word and occupancy, f e l t they had made the l a n d t h e i r own. T a k i n g an even w i d e r view the s q u a t t e r s were j u s t i f i e d beause i n a l o n g term, the w e a l t h of the A u s t r a [ i l ] a n c o l o n i e s r e s t e d on the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s q u a t t e r s . " 1 62 PART I I . INFORMATION GIVEN ONLY TO THE EXPERIMENTAL TEACHERS RATIONALE 163 From the work done i n Human Development, Problem S o l v i n g and I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g i t has been found t h a t as l e a r n e r s mature they d e v e l o p a wide v a r i e t y of means f o r h a n d l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o them. The s t u d e n t d e v e l o p s , t h r o u g h t r i a l and e r r o r , a r e p e r t o i r e of p e r s o n a l l y u s e f u l s t r a t e g i e s or t e c h n i q u e s which he imposes upon s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s a l l o w s the s t u d e n t t o i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t or u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and t o s t o r e i t i n a manner which p r o v i d e s a p p r o p r i a t e r e t r i e v a l . However, when the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i s new or u n f a m i l i a r s t u d e n t s t e n d t o become n o v i c e l e a r n e r s a g a i n , a t t e m p t i n g v a r i o u s p r o c e d u r e s , u n t i l some means f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n can be found. A b r i e f background summary from the l i t e r a t u r e i s p r o v i d e d a t the end of t h i s b o o k l e t . S c i e n c e appears t o be a good example of a s u b j e c t which i n t r o d u c e s new and o f t e n u n f a m i l i a r t e r m i n o l o g y and c o n c e p t s . I f the s t u d e n t r e s o r t s t o a t e c h n i q u e which may have worked i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s , but not work i n s c i e n c e , he may encounter f a i l u r e t o comprehend the m a t e r i a l or t o r e t a i n i t . By the time the s t u d e n t has h o p e f u l l y worked out a means f o r p r o c e s s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n a g r e a t d e a l of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l may a l r e a d y be l o s t t o him due t o the p r o g r e s s i o n of the c l a s s or the a d d i t i o n of new t o p i c s . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the s t u d e n t who does not p e r f o r m w e l l on a 164 t e s t and y e t i n s i s t s t h a t he s t u d i e d f o r i t . When q u e s t i o n e d f u r t h e r he w i l l e x p l a i n how l o n g he had s t u d i e d w i t h no thought as t o how he s t u d i e d . I t i s b e i n g s u g g ested t h a t one p o s s i b l e means of a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s problem may be t o p r o v i d e the s t u d e n t w i t h e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i o n s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . However, s i m p l y d e s c r i b i n g a t e c h n i q u e i s not enough f o r a s t u d e n t , i t must be demonstrated and then p r a c t i c e d . I t i s w i t h t h i s b a s i c r a t i o n a l e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g f o u r study t e c h n i q u e s a r e b e i n g t e s t e d . 165 PROCEDURE The f o u r s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d a re based on I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g Theory and a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a means f o r i n c r e a s i n g the amount of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d and r e t a i n e d by the s t u d e n t s . Each t e c h n i q u e has s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s f o r i t s use, an example f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n , and i s taught p r i o r t o an assignment f o r p r a c t i c e . The f i r s t time an assignment i s g i v e n i t s h o u l d be p r a c t i c e d i n c l a s s , i f p o s s i b l e . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e g i v e n ; however, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l p e r s o n a l i z e the p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t w i l l r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n amount of p e r s e r v e r e n c e and p a t i e n c e i n the b e g i n n i n g u n t i l the s t u d e n t s become c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the format of the work. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the s t u d e n t s be aware t h a t the assignments a r e t o h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d the m a t e r i a l b e t t e r by p r o v i d i n g a study t e c h n i q u e . E x p l a i n the purpose of the assignment t o them. These as s i g n m e n t s a r e t o be an a i d t o the s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r and s h o u l d not become a f o c a l p o i n t of the c l a s s . I t i s suggested t h a t the t a s k s i n i t i a l l y be demonstrated and perhaps p r a c t i c e d i n c l a s s t o a s s u r e you t h a t the s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d the study p r o c e d u r e . When you are c o n f i d e n t t h a t the p r o c e d u r e has been l e a r n e d , the t a s k s may be a s s i g n e d as homework. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a l l work MUST be c o r r e c t e d or gone over i n the next c l a s s p e r i o d , 166 e x c l u d i n g l a b t i m e . As the s t u d e n t s f a m i l i a r i z e t h emselves w i t h the t e c h i q u e s some v a r i a t i o n s may b e g i n t o o c c u r i n the a s s i g n m e n t s . P l e a s e make note of t h e s e . I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r you t o judge whether or not the v a r i a t i o n s s h o u l d be c o r r e c t e d . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s b e i n g based on t h e s e f o u r p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s adherence t o the d i r e c t i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s . An Assignment Record i s p r o v i d e d t o document the amount of each assignment attempted ( t h i s i s NOT a g r a d i n g sheet but r a t h e r w i l l g i v e some i d e a of how much work the s t u d e n t t r i e d t o d o ) . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n which must be emphasized t o t h e s t u d e n t i s the n e c e s s i t y of u s i n g h i s own words and t h o u g h t s . Copying from a book tends t o become a v e r y m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e m ental i n v o l v e m e n t . As the s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h a c h a p t e r the a s s i g n m e n t s have a l l o w e d him t o keep a s e c t i o n - b y - s e c t i o n summary, i n v a r i o u s forms, so t h a t b e f o r e a t t e s t most of the s t u d y i n g w i l l be done from the s e t of assignment s h e e t s f o r each c h a p t e r . R e v i e w i n g s h o u l d be done w i t h the summaries and diagrams. A s t u d e n t w i l l need t o l e a r n t o t e s t h i m s e l f u s i n g the v o c a b u l a r y sheet and answer the q u e s t i o n s he has w r i t t e n . The t e x t b o o k s h o u l d then become a r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e f o r m a t e r i a l not l e a r n e d or m i s u n d e r s t o o d . G e n e r a l P o i n t s t o Note 1. Make sure the s t u d e n t s know t h a t assignments w i l l be 167 marked. Have p a t i e n c e - i t may ta k e a few t i m e s p r a c t i c i n g the t e c h n i q u e b e f o r e they c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d . Emphasize the importance of u s i n g t h e i r own words. Emphasize the importance of kee p i n g a notebook. D i s c u s s the u t i l i t y of s t u d y i n g from the assignment s h e e t s and c l a s s n o t e s w h i l e u s i n g t h e t e x t o n l y f o r c l a r i f y i n g p o i n t s . Make s u r e a l l assignments a r e c o r r e c t e d . Make s u r e you go over the assignments i n the next c l a s s meeting or a t the e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . G e n e r a l I n s t r u c t i o n s Review t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h the s t u d e n t s . Go over the example p r o v i d e d . G i v e t h e f i r s t p r a c t i c e a s s i g m e n t . Review t h e assignment t h e next day w i t h t h e c l a s s . Mark the assignments f o r completeness on the Assignment R e c o r d . 168 VOCABULARY LIST D i r e c t i o n s D i v i d e a sheet of paper i n t o t h r e e columns. W r i t e the study word i n column 1. Then b r i e f l y d e f i n e or d e s r i b e the word i n column 3. When you are rea d y , and you t h i n k t h a t you know the d e f i n i t i o n s , c o v e r column 3 or f o l d i t t o the back. F i l l i n the d e f i n i t i o n s or d e s c r i p t i o n s i n column 2. Mark the ones t h a t you got wrong by comparing columns 2 and 3. RULES 1. Make sure you use your own words. Try not t o copy d i r e c t l y from the book. 2. You may add words or phr a s e s t h a t a r e not h i g h l i g h t e d i f they a r e i m p o r t a n t t o you. 3. Keep w i t h i n the space p r o v i d e d . Remember, i t i s im p o r t a n t t o s h o r t e n the wo r d i n g w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e meaning. 4. You a r e l o o k i n g f o r key words and p h r a s e s . Your t e x t b o o k g e n e r a l l y w i l l h i g h l i g h t a l l new and i m p o r t a n t terms. EXAMPLE U s i n g the p a r a g r a p h from the Summarizing Sheet, s e t up a V o c a b u l a r y L i s t f o r the i m p o r t a n t terms or i d e a s . 169 NEW WORDS DEFINITIONS metre . Newton N S i r I s a a c Newton DEFINITIONS u n i t of l e n g t h u n i t of f o r c e symbol f o r Newton f o r c e u n i t named a f t e r h i m , B r i t i s h sc i e n t i s t 170 SUMMARIZING A READING RULES 1. W r i t e a sentence d e s c r i b i n g the main i d e a of the par a g r a p h or r e a d i n g . T r y t o use as many of your own words as p o s s i b l e . 2. E l i m i n a t e any unnecessary m a t e r i a l . M e n t a l l y c r o s s i t ou t . 3. S e l e c t a t o p i c sentence or sentence c o n t a i n i n g a key i d e a and u n d e r l i n e i t ( i f p o s s i b l e ) . Your book h i g h l i g h t s key words - t h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t . 4. C l u s t e r items i f p o s s i b l e . For example; c a t s , dogs, h o r s e s , and cows can a l l be c a l l e d a n i m a l s . Remember : the i d e a i s t o reduce the number of words w i t h o u t l o s i n g i d e a s . EXAMPLE ASSIGNMENT : B r i e f l y summarize t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h . When we want t o measure the l e n g t h of an o b j e c t we can f i n d out how many metres l o n g i t i s . We say t h a t a metre i s a u n i t of l e n g t h . When we want t o measure how much f o r c e i s e x e r t e d on an o b j e c t , we f i n d out how many newton a r e e x e r t e d . J u s t as a metre i s a u n i t of l e n g t h , a newton i s the u n i t of f o r c e . The symbol f o r newton i s " N ". I t i s named a f t e r a B r i t i s h S c i e n t i s t , S i r I s a a c Newton (1642-1727) who made many i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s . 171 SUMMARY : A metre i s a u n i t of l e n g t h w h i l e a newton (N) i s a u n i t of f o r c e . The newton i s named a f t e r the l a t e 17th c e n t u r y B r i t i s h s c i e n t i s t , S i r Is a a c Newton. 172 WRITING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RULES 1. Ask a q u e s t i o n about the major or key i d e a s i n the r e a d i n g . Use the same r u l e s as i n Summarizing. 2. Answer the q u e s t i o n s by expanding the i d e a r a t h e r than j u s t r e p e a t i n g the q u e s t i o n i n a d i f f e r e n t way. 3. Do not use the q u e s t i o n s i n the book. T r y t o ask your own q u e s t i o n s . EXAMPLE W r i t e one q u e s t i o n from the r e a d i n g on page 14, then answer i t . . Q u e s t i o n : How would you know i f an Energy t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r e d ? Answer: In a l o t of ca s e s you c o u l d use your senses t o know t h a t an energy t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has o c c u r r e d : as i n , heat from b u r n i n g gas, l i g h t from a b u l b , sound from a r a d i o or w a t c h i n g a book f a l l DIAGRAMMING AND SIMPLIFYING 173 RULES 1. Keep in mind the rules for summarizing. Eliminate any unnecessary information. 2. Use s t i c k figure drawings. 3. Like a newspaper cartoon, keep everything short and 4. Label only important parts. Identify only key phrases or formulas. EXAMPLE Diagram and l a b e l the pul l e y systems in 1-1 on page 48. simple. •Fijreet f o i r i r ' Mass M°*a.h\e* " P u l l e y 174 HEAT OUTLINE TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 1 What i s Energy? 1-1 Why Study Energy? 1-2 Energy and I t s Forms V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words. (The f i r s t two s h e e t s need t o be handed out t o g e t h e r . ) 1-4 Energy T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s 1-5 P o t e n t i a l and K i n e t i c Energy Summarize pages 14 and 16. 1-3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : U s i n g V a r i o u s Forms of Energy D e m o n s t r a t i o n - P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,3,4,6,7. P a r t s 2 and 5 d i s c u s s i o n . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s under each p a r t as w e l l as page 13, q u e s t i o n s 1-4. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 2 F o r c e s 1-7 What i s a F o r c e ? V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words. 1-9 The F o r c e of G r a v i t y on a Mass W r i t e 3 q u e s t i o n s and answer them. 1-11 What Causes F r i c t i o n ? Summarize each type of f r i c t i o n . W r i t e a q u e s t i o n and answer f o r each. 1-8 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : M e a s u r i n g F o r c e s 175 Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 22, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2. 1-10 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : What i s F r i c t i o n ? P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1 ( i n c l u d e D ), P a r t 2, P a r t 3 and P a r t 4. Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s under each p a r t . Page 27-28, q u e s t i o n s 1,3,4,7,11. TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 3 Work: A Measure of Energy 1-13 M e a s u r i n g Energy V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words. Summarize. W r i t e 2 q u e s t i o n s and answer them. 1-14 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C a l c u l a t i n g Work and Energy P r o c e d u r e s : A t h r o u g h I . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Pages 43-44, q u e s t i o n s 1,5,10,11. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 4 Simple Machines 1-16 What i s a Simple Machine? V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words. Summarize the r e a d i n g . 1-19 Common Simple Machines Diagram and l a b e l each type of s i m p l e machine. Ask one q u e s t i o n s and answer i t f o r each of the s i x t y p e s . 1-17 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : P u l l e y s P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,2,3 (omit 4 and 5 ) . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 51, q u e s t i o n s 1,2,4. 176 1-18 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : L e v e r s and Screws P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,2,3. Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 57, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 5. TEST TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 5 F a c t o r s That Determine a Change i n M o t i o n 1-22 A c c e l e r a t i n g and D e c e l e r a t i n g V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words. 1-25 The Importance of I n e r t i a . Summarize. W r i t e and answer 3 q u e s t i o n s about the r e a d i n g . 1-23 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : B a l a n c e d and Unbalanced F o r c e s P r o c e d u r e : A-F (omit G ) . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 74, q u e s t i o n s 1a,b,c and 2a,b,c. 1-24 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : O b s e r v i n g I n e r t i a P r o c e d u r e : A,B and D (omit C ) . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 77, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b,c and 6a,b,c,d. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 6 The Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy and Energy C o n v e r t e r s 1-28 The Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words 177 Summarize the r e a d i n g . 1-31 The Power of an Energy C o n v e r t e r W r i t e 2 q u e s t i o n s and answer them. 1-29 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : Energy C o n v e r t e r s P r o c e d u r e : P a r t 1 D e m o n s t r a t i o n A-F (omit E ) , i n c l u d e t h e concept of e f f i c i e n c y but not the f o r m u l a . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . P a r t 2 - G. Page 89, q u e s t i o n s 1,2,5,11,12. 1-32 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : M e a s u r i n g your own Power P r o c e d u r e : P a r t s A - I . Page 97-98, q u e s t i o n s 1,4,5. TIME: 3 PERIOD CHAPTER 7 Heat Energy 1-34 Heat Energy and Energy T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s V o c a b u l a r y L i s t - a l l new words Summarize each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 1-36 The Energy of P a r t i c l e s W r i t e and answer 1 q u e s t i o n s . CHAPTER 9 The T r a n s f e r of Heat Energy 1-47 What Happens t o Heat Energy Summarize 1-48 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C o n d u c t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n . P r o c e d u r e : P a r t 1 A-G (omit P a r t 2 ) . Page 146, q u e s t i o n s 2a,b,c,d; 3a,b; 7a,b,c; 13a,b. 1-49 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C o n v e c t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n . P a r t 1 A-C ( d i s c u s s P a r t 2 ) . Page 151, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b; 4; 8a,b,c. 1 78 * 1 — 50 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : R a d i a t i o n of I n f r a - r e d Rays D i s c u s s c o n c e p t s . Page 157, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b; 12a-f. 1-51 What Happens When Heat Energy I s T r a n s f e r r e d W r i t e 2 q u e s t i o n s and answer them. 1-52 I n f r a - R e d R a d i a t i o n Summarize each of the 3 s e c t i o n s . 1-53 I n s u l a t i o n W r i t e 2 q u e s t i o n s and answer them. BACKGROUND SUMMARY 179 The following selected summaries are from the l i t e r a t u r e on Information Processing, Problem Solving and Human Development. In t r y i n g to give you a b r i e f background a great deal of information has been omitted; but, hopefully t h i s w i l l provide a broader r a t i o n a l e for viewing t h i s study Information Processing The information-processing system i s an abstract representation, providing a model which shows the s e l e c t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n of information. This model i s useful since i t provides a means by which we can discuss what happens to information when i t has been presented to a person. The model i s as follows: ^RECEPTORS ENVIRONMENT — 1 N T E R P R E T E R • « — M E M O R Y -» EFFECTORS This provides an inte r f a c e between the environment, with a receptor of s t i m u l i and an e f f e c t o r of responses to that s t i m u l i . These two aspects of the system are the basic sources of a l l incoming and outgoing a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . At the base of the receptor and e f f e c t o r systems l i e s the i n t e r p r e t e r , also known generally as short-term 180 memory ( a b b r e v i a t e d as STM). Here " d e c i s i o n s " a r e made on incoming i n f o r m a t i o n as t o whether i t has importance or an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n which has been p r e v i o u s l y s t o r e d . Unimportant items a r e s e l e c t i v e l y f o r g o t t e n or i g n o r e d (e.g. the t i c k i n g of a c l o c k i n the background) w h i l e o t h e r items can be p r o c e s s e d f o r s t o r a g e w i t h o t h e r p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n or as new u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . The f u n c t i o n of STM i s t o : d i s c r i m i n a t e between incoming i t e m s , t e s t and compare them t o o t h e r u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n , c r e a t e symbols or l a b e l s , and t o send u n i t s on f o r s t o r a g e (a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s t o f i l i n g p apers i n a c a b i n e t ) , In summary, the STM system chooses items of i m p o r t , s o r t s and c l a s s i f i e s , reduces the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o c o n c e n t r a t e d u n i t s f o r s t o r a g e , then l a b e l s i t f o r r e t r i e v a l . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d e n c o d i n g and l a b e l l i n g . The f i n a l s t e p i n the p r o c e s s i s the s t o r a g e of encoded i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o l o n g term memory ( a b b r e v i a t e d as LTM). T h i s a r e a can be c o n s i d e r e d as a component which s t o r e s and r e t a i n s coded i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s u n t i l they a r e r e t r i e v e d by STM f o r use. S i n c e t h i s p o r t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y f i l e s t o r a g e , the p a r t of the model which i s of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s the STM where s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l i s h a n d l e d . The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of STM i s i t s c a p a c i t y . Due t o the c o n t i n u o u s i n f l u x of s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n which must be h a n d l e d the maximum amount which can be m a n i p u l a t e d a t any p o i n t i n time i s 7 u n i t s , p l u s or minus 2. In o r d e r t o accomodate a l l of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the STM recodes d a t a 181 t o a l l o w f o r s h o r t term s t o r a g e . A s i m p l i f i e d example may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h i s . I f a p e r s o n t r i e s t o remember 7 s e p a r a t e numbers f o r immediate use (not t o be remembered) he would be u t i l i z i n g most of the STM s t o r e a v a i l a b l e t o him. I f an i n t e r r u p t i o n o c c u r s f o r c i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n t o be d i v e r t e d ( t h i s would u t i l i z e STM space) then some of the numbers may be l o s t . T h i s happens when a phone number i s l o o k e d up i n the d i r e c t o r y , then some d i s t r a c t i o n o c c u r s and when we s t a r t t o d i a l the number we f i n d t h a t we o n l y remember a p o r t i o n or we may be unsure of i t . I f , however, t h o s e seven numbers can be m e n t a l l y combined and l a b e l l e d as say "John's phone number", the STM space r e q u i r e m e n t i s o n l y 1, a l l o w i n g 6 more u n i t s f o r immediate use. T h i s o c c u r s when we l o o k a number up i n the d i r e c t o r y and c a r r y on p e r f o r m i n g o t h e r t a s k s w h i l e c o r r e c t l y d i a l i n g the number. S i n c e t h i s c a p a c i t y i s f i n i t e , i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y made as t o the f a t e of u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . Some p i e c e s a r e f o r g o t t e n d e l i b e r a t e l y , such as a one time phone number, or i f the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o the i n d i v i d u a l then the u n i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o LTM, such as our own phone number. Because of the c o d i n g system, t h e l a b e l r e f e r r i n g t o "our own phone number" produces immediate r e t r i e v a l of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r u n i t from LTM. The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g s t o r e d and r e t r i e v e d p r e s e n t s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h c e r t a i n problems: i n f o r m a t i o n i m p r o p e r l y l a b e l e d may not be r e t r i e v e d a t an a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e , i f a t a l l ; i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n may be 182 d i s c a r d e d i f i t i s i n a d v e r t a n t l y d e t e r m i n e d u n i m p o r t a n t ; too much i n f o r m a t i o n may be coming a t one time r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f u s i o n ; and i n t e r f e r e n c e can be caused by some p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n or any of a v a r i e t y of e x t e r n a l causes such as an e m o t i o n a l problem. PROBLEM SOLVING In o r d e r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o be more u s e f u l t o a per s o n i t must be l e a r n e d ( i . e . l a b e l l e d and s t o r e d i n LTM) i n more than a r o t e f a s h i o n . R e t r i e v a l p r o c e d u r e s must be a l s o l e a r n e d t o a l l o w i n f o r m a t i o n t o be f u n c t i o n a l even when the s i t u a t i o n format v a r i e s from the o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . For s i m p l i c i t y we w i l l use an example from mathematics: s t u d e n t s l e a r n an a l g o r i t h m f o r a problem and then do a s e r i e s of worksheets f o r p r a c t i c e . E v e n t u a l l y t hey a r e g i v e n a word problem w i t h the same type of problem embedded i n a s i t u a t i o n a l dilemma; h o p e f u l l y , t hey can i d e n t i f y the a p p r o p r i a t e key items and r e t r i e v e from LTM the c o r r e c t a l g o r i t h m t o s o l v e the problem. By u s i n g t h i s example, i t can be seen t h a t problems range g e n e r a l l y from s i m p l e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e c a l l t o embedded s i t u a t i o n a l dilemmas r e q u i r i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key components. I t a l s o becomes apparent t h a t a v i t a l f a c t o r i n problem s o l v i n g i s the a p p r o p r i a t e r e t r i e v a l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I f we c o n s i d e r the LTM as a k i n d of f i l i n g system, the next o b v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s HOW t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was l a b e l l e d and f i l e d o r i g i n a l l y ( i . e . , e n c o d i n g and l a b e l l i n g done by 183 STM) . C o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done on the development of problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s i n i n d i v i d u a l s as they l e a r n t o p l a y c h e s s . F i r s t ; t h e r e i s the n o v i c e , who has l i t t l e or no i n t e l l i g e n t s e l f r e g u l a t i o n and p l a y s one move a t a time u s u a l l y i n a c o n f u s e d s t a t e . Next, as the p l a y e r becomes more f a m i l i a r w i t h the r u l e s and s u b p r o c e s s e s t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n h i s d e l i b e r a t e s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n and he s t a r t s t o a n t i c i p a t e moves. The e x p e r t p l a y e r has the s u b p r o c e s s e s of the game l e a r n e d t o a p o i n t of o v e r l e a r n i n g and r e a c t s t o a move i n a a u t o m a t i c way, t h i s a l l o w s g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n and advanced a n t i c i p a t i o n of h i s opponents moves. B a s i c a l l y , the i n d i v i d u a l has l e a r n e d HOW t o l a b e l and s t o r e game i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t when r e t r i e v a l i s n e c e s s a r y i t i s a u t o m a t i c . T h i s a l l o w s h i s STM more freedom t o " t h i n k of o t h e r t h i n g s " , such as a n t i c i p a t i n g an opponents moves. The n o v i c e l e a r n i n g s t a t e i s seen i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s where the i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h new or u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s or i n f o r m a t i o n . There i s a p e r i o d of time where c o n f u s i o n o c c u r s : i n f o r m a t i o n may be m i s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t ; perhaps poor l a b e l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e used; t h e r e may be a r e s o r t t o some t e c h n i q u e which was s u c c e s s f u l e l s e w h e r e but may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s new s i t u a t i o n . L e a r n i n g o c c u r s t h r o u g h a t r i a l and e r r o r means. E v e n t u a l l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s some system f o r p r o c e s s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n , a t t h i s p o i n t he b e g i n s t o advance and can f i n a l l y s t a r t some m a n i p u l a t i o n of the newly s t o r e d d a t a . A g a i n , m a n i p u l a t i o n 184 can o n l y o c c u r when t h e r e i s a f u n c t i o n a l , r e t r i e v a b l e knowledge base. T h i s i n t u r n i s dependent on the o r i g i n a l manner i n which the STM p r o c e s s e d t h a t incoming d a t a . HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Wh i l e the work i n Human Development r e f l e c t s a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s (from Stimulus-Response t o G e s t a l t ) , they a l l r e c o g n i s e a s u c c e s s i v e b u i l d - u p of complex l e v e l s based on a f i r m knowledge base. T h i s p r i m a r y knowledge base i s the r e s u l t of two i n t e r a c t i v e f a c t o r s : c a p a c i t y ( i . e . memory) and s t r a t e g i e s ( i . e . , p r o c e s s i n g i n v o v l e d i n s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l ) . The STM c a p a c i t y s t a r t s o f f a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 u n i t s i n a c h i l d , w i t h a d u l t s i n u n f a m i l i a r s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n s (a n o v i c e s t a t e ) w o r k i n g a t the same c a p a c i t y l e v e l as c h i l d r e n . .Since the development of s t u d e n t s o c c u r s i n s t a g e s and t h e r e i s such a d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount and type of d a t a t h a t a s t u d e n t can l e a r n , how can we account f o r t h i s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the c a p a c i t y i s f a i r l y s t a b l e a c r o s s p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l ? I t i s f e l t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t s w i t h i n a l e v e l or s t a g e r e s t s upon the a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y group or chunk i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s t o r a g e i n LTM. The s t r a t e g i e s or p r o c e s s e s n e c e s s a r y t o encode t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n appear t o oc c u r n a t u r a l l y but on an i n d i v i d u a l time frame. Some a u t h o r s f e e l t h a t the q u a l i t y of the p r o c e s s i n g i s much more i m p o r t a n t than the c a p a c i t y i n the development of t h a t p r i m a r y knowledge base. 185 Q u e s t i o n : I f we know- t h a t the key t o b u i d i n g a knowledge base i s the p r o c e s s i n g , g i v e n a s t a b l e c a p a c i t y , i s i t p o s s i b l e t o t e a c h a s t u d e n t HOW t o p r o c e s s , based on I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g , u n f a m i l i a r i n f o r m a t i o n ( i . e . , s c i e n c e ) r a t h e r than h a v i n g him f i n d out f o r h i m s e l f ? T h i s i s t h e b a s i s f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 186 ASSIGNMENT RECORD The f o l l o w i n g sheet i s f o r r e c o r d i n g the completeness of a s s i g n m e n t s . T h i s i s o n l y t o document the amount of work a t t e m p t e d and i s not meant f o r g r a d i n g p u r p o s e s . P l e a s e use a d e c i m a l system t o i n d i c a t e the q u e s t i o n s a t t e m p t e d ; f o r example, i f 5 q u e s t i o n s have been a s s i g n e d and 3 and a h a l f were c o m p l e t e d , then mark 3.5 i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space. In the case of Summarizing a R e a d i n g , i f the assignment i s complete a checkmark w i l l s u f f i c e , o t h e r w i s e e s t i m a t e the amount done. CLASS/BLOCK. STUDENTS 188 PART I I I . INFORMATION GIVEN ONLY TO THE COMPARISON TEACHERS 189 HEAT OUTLINE TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 1 What i s Energy? 1-1 Why Study Energy? 1-2 Energy and I t s Forms Page 6, q u e s t i o n s 1,3. 1-4 Energy T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s 1-5 P o t e n t i a l and K i n e t i c Energy Page 14, q u e s t i o n s 1,2. Page 16, q u e s t i o n s 1,2,5,7. 1-3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : U s i n g V a r i o u s Forms of Energy D e m o n s t r a t i o n - P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,3,4,6,7. P a r t s 2 and 5 d i s c u s s i o n . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s under each p a r t as w e l l as page 13, q u e s t i o n s 1-4. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 2 F o r c e s 1-7 What i s a For c e ? Page 20, q u e s t i o n 1. 1-9 The F o r c e of G r a v i t y on a Mass Page 24, q u e s t i o n s 1-4. 1-11 What Causes F r i c t i o n ? Page 35, q u e s t i o n s 1,2a, 3a and b, 4a and b. 1-8 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : M e a s u r i n g F o r c e s Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . P a g e 22, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2. 190 1-10 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : What i s F r i c t i o n ? P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1 ( i n c l u d e D ) , P a r t 2, P a r t 3 and P a r t 4. Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s under each p a r t . Page 27-28, q u e s t i o n s 1,3,4,7,11. TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 3 Work: A Measure of Energy 1-13 M e a s u r i n g Energy Page 40, q u e s t i o n s 1,3,5a,b and c. 1-14 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C a l c u l a t i n g Work and Energy P r o c e d u r e s : A t h r o u g h I . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Pages 43-44, q u e s t i o n s 1,5,10,11. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 4 Simple Machines 1-16 What i s a Simple Machine? Page 48, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 1-19 Common Simple Machines Page 66, q u e s t i o n 1 ( i n c l u d i n g s t a r r e d s e n t e n c e s ) . 1-17 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : P u l l e y s P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,2,3 (omit 4 and 5 ) . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 51, q u e s t i o n s 1,2,4. 1-18 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : L e v e r s and Screws P r o c e d u r e s : P a r t 1,2,3. Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 57, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 5. TEST 191 TIME: 2 PERIODS CHAPTER 5 F a c t o r s That Determine a Change i n M o t i o n 1-22 A c c e l e r a t i n g and D e c e l e r a t i n g Page 72, q u e s t i o n 1. 1-25 The Importance of I n e r t i a Page 80, q u e s t i o n 1. 1-23 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : B a l a n c e d and Unbalanced F o r c e s P r o c e d u r e : A-F (omit G). Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 74, q u e s t i o n s 1a,b,c and 2a,b,c. 1-24 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : O b s e r v i n g I n e r t i a P r o c e d u r e : A,B and D (omit C ) . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . Page 77, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b,c and 6a,b,c,d. TIME: 3 PERIODS CHAPTER 6 The Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy and Energy C o n v e r t e r s 1-28 The Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy Page 85, q u e s t i o n 1. 1-31 The Power of an Energy C o n v e r t e r Page 96, q u e s t i o n 1 and 2. 1-29 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : Energy C o n v e r t e r s P r o c e d u r e : P a r t 1 D e m o n s t r a t i o n A-F (omit E ) , i n c l u d e the concept of e f f i c i e n c y but not the f o r m u l a . Answer a l l i t a l i c i z e d q u e s t i o n s . P a r t 2 - G. Page 89, q u e s t i o n s 1,2,5,11,12. 1-32 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : M e a s u r i n g your own Power 1 92 P r o c e d u r e : P a r t s A - I . Page 97-98, q u e s t i o n s 1,4,5. TIME: 3 PERIOD CHAPTER 7 Heat Energy 1-34 Heat Energy and Energy T r a n s f o r a t i o n s Page 104, q u e s t i o n 1. 1-36 The Energy of P a r t i c l e s Page 109, q u e s t i o n 1. CHAPTER 9 The T r a n s f e r of Heat Energy 1-47 What Happens t o Heat Energy Page 141, q u e s t i o n 7. 1-48 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C o n d u c t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n . P r o c e d u r e : P a r t 1 A-G (omit P a r t 2 ) . Page 146, q u e s t i o n s 2a,b,c,d; 3a,b; 7a,b,c; 13a,b. 1-49 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : C o n v e c t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n . P a r t 1 A-C ( d i s c u s s P a r t 2 ) . Page 151, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b; 4; 8a,b,c. * 1 -50 I n v e s t i g a t i o n : R a d i a t i o n of I n f r a - r e d Rays D i s c u s s c o n c e p t s . Page 157, q u e s t i o n s 3a,b and 12a-f. 1-51 What Happens When Heat Energy I s T r a n s f e r r e d Page 162, q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2. 1-52 I n f r a - R e d R a d i a t i o n Page 166, q u e s t i o n 1a~d. 1-53 I n s u l a t i o n Page 169-170, q u e s t i o n s 1,6,9. 193 ASSIGNMENT RECORD The f o l l o w i n g sheet i s f o r r e c o r d i n g the completeness of a s s i g n m e n t s . T h i s i s o n l y t o document the amount of work at t e m p t e d and i s not meant f o r g r a d i n g p u r p o s e s . P l e a s e use a d e c i m a l system t o i n d i c a t e the q u e s t i o n s a t t e m p t e d ; f o r example, i f 5 q u e s t i o n s have been a s s i g n e d and 3 and a h a l f were c o m p l e t e d , then mark 3.5 i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space. CLASS/BLOCK STUDENTS APPENDIX B. PRETEST AND POSTTEST 195 196 PRETEST (* Item D e l e t e d ) S e l e c t the l e t t e r of the statement or phrase which BEST answers the q u e s t i o n . P l a c e your response on the answer sheet p r o v i d e d . DO NOT w r i t e on t h i s b o o k l e t . 1. Machines A. l e t you e x e r t l e s s f o r c e B. l e t you e x e r t a f o r c e i n an e a s i e r d i r e c t i o n C. do not d e c r e a s e the amount of energy you have t o use D. a l l of the above 2. When you s u p p l y energy f a s t e r than f r i c t i o n can t r a n s f o r m the m e c h a n i c a l energy t o heat energy t h i s i s known as A. d e c e l e r a t i o n B. i n e r t i a C. a c c e l e r a t i o n D. a b a l a n c e d f o r c e 3. A vacuum b o t t l e i s used t o m a i n t a i n the t e m p e r a t u r e of foods and d r i n k s . A i r between the w a l l s of the b o t t l e i s removed because a i r A. t r a n s f e r s heat energy B. e v a p o r a t e s heat energy C. produces heat energy D. e l i m i n a t e s heat energy 4. G i v e n the f o l l o w i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s of s i m p l e machines; which best r e p r e s e n t s a wheelbarrow? A. l e v e r and screw B. l e v e r and a wheel and a x l e C. i n c l i n e d p l a n e and a screw D. i n c l i n e d p l a n e and a wheel and a x l e 5. A f t e r you s t o p p e d a l i n g your b i c y c l e , i t runs f o r a w h i l e and then s t o p s because A. g r a v i t y s t o p s i t B. the p o t e n t i a l energy i s used up C. i n e r t i a s t o p s i t D. i n e r t i a keeps i t g o i n g , f r i c t i o n s t o p s i t 6. * A i r does not f r e e z e t o a s o l i d a t room temperature because A. the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s of a i r have n o t h i n g e l s e t o g i v e t h e i r m e c h a n i c a l energy t o B. t h e r e i s t o o much f r i c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l a i r p a r t i c l e s C. i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o slow down i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s D. the m e c h a n i c a l energy of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n v e r t e d t o heat energy 7. Heat t r a n s f e r t h r o u g h a vacuum can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by A. c o n v e c t i o n B. r a d i a t i o n C. c o n d u c t i o n D. d i f f u s i o n 197 8. Which of the f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of f o r c e s a c t i n g ? X: a f o o t b a l l e r k i c k i n g a b a l l Y: a g o a l k e e p e r s t o p p i n g a b a l l Z: a r e f e r e e b l o w i n g h i s w h i s t l e A. X and Z o n l y B. X and Y o n l y C. Y and Z o n l y D. X,Y and Z 9. P o t e n t i a l energy i s : A. l o s t i f you don't keep s u p p l y i n g i t t o t h e system B. the same as k i n e t i c energy C. can be s t o r e d f o r as l o n g as you want D. p a r t of the k i n e t i c energy 10. In a l a b o r a t o r y you l i f t a 10 N rock 2 metres i n 10 seconds. How much work have you done? A. 200 J B. 100 J C. 20 J D. 10 J 11. A man w e i g h i n g 1 000 N p o s s e s s e s 8 000 J of p o t e n t i a l e nergy. How h i g h i s the man above ground l e v e l ? A. 8 000 m B. 800 m C. 80 m D. 8 m 12. The f o r c e of a t t r a c t i o n between m a t t e r i s c a l l e d A. , i n e r t i a B. g r a v i t y C. e l a s t i s c i t y D. f r i c t i o n 13. * The k i n d of energy produced by a hot g l o w i n g o b j e c t i s A. e l e c t r i c a l B. c h e m i c a l C. m e c h a n i c a l D. r a d i a n t 14. * Mass A. v a r i e s as does the g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l on a body B. i s the same as the weight of a body C. i s c o n s t a n t f o r a body D. none of t h e s e 15. An example of a body c o n t a i n i n g k i n e t i c energy i s A. a b a l l thrown upward, a t the t o p of i t s p a t h B. an unexploded s t i c k of dynamite C. both of t h e s e D. n e i t h e r of these 16. C o n v e c t i o n i s most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n A. i c e B. s t e e l C. wood D. water 198 17. The b l a s t - o f f of a r o c k e t e n t a i l s the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s i o n of energy A. P o t e n t i a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o k i n e t i c energy B. c h e m i c a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o m e c h a n i c a l energy C. c h e m i c a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o heat energy D. a l l of the above 18. A c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy, the amount of energy i n the u n i v e r s e . A. d e c r e a s e s as i t i s c o n v e r t e d B. never v a r i e s i n form C. remains c o n s t a n t but can be c o n v e r t e d D. i n c r e a s e s as i t i s c o n v e r t e d 19. * A s p r i n g s c a l e i s used t o measure A. f o r c e B. s i z e C. f r i c t i o n D. work 20. * How much work i s done when a l o a d of 12 N i s r a i s e d 2 metres? A. 24 J o u l e s B. 24 Newtons C. 6 J o u l e s D. 6 Newtons 21. * The work put i n t o a machine A. e q u a l s the work put out by the machine B. i s i n c r e a s e d by the machine C. i s more than put out by the machine D. a l l of t h e above, depending on the e f f i c i e n c y of the machine 22. * When i c e m e l t s i n a g l a s s of water A. heat f l o w s from the i c e t o t h e water B. heat f l o w s from the water t o the i c e C. c o l d f l o w s from the i c e t o the water D. heat e n t e r s the i c e as c o l d comes out 23. * A u n i t of power of one newton metre per second i s known as a A. k i l o w a t t B. horsepower C. watt D. j o u l e 24. Which of the f o l l o w i n g w i l l NOT d e c r e a s e the amount of f r i c t i o n between two b o d i e s ? A. l u b r i c a t i o n B. d e c r e a s i n g the a r e a of c o n t a c t C. d e c r e a s i n g the mass of b o t h b o d i e s D. none of t h e s e 199 25. I f a body i s moving i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h a c o n s t a n t speed, which of the f o l l o w i n g statement MUST BE FALSE? A. t h e r e a r e no f o r c e s a c t i n g on the body B. t h e r e may be f o r c e s a c t i n g on the body but then c a n c e l each o t h e r out C. t h e r e i s a f o r c e a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o i t s p a t h D. t h e r e i s no f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e 26. Power i s d e f i n e d as A. work B. r a t e of d o i n g work C. the r a t e energy i s c r e a t e d D. a f o r c e a c t i n g t h r o u g h a d i s t a n c e 27. * The r a t i o of work done by a machine t o the work put i n t o i t i s c a l l e d the A. e f f i c i e n c y B. a c c e l e r a t i o n C. power D. f o r c e 28. The f o r c e t h a t most o f t e n opposes the u n i f o r m motion of a body i s A. f r i c t i o n B. i n e r t i a C. g r a v i t y D. p r e s s u r e 29. Newton's F i r s t Law says t h a t the v e l o c i t y of a body 7_ u n l e s s a c t e d upon by a/an ? . A. a c c e l e r a t e s ; b a l a n c e d f o r c e B. remains c o n s t a n t ; u nbalanced f o r c e C. a c c e l e r a t e s ; u n b a l a n c e d f o r c e D. remains c o n s t a n t ; b a l a n c e d f o r c e 30. A s i m p l e p u l l e y i s used t o r a i s e a f l a g . The f l a g weighs 2.5 kg. and w i l l be r a i s e d 30 m e t r e s . You must A. e x e r t an e f f o r t of 2.5 kg. B. e x e r t an e f f o r t t h r o u g h 30 metres C. use a s i n g l e f i x e d p u l l e y D. do a l l of the above 31. Energy i s the A. amount of work done B. a b i l i t y t o a p p l y p r e s s u r e C. a b i l i t y t o do work D. amount of work needed t o be done 32. Which i s the b e s t i n s u l a t o r ? A. a poor c o n d u c t i o n m a t e r i a l B. a good c o n d u c t i o n m a t e r i a l C. a l i q u i d , such as water D. a m a t e r i a l w i t h d e n s e l y packed p a r t i c l e s 200 33. To o b t a i n b a l a n c e d f o r c e s (no change i n motion) the two f o r c e s a c t i n g on a body must be A. e q u a l i n the same d i r e c t i o n B. unequal i n the same d i r e c t i o n C. e q u a l i n s t r e n g t h and o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n D. unequal and o p p o s i t e 34. * That p a r t of the energy of a body which the body p o s s e s s e s as a r e s u l t of i t s motion i s known as A. p o t e n t i a l energy B. k i n e t i c energy C. i n e r t i a D. f o r c e 35. Temperature i s det e r m i n e d by A. the energy of the motion of p a r t i c l e s B. momentum of m o l e c u l e s C. p o t e n t i a l energy of m o l e c u l e s D. heat 36. Heat c o n d u c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e s t i n a subst a n c e i n which m o l e c u l e s a r e A. packed t i g h t l y t o g e t h e r B. packed l o o s e l y t o g e t h e r C. a t r e s t D. absent 37. * In the engine of an a u t o m o b i l e g o i n g a l o n g the highway, the changes i n energy a r e A. heat t o m e c h a n i c a l t o motion B. c h e m i c a l t o heat t o m e c h a n i c a l t o motion C. c h e m i c a l t o magnetic t o heat t o motion D. c h e m i c a l t o heat t o motion 38. B i l l s i t s 1 metre from the f u l c r u m of the t e e t e r - t o t t e r , he does NOT b a l a n c e J i m who i s on the o t h e r end and 2 metres from the f u l c r u m . I f B i l l wants t o j u s t b a l a n c e J i m , he s h o u l d A. move c l o s e r t o the f u l c r u m B. t e l l J i m t o move c l o s e r t o the f u l c r u m C. move away from the f u l c r u m D. cannot t e l l from the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n 39. How does a de c r e a s e i n mass a f f e c t the motion of a body i f the f o r c e i s kept c o n s t a n t ? A. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e f a s t e r B. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e s l o w e r C. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e a t the same r a t e D. a l l of the above depending on how much of a d e c r e a s e i n mass 201 40. A c e r t a i n machine i s s a i d t o be 75% e f f i c i e n t . What does t h i s mean? A. the machine o p e r a t e s w i t h no energy l o s s 75% of the time B. o n l y 75% of the work put i n t o the machine i s r e t u r n e d as u s e f u l energy C. o n l y 75% of the energy put i n t o the machine i s c o n v e r t e d D. o n l y 75% of the work put i n t o the machine can be measured as energy 41. Which i s NOT an example of f o r c e ? A. a magnet p u l l i n g an i r o n n a i l toward i t B. a p e n c i l r o l l i n g a c r o s s the desk C. an a s t r o n a u t f l o a t i n g i n a w e i g h t l e s s s t a t e D. none of the above 42. Which i s NOT an example of a change from m e c h a n i c a l energy t o heat energy? A. s t r i c k i n g a n a i l w i t h a hammer B. p u t t i n g b r a k e s on t o s t o p a c a r C. wood b u r n i n g i n a f i r e p l a c e D. a m e t e o r i t e b u r n i n g up as i t e n t e r s the e a r t h ' s atmosphere 43. There a r e 3 c y l i n d e r s on the d e m o n s t r a t i o n t a b l e . Each one i s f i l l e d w i t h e i t h e r a i r , water or o i l . A s t e e l b a l l b e a r i n g t a k e s 1 second t o f a l l t h r o u g h the c y l i n d e r w i t h a i r ; 2 seconds t o f a l l t h r o u g h the c y l i n d e r w i t h w a t e r ; and, 20 seconds t o f a l l t h r o u g h the c y l i n d e r w i t h o i l . T h i s shows t h a t A. the f o r c e of g r a v i t y i s g r e a t e s t i n a i r B. the f o r c e of g r a v i t y i s g r e a t e s t i n o i l C. the f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i n water D. the f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i n o i l 44. The i n v e n t i o n of a machine which would never r e q u i r e an i n t a k e of energy once i t got g o i n g , but would c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n A. i s i m p o s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy B. i s p o s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy C. d e a l s w i t h Newton's F i r s t Law of M o t i o n D. i s p o s s i b l e p r o v i d i n g the energy c o n v e r t e r adheres t o Newton's F i r s t Law of M o t i o n 202 UNIT TEST (* Item D e l e t e d ) S e l e c t the l e t t e r of the statement or phrase which BEST answers the q u e s t i o n . P l a c e your response on the answer sheet p r o v i d e d . DO NOT w r i t e on t h i s b o o k l e t . 1. Temperature i s d e t e r m i n e d by A. the energy of the motion of p a r t i c l e s B. momentum of m o l e c u l e s C. p o t e n t i a l energy of m o l e c u l e s D. heat 2. In a l a b o r a t o r y you l i f t a 10 N rock 2 metres i n 10 seconds. How much work have you done? A. 200 J B. 100 J C. 20 J D. 10 J 3. Which i s the b e s t i n s u l a t o r ? A. a poor c o n d u c t i o n m a t e r i a l B. a good c o n d u c t i o n m a t e r i a l C. a l i q u i d , such as water D. a m a t e r i a l w i t h d e n s e l y packed p a r t i c l e s 4. * The k i n d of energy produced by a hot g l o w i n g o b j e c t i s A. e l e c t r i c a l B. c h e m i c a l C. m e c h a n i c a l D. r a d i a n t 5. * Mass A. v a r i e s as does the g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l on a body B. i s the same as the weight of a body C. i s c o n s t a n t f o r a body D. none of t h e s e 6 . * The work put i n t o a machine A. e q u a l s t h e work put out by the machine B. i s i n c r e a s e d by the machine C. i s more than put out by the machine D. a l l of the above, depending on the e f f i c i e n c y of the machine 7. Energy i s the A. amount of work done B. a b i l i t y t o a p p l y p r e s s u r e C. a b i l i t y t o do work D. amount of work needed t o be done 8. An example of a body c o n t a i n i n g k i n e t i c energy i s A. a b a l l thrown upward, a t the t o p of i t s p a t h B. an unexploded s t i c k of dynamite C. both of t h e s e D. n e i t h e r of t h e s e 203 9. Machines A. may l e t you e x e r t l e s s f o r c e B. may l e t you e x e r t a f o r c e i n an e a s i e r d i r e c t i o n C. do not d e c r e a s e the amount of energy you have t o use D. a l l of the above 10. A c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy, the amount of energy i n the u n i v e r s e . A. d e c r e a s e s as i t i s c o n v e r t e d B. never v a r i e s i n form C. remains c o n s t a n t but can be c o n v e r t e d D. i n c r e a s e s as i t i s c o n v e r t e d 11. G i v e n the f o l l o w i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s of s i m p l e machines; which b e s t r e p r e s e n t s a wheelbarrow? A. l e v e r and screw B. l e v e r and a wheel and a x l e C. i n c l i n e d p l a n e and a screw D. i n c l i n e d p l a n e and a wheel and a x l e 12. * How much work i s done when a l o a d of 12 N i s r a i s e d 2 metres? A. 24 J o u l e s B. 24 Newtons C. 6 J o u l e s D. 6 Newtons 13. Heat t r a n s f e r t h r o u g h a vacuum can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by A. c o n v e c t i o n B. r a d i a t i o n C. c o n d u c t i o n D. d i f f u s i o n 14. When you s u p p l y energy f a s t e r than f r i c t i o n can t r a n s f o r m the m e c h a n i c a l energy t o heat energy t h i s i s known as A. d e c e l e r a t i o n B. i n e r t i a C. a c c e l e r a t i o n D. a b a l a n c e d f o r c e 15. Which i s NOT an example of f o r c e ? A. a magnet p u l l i n g an i r o n n a i l toward i t B. a p e n c i l r o l l i n g a c r o s s the desk C. an a s t r o n a u t f l o a t i n g i n a w e i g h t l e s s s t a t e D. none of the above 16. To o b t a i n b a l a n c e d f o r c e s (no change i n motion) th e two f o r c e s a c t i n g on a body must be A. e q u a l i n the same d i r e c t i o n B. unequal i n the same d i r e c t i o n C. e q u a l i n s t r e n g t h and o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n D. unequal and o p p o s i t e 204 17. B i l l s i t s 1 metre from the f u l c r u m of the t e e t e r - t o t t e r , he does NOT b a l a n c e J i m who i s on the o t h e r end and 2 metres from the f u l c r u m . I f B i l l wants t o j u s t b a l a n c e J i m , he s h o u l d A. move c l o s e r t o the f u l c r u m B. t e l l J i m t o move c l o s e r t o the f u l c r u m C. move away from the f u l c r u m D. cannot t e l l from the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n 18. A man w e i g h i n g 1 000 N p o s s e s s e s 8 000 J of p o t e n t i a l energy. How h i g h i s the man above ground l e v e l ? A. 8 000 m B. 800 m C. 80 m D. 8 m 19. A vacuum b o t t l e i s used t o m a i n t a i n the temperature of foods and d r i n k s . A i r between the w a l l s of the b o t t l e i s removed because a i r A. t r a n s f e r s heat energy B. e v a p o r a t e s heat energy C. produces heat energy D. e l i m i n a t e s heat energy 20. A c e r t a i n machine i s s a i d t o be 75% e f f i c i e n t . What does t h i s mean? A. the machine o p e r a t e s w i t h no energy l o s s 75% of the time B. o n l y 75% of the work put i n t o the machine i s r e t u r n e d as u s e f u l energy C. o n l y 75% of the energy put i n t o the machine i s . c o n v e r t e d D. o n l y 75% of the work put i n t o the machine can be measured as energy 21. Which of the f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of f o r c e s a c t i n g ? X: a f o o t b a l l e r k i c k i n g a b a l l Y: a g o a l k e e p e r s t o p p i n g a b a l l Z: a r e f e r e e b l o w i n g h i s w h i s t l e A. X and Z o n l y B. X and Y o n l y C. Y and Z o n l y D. X,Y and Z 22. The i n v e n t i o n of a machine which would never r e q u i r e an i n t a k e of energy once i t got g o i n g , but would c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n A. i s i m p o s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy B. i s p o s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g t o the Law of C o n s e r v a t i o n of Energy C. d e a l s w i t h Newton's F i r s t Law of M o t i o n D. i s p o s s i b l e p r o v i d i n g the energy c o n v e r t e r adheres t o Newton's F i r s t Law of M o t i o n 205 23. The f o r c e of a t t r a c t i o n between m a t t e r i s c a l l e d A. i n e r t i a B. g r a v i t y C. e l a s t i s c i t y D. f r i c t i o n 24. Newton's F i r s t Law says t h a t the v e l o c i t y of a body 1_ u n l e s s a c t e d upon by a/an ? . A. a c c e l e r a t e s ; b a l a n c e d f o r c e B. remains c o n s t a n t ; unbalanced f o r c e C. a c c e l e r a t e s ; u nbalanced f o r c e D. remains c o n s t a n t ; b a l a n c e d f o r c e 25. Which i s NOT an example of a change from m e c h a n i c a l energy t o heat energy? A. s t r i c k i n g a n a i l w i t h a hammer B. p u t t i n g b r akes on t o s t o p a c a r C. wood b u r n i n g i n a f i r e p l a c e D. a m e t e o r i t e b u r n i n g up as i t e n t e r s the e a r t h ' s atmosphere 26. * That p a r t of the energy of a body which the body p o s s e s s e s as a r e s u l t of i t s motion i s known as A. p o t e n t i a l energy B. k i n e t i c energy C. i n e r t i a D. f o r c e 27. A f t e r you s t o p p e d a l i n g your b i c y c l e on a f l a t r o a d , i t runs f o r a w h i l e and then s t o p s because A. g r a v i t y s t o p s i t B. the p o t e n t i a l energy i s used up C. i n e r t i a s t o p s i t D. i n e r t i a keeps i t g o i n g , f r i c t i o n s t o p s i t 28. * A s p r i n g s c a l e i s used t o measure A. f o r c e B. s i z e C. f r i c t i o n D. work 29. * When i c e m e l t s i n a g l a s s of water A. heat f l o w s from the i c e t o t h e water B. heat f l o w s from the water t o t h e i c e C. c o l d f l o w s from the i c e t o the water D. heat e n t e r s the i c e as c o l d comes out 30. There a r e 3 c y l i n d e r s on the d e m o n s t r a t i o n t a b l e . Each one i s f i l l e d w i t h e i t h e r a i r , water or o i l . A s t e e l b a l l b e a r i n g t a k e s 1 second t o f a l l t h r o ugh the c y l i n d e r w i t h a i r ; 2 seconds t o f a l l t h r o u g h the c y l i n d e r w i t h w a t e r ; and, 20 seconds t o f a l l t h r o u g h the c y l i n d e r w i t h o i l . T h i s shows t h a t A. the f o r c e of g r a v i t y i s g r e a t e s t i n a i r B. the f o r c e of g r a v i t y i s g r e a t e s t i n o i l C. the f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i n water D. the f o r c e of f r i c t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i n o i l 31. How does a d e c r e a s e i n mass a f f e c t the motion of a body i f t he f o r c e i s kept c o n s t a n t ? A. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e f a s t e r B. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e s l o w e r 206 C. the body w i l l a c c e l e r a t e a t the same r a t e D. a l l of the above depending on how much of a d e c r e a s e i n mass 32. * A i r does not f r e e z e t o a s o l i d a t room tem p e r a t u r e because A. the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s of a i r have n o t h i n g e l s e t o g i v e t h e i r m e c h a n i c a l energy t o B. t h e r e i s too much f r i c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l a i r p a r t i c l e s C. i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o slow down i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s D. the m e c h a n i c a l energy of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n v e r t e d t o heat energy 33. * A u n i t of power of one newton metre per second i s known as a A. k i l o w a t t B. horsepower C. watt D. j o u l e 34. * In the engine of an a u t o m o b i l e g o i n g a l o n g the highway, the changes i n energy a r e A. heat t o m e c h a n i c a l t o motion B. c h e m i c a l t o heat t o m e c h a n i c a l t o motion C. c h e m i c a l t o magnetic t o heat t o motion D. c h e m i c a l t o heat t o motion 35. C o n v e c t i o n i s most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n A. i c e B. s t e e l C. wood D. water 36. The f o r c e t h a t most o f t e n opposes the u n i f o r m motion of a body i s A. f r i c t i o n B. i n e r t i a C. g r a v i t y D. p r e s s u r e 37. P o t e n t i a l energy i s : A. l o s t i f you don't keep s u p p l y i n g i t t o t h e system B. the same as k i n e t i c energy C. can be s t o r e d f o r as l o n g as you want D. p a r t of the k i n e t i c energy 38. Heat c o n d u c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e s t i n a s u b s t a n c e i n which m o l e c u l e s a r e A. packed t i g h t l y t o g e t h e r B. packed l o o s e l y t o g e t h e r C. a t r e s t D. absent 39. I f a body i s moving i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h a c o n s t a n t speed, which of the f o l l o w i n g statement MUST BE FALSE? A. t h e r e a r e no f o r c e s a c t i n g on the body B. t h e r e may be f o r c e s a c t i n g on the body but then c a n c e l each o t h e r out C. t h e r e i s a f o r c e a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o i t s p a t h D. t h e r e i s no f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e 40. Which of the f o l l o w i n g w i l l NOT d e c r e a s e the amount of 207 f r i c t i o n between two b o d i e s ? A. l u b r i c a t i o n B. d e c r e a s i n g the a r e a of c o n t a c t C. d e c r e a s i n g the mass of b o t h b o d i e s D. none of t h e s e 41. A s i m p l e p u l l e y i s used t o r a i s e a f l a g . The f l a g weighs 2.5 kg. and w i l l be r a i s e d 30 metres. You must A. e x e r t an e f f o r t of 2.5 kg. B. e x e r t an e f f o r t t h r ough 30 metres C. use a s i n g l e f i x e d p u l l e y D. do a l l of the above 42. * The r a t i o of work done by a machine t o the work put i n t o i t i s c a l l e d the A. e f f i c i e n c y B. a c c e l e r a t i o n C. power D. f o r c e 43. Power i s d e f i n e d as A. work B. r a t e of d o i n g work C. the r a t e energy i s c r e a t e d D. a f o r c e a c t i n g t h r o u g h a d i s t a n c e 44. The b l a s t - o f f of a r o c k e t e n t a i l s the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s i o n of energy A. P o t e n t i a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o k i n e t i c energy B. c h e m i c a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o m e c h a n i c a l energy C. c h e m i c a l energy c o n v e r t e d t o heat energy D. a l l of the above 208 ESSAY QUESTIONS Answer each q u e s t i o n i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . Use the back of the sheet i f you need more room. 1. Even i f you have a good f i r e g o i n g i n a f i r e p l a c e , e x p l a i n why your back s t i l l f e e l s c o l d when you s t a n d f a c i n g i t . 2. E x p l a i n why a match c a t c h e s on f i r e and then burns when the head i s rubbed over a p a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e . 209 3. The following two diagrams are of m i l l s used for hundreds of years to run grain grinders and saw m i l l s . Diagram A. shows an undershot water wheel, where the paddle portion s i t s in the r i v e r and i s turned as the water flows by. Diagram B. shows an overshot water wheel. A dam i s b u i l t across a stream and the water i s l e d through a wooden or metal flume to the top of the wheel. The wheel turns as water flows over the wheel and forms"a stream below. Which water wheel i s more e f f i c i e n t ? Explain why the one you have chosen i s more, e f f i c i e n t than the other. APPENDIX C. ELEMENTARY CURRICULA 210 ' 21 1 The f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s a r e found i n the Elementary S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m T e x t s used i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l umbia. W h i l e the t e x t s c o v e r a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s o n l y t h o s e which p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y t o the m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y have been i n c l u d e d . The grade or l e v e l has a l s o been i n d i c a t e d t o g i v e a g e n e r a l i d e a of the a p p r o p r i a t e age f o r which i t has been w r i t t e n . STEM, 1977 L e v e l 2 - making t h i n g s move. Energy must be expended t o move o b j e c t s and t o s t o p them from moving. The u l t i m a t e s o u r c e of energy i s the sun. Energy may be s t o r e d . L e v e l 3 - Heat and t e m p e r a t u r e . Temperature i s a measure of ho t n e s s and c o l d n e s s . Most o b j e c t s expand when h e a t e d . Some m a t e r i a l s a r e good c o n d u c t o r s of h e a t . L e v e l 4 - Heat. Heat i s produced from s o l a r energy, some c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s , e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s and by f r i c t i o n . Heat from the sun t r a v e l s a c r o s s l a r g e d i s t a n d e s , can be r e l e c t e d or f o c u s e d . As f o s s i l f u e l s d w i n d l e t h e r e i s a need f o r n u c l e a r f u e l s . L e v e l 4 - F r i c t i o n . Rubbing or r o l l i n g one o b j e c t a g a i n s t a n o t h e r produces h e a t . L u b r i c a n t s reduce f r i c t i o n . Advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of f r i c t i o n . L e v e l 5 - F o r c e s and M o t i o n . V e c t o r s , g r a v i t y and mass a r e c o v e r e d . L e v e l 6 - Changes i n Force and M o t i o n . D e v i c e s i n v e n t e d t o change the s t r e n g t h or d i r e c t i o n of a f o r c e a r e c a l l e d machines. E x p l o r i n g S c i e n c e Program Grade 3 - U n i t 3 Heat and Temperature 1. Where does heat come from? 2. How heat moves? 3. How heat changes t h i n g s . 4. M e a s u r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e . Grade 4 - U n i t 3 Work and Machines 1. Work, Work and more Work! 2. S i m p l e machines. 3. Teams of machines. 4. Why work a t a l l ? Grade 6 - U n i t 4 Changes i n Energy 1. Some k i n d s of Energy. 2. C a p t u r i n g Energy. 3. Energy i n our f u t u r e . STEM has a Module 1 which c l o s e l y resembles the grade 9 Energy U n i t i n c o n t e n t d e s i g n e d f o r use i n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . APPENDIX D. ITEM ANALYSIS 212 213 ITEM ANALYSIS The items used i n the P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t were the same. D e l e t i o n s were made on a Post Hoc b a s i s . In t h i s s e c t i o n an a n a l y s i s i s made f i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o Bloom's Taxonomic s t r u c t u r e and second, a c c o r d i n g t o the d e t a i l s of the U.B.C. LERTAP Program. The a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w s Bloom's Taxonomy (1956) and uses Gronlund's (1978) d e s c r i p t i o n s of the major c a t e g o r i e s . D e f i n i t i o n s f o r the c a t e g o r i e s a r e as f o l l o w s : KNOWLEDGE. Knowledge i s d e f i n e d as the remembering of p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l . T h i s may i n v o l v e the r e c a l l of a wide range of m a t e r i a l , from s p e c i f i c f a c t s t o complete t h e o r i e s , but a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s the b r i n g i n g t o mind of the a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . Knowledge r e p r e s e n t s the l o w e s t l e v e l of l e a r n i n g outcomes i n the c o g n i t i v e domain. COMPREHENSION. Comprehension i s d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y t o g r a s p the meaning of m a t e r i a l . T h i s may be shown by t r a n s l a t i n g m a t e r i a l from one form t o another (words t o numbers), by i n t e r p r e t i n g m a t e r i a l ( e x p o a i n i n g or s u m m a r i z i n g ) , and by e s t i m a t i n g f u r t u r e t r e n d s ( p r e d i c t i n g consequences or e f f e c t s ) . These l e a r n i n g outcomes go one s t e p beyond the si m p l e remembering of m a t e r i a l , and r e p r e s e n t the low e s t l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . APPLICATION. A p p l i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y t o use l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l i n new and c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s may i n c l u d e the a p p l i c a t i o n of such t h i n g s as r u l e s , methods, c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , l a w s , and t h e o r i e s . L e a r n i n g outcomes i n t h i s a r e a r e q u i r e a h i g h e r l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g than t h o s e under comprehension. ANALYSIS. A n a l y s i s r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y t o break down m a t e r i a l i n t o i t s component p a r t s so t h a t i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e may be u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s may i n c l u d e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t s , a n a l y s i s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t s , and r e c o g n i t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d . L e a r i n g outcomes here r e p r e s e n t a h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l than comprehension and a p p l i c a t i o n because they r e q u i r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of both eht c o n t e n t and the s t r u c t u r a l form of the m a t e r i a l . SYNTHESIS. S y n t h e s i s r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y t o put p a r t s t o g e t h e r t o form a new whole. T h i s may i n v o l v e the p r o d u c t i o n of a unique communication (theme or spe e c h ) , a p l a n of o p e r a t i o n s ( r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l ) or a s e t of a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s (scheme f o r c l a s s i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) . L e a r n i n g outcomes i n t h i s a r e a s t r e s s c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r s , w i t h major emphasis on the f o r m u l a t i o n of new p a t t e r n s or s t r u c t u r e s . EVALUATION. E v a l u a t i o n i s concerned w i t h the a b i l i t y t o judge the v a l u e of m a t e r i a l ( s t a t e m e n t , n o v e l , poem, r e s e a r c h r e p o r t ) f o r a g i v e n purpose. The 214 judgments a r e t o be based on d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a . These may be i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a ( o r g a n i z a t i o n ) or e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a ( r e l e v e n c e t o the purpose) and the s t u d e n t may d e t e r m i n e the c r i t e r i a or be g i v e n them. L e a r n i n g outcomes i n t h i s a r e a a r e h i g h e s t i n the c o g n i t i v e h i e r a r c h y because they c o n t a i n elements of a l l of the o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , p l u s c o n s c i o u s v a l u e judgments based on c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . UNIT TEST ITEM NUMBERS TOPICS KNOWLEDGE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS EVALUATION Energy 7 Potential + Kinetic 37 8 Energy Transformation 44 Force 15,21 Gravity-Mass 23 Friction 36 40 30 Work 18 Calculating Work 2 .Simple Machines 9 Pulleys 41 Levers 17 Acceleration-Deceleration 31 14 Balanced Forces 38 16 Inertia 27 ' • Newton's Firs t Law 24 Conservation of Energy 10,22 Converters-Efficiency 20 Power 43 Transformation 1 25 Conduction 38 19 Convection 35 Infra-red Radiation 13 Insulation 3 PRETEST SUMMARY NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS =» 448.00 NUMBER OF ITEMS MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 11 .00 3.24 HIGHEST SCORE LOWEST SCORE SOURCE OF VARIANCE D.F. S.S. INDIVIDUALS 447.00 141.94 ITEMS 32.00 189*751 RESIDUAL 14304.00 2953.22 TOTAL 14783.00 3284.67 M.S. 0.32 5.92 0.21 0.22 HOYT ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY = 0.35 ^  STANDARD ERROR OF MEASUREMENT = 2.57 217 PRETEST z < z o o u a in i -z LU u u. o u t/1 I a CD a. CO a. N 0) V ID O 0) — CM f O O O O N h M D t i n O 0) •- CM O O O O CM r» *- TT CM in 0) O w n o d d d 6 d i i i i — V CM 10 0> O CM — CO CO o o o o o I I I I «- CO f CO 10 O — O CM O o o o o o — 00 r~ ID tp O — O CM O d d d d d I I I i cj i in to oa CM — in r- *t o n o CM O CJ) ~~ *~ CO i - in co •>- T «- — -r- TT o o o - o z < z 1-o ^-•—* i to < UJ a i -oc i/i O i CJ m u. O in t -H z 1 UI co t—» a CJ u. t -u. t/i UI i O m U a 3 r- T 0) O O '•»'» Oil) O O ' O N M t l l O O — u> i O in O O - O r-I f l S » 0 ) N *- O CM — CO 6 6 666 in r» t 01 l"» *- O CM — CO 6 66 66 i i i i 0J 0) CM r»-O 0 " O o o o o o CJ) rr 0) CM r» O O — — O 66 6 66 I I I I CJ CO CO O «» t — — to «-co en o CM oo in to u> cp T CM rj-o o - o o t/> z < O CM in to i» co n in en co CM o o o to t/1 z < CO r» CO CM CO to I- r» 0) *- 0) O s z o CM in to t- CO CO CM K n <r in 0) u 1- oo to r- r» t/1 t/> CM O O O » 0> — 0) d CJ z 1- CM t CM CO z 1- T 0! f- U-o 1- CO — — O T o y-M 1 i 1- m O O O O O 1- CO d d d d i i i < i i i i < -1 _ l Ui tu ex K CM T CM — CO ox 1- 0> t- •» a. t/1 ox m ^ w a l o i u CO O O O O O o CO o o o o u. u. 1 1 1 O o 10 1- CO 0) O l/l 1- "J 111 It -t- W O O - 1- o - o -UI ca O O O O O z UI 00 6 6 66 a 1 1 1 1 a i i i CJ u u. i~ CO " » 0) o u. t- ^ in to — u. m CM • — O O *- u. t/i O - O — UI i UI t a m O O O O O o CO 6 666 i i i CJ a 1 1 1 1 o a. o CJ O in r- r- co oo in ^ a. tn to — to O . a. — CM CM CO CM CM CO *- CO to z CM r» *- in co co z to I*- CO — — V c- T T -•- CO 1  — — CM - o o o o i - o - o o 3 3 CO s Z Z O a o •>- CM co v o: _ i ui < O l h I - o O H-m s z z o o — CM CO Tf 0£ -I UI < O I I -I - o a. UI co Z Z O a. o — CM co "» a -i UI < CJ I h h- O O K a UI co s z o a. o — CM co v _ i «t o t-o ITEM NUMBER 5 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION 1 2 3 C 4 OTHER TOTAL WT O 0 0 1 0 N 56 263 15 113 1 448 12.5 58.7 3.3 25.2 0.2 PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0. .09 -0. ,09 -0. 14 -0. 14 10.27 10.27 -0. 18 -0. 18 -0. 22 -0. 22 10.51 10.51 -0. 06 -0. 06 -0. 14 -0. 14 10.00 10.00 0. 29 0. 29 0. 40 0. 40 C 12.64 12.64 -0. 04 -0. .04 -0. 30 -0. 30 8.00 8.00 ITEM NUMBER 6 OPTION WT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS ST TT 1 0 105 23 .4 -0. 10 -0. 10 -0. . 13 -0. 13 10 .43 10 C 2 1 81 18. . 1 C 0. 14 0. 14 0. .21 0. 21 C 11 .96 11 3 0 130' 29. .0 0. 11 0. 11 0. . 14 0. 14 11 .53 11 4 0 127 28. .3 -0. 14 -0. 14 -0. 18 -o. 18 10. .30 10 OTHER 0 5 1. . 1 0. 00 0. 00 0. .00 0. 00 11 .00 11 TOTAL 448 ITEM NUMBER 7 OPTION WT 1 0 135- 30. 1 2 0 81 18. 1 3 0 25 5. 6 C 4 1 184 41. 1 OTHER 0 23 5. 1 TOTAL 448 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS ST TT -0. 01 -0. .01 -0. 02 -0. 02 10 .93 10. 93 -0. 06 -0. ,06 -0. 09 -0 09 10 .56 10. .56 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. 26 -0. 26 9 .28 9. 28 0. 16 0. 16 0. 20 0. 20 C . 11 .62 11 . 62 -0. 08 -0. 08 -0. 18 -0. 18 9 .83 9. 83 ITEM NUMBER 8 OPTION WT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS ST TT 1 0 235 52. 5 -0. . 12 -0 . 12 -0. 16 -0. 16 10. .61 10 2 0 26 5. 8 -0. .06 -0. .06 -0. 12 -0. 12 10. 19 10 C 3 1 135 30. 1 c 0. .24 0 .24 0. 31 0. 31 C 12. 16 12 4 0 50 11. 2 -0. 09 -0. .09 -0. 14 -0. 14 10. 22 10 OTHER 0 2 0. ,4 -0. .08 -0. .08 -0. 42 -0. 42 7. 00 7 TOTAL 448 16 22 ITEM NUMBER 9 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB--ST PB--TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 170 37 .9 0 .05 0 .05 O. 07 0 07 11 .22 11 .22 2 0 98 21 .9 -0 . 18 -0 . 18 -0. 25 -0. .25 9 .89 9 .89 C 3 1 141 31 .5 C 0 . 15 0 . 15 0. 20 0. .20 C 11 .72 11 .72 4 0 34 7 .6 -0 .06 -0. .06 -0. 12 -0. . 12 10 .26 10 .26 OTHER 0 5 1 . . 1 -0 .04 -0 .04 -0. 14 -0. . 14 9 .80 9 .80 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 10 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 76 17. .0 -0 . 17 -0. . 17 -0. 26 -0. .26 9 .76 9 .76 2 0 98 21 .9 -0 . 11 -0 . 11 -0. 15 -0. . 15 10 .34 10 .34 3 0 73 16. 3 -0 . 10 -0. 10 -0. 15 -0. 15 10 .25 10 .25 C 4 1 197 44 .0 C 0 .31 0. .31 0. 38 0. 38 C 12 . 11 12 . 11 OTHER 0 4 0. .9 -0 05 -0. 05 -0. 20 -0. 20 9 .25 9 .25 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 11 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 62 13. .8 0 02 0. ,02 0. 03 0 03 11 . 13 11 . 13 C 2 1 205 45. .8 C 0 .22 0. 22 0. 28 0, 28 C 11 .78 11 .78 3 0 47 10 .5 -0 .08 -0 .08 -0. 13 -0, . 13 10 .28 10 .28 4 0 131 29. 2 -0 . 18 -0. 18 -0. 24 -0. 24 10 .08 10 .08 OTHER 0 3 0, .7 -0 . 13 -0 . 13 -0. 55 -O. .55 6 .00 6 .00 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 12 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 76 17 . 0 -0. 07 -0. 07 -0. 10 -0. 10 lO .53 10 .53 2 0 108 24. 1 -o. 09 -0. 09 -0. 13 -0. 13 10 .45 10 .45 C 3 1 123 27. 5 C 0. 16 0. 16 0. 21 0. 21 C 11 .82 11 .82 4 0 138 30. 8 -0. 01 -0. 01 -0. 01 -0. 01 10 .95 10 .95 OTHER 0 3 0. ,7 -0. 01 -0. 01 -0. 04 -0. 04 10 .67 10 .67 TOTAL 448 ITEM NUMBER 13 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB -TT B--ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 131 29 2 -0 08 -0 08 -0 11 -0 11 10 .58 10 .58 2 0 125 27 9 0 03 0 03 0 04 0 04 1 1 . 15 11 . 15 3 O 59 13 2 -0 07 -0 07 -0 11 -0 11 10 .42 10 .42 C 4 1 128 28 6 c 0 12 0 12 0 17 0 17 C 11 .63 11 .63 OTHER 0 5 1 1 -0 09 -0 09 -0 31 -0 31 8 .40 8 .40 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 14 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 80 17 9 -0 10 -0 10 -0 14 -0 14 10 .31 10 .31 2 O 99 22 1 -0 17 -o 17 -O 23 -0 23 9 .99 9 .99 3 0 119 26 6 -0 12 -0 12 -0 16 -0 16 10 .37 10 .37 C 4 1 146 32 6 c 0 35 0 35 0 45 0 45 C 12 .62 12 .62 OTHER 0 4 0 9 -0 06 -0 06 -0 23 -0 23 9 .OO 9 .OO TOTAL 448 NUMBER 15 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 118 26 3 0 04 0 04 0 06 0 06 11 .23 11 .23 2 0 78 17 4 -0 15 -0 15 -0 22 -0 22 9 .92 9 .92 C 3 1 164 36 6 C 0 18 0 18 0 24 0 24 C 11 .78 11 .78 4 0 84 18 8 -0 13 -0 13 -0 18 -0 18 10 . 14 10 . 14 OTHER 0 4 0 9 -0 01 -0 01 -0 03 -0 03 10 .75 10 .75 TOTAL 448 H ITEM NUMBER 16 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 1 11 24.8 -0 19 -0 19 -0 27 -0 27 9.90 9.90 2 0 72 16. 1 -0 05 -0 05 -0 07 -0 07 10.64 10.64 3 0 106 23.7 0 03 0 03 0 03 0 03 11.14 11.14 C 4 1 155 34.6 C 0 20 0 20 0 26 0 26 C 11 .88 1 1 .88 OTHER 0 4 0.9 -0 04 -0 04 -0 17 -0 17 9.50 9.50 TOTAL 448 N3 O ITEM NUMBER 17 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 119 26.6 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 10.96 10.96 2 0 95 21.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.06 -0.06 10.75 10.75 C 3 1 101 22.5 c 0.09 0.09 0. 13 0. 13 c 1 1 .56 11 .56 4 0 133 29.7 -0.O4 -0.04 -0.06 -0.06 10.77 10.77 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 18 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 55 12.3 -0.04 -0.04 -0.06 -0.06 10.65 10.65 C 2 1 54 12. 1 C 0. 17 0. 17 0.27 0.27 c 12 .44 12.44 3 0 225 50.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.05 -0.05 10.87 10.87 4 0 114 25.4 -0.05 -0.05 -0.07 -0.07 10.73 10.73 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 19 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT C 1 1 88 19.6 C 0.21 0.21 0.30 0.30 c 12.34 12.34 2 0 62 13.8 -0.06 -0.06 -0.09 -0.09 10.52 10.52 3 0 177 39.5 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 11.21 11.21 4 0 120 26.8 -0. 19 -0. 19 -0.26 -0.26 9.96 9.96 OTHER 0 1 0.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.30 -0.30 8.00 8.00 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 20 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 64 14.3 -0. 10 -0. 10 -0. 15 -0. 15 10.22 10.22 C 2 1 172 38.4 C 0.24 0.24 0.30 0.30 c 11 .98 11 .98 3 0 101 22.5 -0. 17 -0. 17 -0.24 -0.24 9.95 9.95 4 0 104 23.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.05 -0.05 10.77 10.77 OTHER 0 7 1.6 0.06 0.06 0. 18 0. 18 12.43 12.43 TOTAL 448 H m W H ITEM NUMBER 21 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB--ST PB -TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 1 O 33 7 .4 -0 . 11 -0 .11 -0 .20 -0. .20 9 .79 9 .79 2 0 102 22 .8 -0 . 14 -o . 14 -0. .20 -0 .20 10 . 14 10 . 14 3 0 51 1 1 .4 -0 . 14 -0 . 14 -0. .23 -0. 23 9 .73 9 .73 C 4 1 260 58 .O C 0 .28 0 .28 0 .35 0. .35 C 11 .75 11 .75 OTHER 0 2 O .4 -O .05 -o .05 -0. .26 -0. 26 8 .50 8 .50 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 22 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB--ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 68 15. .2 0 .01 0. .01 0. 01 0. 01 11 .06 11 .06 2 O 124 27 .7 -0 . 14 -0, . 14 -0. 19 -0. 19 10 .26 10 . 26 C 3 1 199 44 .4 C 0 . 18 0 . 18 0. 23 0. 23 C 11 .66 11 .66 4 0 56 12. .5 -0. 08 -0. 08 -0. 12 -0. 12 10 .34 10 .34 OTHER 0 1 0 .2 -0 . 12 -0 . 12 -0. 79 -0. 79 3 .00 3 .OO TOTAL 448 NUMBER 23 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT C 1 1 94 21 . 0 C 0. .30 0. 30 0. 42 0. 42 C 12 .85 12 .85 2 0 62 13 8 -0. 06 -0. .06 -0. 10 -0. 10 10 .48 10 .48 3 0 42 9. 4 -0. 11 -0. 11 -0. 19 -0. 19 9 .90 9 .90 4 0 247 55. 1 -0. . 12 -0. 12 -0. 16 -0. 16 10 .64 10 .64 OTHER 0 3 0. .7 -0. 07 -0. 07 -0. 29 -0. 29 8 .33 8 .33 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 24 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 169 37. 7 -0. 18 -0. 18 -0. 23 -0. 23 10 . 24 10 .24 2 0 31 6. 9 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. 25 -0. 25 9 .42 9 .42 C 3 1 208 46. 4 C 0. 29 0. 29 0. 36 0. 36 C 11 .99 11 .99 4 0 37 8. 3 -0. 06 -0. 06 -0. 12 -0. 12 lO .30 10 .30 OTHER 0 3 0. 7 -0. 03 -0. 03 -0. 11 -0. 11 lO .00 10 .00 TOTAL 448 ITEM NUMBER 25 OPTION WT N P C 1 1 101 22.5 2 0 62 13.8 3 0 54 12. 1 4 0 227 50.7 OTHER 0 4 0.9 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 26 OPTION WT N P C 1 1 244 54.5 2 0 152 33.9 3 0 33 7.4 4 0 18 4.0 OTHER 0 1 0.2 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 27 OPTION WT N P 1 0 78 17.4 2 0 81 18. 1 3 0 155 34.6 C 4 1 131 29.2 OTHER 0 3 0.7 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 28 OPTION WT N P C 1 1 141 31.5 2 0 84 18.8 3 0 76 17.0 4 0 144 32. 1 OTHER 0 3 0.7 TOTAL 448 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 0. 13 0. 13 0. 18 O. 18 C 11.75 11 .75 -0. 01 -0.01 -0. 02 -0. 02 10.89 10.89 -0. 12 -0. 12 -0. 20 -0. 20 9.93 9.93 -0. 01 -0.01 -0. 01 -0. 01 10.97 10.97 -0. 04 -0.04 -0. 17 -0. 17 9.50 9.50 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB" TT B-•ST B-TT ST TT 0. .08 0, .08 0. lO O. lO C 1 1 .23 1 1 .23 -0 .09 -0. .09 -0. 12 -0. 12 10.58 10.58 -0. .01 -0. .01 -0. 02 -0. 02 10.85 10.85 0. .06 0. 06 0. 14 0. 14 12.00 12.00 -0. . 12 -0. . 12 -o. 79 -o. .79 3.00 3.00 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-•TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0. 09 -0 09 -0. 14 -0. 14 10.35 10.35 -0. 15 -0. , 15 -0. 22 -0. 22 9.98 9.98 -0. 10 -0. 10 -0. 13 -0. 13 10.54 10.54 0. 32 0. 32 0. 43 0. 43 C 12.62 12.62 -0. 08 -0. .08 -0. 33 -0. 33 8.00 8.00 i-3 W COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT 0.27 0.27 -0.10 -0.10 -0.15 -0.15 -0.06 -0.06 -0.05 -0.05 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.36 0.36 C 0.15 -0.15 0.22 -0.22 0.08 -0.08 0.22 -0.22 MEANS ST TT 12.30 12.30 10.30 10.30 9.93 9.93 10.72 10.72 9.00 9.00 ITEM NUMBER 29 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 100 22 .3 -0 .02 -0 .02 -0 .03 -0. 03 10 .86 10 .86 C 2 1 141 31 .5 C 0 .20 0 .20 0 .27 0. 27 C 11 .96 11 .96 3 0 123 27 .5 -0 .07 -O .07 -0 .09 -0. 09 10 .63 10 .63 4 0 77 17 .2 -0 . 12 -0 . 12 -0 . 17 -0. 17 10 . 17 10 . 17 OTHER 0 7 1 .6 -0 .08 -0 .08 -0 .25 -0. 25 9 .00 9 .00 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 30 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 O 29 6 .5 -0. .09 -0, .09 -0. . 18 -0. 18 9 .86 9 .86 2 0 91 20 .3 -0 . 11 -0. . 1 1 -0. 15 -0. 15 10 .31 10 .31 C 3 1 201 44 .9 C 0 21 0. .21 0. 27 0. 27 C 11 .77 11 .77 4 0 126 28 . 1 -0. 10 -0. 10 -0. 13 -0. 13 10 .50 10 .50 OTHER 0 1 0 .2 0. .04 0. 04 0. 30 0. 30 14 .OO 14 .00 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 31 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 181 40. 4 -o. 08 -0. 08 -0. 10 -0. 10 10 .68 10 .68 2 0 55 12. .3 -0. 07 -0. 07 -0. 11 -0. 11 10 .40 10 .40 C 3 1 123 27. 5 C 0. 18 0. 18 0. 24 0. 24 C 11 .93 11 .93 4 0 88 19. 6 -0. 03 -0. 03 -0. 05 -0. 05 10 .78 10 .78 OTHER 0 1 0. 2 -0. 09 -0. 09 -0. 59 -0. 59 5 .OO 5 .00 TOTAL 448 NUMBER 32 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 208 46. 4 -0. 11 -0. 11 -0. 14 -0. 14 10 .60 10 .60 2 0 77 17. 2 -0. 11 -0. 11 -0. 17 -0. 17 10 . 18 10. 18 3 0 48 10. 7 -0. 08 -0. 08 -0. 13 -0. 13 10 .25 10. 25 C 4 1 112 25. 0 C 0. 31 0. 31 0. 42 0. 42 C 12 .74 12, .74 OTHER 0 • 3 0. 7 -o. 12 -0. 12 -0. 52 -0. 52 6 . 33 6. 33 TOTAL 448 H M CO H 4 > ITEM NUMBER 33 OPTION WT N P C 1 1 145 32 .4 2 0 86 19 .2 3 0 85 19 .0 4 0 121 27 .0 OTHER 0 11 2 .5 TOTAL 448 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST 0.26 -0. 11 -0. 13 -0.02 -0.09 PB-TT 0.26 -0. 11 -0. 13 -0.02 -0.09 B-ST 0.33 -O. 16 -O. 19 -0.03 -0.24 B-TT 0.33 C -O. 16 -O. 19 -0.03 -0.24 ST 12. 19 10.24 10. 12 10.88 9. 18 TT 12. 19 10.24 10. 12 10.88 9. 18 z LB UB F P CF CP EACH • REPRESENTS 1 OBSERVATIONS ^ 5. 56 -7. 50 -6. 50 0 0 .0 O 0. .0 ETES 5. 25 -6. 50 -5. 50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 ETES 4 . 94 -5. 50 -4 . 50 0 0 .0 0 0, .0 H 4. 63 -4. 50 -3. 50 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 4. 32 -3. 50 -2. 50 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 4 . 01 -2. 50 -1 . 50 0 0 .0 0 0. .0 3. 71 -1 . 50 -0. 50 0 0 .0 0 0. .0 3. 40 -0. 50 0. 50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 3. 09 0. 50 1 . 50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 2. 78 1 . 50 2. 50 0 0 .0 0 0. .0 2. 47 2. ,50 3. 50 2 0 .45 2 0 .45 ** 2. 16 3. .50 4 . 50 5 1 . 12 7 1 .56 ***** 1 . 85 4. 50 5. 50 13 2.90 20 4. .46 ************* 1 . 54 5. 50 6 . 50 10 2. .23 30 6. 70 ********** 1 . 23 6. 50 7. 50 27 6. .03 57 12. .72 *************************** 0. 93 7. 50 8. 50 47 10 ,49 104 23. 21 *********************************************** O. 62 8 . 50 9. 50 44 9 .82 148 33. .04 ******************************************** 0. 31 9. .50 10. 50 48 10 .71 196 43. .75 ************************************************ O. 00 10. 50 11 . 50 60 13 .39 256 57. . 14 ************************************************************ 0. 31 11. 50 12. 50 61 13. .62 317 70. .76 ************************************************************* 0. 62 12. 50 13. 50 47 10 .49 364 81 .25 *********************************************** 0. 93 13. 50 14. 50 23 5. . 13 387 86. 38 *********************** 1 . .24 14. 50 15. 50 22 4. .91 409 91. .29 ********************** 1 . .55 15. 50 16. 50 13 2. .90 422 94. 20 ************* 1 . .85 16. 50 17. 50 15 3. .35 437 97. .54 *************** 2 . 16 17. .50 18. 50 3 0. ,67 440 98. 21 ** * 2 47 18. .50 19 50 3 0 .67 443 98. .88 **• 2 . 78 19. .50 20. 50 1 0 .22 444 99. 11 * 3. .09 20. .50 21 . 50 3 0 .67 447 99. .78 *** 3. .40 21 . 50 22. 50 1 0 .22 448 100. .00 * 3. .71 22. 50 23. 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 4. 02 23. 50 24. 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 4 . 33 24. .50 25. 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 4. .64 25. 50 26. 50 0 0 .0 448 100. 00 4. .94 26. 50 27. 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 5. .25 27. 50 28. 50 0 0. 0 448 100. 00 5. .56 28. 50 29. 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 5 .87 29. .50 30. 50 0 0. 0 448 100. .00 6. . 18 30. .50 31 . 50 0 0. .0 448 100. 00 6, .49 31 . 50 32. 50 0 0. ,0 448 100. 00 P O S T T E S T SUMMARY NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS = 370.00 NUMBER OF ITEMS = 33.00 MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 17.89 5.33 HIGHEST SCORE LOWEST SCORE 33.00 4.0O SOURCE OF VARIANCE D.F. S.S. INDIVIDUALS 369.00 317.12 ITEMS 32.00 182.48 RESIDUAL 11808.00 2531.10 TOTAL 12209.00 3030.69 M.S. 0.86 5.70 0.21 0.25 HOYT ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY 0.75 STANDARD ERROR OF MEASUREMENT » 2.62 ITEM NUMBER 1 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST C 1 1 166 44 9 C 0 15 2 0 22 5 9 -0 01 3 0 17 4 6 -0 18 4 0 163 44 1 -0 07 OTHER 0 2 0 5 -0 05 TOTAL 370 PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 0 15 0 19 0. 19 C 18.80 18.80 -0 01 -0 02 -0.02 17.73 17.73 -0 18 -0 39 -0.39 13.53 13.53 -0 07 -0 08 -0.08 17.50 17.50 -0 05 -0 26 -0.26 14.00 14.00 ITEM NUMBER COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB -TT B-•ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 97 26 2 -0. 23 -0 23 -0 31 -O 31 15 .81 15 .81 2 0 31 8 4 -0. 18 -0 18 -0 33 -0 33 14 .65 14 .65 C 3 1 224 60 5 C 0. 34 0 34 0 43 0 43 C 19 .36 19 .36 4 0 14 3 8 -0. 04 -0 04 -0 10 -0 10 16 .71 16 .71 OTHER 0 4 1 1 -0. 05 -0 05 -0 17 -0 17 15 .50 15 .50 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 3 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT C 1 1 190 51 4 C 0. 48 0 48 0 60 0 60 C 20 .37 20 .37 2 0 28 7 6 «. -0. 21 -0 21 -0 38 -0 38 14 .07 14 .07 3 0 38 10 3 -0. 13 -0 13 -0 22 -0 22 15 .82 15 .82 4 0 112 30 3 -0. 31 -0 31 -0 40 -0 40 15 .43 15 .43 OTHER 0 2 0 5 -0. 05 -0 05 -0 26 -0 26 14 .00 14 .00 TOTAL 370 O CO i-3 H W CO H ITEM NUMBER 4 OPTION 1 2 C 3 4 OTHER TOTAL WT O O 1 O 0 N 74 56 206 33 1 370 20. 15. 55. 8. O. COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS ST TT -0 10 -0 10 -0 14 -0 14 16 82 16 82 0 02 0 02 0 03 0 03 18 11 18 11 0 18 0 18 0 23 0 23 C 18 76 18 76 -0 19 -0 19 -0 33 -0 33 14 70 14 70 -0 05 -0 05 -0 30 -0 30 13 00 13 00 00 1 ITEM NUMBER 5 OPTION 1 2 3 C 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 6 OPTION 1 2 3 C 4 TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 7 OPTION 1 2 C 3 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 8 OPTION 1 C 2 3 4 OTHER TOTAL WT N P 0 124 33.5 O 69 18.6 0 53 14.3 1 123 33.2 C O 1 0.3 370 WT N P O 69 18.6 O 85 23.0 0 13 3.5 1 203 54.9 C 370 WT N P O 21 5.7 0 60 16.2 1 265 71.6 C 0 23 6.2 0 1 0.3 370 WT N P 0 6 1.6 1 218 58.9 C 0 2 0.5 0 143 38.6 O 1 0.3 370 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 0, .01 0 .01 0 .02 0. .02 18.00 18.00 -o. 09 -0 09 -0. , 14 -0. 14 16.86 16.86 -0. 13 -0. . 13 -0. .20 -0. 20 16.21 16.21 0. 17 0. 17 0. 22 0. 22 C 19. 19 19. 19 -0. 11 -0. . 11 -0. 67 -0. 67 7 .OO 7.00 COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT -0.29 -0.29 -0.15 -0.15 -0.12 -0.12 0.40 0.40 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.42 -0.42 0.21 -0.21 0.28 -0.28 O.50 0.50 C MEANS ST TT 14.68 14.68 16.41 16.41 14.62 14.62 19.82 19.82 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS g in PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-•TT ST TT -0. 07 -0. .07 -0 . 15 -O. 15 16.29 16.29 -0. 20 -0. 20 -o .30 -0. 30 15.48 15.48 0. 35 0. 35 0 .46 0. 46 C 19.06 19.06 -0. 28 -0. 28 -0 .56 -0. 56 12.04 12.04 0. 04 0. 04 0. .25 0. 25 22.00 22.OO COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B--TT ST TT -0. . 12 -0 . 12 -0. 38 -0 .38 12.83 12.83 0. 29 0 .29 0. 37 0 .37 C 19.20 19.20 -0. 01 -0. .01 -0. 06 -0 .06 17.00 17.00 -0. . 25 -0. .25 -O. 32 -0 .32 16.20 16.20 -0. 10 -0. . 10 -0. 60 -0, .60 B.OO 8.00 ro ITEM NUMBER 9 OPTION WT N P 1 O 114 30.8 C 2 1 93 25. 1 3 O 120 32.4 4 O 43 11.6 TOTAL 370 ITEM NUMBER 10 OPTION WT N P 1 O 28 7.6 2 O 62 16.8 C 3 1 249 67.3 4 0 30 8.1 OTHER O 1 0.3 TOTAL 370 ITEM NUMBER 11 OPTION WT N P 1 O 11 3.0 2 O 44 11.9 C 3 1 222 60.0 4 0 92 24.9 OTHER 0 1 0.3 TOTAL 370 ITEM NUMBER 12 OPTION WT N P 1 0 79 21 .4 2 0 11 3 .0 C 3 1 256 69, 2 4 0 22 5. .9 OTHER 0 2 0. .5 TOTAL 370 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST -0.07 0.41 -0.22 -0. 13 PB-TT -0.07 0.41 -0.22 -0. 13 B-ST -0.09 0.56 -0.29 -0.22 B-TT -0.09 0.56 C -0.29 -0.22 ST 17.33 21 .69 16. 19 15.93 TT 17.33 21 .69 16. 19 15.93 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0.16 -0.16 -0.30 -0.30 14.93 14.93 -0.28 -0.28 -0.42 -0.42 14.56 14.56 0.43 0.43 0.56 0.56 C 19.49 19.49 -0.19 -0.19 -0.35 -0.35 14.47 14.47 -0.06 -0.06 -0.36 -0.36 12.00 12.00 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS ^ O PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT ™ H -0.10 -0.10 -0.25 -0.25 14.82 14.82 -0.24 -0.24 -0.40 -0.40 14.36 14.36 H 0.30 0.30 0.38 0.38 C 19.19 19.19 -0.12 -0.12 -0.16 -0.16 16.83 16.83 -0.01 -0.01 -0.05 -0.05 17.00 17.00 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0.29 -0.29 -0.41 -0.41 14.95 14.95 -0.11 -0.11 -0.28 -0.28 14.55 14.55 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.50 C 19.25 19.25 -0.17 -0.17 -0.34 -0.34 14.32 14.32 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 18.00 18.00 to o ITEM NUMBER 13 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB -TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 36 9 .7 -0. . 18 -0 . 18 -0. .31 -0. 31 15 .00 15 .00 2 0 65 17 .6 -0. . 17 -0, . 17 -0. .25 -0. 25 15 .97 15 .97 3 0 155 41 .9 -0 . 14 -0. . 14 -0. . 18 -0. 18 17 .02 17 .02 C 4 1 110 29 .7 C 0. .41 0. 41 0 .54 0. 54 C 21 .25 21 .25 OTHER 0 4 1 . 1 -0. .02 -0, .02 -0. 08 -0. 08 16 .75 16 .75 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 14 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 47 12 .7 -0. .20 -0. .20 -0. 32 -0. 32 15 .06 15 .06 2 0 40 10 8 -0. 21 -0. 21 -0. 35 -0. 35 14 .72 14 .72 3 0 30 8, . 1 -0. , IB -0. 18 -0. 33 -0. 33 14 .67 14 .67 C 4 1 251 67. 8 C 0. 40 0. 40 0. 52 0. 52 C 19 .37 19 .37 OTHER 0 2 0. .5 -0. 10 -0. 10 -0. 45 -0. 45 11 .00 11 .00 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 15 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT C 1 1 187 50. ,5 C 0. 39 0. 39 O. 49 0. 49 C 19 .94 19 .94 2 0 50 13. ,5 -0. 22 -0. 22 -0. 35 -0. 35 14 .88 14 .88 3 0 87 23. 5 -0. 17 -0. 17 -0. 24 -0. 24 16 .24 16 .24 4 0 45 12. 2 -0. 14 -0. 14 -0. 23 -0. 23 15 .84 15 .84 OTHER 0 1 0. 3 0. 04 0. 04 0. 25 0. 25 22 .00 22 .00 TOTAL 370 O CO H H W CO H ITEM NUMBER 16 OPTION 1 C 2 3 4 TOTAL COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS WT 0 1 O 0 N 28 209 81 52 370 7. 56. 21.9 14.1 6 5 PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0. 14 -0. 14 -0. .25 -0.25 15.36 15.36 0. 34 0. 34 0 .42 0.42 C 19.46 19.46 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. . 19 -0.19 16.56 16.56 -0. 22 -0. 22 -0 .34 -0.34 15.04 15.04 to ITEM NUMBER 17 OPTION 1 2 3 C 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 18 OPTION C 1 2 3 4 TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 19 OPTION 1 C 2 3 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 20 OPTION 1 C 2 3 4 OTHER TOTAL WT N P 0 100 27, .0 0 68 18 .4 0 11 3. .0 1 186 50. .3 0 5 370 1. .4 WT N P 1 211 57 .0 0 52 14 . 1 0 47 12 .7 0 60 16. .2 370 WT N P o 48 13. .0 1 186 50. .3 0 31 8. .4 0 102 27 .6 0 3 370 0. .8 WT N P 0 39 10. .5 1 230 62. 2 0 64 17. 3 0 34 9. 2 0 3 370 0. 8 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB--ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT -0. 17 -0. 17 -0. 22 -0.22 16.43 16.43 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. 19 -0. 19 16.46 16.46 -0. 14 -0. 14 -0. 36 -0.36 13.55 13.55 0. 32 0.32 0. 40 0.40 C 19.57 19.57 -0. 09 -0.09 -0. 29 -0.29 14.00 14.00 COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT 0.37 0.37 -0.26 -0.26 -0.07 -0.07 -0.19 -0.19 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.46 0.46 C 0.40 -0.40 0.11 -0.11 0.28 -0.28 MEANS ST TT 19.60 19.60 14.48 14.48 16.94 16.94 15.62 15.62 COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 1 5 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 2 r 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 5 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.24 -0.24 0.29 0.29 C 0.03 -0.03 0.16 -0.16 0.22 -0.22 MEANS ^ O ST TT % H 15.81 15.81 " 19.10 19.10 H 17.58 17.58 16.86 16.86 14.67 14.67 COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT -0.13 -0.13 0.44 0.44 -0.34 -0.34 -0.11 -0.11 -0.15 -0.15 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.22 -0.22 0.56 0.56 C 0.50 -0.50 0.19 -0.19 0.59 -0.59 MEANS ST TT 15.87 15.87 19.71 19.71 13.97 13.97 16.09 16.09 9.33 9.33 NJ Co ro ITEM NUMBER 21 OPTION WT N 1 0 48 2 0 19 C 3 1 252 4 0 51 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 22 OPTION WT N 1 0 20 2 0 82 3 0 21 C 4 1 246 OTHER 0 1 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 23 OPTION WT N 1 0 104 2 0 53 3 0 10 C 4 1 203 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 24 OPTION WT N C 1 1 193 2 O 49 3 O 36 4 0 92 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 25 OPTION WT N 1 O 68 2 0 63 3 0 34 C 4 1 205 TOTAL 370 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 13.0 5. 1 68. 1 13.8 -0. 15 -0.27 0.43 -0.26 -O. 15 -0.27 0.43 -0.26 24 56 56 41 -0.24 -0.56 0.56 -0.41 15.79 11 .74 19.46 14.43 15.79 11.74 19.46 14.43 5. 22. 5. 66. 0. . C COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS -0.17 -0.17 -0.22 -0.22 -0.08 -0.08 0.33 0.33 -0.11 -0.11 -0.36 -0.30 -0.17 0.42 -0.67 36 30 17 42 67 ST 14.05 15.73 16. 10 19. 13 7.00 TT 14.05 15.73 16. 10 19. 13 7.00 28. 1 14.3 2.7 54.9 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS -0.19 -0.19 -0.24 -0.24 -0.19 -0.19 0.40 0.40 -0.25 -0.25 -0.37 -0.37 -0.50 -0.50 0. 50 0.50 C ST 16.30 14.75 11 .80 19.83 TT 16.30 14.75 11 .80 19.83 O Cfl H H m CO COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS p PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-•TT ST TT 52.2 C 0 36 0.36 0 45 0 45 C 19.71 19.71 13.2 -0 19 -0. 19 -0 30 -0 30 15.29 15.29 9.7 -0 21 -0.21 -o. 36 -0. 36 14.53 14.53 24 .9 -0. 12 -0. 12 -0. 16 -0. 16 16.79 16.79 18.4 17.0 9.2 55.4 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT MEANS -0.20 -0.20 -0.12 -0.12 -0.24 -0.24 0.38 0.38 -0.29 -0.29 -0.18 -0.18 -0.42 -0.42 0.48 0.48 C ST 15.68 16.48 13.91 19.73 TT 15.68 16.48 13.91 19.73 ro Co LO ITEM NUMBER 26 OPTION C 1 2 3 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 27 OPTION 1 2 C 3 4 TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 28 OPTION C 1 2 3 4 OTHER TOTAL ITEM NUMBER 29 OPTION 1 2 C 3 4 TOTAL WT N P 1 180 48 .6 0 43 11 . .6 0 112 30 .3 0 33 8. .9 0 2 370 0. .5 WT N P 0 74 20. O 0 4 1 . 11 272 73. .5 0 20 5. .4 370 WT N P 1 23 1 62.4 0 1 18 31.9 0 11 3.0 0 9 2.4 0 1 0.3 370 ilT N P 0 88 23.8 0 68 18.4 1 103 27.8 0 111 30.0 370 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST 0.42 -0.22 -O. 14 -0.27 0.01 PB-TJ 0.42 -0.22 -O. 14 -0.27 0.01 B-ST 0. 53 -0.35 -0. 18 -0.47 0.04 B-TT 0.53 C -O.S5 -O. 18 -0.47 0.04 ST 20. 18 14.72 16.77 13.33 18.50 TT 20. 18 14.72 16.77 13.33 18.50 COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT -0.14 -0.14 -0.13 -0.13 0.24 0.24 -0.18 -0.18 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.19 -0.19 0.46 -0.46 0.33 0.33 C 0.37 -0.37 MEANS ST TT 16.45 16.45 11.50 11.50 18.67 18.67 13.95 13.95 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 0. .26 0.26 0. 34 0. 34 C 18.99 18.99 -0. . 18 -0. 18 -0. 24 -0. 24 16.46 16.46 -O. . 12 -0. 12 -0. 30 -0. 30 14.27 14.27 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. 34 -0. 34 13.67 13.67 -0. ,05 -0.05 -0. 30 -0. 30 13.00 13.00 o H H W H COEFFICIENTS OF PB-ST PB-TT -0.03 -0.03 -0.08 -0.08 0.17 0.17 -0.07 -0.07 CORRELATION B-ST B-TT 0.04 -0.04 0.12 -0.12 0.23 0.23 C 0.09 -0.09 MEANS ST TT 17.65 17.65 16.97 16.97 19.34 19.34 17.32 17.32 N) Co ITEM NUMBER 30 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-"ST PB-TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 56 15, . 1 -0, .30 -0. 30 -0. 46 -0. 46 14 .07 14 .07 2 0 66 17 .8 -0. 08 -0. 08 -0. 11 -0. 11 17 .03 17 .03 3 0 107 28. .9 0. 08 0. 08 0. 11 0. 11 18 .57 18 .57 C 4 1 140 37 .8 C 0. .21 0. 21 0. 26 0. 26 C 19 .30 19 .30 OTHER 0 1 0. .3 0. .02 0. 02 0. . 13 0. . 13 20 .00 20 .OO TOTAL 370 NUMBER 31 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B--TT ST TT 1 0 27 7. .3 -0. 19 -0. 19 -0. 36 -0. 36 14 .22 14 .22 2 0 59 15. .9 -0. .20 -0. 20 -0. 29 -0. 29 15 .51 15 .51 3 0 66 17. .8 -0. . 19 -0. 19 -0. 28 -0. 28 15 .74 15 .74 C 4 1 217 58. 6 C 0. 41 0. 41 0. 51 0. 51 C 19 .71 19 .71 OTHER 0 1 0 .3 -0. . 11 -0. 11 -0. 67 -O. 67 7 .OO 7 .OO TOTAL 370 ITEM NUMBER 32 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB--TT B-ST B-TT ST TT 1 0 40 10 .8 -0. 17 -0. 17 -0. 29 -0. ,29 15 .25 15 .25 C 2 1 180 48 .6 C 0. 26 0. 26 0. 33 0. 33 C 19 .33 19 .33 3 0 89 24 . 1 -0. 07 -0. 07 -0. 09 -0. 09 17 .25 17 .25 4 0 61 16. .5 -0. 13 -0. 13 -0. 20 -0 20 16 .33 16 .33 TOTAL 370 NUMBER 33 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION MEANS OPTION WT N P PB-ST PB-TT B-ST B-•TT ST TT 1 0 20 5. .4 -0. 11 -0. 11 -O. 24 -0. 24 15 .35 15 .35 2 0 72 19. .5 -0. 20 -0. 20 -0. 29 -0. 29 15 .68 15 .68 3 0 63 17, .0 -0. 20 -0. 20 -0. 30 -0. 30 15 .54 15 .54 C 4 1 214 57. 8 C 0. 37 0. 37 0. 46 0. 46 C 19 .56 19 .56 OTHER 0 1 0. 3 0. 03 0. 03 0. 19 0. 19 21 .OO 21 .OO TOTAL 370 O CO H H W to ro LO Ln \ LB UB CF CP EACH * REPRESENTS 1 OBSERVATIONS -3 .55 -1 .50 -0 .50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 -3 .36 -o .50 0 .50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 -3 . 17 0 .50 1 .50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 -2 .98 1 .50 2 .50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 -2 .80 2 .50 3 .50 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 -2 .61 3 .50 4 .50 1 0 .27 1 0 .27 * -2 .42 4 .50 5 .50 1 0 .27 2 0 .54 • -2 .23 5 .50 6 .50 1 0 .27 3 0 .81 * -2 .05 6 .50 7 .50 5 1 .35 8 2 . 16 ***** -1 .86 7 .50 8 .50 8 2 . 16 16 4 .32 ******** -1 .67 a .50 9 .50 5 1 .35 21 5 .68 ***** -1 .48 9 .50 10 .50 13 3 .51 34 9 . 19 ************* -1 .29 lO .50 11 .50 13 3 .51 47 12 .70 ************* -1 . 11 11 .50 12 .50 18 4 .86 65 17 .57 ****************** -0 .92 12 .50 13, .50 19 5 . 14 84 22 .70 ******************* -0 .73 13 .50 14 .50 13 3 .51 97 26 .22 ************* -o. .54 14 .50 15, .50 19 5 . 14 116 31 .35 ******************* -0 .36 15 .50 16. .50 29 7 .84 145 39 . 19 ***************************** -0. . 17 16. .50 17. .50 31 8 .38 176 47 .57 ******************************* 0 .02 17 .50 18. .50 23 6 .22 199 53. .78 *********************** O. .21 18. .50 19. .50 29 7 . 84 228 61 . 62 ***************************** 0. 40 19. .50 20. 50 25 6. .76 253 68. ,38 ************************* 0. 58 20. .50 21. 50 22 5. .95 275 74. .32 ********************** 0. 77 21 . 50 22. .50 21 5. .68 296 80. 00 ********************* 0. 96 22. ,50 23. 50 18 4. .86 314 84. 86 ****************** 1. 15 23. 50 24. 50 10 2. 70 324 87. 57 ********** 1 . 33 24. 50 25. 50 12 3. 24 336 90. 81 ************ 1. 52 25. 50 26. 50 17 4. 59 353 95. 41 ***************** 1. 71 26. 50 27. 50 6 1. 62 359 97. 03 ****** 1 . 90 27. 50 28. 50 4 1 . 08 363 98. 11 **** 2. 09 28. 50 29. 50 4 1 . 08 367 99. 19 **** 2. 27 29. 50 30. 50 2 0. 54 369 99. 73 * * 2. 46 30. 50 31 . 50 0 0. 0 369 99. 73 2. 65 31 . 50 32. 50 0 0. 0 369 99. 73 2. 84 32. 50 33. 50 1 0. 27 370 100. 00 * 3. 02 33. 50 34. 50 0 0. 0 370 100. 00 3. 21 34. 50 35. 50 0 0. 0 370 100. 00 3. 40 35. 50 36. 50 0 0. 0 370 100. 00 3. 59 36. 50 37. 50 0 0. 0 370 100. 00 3. 78 37. 50 38. 50 0 0. 0 370 100. 00 o CO H H W CO H LO 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097364/manifest

Comment

Related Items